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start of My family history / 
MS 941 

Sys# 000453303 


Center for Jewish History 

15 West 16th Street 
New York, NY 10011 

Phone: (212)744-6400 

Fax: {212)988-1305 

Email lbaeck@lbi cjh org 

URL: http://www Ibi org 

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First version 

edited by 
Eva B. Linker 

Anita S. Linker 

Final expanded version 

edited by 

Diane Grosklaus 

To my dear wife Seldi 
to our children 
Judith Vivien 
Ruben George 
Daniel (in memoriam) 
Miguel Roberto 
Miriam Frances 
Gabriel Fernando 
their spouses and descendants 
to my sister Susi (in memoriam) 
and to all my ancestors, relatives and friends 
whose memory I am trying to preserve herewith 


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Copyright @ 2001 by Klaus Oliven 

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The famous, ances.ry of Rebecca Meyer - my grea.-grea.-grand.o.her , , 


Rabb, Samuel Lev. Warburg - The kabbalist who saved h.s town from 
the Cossacks -my maternal great-great-great-grandfather 16 


Rebeccanee Levi Warburg-(1775-I861)-my great-great-grandmother 19 

Her tirst marriage to Abraham Berend - (ca. 1797} ^9 

The Lger family " 

TheSieskind family ^^ 

Susskind von Trimberg - the only Jewish minstrel ever - (ca. 1250-1300) 25 

Rebecca's second mamage to Ephraim Meyer in 1809 - 

my maternal great-great-grandfather ( 1 779-1 849) 27 

Ephraim's father. Meyer Moses ben Lob Schnaittach 29 

The beginning of Ephraim Meyer's banking business 30 

Ephraim Meyer's correspondence with his clients 33 

Ephraim Meyer's will 40 

Rebecca Meyer's will 41 


The descendants of Abraham Berend and his wife Rebecca 51 

The descendants of Ephraim and Rebecca Meyer 53 

Henriette and Josef Spiegelberg and their descendants 54 

Moritz and Sarah Meyer and their descendants 54 

irtrt(//-«/)/j/>jer Samuel E.Meyer -(1819-1882) 56 

Rebecca Steinthal - Samuel's daughter - her childhood memories 58 

Louis E.Meyer -(1821-1894) -my great-grandfather 63 

The house at Calenbergerstrasse 45 59 

Louis Meyer's will •j2 

Louis Meyer's funeral -j-i 


The children of Louis E. Meyer and Rebecca nee Sieskind 75 

I he descendants of Louis and Rebecca's children 77 

A-Zionisf wedding m 1907 - Rmteln and Wiliivictor 79 

Tech.Mren of Samuel E. Meyer and Una nee Sieskind. 81 

DrGeorg Meyer - he sacrificed his life for the German 

latherland - and what was his recognition? 33 


"Jew counting" in the German army during World War I 85 

Reichsprcisicicnt Hindenburg's letter to Dr. Siegfried Meyer 87 

The descendants of Samuel and Lina Meyer's children 89 

Hans Wedell, son and grandson of a rabbi, who converted 

and became a Christian minister 93 

Emil L. Meyer - (1853-1926) - my maternal grandfather 99 

Tennis with whalebones 100 

How my grandmother Helene Meyer learned to ride a bicycle 102 

Emil L. Meyer and his family's trip to Pans 103 

Emil and Helene's domestic atmosphere 103 

Emil L. Meyer- a third-generation banker 105 

Emil L. Meyer's fight to obtain the title "Geheimer Kommerzienrat" 107 

The collapse of the bank Ephraim Meyer & Sohn 110 

Helene Meyer nee Levy - (1859-1942) - my maternal grandmother 116 

Heiene Meyer's famous ancestry 117 

Joseph Hameln - the father of Hanover's Jewish 

community - and his daughter Miriam Sara Jente 118 

Elieser Leffmann Behrens - Court Jew and philanthropist 120 

David Oppenheim - Rabbi and Bibliophile 121 

Samson Wertheimer - Rabbi, Court Jew, Financier 122 

The memoirs of Gluckel of Hameln - (1646-1724) 123 

Helene Meyer's Family 126 

Fanny Bemhard - Helene Meyer 'sister - she had an affair and her 

husband committed suicide 128 

Professor Siegfried Korach - Helene Meyer's brother-in-law - 
he was deported to Theresienstadt at the age of eighty-eight 130 


Emil and Helene Meyer's children 133 

The Straus Family 133 

LeonieOliven nee Meyer -(1887-1948) - my mother 137 



Jakob [ben] Jonathan Oliven - (ca. 1730-1801) my great-great-great-grandfather 146 


Michael Lob Oliven - (ca. 1768-1848) my great-great-grandfather 147 


Heymann Michael Oliven - (1804-1873) - my great-grandfather 


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The children of Heymann Michael and Berta Oliven 1 

Julius 01iven-( 1842-1910) -my paternal grandfather - ■• ■- 



Israel [ben] David Schottlander - (1775-1827) - my great-great-grandfather 166 

Bemhard Schottlander- (1895-1920) - A communist leader in the family 169 


Lobel Schottlander -(1809-1 880) -My great-grandfather 170 


Lobcl and Henrietta Schottlander 's descendants 175 

Juhus Schottlander- (1835-1911) 179 

Roza Schottlander - she changed her name, converted, mamed a general, was 

disinherited and committed suicide 184 

Paul Schottlander -(1870-1938) 186 

Alfred Leo Schottlander - (1899-1947) - he became a hostage of the Nazis 188 

Ilans-Jiirgen Schottlander 191 

Dorothea Schottlander 192 

Ard-Heinhch Schottlander (1907- 1942) -trapped in the Holocaust 193 

Dr. Arthur Hantke - (1874-1955) - a Zionist leader in the family 206 

Julius and Luise Oliven's children 207 

The Jiidischer Kulturhund 208 

Dr. Fritz 01ivenf/?/(/camws)- (1874-1956) -my father 209 

Rideamus ' literary work 212 

John (Hans) F. Oliven - (1914-1975) - my brother ZZZ"'Z 216 

Susi Schall nee Oliven - (1916-1999) - my sister Z.ZI...... 223 


Childhood in the Weimar Republic -^9c 

Schooldays "^^^ 

Life in Berlin "^^^ 


Becommg a communist at the age of thirteen ^^q 

Night over Germany 

My visit to the Soviet Embassy ..''Z''Z'ZZ ^^^ 

Life as a proletarian in a big factory ^'^^ 

Working ,n an illegal Communist Vouth'cell m Na^^~;;;;;;;;;~^^ ^l^ 


My way to the Socialist Zionist youth movement Habonim - 

Meeting Enzo Sereni 249 

Changing my profession - becoming a horticulturist 254 

Living under the Nazi regime in the mid-thirties 256 

Becoming a member of the Hashomer Hatzair 259 

Life under the Nazis became unbearable - more restrictions 271 

The "Eudldsung" - the final solution 273 

The '•Polenaktiox\' - October 27 & 28, 1938 276 

The pogrom of November 9 & 10, 1938 - Kristallnacht 284 

Jewish emigration from Germany 287 

The Evian Conference on Refugees - July 6-15, 1938 291 

A short but eventful interval in BerUn - meeting Seldi 293 

Seldi 295 

My stay at the hachsharah at Gut Winkel near Berlin 300 

Back in Berlin and becoming engaged to Seldi 303 

Emigration at last - leaving Germany 304 

A new life in Porto Alegre 311 

Obtaining the hard to get Brazilian immigration visa for Seldi 313 

The antisemitic immigration policy under Getulio Vargas 318 

At last - two young people in love are reunited after a two year separation 325 

Getting into business 330 

Our Zionist activities - on behalf of Israel and the Jewish people 333 

Klaus and Seldi's children and their families 335 

Judith Vivien 336 

Ruben George 339 

Daniel 342 

Miguel Roberto 343 

Miriam Frances 345 

Gabriel Fernando 345 


The Reifen Family - Hassidim and Zionists 348 

Elimelech Reifen - Seldi's paternal grandfather 351 

The descendants of Elimelech and Chaya Rachel Reifen 357 

David Reifen - (191 1-1981 ) - a self-made man 359 

Ahron Reifen - deported from Plauen to Poland - finally the Kibbutz 364 

Israel Reifen - Seldi's father - he and his wife Fela penshed in the Holocaust 366 

Jacob and Chawa Sara Kupferstein - Seldi's maternal grandparents 373 

The children of Jacob and Chawa Sara Kupferstein 375 

The origin of our family names 378 

Epilogue 3X1 

Bibliography 383 

Documents in the possession of Klaus Oliven 384 

Correspondence about family genealogy 385 

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^ I nn nf a pcnealoeical study which I began a few 

The present family chron.cle ,s the fi";' ;;;« "^ "^^.f, , jetatled family htstory. I began by 

years ago. Originally it was not -^y '"''""° , ^^bbi) Dr Samuel E. Meyer, the brother 

tracng the descendants ofLai^M^ *i;rRb, Samuel's personality and great number 
of my maternal great-grandtatherLo.^.sb,Mey ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ..^^^ 

of chtldren tmpressed me g^^^''y'"''''''^'J^,l7E' Meyer and hts wfe L,na nee 
descendants (fifteen children) of Lanclrabhmef Samuel t:. 1 1 y 


After.hat,ldec,ded to writeamorecomplete family chronic,e.start,ng^^^^^^^^^^ 

mother my great-great-grandmother Rebecca Meyer 1 called it The descendants ot Rebecca 

Meyer'"^e Lev, Warburg." but later on I also tncluded my father's ancestors as well as my 

wife's family. 

When I began that version, which was completed m May 1993. I never imagined that the 
study would consist of over ninety typewritten pages. I was simply following in my mother s 
footsteps She was an enthusiastic amateur genealogist. The more I progressed with this 
fascinating genealogical research, the more involved I became. Small wonder, dealing with 
so many prominent and oulstandmg Jewish personalities, especially in the Meyer family. 

Tracing the various branches of the Meyer family was not always an easy task due to its 
proverbial fertility. Rebecca Meyer had nine children, three from her first marriage to Abraham 
Berend and six from her second one to Ephraim Meyer. My maternal great-grandparents 
Louis and Rebecca Meyer had eight children, as did my paternal great-grandparents, Heymann 
and Bertha Oliven. Lobel and Henriette Schottlander, the parents of my paternal grandmother, 
had eleven children. 

A copy of the previous manuscript was sent to the Leo Baeck Institute in New York. I also 
sent copies to various relatives and other interested persons. As a result I found myself in 
contact with family members ! had not known before. Some of them made a few corrections 
and provided new information, which I have incorporated in this history. A copy of the present 
manuscript will also be sent to the Leo Baeck Instiuite, to be available there as a source of 
information and reference for Jewish and non-Jewish scholars and genealogists. 

In 1997 I decided to buy a computer in order to facilitate the writing of this new and greatly 
expanded version of my family chronicle, which would be more detailed, descriptive and 
comprehensive than the previous one. In order to make it livelier, I decided to add photos, 
pictures and reproductions of genealogical trees as well as other relevant documents. 

I also decided to write my own story and add it to this new version. Strictly speaking, it 
cannot be considered part of a family history, but is more like an autobiography. I believe, 
however, that it is very important to include in this family history all the events and facts 
related to Gemiany in the 1920s and 30s. starting with the Weimar Republic and then the 
Nazi regime which came to power in 1933. There are now not too many people left, who 
remember those times in Germany to which I was an eyewitness. I therefore consider it my 

t^lJZL r"'''"' '" '''''''' °" ^*^"^ P^S^^ ^'» ^hat I lived through m those 

LVLmtul years, as well as my experiences in later years. 

1 wish to mention two people who provided me with very valuable material, some of which I 
am quoting in this edition. From Peter Schulze, an excellent historian of the Jewish commumty 
in Hanover. I received very interestmg articles and publications written by him, in connection 
with the Meyer family. He also sem me copies of files from the Hanover Municipal Archives 
dated before and during World War I. in connnection with the confemng of the title Geheimer 
Kommerzienrat { Privy councilor of commerce) to my grandfather Emil L. Meyer. Furthermore, 
Schulze thoroughly researched the history of the old house on Calenberger Strasse, which 
once belonged to my ancestors and is now a historical heritage site. He also wrote a very 
interesting report about "The history, significance and decline of the Hanover bank Ephraim 
Meyer & Sohn." 

I am also very much indebted to Lars Menk of Berlin, a young and idealistic genealogical 
amateur researcher of the Schottlander family. He wrote an extensive paper "The origms of 
the Schottlaender Families," wherein he deals in detail with every known and traceable member 
of this family in Europe and elsewhere. 

1 am very grateful to mv good friend, Diane Grosklaus Whitty. who was bom in the US but 
lived in Brazil for more than twenty years. With her literary skill, she did a splendid job 
editing my family history. We mamtained an extensive correspondence about many English 
terms and expressions. Her excellent knowledge of the English language and its style, structure, 
and punctuation were most helpful in putting the tmal touches on my story. 

Many thanks also to my friend Jacques Gros, without whose great technical computer skills 
I would hardly have been able to complete the computer version of this manuscript. I wrote 
its first much shorter version on my old German portable typewriter, a 1934 vintage Enka 
brand For this final version I found it necessaary to buy a PC. Not havmg had any previous 
computer training, at first I often faced exasperating difficulties. Whenever these headaches 
aroused, Jacques came to my rescue and - sometimes in just a minute or even by phone - 
overcame all the problems that gave me so much trouble. 

Information on my maternal ancestors, while not abundant, is diverse, especially from about 
1800 to the 1930s. It mcludes memoirs, a diary, reports, manuscripts, newspaper clippings, 
etc. Much less material exists on my paternal ancestors. Scarcely any matenal or documents 
are available regarding my wife Seldi's family. 

Finally there remains the question: Why all this exhaustive work, and is it really necessary 
and worthwhile to know about and research one's ancestors- I definitely believe it is. We 
certainly should know where we come from and who our ancestors were, what they 
accomplished and how they lived. We must know abom our past and about our forebears of 
whom we can be really proud. I believe that knowing about them represents an obligation tor 
us to continue their work and honor our tradition. 

1 felt it my duty towards my and also Seldi's ancestors, as well as towards ourselves and our 
children their descendams and all family members wherever they live, to write down all the 
information I could gather. I believe that the last opportunity to do so was in my hands and in 
my mind. Our children certamly would not have been able to research and go through all the 
matenal written m German that I used for this publication. 

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. ■ . k «f fhP nrpsptit and recent generations, this of course has 

As to the nenea oeica research or the presem duu n-«. & r.u t- i i 

Ab lo mc gciicdiu^i^ai dispersion of the family members 

become most difHcuIt or nearly impossible, due to tne aisp _:„,„.,„\, 

throughout the world as a consequence of Nazi persecution and forced emigration. 

In this regard 1 wish to reproduce here part of a letter 1 received back in 1969 from the 
amateur genealogist of the Meyer family. Dr. Wahher Meyer, who was seventy-nine years old 
at the time. He wrote: "Yes, you are right, 1 shared with your mother the enthusiasm for 
genealogy, especially the one concerning our family. However, 1 wisely restricted myself to 
The ancestors and descendants of my grandfather, Lamirabhmer Dr. Samuel Ephraim Meyer. 
But the family is so dispersed nowadays, that ftirther collection of data is of no use to anybody. 
Who still wants to know, after all, about the increase or decrease of the Salomons in South 
Africa or the Morgans in Australia [great-grandchildren of Rabbi Samuel Meyer and banker 
Louis Meyer respectively], let alone the American or English branches?" 

In the early 1940s, my grandmother, Helene Meyer, wrote a letter from Switzerland to my 
mother Leonie in Brazil. Helene was over eighty years old at the time. She was responding to 
my mother's request for some additional information for her genealogical studies. Helene 
wrote: "But whom do you write the story for? The present generation does not know the 
previous one and will hardly be interested in it." Aware of the frankness and sometimes sharp 
tongue of her daughter, Helene cautiously added, "You also must not write anything 
disagreeable about the people." 

Good old Grandma Helene lived with us in our apartment in Berlin until she emigrated to 
Switzerlandshortiy before WWII. Sheas wellasmy mother certainly did not know that over 
half a century later I would collect every little bit of material available to record the present 
family chronicle, which honors both Helene and Leonie as well as all our ancestors. 

The oil portraits of my great-great-grandparents Ephraim and Rebecca Meyer, which I recently 
had restored, are prominently displayed on a wall overlooking our dining room table. Many 
times, when we celebrate Kabbalat Shahbai as well as Passover Seder, Hanukka or Rosh 
Hashanah there, with our children and grandchildren, I have the feeling that these illustrious 
ancestors - and through them all our forebears - are looking down on our family from their 
picture frames. In spile of all the persecution and discrimination, they proudly kept their 
Judaism alive to pass it on to us. 

I believe that they certainly must be very satisfied that no link in our very long genealogical 
chain has been broken during all those centuries and generations and that we continue the 
tradition that was so dear to them, even in a country far away from where they lived 

Porto Alegre, September 2001 




My great-great-grandmother 

Fortunately my research about the Meyer family was greatly facilitated by the rare fact that 
there were three members in this family dedicated to genealogical smdies who established 
family trees. 

Dr. Walther Meyer, lawyer and notary in Hanover, grandson of Landrabhiner Dr. Samuel 
Meyer and great-grandson of Rebecca Meyer, was a notable genealogist of the Meyer family. 
He drew up a genealogical tree of Rebecca's ancestors, beginning with R. Meir ben Isak 
Katzenellenbogen. reproduced herein. 

Adele Freund, a daughter of Morris (Moritz) Meyer, Rebecca's eldest son, organized various 
family trees. She developed a large family tree titled -DIE ASZENDENZ DER REBEKK.4 
MEYER'- mBcrVmm 1937. 

Leonie Oliven, my mother, a great-granddaughter of Rebecca Meyer, also developed a very 
interesting illustrated family tree in Berlin in 1937, reproduced in this history. It goes back 
many generations, beginning with the imperial OberhoJJaktor (Court Factor) SAMSON 
WERTHEIMER, who died in Viena m 1 724, and OberhoJfaktorUERZ DAVID, of Ballenstedt 
(1699-1783). Leonie painstakingly collected the many pictures composing this family tree. 

From all these genealogical trees it becomes evident that among my great-great-grandmother's 
ancestors there were many prominent and outstanding Jewish personalities, such as very 
famous rabbis, scholars, Court Jews, etc. 

From Adele Freund's genealogical tree about Rebecca's ancestry, we can trace various lines 
of her ancestors, for many centuries, up to RASHI. Rebecca is a descendant of RABBENU 
JOSEF SCHORR Bechor {the Elder), a Tosafist (critical and explanatory Talmud commentator) 
who lived in Orieans ca. 1200. Another of Rebecca's famous ancestors is SALOMO BEN 
JEHIEL LURIA, known as MAHARSHAL (ca. 1510-1573), rabbi and codifier who lived m 
Brest-Litowsk. Ostroy and Lublin. He is a descendant of many rabbinical Luria generations 
listed in this tree, going back to R. SALOMO SPIRA, rabbi in Landau and Heilbronn in 
Germany in the 14"^ century, who in mm is a descendant of the outstanding French Bible and 
Talmud commentator RASHI, an abbreviation for RABBI SALOMO BEN ISAAC (1040- 
1 105), who lived in Troyes and studied in Worms. 

From Dr. Walther Meyer's family tree we note that Rebecca also is a descendant of the 
famous KATZENELLENBOGEN family This name comes from a small place in Hessen 
Nassau (now the Federal State of Rhineland-Palatium), halfway between Koblenz and 
Wiesbaden, called Katzenellenbogen. MOSES MENDELSSOHN and GABRIEL RIESSER 
are also descendants of this illustrious family. So is KARL MARX, a descendant of SAUL 
WAHL KATZENELLENBOGEN, according to the tree "Ancestors and Descendants of Karl 
Marx." It is contained in the book about the Eger family, published by the Eger Family 
Association in Israel. Among others. Dr. Meyer lists the followmg members of the 
Katzenellenbogen family: 



^. , cxTnnrFM known as MAHARAM PADUA (1482- 
,) MEIR PADUA KATZENEL ENBOCm^^^^^^^^ ^^^_^^^_^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^^^^^^ 

,565). He was the pa.narch ot.he ^^-^^f^^Zl'^^ ,„Va.zenellenbogen, Gem,any and 
authonty, as well as an outstandmg He was ^.^^^ ^^^^^ ._^ 

died in Venice. He studied in Poland and was a rabbi tor tony y 
and in 1525 he became chief rabbi of the Venice Republic. 

"Royal Servant." 

V) R. JAKOB SCHORR, rabbi in Luzk, author of -BethJakob" (the house of Jakobl, 
Me died in 1655 in Brest Litowsk. 

VI!) JAKOB KATZENELLENBOGEN (HakadoshK the martyr who was slain in 1697 
He is the author of '•Mmlat Jakob" (Jakob's heritage). He was the grandson of R. Jakob 

XI) R. JAKOB BENJAMIN (Frankel), bom after 1720 in Krotoschin. He died on 
December 3, 1791m Hanau, Germany. He was a rabbi in Obomik ( Posen) and Hanau, German) 
His wife, Esther, was the daughter of R. Joel, who lived in Wronke (Posen). She died on June 
29, 1779. R. Jakob Benjamin and Esther are the maternal grandparents of my great-great- 
grandmother REBECCA MEYER. 

I have in my possession a ten-page manuscript, written by Dr. Walther Meyer and entitled: 

R. JAKOB BENJAMIN (Frankel), Rabbi m Obomik and the dukedom of Hanau, in 
Hanau, a member of the family Katzenellenbogen-Auerbach-Schorr. 

According to this manuscript, R. Jakob Benjamin was the son of the Morenu (scholar) Jehuda 
Lob. The name Frankel was adopted by his son R. Michael ca. 1809, after his father's death 
only. In 1752, R. Jakob Benjamin approved the work of his relative, R. Benjamin ben Saul 
Katzenellenbogen, "Or Chachamim " (The light of the wise). Frankfurt a/Oder, 1 752, in his 
quality as rabbi of Obomik. 

R. Jakob Benjamin (Frankel) and his wife Esther had two daughters, Rebekka and Hanle. 
Rebekka married the Jewish scholar Marcus Adler in Hanover. Their son R. NATHAN 
MARCUS ADLER. who was bom in 1803 in Hanover and died in 1890 in London, became 
Landrahbmer in Hanover in 1829. He was the predecessor of his nephew Landrabbiner Dr. 
Samuel Meyer. In 1845 Adler accepted an honorable call from London to become Chief 
Rabbi ot 1^^^ British Empire. He was an orthodox rabbi and may be regarded as the creator of 
the British Chief Rabbinate. He was a leader of the Hovevei lion, an early Zionist movement arose '" Russia in 1882, after the pogroms there one year earlier Nathan Adler was 

^T^^:^^ '^'" '^-'.'^ ^°" ^^^"^^"" Adler 0839-1911), who received his 
secular education in German universities. 

WAr'Srg Sl'f ^'rr '"' ^''''' "^^--E- -amed R. SAMUEL LEVI 
and Hanle. the Adler and Me er liliS^btS e" *"' "^° ''"''''''' ^''''''' 

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R. Mefr b. laafc KatgenallenbORen. 1482 - X565 fiffimrem Padu«) 

40 J-hre Rebblner Id Podua u. Vonodlg, 3ohwieH«reohn und A.tanaohf olgar 
von a. ;bmruui b. Judn Jilna, Partun (frau llannah * 15b4J 

R. Stuouel KatgenallenboKen 1521 - 1597 
Rpbb. von PaJua und Vonodlg {Fraa Abigail ♦ 1594) 






Saul Ju dvoz JUitaenellHnbogaii . gen. Seul ffar\l . 1541 - 1617 
-wKnT^T — blener" l^H^, lianeralateuerolnnehm^ r , l^ndeflBlteoi-yr der 
Jujenaoh«ft in Br.'fll-Ulowak CBrlait). ,?raa l^.bora. Tocht«r dea 
VorstotiiirB David Lruokor, 'ridk. 

Uenna Vtirli. nit 
R.>rolm ^Blmiin i-o-iorr . ( "char) 
Oberrabblner von Brlak und Lublin, 
Vtirl. von "lebutoth lichorr" 

R. Meir KataenellontQgen 1565 - 1634 
OberrRbblnwr von Jlrlak. iTeu Hlnde , 
lochtor ilea K. ^inohds ha-LHVl HiirwltB, 
ilabb. _n ilrokeu, ■oh^et^ro von R. lopee 
lo:ierlc!B (Kna) t 



- VI) 

R. Jakob Sohorr 
Verf. V. belh Jakob, 
KaLb. von Uiak (iiodR ?), 
?rau Hanniih, 'iorht«r von 
Jasnle Muaea Uaera (UoruBOh?) , flllna , 

K. Mu-jfeB iCf iaenallanbLiti«"i. 15^0-1645 
ftabb. In Chelm- Frau aran, Tocbtnr 
dae Vurei-«h' re honj. Holnlooh ■ 
(liolnlech aen ;el8) Jn Poaen, 

Toohler Jente 

R. '.'.aul Katzanalienboaeo . l6l7 - 1''91 
Hat'b. in Brody, 'iifcim u, Plncaon , 
varh. In 2. ',"he mlt janta, Tochier 
Ton Jakoh .Scborr. 


'' A •*!-* 



Jrikob ICatgenellgnbonon (Hakedoaoh) 
erac»aot;Bn lfc'>7, Vorf. von':(fichlnth Jakob (wo ?) 

Voretehor von f'oa«n,««al. 
stt £rotoaohln 170b 
Frau Reinsh geat. 1701. 

E. ^' Inchae 
Rabb. in Lcit erg 
geatorben naofl l741> 


Zbl ttirneh Api-ar 
Voratuher in 
Kalleoh , 1704. 

It) Jakob (Charlf) 
TOr aelnatn Vator 
geaiorbiin 1703. 

Z) Jahuda Lbb.7 

goat. 1759. 

laek Klaik (It/.i^) ToCbl-r ^^?5,„ 

Voretehor von Ponon und gaai. xfj/ 

Kjroloachln.hllft f-ail -"til, 
von ;^ol:i.'.«dtjn 1714,' 
geatorben 1753. 


y \ 

Tooht.,r, aaul (Charlf) In ?oDen 
varh. xlt 

H. :»enach«iD ,.l«iidel b/Koaa 
Auerbech (II), 
Krotoaol.ln, ^aat. 1760, 

Lt>b / Toohtor :<lchiah 
vurh. ai.% 
Rabb. "on'len, 


XI) R. JeKob iienjtJiln, 

ai:Lb. in Jbornlk u. Hanou, 
• gtct. 1791 In HaiBU, 

vurb. ffilt tather, Tooht"r riee 
it, Joel, wronka. 

n. ['BfL^atuln K^titeii'^an 
fiatb. in :timtv:r, fjrojunlve, 
Gelnhauuen u. /ijotoacMn, vurraaet 1752 
Or ChachamlB, fteat. nach 1786. 

Genealogical tree of Rebecca Meyer's ancestors, organized by Dr. Walter Meyer. 
R. Jakob Benjamin is Rebecca's maternal grandfather 

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My maternal great-great-great-grandfather 
died in Gelnhausen on February 17, 1817 

married to Hanle (also called Hannele or Hannle) 
bom in Hanau. died in Gelnhausen on August 9. 1 8 12 

Rebecca's father, a Kabbalist and Gaon {eminent scholar), Samuel Levi Warburg, also called 
Samuel ben Jehuda, adopted the name Warburg, the place of his ongm in Westphalia, Germany. 
He was a rabbi for over forty years. He was chief rabbi in Gelnhausen, a very old Jewish 
community in Hessen, not far from Frankfurt am Main, datmg from the 1 2^11 century. Rabbi 
Samuel was a most interesting personality, highly esteemed by Jews and non-Jews alike. 

As a Kabbalist and ascetic he had the reputation of a samt, Zaddik kadosh libracha. As 
mentioned m the Memorbuch (the record book of the Jewish community) of Gelnhausen: 
a rennTn h""f f"?''!^ '""^ ^'' """"'^ ^*^ "°^ ''^^ '^^"^*"g ^^ery day." Also, according to 
Tthe holySS^ ''^''' '^'"^"^""*^' ''"^ '^''''^ '^^^y ^^y ^f ^he week excep. 

S«TLrl^ "' Tr^''^ '^''^^^'"^ h'-^'f ^« the study of the Kabbala, He 

who n^aid^^^^ H ^^^^'"-^-^'- 't has not been published. R. Samuel Lev.. 

during the ai .^ Meyer's will, gave his money to the poor 

g tamine in Gelnhausen, probably did not have the necessary means to have his 


work published and printed. This of course was a rather expensive matter for a rabbi of a small 

According to the teacher M. Strauss, historian of the Gelnhausen community, by the end of the 
1 8^ century there was a change in the study of Jewish science in Gelnhausen. In an article in a 
publication of the local beneficial society on the occasion of the celebration of its 200^ 
anniversary in 1911, Strauss writes: 

"Maybe the proximity of 'BARON FRANK,' who resided in nearby Offenbach, with 
his false Messiah cult, contributed to the inclination to Kabbala in Gelnhausen and 
found an outstanding representative of this tendency in Rabbi Samuel from Warburg." 

The above mentioned report by the Elders of the community also states: "His knowledge of 
the Kabbala seems to have contributed to his having been offered the Rabbinate of Gelnhausen." 
Furthermore, the same report mentions that the miraculous deeds he performed were based 
upon this knowledge of the Kabbala. 

It is said that by relying on his magic wand, inscribed with various Shemol, or names of God, 
Rabbi Samuel succeeded in perfonning several miracles, such as extinguishing a big fire in 
Gelnhausen. As can be seen from his picture shown in my mother's genealogical tree, reproduced 
herein, his wand was hanging on the wall. He usually kept it there between his Tallit (prayer 
shawl) and Tefillin (phylacteries) bag. It was sixty to seventy cm long, hollow and still covered 
with tree bark, a leather cap covering the tip. 

It is interesting to transcribe herein part of an article entitled "Der Wunderstab" (the magic 
wand), published m the magazine Jiidischer Volksbote (Jewish People's Messenger), no. 24, 
Tishh 5673. 1912, regarding die expulsion of the Cossacks from Gelnhausen, which happened 
in the second decade of the 19th cenmry. 

"Most precious for the people in Gelnhausen is the memory of their rabbi Samuel 
Warburg, who, as a Kabbalist and ascetic, acquired the name of a saint and a permanent 

"It was at the beginning of the last century, when Gelnhausen - as had happened so 
often before - received the undesired visit of a large army contingent. This time it 
was the Cossacks who fell upon the small town. They were greatly feared, as they 
plundered and burned their own land as well as that of the enemy. 

"The residents of the Judengasse (Jew Lane) in particular dreaded the appearance of 
the rapacious gang. In the first place the Jewish residences and synagogues were 
subject to their vicious looting and destructive fury. 

"In their dwellings the Jews fearfully awaited the coming events. Only the Rabbi had 
left his house. He stood in the middle of the courtyard that separated the lane from 
the synagogue and held a big wand in his hand. At his feet was a pail filled with 

"It did not take long for the bearded warriors to rush through the lane. They found all 




»1 ,-,*.**. 


1 "V ■ • ,• 



^ '-^M 









W . !♦ 







. u . c nf the wnafioeue courtyard stood open. But as soon as 
doors locked. Only the gal s '^f ^^e s>^^^^^^ . ^^^ ^^hold! From the top 

they entered U, the Rabb, ^'PP^^"^^ 'fading m all d.rect.ons. 
of the wand rose an intense ram ot sparks spreau. y 

r jj iv «M and the dreaded Cossacks dispersed in a wild 
"A temfying cry of sudden fright^^- and tne aredu 

night. The synagogue was saved." 

Rabbi Samuel died in Gelnl.ausen on February 1 7, 1 8 1 7. His w^e Hanle died there on August 
9 m 2 iTs a that Rabb. Samuel died standing upright, his hand raised high, wh.le he was 
pimg dunng a religious service in the Gelnhausen synagogue. It is toher mentioned that - 
quite uncommon - he was buned that same way. 

Rabb. Samuel and Hanle had three daughters, MY GREAT-GREAT-GRANDMOTHER 
REBECCA, Esther and Hindche. The latter married her cousin Jakob Rubensohn trom 
Beverungen at the Weser. 

In a letter to my mother dated September 3, 1937, Dr. Walther Meyer mentions: 

"Warburg was the seat of the Paderbom Landrabbinat. The family of the Gelnhausen 
Rabbi [Samuel Levi Warburg] no doubt is connected to the Hamburg bankers 
WARBURG onginating from that city. The common ancestor must have lived in 
the I8"'cenniry. The connection between the Rubensohn family and the Warburgs 
from Hamburg has been established by me beyond any doubt. 

"Jakob Rubensohn married his cousin [Hindche] in his second marriage; as is known 
[she was] a sister of great-grandmother Rebecca. On this basis I am trying to establish 
our connection with this famous family [Warburg]. Its branch living in Warburg 
played a very important role among the Jewry there and they even provided a chief 
rabbi for the region. Presumably it was through his initiative that our ancestor Samuel 
was appointed a rabbi." 

The picture of Rabbi Samuel Levi Warburg, reproduced herein, has been copied by Dr. Walther 
Meyer from a book "Jewish folkart in Hessen," written by Dr. Rudolf Hal lo { published by the 
Sinai Lodge in Kassel). His widow Gertrude Hallo's maiden name was Rubensohn. 

Rabbi Samuel and Hanle's daughter Esther mamed Wolf Sondheimer, the son of Hillel Wolf 
Sondheimer. chief rabbi of Aschaffenburg who died in 1812. The young couple lived first in 
AschatTenburg where they were plundered dunng the Napoleonic Wars when the armies passed 
through at the end of 1 8 1 3. Rabbi Samuel Levi Warburg succeedeed in obtaining a Schutzbriej. 
a protection letter, and thus the permission of residence, for his daughter and son-in-law in 
Gelnhausen where Wolf became an esteemed merchant. Both died in Gelnhausen, Esther in 
1835 and Wolf in 1864. Their daughters, Hanne Esther and Rebekka, died childless m 1884 
and 1894 respectively. 



born in Gelnhausen, September 29, 1775 - died in Hanover, December 14,1861 
My maternal greal-great-grandmother 


Rebecca (sometimes also spelled Rebecka or Rebekka), the daughter of Rabbi Samuel Levi 
Warburg, was first married lo ABRAHAM BEREND (Behrens). He was bom in 1779 and 
died on July 5, 1 807 in Hanover, at the ago oftwcnly-cight. Ho had been sickly all his life and 
had suflcrcd great pain. His illness was mentioned in the wills of both, Ephraim and 




hhi in Posen where his yeshiva attracted thousands 
Markisch-Friedland.In ISl^hebecamearabD n^ ^_^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^.^^.^^^ 

of students. He pubhshed many works ana J .^^ ^^ ^^y^^^^^^ reform and secular 
and talmudic authorities in Europe. He led tne opp 


r . r nhhiniral Ecer familv. his descendant Akiva Eger. who 

In his honor and that of the famous ^abb meal ^^^^^^^^ Association in 1990, 

Uved at Kibbutz Netzer Serem -^^^^ ,, ,',n. Its reestablishment in Israel 
This Association was or.gmally "^^^ "^^^^^ to whom our Family also belongs 
.united all the numerous —f^^^^^^ Akiva Eger published a boo\ 

through Jeanette Eger. In ^^^^^^^^^^^ of Rabbi Akiva Eger I and II. Tree 

LldiS mv name and the name of my ancestors and descendants. Co-puter Tree 79 at 
"Do of' Beit Hatefutzot. Tel Aviv, includes this and the other tables ot he book mciudmg 
tree P - Ancestors and Descendants of Karl Marx. He is a descendant ot Saul Katzenellenbogen. 
"King of Poland" for one night. My relative Dr. Walther Meyer wrote an extensive rnanuscnp, 
Die Famine Eger aus Halberstadt. Akiva Eger died at Kibbutz Netzer Serem m 2001 . 



Jeanette (Schonchen) Eger. granddaughter of R. Akiva Eger I, the Elder, and daughter of his 
son R. Juda Lob. married Sieskind Herz Sieskind. Ballenstedt (1767-1814). They had two 
sons, Jakob Herz Sieskind and David Herz Sieskind. Jakob Herz Sieskind, Ballenstedt ( 1 800- 
1861) married Mathilde Oppe (Oppenheim). bom in Miihlhausen. Thiiringen, in 1809, died 
in Ballenstedt. Harz, in 1 89 1 . Their daughter Lina ( 1 829- 1 894), bom m Ballenstedt, became 
the wife oi Landrabbiner Dr. Samuel Ephraim Meyer ( 1 8 1 9- 1 882), Rebecca Meyer's son and 
brother of my great-grandfather Louis Ephraim Meyer. Ballenstedt is situated m the Harz 
Mountams (from 1991 on m the Federal State of Sachsen-Anhalt). 

David Herz Sieskind, bom in Ballenstedt in 1 802, died in Hamburg on September 6, 1 872. He 
maaied Rahel (Roschen) Levi, daughter of Rabbi Loeb-Dresden halevi. She was bom in 
Halberstadt on Febmary II, 1812 and died m Hamburg on September 23. 1873, buried in 
Ballenstedt. Rahel was also known as Rosalie Levy. Her family in Halberstadt was very rich. 
It is reported that when she got married about 1830, she had her dowry transported from 
Halberstadt to Ballenstedt in ten large overland coaches. David Herz Sieskind and Rosalie's 
daughter. Rebecca Sieskind, bom in Ballenstedt, married my great-grandfather Louis Ephraim 
Meyer. Two Meyer brothers married two Sieskind cousins: Dr. Samuel E. Meyer married Lina 
Sieskind and Louis E. Meyer married Rebecca Sieskind. 

The Sieskind family was established in Ballenstedt for many generations. They were a highly 
esteemed merchant family. The patriarch of the Sieskind dynasty was Herz [ben] David, bom 
in Hoym in 1699. died in Ballenstedt in 1788. He was a court agent and had the title 
Oberhojjaktor. He founded a textile mill in Ballenstedt, which was under the protection of the 
Duke. His son was David [ben] Herz ( 1 728- 1 79 1 ). His grandson was Sieskind Herz Sieskind, 
Ballenstedt, bom in 1767. died on August 7, 1814. In 1808 he adopted the name Sieskmd 
(Siisskind) which originally was a first name only, as his family name as well. In 1790 he 
married JEANETTE EGER, who came from Halberstadt, the biggest Jewish community in 
Prussia at the time, situated at the edge of the Harz Mountains. 

Jeanette's husband died young and left her with seven children, not yet grown-up. She seems 
to have been a very courageous woman. She did not lose her head over not knowing how to 
continue her husband's business. At one point, Jeanette 's nephew, the oldest son of her late 
husband's older brother. David Herz, tried to extort her. He was a bookkeeper in the business 
and in charge of the purchases and wanted to be accepted as a partner, whereupon Jeanette 
simply threw him out. She then sent her oldest son Jakob, who was fourteen years old at the 
time, to Hanover, as an apprentice in the dry goods shop of Berend & Meyer. The firm belonged 
to Gitel Berend and her son-in-law EPHRAIM MEYER, who probably was the head of this 
firm. Dr. Walther Meyer owned the certificate of apprenticeship for Jakob Sieskind, dated 
1815, and signed by Ephraim. This document was given to Dr. W. Meyer by Jakob Sieskind, 
Leipzig, who perished in the Holocaust along with most of his relatives. He was the namesake 
and grandson of Jakob Sieskind, oldest son of Jeanette Eger and father of Lina, wife of Samuel 

With the help of her son Jakob, after he had finished his apprenticeship, Jeanette continued to 

■• • 

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'^^ . H p^er to her two adult sons, Jakob and David 

run the business, until the time she ^«"'" ^^ ^^e firm Berend & Meyer was arranged 

Herz Sieskind. Probably Jakob s apprenii f^^^ ^g^.^^e, the famous Oherlamiesrabbiner 

through Rebecca Meyer's brother-m-iawoy ^^^ j^^^^tte's brother. Rahel, the sister of 

Samuel (Sabel) Eger, m "'^^^^^^^^^^ . Sabel Eger's second wife. Jakob and David 
Rebecca's first husband, Abra am Be d^ w R^S ^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

were already the fourth generation ^'^f^^^ Ballenstedt was named after him and 
was a city councilor and ^"^^^^^^^^^ Sieskind Street again, 

renamed during the Nazi period, in iv+J 

„e (Sch.nchen) H^r was t. g— i- of ^J^^^^:^^ 

I u2 or teacher. She was the daughter of Samuel ^e'd-dorfer 1700-1780) and 

anddaughter of Isaac Leidesdorfer, an am.y purveyor. In 1 7 19 Isaac obtained the right o. 

domicile in Vienna for himself and his two sons, Samuel and Lob, both also army purveyors, 

This was an exceptional pemiission at the time. In 1758 Samuel and Lob obtained a joint 
letter of protection, written in Latin, for ments in Mana Theresa's Seven Year War against 
Fredenck the Great of Prussia, having supplied money and provisions. They also obtained the 
privilege of hving outside the Jewish Quarter and budding a house of their choice. Mana 
Theresa was notorious for her hostility toward the Jews, but when it comes to financial suppon. 
things apparently look different, even as far as an empress is concerned. 

Samuel and Lob both held distinguished positions in the Viennese Jewish community. The 
letter of protection with Maria Theresa's handwritten signature is in the possession of the 
Vienna City and County Archives. A copy of the original document was sent to me by Lothiir 
Sieskind. bom in Essen in 1 907, died in Stockholm on July 30, 1 997. He was a great-grandson 
of Jakob Sieskind, the father of Lina Sieskind, wife oi Landrahbiner Dr. Samuel E. Meyer. In 
1990 Lothar organized and sent me an interesting partial family tree 'The relationship Sieskind 
- Meyer - Herzfeld." Lothar had no children. Lore Zimels, nee Sieskind, who lives at Kibbutz 
Kfar Szold is the last of the Sieskind dynasty. 




Rebecca (called Becca) Steinthal, one of the daughters oi Landrabbiner Dr. Samuel Meyer 
and his wife Lina nee Sieskind, says in an addendum to her memories that her uncle Louis 
Sieskind, Lina's brother, always affumed that the genealogical ti-ee of the Sieskind family 
goes back to the only Jewish minstrel in history, SUSSKIND VON TRIMBERG, who lived 
in Germany ca. 1250-1300. He was bom in the German town Trimberg. The minstt-el songs 
are vmtten in old medieval German (Middle High German). Susskind's portrait has been 
preserved in the Manesse Codex in the Heidelberg University Library. Six of his lyrical poems 
are preserved. My modier Leonie Oliven also told me that our relatives, the Sieskinds, descend 
from this famous minstt-el, though Lothar Sieskind, Becca's nephew, denied this relationship. 

Becca Steinthal writes: 

"Living in the 13"" cenUiry, we know little about his life. He distinguished himself 
by the great mastery of his few songs which survived. They tell about the land of the 
oppressed and placed him in high esteem during his lifetime aUeady, but the gentry 
were not fond of him. Resigned, he decides to live as an old Jew, without any hope 


*J * T 0- 



A - I/' K 

* J 

* I 

i •udj* 





i-c ihe present value of which is iheir special sound. 

f-°e"'''°f;^^'7°tHe"£' S'cal words: ■Nobil,t> of soul ,.ust no. 
their unity of form. l-J ne aiw na^ 
necessarily accompany born nobihty . 

■ , .ic«,ithi pointed Jew hat. which the Jews were obUged 
He is illustrated among f™- J^' jj:/:! interesting romance about his lilel, 
to wear for from the late ^'dj^ ^ « ^^ „ ^^^ ^^ ^ 

SZr":::^SttS^:oins about What the nohili.d,d to him,. 

the following minstrel song: 

I have made a fool's journey with my art. 

The gentry do not want to give me anything, 

That's why I want to flee from their court 

And will grow a long beard with gray hair. 

Henceforth 1 will live by the old Jewish customs 

And go my way in silence. 

A long overcoat shall cover me. 

Well below my hat. 

My walk shall now be humble, 

And never again will I sing courtly songs. 

Since the gentry deprived me fi-om their goods. 



My maternal great-great-grandfather 


bom November 16, 1779 - died August 26, 1849 - Hanover 
My maternal great-great-grandfather 

Two years after Rebecca became a widow in 1 807, left with three small daughters, she mamed 
my great-great-grandfather EPHRAIM MEYER. In her will, Rebecca says that her second 
husband, Ephra.m, treated her daughters from her first marriage as if they were his own. This 
is also confirmed by Dr. S. Gronemann in his previously mentioned book. 

In her second marriage to Ephraim Meyer, Rebecca had six children, three boys and three 
girls: Hennette (Jette), MonU (Moms), Johanna (Hamichen), Betty, Samuel and Levi (Louis). 



■ M ver adopted the surname of Schiff in 1 8 1 2 and later 
According to Gronemann. Ephraim Me. ^^^^^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^.^i^^ j^^j^^ Comniuniiv of 

on tliat of Meyer. In the protocol 1""": " . Schneitich (derived from Sehnaittach, the 

Hanover, dated 1828. his name was st, Is ^.^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^.^ Gronemann 

place where his father was bom). ""> '" .^ ^^^_^^_^^^^, ^ff^^,, ^f ,he .Jewish community 

further mentions that Ephraim eng fed acy ^^^^ .^ ,^,j^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^ 

of Hanover and that he belonged » *; J ;^„.„„, „,- ,he Jews. Both, his and Rebeccas 
the government, asking to improve the c,n i concl u _^^^ ^^^^^ 

epitaphs, mention that they educated the.r children in the 

■ .ore rinp was Minna (Mindel) Rosenthal. She died on 

nossiblv in England or Holland. Both of ihem remitted money, always m pound sterling, frs, 
to Ephraim and later to his son Louis, for Minna's subsistence. 

Bettv Michaelis. another sister of Ephraim Meyer, was bom in Sehnaittach on October 3. 
177^ She died in Braunschweig on December 26. 1813. Her husband Simon Michaehs w.s 
a shochi'i (ritual slaughterer). He was bom on January 22, 1766 in Szamikau and died on 
June 6, 1 822 in Braunschweig. Simon and Betty had seven children, four daughters and three 
sons. The daughters were Karoline. Marianne. Hanchen and Therese. The eldest one. Karolme. 
married Adolf Markus in Braunschweig. Marianne did not marry. Hanchen. born in 1807. 
married Lion in Hamburg. Therese married Albert Priest, of New York, originally Adolf 
Cohn, in 1850. They went to Jamaica. Simon and Betty's son were: Michael and twin boys. 
Meier and Moses, the latter bom on September 30. 1 804. The twins died very young; Meier 
in 1816 and Moses in 1817. 

A third sister of Ephraim was Sara Meyer, married to Abraham Salomon Reimann. Their 
daughter Karoline married Markus Lowenstein in Munster. 



my maternal great-great-great-grandfather 

Ephraim Meyer was the son of Meyer Moses (Meir Moshe) ben Lob (Leib). also sumamed 
Sehnaittach. after the place where he was bom. Sehnaittach. near Furth in Bavaria, was a 
place of refuge for the Jews, with a synagogue, school and cemeter>, under the protection of 
the tolerant Witielsbacher electors (KurfUrsfen) . The Jews in the nearby Freie Reichssfadt 
Nuremberg, however, were expelled in 1499. 

On page 1 46 of his book of genealogical studies on old Jewish families in Hanover, Rabbi Dr. 
Gronemann mentions the name of Ephraim's father as being Meyer Lob Sehnaittach, but in 
the Hebrew section of the same book (page 116). the Hebrew name in the epitaph, tomb no. 
478A. at the old Jewish cemetery, at Judenkirchhof. is stated as Meir Moshe. The same name 
also appears in the epitaph of Ephraim"s sister. Minna Rosenthal, tomb no. 491 B. as shown 
on page 127 of the Hebrew section of Gronemann's book: it also appears this way in Rebecca's 
will. Certainly Ephraim"s epitaph was written by his son. the Landrabb'mcr Dr. Samuel E. 
Meyer, who of course knew his father's correct name precisely. 

There was a lengthy discussion as to why in Gronemann's book Ephraim's father was called 
Meyer Lob, but in his epitaph Meir Moshe. between Rabbi M. Weinberg. Wurzburg. a great 
specialist on the origin of Bavarian Jews, and the genealogist Dr. Walther Meyer. Ephraim's 
great-grandson. The conclusion to which Rabbi Weinberg came in his exchange of 
correspondence with Dr. Walther Meyer back in 1937 was that Ephraim's father had a double 
name, that is, Meyer Moses, and that he was the son of Lob (Meir Moshe ben Lob). 

Meyer Moses was a tradesman in Sehnaittach. Later on he moved to Hanover. There he 
practiced the honorable profession ofshochet, a ritual slaughterer, from 1 788 until his death 
at an advanced age on May 9. 1 797. Gronemann mentions that he was a pious man. studying 
daily and doing charitable work. 



t H. ■ •... r . ■ 






« t 



f t 


» *. 


1 ' 


f ' 

'the beginnings of ephraim'S banking business 

to Julius Blanck-s V. ''''f'''^; 1^ he Ephrai- established his tlrm. Peter Schul^e 
1 926. Other sources mem.on 1 796 ^ the ye P ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ,^ 

informs that Ephra.m s ''7: ™ m IT n onev changing business. That year n,ust be 
beginnmg under the name Ep a m ^^^"''ll^^.^^^J^,^ because it is mentioned in a 
cons,dercd as the bes™ "^ *e banUnt ^^^ ^^^^^.^^ ^^^^^ ■^^..^ur.Uo, of 

nronauanda Dace pub ished in a magazine cd. lo -. j ju - . 

fl h^k-s new main office on Luisenstrasse. In a circular letter reproduced herein, ated 
Srptember ^. 1 849. which Ephraim's son Louis sent to the bank s customers upon his lather . 
death on August 26. 1 849. Louis mentioned that his father conducted his banking and monev 
changing business for over forty years. 

ffA/IHOret- , Jen 3. Spplhr. 1849, 



I, der Nfltbl >om 2J. uuf Ju.i 26. v. M, euJetc JcrToJ [.loUi.cb da> redhdiu unci tfmligc 
l.«lM-n miinca ihcurcn. innig gclicblcii Vwler., dcs Ilan<iuicrs Ephraim ncyer. Sai.ft w.e 
teiii Loben, war seio Eude. — 

liidem icli die PHiclil errdlle. Ihneo dicMn Troucrryll Liedurch miUulheilen, vtrbmdc icli 
duniii »iigleich die iTuetionilc Aniui({B, dtms icli dan von deoi V'enUwbencn nuiI lunger al» 40 
JaLrin mil Ucdlichteil und Umiidil gefubrle Baii<imcr- und Geldwechicl-Gi-srhilfl, unvcrindtri 
imlcr der biiherii^en Firma nod mil deoielbeo MiUeIn fortseueii w«rde. 

Dm Verlraufu. dai der Selige lu to lellenf^oi Masic bciesseii, werdc aucU icb durtih bifer 
und ttrcnge llcclItUll lu vcrdiencn tlreben, und indem icti Sie um die Kortdauer Ibres ijcncifi- 
Wn Wohlwolleni bitle, crtucbe icb Sie lagleich von nebenslehender Utitenchnri (teftlliKsl 
Nota nebmcn <u wollcii. 

Hocbachttiiigcvoll und ei^rbenki 

I^ouis E. Meyer, 

l.uuilt E. ncycr ahrt furl lu MichQcn: 

^^/l^^C^t^yU^, fyfJ^^-a^'r^^^^ 

Circular ,e«ersenayLoulsE.Meyeno the banksc.ien,son.hedea.hofhisfatherEphrain. 


Walther Meyer mentions that in 1815 Ephraim was a partner and probably head of the dry 
goods and notions store Meyer & Berend, owning this business together with its founder, his 
mother-in-law from his first mamage, the widow Gitel Berend. This is evidence that Ephraim 
at that time did not dedicate himself exclusively to money changing, lending and bankmg 

I have in my possession a document dated March 22. 1823, in which "the Royal Provincial 
Government of Great Britain and Hanover hereby grants the requested concession to the 
Schutzjude (protected Jew) Ephraim Meyer for the purchase of a house on Calenberger Strasse, 
bought in 1802 by the Schutzjude Salomon Judel after the same had obtained the permission 
from the Royal Minister." Soon after having bought this house, Ephraim, Rebecca and theu" 
children moved in. 




, . .'... 4i../ L-y ■'•■■ ■■■■ J.... 4-..../4^ 

J.J c'ru.i^l U//.p... ^^-./-"^-^ 






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Concession granted to Ephra.m Meyer for the purchase of a house on Calenberger Strasse 

Rebecca helped her husband in his business from the first day of their marnage. in addition 
to raismg her nine children, three from her first and six from her second mamage, bom 
between 1798 and 1821. 



A\ ,Uf^r Rphprca Steinthal. telis a story in her memories about her 

:iro,;^"r:oS.e:r called ■■.. ....^.^^^^^ o.-.,. ,,.:; 

change), because she go. so involved in this business She must have been very beautiful. 
Once when she wen. to .he Royal Cas.le to collect a b, . an otl.cer a. the s.a.rcase told her 
how well .he bonne, muhchcn) she was wearing - as all marned Jewish women did - suit.d 
her, and from that day on she never wore i. agam. 



I have in my possession various quite interesting, very old bound collections of letters by 
banker Ephraim Meyer to his clients, written in his own handwriting. These unique documents 
are dated from 1811 until 1849, the year of his death. The copies of letters also contain 
accounts and deal with fmancial transactions, money exchange, loans, requests for payment 
of overdue bills of exchange and sometimes, when sent to a relative, also include family 

The letters are addressed to many different chents, written in perfect German when sent to 
Ephraim's Gennan clients, using Gothic letters, except for proper names, currencies and 
accounting. The letters addressed to his Jewish clients are in Judeo-German. (Judendeutsch), 
written in Hebrew characters, which at that time were quite ornamented. They are difficult to 
read nowadays. Judeo-German was the language spoken and written by the Jews in Germany 
among themselves until the end of the first half of the 19='' century. It is made up largely of 
German but interspersed with many Hebrew words. 



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Ephraim sometimes had a very hard time collecting the bills of exchange or bonds from 
some of his clients when they fell due, and he suffered heavy losses from insolvent debtors. 
Just to illustrate this point and for a better understanding of the ditTiculties he encountered, 
the following are a few samples of letters or excerpts which Ephraim was obliged to write to 
some of his clients, as well as a letter he received from one of his debtors. 

March 9, 182 

To Mr. Blumenfeld in Osnabriick, 

As so far all my offers have been unsuccessful, notwithstanding the fact that I always 
endeavored to quote you low rates. I am almost obliged to believe that you use my 
prices for the purpose only of enabling you to sell your bonds there safely to another 
friend. Therefore, in reply to your letter of March 7, 1 will abstain from making you 
an offer, but wish to ask you, if you really trust me, to send me your bond in the 
amount of 200 Reichsthaler [ 1 Reichsthaler = 3 deutsche marks], whereupon I will 
dispose of it to your content. 

December 12, 1823 

To Mr M. S. Michaelis in Hitzacker, 

I am at a loss to understand your silence. Immediately upon receipt of your esteemed 
letter of December 17, I sent you the bonds and expected rightfully, in accordance 
with your letter, the prompt remittance of 1 58 Reichsthaler 20/m gold. Instead. I am 
receiving a letter of excuse and no money. I did not give you the bonds in 
consignation, but I sold them to you. Therefore I should have received the money 
promptly or the return of my papers and not have to wait until it pleases your friend 
to accept them. Accordingly, I am expectmg by return the amount of the bonds plus 
interest, as from the first of this month. I reckon on this firmly now. 


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^^ay 16, 1824 


To Mr. Lemmel Fehr in Peine, 

of the bond from one day to the next. I do 
You are putting me off with the '"^"^'"^^ ,f y^^ have difficulties settling accounts, 

know why this payment has not been m y^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ j ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ 

simply disregard this transaction. In remm, 1 expect my 

July 21 [1824] 

To Mr. Lemmel Fehr in Peine, 

.u V ^f vnn in the lone run. Today it will be three weeks that you 

you. What does this silence mean? 

September 1826 
To. Mr. Lemmel Fehr in Peine, 

It seems to me that you are testing my patience, or m other words, making a fool out of m. 
You show yourself now in a way I would not like to see you. However, I must tell you thai I 
will not play this game patiently any longer. I finally wish to know where 1 stand. If you are 
interested in mamtainmg your credit with me and your good reputation, I want to see you 
here on Sunday or Monday the 24^ or 25^ so that you can explain your actions so far. Should 
you fail to show up, you will be in trouble. 

November 28, 1826 

To Mr. Lemmel Fehr in Peine, 

According to your promise at the last market, I promptly should receive detailed news how 
and when I would receive payment. However, so far I have waited for this letter in vain, 
Besides. 1 finally have to know where I stand. Therefore I have to ask you to urgently let me 
have detailed information about this matter by return mail. If you fail to do so, I will be 
obliged, against my will, to get in touch with some friends there to take care of my interests. 
But as I am afraid that this might be very harmftil to your credit, I wish to ask you ver\ 
strongly once again to relieve me from the trouble of harming your reputation, by sending me 
a prompt letter. However, 1 ask you not to give me an evasive answer, but let me have a 
positive one and, if possible, part payment. 

October 16. 


To Mr. N. Reiss in Braunschweig, [a relative or friend] 

From the letter of our dear Frederike, I was pleased to receive the confirmation that you won 
the hig prize [of the lottery] and I send my heartiest congratulations regardmg this happy 
event, in which we all participate. 


I now also hope that you will take prompt steps to pay me back the 100 Reichsthaler I lem 
you a long time ago. because I need it, since in addition to the many losses I have suffered 
lately, my son. who studies in Bonn, costs me a lot of money and I reserved the 1 00 Rt for this 

As long as your means were limited, I let this matter be, but as the Almighty has helped you 
now, you certainly will consider it your first duty to let me have what is due to me. 

August 26, 1841 

To Mr. B. Gotthelf in Hameln, 

Whereas I congratulate you cordially on your wedding. I seriously have to ask you to finally 
pay back the 98 Reichsthaler I lent you at the Braunschweig fair in 1824. I believe that my 
credit of seventeen years fully enfitles me to ask for my money, msofar as the interest nearly 
equals the pnncipal. I expect your esteemed reply within eight days, because otherwise you 
will be in trouble, against my wishes. 

July 28, [1842] 

To Dr. Johannsen in Gottingen, 

it occurs to me that maybe you own a Brazil bond in the amount of £100 and in this case can 
return it, as part payment towards the £200 pounds you owe me. 

The rascals from Mexico again made a fool of all of us, because so far no interest can be 
seen. It is unbelievable how a government can act this way toward its creditors. 

August 23. 1842 

To Lieutenant von Cramm, [near Immenhof] 

You neither replied to my first letter nor did you make the promised payment. I have been to 
your residence several times but unfortunately did not find you at home. However, the shortage 
of money makes the matter urgent. Therefore I am respectfully askmg you to liquidate the 
account. Very much against my will I see myself obliged to advise you that if I do not receive 
the greatest part of my credit within eight days, I will be obliged to cause you trouble. I ask 
you to excuse this. 




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Ephraim Meyer by a humble officer asking for an increase m 


Excerpts from a letter sent to 
the amount to be lent to him: 

Hanover, June 3, 1824 

Esteemed Mr. Meyer, 

r,..t,nn has come up from which only you can save me. Today I am 
A new ^'— h" ^ ^^^ ^^.^ .^ ^^^ ,^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

expected to pay the amoun o 55 "^^^^^ j ^,^,^ ^,^,^, ,„,,her ten days. Th. 

my dismay. I have been ^;' ; '^^ ^u. — from I cannot save myself ,f - .. 
places me at th.s "^^^^^^^Ze^e the amount you will pay me tomorrow hv 


wVu d be m great trouble. I wdl receive other amounts just after Pentecost [, ] 
Therefore I can solemnly promise you that the 50 Rt will be m your hands again w.thm e.ght 

Please do not let me down at this moment: my gratitude will know no limits. [...] As greater 
security 1 also will give you the receipt of my soldier's pay. which will fall due on Januar>' 1^'. 
182S [ ] You promised not to abandon me and I trust your words like an oracle.You also 
will see the effect and be convinced that you did not waste your kindness on an unworthy 
person. At eight o'clock on Friday morning, I will come to your place and await my fate from 
your hands. My confidence in your kmdness is unlimited. I remain always grateful, 

Ever yours, 
[signed] Rothmeyer 




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Business letters written by Ephraim to his clients in February 1 823 m German and Judeo-Gerraan 



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Bolh Ephraim and Rebecca knew 
Hebrew well. Ephraim's last will, dated 
August 1, 1849, wintlen shortly before 
his death, contains onl> one opening 
sentence in Hebrew, as well as four 
Hebrew words, written with Hebrew 
characters, in § 10, in which he gives 
the following advice to his children: 

**If my children truly want to 
honor my memory, let them con- 
tinue to walk the path of virtue 
and fear of God, never deviate 
from the teachings and faith of 
Israel, be upright and honest 
in business and the way of life, as 
I tried to do all my life, so that 
they will preserve the one treasure 
which I leave them above all else 

ziu ]i:vc ntf siu rov 

sheni mishemen toy - and as I give 
my blessings to all of Ihem, God's 
blessing will accompany them." 

"Tov shem mishemen rov'" is a word 
play in Hebrew and means: il is better 
lo have a good name than good 
Ipreeiousl oil. The same Hebrew words 
are mentioned in the epitaph of 
Ephraim's son Louis E. Meyer. 

In his will Ephraim mentions that from 
her first husband Abraham Berend, 
who died very young and was 
constantly sick, his wife did not receive 
anything. Ephraim bequeathed his 
house, his whole fortune and his 
business to his wife and his youngest 
son Louis, who had already worked 
with his father al the bank for ten years 
and was not married yet. The other 
children had already received their 
pari, Ephraim also recommended 
strongly to Louis to consult his older 
brother, the LandrabhinerDT. Samuel 
Meyer, in all important matters. 

Pan of Epliniim Meyer's will 

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Rebecca's will, written in 1 849, 12 years before her death, gives a touching and most interesting 
report of her life and family affairs. I believe it is a unique document and deserves to be 
reproduced here in full. It is interesting to note that the German text is constantly interspersed 
with Hebrew words or abbreviations of the same, such as H")/ Alax hashalom (peace be 
with him), or when referring to a person, she always adds U"'"S"^ leanwhim yamim tovim 
- {may his days be long and good ), n"2 hanich hashem - (may God be praised), or ?"^ 
sichrono I'berachah - (may his memory be blessed), etc. The transcription of these Hebrew 
words and abbreviations are underlined in the following English translation in order to 
charactenze them. They reveal Rebecca's good knowledge of Hebrew as well as her religiosity. 
I have tried to maintain Rebecca's onginal style in the following translation. 

May 25, 1849 

"I find it necessary [to write this will], as both of us are getting frail. I have asked 
my dear husband. I wish him l ong and pood days , to write a note urgently to inform 
all my beloved children, men of their generation , but I cannot move him to make 
his will, due to our conditions. He always promises, but has not done it so far. The 
years pass by, I am over seventy [years old] with God's help , heaven forbid that 1 do 
not live longer than my beloved husband, I wish him long and good days. Ephraim 

About my early youth we will not report anything. After the death of my [first] 
husband Morenu [meaning literally "our teacher," title given to scholars or 
distinguished rabbis] Abraham of blessed memory , which occurred forty-two years 
ago on the Eve of New Moon Tamus , he left two daughters, one mv daughter Rahel, 
peace be with her , another one Keilche . the third one was bom three months af^er 
the death of her father, of blessed memory , named Reis'che . My deceased husband 
was frequently ill, and I lived with my daughter Rahel, peace be with her, at my 
dear parents of blessed memory , with one child, for seven years. When my husband's 
health improved, I was called back. Five years af^er my stay here, the blessed one 
entered eternal life. He was the son nf Morenu Be risch. Chief Rahbi of Hanover. 

The dowry was kept by my mother-in-law, peace be with her. She wanted to keep it 
for the children. I did not want to annoy her, because she lost her fortune in the 
French times [during the Napoleonic wars]. My mother-in-law, the Rehhctzin, peace 
be with her . [Gitel]. nearly reached the age of one hundred years and as two of my 
daughters got mamed during her lifetime, she said to her granddaughters several 
times "you will have your money," but she never gave anythmg to the children. 
Af^er the death of my mother- -n-lnw peace he with her, my brother-in-law Morenu 
Josef gave them 50 Reichsthaler in senlement. This amount was given to my son- 
in-law Gerson [Treuenfels] of blessed memory . Also for [the purchase ot] 1 00 [holy] 
books my grandson [the rabbi] Abraham Treuenfels received [money], because the 






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k. li^P -ind Ppj^'^, may she live , had desisted [of 

the.r part]. Nothmg else I ^ ^^tt^^ [<^'"'"^"^ ^^^olar], 

hands of the property of 12^*^^^^^^^^ ^ 


The possessions left by my good, highly esteemed parents of blessed n.e^ [r. 
Samuel and Hanle]. were given to one of my s.sters [Esther, ], because 
her property was looted m Aschaffenburg during the French unrest [the Napoleonic 
Wars]. We two s.sters thereupon gave her everything. The money had been given to 
the poor by my p.ous. dignified father ofMesselmemory [Rabb, Samuel Lev. 
Warburg] except for the part of my sister Esther. This was the wish ot this godly 
father dunng the famine in Gelnhausen. His merit will assist all of his children. 

Now we have to start with our way of life. In our marriage God the Almighty gave 
us good health, pood income H^lk: H WIS - parnassa tovah, and we had six 
children fnr good long days . Five of them got married already with God's help. 
Three daughters got their dowry with God's help and their trousseau with God's 
help . One son, our dear Montz [Moms] Meyer, lives in America. My son Morenu 
Shemuel [Samuel], is Chief Rabbi here , another son Levi [Louis] Meyer. We had 
our nine children - for long good davs - learn everything, we spared no effort and no 
money. As an evidence, our beloved son the Rabbi, mav his light shine . My beloved 
husband - for good long davs - loved the three children from the first marriage as 
much as his own. Because of the ment of the children, the Holy one, may he be 

praised , gave us happiness and blessings ^ *C and H^T^ - mas a I and hcrachah 
in our business. 

We gave the eldest daughter [of her first matrimony] in marriage to Gerson Treuenfels 
in Detmold. the third daughter is Roschen [Reis'che] Spanier, the second one did 
not want to get married . Her uncle Morenu Shemuel [Samuel Berensteinj. chief 
rabbi in Amsterdam, was here 23 years ago, but could not convince her to get married . 
Her grandmother [Gitel Berend] made every effort possible, but could not convince 
her cither, because of her obstinate head. My dear [second] husband would have 
liked at that time to give her a dowry . 

For fourteen years our business flourished, with God's help We bought Hanover 
bonds, we did not waste any time, no help, one maid only with this large business. 
Heaven presented us with good heahh. Twenty-six years ago [ 1 823] we lost a large 
sum to Wolf Berend, to Romeling many thousands, to Rittmeister [captain of cavalry] 
Blumcnhagen. to Riumaster Schulze a lot of money, to Kaufmann, then to Helmke 
(!as. year he died) 3000 Reichsthaler and interest for twenty years, totaling 600. 
Such severe losses we suffered in six years. My good husband started to get ill. my 
nn nt Jn hT "' ^'''" u° ''°^ ^'''^^ '^'' '^' ^^^'^^ ^^P^tation could not be 
r nt n.v r ' T T' '' '"' '' '""' '' ^°^°^ ^"d "«t pay back, this was 
^J^2^^V f"'' '" ^^^' '^"^ '^y^- 1 d-ded that I never would 
want to get anything trom the money I brought into the marriage until all debts were 


paid So the year 1 830 was very bad for our finances, the children were small, they 
needed very much for lessons; my son and my grandson had to study [Samuel Meyer 
and Abraham Treuenfels, who were of about the same age, both becoming rabbbis 
later on]. Thank heavens our honest ways prevailed. 

Caroline [Keilche] Berend is entitled to 500 Reichsthaler in Louis d'Or cash. As 
long as she lives, my son Louis has to give her 25 Rth in Louis d'Or out of each 1 00, 
5 Rth m Louis d'Or cash. After the death of my daughter Caroline, the children ot 
Rahel, pence he with her , will get 250 Rth in Louis d'Or. the remaining 250 Rth in 
Loms'd'Or are to be given to Roschen for ^nad lomi davs. the present [mamed] 
Spanier As my deceased son-in-law Gerson Treuenfels has several debts in our 
office Louis Meyer [her son, the banker] must not deduct anything from the orphans. 
He must pay out the 250 Rth in gold, and so my dear husband will give the hundred 
that are shown in the books as a present to the children of my Rahel, peace be with 
her, and nothing must be deducted from Gershon [Gerson Treuenfels]. 

It would also be our wish that Caroline nee Abraham Berend may gel five Rth a 
month [later in 1 858, increased to fifteen Rth a month after Rebecca's death]. Should 
It be too much for Levi [Louis] to afford all this, in this event my beloved son the 
Rabbi will take care that she never will become a burden to strangers may God 
forbid Furthermore, after my death, as she did not get a dowry, [she shall receive] 
my shirts stockings, handkerchiefs, nightcaps. The silk dresses [are to be given] to 
my Hennette Spiegelberg [her daughter], my black silken cloak, laces, caps to 
Spiegelberg the woolen dresses - whatever Caroline wants to get of same. The rest 
to our little children in Detmold [her grandchildren, from her deceased daughter 
Rahel and deceased son-in-law Gerson Treuenfels]. For Caroline a bed, namely the 
visitors' bed 4 bed covers, 12 sheets, 12 napkins and 2 tablecloths, a dozen towels, 
a dozen kitchen towels, just do not qmndjmishpeten). The rest they will divide in 
peace Dl^C - Shalom, all the dear children, for good long days. 

My beloved son Levi has already [conducted] our business with God's help for 1 2 
years diligently and tirelessly. All his efforts go to pay to each person his rightful 
claim. As the Almighty is blessing him in business to support his parents and family 
in honor mZ2Z - hekavod, it would be my wish to ask the Almighty to assist my 
dear son for good long davs in his own beginnings with themem to support himself 
in honor It is he who saved our honest name with God's help. So may the Almighty 
in his kindness bnng happiness to all my children, that they will become God feanng 
and remain honest people. Amen! 

The silver is to be divided among all my children. The furniture belongs to my dear 
son Louis for good long davs. Caroline will get the sofa from the small room 6 
cane-bottomed chairs and a small table. Our much beloved son the Rabbi, may his 
i..K..h.n. for good long davs. shall look into the books, so that Levi will not have 
to pay too many debts, because I am not supposed to know our situation. If we had 
not lost our fortune, each of our nine children would have received 1000 
[Reichsthaler]. Everything comes from heaven. It would be desirable however, 
that you my dear children, will not blot out our memory in your hearts because ot 














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A m,r ^itrencth and have lost everything except our 
the n.oney. We gave V^u b^yo^j^^^^^^ ^^^ ,^ ,y and bless you good 

honest reputation. May God preserve diw y 


.^nA «nth God's heln- by my own signature 
Written with full consciousness, read withOoOxn^^- y y b 

TSC T:?2n . Ru^ahMen. the daughter ot the^, the great Gaon M orenu 
Qh.mnel Warburg, Rab bUnGelnhausen. 

May heaven preserve you from all afflictions, all of you. Amen! May you keep your 
Father in honor, when 1 am not here anymore. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ Rjy.ah Me, 

M)- prnyprho^k'^ ^'^^ ^^^ hif^h holidav_s 

D^m*nC - Machsonm) to my daughter 


My dearest children for pond long days! 1 beg you, my dear children, who live here 
for p ond long davs and sons-in-law for pood long days to treat my beloved husband 
with attention as if I were still alive, looking for clean linen and bestowing great 
care, so that my dearest husband may not have to worry about his livelihood through 
his highest age. This is your mother's wish. The Almighty will reward you, Amen! 

My beloved highly appreciated mother-in-law [Gitel Berend, from her first marriage] 
the pious Rabbcmii JTSSin - [the rabbi's wife, in Yiddish: Rehbetzin], peace be 
with her , would have liked to give the children something, but she must not have had 
anything. Heaven made the children [from her first marriage] grow up, so that we 
could give them a dowry with God's help .Their good father, my beloved husband, 
did everything for them as if they were his own. 

Now it would be my wish after my death that my three mamed daughters living here, 
may they li ve until hundred and twenty years fCy {ad meah veessrim shanim) 
share the furniture in friendship; the silver is to be shared, [also] beds, linen, toweling. 
Caroline's belongings are kept m the trunk. For [her part of] the silver she must 
receive money The wardrobe where the hats are kept is for her linen. She must rent 
another apartment. Ifshe wants to live with her sister Jettchen [Jette Spiegelberg] for 
g ood long days , you must pay [to Jette] fifty Rth a year and her pocket money. My 
dear Roschen will gladly give, so that she [Caroline] will not become a burden to 
some stranger. From my clothing give her whatever she wants, the rest to Detmold 
[the place of residence of Rebecca's grandchildren Treuenfels] If heaven gives me 
my health, 1 will gladly write down all these things m the book and deposit the wULof 
my belo^'ed husband, peacebe.withJiinr For his merit you all will fare nicely, my 
dear children God preserve all of you healthy, my sons and daughters, sons-in-law. 
daughters-in-law. all the little grandchildren unt iUiundred and twer^tv Pood years . 1 
do not know yet about the estate and our s.tua;;^;;:^herwise I would wnte [abmint]- 

On the eve of the new moon of [the month] Tamus, written on June 9. 1 850. Rivkah Meir. 
Should the Spanish [bonds] improve, I will write again. 


My dear son Louis for good long days sold the Spanish [bonds] and bought other papers 
instead; this is to be divided into eight parts [her eight remaining children]. God willing, atter 
my death. The Almighty, may he be praised. H -^pn - //«fa/^av/^ baruch hu blessed (gehmschX) 
my son within a few years time. My dear Louis gives up [his part], [it will be] only for 

Caroline, so that she will not be in need. , ^ , oc^ 

Hanover, June 12, 1856 

Widow Rebekka Meyer 
With full judgment after eighty years, [do] not forget my soul after my death." 

The great losses due to outstanding debts suffered by Ephraim's banking business in the year 
18^3 which Rebecca memions in her will and laments so much are quite m accordance with 
the^great agrarian crisis and price collapse of that year and the following ones. The greatest 
part of Ephraim's clients was made up of people engaged in agriculture. 

Rebecca Ephraim and his father Meyer Moses are buried at Hanover's oldest Jewish cemetei^. 
at Judenkirchhof, opened in 1600 and closed in 1865. It is situated on a hill, in the center ot 
ti%Z street is now called Oberstrasse. but known as Judenkirchhof This cemetery is 
protected as a historical monument. 

In 1996 our good friend. Dr. Gerhard Conner, drove us from Berlin to Hanover We met him 
fir t a few years earlier on the Jewish cemetery at Schonhauser Allee m Berlm. when we 
V Id mv paternal grandparents" graves. In Hanover we met Dr Peter Schulze. who dur ng 
our stav was our ve^ competent guide to Hanover's Jewish landmarks. Besides vs tmg the 
Jew h cemetery An der Strangriede. the house on Calenbergerstrasse and other mterestmg 
p aces, he toolTus to the old cemetery at Judenkirchhof 1, is always ^^^^^V^^ 
nermission is necessary to visit it. Schulze had obtained the keys and so we could v,s,l th,s 
n o" m'eres in "place He had a booklet, showing the location of the tombs and therefore vve 
had Ihe rare Uortumty to visit the very old graves of my maternal great-grea.-grandparcn.s. 
Rebecca and Ephraim, which are still preserved. 










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Ephraim Meyer's lomb 

^'='"=^" Meyers tomb -fronlTeJ; 




My great-great-grandmother Rebecca and her first husband Abraham Berend had three 
daughters in their short marriage: Rahel, CaroHne (Keilche) and Roschen (Reis'che). 

1. RAHEL, 1798-1841, married Gerson Treuenfels, who lived in Detmold. She died long 
before her mother Rebecca, who in her will, dated 1849, always refers to Rahel with T}"^ 
(aleha hashalom), peace be with her. Gerson also died before his mother-in-law. 

The couple had eight children. The eldest was Dr. Abraham Treuenfels, bom in Hanover in 
1818 and died in Stettin in 1879. He was married to Bertha Budge. He was the Chief Rabbi 
and Av Beth Din. head of the religious court, in Stettin from 1860 until his death. During his 
tenure, the new synagogue was built. Dr. Abraham laid the cornerstone at its groundbreaking 
in 1873. 

Rabbi Abraham's sister was Jeanette Treuenfels ( 1 822- 1915). She lived in Hamburg. In 1912, 
at the age of ninety, she wrote a two-page family chronicle about her maternal forebears "at 
the request of several dear ancestors." 

Rahel and Gerson Treuenfels' other children were Johanna (1824-44); Bertha (1826-1891); 
Rosa, bom 1 828; Henriette. called Jette ( 1 83 1-1 882 ); Regina ( 1 834- 1 887 ); and Lina ( 1 837- 
1922). Henriette mamed Fassbender in Detmold. They emigated to the United States. Lina 
married S. Strauss. 

2. CAROLINE (also called Keilche in Rebecca's will) (1806-1866). To her mother's great 
sorrow, she never mamed. 

3. ROSCHEN, a diminutive form of Rosa (also called Reis'che in Rebecca's will). She was 
bom in Hanover in 1807. three months after her father Abraham Berend's death, and died 
there on May 28, 1895. She mamed Levy (Louis) Spanier, a businessman bom in Wunstorf. 
near Hanover, on December 1 7, 1 803. Roschen and Louis emigrated to the United States and 
lived in Albany, New York. Louis died there in 1864. They had four children, all bom in the 
United States: Emil ( 1 836- 1 872); Leah ( 1 843- 1 905), married to S. Hamm, who died in 1 88 1 ; 
Julia (Julie) who was bom on October 22. 1847 in Albany and died on May 28, 1919 m 
Dresden; and Ella who married J. Prinz. About 1870 Leah Hamm and her family, who lived 
in the United Slates, visited my great-grandparents Rebecca and Louis in Hanover. Rebeccca 
was very fond of them. 

Julia mamed Michael Mitchel Allen, bom in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on November 23. 
1830 and died in Hanover on May 16. 1907. In 1861 Michael was a regimental military 
chaplain for two months during the American Civil War. He was an erstwhile rabbinical 
student, teaching classes for the Philadelphia Hebrew Education Society and he officiated as 
substitute Hazan (cantor) at various synagogues. During his short term in the army, he was 


Rebecca Meyer's tomb - 

rear view 

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52 ,H,.rsonlY but the regimental chaplain for soldiers of all fauh, 

not a chaplain for Jewish soiaia ^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ clergyman, and, besides, not 

However, as he was a layman a Requirement at that time - he had to resign fror, 

belonging to a Christian taith- which w 

his post. 

.u- u ,w were liquor dealers. They went bankrupt at the Wall Stret, 
Michael Allen and his Droinei ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ Roschen Spanier, who had 

stock exchange on Black ^"^^^ ' ^^ ^j^^re her relatives lived. She was accompanied k 
become a widow went back ton ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ their Uvo children at the time. Grace anj 
her daughter Julia and son-in-id , Hanover, Clarence and Anna Florence 

Uuis. Julia and M-hael had tw^^-^^^^^^^^^ ^^,^ ,,^ ,^^,„, ^, ,,,,, ^.„^^,. ^^^ 

Grace, bom in Albany in 1 Sb /. ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ -^^ ^^^^^^^ 

in Sandorf. Hungary, in 1857. He diea d 
where he was a rabbi for over forty-five years. 

, J u.^r Annip after her first husband's death, married Emsi 
Grace and Jakob Winter s <^^f^J^'^^^^^^ 
Landsberger.Theirson^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^,^^, ,,,, ,^,^^^ 

Ztl for the construction of a new synagogue in Dresden, at exactly the same ph. 
Xre he beautifi.1 old synagogue once stood before it was razed m the so-calle Knstallnac 
Tn Cmber 1938. On November 9, 1998, exactly 60 years later, the reconstruction of h. 
new synagogue began. The effort was headed by Jews and non-Jews alike in Dresden. 
American sister city Columbus, Ohio, m addition, of course, to receiving subveni.o. 
from the German city and state authorities. 

Julia and Michael Allen's youngest daughter was Amia Florence, called Nana, bom in Hanov. 
on February 17 1882. She died m Sao Paulo. Brazil on July 12. 1960. She married Eniil 
Levy bom in Stargard, Pomerania, on April 3, 1868. He died in Sao Paulo on January 12, 
1944 The couple had five children, all bom in Germany. Ernst Moritz Levy, called Emo, wa. 
bom in 1908 and died in Sao Paulo m July 1999; Peter, bom 1909, died in Rolandia. Brazil, 
in 1955; Eva, bom in 1910. died m Sao Paulo m 1997; Edgar, bom in 191 1, lives in Sau 
Paulo; Wolfgang, called Wolfi, bom m 1 9 1 5, left Brazil for Israel. He lives at Kfar Maccabiah. 
in Ramat Gan. We are also related through Rebecca Meyer, widowed Berend. Henr\' 
Landsberger, Wolfi Allen Levy and I met for the first time in Tel Aviv in 1995. having an 
animated talk about our common ancestor Rebecca. Wolfi visited us here in Porto Alegrc in 

Nana Levy owned oil portraits of Ephraim and Rebecca Meyer exactly as those that no\\ 
hang at my home. Photos of the portraits belonging to Nana were sent to me by Kathe Saul i" 
1960. KJithe. with whom I had correspondence about family history, and Nana Levy were 
both great-granddaughters of Rebecca. Nana ftom Rebecca's first and Kathe from her second 
marriage. Wolfi got the portraits from his mother and passed them on to his son Michae 
Levy, who lives with his family in Mill Valley. California. In 1994, Seldi and I, together wiin 
my son Ruben and family, visited Michael there, and we photographed these picUires, The\ 
look exactly the same as the ones I own. It seems that at that time it was usual to order severa 
copies of the same family portrait from the painter in order to give them to the various 

1 JETTE (Hennene), 1810-1865, married Josef Spiegelberg, vetennanan in Hameln. 

18, 1911 in Berlin, buried in Hanover. 

u ^ i.^mnrtnher''S 1814 died 1880, in Hanover. On July 8, 1835, 

3. JOHANNA f;^^X'^ZmZ^:^or^^^ Bovenden ,n 1 804, d.ed . 885. He was a 

she marned 85"^'^ «^™ ''^^^^f Montz, Carolme, Samuel, Julms and Therese, 

bom between >f/^"'^''2 Carolme, called Lma, marr,ed Bemhard Salfeld. Samuel 
"^rH^'^'elf Edrd later on He marrred Anna Gans; marr,ed Crete Mossner^ 
Car:Cu?:l a Imber of the Board of D.rectors of the Benef.c.a, Soc.ety of 
the Jewish Community m Hanover for many years. 

"««"%'«- ".iff :rroiri,»"rn,rs;.i -, f,,s. *.w ^ 

SmA^ K::S^r?dS.:: :.M;nt.Morr.s, Meyer. 

=^r ^'b:i=oS^ ;8:^"ei a;. .. .. . n...... 

e. tOmS (LEW) EPHRAIM, Hanover^om on CJ.ber K. ^^^f^^^^^^;^ 
,894. He was my grea.-grandtad,er. He - -^ ^f ^ .^'^.^ , „, ^.^.^t 17. 1890, 
Sieskind), bom in Ballenstedt on May 17, 1832. dito 
buried in Hanover. 

Kebecca Meyer was old when ^^^^^ 

, 82 1 . It .s mterestmg to note that the bmh date ot the g (,818-1873). 

from her firs, and seeond -^^f ^^^;;^^;^i;tn eh Idren f her son I.«<y.«/^^'«- Dr. Samuel 
When Georg Meyer, the youngest of the hhecnem.a son of Rebeeca's 

Meyer, was bom m 1873, his cousm Dr. Abraham T^™ ;X^-ft f,,, years old. 
eldest daughter Rahel Berend from her first marriage, was already t.tty y 

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ftprJette- 1810-1865). married Joset'Spiegelbeig, 
Ephram, and Rebecca-s eldest chndHenr.ette ,833.1^61). marr.ed L. Neuber, 

SermanarimHameln. They had f.^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Una. bom m 1835. .™^'^d A^JJ^^^^^'^^/sp.egelberg d,ed young. Ephrann mentions m h. 

will, dated 1849: 

hldren their sister Jette, widowed Spiegelberg, and her 
"1 also recommend to the love of my em ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^_^^.^ ^^ ^^ ^,^^^^ , ^^p^ he will 

children, especially her ^ "est son M ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ,^^^ ^^^^ ^,.|^,,^ 

become a capable person ( luchligei ^ ^,h,y,en mutual love and taithfulness 

,he same way 1 am doing. In general 1 recommen 
as hitherto, and also in the ftimre. 

■ 1837 died on January 1. 1910. grew up in his 
Jette Spiegelberg's oldest son. Eduard born 1 .^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

grandfather-shouse.becauseo hsf^^^^^ Lome Spiegelberg family foundation. He 
,n 1902. He later estab id *J Ej^^^^ ^ ^^.^ ^„^ ,„ , 865 he became a partner. He 
rfve^ L^tSab'lriTml^ed at the ban. until his death. 


£r:::r^^rdr: L^ondo^^ 

marriage: Kurt, who <'- f^^^'^f ? "' ";,'2 939 ,. was John who according ,0 

TolUpl ofl bank ,n the 1920s. 1 will deal with this matter later on, when flirther refemn, 
to the banking establishment Ephraim Meyer und Sohn. 


Moritz, called Morris (1812-1886), was the eldest son of Ephraim and Rebecca. He was 
rather a ne'er-do-well as a young man. There was an unconfirmed rumor in the family tlial le 
was sent to America, because he appropriated a small amount of money from the cash 
intended for buying postage stamps, while working at his father's bank. At that time, it seems. 
this would have been reason enough to send a son overseas, away from home. He wen 
Charleston. South Carolina, where he married Sarah Gertrude Oppenheim. Morris and Sarai 
had two daughters, Rebecca and Adele. 

Morris' relationship to his brother Louis and sister-in-law Rebecca seemed to have been very 
good, as evidenced by a letter in my possession, written about 1870, in which Louis an 
Rebecca inform Morris about family and other news. 



Morris- wif. Sarah Gerrrude Opr^nheim ^-^S^^^^S^^'^^ 
philantropis. SAMUEL OPPENHE Mo O.ENHEMLR; ,^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^.^^ ^,- 

Eugen of Savoy's Turkish wars^He was the ^^ -'^^ oppenheim. who died in 1797. As a 

young man. around 1 765. ^EYER AMSCH^L "^^ „,- Wolf .lakob Oppenheim in Hanover 
famous Rothschild dynasty, ^"^'^^'^f^^^^r^in foreign commerce and exchange business, 
as an employee. He acquired e^P -"- ^^ ^^l^^ ,,,,^^ ^,, Herz Wolf (Fritz) 

as well as a great knowledge oi old ^°'"^ J^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ f.^i,, ^ the New Continem. 
oppenheim. He e.™.--^; '^™:f, 7 £^^^^^ already 118 Oppenheim family 
^::::'Strr::c;Sngto Rabbi Oronemann. 

Morris and Sarah later r.umed to G„ ^^ to S" ::::^^ii - 1^^ me Z 
aunt Edith Straus, l^-^^df'^ehter o. Mo r s_ l^her L ^,.^^^„,. ,,„„ 

Sarah was veo ugly, •■like a white "'^e ^s ■ Kathe ba g ^^^^ ^^ ^^,^ ^^ ^^^ 

Samuel, also mentions '- '"^"^ ! '^^ Sname w s -'he last slave'" Edith writes that Sarah 
had ever seen in her lite. Therefore her "'^'^"™'; everything. Kathe tells a funny story 

never learned the German '-S-f/"^.'^ d^f^J ^'^^./.r S/i..^., - .he whole large 
about "Szeire," as Sarah was called On ^ 'd^/ J J^,.^,,,,,„,, d. Samuel E. Meyer. One 
family used to meet after dinner a, h 1 ome o^: ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ . ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^,^_ ^^ ^^^ 

night "Aunt Szeire took a WHOLE or ngerom ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^p^„,„, 


.ner Morris died. Sarah nroved to Be^m w.e. f^^^^ar^^ ^iS'Z^. 
March 18, 1911 and was buried in Hanovei "esme n ^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ 

Secca, married Moritz Meyer. ^^^^^^^^Tom nSn ml 867. married GustavEreund. 
bom in 1 891 . Sarah's ^-"f ^ f "f J "^f.tfter ^Nazis came to power. Adele emigrated to 
The couple had a son. Ench. A ''^^ >^^^^';f " ^(^,^1, for her. as her mother Sarah was 
,he United States, which must not have ^^^ "^J™™ ne Meyer. She often visited her in 
born there. Adele was very close to my e""dn- J^ .'J JX,„J .^e last years before her 
our apartment in Berlin, where my ^^^ ^Z,„J. genealogical trees, which 
emigration to Switzerland. Adele organized m™> ^''' ., ..connections between 

Z in my possession, such as "The Ascen-e o. Re e^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^^^ oi,erfu,M,ore. 
Heinrich Heine -Helene Meyer -Oppenheim. etc - ^^^^ ^^^ ^._^^_^^,^, .^^^„,,_ he 


were nearly all interrelated. 

~ .liAJ^n *- 1^'M.^^VIi^ 







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Landrabbiner Samuel E Meyer 
Hebrew inscripiioi,; SkiUm, shalom. lerachok ulekawv 
German inscription; Fneik. Fnede. dm Fenm w,e dem 
Naheii (Peace, peace, to the Far as to the Near) 

Una Meyer nee Sieskind 


Ephraim and Rebecca's son Samuel Ephraim was Landrabbmer for the city and pro^ 
Hanover for nearly 37 yeaR, from 1845 until his death. He was named after his n 
grandfather. Rabbi Samuel Levi Warburg, to whom he bore a great physical resembU 
mentioned by Dr. Wallher Meyer Though only twenty-six years old and not yet mamed. 
chosen in 1 845. among three candidates, in an election for the rabbinate of Hanover. He 
successor of Dr. Nathan Marcus Adler, Lmdrabbtner in Hanover from 1 830-45, who had r' 
a call from London to become Chief Rabbi of Great Britain. 

Regarding Samuel's rabbinical activities, an excellent, very interesting brochure was wi 
Peter Schul/e in 1987: "That the Jews of our lands may choose a rabbi", or in the origi 
German: "doss die Juden in unsern Landen eineti Rabbinen erwehlen."" Its sub' 
'*Contributionstolhe 300th anniversary of the LandrabbinQt\{?t.wo\tx. March 10. 1987. 
brochure Schu!/,e describes and analyzes the activities and accomplishments ot the pre 
rabbis in Hanover, from the foundation of the Lmdrabbinal in 1687 until its forced exti 
by the Nazis in 1938, 

He also relates the many problems the various Landrabbiner had to face, both with t'^^' 
community, as well as with regard to the government authorities to whom they were subordi Jiw 
The Landrabhinat Hanover included many principalities, dukedoms and cou. ues 

ce ol 

0. lb 

i this 



M ,1, small Jew,l. «—""'';» "Ji^^^iIj.U""™'' ""1" * "''°"'' °' 

and the Jewish communities, on the other. 

.... Me., was . .^- -— ^ ^^;:^iiSX^iX^ 

for the m emancpa .on -^ ^jno ol^the ^^^^^^ communumes ,n ,he provmce 

of the synagogue, school and ^f"'^;^ ^ Jj J^ ,„ ,he war of 1 866, fought by Pruss.a 

of Hanover. Alter *; '''^f- "J ''^^^ ;£"^;,„dependence and became a province of Prussta. 
agatns. Hanover and A-'™' »;"°;f^^^^;';„,„';y samuel Meyer. The headtng (obvtously 

the blind King" In th,s sermon Rabb, Samuel says: 

..we have . =n directed not to pray ^^^ m^^Pjj^/^S ::Z S 
Royal Fam,.y [who ^'^^ ^^ ^ ^ d s proSe. Senou's ,s the moment 
to whom we are now obliged to obey oy ^ y farewell to the 

and d,ff,cult the o^''^-- ^"^.^^tbe" athe^^^^^^^^^ 

mdependence of our more -"^f «^;;"™„'^^f ,,,^ ,,, hearts the faithfulness 

as a --f-.f => "7 ,°", ■J'.i To ect n w,th our old Kingdom, sanctit'ied 

the whole population and also upon us. the children of Israel. 

• ^ 1 IN A SIFSKIND bom in Ballenstedt on April 26, 1 829, 
On May 21 , 1 848. Samuel married LIN A SIESKINU ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

diedmHanoveronApnl25, 1894.L,nawastenyear^^y^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^,^^ 

daughter of Jakob Herz Siekind and his ^^^ ^a hi de^ wh ^^ ^ „,-^,„^ 

writing about the Sieskind family. L'na'^nd Samuel had hheen ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

three years, from 1850 to 1 873, ten gir s -'i '7 .^^^fj^, ^^.^.^ed at the age of nineteen, 
died ,n childhood, all the others mamed and had hild^en. Ui^ _^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 


Hdith Straus mformed that Lina was a ^^^^^ l^^Xl.^:! w^ ^ ^ -^^ 
portrait ofLinaasabnde of eighteeen, hold gaosenhe^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ __^ 

von Kugelgen, a famous painter ''"^ J'^ ; ;'^°, „ „,, „f ,h,s painting was in the 
background of the painting is B-g Bal - e^t^ T t^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^,„ 

Hdith Straus also owned a small copy ofthis .^f^l ^^ ^^^ --^ 
Use Feiger in Berkeley, CaHforma A long .me ago -^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ ^,^^ ,,„, ,g„ 
painting from Kathe Saul who lived in Petropo Ms. ^^^^ ^^^^^^^.^^ ^^_g__^^, p^,„,,„g 

Ronaldo Meyer sent me a very well done colorea copy 
which IS reproduced on the previous page. 


• , 

%''y .^- 

• \ 



* ■* 





{home of her parents Landrabbiner Samuel E. Meyer and his wife Lina) 

REBECCA STEINTHAL {1862-1954), Samuel and Lina's sixth daughter, wrote down very 
touching memones of her childhood ui her parents' home. These fifteen pages, called 
"Memones of the Escherstrasse ." the street where the Meyers hved and Rebecca was ro,sed. 
were written between 1917 and 1927 for her favorite nephew. Dr. Walther Meyer, the family 
genealogist They illustrate the wami family atmosphere at the Lamlrahhincr s home crowded 
with so many children, and called, somewhat ironically -Die i^rosse Mcicrei. " Reheccca' 
memories provide a deep personal insight mto the domestic and sometimes also professional 
life of the Landrabbiner. Rebecca was named after her grandmother Rebecca Meyer, in keeping 
with an old Jewish tradition. 

Samuel did not like his children to be away from home. Once when "Becca," as Rebecca was 
called, stayed with relatives for a week. Samuel said "I don't have my children for other 
people." "Woe Israel for losing your Shabbat!" Becca writes, and mentions how Friday nights 
and Shabbat in her home were a festive oasis in the desert of an ordinary week. The rabbi's 
children did not go to school on Shabbat. On Friday nights, Kabbalal Shabbat, the rabbi 
always had guests at his home, according to the Jewish tradition, besides the married daughters 
and their husbands. The table was festively set. After dinner, Becca 's various uncles, aunts 
and other guests came for "fruit." The first words of Rebecca's uncle Wilhelm Seelig, the 
chasan. were "Linna [as she was called, also by her husband], what do you have liere?" 
followed by a fast reach for the fruit bowl. The children were not allowed to even look with 
desire at the fruit before the relatives amved. "Before some decent person has arrived, you 
ruined the fruit bowl already," Lina would scold. 

Preparations and cooking for the Shabbat were beautiftil. The old Jewish cook Berta even lei 
the small children put their noses into the pots. On Friday afternoon the rabbi would shoui 
from his ground floor office downstairs to the kitchen, which was in the basement, ''Bcrta, li 
IS Shabbesr meaning that everything had to be prepared and ready in the kitchen and could 
only be kept warm for the evemng meal. Usually Berta, who got scared when the rabbi called 
too early, could make it in time. During the winter, when it would get dark as early as four 
p.m., everything had to be prepared and ready by sundown. "If secretly something did goon 
broihng, 1 will not acknowledge it now any more," says Rebecca. Friday evening was always 
festive. Everything in the house was - in a natural way - subordinated to religious requirements, 

The smaller children, wearing festive dresses and white aprons, waited for the Rabbi to return 
trom the synagogue. Lma and her daughters did not go to the evenmg service. The mamed 
then In ' '" ^?'"f. T'^ '^' ^'^''^ ^^^^'^■°"' ^^'' bonnets. Samuel blessed eveiyone and 

W~f V^^ T .''"'""' "°"'' "^'^ ^^°""^ ^h^ ^^b»^ -d -g the song of tl. 

ZZotn ^"'>: ^^f,^«">d the meal begin. It always was a spectl one, with soup. 

oast or otten a goose, which SamiiPlu,^.,u ..:,,... ,.. . ..^ j .-.-. 

goose, which Samuel would 

that there will h7 '-"--""':■ would carve skillfully. "I don't hurt it," he laughed, "so 

thauher. will be enough to be served cold for Saturday's luncheon." Then the delsert was 


Guests sometimes were surprised by the Meyers' talkativeness. "Yes, my dear Gottschalk, if 
you want someone here to listen to you, you should have brought him with you from Berlin, ' 
the rabbi once consoled one of his guests. 

Rebecca writes that her parents' home gave the children and grandchildren lifelong values. 
Samuel once told his daughter Rebecca he regretted that he would die without glory, unlike 
his son-in-law's father. Rabbi Dr. Levi Herzfeld, because his mmistry, encompassing half the 
Hanover province, did not leave him time to write about Jewish issues. Rabbi Levi Herzfeld 
(1810-1884) was a moderate Reform Rabbi who published various works. He succeeded 
Rabbi Samuel (Sabel) Eger as Landrabbiner in the Braunschweig province. His grandson 
was Adolf Herzfeld, who emigrated with his family to Rio de Janeiro. Adolf's two daughters, 
Edith Low-Beer and Renate Herzfeld-Modem, live in Sao Paulo. 

Rabbi Samuel was enormously popular and highly esteemed among his congregants in the 
whole province of Hanover. He gave them good advice in various situations. Once, on one of 
his Shabbat afternoon walks in the Herrenhauser AUee, he was accompanied by the well- 
known politician Windhorst. When everybody was greeting the Landrabbiner. Windholz asked 
him "By the way, how many Jews live in Hanover?" When Dr. Meyer replied "Five thousand, 
Windhorst exclaimed, "What! I thought there were five million." Samuel always wore a top 
hat during these afternoon walks. He was proud of his credit in the garden restaurants where 
he took his family on Shabbat, since on that day he would not carry money. 

Rebecca mentions that the present-day terms of fam.harity between parents and children 
like 'Dad and Mom' - Vati und Mutii - were unthinkable in her parems' home. "We received 
a kiss only on our birthdays, on Rosh Hashanah - the Jewish New Year - and other special 
occasions But our respect and admiration for our parents were unlimited, especially for our 
father" The children sometimes rebelled against their mother's stnct mles. "As a young 
woman I dared to alter, on my own, the first hat that I was allowed to buy at 'Hofgrefe for -1 
marks. I received a slap in the face as a consequence.'" Rebecca states that her father loved 
her mother "like a bridegroom" until his death. 

She says that Samuel did not think much of education for women. On the occasion of a 
feminist congress in Hanover in 1 879 - when Rebecca was sixteen - Samuel talked with the 
famous Jewish feminist leader, wnter and educator Lma Morgenstem and told her What a 
girl did not learn by the age of sixteen, she never will leam." Samuel had invited the feminist 
readers to his Sukkah, the booth erected for SukkoU the feast of Tabernacles. "Like a tale ot a 
thousand and one nights" commented one of the feminists as they entered the Sukkah 
ornamented with flowers and lanterns. 

At Becca's insistent request, Lina pleaded on her belialf - wUhout success - to ol^tam the 
rabb.-s consent and to become a teacher. Beccca was almost mseparab e trom her 
books and felt ve,^ sad at bemg "condemned, at the age of sixteen, to play the role of goverrtess 
(Kinderfrdulein) for my s,x younger s.bUngs" Samuel did not miagme that one day, a the 
ge of forty, his daughter finally would beg.n her studies, her fina schoo lexamtna on 
AbUur, ,n order to be able to study at the un.vers.ty, not only h.story of art, but also genera, 
htstory. Becca eventually became an art htstonan. To take care ot the b,g house and the m t^y 
chtldl, Lina only had a cook and a housema.d who had to mend the ^"^rens cloth n 
the afternoon. Whenever Rabb, Samuel had a problem, he would walk up two tl.ghts ot 
from his office to ask his wife's advice. 


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Rebecca writes that once she was present when Samuel asked Lina if he could sacrifice ;i 
thousand Reichsthaler to pay a debt. He wanted to avoid an unfavorable image th;it 
dishonorable conduct on the part of a Jewish city councilman would cause for the Jewish 
community in Hanover. But could he do it, on account of his children? "If your heart tells you 
to do it, then do it, Meyer," Lina replied. Satisfied, Samuel returned to his work. 

All the children, mcluding the boys, had to wear smocks while doing their homework 
Sometimes as many as six children were sitting around the round table, studying at the same- 
time. Naturally, a lot of fighting would take place among the children, and the rabbi would he 
called to intervene. "It is always Becca and Siegmund - they are like cats and dogs," he would 
say. and would punish them both. Samuel's favorite maxim was "Never feel sony for yourself" 
He had an aversion against medical science. 

Rebecca says that the standard of living at Samuel's home was quite modest compared to thai 
at the home of his brother. Louis Meyer, the nch banker. She descnbes in detail the modest 
meals the children ate on weekdays. Although Samuel and Lina did not save on health care 
for the children and on entertaining their guests, they were otherwise very thrifty, because of 
the many children they had to raise. The adolescent Becca and her eternally anemic sister 
Leah were once sent to Bad Pyrmont for a cure. They had lunch at the kosher restaurant. A 
few days later. Lina wrote them to ask the restaurant to send one portion of food home, to be 
shared, and, she added, certainly something would be left over for dinner. Becca comments: 
"So this was done, and we were satisfied, and came home with red cheeks." 

Becca writes that she, her brother Siegmund and the younger siblings liked to go to their 
uncle Louis' house on Calenbergerstrasse. because there they could play with the younger 
generation, children their own age - their cousins Anna. Ella. Max and Adolf For Becca 
these Saturday afternoons and evenings were unforgeUable. There were always guests in the 
cardplaying room and enonnous plates of sandwiches were served. Louis' Jewish cook, Betty 
Mond, was known all over Hanover 

Rebecca. Louis' wife, was very affectionate with the noisy children, but they did not return 
her affection "because the aunt was so ugly. Cruel children's hearts." Becca then mentions 
Louis' beautiful big garden with many fruit trees and "a garden house which was transformed 
into a Sukkah at the time of Sukkot, many chicken and dogs and thousands of other joyous 

Berta, Samuel's Jewish maid, got time off on Saturday afternoons, but returned at the end of 
Shabbes, to wash the dishes which could not be done during Shabbat. Rebecca writes that 
Berta Hahn was as ugly as she was honest and faithful. She eventually married a Jewish cattle 
dealer "He does not talk very much," Berta said - and indeed the bridegroom never opened 
his mouth. She wanted only Rabbi Samuel to officiate, so he and Lina gave the couple a big 
wedding meal at famous Spanier's Hotel, where the religious ceremony had also taken place 

The children were overjoyed whenever Samuel took one of them along in a horse carriage on 
his yearly inspection trips to nearby towns. A picture of the Rabbi hung "in every good 
room." These rooms were placed at his disposal by the grateful congregants on these occasions 
In these small Jewish communities belonging to the province of Hanover, Rabbi Samuel was 
adored by everybody. The religious affairs there were taken care of by teachers examined :it 
the Jewish teachers' seminary in Hanover. 


On their annual vacations. Samuel and Lina traveled mainly to areas where there was a 

^oshe resTu^nt In small places m Switzerland, famous for their natural beauty but where 

t t.. rZs did not exist they had to be satisfied with kosher canned tood they brought 


and, last but not least, caring for the Jewish community. 

Becca reports that her maternal relatives remained more in the background, as they did not 
Becca reports tnai ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^j^,j^,^^ 

hve m Hanover ^^^ ^Jl^/;^^^^^^^^ ,,oman who looked down somewhat 

contemptuously at the meyeib ^ _ ^^ ^ bookstore m 

such an aristocratic merchant family as the Sieskinds. 

~:nte se" ^^^^^^^^ would, know about the personaUties o. the. 


This imposing monument was completed m 1895 ™'y""f ;"",;„„ ^f (he Jewish 
the lifedates in German are somewhat weatherbeaten. 

March 2. "Juden ,n Hannover contams a,^ '''Th,' the center of the cemetery and indicates 



Honor tomb of Samuel E. Meyer 

Phoio dated 1 899 showing rear of tombstone 

Photo dated 1 996 showing 
front of tombstone and 
Samuel and Llna's graves 


' {■" 

y ■ 

Louis E. Meyer 

Rebecca Meyer 


My maternal great-grandfather 

Louis E. Meyer, Ephraim and Rebecca's youngest son, was bom in Hanover on October 12. 
1821. His real name on his birth certificate was Levy, but in 1847 he was already calling 
himself Louis. Rebecca refers to him as 'Levi' in her will. Apparently she could not get used 
to his French name and only once refers to him in her will as 'Louis'. He was the one who 
really saved the bank and was able to pay off all debts 

He entered his father's bank at the age of fifteen. In 1847 he became a partner. He succeeded 
his father after Ephraim's death in 1849. He worked at the bank for fifty-seven years, from 
1837 until his death in 1894, at the age of seventy-two. 

On March 1 9, 1 852, Louis married REBECCA SIESKIND. She was bom on May 1 7, 1 832 in 
Ballenstedt and died on August 17, 1890, while at the spa in Marienbad. She was buried in 
Hanover. Rebecca's parents were David Herz Sieskind. Ballenstedt (1802-1872), and Rahel 
(Rosalie) Levi, bom in Halberstadt in 1812, died in Hamburg in 1873, buried in Ballenstedt. 
Rebecca was a cousin oi Landrabbiner Samuel Meyer's wife. Lina Sieskind. 

My grandmother Helene Meyer, the wife of Louis' oldest son Emil, once wrote to my mother 
Leonie Oliven that Louis always had an open house and invited many guests, without advising 
his wife first. He served enormous roasts that Helene thought were half a calf or ox. 

It is due to Louis E. Meyer that the establishment under his direcfion developed from a small 
bank and loan institution into one of the leading banks in the Hanover province. He recognized 
early on that industry and banking should go hand in hand. Under Louis' efficient management, 
the bank reached its zenith. As a matter of fact, Louis encountered a very favorable economic 
situation when he took over the bank, after his father's death. 

The kingdom of Hanover had been annexed by Prussia in 1 866, after Pmssia won the war 
against Austria and Hanover. Five years later, after Germany won the war against France 
( 1 870-7 1 ), the country experienced a boom and a lot of French money flowed into the German 
economy, as France was obliged to pay five billion gold francs as war reparations. 

In a letter in my possession, written about 1870 to his older brother Morris (Moritz) in 
Charleston, South Carolina, about family and other news, Louis mentions: 




"Just now 1 am busy enlarging the office, because it has become too small for nine 
persons. Business has reached bigger dimensions and keeps me fully occupied froin 
morning till night. It is my pnde that thanks God the business enjoys a good reputation 
everywhere. 1 beheve that 1 cannot honor the memory of our beloved parents in any 
better way than by transmitting to my children as well the good name they left us. I 
hope my good intentions will realize in every way. Amen!" 

After Germany's victorious war of 1 870/7 1 , trade, industry and banking expanded considerably 
and consequently the standard of living was rising at the same time. Germany was transforming: 
from a purely agrarian country into a central European industrial power. The importance n\ 
the German banking establishments and stock exchange was growing simultaneously. It was 
the Gennan private banker who stood at the forefront of this development. 

Peter Schulze recently wrote a manuscript: '"History, significance and end of the Hanover 
banking establishment Ephraim Meyer & Sohn." Therein he points out: 

"After the death of the founder of the firm, Ephraim Meyer, in the year 1 849, Louis 
in the beginning was the sole owner of the bank that disposed, at that time, of 'modest 
means" only. Later on, Louis admitted junior partners out of the family circle: in 
1 865 his nephew Eduard Spiegelberg, in 1 883 his eldest son Emil Louis Meyer; and 
in 1886 his second son Siegmund Louis Meyer. After Louis' death in 1894, they 
became the directors of the bank. 

"The change from an agrarian to an industrial society offered a unique chance to 
'Ephraim Meyer & Sohn". as well as to many other comparable firms, for expansion 
of the business. The small money exchange and loan business developed into a 
modem banking establishment. 

"Gradually the bank increased the number of its clients. As mentioned in a propa- 
ganda publication dated 1922, 'by hiring efficient employees [...] as well as by 
consolidating the internal organization, [Meyer and Spiegelberg created] a sound 
basis for the ever increasing volume of business. First of all, with a keen view, they 
realized the great significance that close cooperation between a money institution 
and commerce and industry must have in the future.' 

"Already in 1857, the bank participated in the financing of the rolling mill Peiner 
Huttenwerke (later on Ilseder Hutte), in the foundation of the sugar-factory Actien 
Zuckerfabrik Neuwerk, as well as in the Hannover Iron Foundry, and in the following 
decades, in a great number of recently established industrial enterprises, mainly in 
the Hanover region. Likewise, the bank cooperated in the foundation of the mortgage 
bank Braunschweig-Hannoversche Hypothekenbank.'" 

As a consequence of this development, Louis belonged to the supervisory board (Aufsichtsrai) 
of the Lindener share brewery, the Ilseder rolling mill, the Hannover Iron Foundry, the Geora 
EgestortT"s Salt- Works, the Neuwerk Sugar-Factory, the Braunschweig-Hannover Mortgage 
Bank, the Bank of Hannover and others. He was a member of the Central Committee for 
Inland Navigation and was engaged in the construction of the Midland Rhein-Weser-Elbe 
Channel. He was a member of the Hanover Chamber of Commerce from 1 867 to 1 886. Dunne 
his tenure as treasurer of the organization, he proposed the establishment of a stock exchange 
in Hanover in 1872. He also belonged to the Committee of the Reichsbank for the 


province of Hanover. Louis was appointed Kommerzienrat in 1871 and Geheimer 
Kommerzienrat in 1 886 by Wilhelm, King of Prussia. Both appointments are in my possession. 

Louis like his parents before him. was an observant Jew. This also can be noted from an 
undated letter he wrote to Joseph Heymann, a client, which begins 'i opened your letter only 
today on account of Shabbes. " Like his father Ephraim before him in the 1830s, durmg 
twenty-five years Louis was a member of the board (Vorslandsmilglicd) of the Jewish 
community in Hanover and belonged to many of its committees. As a young man he was a 
member of the synagogue choir. Rabbi Dr. Gronemann said of Louis in his ftineral speech: 
"The synagogue was his second home.'" The synagogue also had a special sigmf.cance for 
Louis as his beloved brother Dr. Samuel, to whom he was so much attached, was its rabbi tor 
over thirty-six years. Louis accompanied very closely the construction of the new synagogue, 
built between 1 864 and 1 870 at the initiative of his brother Samuel. In the mentioned letter to 
his brother Morris, Louis writes: 

"The [construction of the] new synagogue here will be concluded within a few 
months. It will be a magnificent building (ein Prachtbau). one of the most beautiftil 
in Germany.'* 

The synagogue from 1 864 to 1 870, at the initiative of Louis' and Moms' brother Rabb, 
Dr Samuel E. Meyer, had no organ, because the Hanover community contended itself with a 
large synagogue choir Rabb, Dr. Meyer personally directed the building commission. The 
ynagogue built in Neo-Romanesque style with a huge cupola had four beautiful facades and 
Led 11 00 people. In 1 862. Hanover's Jewish community had 1 1 00 members. The synagogue 
was inaugurated on Sepetember 15, 1870. It was destroyed in the pogrom of November 9 
1938. Today only a tablet reminds one that on this place on Bergstrasse there once stood a 
majestic synagogue for nearly seventy years. 

On the occasion of his 70- birthday, Louis dedicated a huge genealogical tree to the family 
members of Ephraim and Rebecca Meyer This majestic tree was tirst elaborated in 187 by 
Touts' nephew Arnold Seelig. son of his sister Betty. In 1891, nearly twen^ years later 
Lou ' niece Adele Meyer, daughter of his brother Montz (Moms), completed this tree. Aga n 
in 1936 forty-five years later! Adele, who meanwhile had mamed Gustav Freund^ again 
omplet'ed tH^genealgical tree, adding another generation. That is the -on why my^^^^^^^^^^ 
Hans, my sister Suse and 1, as well as my Straus cousins, now appear in the latest version of 
the tr e on top of its highest branch. This tree is "dedicated m love to 'he amily mem ers of 
Ephraim and Rebecca Meyer by Gehemrat Louis E. Meyer. Hamiover, September 4, 1 89 1 . 

A copy of Arnold Seelig's original tamily tree was sent to me by H'='«J-„J'„'^;;,^^ 
Janeiro a great-granddaughter oi LandrcMiner Dr. Samuel E. Meyer In August 2000 when 
Seld and I were ,n San Francisco visiting the Straus family, 1 received a copy of the 1936 
vesion of th* genealogical tree from Harold Feiger, son of my late cousin Use Linker nee 
sZs To my greatest pleasure Harold handed me this enlarged much bigger tree very weU 
reproduced on the occasion of a family meeting at the house of my cousin E- Linker ne 
Straus and he husband Henry, in El Cem.o, California, near San Francisco. 1 had the tree 
framed and ts now prominently displayed at our home. The tree literally contains hundreds 
fTihes "ames Tnd dates, evidencing the proverbial fe^nityo, the Meyer amil, ^ 
dates are not complete (mostly the birth years only are mentioned) and they show a ew 
dwergene"s, but t'he organ Jion of such a large, detailed genealogical tree represents a 
remarkable undertaking, as well as an artistic masterpiece. 



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3m tlamrn Q^ottfe ! 

^(& WonatS «// r*^rt-.7T.^im pjbrf Jiinftfluftnb lechsbunl-crl uiib ^^^y^--^ nadj (*rfd)affunj 

Nr aiMl, b. L am /^'rj- t- /^^^ iB jy nad, Ui jinvt^Dnlidjfn Stitrcc^nung, ill Crt (JljfconlrQd 
jififd^en tfm JlVaulVdatf, tiiimlidj fefm i&rfiutiiiam 

intft bftn iPftflanbf ySollfS Dolljogtn irorbrn, roir folgl : 
iSft but be fni'jbnte iBriutigam ju ffincr 2?raut „©« irieine Qljffrau nod) brm SRfdjU 
gMoffV^ unb Sfrad'a; tdj luiU .J^ir ol« (Sbnnanti trtu ftin, Did) adjtcn unb r|)tfri, utiltrljaltcii, finbni uiiC 
fd)ubrn, fo mif ubfrfjuupt aUr ^flttt)t'n nnte jubtfdjm Gl,tmonn(ft rrblic^ gtgcn I^idj afullftii oud; roiU id* 
Iiir bic yjforgrngQbf nad, bcr ffiorfdjnft bcB Ijfili^fn t5itfe|,t6 ncbfi btr iibUd^rn 95frmf( ooUllanbig 
gcrodbrrn uiib fiir !«Urfi b»'ff">, roafi Dit 9ebul>rr, mil mdncni gcfammtfn iBtrmogrn." 

©it, bit fflrflut, abir ^ot tingtirilligt, ftint G^tfrou ju rottbtn, (jat i(,m Hitbt unb Xrtut nngdobl 
uiib ofOVrodjfit, Qllf ^fltrfilfn finrr iubifd)fn (^VrNu ^ifipilTfnbaff gfgtn Ibn \\x n\\xSkt\\. 

3iir a^irunbung unb JBrtnligung btr dcii bcibtn ^(jfiltn tingtgangfnfii aitrppid^lungcn i)l brr 
a»;dnlrlgriff iiad, jubifdjrm (SJfbraud) in grfjiJrigfi germ grltifttt icorbtn. 

Jiawuf bJbfii bit Sraullfult ibrtn ^b'^unb lu't «pil, nrtd) llorld)^! btr jiibifdjni iHtligioii, 
tlfldjIpiTm unb njoUrn upn nun on oXh (Manrn jufammfiilfbtti, in Sritbtn unb (2inlrad;t, otjnr Jjlfdj unb 
Sf^I, in gurtn ti-if m bcfrn la^it n , bift t6 btm .^cttn iibrr I'tbrn unb lob gtfddtn u-irb, ibttn Sunt 
)u I6ftn. — 

3ur »turfunbiin<i tttfrr r'titrlidjen a3trl,onPlim.i irl foldjf I'oii in.'ti Jfugtn fi^rnbdnbig unttrfdjritbm 
uub, ivif bitrmil .Krd;fl)in, offfnllid} I'onirlfffu ivortru. 

(SJffdjfbfn '/^ M'//'/S^//,^yt obtn. 

y^ ale Sfugt. 


Louis E, Meyer and Rebecca Sieskind's marriage contract 

The Hanover 
inaugurated in 1870 

Fiir die ZerstOrung der N«uen Synagoge in (l«r 
Nacht vom 9 auf c)«n 10. Novvmtwr wsren 
Kommondos der h»nnov»f»chen SS verantwort- 
lich, dieamAb«nd wortiBriu«<nerKundgebunglm 
nahegal*g«nen Koruerthaus luft^TiinengBiogen 
<va« G«g«n Mlttsrnacnt Murd« di« Synagoge 
ausgsrdubl und in Brand g«stecht. Di« spal 
, aUirmierte Feuerwenr M- 

Khrankle s>ch aul den SchuU 
der umsteFienden Hauier. Am 
fnjhen Morgan wurde die 
Kuppel durch dip Technischfl 
Nottiirfe gesprengt 

riie synagogue 
destroyed during 
November 9/10. 1938 



Genealogical tree commissioned by Louis E. Meyer on his 70''' birthday m I K9 1 



still in existence - declared a historic monument - 
former seat of the bank and Louis Meyer's residence 

In 1 8S6 Louis bought a house, built before 1 798. at Calenbergerstrasse 45. The house number 
later changed to 43. It was situated beside the house on the same street that Louis' tather 
Ephraim bought in 1 823. which was Louis and his family's residence at the time. 1 have in my 
possession the purchase contract for this new properly, dated December 9. 1 8x\ between tlie 
former owner, daughter of the Lamhirost (state governor) of Hanover. Mane von Beck nee 
von Dachenhausen. and the new owner. Louis Ephraim Meyer, for an amount of 18,000 
Thaler gold. 

Louis moved the bank Ephraim Meyer & Sohn to the ground floor of his new property in 
18% At the same time his brother, Landrabhimr Dr. Samuel E. Meyer, also moved to the 
new house It then became the seal of the Landrahbinat as well, umi! 1862. when Rabbi 
Samuel moved to his own house on Escherstrasse. In 1 86 1 . after his mother Rebecka s death. 
Louis and his family moved to the upper floor of his new, big property and later sold the 
neighboring house purchased by his father. 

The same house at Calenbergerstrasse 43 still exists, with exactly the same 200-year-old 
facade It is one of the oldest buildings still standing in the old part of Hanover and has been 
declared a historic monument.The house belonged to the F^^^^"*^^"^^;,*";-^'^/^^^^^^^^^^^ 
completely renovated by the city of Hanover from 1991 to 1993. at a cost ot DM 600.000. A 
library has been installed and the building is now open to the public. 

Before the renovation, there was a plaque on the fa?ade, mentioning only one of the former 
owners, the Lamkirost von Dachenhausen, and not a word about the Meyers and the bank 
Ephraim Mever & Sohn. established there for nearly forty years, trom 1856 to 189^. Ihi. 
greatly worried me, while on a visit to Hanover several years ago. Therefore I started a 
campaign to have this plaque removed and replaced by another one mentioning my ancestors 
as well. 

1 petitioned the mayor of Hanover and got m touch with the Municipal Archives and the 
Hanover Historical Museum. With the assistance of Peter Schulze, I finally succeeded In 
1994 a new plaque was placed to the renovated building, stating, among other tacts, that th,s 
house once was the seat of the important banking establishment Ephra.m Meyer & Sohn 
from 1 856 to 1 895 and also of the Landnibhinal from 1 856-1 862. 

At thts point it is interesting to reproduce part of a commemorative art.cle Published in the 
1920s, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the date bphraim Meyer estabhshed h,s 

"A century - that means nothing in the course of time, but it is an important period 
for a firm I 1 The house [on Calenberger Strasse], which belongs today to the 
Frederikenslift. has its history; it is the old LanMroslcn house, the seat of the tormer 
state governor [...] For forty-five years this building was the seat of the banking 



house Ephraim Meyer & Sohn, from 1850 to 1895. The firm itself, however, is 
much older. Ephraim Meyer, bom in Hanover, established a money-changing business 
on Grossen Duvenstrasse in 1 799. In 1 847 his son Louis, who later became Prussian 
Geheimer Kommenienrat, became a partner. As from that date, the name of the 
firm became Ephraim Meyer & Sohn. Then the firm moved to Calenberger Strasse 
and from there, in 1895, to Luisenstrasse 8/9, where it continues today." 

A picturesque event regarding this house has to be mentioned, transcribed from a letter 
received many years ago from my aunt Edith Straus, Louis' granddaughter: 

"The house at Calenbergerstrasse 43, in its simple symmetric forms, is now a historic 
monument. It was always well maintained. 

"My grandfather bought it from Freiherm von Dachenhausen. Downstairs was the 
business. The W.C.'s were in the courtyard with a signboard 'Pissoir'. My 
grandparents lived upstairs, in a large apartment with a nice badiroom and W.C, 
into which my grandfather threw all his calling cards stating his title Kommerzienrat 
(Councilor of Commerce), on the occasion of receiving the superior 'royal' title 
Koniglicher Geheimer Kommerzienrat (Privy Councilor of Commerce). As a 
consequence, the plumber had a lot of work." 





,/.:„/ .1.. if:.... M..j..^./t.u. // J 

(jiiii '.^yi*iJ|i<p^"w,*^^^^----^ ■ "w 








The house on Calenbergerstrasse 1872 

The completely renovated house 1993 

Purchase contract of the house on Calenbergerstrasse dated 1 855 

The plaque placed al the renovated 
building by the Hanover Municipality 

hf*.'''*yfT .>. * 

•r\ ^r.j^^^ 


Louis had acquired considerable wealtli as head ot the bank Ephram Meyer & Sohn. Followin; 
the Meyer Family tradition. Louis and his wife Rebecca had eight children. He left his emii: 
estate to his four sons, who in turn had to pay each of his four daughters an amount o 
300.000 marks. This was in addition to the amount of 35.000 marks each daughter had ahead; 
received for purchasing her trousseau, which was not to be deducted from her dowry. Th. 
part of the dowr>' that each daughter had already received, and that varied between lOO.OOl 
and 150.000 marks, was to be deducted from the amount of 300.000 marks. 

Louis also established three family foundations in his will - to help needy descendants pav 
for their education, dowries, trousseaus and other expenses. This only applied to members o\ 
the family who had not converted from the Jewish religion. The first foundation, which was 
in Louis' name, provided for an amount of 100.000 marks to his descendants. The second 
foundation provided for 25.000 marks, in memory of his deceased brother, the LamirahhuK-r 
Samuel E. Meyer, for the rabbi's descendants. The third foundation provided 50.000 marks 
in the name of'his wife Rebecca Meyer nee Sieskind, for the descendants of her brothers and 

Louis drew up his will in 1 891. 

§ 9 reads: 

"I require that my heirs be ever faithful 
to their Mosaic religion and not change 
the same. I also require that the business 
premises of the firm Ephraim Meyer & 
Sohn be closed on Shabbat and Jewish 
holidays, as they were during my 

§ 10 reads: 

"If one of my heirs, in person or through 
his representative, should act against this 
will or even contest it. especially if one 
of my heirs - God forbid! - should change 
his Mosaic religion, his share shall be 
reduced to the mandatory part and beyond 
this he shall be disinherited. My 
daughters or their descendants shall [also] 
have the value of their trousseau, in the 
amount of 35.000 marks, deducted from 
their part of the inheritance." 


^JL^ A^u-^^,^ ciJt^^C*^!^ '<'<^y''/^ 

Part of Louis E. Meyer's will 

, ■■■".V 



.ouis Mey. died in Hanove. on Fe« 2. «s ^^^^^^^^^ ^ 

.owd. State and '-J -" "'J ^J'Z T^C 

dignataries assembled at Louis ^f 'f "^.\ "^" f ^ ^^ ^ eat benefactor ofvanous 

through the streets, on its way to the ""l^'^'^, ^""/c^mm.ttee. the CommUtee 

to the Hanover Municipality. 

K.te Saui. . a two-page report on --3-^ ^rTX^S^^S 


in the funeral procession. 108! An enormou _ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

fumilinlGod-s commandments, irradiated from Lours, 

. Hch, decorated buna, site .r Louis and ^^^^ Z^^^:'^:::^^ ^ 

Jewish cemetery at An der Strangnede. ^^ "j^^^.^thehelpoffe 


that was preserved, was aoie lo luciuuj y 

both in German and Hebrew, are in my possession, 


for burials until 1024, In the cemeteiy ^a' th^ 's a hkuk r ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

belonging to H-vers Jewish Co— t^v^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ,^^, ^^^^ ,„, _ 

1941. the Nazis used this Hall «^ ""J^ °" ; extermination camps, 

hundred people before they were deported to the iNaz 

This will reflects Louis" great concern over the ever increasing assimilation and the wave ol 
conversions among German Jews during the nineteenth century. It is estimated, for instance, 
that at least half of the Berlin Jewry was baptized during the first decades of the nineteenth 
century. The reason was the desire for careers and social acceptance. Full emancipation and 
equal rights - at least legally - were granted to the German Jews only in 1 871 , 

A s v 



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KuMnr. DUMllOrt. FrMklwl 4 M . Luti. Iwlbh 

Vi^m n^faten Schnicne erfulll hnngm wir zur Aiub^. ilua e* 
CiiiH item iMlmaihligen gelallm h»t. iinscm inr«)y;tbeblen Vjta. Schwicyr- 
v:ilrr unJ Gfouvkto-, <ten 

Konigllchen Gehelmen Commerzlenrath 

Louis Ephraim Meyer 

;;»lBn Alieoil 9\ L'ttr im 71 I.^^ni)iihre n«h "emgen SlunJcn rim 
l.akle>u aui der FuDr winei unaLlamgen 5(>uffcn( unJ grvgnelrn Wirlieiu 

Die lief^ebeu^ten Hinlerbllebenait: 

Erbbegrabnis der Familie Meyer 

Ernchtet urn 1900 nach dem 

Entwurf des Architekten 

Borgemann. Durch Wegnahmeder 

Inschrifttafein anonymisierl. 

Emll L. Meyer 
SlcfmiAKl L Heyer 
Clara SlinOTU ^b Mryrr 
Loolae Uayer ^b. Meyer 
Anna Rialclu gvb. Mcyci 
BU« Preudenildii grh Mryf 
Adolpb L Mtyer 
Uu L Meyer 

Helcne Meyer gtlt. 1>:>y 

Olitta Meyer gjeb. Rotcnbuich 

Bemartl Suium* 

J»e- D Mayer 

I jndlfnchurath L>r. JuL Rlnieta 

JuL J Preudemicin 

und Bnkelldad«r. 

II. ItrRdituf andil im Moauf. 4» i Fabnai. I Ub. Nicti~i.ii 

EphrkliD Hvjn- a Solui. 

. rrm0%Aibc. c«i»bTTgn 

H*iin*»rT. 4rt I) Prfafuv ift^^ 

Louis Meyer's family grave erected about I ' 


Durch dee am i. 
Vttcn und Onkeb dei 

it M ololgten Homging jnMna gitcblen 

KOnlgllchen Geheimen Comm«r?:lenrflths 

Louis fjphraim Meyer 


def ichmff £^chvii 

ScBNir-ChcCk untoa Firm, hnl uiua 
Verlult ntnm 

Wu bcchrcn uni. Ihnrn miUDth Ellen, Jua luch iriunirnlanuJiB 
Beximmun^ de» VfT^»n^en und gegentringrr I'etierankunll die Vo' 
hlhniiac UEi4cicr Firma knrwln V^Bndenjng alftJuen- 

r>>t tlmojcuhneicn, •dcbe ichnn irrt mm [uif^en Rode von Jnhrm 
■la iilltneo hUndrl.gF'wIlv-ha/r sia Hilinliaber »Ag»K(nTn. wwden [lieaell« 
uriKr unvetOnda^a Fum* unii mil 'iflvrrminittfrleni OcKhlfti- Kjipnnl 

Wtf baica lin \'afriuen, ■relchcs dem tbciuen DatungFK'hirdrn'-n 
und unMicr Firnu in w rrjcheic HiUmte luri allco Sdtrn entjregen^tHji.lil 
wonlm ist. Asch una tOr dm Ful(>e tu slultcn ' 

HochichMnimnll 1 

Ephraim Meyer & Sohn, 

Die Ci!srhim9liih(t:itir 

Notice of Louis E. Meyer 's decease 


The same grave today, photo dated 1996 



1. EMIL LOUIS MEYER. Hanover, bom on May 5, 1 853, died on May 9, 1926. He was my 
grandfather. He mamed Helene Levy, bom on July 26, 1859 in Hamburg, died on May 10, 
1942 in Basel, Switzerland. 

2. SIEGMUND LOUIS MEYER, Hanover, bom in 1855, died in 1922. He married Gutta 
Rosenbusch, bom m Nuremberg. Siegmund. according to his niece Edith Straus, had a tendency 
for mischief. His mother Rebecca was shy and restrained and could not cope with her four 
sons. She sent them away from home to a shochel (a ntual slaughterer) for their education, 
except for the youngest son. Max, who suffered from asthma. Siegmund was sent to the 
nearby town of Hildesheim. Once he took along his father's diamond ring and used it to cut 
several windowpanes, which his father consequently had to pay for. 

Siegmund became a partner at the bank Ephraim Meyer & Sohn in 1 886, three years after my 
grandfather Emil, the oldest son, had become a partner. In 1 91 3, Siegmund obtained the title 
Kommerzienrat (Councilor of Commerce). 

Siegmund's wife Gutta was very close to her sister-in-law, my grandmother Helene Meyer. 
Gutta often critized her husband in public. Once at a party she repeatedly told htm to close 
his fly. He told her that he did not have to. because it actually was closed. When she nevertheless 
repeated her request, he walked up to a lady guest and asked her to see if his fly was open or 
not. Once at another party - so it is told - when it was too much for Siegmund to stand his 
wife, he simply locked her up in the bathroom from the outside, when she went in to put 
powder on. and he threw the key out of the window. Since nobody could find the key and 
Siegmund feigned innocence, the firemen had to be called to get her out. 

Gutta and her daughter Rena emigrated to Belgium. Gutta was deported by the Nazis who 
occupied Belgium, when she was very old already. She left her apamtient in Brussels one day 
during World War 11 to do some shopping or just go for a walk and was never seen again. 
Nothing is known about her ultimate fate. 

3. CLARA MEYER, bom in 1856 in Hanover, died on April 8. 1907 in Dusseldorf. She 
married banker Bemhard Simons, Dusseldorf He died on November 7, 1906. 

4. LOUISE MEYER, bom in 1858 in Hanover, married Jacob (Jacques) D. Mayer, bom in 
1 849. He was a leather factory owner in Frankfurt a.M. When she was already in her eighties, 
Louise was deported by the Nazis. Nothing is known about her fate. 

5. ANNA MEYER (1860-1936) was bom in Hanover. She married Dr. Julius Rinteln. a 
provincial judge in Cassel. who died in 1937, 

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6. ADOLF MEYER (1863-1912) was born in Hanover. He was a factory owner in Berln 
He married Hoilense Joseph, born in Frankfurt a.M. Adolf was the '"enfant teirible" oftb 
family. At my parents' wedding, which took place in Hanover in 1 9 1 2, at the renowned Hott 
Kasten. Adolf was again "in high spirits," as his nephew Dr. Walther Meyer relates: 

"He danced a cancan for his friends and relatives, who encircled him to prevent the 
approach of strangers. At this performance, he not only shot his legs towards the 
ceiling, but his glass eye as well, which he then skillfully caught again in midair. He 
then mocked a wedding guest of the Oliven family from Posen, who became quite 
disconcerted while witnessing this scene. Suddenly his stout sister, Anna Rinteln. 
rushed up and hissed at him, 'You are the black sheep of the family.' This did nut 
disturb Adolf at all. He went on chanting, pointing at her with an outstretched finger: 
'I am the black sheep, you are the black sheep,' and so on. to the great amusement 
of his audience." 

7. ELLA MEYER (1867-1933) was bom in Hanover. She married Julius Freudenstein, i 
manufacturer in Berlin. He frequently asked his relatives, especially his rich brother-in-law 
Louis, for financial support. He finally went bankrupt and shot himself in 1910. 

8. MAX MEYER, Louis" youngest son, bom in 1871 in Hanover, died in London in 1942 
He married Liesel (Elise) Cahn, bom ca. 1887. They had no children. Max was sickly all his 
life, His niece Kathe Saul mentions that he was a hypochondriac. He and his chamiing witc 
Liesel. who adored her husband, lived in Frankfurt a.M.. until they emigrated to London 
Max was about sixteen years older than his wife. Though Liesel was my mother's aunt b> 
marriage, both were of about the same age. Max was the last of Louis Meyer's children tt 
pass away. Liesel survived him in London, for many years. 

I met Liesel in Frankfurt a.M. in 1938. where 1 gave her English lessons. She spoke excelleni 
English, maybe better than I did at the time. Liesel emigrated to London, where she lived in 
an apartment house that belonged to her rich relative Amy Haas. Amy's husband Hans Neuhaus 
Lamlrabbhwr Samuel's grandson, worked with gold mines and lived in South Africa. He 
died in a plane crash in 1935. His widow Amy Haas bought a big house in London anc' 
converted it into apartments - "flats" as they are called in England - for the use of her relatives 
Seldi and I visited Liesel at her apartment in London in 1963. She was a very nice and 
affectionate person. When she opened her apartment door and saw me again, after 25 years 
had elapsed, she exclaimed spontaneously "Das Klduschen! " - little Klaus. 




my mother, and EDITH. I will write more about them turther on. 

maternal grandparents, had two daughters, LEONIE, 
.re about them furthe 

2 SIEGMUND AND GUTTA MEYER had two children: 

FrTnkel. Anna's cousm, daughter of Kurt and Rena Frankel. 

u.r iq 1 89(1 in Hanover, died in 1970 in Charleroi (?), 
b) RENA MEYER, bom on November 29. 1890 '" Ha"" . _ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^„ ^^ 

Belgmm. Rena was Dr. Walther Meyer s partner a, ^J^^^'^ letter to me that he often 
h,s tennts partner, walther. Rena sssecond^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^_^_, ^ ^^^^^ ,„,„ ,, 

played tenn.s with Rena, sometimes ^' 'h^^^";; .^"^ f.^^,^ 20, 1 876, d,ed November 

Calenbergerstrasse 43. Rena mamed Dr. 1^"^ ™-^^^ ^^^J been mustard-gassed m 

30, 1927. Neustadt. H,s early death was a <=0"^"1"^"'^^;;;;^ J^^^ „,,„,,, „n„e biggest 

world war 1, dunng which he served as a -P^-'^^^^X ^slblishment was located in 

linen manufacture in Germany. S. ^^f "^l ^ '' „^„^ p^j^jk). The fimr was founded in 

Neustadt. Upper Silesia (known now ^Y ''^ ?«'' J " ™ ^^'^^ ^^ ^ppe, Silesia. died m 

,855 by Kurt-s grandfather. Samuel F-^J^^", I; ewish iontlnity of Neustadt. 


It was burned down in the so-called ICristallnacW, on 


to Belgium. In her second marriage Rena -^'^ ^^^^^ „ g'^ssels where Rena's second 


., peter Er.kel, Rena. son, a phys..^ ^^;-— ^ Jl^ ^ Ml^l^ri: 
durmg WW 11. He was bom on June 6, ''''■*■" ^^"'^ely recorded the effects of the 

this desperate act may have been a love affair. 

''fi 1921 in Neustadt. She died 

hb) Susanne Frankel. Rena's daughter. "'''^^ b""; ^la "in a car accident. She married 

September 20, 1992 in Mount Barker. "^^^^Xmi ,n Antwerp and died March 22. 

Albert de Jonghe in Bnissels. He was ''°"'/;"^" -^^^|,, p,„i,pp Jacobs, both their second 

,975 in Brussels. In 1984 Susanne married barr-ttr Cha Hcs^ PP ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^,,^^^^ 

marriages, when he was 72 and she, 62 y--/^^^^^^™';;,,., ,,„ p'Lck was bom on May 
and later on as a dog sculptress. Susanne and Albert ^ gmssels. Patrick is in very 

18, 1955,and his wife FabienneDumont on July 19. 1961,60 

bad health. 






3. CLARA MEYER married Bernard Simons. They had three sons: ARTHUR, bom m 1 87?, 
who became a professor; EDUARD, bom in 1879, and HELMUT bom m 1893. 

4. LOUISE MEYER married Jacques Mayer. They had two children: 

a) EUGEN MAYER, bom in Franktiirt a.M. in 1882. died 1930. married Mathilde. Theif 
daughter Use, bom 1912, was a veiy good photographer. She emigrated to Argentina where 
among others, she photographed Evita Peron. She later married Dr. Hans Gehrken, a Gemiai 
physician who works at a sanatorium in Davos, Switzerland. Seldi and I once visited then 
there. Use converted and became a Protestant. She died in Davos in July 1986. 

b) CLARA MAYER, born in 1 886 in Frankfurt a.M., married Dr. Plaut. The couple had thret 
sons: Richard, bom 1913; Walter bom 1914; and Gerhard bom 1 92 1 . Clara, just as her mothci 
Louise, was deported by the Nazis. She was deported to Lodz. Poland, in 1 942. and was never 
again heard of 

5. ANNA MEYER married provincial judge Julius Rinteln. They had four children, all bom 
in Cassel: LISBETH, bom in 1885; WALTER, bom in 1888; ALFRED (Fredi), bom in 1 89 1 
killed by the Nazis; and RUDOLF, bom 1898. Lisbeth marned Willi Viktor. They had thre. 
children: Kurt bom 1908, was a landscape architect in Tel Aviv; Hans bom 1909; and Lott. 
bom 1912. who married in Israel. Kurt, who married Kate Briih, had a daughter Raya Noemi 
bom in 1934. In 1933 Lisbeth and Willi and their children emigrated to Palestine. 

6. ADOLF MEYER married Hortense Joseph. They had two children, a son LUDWIG, bom 
in 1899, and a daughter RUTH, bom in 1901. My mother mentions in her diary that her 
grandfather Louis E. Meyer had eight children, but two grandsons only by the name of Meyer 
"one of them. Ludwig, is retarded, due to the sins of his father Adolf, and will Ench's son 
[Klaus] turn out intelligent?" 

7. ELLA MEYER married Julius Freudenstein. They had two children, a son Dr. CURT 

bom in 1891, and a daughter SOPHIE, bom in 1893. 

8. MAX MEYER married Liesel (Elise) Cahn. They had no children. 



On March 14, 1907 there occurred a noteworthy wedding. My mother's cousin Lisbeth, 
daughter of the provincial judge Landgehchtsrat Julius Rinteln and his wife Anna (a daughter 
of Louis Meyer), who lived in Cassel, married Willy Victor, a lawyer and notary public in 
Wandsbeck near Hamburg. The bridegroom was a devoted Zionist, something quite unusal 
in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. He belonged to a Zionist organization. Edith 
Straus mentioned that many of the congratulation telegrams came in the form of a donation 
to a Zionist fund (I suppose it was the Keren Kayemet). She says that it was quite an "unusual 
wedding", at which several Zionist speeches were given. 

My grandfather Emil came to his niece's wedding with his wife Helene and their two daughters, 
Edith and my mother Leonie. Emil became very upset at the banquet, because he had not 
expected to hear such speeches. Edith relates that she never saw her father as irate as at that 
party. Politically, he was a Nadonal Liheralci: and although a good Jew, he was rather 
assimilated like most German Jews of the time. Dr. Walther Meyer mentioned that Emil, who 
was the head of the Hanover Synagogue Community (erster Vorsteher der Synagogen 
Gemeinde in Hannover) for many years, was a declared opponent of Zionism. Theodor Herzl 
had organized the Zionist movement for the first time in the 1 890s, though of course Zionist 
ideas and ideals always had existed throughout Jewish history from the beginning of the 
exile. Emil, as well as most other assimilated Jews in Germany at the time, feared that the 
Zionist movement could endanger the position the assimilated Jews in Germany had fought 
for so hard since the emancipation. 

Nothing better to describe this wedding and its atmosphere than my mother's candid diary, 
volume no. 6, extending from 1906 to 1910. It evidences a strong prejudice against the 
Ostjuden. Jews of Eastern European origin, something quite common at the time, on the part 
of the more assimilated Westjuden. Most of the Ostjuden were religious, orthodox Jews. 

"May 14 [ 1 907] - Lisbeth 's wedding in Cassel. The Rintelns certainly had not expected 
us a single day before the wedding. The Meyer family, who showed up in its entirety, 
amused themselves in Cassel during three days, all on their own.This was quite 
alright, though the hotel was dirty and the food was bad. At the eve of the wedding 
we met the seven siblings of the bridegroom, genuine people from Posen [Jews 
from Eastern Europe], who liked being at a West German wedding. They wondered 
how a wedding would be celebrated in the so highly praised and cultivated West 
and they gloated over this event, of which we really could not be proud. 

"This wedding would better have taken place in Inowroclaw [small town in Poland], 
because in the East people are delighted when they can show off their opulence and 
sewe such big quantities of food, whatever the table can stand. Not so the Rintelns. 
They had no expenence, they were indifferent, and we nearly were starving. It rather 
did not matter to my aum that the owner of the hotel forgot to serve breakfast and 
she also did not notice that at 1 1 p.m. people started to fight for a piece of dry bread, 
because after supper, consisting of two miserable courses, we only had mmeral 
water, beer and - - prayers! 



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"There was a pious uncle, Jeremias, who inspected the kitchen and spiced the food 
with prayers, looking every 10 mmutes for people to form a miuyan [minuTium of 
1 adult males required for a communal prayer], more so as it was precisely the day 
of the New Moon, which requires twice as many prayers. It was hilarious to see, 
every ten minutes, people with black scull caps running through the hall. There 
were only very few young men, because the fanatical bridegroom had not permitted 
friends of the bride to be invited, as nearly all of them were non-Jewish and he 
wanted to slay among his own. All the six young men present came from Posen. 
They were particularly ugly, they lisped and they had other ■delightful' qualities. 
All of them were fervent Zionists. 

"Suddenly at the wedding banquet, a fanatic stands up and starts to speak. *As a 
Zionist - ('silence' my father yells) - 1 express my congratulations to the bridegroom. 
We are not Germans, but in the first place Jews .' (pronounced with aplomb!). Now 
it became too much for my father, he got so angry that he turned purple-red, shouting 
through the room 'you hypocrite, go to Zion, we would be glad, this is not a rowdy 
get-together (Raikmversammhmg) here.' Uncle Siegmund starts meddling, and the 
rest of us start feeling bad. The fanatic, inspite of all the cat calls, calmly goes on. 
Father is yelling, he noisily throws the silverware on the table, we are shocked. 
Mother is nearly sitting under the table, in short - it was 'marvelous'." 

As soon as the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1 933, Willy Victor and family left German> 
and emigrated to Israel, called Palestine at the time. They lived in Ramataim near Tel Aviv, 
Willy never learned to speak Hebrew. 




, ,,^.V MEYER. .0. :u, 2. ,8., ^^^^^^^J^^^^^^^^^^ 

Peretz Eger. 

2 CLARA MEYER, bom February 18. 1853, died January 16^1929. Hanover. She marr,ed 

EduardSeuhaus bor; October 12, 1849, d,ed February 3, 1926. Hanover. 

u n 1SS4 Hanover died November 9, 1921, Dusseldorf. She 
3. roA MEYER, December 13 1854. Hanover, a.e September 2, 1891 m 

.atrted Rabb, Dr. Abraham ^^''f ;^^;,- ^^^, ^V l^^^^ro^^^^^ boolean .890 about the 
Diisseldorf. He was the provmc, a r^b^^o Dn-e o " ,,,^,^ ,^,^„^,^,„y, ^.s aunt Ida 

young children, a son and three daughters. 

Neuhaus and m her second. Dr. Carl Neuhaus. 

died January 15, 1907 in Hanover. 

6. EPHRAIM, bom about 1859, died at the age often. 

HF h '>8 19'''7 Hanover. He married 

7. SIEGMUND MEYER, born May 15, 1^61 , died \^^^ ; ' " : H^^over. Siegmund 
Anna Neufeld, bor. December 8, 1 867 ,n Be;"";,;;-'' ^J ^,3 called Doctor Siegmund 
was a laxvyer and a senator and had the ""^ °'^."-^"-"'' ,'!!'' , \^^,' son, who was a partner 
Meyer to differentiate him from his cousin Siegmund Meyer. 

at the banli. 

, „ " Annt Bex" by her nephews and nieces, boiii 

8. REBECCA MEYER, called Becca. or also Aunt be, y ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ma s 

October 3, 1862 m Hanover, died in 1954 '"England Sh w^s h _ ^^.^^^^ Escherstrasse." 

children to die. She was the author of the aforeimn on d Mc^ _^^_^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^„, 

Her firs, mamage was to Alfred Marks, Berhn. H^ ^^d att ^ ^^^^^^ 
marriage was to Theodor Steinthal. bom October 3. 1860. died 

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Her niece Kathe Saul mentions that Steinthal was a very rich, distinguished person. There 
were no children of either marriage. Becca is the author oi Memoiren aus der Escherstrass. 
(The Escherstrasse was Samuel and Lina's residence). After her first husband's death, whe; 
she was over forty already, before getting married for the second time, Becca started to stud\ 
She studied art history in Rome and eventually became an art historian. 

9. LEAH MEYER, bom June 28, 1865, died November 1, 1938, Hanover). She maiTk. 
Hennann Gompertz. bom January 4, 1848 Rheinberg, died September 28, 1911. He w;i 
much older than his wife. Hermann was a nch grain merchant. Edith Straus writes that he hai 
asthma and a big blue mark on his cheek. Leah had said, "Why do I have to marry the uglier 
man in Hanover?" 

10. ROSCHEN, bom about 1866, died at the age of one and a half. 

n. ELSE MEYER, bom February 5, 1868 in Hanover, died in August 1930 in London. Shi- 
married Siegfried Heilbut, bom in Hamburg, died June 8, 1930 in London. 

12. CRETE MEYER, Else's twin sister, bom Febmary 5. 1 868 in Hanover, died January 19, 
1 9 1 2 in Berlin. She married Hermann Jaffe, died in 1 920 in Berlin. Crete divorced her husband 
A divorce was quite unusual at the time. 

13. JACOB MEYER (known as Jim). He called himself Jacques, bom April 1 , 1 869 Hanovei, 
died in March 1947. He married his niece Lilli Wedell, his sister Ida's daughter, who was 
twenty years younger than her husband (and uncle). Lilly, bom Febmary 4, 1 889 in Diisseldort, 
died in 1942 in London, She was a pediatrician. Jacques became a director of the firm Dreyfus 
in Paris. 

14. MAX MEYER, bom December 13, 1870 in Hanover, died in March 1947 in Florence 
He married his cousin Felice Sieskind, bom October 10, 1877 in Berlin, died June 21, 192fi 
in Alfeld/Leine. Max studied art in Florence. Dr. Walther Meyer reports that Max wrote 
about Jesus and was protected by the church in Italy dunng the war. 

15. Dr. CEORG MEYER was bom in Hanover on May 9. 1 873. He was killed during WorlJ 
War 1 at the battle of Verdun, on December 15, 1916. He and his horse were hit by a shell lie 
was first buried in France and on December 3 1 , 1 9 1 6, he was reburied at the Jewish cemetci ^ 
An der Strangnede in Hanover His name is shown there on an honor tablet for the ninety-two 
Jews from Hanover who fell in WW I. This tablet still hangs in the cemetery hall Georg . 
mechanical engineer, was a head clerk at Siemens-Schuckert Works in Berlin. He was ve.v 
good looking. My mother was very fond of h.m even though she was much younger Whenev a 
she was m Berim, as a young giri, she visited him. On such a visit in 1904, when my mother 

dTsc lb h" t " ''^ '"^- "'"^' ' "^^" ' "^"'^ ^^^ to get." And then she 

Unte den I 1" n V''" '" " '^"''"" " '^'^ '''^ '""^"^ ^^^^^^er at a good restaurant on 
i ied Flon^^^^^^ s most elegant avenue, and that Georg even ordered caviar. Georg 

r wS Sh ' ^t'' '""^ ^"^"^^ '* '^'' •" P-^^' ^ ""'^ town near 

R id t eiro '^"^''"■'"-'^^' ■" '^- d^ J^n-o. She died in 1965 in Petropol.s, near 





Georg was a captain in a Bavarian field artillery regiment. He was called to arms and active 
front service immediately upon the outbreak of Worid War I. Georg was killed at the battle ot 
Verdun at the end of 1916, one day after having received the Iron Cross - First Class, tor 
braver^^ He kept a war diar^' umil the very last day of his life. The diar>' consists of twenty- 
two small volumes, handwritten in Gothic letters. These volumes were transcribed and 
typewritten by Peter Schulze in Hanover. I am in the possession of a copy of volume number 

Following are a few selected pages from this volume of Georg's war diary. They seem to me 
quite typical of the Gemian mentality and the reaction of an assimilated German Jew of that 
lime. As is known, most of the German Jews then were quite assimilated. 

"Lordon [France], July 13, 1915 

"At 9 a.m. Colonel Zimpelmann called me. [...] Then he touches for the first tirne 
the question of my religious faith, first uncomfortably and then more openly. 1 he 
cause is the question whether Sergeant Bing should be promoted to the rank ot 
officer I am in favor. Colonel Z. is against it. It is said that B. once was tactless m 
his behavior toward the colonel. As he was not promoted already m peace time, in 
spite of evident good military qualities, this kind of tactlessness must have been the 

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I have to admit that B. sometimes is lax in his conduct, but otherwise he is quite modest ;in, 

judicious. Z. will obtain information at B.'s peace regiment. 

"Z. is admonishing me expressly as a MenscK not as a superior, to avoid gathering arouiii 
me, in my regimental staff, too many Jewish sergeants. (In question are Bing. Regensburgc 
and Hofmann). This is calling the attention of other people and his own. He says he is la 
from having any antisemitic sentiment. He makes compliments to me and is very cordial, bn 
1 certainly ought to know that people often say 'where one Jew is making progress, he attraci 
other ones.' My battery staff is causing such comments. As a friend, he wishes to advise mt 
about that. Z. admits that all three of them are very efficient and that they are especialh 
capable for the battery staff, but just because of my person he recommends caution. 

"All this he expresses in such a friendly, warm way that, as a matter of fact, I feel some kind 
of gratitude in spite of the delicacy of the subject. He evidently was satisfied that I was noi 
offended and he was glad 'that the only cloud between him and me had been dispelled.* 

"I know from year-long experience how many people are thinking like Z. A change can come 
slowly only on the part of the Jews and their foes. Forcing the issue would annul the result ol 
long-time efforts [to overcome antisemitic prejudices]. In the long run. the opinion of those 
who have to be convinced must be the decisive one. If the concentration [of Jews in tht 
regiment] is calling attention - and often it does - it then has to be avoided. 

"Regensburger and Hofmann. both dashing but without good manners, have to moderate. J 
have placed a limit on them, but as to Bing. 1 do not give him up so easily and have talked to 
Z. about it. He will see what can be done." 



As incredible as it seems, in the middle of the First World War, on October 11. 1916. the 
Prussian War Mmistry - following a parliamentary motion, due to antisemitic pressure - ordered 
a census of the number of Jews serving in the army, Nachweisung der beim Heer befindlichen 
wehrpflichtigen Juden, called in short Judenzdhlung. the counting of Jews at the front. The 
purpose of this survey was to verify the percentage of Jews among the fighting troops. As a 
result of this discrimmatory measure, the hope of the German Jews of ever being considered 
as citizens enjoying the same rights in the Kaiserreich, the German Empire, was definitely 

At the end of 1916 Georg Meyer notes in his diary: 'This is happening after two years of 
important events and total dedication to our fatherland! I feel as if I just got a terrible slap in 
the face VMir ist, ah hdtte ich eben eine furchtbare Ohrfeige erhalten. ') In peacetime I 
would quit the army, but now, of course. I have to persist even more." A short lime after. 
Georg's life was sacrificed at the murderous battle of Verdun. 

Most of the 550 000 Jews living in Germany at the outbreak of the First World War had 
hoped to elimmate the last obstacles to being fully accepted into German society, by declanng 
their patriotic conviction.They had not the least doubt - just as the rest of the population - 
about the skillfully propagated he of the Geiman chancellor that Germany had become the 
victim of a hostile attack and therefore had to carrry out a just war of defense. More than ten 
thousand German Jews followed the appeal and enlisted as war volunteers, at the beginning 
of the war Out of a total of 80,000 Jewish front soldiers 12,000 sacrificed their lite for 
Germany in World War 1, amounting to over t%vo per cent of the Jewish population in Germany 
at the time. 

An interesting article, dated November 1996, which appeared in the magazine Die ZeiU 
published in Hamburg, deals with this episode. During the war,, always prevalent 
in German history, increased even more, at home as well as on the front. The Jews were 
accused of being Driickeberger, of shirking their patriotic duty m wartime. 

A paradoxical fact to illustrate this affirmation was mentioned by Walter ^f'^^^^^;^^' 
Jewish. He was the chief of the important AEG electric company founded by his father. 
During the war he was m charge of raw material supply in the War Ministiy Rathenau said in 
1916- "The greater the number of Jews who fall in the war, the more stubbornly their toes 
will [try to] prove that they all sit behind the front. The hate will double or ^^P^^^ ^f ^"^"^ 
after the war, became Foreign Minister and was assassinated in Berlin m 1922 by ultra 
nationalist circles. 

Prophetically, the organ of the Centraherein deutscher Staatshurger judischenGlaubens 
the Central Assoeiat.on ofGeraian Citizens of Jewish Fatth, -Un deulschen Reich, wrote in 
1917: "We [Jews] have before us a war after this war." 

It was the Cathohc ZaUnm, party, through the.r deputy Mathias Erzberger, that PfJ"^^^^ 
the proposal n, the Gennan parhament. the Reichstag, to undertake a census «< he army 
soldiers, separated by rehg.on. The result of this census, however, was never publ.shed, 
that the antisemitic agitators could go on propagating the he of the 'Jewish war shirkers . 

f # 


Senator y«.sr/z/-a/ Dr. Siegmund Meyer, son oi Landrabbiner Dr. Samuel E. Meyer, sent ih 

death anouncement of his brother, Dr. Georg Meyer, to the leader of the Zcntrum party Pek 

Spahn with the question; "Are you and your friends not scared of the accusations that thes 

heroes, defamed even in their death struggle, will raise as silent blood witnesses, before tli 




Dr. Siegmund Meyer not only had to lament the death of his brother. Dr. Georg, but less than 
three months later, on March 9, 1917, he also lost his son. Lieutenant Franz Meyer. Both were 
killed on the Western front. Upon the death of his brother Georg. Dr. Siegmund wrote an 
indignated letter to the commander-in-chief of the German army, Field Marshal Paul von 

In peacetime Hindenburg lived in Hanover. The Meyer family gratuitously satisfied his cigar 
needs and durmg the war my grandfather Emil also made a shipment of liquor to him at the 
headquarters, for which Hindenburg thanked him m a letter dated March 8, 1915. Hindenburg's 
wife also thanked Emil in a separate letter. Hindenburg belonged to the political nght. In 
1925 and agam in 1932 he became the elected Rcichspnisident of the Weimar republic. It 
was Hindenburg who. on the fatal day of January 30, 1933. appointed Adolf Hitler to become 
Reichskanzlcr. chancellor of the German Reidu and form a new government. Regrettably I 
do not have Dr. Siegmund's letter, but only Hindenburg's reply. Most certainly the reply was 
not drafted by Hindenburg himself, an ordinary military man, but by some assistant, as 
Hindenburg certainly did not have the intellectual capacity to write such a letter, twisting the 
facts and telling lies. Following is the translation of Hindenburg's letter to Dr. Siegmund 

Central Headquarters, December 28, 1916 


"Dear Mr. Justizrat, 

"Many thanks for your trustful letter of December 2 1 . 

"The question dealt with by you is of the competence of the Prussian War Ministry, which 
you also addressed. I myself know this case, which resulted in the census ot religious taiths 
within the army, from the newspapers only. 

"In accordance with same - if I am not mistaken - the affirmation was made in the budgetary 
committee of the Parliament that a considerable part of the Jewish population tnes to shirk 
the dangers of war, by looking for jobs behind the fighting troops, or at war societie.^For inis 
reason, some deputies, belonging to different parties, proposed a census ot the distribution ot 
the members of the various religious faiths among the fighting troops, behind the Jront and m 
the war societies. This investigation furthermore should be extended to the number ot tallen 
soldiers, the wounded and the ones that were promoted. The parliamentary committee approved 
this motion and the Minister of War declared his agreement, "in order to confront unjustitica 
attacks against the Jewish population/ Therefore the census is not meant to be an evidence 
of guih, but a justification toward our Jewish fellow-citizens. 

"m <# 


"The bitterness of your fellow-believers consequently could be du'ected against a f:,l- 
suspicion only, but not against a measure through which the accusation shall be retuled a,. 
all of you shall obtain satisfaction. Least of all by this census the memory of your brotli. 
who fell so bravely for the Emperor, the King and the Fatherland, should be stained. Indc:. 
by his heroic death he is beyond any suspicion. Honor to his memory! 

"It would be quite welcome to me should this letter contribute to your considering the measur 
in question in a more objective way and my intervention in the same as unjustified. 

'With the greatest esteem, dear Mr. Juslizrat. 1 am. 

Yours faithfully, 
[signed] von Hindenburg" 



1 JENNY MEYER married Gottfried Herzfeld. They had three sons: Rudolf, Otto and Karl. 

a) RUDOLF HERZFELD. bom September 19. 1 872 in Hanover, died March 5, 1939 in London, 
man-ied Fanny Lewisohn ( 1 882-1 974). They had three children, Edgar, Nora and Irene. 

Edear Herzfeld was bom in 1 909 in London and died in Ramat Hasharon, Israel, on December 
19 2000 He married Charlotte (Lotte) Wemer, bom 1907, a chemist by profession. They 
lived in London until some time ago when they moved to Ramat Hasharon to be near their 
daughter Ann. Seldi and I always visited these extremely nice people when we were in London. 
Their two children are Ann Naomi and Michael. 

Ann Naomi, bom December 25, 1 940 in London, married Dav.d Uss.shkin, bom m 1 935. He 
IS the grandson of the famous Ziomst leader Menahem Mendel Ussishkin. bom in 1863 m 
Dubrovno Russia, died in 1941 in Jemsalem. Ussishkin was one of the founders of the first 
modem Zionist pioneering movemem Bilu in 1882 and a vehemem opponent of the Uganda 
Project. He was a delegate to the first Zionist Congress and following ones and chairman ot 
the Keren Kayemef Le 'Israel until his death. 

Ann and David hve m Ramat Hasharon. We always visit them when we are in Israel.. David 
is a professor of archaeology. For several years, from 1 990 on, he and the British archaeologis 
John Woodhead excavated the site of the biblical city of Yezreel. Tel Yezreel, near Mount 
G.lboa, which was King Ahab and his wicked wife Jezebel's winter '^^f'^'^^^'^lZ 
Yezreel that the biblical story of Nabot's vineyard, involving Ahab, Jezebel and the prophet 
Elijah, took place. David was also excavating in Megiddo. 

Ann and David have three sons, Iddo, Yoav and Daniel. Iddo, bom August 29, J^968 mamed 
Michal Rokm, bom December 30, 1968. They have a son, Yuval, born December .1996^ 
Yoav, bom August 29, 1970, married Yfat, bom December II, 1970. Darnel was bom on 
December 5, 1973. 

M,chael Herzfeld. Edgar and Lotte's son, ,s a professor of anthropology a. "^"^f J;;™^"^''^- 

Incidentally, Michael got m touch on work related matters w,.h my son Ruben ^ ° 8^ O'^ ^^ 

who also <s a professor of anthropology, even though he d,d not know tor sure that they were 


Edgar Herzfeld's ststerNora, bom August 17, 1919 marrted Fty. Edgar's second stster Irene, 

bom November 25, 1924 maried Baxandall. 

b) OTTO HERZFELD was bom in Hanover in 1 873 and died there as a boy on July 29, 1 887. 

c) KARL HERZFELD was bom Febr^,ary 9, 1883 m Hanover ^"^^^^^l^''^'}!:^^'^^ 
Muntch. He was marned to AUce Pmkus, bom February 6, 1 889 ,n N^u^'adt^d.ed Novemb 
13, 1974 ,n They and theirtwo daughters emigrated to London ,n 1939. KaH^nd h,s 
wife returned to Gem^any about 1950. They lived then ,n Mumch. Ahce was a very good 
friend of my mother Leonie. We visited Karl and Alice in in 1963. 

1 ' • 


1 b,„e.ess of .0. ...ow-.eUeve. con^uen^y ^^^^J-^^ri^^cIt: 
suspicion only, bu, no, agamst a measure 'h^^; "J,^^^'^^ of your brothn 

by his heroic death he ,s beyond any susp.con. Honor to h,s memory! 

"„ would be quite welcome to me should this letter contribute to your constdering the measure 
il que"! ,n a more way and my mterven.ron ,n the same as unjus„f ed. 

"With the greatest esteem, dear Mr. JustizraU 1 am, 

Yours faithfully, 
[signed] von Hindenburg" 


1 lENNY MEYER married Gottfried Herzfeld. They had three sons: Rudolf. Otto and Karl. 

a1 RUDOLF HERZFELD, bom September 1 9, 1 872 in Hanover, died March 5, 1 939 in London, 
manied Fanny Lewisohn { 1 882- 1 974). They had three children, Edgar, Nora and Irene. 

Ed"ar Herzfeld was bom in 1 909 in London and died in Ramat Hasharon, Israel, on December 
19 2000. He married Charlotte (Lotte) Werner, bom 1907, a chemist by profession. They 
lived in London until some time ago when they moved to Ramat Hasharon to be near their 
daughter Ann. Seldi and I always visited these extremely nice people when we were in London. 
Their two children are Ann Naomi and Michael. 

Ann Naomi, bom December 25, 1 940 in London, married David Ussishkin, bom in 1935. He 
is the orandson of the famous Zionist leader Menahem Mendel Ussishkin. bom in 1863 in 
Dubrovno, Russia, died in 1941 in Jemsalem. Ussishkin was one of the founders of the first 
modern Zionist pioneering movement Bilu in 1882 and a vehement opponent of the Uganda 
Proiect. He was a delegate to the first Zionist Congress and following ones and chairman of 
the Keren Kayemet Le 'Israel until his death. 

Ann and David live in Ramat Hasharon. We always visit them when we are in Israel.. David 
is a professor of archaeology. For several years, from 1 990 on, he and the Bntish archaeologist 
John Woodhead excavated the site of the biblical city of Yezreel, Tel Yezreel, near Mount 
Gilboa. which was King Ahab and his wicked wife Jezebel's winter residence. It was in 
Yezreel that the biblical story of Nabof s vineyard, involving Ahab, Jezebel and the prophet 
Elijah, took place. David was also excavating in Megiddo. 

Ann and David have three sons, Iddo, Yoav and Daniel. Iddo, bom August 29, 1968 married 
Michal Rokni, bom December 30, 1968. They have a son, Yuval, bom December 22, 1996. 
Yoav. bom August 29. 1970. married Yfat, bom December 11, 1970. Daniel was bom on 
Decembers, 1973. 

Michael Herzfeld, Edgar and Lotte's son, is a professor of anthropology at Harvard University. 
Incidentally, Michael got in touch on work related matters with my son Ruben George Oliven. 
who also IS a professor of anthropology, even though he did not know for sure that they were 

Edgar Herzfeld's sister Nora, bom August 1 7, 1 9 1 9 married F17. Edgar's second sister Irene, 
'om November 25, 1924 maried Baxandall. 

b) OTTO HERZFELD was bom m Hanover in 1 873 and died there as a boy on July 29, 1 887. 

KARL HERZFELD was bom Febmarv 9, 1 883 in Hanover and died on June 1 3, 1 970 in 
Munich. He was married to Alice Pinkus, bom Febmarv 6 ' ««« - Nenstadt. died November 

13- 1974 in Munich. They and their two daughters emigrate 

^^''fe returned to Germany about 1950. They lived then in Munich. Alice was a very gooa 

inend of Tn\; mn^U^^ ^ ;„ \\i :-:..._j xy 1 A \\\r^o iti 

"iitu lu uermany aoout iv^u. iney iiveu men m iviu...v 

my mother Leonie. We visited Karl and Alice in Munich m 1963. 








X* ^■'^.. 

, . ■^^-i 


^ c ■, ,K. P,nku. were very wealthy linen manufacturers in Neustadt (now callc: 
Alice's family, the Pinkus, were ^^ry wea )^ ^^^^^^^ ^. ^ 

then also became partners of the textile works. 

AHce'sbrotherwasHansHubertPmkus.bomJuly2, 1891 m Neustadt, died February 8, 19" 
Crowborough, Sussex, England, Hans was an amateur genealogist like my mother a 
maintained correspondence about the Meyer family m 1936. As a grandson ot Josef P.nL, 
Hans became one of the owners, in the third generation, of the big linen factory. He was mair:. 
to Ilfncde Hess. She was non-Jewish, the daughter of the president of the tribunal m Sachs. 
Anhah. They were divorced. She died m the Philippines in 1933. In his second marriage 1 i.i 
married Lili Fischel. Her ambitious father turned Roman Catholic m order to become a memr t 
of the Austrian Parliamem and to make it easier for him to receive the title of nobility vo«. In i | 
first marriage Lili was the wife of Felix Schottlander. my father's cousin on his mother's ^i,: , 
When Fehx died, Lili married Hans Pinkus. The marriage was the second for both. Lili, dauiil , 
of converted Jewish parents, became a fanatical catholic. Hans and Lili had twin daugliu 
Johanna (Joimie) Hedwig and Freda Maria Pinkus. Freda was epileptic and suffered from Dow 
syndrome. She died in 1940 in Essen, and her twin sister Jennie died on January 10, 1995. 
Belfast, Northern Ireland. 

Hans, Lili and Hans' son from his first marriage, Hans-Josef, emigrated to Northern Ireland \ : 
London in 1939. Jonnie arrrived in the UK in 1940. Her sick twin sister Freda had to be left Ivu 
in Gennany in the care of her nanny. After the war, Hans went back to Germany and opeinJ 
small linen enterprise in Augsburg, but he was not very successful. In 1947 Hans left Lili -n 
went to live in London. Hethenmoved to Munich and to Crowbrough. Sussex. He lived at tlic^' 
places with Charlotte Margules nee Aschinger. She was bom in Berlin and died in New York A- 
Hans' son John informed me, "he never divorced Lili, because he did not want to offend ix: 
fervent Catholic belief, which forbade divorce." He married Charlotte only after Lili's death ; 

! recently discovered the son of his first marriage, Hans-Josef, who changed his name durn!; 
WW II to Howard John Peters. We are now corresponding with each other. He. like his tailw' 
has become the amateur genealogist of his family. John was bom on May 17 1922 in Neusi^i^l^ 
He was interned by the British in 1940 and then served in the British army during and -M 
World War II and ended with the rank of major. His mother was Hans Pinkus' first wife Elfnc^^ 
ohn was married to Marianne D. Pollack, bom on July 6, 1921 m Czechoslovakia, dieJ >' 
January 6 1983 in Lugano. They had three children. Dinah Margret, I94S-I953- Helen JuJn' 
bom 1951; and Anthony David Max. bom 1954. John now lives with his companion ^ 
IZlZd "" ^™"' ^''^ ■" Vladivostok, in their homes in Verbier and Lu,.- 

2.^CLARA MEYER and her husband Eduard Neuhaus had three children: Otto. Ernst ..'^ 


OTTO was bom in 1 874 in Hanover. He married Lotte Caspari, bom in Berlin. 

ERNST was bom on June 4, 1876. He died young, on October 15, 1898. 

ANNA, bom January 13, 1880 in Hanover, emigrated m 1935 to Palestine and in 1936 to 

Johannesburg. She married Arthur Salomon. He died in 1932. 

OTTO NEUHAUS and Lotte Caspary had three children: Margarete, died ca. 1935, Herbert 
and Karl Theodor. 

a) Herbert Neuhaus. 1 908-1 970. changed his name to Newhouse. He married Use Frank. He 
came to London in the 1930s, before his father Otto. He started a business, but later on had 
other business interests and left his firm to his father. 

Herbert and Use Newhouse had two sons, Ernest George and Anthony. Anthony committed 
suicide about 1982. 

b) Karl Theodor married Dorothy. Like his brother Herbert, he changed his name to Newhouse. 

ANNA NEUHAUS and her husband Arthur Salomon had five children: 

Minni, bom March 5, 1905, died 1930 in Hanover. 

Edith, bom January 15, 1907, married Alex Bravmann. She emigrated to Haifa. 

Heinz, married 1939 in Capetown. His son Michael Andrew Salomon was bom there on 

February 28, 1945. 

Werner and Franz. 

3. IDA MEYER and her husband Rabbi Dr. Abraham Wedell had four children, all bom in 
DiJsseldorf Crete, Hans, Use and Lilly. 

CRETE WEDELL was bom in 1877. She lived in Berlin and was very close to my mother. 
She emigrated to London in 1934 and in the fifties moved to Chicago, where she died. She 
was married to Dr. Gustav Feist, bom in Solingen. died in Wuppertal-Elberfeld. The couple 
had two children. Dr. Hans Feist, who became a lawyer (solicitor) in London, and Dr. Lore 
Feist, a sculptress. Lore married Henselmann, a successful artist. They lived in Switzerland. 
They had two daughters, the younger one bom in August 1940. 

ILSE WEDELL, bom March 15, 1886. She was a good friend of my mother's. She mamed 
Dr. Arthur Oppenheimer, bom 1 869 in Monchen-Gladbach, died November 2, 1 942 in New 
York. He was a lav^er in Dusseldorf and later in New York. They emigrated to the USA in 
1936. They had four children: Gerd. Fritz. Walter and Irene. Gerd changed his name trom 
Oppenheimer to Opton. He died in the 1980s. 

LILLY WEDELL, bom 1889, died 1942 in London. She mamed her uncle Jacob Meyer, 
called Jim, bom April I, 1869 in Hanover, died March 1947. Lilly married Jim "against her 
will." as Dr. Walther Meyer memioned. Jacob was the 1 3th child of laminihbmer Dr Samuel 
Meyer. He was twenty years older than his wife (and mece). Lilly was among ^he.*'^'/^^^" 
women m Germany to study medicine. She became a successful pediatncian in Dusseldon 
and later ,n London. The couple emigrated to London in 1936. Lilly and Jim had two sons, 
Peter and Klaus. 


A ' 



d- -I. , 



I . 

*% ' * 

\ .^ 


■' .V 

^^ *^A tn 1 nndon in 1934 and died there 

a) peer Meyer, bon. July 28, .907 ,n Hamburg, emigrated to London 

on February 6. 1958. 

u , , 18 1913 He married Barbara. He lives in London. He went to 
b) Klaus Meyer, bom July 18, 193^"^™" 
India and came to London after World War 11. 





,. «/ Hpir, onlv son and favorite child was Hans Wedell, bom on June 19, 1881, died April 1, 
tr n DO sddorf. He married Gertrud Bonhoffer, bom March 18, 1895, died Apnl 1, ,974. 
. J Mnnaed to a well-known Protestant family m the Rhmeland. Their most prominent member 
ZoZtToZn-.. a theologian. He was hanged by the Nazis during World War 11, in 
Tonn^c'ion with the failed attempt on Hitler's life on July 20, 1944. 

Hans and Gertrud had four children, all bom in Diisseldorf: 

a) Renate Wedell, bom March 19, 1920. She married minister Ernst Rocholl. bom August 10, 

1916 died April 22,1985. They have four children. 

it'sula Wedell man-ied Harald Lockley, bom July 16, 1916. They have three children. 

c) Ebetrroeorge Wedell, bom Apnl 4, 1927. He married Rosemane Winkler, bom January 
21 1920 He lives in England. They have tour children. ,■,•,, qi^ 

d) Klaus Wedell, bom November 13, 1931. He married Nina Weaver, bom August 22, 1933. 
They have two children. 

Hans who onginally was a lawyer, later on studied theology. Dunng World War II he became a 
Sr^^n minfster, ordained in the U.S.A. After the war he returned to Europe, working for the 
evangelical church, first in England and later in his hometown Dusseldort. 

Dr. Walther Meyer informed me .hat Hans converted during the First World *-. probably |o 
become an officer in the Gemian Army. Walther mentions that Hans -f" ^^^ ""'^^^^^^^^^ 
aware of his conversion when she visited him in a military hospital aiter h-; '"^ ''^ "J^f 
She noted from a sign bearing his idemificafon, attached to his bed, that he was a Protestant. 

Much earlier, however, in 1905, my mother already mentions in her diary *i>t she met her 
second cousin Hans Wedell. She was told that Hans was lacking moral P""^'P'«; "'^^, 
wanted to convert on account of his professional career - regardless o being the ^o" and grandson 
of a rabbi. Leonie asked him directly about this matter and "he denied it. In any '^='^^' '' ^;™' J^ 
was a fortunate circumstance that Rabbi Wedell, who died young, did not live to 
convert and become a Christian minister. 

In 1 995 a book was published by the Protestant church in the Rhmeland about Hans and Gertrud 
Wedell. The book is called Vom Segen des Glaubens (The blessing "^ ' l^ '^-'^^f *, , ^,, 
regrettable loss of time. Not one word is written by Hans Wedell himselt, but some chapters 
written by Gertrud, in a very amateurish way. 

R.ght m the first ehapter, about the ongm of Wedell's, the ^f^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
enors. Among others, when referring to Wedell's ancestors, they mention ^^^^^^°^"'^j^ ^.^her 
a son of Samuel Meyer and that the name of the bank was Louis Meyer ana 
mention on page 18: 

"The question he [Wedell] was facing more and niore ^^.^ 'J^^^^^^^ 

toward the Jewish wing of the Jewish-Chnstian tradition should go on d ^ ^^ ^^ 

attribute of the Jews m Germany in the integration-triendly atmospne 

the century." 

> .'V 





^ I i£.^: .-.lid. 





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4f^ ■ v<i > 

( 1^' 






u-ff ' mother Hedwig, as depicted in this 
Dis,«s,mg,s the personalty of Gern^dBon^^^^^^^^^.a.M^^^ 

She wanted to seek refuge tor herself ^'nd *e » ^^^ ^^^^^^.^^ ^„, „^, 

place. When they arrwed there, her m^^^JJ^Valed 1 stared at her and satd to the ch.ldren, 

Lnd and shouted: •Out, out!' [...] ^^"-^ ^ '^f ^^ :,g d,d not want to be disturbed ,n 

'Let's goi' From the beginning of the Nazi regime, ne g 

her way of hving and had broken off all family ties. 

The culminating point of this brochure can be found on page 182: 
„ u, iiiH.^nnAnnll 1%4( 1 The trauma ofanti-Jewish propaganda was Still toM 
S;S:S:y;5e oJ^piie ^o make it feasible] to mention his Jewish or.. 
[at the funeral]." 

I, is a shame mdced thai the evangelical church of the Rhineland, nearly twenty years after 
the fall of the "Third Reich," did not dare to mention at the funeral that their minister Hans 
Wedell was bom a Jew and was the son and grandson of a rabbi! 

4. JOHANNK MEYER and her first husband Albert Neuhaus had three sons, Hans, Fru? 
and Paul. 

HANS NEUHAUS was bom in 1880 in St. Petersburg. He married Amy Haas. He died m a 
plane crash in 1935. He lived in South Africa and worked with gold mines. He was very riui 
Hans and Amy had two daughters. Marjone and Molly (Muriel), and a son John. The name o 
Marjorie's daughter is Penelope. John married Eleanor Hestreth. He died in the 1980s. 

FRITZ NEUHAUS was bom in 1883 in St. Petersburg. He changed his name to Fredei'K' 
Newhouse and converted. He was an electrical engineer. He worked with power plants m 
Africa. Edith Straus mentions that he was called "His Excellency of the Nile." 

PAUL NEUHAUS. bom May 8. 1886 in Riga, died in 1933 in London. He also changed h''^ 
name to Newhouse. He had a daughter from his first mamage and two sons. 

4a. JOHANNE MEYER and her second husband Carl Neuhaus had no children. 

5. EMMA (EDEL) MEYER and her husband Abraham Seligmann had five children: Arthur. 
Paul, Leo. Kathe and Lone. 

ARTHUR SELIGMANN, bom November 12. 1881 in Hanover, died in the 1960s in Rio ^' 
Janeiro. He emigrated to Para in Brazil as early as 1908. In 1916 he moved from there to 1^'^^ 
de Janeiro, where he had an nnport-exporl business. He was divorced from his tirst wife Lily 
Marie, who refused to follow him to Brazil. He later married Anita Zoch in Brazil, who 
dominated him. He had a big tarm near Rio de Janeiro 


f Iv emmrated to Brazil on the SS Monte Paschoal m March 1939, he came to the 
When our family emi^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ Brazilian maritime police, however, 

pier in Rio to see my moi c ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

did not permit him °J«^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^,^„, ,, immigration visa for my future wife Seldi. When 
Kio m 1940, when ' - ^ ^^^^^^^ London in 1941, she was received by Adolf Herzfeld, a 
she amved in ^'Y^ /' -^.,j ^ho worked at Arthur Seligmann'sf.mi and helped her around, 
g^,dson ot ^^^^^^^^^ ^f p,^,g,ese. She stayed a day at Arthur's farm dunng her short 

:;'; tin iLing for Pono Alegre on a coastal steamer. 

u ^ Fphniarv 11 1883 He was killed between March 28 and 30, 
PAUL SELIGMANN was bo^Febra^^^^^^^^^^ 


Paul and Anna had two dautWers^ ' 2 1 , 1 898 in Thorn. 

January 9. 1914. Irene married Hans bick, oom rtpn, 

T- u r.,A 1899 Hied October 28, 1938. He went to Brazil in 1922 

'T ?i«l.b board IrdLcto'rLf the local B'nai B'rith chapter ,n Rio. He was 
irSela':^™ My aun, Edith Straus mentioned that he was gay. 
KATHE (KATHERINE, SHUOMANN, born M^ 8. 1 887 -n Ha _,ea S.. S^auL She 
died in Petropolis near R.o de Janeiro in the ''^^O^p''^^ "' ^ r,„ T^ey organized five 
Kathe and her husband operated a boardinghous J "PJ^^'^ ^f^^, „, ,,4 f„e children, 
identical family albums with pictures, g^l^^^^^f^'^'J^^.h; obtained from her and later 

Kathe gathered very valuable genealogical information, wnicn 

from her daughter Hete Langenbach, Rio de 


Paul, all bom in Aachen, Germany. 

a) Gerda, bom in 1912, died in Sao Paulo. She married ^f °'';j; J^f ^^ '^aJanl M^rcd 

b) Hilde, bom in 1914, married Edmund Bruch, She has two children. Myria 
Hilde and both her children live m Beer Sheva, Israel. c^,. r.onzalo Brazil. 

e) Elisabeth, bom 1915, married Arnold Neufeld. They ''^^ '"f ° ^'^^^'^^^'...d. Hete lives in 
d) Hete (Hedwig Sophie), bom 1919, married Fntz Langenbach, who is deceas 

Rio de Janeiro. 

Heic has two children. Miguel and Suzana. Hanohter Raquel. bom m 

M.guel. bom in 1945, married Elsa Maria de Castro. They have 


Suzana, bom in 1947, is not married. . ^^Riode Janeiro. He married 

e) Werner in 1921. is an architect. He lives m Niteroi "^^^ _^ ^^^ p.edenc. 
G.oconda. They have a daughter Gabnela and two grandchildren, btep 

J Or Helmut Bacherer, 
LOTTE (UNA CHARLOTTE), born March 29, 1898 in Hanover^m^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

bom September 19, 1895 in Pforzheim, died March -5,19- i ^^^^.^^ ^^ profession. Her 
Rio de Janeiro in 1933. She lives in Theresopolis near Rio. i^ne i ^ 
103^^' birthday occurred in March 2001 . 

Walther Franz, Fritz 
7. Dr. SIEGMUND MEYER and his wife Amia Neufeld had four sons, 
and Heinz, all bom in Hanover. 

j"^ »; ' ' .'1..' ^-^^ ' 

fA^ J- ^ Fphiirarv 7. 1974 in Bad 

1957 second edition, is depositea ai 
text and 30 pages ofsources and names. 

Uphra,m Meyer, my greal-great-grandparents. 

My .o,her .a.,a.ed .n, geneaU^c. „on^^^ 

T ,™ 1 «, 1 XS3 He was a lieutenant dunng World War 1 . 1 U 
I-RANZ Ml- YER was bom on January 1 5, 18»3. Me was 
was killed at the Western Front on March 9, 1917, 

FRITZ MEYER was bom on Aprd 19. 18X5. He emtgrated to Switzerland. 
lie emigrated to England and returned to Hanover after the end ot World War 11, 

9. LEAH MEYER and her husband Hemrann Gompertz had two sons, Fntz and Hans, both 
bonun Hanover. 

rRlT7GOMPrRTZ.bomin 18S9. died August 27, 1892 at the age of three. 
1 1 ANS CiOMPLRTZ was bom on September 26. 1 892. He married Olga Schwarzmann, bom 
in Russia. She converted from the Jewish faith and became a Christian. Hans emigrated to 
Holland in 1936 and later, in 1940, to Rio de Janeiro. 

n. ELSE MEM:R and her husband Siegfried Heilbut had four children, all bom in London 
Ail Hcilbuts arc deceased now. 

LINA Hl'.ll.BlJT. She died in London in 1917. 

MAX HEILBUT. He married Winnie Fontheim. 
LESLIL IIEILBUT, bom in 1908. died about 1960. 

12. GRETE MEYER and her husband Hermann Jaffe had two children: 
ELSE JAFFE. bom in 1892 in Berlin. She died in London after World War 11. 
LUDWIG JAFFE was bom April 18, 1898 in Berlin. He committed suicide. 

n. JACOB MEYER (called Jim) married his niece Lilli Wedell, daughter of Ida Meyer. 

,,,„rforma.ionregard,ngthecoup.e-soffspring, see Lilly Wedel.,underno.3ofthislist:lda 


M.X MEYER married his cousin Felice Sieskind. The couple had three children: Lina 
ItaS'p-ht and Irene, all born in AUeld/Leine. 

;-S?SS,'l!r5u;'26. 190:. died August 27, 1925 ,n Alfeld/Leine. He 

"^""fuPVFR (called Rem) was borrr about 1907, She married John McLean of Coll. a 
SlSnScSSLLuple had three daughters: 

a) Felice, bom November 4. 1930 mAlfeld/Leine. 

;Wanet.bomApn. 29. .932 in Hanover^ 
ciEvelyne. bom November 11. 1937 m Berim, 

and Klaus Ulnch. 

u fi iQOR in Berlin and died in 1965 in Rio deJanei- 

m Brazil. 

KLAUS ULRICH MEYER (called ^^"fl^^'y' ^fZTJn'^^^^ 

died on July 2, 1 997 in Sao Paulo. Brazil. He mairied RvUMj- ^^, ^, ,,,, ^e and his 

died in 1990 ,n Sao Paulo. Ulnch was a -^.^h-'-'/j^^^^f^J'^here their two children were 
wife emigrated to Brazil. They lived first -" ^^^ ^^ ^^"^ ™ ,„ .^e mountains, which has 
bom. Later they moved to Petropol.s near ^'°''~^l,J,^ gao Paulo where their son 
„ bener climate. A few years ago. Ulnch and his -"^'^j^"^ ,„^ .^e Aged (Soaedade 
Ronaldo lives. Ulnch lived m Sao Paulo at the G^nri^n Horn 
Beneficente Alema, until his death. Ulnch and Irene had two 

■ .. T ,ir„ She is a graphic designer and art 
a) Georgina Meyer, bom August 6, 1943 m R.o de Janeiro. She^^^ J ^V ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 
educator. She married Michael DiiUmann. a German w™ ^^^^ ^^^.^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ bom on 
she later divorced. The family resided in Bonn. <-'^nTiany, Rebecca Meyer, wife ot 

December 7, 1979. Her name is Rebekka. in honor ol her ^^^^^^^^ ^.^ ^^^^^ ^^^^g.^^ 
Ephraim Meyer, as well as her grandfather's sister Keoeccc ^^^^^^ Rebekka. who is 

and Rebekka live in Israel since 1994, Georgina lives m ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ ,^^^ ;„ 
specialized in the care of horses, works at a horse-breeding ^ ^eluding a recent one 

1995. Georgina had various group and individual exhibitions ^^^ ^^^^^^^ illustrated by her 
Ml Tel Aviv. In August 2000 she published a short "^a™>^_^nP ' ^^ ^^^^ j^^,,,, roots." 
woodcuts, called Zwiick zu den jiidischen Wuneln, or 

7 ,047 m Rio de Janeiro), lives in Sao 
b) Ronaldo Meyer (called Ronny). bom January /. i^ daughters, both bom in Sao 

Paulo. He is married to Alice K. Comparato. They have ^^ ^^^^ 

Paulo: Joana, bom November 26, 1975 and Rita, bom Uctoo 

'■>S : 



98 ^„ ,„es in London. Samuel's great-grandson, 

n , for Klaus Meyer, Samuel's grandson, who 1 ve j^,,,„dant by the name ot 


EMIL LOUIS MEYER - (1853-1926) 

My maternal grandfather 

my aunt Edith, bom in 1888. 


very mtelUgent and continued h.s ^^^^^-^^^^'^^l^lt, u.e bank for over f,fy 
v.a.l to take hmr into his bank. This happened m 1871. bm.i 
years, just as his father Louis did before him. 

• in ,he artillery My grandmother Helene stated 
I 1873/74 Emil did voluntary military service '" *^J." "f^'^ J ° become a commissioned 
ti,at Emil was an excellent equestrian and a good ^'"^'; ,', .^^^,,,5^,, according to Helene. 
officer in the army, but this did not happen due to nscnes i ^^ ..^^^^^.^ 

Later on Emil bought a horse and then a carnage, which he sold 
both a wife and a carriage were too expensive. 

Vi'lp*; He was an impetuous 

Emil always had a hobby, whether bicyling, photography ""'^^^^"^^ ^j^^^^ ^ad an open house, 

man, as his father had been, but he was also kind and ctian ' ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ i^st moment a 

full of guests, as his parents' house had been. Sometimes ii pi^^ ^_^^^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^ -^ ^^^^ 

guest advised that for one reason or another he could not come ^^ ^^^ dinnertable. My 

out that without this invited guest there would be ^^"^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Landrabbiner Samuel's 
grandparents must have been quite superstitious, because ^ mother's age, once told 

granddaughter who lived with her parents nearby and was e > ^^^^ ^^As 

me that as a young girl she was called at the last momen to come 
happened, so that there would be fourteen people at the tab e. 

In 1 895, after his father Louis' death, Emil, his wife Helene ^"^ ^[''''^''baruihented from his 
Edith, moved to the old house at Calenbergerstrasse 43, ^^*^" ^^^ ^^ Luisenstrasse 9. On 
father. At the same time, the bank moved from there to larger q _ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ 
the ground floor of the old house on Calenbergerstrasse remainc 






..'r "Tin^t" ^Hel h^aXued the house on 
imes, shesaid. In IS^^.^ tmii anunc f,,wi nnis Then one day Helene proposed 


something qune extravagant. ^^' — '^/^" ,„d it had impressed her very mu.h 

=rLt=;r -ir:rx" «— ^',. .... «...- - 

building such a tennis court. 

Finallv Hclene called an expert from Berlin, four hours away by train. The expert made h.s 
S ,fo n d ook measurements. The court .ouM extend to the street wall rn the sou hen, 
part e garden. Helene said, "The street wall^ Bu, thafs where the b,g pear tree is >o 
he pear tree has to be removed. Otherwise there will not be enough room rephed .V 
expert. Hclene did not want to sacrifice the old tree, and proposed to reduce the lateral mar. n. 
ofthe tennis court. 

"That's not feasible at all," said the expert from Berlin ;The British Lawn Tennis Associain -n 
has established strict rules as to the minimum court size for a proper game. In the light ^ 
this argument. Helene was willing to consent. But at this moment, her old cook and hot.^. 
factotum Minna, who was respected by the entire family, interrupted. As always during 
important discussions, she had been listening behind the door. She protested vehementl) 
against the proposed felling ofthe pear tree. "Every year I make more than fifty pounds o\ 
Hen- Gehcinvais lavorite pear compote. This kind of pear does not exist any more. Tiie 
removal ofthe tree is completely out ofthe question." 

Hclene trembled whenever her cook got angr\' and the expert wanted to catch his night train, 
so a compromise was made. The tree remained and the margin of one side ofthe court was 
not much more than half a meter. Now the construction could start. The expert sent wagonloatis 
of special earth and gravel from Berlin. Emil complained about the high cost and the workmen 
laughed and said that the same material could be easily obtained at any construction site m 

At long last the court was completed and the game could start. On that great day Helene and 
her sister-in-law (iulta appeared, fashionably dressed in long blue skirts, white blouses with 
stitV whalebone collars, whalebone corsets, various petticoats, and brown gymnastic shoes. 
'The whales did not have a good time." my mother remarks. Two neighborhood youngsteis 
were hired as ball boys. Helene's daughters, my mother Leonie and her sister Edith, one ol 
their cousins, and a tennis teacher who was the solo ballet dancer ofthe local opera also 
showed up. The teacher had seen the game at Interlaken and had held a racket in her hands 
there, so she lell wholly eompelem. Emil commented that "being a dancer she certainly 
must understand something about running and jumping." 

Twehe red balls were taken out of a box and the teacher said. "Now you have to try to hit the 
ball in order to get u to the other side." But she did not explain how to do that. She left this uP 


d es The teacher watched for awhile, as the ladies tried in vain to follow her 
*° t^ ns She then collected six marks for the lesson and left. This went on for a few 
""'V The'teacher came, told the ladies whereto to hit the ball, collected her fee and then 
*^' one The sisters-in-law patiently threw the balls at one another. Some baUs nearly hit 
the sky but seldom the opposite field. 

r. .duallv all the neighborhood youngsters gathered to watch "the old ladies playing with toy 
K.:, as one ofthe brats once shouted. The "old ladies" were only years old, but 
th . was considered "old" by the children, and the two ladies were quite off-ended. The teacher 
y T.nPhtlem how to keep score, and after she left, Helene and Gutta spent part of the 
'L^ofd^^^^^^^^^^ if one of them occasionally hit the ball to the other ofthe 

court. Sometimes the ball boys also had to be the referees. 

One day Helene ran mto the mentioned pear tree and spramed her ankle. When she recovered 
SiTconfessed to Em.l that she would rather quit playing tennis, saying ^T can quarrel with 
Sua without running and sweating." After that, the temiis couit stood idle for ten years, 
until my mother Leonie started to play. 

I have in my possession a photo of my grandfather Emil, sitting on a chair on the temus court 
Illy dressed up, weanng a tie, waistcoat, long-ta.led jacket and leather shoes. Both hs arms 
are raised and he is holding a tenms racket rn his right hand and a temi.s ball m h.s left. 


I f 

Emil "playing tennis" at the court on Calenberger Strasse in 1 909 



tells is called "How my mother was finally converted to 
Another short story my mother ^^^ ^^^ ^^ daughters came back from vacation b 

sports." Leonie reports that when n ^.^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^-j ^^ ^^^^ ^j^j-^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

Nordemey, Gemiany m the — ^ ° ^^ ,^^ ^^^.^and, "For heaver^'s sake, En.l, .hat 


Xs^lr h^band's. she hired two b.cycle teachers - one to run on the eft . f b 
bJandtheotheronthehght.Lateron,thetwoteacherscycledbes.deher-o^^^^^^^^^^ s^ 

- to keep her &om falling. Thus, the worst thai could happen to her was to fall on l ot her 

teachers' shoulders, rather than on the ground. 

Enul and Helene had a horse carriage with a coachman until 1909. From that yea. n they 

owned a convertible car with a uniformed chauffeur, which was the fashion then, .. auni 

Edith was one of the first women in Hanover, if not the first one, to drive a car. ' tie my 
mother Leonie preferred horseriding. 



y 103 


X, nHnnrents and their two daughters used to travel frequently to Marienbad. a popular spa. 
My grandparen^ ana ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ grandfather wanted to take h,s family to Pans. Someone 

aswascustornan^u^ that it was difficult to find accomodations at a first-class hotel at that time 
must have told h,m tha u ^^ ^^^ ^.^^^_ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

°'^":,- nfrf m P i eq" s - a r^s^ for himself and h,s fam,ly. in the following 

r m an no'-t e,^e two double bedrooms, with a view on Boulevard des Capucmes. even 
.fevc, meanmg ^reserve ^^^.^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^_ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^,^^, 

l:r,.l:::■an'd^nstrd .he famny ,n tw. splend.d apartments on the first floor 
enonno^s rooms, bathrooms, etc., very high priced, of course. 



would have liked to mmgle w,th the people but P^P^ ^;™ '"J \ ^^^ ,e 

this commotion." 

Describing one of the outings m Pans, my mother ment.on. --Soon m f.her bee- 
fed up with the busy movement on the streets. He .s always afratd ot contact wun 
people, so that's why we returned to our hotel." 


there is a story about a garden restaurant in a Uttle forest on '^e "^'^kirts^of J^nov^^^^^^^^^^^ 
restaurant owner was a notorious antisemite. He had attauhea a g ^^^^ ^^^ ^.^ ^.^^^.^^ 

garden: Judcn imerwimschl (Jews not wanted). Upon hearing oi tn , ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

decided to teach the owner a lesson. Emil gathered h>s '^^''>,'7,^'''L,he most expensive 
them went to the restaurant on Sunday at noon. Em.l ordered the best food and 
drinks for all of his guests. 

But after the waiters brought the food and drinks, Emil - as had ^f^^^^^l^"^'^^^^^^ ^^,, j^^ger - 

turned around and read the sign aloud and shouted, "Helene, we ca . ^^^.^^'^ touched 

Jews are not wanted." And promptly the whole party stood up ana leii ^^_^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ 

any of the food and beverages. Wlien the restaurant owner saw tne ^^^.^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^^^^ 

after them, afraid of a substamial loss, since the food had been P^^P ^^^^ ^^,^^-^^ y^hen 

opened. He asked Emil and the family what had happened and vvii> y^^ ^^^_^ ^^ ^.^ ^^^^ 

Emil explained the reason, the owner said that the sign was not mc ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

and begged him to stay. But all his elTorts were in vain and the emir p 

the stor\ appeared in the local newspaper. 

, u n-i I can still remember this patrician 
Later on Emil and his family moved to Lange Laube -.->■ i ^^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^j^g ^oom. 

house with the kitchen in the basement, a ground fioor with a dining 

^^^ . . ,,H hedrooms and a third floor with maids' rooms and m 

stuffed head. 

brass rods. The banisters were ^'--l-^J.^tte public pissoirs. This in,pressed n,e 
chest and a toilet w,th a white unnal. just hke the «"«'"? ^ q^^^ , |„^.^,j 

ver>^ much whenever 1 visited my S;-jP-"^J,f ~ "fat^^y and s'e rvants gathccd 

in order to open the door. 

The food was prepared in the kitchen, which was in the basement. It was carried to the upper 
noors at mealtLs by means of a dumbwaiter, several shelves on food and d.l . 
were placed in the kitchen. The food was then Ufted up. taken out hot and served b> „k 
housemaid. 1 had never seen such a thing before and 1 was quite impressed. 

After breakfast, my grandmother would sit in an armchair standing on an elevated plattom, 
in the sitting room, looking out the window by means of a "spy"', which was a mirror attached 
to the outside wall of the house. The mirror was positioned at such an angle that mv 
grandmother could view the entire long street without being seen. Thus she always was aun . 
of everything that happened in the neighborhood. Such devices were common in the hou a. 
of the rich, who could in this way avoid hanging out the window, as poor people use to .In 
who olten place a pillow under their elbows to watch the passersby more comfortably. 

Then the cook Minna Salomon, called Mienchen. would come up from the kitchen to discuss 
the daily menu with my grandmother. Minna was a Jewish orphan. She was my grandparents 
cook for over forty years. My mother wrote of her, "She ruled the kitchen and part of ih^ 
household." Minna was short and not too beautiful, but she was very loyal. When Helene 
later auctioned off the household in 1934 and moved to our apartment in Berlin, Minna 
moved to the Jewish Home for the Aged in Hanover at Helene's lifelong expense. Later on, 
during the war. the Nazis deported all the residents in the home, and the poor old cook Minna 
perished in the Holocaust. 



f mv first memories dates back to 1 923 when 1 was five years old. It was Emil's seventieth 
r"ld v for which our family traveled from Berlin to Hanover. At the birthday party - at 
rehire were many guests - my sister Suse (Susanne) and 1 appeared in burlap bags. Suse 
^^■'iV/? bin ikr Zuckex. 1 said Ich bin das Salz. Suse went on: Ich gratuUert. 1 said kh 
^I'' Ills (I am the sugar— 1 am the salt— Congratulations— The same). In German this 
\ of course. The reason for this skit was that Ephraim Meyer & Sohn had big investments 
^ Te^Neuwerk Sugar-Factory in Gehrden near Hanover as well as in the Egestorff Salt- 
Works (later Kalichemie A.G. ). in Nienburg. Emil, like his father Louis before him. belonged 
to'ihe supervisory board of both companies. 

On the same date May 5. 1923. a separate celebration of Emil's sevemieth birthday took 
nlace at the bank attended by govemmem officials, business friends and bank employees. 
The thirteen industrial firms of which Emil was a supervisory board member, presented him 
with "an oak chest of great artistic value with views of these factories." Emil placed this 
chest on the landing of his residence, replacing a red plush sofa that stood there before, about 
which my mother has written a funny short story. 

On this occasion Emil donated five million marks to the bank employees' benefit fund. He 
also donated one million marks each to the Ruhr assistance, the small pensioners tund, the 
fund for the Hanover Poor and to the Jewish Community. In addition, he donated half a 
million marks to the Jewish Hospital. This happened during Gemiany 's penod o^ h>Tennflation 
and these amoums represemed inflated money. Inflation, however, had not reached its peak 
vet. This would only happen several momhs later, on November 20, 192.. when one mark 
Reached the incredible value of (100 [U.S.] billion) Papiermark and one 
dollar 4,200.000,000.000 (4200 [U.S.] billion) Papiermark. 

Another of my childhood memories was an event some time later, shortly before the peak of 
milation. In October 1923 my grandfather came to visit us in Berlin and my mother ana i 
went to see him at his hotel. As mv mother tells it in her diary, on this occasion Em,l gave me 
a present often million marks. He thought that this was a very generous gift to his gran*^^^ _ 
1. a five-year-old. told h.m. however, -Grandpa, this money is worth halt ^pjenmg only n^ 
enough to buy me a bonbon." Emil could not cope any more with ^he ternb e e.onorni^^ 
situation caused by the galopping inflation. He was already quite frail at the end ot t^iai yea 
.nd shortly after, in March 1924, he had a stroke. He sutTered for weeks and the iamily was 
not sure he would survive. But then he gradually recovered. 

Fmil was a member of the Chamber of Commerce from 1 897 on. In 1910 he became^an 
honorary treasurer of this institution; in 1910. its second vice presidem, and its 
1914. He played a leading role in the economic life of Hanover, since EP^"';^^^^, 
Sohn was one of the most distinguished banks in town. He was a member ot Dotn ^^^^^^ ^^ 
Committee of the Reichsbank for the province of Hanover and the ^^""^'/!' .0^^5543 
Gemian Banks and Banking Trade, in Berlin. In 1 897 he was appointed by the king ^^^^^_^^^ 
etc., honorarv deputv commercial judge and in 1 900, honorary ^^"^"'""[''^ -'"^'^^^u., of the 
at this post umil 19i5. On his seventieth birthday he also became an honorary men 

Polytechnic of Hanover 

Entil Meyer was the chairman of the supervisory board (Ivrsiizender des Aufsichtsrat) 

106 ,^r^vnftlieEt;estorff Salt-Works and 

HannoverscheWaggonfabrik A.G. (makers otr^n.^^^^^ ^^p^^,^ ^^ . ^^^^ 

Chemical Factories: the Neuwcrk S^g^'"^^;; 7 .'^^,,^^,t Works. He also belonged In 
Hanover Real Estate A.G.; and the B-ienburg Po. land ™ ^^^ .^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

the supervisory board of the Lmdener Brewery ^'^^ ^^^j^,,. Construction Work.. 

Glass Works; Bcnnigsen Sugar-Factory ^'^ ."^^ ^and A.G. He had already 

Braunschweig-Hanover Mongage Bank, dh^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^,^ ^^^ 

inherited some of these positions from his tather Loms, wnu 
close cooperation with, these enterprises. 

In 1 8QS shortly after [.ouis' death, the bank moved into its new premises, which had ju^ 
be n bull cent ally located downtown, at Luisenstrasse 9. in the developmg center of tow, 
n he central railway station, "in consideration of our clients and the changed trt, 
conditions." 11 was a beautiful bank building wUh modem burglar- and hreproot steel vaul. 
and safe-deposits rented out for keeping valuables, Peter Schuize mentions in his manuscrii 
"History significance and end of the Hanover banking establishment Ephraim Meyer & Sohn 
that in 1 91 2 besides its partners, the bank had five head clerks, three managers, tifty cler^ 
and. in addition, eight messengers and office boys. The building was destroyed dunng Worl 
War 11. The ground lloor of the old house at Calenbergerslrasse 43 remained as a branc 
olTice of the bank only. 

According to Julius Blanck in "The banking and stock exchange system in the city of Hanover" 
Hanover 1926 - as cited by Peter Schulze - in the 1920s, "the banking establishment Ephraii 
Meyer & Sohn was the first bank of the province of Hanover." 

The bank's new main ofTicc ai I,mM.nMr.issi 'J 



1007 during the visit to Hanover of Emperor Wilhelm II. who was also king of Prussia. 
F 1 obtained the title Kommcrzienral (Councilor of Commerce). However, his great ambition 
, , ^Q become Geheimer Kommerzienrat (Privy Councilor of Commerce), or short, Geheimrai 
(Pr^vy Councilor), a much superior title, the same one his father Louis held before him. 
A -wording to the prevailing regulations, a person could obtain the title Geheimer 
Kommerzienrat only after at least ten years had elapsed since he had obtained the title 
Kommerzienna. Emil. however, did not want to wail so long and he did everything possible 
to shorten the waiting time. 

In Germany's hierarchical society, and especially in Prussia, nothing counted more than a 
title Jews in Germanv could not obtain the hereditary nobility (the title "vow"'). Therefore 
the prominent Jewish bankers and businessmen coveted the non-hereditary titles 
Kommerzienrat and the much superior one. Geheimer Kommerzienrai. These titles gave the 
bearer much status and recognition. They were a great honor and a sign of achieved wealth, 
findoubtedly this must have been the reason why my grandfather Emil pursued the title 
Geheimer Kommerzienrai with such energy and tenacity, willing to pay for its obtention 
considerable amounts of money in the form of donations and subventions. 

From the historian of the Jewish community in Hanover, Peter Schulze. I obtained copies 
from Hanover-s Municipal Archives (formerly State .Archives) of the whole voluminous secret 
documentation dating back from 1912 to 1918, regarding EmiPs obtention of the coveted 
title It was not an easy enterprise indeed, but a long and difficult process. First the police 
president had to submit a report to the governor of the province of Hanover regarding the 
personality of Emil L. Meyer and his business situation. The governor then had to submit the 
petition to the minister of commerce and trade in Berlin, etc. 

From one of these detailed reports made bv Hanover's state governor (Regierungsprasident) 
m 1914, we learn that Emil's hank was among the most important establishments in Hanover 
and that its yearly turnover amounted to 1,000.000.000 (one billion marks). The governor 
further mentions in his report in 1914 that Emil was paying taxes on a personal fortune ot 
5,876,000 marks and that his yearly income amounted to 332.400 marks. 

The governor's report also states that Emil was a member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for 
the Development of Sciences and of the Crown Princess Caecilie Foundation, as well as 
treasurer of the Viktoria-Luise Foundation, and that he made a donation ot 1 50.000 marks to 
' this foundation, and placing at its disposal a vearlv contribution of 5000 marks during ten 
years. The report further mentions that Emil contributed 3000 marks to the Crown Princess 
Caecilie Foundation and 5000 marks to the Patriotic Warrior Association Hanover-Linden 
which Emil belonged since 1 874. Furthermore, according to the same report Emil ^^^"™" ^ 
nearly amoums of 1200 marks to the Poor People's Administration and 1800 marks to m 
^>nagogue Community. Regarding EmiPs political convictions, the state governor remarKS 
■Meyer belongs to the National-Liberal Party; however, politically, he does not declare himsei 
(haisich indes politisch nicht bemerkbar gemacht)" 

Actually. Emil was one of the biggest taxpaN ers in Hanover This is mentioned by the Hanover 
Chamber of Commerce in its petition to the Royal Government of Hanover, date 






, ,n nbnin the title. Emi! was a very rich man indeed, Thi 
in. Emirs renewed ^^^^^^^^^^^f' ^,^^ent authorities tried to - or in a way aciuall 

a4iv some of the government 


cenainly was the reason why '"^^l"'' J ^^^ ^j^^ so much desired title. With a promise of 

d.d - extort him in connection «^ ^ ^^^^^j_ .^ev made him pay dearly. He had to ,re ■ 
abbreviating the required ten-year waitmgpeno . _ ^, ^^ ^u„„u._ _.. 

substantial economic help to the ti 
(Hamhverkskanwm) Plate and als 

abbreviating the required |^"^";^ j^^,, ,,i,ed president of the Chamber of Trade 
substantial economic '-l^^^jj^^;;^ ^^ J^^er official person, Geheimrat Michael,. 

shammer) f late auu ^^^.^ihution of ^000 marks, during ten vears. ir 

, he promised to pay a year y contribution ot^^^^^_^^^ ^^^^^ ,,,J^,,,, , v.kto. 
he 1 50.000 marks he had paid aln 
uiise was the wife of Emperor Wilhelm U). 

Hiuh government officials had promised Emil that the waiting time for his obtaining the tul. 
3d excX^^^^ be shortened; first they promised by two years, then by jus one year 

eL g this matter, was adamant. The minimum waiting time, he insisted, was ten years. 
Em was quite disappointed and wanted to stop the yearly donation to the Viktor.a-Luise 
Foundation and the financial support of Plate and Michaelis. The ministry' director thereupon 
threatened him, in a veiled way. writing him that he would have to report such a step ' to his 
Majesty," as well as to the minister, the state governor and other high authorities. 

Some time later, the First World War broke out, during which Emil contributed, among other 
donations, an amoum of 50.000 marks to the Red Cross and to other w ar purposes, besides an 
amount of 15.000 marks for poor war widows and orphans. The minister, receiving new and 
insistent requests from the state governor and also from the Chamber of Commerce, again 
denied the concession of the title, informing that during the war such titles could not be 

Finally, after a long fight and after more than ten years had elapsed since Emil had obtained 
the thle Kommerzienrat, in May 1 9 1 8 the title Geheimer Kommerzienrat, which he had longed 
forsomuch, was bestowed on him by "The King of Prussia, etc." Wilhelm II. Consequenll). 
from May 1918 on. my grandfather Emil was addressed "Herr Geheimrat " '}\xsi as his father 
Louis before him. and my grandmother Helene "Fran Geheimral" (as usual in Germany. 
where the wives are also addressed by the rank or title of their husbands). The oftlcial document 
with the king's signature was sent by the Minister of Commerce and Trade to the state governor 
of Hanover with the request to hand it over to Emil "with my compliments, after the amouni 
of 5000 marks, necessary for the issuance of the document'and affixing the due stamp. ii3^ 
been collected from same." 

My grandfather Emil died on May 9, 1926. after having suffered very much since his stroke 
in 1924. He was buried at the Jewish cemeten' An der Strangriede in Hanover. His tomb and 
tombstone are well preserved. The empty space next to his grave had been reserved for his 
dear wite. Helene. to whom he had been happily married for over forty years. But destiny - ot 

Zr. Z u rf '" ^"^^ ^^^'"^^ ■ ^^P^-^^d them in death. Helene died sixteen 
years later, on May 1 0. 1 942. in Basel. Switzerland, and is buried there at the Jewish cemete. 





/.:_... ./ L.,« irf^ii^ ^.^.-..^ ^yi V •^-*",A^ /^ 

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Patent granting Emil L Meyer the title "Geheimer Kommerzienrat ' 
(Privy Councilor of Commerce) 

tniil L. Meyer's tomb in Hanover 

Helene Meyer-srombm Basel, Sw..zcrland 

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When Emirs father Louis died in 1894. the partners of the bank at tha time were I o,. 
nephew Eduard Spiegelberg. a very capable person, and Louis sons Emil and S.egmund, I,, 
1910 Eduard the senior partner at the time, died and his son John succeeded him. becoming 
a junior partner Emil then became the senior partner. In 1922 Siegmund died and his son 
Erich Meyer entered the bank as a junior partner. In March 1 924 Emil suttered a stroke .,i,J. 
unfortunately, he then was obliged to withdraw more and more trom active participation m 
the business and administration of the bank. 

My mother Leonie. EmiLs daughter, was very gifted in business. It was her strong wish to 
join the bank. She writes in her diar\ from hindsight, in her typical candid way: "Erich [Meyer) 
was always dumb. They never should have entrusted him with a banking establishment, Bui 
when L the only capable one. wanted to enter the bank. 1 was told "Girls don"t belong there ■ 
play piano or tennis.' (Dusting and housework at that time, in 1 905. foilunately belonged to 
an even earlier period).'" Perhaps if Leonie had become a partner of the bank, it would have 
taken a different direction. Incidentally, after Leonie emigrated to Brazil, she got into business 
when she was over fifty-five years of age, exporting neckties to a relative on my paternal 
side, Victor Schottlander, in Chile. 

The founder of the bank. Ephraim Meyer, Emil's grandfather, underwent a very dilficuli 
period during the agrarian crisis in the 1 820s and 30s. as his wife Rebecca mentioned in her 
will. Ephraim's son, Louis, however, directed the bank during a very favorable economic 
situation, after the annnexation of the kingdom of Hanover by Prussia and the Prussian victors 
in the war against France in 1870/71. On the other hand. Louis' son. Emil. faced a ven 
dift'icuh period again, in the years following Germany's defeat in the First World War. There 
was a severe economic crisis and tremendous infiation, reaching its peak in the autumn of 
1923, which wiped out many fortunes and destroyed the German economy. Germany could 
not pay the heavy war reparations determined in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles. As a 
consequence, from 1923 to 1925 France and Belgium occupied the German Ruhr ternio^ 
ncn in coal and mdustry. 

SfhilH^^,' '"''" "^"i' "'''"''"' '^'^ ^^^^"''^"' Wrthday with big public festivities, the 
anTt uninr "."' "' ''"''"^ '"""'"'^ P°^"'°"- ^"^^ ^^^ 'he senior partner at the linie 
Ta a toVr Cfr""!,"'" 'r*" 'P'^^^'^^^^ ^"'' Erich Meyer. In early 1924. while oa 
:^run:ii:SlV:*,:::S^Je renamed ,„ crttical conditions and fro. 

Of the time. ' ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^y ^o"! the bank and business niosi 

could not be counted on and \1 ^^'' ""'^""'^'" according to my mother's diary, he 

My niothermentionsthat'john was ir^rr ^'"'"'^ ^'^^""^ ^^ restrictions, all on his .-u 
Oesellschaft. with whom Ephrai M "'"^^^^'"'"^'^'^^^^^'^'''^^^^'^^^'^^^'-'"'''"^ 

apparently without consultine an"^ " ^ ^°^" ^'^ importam business. Jolin granlcJ 
Ephraim Meyer & Sohn for a Ioan''"r iL guarantee {-del credere ") in the name ol 
(Hawa). makers of railroad cars F h ^ "^^'^^^ ^° ^^^ Hannoversche Waggontahnk 
relationship with Hawa. and Emil M ^^^^' ^ ^°*^" maimained a close business 

big manufacturer. ^^^ ^^^ ^he chairman of the supervisory board oi thai 


Until 1922 the government railroad administration had placed large orders for the supply of 
locomotives and railroad cars, to a large extent in connection with war reparation payments. 
When this material was finally delivered, it was paid for with inflated money. Following the 
end of hyperinflation, when the new Rentenmark was introduced in late 1923 - and later the 
Reichsmark, in 1 924 - the government railroad administration placed hardly any new orders. 
Due to the German government's "passive Ruhr fighting," it suddenly canceled all existing 
orders, based on which Hawa had obtained the sizable loan. As a consequence of this situation 
and of the heavy losses incurred. Hawa - as well as other railroad equipment manufacturers - 
became insolvent and could not repay the loan when it fell due. Therefore, Ephraim Meyer & 
Sohn, who had signed the guarantee, should have made good on the loan, but the large sum 
involved exceeded the bank's liquidity and placed it in serious payment difficulties. 

My mother also mentions in her diary another bank guarantee given by John Spiegelberg. in 
the name of Ephraim Meyer & Sohn. to an American bank, for a large loan this bank granted 
to a German lard importer, in the amount of three million marks. The importer could not 
repay the loan when it fell due, "on account of heavy losses." My mother remarks that John 
knew, when he granted "this crazy bank guarantee." that, if push came to shove, the bank 
could never repay it. John, when granting such bank guarantees, apparently had acted in a 
most irresponsible and careless way, without any due risk assessment, tempted only by the 
high interest. 

Leonie describes these most difficult times in her diary. When on a visit to her parents in 
Hanover, she met John Spiegelberg. My mother writes: 

"In autumn [1924] John said. "I believe the bank is going to go broke. I will kill 
myself* Erich, who was of no use anyhow, was in Italy; Papa [her father Emil], too 
weak; John, incompetent, also disliked. [...] Fritz Straus [Leonie's brother-in-law, 
who owned an important bank in Karlsruhe] arranged everything, but 1 said [to John]: 
"One day you will be ruined on account of your stupidity!' I was attached to this 
business, grandfather [Ephraim] founded it in ca. 1796." 

About one year later, on August 25. 1925. in her diary my mother reports a phone call she 
made to her family in Hanover. She was informed that everybody there was most worried and 
thai intervention in the business was probable. She immediately phoned her brother-in-law, 
the banker Fritz Straus, in Karlsmhe, who did not know anything at all about this new situation. 
My mother writes: 

"I was told that the railroad car manufacturers could not pay the draft for about 
750,000 marks to fall due tomorrow, guaranteed by Ephraim Meyer & Sohn, because 
the government had cancelled the big reparation orders on account of the passive 
Ruhr fighting. 

"The next day Mr. Mangold shows up, a person of repugnant appearance, son-in-law 
of butcher Wolf, to which the bank lost so much money a year ago. He says he cannot 
pay the draft for three million marks for which Ephraim Meyer & Sohn guarantees at 
the American bank. (He is a lard impoiler and for the three million guarantee he pays 
high imerest. but John knew when he granted this crazy guarantee that, it things 

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were to become serious. Ephraim Meyer & Sohn could never pay this amount). He |ihe 
importer] says he had sudden great losses, but certamly he lias transferred the money to 
a safe haven abroad." 

My mother then describes how her brother-in-law; Fritz Straus, ran for ten days from Poniiusi, 
Pilatus, to the various banks who initially reftised to help and to the president of the Reickshmk. 
Schacht (responsible for finally overcoming the disastrous inflation crisis in 1924). Whenai 
last the Reichsbank agreed to advance the needed amount, everything leaked to the pre:ss. \\\ 
mother writes: 

"Now it was necessary to sign over all the private fortune, whether it was Mama s [her 
mother Helene"s] private fortune from her dowiy, the inheritance she received from her 
parents, the residence on Lange Laube, the house on Calenbergerstrasse. bought nearK 
hundred years ago, everything was signed over to the Reichsbank. Only John 
[Spiegelberg] secretly put something aside. We dismissed a ser\ant. Mama, who had 
lived in opulence since her earliest childhood (Papa had declared an income of four 
million marks in 191 1 ). behaved admirably. 

"Then Fritz Straus found buyers for the business, the ill-famed potash people Gumpels. 
unscrupulous and unfair persons, who - for a piece of bread - made the best deal of their 
life. They did not pay anything. One still was glad that they look it at all. And today - 
1 927 - W is again a business of millions, but they still have their bad business manners. 
And no successors on my side who could reconquer it. I carried away the pictures of the 
founders [Ephraim and Rebecca Meyer] one day before the handing over [of the bank 
building] and brought it here by railway, third class. Neither Hans [mv brother] nor 
Klaus [myself] look as if ihey are apt [one day] to be a businessman. Neither of them 
has my quick business wit. What a pity, I would have liked so much to recover it [the 
bank] trom them [the Gumpels]. How beautiful it was to have had behind oneself the 
safety ofa big fortune." 

unS^! *" '™.' '''"' '" "" *'''" ' *^^ °"'y "'"^ >-^a^^ "Id- my mother Leonie. ul« 
Srs r woir ' "T"''" '^'P^'"'"^- '^o"''' "« have foreseen that one day. -; 

l^SS^iS:;::^:^!!" 'yr^- ^'^"'""-e -^ -<^ ^^ t^e Hanover b^., 


research conducted in 

Peter Schuize writes: " " * ^°'^' the result ot thorough 

Of a cZrtiSsevtS '°"'^ "^"'^ ^' ^^°'^^^ ^^^h the financial help 

Central Bank]. The leading b k u ^"^"^ ^^ ^^^ initiative of the Reichsbank [ihe 
million marks' were the DK- . ^ r ■'"'"^^^ '" ^'^^ financial help 'of below one 
the Hanover bank Z H Gumn I h f '''''^*^' ^^^ Darmstadter und National Bank; 
connected by family relationship ' ""^^'"^ establishment Straus in Karlsruhe. 

|;ank.' Howcve"!'aftl^rhrbTk in"J^; ''^''' ""'" ^' "° ^^^"^^^ in the direction of the 
became unavoidable. The ow'nerr.n?^''"^"''^ independence, a change of owners 
John Spiegelberg and Erich Mever '"^^i^idually liable, i.e.. Emil L. Meyer. 

y ' ^ere obliged, in accordance with an agreement 


made in September 1925. between the board of directors of the Reichsbank and the 
bank Ephraim Meyer & Sohn. to transfer their existing assets to a liquidation society, 
the Hannoversche Gesellschajl Jur Imiuslne und Bankwesen Akiiengesellschaft ' 

"The building at the Calenbergerstrasse 43. owned by the family since 1 856. was also sold. It 
became the property of the holding company of the Frederikenstift [an evangelical hospital]. 
In their report for the year 1 926 it is mentioned, ' In the spring of 1 926 a favorable opportunity 
arose for acquiring the building at Calenbergerstrasse 43, situated beside the present location 
of the Frederikenstia for a price of 120.000 Reichsmark. [...] The large plot of land will be 
used for the planned enlargement of the premises.' 

"In place of the former owners, the Hanover bankers Gumpel. a Jewish family originating 
from Schaumburg, took over. The Gumpel family documents contain a statement in connection 
with the possible causes of the collapse of 'Ephraim Meyer & Sohn", saying that the bank 
Z.H. Gumpel [withstood] 'not only in the war, but especially in the time of inflation, all 
temptations to do the so-called war and inflation business and in this way to procure profits 
in areas beyond its previous [...] sphere of action." Therefore, it was possible for the firm Z.H. 
Gumpel, 'in view of this precaution, to support and take over the shaky traditional banking 
establishment Ephraim Meyer & Sohn, at the honorable request of the Reichsbank." Then 
there follows the proud addendum, 'here successful work has been done, in a generous way. 
for the prestige of the German nation and German credit abroad." 

''While in 1 925 the commercial register for Ephraim Meyer & Sohn still showed the previous 
personally liable partners Emil L. Meyer, John Spiegelberg and Erich Meyer, in 1926 the 
partners Kommerzienrat Hermann Gumpel, Kommerzienrat Julius Gumpel and again Erich 
Meyer are shown. [...] The amount of the purchase price paid by the Gumpels for the takeover 
of the banking establishment Ephraim Meyer & Sohn is not known; but it is said that all 
assets which were taken over, the business building on Luisenstrasse together with its inventory, 
receivables of the bank, etc. were paid for. 

"After the settlement of the financial matters of Ephraim Meyer & Sohn, the new owners of 
the bank were Kommerzienrat Julius Gumpel and his son consul Kurt Gumpel, who took 
over the pan of his uncle Hermann Gumpel. Julius Gumpel. after nearly forty years of 
partnership at the firm Z.H. Gumpel, left that firm. The two brothers, Hemiann and Julius 
Gumpel. from then on went different economic ways. [Julius Gumpel. born in 1866 in 
Lindhorst, participated - while a partner of Z.H. Gumpel - in the foundation of the potash 
'ndustry and the Gumpel concern.] The new partners. Julius and Kurt Gumpel. continued the 
activities of the bank Ephraim Meyer & Sohn under its traditional name. The third partner 
|\as Erich Meyer, from the founding family. However, he was a partner without personal 

'a^^ilily. not participating in the profits and losses of the bank, receiving instead a fixed 
salary. He had no voting right and had to follow the instructions of the Gumpels. The effective 

"rectors of the bank were father and son Julius and Kurt Gumpel. who shared the partnership 
participation in a proportion of 70 to 30. 

Erich Meyer also obtained some posts of member of the supervisory board (Aufsichtsrat) at 
\vhrh i"^^' ^^"ipanies. which either were controlled by Ephraim Meyer & Sohn or with 
'^h they maintained a close business relationship. 

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"Altogether the three partners of the bank kept over rift>- mandates of supervisory 
board members, which evidences the great amount of business connections, the 
financial power and the re-established prestige ot the bank. [...] The former third 
partner Erich Meyer [a great-grandson of the founder ot the bank. Ephraim Meyer), 
died asearly as 1935 in Hanover [at the age of 48]. As he was completely penniless 
at the end. his widow had to ask pemiission from the creditors to sell his clothes, in 
order to pay the burial cost from the sales amount. Because of his heavy indebtedness. 
Meyer's inheritance was refused by over thirty relatives." 

Emil Meyer's inheritance was also judicially refused in 1 926 by both his daughters, my mother 
Leonie, also in the name of her three children Hans. Susanne and myself, all minors at the 
time, as well as by my aunt Edith Straus, likewise in the name of her five children Werner, 
Use. Erwin. Gerda and Eva. minors as well. The reason, of course, was thai Emil. alter ihe 
collapse of the bank, as a personally liable partner of the bank, had no assets left at all. If his 
heirs had accepted the inheritance, they would not have received anything, but Emil's liabilit\ 
still would have passed on to them. 

The fomier partner John Spiegelberg still lived in Hanover in March 1937. He emigrated 
later to the United States and lived in New York. 

Schulze reports further: 

"After 1 926. success and failure seem to have alternated in the commercial activities 
of Ephraim Meyer & Sohn. under its new ownership. In the beginning, umil 1930. 
there was an average yearly profit of 750.000 RM (Reichsmark), according to the 
tomier head clerk Paul Katzenstein. The world economic crisis that followed plunged 
hphraim Meyer & Sohn. as so many other banks too, into great difficulties. In the 
beginnuig of 1933 there was a deficit of five million RM. An undated newspaper 
chpping. probably from the end of 1933. mentions 'a chain of serious failures/ 

definh?' K ^'T'^''''^' ^"'^'"'''' -^-^ '" ^'^^'^h the companies that had caused 

day law r h IT '"^^T'o^ated, was obliged to propose its liquidation. A feu 

Sem^^^^^^^^^^ * '^"^ ^'" '"^'^ f- >'^-d^tion, which was published 

Ma yTnSh '^^^^^^^^^^^ "' ''"^^^^ ^«° B°"--n and Paul Katzenste.n, 

for mL ye^s J,^^^^^^ '^'fl^'^^- ^^ katzenstein. chief clerk of the bank 
following^ Al e d n^ ^ ^^>-' ^^e bank was liquidated in the 

the bank'at^hat tinl: i^^ ^' '^'^ -ny of the forty employees of 

interest were fullv paid out tn TT" " '"'"^arkable that all savings deposits plus 
building on Luisenstrasse was ^1?°'''°''- ^''"''^'"^ ^^ ^" agreemem, the bank 
for an amount of 330 000 Rekhl l-'tu' '° '*'' ^'^'^'^ ^^^^^"^^ «" J">y ^6, 1 938. 
at symbolic prices to the Hano i u '"''^"^"'^ had been delivered previously, 
bank took place in 194] ." °^ Departmem. The final liquidation of the 

Ephraim Meye; ktohTagaTn^'ihe ?' """^ ''"'"' ^^^'^^^ ^^'^g to save the finances ol 
^'ommercial connections of thebank T\ '''''"' ^"' ^°*"^ ^^ ^^ill held true, name!) ih^ 

' "' ''^^^ ^'^^'^ of clients and its traditional name . 


reputation. Of course, the creditors also had an interest, among them the Dresdener Bank. 
which in 1932 had granted a credit of 400.000 Reichsmark. guaranteed by a mortgage on the 
bank building. 

However, all efforts to save the bank failed, due not so much to economic reasons but to 
political ones. Peter Schulze writes: 

"The potential creditors could not be sure any longer, after the Nazis had taken power, 
that the bank Ephraim Meyer & Sohn, as a 'Jewish' enterprise, could still do business 
unimpaired in the future. On .lune 1 6. 1 933 the Hanover municipality decided not to 
consider "Jewish' firms any more when placing out public orders. The time when the 
Hanover municipality used to deposit their liquid assets with Ephraim Meyer & Sohn 
and used this bank to obtain funds and place loans were over. 

''Since antisemitism had become the government program, the bank's "good name' 
had now become a 'Jewish name" and precluded any elTort to save the bank. The 
bank's 'good will', which, regardless of its weak liquidity, should have been attractive 
to potential buyers, in economic terms, had suddenly become worthless, due to 
political developments. The bank could have been saved, but not the 'Jewish' 

"The weakness of the bank was caused by the general crisis and, in addition, by its 
own mistakes. The collapse occurred when the possible economic reorganization 
turned out to be politically unfeasible. The end of Ephraim Mejer had become the 
intention of the new rulers." 

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HELENE MEYER NEE LEVY - (1859-1942) 

My maternal grandmother 

My grandmother Helene was born in Hamburg on July 26, 1859. She married my grandi ner 
Emil in Hamburg on June 17, 1883. Their marriage contract, according to which H< .^ne 
received a dowry of 150,000 marks, is in my possession. She, like my mother Leonie, ^ :is a 
talented painter. Three beautiful white porcelain plates with colored flower motifs, handpit led 
by Helene, hang in our breakfast room. A fourth plate was broken when my youngeS' on, 
Gabriel, was playing soccer in the house with an adult friend, who hit the plate accider. !ly. 

Helene was a very kindhearted and sweet person. She was what my mother cal 
"iehenskunstlerin. " literally an artist in the way of living, a person who knew how to li' 
life happily. Emil and Helene, who both descended from very wealthy families, had ;. 
high standard of living in their household in Hanover. Due to the collapse of the ba 
1925, they lost their whole fortune. Emil died soon afterwards, while Helene (whor 
mother also called Mama Lene) went on living in Hanover. In March 1 934 there was a p: 
auction in her residence at Lange Laube 23, where her entire household was auctioned ff- 
fumiture, art objects, silver, crystal, glassware, chinaware, etc. Helene then moved to oi big 
apartment in Berlin where she stayed with us until her emigration to Switzerland i the 
beginnmg of 1 939, shortly before our emigration. 

When my parents, my sister and I left Gemiany in 1 939 to emigrate to South America, H^ ^ene 
did not want to leave with us, She was already seventy-nine years old and was afraid c the 
must t!.7'^l" "!!"^. ^""''^ ^^^ "^^'^^ ^ '^^'^ days. But the mam reason, I be. ve. 
Ho ete V T '. ^'' ""^ ^^^ ^° ^'^^^"^^ ^ burden to my parents, who were fac. g a 

oornapri :^^^^^^^^ k"'*'".' '^"^^"^ ^^"^ '- ^-d-- She Uved there m a rc.ed 

Bern's r^^^^^^^^ 

hipbone and had to be Ln-i.u''^'' '"^ *^'"'^'- ^ ^^^^ she fell and broke her 
there, on MariO 1 94rr^^^^ '" ''' ''"'^' '°^P^^^> '" ^^^^'- ^ ^hon time later, she ^i-cd 
stoically - the loss of her h^ " !t^^ ^^ ^^^'^^ cemetery in Basel. Helene bore her !aie 
1939. knowing that she nrobar . ^ '" ^^r^^^tx. the separation from her fam.l: "^ 
never complained and ^wav. l"" n T^' '^^ ^^' daughters and their families again ^\^^ 

ys was well humored, until the end of her life. 



Just as my maternal grandfather Emil L. Meyer is a descendant of many distinguished rabbinical 
families through his grandmother Rebecca Meyer nee Levy Warburg, my maternal grandmother 
Helene Meyer nee Levy also was a descendant of many illustrious Jewish families on her 
mother's side, through MIRIAM SARAH JENTL HAMELN. eight generations removed from 
Helene. -lente was the daughter of JOSEPH HAMELN and the sister-in-law of GLUCKEL 
OF HAMELN. Jente's first marriage was to SALMAN (SALOMON) GANS, son of the rich 
Sussmannn Cans from Minden. A descendant of Jente and Salman, five generations removed, 
is MADEL (MATHILDE, also called Marta) GANS. 

Jente's second marriage was to the famous Oberhoffakior (Court Jew) ELIESER LEFFMANN 
BEHRENS COHEN. The blood of Jente's father Joseph Hameln was carried into most of the 
distinguished Jewish families in Hanover. Jente died on July 25. 1695. Jente and Elieser 
Leflmann Behren's son HERZ LEFFMANN BEHRENS married SERCHEN, the daughter of 
the famous Court Jew SAMSON WERTHEIMER. A descendant of Herz Leffmann Behrens 
and Serchen Wertheimer is ABRAHAM HERZ COHEN, who co-founded the bank Leffmann 
& Abraham Herz Cohen. 

Made! Cans and Abraham Herz Cohen were married in Hanover. Thus the distinguished old 
families GANS and LEFFMANN BEHRENS. who were first united through Jente Hameln's 
two marriages, became united again after many generations. Madel died in Hanover on 
November 13,1 822. Abraham died there on March 1 1 . 1 825. M.ADEL GANS and ABRAHAM 
HERZ COHEN were the maternal great-grandparents of my grandmother. Helene Meyer nee 
Levy. Madel and Abraham's daughter, SARA COHEN, married JACOBY LOWENHEIM. 
Helene Meyer's grandparents. 

In my possession are three genealogical charts compiled by Adele Freund. The first chart 
shows the descendants of Jente Hameln and Salman Gans and the second one the descendants 
of Jente Hameln and Leffmann Behrens Cohen. Both of these demonstrate the relationship 
between Jente Hameln and Helene Meyer. The third chart shows the connection between my 
grandmother Helene Meyer, the Oppenheim family (Adele Freund's ancestors) and the famous 
poet and writer HEINRICH HEINE ( 1 797- 1 856), also a descendant of Jente Hameln. 

The genealogical charts of the Gans family's relationship to Heinrich Heine, and of the 
Leffmann Behrens Cohen family's relationship to Helene Meyer, are also contained m the 
appendix of Dr. S. Groncmann' Geiiealogische Sliidicn uher die alien judischen Familien 
Handovers. Heinrich Heine converted to Protestantism in 1825. saying. "The conversion 
certificate is the entrance ticket to European culture." He returned to Judaism in 1 848. however. 
when he could no longer leave his bed due to a grave illness which he called Mairaizengruji 
(mattress grave). Prior to his death in 1856. Heine wrote: 

No mass will be sung 
No Kaddish will be said 
Nothing will be said 
On the day of my death. 




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f ther of Hanover's Jewish community. He. bis 

JOSEPH HAMELN ^^^^'^'^^/''^J^^'/.i'^ praised in the lamous memoirs of Joseph's 

wife Freude, and ^^'^.^^^^J^'^p "^^^^ The Memorbuch of Uie Hanover Jewish community 
daughter-in-law GLUCRbLur n^ 

describes Joseph: 

the Holy Land, encouraging his children to do the same. 

Joseph Hameln had nine children. One of his sons. Samuel, was the Rabbi of Hildeshein^ 
sTmuels daughter Malka married Judah Berlin, who later changed h.s name to JO T 
L FBmInN liebmann was his father Elieser Liebmann's name. He started to work for h. 
uncle. Hayim Hameln. GlUckefs husband, who sent the young man to Danzig to buy or .m 
pearls from the East. Later Judah became Hayim's partner. Eventually Hayim and Judah 
partnership came to an end and there arose a dispute between them which Judah argued 
before the rabbis in Hildesheim, near Hanover, the place where he lived. Hayim lost the cast 
and it cost him one third of his wealth. Gluckel in her memoirs mentions the whole attair ana 
laments her husband's misfortune. Later, however. Gluckel and Hayim became reconciled 
with Jost Liebmann, who became a famous court jeweler and agent of the Great Elector 
(Grosse KurjUrst) of Berlin and the richest and most powerful Jew in that city. He often use- 
his great influence at the Prussian court in favor of his coreligionists. 

Joseph Hameln"s daughter. Miriam Sara Jente, first married Salman Cans, patriarch of the 
distinguished Cans family, and son of the very rich Sussmann Gans of Minden, with whom 
she had six children. Jente and Salman were betrothed in childhood by their fathers during ^i 
drinking party. Gluckel writes about this event: 

"My father-in-law [Jente's father Joseph Hameln] was drinking with him [Sussmann 
Gans] and while drinking, they agreed upon the marriage. When Sussmann became 
sober the next day. he regretted this arrangement. But my father-in-law was such a 
distinguished man that what had been agreed upon [with him] could not be undone. 
So the deal prevailed." 

As both the bridegroom and the bride were very young, Sussmann sent his son Salman to 
Poland to acquire talmudic knowledge at the famous houses of learning (ycshivoi) there. 
Aner an absence of several years, he returned to Germany to find his father dead, his fortune 
gone and his mother remarried to a relative. Phoebus Gans. Salman felt that his part of the 
loriunc had been appropriated by his stepiather, and he entered into a litigation that w.s 
conducted with great passion by both parties during several years. Gluckel writes: 

!3oilr!"''?'!l u^' ^^'""''-^'^^^ IJ^s^Ph Hameln. who had been involved in 
this htigationl and Phoebus more than two thousand Reichsthaler each, because 


1 d for many years. [...] This lasted so long that neither of them had any 
they l"^^";^^ father-in-law could stand it longer. Finally, other people intervened 

n,oney leu. Du y j^j^^^^ f^^ni Frankfurt a.M. to settle this matter. They came, 

Sd it lorim a long time, but they did not decide anything, they just took a lot of 
money away.'" 

- T .nh H'.meln sent for his daughter and son-in-law. who were living in Minden, 
Vhereatter ''^^^P" " ^3,^3^ was very pleased about this arrangement, and after a 

,,d settled |h^"; '"Z;^;" ^^^^^ f,,^,ne. but this happiness did not last long. Salman died in 
short time, he acquire ^ ^^^^^^„ ,hat perhaps his sorrow led to his premature 

his prime on April o, i"-^-^- 


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. ,0 Elieser Leffmann Behrens Cohen (1 634- 1 7 1 4). with whom 
Jente's second marriage was marriage to Jente. Leffmann was livmg in mcidesi 

she had three children. At *e ""' » .^| ^,^0^ and acquired a large fortune 

conditions, L^'-'--,"^';; J;Xlhed families which fom.ed the heart of Hanover. 
Gronemann states that all *e <i's"ngu.s ^_^^^_^^^_^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ 

and far beyond. 


Sinn together with the famous Court Jew Sar.ison Wertheimer, succeeded .r. V.enna > 
SmEmperor Leopold thetitleElectorfK^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
LeZnnwasagreatbenefactorofJewish causes. usir.ghish.ghcoun^^^ 

h s fellow Jews whenever they got into trouble or needed h,s help. He encouraged the 
study of Torah. installed a Beth Hanudrash (House of Study ) in his horrte^subsidized Je.,s 
scholars and their studies, and sponsored the publishing of their works. He also helped and 
defended '-foreign" Jews who did not have the right of residence and were not ' privileged 
Jews in Hanover. 

In 1 673 Leffmann Behrens petitioned the Duke Johann Friedrich and obtained the protection 
of the old Jewish Cemetery of Hanover at Judenkirchhot; called Oberslrasse today. The 
cemetery had been established in the middle of the 1 6th century, when the Jews acquired a 
sandy hill far from the city gates. As the draymen used to carry ofl sand from the hill, the 
mayor - at the request of the Jewish community - had a stone tablet attached to the cenieler; 
gate, On the tablet is a warning not toJioUeren (violate) or ntrbieren (disturb) the Jewish 
graveyard. This tablet has been preserved at the same place until today and is still readable. 

This very old cemetery is the place where my maternal great-great-grandparents Ephraim 
and Rebecca Meyer are buried. Their tombstones are preserved. The cemetery is closed to 
the public nowadays and can be visited with a special permit only. Seldi and I visited this 
place in 19%. 

In 1687 Leffmann Behrens obtained permission from Duke Ernst August to engage a 
Landrabbmer (provincial rabbi), creating the Hanover LandrahbinaL which lasted over 250 
years, until 1 938. In 1 703 Leffmann and his son Herz built a new synagogue in Hanover to 
replace the old one, which had been destroyed in 1613, because "the Jews should look only 
to churches lor their enlightenment." 



R hrens and Jente had one daughter. Gnendel. who became the first wife of David 
Leftmann ben ^^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^^_^ nephew of the philanthropist and Court Jew Samuel 

Oppenheim ( ' ^ j^^-^^^^^ of Vienna ( 1 630- 1 703). who was the first Jew to settle in Viemia 

Oppenheim.or vv ^^^^ ^^^.^ Oppenheim was the provincial rabbi for Moravia and 
after the expu si ^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^ Cemetery in Prague. His tombstone is preserved 

Bohemia. David is ^"^ ^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ ^ world-renowned library 

^'"^' ^r: ul nrnrcnprL core of which derived from a gift from Prince Eugen of 
Ttti^:.^^^ Oppenhemter, who financed Eugen's Turkish wars. Samuel 
f n d P i^^^^^ Eugen to bring valuable Jewish books from the Orient. Eugen presented 
Sese books t^^^^^^^^ who gave them to his nephew David. 

w.r. in Praaiie David had to keep this collection at his father-in- 
However. ^^^^l^^^^Zt^-^^Zli and latent was nToved to Hamburg. Bot the large 
law Leftmann Behrens House in na u-ilf of the 19'" centurv apparentlv were not 

able or wil ing to hold tast to his un q ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^,^^^^^^ 

U rd'^f"::';;:^^^^-^'- wh,ch fonned the hasis .r the Bodleian 
Library's Hebrew section. 

in the world, one after the other. The second larges of the two ^°^ 
Rosenthahana. belonged to the scholar Leeser Rosenthal ( 1 7-54-1 868 ■ ^ ^^^J ^.^ 

and a bibhophUe of Polish origin who taug t at If^^^^^^'^ZZlZ hundreds of 
famous library of Hebrew books, consisting of °'''lf^^2^^ ,„ j^e university of 
manuscripts, was donated by his son. Baron George von Rosenthal, 

Amsterdam in 1880. 

1 1"* 171"* is buried in Hanover. 
Gnendel, who died before her father Leffmann Behrens. «" .'""^ ' ^- j^- ^^^ Memorbuch 
Leffmann, who died at the age of eighty, also outlived all his "'her ehildrea 
of the Hanover Jewish community and Leffmann Behrens epitaph describe him. 

-A devoted and gentle leader of his time, he gave ^^^^^^^^^Z 
scholars; supported orphans a, marriage -''^ ^f '"P/ ' .^r Xrs He sent money 
to study in the evening and in the morning - before and after p ayers 
eveiywhere for the maintenance of houses of leanring an -PP ^^ °J ^„, ^e 
poor children, especially for the associations and poor ot me y 
himself established houses of learning." 


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Lcffmann Behrens and Jente's oldest son, Herz LetYmann Behrens. was appointed a court 
and chamber agent, just as his father. He married Serchen. the daughter of the Viennese 
financier Oherhoffaklor (court factor) SAMSON WERTHEIMER (bom 1 658 in Worms. dieJ 
1724 in Vienna). Wertheimer had come to Vienna in 1684 to join the bank of his uncle, the 
court factor and philanthropist SAMUEL OPPENHEIMER (1630-1703) and soon became 
court banker and one of the chief purveyors to the Imperial forces under Emperors Leopo 
and Joseph 1 , Together with his son Wolf. Samson Wertheimer lent large sums to the emperor 
Samuel Oppenheimer and Samson Wertheimer. both Court Jews and financial agents, supp''^ 
the money for Prince Eugen of Savoy's campaigns against the Turks. They worke 
indefatigably for the protection of threatened Jewish interests. Later Samson Wertheimer 
was appointed Chief Rabbi of Hungary and had judicial authority. He was acclaimed b> all o 
Jewry, a man representing brilliantly both talmudic erudition and commercial talents. He 
used his connections to assist Jewish communities and obtained an order from the Emperor 
Leopold prohibiting the publication of Eisenmenger's anti-Jewish work Entdecktes Judcnum' 
("Judaism Revealed"). He established a fund tn a^^i^t n^u^^rc in tt,^ Hnlv I and. whi< 
until 1914. 

established a fund to assist paupers in the Holy Land, which exis'^ 

Herz Leffmannn Behrens died on February 23, 1709 and his wife Serchen Wertheinie- 
Samson s daughter, on March 9, 1739. Through them, we are related to Oberhoffaklor Samso" 
NVcrthe.mer, whose picture appears at the top of the illustrated genealogical chart organ'';' 
t2 "'°Tl r^" °^"" "'' ""''"■ ^^' 8'^=" f"'"^"^'=" ^e^"ts and distmgutshed .le^^' > 




marriage married Jente, Joseph Hameln ^ f^^^^^^^^^^^rn^m - 1646 and died in 
her husband came from the ctty ot H^"^'=';„^'^'=, ^^ '.°^^,peUed from the cty and had to 
Metz in 1724. In 1 649 the Gemran Jews f "^"1^"!,^ "t'^^Pff,, ^ (Scphanl„n, who had 
go to Altona, f.fteen mtnutes from Hamburg. I^^mI^^-o.. Altona belonged 
contractual rights of residence in Hamburg were not afie ted by tl>e P ^^^^^^^^^ 

to the King of Denmark at that t,me and the Jews residing there had 

After great effort, the Jews of Altona succeeded in ^^'^^':^"^^^Z^^^^ 
four weeks, upon payment of one dukaten. The P'^^'P""' ' ^^^^ ^f g^gden, after the victory 
during the day to do business there. In 1657 1^'"S ';''J]'', , , ^^ ^mg^^-e with his enemies 
against Poland, waged war against Denmark 7;^77 " ,^j,,,elv and take refuge with 
and occupied Altona. The Jews of Altona had '^ «f^; ~^,,,,„„,ies then revised their 
Portuguese Jews and other citizens ot Hamburg. 1 tie nam t isjion to reside in 

policy and GluckePs father became the first German Jew to obtain perm 
Hamburg again. 

At the age of twelve, Gluckel was betrothed to Hayim |^^!"^^*"^^^^ board) for two 

married when barely fourteen. The couple obtained Kosi ( ^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ because 

years with Gluckel's father-in-law in Hameln. They staye ^^^^^ families only and 

Hameln was a very small town with a Jewish community consis ^ b ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^, Gluckel's 
little business to transact. The couple then moved to HamDu y ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^ 
parems. She became pregnant for the first time at a very you ^^^^1^^.^ than her mother's 
mother became pregnant again. GluckeEs daughter was bom one wee 



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124 j^^^ribes how she and her mother lay in the sa,,. 

u ni in Hamburg, dealing in gold, silver, jewels, pearls, 
Havim became a successfu "~ ^^^ ^^^ba^d in business. Gluckel and Hayim had 
precious stones, etc. Gl^^ke always he P ^^^^. ^^, ^^.^^^^^^j, ^,^^,, ^^^^^^..^ ^^^^^^^ 
thirteen children. Their son Moses becan ^^^ ^^^ ^^.^ 43-year-old widow with eigh, 

died in 1689, alter nearly *'rty je'irs ^^^.^^^^ _ ^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^,|i_^g p^^^j^^^ ^,^_^^^ 

young children. S^e carried on his e^ ^^^^^^._^. ^^^^^ p^^,-,, ^ut sometimes also 

gold and cloth. She dealt with P0m.ss0.7n ^„,,,,,d,„,. ^h,,e at the same time raising 
Sr ::hr :S;r Ce of ^ese .n.ense activities. O.cUe. was s.,11 a.e 
,0 fmd the necessaiy time to write her memoirs. 
Gluckel begins her memoirs as follows: 

„ u -JA";! n^mn I beain writing greatlv distressed and with a heavy heart 
•::G7se^ u*^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Redeemer soon. [...] My dear children. 1 s.a.ed 
;„ write i book after the death of your pious father, in order to calm myelf a little 
bit, when melancholic thoughts and heavy sorrow came upon me. 

OneinterestingsectionofGluckersmemoirsdescribesSabbataiTzevi-smessianic— ^^^^^ 
which had a very strong repercussion among the Jews ot Hamburg - especially the Sci,honlm 
■ around 1665 to 1667. She writes about this period; 

"Our happiness when letters [with news about Sabbatai Tzevi] arrived cannot be 
described. Most of the letters were received by the Portuguese. They always took 
them to the synagogue and read them there in public. Also Germans [German Jews], 
old and young, went to the Portuguese synagogue. The young Portuguese lads put on 
their best clothes [...] and read the letters aloud with great joy. Some people sold their 
houses, land and everything they owned, because they hoped to be redeemed at an\ 
moment. My blessed father-in-law. who lived in Hameln. left his home, land and 
everything in his house, and moved to Hildesheim. 

"From there he sent to us in Hamburg two big barrels filled with linen and various 
foodstufls. such as peas, beans, dried meat, dried plums, and other things - anythms; 
that could be preserved. The old man thought it would be possible to travel immediateK 
to the Holy Land, These banels were stored in my house for over a year. Finally they 
[my in-laws] became afraid that the meat and other things would spoil. Then they 
wrote us, directing us to open the barrels and take out the foodstuffs, so that the linen 
would not get ruined. The barrels stood there for about three vears. and my father-in- 
law always thought he would need them for his travel. But the Almighty had not yet 
decided [to redeem us]." 

Ten years after her husband's death, Gluckel. at the insistence of her son-in-law, decided '« 
marry again. Her second husband was the esteemed banker Cerf (Hirsch) Levy, who live 
Metz. Not long after their marriage, Cerf lost his emire fortune, as well as Gluckefs. He d- 

lew years later, leaving Gluckel destitute. She later moved in with her daughter Esther a.^ 
son-in law, who also lived in Metz. Gluckel died there in 17^4 


■rs are divided into seven books. The first five were written in the 1690s in 
Gliickel s memo ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 1715 and 1719 in Metz. These memoirs, which she left 

Hamburg ano ^^^^^ excellent insights into the .lewish communities of Hamburg, Altona. 
for her children, pr ^^ ^^^^^^^^ j^^^y form a unique document - not only of Gluckefs own 
'."'''"'"• also of the history, religion; culture, social conditions, and life in general of the 
'oemian Jews in Gluckel-s time. 

m one passage of her memoirs Gluckel writes: 

-We have our holy Torah in which we may find and learn all that we need for our 
journey through this world to the world to come. 

u „,nhin.>raDhv in Hebrew characters in Judeo-German (Judendeutsch), 
Gluckel wrote h- au obK,gr phy m H ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^,^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^.^ 

«hich ,s »--^'^;,J^'f;;t interspersed with Hebrew words and semences. These memoirs 

";i C^^rr " :^;:^t:S^ ^;^--d by Schockem New Vo., in 
;;;; ThLe reralble memoirs make a fascinating and highly recommended reading. 







, rr,^l arindmother. was born in Hanover in 1 794 and 
SARA COHEN. Helena Meyer s ™' ™ _.^^^_^^,^^j jacOBY LOWENHEIM. amercham. 
died in Hamburg on December lU, i»o- ^ ^^^^ j^^ 

was bom in 1790 in S^"^;^^'^^'^"/'"!'^ ^j ^a.b L" "^^ "'^^^'^ '" '"^ ''°''''"™ '^ *^ 

were David Levin, called Lowe"h^^^^^^^^^ 

nrarriageconlrac. between ^^ ^^L^" ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^_ ^^^ ,^^ ^^^_^^^^^ 

:2:^^:;:;:r:^'?:^"-wX.oo. place inB.r.aor.^^^ 


The bride brought the bridegroom a cash dowry of 1 5.000 Reichsthaler in Louis d'ors (one 
loui d r ,s equal to five Reichsthaler). The parties agreed to deduct 400 Re.clrsthalerfron, 
'ha amount a a tithe for the poor The marriage contract estabhshed deta.led res ,tu on 
ses in the event of a spouse's death in the first year. >n the second year and m the th.rd 
ear after the marriage, mentioning how much could be kept of the dowo' and the bridegroom s 
capital, respectively, and how much was to be returned by the lamtly ot the deceased spouse 
in each case. 

Since Sara's parents were deceased at the time of her wedding, she had already received her 
inheritance of 10,700 Reichsthaler in pistols (one pistol was equal to five Reichsthaler) 
However, she did not hand this amount over to her bridegroom, but expressly reserved it tor 
herself in the marriage contract. 

Sara and Jacoby's daughter. AMALIE LOWENHEIM. my grandmother Helene Meyer > 
mother, was bom on July 1 1. 1 829 in Hamburg and died there on July 1 3. 1 892. She manid 
my maternal great-grandfather SAMSON HEYMANN LEVY, a prosperous merchant in 
Hamburg. He was born on February 5. 1 81 6 in Hamburg and died there on January 10.187/ 
Samson's father was HEYMANN PHILIP LEVY, a glassware merchant, born about nS':* 
died on Murch 26. 1845. My mother wiiles about him in her diary: 

"While [Ephraim Meyer] in his little bank ledgers of 1 804 was already writing in 
correct German, the glassware merchant Heymann [Philip] Lev^. Hamburg, the father 
of Mama's [Helene's] father, in 1 803 wrote his business ledgers in Hebrew [letters]." 

Samson 1 leymann Levy's mother was FANNY LEVY NEE LIEFMANN, wife of HEYMANN 
PHILIP LEVY They are my maternal great-great-grandparenls. Fanny was bom in 178^ m 
Moishng near Lubeck and died on May 3. 1 852 in Hamburg. Since Jews were not permitted 
to hve m Lubeck at that time, Fanny and Heyman Philip Lew settled in nearbv Moisling- 
where the Jewish cemetery was located. Fanny Levy nee Liefmann's oil painting which 1 
recently had restored, hangs in our dining room. 

Fanny Levy nee Liefmann's parents were HEYMANN LIEFMANN and EMMA nee POPERT 

,;• ";r? ';f r""- ' "''^'^'"^- ^^^ ^«^" ^^ ^oisUng near Lubeck about 1 755 and died on 

The n.;; . f .' " "^ '' ^^' ''"^^'^"^ ^^'^^ J^^ish community of Hamburg, in AUonO; 

all T/r/'^^^'^^^^^ "^^'™ ^^^^ Levy, were PHILIP HEYMANN LEV^ 

May 1.. 1827. Huzel was bom about 1754 and died m Hamburg on March 24, 1833. 


WV Heymann Levy and his wife Hitzel are buried - as ail the other relatives who died 
Both Pm ip^ ^^^ Jewish cemetery of the Hamburg community, at Ottensen. Emma Popert 
'"'l^HUelVopert were sisters. Their parems were Samson and Zippora Popert. Heymann 
pip Levy and his wife Fanny nee Liefmann were cousins. 

Upvmann Levy my grandmother Helene's father, was president of the Jewish 
Samson Hey^ j^^^^urg'ln his will, dated May 24. 1876. he donated 6.000 marks to the 
r'^rZmunitv of Hamburg, creating a foundation in his wife's name for poor brides, just 
T^TlZlx an identical amount in his own name in 1870.. He also donated 2.400 
'' l ,0 tit Jewish orphanage; 1 .200 marks to the Talmud-Torah school; 900 marks to the 
n r .'n Foundation- and 600 marks each to the girls' school, the Jewish tenam association. 
IT thing association for pupils of the Talmud-Torah school, the Jewish institution for the 
let the Jewish association for the aid of poor old men. and the women s association tor 
he care of the poor. He further donated 750 marks each to the municipal mstitution for the 
000 le Jewish institution for the poor or poor families, and the same amount to be used for 
S puUes, by his wife or the executors of his will. He also lett his Jewish cook, Clara 
Jacobsen. 1 .800 marks -for many years of faithful service. 

Samson stipulated in his will that his son Theodor be given 1 50.000 marks to be invested in 
"i"f>rm B.M. Berendt and Company, of which Samson was a partner, in the evem 
that Theodor should enter the firm as a partner. 

San,son's daughter, mv grandmother Helene. received a dowry of 150.000 marks and an 
apTCiL trousseau whtn she married my grandfather Emtl L. Meyer tn Hamburg ,n 1 88.. 
according to the marriage contract which is in my possession. 

Helene had two brothers; the elder one was Theodor Levy and '^e younger one^MiusLevj^ 
According to his relative Margreth Dreifuss. Theodor was a gambler and -— ^ ^^-'^; 
in July 1911, because he could not pay his gambling debts any "\°f J" '"\tt^,°;^i 
12. 1912 in Hamburg. Helene also had two sisters. Fanny and Mathilde. |here -as ^o h 
sister. Sara. She died at the dinner table when she swallowed a fishbone that nobody could 


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,wins,01gaanOscar.Marg^*Drfo .h.-^^^^^ 

r— r r in S S Se U . devas.,ea .„. He con™,„e. su... 
?anny second husband. Theo. assisted her in raismg the twms Irom her previous marnage. 
Fanny died in her house in Hamburg about 1942, in .he r,r,ddle of the war, shortly before l,er 
sister Maihilde, 

The three sisters Fannv. Mathilde and Helene. inherited a house from their parents Samson 
and Amalie Lev7 at Rothenbaunichaussee 95. one of the most fashionable boulevards in 
Hamburg This had been the residence of Fanny Bernhardt. In 1 954 the house was sold by tlie 
heirs, Fanny and Helene's children and Mathilde's grandchildren, for a very low price. DM 
2 1 ,000. The house was in run-down condition, but the propert>' measured 769 square meters. 
When we visited it several years ago, the renovated house was occupied by offices and the 
Zaire Consulate. 

At the time the authorized lawyers negotiated the sale of this house, another heir showed up 
- a half sister of Fanny's daughter Olga that nobody had known about previously. Her name 
was Felicia Herrlein. adopted Claasen, nee Levy. She must have been an illegitimate child o! 
Fanny Bernhard, either bom before, during or afler the time she had the affair "with another 
man." It also cannot be known for sure whether the child's father was the same lover, because 
of whom Mr. Bernhard committed suicide, or may be another one. An illegitimate child, bom 
last century - this was indeed something quite rare in the circles of "high society." 

Fanny's daughter Olga, called Oily, though several years older, was a good friend and confidant 
of her cousin, my mother Leonie. When she was a young woman. Olga ran away from home 
and her hometown of Hamburg to Bad Ems with her great love, a poor Jewish violinisl. 
Heinrich Handler, who later on became quite rich and famous. After some time, they separated 
and Olga came home again. This was a great scandal at the time. Everybody in the family- 
except my mother, a young girl then, condemned Olga. including my grandmother Helene. 

In 1 903 Olga manied Hermann Guttmann. who was a crook, according to Margreth Dreifuss' 
intormation. My mother also mentioned in her diary at a much later date that he committed 
trauds in Belgium and tied to Argentina. In Buenos Aires, Guttmann furnished a beautitui 
house for the tamily and did not pay for anything. He spent money freelv and made debts. He 
and Olga had three children, Michael (Miguel Martin), born in Argentina; Liesel (Elisabeth). 

Oil, n 7h u^^r *'""*'- ''^"^"'^^ ^° ^'^^^'^- Hermann Guttmann then abandoned 
Olga and the children, and the couple divorced. 

iSel!*u'?h''''r r'"-!'"'^' ^''^''^ ^^"■^^"'^- ^he oldest son. was a difficult person^ 
to til "f \ "' ^'' *" '''''''' ^'^h '"^^ German police and therefore returned 
Rio N ro nro '■ T'' '' ''^^"^^ ' ^^^'^^ ^""'^^^ ^^ a small city. Pilcamyen. in th^' 

SLb ^n i; ;^^^ ^'^- "t '' ^^^^"^'"^- L'-^> G""--"- once a beauty queen -n 
n ntd t W en^^^^^^^^ ^' ^''''' ^^"^^"^^' ^^ ^he age of 2 1 . They had a daughter 

Susi. When the Nazis came to power, the family emigrated to Shanghai. Liesel go^ 


( "*. 3f * 


J 'ith another man. The couple then divorced and Liesel married again, a well-to-do 
'"\'' '4man with whom she and her daughter Susi then left for Argentina. Susi died young 
bubints ^ Ligsel's first husband. Dr. Neubauer, went to the U.S.A. and remarried. He had 
otmtnint -^^^ practice there. Walter Guttmann. Olga's youngest son, first emigrated to 
^ %^ d^nd later to California. His wife was of Asian descent. When arriving in California, 
^'Ihe^SOs, he first worked as a driver for my aunt Edith Straus. 

then married again, this time Mr. Peppi Bandler. who was in the banking business. He 

the brother of the violinist Heinrich Bandler, whom she had run away with when she was 

^^^' !'peppi and Olga had a son Kurt, who was a gardener. When Hitler came to power, Olga 

'"d Kurt went to Argemina. where her son from her first marriage, Michael Guttmann, lived. 

Kurt got good jobs, enabling him to support his mother and himself 

OU.a-s brother Oscar, called Ossy, never married. My mother did not write very favorably 
about him in her diary. When Hitler came to power, Oscar emigrated to the Netherlands. 
From there he was later deported by the Nazis to a concentration camp, where he was murdered. 

^ <•/• 


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HewasbornonJune3U l»x. nc medicine at the Jewish Hospital of Hamburg, 

DE Korach was the ^ 'f ''^XJ. ^o" "wish home for the aged, and ofthe nurs.'g 
He also belonged to the bo d o".re » s ot m ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

!i::;r^:r Sl'tC^aES he alsLas the PEesident o.he BO. 

Health of the city of Hamburg. 

On lune ^3 1943 Dr Korach was deported to Theresienstadt when he was almost eighty- 
Sh™earsolli He died there a few days later, on July 1. 1943. Mathilde died around 1942 ,„ 
her home in Hamburg at the age of about eighty. 

When I was a young boy, I traveled to Hamburg with my mother, to visit this great-unck. his 
wife and other relatives. My mother wanted to show me the city and took me to beautiful Cm 
Hail. There I saw for the first time an elevator called a 'paternoster'. It is a special type oi 
non-stop elevator without doors that moves very slowly, so that on each floor people can get 
in and out easily. Used in public buildings only, h consists of two cabins. One elevator runs 
alongside the other, one going up and the other going down. When one elevator reaches the 
top iloor. it shifts to the left and then goes down again. The elevator is called a 'paternoster 
because faithful Catholics use a rosary when saying this prayer, never stopping the turning ol 
the beads, just as the Muslims do with their beads when praying to Allah. 

I was fascinated by this type of elevator, which I never had seen before. I could not resist my 
curiosity and jumped in. all by myself. When I was nearing the top floor. I was the only 
passenger. 1 looked up and saw the ceiling ofthe building just a short distance above me. 
while the elevator continued to move up slowly. I thought my last hour had arrived and my 
skull would be crushed by the cement ceiling within the next few seconds. I was quite relieved 
indeed when at the last moment on the top floor the elevator shifted to the left and started 
going back down. 

Though about seventy years have passed since then, 1 never will forget this frightening event 
Nowadays people who have undergone such a dreadful experience most probably will need 
years of psychotherapy to overcome it. but fortunately I was able to cope very well without 
any such treatment. 

Siegfried and Tilly's daughter, Alice, married Dr. Albert Dreifuss. a surgeon and orthopedl^l 
in Hamburg. Dr. Albert, bearer ofthe Iron Cross, first class, which was bestowed on him I^vo 
2,?/ u' x'^*""'"^ '^ ^"^'^ ^^^ »' *" August 1914, died or was killed at the age o' 
m^ u 'k /u -^^^centration camp Theresienstadt. a few days atter he arrived there -' 
defL?.' f ^'"''^"''^ J^'*'^ *'«^ ^-^^^ the Nazis called Rassensclnimk' O'^'^ 

S r c\ ;h '!''''' r''^^^^ '' '^' ^^^> ^"^^"^t>erg race laws, against the preservation 
Si? 1^^^^^ ^-7'" ''''" "^ "^'^ ^" ^ff^- ^'th his housekeeper, after his wife Ahc| 
Riird d ^^^^^^^ '* ''^^'- '" -'^""^^ ' ^27. Albert and Alice had three children. Margre.i^ 


th Dreifuss is single and lives in New York. Depite her age. she is very active. She 

, . nviivM-er in an expiirl firm. She also goes swimming in the ocean on weekends. 

lavs tennis daily, weather permitting. She has a very good memory and supplied me 

^"- h'^r'luable information on the Korach and Bernhard families.. When Seldi and 1 are in 

^' Y k we always get together with her and her brother Curt and his wife Elaine. 

,|y^rd Dreifuss was a pediatrician. He practiced in England. He married an English nurse, 
^l' ila After World War II. Richard. Sheila and their son Anthony left for New York. Anthony, 
^^' -her died suddenly in 1^98. at the age of 55. Richard had a pediatric practice in New 
VTHe'divorced Sheila and married Lydia. who comes from Puerto Rico. Lydia, previously 
married to a Jewish man as well, had a daughter from her first marriage, Jacqueline, whom 
Richard legally adopted. 

Jacqueline married a Sephardic Jew; Adam Gershuni, whom she knew for eight years before 
uettin" married In 1093, after two years of marriage, the couple divorced. Jacqueline is 
Lin married now to Barry Assadi. They live in Redondo Beach, California. Their son Asher 
Reza was bom on December 27. 2000. Jacqueline has acquired a degree in occupational 
therapy at the university in Auckland. New Zealand. Richard and Lydia's son, Rene, who 
lived in Japan for some time, works now for a financial fimi in New York. Richard died in 
New York in late 1988. Lvdia is a specialized nurse. She worked at the oncology unit ofthe 
Montefiore Hospital in New York. She retired some time ago. In 1999, she moved to Orlando. 
Florida, where her mother lives. 

Richard owTied the same famil v oil portrait, somewhat larger in size, of our common maternal 
great-great-grandmother Fanny Liefmann ( 1 789-1 852), married to Heymami Philip Levy, a 
duplicate of which hangs in our dining room. I recently had it restored. It is also shown m my 
mother^s illustrated genealogical tree. The picture w-as painted in 1840 by the painter Popert 
who was Fanny's relative. In a letter Richard wrote me in 1981, he mentions this picture: 

"The prize possession is the oil portrait of our great-great-grandmother Levy- [nee 
Fanny Liefmann], which is of such quality that a Hamburg museum w^as bidding tor 
it when the Nazis auctioned our great-aum Fanny Bernhard's household, even thougn 
the museum knew that it was the portrait of a Jewish lady. Only through the dforts ot 
our faithful old Helene Jens (my grandparents' [Siegfried and Mathilde Korach s 
non-Jewish] housekeeper for over fifty years until their end), who bid agamst 
museum, was this picture retained in the family and reached me atter the war 

••We also had at home in Hamburg two splendid large oil portraits of our great^ 
grandparents Levy (her son and her daughter-in-law) [Samson ^^y"'^"" ^^"^^j^^ 
Amalie, nee Lowenheim. the parents of my grandmother Helene Levy w ho are^^s^^ 
shown in my mother's illustrated genealogical tree], but they were lost. M ^^^ 
great-great-grandmother Levy [nee Fanny Liefmann] was supposed to have 
best business brain in the family." 

Curt Dreifuss, Albert and Alice's youngest son. lives in New York. He has ^^^™ ^^^^^^^^^ ^ 
l"'^hnig equipment. He is married to Elaine. Their son Rodney, born March u^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ 
master's degree in business and hospital administration. He married Carol m - _^ ^^^^^ 
^^ughter. Elizabeth Margreth, born in 1996, as well as a son Peter Benjamin. ^ 
' ^^y live in Saint Louis, Missouri. 


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Fanny Levy nee L.cfmann. my maternal great-great- grandmother 




■ mother Leonie was born in 1 887. my grandparents had twin boys, who both died 
"'^'^ti r birth There was yet another boy, born in 1 890, who also died soon after birth. 
rTl and Helene had two daughters: my mother, LEONIE. who was bom on May 2. 1887, 
and inv aunt EDITH, bom on September 1 8, 1 888, both in Hanover. 


Fdith called Tiede married the banker Friedrich A. Straus from Karlsmhe, Baden. Fritz, as 
he was called was bom on September 29, 1 889 in Karlsruhe and died in Berl^eley, California, 
in 19S0 at the age of only sixty. He was one year younger than Edith. They knew each other 
for several years, when both still went to school, before getting married at the outbreak of 
Word War 1. 

Kh mother wrote a funny short story about her sister's wedding party, called "The Ducks." 
The party was scheduled for August 4, 1 91 4. My grandmother had ananged a large banquet 
,., U to 140 guests at the first-class Hotel Kasten m Hanover. However, the banquet had to 
b. cancelled shortly before the party was to take place, because most of the guests, who came 
trom other cities, cabled that due to the fact that war was imminent, they were unable o 
attend the wedding. Some of the food, such as the special order for ducks and lobsters, could 
n.,1 be cancelled with the hotel manageement any more. A small party consisting ot sixteen 
people only, as well as the religious ceremony, took place at my grandparents house. Ihe 
cook, Minna, had to prepare the fifty ducks supplied by the hotel. Most ""hem, along wih 
dozens of lobsters, had to be distributed to some officers and soldiers 'ha had just b en 
quartered at EmiFs house or at nearby bartacks. The morning alter the wedding, the young 
husband, Fritz, had to catch the early morning train to Karlsruhe at 6:03 a.m. to enlist. A very 
short honeymoon indeed! 

Fritz Straus was one of the partners of the traditional old family bank Straus & Company The 
bank was established in 1 870 bv his grandfather Abraham Straus. Fritz Straus son. '^ ^ 
Straus, wrote a ten-page manuscript. -Straus & Company - the history ot *eKarlsrtihe banking 
enterprise." In addition, Fritz Straus' son Werner (Vernon) Stroud, 'og^'her with Weme 
sister Eva B. Linker, wrote a one-page summary; "The history of the Straus ^^;''> ^"J '^^ 
Straus Bank." The following infomiation about the Straus Bank is based on 'hese manuscnp ^ 
Abraham Straus, his wife and six children came to the "metropolis Karlsrune in 
a small nearby village, Diedelsheim. In Karlsruhe he first began a business ^"'^ s^^^P j; 
He was assisted in this enterprise by his wife Babette, who - as happened ^o on« ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
families - possessed great business acumen. Later on he entered a P''"""'"'P' i^usiy 

tlie founding of the banking firm Straus and Company, at the same P''''=« ™"'' "^ ^ ^^-^^^ 
operated his scrap metal business. When Abraham died suddenly in IS/X ^_^^____^ ^^ ^ 
Abraham (1856-1934) replaced him and commenced his enormously success 
banker. Meier had been an apprentice at his father's bank starting in 1 87 1 ana wa 


*. r 

1 ^ 

I., ''. 







. ■ fAhriham-s death. He was called back to Karlsruhe and became, he 
n Berlin a, the ""- "J ^ta a^^ ^,^^^^^^ ^_^^^^ ^,^ ^^ ^.^ ^^^ „,-,^^|^^ ^^,^^ 

general manager of the hank, '"""t /^ ^^^^ ,^ ^^^_^^^_^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

charge of the fortunes of the bank. 

Under Meier Abraham's management, the bank participated in various industnal enterprises 
and even took over a railroad company on behalf ot the hank, later sold to the Baden Ra.l.aj 
Company Meier was ver>' enterprising and had a brilliant mind and great inventiveness. 
Under his direction, the bank's currem accoum business grew to large dimensions. During 
World War 1 he obtained the coveted title of Kommerzienrat, Councilor of Commerce, which 
was bestowed on him by the Grand Duke Friedrich of Baden, the same duke that had warmly 
supported Theodor Herzl and the Zionist movement at the turn of the century. 

Meier gradually enlisted the participation of the younger generation, his two sons-in-law and 
his son Friedrich A. Straus, who entered the bank in 1914. Fritz learned the banking business 
through practical experience at important firms abroad - in Paris. London and New York 
During World War 1. Fritz did militar. service in the artiller\' at the Russian and French front 
lines. During the post-war years, the connections abroad culti\'ated by Fritz bore good Iruil 
when it became vital to protect the bank against the ravages of intlation through the purchase 
of value-stable foreign currencies and credits. The bank played an important role channeling 
foreign credit into the South German economy. 

While the Straus bank was protected against inflation and its disastrous consequences by its 
clever way of investing in foreign currency, mainly dollar bonds, the same did not happen - as 
we have seen previously - to the bank Ephraim Meyer & Sohn, belonging to the family ot 
I-rilz Straus" father-in-law, Emil L. Meyer The Meyers always had - very patriotically - invested 
the bank's capital in German marks only. Straus & Co. conducted its affairs in a solid and 
realistic manner, following a conservative accounting policy, maintaining adequate balance 
sheet reserves, writing otTany doubtful debit balances. On the other hand, John Spiegelberg. 
who was in charge of the direction of Ephraim Meyer & Sohn, after Emil had suffered J 
stroke in 1924. undertook sizable loan guarantees on behalf of the bank in an iiresponsible 
and careless way. When the loans could not be repaid by the debtors, the bank faced payment 
difficulties. Straus & Company and other banks then came to its rescue, but finally Ephraim 
Meyer & Sohn had to be taken over by another bank, and mv grandfather Emil L. Meyer and 
his wile Helene, my grandparents, lost their whole fortune.' 

'n '.!f *■ ^'^':";'" ^^"^^'"8 ^"ffered a heav^ disaster linked to the American economic crisis 
O^ier 3 ,/u '"' "^'^' '^'^'"^ "'^^'^"^"y ^^^^b'i^hed banks, collapsed fmancu^lh 
cSitk r , ""'"^ '"'>' ^'^^^"^^ '"^"^^^^'^^^ intervention of the Reichsbank. Hk 
S h. WM ^^ Tir'' '''^'''- '" ^^^^^ ^ifi"-"'^ times Straus & Company rem.-n.; 
r^den" f' "^ ""' '"^^ ^^-^^-V -^^its whatsoever. During the peno^' 

norst depression. Straus & Company was able to punctually meet every one ot -'^ 


lent obligations abroad. In this way. valuable and profitable business connections remained 
Hitler rose to power, and eventually the Nazis succeeded in coercing business 

i Later on Hitler rose iupuwti,aii"a».v'-iiiu«iij' wi.^i-.a^iaau»-i-tcucuiin;uciuingDusiness 
'" ^'" ^ers of non-Jewish enterprises to close their accounts at Jewish banks. Between 1933 
. 1937 which was the last full year of existence of the bank, the current account business 
suffered a decline of 50-75%. 

Th bank was under the direction of the Straus family until 1938. the year Fritz Straus and 
if the family emigrated to the United States. That same year. Fritz and his partner at the 

h k had finalized a contract with a small savings bank, the Badische Bank, which then took 
the business and employees of Straus & Company. Later on. the name of the bank was 

changed to Baden-Wurttembergische Bank A.G., which is now a large bank. It is still located 

at the same place where Straus & Company was operating. 

Fritz Straus was a philanthropist. He was known in Karlsruhe as "the father of the poor." He 
also was very active in Jewish affairs, coming from a very traditional orthodox Jewish banking 
family. He was a member of the Council of .Tews in the province of Baden. Fritz and Edith 
always supported the needy. They were very kind and generous to my brother, my sister and 
me ■ both in Germany and later in the United States. They cared for us and presented us with 

After her schooling, which included a stay at a Swiss boarding school. Edith engaged in 
social work at an institution for sick orphans in Hanover. She liked horseback riding and 
obtained her driver's license as early as 1908. one of the first or maybe the first woman in 
Hanover to do so. Her home in Karlsruhe was a meeting point for intellectuals, sculptors, 
painters and scientists. She had various hobbies, such as textile painting, leather work, wood 
carving, photography and bookbinding. 

Her greatest interest, however, was gardening. She had a large garden in Karlsruhe. It was 
there that in the 1930s young people preparing to go to Palestine made their hachsharak a 
mostly agricultural training for a future pioneer life in a kibbutz. Anita S. Linker, Edith s 
granddaughter, said about her grandmother: "Edith continued her passion of gardening in 
Berkeley, where she tended peach and apricot trees in the backyard and made jams trom 
them as well. Her home was always a place of celebration. Her big Passover and Hanukkah 
dinners kept our family - uncles, aunts, cousins - united.- Edith's children Werner and Use 
further mention. "When my mother Edith Meyer Straus first came to Karlsruhe ^^ter her 
marriage, she had a hard time getting used to the orthodoxy of her new parents-m-law. She 
had been accustomed to a much more liberal, relaxed attitude toward Judaism in her own 

Fntzand Edith and four of their five children emigrated to Berkeley. California in 1938. Fritz 
^^^>^ again active in the banking field as an associate of the Bank of America in San Francisco. 
SelJ. and I visited Aum Edith twice in Berkeley in the 1950s after Uncle F^^t^.^/^f ^ " 
1^'MJ. She was a wonderful person - as kind and sweet as her mother Helene. Edith aiea 
August 22. 1966 at the age of seventy-eight. 

Fritz and Edith had five children in the span of five and a half years: Werner. Use. Gerda, 
Erwin and Eva, all born in Karlsruhe. 


,„„,,,, 7 1917 Since he was a soldier in the British Anm 
WERNER (Vemon) was bom on Aufc • ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^.^ ^^^ ,,^^, ^^,^^^^, ^^ . ^ ,^-^ 

during World War 11, he f "f ''J ^ ,, i„„ig,ant soldiers, in the event that they would 
in the British army, in order to Pf««;«J^ „,- ^,, Werner married Flora, bom ,„ 

,a„ into the hands ot the N-- b com " P^> ° ^.^^.^^^^^^^ ,,,,,, Wemer.orkeo 

Scotland.ofEas.ej.Jew-»^^^^^^^ ^^,, ^^, ^,,„,,, ^,,„,,, ^^,„^, 

nrr:%S a2t:': ,n November 1990. at the age of eighty-three. 

,.SEwasbon,onC...r.,...S. — «™^^^^^^ 

SSSiS^:"- «^^>- -. in Berkeley on .une 2V. ... 
Phil died on February 28, 2001.. 

ERWIN (Irwir.), born on February' 2. 1920. served in the U.S. army during World War U and 
after the war ser^'ed in the U.S. occupation army in Germany tor a time. He lived m Neu 
York where he owned an import-export business. His first marriage was to Lotte Gerson. 
who worked together with him at his business. They had two children - Howard, who lives in 
California and Peggy, who married an Italian and lives in Italy. After Irwm divorced Lolte. 
he married Maxene. Irwin who had business in Brazil, came to visit us once in Porto Alegre, 
He died in New York in 1980. 

GERDA. bom on January 31,1921. married Haim Barki. an Israeli. Haim died young and 
Gerda married another Israeli. David Mathan. from whom she is divorced. Gerda has three 
children, a son Dan from her first marriage, and two daughters from her second one. Dalia 
and Margalit. Margalit married in 1991 and has two sons. Dalia also married recently. Gerda 
is a photographer in Berkeley. Ca. She published a photographic book. She is a very enterprising 
person, who likes to travel abroad. We once met her incidentally on a crowded street in 

EVA was bom on December 22. 1922. She is married to Henry Linker, a retired optometrist, 
born in 1923. They live in El Cerrito. California and have three sons and three daughters; 
Anita, born on October 16. 1950; Fred, bom on March 25. 1952: Sharon, born on April 21. 
1 953; Debby. born on December 25. 1 954; Larry, bom on September 20, 1 956; and Joel, bom 
on September 27, 1962. Eva and Anita undertook the editing of the first version of my 
manuscript, "My Family History." Anita received her B.A. from the University of California- 
majoring in English. She is now training people on various computer software applications. 
Fred and his wife recently adopted a little Chinese girl. Amy. 

ONIE OLIVEN NEE MEYER - (1887-1948) - My Mother 

M nther Leonie, sometimes also called Loni, was bom in Hanover on May 2, 1887. She 
di. . the age of sixty in New York, on February 16, 1948. She was a very mtelligent 
en: ...lie and outspoken person. She did not hold back her judgment and opinions about 
01! ..eople who were not to her liking, and told them frankly what she thought of them. She 
hac .be same impetuous temperament as her father Emil. shouting loudly when she was 
an^.y. Despite her temperament, my mother was vet7 kind-hearted. She liked to play tenm 
I anc ride horseback. As a young girl, after finishing school, she did social work wiA small 
chiJ^en, in a daycare nursery. Leome had many interests and hobbies, such a^ painting, 
mi.: -, writing, history, art history, literature, and later on family genealogy, etc, As a young 
girl 'j^ic also dedicated herself to her mother's very valuable autograph collection. 

She started to write a diary in 1901 , when she was fourteen years old. She filled seven volumes 
ovci . period of twenty-seven years. These volumes give an interestmg insight into ner • 
from, an early age until the late 1920s, when she was a mamed woman with ^^^ ^!"'^ ^ 
They illustrate her personality much better than anything else. The following quotations 
a few samples from Leonie's earliest diaries: 

Mi (at the age of 14): 

"They say I was very pretty as a child, but this has decreased, as time has go"^^y. 

"I could write perfectly well at the age of five and make calculations extraorainan y 


"Tor lunch I got a napkin which consisted of nothing but holes." ^^ 

"Oily [her cousin]is beautiful, except for her slanted nose and a few trecKies. 

"When she keeps her mouth shut, she looks intelligent." 

"Mama and Papa went to the horse races [...] but they only lost. 


The train stopped for twenty minutes. [...] I believe that the conductor has not had 
his breakfast yet." 

"In the evening there was a social gathering. The music staged with a song - more 
w ong notes than correct ones. Two opera smgers shouted the.r songs nobody 
understood them. A theater play, too long, spoken miserably. One could understand 
the prompter better than the actor. [...] At the end the curtam went down too early, so 
that the end was missing." 

"Then there was dancing. The men - all peasants. The gentlemen were more fit for a 
pigsty than for a dancing party." 

"She [one of the guests] was very ugly, danced miserably; when she danced a waltz, 
she hopped as if it were a polka. Everybody asked her ironically for a dance - one 
only - to take leave then right away. On her giant flat feet she wore size forty-two 
peasant shoes." 

"Mr. Netzer is a bachelor, the biggest thing he got is his bald head. Very bad manners." 

"A fat phamiacist, big merchant, who has everything and thinks he is very cultured, 
just because he knows four words of French." 

"The Rempens. ordinary peasants, he a butcher, she a cook. Their daughter, a terribly 
cross-eyed prima donna." 

"Dr. Kaufman, my govemess' friend, an American engineer, a fool, moon-faced, but 
supposed to be clever. He is the last in the list of dignified hotel guests analyzed by 

"In Hildesheim the 1 000-year-old rose-bush which we visited keeps its age forever." 
"Prising danced with me, breaking all my rips." 

"In Marienbad. [a world-renowned spa, mainly for weight-reducing, known as 
Mananske Lazne today, to which people flocked from many countries, including 
m^ny hussuhc Rebbes in their typical garb], the geisha sang English only and wore 
an mdecem low-necked dress. A Russian lady who was sitting in from of us wore 
about one and a half million worth of jewelry." 

"In the afternoon, people usually go to the fountain from 6 to 7 o'clock, to be admired 
are enr"^ T^t ^''^^' '^^' ^'' '''" "^^^^ ^'^8^"^ ^han oneself All the nationalities 
bt oS p T"u^ ^'"'''"'- ^"^"'^^^ *^d*^^ ^ith buck teeth, loaded with a 
rasonnr :■ ? u'^"'' '^'''"^'^^ ^'••^- I ^"^ ^t a loss in understandmg the 
S t .' r'"p "'■ ^''*" *^ ''^''''^''^ ^i^h its haute voice. [...] one being 
than the other. Poles can be seen wUh long cloaks and black beards." 

r^Pe^^^^^^^^^^^^ '"'^ ! -^ ^-"S Mr. Dahlhe.m. He is very dumb, had to 

Classes m school several t,mes. ^Do you play temiis?' I replied, 'Yes, but not 


very well." He. 'Usually those who do not play tennis well are good at school.' I, 
after a while. 'You play tennis very well, don't you?" "Why?* T just thought so'." 

\q02 (at the age of 15) 

fMy dancing partner] Elias not only danced horribly, but also smelled of bad hair oil. 
He would either run into the column [of the dance hall] or run into Miss Otling [the 
dancing teacher]." 

■*Cari sat very close to me in a corner. I gave his chair such a strong push that he and 
the chair glided over the polished parquet and landed in the middle of the room." 

"Ml the girls in my school class belong to the lower-middle class. When I simply tell 
ihem about our life at home, they believe 1 am exaggerating and boasting. They just 
cannot imagine such a way of life as ours." 

"Undoubtedly. 1 am the most gifted one and have the greatest universal culture, which 
is very useful for my life, but 1 never study for school. That's why I am never the best 
[in my class]." 

From April 1904 to January 1905. at the age of seventeen, my mother was sent to a Jewish 
boarding-school for girls in Wiesbaden. Among the girls, many were hohere Tochter. as the 
daughters of the upper-class were called at that time. The girls came from many diff"erent 
countries. The time she spem at the boarding-school was quite an experience for my mother. 
Her dormitory was located on the first floor. She mentions in her diary. "This was our dear 
first floor where such a nice, funny and friendly atmosphere prevailed and seldom were there 
quarrels or gossip. On the second floor there was the dormitory for children from parents not 
belonging to the upper-class (Kinder einfacherer Eltern), but among them there were also 
very nice ones who in part were greatly attached to me." (These class dift'erences were typical 
at that time). 

Leonie and Edith had either a Mademoiselle or an English governess, who lived with them to 
further their knowledge of French and English. My grandparents Emil and Helene. together 
with their daughters Leonie and Edith, used to travel a lot. They wem to many places m 
Germany and abroad, and nearly every year they went to the famous spa Manenbad (now 
Marianske Lazne in Czechoslovakia). Many people went there for weight reducmg, dnnkmg 
mineral water from the springs. 

The Meyer family was very large. Their social life centered around the family. Leonie had a 
great number of first and second cousins, aums. great-aums, uncles and great-uncles, no 
only in Hanover but also in various other German cities. She traveled frequently, visiimg 
some of these relatives, accompanied sometimes by her parents. 

my mother was twenty-two. she spent some time in Berlin staying wUh her unc e 
and aum Ella Freudenstein and their children. Leonie loved to travel to berim ^^^ 
^ui of provincial Hanover and to stay in the more cosmopolitan capital. One ^venrng _ 

'"vued to a party there, which took place at a private home. As a special honor, me j 
'^'--year-old Mr. Rudolf UUstein, the rich newspaper heir, was seated next to 
d'nner table. As my mother memions, "he was unpleasant, blase, as only a perso 



^/ * K. 






the table [ ] When he looked at the menu, 1 
Berlin can be. and talked to Cher g""'^^'^",,^ ,„„g ^nd 1 am not yet nd of you.' - He ua. 
said snappily ■Unfortunately the men 

■ had in 1909 that mv mother met my father. Dr 
„ was during one of her '^^^l^/" " ,, peige. a relative of my father's who also knev 
Fritz Oliven. He was introduced to ner y ^^^^ ^.^^^^^ ^^^^. j^_. -^ ^ g^^^, coinmandmen, 

my mother's family. She was one ot no ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ „,^„,,ge „f ^^y „„„,„■ 

a miizyah. to arrange Jewish "''^'J. _ ^itj, Kurt Frankel. At the time, my father 

eousin, Rena Meyer, daughter ot S egn ^^^^^^^^^f^, ^^tirical verse books. My fatter. 

Leonie writes about their ftrst meeting in her diary: 

• u ,K„r nf the well-known Rideamus verse books, which are as 
"Dr. Oliven ts the ^"'"or of the wel Uno ^^^^^ ^_^ ^^_^^^_^^^ 

audacious as they are -" ^ .^J ^ youn g^^^^ 

audaciousness, considered unsu>table tor young g ^ .^^^ ^^^ 

and that it depends very much on the young girls hereto 4 ^^^^^^ 

- ""Vot :rrh^:^!™;L;wroi;s:r:s::,ne^ 

everything of an erotic nature, never an insinuation, an ambiguity. 

"1 did not mention his books during the first days - and he was too modest to do so^ 
He was a lawyer but had neglected this completely because of his verses [..J 
general. I thought his talents were not so phenomenal, a nice capacity to make rhyme . 
10 observe, to make points - but later, as a main profession, not worthy ot a serious 
man. 1 liked to have conversations with him frequently - and he wanted to marr> 

But Leonie could not make up her mind and was sorry to have to disappoint him in their as 
conversation before he had to leave the spa. My mother writes: 

"Attheend.ashehadlotravel.hesaid.-Soyoustay until the 15'"?* ^Yes.' 'So when 
Iconic on the 12'\ will 1 still see you?* i don't think so.' He lowered his head an 
understood. He bade adieu quite shortly. 1 was so dismayed that 1 forgot to wish 
a nice trip. Then he let^. My answer was as illogical as stupid, but it expressed w 
1 wanted to say." 

In Hanover, meanwhile, many young Jewish marriage candidates were presented to Leo ■ 
by her father and other people. Her parents became somewhat uneasy, because so far Leon^^ 
had not accepted any of the possible candidates. She was not in such a hurry as her par^" _^ 
especially her father, who was pressuring her. She preferred to wait for the ideal bus J"^^ 
who would share her interests and have the same intellectual level, a man she really cou 
fall in love with. This, of course, worried her impatient father very much. 

After two years had elapsed since Leonie and Fritz met in Marienbad for the first time, ihey 
met again in Berlin in 1911. Mr. and Mrs. Feige had invited her to have lunch at a restaurs 
and Leonie came to that place. 


Iv Fritz Oliven was standing beside the Feiges. At once we were good friends 
On the way back, we discussed issues about the way of living, and we always had 
^^^'"dfferent opinions! He always said that he was not doing anything, lying on the sofa 
?mlking verses], and I explained to him that I had a different nature." 

■ ,u^., tx/pnt to the theater and had dinner afterwards. Fritz's two married sisters came 
In the evening tney wcm iv^ 
Ing that evening, out of cunos.ty to meet Leon.e. 

•I nnnved Fritz just on account of my contrary spirit. Next morning I woke up and a 
rosXuquet was brought to my bed. I murmured all the time. •Nothing wUl come out of 
,t. Our ways of living are too different.' 

■Just then the phone rang. Mrs. Feige wanted to see me. When I came to her place, she 
H hrhusband scolded me very much, because I was treatmg the Doktor [Fntz] m such 
Tna ; iay "mng - that he was too good for me and that after the way . treated h,m 
a!, evemng, I should now stay away from him, he would be through w,th me. When 
d her he wanted to meet me at 12 o'clock, she was quHe surpnsed and sa,d he was too 
good fir me and that . would altogether spoil hts good humor [ he needed very 
much to write satirical verses]." 

r, for the first time." 

Aing to depend fmancially on the broad public's opmion. 

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Page from Leonie's diary, dated 1911 about meeting her future husband Fnlz Oliven again 


On January 16, 1912, my parents got married 
in Hanover. As per the marriage contract in 
my possession, Leonie received a dowry fioni 
her father, Emil, in the amount of 300,000 
marks, and an additional 12,500 marks for 
"help to her father in commercial matters." 
In addition, Emil opened an account at his 
bank in Leonie's name, into which he 
deposited 25,000 marks as 'pin money The 
income from this account was to be pa^d to 
his daughter for small expenditures. 

Emil also arranged for my father i. 
appomted Aufsichtsrat, member oi 
supervisory board of several industnal h, 
such as the Breitenburger Portlandces 
A.G. and other ones. Ephraim Meyer & ' 
had large investments in these firms ano 
Emil was entitled to obtain these proii 
positions for his sons-in-law and 
relatives. In return, all my father had 
was to travel to the factories once a year, ; 
to and sign the aimual report and balance sheet, take an inspection stroll through the . 
together with the other members of the supervisory board and one of the directors 
having been duly supplied with a dust-cloak in order not to soil his elegant clothes ■ 
case of the Portland cement factory), and cash his annual check. The event concluded v, 
festive lunch or dinner. When 1 became aware of this later on, my sense of social ju 
rebelled against the fact that a member of the supervisory board earned more in one da) 
a plant worker in an entire year. 

The young couple at Emil and Hclenc Ml . 
Hanover October 1912 
















My father was a member of the supervisory board of the Breitenburger Portlandcemen* 
for about 25 years and had the best relations with the directors of the firm as well as Wi' 
other board members. It was only in 1938 that he was fmally obliged to resign froi 
position due to Nazi pressure. That year he participated in the board meeting for the lass 
but did not attend the banquet that followed later on. He handed to one of the board meo 
witty verses about his activities while on the board and about the firm's directors, whicl- 

to be read confidentially during the banquet. In his verses, he hinted in a veiled wl; 

maybe one day things would change for the better. Three of the participants at the b.' 

replied with a few verses, thanking my father for his activities on behalf of the firm. 

verses were signed "We, the ones that have remained." I still have in my possession my 

father's verses and the reply. 

After the wedding, my mother moved to Berlin where a fully furnished, very large aparlr'-'^nlj 
including a Bechstein grand piano, waited for her. Perfect maids relieved her from all hou<: ■ old 
work, so that she could dedicate herself to social work. Many years later, in 1925, when ner 
father's bank ran into difficulties, she wrote in her diary longingly "How beautiful it was. 
when one could depend on the security of big capital![...] When we got married in 191^- ^^ 
had a [yearly] income of 55,000 marks without Fntz having to earn one cent. We could aiiora 


enormously big. magnificent [rented] apartment and buying everything that pleased 
to have ^ sDlurced. we were always conscious of money. We had no money wornes 
us. but we ^^ [theater director] Haller showed up and asked Fritz to write 

J T'i mT trie ^Viir till***'" ^ *■ 

reoperetta] O/e drei alien Schachfeh: and the money flew in. 

Iked to ride on horseback, she had a horse in Hanover called Lady and after her 

^^ , ' he owned a horse in Berlin called Panther, which was ridden at official horse 

mamage s ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ professional horseman and won various prizes. As my mother 

^"'"?t"^ lay tennis she entered the tennis club -Blau Weiss "m Beriin. Leonie also liked to 

' Juy the piano and engaged a lady violinist to accompany her. 

UuNLeiioinghethorseLady inHanoverin 1911 - u t 

1 1918, my parems took an option for the purchase of a house, ^ut at the e^^^^^^^^^ 
>.., during the revolution, mv mother wrote in her diary. "We gave ^^^'J^'^^^^^ 
I house - what will remain of our money at all? - Our beautiful apartment. Maybe we will 
^ expropriated as in Russia. Who knows what will happen tomorrow or in a year. 

My mother took all economic and practical matters into her own hands ^^J^^^^^"^^^^ 
wnter, was not suited for these things. Leonie controlled the »"^^'\"'^"' ' ^^j ^^.rary 
etc., as well as my father's income, such as royalties from his ^P^^'f^^^^^^ ^.^^^h jo 

production. Leonie was very efficient in the administration ot the lamj ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 
supplement the family income, though there was no need at all, my m ^^^ g^^^^^^ a 
rented out a room in our big apartment in Berlin. Once t^^/ J;"''l ^^^^ ^^arriage 

Jewish mamage broker (ShaJchen). When in the absence of '^'^y'^'^JJ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^e more 
candidate phoned, my mother, unsolicited, managed her affairs, tel '"^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^lore 
generous when taking out his prospective bride, or telling the girl o ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 

liberally, if she really wanted a mamage to occur. From time to time l . ^ to a 

of my father's many expensive tailor-made little-used suits, without his 





.^ -^ 



A •» 

144;.ined that Herr Dokwr had put on too much weight, so that 

^nrnarhino in 1938/39, Leonie arranged everything all by liersell 
When our em.gratmn was apprchm8.„ ^^^^ ^ _^^^^.^.^_^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

'" rr:hSrS — Ty on GrLe Han*urgers^ 

SI™— ^^^^^^^^^ 

c nd he sale of many other objects. She also took care ot the ot the wooden cases 
for steamer shipment and of the hand baggage, which all had to be previously inspected by a 
German custom-house offical before being officially sealed. 

I, was really remarkable how well Leonie managed in the emigration process under extremely 
difficult and different conditions from those she was used to. Brought up m a "ch banker s 
home well-off in Berlin alter her marriage, she was able to manage the household m Porto 
Alegre Brazil, consisting of my father, my mother, my sister and (during the first two years) 
of me She had very little money at her disposal. In order to obtain a little extra income, she 
rented out one of the rooms in the house we lived in in Porto Alegre. Though she never had 
done so before, she took up all kind of household chores, such as cooking, darning socks, 
etc., without ever complaining. It was really admirable how courageously she faced the adverse 
conditions of emigration during the short time she still lived in Brazil. 

In 1947 my mother Leonie became seriously ill. We, her children - John, Susi and myself - 
decided that it would be best for her to fly to New York, as medical treatment was more 
advanced there. John and my sister-in-law, Charlotte, took care of Leonie in News York. First 
she stayed with them, but soon she was moved to a hospital, where she was operated on. She 
died in a nursing home in New York shortly after, on February 1 6, 1 948, at the age of sixty. 

My parents had three children, after the first one, a girl which should have received the name 
Marianne but was stillborn. All children were bom in Berlin. Hans (John P.). bom on .lune 
26, 1914,diedinNewYorkonJanuary6, 1975; Susanne (Susi), bom on April 16, 1916. died 
in Lake Oswego, Oregon, on October 24, 1999; and Klaus (myself), bom on January 20, 




\ diverse documentation is available for researching the family history on my mother's 
^' ^ h less material exists on the Schottlanders, my paternal grandmother's family, and 
Wve,^- little only on the Olivens. 

■ 1, re for example, three competent amateur genealogists in the Meyer Family, Walther 

M '^'V^^dele Freund and my mother Leonie Oliven, who all drew up Siammhaume (genealogical 

.' 'i^ooing back many centuries. There also exist diaries of the period, written by members of 

T' fimilv all kinds of reports, newspaper clippings, etc.. of which 1 could avail myself. All this 

d!'elentation was most useful for the f-.rst part of my family history. 

One of the few documents available on the Oliven Family is an eleven-page report (of which 
two pages are missing), probably commissioned from a rabbi living in the region, who researched 
ih- manor books (facsimile records) and tombstones of the Jewish communities of Lissa and 
S hmiegel in Posen The memor books of the Jewish communities in Germany were written 
exclusively in Hebrew umil around 1 830 and from then on in German. In addition, there exists 
a .hirtvpage "Special Report" on my father. Dr. Fntz Oliven. and his family, commissioned by 
„n grandfather. Emil L. Meyer, in 1909. m order to obtain as much information as possible 
about my father, a prospective son-in-law, as well as about the Oliven and Schottlander families. 

The Oliven family, according to old documents, originates from the old Jewish community of 
Lissa now known as Leszno, about seventy miles north-east of Breslau and about ten miles 
north of the border between Silesia and the province of Posen. Lissa was one of the larges 
Jewish communities in the province of Posen in Prussia. It became Polish after 1919. The 
Jewish community of Lissa existed from 1534, many of its members engaging in handicraft 
and being organized in guilds. The Jews held key positions in trade and maintained "^mercial 
Hnks with other countries. Thev suffered severely in the Swedish Wars in the seventeen^, cenUiry. 
Their number dwindled from five thousand in 1790 to a few hundred before World War 11. 

The Oliven family is a Levite family, as evidenced by the Levite jugs shown on the oldest 
preserved tombstones of this family at Lissa's old Jewish cemetery. The jugs were used by me 
' Levites for laving the priest's hands before the latter blessed the people. The L^^^^ "'= 
Idescendants of the tribe of Levi, consecrated by Moses to serve in the worship that took p ace 
at the Tabemacle and to instruct the people. The family name Oliven was already in use Peto 
1800. h is memioned for the first time in the lists of the Jews of Lissa around '"5^ aner 
Pmssian occupation of that part of Poland. Therein the name Oliven is written in Hcore 

y T 1 ^ •? s 

On the older tombstones the family name is not mentioned. The family is identified thereon as 
a Levite family only. On later tombstones the name is spelled: 

W oldest ancestor of the Lissa Levite family Oliven who could be traced ^^' {^^'^™,,•of 
I(JONAS) HA-LEVI, of whom we know only his name. He must have hved m the 
^he eighteenth century (in Lissa ?). 

t • 

-^ j-^ t \^]Qiiff\'f J Kit' 

j*. ^{ i^{'^^ 

"■^r<>; . *' 

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JAKOB IBENl JONATHAN OLIVEN - (ca. 1730-1801) 

my great-great-great-grandfather 

Jakob Jonathan was the son of Jonathan (Jonas) ha-levi. He was bom around 1 730 and died 
,n 1 801 . He was a commission agent and settled m Lissa. Around 760 he married Sarel. a 
dmiinutive fomi of Sara. She was bom around 1 740 and died m 1 807. Jakob Jonathan Oliven 
had several children who. as far as is knowTi, were merchants or agents. In 1796/97 there 
were already two Oliven families in Lissa. The family of Jakob Oliven is mentioned under 
number 711 of the record book of the Jewish community in Lissa. It then consisted of three 
members only, in accordance with the following reproduction of the Hebrew original, because 
the other children by then were either married or had left the paternal home: 

1-amily #711: Commission agent Jakob Jonathan Oliven 65 years old 

Sarel 56 years old 

Michael Lob 25 years old 

Jakob Oliven died on Tammuz 27, 5561 -July 8, 1801 - and is buried at the Jewish cemeter) 
in Lissa. The Hebrew inscription on his tombstone, row I no. 357. mentions his piety and 
righteousness, His wife Sarel died on Tammuz 28, 5567 - August 2. 1 807 - and is buried at 
the same cemetery, row VI no. 1 022. On both tombstones the name Oliven was not mentioned. 
I have no information whether these and the other old tombstones of the Oliven family, as 
well as the cemetery in Lissa {now Leszno) itself, survived World War 1 1 . 


MICHAEL LOB OLIVEN - (ca. 1768-1848) 

my great-great-grandfather 

\i h el Lob (also called Michael Lobel) was the son of Jakob Jonathan. He was bom in 
1 ssa around 1768 and died there on March 3, 1848. He is listed in the family register of the 
1 -ui'sh community of Lissa. written in Hebrew, as szocher, or merchant. In 1797 or 1798 he 
urried Hanna (Channa). also spelled Hanne (Channe), bom around 1780 in Lissa. She died 
there on December 24, 1 846. 

Until the first decades of the nineteenth centur>'. Jewish family registers in Germany and 
elsewhere, including the province of Posen, which belonged to Prussia from 1772 until 1919. 
with brief interruptions, always used the Jewish calendar only, which is a lunar type and 
differs from the Gregorian solar calendar, 365 1/4 days long. The Jewish year contains only 
3Mdays (six months that are 30 days long and six months 29 days long). To compensate the 
ditference between the solar and lunar year the Sanhedrin added a thirteenth lunar month 
every so often. The month so added is called Adar Sheni ("Second Adar") and the year, a leap 

Therefore, as in the present case for instance, where only the Jewish year was indicated in the 
Hebrew familv register, it cannot be determined if the corresponding year ot Michael arid 
Hanna's marriage was 1797 or 1798. Indications of the year, month or day thus may differ 
slightly in these cases. Even when the Jewish day and month are known, there often exists a 
difference of one day in the corresponding date on the common calendar. This is due to the 
fact that the days of the Jewish calendar start in the evening of the previous day of the solar 
calendar, with the rising of the first star. 

It was also common use for Jews who were bom on a Jewish holiday to celebrate their 
birthday not by the Gregorian calendar, but by the Jewish holiday on which they were bom. 
In this way. of course, everv year their birthday fell on different days of our common calendar 
1 did not know my grandfather. Julius Oliven. who died long before 1 was bom. but my lather 
lold me that every year he celebrated his birthday on Shemini Aizerei, the tinal day ot Succor 
His brother-in-law. Julius Schottlander. celebrated his birthday on Sfwshan Purmu the secona 
day ofPurim. These were the Jewish dales on which they were bom. 

When around 1 830 the situation of the Jews in Posen was regulated. Michael Lobel obtained 
l-Duldungs=eNif,kaf - the certificate of tolerance no. 418. Michael Lob and Hamia 
five children, all born in Lissa; 

1. Nehemias. born in 1797 

2. Jonathan, born in 1801. died in 1804 

3. Jakob, bom around 1802 ^tthp<;naBad 

4. Israel Chajim. bom on January 28. 1 804, died on July 20, 1873, at sp 
Warmbrunn. He was my paternal great-grandfather. 

5. Sara, bom about 1817 


f - .-. 


The second son was named after his grandfather Jonathan. He d.ed at the age of three. ,„ 
1 804. In the same year m> great-grandfather Israel Chaj.m was born. 

In the first Jewish family register of Lissa. written in German dated about 1833. with later 
supplements Michael Lobel's family is registered under no. 695. His family at that i,me 
consisted of three persons only: he. his wife and his daughter, as shown in the reproduct 
from the original. His sons had already left the paternal home. 



Family no. 695 

Michel Lobel 



68 years old 
55 years old 
19 years old 

commercial employee 

Channa died on Tevet 5. 5607 - December 24. 1846 - in Lissa. She is buried at the Jewish 
cemetco in Lissa. row V!, no. 537. On her tombstone the family name Oliven is shown in 
Hebrew writing for the first time. Michael Lobel died in Lissa a short time after, on Adar 1 28. 
5608 - March 3. 1848. buried in row VI - no. 972. On his death certificate, issued by the 
Jewish community of Lissa, his name is shown as Michael Leib Oliven. 



.^■0 X * 

■ \ ■ . 

* V ■ 

Heymann Michael Oliven 

Berta ( Bliinichen) Oliven nee Danziger 



my paternal great-grandfather 

1^: :■■ ' 4 

Is! > i Chajim is first mentioned in the register of the Jewish families of Lissa of the year 
55^' - 1804, written in Hebrew, which was organized 3 months after his birth, listing his 
fat'icr's family; 

Far-iyno. 439 

Michel Lobel Oliven 




Israel Chajim 

36 years old 

23 years old 

7 years old 

2 years old 

3 months old 

Israel Chajim was bom in Lissa on January 28, 1 804. He was a furrier, a popular profession 
among the Jews of Lissa at that time. There was even a Jewish ftimer guild m Lissa, to which 
he certainly must have belonged. Later on he established a retail fabric and dry goods shop 

On December 24, 1829 Israel Chajim (usually called Heymann Michael or Heimann Michel 
orJustHeimann, or Michael Heymann on my mother's illustrated genealogical tree)marmed 
Blumche (also spelled Blumchen or Blimche) Danziger She usually was called Berta The 
"damage took place in Lissa. Berta was bom in Schmiegel (Smigiel), Posen, in 1 804 and died 
'" ^'^^Tiitz (now Legnica) in 1 886. Her mother, Rebecca, lived in Schmiegel. 





■ ^■t 






f .. 


. -, • ■ .tinn from Schmieeel. is also a Levite family. MoseJehudaLobel 

Danziger ha-lev, -- '^"^^X ^^l Both died in Sch^egel. Mose Jehuda and Edel had 
"" Yeiri ) DaniS bo " around 1783, died on February 14. 1 827 in Schm.egel. 

BlUmcMllerta). who became the wife ofHeymann M.chael Oi.ven. was my paternal great- 

Heymann was naturalized in his home touTi Lissa on June 23. 1 837. On March 3 1 842. he 
obtained the citizenship for the old Prussian provinces. In the same year he moved from Lissa 
to Bolkenhain and a short lime later to nearby Liegnitz. now known as Legmca. Heymam 
died while al the spa Wannbrunn on July 20, 1 873. His wife Berta died in Liegnitz on November 
16, 1886. at the house of her son-in-law David Wiener. 

1 1 -^T^ 

tv fcj.'. 





my paternal great-grandparents 

My great-grandparents had seven children: 

1. Leiser [Eliezer] (Louis), born in Lissa on December 27, 1 830 - died in 1 8%. 

2. Jacob, born in Lissa on January 30, 1 833 - died on March 1 3. 1 908 in Berlin. 

3. Schaul(Salusch). born in Lissa on July 2, 1835 - died on November 12. 1885. 

4. Elijahu (Adolph), born in Lissa on June 22. 1 837 - died on October 26. 1 904 in Berlin. 

5. Mindel (Minna), born in Lissa on September 12, 1840 (yom shabbai godd) - died on 
July 12. 1915 in Liegnitz. 

6. Jonah, also Jonas (Julius), born in Liegnitz on September 26, 1 842 (heshemini atzeret 
betevet), died on June 21. 1910 in Berlin. He was my paternal grandfather. 

7. Elchana (Heinrich). bom in Liegnitz on Februar>' 21. 1848 - died around 1930 in 

! have a little notebook, written by either Heymann or Berta, wherein the names and birthdates 
ol their children are registered. Entries are written in Hebrew, with the dates of the Jewish 
calendar. Later on, the corresponding dates of the common era were added. After the name of 
each child the following Hebrew words are written: 

2 lU ^'C^ (rn^l3)1^13 ("n"2)*52 -■■bcm(biti)mlad(mledah)}emasaltov," 
meaning "my son (or daughter) - bom to be happy." Then the Hebrew birthdate of each child is 
shown. Mindel was bom on Shahbat Code! (gadol) and my grandfather Jonah on the Jewish 
holiday Shemini Atzeret. and this too was mentioned in the little notebook. 

Between the names of Jonah and Elchanan, a daughter is also registered, by the name of Perel 
(Pearl), born between 1 843 and 1 847, but for reasons unknown to me. her name and birth date 
have been crossed out. The only feasible explanation I have is that she probably married a gov 
(non-Jew), and therefore no longer existed, as far as her parents, as well as all strictly orthodox 
Jews, were concemed. 

It is very interesting to note that from the beginning of the nineteenth century - with assimilation 
progressing in Germany - the young Jewish generation started to change their Hebrew (or, in 
the case of women, sometimes Yiddish) first names. They had been registered by their parents 
\vith these names in the family record books of the Jewish communities, but adapted them 
later on to Gemian first names or changed them altogether. This was also the period when the 
Jews were forced by the govemmem to adopt family names instead of the patronymics alone, 
as used up until then. 

My maternal great-grandfather Meyer changed his first name from 
Paternal great-grandfather Oliven changed his from Israel Chajim to 
^^■niann. His wife changed her name from Blumche (Blimche 
"^^^cem lac.-.k ^i I. , . . .- . ■ _._ 1 ,.. I ^1 


— - ...J wuc Liiangea ner nam 
^^cept Jacob, also changed their first names. Leiser became Louis, 
^^lo- Elijahu became Adolf, Mindel changed her name to Minna, 
onas changed his name to Julius (Oliven), and his brother Elchana 

Levy to Louis, while my 
Heymann Michael or just 
Berta. All their children. 
Shaul became Salusch or 
my grandfather Jonah or 
became Heinrich. 











* " ' 
















^^ ^.ri 









1. LOUIS OLIVEN, bom on December 27, 1830 in Lissa. died in 1896 in Breslau. He 
married Johanna. Louis was the owner of a store that sold ladies' coats in Breslau; later 
sold dry goods, but he was not successful in his business. He was temporarily employ . 
his brother Jacob and later on he was a bookkeeper in the printing shop of his relativ 
Schottlandcr. Louis and Johanna had two daughters: one of them married Hirschberg. 
owner of a bookstore. The couple had a daughter and a son. 

2. JACOB OLIVEN, bom on January 30. 1 833 in Lissa - died on March 1 3. 1 908 in Berlia 
In 1 857 he married Auguste (Gustel) Schottlander, a daughter of Lobel Schottlandcr. She wa^ 
bom on November 5. 1 836 in Munsterberg. Lower Silesia. Jacob was established in Bres au 
with a wholesale textile firm. Later on he closed his firm and moved to Berlin. He and i'^ 
wife Augusle are both buried at the Jewish cemetery in Berlin Weissensee. It was opened in 
1 880 and is the largest Jewish cemetery in Europe, containing 1 1 5,000 graves. During ^*^^^^ 
War II the Weissensee cemetery served as a refuge for some of the surviving "illegal" Jew^^ 
who were hiding in mausoleums or found asylum under one of the tombstones. Jacob Oll^e 
established a large famiU grave at this cemetery, with eleven headstones. The number o 
Jacob's lamily tomb is 33196. 

,,,ob and Auguste had seven children: 


. , QCDT Ol IVEN was a neurologist who owned a sanitarium in Berlin-Lankwitz. He 
'' ^^^ rlr. mchen) Levy. The couple had no children. Albert died in Berlin m 1921 
';;;riSa^^^ Jewish cemetery m Berlin Weissensee. Clarchen died in Zurich m the 


h, D, MM OLIVEN W.S torn in Bresl.a in 1 860 .nd dkd m Btrlto in 19». H. i. bun.d a 

:ri« i. B.r.i„ «™^^ 
;:t,rworsj;nT,sip.n,.i,.— d,.o.»,.^^^^ 

(its Polish name is Boguslawice) from his cousins, the Pacully This 
garden park and was situated on the east side of Oels, Upper Silesia. 

When Hitler came to power. Fritz and Hilda emigrated to Vineland. N-je-ey- -here they 
had a chicken farm. Hilda, who is over ninety-five years od, ''--" ^a" N j. 
and Hilda Oliven had two children. Eleanor and^Conrad^ -- ^ -^^^ffi, ,„. 
manied Donald Rosenthal, bom on July 16, 1926. Ihey 'f ^^ '"" .,, . 5 born 

on October 3, 1957; and Daniel, bom on March 12. I960, both in ^^I'f^^n T^ 
on September 27. 1962; and Marion, bom on August 18. 196x both m Canton. N.Y. 

r» t K r "il 19''7 He married Roberta 
Fritz and Hilda's son, Conrad Oliven. was bom on October _ i . - ■ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

Bonnema, who is non- Jewish. He died very young on DecemDer .u, . • Gregory 


(Greg), bom around 1965. 

^A 11 IQQ^ Thev live in Washington, 
Laura Anne Oliven married Stephen Silbertarb on May --^L J^-^" ' ^^^ ^^^ Q{f,ce of 

DC. and have a little daughter. Laura is a health and ^:^'*^^^ "^"^^^^^ President. Stephen 
Managemem and Budget, which is part of the Executive Ofiice ot t e .^^^ ^^ ^^^ Brazilian 
also holds a government job. In 1997 my wife Seldi was '" ^a^*"' ^^^ ^ ^^^^ce to meet 
delegate for the convention of Na'amat Pioneer Women. She ^^^ ^^-^^j^ ^^^^ ^,oung 

Laura and Stephen personally. Seldi spent a pleasant evenmg at me 

f^PF V^■.*^'^>i'■'' 
J,,^* if' l^-' V ' ■ 

Ad'*' .1 

^. «1 

« kr 

* • 



'■ \ * * 

BHii ' * 

^■i ^«^^ 

^ , .' 


HlJ' - 







'^^ . ., , „„i_i Q94 while Seldi and I were in Washington. D.C. on a 

1 ■discovered- Laura '"'"i™^ '^^ ' • .broad, I look in the telephone directoo ot 

trip to the U.S.A. As .s my ^''^^^ °^'l^„,, Sehottlanders or Reifens (Seldi's famiK , 

wc immediately discovered our common ancestiy. 

Cathenne, in « and is. ex^^^ 

ZS^-^^St^^X^^^^ -- <° Heather and has three 01,.. 
boys - Benjamin. Caleb and Daniel. 

c) PAULA OLIVEN was mentally retarded and lived in an institution. She died in 1923 and 
is buried at the Jewish cemetery in Berlin Weissensee. 

dl LUDWIG OLIVEN married Else Morawetz in 1902. Else was bom on July 16, 1879. She 
came from a rich Jewish family in Bohemia (after 191 8 part of Czechoslovakia). Ludw.g ha 
an import-export business in Berlin. Later on he became the administrator ot the Karlsbad 
mineral water distribution in Berlin. He died in 1936 and is buried at the Jewish cemetery in 
Berlin Weissensee. His wife Else returned to Czechoslovakia after her husland s death. She 
committed suicide on June 10. 1942. upon being informed that she was to be transported to 
an extermination camp in Poland. On a visit to Prague in 1999 I found her name mentioned 
in the Czech form - Olivenova. Eliska - as well as the dates of her birth and death, at one ot 
the walls of the old Pinkas synagogue in Prague. 

This synagogue was built in 1535 and is situated next to the famous Old Jewish Cemetery. 
The names and personal data of the nearly 80,000 Bohemian and Moravian Jews who perished 
in the Holocaust are painted on the walls of this synagogue. It also contains the exhibiuon 
"Children's drawings from Terezin [the There sienstadt concentration camp] 1942-44. Ot 
the 141,000 Jews who were imprisoned there at one time or another, there were over 10,000 
children who were under the age of fifteen at the time of their imprisonment. Of the 8.000 
children that were again deported later on. from Terezin to the East, a mere 242 survived. 
The collection contains over 4,000 original drawings by these children. 

Ludwig and Else had two children, Robert and Lotte. Robert Oliven. bom in 1 903. emigrated 
first to Czechoslovakia, where he worked for the Karlsbader Mineralwasser Versand and 
later moved from there to the United States. In the beginning he worked for the same finn 
there. The invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Nazis in 1 939 and the outbreak of World War 11 
brought this business to an end. Robert was married several times but had no children. Later, 
alter the end of the war. he moved from New York to California, where his cousin Gerald 
Ohven lived. Robert died in Los Angeles in 1960. 

Lotte Oliven, horn in 1 906, married the banker Henry (Heinrich) Grunfeld, bom in Neisse- 
Upper Silesia in 1904. In 1934, LoUe and Henrv emigrated to London. Heni7 met there 
Siegtried Warburg, with whom he teamed up to create what has become London's lead-n^ 
investment bank. S. G. Warburg. After Warburg's death. Henry became its president, H. 
worked at the bank for over sixty years until the age of ninety-one. In 1 995, he finally gave 


"dency of the bank. That same year the bank was sold to the Schweizer Bank 
up the pre ^^^ uniting with the L'nion Bank of Switzerland, is today called the United 

J"„forSwitzerland. Henry died in 1 W9, at the age ofn,nety-f,ve. 

A Lotte had two children. Thomas and Luisa. Thomas, bom 1933. was twice married 
Henrjan ^^^^ Luisa was born in 1937 and died in 1985. She married Oscar Lewisohn 

""1 u , IIL sons- Mark, born in 1963; Richard, born in 1965: and .lames, bom in 1970. 
Tutai Oscar's daughter. Antta, bom m 1967, married on Apnl 29, 2000. 

HI 11 nA OLIVEN bom on May 1 6. 1 859. died in 1 930. In 1 879 she married consul Theodor 
PMich bom on November 17. 1849. died in 1930. He was the honorary royal consul of 
r „ for the nrovince Silesia in Breslau. He worked honorarily lor many Jewish and non- 
Ssl! beneficial institutions. Hulda and Theodor Ehrlich had three children, Lisbeth. Alice 
and Kathe. 

Lisbeth Ehrlich, bom on Februai? '4, 1880, married Georg Ledemram,. bom on April 6 
1 71 Lisbeth was very interested in family genealogy and wrote an interesting short manuscnpt 
.TheFS David Schottlander." (Israel David was Lebel Schottmnder-s father,. It contains 
vt hie information on the Schottlander Family. Lisbeth and Georg succeeded in 
SX t^e":: moment, in 1941. They arrived in theL|n,ted States in October 
1942. They lived in New Rochelle. N.Y. They had two children, Elli and Emst. 

Elli Ledem^ann lived in New York where she was employed by the -«> as a socia^ worker 
She did not marry She died at the age of ninety-six on June 3 . 1 999. Elli s brother Emst 
Hves InNew rk. He married twice and has three children from his second marriage. 

Alice Ehrlich, Hulda and Theodor's second daughter at.d Ludwig OUven's niece^ bom on 
January 22, 1884, married Moritz Morawetz, from Bohemia, which bcamno 
Czechoslovakia after WW I. Moritz was born in 1872 and died on May 1 1 ' - »™ 
brotherof Ludwig Oliven-s wife Else, nee Morawetz. Alice refused to ^^^"^W after * 
Nazis invaded the country, possibly because she fel, responsible f« ^e^ ^^'^ ^^^^^^^^^^ 
(who at the same time was also her aunt). Once she was asked to report to the W°^ ^^ 
she identified herself as Alice Morawetz only - omitting the name Sara, «J ^^ ^ 
mandatory additional name that the Nazis obliged all Jewish females to us -J^^^^ 
in her face so hard that she lost some teeth. Later, Alice was Reported to Lodz, Holan^ .^^^ 
some survivors reported, she worked as a nurse there and "'^^^1";^"'' /. „^ children, 
deported to Auschwitz, where she perished in 1944. Alice and Moritz had three 
Ludwig. Franz and Hella. 

Their oldest son, Ludwig Morawetz. bom in 1904. died of leukemia in J ^^^ .^^ died'in 
son. Franz Morawetz. changed his name to Frank Morton. He was ^"""^ .^ ^^44 

1990. He lived in Montreal and married Lida Mach. They had a son oeorg^ -^^ ^^^ ^^^^ .^ 
who was married twice and has five children. Alice and Moritz daugnt , ^>^^,^^ ^^^^^^ 
1910 and died in 1995. She was twice married, first to Charles Sachs, lai ^^^^^^^.h-^ 
They lived in Connecticut. Hella had no children. Kathe Ehrlich, Hulda ana 
youngest daughter, died at the age of nine. 


4 IL 


n O^r AR OLIVEN an engineer, married Sonnie Lowe. Her father was Isidor Lowe who, 
?oSr with his hrother Ludwig. owned the large weil-knowr. eompany Ludwig Low. 
A G T ey manufactured tool machines, electrica apphances. amis, ar^mumt.on, etc. The 
Srm b me the biggest arr^s supplier in the world selhng amis to Prussia Turkey Russia. 
S and many countries in South America. The firm was estabhshed by Ludw.g Lowe in 
1869 It started with the mass production of sewing machines, but soon switched to the 
more lucrative production of amis, in 1875. Ludwig. who was q^^te gifted technicalK, 
appointed his brother Isidor, a financial and organizational genius, as head ot the comnierc^l 
department In 1886. Ludwig, who also was a member of the German Parliament, died 
prematurely at the age of forty-nine. Isidor then became head of the tlrm and conducted its 
affairs very successfully. He founded the Society for Electrical Emerpnses Gesfurel. one of 
the largest financial institutions in the electrotechnical industry. Early in the century Oscar 
was sem to Buenos Aires by Gesfurel to supervise the electrification of the Argentine 
capital, of which Gesfijrel was in charge. The Lowe concern still exists in Germany today 
and maintains the name Lowe. 

Oscar Oliven became a director of the Ludwig Lowe A.G. and, af^er his father-in-law Isidor's 
death, succeeded him as chairman of the company. Oscar became very rich, mainly because 
of his marriage to Sonnie. the wealthy Lowe heiress. They had a very elegant villa in 
Berlin-Tiergarten, one of the most exclusive quarters of Berlin before the war. When Oscar 
emigrated to Switzerland in 1935, he succeeded in transporting out of Germany an original 
oil painting by Frans Hals. All baggage and cases belonging to Jews who were emigrating 
had to be officially inspected by German customs officials before being sealed and taken 
out of the country. Oscar told the customs agent in charge of the inspection that the Frans 
Hals painting was a family portrait, and thus was able to get away with it. Later on, Oscar's 
only son, Gerald (Gerhard), sold this painting in the United States for about one million 

Gerald lived in England during World War II and served in the British Amiy and Royal Air 
Force. Later on he went to the United States. He owned a nice house in Beverly Hills. 
California. He married Hedy Fischer (who is not Jewish). She had been a film actress in 
Germany in the early 1 930s. Seldi and I visited Gerald several times in Beverly Hills and he 
and Hedy visited us here once. He was a good tennis player and a great fan of this sport- 
Gerald and Hedy had no children. 

g) M ALWINE OLIVEN married Edmund Heller in 1 898. He was the director of the A.E.G. 
branch in Vienna. He died there in 1 92 1 . Mai wine emigrated to London. She wanted to join 
her married son. Walter, who lived in New York. She was so proud of her Oliven family 
name that she called herself Malwine Heller Oliven. This cost her her life, since the Amencan 
immigration otl.ce had her erroneously listed as Malwine H. Oliven. As a result, her departure 
to the United States was delayed until the war broke out. She then took a ship, but on the 

sJn, Se^di iir" """'" "' ''^'""^ ''''^''- ^^"^""^ ^"' "'^^""'^ 

is's^m Us?f H 'T'''' ?"" '^'^» ^^'^^^- -finally Schaul, bom on July 2. 

cgni z Ltt'n T:T: ''' ' '''■ "^ "^^--^ ''- *^ind. He had a textile store m 

^m^^t^' '^' ''"^ '^^^^^^^^- The eldest one, Martha, was raised in my 

y andparem Ohven s home m Breslau. She married the physician Dr. Max Troplowitz m 

Oppeln. Martha and Max had two daughters. The older one, Kate, married the physician Dr. 
Martin Wagner, who emigrated to New York. He was my brother John's family doctor in 
>iew York. The younger daughter, Erna, and her husband could not emigrate in time from 


Salusch and Ida's second daughter. Elisa, married Wachsmann. who had a textile store in 
Gleiwitz. The third daughter. Rosa, married the merchant Wagner in Breslau. Their son Martin 
Wagner was the above-mentioned physician, who married his cousin Kate Troplowiiz. 

4 ADOLPH OLIVEN was born in Lissa on June 22. 1 837 and died in Berlin on October 26. 
1904, He and his wife arc both buried at the Jewish cemetery on Schonhauser Allee. He 
married Klara Buchholz, born in Unruhstadt. Germany, on April 15, 1844. died on June 16, 
1914. Adolf and Klara had no children. Originally Adolph had a store selling ready-made 
clothing, but he did not prosper. Later on he established a banking firm in Berlin, dealing 
with mortages and real estate. His fimi also was the agent for the Swiss Life Insurance Company 
and the Zurich Pension Institute. After his death, the firm was taken over by Adolfs younger 
brother, Heinrich, who was already a partner during Adolfs lifetime. 

5. MINNA OLIVEN was bom in Lissa on September 1 2. 1 840 and died in Liegnitz on July 
12, 1915. She married David Wiener in Liegnitz. He had a stationery store there. Minna and 
David had seven children, Cacilie, Max, Anna, Paula, Else, Lina and Fritz. 

acilie Wiener was bom in 1 863 in Liegnitz and died in the concentration camp Theresienstadt 
in 1 943, at the age of eighty. She married Berthold Kohn, who died in Breslau in 1 92 1 . Their 
son, Walter, was bom in Breslau in 1892. He, his wife and their two children emigrated to 
Santiago. Chile, in 1936. where Walter died in 1938. Walter's wife. Minetta Kremski, was 
bom in Cracow in 1899. She died in Santiago in 1973. Walter and Minetta"s daughter Inge 
was bom in 1 922 and their son Gunter in 1 924, both in Breslau. Inge married Bemhart Waller. 
They had two children, Rene born in 1944 and Alicia, born in 1945, both in Santiago. They 
and their children now live in the United States. 

Gunter (now Gaston) Kohn is an agricultural engineer. He graduated in food technology. 
earning a Ph.D. at the University of Massachusetts in 1953. Gaston moved from Chile to the 
United States in 1949. He married Joanne Newman, a school teacher. She is Jewish and a 
ihird-generation American. They live in Prides Crossing, Massachussets and have three 
children, Marjory, Richard and Steven. All of them married outside the Jewish faith. Richard 
has three children and Steven has two. Gaston recently discovered my address tliiough the 
German-Jewish biweekly Aufbau, published in New York, and got in touch with me by 

David and Minna Wiener's daughter Lina married Brann. They lived in Breslau. Lina Brann 
had correspondence with my parents back in 1936/37 about Oliven and Schottlander tami y 
genealogy. Through the indication of Lina Brann. my mother was able to get a copy of the old 
Dat;uerrotype showing Rebecca Danziger, the maternal grandmother of my paternal 
grandfather. Julius Oliven, wearing a bonnet and holding her small daughter. Charlotte, who 
later on married Moriiz Buckwitz. This picture is shovvn in my mother's illustrated genealogical 
^ee. which is in my possession. Lina and her husband. Brann. had a son, Franz. 

■"' '^. 

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158 fl 

ur vc vnimaest son Fritz, was a physician and lived near Breslau, 'I 
David and Mmna *'^"^: ^^7^" ^ „,„, jjed when their son Hans was born. Hans moved 
Fritz first ■^''^"^f ";'''';Xrh re at the age of fifty. His father. Dr. Fritz Wiener, remarried 
r::i Ct nt t^XL '.^ a son fro. her first nrarria.e.That son hve. ,„ 
England'. Fritz and Ella also emigrated to England. 

<; II II HIS OLIVEN my grandfather, was born in 1 842 and died in 1 9 1 0. In 1 872 he married 
t; g—Lr l1^'> Schottl^nder. bom in .851 and died ,n 1 935. 1 w,l, wr.te .ore 
about them further on. 

07 HEINRICH OLIVEN was bom in Liegnitz on February 21. 1848 and died in Berlin 
around 1930 He is buried at the Jewish cemetery in Berlin Weissensee. He was the only one 
of my urandfather-s sibHngs whom 1 knew personally, when I was a young boy. also did not 
know my paternal grandfather. Julius, who died some years before I was bom. Hemnch was 
a bachelor. We lived near his apartment in Berlin. My sister Suse and 1 visited him sometimes 
when we were youngsters and once he came to see us. Heinrich was a partner in his older 
brother Adolf s mortgage and real estate banking establishment in Berlin. After his brother's 
death, Heinrich took over this business. 


my paternal grandfather 

Juhi .vasbom in Liegnitz (now Legnica), Silesia, on September 26, 1842. on the Jewish 
hoi. ■ Shemini Atzeret, the conclusion (the eighth and tlnal day) Qi Succor, the teslival o 
the .oeniacles, which is followed by Simhuf Torafu the rejoicing of the law, after the annual 
conclusion of the reading of the Torah. Julius died in Berlin on June 21,1910. 

He w: s a very handsome man, a jovial respectable and kind person. He was a partner and 
traveling salesman at J. Oliven & Co. This wholesale textile company, established in Breslau, 
belonged to Julius' older brother Jacob. For some time Julius was a partner at his brother ^ 
fimi. Julius and a brother-in-law also owned an oil factory in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poiano ), 
which they sold later on. 

On May 26, 1 872 Julius married Lmse Schottlander, Lobel Schottlander's youngest daughter 
"1 Breslau. Many years before, Julius' eldest brother, Jacob, had already married Luise 
eldest sister Auguste. The Olivens were very honorable and respected people. In genera ^y 
belonged to the upper-middle class, but were far from being as nch as the ^^^^''" '"" ' ' . ^ 
vanous instances the Olivens ended up marrying very wealthy women. Lobel ^cnoi ^ 

as we will see ftirther on, was a very rich man and his daughters ^^^^'"'^ '^'^ j^^,ob\ 
'lowries and, later on, inheritances. In the next generation, for instance, Oscar Uiive ^ 
^on. man-led Sonnie Lowe, daughter of the very wealthy manufacturer 1^»*;^^:^^'\ . -/^ 
grandparents. Julius and Luise. had three children: Fritz (my father), bom in 18 z-^, i 
(Miet?'-^ I ."-- . ^ ---^ 

--, ..^..uo UIIVJ 1^WU\-, IIUVJ 1111 \.v -^ " 

IzeKbom 1875 and Elly, bom m 1882. 

>,ilirkltili't'.ii!niinilinil|iln '«' 

Happy families - A picture v.i ,ioui 


The wedding of Julius Olur^^ [ind 

Luise Schottlander 1872. 

Top row; Samuel GrossiTi;ii i the 

bnde's maternal grandfather 

2"^ row; Lobe! and Hei':.i.ite 

Schottlander, the bnde's paru, 

3"^ row: Bndeandbndegrooii! ' 'im 

Oliven and Luise SchonlanJi , 

4"" row: Heymann Michael 

Oliven, the bridegroom's par-,i> 

Eventually. Julius" father-in-law. Lobel Schottlander. appointed him manager of the distill :on 

of the famous Karlsbad mineral water, of which Lobel was a lessee. Julius held this p^ :on 

for about ten years and then moved from Breslau to Berlin, where he lived as a pen,; mer 

Julius was an mteihgem man. He invested his capital well - partly in real estate - and h. i-.^evv 

how to increase his money. He became a wealthy man. He owned several houses in ! im. 

his own residence (a palncan house at Alsenstrasse 11), and some large apartment h.-ses. 

such as the one at Mullerstrasse 1 . which survived World War II. When I went to see i- :%r 
n r'liiLT-^ ^T '^'' " ^'' '" "''^ ^"-^^^^ ^P^^^^^nt house, in East Berlin, a ty, .cal 
backv rdf !n^^^^^^^ ^''""''^^ ^''^ ^^^^^^' ^^^k^hops m the various muernofe 

(backyards), inhabitated by Proletarieri^^^, working class people). 

uralXhIr'rnr, '"'u '""T "^'^ "^ "^^'^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^e first time, in Manenbac. my 
b i^^S^^^^^^ 'r "' '"^ ^"' missioned a special confidential report to 

Sa W & ^^^^^^^ ''^"^ "^^ f^'h^^ ^"^ his family. This report, wntten by the nm. 

pageZl^Uol^^^^ '7 K?' ^ '^''^"^^ ^^*^-^ -y parents* actual wedding, is ^Inrty 

of which fpartlv av-ul.H? ' t. '"^°'™^"«" ^^out the Oliven and Schottlander families. 

Julius Oliven was a member of the board of directors of the liberal Neue Sym^o^e on 
Oraiiienburger Strasse. the largest and most beautiful synagogue in Berlin and one of the 
most magnificent in Europe. Seating three thousand worshippers, it was a majestic building, 
in Moorish style, with golden cupolas, inaugurated in 1 866. This liberal synagogue had an 
organ. As a young boy. I often prayed there on the High Holy Days, sometimes going together 
with my mother. On November 9. 1 938. during the Kristallnacht, the entrance room of this 
beautiful synagogue was torched and the building slightly damaged. A very courageous local 
district police officer, Wilhelm Krutzfeld. saved the synagogue which stood under monument 
protection from burning down and complete destruction. 

During World War II. in 1 943, the synagogue was heavily damaged during British air attacks. 
After the end of the war. the building, situated in the Eastern sector of Berlin, lay in ruins for 
many years. It was partially demolished by the authorities of the German Democratic Republic 
at the end of the 1 950s. Seldi and I visited the place various times, being able to see it from 
the outside only. It was a pity to see this synagogue, once so beautiful, laying devastated and 
Iccaying. Finally, in 1988 a foundation was established, l^em Synagoge Berlin - Centrum 
Jtiduicum - a center for the care and conservation of Jewish culture. After the fall of the 
infamous wall that separated West and East Berlin for many years, the front part of the 
synagogue was restored to its original former beauty. What used to be the synagogue itself is 
now a large field of stones with a stick to mark the spot where the aron hakodesh. the Torah 
ark, once stood. On May 8, 1995, exactly fifty years after the end of World War II and the 
Nazi regime, the restored front part of this fomier synagogue was festively reinaugurated. 
Today the Centrum Judaicum contains a museum, archives, expositions and a library. 


s\ nagogue on 

I )ranienburger Suisse. 

J inaugurated 1866 


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my paternal grandmother 

My grandmother Luise (also sometimes spelled Louise), called "Lieschen", was bom on October 
30. 1851 in Munsterberg, Lower Silesia. She was the daughter of Lobel and Heuriette 
Schottlander. She married my grandfather Juhus Oliven in Breslau in 1872. Luise d' :..I on 
May 30. 1935 in Berlin, twenty-five years after her husband Julius. 

In the 1930s Luise moved to her sister Paula Heymann's house at Lessingstrasse 49 ihe 
Tiergarten district of Berlin. The part of this street where my grandmother lived has disapp; ared 
from the map now. Luise lived on the upper floor of that old house. When we were chH-iren, 
my sister Suse and i often visited our grandmother, accompanied by our governess. 

Her bathroom was about the size of the living room. Probably the toilet was built in lati:r on. 
This bathroom contained the family library. I remember that, as a boy, I spent some timi. ihere 
browsing through the books. Once 1 came across the Iblksliimliche Geschiclue i/er ihlen 
(Popular history of the Jews), by Heinrich Graetz (1817-1891), the 3-volume abbrc ■ :;ited 
edition. Graetz's complete ///s/on'o/r/ieJeH'sconsisls of eleven volumes. I got so intc: L^ted 
in this work, starting to read it in the bathroom, that Luise gave it to me as a present. - m\ 
great satisfaction. 

I also remember very well that in the living room the sofa and easy chairs were always c^ ored 
with white linen sheets, either to avoid being washed out by the sun or getting dus(^ The 
shutters and curtains always remained closed, only to be opened when some guests 'verc 
coming, and then, of course, the linen covers were removed. Even the white porcelain < ■- ^'^ 
the canar>-. called P/epma/z, was covered with a white linen sheet at night, so that next moniing 
the canary's sleep would not be disturbed by the daylight. 

During the summer Luise often took us to Charlottenhof, a nearby garden restaurant m ihe district. She was easily frightened, like my father Fritz. From her house to om 

partmcnt we had to ride through three stations of the S-Bahn (a city train in Bcrl.n) 

nuu n wh'!' '"''[^r'^''' ^'^^'' ^' ^^^" '''^^'^ home, she had already phon.^ '^' 
inquire whether we had arrived safely. 

■ was very kind-hearted. On Sunday mornings while she and her husband Julius were 
^"'^^ , breakfast, a worker - a tenant from their tenement house - might show up. complaining 
T' U leaky roof and telling them he could not pay the rent because his wife was in the 
^ . i- ^u;m w/qc cirL- luise would alwavs insist that heir hiKhanH Inline at.r^o t^ 

hout a leaky root anu icumtf w.^... ..^ ^w»,^ ..w. y^j ...^ ,^„^ ^v^cu^^ ma wuc was in the 

f 1 and his child was sick. Luise would always insist that her husband Julii 
postpone payment. 

lus agree to 

I ■ was a very religious woman. Every morning and evening she would turn east towards 
leni to recite the Shema prayer {"Keriat Shema leimiC). On Pesach and Hanukkah, the 
'mil> would gather in her home, for a festive dir 
\ distribute gifts to each member of the Family. 

Jerusalem to recite . . 

f I would gather in her home, for a festive dinner. After the Hanukkah prayers, Luise used 

■ft- i_ ««^u tviorvtVifSf nf thf» Family 

to ' 

On Shabbat Luise used to go to the religious service at the nearby liberal synagogue on 
Uvetzowstrasse, in the Moabit district. This synagogue, which seated over two thousand 
worshippers, was inaugurated in 1914. In the pogrom night of November 9, 1938 and later on 
with the war'bombardments the synagogue was badly damaged. In the early 1940s this ravaged 
building became one of the concentration points where the Berlin Jews were taken to from 
their homes in Berlin, usually in the late evening hours. From there they were then deported in 
mass transports to the extermination camps in the East. Today a tall memorial stands at the 
place of the former synagogue, in honor of the Jews deported from this place to Auschwitz and 
other extermination camps. 

lulius and Luise are buried at the Jewish cemetery at Schonhauser Allee 23-25, which is situated 
in fomier East Berlin. This cemetery contained about 22,500 individual and 750 family graves 
in 1880. It was inaugurated in 1827 and olTicially closed in 1880. but burials still took place 
sometimes, especially in family graves, until the 1970s. The cemetery was badly damaged by 
the Nazis and by bombs, but a lot of restoration work has been done. In 1975 it was classified 
as a historical monument. 

This same cemetery also contains a small monumem for "iUegar* Berlin Jews who h>d ""der 
one of these graves during World War II. They were discovered by the SS at the end ot 1^44 
and were hanged from trees in this old cemetery. 

The cemetery is not being properly maintained; it is crowded with large trees and vegetation, 
making it difficuU to find the tombs. The tombs of Julius and Luise Oliven. "i> S'j^^^^^^^ 
are characterized by two high obelisks of black Swedish granite. Luise's obelisk had taiien 
over and I had it put back in place some years ago by an East Berlin stonemason. 1 he numo 
of this Erbbegmbnis (family grave) is no. 623. It is located in division "L in the m»ra 
from the path mnning between divisions "A" and "L", A map of the cemetery is published 
page 311 of the Wegweiser durch Jus Judische Berlin. 

The inscriptions on my grandparents' graves are very significant. Julius Oliven s headstone 
hears the following inscription: 

Wer im Gedachinis seiner Lieben lebt, der ist nicht tot 

(He who lives on in the memory of his loved ones is not truly dead) 

On Luise's tombstone is written: 

kh bin nicht tot. in hoheren Spharen leh ich wetter 
(I am not dead, I live on in higher spheres) 

1 64 grandparents- graves. On one of these visits 

Whenever Seld, and 1 are in Ber '". -^ J^^^ ^„, ,,, f^^^d AUce, both non-Jews, who 
we met Dr. Gerhard Gonner. a hi^n s ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^_^^ ^ ^^^j j^^^j „f ^^^^ ^^^ 

had eome to know th,s «'^='=^, ^ " .„ ,„ Berl.n at present. We have traveled together ,„ 
also of our daughter M.nam who hv ^^ ^_^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ Btettghetm. near Stuttgart. 
Europe, and M.nam has visited uern 

lumU ol Jkilms ailU LuiiC Oliven 



u Qrhnttlander genealogy, there are vanous sources of which 1 could avail myself. 
RegardingtheSchot anderg^^ ty^^^^^^^^^^ ,.^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ FAMILIES 

f'^' "'"■'^nMnFR " (The title page is in English, the remainder in German). It contains 
^^^''°"'uSsix generations of all known persons by the name of Sehottlander (also 
.eiiealogical tf'" o s b ^ throughout the world, compiled by my friend, Lars 

spelled Schottlaende ).^n Genna y^_^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

rih':.Ser Family. Seld, and . met Lars in BerUn when staying there. 

■ ■ ...hnn the various Sehottlander families represents an arduous effort 
L..' e-"'° research on thvano _^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^f Sehottlanders listed by him 

and enomtous work which '^"^1'^'^ " manuscript A great deal of valuable information and 

rrX tho:X":ia .:;— ^was o\ta,ned .om this important source. 

- there is the repor. I — . p.v.u.. onth^CJ.^^^^^ 
my father were grandsons of Lobel Sehottlander. 

There is also a fourteen-page manuscript, ■■^''™'''' ^'|'2^ ,he'l940s, by Lobel 

father Israel David Sehottlander], no date mentioned, P;f ^° ^ ^ter of Auguste Ohven 
Schottlander-s great-granddaughter, Lisbeth ^''^^'^■''^■;^''~^^,,^ Instimte in New 

nee Sehottlander. A copy of this manuscript is deposttea ^^^^ ^^^ Sehottlander 

York, h deals with the nse of Lobel Sehottlander and his family ^^^^^^ interesting 
Family Foundation, and gives other relevant information. Lisbeth, 
report, points out: 

''After having changed from an orthodox to a •'*'^'^|^^"^^^'^^^^ 

preserving its faith and remained united. Only m the yo y ^h^ (^jy.,stian religion and 

secessions from the Jewish community, conversions ^^ Only when 

mixed marriages. This resulted in -rtam divisions an e^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Hitler came to power, they remembered their Jewish descent ag 

It IS interesting to note that while conversions of members of the ^ we^ ^j^ger generation of 

non-existent and very rare in the Meyer family. '^^^•^^^'""'"' . f^r the older generation. 
Schonlanders were much more frequent and were quite a sn ^^^.^^^^ ^^^ ^^^her 

Nowadays, many of the Schottlanders or their descendants are 
Protestants or Catholics or belong to no religion. 






'^•^ ' my great-great-grandfather 

About .heonginsof.hePa.i.iesScho„.nder.LarsMen.po,nts out-. 

u f ^,u, name Schottlaender after the small town 
.^DifTerent famU-es have f^^^^'^^^^^^^ a suburb of Danzig, .n 

where they or the.r ancestors once h^^ Iwed A ^^ commercal 

center, from the 1 6^ to the 19 century y ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

,.e outlying f^^^'^^^^^^^^ community [in the region 

^™. community ---^G^ " t^^^^^^^^^^^ 


merchants also recognized the growing .mportance of Danzig for Bamc s a t^ade^ 
So they moved to Alt-Schottland and the other ghetto- villages around Danzig. Not 
few of these merchants might have been Sephardim, the Jews who had been expeUed 
from the Iberian Peninsula after 1492 and had settled in the trade centers of that area, 
like Amsterdam and Hamburg. 

"In 1710 the Jews were expelled from Alt-Schottland by the bishop of Kujawia, but 
the Hevta Kaddisha. the funeral society, of Alt-Schottland has kept their protocol 
book since 1 724 - which indicates a larger, organized Kehillalu or community, at that 
time. In 1772, Ah-Schottland came under Prussian rule. A census conducted at that 
time showed a number of 1257 Jewish persons dwelling in the suburbs of Danzig. 

'The size of the population had become a problem for the poorer Jews - competition 
was overwhelming - so that there were many who tried to find their luck away trom 
the place of their birth. Often, the only 'thing' they were able to take with them was 
the name of the place where they had been bom or where their families had lived tor 
a while." 

Gluckel of Hameln (1646-1724), my maternal distant relative, to whom I referred previous y 
already, mentioned the place "Schottland very near Danzig" in her famous memoirs. In too 
no. 18 of this book Rabbi Dr Freudenthal points out; 

"In the suburb Alt-Schoitland, which was founded by Scottish sailors, there was a 
sizable Jewish community before Prussian times, when no Jews were allowed to 
reside in Danzig. Even later on, when the Jews had moved into the city, the AH- 
Schottland community was also the most important of the city's five separate [Jewish] 
communities. These were only recently jomed into one united community of Danzig- 

etition among the poorer Jews of Alt-Schottland probably was the reason 
The great compe ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ bom in Alt-Schottland about 1735 and lived there 
,,hy David Israe ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ g^j^^^^ ^^^^^ j^^^^j s^,,^ottlander 

""''' ^" ,gj.3g] David Schottliinder's father. The Schottlanders in Alt-Schottland were 

l3Sbu^'h>ghly esteemed. 

u- h- latest 1998 version of the "Families Schottlaender" mentions, however, 
Lars Menk. m ms ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ Schottlander, who dealt in second-hand clothes, was the 
,hat it is not ce|i^ Schottlander. Israel David's father also might have been, according to 
father of Israel ua ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^ j^^^^im Schottlander, who was bom m Alt 

Lars, th^f 7'-f" ,^' j^ 1772 he dealt in old gold and silver. Israel David's father also 
Schottland about 173a ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ Schottlander. 

:i^Z^^^^ MaLs lived m Alt-Schottland m 1772. 

n however believe that Israel [ben] David's father most probably was David [ben] 

■ -7-1 ;« 1 77*^ The town of Ziilz (now known by its 
Israel David Schottlander was bom in Zulz in ^5. Jhe town ot t ^^^ ^^^^ 

Polish name B.ala) was a ^o-c.l^f Menresen.^^^^^ ^^^^^_ 

pemutted to settle since the Middle Age, same as m the neithbonng to P ^ 

as well as Glogau, were the only towns in SUes.a ^^^^^eTn he e^ the Jews 

special status and const.Uited privileged -— f^ .^^^^^^^^^^^ ^gau and Zulz. Smce 

were expelled in the sixteenth century, they could only ^^"^^ " >" '^^^^^^ ,^^,,, 

Zulz came into existence in the fourteenth centu.7, no expul on of the Jewis p 
ever took place there. The Hebrew name of Zulz therefore justly is. 

P^-1^* ape -m.i^omC«rf^/A'- the place of the Just 

Zulz was the only city in the Holy Roman Reich where the ^^^^^^"^^^^ 
number of Christian inhabitants. In 1782, 1061 Jews hve , '^^-^^^ rule and the 

Christians. Later on, when in 1740-1745 most of Silesia leii un ^^ ^^^^^^^ed, many Jews 
restrictions of domicile were lifted, though in 1746 ^^"^^ "^^^^ J. ^^^\ Breslau (now 

left Ziilz and other small communities to establish in the ^''.^^ J^j^^nity. While m 
Wroclaw), which was a big center of commerce and had a large ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

1782 over one thousand Jews lived in Zulz. in 1 850 their ^^^^'' ''''^^^^^ ^^, persons. 
t\venty only. In the 1920s only two Jewish families were left, consisii g 

Around 1803 Israel David married Bertha Apt. bom about ^7^^ '" J^^"'|j^^^^^ Jewish families 
(now known by its Polish name Ziebice), where at that time on > ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ from his 
lived.Berthadiedveryyoung,aboutl812.Duetohismamage. s ^^^^^ ^^^ emancipation. 
home town Ziilz to Munsterberg in 1 803. As all Prussian Jew ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
Israel David had to obtain a certificate of tolerance which grant ^_^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^e 

cityandto engage in commerce. Israel David is mentioned in . ^ ^^gH house there, 

^^tablishedm Munsterberg m 1803. In 1811 Israel David already 
^^'hich he had bought for 250 talers, and he enjoyed a certain wean . 

•■• V^ 

1 ■* 

t;-** ,\ -W^' V. , ^ 


w i*' 

^ .. 


1% », 



>'*'♦ . 

J?-^ f* ■■''' 

■■h : ( 

m'^^. ■ 



^^^■^ ..^ '- 




■'■ ■■.'. 





n ■ n FHict of Emancipation of the Jews was promulgated by 
On March 11, 1812. the Prussian tm ^^ ^.^^ p^^^^^^ citizenship and also .o 

King Fnednch Wilhelm 111. It enab e ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^ ^^.^^ ^^^^^^^ ,^^ p^^^,^^ j^^^ ^^ 

choose their place of «^'^^""- ,, u.^ally used by them until that time). Later on, m 

adopt surnames ('"stead of h P^'^^^J^^^^ ^^^^^ „f ,he concessions granted to the Jews i„ 
the reaction following the tail oi i V ^ j^^^^, p^^jj ^^^ hi^ fa^Hy ^re shown 

1812 were rescinded or diminished in vary b b^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ citizenship fromthe 

on the list of families, dated ^^''^'^. q„ ^ ber 25 of the same year, he declared 

. ,. V A r h^A two sons Lobel (Chaim Leib) and Marcus, boih 

bominMunstert, g.Lobehmygr g ^.^.^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^_^^ ^p,,^^, ,^ 

Marcus, around '8' 'Ju x.^ I nnlv in MOnsterberg, but also at markets and fairs, 
spectacles, etc., which he id no e I o " ^ ^^ - ,, ,^ ,„„ ^^at once, as a young 
Later on. inl818, he established ^"."P""' ^'"^^"^ J^^^^,^ ^.^^^ ^^en Lobel still was an 
n,an, before 1796, the year the C^7f^ *7; 'ct^H^fJ^o ^^s on a visit. When she 

r J e Anothe s,o^ says that when the monument of Frednck the Great was inaugurated 
:ntTu,F:eS-sydson, King Friedrieh Wilhelm III, came ,0 the 

of glasses bought from Israel David. 

Afterthedeathofhis first wife, Bertha, inl812JsraelDavidmam^^^^ 
was I landel (Hanne) Abraham, bom on July 7, 1 783, died on March 1 8, 1 828, in M""^^^ ^ ^^^ 
She brought mto this marriage her daughter Adelheid, from her first mamage, bom a ound 
1809 Israel David and Handel had two sons, both bom in Munsterberg: Abraham icai eu 
Adolf), bom about 1812, died on July 25, 1865 in Breslau, and Pmcus. bom about m_ 
Adolf was a linen merchant. He married Dorothea WoUstein (bom in 1821) m Bres au 
1843. Pincus was a merchant. He married Franziska WoUstein (1814-1867) m Breslau in 

As Israel's second wife, Handel, treated her two stepsons, Lobel and Marcus, from Lo e s 
first marriage, without any love, they were sent away to be brought up by the sisters ot Lo 
first wife. Bertha. Lobel was sent to Miihme (aunt) Malke, married to Schlesinger, who came 
to Miinslerbcrg from Weidenau near Troppau. Marcus was sent to his aunt, the 
Benjamin Werner. He married Bertha Werner, Benjamin's daughter, bom on January - ■ 
1 820. Marcus entered his father-in-law's reputable wholesale textile store B. Wemer. in Bres 
which later on he and after his death, which occurred before 1 899, his widow took over. 

According to his death certificate, in my possession, Israel David died of Bauchwassersua - 
ascites, an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. He died at the Jewish Hospital in Bres au 
on January 27. 1827. at the age of fifty-one. He was buried at the old Jewish cemetery on 
Claasenstrasse which does not exist any more. 


dson of Lobel Schottliinder's brother, Marcus, was BERNHARD 
^ great-gran s^^ ^^^^ ^^ Breslau in 1 895 . Bemhard was assassinated in Breslau on March 
SCHOTTLAN ;. evolutionary monarchical Kapp Putsch. He was an opponent of 
2 ,,20,dunngtheco^^ the Independent Social Democrats. He founded and directed the 
the war, attiiia ^^.^^^^ j^, g^gsiau. the workers' newspaper which later became the otTicial 
^ic'i/er Zc'"""g- P ^^^ . ^ g. ,^^.^ ^^j t,p^g his name as founder on the first page, under 

"^M u. wriailed during the Kapp Putsch and slain by the escort crew two days later 
its t.tle^He was J ^^^j^^;,^ h^rx2.z\i^. His body was thrown into the Oder river Only 

dnnnghistranspon ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^^^^^ ^„ Lohestrasse 

atte many weeks wa v ._^ ^.^^^^^ .^ j^^,, 1 eame across the mentioned 

,„ow "I- S'-;^"^; "/^;f " ;,,d ,„d touched to find the name of its founder, Bemhard 
SLr. f memb:: X Schoumnder family - printed on the first page, with the 
indication that he had been murdered. 


;.. r 

\ 1 * 



Lobcl Schonlander 

Henrierte Schonlander nee Grossmann 


my great-grandfather 

,srae, Dav.'s son L5be, ,Cha™ Le.b, was bom on ^^ ^^ ^''l^^f';;^::^;:;:. 
Silesia He died on April 3. 1880 in Breslau. On November 27, 1834. in Munsicru 

19 1894 Jetters parents were the merchant Samuel Grossmann and his wite Bea ■ 
Steiner Samuel Grossmann's parents were the merchant Berel Isaak Grossmaiin and h t 
Veronica nee Salomon. Beate's parents were the book printer Naftah Sterner and hu ■ 
Jettel nee Aron, who married in Munsterberg in 1 8 1 3 . They lived in Dyhrenfurth { also si - 
Dyhemfurth). Silesia. On his sixtieth birthday, on March 9, 1 873, Samuel Grossmamt b. .im 
honorary citizen of the city of Miinsterberg. 

Lobel, who stood six feet tall, was an imposing personality. He and Henriette ha ^ ^^^ 
children, four sons and seven daughters. Four of Lobel's daughters, who were marn^ '^ 
had very young children, died relatively young, before him. According to Lisbeth Leden ^^ 
Lobcl therefore did not allow his sons-in-law to remarry, because he himself had sut ei< ■ -^^ 
much as a young boy because of his mother's early death and being treated so baa y ; 

Lobel started out as a small grain dealer in Munsterberg. He bought all kind of produ^L . 
the farmers in the countryside, selling it at the market in Breslau, the capital of Silesi-'^ 

Mib 1U11IIVI.J III iii\, wuiiiijr A1UV-, dv,iiiii^ II ai iiic iiidiNCi 111 L»ic»iau, "iv x.Mf- — 

prospered and was able to buy valuable real estate, as the restrictions on Jews ^"^''"^ 
had been lifted after the edict of emancipation in Prussia in 1812. In 1850 Lobel boug 


....^ ^-^*,, ....wu U.1..1 i.n. *.viivi v/1 viiiain-ipninjii 111 I 1 u^^lla in loi^. m ■«j-" — j 

large estate with a beautiful house in Miinsterberg, so that his large family would have a g 
residence. This house, called the SchouUmdet-gut {Wss: Schottlander estate) remained tami^ 
property for many decades and later on was sold by his heirs to the Munsterberg municip^ ' -^ 
He also bought various large Rifh'fgii!et\ manor estates, and other large tracts ot Ian 
Silesia, which he farmed profitably. In summer he and his family lived at one of these ma 
estates. His estate was worth many millions of marks. It was administrated by his son B 


, u others In 1 860 Lcibel and his family moved to Breslau. where his eldest 
iTuliS-wner ofmiUs there, already Uved. 

, J largest Jewish community in Germany, after Berhn and Franlcfurt. In 
Breslau was the ti fc papulation of 25.000. four percent of the total population. It was 

„32, Breslau had;J;;"^^|PJ, ^,^„,,, xhe .lewish Theological Seminary, founded in 1854. 
,,very important -"i ^^s the first rabbinical seminary in Germany. It existed until 

donated ^^ J""^;^ ^^ ^.^^n years. One of the teachers at the seminary was the well 

„38. Rabhmrcal wj'^^^°° g4,j,. Many famous personalities were among the .lews 

,„own Jewish h'stonan. H mr ch^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^„^ ^ , ,,5., ,,,,_ ^,„ ^^^ „„,d 

'""r ?t founded the .^//,c.m./«c.- Deu^s.her ArHeUer.erein, the forerunner of the Social 
'"o"cttfcplrin Germany The Breslau Jews also played a very important role ,n commerce. 

industry and science. 

J A . ^,h^r ,,-tivities He owned brickvards and was a major 
Lobefs interests also extended 'o "'h^ ^^-''^ "^^^ "^ ° ^ ,„_ ,- ^^U as of many other 
partner of the Upper Si^^esian Po^hmd -m n ^^^^^^^ '^ ,,^ ,^, ,,, „,.,,e Oder 
.ndustrial enterprises. He also obtained a lease on an g ^^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ 

R„er and owned an Oder -^^^^^'I^^^^^J^'^^l lewK bu,U Tauen.zienplatz ,n Breslau, He 

,„ ,., ,.be, and his sons urtdertook ^^ ^^^;-^:;C^^::^SJ:2^ 

French (also called Franco-Prussian) war of 1 870/7 1 . 
Lisbeth Ledermann comments: 

^^Documents are kept in the family archive, in which the ^^^^^^^^ 
Prussian armies confirms how excellent the -PP J^^^';, ^^'^ .^e arn.y passed 
campaignsofl864 andl866 against^^^^^^^^ 

through Silesia. Lobel and his sons were in a position '^^'^ J^^ ^^^^.^ .^m and 
amiy, due to the manor estates and mills they owned. They suppl ed ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
also spirits from their own distilleries at the manor ^^' " .^^ 
Gemian-French war in 1 870 the army command again entrusted part 
to the same family, with full confidence. 

f.iih.Kiness Two ofhis sons and 
'^As the head of the family, Loebel was m charge ot all ^"^'^^^^-^ ^^ ,^j^ ^^^^^ ^ere in 
two sons-in-law accompanied the army during the war. ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ Schottlanders 
charge of the efficient supply of the army. As experience ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^j^^ 

guaranteed best possible provisions. Already P^'"f P';^''"'p^^gj ^p for them. They 
wealthy. Many possibilities in commerce and i"/*"^^*^ Loebel had one thing in 
made good use of their wealth and were ver>' chari an ^- ^^^^^^^^^^er his death." 
mind: to leave his family and coming generations well taK 

Lobel was a yearly guest of the Karlsbad (now Karlovy y^^^^P^"^ [hTAustro-Hungariart 
World War 11 part of Czechoslovakia). It was the ^""^^/^^^^^'^^^^ ^^eir followers, dressed 
monarchy, patronized by many famous Hassidic WunderreDOis 




' t 


n2 , h Da iiuests - would drink the famous Karlsbad mineral 

in iheir typical garb. Lobel - as ^''.°^^^' '^ ^ ^^j,, doing so. he came upon the idea that the 
water from the fountam several times ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ profitable business since the 
bottling, distribution and expon oi ^^^^ anything. He obtained mtormation as to 

raNV material, the mineral water ^^'^''- ^^^^^^-^ ^^^ Gieshiibel, who had held the lease 
the person who was the lessee, wa oposing to become a partner m the business, 

for a long time already. L^^^^.^P^^jid not need a partner at all in this profitable business 
Count Mattoni 0^^^'^"'^^/^""''" f the fifteen-vear period when the lease lapsed. The amount 
1 .obel then waited until the end oi - ^ „^^j succeeded somehow in obtaininij 

paid for the lease by Count Mattom was ^^^^^^^^^^^ -^^^^ ^.^ .^ ^ ^^,^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ 

mineral water throughout the entire world. 

■ A^^A -inH a Preat source of income. The amount the 
, was a ve:. Profnable — ^ 
Schottlander Family paid tor the ease ua^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ .^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

'' ^-^r/'SUSt tS^ rd^e"^ that after, had closed the de. 
:^Slrrl;:S; many competitors also started s— ^ ^^ -^ ^'^^ t,.e 
The bid was to be renewed. Notwithstanding, the business remamed very attractive. 

As LObel always did, after starting a new business and developing it in the beginning, he then 

Lded over the management of the Karlsbader Mmeral.asser \^-^'/-^^^"S '^ .^^^^^ 
aw. my grandfather Julius Oliven. who took care of this business for en y ars. t w^s^^^ e^^^ 
taken Jver by other members of the Schottlander and Oliven Families. Lobel f^^J^^^^^^^ 
to the Karlsbad Jewish community and also donated free water cures in Karlsbad to need) 
women of the Breslau Jewish community. 

For sixty-six years, from 1872 until 1938, when the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, the 
Karlsbad lease remained in the hands of the Schottlander Family. My father t''^''^"^^^^'' ' ^ 
supervisory-board. The Lobel Schottlander Karlsbad mineral water distribution was esiablisn ^ 
at Karlsbad and later on had its main office in Berlin, the Lobel Schottlan er 
Vertriebsgesellschaft, directed in the 1930s by Ludwig Oliven, a son of Lobel's eldest daugh er. 
Auguste. marrried to Jacob Oliven. When the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia in 1938. tiey 
confiscated the Company in Karlsbad and forcefully liquidated the firm in Berlin at the en ^ 
of 1 938. After the war, the Czechoslovak Republic declared the I'lrm in Karlsbad fonner Nazi 
property and relused to return it to its rightful owners - all the heirs of Lobel Schottlan 
including my father, except for the ones that had previously sold their part of the prop . 
The (iemian tribunal also denied restitution to the distributors of Karlsbad mineral wa ^ ■ 
Lobel Schottlander Vertriebsgesellschaft. which had its main otTice in Berlin. 

As far as I know, only two great-granddaughters of Lobel were able to obtain any compensatio 
from the German government, after the end of the war. for the Karlsbad firm (not the one i 
Berlin), fhe two heirs were Hortense Schottlander. who lived in Nairobi. Kenya, and Lot 
Lewin. who lived in Pacific Palisades, California. Both requested Lastenausglcich (onu^ 
compensation), which was the proper way to do it. My father, on the other hand, did not ge 
any compensation, because his lawyer had requested Wiederguiniachimg (restitution). \vhi^ ^ 
was denied, instead of onus compensation. By the time 1 became aware of this, many y^'^^^' 
later, long after my father's death, the deadline for the onus compensation process had expire-' 


H ■ his will that his widow Henriette should receive 3/5 of the profit from the 
Liibel stipula e distribution and export and his other heirs the remaining 2/5 and that 

[Carlsbad niiner ^^^^^ ^^ distributed among his heirs only after Henriette's death. Lobel's 
Ins whole ^^"^""^^^^^ ^Q j^any million marks. Part of it consisted of very valuable estates in 


tnblished a Family Foundation, the Lobel and Henriette Schottlander sche 
^" '^!^ ^trrlT with an initial capital of 250,000 talers (1 taler = 3 marks). Lisbeth 
fanuhen ^^'^^""^' ^^ ^^^^^^t of one million marks. Lobel's will contained the provision 
Ledennann men poundation could only be touched after it increased, with interest. 

,hatthe c^P;^^^* ^^y^ ^^l 3,^ ^,s reached withm a few years, as the capital was very well 
''''^' ?R^des L5bers direct descendants were very well-off and therefore did not have 
'"'''''f ihemselves of the funds of the foundation.The purpose of the foundation was to 
'' ''' , b^^^^^^^^^ against any emergency and to support needy tamily members. 

Tdl t^^^^^^^^^^ L5bel. The foundation also supported needy bndes. giving them 

dowrL. and pa.d student expenses to Lobel's descendants. 

. f ri. were iiranted yearly to members of the family for scientific studies and 
Thousands of marks wer ^J^"^^^^^^^^^ ^,^,^^^^ ^^, ,,,.pients necessarily having to be 

research, or helping them to ^el ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^, health purposes, paying 

r- '-''' 7::::z!::X^^^^^^^ --^-- *-- ---^ ''-''■ t 

their expenses at spas or senain^ uicm members to prepare their 

„„, dunng the Nazi regime, the ^'T^^^^^^^^ houses in Bresiau 

emigration. There was also an aux.hao '°""''^''™ ^ ° ,.„„, worlcing women or elder 
„,ere single ^^-^^^-^^Z^^ZTJZ^^^^ -d the women who 

ones found a proper home there. In '''3^.*^/;'^''^°'' -,,, „f ,hese two foundations was 
lived there had to abandon them immediately. As the ^.^P"^' J ' catastrophic inflation in 
invested mainly in real estate, they even managed to withstand the catastrophic 

Germany in 1923. 

From 1 880. the year L.bel died, every year on his birthday. May ^^^^^J^^:^, 
for a Fa.mntag, a Family Reumon. One of its purposes vv.s to ^ ^P^^^^^^^ J ,,,,,3 
Usually it took place at the splendid castle Hartheb. near ^^ ^^^^^^ 
son. Julius, who maintained his own synagogue there, nrsi uic ^_^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^ 

service at the synagogue for deceased ^^ ^^^^ ^ Foundation got together at 
cemetery on Lohestrasse. Afterwards, the trustees ot the famii) ^^^^^^ ^ discussion ot 
Julius' town house in Breslau. A financial report was P'""^"^^'^^ ^-^^-^ members. Only 
the report and a vote regarding the distribution ot tunds to ne y ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 
Lobel's direct descendants had the right to vote, while ^PO^ses^. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ .^ 
marriage only were excluded from voting. The last of these a^^^y _^^ ^^^-^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
which my sister Susi and 1 participated, took place at our apa m^ ^^^^ ^^^.^^ foundation 
I'J^S or early 1939, after the so-called A>/Am//m/W?/. The nieeting^^^^^^^^^^^ 

\^as always followed by a meeting of the trustees ot the Karlsbader 

H dth birthday a gold coin. 
In 1909. on the occasion of what would have been Lobel's Ij""^'^ ^^^ ^^ 3 gift to each 

called -Lobel d'or," with Lobel's head in relief, was minted. Itwasp ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^.^^^^^ 

"lUbel's direct descendants, who attended that year's Family ^ - ^j^^^ Luise, Lobel's 
Suse. owned one of these coins, which she had received troni our g ^^^^ _ ^^^^^ . ^ February 
%hler. However, shortly before our emigration, a new Nazi .^ j^^j authorities, 

1939, according to which all Jews in Germany were obliged to deliver 









i*7 ' -^ ■■-'" 




k ^u^ 

If ^ 


'**\ • 

% ■ 










174 ,j jji^er platinum, pearls, precious stones, etc 

,,hin two weeks, all jewels^ ^J^^^^p. So this "Lobel d'or" also had to be surrendered 

^ . n nf I obel who lives in Basel, knew ot my great interesi 

Sigurd Schottlander. a gre^'-g"™'"" ° ■ ^.i^jed to it. and presented me with the same co,n, 
which was in his possession. This Looe 

cabinet in our dining room. 

^, ,nrt caoital of the Schottlander Family Foundations 

. as well as of all other Jewish loundat^nswa^ ^^^^^,^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Schottlander Family 
Ihe end of the war. the German gm—tm^^^^^,^^ ^gggo^ 
foundation in the small amount «' *°" f^''^^^™;^, ,went> years and was finally settled in a 
interest). The restitution process ^^d 1 ^«J '"J [_ ;„ gerlin in 1 978. The principal 

judicial agreement at the i"'*"^ ; *^ J" .qO marks reverts to Sigurd Schottlander's 
cannot be touched, bu, the yearly '"«7'°'~--" ,,„, ,„d had to raise and support he, 
daughter. Franziska. who was a sing e ■^° ^^^^ f J^ '™ „ ^ json of Lobel Schottlander 

r^SsSi -"-----" — - - - -*^ 

rcstilulion process. 


. I «t,pl ind Henriette. had eleven children, all bom in Munsterberg, 
Mv great-grandparents. Locei a 

Lower Silesia: 

, j„,ius bom on March 16. 1835 -died on January 2. 1911 

; Augustc. bom on November 5. 1836 

: una, bom on January 29. 1 838 - died on October 24 J^^^ 

, Oavid. bom on April 1.1841 -died on August 26. 1841 

: Doro.hea(caUedDora).bomonJanuaryl 184 

, S..o,bomonJunel9,1844-diedonApnl2.1 

8^ Bertha, bom on August 13, 1845 - dted on Apnl 18. 1865 

q, Malwine.bomonOctober 1.1846 

10. Paula, died on June 20, 1926 died on May 30, 1935 

,K Luise (my grandmother), born on October 30, 18M died on M y 

ne desc^danl. of Klaus greal-grandparenls 

.„, iitNHltrrECROSSMANN (II17-18M1 


^ \ 


Hugo Goldschmidl 

2 Victor 
3 Emsi 


TT,edesce„a»,« of Kla>. evens great-grandparen,. 

She was 
on the way 
to hcT son 
Walter in 
I YorW, 
I when her 
ship was 
hit by a 

manne ) 

The descendants of Klaus Ohvcn's greal-grandparents 







Georg Rudolt 



no data 



no data 

no data 





1 Walter 


2 KJlthc 






1 Unula 










(no children) 





2. Fisnz 

and Iheir son 

emigrated to 

Yolanda was 
bom in Porte 






The descendants of Klaus OUven's greal-grandparents 


6. DORA 





Elisel^liBS (commincd 
(CundicJ.n su'Cidcin 


(Honenic was 


She died in 

Nuiobi She 

let\ hei whole 

fortune to 


j institiflions m 

Israel I 



ai ihc age of 




Lilly von 


1 Brwin 




1 son 

1 dau^ici 

2 Richard 

suicide in 



Acgidy Max GracUei 
tpcnshedin (Greiediedin 
AuschwiU) ThetcMcn- 


Klara Milch 


Joel Yancey 


1 Will 



2 Hans 

Mirum Ruth 

3 Reinhard 


Mary Alice 


Kon Cohn 



tshoi by Ihe 


The descendanu of Klaus evens grea-g^andparen. 

urNRlETTE CROSSMANN (18171894) 

8 BERTHA (d,ed unnamed «..l>-ee of "i—^ 
5. DAVID (died four months old) 


(1844-1920) -x) 







Heidi Lmder 




I Noemi jfwUe 

2 Natalie 







1 Andres 

2 Michael. 


m- li #r^ 

i^ ■' 




1 ■ 


m^L - 

i>s ■ 






1^* ' ' ■'■ 






^Ki^ p 



^^ftrfb^T' # 




-n.e descendants of Klaus Oliven's greal-grandparents 



LAPtUtr% viwv 


11 LUISESCHO 11 LANDER (1852-1935) ^M 


*" JUUtS (JONAH) OLIVEN (1M2-19I0) ^ 


1 1 1 


FriU Oliven 




Ma] wine 


L___^ , 





Emil Nawratzki 


Arthur Hanlkc 

Lconie Meyer 

1 ' 




suicide to escape 


a) John (Hans) 





anesi by the Nazis) 






1 Use 





2. Lone 






Benny Gabbat 




Bruno Lewin 

aa) Constance 

1 , Pelcr 





2 daughters 

a) Mirtelle 




Bruno L«win 


bb) Thomas 


I Peler 

Josephine Valenza 






Andy & John 

a) Michelle 


b) Martin 


2. Klaus 

Herbert Schall 


(no offspnng) 



c) Klaus 

a) David 

Seldi Reifen 

b) Nicola 

(6 children) 



c) Bruno 


_ — - 


a, hU manor estate Hartheb "^ f «'^"-,;" '",;■ , \ ,865. after a short mamage. 

<;he ; ' him with two small children, Clara ana tmma ^ g^^,, jy,,^,s 

,, , ,„, Lobel agreed to his son Julius' remarriage. O" ^ ^» ^^^'^ ' , 3 , , , 846 

,. .,r ,he second time. His second wife was Anna ^f^^^""^, °\ery distinct and 

:„ l^PPe. Silesi. According .0 US etLd— ^^^^^^^^^^ 

in;, ii person. She died on January 20, 1 y 1 1 . a lew uiy 

Julius was a very good businessman and quite fortunate m h'^^co'^"'^ TalncuUunst, 
had .. rnultifaceted personality. He was at the same time an ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^_^ ^^^^^ 
own.; of manor estates and a businessman. He 7"'" °'' ^^„ ,, some of his land, 

yards and a sugar factory. He buUt a network of streets pas t administration 

Besides the manor estates, he owned thirty-five houses in Br ^'^" ,' ^^ ^ ^ 
of ,lv Schottlander Family real estate was located at Tauentz.enplatz -, 

c \ A 

Jului. improved the Breslau milk supply, building cow ^^^'^': ".^^^^j'^gbout 1 895 he made a 
mthc southern part of Breslau. In order to develop that "^'t"" _^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ gi^dpark 

major donation of land to the city, in Breslau Knetem. ^"''^^'J^^^^^^^^^t ^ he offered 
(now called Park Poludmowv). with an artificial lake and a h ^_^ ^^^^_^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ jhis 
as a gift to the city. A tablet was erected in a pavilion showi ^ ^^ ^^_^^^^^ ^ ^^.^^^i, 

park became the center of a new fashionable residemial neigno ^^^^^.^q, increased the 

avenue was leading to the park entrance. Julius' donation to i 
value of his adjacent land very much. 

, . ^Qii anniversary of the 
On January 15, 1900, the Schottlander Family celebrated ^^-^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^f 
Schottlander villa and estate in Munsterberg. On this ^"^"^ ^^ 1^9:^ he had already 

10,000 marks to the Munsterberg Embellishment Society^ 0^ ^^^ donation enabled the 
donated 6,000 marks for the acquisition of a plot, n containing natural spnngs, 
Embellishment Society to pay for the acquistion of a large p ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^j.^^. j^^others 
forthe city's water supply, around which a beautiful City I'ark 


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. . ^ . ^ 1 nnn mirks each for the same Society and his sisters Auguste Oliven. 
Bruno and Sale ^^^^f ^'^^^^^^^^^^ all Hving m Berlin, donated 1 ,300 n.„k. 

n,y grandmother Lu ^^ Ohv n and Pau"^^ y ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

each. Bf a Schottlander^ee^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^,^^^^^^ ^_^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

cittn of Mun m recognition of his great merits for his hometown. 

In 1905 on his 70^ birthday. Julius donated another 10,000 marks to the Embelhshmcm 
Society for the construction of the Cty Park and 300 marks for Mlinsterberg's poor people 
On this occasion, Julms, his family and relatives received a delegation of Munsterbcrg 
dignitaries in his splendid townhouse at Tauentz.enplatz 1 . in Bres au^ Musterbergs mayor 
made a speech and declared that a monumental honor fountain would be built on a hill al the 
central point of the City Park. As an homage and in permanent memory ot the town's honorary 
citizen the hill would be called "Juliushohe" and the fountain "Juliusbrunnen." A tablet to 
be fixed to the fountain would remind Munsterberg*s citizens for centuries how much the 
love and sacrifice of one of its best citizens were able to do for the development of the town 
In 1 907, in a festive ceremony in the presence of Julius and many members of the Schottlander 
family, the city inaugurated "Juliushohe" and '^Juliusbrunnen" and the tablet in honor of its 
great benefactor Julius Schottlander. 

Unfortunately, the mayor's beautiftil words would not come true, as less than forty years after 
his laudation, these places would be renamed, the tablet removed. Julius' grandson Alfred 
Schottlander would be sent to a concentration camp and Alfred's brother, Ard-Heinnch and 
his family, would perish in the Shoah, the Holocaust. 

In 1900 Julius made a donation for a home in Breslau for Jewish nurses, the Jiidisches 
Schwcslernhaus. He donated the land and paid for the construction of the home. He also paid 
the salaries of the nurses and their superiors. The neighbonng plot was the seat of the Julius 
and Anna Schottlander Foundation, established in 1 896, for the construction of the Israelitisciw 
Allersvcrsurgimgsanstalt (Judisches Belreuungshaus fur alle Leiite iind langwierig Krankc). 
the Jewish Home for the Aged and Chronically III, at Neudorferstrasse 35 (today ul. Wisniowa). 
Julius donated the land, and the home was buih under the patronage of the Julius and Anna 
Schottlander Foundation. It existed from 1 896 to 1939. The care and nursing of the residents 
was in the hands of the Jewish nurses who lived at the adjacent nurses' home. During the first 
years of the Nazi regime, this home was the only place where Jewish physicians could still 
exercise their profession. Jewish community administrations also had their seat there at the 
time. In 1939. one day before Yom Kippur, at the beginning of the wa/; the Nazis gave the 
order to evacuate the building immediately, and it was then occupied by German soldiers. 

From 1876 to 1899 Julius was a representative and from 1900 a member of the board of 
directors of the Breslau Jewish synagogue community. In 1908 and 1909 he donated 6,000 
marks each year for the Jewish Home for the Aged and Chronically 111. After his death the donated 1 5,000 marks in 1 9 1 1 and 24,000 marks in 1 9 1 2 to the same institution, in his 
and his wife's name. Julius was a follower of the liberal Breslau Rabbi Manoel Joel (1826- 
\m}l one ot the outstanding Jewish preachers and theologians of the nineteenth centuiy. 

Many times Julius donated enomious amounts anonymously. On his seventieth birthday, m 
VU5, he established a foundation with a capital of three million marks, for chantable puiposes. 


of religious confession. Julius stipulated that 10% of the Foundation's calculated 
fegardless ^^^^^ ^^ io%of 120.000 marks plus interest, was to be accumulated for hundred 
40,„yearyin^^^_^.^^ yearly interest of 108.000 marks was to be distributed for charitable 
^'^^^^' one beneficial societies, institutions and establishments in Breslau. the city where 
purposes ^^_^ hometown Munsterberg, as well as in other Silesian cities. Julius stipulated 
^^^^^' ■ ' h's lifetime he would be the administrator of the foundation, and after his death. 
that oii h ^^ ^^^ respective owner of the Hartlieb manor estate at the time, if the same 

'^'^^H^ tinue to be a Jew. Julius declined all commendations or awards. He was the 
'"^" son'-board chairman of the Upper Silesian Portland cemem factory in Oppein and of 
Tslesian Real Estate Shareholding Company. In 1 908, Julius was Breslau's richest citizen. 
1 recognition of his contributions to the city of Breslau a street was named after him (today 
1 Karkonoska) and two streets after his children. Anna and Paul. Later on, under the Nazi 
me these streets were renamed and the tablet at the Sudpark removed. Julius followed in 
his'falher LobeFs footsteps and was justly considered "one of the greatest benefactors m 

Julius owned many estates, as for instance Hartlieb. Wess.g. Althofdurr. Grunhubel. Alt 
chliesa Eckersdorf, Karowahne. Cawallen. etc., as well as plots m Knetern and 
Herzogshofen, in the southern part of Breslau. He had inherited some of these estates from 
i r,L Lobel He lived at his splendid castle, Hartlieb, near Breslau. by h,m between 
1878 and 1882. in Neo-Renaissance style. Hartlieb had fifty rooms, a picture gallery a two 
floor-high ballroom w,th a gallery and its own synagogue. A majestic, nchly decorated staircase 
1 th'e entrance of the ca'stle. Hartlieb was destroyed during World War 11 an torn down m 
.he post-war years. The villa at Wessig-Bergmiihle, which his son Paul '"^erite ron h m 
was also torn down after the war. The only thing left a, Wessig today is a beau, ful statu ot 
a lion, one of a pair that once Hanked the entrance to the villa. It has become a solitary 
reminder of past splendor. 

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""'^ '■■^'aic Hanlieb. near Brc.luu. built by Julius Schoiiliindcr bciuccn 1878 and 1882 


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, r A- A ;n IQIl he left a fortune of 50 million marks. A majestic mausoleum for 
When Julms died m 91 K he len ^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 


Lohes.rasse(.oday ul. Sleaia .used tm ^^_^^. ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ _ 

^" tutlefh les s 7c r^^^^^^^^ of .he grave monuments. Julius" son. Dr, Pa. 

Slider, S! j:iius' real estate, while hts daughters, except R6za. inher,,.. ,. 
investments and securities. 
The nhotos shown herein of Julius Schottlander, manor estate Hartlieb. the Jewish Home hu 

1944 hs Maciei Lagiewski. It has been translated into German from the Polish!. 
Some of these photos were placed at Mr. Lagiewski's disposal by Hans Schottlander, Munich. 
iulius Schottlander-s great-grandson. Mr. Lagiewski. whose wife is Jewish, speaks fluent 
Gemian He was bom in Wroclaw(formerlyBreslau)inl955.He IS the director of Its Historical 
Museum He published various other books, among them -'The old Jewish cemetery in Breslau'" 
and -Macewy iV/riu/a" - the talking Malzevas (tombstones). In 1 983 he started and directed a 
major restoration project of the old Jewish cemetery at Lohestrasse. Lagiewski became a 
friend of Hans Schottlander. They met for the first time when Hans was visiting the Jewish 
cemetery at Lohestrasse. Lagiewski contributed greatly to documenting and preserving 
Breslau's very rich Jewish heritage. 

1 lie Jc« isl, I lonic lor iIk- Aged m Brcslau. built in 1896. 

under the patronage of Julius and Anna Schottlander 


, I. SchoUlanderFamily Mausoleum inEgyptian style. madeolgranae.attheJewish cemetery onU^^ 
Slezna) in Breslau {now Wroclaw) 

From his first marriage, to Roza Slomowska, Julius had twins, Clara and Emma. 

1.1. CLARA SCHOTTLANDER. born before 1 865. married Hugo Goldschmidt. He owned 
■„ estate but lost a lot of money with its land. He then became director of a conservatory. 
Clara and Hugo had three children. Hilde. Victor and Ernst. H.lde married von Clamlle^ 
Ihey had a son. Victor had a daughter, Miriam, who lived in Israel. Ernst mamed and lived 


1.2. EMMA SCHOTTLANDER. borr, before 1 865. married Alfred M'^^'^'i^'f, "7"^'^!"' 
co-owner of a jewelry company m Berlin. They had two children. Roza Elly (her fr' name 
after Julius' first wife), who called herself Elly only, and Fritz. EUy mamed and 'ved " 
Berlin. She was baptized at the Messias Chapel in Berlin in March 1939. She had a daughter, 
Anne Krijger, living in Berlin. Fritz Marckwald emigrated to London. 

From his second marriage, to Anna Galewski, Julius had three children, Paul, Roza and 


1-5. GERTRUD SCHOTTLANDER. bom after 1 870. married consul Dr falter Sobemh^^ 
t^om in Berlin in 1 869. died in New York in 1 945. He emigrated to ^^e U.^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 
^^as the general director of the well-known Patzenhofer brewery >" B^'"'^"' ^^^^^ , ^^^ ,^^s. 
had three children. Lotte, Frigene and Martin. Lotte first mamed Simon. 1 ney^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 
^^ho emigrated to New York and changed their name from Simon to Huik n^ _^ ^^^ 

"carriage, to Gehemval (Privy Councilor) Just. Gertrud had a daughter, wn .^^^^.^^ 

York. Frigene married Furstner. Martin Sobernheim emigrated to London. He 
^"d has children. 









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CONVERTED. MAR^^ED A miSSUN ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

A oftpr her father Julius' first wife. She first married professor 
R6za.bon.afterl870. was named afterh^^^^^^^^^^ .^ ^„^^^_ ^^^^^.^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^ ^.^^ ,^ 

Fritz Pringsheim. who was Jewisn. returned to Germany after the 

Fritz had a son, Hans. 

K..-S a..a .anea auhe en^--:tj::--:;:::;r^Lr=.:^:t 

ovTw hthe lonel ShethendivorcedherhusbandPnngsheimandchang^^^^^^ 
rwhirhmus^Lsoundedtoo Polish-Jewish to he^^ 
and married the high-ranking officer Isenbarth. 

As a consequence, Juhus disinherited his daughter and banished her from the fantily. Julius 
was a proud and conscious Jew, who practiced his reUgion, worked actively for Jewish 
communal affairs and donated very large amounts to the Jewish community and chan.a le 
institutions. Roza's conversion and second marriage certainly must have been a big shock or 
him. Julius did not forgive his daughter. Never again did he see her and she ceased to exist tor 

Due to his marriage to a divorced Jewish woman, the imperial Prussian colonel Tsenbarth, 
however, infringed the taboo of the officer corps. He therefore was discharged trom the 
military with the rank of a major general. This was not only the end of his military career, but 
at the same time a bitter disappointment for his wife, whose ardent wish and ambition was to 
be socially accepted by the nobility and to belong to the officer circles. 

The couple then retired to the Riviera and in wintertime mainly to Egypt. There Genera 
Isenbarth suddenly died at the well-known Hotel Cataract in Assuan in 1 9 U . The couple had 
no offspring. Hertha returned to Germany together with the German physician who had cared 
for Isenbarth in F.gypt until his death. She then started to realize her project to build a "Genera 
Isenbarth Convalescent Home for Officers." with a capacity to accommodate twelve officers 
of the Prussian imperial army and their personnel. The home should be erected at one ot the 
most beautiful places in Germany, in memory of her beloved husband. 

Hertha had the necessary means to realize her plan, due to the mandatory part (Pflichtteil) of her 
inheritance. She had just received it from the estate of her very rich father Julius, deceased m 191 1 
It amounted to twelve million gold marks, in the same year she acquired trom the city of Buhl an 
enomious forest plot overlooking tlie Rhine, at the Black Forest highway, near Baden-Baden. From 
1 ^) 1 1 to 1 9 1 4 she built on it a majestic baroque style castle with an adjacent sanitarium, which she 
called Buhlerhohe. She constructed the sanitarium for the German physician from Assuan. w'lo 
would not be satisfied professionally working at a convalescent home. 

In order to eventually obtain the acceptance of the general staff, she wanted to donate the 
castle and sanitarium to his Majesty, Wilhelm 11. But the wily Emperor only wanted to accept 


f the current maintenance expenses would be fully covered by an additional donation. 
''^'^^ u ver could not afford any more another amount of millions of marks, which 

Hertha. o ^„'-,,p^.or^ for this purpose. The Kaiser's rejection of her fondest wish was 
would have been nccc^^a y r r 

Hertha's second big disappointment. 

tl fmished construction of the castle remained without use dunng Worid War I, 
The recen y ^^^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ during the war from 1914 on as a reserve military hospital. 
The Gei^arpbysician worked there during the war as a sanitary officer 

W (\ 6 final bitter disappointment for Hertha was the engagement of this physician to 
^ H It made her world collapse completely. Dunng the troubled times of the fall of 

irronarchy m 1918, lonely Hertha committed suicide in Baden-Baden. 

,. 19^0 Biihlerhohe was sold by her heir, probably her son Hans from her first mamage. to 
a finance group that transformed it into a well-known health resort which exists until the 
present date. 




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.3. PAUL SCHOTTLANDER - (1870-1938) 

Paul Julius Schottlander's only son, was bom in Breslau on February 1 4, 1 870. He died at his 
estate Wessig-Bergmiilile. near Breslau on March 1 8, 1 938. He is buried at the Jewish cemeteiy 
on Lohestrasse in Breslau. Paul was the only heir to Julius' real estate, including the manor 
estate Gut Hartlieb, near Breslau. He earned his Ph.D. in Breslau in 1892. He was a real 
estate owner, an agricultunst, a zoologist and a botanist. He belonged to the board of directors 
of the Jewish synagogue community and its Hevra Kaddisha. the burial society, as well as to 
the board of the Jewish Hospital in Breslau. In 1921 Paul was the co-founder, along with 
lawyer Max Naumann, of the Union of National Gemian Jews (Verband Nationaldeufscher 
JuJcn). The purpose of this organization was to unite all those Jews who - not denying their 
Jewish descent - feh so connected with German substance and culture that they could not feel 
or think themselves to be anything but German. It was a far-right organization of German 
Jewish patriotic nationalists. They probably would have fully embraced the Nazi ideology, 
were it not for its violent antisemitism. Paul feh himself to be a Prussian and German citizen 
of Jewish faith. 

Paul, in the tradition of his father Lobel and grandfather Julius, was always generous to 
needy people. He also contributed generously to various Jewish and non-Jewish institution:>. 
He made a contribution of 10,000 marks to the Jewish art academy Bezalel in Jerusalem, as 
well as to the Jewish communities of Miinsterberg and Breslau, to the Hilfsverein derdeutsclwn 
Jiulen and to the home for Jewish nurses. 

Paul was a member and senator of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the development of science 
and until 1933 the director of the Breslau University Association. He had great interest in 
science. In 1911 he donated 250,000 marks to the Breslau University for the instruction of 
scientific travelers and zoological deep-sea explorers. One year later he donated 300,000 
marks for the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for its ocean exploration station in Rovigno, Italy (now 
Croatia), hi 1 9 1 3 he donated a glass-bottomed boat to the same Society, to be used in exploring 
undersea life at the station in Rovigno. He handed this donation personally to Kaiser Wilhelm 
II in a special audience the Kaiser granted him. This station was of great importance to the 
Gcrnian navy. Paul belonged to the Rotary Club in Breslau. He and his family lived in Breslau 
at the family town home at Tauentzienplatz 1 A, or at his Hartlieb or Wessig estates, which he 

fe"l,";7''^ ^"^"^'"^ "'^'"^" Schlesinger. bom m Ratibor, Upper Silesia, on October 7. 
1877. The Schlesinger family was very esteemed and well-off. They owned a yeast mill and 
a spirits lactory in Ratibor Later on, Paul and Milla separated. Milla was the sister of Lothar 
Schlesinger Jiusband of Kathe Brieger. Kathe was a granddaugher of Julius Schottlander's 
ter, Una Paeully. From 1 934 to 1 938 Milla lived at her villa m Berlin-Dahlem. In 1 943 she 
succeeded in emigrating to Switzerland through a ficticious marriage to a Swiss citizen. Dr 
cZrTZt' '\Zr''' ^'''^""''' Switzerland, who during part of the war lived in 
D n?sCi " T T "'""^^^ "^^ ^'^^'^'^'^d- ^'"^ died on April 24. 1958. in Berlm 
nahlem. She was buned at the IValdJHedhoJ, Dahiem. 

SlllL' uif '"''■ 'u' ^'''"""'^^ ^^"^^'^e*^^ Lars Menk discovered and bough. 
S u Vinli :"^ ru' '"" '' ^"^•^"-- - Berlin, who was a friend of h.s 
'mpnntcd in gold letters on the backs of these books were the names of some members of the 

schottlander family. Lars had a schoolmate by the name of Schonlander, whose family came 
irmn Breslau. He then got in touch with hmi again. All this was the starting point for Lars' 
.eiiealoaical research of the Schottliinder Family. Lars confided to me m a letter, and also 
hierin a conversation in Berlin, that had he known at that time that there are so many people 
bv the name of Schottliinder in Gennany and scattered around the world, he probably would 
othave started this strenuous and time-consuming enterprise. 

Paul and Milla Schottlander had a son, Alfred "Fredy" Leo, and a daughter, Dorothea "Dora". 
Milla"s youngest son Ard-Heinrich "Heinz", though officially and for all purposes also Paul's 
son actually was not a Schottlander by blood. He was an illegitimate child whose real father 
was Count von Thun. from an aristocratic old German family. During military maneuvers he 
had been quartered at Paul and Milla's manor estate. He was killed in France during WW 1. 

At the time Paul died, in March 1938, after suffering from illness for a long time, he was 
greatly worried about the future and the fate of the Jews in Germany. 


V. ' 



,,,,,PHED LEO SCHOTTLANDER- (1899-1947) 

Alfred "Fredy" Leo Schottlander. FauK ■ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ forty-seven. He studied 

died m Montreux, Switzerland, on June ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^.^^^^ ^^^^ ^.^ f^.^,, p^^, 

..ncultute. He lived a, ^^^^^^^,, „ pan of a gate leading to the horse s.ablcs 
One of the few remnants °f * ^"1101 breeding and raising and managing 

Alfred was engaged in agriculture and pri P ^ ,,^^,^^, exhibitions. Alfred served in 

™her of the Deutsch-Nationale Volks Partei, DNVP, a far-nght 
In 1928 Alfred became a member "f *e D.»A« ^^^^^ short-lived government 

party which, together with the Nazi P^'^' ^SDAM"^^^ „,,,, R,,h on January 30, 1933. 
after president von Hindenburg ^PP"' '^'^ ," "^ ;;^;h organization of fonrter front soldiers, 
,n 1 930 Alfred adhered to the SuMhelnu ^ "^ f™' °,^^ ^^^„ Hitler came to power, they 
founded in ,91 S. They '^^.f^ "^ ;,^ ^^^^^^^^ assault troops. Hans Schlesinger, 
were incorporated as reserve in the bA. »'''" Kurfiirstendamm, wearing 

a relative, reported that several times he met Alfred "B^";° ^,f,,d was forced 

the brown SA uniform with the swashka band on the left sleeve^ In 
by the Nazis to leave the SA when it became known that he was 

Shortly alter .he end of World War ,, Alfred converted -^^^/--^^^^^^^^^^ 
probably did not please his father Paul very much, who belonged to the boaro 
the Breslau Jewish community. 

Alfied divorced his first wife, a Christian, from a wen-reputed ^a^^mg ^^^^^^^ 

married Ingeborg(lnge)LenKke,bornonFebruaryl2J905.AsUs^^^^^ 

"She was influenced by the Nazis and caused his [her husband Fredy s] be ng aK ^^ ^ 

concentration camp, so that she could take hold of his substantia property at the tu . 

matter of fact, she denounced him of Rassenschande ("race defilement ) witn 


Rasseuschandc was a term created by the Nazis. Under the "Law for the Protection ^^^^^'^^ 
Blood and Honor." one of the mfamous Nuremberg Race Laws of Septem ^^_^ 
intcmiarriagcs and sexual relations between Jews and "Aryans" were strictly forbidde , 
to long years of imprisonment. 

Alfred then began a divorce trial. As a consequence of his wife's denunciation, A re ^^ ^^^ 
jailed \n Breslau in the autumn of 1937. After nearly a year in jail he was finally acqui^ <- _^^^^ 
the tribunal in Breslau. but at the very moment he was released from prison, in Aug 
the Gestapo, the feared secret police, was waiting for him already in the street and tra sj ^^^^ 
him immediately to the Dachau concentration camp. Later on he was transierr 
Buchenwald concentration camp. 

The official rceason of his imprisonment, as stated in his concentration camp tiles, 
he failed to return his SA badge when he was forced to leave that organization. His son, 


■ f rm-ition from the Gennan Division of the International Red Cross, 
-'"TntrilS^nUentration camp files, 
.vliich keeps all >J^ 

, . nlreadv dead, following a long disease. He was so ,11 that nobody told 
^lf,,d's father, Paul, ^f %"'' ;„,,d p.^l just thought his son was traveling. Alfred's younger 

tootl,er,Ard-Heinrich.tlKn tned vy b i^,^^,;^, ,f ,he family property. He hired a 

,;„n Berlin wirtt ^ooi^f^^- ^^^^^ ^^^ Schottlanders had sold "the last square meter of 

« A»«'' *°,"'i^' A fred had become a hostage of the Nazis, 
iheir property. Thus Alire 

■ ■ > ^ hi. Mster Dora decided to liquidate the family property, m 
Maconsequence, Ard-HeinrichaiKl ssi t^Dr^a^ ^^ ^^^^_^_^^ ^^^ ^^^, 

order to save the.r brother s life. 1 hey Uquidation of the large real estate 

Sow pnce, much under " -" l" ";," Ze Th Gestapo'at this point insisted that Alfred 

c„p with the utmost urgency. 

,,„would only be possible by pay^en—s^ 

ilable real estate. Besides, as a preconio^^^^^^^ 

Lade in cash of the Re,chsJluclUs,euer (evasion t^x- ,„„„„ R^ichsmark, which 

„„„„.,.. (punitive tax, 25% of '^^^^i^^.J,,, ,938, Ard-Heinnch deposi e 
Gonng imposed on the Jews after the KristallnacWV ^^j, ,^,, cemtan tmancia 

on behalf of his brother the large -^""^^f,'^', '•","!„, of the various other taxes apply ng 
aathonties covering these two spec.a taxes. As o p ym ^_^^^^ ^^^^ ^_^ „„, ^..p^.e 

,„,heliqu,dationof.heproperty,by thattime ArdT nncb _^^_^^^^^^^^g^^,,^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

anymore of the necessary large tunds in "^^ J^J" ;,,„ded for Alfred's release. The fin 
pe scnally liable for payment of all taxes the ^^'^ ^^^f ^,d-Heinnch, whose presence was 
quidation of the large real estate took ov r '^ rspumose, therefore had to delay his and 

„le and again required by the Nazi -«>;«""« ^^'^^^'T, ,„. 

his wife's own emigration, resulting m their tragic end la ,^,„„„ntof 

,^fter Ard-Heinrich became the personal g"^"7^]°; ,';;';t iv'st'^^'otCi'^^" 9 and 
814,000 marks, Alfred was released from B-henwald in the ^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^, 
could then finally emigrate to Kenya, via ^^'^"'^."X'^.teas. As Alfred's second cou.^^^ 
Kenya, ninning a famt owned by English people who ''v J ^^^ , ^, „^ed very loud Gem an 
Honense Schonlander, reported when we met her >" «>^^^„^,,, ^e was denounced by h 
nwch music on a phonograph out in the open a r. As it was ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^, f'^l^lZ 

neighborsorpeopLt the farm and consequently 3-1 d and ^^^ 
Bmish authoLs. Durmg his nrternment he caught ito^^^^^ 

.ostay with his mother, Ludmilla, who lived '" M^^" ^""^ ,,, ,,ceived in the ^e n,an 
already very ,11, as a consequence of the terrible """';;"\he British later on. He died m 
concentration camps, aggravated by his internment in N y 
Montreux soon after his arrival. . g^^ 

Alfred Schonlander and his second wife, Ingeborg, ^f'' ^wW "rnieHnge. Alfred M 
When Alfred was jailed and forced to emigrate, Hans s^yed w ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ "ivorce ame 
ttamfened his real estate, Althofdiirr and Eckersdorf to his ^^ ^^^ ^^j, ""'^^ '"fc 
'Wugh, the tribunal annuled th,s transfer 0^-'°"^ ^j^'J^^^g these properties to his wite, 
'"eeborg was an "Aryan". Alfred's idea was that by tr - 

190 (. loneer "Jewish". The Nazi authorities, 

,hey could no. be se.ed by -he Naz. as ,hey ~ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^.^^ Schottla,,der, bec.u.e 
however, were very '""^-f '*;"';" „^; future, as property. Ingeborg certa.nly 
is they could lay thetr an s n - *;„^^^„,_ ,, ,,e had tmagtned that she would con. 
must have been qutte f-^ '^^ -^^..^ ,,,„,ble real estate, 
into possession ot all otnern ,, ^. , ,. ., 

, ■ u nd had an affair with a high-ranking Nazi 
Ingcborg then moved to Gan..sch-P Jen -^^^^^^^ ^^^_^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^,^,^,„„ „f , SS, the el„e 
ofler. belonging to Hitler's ehte ^^^^^ ,,,ed by h,s toother under her maide,, 

tn troops in black ""fonns. Hans- urgen was g ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^,f,,d_ ^,„, ,„ ,„ , „ 

ie, as an illegitimate Christian c ■ ■ A^^ f^ ^ ,^ ,.,,,,d to see his son Hans who. he 
„., „„,„er's in Switzerland and 7/ ^Hns mother, however, did not permit her son ,0 
had known only as a four-year- d*d^l^ ^ ^apparently afraid Alfred would not send hirn 

;— S!r^^St:tri^:^ - authonties the end oft. 



. , l^nro-s son was bom in Breslau on December 26, 1934. He was raised 
Hans. Alfred and ingeborg .^^^_^^_^^^^^^ He went to school there, registered under his 
^, „is mother in Ganru. ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^.^ ,^^, ^^^^ ^„^ ,hat he was half- 

^other's maiden "^'^; .^^'^ j,^'^ , „,p,„ent with him, found he looked too Jewish and 
Jewish, until one time his fc 

.= „ hnrnml936 whom he later divorced. After 1976, as a divorce 
HansmarriedHMegard Sam o nj 9 ;^^^ ,^^^^^ ,^ Berhn-Dahlem, >^alf of which H.ns 
,e„lemcnt. she became he ^°'^ ^^ ,j,„,,„ schottlander, and the other half Hildegard 
,„d inherited from his g^"*™^^^ -^^"-^^ .^^^ Hildegard have two sons, bom in Garmisch 
L had inherited fron. LndmiUa^Hans and g ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^_p^,^^ 

Partenk.rchen: Alfred, "onr "tj/ebn^ary 19 ^^ ^^^^_ ^^_^^ ^^^,^^ 

L on March 23, 1961 , who U es in Mun. r^ 1 _^^ ^^^,__^ ^_^^ ,^,^^ „„,,, ,„ Munich. 

,,snch, bom on February 26 > ^^^^ J^J^j.,-^,^, ,„ Munich, in charge of the department for 

Hans, who is now retired, was ^ '^™'^'Pf ' ""^^^^ ^ y AUianz and is now retired. Hans 

Lgners. Sabine worked for ^rearge^cec^mp ^y ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

,,i Lbine have a daughter, Sarah D"^;^; Hans' three children are baptized. 

university in Erftirt in 1998, ^'"'iy'"^ ^°^"'' I'^'^hfjory He is organizing a Schottlander 
: IS very interested in '^e Schottlander lamilysu,^^^^^^^ ^^ g^^^^^ ^^ 

,™ny tree and writing a family history^H ^"^ ^a ^^_^^^^ ^^_^_^^^ ^^_^^^_^„^ ^^.^er s 
(fomierly Breslau) and the '«™^^^ P^'^^^?,^ ° „'' ' in Wroclaw he met Macie, Lagiewskt. 
Ler estates, near Breslau^ At '^e ^ * ^^^.^^^Hans ,s very much interested m Judaism 
the histonan of the Breslau Jews, for the first tim 

and his Jewish roots. 

1 A. .n 7iinch sometimes together with 

We have met Hans and Sabine several "-- ^ ^ f J, .^im and Sabine in Berlin, together 

Sigurd Schottlander, who lives in Basel. We al « - e mc ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^_H,bert 

with Klaus Schlesinger. Hans also came to visit us 

Schlesinger here in Porto Alegre, a few years ago. ^^ ^^^^^^ 

Seldi, our daughter Miriam, and 1 visited Hans, Sabine ^f f ^^'^^f scho't^d'e" and his 
in the summe? of 1998. We spent a few days at^ - ^om ^^ ^^ ^,^ ,,„, time and we all 
granddaughter Noemi Joelle also were Hans and §* "e^J_^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^,, „,er Seldi and 
greatly enjoyed our stay there with this charming tarn y. ^^^ ^.^^^jerful hosts. 
1 stayed agam at Hans and Sabine's home at Munich. y 

»n|ici<-'. : *^^i^ 

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';; : OOROTHEA -DORA" SCHOTTLANDER - ,1.«2.,„5, 

bom at the Wessig estate, on Februai^ 26, 1 902 She 
Paul and Ludmilla's daughter, Dora, was ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ married Kurt von Tepper 

died in Montreux, Switzerland on Ap • ^^^^ ^^ ^_^^ ^ Christian nobleman His 
Laski, born in 1 m. declared d^^^ on Ap , ^^^ ^^^.^^^^^ ^ ,^^^^ ,^j^_^ ,,^ ,|^^. 

father was a Gemran general and h^motn ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^__^g ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Firs, World War and had ^"J^'f J^J^'^„ ,„„, person of great merit. Under the Naz, 

Lederinann, von Tepper-Laski "^^'J J ^ ^^^^ because she was Jewish. He was a 

regime he withstood pressure and ^^'"^"J ^^^y^^ ,,ho shared his ideology. Dunng 

deLeratandmetregularly^-aJ^agroupo p^^^^^^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^.^,,^^ 

the war, on the night of March i i^^^- ^^ ^.^ ^^^ ^ome and 

H.„ra,al.,ul. but never made it °™,"^;;"XKJrtLiebkneeht and Rosa Luxemburg 
,,ownintotheLandwe rkana just^sW^^^^^^^ 

r:=!;— ::sr;s:;::i-dApr.nM.4,.Hewa. 

cremuied three days later. 

:i„a ,n Berlin-Dahlem, which had been rented out to a ^-f".-" "' tstn^nne S e "j 
war she traveled a great deal. She was for some time a professional ^q""'"^"";^; f,,^^ 
von Tepper-Laski had no children. Dora belonged to the Jewish eommun,y.AU^^^^^^^^^^^ 

life she lived in a hotel m Montreux. She suffered from cancer and a nurse took care ot 

the hotel until her death. 


, 3.3. ARD-HEINR.CH "HEINZ'" SCHOTTLANDER - (1907-1942) 


...Heinrich, LudmiUa Schottlanders y^^-^X^^^^JS^^^^^ 
mi. Heinz was actually only '- ^ J-^^'^',^ ^^^^ Xn with whom LudmiUa had an affair, 
was no. LudmiUa-s husband, Paul, b"' ^ount von Thun v^^ ^^_^ ,^^^ ^^ ,^ ,,p, 

Of course, a. that time and in the '"ghly rept^ ted Scho„, ^^^^^_^ g,,,,.g,andfather 

stnctly secret. Ard-Heinnch was a second cousin ot , 

was Lobel Schottlander. 

■ H r^rda Deutsch bom on November 15, 
Ard-Heinrich was an electrical engineer. He earned oe jf^her, Josef Deutsch, 

1912. She came from a traditional Jewish family ^""V;'' ',,,, bunal society, in Breslau. Her 
was a member of the board of the Hcvn, kcuhhsha, the je ^^^^^ ^^^ emigration to Bolivia 
father, Stefan, occupied the same honorary position in l, ,^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ,he 
in 1939. Ard-Heinnch was the only one ot LudmiUa s m ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^,^^^ «, 

Jewish faith and who actually cared about h.s Jewish hentag ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^j,out 
his siblings, was actually only half-Jewish. When m> mo _ _^^,^^^^^^ ,„ connection with 
some dates regarding his and my g'-^'-g'"^"''*^"''' , I',,,, Rabbi BrilUng in Breslau and 
her genealogical research and family tree, he got m toucn ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ f^^ ,he tirst 

sent her some infomiation. In 1937 Ard-Heinnch lived in B ^ __^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^t in 

and only time at the last Schottlander Family Day, ^^''^"-" ^^, ^^^^ ,^„,e time, shortly at^er 
Berlin, in late 1938 or early 1939. It was already a vxry c ^ ^^^ emigration, 
the November pogrom, when my parents finally startea v 

As we have seen above, af^er long negotiations ^'"''■"'"'"""'''"eMbling him to emigrate 

brother Alfred released from the Buchenwald concentration ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^.^^^ 3g,„nst 

10 Kenya, by becoming guarantor for the total payment ''' _^^^_ stefan and Frieda 

Alfred by the Nazis. With Ard-Heinrich's assistance, his pa ^^^^^^y,^^ of all the real 

Deutsch, also managed to emigrate - to La Paz, Bolivia - in ^-^^^ g^j^^„,ander took a long 

estate that Ard-Heinrich and his siblings had inherited 

lime and was rather complicated. 

* w*-V. ' 


1 <i ^ ' : 


i -'J 

^'^ ■ 

H ' tt J"!** 


* V. 

r'^ # 

A,,.Hemr,ch cons.dered t ™ ° ^,,,y,h„g .as settled. Thus mos prccKn. 

em.granon. .0 proceed w,.hth,s.qu.da ^^^ ^^^^^.^ ^^,_^ emigration. They helped ,he,r 
,i„e elapsed with ^eg^/d to Ard-He. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ became trapped and could 

relatives escape from the Naz, he bu underestimated the cver-,ncre.s,ng 

1 en^igrate. Ard-He,nr,ch "rtam Y ^^^^ Re.chskrtstallnacht. Had A.d 

no longer emigrate. "— ;- .^ ^az. Gemrany, after the Re.chskrtstallnacht. Had A.d 
„H,nal danger for Jews rema n N ^^^_^^_^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^_^^ ,^,^ ^,f^,, „^„ „, 

Hemnch started earher t an ' ' t° ^ _ ^^^^^ Emigrafon from Germany turned out to be 

u iinnrfed over to me copies of his uncle's voluminous 
Hans Schottlander, Ard^Heinnch s nephe..ha ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ _ ^. ^_^ , ^3^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

correspondence with his wife .tamiiy, Eckersdorff, Breslau, from the same 

,941, as well as with his ^^^^^^ w "th Ard Heinnch's emigration, Reading all this 
,„e until February 1942. ''-''"gji^^i^aTnow could such a thing happen in the 
correspondence makes one upset, '"^ 8 ^^ , Even though one has read so many 

„„ddle of the twentieth century '" '^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ I , epical case smdy of how a young 
books, reports and articles about '"^ "° " ^^ J^'^^;^ J. .,,e mercilessly wiped ou, by 

A.a.Heinnch lived with his wife dunng Jhis ^^^^^^^^^f^^^Z::"^ 
near Breslau. Ownership of the house there had bee '^ff^";^;/ ^^aski. From 1939 
Schottlander, .0 Heinz' sister, Dora, when she married ^^^l^JioeXm with his .,fe 
until the very end, in early 1942, Ard-Heinnch tried by all means to emig ate ^^^^ 

C^rda. Dumg this period he tried unsuccessfully to obtain ''^'">g^^' "" J f^^^"^' 
Philippines, Persia |lran), Brazil. Ecuador, Bolivia, San Domingo and Guatemala. 

In 1939 Ard-Heinrich's brother-in-law, who was already settled m ^a?^^- Bolivia, tried to 
get him an employment contract from the large Bolivian mining ''™ """f;™''^,,,^, „,o, 
be hired as an engineer for a railway construction project. The same firm ha^ an°mej^P^^-^^^^ 
involving transfer from Gemiany to Bolivia of machinery for agnculture ana suga w ^^^^ 

1,1 the end, nothing came out of it - all these projects failed. Many of the ^o^ntres ^^^^^^^_^^ 
issuing of immigration visas conditional on the transfer of funds in hard currency ^^ ^^ 

or agricultural machinery. The problem with the transfer of such goods was that 
authorized by the German financial authorities, which usually denied approval. 

In 1940 Ard-Heinrich, through his relative, Lothar Schlesinger. who lived in Porto ^^^^ ^ 
Brazil, acquired real estate and a photo shop in Sao Leopoldo, near Porto ^^^""^^^i^^^^j^^ 
German who wanted to return to Germany. The acquisition was a precondition lor ^^^^^ 
the Brazilian visas, but this purchase notwithstanding, they were not granted, e ^^ ^^^ 
exerted by Ard-Heinrich's cousin. Gerhard Schlesinger, who lived in Rio de ^a"^''' ^^ 
time, were likewise unsuccessful. Ard-Heinrich also acquired a leather and sho 
Guatemala, but the result was the same. He also made a deposit in dollars at a bank in ^ 

but the visas again were ultimately denied. At the end of 1940 his lawyer came up ^^^^^^ 
project in Brazil, involving the transfer of money from Jews in Germany to Brazil, in 
amoum of RM 4.500.000.- against the granting of about two hundred visas, but this P 
also came to nothing. 


An A 1 Heinrich mentioned in a letter to the former Brazilian consul general 

InDecember 1940^ ak Ard-Heinrich knew personally but who had returned to 

,„ B,,iu, Silvio Romer, 


. ■ ,„„,ed to know, that we both belong to the Roman Catholic church." 
"You may be interesic 

bout the secret circular letters of June 1937 and September 
Certainly Atd-He'"t,ch knew „ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ g^^^^,_^_^ ^^^^^,^,^^ ^^^^^^ the 

„38, which the Brazdian to y ^^ ^^^^^^ _ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^p,,„„, 

„rld, instructing them to oeny 

b nrobably did not know it, but h.s white lie about his and Gerda's religion ,s 
S:S^:S^-sh law. ,n Hebrew It IS called: 

S-eS mpC -Ptac/.N./e^'. -the salvation of a life m danger 

, , ,his rule of conduct, w.en a life ts in danger and can possibly be saved, a law, 
SSt^rilfS....^'- can be transgressed. 

same time: 

..00— .h-s.. « - --«> ■" "»■-" "■' "- '"" "'" 

same. Nothing can be done about It. 

on June 25, 1941 a son was born ^^^-t::^^-;:^:^^:::^^^^ 
middle of their tragic situation, a taV f appmess^ In l^is ■ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^_^^^^ ^^ ,,^ ..^y, 

overseas, Heinz wrote about the difficult and eompbc=> 

who was their joy in the middle of darkrtess and despair. ^^^^ ^^^ 

By the end of 1941 things had become ■"°^^^;^,'";;' t'Sval>d"pS'o"s'and special 
Gerda, in order to be able to emigrate would of our _ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ,„^„„,„. 

pen^ission to leave the counttT- but the ^'^''^'' ;~^^,^, were issued any more. On 
Meanwhile, the United States entered the war ■^^'^.2'"Z^n.^p^mn of Jews altogether. 
October 23, 1941, the SS issued instructions Pt°';tb'""|,* ^^ The Nazis euphemistically 
That same month, the "evacuation of the Jewsto the East t^eg ^^^^^ ^^^ ^,^^^^^^^ ^^„^ 
called these mass deportations "resettlement, ^n Januaj- • ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ,„.ealled 
took place ,n Berlin, in an elegant villa in the Wan^t^ee ^ub ^^ ^^^^_^^^^ „,,, „urde 
E„dk.u„g - the Final Solution of the Jewish questiort - luoug^^^ J^^ ^^^^^.^^^ ,„^,rd his 
and extcmunation. Actually, every person "evacuated to t" j^^,, which h s 

her certain death, Raul Hilberg, author of The ""'"'^'l^^'l^'^ ,942 was the most deadly 
become the standard work on the Shoal, - mentions that y 

one in Jewish history. , , „„ 

,h the idea ofhis adoption by an 

In January 1942, as a last desperate effort, Heinz came "PJ '^J^^^^.^quently would become 
oldSwiss lady livmg in Berlin, a friend of the tamilv so I uU ^ ^_^ ^^^^^ ,^ j , 

a Swiss citizen, thus enabling him to emigrate to f-"«;', nations of such an adop ion 
l^^vyer in Breslau. Dr. Richard Eckersdorff, discussed the legal imp ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ procedure 

at length by correspondence with a colleague in Hem, 
would fall under Swiss or German law. 

JUKK^, V * 


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olhruary 6, ,942. D. E*ersdo:fT, ,he note ,n h.s docu.e.s: 

, A ,,„d several conversations With my Client regarding emigration, 
••During the last days I had several con ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^.^ ^^^^^^^^,^ 


[Ludmilla s] P™"-; ''" l^jjl'^dent upon the [Brazilian] government's forwarding 
made the granting of the visa depenaenup i ^^^^ ^^^^.^^^ 

him the penni. numbers ^^"""^'"^^;J^,,^,, as planned, on the shi 
sailing on the '^ °'^*™J J , ^^^^^j ,,(„ therefore to withdraw at once the 

[Ard-Heinrich's bank in Breslau]. 

or. SCersdorrs js. - --^-^ ^^ --^^ ^^ 
lenersweresignedbyalega uxd^a^ erk^On Apn ^ ,^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^.^ ^.^_ ^^^ ^^_^^ 

:r ":SS:St ^:^X:^^ -a been murdered hy the Na.s ,n .e 
meantime. Thus, nothmg came of the adoption project either. 

Finally aAer year-long efforts, on December 19. 194 1 , Gerda's father, Stefan Deutsch in U 
Pbaincd Bolivian immigration visas for Heinz, Gerda and Denr.y. He sent cables t 
Bdivian consuls in Berlin and Hamburg and also to the Hapag navigation >'-, coinn— ^ 
obtention of these visas. On February 18. 1942. Stefan wrote to the ^-^^/^^ ' 
Breslau. advising them regarding obtention of the visas and the cables he sent and inform ng 
that the last news he received from Gerda and Heinz was dated December 7 . On February o, 
Heinz and Gerda sent a message to Stefan Deutsch, twenty-five words only, through ne 
German Red Cross, which was received in La Paz only on March 26. This was the u.i 
communication Gerda's parents received from her and Heinz. It reads: 

"Dear Parents, visas for Bohvia received, no shipping connection any more. 
Nevertheless, have not yet given up efforts. Brazil attempt failed. Withdraw deposit 
Ecuador, because of no point. We three are healthy. Yours, Gerda, Heinz." 

The tragic end was that when the Bolivian immigration visas finally were granted and amve 
at the Consulates in Germany, after three years of immense efforts, it was too late me 

Very little is known about what happened then. Ard-Heinrich's nephew, Hans Schottlan ^ 
did research at the Polish archives in Wroclaw (formerly Breslau), which hold the arcniv s 
taken over from the Germans. Unfortunately, only the archives of the former German Fin-^n^ 
Administration arc still in existence, while all the other ones were burned by the SS be o 
capitulation. From the still existing archives, Hans managed to discover that Ard-Heinra 
was arrested by the end of April and "deported to the East" m a Sammehransport, a ma^|> 
transport, on May 3, 1942, Even the transport number is known but not the ultimate destiny- 
It is assumed that the transports that left Breslau in May had as their final destination ( m t ^^ 
real sense of these words) the cities of Kovno and Vilna. It is also known that the ghetto^ o 
these cities were hopelessley overcrowded. Therefore, at that time the deportees were 
immediately shot upon arrival, in front of these ghettos. 


, . g^^p, is the confiscation of the remainder of Ard-Heinrich's wealth. On 
The eP''^^^':^^ ! Ard-Heinrich's bank in Breslau, Eichbom & Co., remitted to the Superior 
February 3. W' nee in Breslau an amount of RM 131.083,75representingthe "confiscation 
Oepartmentot Fina ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ Schottliindcr. fomierly Bergmiihle Breslau 
oiTinancial values - ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ of confiscation of communist property," as well as that of 
Land," in accordan ^^ _^ ^^ ^^ Altogether, the German financial coffers had already received 
■enemies of \olk an^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Schottlander estate dunng the Nazi years, in 

:in Especial taxes and other "contributions." 

,- ^.r'. nrandson my friend and relative Hans Schottlander, recently had the 

"^""^ '? H wich and Gerda and their infant son Denny Schottlander engraved on Paul s 
il'Se 0^^^^^ cemetery on Lohestrasse (now Ul. Slezna) in Breslau, in memory 
ofthese dear relatives. 

^f thP Nazi criminals and what they did to Ard-Heinrich, his 
Ut us never forget the ^^^^^J^^^^^^ even complete one year of life. Let us 

humanity will never, ever happen agam! 




A^ '•\ 

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41 ., 


PR (h n m 1 836) Lobel Schottlander's eldest daughter, 
2. AUGUSTE SCHOTTLANDER w ^^^^^^^ ^- ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ descenJants 


on October 24. 1879, m Leubu. "^ .. ^„^„ „„ August 8, 1 822, at Thomask.rch near 

Breslau (Wroslaw), She married Lou.s acu^ y,^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^_^^,^ ^^^^^^^ ,^ g^^^,^^ 

Ohiau, died on May 2, 1898, m "='"'^- „ j, j ^^n.j Bankwitz. Lina and Louis had 

on July 12, 1859. Louis owned a manor estate in bilesia. 

six children: 

■ r»ui^,, <;ilp«ia in 1862 died in Berlin in February 

was called Baumgarten, situated near Ohlau. 

to Laurens, after his mother remarrried. 

Lina and Georg's son Franz, who lives in Houston, Texas, spent the 1 930s .n Br-K worb^^ 
in pharmaceutical sales for the Bayer chemical company. Dunng World War II he became ^ 
military translator and assisted m the mterrogation of German prisoners. After Woria ^ 
he earned his Ph.D. and became a professor of Material Science and later the Dean ot bcien 
at Rice University in Houston. 

b) EMIL PACULLY (bom in 1 864), mamed a Parisian and lived in the French capita^^ 
He was a philologist and knew 1 7 languages. He used his inheritance from his mother ma^ ^^ 
invest in classical paimings, including Rembrandt, Tintoretto, Ruisdael, Fragonard^ |\^- 
three paintings by Rubens, and many other ones by famous painters of the German, ^ 

Spanish. Flemish, Dutch and Italian School. His art collection became known m ^^"^^^^"^ 
"Collection Emilc Pacully." In 1903 it was appraised and a beautiful catalogue Panted. L^^ ^^ 
on, in 1 938, after he had died, his valuable collection was auctioned off in Paris, by or 
the French authorities, as it seems he owed them a great deal of back taxes. 


e) ADELE SARA PACULLY, bom on January 9, 1 865, in Breslau, died on •'^""^^^g 
1920, in Berlin. She manied Professor Dr. Ludwig Brieger, bom in Glatz, on July 26. -^ 
died in Berlin, on October 18, 1919. He was a well-known physician and worked at >• 
Charlie Hospital in Berlin. He was the director of the Hydropathic Department ot the Ber ^^ 
University. He was an opponent of vaccination. Adele and Ludwig had two children, «'' ' 
(1891-1922) and Kiithe. 


, jn Berlin on January 18, 1885, and died in Porto Alegre, Brazil, „„ 
Kaihe Brieger was '"'_^^.^^ ^^^^^^ Schlesinger. the brother of Ludmilla (Milla) Schlesinger, 
April 22. 1974. She '^ j^^.,. ^^n p^ul. Lothar was bom in Ratibor, Upper Silesia, on 

«.ho married ^"""^ ^ .^ p^^^ ^i^gre, on November 1 3, 1959. Lothar Schlesinger and his 
May 1 5. 1 880- ='"'!.''''• , gchlesinger had inherited a yeast mill in Ratibor, from their fathers, 
first grade eo"sm Uern ^^^ ^^^.^ ^^^^ Hans-Hubert, as well as Gerhard, converted to 

l_„l,, ,930s both Lotna ^^^^^^^ ,-,,^y,^^cA to make an advantageous transfer when 

Catholicism. As late "^ ■_, ,,e ,„ded his house in Ratibor and some other valuables 

emigrating to Brazil with n ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ,^ ^ German hving 

.„ , chocolate ^f^^J^, .^Germany. While the Schlesingers still could leave Germany for 
,toe who wanted to return to Germay ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

Brazil, the German could ■;°;j"^;^^2-"g Meanwhile, the war broke out. As Lothar 
tnguage, the factory went bankrupt after a while. 

. c,„ Gerhard emigrated to Brazil in 1939. His wife and son Klaus, 
Lothar Schlesinger's cousin, ^erha d. em t ^„ ^^^^^^ ,„ G,^,„y. 

,„n, in 1934, came af^er > 7-^," , ;^ tleeuttcal concern m Berlin. He 

Klaus Schlesinger worked ^' ''^'^J^'^^^J^ii^.^dhaveanicetim^ 

,,entl, we always see h- -h- we^a^e m Berh^ ^^^^^^ ,^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^„„„, Berhn. 


, u „„ i„lv 7 1 9 P in Ratibor, earned his doctorate 
lotharandKathe'sonly son Hans-Hubert^bomon July ^^..^^^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ p^^^ 

,„ philology m 1935 .n Berlin. On July 30, '942- h^ man ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Brazil. Yolanda was bom in Porto Alegre, on » -^' ^„,j,,„. Hans died in Porto 

and her mother of Gemtan descent. Hans ""'i Y°^ J^ had ^^^^ ^^^^ ,^ ^^^ 
.Megre on April 22, 1996. We are in touch with Yolanda 

d) GEORG PACULLX bom ,n 1 866, ''J--^^:;tSntr ^rS:;:^ 
hisbrother Rudolf, the Baumgarten estate near Ohlau. No further 


e) RUDOLF PACULLY was bom in 

1870. No further mformatton is available on 


, . .„ Up survived the war in 

f, RICHARD PACULLY, bom m 1 872, also owned ^n ^s^ e^ ;^^^ 
Berlin, by hiding, because he had good connections with a German g 

Iv 9 1839. He died on 
4. BRUNO SCHOTTLANDER was bom in Munsterberg on ^^^^ ^j^^ ^^ September 9, 
December 5. 1907. He mamed Bertha Haussmann, bom^"^' • ^^^^ ^,r of 1870/71. He 
1^99 in Bad Kissmgen. Bruno was a combatant in the Gern^an^^^^ ^^^..terberg, in Silesia. 
owned the Schtitzendorf and Nieder-Kunzendorf manor ^su> _ ^^^ ^^^^^ 
Bruno and Bertha had five children: Curt. Richard, Felix, Ma 


200 . ji 9 1875 in Brcsiau. He was a doctor 

,, CURT SCHOTTLAND R w.^^^^^^'^^^^^^^^^^ ^^,^,^. ,.„„ ,„ ,,,,, „„ ,,, ,,,, 

of philology. He ,nher,.ed .he ^^^'^-^^^^^^,^, £,„,, born on August 7, 1 880, .n V.enna, of 

was worth one milhon marks. Curt n an" ^ .^^ ^^^-^^ ^^^^ Turkey. Her father was a 

Turkish nationality and descending i_ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Vonmmd (legal guardian) of 

,i,,i jeweler ,n Vienna. Elise d'^JV'™';^ ^ ;,f,,, ..^ death of their father Felix. The.r 

„. nephews. Erwin and R;*^;^^^;^™ ^ brother-in-law. Curt, about this matter. At ,h. 

mother Lili was in constant ^"""'^'J^^ September 24. 1942, at the age of sixty-seven, 

end of the 1930s, Curl moved to Ba . ^" P^^^^_^^ ^^^^ Theresienstadt.with the 66* 

Curt was deported from Bf^''^"'! a short time after, on Febniary 27, 1943, he died 

Alicrslnwspo,! (transport ot aged people). A snort 

there of pneumonia. 

„ r. ^ jciicp'cnnlvchild wasbominNieder-Kunzendorf 
HORTENSESCHOnLANDER Curt and El^eo^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^, ^^^ 

on April 18, 1907. She remained ™f ' " "^'l^^ ^as an amateur art expert. She 
Hved in Nairobi. Seldi and 1 -f^^^^^;*;;,^''; apartment in whteh she kept her 
lived in a very austere way in her very small, overcro v mousetrap - wa. a 

valuable collection of antiquities. The ear ^'^"^" f" '";'^ •'triivin^ in Nairobi she was 
II 1.1 ^;hpiivpHtnthissDartanwaybecausebeingsmgie, living liii 

She died in Nairobi on Aprd 14, '"^f , ''"^ f"^°™"^^ J" originating from restitution she 

b) RICHARD SCHOTTLANDER, Curt's brother, died at the age of nineteen in Rio 
de Janeiro, at the beginning of this century, possibly committing suicide. 

c) FELIX SCHOTTLANDER was the owner of two manor estates, Munchhof and 
Schutzendorf, both mhcrUed from his father Bruno. He hved in Breslau. He died ^e or 
1926 He married Elisabeth (Lili) von Fischel, bom December 12, 1889 m Brunn, Mora ^ ^ 
died January 17, 1967, in Belfast. 1 mentioned Lili earlier, in Part I of this manuscript. \v ^^ _ 
referring to Hans H. Pinkus in the chapter "The descendants of Samuel & ^'"^/J'J' . 
children" under c) Karl Herzfeld. After Felix died, Lih married Hans H. Pmkus. beii 

Lili Schottlander had two sons, Erwin and Richard. 

ERWIN ROBERT "UMBERTO" SCHOTTLANDER. Felix's son, was bom on ^^^''^^^^^ 
1913. in Brcsiau. From his father he inherited the Schutzendorf manor estate, whic ^-^ 
under the legal guardianship of his uncle Curt. He studied in Genoa, Italy, at the ^a^n^ ^""^'^ j 
my late brother John. He emigrated to Argentina and lives in Buenos Aires. Sel i 
visited him there once. He has a leather export business and became very prosperous, 
a summer resort in Punta del Esle in Uruguay. Erwin is a Catholic. He does not wa 
reminded of the past and what happened in Germany, as he once pointed out to me in 
He is niaiTied to an Argentine Catholic woman of Spanish origin. He has a son and a daug 
and four grandchildren. 

riinTTLANDER. Erwm's brother, was bom on February 1, 1919, in Breslau. 

j^jCHARD S*^' p 1^^ j^,^o inherited a manor estate that was under the legal guardianship 

from lii^ ^^^^'^^ ^'"j '. ^ ,,,je of bis half-sisters, Freda Maria Pinkus, he suffered from epilepsy 
ofhisuncleCurt. Li «- ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^,j ^f^,, ^^^y,^^ ,„ 

which, however, am n ^^^_^^ ^^ _^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^-^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

Uusanne, he emigratco ^^_^ ^^^^^.^^^e uncle in Rio de Janeiro before him. Officially he 
committed suicide. J",^ „;vsterious circumstances. As mentioned by John Peters, Hans 

.,eil out of a wmdow ""^^ ^j^.^ ^^^^^^^ ^,, ^^ther Lili von Fischel, who though of 
H, Pmkus' son, it was '^^"^ _ ambitious father converted to Catholicism - did 

d) MARTHA SCHOTTLANDER mamed Regienmgsrat (councilor to the government) 
Aegidy, who penshed at Auschwitz. 

^ . DCTP (r.RFTE) SCHOTTLANDER was bom on January 18, 1873. She 
e)MARGARETE(GRh t)5>i-nu she married Max Graetzer 


,,862-1926). Their son. Dr. ^^f^''^'^'^^^^^^^^^ ,nder Goring also had the name 

,,907-1960). An aviation general f ''l^^^^sct ,1,,^ ,,e was of Jewish descent. This 
Milch and belonged to the Milch c an, b" « ^^J^; ^I^^J^^ .. j,,, „, „ho detemrines who 
,ead .oGonng-s famous saying ; ^^^^X.^^ZL' 1. Langenau, in S.lesia, now 
,s a Jew). Gunther was ^"^"i^'"'^'-;;.." ,,°7" ' k, Jemisrated to the United States at the 

known by its Polish name Cemn. f""'';^,;"^^;;,^''; Dayton, Ohio. Giinther and Klara 
endofthe 1930s. Guntherbecame dean of the tini e s ty m y ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

had three children and nine grandchildren. Gu"''- ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

n. 1928, in Breslau; "-s Gunther. bonim ^0 and R. ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^_^,,^^, „,,„„d Mary 

mamed Miriam Ruth Michel, bom in 1 932^ 1 hey m ^^ ^^^^^ Amencanized. 

Alice Carroll, bortt m 1 936. They have two d^"!?^'^;,^ ' J^^^,,,, converted to Protestantism 

They converted in Gemiany a long time ^go- Gu" '^er Oraet 

around 1914; his wife Klara nee M.lch, around 19.0. 

On December 28, 1954, Marianne Graetzer carried JodAlexander^^J^c^^^^ 

San Antonio, Texas, on October 28. 1 925 . Their ^o"- » ^^„^^^ .^^^^ He is martied to 

bom on August 30, 1956, in Boston, Massachussets, lives ^|„and Carol have a son, 

Caroline Mane Gabriel, bom in Fort Worth otiFebmary 14^ ^^- ^_^ ^^^^ s,,,o„|ander and 

Michael Joel, bom on February 16. 1991. Will is ^'^y'^^^l^^^^^^^ ,„ ,989 Will converted 

Graetzer genealogy. His great-grandmother was Orett '; 

from Protestantism, the religion of his birth, to Roman Catholicism. 

1 ch he sent me recently. 
Will compiled many pages of computerized genealogical ^^^^ ^'^^ "(997 ^^ Breslau and the 
He also sent me a detailed report of his and his mother s ti ip ^ y ^^^^ Schottlander. of 
Ungenau estate, where his mother was raised. ^heV ^^.^^ J^^"' J,e assisted in Wroclaw 
Munich, who is Marianne's third cousin; and 1"^^"^,/^"''/ , Museum, 
by Macej Lagiewski, the director of the Wroclaw Historical Mu 

A Hll i84lHediedofemaciation 
5. D.WID SCHOTTLANDER, bom in Miinsterberg on Apni , 

on August 26, 1841. 





" * 'I * - . '-4 J 


»ir*^ ^rHOTTLANDER, how in Munsterberg on J 
cu. married Alexander Cohn. a meruM inherited Irom 

January 1. 1X43, 

_ Iter Roza mamed 
Shemarried Alexander Cohn a merch^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^-^^^ ^-.^-^^ ^^.^ j-^^,^^.,_ ^^^^^^ 

and Herrmanns son, Wilh^eige,wd 

of the Schottiander family IS extinct. 

u ir^MiinsterbereonJune 19, 1844. HediedinBresiau 

on Apnl !. I«» "" "'* "ilL „lv .«•«" Sato ■« te^a "M" »« • '"""«■•» 


publisher of the magazme Nerd undSuJ. In 1 889 he toundea 

near Breslau. 

Salu participated as a cuirassier in Prussia's war against Austria m 1 866 and in the Gern.^^^^ 
F n^h war of 1870/71. He was honorary royal Greek consul for the P^-^^^ f ^^' 
Various gold and silver medals were bestowed on him. Like his brother, ^^ J-. ^^^ ^^^^ 
follower of the hheral Breslau Rabbi Manuel Joel. Salo and Roza had three children, all bom 
at Bcnkwitz manor estate: Leo, Kathe and Victor. 

a) LEO SCHOTTLANDER was bom on August 6, 1 880. He died in Basel on ^^^vember 
17, 1959. He was a musician. He composed operettas, was a theater manager and ^" °P^^;^ 
and orchestra conductor. He also translated and adapted operas, the best known being erj^^ 
Nabucco. During World War 1, he lived in Switzerland, where he became a Swiss ci i ^^^ 
After WW 1, Leo returned to Germany. In September 1 927, in London, Leo marri^ed Elisa^^ ^^ 
Lissack. non- Jewish, born in Dresden on April 24, 1903, died on January 24 19 --^^^ 
Offenburg 'Baden. They later divorced. In the 1930s Leo returned to Switzerland. Leo a ^^ 
Elisabeth had a son, Sigurd. My father and his cousin Leo had an intense correspondence^^^ 
the 1950s, exchanging many letters between Porto Alegre and Basel regarding an '-'^P^'^'' 
my father was writing, to be composed by Leo. This project never came to Iruition, no 
as my lather died in 1956. 

SIGURD ERIK SCHOTTLANDER, Leo's son, was bom on March 17. 1928, in Gorliiz. 
Germany. In 1955 he married Heidi Linder. non-Jewish, born in 1934 in Walensta . 
Switzerland, whom he divorced in 1976. after twenty-one years of marriage. After twei ^ 
one years of separation. Sigurd and Heidi remarried in 1997. Sigurd lives in Basel. He wa 
radio programmer for the Swiss Radio at Basel until 1990, when he went into retiremen 


u Hi's daughter Franziska (Franzi) was bom on February 28, 1959, m Basel. 
Siiiiird and Heia _^^ ^^^ free-thinkers. In 1980 Franzi became a single mother. Her 

Both Sigurd and ms ^^^ ^^^^ „^ gg^el on Mav 10, 1980. In 1987 Franzi mamed a music 
daughter, Noemi JO , ^^^ ^^ ^on.jewish. He adopted the name Schottiander. Franzi and 
icacher, Manfred biu . ^^^^^^^ ^^,^^^^ Meredith, bom m Basel on February 1 8, 1987. Seldi 
Manfred have a daugn,^ ^_^^^ _^ ^^^^^ .^ ^_^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^-^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^1^ 

,„d i met Sigurd se '^^^ ^^'^^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^j^h his granddaughter Noemi Joelle. 

reunion at Hans bcnoi 

Tall had a very good t,me together. 

. XTUF SCHOTTLANDER was bom at Benkwitz estate on August 16, 1883^0n 

,,^, ,8. ,905, >n B^'^^'^"' *™ 'Jj;„,^d by tbt Naz.s, she commmed su.cde n, Berlm. 
*"^^rridTsonSr, 't™rr,edRnter.H 
Steca'Tvimrof the Holocaust, at d, places and d.fferent t,™es. 

^-rr.r> crHnm ANDER was bom on December 7. 1890, at Benkwitz estate, 
c) VICTOR SCHOTTLANUbK was Benkwitz, Sella Hennci. 

,„her,.ed from h,s father Salo. V-'or ™rr, ^ ^-^^^^^^^^^^ ,„ ,„„„ect,on 

He owned an estate at In '''^,*' ^'t:~';J^Ved and had a fam. in Tanganyika 
h,s enugra.,on, swappmg h,s estate w.h a " ~ ^ ^^, ^^^_ ^^^ ^^^ „^ 

(before World War 1 this country was known a 1 G^nian c y ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ 
„an,e is Tanzania). However, upon amval n. '^™'' °"^^^^^ ^chonlander, reported m 
and cheated h,m, so Victor lost everythmg, ^^J^^ ^ ^^^ Reichskristallnacht on 

a lener to me. V,c,or then returned to Gemany.Dung the ^^_^^^^^^„„„ ,,„p. He 

November 9, 1938, he was jaded and taken «" J^^ ^"J;"^^^,,,, i„ ,939, shortly before 
consequently was obbged to sell the -'^ " ^^ ^^^^ ,„ ,„,g,,ung to Santiago, 
,he outbreak of World War II, Victor and his family succeeQ 


My mother, Leonie, who was c°n-'^sP°"'''"i^;"'''\\'''vl-mnnTan'iaTo, making a shipment 
managed to export neckties from Porto Alegre, Brazil, to v. ^^^ ^^^^^ _^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

by parcel post. Victor and Sella both died in S^"'">*50, Victor ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

adopted a daughter. Nora, called "Madr', who was ot Jew. ^b ^ ^^^^^^ ^,^_^^^ g^.^,,„ 
bom m Vienna on August 14, 1928. Nora married Godotiedo , ^^^,,j,,„ 

They live in Santiago and have two sons, Andres and Michael, and g 

8. BERTHA SCHOTTLANDER was bom in Munsterberg on August 
there of emaciation on April 18, 1865. 

9. MALWINE SCHOTTLANDER was bom m ^""'^^'^^'^^^j^rln a's a mamed woman 
at the age of about thirty. When she was young, she ^^^ '"" ^^ ,^^^ i^.^uh. She married Dr 
and mother, she became excessively obese, which was ^^"^' ^^^^^ ^nd Malwine had 
Moritz Kom, an eye specialist. He moved from Breslau to be _ ^^^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^^^ was 
t^vo sons, Erich Kom, bom m 1 868, and Arthur Kom ^^^"J" ^^j' ^ ^^.^eral beer brewery, 

^jack-of-all-trades. Once he was a stage manager; ^'^^" ^ ^^j^,^^^ ^.^Ued Hdschen (httle 

^vnh which he did not succeed financially. He married be y 

*it).bora in 1876. They had no children. 

... *^^ ■ , , ■. > / 









^TUPA^ srHOTTtANDER. bom in Munsterberg on January I, 1843 
6. DORA (DOROTHEA) ^t Mu . ^^^^^^^^^^^^ -^ g^^^,^^ Their daughter Roza mamed 
Slie marn.-d Alexander Cohn ^' "'^' ^ ' ' ^^,^,^ ,,,h,eh he inherited from his father. Ro7j 
, lemnann Fe,ge, -Jo owne _ - R ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^, ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ t-,,^ ,^^,,^^ 

and 1 lerrmann s son, Willi feige, w<i» 
of the Schottlander family is extinct. 

7 .Al O SCHOTTLANDER was bom in Munsterberg on June 19, 1 844. He died in BrcMau 
A ^7 1920 On March 12, , 872. he married Roza Braunstein. Sale was twenty-seven 
on Aprd 2, 1920. Un Martn , ^ seventeen Salo met Roza while on a business trip 

years old when he married ^""f ^"1^1^^^^^^ She was bom in Warsaw o,i 

T'':''^:^::^^^^^^^^^^' ,,, „3,. A, , .,,ding gift Salo-s 
S uiel SoiJ^, built the Benkwitz manor estate for him. This estate today ,s ,„ 

Salo was co-founder of the national liberal daily Schlesische Presse, which was published in 
B llu fr m 1 873 on. In 1 876 he took over publishing this newspaper^A. the same time, e 
Se me a book publisher. In 1878 he established his own printing shop and became sol 
pub "her of the magazine NorJ und Siul In 1889 he founded and was the director o 
Sehlesische Verlagsanstalt (fomierly Schottlander) G.m.b.H. Most of my father s saunc 
R,,m verse books were published and printed by his uncle Salo s publishing fimi. n 
1906 Salo transferred this firm from Breslau to Berlin but kept living at his estate Benkwilz, 
near Breslau. 

Salo participated as a cuirassier in Prussia's war against Austna in 1 866 and in the Gennan- 
French war of 1870/71. He was honorary royal Greek consul for the province ot SileMa, 
Various gold and silver medals were bestowed on him. Like his brother, Julius, Salo was a 
follower of the liberal Breslau Rabbi Manuel Joel. Salo and Roza had three children, all bom 
at Bcnkwitz manor estate: Leo, Kathe and Victor. 

a) LEO SCHOTTLANDER was bom on August 6, 1 880. He died in Basel on November 
17, 1959. He was a musician. He composed operettas, was a theater manager and an opera 
and orchestra conductor. He also translated and adapted operas, the best known being Verdi s 
Nabucco. During World War I, he lived in Switzerland, where he became a Swiss citizen. 
After WW 1, Leo returned to Germany. In September 1 927, in London, Leo mamed Elisabetli 
Lissack. non-Jewish, bom in Dresden on April 24, 1903, died on January 24, 1975. in 
Offciiburg/Baden. They later divorced. In the 1930s Leo returned to Switzerland. Leo an 
Elisabeth had a son. Sigurd. My father and his cousin Leo had an intense correspondence m 
the 1950s, exchanging many letters between Porto Alegre and Basel regarding an operetta 
my father was writing, to be composed by Leo. This project never came to fruition, however, 
as my father died in 1956. 

SIGURD ERIK SCHOTTLANDER, Leo's son, was bom on March 17, 1928, in Gorl.t:^. 
Germany. In 1955 he married Heidi Linder. non-Jewish, born in 1934 in Walenstadt 
Switzerland, whom he divorced in 1976. after twenty-one years of marriage. After tweiit)" 
one years of separation, Sigurd and Heidi remarried in 1 997. Sigurd lives m Basel. He was n 
radio programmer for the Swiss Radio at Basel until 1990, when he went into retirement. 


. ueidi's daughter Franziska (Franzi) was bom on February 28, 1959, in Basel. 
Sigurd an ^^_^ daughter are free-thinkers. In 1980 Franzi became a single mother Her 

Both S'^^J^^^^^j jQ^iie^ was bom in Base! on May 1 0, 1980. In 1987 Franzi mamed a music 
daugnter, gjeiser who is non-Jewish. He adopted the name Schottlander Franzi and 

teacher MaY.^^au>zhter' ^^^^^^^ ^^^.^^^^ Meredith, bom in Basel on February 18, 1987. Seldi 
I t Sisurd several times, in Basel, in Zurich and, in 1998. m Munich, at a family 

'"^'^ "^^ Hnn^ Schottliinder's home. Sigurd was there with his granddaughter Noemi Joelle. 

reunion at naiib o 

We all had a very good time together. 

KATHE SCHOTTLANDER was bom at Benkwitz estate on August 1 6, 1 883. On 

, ,/ 005 in Breslau, she married lawyer Georg Marck, established in Breslau. In 1942, 

V he knew she was going to be deported by the Nazis, she committed suicide in Berlin. 

V *e a d Sg had a son. Albert. He mamed Ritter. He perished at Auschwitz. Both mother 

Lrrbecame victims of the Holocaust, at differem places and different times. 

^ VICTOR SCHOTTLANDER was bom on December 7. 1890, at Benkwitz estate, 

1 -...d from his father Salo. Victor married his father's secreta^- at Benkwitz, Sella llennc. 

mhci.ted from ^'^ ';' ^^^ 3^ ^^^^^^ ,,,„,ed to make a transfer, in connection with 

He owned an estate at S^S ^ "^- '"^ '^ ^ ^,,„ ,„,d ,„d had a fami in Tanganyika 

N Ihe"; .938, he was jailed and taken to the B-henwald concen.„^^^^^ 
consequently was obliged ,0 sell the Sagewitz estate under P^^."^' '"^J , „f "t.^ go, 
the outbreak of World War 11, Victor and his family succeeded in emigrating to Santiag 


My mother, Leonie, who was corresponding with Victor and was ^,^^^^^ 

Jnaged to export neckties from Polo Alegre, Brazil, to Victor '" ^-J-go, m M^^^^^^^^^ 

by paLl post Victor and Sella both died in Santiago, Victor in 1 978 -^Sel a n 974 y 

id a'daughter, Nora, called ''M.d.", who was f^^^^t^^^^^^^^ 

bom m Vienna on August 1 4, 1 928. Nora mamed Godofredo Stutzin, ^ '^^^^^^^^^^ 

They live in Santiago and have two sons. Andres and Michael, and grandchildren, 

8. BERTHA SCHOTTLANDER was bom m Munsterberg on August 13, 1845. 
there of emaciation on Apnl 18, 1865. 

9. MALWINE SCHOTTLANDER was bom in Munsterberg «" O^^'^^'J^ ^^^Inkd w'oman 
at the age of about thiity. When she was young, she ^''' ''"'', '^^^^^ She married Dr. 
and mother, she became excessively obese, which was harmtui to ^^^^^ ^^^ Malwine had 
Moritz Kom, an eye specialist. He moved from Breslau to B^^'";i' .^l^ ^g^c, Erich was 
two sons, Erich Kom, bom in 1 868, and Arthur Kom, bom in 1 « _ ^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ brewery, 
a jack-of-all-trades. Once he was a stage manager; then he ownc ^^^^^^ ^{aschen (little 
\vith which he did not succeed financially. He mamed Betty l^om , 
tabbii),born in 1876. They had no children. 



It " ^ 



204 ^^^ ^ ^„„, Werner. Tn 1 922 Arthur re-mamed, H,s 

Arthur Kom was first mamed to Meta^ Friedlander. born ui 1896. She was twenty-six years 
second wife was Elisabeth 'Uese _^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^j,^, ^^^ ^ phy,,,,^, „^ 

younger than Arthur Ehsabeth ™''. ' '! , |,y, winch became the basis and precursor of 
developed the pioneering ^^'°^'l^l^l^ ^^thod he developed in 1904, it became posM-. 
television and the lax machine, ii ^ ^^ f^^^ „„£ Gemian city to another, by reduui,, 

for the first lime to transmit a P^°'° y ^ j^g^e (doctor of engineering) from the 

j, ,n.o dots and strokes. Arthur re evd ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^.^.^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ,^^ 

^:r^:SSS.-o the united States. 


word play. In Gemian Kom "^^^"^t|^ ' ^^ ^^tained a Ph.D. in physics from Brown 

S;:^m m"Hr:r^:S:::/.lcal engmeerms at the Umversity of An.. 

from 1953 to 1983. 

.^..r.xTi AKHFR was bom in Munsterberg. She died in Berlin on June 20, 

1902 Paula owned the house at Lessmgstrasse 49, in the Tier^arten aisiric 


a) TONY HEYMANN married the physician Dr. Emil Nawratzki. He -^^fj^'^^^^ 
sburb of Berlin. Tony and Emn commmed suicide m Berhn on the n.ght of^^^^^^^ 

after Dr. Nawratzk. had heard that he was about to be arrested by the ^ - ^^^^^^^^^ 
daughters, Use and Lotte. Dr. Use Nawratzku who did not marry, was an ^Phth "-^^^^^^ 
Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem. We visited her often m Jerusalem and once she came to 
here in Porto Alegre. She died at an old age in Jerusalem, in September 1996. 

Lotte Nawratzki married the psychiatnst Dr. Bruno Lewin. They had two sons, ^^^^'"^"^^^^'^^^^^ 
both physicians. The Lewins emigrated to Palestine and during WW II moved ^"^/^^^ ^^^^ 
Egypt, where Bruno was a doctor in the British Amiy. Both Peter and Klaus attended a t. ^^^^^ 
British Public School in Alexandria, named Victoria College. It not only was a P';^^ j^'^^^^ 
school for the locals but was the school for the nobility of the Middle East, ^"^^""^^^'"^.[^^i^.j 
majority of the famous people at the school were in Peter's and Klaus' classes. They n '- ^^ ^^ 
King Hussein of Jordan, the ex-kings of Bulgaria and Albania (Zog), the nephew of the ing^*-^ 
Italy and the grandson of King Senussi of Lybia. Another king with whom they play^ '^^^^ 
British beach in Alexandria was the ftature king of Iraq. Lastly, the first nobility they me '■^^^ 
the granddaughters of emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia (now Ethiopia), who held 
Lion of Judah and claimed descent from a legendary union of King Salomon and the yj^ 
Sheba. who eame to visit the king, as reported in the Old Testament. The Abyssinian empe ^ 
granddaughters lived next door in Jerusalem beside the Abyssinian Church. 

With the outbreak of the Suez campaign in 1956, the Lewins had to leave Egypt, ''"^^'"^^jg 
Diisscldorf, Gemiany Their children studied in England, and later on Peter moved to Caii' 
and Klaus to the U.S.A. Lotte Lewin, who by then had become a widow, joined her son ^^ 
and his family in Pacitlc Palisades. California. After I visited the Lewins there. Lotte came 
visit us in Porto Alegre. Lotte died in Pacific Palisades, California m November 1987. 

• r s in Toronto, Canada. He was bom in Jerusalem on August 22, 1935. From 
Peier Lewin ive ^^^^ g^^^ndcd Victoria College in Alexandria, Egypt. He married Anneli 
1040 to 1953, u . ^^^^^^^^^^^ Germany, on December 5, 1943. They have two children, both 
Buchholz.born "J^^^^^j^^ ^^^^ ^^ j^,y j 5^ 19^6, and Martin, bom on August 5. 1969. Peter 
liorii inToron 0. ^^ ^^^^ Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and Assistant Professor of 
,s a sialT physician _^^^^_-^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^ p^.^^^^ practice. He is a visiting 

Pediatrics at tne ^^^^^ Lookout Zone of Northwestern Ontario, at the Zone's Indian and 
pedKitncian at le .^^^^ ^^ ^^^ published many scientific papers, particularly on his 

Northern ^**';'' .j^ \„f,etious proteins. For many years he has been associated with the 
pioneering work witn ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ .^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^, Archaeology. He 

Canadian Forces ' niicrocospy in the examination of Egyptian mummified tissue, 

^"' n,rle en itlcd "Mummies that 1 have known." He analyzed a sample of Napoleon's 

""'"^'?d no evidence of chronic arsenic poisoning, as documented in an article he 
published. He has rece, y ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^j ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^j,, ^,, 

on August 10, 1936, and raised in f l^^^"^^"^^' ^^ ^ j^,^^ ^5 1940. Patnc.a converted to 
of Scottish descent, bom in Kuala Lumpur, ^^^[^y^^^^^^^^^ Los Angeles, which is a large 
Judaism. She is a family physician at ^-^^^^X" ,, he University of 

.edical organization. K^^^^^^ 

CalitomiainLosAnge e. UC^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^,^^,,,,,,1 Surgical 

Department and Chief of Surgical fainoiogy. j ^^ co-authors 

plology Division of Lwer/Pancreas/Gastrointest.n 1 Tr^^^^^^ K us ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

published a volummous book on gastrointestinal ^'''';^^^^^^^ 

Lk in its field and are currently working on the ^^^^^^'^^^^^^^ ^An.ed Forces 

book, on tumors of the stomach and esophagus, the ^'g^y ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ 3^^,,^ ^,h ,he 

Institute of Pathology) fascicle. Klaus participated in a researcn p j ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
American and Chinese cancer centers. He visited Porto Alegr in ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

local Federal University. In October 1999, Klaus ^^'";^:^^^^^;;;;;;f,,,,ogy Department 
regarding a research project on cancer of the '-^f ^P^^^^^^^^^^^ j^^^.^^.i Cancer Instimte. 

of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul and the American 
He held lectures here for pathologists. 

R o dl of them physicians like 
Klaus and Patricia have three children, David, Nicob '™^'^j'^ :^^^ pathologist and a faculty 
their parents. David was bom in London on August -7, , . ^^ Nicola, bom in Exeter, 
member at South Carolina University, Charleston. He is oi -^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^.^^^^ 

England, on August 6, 1967, married the lawyer Thomas Mo ^^^ ^^^ ,^ ^^^^^-^^^^ 

and have a daughter, Sarah Katherine, bom on July 4, i . 

California, on July 3, I97L 

, jj^ Pacific Palisades, 

Klaus and Patricia are adorable people. They own a very "''^^^^^^'^^^^^^ ^i^ere twice, once 
^vhich formerly belonged to the movie star Anthony Quinn. _^^ -^^ ^^^^ ^ wonderftil 
together with my youngest son Gabriel and another time wi 

:. i * --/ 

nr ARTHUR HANTKE- (1874-1955) 

„ HD,TH HEYMANK Paula Sc,.o„.nder-s second daugh.e,-, n.a.,ed lawyer ARTH.R 


1- 1S74 and died in Jerusalem in 1955. He opened a law 
Dr. Hantke was bom in Berlin in :»/ ^^^^^^^ ^^,^ ,„ ^^^^^^ ^,^j 

practiceinBerlinmimllcbecame vO^^^^^^^^^ 
,.el..leancndedthe .W,Zion.«^^^^ of .he Jewish National Fund KKL, an 

,n , 903 he was »";;'* •"'fgo'^^,™,^.,„„, president of the Zionist Organization in Gemiany 
office he held until 1928. In I W.^ ne Duai. f Committee. As a member of the 

;;:r.c:«r;rr/r;;:s;:t- .rzion,- ..d ..ore. .,^^^^^ 

on a program of practical settlement work in Palestine. 

I remember Hantke from the family dinners at my grandmother Luise's ^^^^^^^ 
Pesach or Hanukkah. Hantke was present only occasionally at ^^-l--^" 
ictivilies required a lot of traveling. By the mid- 1 930s, as a young Zionist myself, telt great 
t c^ A thur Hantke, the famous Zionist leader (who, mc.dentally never leame t 
Sk Hebrew well). In the family itself, he certainly was considered kind of an ou^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
'black sheep-, because long before Hitler came to power, he was already an ardent Zoni.t. 
something quite uncommon m the rather assimilated Oliven and Schottlander families- 

Edith and Arthur Hantke's son, Jonathan Theodor, owned a book distribution business in 
Jerusalem. He was an enthusiastic nature hiker. He was married to a Sahra. a native Isra . 
Their daughter. Tchilla, is married to Benny Gabai. They live in Ness Ziona, Israel, and hav 
two children. We visited Jonathan and his family in Jerusalem back in 1963. 

11. LUISE (LOUISE) SCHOTTLANDER my paternal grandmother (185 1-1935). mame^ 

Julius Oliven. my grandfather (1841-1910). 1 have already written about my paterna 
grandparents - (see: THE OLIVEN FAMILY - Ai^GENERATION). 



j,„us and Luise had three children: 

r.1 iVFN (mv father). He was bom on May 10, 1 874, in Breslau and died on June 
30, 1956, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. 

,v ni IVFN was bom on May 18, 1X82, in llartUeb, the big estate near Breslau that 
^ . . I le-s brother Julius Schottlander. She married Professor Dr Georg Abelsdorff. 
''■'""ff nXeist born in Berlin on June 30, 1869. He died there on December 24, 1935. 
"''°'' iToS oer auhe university m Berlin. Instead of receiving a dowry. Elly got a 

1930s after her husband. 

,«„Kir rMIFTZE) OLIVEN was bom on August 8. 1875. in Breslau. She died in 
London in the 1 960s. My tat. pg^ember 1 2, 1 87 1 . He owned a wholesale textile 

'^'^BlnrS: re'cl, a 0^,; o?300;00 to 400,000 marUs. The Abelsdorffs had 
I,™, m Berlin, ^'etzeje'^uve J ^^^^^ enabled them to obtain immigration 

good connections to the Lord Mayor oi louu heainning of World War II, Fritz 

nsas for England. In 1939 they moved to ^-don. At the b n g o _ ^^ ^^^ 

.as interned on the Isle of Man for some '^"^^^^"^"^^^".^dGelan Jews who - 

.,,.he British did not distinguish ^et-en German n^n^sn^^^^^^ 

persecuted by the Nazis - had emigrated to Great Bntain. Jewish » ^^^^ 

li able young men served then in 'he British anriyn h w • FrU _^^^^^^^^ 

released after some time, but being an old man, ^^ ^ ^' ' ^ d -»-eJ^ ^^^ ,,^, •„ 

He died in London on July 2, 1 945. Mietze survived her husband many y 

London at the age of over ninety. 

Fritzand Mietze Abelsdorffs son, Walter, bom on D^-Jer 7^ 1898 jas ^^^J-'l^^^ 
he married Ruth. Both were bom in Berlin. Ruth and Waltc =™g ^ "" ^j,^,, waiter 

w„h Walter's parents, in 1 939. There Ruth and Walter ^^-ged 'J -i^^^^^^ ,^ ,,, British 
worked as a solicitor in a London law office. He also «'»^ "'"P"^;^; '^(^"l^'^d.ed m London, 
on the Isle of Man at the beginning of the war, just as h's • ^ ^^ ^^^^^^ 

relatively young, on July 5, 1952. Ruth and Walter had "« ^-^ *^;^" ,^ ,,9,. geldi and I 
long after the end of the war, to live m a senior home. She diea 
visited her in Berlin several times. 


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. ^, tn the theater director of the Jiidischer Kultwbimd, Dr. Kurt 
Ruth Abelsdorf f was secre O' '^^ Waher Abelsdorff, my cousin, also worked for 
S.ngcr. .n ''<^^'^^''''^^^^^^^^ KulturhuncI c^-^si^d from 1933 through 1941, 1, 

the Kulna-lnouL ,n ,ts legal ^'^^^l^^^^^ „ B.H.n. had a population 

of about 80 000 at ^l^;^" J/' , j j,^^^,,,,, ,„ ,,any German cities. It was established 

number of n.hab,,ants.M ^^^^ ^^„^^ ,^^^^^^^ ^^^ ,^^^ ^^^^^ 

iady had 20,000 members. It employed about 2,500 art.sts altogether. 

Duruig cght years this organization conveyed general and Jewish culture to its rjiembers theater plays, operettas, operas, concerts, floor shows and all kmds of cultural 
activities While m the begmnmg the Kulturhund was free to choose Us repertoire, soon n 
was forbidden bv the Nazi authorities to present perfomiances of theater plays, operas, operettas 
and conicrts by German authors or composers. It was then restricted to preseming only works 
by either Jewish or foreign authors and composers. My parents were members of the 
Kultw'hund and 1, a few times together with Seldi. assisted excellent performances there. 
Only Jews could attend and they had to identify themselves at the theater entrance. 

The Kuhurbund worked under unimaginably difficult conditions, being closely supervised 
and controlled by the Nazi authorities. The reason they pennitted the activities of the 
Kuhurhund was to demonstrate to the world press and opinion that the Jews enjoyed full 
cultural autonomy under the Nazi regime, a tme Potemkin farce! It was the only organization 
in Na/i Gemiany that could resume its activities, or more correctly, was obliged to go on. 
after the Kristallnacht of November 9, 1938. For this purpose, the director, the orchestra 
conductor and many actors had to be quickly released from the Sachsenhausen concentration 
camp near Berlin, where they had been taken to. Thus, this macabre show could go on tor 
nearly another two years. The final act came when the Gestapo decided to liquidate the 
Kuhurbund in September 1941. 

That same year, the remnant of this organization re-opened in Amsterdam, which was under 
Gcnnan occupation. It functioned there for scarcely one year until eventually being shut 
down by the Nazis in July 1 942. Most of the personnel was then deported to the Dutch 
concentration camp Westerbork. from where about 100,000 Dutch Jews were taken to the 
extermination camps in the East. As paradoxical as it seems, for some time theater plays and 
concerts were still presented at Westerbork by the same actors that had previously played on 
stage in Amsterdam, while deportations from this camp had already begun. Finally, in August 
1944. this concemration camp was also liquidated. Most of the artists were then sent to 
"Iheresienstadt, as an mtennediary station, and from there to Auschwitz. 

A very interesting illustrated book about this unique and little known aspect of German Jewr> 
under the Nazis was written by E. Geisel and H. M. Broder, Premiere und Pogrom. Ri'"^ 
Abclsdortl. as well as many other persons, gave their firsthand testimony to the authors. One 
chapter reproduces a short interview with Ruth and shows a photograph of herself, along 
with her wedding picture. 



M. .r,Dr.Fritz01iven,wasbor.mBreslau(nowWroclaw)onMaylO, 874.Ath^^^^^^^^ 

of, en he was sem to Berlin, where he boarded with a teacher and wen high -^^^^^^^ 

Lat^ . his family also moved to Berlm and he lived with them. He had ^1-^;;^^^^^ ^^^ 

a u and began to write early in his Ufe. but his parents were firmly ^^--^e ^^^^ , 
Je. .rcles of the time, a wnter was considered a bohemian living -^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

and. leaky roof Wnting was definitely not considered a reputable ^^^^^ ^I 

Jtili. vom' d that the good name of the family would sufter by having a ~^^^ 
in . not to compro'mise the family reputation. n^^^Jus'^S^^ U^^^^^^ 
caree. ^ny father always wrote under the pseudonym RlDEAMUb , wnic 

"Let laugh." 

MJU.US- insistence, m 1892 Fntz studied law m Berlm and ^^^^^^^^"^^ 
te. s degree in Leipzig in 1 895. Law studies lasted only three years ^^^^^^^^^.^^^^^^ .. p,,t, 
disse.i.tion was "About unlawful acquisition under the ^"^'^"\'r" but it was of no use 
commented about his law study in a letter: "It did not do me nmli ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^y 
whatsoever." The profession of a lawyer did not suit him. He OP^"^ ^^^^^^^^^ criminals 

practiced law, except near the end of his studem years, when he haa to o ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ 
who could not afford a private lawyer. He once told me - halt J°^'"^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ sentence and 
defend a murderer who also had committed robbery. The "^^" "^*^^^ defendant had been 
niy father was glad of it. When I asked him why. my father said that i ^^^^ _^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
sentenced to serve a limited time only, the first thing he would have Q j^^ ^^^^ defended his 
jail, would be to buy a gun and shoot his lawyer for the incompetent w y ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
^'•ent. My father's office was also his residence. He had an ottice c^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ 

^^ paste newspaper critiques of my father's literary work neatly into many b 










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• A. mv father was very successful as a writer when still a young man, 
ri^SS- Pra^^ice and dedicated Mn^selfexclusively to h,s literary career. 

■ 1 n and after his marriage he left all practical and economic 

Fritz was not a very P"-^^"^^^^^^^^ ,„^ger. My father liked ice skating and practiced 

matters to my motlier.wlio was th>rteen^>^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

r ies JS; Sopedia into the guide's rucksack at night, so that the go,de 
would not be able to walk so fast next morning. 

, ■ ,■ ;ntn fc^hion in Germany. Fritz ordered the best bicycle from England 

Is to hi h My father therefore thought that he had received a b.cycle ot the wrong s.ze. 
Tu able only for taller people. When his cousin Oscar Ohven asked htm about the b.cyle. 
ex e^^^ interest in buying one, my father sold his own b.cycle to Oscar at a very cheap 
pir^l below its cost. My father avoided his cousin after that, as he fet gu.ty smc^ 

wTs about the same height as he was. But Oscar once came up to my father at a party to tell 
Z ow satisr,ed he was with the brand-new British bicycle he bought so cheaply trom hm. 
My father was quite surprised and asked Oscar how he could use the bicycle wuh the seat so 
high up. Oscar, who was an engineer, laughed and said. "Oh yes, indeed. 1 had to unscrew the 
bolt and lower the seat a bit until 1 could reach the pedals." 

My father stayed up very late at night. This was the best time for him to write, as he neeeded 
complete silence to get his inspiration. Therefore, he would get up very late m the morning 
and it took him quite a long time to get dressed. He had breakfast at about 1 ;00 p.m. and 
would still be sitting at the breakfast table reading the newspaper when I came home trom 
school at about 2:00 p.m. We usually had lunch at 3:00 p.m. 

When traveling, my father always took along his bedding, consisting of bed sheet, blanket 
and pillow, in a Beitsack. a big special bag that could be locked on top. To my mother s 
despair, he only took late trains, never leaving in the morning. His big trunks were alwa\s 
stuffed to the top and usually he could not lock them by himself. The maid then had to call a 
coachman or taxi driver to take my parents to the railway station. At that time, in the 1^- ^ 
and early 1 930s, in Berlin there were still coaches pulled by horses. The maid also sometimes 
had to call a carpenter named Neumann, who was the handyman for ever>'thing at home. 
Ihey would sit on the trunk, the coachman at one end and the handyman at the other, trying 
hard to press the cover down, while the maid would kneel in the middle, in front of the trunk, 
making a great effort to press the cover down to lock it. My mother would grow quite impatient 
about this procedure. 

My father was a very anxious person. When my uncle, Fritz Straus, sent me his used bicycle 
from Karlsruhe as a gift, when he and his family emigrated to California, my father told the 
housemaid to hide it in the attic, as he was aft-aid 1 might have a traffic accident. 1 had to get 
it out of the attic and hide it in the cellar of our apartment house in Berlin. When 1 ^^^^ 
sixteen. 1 bought a used paddle boat. 1 had to do this secretly, because my father was so afraid 
the boat could overturn and I could drown then. 1 also had to hide the used motorcycle 
bought later on. 

My father always had a barber who came to our apartment every morning to shave him and. 


■ e eive him a haircut. It so happened that the last barber he had m the early 
from time to tim^,^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ always supplied me (secretly, because of my father) 
,930s was an ^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ magazines, such as the Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung, published 
\viih communis ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^^^ .^ January 1933. my father feared that 

Ijy Willy ^""^^^y^jgt . even if it was a barber only and for less than an hour daily - could 
employmg a com . regretfully dismissed this competem barber, 

compromise him. ne mt 

nn he beean to shave himself with a safety razor. As to his haircut, he was 
From that time on ^^^^ ^_^^^^^ ^^ .^^^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

afraid he migm c ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^,^^^,^g ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^j^^,,, 

rrhSys iooi^hese along in a pouch when going to the barber for a haircut. 

.r^, .nnerstitious He kept many suits in his wardrobe and wore a different 
'^ '"'"rv\ecrer~^^ th. way they would last longer than if he wore 

Te^^suU ie?^^^^^^^^^^ in a row. In his wardrobe, however, he always left the U^hanger 


■ J Af-.tUf-r r\nc\<: as a wedding gift. It struck at the quarter hours, 


liaise he d.d not want to be constantly remmded ot ttme s 

When una, our house.a.d, wrote a poertt ^'^i;;;y ^•:^::^^Z 
,he breakfast table, he became quHe upset after read ng t^ f;j^'^, ',^0,, how he should 
been spoiled for him. because ,n her poem L""^«-^ ^^i, „ ^e reminded of that, 
stay happy and strong forever, until his blessed end. He did 
especially not on this special occasion. 

My father was a great fan of the well-known Berlin ^'^'^^tt^MM^^. sta*um 

.summertime as well as in winter, he -^^^'^'^'^^'V^^.^^J^Jbrn^ workers' district. 
was located in the northern part of Berlin, near B^h^^of Gesun brunnen,^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^ 
To make sure he would get his favonte box ticket, during tne w ^ ^^^^^^ 

of the GEMA, the wnters and composers' copyright association^of which 
of the board of directors, to buy the ticket at the stadium box ottice. 

A ted his life Being a humorist, 
Fntz was a real Lebenskiinstler. an artist in the way he ^^^"^"^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^der the most 
he knew how to enjoy life. He never lost his great seiise oi n ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
adyserse circumstances, as during the Nazi regime and when n^ ^.^ 

sixty-fwe to build a new Ufe in a strange country with a language unknow 

After he arrived in Porto Alegre, Fritz bought a Brazilian S~'^'"j, "j^"^^^^ of the 

dictionary. As he was a very systematic person, every day _^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ He also got 
grammar and learnt a few pages of the dictionary by »^^": ' '^^.^^ ^^,^\, wem on until 
busy wnting. The penod after WW II was one of intense wnti fe ^^ ^^^j^ ^^ ^.^^^ j^^^ i^^yers 
his death. He correspondended regularly with his German edit ,. ^^ ^^, home at 

regarding his restitution claims. On June 30, 1956, my lather died pea 
the age of eighty-two. 








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IK n t ind humorist-poet, was the author of many widely read 
Rideamus, a playwright, l>»^^^"'^\^"^ illustrated by the best artists of the penod, 

such as among others; 

Willi. Werdegang (Willi's career), written in 1902 and considered the year's bestseller 
Berlwer Balk (Berlin Balls), wntten in 1904. 

Rideamus' other verse books, written between 1905 and 1925, are: 

Der neue mili (The new Willi) 

Die Erfindung der Siltlichkeit (The invention of morality) 


Burlesken (Burlesques) 

lenz und Hebe (Spring and love) 

Reinfdlle (Deceptions) 

m'We5uc'/ien (Wild things) 

Lustige Liehe (Funny love) 

Wichtigkeiten (Important things) 

Reisemdrchen (Travel tales) 

Kleinigkeiten (Small things) 

Hugdietrichs Brautjahrt (Hugdietrich's honeymoon) 

Most of Rideamus' humorous books were published by Schlesische Verlagsanstalt (formerly 
Schottlander G.m.b.H.). The founder and pnncipal shareholder of this publishing house was 
Fritz' uncle, Salo Schottlander. A collection of Fritz' humorous pieces - DAS LUSTIG 
RIDEAMUS BUCH (The humorous Rideamus Book), published by Josef Singer Verlag A.O., 
appeared in 1 932. In 1 95 1 , while living in Brazil, my father's only prose work, EINHEITERE^ 
LEBEN (A merry life), was published in Germany. In 1957 it was republished by Wilhelm 
Goldmann Verlag Munich, who later put out a pocket book edition. It is kind of a humorous 
autobiography, combining fiction and fact. 

Rideamus' satirical verse, full of irony and humor, depicts the bourgeois society and t e 
moral and customs of his times. It was first presented at the famous satirical cabaret, the 
"Obcrbrettl" in Berlin, directed by Baron Ernst von Wolzogen at the beginning of the 20^ 
century. Wolzogen. imitating the Paris cabaret "Chat noir," presented to the public for the 
first time a literary variety theater instead of the usual variety numbers. Every week a new 
program was presented. 

It was there that Rideamus met the composer Oscar Straus in 1 90 1 . They had already created 
some small numbers whose perennial success made them "evergreens." One day Straus 
proposed to my father to write some operettas together. Rideamus originally wanted to wnte 
the libretto for an operetta to be called "Potiphar's Wife." But when he submitted his text tor 


1 bv the censors, as was mandatory in the Wilhelminian Empire in the 
previous ^PP^'^^^^^j, ^^^^^ he was denied permission to publish and present it m public. So 
beginning ol the ^u ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ , ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ WSTIGEN 

Rideamus change ^ ^ibelungen). It was first presented at the Carl Theater m Vienna, 
f^/S£Lt//VGt/Vtin ^^^j^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ Q^^^^ Nibelungen Saga, and 

'" 1904, and ^"J^^ ^ ,1,^^ in the rightist nationalistic 

iherefore P'-^^^'^"^^^^ ^^^^^ ^'^^ ^ g^j^ presentation at the Kurtheater in Bad Ischl in Austna, 

,nd Austria. In iv ^^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^1^,^^ ^^^ ^m^txox Franz Joseph of 

,n the occasion ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^at some 

A,stria. ^'"^'J^^^^^^^^^^^ b.t^bold." The marshal replied: "Oh. we will not come to 
rtfteTtretsTact their Royal Highnesses will leave and have supper." And so they did 


hie. theater scandal and tumult at the premiere of this operetta, at the 
,„ ,908 there was a b>g *"'" "^^^^ ,„, ^ad to arrest the rightist troublemakers, and 
Municipal Theater in Graz^ Aus a^ The p ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

part of the standing room and galleries na ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

Jerfom^ance had to ^;~t,^gthTelt:Ld advised that no farther perfo^^^^^^^ 
tlieater director made a speech ^ ^g« ' ^ „,, demonstrators, whom the police 

of this operetta would take place a h' theater^ Nex ^y ^^^^^^^ .^^^^^ ^^^^ 

had forcefully removed from the theater, ''^^^th^l^dL.^ at all. At present, however, it 
,he Nazi period,of course, thisoperenacouldnotbepr^^^^^^ ^^P ^^^^^ , ^ ^_^^^ 

,,,, with great suc^^at™^^^^^^ 

^EmSSS^r (Hugdietrich's honeymoon, had its premiere. 

«. n/?F/ j/r£5CH--lCHr£;Z-N(Tlireeold 
m 1917 Rideamus wrote the libretto for ^^e operetta D^/-^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

women) together with Herman Haller, with -^^^^^^^^^^^ •• (Oh God, how stupid men 


are). This song was performed mBerlm slang by Claire waiao vv 

Rideamus and Haller cooperated again in 1 92 1 to ^"^^^''^ ' ^^ . ° ^^^^^^ Kunneke. This 
DINGSDA (The Cousin from Nowhere). The music ^^^^;^^^^^^^^ ,,,,tantly throughout 

must be considered Rideamus' most successful operena ^^_^^ operetta's couplets, 

Gemiany as well as m other German-speaking ^^""'"^'; ^ ^^^^^^^p^bond), has become a 
■ICHBINWR EINARMER WANDERGESEir (I ^^^^'l^^'^^^^^ U again, 
perennial favorite, sung by all the famous German tenors and recor 

In addition, Rideamus wrote the following operettas: 
Together with Herman Haller, music by Eduard Kunneke: 

Der Vielgeliebte (The dearly beloved) 
Wenn Liebe erwacht (When love awakes) 
Die Ehe im Kreise (Marriage in a circle) 
Verliebte Leute (People in love) 

He also wrote the libretti of further operettas, 

with music by Walter Kollo: 

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A/a;.Wa7fc//>m.n (His Majesty tsexpectmg you) 

and together with Theo Haiton, mus.c by Walter KoUo, he wrote: 
/)/.Wa.«er./W ma/ .0 {Men are like that) 

■ u -r M.n Twenties " when Berlin became the cultural capital of Europe, surpassing 

^""f ^v fl"^^^^ -th Haller and WUh Wolff to wrUe the text ,or 
even Pans, my father coHaDoraicu ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^.^^ 


one-year run at h "^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ,^^,,^ ^.^ Haller would travel to Pans every year to 

'^S^^^^^^ f- I'nsp'rat-on and new ideas and to hue the best art.sts and 


success in Berlin and elsewhere at the time. 

The Admirals Palast located at Bahnhof Fnedrichstrasse, survived World War II mtact and after 
the war was renamed Metropol Theater. (Admirals do not seem to have been very popular m e 
fomier GDR). It became a popular operetta theater in East Berlin. In the last few years t e 
theater was privatized, but still supported by large subsidies from the city of Ber in, as it was the 
only surviving operetta theater in Berlin. In 1 996, its manager became Rene Kollo, the grandson 
of composer Walter Kollo. Rene is a very famous tenor in Germany. Yet after so many years, the 
theater was closed in 1997, since mismanagement had led to heavy debts. 

The following Haller Revues were presented at the Admirals Palast: 

1923 - Dnmter und Driiher (Up and down) 

1924 - Noch und Noch (Ever more) 

1925 - Achiung! Welle 505! (Attention! Wave 505!) 

1926 - An undAus (On and off) 

1927 - Wann und Wo (When and where) 

From the Haller Revue Drunter und Dfiiber came the very popular song: 

So lang noch unter 'n Linden die alien Bdume hliih 'n. 
kann nichts tins Ubenvinden. Berlin bleibt dock Berlin. 

(As long as the old trees are still blossoming on Unter den Linden, nothing can overcome us. 
Berlin is still Berlin.) 

Unter den Linden is the main boulevard in East Berlin. Its name derives from the linden plan^^ 
along this most fashionable avenue. The messsage of this song was of course very appr^^P'^^ ^ 
during the division of Berlin. 



of Rideamus' plays were always very exciting events. I remember ^ 
The P^^"^*^^^ , Haller Revues when 1 was a small boy. My parents would get home very 
premieres o ^^^^ premiere, the authors, the composer and the theater director and their 

late, because a^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ expensive restaurant. In the morning our maid had to buy all 
uives wou . ,igi^ed in Berlin at the time. Some newspapers had very outspoken critics 

the newspapers p^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^ p^^^^ operetta or revue. My parents, of 

and their opini ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ opening the entertainmem section of the newspapers to find 
course were v y ^^^^ f^^prable or not. Bad reviews could ruin not only the theater owner 
out if the ^^"^^ j^^ji^r but also meam no royalties for Rideamus. Fortunately, all five 

'^'l.'^'Xvue; that my father wrote together with Willi Wolff received ver>' good reviews and 
;S"be greaL. each running for a whole year. 

. , 1 Q77 when Haller wanted to reduce expenses, he changed authors, hiring a new and 
' o wei il 1 brettist who worked for less pay. The resuh was that his libretto and^ 
not so ^^> *^^7^ ' ,^ ^^^^, ^ere complete failures. It played tor just a short time, and 
':^^^^^oi what hadU invested. Consequently, Haller nearly went 


Liederdichler. the association of German librettists. 

DingsJa were still presented ort many G«"«" heater s^ge. As thP ^^^^^ 

Jew,sh. the programs just showed the name ot the composer and om.ttea 



theologian, wrote a 75-page manusenpt. ^^.J^'^J^l^^,^^ 

rediscovery of Rideamus) - a documentation ot satire and ~ ofRideamus' work. 

enthusiast, fomied a literary circle and organized lectures and ^'^^"^^'""^ °J ^„„,d ^, 

At one of these meetings, in 1989, dedicated to Rideamus ;^™^^^^j,^^j^^^,^ personality and 

from Wiesbaden, in order to conduct an interview with me aB°"^ >^ ^^ ^^^^ ,he audience 

his literary production. The conversation was done by speaker pno . 

could accompany the interview. 

Even today, Rideamus- operettas, mainly D£« ^'^^^^^ '"^^^ ^ „(, a|so DREl ALTE 

extent DIE LUSTIGEN NIBELUNGEN and until some y''J_^^,inies presented on 
SC^CWreiWare shown on many stages all over Germany ana a ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^. 

radio and TV. Many of the famous songs from his ^'^"^!:'^'.„u m somTAG ANGELN 
mCH UNTER W LINDEN - MIT DIR. MIT DIR MOCHl /l ^_^^.^ ^^ .^ ^^^^^^^ 

GEH-H, etc., are performed by many famous artists on CU s. cas^ , 


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From the Haller Revue An undAus came the popular number: 

A/ir Dir mil Dir. mdcht ' ich am Sonntag angeln geh 'n 

(With you, with you, ! would like to go angling on a Sunday). 

It was perfomied successftiUy by Marlene Dietnch, among other singers. 

^^" ' 

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JOHN (HANS) F. OLIVEN - (1914-1975) - MY BROTHER 

1^ 101 A Up was nuite unruly as a child. Sometimes we had 
Hans was bom ,n Berl.n ^^^^^^'l^'^^lZZl and .he other one for my sister Sus, 
two governesses a. home, one jus, ^^ ^^^ '';°'" / ^„j ^.s behavior exasperated h>s 
and me. Hans was not a very good Pup^ at the mgn sc ^^ 

teachers. Once my father was ca led to Hans ^=*';;' -'';°;'';~^ .,f Hans is promoted, 

:;S:S X'^^Ls S! a^d my father transferred htn, to another school, 

Mv mother engaged a private teacher for Hans to help him in some subjects. Once, my mother 
!rHan::nrLt,Lrourapanment,roUersl.atingwhenhe should have e^^ 

private lesson at the .eacher's house. Hans explained to my funous mother <ha. for mo s h 
had been paying the teacher the money my mother gave h.m at the end of each mo. h. bu 
had never gone to any of his lessons. Apparemly the teacher was quite satisfied with 
arrangement and so was Hans. 

Hans had a collection of pnvate tutors. They were unusual people. One. Mr. Blumenthal .was 
a former musician who had been fired from the band because he did not practice; anottiei . -.^ 
was mostly interested in botany and nature. He caught toads and frogs and made my si^^^^^ 
Susi and me hold them m our hands for a while, which was not quite to our '*'^"\^^ j^^ 
another, Mr. Rosenwald. a Hungarian Jew, was a very gifted man. a jack-of-all-trades >in^ 
also a good chess and piano player. He had started to study medicine, but never fimshe^ ^^^ 
studies. He gave lessons to Hans in all subjects. He was very interested in all kinds oi spo |j- 
such as athletics and swimming. He went with us to a public pool and taught us the c . ^ 
This was quite unusual, as it was not a very well-known swimming style in the 1 92Us, 
only the breast stroke was practiced in Germany. He had a horizontal iron bar instalie 
corridor and taught us gymnastics. He also had a rope installed, hanging from the very 
ceiling of our apartment. On the top he attached a candy bag. We had to learn rope clim 
so we could snatch the candy bag. Some time after he had left us, he suffered a ne 
breakdown and had to be committed to an institution. He died there early in 1933. 

Hans also had a private mathematics teacher, Mr. Schmittke. He was a mean person. Han ^ 
bedroom and mine were separated by a thin fiberboard wall only. This private teacher onc^ 
got furious at Hans and was slapping him in the face repeatedly. Hans put his hands on o 
checks to protect himself. 1 trembled when 1 heard the teacher in the next room screanim.- 
"Take your hands down, you coward" and then another slap could be heard. 


earsinhted had severe astigmatism in one eye. He once told me modem 
Hans, besides being n b^ ^^^^ correction or improvement of his eyesight, if treated while 
medicine would have ^^^ ^,^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^.^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^g,j probably was the reason 

,,e was a child or yo""S J. . ■ ^^^^^ t^ick. Once Hans and some school friends 

,hy Hans always was ^^"^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ,,,,,, ^hey asked the sales girl for the price of 
,vent to a candy ^tore ai ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^.^j ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^e manager in the 

,ome chocolate P'^- ^^^" ^^^ ^^, auspicious of the boys, saw they were stealing his 

back of the store. The man ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^,^ except Hans, who was caught by 

.Hocolate and '^^^^^^ ^^^"^^^^o mv fa her. My father had to pay for what all the boys had 

doctor was examining Hans Who ^ ^^ ^^.^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^ „gi 

,hey got out of school, used to tea c me B ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

Bolle was a well-known enterpr se n Berlin^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^, „^ , 

:i. and hit over the head with the heavy can. 

*■ r. u*- wa<; SO 2lad that when he came 

home he wanted to tell my '"°'>^^^;^°"';JS ^English lady, accompanied her on the 

pamrr, " nothing happened. 

AS a young boy, Hans entered the Jewish sports and l^^^f ^l^^^^trrnSimeThl club 
which was a non-Zionist Jewish youth "^^^''"'".^"^tmvvhere we lived. Everybody 
organizedasledding party .ntheGrunewaldwoodsnoUoot^ ^.^ 

sled down a little hill. Some pinetrees stood at the hill hut ^^^^ ^ P^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ,, ^^ 
them, probably because of his poor eyesight. "'^ """' q^ ,he same day my sister Sus. 

his leg. His comrades in the group had to transport h™ h°me. ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ „ ^^ 
was having her dancing lesson with a group ot g.rl at o ^^^^^^^ ,^^„ „g 

asked his friends to carry him to the third floor, through he bac^^_ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^,^ ,„ 
up by elevator, in order not to d.sturb Susi's lesson. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ , 

take him up the winding back staircase. It was not easy » '^ >^^j^j,le for a fractured leg. 
stout boy. This kind of conveyance certainly was not very rec ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ,,, 

The back entrances of the apartment houses at that t m. ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ung 

messengers and delivery boys. Attached around the beu o _^^^^ ^_^^.^^ ^^^ gentlemen only. 

an enamel sign -Nurfur Henschaflen ■ - roughly trans a .^^ ^ ^^ 

These discriminatory signs left me indignant when 

our home My mother had 

On one of his birthdays, Hans invited his fnends to a party a^ ou^^^^ ^^^^^ ^, , ^ other^ 
bought cream puffs. Instead of eating them, his fnends preterr ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ p^„ ^uld 
When the boys saw a cream puff coming in their d'«ct.on. t«J ^^^ '^^'^^Z 

hit the wallpaper. My parents were not at home and the ma.d w ^^^^ , ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ j„^3,airs 
6el rid of .he wild boys she told them there was something y ^^^ ^^^^ staircase. 
m the backyard court. The boys believed her and racea a 

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1 I 

2 1 8 ^^ jggn_ they ran back up the staircase. By then the 

When they found out there was notn mt ^^^^ ^^^ j^^pij^ ,he boys' insistence, she did 

maid had locked the ^^^^Jf ™", " °" ^ ,„ain. This was the end of Hans' birthday part). 
not open it up for the wild bunch to come fc 

h oave him some money. Hans ran to the baker's shop 
Once as a young boy. when my mot er g ^^ ^.^ ^^^ ^^^ attention when crossing the 

on the other side of the street to buy » J^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^^, ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^,,^^^ 
street and was run over by a car. My • ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ j.^^,j^g ^j^^, something had 

brakes, looked down and saw a crowa . ^^^_^ ^_^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ,^^^^ ^^.^ ^^^^^ 

happened to Hans^She raced o"ts^e ^ -w tha H ^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ ^_^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

her heart trouble began then, ? °""™'7; "' '" „i,hout being hit. Hans was taken to a 

,.„und and a child ^<>:^^';^l^:^[XZ:Zl.rrn. Our governess. Miss G«t., 
hospital, but the examinat ons showed he haa s ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

Hans" sailor's cap!" 

Schlo!s Salem. The school in Scotland maintains the same rigid, spartan style ot educafon 
as formerly practiced in Germany. 

After Hans had been at Schloss Salem for a short time, my parents received a bi" from the 
school for dozens of broken windowpanes. When my parents inquired about what ad 
happened, they were told that Hans, who had received a chemistry set for his birthday, iiau 
caused an explosion while mixing magnesium with some other chemicals, and this 
shattered many windowpanes. Later on my parems received another bill, this time tor doz 
of dishes, glasses, cups and saucers. Upon inquiring again, my parents were intormed ti 
Hans, probably due to his poor eyesight, had collided with a female employee who w 
carrying a big tray and had knocked down everything on it. 

After finishing school Hans began studying medicine in Berlin but only briefly. In •'■'■ 
shortly after Hitler seized power, he went to Basel. Switzerland, where he studied for a s o 
time. Soon after, by mid-1933, he went to Italy and continued his studies at the University o 
Cienoa. In 1937, he went to Rome, where he worked in the Psychiatric Department o tie 
University Clinic for Mental and Nervous Diseases during the last two years ot me 
school. He received his MD degree in Rome in 1938. 

For a while it was possible to transfer a certain amount of money from Germany to , 
because of the alliance between Hitler's and Mussolini's fascist regimes. Owning lore'c 
currency or having foreign accounts was strictly forbidden in Germany at that time. .^ 
parents used this unique opportunity to transfer money abroad legally. They transferred 
money in my brother's name, with the idea that it was advantageous to remit funds abroa 
case they had to emigrate someday or in order to have a reserve abroad for any tutur 
eventualitN. Hans used part of this money to buy a small Fiat Topolino car. My mother, upsi-^ 
about it and wanting to see what kind of car Hans had bought, went with me to a Fiat dea er 


tendamm. It was a very small, low-slung car. My mother sat down behind 
j„ Berlin on '^"""''^ because she was a very stout woman, some salesclerks and 1 had to 
(he steering wheel, 
help her get out again. 

. lini concluded an alliance with Nazi Germany. Under German pressure, a 
,„ ,938 M"5^°''" .'°"..i„ _,,,i,y was then adopted in Italy. In the same year a series of 
Ihoroughgoing antisen J^ - ^^__ ^.^^^^ ^^^^^ j^^^ jhese culminated in the November 
decrees were P"W«hed^ b ^^^^^ ^^^^^ Nuremberg laws of 1935, containing very 

,7, 1938 law. an obvious mi ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ restrictions, as tor instance 

severe m^^^""'"'. ''^^' ,,■",,,„ jews and non-Jews, the law voided any and all naturalizations 
prohibiting marriages betw ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^|, denaturalized or foreign Jews living in Italy had 
of Jews made after January . ^ ^ , ^^ 1939 There were very few exceptions. 

,„ leave the ["-'^'^^XZ^^^ZL talian army in the war against Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 

Lrrthen removed from ofllce and began emigrating. 

f H ,n leave Italy He wanted to emigrate to the United States. 
Hans therefore was forced to '^^'^ "^'^. ^y nationality. The U.S. Consulates 

ta.igra.ion to the U.S. --^.-''f; '"^S pS cation was filed. Hans then was dating 
issued quota numbers according to ^^e da« the app^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^, ^^ ^.^^ ^„ 

two sisters - at the same time. He wrote ^°J> P^^^ "^\'^^,.,, ver^kindhearted. to lend them 
have two sisters as girlfriends. The girls a J^^ F! -. -ho .^^^ ^^ ^.^.^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

his car for a short time to drive to some places in Italy tne. 
stayed longer than agreed upon. 

In the meantime, the new amisemitic law «^^.;^^"J^ '"^'^f ' '^ed to days 

Consulate General in Rome right away tor ^^8'^"^;'°";^2at?by car. Mavbe he thought the 
until the girls returned his car. He then d^^^f;" 'J^f^"" ..^dow and be impressed by Hans 
consul had nothing better to do and would look «"' tt>J ^| s. quota number. So in 

dnving his own car. He thus lost precious time and receiv e t ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^out 

early 1939, when he had to leave Italy, he had to go to Lu _^ ^^ j^^^,.^j^ ,^^3„„3 

a year until his quota number was called. He made a livint ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^3 ^i^ays 

to other prospective Jewish immigrants to the United States. 

one lesson ahead of his pupils. 

It was illegal in Italy at that time to change liras into '^""^f'^JI^'J^e'eTreliable person in 
When Hans was about to leave for Cuba, my parents advise ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ,_^ ^^^(^^he 
Rome to change the money, recommended by my uncie ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ favorable, 

with many good connections abroad. The exchange rate t. r ^^^^y, who told him he 

of course, as it was a risky business. Hans had a tr.end, ais ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^.^ ^^^^^^^ who 

had heard of a person who gave a much better exchange rar. ^^^ ^^^^^ transaction, the 
offered him an excellem rate. As this was an ' '"^'''^^^ „ certain dav and hour on one 
"moneychanger" gave Hans instructions: They would m« ° ^^^^^ „,er to the man s car 
ofRome's hills surrounding the city. Hans would park upmi ^^^ ^-^^^ ;„ exchange tor the 

»n the other side of the street, where he would hand o 

wnesponding dollars. . .„ 

u the man scar already parked downhill 

When Hans arrived at the appointed location, he saw the man 

'*--i^r^ V • 

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f* *. 


> v 

t » 

! < 



220 .,gd him to come over. Hans handed him the liras 

on the other side of the street, ™e ma" S^.^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^„,,d behind the man's car to 
through the open window on the d ^^^ ^^ ^.^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^a„, ^^o had kept his 
get to the other side, in order to S" j-^,, eed. Hans ran back to his car. made a 

motor running all the time, drove o«^^^^^ ^^^^^ ;„,„ Vatican City, which was forbidden 
U-turn, and chased the crook s '^^^^ " ^le amount of money tor what was left of it), 

nlete new wardrobe of clothes before his departure to 
Mv parents wanted to give Hans a comp ^^ g^^igrating to Italy, had left his measurements 
Cuba and later to the United States^Han ^p ^^^^^ ^^.^ ^^.^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^p^^^.^^ 

at my fa*er'sexcellent tailor m Berlin, bo rny^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^.^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ g^.,^^^,^^^ 

suits for Hans to wear in the U.^, "^"^ , ^ ^^^ ^ customs inspection, Hans 

,0 the port of embarkation At the Sw ss/1 a lan boM ^^,^_^^_ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 

apparently must have looked very ^-'P""'''^"^,^ ,as,ed longer than the train stop, 

German suits. 

. H ,he I Iniled States in 1940 and changed his name to John Fredrick Oliven. (his 

Ihnois, Mv father gave him the good advice to move to another state where such an mern h 
was not mandatory rather than suing and wasting money on an uncertain result. John agreed 
and moved to New York. 

When John arrived in New York, he did not have much money left. My mother had a large 
autograph collection, started by my maternal grandmother. This collection ^^"^^'"^^ " :^; 
very valuable autographs of famous people - kings, presidents, writers, statesmen, P^"^' , ■ 
composers, etc. One of the prize pieces of this collection, highly valued m the Unitea ^u^^^ 
was a letter written by George Washington. My mother gave it to John for ^^*^^^^'^P^"^^^|^g ^ 
certainly was not aware of the very great value of this autograph. Once he wanted o ^^^ 
girlfriend out for dinner. This was beyond his means at the time. So he decided to j^e ^^^ 
George Washington autograph to finance his night out. He went to an autograph ^ea e^- 
owner must have been very smart. He asked John why he wanted to sell the autograp • o ^^ 
who was not a very good businessman, admitted that he needed the money to give his gir 
a treat. So the man helped him figure out how much he would have to spend on i o ^ 
dinner at a good restaurant, a show. etc.. adding up everything and oftering him so ^ 

money on top. John gladly accepted the offer and that was the end of George Wasni g 
most valuable autograph. 

John had an excellent career in the United States. He became a psychiatrist at Van 
Clinic. From 1948 on. he was associated with the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Ce ^ 
where he served as an associate attending psychiatrist at a number of hospitals in the No 
Westchester area. He was a Senior Psychiatrist at the famed Bellevue Hospital and Men ^^ 
Clinic until 1949 and an Instructor in Psychiatry at the College of Physicians and Surgeons 


. jQ^n iiad a private office on Park Avenue in New York. Later on, when 
Columbia University. (^^ot^n-on-Hudson, N.Y., he also had another office in Peekskill, 

he and his family moveu I 


. • .nr father's footsteps. He began writing at a very early age. As a schoolboy. 
John followed in ouriai ^_^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^,^^ ^^^ ^,^^j^^^ ^^^ _^^^^^ compositions, etc. 

he invented stones ^"^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ g,,,uy interested in psychiatry and sexuality. He 

While still a student n Uerm^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^^ ^^^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ,^ ^^^ ^^^,^^ 

,udied. ^^"^^^'P;'''* ,,,ered the English language and had an excellent style. 
Stales he soon tuny 

1, nf numerous health articles that appeared in well-known popular 
John was the author o """^^^ ;^,,,,3 ^^s called "Calm down and sleep," Another o^^^ 
magazines, such as ^ooJ^One^ the ^^,^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ .^^ ,, 

dealt with the POP"'^^ '?t';;f^^f ^^^^k pleasure in debunking old wives' tales related to 
psychic conditions and behavior, John P of sciemific articles to medical 

ealth and well being^ He also w s a ™ntntm j ^^^ ^.^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

.ountals. John vvas wide yquotd^^^^ 

John pubUshed "Suicidal Risk '"<^^j^l « 4,„ericcm Journal of Publw Heahinn 1954^ 
Prevention as a Public Heath Problem nhj-, , . ^^^ ^^^^ . ,^^_ , 

John is the author of Sexual Hyg.en'^ ri^if Indafd book for the professions appeared in its 
i„ ,955 by J. B, Lippincott Company, Th, ^l^^^^,^^„;^ has been translated into 

,Mrd edition in 1 974 ,556 pages), ""d- '^^ ' '^ ^' "^ ^^,,„^,, .^e bestseller A DoCor 

anumberofforeign languages. mcudingSpnisl^^J^^^^^^^^ 

,alh ,0 Newly^eds, published in %6. J'^^ P^^^^^^ 3- i„ the Americar, Handbook of 
,,,,heco-author of the chapter ^isc ~Jhe^^p^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^_^^ ^^^ ,^^„.,^, 

Psychialry, published in 1959- JO"" <" 

■ n A nf Psvchiatrv a psychiatric consultant to the 

John was a diplomats on the American B°^^; 7;"j,^ ^^rican Psychiatric Association. 

Social Security Administration in New York, a Fellow of the Am ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ 

aniember of theNew York and Westchester Med caM^^^^^^^^^^ 

of Medicine, as well as of a number ot other professional 

with mental health. 

K in Halle/Saale on Ap"l ^- 
On November 9, 1945. John married Charlotte Bauchwttz bonj ^^^^.^^^ ,_, 

1915, Charlotte, called Charlie, had been an •"^"^^,"^; ''"X., „ Jage. John said it would 
York. But at John's request she gave up her Pro.f^."'"^""^^'^' ^„,king and earning money, 
not reflect favorably on a doctor's standing it his vvite ^^^ ^^^ ^^.,^ ^^^^ ^^s very 

Charlie handled efficiemly all financial and Practical ma 
important to John, because he was not familiar with business 

le He was a good son. husband, 
John was always readv to help his family. Wends or anyone e's, ^^^^^^ ,^^ ^^ ^^.^ ^rokss^on^ 
father and brother, H^ was highly intellectual and eamed gre ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^. ^nd 
He spent a great part of his time during the last y^^^^.^^'l'^d third edition was published 
reciting h,sm«g«,™op,«.C//m■ca/S..xzW,V>^wh.chmsr^^.,,^^^^ 
shortiv before 4 untimelv death. He stayed "P -r'fnS "^''^^; ^^j,,MontefioreHosptal 
health, John became seriously ill and underwent '"nS ^tirgen'^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ Leonie. when 
inNevv York on January 6. 1975 at the age of sixty, the same g 
she died in 1948, at a nursery home in New York, 



■C^ ^r ■••• 


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1 * - f 



John and Charlie had two children: 

■ b in New York on December 5. 1948. Connie married 
^oCm^^^^^^^^ from her husband. Connie ,s an accountant and has Uvo 


a, Rebecca (Becky) Snow Cambreleng. born on September 26. 1979. in Morristown, 

New Jersey 

b) Courtney Jeanne Cambreleng. bom on August 5, 1 982, in Morristown. New Jersey 

■ J- A .he and her daughters moved back to her mother-s house. A few 
When Connie divorced, she and '^"°^^f]^ , j q „ charlie. who wanted 

years ago Connie decided 7°-;;*l^;J ™ ;Lr h use m Croton-on-Hudson and also 
to stay near her daughter and 8- --^ j^^^^^^^^^^^ ^tlsonville near Portland. Seldi and 

nice time together. 

2 Thomas (Tommy) Curtis Oliven, bom on September 1 4, 1 952, in New York. Tommy changed 
his namctom oTven to Oliver. In 1991 he married Josephine (Josie) Valenza. born on Apr, 
!,95Tin Monte Bello, Los Angeles. Tommy and Josie Uved in Los Angeles. The.r o 
h 'ewa: badly damaged by an earthquake a few years ago. Tommy worked a. d.e credn^^^^^^ 
department of the Bank of America for many years. Later he was transferred by he b nk o 
their branch in Yorba Linda, California. Recently he left h,s position and accepted job a 
financial administrator at a big firm in Atlanta, Georgia. Tommy and Josie have twins. A dy 
and John, bom on September 8, 1997. Josie worked at a credit agency but had to quit herjoo^ 
as she is quite busv taking care of the small children. Seldi and I visited Tommy and Josie 
Los Angeles back in 1994, shortly after their house had been hit by the earthquake. 


u„r,. In Rprlin on Anril 16, 1916. Her middle name was 
Helena (Susi) Oliven --^""^ '"^;^;"/^j;^, i„ Germany, Susanne was called 

- after -^y^^Tv^^l^s^^^^^^^^ ^'^^^ ^^ '"°' "" ^P""^' '"' 
where she worked on a farm. 

,., „, ,„„„ .... . »,.- » p» -s;~i ;s "rS-x 

loned by the local museum. 

.Uwimmmg competitions, susi won first place .^^^^^^^^^^^ 
■ stance swimming competitions and nver crossmg. 
competitions m the discus and javelin. 

OnN vember9, 1944, Susi mamed Herbert S'^'^^"-*'°"' °^S^a^setl!'em!!t in"the'state 
Herl .vas the vice-administrator of Quatro ^^^""-.^ t^ settlement covered an area of 
:rande do Sul, of which Porto Alegre is *e capital. This s ^^^ ^^^_^^ colonization 
000 hectares. Quatro Irmaos had been established in i y ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^,, 
uon (ICA), founded in 1891 by Baron Maunce de "trsc " ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ .^ p^^^ 
and p. ; ' anthropist. Baron Hirsch (1831-1 896) was bom '" M""|C ^^ ^^^ ^^^,^„ E,,ope. 
Baroi. : (irsch's idea was to help Jews to emigrate from count , ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ .^ productive 
whert ,i,ey were persecuted or economically disadvantagea^a ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ j^e 

agnculuiral activities in Amenca. In 1903, Ph.hppson. '" J^"^^ ^^^ Bessarabia. ICAs 
first ICA colony established in Brazil. Philippson s settler ^ ^^^^.„^ ^„i others were 
main work has been in Argentina, where settlements sucn j ^^^^^.^^ .^ ^^^^^^^ the 

established at the end of last century. There were also some 
^■S.A. and other countries. 

Baron Hirsch's project ultimately failed in Brazil because rnostjf ^ ^^"ruch easier than .n 
or grandchildren eventually left the colonies for the cities w^ ^^^.^ however, in Argentina 
the countryside. Today there are no more ICA settlemen s 

Susan ■ 

nvi . 








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5*' I 


« t 



*- . * 



1 1 ■ <:till exist and the ICA continues to operate tliere. It is to 
some ICA agricultural «>>" ^^^^j, ^f Eastern European Jews, the greatest part 

Baron Hirsch's great credit that man _^ ^^^ Holocaust, were saved by the ICA, which 
of whom would certamly have per^ ^^^ ^.^.^^ .^ p^^^^ ^,^g^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

life style, but she ^^^P^^^^,;^^^^^^^^ ^,, ..^ center of the colony. The village included 

confront life m a very ^^^^^ *^^ ^-^o ow^ned houses built of wood, hvestock. 

Vidd.h-sp^^^^ line. wUh a Jewish train engineer and a 

etc. The ICA ^^^" ^^^ ^^^blv the only Jewish railway line in the world. 

on occasion in the 1940s, and my father also spent some time there. 

Always influenced by her Zionist upbringing in the Susi. together with her husband 
HeZ organized fundraising for Eretz Israel (the land of Israel) among the Jewish colonists 
of Ouatm iLos. She raised funds all year long for AVr. 

Fund), which is in charge of the purchase, development and torestat.on of land m Ei. z 
Israel Herbert was an active fundraiser for the Keren Hayesod (Foundation Fund), the World 
Zionist Organization's main fundraising instrument, mainly for financing immigration, 
settlement, and absorption. Herbert addressed the Jewish population on the High Holy Ua>s 
at the Quatro Imiaos synagogue, where they all gathered to celebrate Rosh Hashanah (Jewish 
New Year) and Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement). He would then obtain pledges tor the 
Keren Hayesod from those in attendance. 

Several years after their marriage. Herbert left his position at Quatro Irmaos. and he and Susi 
moved to Porto Alegre to join Susi's family there. Herbert obtained a position in Porto Alegre 
at the central office of a big lumber company, engaged also in export. Susi and Herbert had 
no children. Herbert died in Porto Alegre on March 23. 1952. A short time after. Susi moved 
to New York, where our brother John lived with his family. 

Susi studied at New York City College and received her Master of Arts. She worked at a day 
nursery and as a teacher at a school for disadvantaged girls. After retiring she was a volun 
manager of the gift shop of the conservative synagogue Forest Hills Jewish Center, m ror ^ 
Hills, New York. She lived in a studio apartment nearby. 

My sister Susi was a model aunt indeed. She loved her family and was very attached to it. she 
always treated her nephews and nieces, as well as their children, as if they were her own- ^nt 
accompanied their upbringing, stressing our Jewish values and traditions, helping out whenever 
needed, and spoiling her nephews and nieces with generous gifts. She taught them arts an 
crafts and put on puppet shows for them. She was extremely kindhearted and took part in 
ever\'ihing going on in our families" life. My wife Seldi, who never had a sister, found a sister 
in Susi. 

Susi died on October 24. 1999. in Lake Oswego, near Portland. Oregon, at the home of my 
niece Connie Cambreleng, who. together with her daughters, took most admirable care o 
Susi during the last months of her grave illness. 




d of World War l As the 
1 was bom in Berlin on January 20, 1918, shortly ^^1"^'" |^^ ^"j ^^ bom at home. It was 
hospitals were then overcrowded by the many wounded soiQi .^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^o 
a complicated birth. Many of the younger physicians had tiee 


226 ^^^ ^|j_ overworked gynecologist had left a coton 

the armed forces on the front or at o ^.^ ^^ .^f^" j-^,^ ^nj niade another surgical intervention 

pad in my mother's body which resu ^^^j. j,ie. nor was any milk available in stores, 

necessary. My mother had no mi Uor ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ ,^„g ^^ ^^,|^^^ 

1 became seriously ill with dysentery ^^ ^^^^.^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ (,^^^^ ,g ^^j,^ 

in her despair, rented a goat in the s j^, ^^^^ ,he nurse arrived a little earlier 
the goat, but the -"-'.^^^J^tomaTwho owrted the goat was milking ,, for herself No 


...Child of the s.n.Wed«K.uH«.a.rt^^^^ 

constitution was wntten in 1^ i v,. ^^ ^^^^^ ^^j, ^ess than 

,932). It was a weak dernocratic ^ ""^ *at n^v g^e^ ^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^_^^ ^^^ ^^^.^._^^ 

twenty-one ye-;lapsed between thed o Wodd W^ 1^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ,,^, ,.^^ ,„ ,„^ 


, .as generally a well-behaved ^^"^ ^^^ ^J^^^ "^rysTaC--^ ^ 
sehool, contra^ to my brother H^. My , e Su , and a w y^ h ^J^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

S"s;::eS::r^r >^::::^e ..e. ^-^^^ -r 

.he mt ill and had to leave her job. She mistreated us most of the time. She threatenea . 
%^fl:tL me. slapped me. you name it. I will -ntion on^ a ew ep.^^^^^ to 
show to the younger generations how "education" was often admmislered back then. 

Once Susi and I traveled with our governess to a place where we spent our ^"^J^^^^ 
I was about six years old. Susi and I went for a walk there with an acquamtance and he ^^n^ 
who was about my age. At a gift store the lady bought a nice white cane tor her son. U 
small suitable for children. 1 mentioned that I would also like to have a cane like that, ana ^ 
my great satisfaction the lady promptly also bought one for me. When we got home 
G6tze asked me who had given me the cane. When 1 told her, she grabbed it and thrashea n 
with it. She told me I never should have been so impertinent, asking that lady tor a pre 

1 remember well the afternoon Miss Gotze took us to a houseware store. She asked t e sa^es 
clerk for a bamboo cane "to beat rugs." She tried out various canes and bought the m^^- 
elastic one, which made the biggest noise when swinging it through the air. However. 
was ever thrashed with it. The cane was meant for Susi and me. 

We had gymnastic lessons at home. Some children from the neighborhood also particip 
in these lessons. When the teacher. Mr. Geige. arrived at our place, the first thing Miss o^^^ 
did was to lend him the cane. Mr. Geige then had all the children line up in a queue m ^ 
corridor and a mattress was placed on the ground. All the pupils then had to per ^ 
somersault. Mr. Geige stood beside the mat. with his arm raised high, holding the c ■ ■ 
the exact moment when the child's bottom was up in the air, he lowered his arm with a i 
and the cane landed on the pupil's bottom. Mr. Geige was very skillful about it an 
bamboo cane always landed on the right spot. This routine exercise was the first part o 
pri\'ate gymnastic lesson. 


mnastic lesson. 1 was not feeling well and all of a sudden had to vomit on 
Once before ^"^ ^J^^^^^^ ^^^^p ^^iss Gotze saw it, she took a piece of wet cloth and hit me 
the floor of my ^ ^^^ shouted. "Clean up this dirty mess right away!" Another time I had 
in the face wit i ^ ^^^ ^^oughing a lot at night. First Miss Gotze ignored me. but then she 
uhooping coug . ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ pinched me in the chest, saying, ''all day long I work 
became ^"^'^.^ -^le to sleep a wink at night, because of your -cawing ." From then on, 
and now It IS imp ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ blanket, nearly suffocating, in order not to 

whenever I had to coub - f 
disturb the governess sleep. 

a ^n we went bv streetcar to the tennis club Blau- Weiss, where my mother 
Often in the ^ft^^"^^" ^' .^^^ /leaned and dyed mv tennis shoes white. While standing in 
went to play tenni.. ^'^^ f^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ,, J^ foot At the streetcar stop, she helped me get 
'' --^^^ ^Te":;era^^^^^^^^^ s eTap^^^^^ - in the face without saying anything. I really 

shortly before. 

. that time we lived in a big apartment ^ ^^^J^^l^l^l^r::::::!^^^ 
,ee.s,Kurmrstendamm.NeaJy was heA^^^n T^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^„^^,„„ j„ 

as children. It was then m 1928. '^a' - >^ar o P ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^ 

Berlin, dancing and singing '"/"^"'^S ,h er to immational fame, dancing on a huge 
llrst went to Pans in 1924 and skyrocketed *e;^;° '~ , .,, ^.^h ,wo leopoards on a 
nrinor at the Folies Bergere and ^'^°">"e1owrt the Champs Elysees 
leash. (The leopards were eventually replaced by swans). 

, _ber a lunny incident that >^appened then^One day^ ^^^ ;-.tir:^ 

,he Zoo, and right behind the entrance >" ^e m •" alk^ .^^,^^„,,„,, Miss Gotze 

were many dark-black Africans. smgmg.danung and paying ^^^^ 

had never seen a colored person before and could h-dly t^— e y^.^ ^^^ ^^^.^^^ .^ 
explained to her that these were natives trom A trica. bo™ black^s" J ^^^ ^^ 

She thought those people were only painted black. In order o ^ J ;^^;^ ^^^ ..£,,,,, „,e, 
the bewildered colored men by his arm. spat on it and cubbed thrd sh^ g^ 
Hen Neger, 1 just want to check out whether your color ,s natural or paint 

At the time there was an infamous mass murderer '" ^^™^"J; "'''"L, J^ „ot verv angry with 
of various years he killed twenty-four young men. When Fraulein Gotze g 
me, she often started singing a ditty popular then; 

Wane, wane nur ein Weilchen. 
Dam komml Harmam auch zu Dir. 
Und mil einem Hackebeilchen. 
Macht er Schabefleisch aiis Dir! 

Waitjust a little while, 
until Harmann comes and gets you. 
and with a little chopper ^ 

he'll make minced meat out ot you. 

rrighiening a small child that way was not very pedagogical mdeed. u 






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„c I went to a private elementary school near the place where we 
During the first three years I "'^""^ P ,^,„i ..pupi," in German). When I was a bov 
,ived. 1 had a teacher by the ---^?^^'^f^^,Z^JJ, ,^„ „„ the ground and broke. 1 was 
of seven, he once slapped rne ■ t^ J ^ ^ '^^^ ,,„^ , ,,^ ,,Hy age. 1 inherited this 
already weanng f -« ^J^j/^J^'^^^,^" ^^^i was very angry about my broken glasses 
'T Td !,: tlact In^^l as wSat he wouM have to pay for the new lenses. When 1 ,o, 
and told ''^;' •'^^^J^. 7;'j ^' [^d him to go to school at once, talk to the teacher, and demand 
home, 1 .0 d my father "da J „ to g ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

STe'r^^CcloTltttt^e preferred to pay for the g,.^ 

ou s? was a big disappointment for me. Some time later Mr. Schuler passed away suddenly, 
one yanerhegavemeasapunishmemanassignmemto copy somethmg. 1 rememberver> 
well that 1 was glad when 1 heard he had passed away, because 1 would no longer have to turn 
in ihe copy. 

Mr SchUler was followed by another teacher. Mr. Langeheine. He was a tall strong man. 
When he got angrv at me. he used to slap me in the face. Once 1 complained about .t to my 
parents. Instead of going there personally, they sent the governess with me to check what 
was happening. When we got there. Miss Gotze told the teacher I was complammg at home 
about his hitting me. The teacher then shouted angrily at me with all his might. Did 1 ever 
slap vou?" i was so intimidated that 1 replied in a very low voice. "No. sir. never. Wlien we 
left. Miss Gotze did not say anything, but hardly had we come out of the school building 
when she slapped me hard in the face. She told me I was a miserable liar and how ashamed 
she had felt in the presence of the teacher. At home she told my parents I had invented tht 
whole story. 

I remember another event at the same primary school. One of my schoolmates arrived late at 
the first morning lesson. He had gathered chestnuts in their green shells, which had fallen 
from a chestnut tree in the street in front of our school. The headmaster had obvserved hini 
from his otTice window. When the pupil finally entered our class, the schoolmaster came in 
immediately and asked why he was so late. The pupil gave some lame excuse and the 
schoolmaster then grabbed him, shouting "you liar," put him across the bench and gave him 
a sound spanking. 

After Miss Gotze had left us. we got a new governess. Miss Sanner. She was a nice person. 
She took care of us and accompanied us on our summer vacation. Once, when I was ten years 
old. Susi and I were sent to Gstaad. a well-known summer resort in Switzerland. We had to 
change trains in Switzerland. When we all got on the new train. I noticed that the third-clas^ 
compartments were crowded. I saw a second-class compartment that was completely empty- 
There were a few minutes left until departure. 1 made myself comfortable in the empt>' 
compartment. 1 heard Miss Sanner calling, "Where is Klaus?" 1 thought. "Let her look tor 
me." Indeed, she did not find me and thought 1 must have stayed behind on the train platforni' 
So she got olTthe train to look for me. The conductor asked me "Is this vour mother?" 1 sa'tl' 

Suddenly the train moved away and our governess was left behind. I went to the conductor 
iind asked. "Why didn't you wait? You saw the lady had left the train." The man answered. 


■f that lady was your mother." I answered. "She is not my mother, she is my 
asked you^^ ^^^ Sanner had the stationmaster phone the next train station. Susi, who also 
governess. ^ ^^^ j ^^^^ advised there that she would arrive in Gstaad on the first available 
\vas in t e r ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ should go straight to the hotel my parents had reserved. 
train wi ^^^ \xoXe\ car was waiting for us at the station. Miss Sanner. who arrived 

*" f'^ourse was quite upset and frightened because of her responsability. but in organized 
'i'^^'^'^ land these things were no great problem and everything turned out alright. 

hen we were very small. Susi and I had a fight with our parents. We decided to go oft' 
^"^^'^Ives for a while. We went to the HwlcrhoW the back courtyard of a neighboring 
''^ ''"^^^nt' house and started to sing. At the time there were millions of jobless people in 
'/'''"'nv Many of them would sing or play a hand organ or some other musical instrument, 
T'l's Hinierhofe, sometimes accompanied by domestic animals. To earn a few pennies, 
u nnlH nlace a cap or a box on the ground. Some of the tenants used to open up their 
S: totw -me corns wrapped in paper into the court. Susi and I started to sing the 
best trcould. but nobody seemed impressed. Not a single com whatsoever was thrown 
doNvnto us. We then returned home penniless. 

Once on a winter day, Susi and 1 went sledding in the Tiergarten. We sled down a little slope 
Onu. on a w>"^^^ " j ^-^ Susi went first and the ice broke. I could 

,,d landed ^ -" f J^J^^^^^ it was very shallow, because at that 

rre ot L: htw r;!. we were soaked through^ We took a nearby taxi cab 
hi We changed clothes and had a hot shower and luckUy did not catch cold. 

From the age of eight on, 1 was a voracious reader. 1 had little "^^ooks whe^^^^^^^^^^^ 

theater plays 1 had seen. When I was a young boy. one ot ^^J^^"^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
He wroemany books with stones about the Indians ^^ '^^'^'l^^'^^^^^ 
visited the United States. One of my favorite volumes -^^^\\'''' ^^^^^^ fl.ed 
called Winnetou, the name of the Indian chieftain. I had started '^J^^^^_^^^^^^^ ; ^ ,, 
to continue, 1 could not find the book any more. 1 looked tor y^^^*^"^;^ °^^^^^^ 
Finally 1 asked my brother Hans if he had seen it. He contessed tha , as h needed s 
money, he had taken U to a second-hand book dealer and sold U for ^J ^'^^^^^ 
very angry and decided to take revenge. This was shortly after Ha,.s b ame B^^^^^ Mi 
Usually Bar Mitzvah boys receive a lot of gifts, among ^^^"^^'^^^^^^^^^^^^ of the 
ihey never read. Hans had received the complete ^f ^^^^^^^^^^^^ consisted of many 

animals, from a relative. It was the standard work on this suDjeci ai 
heavy, illustrated volumes. 

1 decided to sell his whole collection at the same place where he had ^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ 
May book. This was a bookstall several blocks away from !^^.^'^ ^^^^ strenuous task. 
brand new heavy collection and schlepped it to the bookstall. 1 nis ^ ^^^^ .^^^ ^^^ bookstall 
as 1 was small at the time, about nine years old. The books ^^"^^ ''^ - ^^^^^ particular day the 
not so near. When I finally got there, I found to my great regret t ^^.^ ^.^^ ^^^ 

book vendor had not come to work. 1 returned with the books t ^ ^^ -^of course, 

book vendor was present. He asked me to whom the books ^^'°^^ confirmation from my 
^^ey are mine." He then told me I had to present him with a wri ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ly 
parents authorizing the sale of the collection, before he couia d ^^ authorization for the 
^'sappoimed, because I knew my parents would never give me buc ^^^^^^ .^ ^^33^ 

^ale of my brother's collection. There is an epilogue to this story. 





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. A.;na medicine in Basel Switzerland, I sold his brand-new, unread Brehm 

u ^9V when 1 was nine years old, I started keeping a>-. There are aUogether fourteen 
urn s written between 1927 and 1945. In the second volume. wrUten between 1931 and 
7933 I wroL about the following abstract subjects among others: 

Thw,s thai should be changed - Right o,- wrong, my counifj - War never again!- Radicahs,n 

Liberie Emlite Fraiermte - Religion - Tradition - Internationalism - Soaahsm - Educatuml 
'problem -Nudity Culture - Zionism - Esperanto - Duels and Fencing - Drinking and Smoking 
. What do we live for? 

Later on my diaries had a more personal character again, as in the beginning. When I was in 
Brazil in the 40s, I wrote down many things that happened to me in Germany m the 30s. This 
was very useful for the present chronicle, for otherwise 1 would not have remembered so 
many details of my own story, after so many decades had elapsed. 

During the third year I spent at the elementary school, the Prussian government made a new 
law extending the duration of primar}' school to four years. Gifted children could skip the 
fourth year if their primary school recommended it and if the child passed a special 
examination. Upon my mother's request, my elementary school gave the following report: 

"Klaus Oliven gives the impression of being an anemic child. He has severe myopia. 
As the son of the well-known poet Rideamus. he evidently is influenced by his 
home atmosphere. In his manner of speaking, he makes a precocious impression 
and his behavior is somewhat peculiar. He only participates a little bit in the lessons 
being taught and gives the impression that his mind is constantly occupied with 
other things. 

"His homework as well creates the impresssion of his being constantly absent- 
minded. He is filled with thoughts beyond his age. He easily assimilates the subject 
being taught, has a lively imagination and is skillful and self-assured in expressing 
himself. In his relations with his schoolmates, he already considers himself the 
leader. He is interested in literary subjects. [...]." 

This school report is dated January 25. 1927. when I was exactly nine years old. However. 1 
failed the special examination. Still my mother would not give up. She decided to send me to 
Karlsruhe for one trimester to live with her sister Edith and her husband, Fritz Straus. In the 
Slate of Baden, unlike Prussia, the duration of primary school was still only three years. Alter 
that, pupils could enter the gymnasium (high school), if they passed their entrance examination. 
At the end of my first school day in Karlsruhe in 1927. 1 took the entrance test for Goethe 
Gymnasium. 1 passed and was admitted to the first class called Sextar It was the same 
class my cousm Werner was in. My uncle had advised Werner to take care of me and to 
acconipany me on my way home, since 1 did not know the city at all. When Werner len 
school, he looked for me everywhere but did not find me because I was taking the entrance 
examination in one of the classrooms. After looking for me for a long time, he finally gave up 


thout me. My uncle got very cross at him and became quite nervous. He 
-uid went no jnimediately. They dispatched a police car to search for me. to no avail. 

notiiietl the po ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^.^^^J. ^^^ ^ ^^^If, I finally found my uncle's house and 
^fter roammg ^ enjoyed living at my uncle and aunfs and becoming acquainted with 

arrived home sa ^ ^ ^^^ eldest. Werner, is about my age. Werner and I participated in the 
my five Straus cou^^^ -^^^^.^^ ^^^^^^ organization. Kadimah. The leader of the group was 
activities ot ^^^^^ became mv friend. He and his wife Tamar, who is very ill for some 

Martin Klem. \ ^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^ Yedidia, where Seldi and 1 have often visited them. I never 
time already, liv ^^^^^^^^ „,e in Berlin when 1 was a young hoy: "He who trades playing 
forgot ^o-^^^^'^f ^g ^. I t^ok this advice very seriously and never played cards from 

cards has no tnougnib lu uuv. . 

then on. 

,h. in Karlsruhe 1 returned to Berlin and was transfened to the Kaiser Friedrich 
,fter three mon J m K^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ „^^, ^^^^ ,,,„, ,,e Kurmrstendamm, 

'^'"'r v'h n 0^^^^^^^^ ^'-v//»c/.« lived. In 1933. the year Hitler seized power, 

around -^'ch mos o the so ca ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^, ^ 

0. of .y first remembrances of .his school was o- t^^^^^^^^^^ Dr. Fied,e.^He 
.as elderly and would jus, a few years '=>f .^ "f^'J^PJ^i.^e), he asked me 
,,bou, mathematics (probably because I had conie o '^^ ^^ '^^ -"^^^^^^^ ,,„,,o„s. 
,0 stay in the classroon durmg recess. He sa,d l.e ^^^^^^^/'X f^e on his knee 
Durmg recess, all the other pupUs went to play m '*- °7i,f^*^, ^ously mumbling 
(1 was nine years old) and pinched my buttocks constantly, while, 
that 1 was a complete ignoramus in his subject.. 

Once, a few years later. I had not done my ^^^^^^^^^^^V^'^aTtS^^^ 
.y neighbor before the beginningofthefi^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Knoche, was going down the comdor just ^*^^","'f^f^,'^'„^,,,. either one hour oiArresU 
He then told me 1 could choose between two kinds ot P""'^^^"^""^^'' ^ ^i jn the face. 

which obliged me to come to school in the afternoon to ^^P^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^, ^'ur. He then 
1 chose the latter, because I was not inclined to come to sen ^ '^^^ ^.^^^ ^^-^ j^^j into 
rubbed his fingers in circles on my smooth skm for a while, an - 
the air. It landed on my face with a mighty slap. 

w ^f the school education in the past. 
Of course, spanking is nothing new and always was part ot the sc 
even in other countries, as one can see from the popular English song. 

School days, school days, dear old golden rule days, 

Reading and writing and -nthmetic 

Taught to the tune of a hickory stick. 

, , ine the Weimar Republic. 
The difl-erence is that all the events 1 mentioned occurreo « ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ not forget 
OHcially, corporal punishment at school was forbidden at me ti .^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
'hai many of the teachers dated back to the old amocratic ^'itie ^^^ widespread, even 
give a damn about such prohibitions. So spanking pupils at sc ^^ 
after the old regime was replaced by a new. democratic one in 

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of these spanking incidents, but it would become repetitious. 


I could mention many more of these '^P^"''J^^^^ i went through at home as well as 

just want to sum it up by f ^"^ J ^^^^ ^^ ^ee a psychiatrist to overcome these unpleasant 
at school sate and sound. 1 did '^ ^^^^^ Nowadays people who have gone through such 
events that happened during my t ^^^^ ^f psychotherapy to overcome it, but fortunaiely 
rr:S:ctvCeHwithoutan,suchtteatntent . 

A h i nd movies microwave ovens, faxes, computers. 
, grew up at a time when TV. colored photos ^^^^^^^ ^.^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

video cassene recorders. CD m''', . ^ of our life were completelv 

other modem conquests that ""^^^ays are an mt 8 P _^^^^^^^^^.. ^^^_^_ ^^.^^ ^^^^ ^ 

unknown. Our ^'-^-^^^'Z':^^^^^ Zl^^ and a needle that had to be placed 
small wooden box, on top of which *«« wa / , hones would come out. My 

skillfully on the crystal, so the -" ^ ° ^ ^ ^J, , Z^,,Z.s a kmd of heavy storage 


Goldrmh. but my parents would not pemi.t ,t. So 1 ."^"^ '^^°J P ^ ^ ,^ ^„ happened 

to accompany the film accordingly, was late on that V^^^f^'^'^^. ' " -^^^i ^^,^^(1 

without the pianist, The audience had to wait quite some time until the P'^">; ^^^ 

: nd the show could start. 1 got quite nervous about this delay and shitted - -yj^^^^^^^^ 

one side to the other, because I was afraid that when I would get home very late, m> p n 


came out. The Jazz starring the famed Jewish entertamer Al Jolson As Ws ) - 

face painted black. Jolson (1888-1950) started his musical career as a cantor (his 

profession in a Washington, D.C. synagogue). 

Before the Nazis took over, some of our teachers, whenever they were angry at one or tlie 
other Jewish pupil, called us VerfJixle Kurfursiendamm Kinder, damned kurturs en 
children. Of course, during the time of the Weimar Republic, they could not caU us ^^^^ 
children." We had a few Jewish teachers but also some hidden Nazis, who on ""^^^.^^^"^'^ 
displayed the Nazi party membership button on their lapels. It certainly was one o ei^^^ 
Republic's serious mistakes that it did not oust the government officials and teac ers ^^^^^ 
were declared enemies of a democratic system. 1 remember, just to give a small examp e. ^^ 
once a year it was mandatory for all schools to celebrate the Reichsverfassungslag. e ^^^^ 
Constitution Day. on August 11, the day the constitution was signed in Weimar by t e 
democratic Reichsprasidem Friedrich Ebert in 191 9. It had been drafted by the Jewish In er^i-^^ 
Minister of the time. Hugo Preuss and was approved by the elected National Assem y 
met in Weimar because of the unsafe situation in Berlin. 

On that day all the pupils had to assemble in a large sportsfield near our school . The gove 
appointed a speaker, usually a ministerial otTicial. Standing there out in the open, lacing ^^^ 
summer heat, sometimes for several hours, the assembled pupils and their teachers w 
have to listen to the speaker sing the praises of democracy and freedom. These long ^P^^^^. ^^, 
usually were ver\ boring for us young pupils. I remember one particular year, shortly 
Hitler seized power. One of our teachers belonged to the far right. 


t d bv the schoolmaster to advise us that we had to be presem at a certain time 
He was directe y ^^^^ i^^portant day. He did so in roughly the following manner: "Tomorrow 
^,^tlie celebration Everybody should be present at the designated time and place. If 

,. Reichsveip-'^^'^it i _^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^„ Of course, we young pupils accepted this 
,ou do not show up. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ short-lived Weimar Republic 

.uimeslion readily ana siayc ■ 

functioned and how It was undermined. 

. , 1 liked French English and history but did poorly in mathematics, physics and 
,, school, I liKed ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^i^^y^ ^ ,^^,,,,,, ,,,f , 

chemistry, ^etore tn ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ .^ould have to repeat the school 


year. As my French teacn ^.^^^^^^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ,^^,3^,^ 


1 had to repeat the year, but on the o^^^^^^ J. ^ ^.^^ of compensatory system at the 

,,,eryg.ftedand a tob^^^^^^^^^^ 

XSi^t^^^^ had to be promoted, after long discussions between my 


, ,erefore never paid much attent.on to -"^er eT E~ :tZS ^^^ 
understand the theories of Pythagoras. E-'''^, J^^'^^f^^^^^^^ .heories or fomtulas. I had a 
„.,old never ever in my life use these or ''"y °f " ™^J"=7, '^^ „ur class presented ,n French 
,.|c m the theater play Cyrano de ^/''^^'^'-''^.^^.^^^^^^tn ng In French lessons. 1 addressed 

statesmen and historians. 

T .u.ut the nrofession we would like to follow 
in Gemian, we once had to write a composition f^'^^^^^^^^^ that when I grew 

in the future. I was twelve years old at the time. ~"^ ^^^^ ^^ ^.^gs and laws for 
up I wanted to be Reichskanzler (prime minister) so that ^ ^^ ^nn-abortion law and I 

the better. I would, for instance, abolish ^^^^^^^^^^^ making beUer use of 

would also prohibit excessive armamem on the pan b ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^^^ corruption 

public money by building homes for the poor. 1 wou d ^^^^^^ ^^^^^,,,_ Later on, 

and bribery on the part of government ofticials. mayors ana ^ 
1 wanted to become a diplomat, a statesman or a politician. 

^^J.r\^ War I veteran and had suffered severe 
1 was very bad in drawing. Our teacher was a ^^'^'^J^'' ^^^^^ ,,„e under h.s desk. Once 
injuries at the front. He was a ver>' mean person. He Kepi j „ot mto our classroom and 

we had a table tennis tournament at school over ^he weeKe . b ^^^.^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

broke the cane into many small pieces. The teacher did not ^o ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ certificate. He 
of the school year he was obliged to give a mark to each o ^^^^ ^^.^^^ during the 

asked each of his pupils to give him a folder with all the ar & ^^^^^ ^^ ^^.^ ^^ ^j^^^^ 
school year, so that he could check them and give a mark. P ^^.^^^ ..g Qliven." I put her 
Susi was a gifted painter. She signed all her school dr^^'^t^ ^j.^^^ y^e teacher was not 
recent drawings into a folder and wrote on the ^^"^^^'^^^^ ^^^ ^^ excellent mark in drawing, 
a^va^e that my first name was Klaus, not Siegfried. So go _^ '^^^^^^^'(^^ subjects. 
^vhich was very important to partly compensate my baa ma 

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234 ^^^ ^.^ ^^1^^ ^y going in private to the homes of 

We had an Enghsh teacher who ^"PP''"^^'",^^^ ^^^^ ^eak in the subject he taught and whose 
Ihe parents of some pupils - "i«^">;" ^^^ ^^^^ in English. He told the parents he was 
passing to the next grade depend^^J> ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^,i ^^^^ .-^r a month or so only. " 
going to gel married or that he hf ^° - ( .^uld result in a bad mark on the school 

. • .u iinitprf States and who always was an excellent pupil, 
A schoolmate, who now lives .n the Umte^ ^^ ^^^^ me inl991 . He writes, "One Sunday 
confimied this corrupt P"'^'"^^" '" ^^^ g^j,,!^!, teacher] appeared at our apartment [...] 
afternoon, probably in 1934 or l^-*^- ^ ' , ^^ ^^^6 my father immediately knew 

and told my father he wanted '» ''°7*;"; '^^[j^j- ;„ unforeseeable consequences regardin. 
thiswasanex,onion,butarefusa couldhavere "Uedin ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 

my mur [the final German igh schoo d p ma^ J __^_ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ .^,^ 

university]. Therefore my ff-fj,;;^^ Mentioned this matter again nor did he do n 
was already getting scare . The ''^'^"J' ,. ^y schoolmate made this final school 

again. His signature ,s still on ^^ ^^"[^^f^M He informed me that this teacher 
examination in 1936, two years after I had lett scnooi 
became a translator for the U.S. occupation army after WW II. 

S t rsiderX him a "dead language." He also did not teach us Jewish «^ 
tradition. We, the Zionists among my schoolmates, insisted on having 1--"-" J;^^^^: , 
but to no avail. This Reform rabbi probably did not know much Hebrew anyhow. Though 
ar ued with him many times, he had a certain empathy for me. The reason apparently 
that my rich aunt, Somiie Oliven, the wife of my father's ^<'^^'''-^''^'-^f°''J';i'i 
Reform Movement, went to the services at the rabbi's temple and certainly was go 


At that time the Reform Movement eliminated the Hebrew language from their P^^^'^''^^^^^^^' 
nearly completely and also the religious service was mostly conducted in German. 1 he wt^^^^.^ 
Shabbat service was transferred from Saturday to Sunday morning, as this was more '^^"'^'^"' 
for the congregants. At that time there was no "weekend." with businesses closmg on Sa ur ^^ 
at least not in the morning. Kippot, scull caps, also were no longer used by men and oy 
the Reform Temples, and men and women were no longer sitting separately. 

Rabbi Rosenthal was an anti-Zionist. He told us Palestine was not the solution for the ewi ^^ 
question. He insisted that Palestine, at a time when the Jewish population there consis 
only a few hundred thousands, had no room for even a cat or dog any more, (looay ^^ ■ 
five million Jews live in Israel!) We were constantly arguing with him. Instead ot teac 
our rich Jew ish heritage, the only thing the rabbi busied himself with was the "Anti- A^ • 
booklet containing loose pages arranged in alphabetical order. It was published by the t 
VarGin deutscher Staalsburger judischen Glaubens (the Central Organization of ^J^"^ 


M • h Faith). My parents belonged to that organization, which published a 
Citizens ot Jewis ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^ Zeilim^. Ideologically, they stood in marked contrast to the 
newspaper oft ^'^^^^.^^^ ^^^^ j^ fight antisemitism. to protect and strengthen Jewish civic 
Zionist idea. Us o j reeardless of their religious and political views and to 

,nd social status, to unite an jc b 
foster their German patnotnsm. 

f the -Anti-Anti" were arranged in such a way that if, for example, a Nazi 
^'^' ''uf lectin, or private discussion argued that Goethe was an antisemite. one just had 
ai a public meeting w ^^^^^ ,^^.. ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ present the counter-arguments. Rabbi 

,olookuptherespec 1^^^^^^^^ g ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ,d,,,,, ,f the 

Rosentha was app renuy t ^^^^ ^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ famihanzmg us 

^A 1 ihinnH<:trasse verv near our school, there was a news 
A, ,e corner of Kurfursten amm -'^J( '^^^f^^ ;;^^^^ p.^.^ed in Berlin by Goebbels, 
,,„dorwhosoldD.-r.'!"S''^/(The Att^cUaNaz. P P t' ^^, DerA,mffi<> 

^'^^ '^'" '-'''''' t:ZlZ::^^^^- »- safe distance Der A.s.Mss^ 
s,ll his papers, my friend Landau ana ^^^ ^.^ |^^j^^^ p^^.^ 

which was quite - '-ult. Once^he man became s go^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ .^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

with the papers and chased us. C«"'"^J "^ /^^„ (Vacmred), we ran away as fast as we 
been teasing the "Bolle" milk boy and had his ^^"1™ ' „,- ^igh school, 

eould and were not caught. Max Landau -- -^ ^^^^^w ^h , p„ents and belonged to 
He was two years older than 1. He had com '^"l^fl'^' J,,,,,,,i Later, after he 
ihe Jewish youth movement Hashomer HuLcw. He was higni> 
left school, we still corresponded for some lime, 

called Der5d../^m#(The School Fight) in ^^izirX school system and its teachers, 
happened in Berlin's high schools. The -^^''f^'l''"^^^^^^ The distribution of 

were mostly submitted to the editorial board by ^^^"P^. "^ ,,thonties. We had a 
this newspaper inside the schools apparently ^f^^fl ^^^^ ^^, using angUcisms or 

teacher. Dr. Muller, who was a fierce nationalist^ He ce u ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^.^^^-^^ 
gallicisms in the school compositions. He wanted to cie ^^^ assistance ot 

terms. He was a member of the VDA. a rightist a^^^^'^ -f";^^^ ^^ ^e had participated in 
Gem^an citizens living abroad. He told us proudly that som y ^^.^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^.^^^^^^ ^^j 
a banquet of this organization at which Gustav ^^^^^j^^" . ^ ^^^^^ ^^s served, he was not 
then later foreign minister, was seated near hmi. ^ ''^" ^^^ ^^^^ ^.ostly by peasants and 
ashamed to ask Stresemann to pass to him the Timke t ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ other 

workmen), rather than employing the usual word ^^'''} ^^^ ^^en he got angry tor 
hand, had no scruples at all, using vulgar terms such as . 
some reason during the lessons. 

My friend Landau wrote a story and had it published m ^J"^ '^^[^'J,^^' omi^ language and 
German language -purist", who. on the one hand, wantea i ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^-^^^ board 

on the other hand, used quite vulgar terms. Landau did not g ^^^ ^^ ^^^ principal. The 
of the newspaper send a copy to Dr. Muller himselt and ano ^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^ ^^^^ p^^^^hed 
fomier of course knew it could only have been a pupil ot our c.a . ^^^^^^ .^ ^^^ Denimianlcn 
^bouthiminthehated newspaper. InoneofthelessonsheasKe ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^rd, 

khwpir, Hho ;nfrxrrv.-.r nioi that oublished the article. 


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^y^ein (the informer pig) that published the artici 

I. > 




236 ^^^^ ^^^.p^j ^^j Dr. MuUer showed up and began a B m the ^'f °' .^own-ups attended these courses. I. a boy of fourteen, was the only 

soon after, during one ^^ °''' "^' , '^.^u used to distribute copies ot the newspaper among T Ho^-l^^^^"'^^. "'^^1.^ was a French lady. She also taught us argot, the thieves' language, 

search in ever> pupil's schoolbag, l. ^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^ ^ -^ ^-^ schoolbag. The ra::u, ^^ exception. 1 he tea ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^.^^ .^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^j^jj^^ 

us. but on that particular day tortuna y ^ ^ .^^^^^ j^ring the democratic Weimar ^ andpa'«'^- the vuiga ^^^ ^^^^^^ conser^'ative and did not like my ideas. Later on 1 had 

turned out to be a complete l^^»"^f "^^^^^^^^ .^^ Government! I ^^^^'^' ^"^ '*'''' ^It.n.her who shared my ideology. 1 also had private English lessons. 

the principal and Dr. MuUer showed up and began ^ 
soon after, during one ^^ °"', ''^''^' .' ^sed to distribute copies of the newspaper among 
search in ever> pupil's schoolbag. Landau ^ ^^^_^^ ^^^^ ^,^^^^ .^ ^.^ schoolbag. The ro::u, 


I iQii at the beautiful Fasanenstrasse Synagogue, just off 
My Bar Mitzvah took place in ^^^'^ '^ ^^^ ,hat place at the time. It was a liberal 

the fashionable Kurturstendamm. We 1 vea ry ^^^^ ,naugurated in 1912. 

S:i:^Sltr^BX«enael.vereah.s seethe. 


home to which our «'^"-^-^:; "'^ J ,p pi Shortly after 1033 Rabbi Berg.ann 
Bergmann at that synagogue, '°8^"^ ^ f J^^^^ died there a. an old age. The HoMah 1 
got pensioned and then emigrated to P~^ ™ p^j,^^^^. from the Book of Judges, 
read at my Bar Mitzvah was the story °f 'l^f //"Pj^;™ ^ , had forgotten my reading 

glasses at home. Since an early age. 1 always , ^j^^^^ j ,, „ .i,^ 

them to me at the last moment, just in time. 

As early as 1 93 1 , the Fasanerrstrasse synagogue was the object of attacks by the Nazis_ On the 
S he second day of Rosh HashanaK the Jewish New Year, on Septe-b- ^ 9 I 
organized bands of the Hitler Jugend, equipped with sticks and iron bars. '"< ^^ ^^ "lei^ 
brown storm troopers - intended to invade the synagogue during the religious service. When 

hev arrived, the service was already over. Then the mob followed the Jews who had left 
synagogue and were on their way home, attacking them in the streets around 


The police arrested some of the troublemakers and took ihem to the nearby police station, 
which occupied one Ooor of the apartment building where we lived at Joachim staler si ^^^^ 
1 1 . One of the rooms had iron bars on the windows and was transformed into a detention l ^ 
Using my binoculars, I could watch the cell on the other side of the courtyard and savv ^^^ 
the Nazi rowdies were locked up in the cell. They all took their detention very Ught y ^^^ 
were in excellent spirits. They did headstands on the cell table, shouting and having a g^ ^^ 
time. After a few hours of detention, they were all released next morning. They marc le i-^^^ 
across the courtyard, singing their Nazi songs. Nothing else happened to them. During 
short existence the weak Weimar Republic was always lax in enforcing the law. 

I remember this incident clearly, because on that day I was visiting my school friend 
Schey. As 1 was an avid reader and he and his elder brother owned a good library. 1 t^o 
about ten books from him. In the early evening there was a phone call trom my P ^^ 
advising me not to come home because of the trouble with S A men in front of our bui c- 
who were being taken to the police station there. As 1 did not want to stay overnight a .^ 
friend's. 1 took a taxi back home. When 1 anived with my heavy load of books, 1 found my 
in the middle of the skirmish between the police and the SA men. The janitor had locke 
building's entrance door and it took some time until he showed up and opened it tor me- 

f 1932 1 took advanced French courses in the evening at the Humboldt 
,n the ^'"^^'' ° 1 " rown-ups attended these courses. I a boy of fourteen, was the only 
chschule. u y b c.^^^u uAm She also taueht us arsot. the thie^ 

^Jpaiois, the vu ^^^ ^''^^^^ ^^^ ^^^j^^^ conser\'ative and did not like my ideas. Later on 1 had 

l,ooks and '7'^" . jg^cher who shared my ideology. 1 also had private English lessons. 
3 good private tjeig 

r .mrtment on Joachimstaler Strasse became unbearable. Besides the police 
"'""^ '" Z firsffloor a night club opened on the ground floor and every night there were 
,,ation on the f^^"'" • ^^^,;,,„,akers - men and women - would be taken one ftoor up to 
noisy disturbances^ ^^,.^_ ^,,^i, ,,,^^ ,„bered up and calmed down again. The 

,pend the '"'["^''"f^ ^„,^ tense, and the incidents with the SA storm troopers, in 

political situation also ^e ~° ^ „f „„ifo^, ,.,, ^.bidden for a 

,heir brown uniforms, >™;'' ^^^^"^ ^^ort time after, we moved to another very large 
.hile, but <h>s law was htr revoked. A sh ..^^,^„,^^„^ f^^ber up. Only the 

apartment at ^esebrecht^ asse ' ^«^ J „ j, ^,,„d, ,„day exactly as we left it 

roof of this apartment house ^^^^^^.'^^l'' ^"""^j , ^^^.j .^e new tenant, an off-ice now. for 
,„ ,939. On one of our visits '° '^erl ■. Sdd d a ed ^^^_ ^^^ ^^ 

permissionandvisitedtheapartrnmwher ve J^^^^^^y^^ 


The Fasanenstrasse synagogue wasdestroyeda^bu^eddow^^ 

November 9, 1938. In 1 959 the Berlin Jewish Co— > ^^^'^ ^^ \ „f .^e destroyed 

of the former synagogue, with a large library -f^-" "^ f^rn the entrance facade were 

synagogue's surviving Moorish ^»>''^ P""'^' ^^/J'^J "„" "he new building, 
saved from the ruins and incorporated into the entrance ol 

I he interior of 

I asanensirasse 

^ nagogue 
clients destruction 


As to the Kaiser Friedrich Schule. an imposing red b"'^^'"^. ^pj^^^ only the gymnasium 
^lill stands at the same place, on Rnesehecksirasse, near ^^avig y ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ j^^.^. 
hall, a separate building where we had gymnastic lessons, was ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^,^^ ^^^^, 
One can see the school from the S-Bahn passing the Savignv ^^ ^j^jj^d it several 

Friedrich Schule is a school for the children of Russian immi^ran - 
^imes on our visits to Berlin. 

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, o W.^iiuden lived mainly in the districts of Charlottenburg 
Berlin's middle- and upper-class nej ^^^^^^ ^^^^ Kurturstendamm, one of 

and Wilmersdorf in West BeH- M-' ° <^ ^^ ^,„,,,. The upper crust lived in villas in 
West Berlin's main streets wth ™"J f^c, lived mostly in the northern part of Berhn. 
,he Grunewald district. The so-ca led Os^" ,,^^ ^^^^,, ,,, Po,and (mostly 

The more recent, poorer mim.grants ^ho^^^ ^^^^ of Alexanderplatz. Those who 

Galicia), lived in the Scheunenv.erte 1th slum ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^,,^ ,„ ^^^e some 

were a little better off lived ^™""d P e 1 ue « ^- ^^^,.^ ^^ich gave them a higher 
n,oney and could afford the h' " -"' ■^;;;^^„^, Berlin. It was only when 1 entered the 
social status. As a young hoy. 1 had "ev^^B ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^, 

Jewish youth movement l^er on h^ came o ^o P^.^ ^^^^.^^ ^.^^^^ ,„e located ,n 

Se^ S^rditu^dt^ an^d the Scheunenv.erte. were worlds apart. 

The Scheunenviertel was a real gheUo. hut ,t 2: :::X::r:ZT^:'^^^ ^^ 
stores bore inscriptions in Yiddrsh. m tcatmg the -n- ^ ^^^ ^ ^,^^^ ^.^n survived 
for sale. The Hebrew letter-ng^on ^^^^f^^^^J^Z^Zi a few years ago when the 
the Hitler regime and World War II. 1 he etters oniy u.s VV German Democratic 

lavades of the old buildings in this East Berlin neighborhood. ^^P' J "^ 'J^ ^^^ The street. 
R public, were plastered over upon the occasion of Berlin s 750th ann - ary 
there werecrowded in the 1920sand early 1930s, with openma^e^^^^ 

Jewish stall keepers sold live chicken and ^^&lf^"[\°'^'!Z~^^'^^^^^^ modern ones 
wore their typical eastern garb: long h.f,ans and black hats. The y"""^"^-^;; '^^„^,, „,,„, 
wore already frock coats. There were two prayer halls and various ""^ P^^^^ ;°;;^^g,,, ,„, 
of them located at the Hinterhofe of some of the run-down hutldings^ ^';'"f fettled in the 

merely coincidentally. the Jewish immigrants coming from the ^^''l . ^^,,,,, 

Scheunenviertel on all the streets with military names, such as Grenadier 

ArtiUeriestrasse and Dragonerstrasse. 

In 1925 Ik-rlin-s Jewish population was 1 72.000. which accounted for about 30% of the 564,^^^ 

Jews living in Gemiany at the time (about 0.9% of the total population). The J^^^" P^f ^^ ^ttlie 
Berlin amounted to about 4% of the capital's inhabitants. A quarter of all Jews livmg m a ^^ 
lime were foreigners. The Gennan Jews played a very important role in the cultural, inte ^^^^^ 
economic life ofthe capital in the 1 920s and early 1 930s. They were at the *'°«*™"'.'".^g i^w, 
cabaret, the film industry, press, publishing, music and literature, as well as in me ici 
architecture, business, etc. 



f, thirteen I wanted to fight for a better world, without injustice and exploitation. 
From the age ottnm ■ ^^^^^^^^^^^_ , ^^^^^^ ^ communist. At the age of fourteen 1 
Influenced by some ^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^^^ ^^^.^.^^^ ^^, ^enin and other communist 

devoured Das ^"P""' ^ ^er of the Arbciler IHusmem Zcinmg (Workers' Illustrated 
authors. 1 was a regu ^ ^^_^^^^^^^^,^, Rcvolulior,, a Trotskyist newspaper, both weeklies. I 

Magazine), and also Wc ^.^ .^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ ^,.j^,,,^,, ,„„,,,,,„, 

,,, greatly >"'^"J."=,f/,;{;rp,L„nent communist leader Will, Munzenberg. Later, aher 
2,„„„g was published By v ^^^ j,^„ .^^^ j,^^^^, j^ere and became 

^^t^^Z^Z::^^^ infanls purges of many of the old and faithful 
communist leaders. 

. Wo., the club where 1 played tennis in summer It was in the winter of 
once 1 was tee skating at ''^^ ^^ ^^'^^^^j^.^.ddelchen," was with me. 1 was wearing an 

:.lSw me down on the ice and ripped off my two buttons. 

in ,932.That sameyear. 1932. the u^raconser. tv ^^'^' ^^ ,,„didate Thalmann. 
was reelected German President, defeating "' ' ^ ^'^ J'^^^^ ^,,, BKining and appointed the 
Hindenburg dismissed the Catholic -"!^^-' ^^^ P""w prime minister immediately 
ultraconservative rightist von Papen. The ^f ';tro"ary v ^^^^^^^ ^^^_^^^^ ^is 

dissolved the parliament to avert f "°;?°"*i'i^""J,lpers and SS elite troops. The SA 
predecessor Briining's prohibition of the N^' SA^'^^'^J^, ^ere forbidden, 
wore white shirts instead of brown uniforms during the time y 

The political situation in Germany grew ever '''''^' ^^^^"^^^ZZ and more vicious 
fights between the SA and the communist ^^^f ''/^"^'f " ^„er pubs, and there were mutual 
andviolent. Each of them had their .S/mm«/«fa''^. "^"^"^/; ^^-^ e<)ple killed and injured, 
assaults and shootings at these places every other eve ^-^ ^^^^^y had taken the 

The NSDAP (the National Socialist Party), was 8^°«'"8 " J, obtained only 600,000 
party seriously before 1930. In the 1928 parliamentary electio ^^ ^^ ^^^^.^^^ ^^ _,,^„i„„ 
votes, i.e., 2.6% of the total. However, two years ^^'"-^ ^^^ j,,, ,^32 elections, 

votes. 18.3% ofthe total, with 107 delegates in the «;'f;;^,,^,, arty, vvinning 7.4 milh^^^ 
after von Papen had dissolved parliament, they became the St Ob ^-^t^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^-^ „ewly 

votes. 37.8% ofthe total, and thus conquering 230 seats ^^_^^„t-dence vote against 

elected parliamem. however, was dissolved. ^^^.^'PP"™!!^- ny lost one million votes. 
von Papen. In the new elections of November 19j^, tn 

The biggest German state. Prussia, was then ruled by ^"f '';'''^^'° j^ter Severing. On July 20, 
under the leadership of prime minister Braun and '"^^"""^^ ,he German chancellery- 

W32, von Papen called the leaders ofthe Prussian g^^vemme^^ ^^^^^ „f Prussia because the 
He declared that Hindenburg had appointed him caretaker ^^^ ^^^^^ government, whicn 
»fety and order of the state could no longer be guaramee 



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240 ,,. Prussian government's only reaction was a verbal 

then was dismissed. The social d" ^c ,.^^^ ^^ .^^^ „^,. ^^^ ^^^,^,, ., (, ^^^^^ 

protest, expressed by Severm, w,* *e lam ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^,. ^^^ ..p^^^,. ,„ ^„^, ,^^^^,„^ 
vield to power). The short reply wa ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ resistance, consisted of only 

'then Yielded his government "".ce^ ^^j.f ^^j two police officers from Sevenng's 

three people: the newly aPPP«'"«^ «^ J^^^^^atic state government then simply capitulated. 

own Prussian pohce force. ^^^ «'^ '''^^ ^ i„„s „ , general strike. Thts was the sad end of 

without any "^'"^.^ P'^'^'f/pfJ.sian government. The doors to Hitler's takeover half a year 
the democraticall)' eiecieu 
later were now laid wide open. 





arv30 1933 Reichsprasident von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler 
On the fatal d^V /'"''™ ^ ^^j^,, This was the beginning of the greatest disaster that befell 
chancellor of «he Uen ,^j„^<.d o«,v Umsemmrigc Reich, instead of one thousand 

„„ 30* cenmry. Though H.^;P_^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^,^^,^^,y ^,,^^ „^^^ ^^^Id War 11 ( 1 939- 

years,the '^f'^'lfl^'r,,, ^,,lion people, more than twice as much as the twenty-^x 
,945) cost the hvcsottnty ^^^ ^ (,914-1918). Six million Jews perished in the 

,™ll,on P^of .^'^° ^ ,, „,„,e than one third of the Jewish people, among them over one 

Holocaust, during vv w , 

Id a halfmill.on Jewish children! 

u • .nonnwer in the evening ofthe same day with a parade of the 
The Nazis celebrated their se zing po^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ,^^^^,^, ,,,, .trough 

SA and the "''!!-"^''°;t 1 U d^n Linden holding torches in their hands. There were 
Brandenburger Tor and along Une d n ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^.^ ,,^ 

only two Nazi ministers in Hnle s tn ^^^ conservative ministers were all 


.,. fell over Oennany. In Hebruary^onn. ha. the -;cl^burn.^- 3^::^ 
communists were accused ot arson, '"^'"ding Dim.t o , ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^,^^,.^ 

International. A feeble-minded D"'*™"- ^^ ^ ^"."/^.V .^cff was brilliant in his defense 
he served as a scapegoat and was eventually ee.uted.D, ^^ ,_^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

a, ,he tribunal and made G^nng ose his lead The ou ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^.^ 

acquined for lack of proof. At ';'^^'^\'''^2tmX^^^^^^^ A" --"^'" "' "" ^"' """' 

broadcasting of this trial, reproduced on P}^°2fTsLr.gcou. defense. 

and 1 myself were greatly impressed by Dimitrott s cou g ^^^ 

The burning of the Reichstag was the P^'l'^'J^J^^^'^l^^^ 

opposition. Their leaders, mainly trom the lef^, were now ja commumst Party was 

dps were opened for the first time for Po^t'^J "PP^^^^^^^,^^ ,„ j,,. All other parties 
outlawed, as was the Social Democratic ^f 7^' ^ afte t ParUament was dissolved, there 
■■dissolved" themselves later on. In March 933, "^^^ , majority. His party received 
were new elections. In spite of the terror. Hitler -^''^"^^'^J,,^ an alliance with the 
only 43% of the votes and could fonn a 80venim^"^°"'yjp ^,,,^h receiveded 8% of the 
uUra-conservatives, the German National People s f any. 
vote in this election. 

From now on one restrictive and oppressive law ^"f^^^^'^^f ,f,'^^ 
1933, the boycott of all Jewish stores took place; the san g^t^elplatz), on Unter 

officials were dismissed. On the night of May 1 0, at OP^ jJ^J^^^^^^ ^^ ^,^hors of Gennan 
den Linden in Berlin, over 20,000 -un-Gemian books Dy ^^^^ ^^^_^^^ ,^ p.^, ,,. An 
and world literature, among them many Jews and '^l^'^^ . library-, constructed by an 
underground memorial of the book-burnmg, called in J^^^j^^^ years earlier, in l»^i. 
Israeli artist, was inaugurated at the same place in 1 vv ■ ^^^^^^^^^ £/„£ Tragodit: 
Heinnch Heine really had been prophetic when wiiting 

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^^^ Das^vareinVorspielnur 


"This was a prelude only, 

once they bum books, ^^ 

they will end up burning people. 

A f the SA and several other promment SA leaders. 
On June 30, 1934, Ernst Rohm head m ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ p^^^^ ^^^^^ 

assembled in Munich, were arresteo y ^^ ^ ^f conservative adversaries. In 

s: = s';— S-7;* --- - -»—■ - " ""- - 

disgrace were shot by the SS. 

;,*, .1.. w of f»"y«« " *" i.«»«"'" l*""S".c.««d of ««».*.* 

J,w,..d-Aw«- «•«•"*»*'"" ''""^~'^*2l E ,h. .nd of IMS ..nol 

had their heads shaved and were humiliated in public. During the N^ar allege 
tansgressors of both sexes were deported to their deaths, often without tnal. 



hie still in school. 1 decided to realize my communist ideals. I wanted to go to the 
In 1933. w 1 e^^ ^^^^^^ ^ worker in the "workers' paradise" and later a party otTicial. In 
Soviet Lnion ^^^^ ^^^^^^ Russian lessons with a private Russian tutor, without my parents- 
preparation. ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ |^^^^_ ^^ ^^|.jpj occasions, when Seldi and 1 traveled 
knowledge. ^^ ^^ ^A^X^xai and Bosnia. Knowing the Cyrillic alphabet at least I could 
iS'th"' of the streets, the type of stores, etc. 

r r IP.rned Russian, but on one occasion, while we were strolling down Moscow's 

''^rASeet we wanted to buy some black bread for dinner. There was a big queue 

^"^tJt^ slxetching out into the street. Most people were buying white bread, but we 
a, the bakery, stretch'ng ^^^ ^^^ ^^^_ g^,^. ^^^^ .^^^^^^^. ,^ .^^ 

,„evv that b'«K bre^d --; -;^" ^,^, ,, „,,„d without any problem. Seldi had 

:2:;eS: ;:S^''^sian s^ng O.. O.r.,. (Black Eyes,. Sometimes, when m 

need, it becomes necessary to improvise. 

. . .1, nH of October 1 933 when 1 was fifteen. 1 knocked on the big entrance door 
One day, at the end of October l^ii. wne , ^^11. It was a huge 

of the Soviet Embassy on Under den L'ndenM memb h p ly ^^^^^^ 

building located in the most elegant par^ ot Berln. Alter t^he ^ H ^_^ 

and stands there today as in the pas,. At the "-" l'*^";; ^^^3, rved. Inside the globe 
which a huge globe, divided into two ^-'"'^P'^""^ ^ould rule the world. Going to 
.as the hammer and sickle, symbol that one day <=;'"7;";';;™ ;, ,he Gestapo, the 
,he Soviet Embassy back then was not withou '^-fJ-^^'^^J^Z,,^ who under the 
secret police, watched every body entering the place, '""^^^e for ommun 
Nazi regime were outlawed and persecuted by any and all means. 

1 .en. to the Soviet Consulate, which was in the same building ^^^^Jl^^^^^Zf;^, 
the commercial attache. 1 told him 1 was still going to sc oo^^tha^ was com ^^^^^ 

1 wanted to go to the USSR to be useful there as a -«^^"- « n the ANn.r. or quit and 
1 asked him if I should finish school, taking my «"^' -^™,'^ °„";,„,,d „„, be necessary, 
leam a practical profession. He told me the final school eammation^ _^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^j 
but added that his country was not then interested in receiv ing^^^^ j^,- ,,^^,2 a^ong the German 
me that his government was suspicious that some Nazi spies c ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ .^^^^^^^ ^^ .^,| 
immigrants. He added that, as to German communists, tne 5 ^^^ ^^.^ ^^^^^ ^.^^^-^ 

in their coming, preferring them to stay inside ™"-,',^^ ^..'rthrowing this oppressive 
working illegally in the underground, with the aim ot eventually 

In February 1934, when 1 was bicyling to my ^^^^'^" '^^^°";J^g'"^^comm Fro"^ ^^^^ °" 

It was my former schoolmate Luzian "Lutz" Stern. He too w ^^^^^^ ^^ ^ construction site 
^ve met regularly. He told me much about his work as a me ^^^.^^ ^^^ ^,^ ^^^ 

and about the political opposition there. He had lett school ^_^ ^_y^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ 
lever met since. We spoke about politics and he told me abou ^^^^^,^^. ^^^ j^^ i^ld me. for 1 
1 already wanted to become a worker, 1 was greatly intereste . .^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^g 

l^new very little about it at the time. Sometimes I asked "^>''^' ^^^^ ^ ^^^ker in the Soviet 
enough to be a worker all my life, but back then 1 had the idea ^^^^ ^.^.^^^ position, 

^'nion for just a few years and then becoming a state oflical or 

lit V""^ 



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244 autonomous region in East S>bena, near the 

1 even considered going to Birobidjam ^^^.^^ ^^_^.^_^ .^ jg^^ ^^^ ^„^j^^j j.^^ j^^^_^,^ 

Mongolian border. It was estabbshcd , ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ .^ q^O Russian Jews wen. 

settlement-. Yiddish was recognized a ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^.^.^^ j-_.^^^ p„,^„j_ j^e Umted 

there in the early days of the ^^P,.(^^ newspaper, B/™ft/<//«"e'-Srern, founded 
States, Argentina, etc. There was a Yiaa .^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^.^^^ ^_^,y ^^^^^ gggg ,^^^ 

in 1930. and a Yiddish theater closed m, ^-^^^^ _-^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^,^^^_ Birobidjan, which 
living there and the governmment "^S ^^.^^ otTicially promoted to the status of 

had been declared a J^«'*Nat>onal D str.a^^^^ ._^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ g,^^_ ^^_^^^^^^^ ^^^^.^^ 

a Jewish Autonomous Region. Uurmg „f, reason, sabotage, or Jewish nationalistic 

officials in Birobidjan were 1'""^^'' oi h^ t i^^^ediately following WW 11 

and Zionist '^"""''^^-^^^'"'""^.^f^B Abidjan. Those who came were mostly sur^-ivors 



olitical ideas. I did not want to go to school any more. I quit during Easter of 
Because of my P ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^,^qq\ examination, the Ahitur, a prerequisite for entering a 

1934. two years ^^^^^^ ^^^^ desperate. They had imagined an academic or at least a 

German universiiy. y^^ ^^^^ ^^^ principal of our gynwasimi Mr. Voigt - a very decent 
commercial care ^^ ^^^ _ _^^^ ^.^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ persuade me to fmish school, 

person and not a i ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^.^^^j ^^j^-^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^rew used in 

'' ''if ; to Jschoo^^^ pupils interested in this subject. His efforts on my behalf and those 
,,, Bible) ^'^l''~ f ,,d decided to start working as a manual laborer. 
of my parents wc 

u UA. friend Mrs Wolff, with whom she rode horseback in the Tiergarten. Mrs. 
My mother ^^^ a fnend. ^ .^ ^.^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ,ft,„„o,, ,„ go to soccer 

Wolft-s husband ««•=" P '^^^''"^^^^^^ ^^,, ,, ,ee his favorite team. Hertha B.S.C.. while Mr 
games. My ^f'^-^^'l'^'ZXnl Borussia. Mr. Wolff had a printing plant where he 
Wolff was a fan ""^^ 3;^'^-;i„iam was owner and director of the firm Schwerdt eger 
„,ade greeting card. Hsbrother^^^^ 

& Co.. a large offset and lithograpnyp p William established a new tirm 

later immigrated to London and his b™«;- ' ,Lj2apes and children's portraits, while his 
,„ London, making color P""'^' f " *^^ ''"t ITcards. as he had in Germany. It so 
brother opened a new plam in Lyon, green g ^ ^sentative of foreign 

merchandise to local firms here. 

T.e Schwerdtfeger printing plant, where about 400 ^^J^^^^^^^^^^ 
the Wedding. ,n the heartofthe workers distn^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

parems- relationship with the owT^ers, I was ^^^^P f ^// ^n four marks a week. Once a 
apprenticeship contract. 1 started to work in April '^^-^ . ^^ ^ ^^ ^ery well with 

week m the morning I had to go to the vocational f f'^J^^^^^^^^ luers were no 

my colleagues and the lithographers, who knew ti^at i ^ ^^^ intelligent young 

Nazis or antisemites, at least not at that time. One o^^"^ -^ ^ eonesponded with him after 
man. became my friend. He was a strong opponent ^^ i^^^^. . ^^.^.usdiemU as a kind of 
he had to leave the factory, because he was required ^^ J^ . j^ ^^^^,^y This was a 

slave laborer in Konigsberg. former East Prussia (now Kalmmg ^^.^_^ ^^^^^^^^^, ,f cheap 
mandatory labor service for young men, created by tne ^^^ ^^^ letter written from 

labor for their road-building program. 1 still ^f ^^,^", , ', ..^X^,, 
Konigsberg in August 1934, sharply criticizing the Nazi A^butsdi.ns 

As an apprentice in the Schwerdtfeger plant in Berlin, a nevv li e ^^J" ^'g^^^^j^ys at 6 a.m.. 
a real proletarian, forty-eight hours a week. Work started at /a. ^^ _^ ^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^ ^^ g.^^^ 
^viih only fifteen minutes interval each for breaktast and luncn. ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^,y ^^,,^1 
10 the factory. 1 had to leave home very early in the morning. ^^^^^^^ distributed illegal 
democrats or communists. At great danger, the '^^"^"'""'...put up on the doors and 
newspapers in the factory. The Nazis ordered their party' posters^ ^^,^ ^^^ ^^ ^.^ ^ ^^ ^^.s 
avails in the corridors. The young communist workers tore ^^^nsisted of only three 

l^ind of political sabotage increased, the factory s Nazi ceii ^^^ ^.^ ^^^.^^ ^^^ .^rridor 
people, called two officers from the secret police, the Uesiap , 


/<>' ' 



246 g^o^ing the Nazi propaganda. When an apprentice ^H WORKING 11^ A' 

doors to discover whicli workers were r ^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^j ^^^^ ^^^ -^ ,^.^ ^B ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^_^^ ^.^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^ ,^^4 ^^ j^^^^^^ ^^ ^,^^g ^^ 

doorsrodiscoverwh>eh workers wer rem g^ ^^^_^.^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ , ^^,^ ,,,^ 

tore one of the posters d«^^^f '"■";„ headquarters at Alexanderplatz. A few days later, 
workers- overalls straight to the ^^^^^l^'^l^ ^is uncle, who worked at the pohce The 

he was released due to the "n";;"""; 2^\^ ditTerence that as a Jew the Gestapo probably 
same thmg could have happened to me, w.t 

would not have released me so soon. 

friend Lutz several times, in Easter 1934 he invited me along on a 
After havmg "^'^ ^^ together with his communist youth group. The last time 1 had gone 
hiking trip near t> . ^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ Karlsruhe where together with 

hiking «''\^,'°"f; belonged to the Zionist youth movement Kadmmh (Forward). We slept 
„,y cousin Werner t^^^ ^^ hitchhiked. One evening Lutz took me along to one of his 

'""''*'nl meetings Of course, we could not meet regularly at a private home, because 
group's illegal "^^^""^ , ^^^^ ^eing watched and spied upon. Each apartment house 

all apartments and re ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ .^^ Bk,ch.'ori who were responsible 

had its Haus^^arl usua ly J ^^^ j„ j^^^ the Gestapo of every suspicious 

l:::'tro?meS^^ - °""^'^ p^^ °'*^ ^'^^ '" ""^' ''^^ "" "" 

i.ft for these secret forbidden meetings? The answerwas open-air meetings 
So what place was leli "" J^f "'^^'^^^ „,„d ,on,nrumst group met in front of an S-Bahn 
„„„ ,„ the beginning. ^^^ f ™; ,, became more cautious. Then each of us would 
,u,„on on the outskirts ot ^^^1'- Later oa ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

go alone, usually on bicycle, '^J^JT'^^Zm Our group was composed of boys and 
,„,,ion carefully, 1 ^^'l^^l^l^^^^^ZL knew each other by code names only. This 
girls. Nobody knew anybody e se ^"1 na _^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^.^ companions 

;as a necessary precaution, so that '^"y"! ^ „,;,,„;• pig,et. He was only one year 
„ames. The code name of the group leade ^^iJ^^^'^^l^ J_l,,,^, one of the members 
olderthanlahandsomeboywhost, wenttsho^^^^^^^^ 

of the group, a beautiful girl, was called D -J- f.^^^ ,^^^„,, obvious that such mixed 

,ill mixed, composed ot Jews and "on-Jews. but Ujo ,^^ 

groups weremdoublejeopardy.Soitwaslaterdecided^^^^^^^ tyP ^^^^ ^^^_ 

,he groups. Jewish communist youngsters '^;"';^f;^'^l.^i„,^ of five members only. Our 

Jews and. at the same time, the groups were ''"""^ ° " ,,, were even fourteen of us, 

group sometimes consisted of eight people, and one evening 

but this was prior to the new security precautions. 

^ .nt Aiiirl a student from Viemia, gave a 
On a Sunday we met exceptionally at an apat^ment^ A g _^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^f ,^,5 
report on the bloody workers" revolt there in February _ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^ij 
event. 1 remember our evening meetings in the forest we . j^^^^ood. In one hand he 

sit under a thick blanket, so his voice could not be heard in _^ ^^^^^^.^^^ ,-^^„, ^^.^jeh he read 
held a flashlight and in the other, Lenin's brochure SlaU' a ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^y. every 

to us in a very low voice. Every rustling in the forest wouia ^fc ^^^^ .^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^r 
strolling couple walking by - and obviously there were a ^^ ^^^^^,^ ^jif,-,cult text, 

nights. It was not easy, under these circumstances, to concen 

One evening at one of these illegal meetings we were all 'j^1^^°"J^ brochure. Suddenly a 
about seven to eight young people, listening to the tex ^^^^ Somebody in our group 
spotlight was poimed at us from a car on the nearby "^ stumbling over couples 

shouted: ••Police! Run!" We jumped to our feet, ran throug we ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^, Qne 
lying on the ground, stopped, ran again. My heart was bea""- Lenin into a nearby 

of us had left his bike behind, another one had 'hrown the brocn ^^^y^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^,, 
ihicket. Somehow 1 made it to the station. A l'™d^f/'';f J"" ,,bid voice. Soon 1 saw two 
ihen broadcasting a speech by Hitler in his typical, bellowi ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^bout what to do. 
nlher members of the group show up at the station entranc . 



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If it really was a police raid - 1 ^""^^ ^^_^^i„|j, the Gestapo would have left some officials 
think things through at >h<; station Be ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ,,,£ hoy should reiuni 
there to deal with us. We ^^^^1°^' . ^^j ossibly the precious and at the same tmie ver> 
to the forest, trying to retncye ms o ■ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^hst literature was strictly forbidden 

suspicious brochure as well (all kind ot co ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ .^ ^^ ^^^, ^ j._^^ .^ ^^ ^,, .^ 

under the Nazi regime and very hard and dant 

the dark. 

.- f„...t meetings we were riding home on our bicycles, late at 

Another time, after one ot our forest me fc .^^ communist newspapers and leaflets 

night, four hoys in a row. Two oHhe bo ^^ ^.^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^.^^^^^^^.^^ ^^.^^ 

hidden in their breeches ";^ ^^^ ^^ .^pied on mimeographs. Suddenly, out of 
was printed secretly m ^'^f ^""^ "°J„f J.^l, shouted at me: "Get otT the hike!" The 
the dark, two policemen showed up^ One ot thena ^^ of belonging 

reasonthepolieemenstoppedme onu^J,-^^^^^^^^ Y ^^ P^^^,^^^^ ^^ ^.^^^^ 

,0 an illegal group, hut because I had '°^°'«" '°^ they could. The cops were quite 

who were unaware of this of course, rode off ^s 'ast as m y ^^^^^ 

surprised that my ftiends did no, ^^"^^^^'^^^^^Z^l^rlL.^^^^^^^ 

The illegal work in Germany was heroic. After being involved ,n it Jor ^ ' iS l^of 
people's nerves were shattered because of the permanent tear in which *^> '^J^J 7' ,, 
Lnunciation, searches of their homes, arrests, jail and --^^^f '"" ^f "PJ^,"',^ ' ,, 
clandestine fighters landed there after some time. One cell after the f^y^J"^^^^ 
Small wonder, Germany under the Nazi regime had become a coumry of informer with ts 
llcm- and Bhck^^^arls, where every innkeeper was requested to listen in on his gues. 

A short time after 1 had left this group, it was smashed by the Gestapo. "^^ ^"^'''^^' ^'f^ 
innUrated. Thev let the illegal group continue their work for some time, with |"^ "''P^ 
catching more members. In the end. they were all jailed. There was a trial and ^'^ 'i^^ow 
people were sentenced. They were imprisoned in a juvenile detention center. 1 did no ^^ 
about this, l.utz* uncle, whom I phoned one day to obtain Lutz* address, told me that e \^^^ 
nol at home." Later on. after Lutz was released, I ran into him on Kurturstendamm an v^^ 
arranged to meet shortly after. He told me that he had spent nineteen months in a juv 
prison. He, of course, had lost his job in the meantime. When 1 asked him what he was oiii^ 
at present, he at first did not want to tell me but then said he was delivering bread ^°^ ^ ' 
early in the morning. Despite having been jailed, upon release he got in toucti 
remaining members of his former group again, the ones who were out of prison, 
contacted various Zionist youth organizations. The purpose was to infiltrate them an , 
same time, create a legal background and a kind of alibi for the Gestapo, should same p 
necessar>'. In this wa> he would be protecting his efforts to win new members from 
legal organizations over to the clandestine communist youth groups. 



e of time, the situation worsened for the Jews in Germany. I began to have 
With the P^^^^^^^^^j. ^^g solution of the Jewish question could really be found in communism, 
doubtsasto w 1 1^^^^^^ ^^j. ^^^ homeland first and fight for socialism there, 

orif it would be preiciuui^ 

■ n n..a hv my sister Susi, who belonged to the Socialist Zionist youth movement 
iwasinfluenceaoy^^y ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ .^ Denmark at hachsharah. the agricultural 

Hahomm (the ^^^^^ j^^^^, ^^^ suggested that in order to clear up my ideological 

^^'rT".fin ttuch with Enzo Sereni, a shaliaciu or emissary, of both the Jewish Agency 
;SeE:rt organization of the Jewish Labor Movement in Israel. 

Sereni horn in Rome in 1 905. died in Dachau in 1944. was the scion 
of a distinguished Italian-Jewish family. His father, a doctor, was a 
physician at the court of King Victor Emmanuel 111. Enzo Serem was 
a doctor of philosophy. He became a Socialist Ziomst pioneer and 
made a//v./Uimmigration to Israel) from Italy in 1 926^ He was among 
he founders of Kibbutz Givat Brenner. From 1931-33. and again in 
1934 he was in Germany as a shaliach to help organize the Zioms 
youth movements and the Hekalut. (the Pioneer), which was the 
organization of young Jewish men and women, who mostly had not 
belonged to a Zionist youth organization previously. 

::Z prepared and trained Its members for a ^^j::;^:;^^;:::^ 
Before 1 933, HeW«te was a relatively small organization, made up «^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

of the Zionist youth organizations Hcbonin, and ^-' 7" ' ^^^''^^^Xish people, who 
Nazis rose to power, the situation changed ''""^^^S^^^^^^^^^^^ r«lLd that 

had been working in department stores or offices suddenly lo .^^ ^_^^ ^,^^^^ 

they had no future in Germany any more. They had "° . ^"°f .„„,,,edge of Hebrew 
movements before, arrd most of them had little Jewish f "-"'^" f ^l^";;,^ for a way out. 
Their belief in assimilation was suddenly shaken. In deep ""P'^^ '^ey 'oo ^^ ^^ 

Many tried to emigrate to other countries, but they soon realized that this wo 

They then became members of the Hehahtz. though ^^^>' "^^.^"^32 J9.0OO in September 
The membership of this organization suddenly grew from 3 i ' ' ^j^^isl ideology 

W33 and soon rose to 1 5.000. The new members had "^^/^^^"^'"\ ^^^.^ew and Jewish 

at all. They just wanted to emigrate. If for this purpose they ^^^^^^^.^^^ ^^^ ^ .^ be it. Their 
history, become knowledgeable in the history ot Palestine an ^^^^^^^^^^ and when they 
main concern, however, was how long they would have to go ^^^^^ ^^^ emigrate to 

would receive their Zeriifikaie (immigration ^^'^'^^^^^^''^jij^^.thaveenough capable 
Palestine. Of course, with this sudden unexpected influx. Heha u- ^^ ^^_^ ^^^^j-gency situation, 
leaders to take care of these thousands of new members. In ^"v^^^^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^ sacrifice and 
and recognizing the urgency and importance ot the momen . c^^^ ^^^ however, remained 
placed at the disposal ofHehalufz some of their own most able ita , 
'n the leadership of this youth organization at the same time. 

ents mainly Hahonim, 
•Sereni. besides cooperating with Hehalutz and the Zionist ^^"J^ "j^J^JJ^^ough an organization 
^Iso assisted in the transfer of German-Jewish assets to Pa e 





•_ i ■' 

250 jq33 ,0 1939, Later, in 1 943. Sereni organized 

called H.«-v«™/, that operated successhi, ^^ ^^^ .^^^ Nazi-controlled territories. 

Jewish parachutists from Eretz israe 

, j.ontact with partisans and to organize Jewish 
The purpose was for the P''"'^'^"."'|! '° "" ,„ ^4,y 1944. Sereni decided to be parachuted 
rescue and resistance activities '" »G,,„,„.occupied Italy. His mission had various 
himself by the British amy mto nort ^^^^^^ ^^j^^,^.^ ^^„,^i„i„g je^s; assisting hidden 
other purposes, among them to he p n ^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^^^p,^j ^^,„jhem Italy; to 

Jews and escaped Allied prisoners '" ""^^ _^° anticipation of the fighting to take place 

u *K«r Fmilin Sereni, a prominent figure in the 
He also wished to search for his ^^^^"^^^^Z^, ,„derground. had been previously 
Italian Communist party. EmiUo. ^^^^ ,-,,£ ears, when an 

sentenced to twenty >-- °' ™P"!,"": "' '^^e, on the birth of his grandson and direct 
amnesty was proclaimed by King V'^. 'l™ ^^H^wever. he recently had been captured 

si:: r :af :r :t- i^=- -- - - ^- " - "— 

deputy in the Italian Parliament. 

Due to strong windsduring the nightSereni was dropped behind^^^^^^^^^^ 


, ,e probably was captured immediately by the Nazis. He -^^ >^;\'™ ,„ s„,,„\rol. a 

Verona, then to a large German concentration '^^P .'" -^"^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ uansfened 

region that had recemly been annexed ^y G^™^y- «' '" °^" ^ ^^^ured. He was 

,0 the infamous Dachau concentration camp near ^ where he was ort 

murdered there on November 18. 1944. Seren, was an "7™i"^7.P";nhi chronicle. 
Netzer Sereni is named for him. Akiva Eger. to whom 1 referred m the tirst part ot 

lived on this kibbutz. 

There remains one question: Why would Enzo Sereni. one of the most P~^^^^^ 
activists in Palestine, go on such a highly dangerous mission himselt at the age on y ^^^^ 
He himself explained the reason in a talk with Golda Meir on the day he ^^« "J 
mission. As Golda reports, he told her: "Golda, I have sent friends to this dangerous mi 
1 cannot remain behind, I have to join them." 

In June 1 934. 1 had my first interview with Enzo Sereni. which 1 later wrote down m my diaO^ 
He was lying on the couch of his furnished room, reading a very voluminous boo ^^^^ 
believe was in Hebrew. When 1 came in, he threw off his glasses and rose trom '^^ 

saying "What's new. Klaus?" 1 spoke about my doubts and opinions. After talking wit i ^^^^ 
some time, he said that my beliefs were not sufficiently founded and that 1 was not sc 
enough in Socialist and Zionist ideology and literature. I think he was right in hisju ^ ^ ^^ 
He recommended that 1 read the standard work Socialism and Zionism by Ber Boroc ^^^^^^ 
the end of our talk. Leo "Pony" Steinberg came in. He was one of the leaders ot the ^'^ 
youth mo\ cmcnt and he promised to obtain this book for me. Some time later. ^ "^ ^^ 

talk \Nilh Sereni. My friend Lutz Stem gave me The Communist Manifestly Marx and ng^^ 
along with other elementar> brochures by Engels. From Pony, 1 obtained Borochov s 

1 was greatly influenced by this work, which is a synthesis of the Socialist and Zionist i ■ 

Borochov (1881-1917), a Russian Jew. joined the Russian Social Democratic Party ear y. 


■ A toward the Jewish problem led him to establish Poak lion, the Jewish 
the party's attitude ^^^^ ^_^ underscored that Zionism stood for the redemption of the 

Labor Party, tounded ' ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^j ^f t^e Hebrew language, and the reUim 
je^vish people, the rei ^^^^^^^^.^ ^^^^-3^ ^^^^y^x^ of the economic structure and social 

to the ancestral Homei ^ ^^^^^^^^ the necessity of territorial concentration in its own 
situation of the Jewisn p v ^^ economic normalization and occupational 

«(rv in Palestine, as inc umj' j 
:::Si:,n. including primary production, 

, . v,.nk verv' attentively and made many notes. It convinced me that the only 
Wead Borochov s book veo a y_^ ^^^ ^^^ ,^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ , ^,^^^, ,„ ,,,, 

«ay for a consequent J^^'^J^"^ ,^^^^ -^ „„ ^ther people without a territorial base 

,„, ,,e Jews are a un.q e people^ th ^^^^ .^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^^ 

,,,„ered around he -°^ J" ^J^^^'^X,, ,„d identity, based on its common history. 1 realized 

,„ maintain its c"""'^-;"^^^ ^„ ~ aval of our people in the first place. This coul only 
i, would be necessary to fight ^^ '^e su ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ j^^^^, ^^ 

be guaranteed by our becoming ™" f ^^ ^^^^.i^, , ,,so had discussions with Lutz and 

„«^ thousand years of Galu,. ^^^HZouX^^^^^ Zionism as a legitimate solution for the 
,heleadersoftheiUegalgroup,whod dno re 0, ^^ ^^^ ^^,^ ^^_^^^^_^ ^^^^^^ ^, 

Jewish question. At the same "^'"^•'""^^j'^Lessingstrasse in the Tiergarten district, the 
Pioneer) of H«f.o«/m. where ^e - d- l-at^d " Le g ^^^^^ ^. ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ 
same street where my grandmother Luise Uvea. 

nitv was a veo' common institution among the Jewish 
The Beit Halulz. a housmg community was veo ^^^^^.^.^ „ ^y of 

Zionist youth at the time. The leaders "^ ''^ ~ ^„ ^ment in a city with a larger 
them coming from mostly small Germ n -ties Rented P ^^^^^^_^^ .^,^ ^,, „ ,,™ 

Jewish population and formed a ':°'-^^"^^:J°;'^htd diner together and a memal task was 
(boy companions) and ha.cro, (girl '^"'^^"■""f;,!. nance, etc. There also were cultural 
assigned to each of them like cooking, elean ng^— an ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^,,j, ,, 
aetitities. such as lectures, celebrations, eta Ea h ^ou h ^^^^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^, ^,^,, 
Hashomer Hc„:a,r and Werkkme. had 't^^^i'™'"; Berlin. In other German cities 
vouth organizations, had more than one ot these home ^^^^^ ^^^.^^ ,h 

■these ins'tutions were organized by Hehalu,. and w re jen to ,^ ^^^^^^ .^ ,,3^,3,^ 
oroanizations. At the height of the Zionist J^^ZT^^'l,,, one thousand /..v.™ and 
Hahoni,. had about 5.000 members; in Berlin f "f '^^/'^^ „„,,hlv bulletins and periodical 
Imerot. Hehalutz had about 1 5.000 members^ "" \^Z\y written by Us leadership or other 
publications with very interesting, high-level anic es. ^ publications, 

prominent members. Also Helndwr issued periodically mteresti g P 

■ I, t, m 1 had many ideological 
Through Pony. 1 met other members of ^f "'"■'"•.,;'|; J,^ of the illegal communist 
diseusLns. At the same time I also had debates - "^.^ .^cret but which they 
youth group about my Zionist ideas, which 1 did "o'J^ '^ J^ ;„ both organization 
condemned 1 had to come to a decision. It was not V°'^^'' ^^en I was not sure yet 

simultaneously, even though 1 did it for a briet. ransito^ P ^^^ activities of bom 

^vhich way to choose. But in the long run it would ot eou e en^ g ,^^,^,, „f Hahomm to 
^ovemenls. So. in October 1934. after -eraUon rations ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ , 

clan^ my ideological doubts. 1 finally concluded 'h'^' "^^ ^ .^^^ent. training lor hte as a 
communist youth group, but in the Socialist Z.on.s. you* mo .^^ .^_^ ^^^ ,„d a m 
l^alun in Eretz Israel. 1 then joined the Ha/'<'«"- ^h is y - h _^.^^ .^„^_ ^'-"""'V:' 

«rly 1933, as the result of the unification ot two Z^'^i ^n West Berlin. The name of my 
Sriih HaoUm. I entered the division GduJ Brcnm-r. locate 
group was Kvulzah Arlzuk Us leader was Pony SteinPe g. 


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At firs, everythmg was very strange o m ^^^ ^^^ ^, ^ , on Kantstrasse. one „ 

meBal group had been meettng. And now. ^^^^^nted. w>th posters m German and 
; 'crowded streets of West Berhn^ 1 w s m^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^,^,,,^,^ ,^^ g^,,^^,^^^ 

Kw and drawings on the was. a albrar^ ^^^ ^_^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^„ 

on Saturday afternoon, there were ^^o"' "" ; ^„,„, German or Hebrew 

Z ne could hardly -o^^'^'^'^yy^ZT^..^,, U over ,he,r shoulders, to nta.e 
Ins as mueh as they hked. «"hout those . ^^^ ^.^^^^.^^ ^^_ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^,,,„, 

r h were not followed by -^""f ^ ^^.^'s^ t^Ust youngsters could still gather 
Lr/and fear of being -'^^^^t^ L play, be merry and go htking. Wasn't tMs 
freely have lectures, organize ce ebrattons y amazement. I soon grew used 

La dream, eould it be true. 1 asked nty e B ato >^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^,^^^ .^ ^^^^ ^ 

to i, and no longer found ,t f^™/ ' " ^ .^^e poor, unhappy, brave tdealtsts. w o we,e 
decorated and heated home. 1 had to emembe p^^^^^^^ . ^^^^^ ^_^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

Z;rS:::^—Sr=^e already beenbetrayed.,s.^ 


1 .,.^;cwpnt hiking It was wonderful to enjoy 

nature, to be in the open a,r. m the °P<="J« "J" ^ j^^.i^g Mora, watching 

"itar. We would sing Gennan and Hebrew ^^l^^'J^^^^Zs a unique adventure and the 

he starry sky and sleeping in tents we b-" J^^^^^ ■ , ,,M now understand the 

young people who never exper.eneed ,t really mssed —"8 -^^^ conventional 

Wandfn-ogel movement in Germany around 1900. "^ rebe . ^ „^,i by 

education, the traditional Sunday afternoon 7'';^!" ""/.Pf^i "short sleeved shirts and. n 
parents and relatives. These boys and gtrlswoud rath r go htkmgms _^ ^^^ ^^ 

shorts, leaving the grown-ups hof-d/ventuallyth,s movement ta ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

new constructive ideas to replace the old conventional ones, but m a y .^^^, 

were pioneers. In the same way the Jewish youth movements P 7;" ™P°™ .pate in them, 
role and have a lasting pos.tive effect on all children and youngsters who part.c.p 

After having read the elementary writings of Marx and Engels. f ays takmg notes, j began a 
concentrated study of the Bible. history and "'erature. 1 was ve>, eag ^^^ ^ 
the gaps in my .lewish education and knowledge More P^"'^^;^ff",o read Luther's 
complete ignorance, due to my assimilated Among others. I s artea t ^^^^^^^ 

translation of the Old Testament from the very beginning to the end. as well as the tnr 
of Graetz's Popular History of the Jews. 

The leader of our group, Pony Steinberg, was a very giffed, highly intellectual y°^^^J^^ ^^-^^ 
parents were of Russian origin. He was bom in Danzig (now the Polish c.ty ^^^ ^^ 

was then u.ider the piotection of the League of Nations. (Today th.s .nst.tut.on ^^ ^^^^ 
United Nations). As Pony held a special status, as a foreign Jew bom '" l^^"^'"" ^^ceivrng 
continue studying medicine in Berlin, taking his final examination in 1935/36 a ^^^^^^^ ^^^ 
the highest marks. This was a remarkable achievement, considering that he e ^.^.^^j^^^ 
enormous amount of time to his intense activities as a leader of Hcihonim. Besides. 
lieii Haluii. he had little privacy and chances to concentrate on his medical studies. 

Pony was a very multifaceted personality, someone very hard to come across ^^^^ ^^ 

knew very much about art. music, literature, politics, educafion. medicine, etc. ^^^^^^ 

good sportsman. 1 took him along in my paddle boat, which I had bought secret y- 


f ■ h.^ned would not have permitted it. Pony could not go fast enough with 
h,i was always ingnieucu, 

*b:l^ He also beat me at tennis. 

,.„n„s library in his room, with excellent books. Later on. when he went to 
Pony had a" enormous '. y^^^ ^.^ ^,^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^.^^ ^.^ ^^,^^^^j ^^^^^^ ^^^c.uor^ j^g 

;„,.,,,;,„ra/t m '^^^'"J/, ^. t,butz Gedera. which he was going to join. One day he brought 
,p.„, at the time), ahead to ^^ .,.^^^^^^., ^^^^^_ ^^.^^ ^^ ^ ,^, „^ ,„ ^ ,,, 

„,e a very big and heavy su ^^^ safekeeping was the complete correspondence 

him. Among the books Pot^y g ^^^^^ ^^^^ _^^^^, ^^^^^ ^^ ^^g^,, ^^j ,,3„ b^ Rosa 

between Marx and Enge'^^ '" ' |^^, „f anicles and speeches by Lemn, 

Luxemburg, whom he ado ed. as we as^^^ ^g ^^^^^_^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^.^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

,l,„h I devoured in one ">bbt Late ^ ^^^ ^^ communist literature 

H,bonim. brought me ano her sucae on ^^^^^^^^^ 

,as rllegal a. the time and \^^P"^;™° „,,„„„ (a domtciliary search), which was a very 
found this kind of material J-mg H« - J ^^^ ^^^^ , „,,, ,,^ venous. I 

;:::h"iri:rs" tr^s ";°c:S because ^y parens would have been scared to 
death, had they known about them. 

Pony made a speech, which greatly impressed me. 

Pan of Pony's ideology was what he '^^^'^'^'^^^ll^^^^^^^^ 

a human being's personality is made up ot ^^^^^"^^^^^^ ,^ ^^.ally more developed, and 

and reason. Among Jews, reason by way ^' 'J^'^^^^^j^ of the youth movement s 

therefore it is necessary to deepen ^'l'"'°''^'^^^^J^2L.\ and the rational components ot 

educational work. Pony said, must be umty o th — , ,,,„,„g,. for instance, 

the human being. 1 fully shared Pony's ideas. 1 *'^> ^ f^J^^^ality of the situation ot the 

may be founded on rational reasons only, ^"^h as "1 ^ ^_^^^^.^^^, relationship .s 

Jewish people, but in order to become a d^^P'^.^f^^^jf^^/and a strong will to fight tor its 

indispensable, a love for the Jewish people ^"^ ^'^^"^j^.s hardship. 

survival and continuity, despite persecution and tremendous ^^^^ ^^^ 

1 adored Pony's personality and greatly admired his '"'^J J5;3itnTthen'^vem°on ,-/<v«Mo 
M.D. in Gerntany. he first made '""■'"'''''•''\''^'^^!^,l'f his friend Seev Orbach. one of the 
Krbhutz Gedera. In Israel he married Rachel, the ^'^ow J s . ^^^^^ ^.^^^ 3^^^,, be ore 
very earlv halu,zim. or pioneers from Germany who ^<-" ^ ' .^even, leaving a baby chdd 
the Nazi's took power. He d.ed in 1936 at '>^^^f "^^'jSomHagolan.Hewasamembcr 
Yehuda, whom Ponv adopted. Yehuda lives now m t^''^""'^ ^g^^i^berg translated hrs name in 
of the Knesse, (Parliament) for the "Third Way P^^'^^^f'^^ted Israel's minister to he 
Israel to Arie Harel. He spoke Russian fluently ^"^^^f^'JchiefofthelhilovHosp. a " 
USSR, after Golda Meir left this post in 1 949. Later he beca" - ^^.s) Hosp.ta m 

Tel Aviv and also worked at other hospitals, such ^L'^e Rf^ ^^^ , ^..,,,d him once n 
Haifa. He also taught at the School of Medicne in Tel Avw .j'^^^ ,^^^^,, because he traveled 
Tel Aviv, but it was always ditfcult to get together on ou ^^^^^ ^.^^ .^ , ggg. 
frequently, participating in internafional medical cong 



■(1 1 





■ , ■ *u . r^mv after having changed my ideology and priorities. 1 
Slowly 1 began thmkmg that ^^'^^^^^^^^ 

consequently -uld a.c, a^^^^^^^ ^ ,^, ^, p,,,,^ ,,, ,,, _ exist in t^e 

a four-year apprenticeship " '^^^ ^P' I' ^ eabinetmaker. a profession many haverun 

kibbutz movement. My tirst dca -^ ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ,,,„,teer position and could have 
in my group were learning. I ^ «^^^ p,,ems. especially my mother were 

to? Mv mother had speculated that one day. due to her connections to the owners. 1 
w u Lid a leading position at this big lithography plam. I could understand her reasoning. 
T™ the time early 1935, nobody could yet foresee how terrible things would become 
tZ^l!^^^- a few years later. My mother cried all the time, in no way could 
she agree with my becoming a cabinetmaker. She said there was no future in such a profession. 

I had talks with various leaders of the Hahonim about which profession to choose. One ot-lhe 
leaders Atte Heilbrunn, proposed gardening. I agreed readily, because horticulture would be 
a good preparation for my future life on a kibbutz. 1 wanted to work in a tree nursery so 1 
went to the HehahUz, where they gave me a list of gardening establishments on the outskirts 
of Berlin 1 looked them up but found none of them suitable. 1 therefore made up a list of my 
own taken from the telephone directory, and went looking for a good place to learn gardening. 
At that time Jews could no longer be employed as appremices in establishments connected to 
the soil, which the Nazis considered sacred, unfit for Jews, and therefore to be worked on by 
pure "Aryans" only, according to their slogan Blut imdBoden. blood and soil. 

1-inally 1 found a position as a volunteer in the tree and rose nursery Kokulinsky in Berlm 
l.ichtenrade. Before being able to start the new job. as 1 still had an apprenticeship contract 
with the litography plant. I had to get a medical certificate declaring that, since I was very 
nearsighted, my eye condition had worsened due to performing my printing job. In May 
1935. 1 started to work at the tree and rose nursery. I stayed there until October 1 937, leammg 
everything about gardening and tree care, including the grafting and pruning of fruit trees and 
rose bushes. For about two and a half years, I also attended the mandatory vocational 
horticultural school one morning a week, while I worked as a volunteer gardener. 

It took about 75 minutes each way to get to my new job. I had to change public transport three 
times. First 1 look the S-train. then the subway and finally a streetcar. The suburb of Lichtenrade 
in south Berlin is quite far from the West, where we lived. We worked until 6 p.m. Alter 
changing clothes. 1 came home at about 7:30. The Kokulinsky Brothers" tree nursery was a 
first-class establishment. The owners were very decent people. 1 had a good relationship with 
the gardeners who worked at this place, especially with one of them, who became my good 
friend. My knowledge of gardening proved very useful when I airived in Brazil later on. 
where at first 1 worked as a gardener and then as a landscape architect. Later on I pla"^^" 
every tree, shrub and flower in the garden of my own house and until now 1 enjoy gardening 
very much. 

I read vciT much at that time, mostly Socialist and Zionist literature. By the middle of 1*^?^ 
! began to study Hebrew intensely. 1 had to start from the very beginning. 1 did not even knou 
the Alej Bet. Everything 1 read at my Bar Mitzvah 1 had learned by heart, the benic^^'^ 
(blessings) as well as the HaftaraK the part of the Prophets that is read after the reading 

Xorah during the religious service on Shabbat. From then on. 1 studied Ivrit (Hebrew) 

' . to three hours a day. mostly on my way to the horticultural establishment and back. 

'^Vl ring my one-hour lunch break. I made progress very fast. After about two years 1 

'". a Hebrew teacher at the Hebrew Youth College in Frankfurt am Main, which had 

IvcHiaugurated in 1937, when I was living in that city. 






, ■ M^iGermanv became more and more difficult and burdensome. 
Gradually life as a Jew in Naz. '^^'"'^ - ^^^^ .^^^^^ constantly. One day a new law went 
New regulations and ''f"''2ToLm anv kind of weapon. My father had never been 
i„,o effect P-h'|''''"^^;;;;;;rrhe was s;verely myop.c. he was d.spensed from service 
active at the tront m World War ■ "^ ^ ^^^j^j ^ document m h,s pocket 

a, the front and had to sene m the gammon omy^ ^talmologist Dr. Georg Ahelsdorff 

Junng the war. ^'-n to - by -^^^^^^^^^^^ „,,^, ,, ^^s unable to recogn.ze h,s 

The document cert^' J ' ^ ' ^^^ J^ ,,, „„, ,«po„sible if he d,d not salute the™ 
S'T :anZ; . *«:imm,^ Empire, not saluting miUtary super.ors first was a 
severe offense, punishable by strong penalties. 

v,a 1,.,^ tr, ^vpa^ a uniform, and part of the outfit was a 
AS my father was seeing '-^^;7™, ^^^^^^^^^^ .usty after so many years. So 

now he had to gel nd ol it. a sa - j^ conferred with my mother 

"'Tr 1'':d:?rth"w o7r^.^^^^^^t^ -^^^^ wo^d be to wrap ,t up ,n a package 

te a CM arge box. so the shape of the package would not reveal its contents. Late n 
gh h red a taxi cab and told the driver to take them near the lake - G™newald. 

bur omerlin. When thev arrived, they waited until the taxi driver had lett and then checU 
bodv was watching or following them. After making sure that nobody w- ne U 

walked quickly toward the lake and threw the package with the sabre mto the water, rushing 

back to the nearest taxi stand to go home. 

It was strictly forbidden at the time to keep, sell or distribute "illegal" books or literature. On 
May 10, 1933. hundreds of thousands of "un-Gemian" books had been cast into oo^tir^j' - 
over Germany. Not only communist or socialist literature fell under the category^ ° u a" 

books but also many books written by progressive Jewish and non-Jewish authors, sue 
Remarque. Doblin. Feuchtwanger. Toller, Thomas Mann. Stefan Zweig. etc., etc. My paren^^ 
did not have too many "leftist" books, as they were always good liberal democrats, as most o 
the Jewish bourgeoisie. They never were politically engage. My father's library consis t 
mostly of Meyer's many-volumed encyclopedia and complete collections (mostly unrea ) o 
the classic German writers, such as Goethe. Schiller. Wieland. Kleist, etc. (most ot whij. 
wedding gifts from dear relatives). However, they may have owned one or another boo 
authors declared by the Nazis as "enemies of the state," such as Tucholsky. My mother rea 
a lot, but she always got her books from a nearby private lending library. 

My father, who was always terribly afraid, decided to 'clean up" his library one day- 
selected a few books that he thought might be dangerous to own. The question was wna 
do with them: He could not simply tear them up and throw them into the garbage can. 
was the possibilit) that somebody might find the paper shreds, put them back together aga 
and denounce him to the Gestapo. So he had the brilliant idea of throwing the shreds into 
toilet. In consequence, the toilet soon plugged up. The problem now was what to do. It ^■ 
father called the nearest plumber, the man might denounce him. To be completely safe. ^^ 
had to find a politically reliable plumber who was not a Nazi and would not be a threat. A^ 
looking around for some time, somebody recommended such a person, who then procee e 
with the job, no questions asked. 


\t step was to inspect my library. Of couse. being a young communist at the 
^1y father ' ^^..jn^ |" books, not just literature, but polifical pamphlets, brochures, etc. 
,,[^,e. ^^^ ^ J hidden them long before. The only book my father remembered in my library. 
^'^''^w\ eemed suspicious to him, was a very interesting biography by Fulop Miller The 
and which ^'^ ^ .^^ ^^^^ ^^^, Women. Rasputin, of course, had nothing to do with communism. 
Holy Devil- ^P^^^^ j^ 1916. prior to the Russian Revolution. Knowing my father, however. 
Hewasassassi ^.^^k and refused to turn it over to him. The book survived and still 

1 had hidden even in is ^^^ 
stands in my library today. 

> hnrd and dangerous then to obtain tbrbidden literature, even fiction. Through my 
'' ""'^ r"^- 1 Irhtenstein 1 discovered a bookseller in southeast Berlin who was a communist, 
'""'u.\Jl bookstore and risked his life by selling secretly under the counter secondhand 
'^■'t t t ms tC^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ j,,„ R,,d-s Ten days ikat shook the 

'"'m r ib inrthe^^^^^^^^ that led to the October Revolution in the USSR. The bookseller 
Z^^^^ wh^n It was discovered that he was selling -illegal" books. 


place any more for journahsB holdmg ^'^^•^^"^;; ^^^^^ ,, ,he spot, adapting them 

to the new times. There was a reaaing b<j newspapers were sold 

fee to read foreign newspapers and -^g-'"- ^ ha t me - ^J g P ^^ .^ ^,„ „,,, 

any more. This place was always crowded, mostly by Jews 1 w g ^^^^ ^^^ 

a^ious ,0 know what was going on l^^^^;;\^;i^::^^:, by the Nazis. Many 
reading of foreign newspapers was '°^''f 'l'^"; f' P'^^^^^, information about the political 
people then traveled to nearby countries to obtain the latest intorm 
situation from newspapers published abroad, many in German. 

Mv friend Rudi Lichtenstein. w-ho for some time belonged to dte Jewish you^^^-^^l 

Hashomer Ha,=air. traveled to Prague in 1 937 to ^^^'^'^'fl^'T^l,,,, .he HcLmer 
hewastakenoffthetraininDresdenandjailed.Atthat .nrielalea^^ b^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Ha,zair. When we found out that Rudi had been jailed. 1 -^^^^"' '^ P^, ,i,,,,,ure that he 
pick up all material connected with our organization and any co^ ^^^ ^^ himself would not 
might also own. This was necessary to make sure our oiganiz ^^ ^^^..^ 

be jeopardized should this material be found dunng the Gestapo s likely 

Not only books were forbidden but the sale of foreign jazz recor s^oa ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 
considered entarlete Negermusik, or "degenerated "^^""^ "j'"^'*;^^^^ ^^der the counter. This 
left in Beriin where imported American jazz '^^^°'''^^^°!! ^^^ g^'^ij^ As 1 had been always a 
^^as the large music store Alberti on Rankestrasse m ^^es ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ i 
great fan of jazz ever since 1 was a young boy, I otten ^^" ^^^^ ^.Tisket A-TuskeL I lost 
remember that among others 1 bought the imported 78 r.p.m. -^^^ ^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^ ^lid- 

^- yellow basket, performed by Ella Fitzgerald. This song ^^^j^^^ Mv favorite blues 
thirties. Later on, when already in Brazil 1 became a great tan ^ ^^ ^^^^ j^ to foreign 

■ -r is Bessie Smith, "the Empress of the Blues." U ^^as also to ^. ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ,, 
^"io stations. 1 remember 1 would often sit beside the radio n ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ the 

hear the news or jazz music. This had to be done with the voium 
neighbors would not notice and possibly denounce us. 

^■■JL" '■ 


I r^.- 


■J i-^'.- 

258 somtimes be heard between the lines was the 

The only place where hidden °PP»^'''°"j'q3, „,, ^est comics in Berlin were all Jews. This 

famous Kahcn-n dcv ''"""''f ' ^ . 'o^er. Afterwards, it struggled to sur^.ve. A well 

cabaret was famous b^'''^^ •'^\^ff ' '~ /po,i,ical opponent of the Hitler regime. He could 

known comic was Werner hnK^ ne y^^ ^^^^^ ^.^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ carefully, because at all 

not express his opposition openly, as ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^-^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

shows there were Nazi census P^";;"^^^^ ^^^^ .. j^^^ q^,,. whereupon Fink replied, "l am 

presentations some Nazi ^^°^^'^^^^ '.. ^^^ ^^5^,, ^^s that he was jailed the next day for sonic 

Tme. iTe iStsllemuaE closed for good. 

f , 916 a bloody Civil War broke out in Spain. It lasted for nearly three years 
In the summer of 1936. a bloooy I. 1 ^ , p^anco and his Moroccan militia 

and cost the lives of over one million ^P™'™^^^;" ,ing the democratically elected 
invaded Spain from North Africa -f " ^j^^^^^^^ 
Republican government. Franco imn^di^c^^r^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^^^^,^, 

secretly sent armaments, planes, P '»' , 'J '""^^^tal Brigde - whose members came from 
received the help of volunteers only- the Intemauonal^ ^^^ 

all over the world, bu, most of them J -^j'^Snufficent. Although i, had a 
government received from the ^'';^}^2^Zl^reLi<i by Leon Blum, a Jew, France 
socialist government at the time -the ^^""'P.^P^'^ " p ;,,,) ,„ p^evert arms and 
declared neutrality and closed its border with ^ "bm fj^^ J,,,, Madrid never 
volunteers from crossing. It was an unbalanced *^eh • bu J^e bes^^gw p ^,. 

surrendered. In the Jewish youth movemem we most anxiously watched V 

the Spanish Civil War. 

In August 1936. the Olympic Games took place in Berlin. The Afro-American athlete Jesse 
0.ensl four ,old mVals. Hitler left the Olympic early to ayo.d - ^to s ^^^^,sothattbreignv.sitors would notbeuntavor^^^^^^ 

the glass showcases in the streets where the pages of the vitriolic ant.sem.tic newsp^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Stumer were exhibited in public remained empty. This newspaper was pubhshed m NuremD . 
by the notorious amisemite Julius Streicher. In the 1 946 Nuremberg trials of prominent in. 
war criminals. Streicher was sentenced to death. 

In the history of the Soviet Union. 1935 became the ''Year of the Purges". In 1 936. the '^^^^^^ 
show trials started. They were held against the most prominent Russian communist le ^^^^• 
such as Zinoviev (the former head of the Cominfeni. the Communist Third ^^^.^J^l.'^^ V 
Kamenev (Trotsky's brother-in-law); Radek; Bucharin. and many other ones. Like^ ro ^^j 
who was first exiled and later assassinated in Mexico, in 1 940. they once were Lenm s c o^^^ 
collaborators. In 1935. Zinoviev was condemned to ten and Kamenev. to five years in pn^_^^^^ 
In their second trial, in 1936. they were both sentenced to death. Altogether about 1 .3 mi^^''^^ 
people were victims of Stalin's reign of terror, including most of the Jewish intellectua t 
among them the well-known writer Isaac Babel. 


f ■ nd Rudi Lichtenstein. I met Shimon Pilz (now Peles), one of the leaders of 
Through my '^^^^ ^^^^ Young Guardian) in Germany. The Haschomer Hatzair is a Jewish 
lhe//tii/K>m£T/V« -^^^^^^^^ _^ ^^^_^ .^ ^^^^ Politically it stands more to the left than the 
youthorgamza I ^^^_^^^^^ .^^ members joined the kibbutzim of Kihbun ArtzL which 

iiohonim. Alter c^^ ^t^^_^^.^ ^.^^ ^^^ piembers of the Habonim wem to the kibbutzim of 
favored ^;'7" ^ . j ,j the Labor Party Mapai. Hashomer Hatzair originally had strong 
mbutzMeuhad^na^ ^^^ ^^.^,^^^,^ ^s part of the educational system. The movement 
roots in scouting, _^^ ^^^ .^^.^^^^ ^^ -^ideological collectivism." demanding 

.^braced a ^t" ^ ' ^^^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^,/,^,,„,, ^,,,,,,. niovement played a leading 

,hat us members ^^^^ . ^j^^ ^ettos of Warsaw. Vilna. Bialystok and other Polish 

,.le ,n organizing ^»^; ^'^^^-^i^, 4,33,, ghetto uprising, Mordechai Amlewicz ( 1919- 
,,, The -"--/^^^^^^^^ Hatzair:B.for. the establishment of Meciinat Israel. 

2/2: i::^i^^^-^-^o.^ state. The movement participated m the formation 
ofthe leftist M«p«m party. 

u« tri^,^ tn rnnvince me to leave the Habonim and join 
loftenmet with Shimonfrom then omHtr.^^^^^^^^^^ 

,he Hashomer Ha,:cnr. We had many ^'^''^f;^''f^'^°l^^^^ ^s Pony had left our Hahcmm 
„alia with his wife. Use. We always visit them whd ^"}^l^-^l^J^^^„,„,^,^,_ , joined 
,oup in West Berlin, because he had m prep ^^ ,^ f™ ,"t prenzlauer .Mice. There 1 
another group of this movement '" ^o-^Jf;; "p^^t 1 a very dynamic person. Though 
met one of the Habomm leaders. >^'^' ^'^'^'^V;',-'" j;,,,,,, 4;;,;,,, Sehool. which prepared 
only three vears older than I. he was the director ot the hnal, .ma 
young people for their future life m Palestine. 

X,el and 1 talked frequently. He ^^-ed many of my ideas and was ^J^-^J^^^^f/S't^n 
1 also met his haverah and future wife Bella. Xiel ff^ „f 4, ,-,„;, Bel (illegal 

previously. We became good friends. Xiel was one "^ * °;;f;;,'^;,„ber of ■■certiJ-icates" 
immigrationto Israel) in Germany. As the British severely ^^.^^^ ^.^^ clandestine ships 

for legal immigration to Palestine, an illegal nHyim ™'^^g ^j^, ^^„,g (o London working 
leaving European ports and landing in Palestine secretly. 1 ' ^^^ ^^^^^^^ p,^^|„g ,he 

there for the Hehalulz movement on the rescue ot J'^«"^" j; ^^^^ -^ p^iestine. He also 
young people on huchshwah. the preparation for pionee y ^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^_ ^^,^.^^,, -^ 
organized in England Youth Aliyah and Aliyah BeU wnen ■ ^^ ^^^ R^yal Navy 

1940, he rendered relevant services to the British t'""™"^ '°""fo„he //«««"«''■ 1" 1'^'*^ 
during World War 11. He used his contacts to secretly '™"™=^ ^^^ Hu^amh. the clandestine 
he was sent to Europe to buy equipmem and material wn ,^^ „^„break of war. 

organization for Jewish self-defense in Palestine required, 

Xiel bought a small hotel built on the beach in Tel Aviv ^^^ ^ °^™^^" pan Hotel chain and 
and later transformed it into the five-star Dan Hotel. He n jj^j^,<,triaUsts. co-owner ot 

is one of the country's leading hoteliers. ^""^P^'"^"" ^^„,, „„£ of the richest men m 
Federmann Enterprises, managed by his son today. He Peca ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ j,^^^,,^! 
Israel. Xiel is now known as Yekutiel Xiel Federmann. 1 msi ^•^^^. ^^^ ^^^g^,,, Minam 
Dm Accadia Hotel in Herzlia, which he owns. In summer 1 v • ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^lel wrote 
^i 1 visited him and Bella at the Dan Hotel in Tel Aviv ano ^^^^^^^^^^ ^„ ,^^ booklets, 
numerous articles about Israel's politics, economy and so y. 
"The road we missed" and "The road to peace. 


t » 

1 f 

■I K 










«- ^ 


'':i\ ^ 



60 ,,, takine an active part in its group activities. M 

u u hn«/m for about two years, w^ fc .pisons and joined the Hashoma- 

'^^'T n.t6ltr™.-^-'-''°" ^"' Sr -rof bo* these Z.onis, you. 

boys- group wthm the ,,. „ften taken me to the meetings of .he 

•■11 , member of Hiihonim. Shimon na n,,,i,,rech (On the Way), h was 

^'"'^ 1:1: hTrgfof a, the Has„on,er ^"-^^^^:::J.^ m February ,936, 

r;^:: ;r;'::mpanion) of ^^^^^^r^r:; :-:te .om po,... ... .^ 

.^vx,n in Westphal a. Her parents, wno wc : ^^^ ^^^ ^j^^^ 

H^; « " Sd the Pohsh nationality 01 e parent S^^^^ ^^^_^^ ^^^^,^^.^^ ^^ 

S 1 "-e she .orked as a — ;;;^; ^^ ^wT UUed U. I realized that we both 
Snenfeld. After the group -« ;;^ * ^.'^er mght. As she had not brought abn^- 
were going home the same way. It wa ^ '^"^ ^„,h in cold weather. I took off m> 

Tvercoat. she was very eold. in general he « J^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^, , ^ed her 

overcoat and gave it to her. Later ^h^ c "t ^sed J ^ ,^^^^ ■■„,,,, .vere ot the opinion 

ureatly. The tovenmofher youth movement group ( ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ,„,„ ,„ 

^at girls do not merit f -' "— .^ Z^; l^^^^^^ seat at shows, etc. This was 


was the leader of a young girls group a tl^e Hc,shonu, ^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ ,,^^„^h 

auend a course to study Irri, (Hebrew .1 => ^^f ^^^ ^jj^ ^g' her lessons. She accepted 
had studied it for only nine months. 1 ^-ef re su^^^ apartmem to give her Hebrew 
my proposal and from then on 1 went to Dr. ^o""^"'^'^^ P ^j^^,,,^! discussions. 
,e sons'n the evening twice a week. On these °--~,t° '^ J; , defended those of the 
She defended the ideas of the "f <>'"''■ ""'"'^^^^^ helped her with tl,e dishes 

//,,„,„,,„. A friendship slowly developed. On S""days 1 somet^m j ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

so she could leave her job earlier. We werit to the -->- " ^/^^^-^^t very often because 
place. A few times on Sundays she came along in my paddle boat, but 
usually she was busy with her girls' group. 

Some time later Rosi left her household job and moved to ^^l^j;;;;; "iSen'she 
,U„za,r on Essenerstrasse. Firs, she did the household chores at he to « ^^^ ^ ^,^^ 
,„ok over the Maskiru, (oflke) of the Hu^homcr Halzcr on Memekestrass ^ ^^^^ 

competent, cff-.cient secretaiy, who took care of the correspondence and all 

In Julv 1936. Rosi and 1 took a vacation trip to the beautiful Rhineland. ^5 we^^^' ^^^^^^^ 

enough money, our only way of transport both ways was hitchhikmg. 1 wor ^ ^^^^.^leeved 

blue shirt and blue velvet shorts with a large leather belt and Rosi ^^^°"^° ^ boy and a 

shirt, a blue skirt and a Scottish plaid vest. Both of us carried backpacks, w ^^^_,ooking. 

girl are traveling together, hitchliiking is much easier. Especially when the girl is g ^^^^^ ^^ , 

as Rosi was. 1 stayed a little bit oft' the road while Rosi slopped the vehicles ^n.^^^'^^^^j ^ ,|f,. 

appeared only after the car or truck had stopped and the driver had agreed to gi ^ ^^.^ ^^,^^ 

Usually the drivers' faces, as one can imagine, showed some disappointment 


h'tchhiking to all the places we wanted to see and then back home. Besides 
«e had no trouble m ^^^^^.(^^ ^ m.. Cologne. DUsseldorf. etc.. we visited many beautiful 

going tociues like^^^ VJ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^ beiwetn Bingen and Koblenz. 

A nvernicht at the homes ofhaverim or haverol from our youth organizations 
Usually we stayed oyer, y ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^^^, 3 

,„ ,he cities ^here they^ ■ ^^ ^^^. ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^ ^„, ^^^^ j.^i^h at all. it 

workshop and ^"othtr .me ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ .^ j,.^^^^^^ ^^ ,„^,d 

„,, „„t diff-icult to tind ^ f^ee pla e to y g ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

„o, find any '•-^"-"'^^^'^Vgr t d ^yone by Taying "Heil H.tler" and raising our righ. 
because we ««"^'"^'^ ,"'71,^1 eve^body else in Nazi Germany at the time. This raised 
:r,aorwhen we ented a crowded restaurant. So nobody offered us a place to sleep. 

• 1 f, ,he Re,l Hdur and rented a small room near the place where 1 lived. 
,„ early 1937, Ros. left the ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ,„d 1 traveled together again, this time to 
,„ Hy 1 W7, during our s""----^';-' ^^^„,„dings. Then we stayed for a while at a 
beautiful Bavaria, We visited Munich and ^.^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ 

castles and other beautiftil places. 


Zunch and then to Karlsruhe In Zur h 1 was ^^^^ l^^^ Hotel. 1 used my time mos ly 

Sonnie. They rented a room for me at *^ '' ^'J, jwspapers. Among others. I read Andre 

,0 read books forbidden in Germany ^"^ »,"„XbJ Konrad Heiden Adolf HnWr. the 

Gide's book Backfron, ,he Sovie, Vmon ^fJ^^.^^^^.J p^Hng the few days 1 stayed in 

„/. of. <iicm,or and its continuation^ '""" "f"^ on f L civil war, I spent nearly 
Zurich,Ialso read many magazinesaboutthesituationoP ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^,,, ,^,^ ,, 

.he entire time in my hotel room, reading books, newsp p 


.. Fritz Straus, aunt Edith and my cousms^ 
From Zurich 1 traveled to Karlsruhe to visit my uncle^Fnt^ ^^ ^.^^ ^ g.eatly enjoyed 

My cousin Erwin, who owned a motorcycle, aught n ^^^ ^^^ ,^ „, , 

motorcycling. Erwin and I drove to Baden-Badem but t h ^^^^ ^ ^,^^ , h 

beeaus 1 wore neither a jacket nor a tie. So 1 ^orr^ed ^^m ^^^^^^^ ^_^^„ , ,h 

a long time at the casino that my cousin, who "'^"^^'^lette most cautiously, lalwa 
door^ancallme.1 lost only avery small anrout. as P'a^-d ° ^^^ , ^ 

be, the minimum, which at the time was one "jW and ^ _ , ,,,,ed a few day 

.e,um to his school in Switzerland at the end ot his s ho ^^^^^^^^..^ and to he 

longer. I drove on his motorcycle to Baden-Baden -fl^}" ^ho was a partner of he 

nearby places. Later on. after I returned to Berlin. "^^ '';;; J °„,,yeling. 1 would bike my 
firm.Ient me his motorcycle for a while. 1 really enjoyed mot^^^ y ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^g^„,,,,on s 
,|ob or to the vocational horticultural school once 
meetings. . ^hey 

While still in Karlsruhe I received a letter from the ''^'X^^i^^oU^'^^^^^^ 
a*ed me ,0 move to Frankfurt am Main to '^k^ °,^ '^.f/; ,,ay at the tree nursery another 
group there. 1 did not agree with this proposal, as 1 inte ^^^^^ „„ y m t 

nine months to complete three years of apprent'cesh P,^^ Horticultural Academy 
1938. Another plan of mine was to become a guest siu 



,1 ■•• 

'I- •; 


;■ 1 



t ■■ 

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• A 

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Berlin-Dahlem. This was 

the academy. 


^^ onipletely empty, because my parents and 

When I returned to Berlin, our big ^P.^^"^'"'^";'' '.^ere. When Rosi returned to Berlin after 

, A Ml kinds of garden tasks, such as pruning, planting 
A. ,he tree nursery. 1 had already -med a ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ,. ^.^ ^^^^,_ ,,,. xh,s prov.d ve, 
irees digging up trees tor sale, grafting ro ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ,„ ,dd,„„„ ,„ 

'::,-, for m 'then and also after my -.gra^ - ' - ^^^ ,^^^ „^^,,^. , ,,,, ,„ ad published 

the small weekly amount of six marks 1 recer ^^^^.^^^ ^^ ^ ..^^^^^ j^,^,^,, 

: r the Berlin Jewish Con— -w^^^^^Pf , ^J, .^veral repHes. Jewish fam.hes 
gardener, trained in all types ot ga den wor ^ ._^ ^^^^.^ ^^^_^,^^ ,„ g,,, „,, , 

preferred Jewish employees at he time. K n^^nufacturer of mattresses, etc. 

'permanent job. 1 also received -P^^ratTh "^ree nursery for too long. Therefore 1 
However. I could not stay away from ^J^^^^^;" ,,bu„ manufacturer, located neM 
,n,y accepted one job. at the e^'^-^J^rspea manure and dug the ground, etc, A. 
,0 his factory in South Berlm. 1 pruned the rees^ spr _^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ,^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ 

one mark per hour, 1 earned i5°° "7=^' ^^^ "^ htbefore I studied all the garden books 1 

rS'lw S't:;:^^" ■ . took care of thts garden .on. then on. 


1 used my free time to visit various museums m Ber m ^dm, ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

copperplate-engravings by the old masters ^ "^"/^"PJffp'rt.cpated ,n a course 

imcresting criminal trials a, the Moahit ^""'^"f .^^^^J^iP ^er at the Hochschulc 

given by the famous political economist and sociologist Franz Oppenlie.m 

fiir die Wissemcluijl t/e.v .luclenlums. 

The Gestapo-imposed restrictions on the activities ^^ ^^^'^^^^^ 
n.ovcmcnts became more and more severe. From to Ume, ^^^^^^^^^ .^most 

forbidden, fhey had to take place then m small groups m P"^f^^^" 
precautions taken. Afterwards, when meetings were allowed agam '^^y'^'^^^^^^^ 
.ith the Ciestapo in advance and special forms had to be Idled out. with ^ur or live P ^^^ 
each. 1 hev had to contain the date, place, time and duration ot the meeting ^^e "^m ^^ j^,, 
responsible leader, the name of the speaker and the subject to be debated^ ^'''!"^' ^, ,east 
than r.ftecen participants were no longer permitted. The responsible leader had to ^^^^^ 
eighteen years old and had to be of German nationality. This made commuation ^ ^^^ 

verv dinicuU. I 'nlikc the other Zionist youth organizations. Hashomer Haizan ^^ ^^^^^q, 
members of German nationality. Most of them were sons or daughters ot PoUsli ^^^^ 

iluuigh born already in Germany, had their parents* nationality. 1 was one ot the ^ ^^^^^^^ 
members of the organization who was over eighteen and was of German nationa i y- ^^ '^^^^^ 
in contact with the Gestapo various times during my period with the Hashomer tin ^ 
in Uerlin and later in Dresden. 

The Gestapo controlled all our activities and sent their officials to nearly every mee ^^^^^^ 
check out if e\cr> thing was correct and strictly in accordance with the information ^ ' ^j^^ 
in the mimdator) registration fomis. The leaders of the organizations were summon 


anvthing at the meetings was not in complete accordance with the 
Gestapo whenever ^ ^^^ ^^^j^tration forms. The activities of our organization would then be 
:SiTof:«ined or undetermined time. 

. ^gj, Berlin was a rented apartment on the second or third floor in the 
Our meeting place i _^^^.^, i^^use on Schaperstrasse. At every meeting, one of our 

back courtyard, ot an ^^i ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ .^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^^ j^^.j^.^^ ^^^ ^^^ ,5^^,^ ^^^3, ^f ,he 

boys wo"'f.''''P J*,^ ^,, ^ell known to us and could be recognized from far away. As soon 
Gestapo off-icial. who w ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ f ^ , 

,, he was ^«" iPP^J^J;^ rushed to action. Everything had been rehearsed beforehand, 
whistle signal. Th^" ^^^^ had to sit with another one, to complete the mmimum 

Chairs were quickly ^^tL.i by the Gestapo. The or ha.erah of Gemtan nationality 
„„„,ber of fifteen people qu red by ^J^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

,vho always had be P^'^f "' " ^ hy of Palestine or whatever unsuspicious subject 

or lecture) started to speak -^'''' ^'^'^^^'l^^,, ,he group leader had ben talking about a 
,, ,hown on the registration -- ^^ ^^ "J^ ,., , before the Gestapo official arrived, 
socialist theme and then had to change ubj cts ry ,^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

Sometimes two officials would <=°"^2 ^fpalest^ne Everv three months, each orgamzaUon 
.verenottoo interested in the e-^^.f ^^^f J^^^^^ therr addresses and also advise how many 

I if my name was Edith Silberberg. 1 said ^^^ZL the Gestapo had made a mistake. 
leader responsible for the programming -hedule del^er d t ^^. ^ ^.^^^^^^^^ ^ 

He had mixed the date of my lecture up with theone '° ^ g ^^ ^^^^^^.^^ g,,,. 

.rls- group one day later. The offical took note °f J" "^^^ "^^ ,^,„ed of alcohol and was 
ithen locked the apartment and we --"' ^7~ ° f ^.^g breaking his neck. 1 wished 

very upset that he had to go down the unlit da^^;^; '^^^^^ but the matches just wou d not 

he would, but to no avail. He lit one ntatch ^fte '^e c^'^^; ^ ^^^ landlord did not change 

bum. As our organization was always in arrear with rent pay 

the bumed-out lamps in the staircase and hallway. ^^^^ 

Nextday 1 received a summons from the Gestapo '°;';°.7,;;^ '^^^^^^^^^ '' 

at 9 a.m The Gestapo occupied part of the big old ^ ''Jing ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ j 

Alexanderplatz. A. the entrance, two SS men were sitt ng a a ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^, ,„ ,h 
1 had ,0 fill out everything, including the hour and "^'""^ ° l^^^^,, j should wait unU 
room indicated to me. stood m front of the door. =°"f,X^,,ht to myself "This surely is 
being called or just go m. Then 1 heard terrrible *°"' "f ^^^leader of my group. Shimon 
Boingto get totigh." Suddenly the door opened *™pdy "^ J „„, His face was pale all 
Pilz, who was also one of the leaders of the ^^^i?^;'"'"^,, /never did. 
over. He wore a tie for this occasion, something he normally 

vci. ne wore a lie lor uiib u»-^a3iv..., - . 

was surprised to meet him there and just wanted to ^* ^J'^^'ttrtSy' foSen - right in 
Gestapo official saw us talking, he shouted that talkmg J^^^^ ,^^i^i. fhen he 

from of all the other people who were waiting and ^o wej ^ ^ ^^^ ^ow you 

-lied me in. after having yelled at poor Shimon: ^--^^^^l,^^, „,, and asked: -What ^^ 
^ha. happens when you talk in here." Then he closed 'he do^r^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ,„, Then 
h' tell you? Certainly, forbidden things." I replied tnat 

.1 i ■*.* ff^^ii, "" 

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Fill* > 

264 edsiered lecture?" I had sat down in a chair without 

went on- "How dare you give a non-r g ^^^^^^ ^^^ happened, whereupon he shouted at me. 
having been asked to and tried to expia _ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^,^ ^^-^ ^^ insolently;' I realK 
-You impertinent fellow. 8e^"P^^|'" ' - ^^ ^^^^ you. I am going to lock you up in jail. 
did not feel like grmmng. well, i a h b ^^^ ^,^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ situation was gettmg quite 

you and the other ^^"7 ^^^^f^" J^^^fbout what would happen to such fellows as th.s mean 

toui!h and dangerous. I nen i inou^i'i 

GeLpo official when we seized power one day. 

■ f „nt nfhim he asked. '-What's the name of this organization? . 
Then looking at the paper '" f™"';' T!.^^ ^j,, investigate this organization more closely 
1 replied. -Hushomer Hacwr. He sam. . ^^^^ ^^^^^ 

Jn he asked n,e. looking a. the torm la «' ^d m t the t^^ ^^ g^^ ^^^^^^^^^^_^ 

herealreadyTMlhoughthewasreferrrmg othe .metn y , ^^^ ^ ^ 

a, Alexanderplalz. because I had to ment.on he ~ ^,^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ 

replied. "Abou, twent, minutes. ^ ere" oh sad ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^ 

leader^ Ignorance is written m your ac. ' - h^J Jg YO ^__^ ^ ._^ ^,^^ 

and you answer 'about twenty mmu s ! *fi~ "^ '^ '^^-^^^ -^ 4„„. ^ho eame out 

and tlie inquirv about the unregistered lecture started anew. At the end he let me go. Un 
way out, I had to return the form I had filled in upon my arrival. 
Wl.nlwasoutinthes,reetagain.Ibreathedwithrelief.Idecidedtogoto Shimon's^ 
I found hnn and his havcrah Use there. Shimon was still very pale and excted. He told m^^^^ 
had been summoned because he was the leader responsible for the organization. None ot us 
two actually knew that the other one had been summoned too. He told me that he had arr ved 
a short time before me and was called in together with another young man. The otticiai me 
shouted at the young man, "So you are Klaus Oliven. How dare you give an ""^^g'^^"''^ 
lecture?" The other guy did not know what was going on. He was quite disturbed and cou 
not reply at all. Shimon wanted to explain the misunderstanding. He started. "Excuse me. 
whereupon the otTical shouted, "Shut up. 1 did not ask you." Then he repeated the q"^^^'^"^| 
but the young man, who probably was summoned for quite a different matter, again could no 
answer the question at all. Shimon once more attempted to explain that there was a 
misunderstanding. The official then screamed at Shimon again. This was the exact momeni 
when I arrived and when Shimon was thrown out of the room. Things were then cleared up- 
the other fellow was sent out and 1 was called in. just when Shimon and I were found talkmg 
in the corridor. 

When 1 talked to him at his apartment, Shimon was quite upset and depressed and went abou 
mumbling all the time that he had a premonition that he was going to be jailed or thrown in ^ 
a concentration camp even before his aliyah, which was to occur very shortly. Use ana 
a hard time calming him down. A short time after, in summer 1937, Use and Shimon nv^ 
aHyiih. settling in kibbutz Dalia in Israel. 

Meanwhile, my friendship with Rosi was slowly coming to an end. She was 100% the you 
mo\cmcni t>pc and considered me in some ways too "bourgeois." She also reproached hk 
for not giving her enough anention, not bringing her flowers and things like that, and ^'^ 
seeing her only twice a week. We often got into arguments and she would end up crying 


, ^^^,. liaizair leadership decided she should go lo Cologne to take over our 
Then the ^^^ insisted that 1 accompany her. but 1 didnT want to. So our friendship, 

Sh lasTed one'and a half years, came to an end then. 

t'me our leadership insisted that 1 should go to Frankfurt am Main to take over 
a^t the same i |^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ inclined to do so, but as a good and discipUned shomer 
our local ^J^^JP ^^^.^^^^j^,,. Hatzair, literally meaning guardian), I reluctantly agreed. At the 
(member 01 ^^^^ ^ ^^.^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ r^ovt^ to Frankfurt, the second-largest Jewish 

end of ^^^^ I, ^^ I rented a room from a Jewish family for a special rate, in exchange 
community in ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^,^^ p^^p,, 

'': 'T!l^2 had a grain business in a small place in Hessen.They had come to Frankfurt 
"^'■uw then because they could not stay in that small town any more. People threw 
''''''' T- house n^thir ife was made hell. The family had already obtained their 
bombs at their house and me. ^^ ^^^ in,niigration to the United 

;r rs a :— ft^e m .ould not become a public charge, and were only 

waiting for their registration number to come up. 

u 1 1 n.if Unluf T therefore had to carr\' out kitchen and cleaning 

, M nry meals ^^^^^^^^^^^ --^ ^^^- ^'-" ""• P^^' P"'^""' 
services just like all tovcT/m who Ivca tn .^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ 

fetch coal and kindle the ^°°k>"e-^'7^- ^'.'\'^;" ''"? ''' 'L, ,he first time 1 was on kitchen 
,he .«v.nm had to leave very early or '^e- P s^ reme b r he fi s ^^ ^^^^ 

duty, 1 left my place when ,t was ;"" "^P'^^; Jr^fe.,, HaU.nA could not get the 
Berlin. It was a cold wmter n.ght. When ^rrn^d at t ^^^^ .^ ^ ^^^ 

cooking-stove to light. The coal would not burn wUh the P'^^^^°' P / ^^ ,„, ,„„-«. 
afraid ?ha, when the harer.n .ndlu.rcro, ^^^^^^^ .•^^L^e without any problem 
Fortunately a girl who lived there showed up and d>d ^^ JOb to^ .^ ^^ ^^^ 

had never done anythmg like that before. At home we cooked gas 
cook's job to light the kitchen-stove. 
As the leader of our orgamzation-s local group. I had to arrange meenn^^^^^^^^^ 

connected with our activities. I studied Ivnl very '";^"'' ^'^^^j^j ^^j 1 made a speech in 
Hebrew language school for young people had ■•^«""> beginners and another one for 

Hebrew at its inauguration. 1 gave two courses there, oi fc of outstanding Jewish 

advanced pupils. During my stay in Frankfurt 1 aUended the lectures 
personalities, such as Martin Buber and Leo Baeck. 

After a few months it became clear that our group had little ''^^''^lf^^^^l^^J^^s well, greatly 
there were many Jewish vouth organizations, religious "Ms ^^^^^ ^ ^,^^ ^ ^^^|,,, ^f 
influenced by Buber. They had a Bf////«/Hf.-ot their own, wn^^^^^^^ p,^^^^ i„ Germany, m 
our haverim went to hachshcirah at agricultural 'amis i ^^^^ ^^^^ emigrated, 

preparation for their future alivah. Others accompanied tnei p ^^^^ ^^^^^^j ^^j (he 

mostiv to the U.S.A. or South America. Membership in °"^ '° ^^^j,^ ,„ maintain the local 

iMdership in Berlin came to the decision that it was not wo ^^,_^ ^^^_^^^^, , ^^en returned 

.™up. Our group of younger boys and girls was transterred to ^^^^^^^^.^ ^^ ^^^,;,„„„, 

■"Berlin on March 1, 1938. but 1 was not to stay '";^"'"h; Our local organization 

Huizair decided 1 should take over the leadership ot our Ureso ^ 

'Here consisted of about fifty people, divided into various age t, 

i_ 1 oTft was 

Tl-e time 1 spem in Dresden from the end of March to the beginning ot^Novem ^ ^^^^^^^^ 

^"■ery happy one. Economically, 1 was completely indepen c 


^ -- 



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266 ^^^„ totally bombed out during the war, as was most of 

beautiful city. Us castle, the Z"""ej- ^.^^^.|, , ^^, very busy with my activities, giving 
the city, but it has now been comp e y ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ j^^;^^ community, parents, the 
lectures. Hebrew course, l^vm^ta^.^^ .^„_ ^^^ 
Zionist organization, members ot b 

1 ent to the lewish Community, which maintained 
After my arrival. Hiad to look for a room. V '^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ther's apartment, where 

a room service. The g,r '^at -or ^ *ej^ ,,^^^ ^,,^ ,,,,,d be the right place for me. .After 
there was a room to let. 1 had a leei g ^^^ ^^^.^^ Community. 1 rented the room the 

checking out many other '°"'^''-''^^J.^ ^^ p^au Eisenhardfs. She was a very race 
secretary at the Community ^f^^^"™^;" ^ ghe continued her husband's business, a 
widow with two daughters. She was ve y h ^^ ^^-^ ^^^^ the girl to 

room-rental agency, but she had onty veo' f - fjt^opened the door and called her younger 
whomlhadspokentoattheJewis — ^^^ 

sister Rosl. 1 liked Rosl trom he f^ .me ^^^^ , ^„,j ^.^ , ^„,,d come back next 

but she could show me the room. We talked to a ^^^ ^^j^^_. ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

day. 1 liked the room. Of the various rooms > ^a'^ een- her ^ _^^^^^^ ^_ 

suitable, very near the Jewish Cornmunity '^'^i;^^^JZ[''" „, However. hav„,, 

most of the time. Rosl became a very good tnend ot mine. I took her alon^ on som 
by rented motorcycle to the beautiful area surrounding Dresden. 

Rosl was seventeen yearsoldwhenlmetherforthefirsttime She hadaniceJe^^^^^^^ 
Hasso Steiner, six or seven years older than she. Both. Rosl and Hasso, ^ad be bn^^^^^^^^^ 

Rosl even had lead a group there. Belonging to a Jewish yo^^h organization nfluenced 
person greatly and left its permanent traces. The assimilat.onist German lew shyo^^^ 
organi^ations. such as B.d.j-J., were forbidden later on. Only the Zionist youth o^^^" — 
could continue to exist, because their goal, aliyah to Israel, meant emigration trom uermd j. 
which the Nazis encouraged at the time. 

Rosl later married Hasso, when she became pregnam. Besides the civil marriage, they a ^a 
religious ceremony, celebrated by Rabbi Wolff. Their son Jeremia (called Jerry) was bo ^^^ 
July 1939. shortly before the outbreak of World War 11. (Jeremia was one of the names oii^^ 
onical list issued by the Ministry of Interior, which Jews had to choose from for their new o^^ 
babies.) While Lotte, Rosl's sister, managed to emigrate to the United States. Rosl an 
family were not so lucky. U was always somewhat easier for a single person to eniigra^ 
for a couple with a baby. After 1 left Dresden, I kept in touch with Rosl and she ^''^*^^^^ "^"^^^^^ 
Berlin once, where she tried in vain to obtain a visa to some country. In January IV^ ^^ 

wrote, "All our thoughts circle around one pole, emigration." In March ot the same ye 

*.. .1.... *i — : — 1 „ :.:.... i r : : .; — c .« tU^ Am^riran C onSUl'i 

Rosl, who was a gifted seamstress, worked at home mending clothes for Jewish ladies, 
last letter 1 received from her. when 1 was already in Brazil, was dated January 1941. 

A d nessimistic. Rosl and Hasso were still living in Dresden. All their friends 

veo resigne ^^^^ ^^^^^ facing great hardships, barely surviving. Several years later 1 

had alrea f^om' Lotte informing that Rosl. her husband and baby son had perished in 

received a e tragic case is similar to that of Ard-Heinrich Schottlander. In both cases 

IheHolocaus . ^ ^ ^^^p^^ ^j^j^ g baby boy - were wiped out. There was only one difterence: 
awhole fami yj ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Ard-Heinrich came from a very rich family, but both 

Rosl and Has ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^^ country in the world at the time that would accept them 

^'"'''''' ^Z doors in the face of the mortal danger threatening them. 
and open us uu 


'^" THE AGED! 




..1 edinO^sd.^.;^^---^^ 

.btively small city as Dresden where P-P'"^ ^f^^Jf "^^ ,7;* tt'he window panes of 
he members of our organization tried one night to '^'^"^TonZZi The Jewish stores 
her store with acetone and got a pale ot dirty -^/^ 1"" t each s.ore window The 
«ere then forced to place a yellow note saying Jewish store n e _ _^^^^^^ ^^^^^ .. ^^ 
,nher stores placed notes in their store -"dows sa mg Aiyan ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Bedin the Jewish store owners were forced to pant th n na on ^^ ^^^. , ^^^^ ^^^, 

with huge, ugly white letters. They were obliged to add <° '^ '"'" ^^ji^.^iy identified as 
■Israel" for mJn and "Sara" for women. These stores -"J^' -^"tlonging to Jews, 
belonging to Jews. In Berlin it was also possible to eas ^^^^^^ ^^ ,^g.j 

They were assigned very high special registration numbers, above . 
license plates. 

In Dresden, the Hashomer Hatzair s original ^^^"^'"^ "'^"'"^^^^^^^ sp'ecial outfits (a 

\vhile in other cities it had been mostly abandoned. Ihe you^t ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ,^^^^^ ^^ve 
gray shirt, blue shorts and special neckwear); there we ^^^^^.^^ ^^ ^^.^ ^^^^ting 

commands and used a whistle. In the beginning I haa s. me ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ j^^f^re 
system, but then I slowly got used to it, giving '^^•*"^"^^''^' '' ^^^ ,ight." etc.. and used a 
each meeting, such as "fall in line, step forward, to the lei , ^^j^^^^^^i^n. which was a 

whistle myself. Shortly after my arrival, we had a special big pi ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^tc. The large 
great success. I took care of the preparations, the ticke - • ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ g^rlin. A 
community hall was packed. The leadership of our ^^rsamzat j^^^iood what 1 said, 

play was presented. I made a speech in Hebrew. Not too ^^^^^J^^ jj^^^g, „,odern Hebrew 
baithe important thing was that the public ^e^>i?f'^^'[' "^^fje a speech. At a later date he 
l^guage. After me, the liberal. cuUivated rabbi Dr. Woi 
^^3s treated most cruelly in the Buchenwald concentration e 

p^y^'^ yi 

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A^: ■' 


-''^ . • , pen air swimming pool. At the entrance there was a 

In Dresden, there was a nice i™"''!?^ J , ^j,, ,,new me in Dresden, 1 went swimming there 
sign: -Entrance ^^bidden for Jews^ A ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^-^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^, 

during the summer months. This swimmint f 
the Jewish banker Amhold. 

J 1 ,1- thr a iob as a gardener. As Dresden is a garden cit; 
After the celebration I started to '^o^ w ^^^^^^, ^^j ,-,„,i,y sorted to work 

there were many horticultural ".'^''''^"^"'^•/D^den. I worked there in the rose garden. 1 
at a large rose and tree nursery in a ^"^u Jo^ U es ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

earned forty-ei^ht pfenmgs an our, wh* ^^ 'l^- ^,^^. ^.^k me mmutes on 
was nine hours a day f™™ ^.j" ^^^^ , ;,■ rhododendrons and azaleas. I had to get up at 

,1.„ n«i », job. p.yln, fi% pt— g. «i* —I «" • "■■"> "'«>■ 

■ » „« I iatf>r ont a iob with a Jewish woman who 

Tal a vei^^^^^^^^^ The place where the juice was made was very d.ty and not hy g.en.c at 

In the evening I was always busy with my work in the youth organization ^nj came^^^^^^^^ 
very late. Therefore 1 was always tired. Mrs. Eisenhardt said 1 would not la.t l'^^^^ thai lo 
long. I would have to choose, either working as a gardener or being m charge ot the uu 
group of our organization. I stayed at the job at the rose nurser>' for two weeks only. 1 did n i 
look for a new one. because in the meantime 1 already had various pupils whom I was teacn lu 
either Hebrew or. mostly. English. One of my English pupils was a scrap metal dealer and nis 
wife, who would emigrate to the United States soon. I used a modern book "English ^^''"'"'^^ 
- a pleasure." Most of my pupils were beginners, and only a few were advanced. In a evv 
hours work 1 earned nearly as much as in nine hours of heavy, strenuous garden labor^^o 
pupils who were working during the day, I could give lessons in the evening only from - 
p.m. on, as every evening I was busy with my work with the youth groups until nine pm 
gave lessons to most of the pupils twice a week Each lesson lasted an hour and a halt, .ut- 
cost three marks per lesson. 

From then on. 1 ate at the Jewish community kitchen, paying twenty-five ptennigs a mea . 
The kilehen was kosher. Since kosher slaughtering was forbidden in Nazi Germany, no m 
was ser\ed during the week. Kosher chicken was served only on Shabbat, imported 
abroad. On Sundays the kitchen was closed. I had lunch then at Mrs. Eisenhardt s, toge 
with her two daughters and their boyfriends. These Sunday meals were always very ple^i^^ 
Mrs. Eisenhardt usually complained that 1 was soiling her snow-white napkin with red cab at'- 
or gravy. 

One of the members of our organization, Margot Neuding. a good friend of mine, worked i 
the best photography study in Dresden. She was a very gifted photographer. 1 visited her om-^ 
at her work place at lunch break, when nobodv else was at the studio. She then took \ ariou^ 


- T ^\^\^\^ they are the best photos ever taken of me. I was twenty years old at the 
pictures j^^^^ photos with her signature is reproduced on the title page of this book. 

th 1 1 also learned how to drive cars and trucks. I thought that being able to drive 
It was then ^^ ^^Qf^^\ in my future life in Eretz Israel I took driving lessons and also 
3 tr"'^^."^'^^^^ g^py^ ^he motor and its functioning, including diesel engines, small repairs, 
'^''Tr^ lessons were mandatory for obtaining a professional driver's license. 1 obtained it 
trail kinds of vehicles: heavy motorcycles, cars and heavy trucks. 

r the leaders of the Jewish vouth organizations in Dresden and the ones giving 
^s ,n Berlin. ^^^ for the groups had to be of German nationality. Many times our 

lectures ^"^ ^f ^ .^ . , Gestapo official and 1 had to switch the subject 1 was talking 
T","alLronrw^^^^^^ causing his suspicion. 1 also had to submh in advance the monthly 
'' 1 of the aXities of all our groups to the Gestapo headquarters. 1 had to deliver this 
program ^f " '^J ^^^ ,^ ^^ eable to enter the lion's den. as can be easily 


safe and sound. 

0„Marchl2,1.38. German troops occupiedAusUia.T^he^^^^^^^^ 

„ native popula^on. Ne^^ ™ Z:^^^^^^^^ '" ---• '''^ 
Anschluss (the takeover), some 200.0UU ews uvea ^^^ 

played an important role in Austria s intellec u^ nd c^hura e. For ^^ ^^^^ ,^^^ ^^ ^^ 
,ha, Gemian Jews had been lacing for over live y '^ll'^'^l^^l;^^^ ^^ich had lasted for 
summer of 1938, the systematic Nazi polemic against C^^chos bv^^ ' ^^^^^^^^ ^ 

months already, intensified. The Czechs were ^-^-^f ° "fj ^ "| ' ,, u„ion. The Nazis 
German minority. The Nazis considered the Czechs => "'^^ "''^ J^^^^^^ p^g^e, as the 
were afraid that the German capital or other ""« -"'^j^^^j; X h^ Czechs mobilized 
distance between Prague and Berlin is relatively short. A'^!^^ '"j'^^bilizing thousands of 
iheir troops, while the British mobilized thetr -^^y-^^^^^^^X^^r. bridge in Dresden 
workers, created a defense line along the Rhine: the biegi • sudetenland, 

flak cannons and soldiers were posted. As Gemtany was determined ami . 
the situation became very tense. 

In Dresden, many hundreds of refugees arrived from the ^"^^^^"|^^^^^ air attacks, 

bi&city iTom the Czech-German border and therefore was n ■ v^ ^^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ 
One of the main targets of such an attack would be the ceni ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^j^y ^^ve 
Eisenhardts was about five minutes away from the central ^^^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^.^^^ instructions 
hit our building. Every household near the station receive ^.^^ ^ nashlight nearby 

ofhow to proceed in case of an air attack. One had to sleep na ^.^ ^^^ Eisenhardt read 

and foodstuff for some hours, a gas mask, bandaging '^^'^'•^^^ber 1938 the situation 
these instructions out loud to her tenants in a trembling voice^^ _^ ^^^^_^ ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^ l^^ve 

became critical. 1 received insistent letters from my mo institute there. 

Germany at once and move to Switzerland to study at a horticui 

finally, in order to appease Hitler, a shameful ^S"-^^"^';^ ."""'J^^.e^ oTnitler. Mussolini. 
-^- 1938, between Germany, Italy, France and England, m u f ^j^^^^^^,,,^. In accordance 
■he French prime minister Daladier and the British prime minis 


y.^'' ' 

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with this agreement. Czechoslovakia was forced to cede the Sudetendland to the Germans 
The Czech prime minister Benes resigned, and Chamberlain, cairyring his traditional umbrella 
ingenuously proclaimed upon his triumphant return to London that by signing this agreement 
he had brought "peace in our time." Hitler had promised him in Munich that the Sudetenland 
would he Germany's last tenitorial demand. Within half a year, in March 1 939, Hitler would 
take over the rest of Czechoslovakia and less than a year later, on September 3, 1939, after 
the invasion of Poland, World War II would break out! 

In September 1938. the Hashomer Haizair leadership in Berlin decided I should return to 
Berlin and from there go to Hachsharah at Gut Winkel, near Furstenwalde/Spree. an 
agricultural training center near Berlin. They had already sent a young member to Dresden to 
substitute me there. He promptly took over the youngest group of our members, while I 
continued leading the older groups for the time being, introducing him slowly to his future 
activities. Our youth organization decided to arrange a good-bye party for me. However 
unexpected events would soon change all these plans. 


From 1938 on the oppressive measures against the Jews in Germany increased steadilv I will 
mention just a few of these laws and regulations: 

. April 26. 1 938 - All Jewish fortunes exceeding 5.000 marks in Germany and abroad have to 
be registered with the authorities. 

• In public parks and squares Jews cannot sit on the same benches together with "Aryans." 

They have to sit separately, on special yellow benches. 

• June 14, 1938 - All Jewish commercial establishments have to be properly identified. 

. July 25, 1 938 - Jewish physicians are no longer permitted to exercise their profession. They 
can treat only Jewish patients. They can no longer call themselves physicians, but only 
Krankenbchamiler. caretakers of sick people. 

t August 17, 1938 - Jews must choose the first names of their newborn babies from an 
official list of Jewish names issued by the Ministry of the Interior. From January 1, 1939 
on, they have to add Israel or Sara to their first names and also sign all documents 

• September 27, 1938 - Jews can no longer be lawyers. They can only be law advisers to 

Jews. They cannot call themselves lawyers any more, but only Konsuleni, consultant. 

• .lews can no longer be commercial representatives. 

• October 5. 1938 - The identification page of all passports issued to Jews must be stamped 

with a prominent three-cm long *J" in red color. This measure, as incredible as it sounds 
today, was taken at the behest of the Swiss and also the Swedish govemments.The Swiss 
wanted to be absolutely sure not to grant any visas to German Jews, and for this purpose 
ihey had to be able to differentiate between a German and a German Jew. 

• November 12, 1938 - a law was issued regarding the exclusion of Jews from the German 

economy. From January 1. 1939 on. Jews can no longer own any stores or offices or 
exercise a mechanical trade. 
•November 15, 1938 - Jewish children are excluded from public schools. 

• December 3, 1938 - Driver's licenses belonging to Jews are no longer valid and have to be 

turned over to the authorities. 

• December 6, 1938 - Jews are forbidden from going to theaters, movies, cabarets, concerts, 

public events, public libraries, museums, public parks, amusement parks, sport halls, skating 
rinks, public or private swimming pools, etc. In Berlin they cannot go to the streets 
comprising the government quarter, such as Unter den Linden. Wilhelmstrasse. etc. The 
term "Jew ban" is created for these restrictive measures. Jews who are owners oi 
commercial establishments can be obliged to liquidate them by a stipulated date. Jews are 
obliged to deposit their shares, bonds and other assets with an officially designated exchange 
bank. Jews are forbidden to buy, pawn or sell objects of gold, platinum, silver or precious 

• December 8, 1938 - Jews are excluded from going to universities. 

• January 30, 1939 - Hitler, in a public speech on the occasion of the ^''^^h^""'",^™ 

date the Nazis seized power, announces "the annihilation of the Jewish race, should war 
break out 

• Februa,^ 2 1 , 1 939 - Jews holding German nationality have to deliver to a ^P«'^ J""' 

office objects of gold, platinum silver or precious stones with.n two weeks. Only 
"ngs are excluded from this regulation. 



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According to the above mentioned law about Jewish first names, I had to add still another i 
the five names with which I was registered upon birth; Israel. My complete name then became 
Klaus Fritz Emil Kurt Hermann Israel Oliven. often to the despair of bureaucrats who have to 
fill out official forms and documents. 

I will explain why my father gave me so many middle names. I was named Klaus after Klau 
Kersting. the leading character of his 1 91 7 operetta "Drei alte Schachteln.'^ The name Frit? 
was given me in honor of my father and Emil, in honor of my maternal grandfather. Kurt \vi 
my father's superior in the barracks where he served during WW I at the time of my birth As 
my father wanted a leave to visit my mother, he told his superior, whose first name was Kun 
that a son had been born to him and that he would call him Kurt in honor of this officer He 
did not tell him. of course, that Kurt would only be my fourth name. The man felt so honored 
that the famous writer would name his son Kurt. - his name - that he granted the leave at 
once. As to Hennann, that was the first name of Herman Haller. the theater director and mv 
father's literary collaborator. My father was much obliged to him. as Haller always had a 
theater guaranteed for the premieres of the operettas. Therefore, due to my father's generosit> 
(at my expense), I am burdened with all these names. Later on I had to add one more Israel 
due to the afore mentioned Nazi law. 

Though all these laws made the life of the remaining Jewish population in Germany desperate 
and miserable, terribly worse things were to happen soon during the war vears. when I had 
left Naz, Germany already. They culminated in the Holocaust, in Hebrew Shoah the 
deportation and extemiination of six million of our brethren, over one third of the world 
Jewish population at the time. 

t^e a^rchenl^n.^- ' M^' "T *"''''*'^'' '^'"^ '^'PP'"'^' ''^''^ "^^^^^ ^^^'^ have thought possible: 

ac s ZZ M^ T7 '"' '^' '^^'""""'^^ '^^'^^ ^"-" ^^'-^^^ '"to a non-aggression 

1 Tit d Tr '/''"'" """"^^^^ ^'^^^"^^°P ^"d ^^-'«^«v, in the presence of 

Snd orSenrJr, ? :'Tf'' '• ^"■'^ ^^^ " ^-'^^ -^ ^"^ Gen^an troops entered 

On e?4 ? S ' W ■ " I'' ^^"- ^"^"^' ^''' ^^'-^ -d — d Polish territon. 

.h S n t Un on cl ' '"^'"' ''^'^- ^" ^""^ ^^' » ^4 1 . the German troops invaded 

let Union. Gem^any s eap.tulation occurred four years later only, on May 8, 1 945. 



. February 1 2 and 1 3 1 940 - The first deportations from Germany started. Jews from Stettin 
were deported to places around Lublin in Poland. --t^ws irom Stettin 

. September 1 , 1 94 1 - a decree ordered the Jewish population above the age of six to wear 
in public a yellow Star of David with the word "Jude" in black Hebrew-like letters on it 
to be firmly sewed to the left side of their garments. 

.October 18. 1941 - the first mass transport to the East of 1,251 Jews from Berlin stufted 
like cattle into boxcars, was dispatched to the ghetto in Lodz. On that date about 66 000 
Jews still lived in Berlin, about half of the Jews remaining in Germany. Berlin had received 
a large influx of Jews, who fled from the small Gemian towns where life had become 
unbearable for them. In the big capital. Berlin, in a certain sense they were somewhat 
more protected by anonymity. Over the next months, many other transports left Berlin. 
each carrying an average of one thousand Jews. They were first taken to the destroyed 
synagogue on Levetzowstrasse, in the Tiergarten district (where my grandmother Luise 
used to pray), or to the Jewish Home for the Aged on Grosse Hamburger Strasse, and 
from there to the Grunewald railway freight station. The so-called Osttnmsporie (transports 
to the East) left Berlin from that station. Memorials stand at these three places today. 
There were altogether 63 Osiinmsporit. with 35.000 deportees, and 1 1 7 Allcrslmnsporte 
(transports of the aged) to the Theresienstadt ghetto, with 15.000 deportees, all of them 
departing from Berlin. Transports to the East headed to Lodz, Minsk. Kovno. Riga, 
Trawniki. Auschwitz, etc. The first direct Osltmnspori to Auschwitz took place on July 
II, 1942, with 210 deportees. From 1943 on. all Osiinmsporie from Berlin headed to 
Auschwitz. The largest was Osttransport no. 3 1 . on March 2. 1 943. It consisted of 1 ,758 
Berlin Jews. By the year 1944 the number of Berlin Jews being deported to Auschwitz 
had decreased considerably, since by then most of the remaining Berlin Jews had already 
been "evacuated" during the previous three years. In only a few cases the number of each 
transport exceeded thirty people in 1944. The last transports to Auschwitz took place as 
late as January 5, 1945, a short time before its liberation. It consisted of seven men and 
seven women. The last deportations of Berlin Jews took place shortly before the end of 
the war. in March/ April 1945. and consisted of eleven men. who were taken to the 
Sachsenhausen concentration camp, and thirteen women, transported to Ravensbruck. 
Altogether over 56,000 Jews from Berlin were murdered in concentration and 
exterminafion camps. Many died of hunger, diseases or mistreatment and the remainder 
in the gas chambers. Thousands eventually perished in the death marches, when they 
were driven on foot through Germany short 1\ before the end of the war. when the camps 
had to be evacuated on account of the advancing Allied Forces. 

' October 23. 1 94 1 - The emigration of Jews was prohibited. It was a ver>' important date m 
the Nazi policy. It represented the turning point from forced emigration to systematic 
deportation and extermination Between September and November 1941, the decision 
was taken to implement the Emllosimg - the Final Solution - through pertectly organized 
mass murder of the European Jewry. . ^ 

' November 25, 1941 - a decree mandated the automatic seizure of property of German 
Jews who had left or would leave the countr). This meant that all property belonging to 
every deportee was confiscated immediately before or upon his or her deportation. 

' January 20, 1 942 - The extermination of the Jews throughout Europe was prepared at the 


Wannsee Konferenz, which took place on this date in an elegant villa in Wannsee. a suburb 
of Berlin. Today the villa houses an interesting exhibit of the period. Convened by Hitler, 
the Wannsee Konferenz was presided over by SS-Obergruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich 
chief of the RSHA - Reichssicherheilshaupuimt ( Main Ofllce for Reich Security) and deput)" 
chief of the Geheime Staalspoli:ei, or Gestapo, the Secret State Police. He was known as 
Der Henker ("The Hangman"). On July 3 1 , 1 94 1 Heydrich had been ordered by Goring to 
prepare "'the final solution of the Jewish question in Europe." In 1942, Heydrich was 
assassinated near Prague by a Czech partisan. The Wannsee conference was attended bv 
representatives of various minstries. of the RSHA, the SS, the Securitiy Police and by Nazi 
party officials. The discussions at the Wanmee Konferenz centered around the so-called 
Endlosung, the Nazi euphemism for the physical annihilation of the Jews who lived in 
Europe. The Nazis used other euphemisms too. such as Aussiedlimg for evacuation 
Ahschk'bung for deportation and Selekiion for extermination. The minutes of the Wannsee 
ProtokoU regarding the Final Solution of the Jewish question through the extermination of 
the eleven million European Jews, were recorded by SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer Adolf 
Eichmann, He was the head of Department I V-B4 of the RSHA. established at the outbreak 
of WW 11, which was in charge of planning the annihilation of the European Jewry. This 
department was located on Kurfurstenstrasse. The building was the former seat of the B mi 
Briih (Sons of the Covenant), the Jewish Brethren Society. As a school boy I once participated 
in a table tennis tournament that took place there. On our first visit to Europe, in 1963. 
Seldi and 1 visited this place, which was a bomb-battered building then. Eichmann was 
captured in Buenos Aires in I960 by the Mossad. Israel's Secret Ser\'ice. They managed to 
smuggle him out of the country and take him to Israel by an El Al airplane. He was tried in 
Jerusalem in 1961 and executed one year later. 

• July 7. 1942 -Deportations to Auschwitz began and were to last until March/April 1945. Bv 
1 943 most ot the remaining Jews in Germany were forced to live in special Judcnhausei: 
houses where only Jews were allowed to live. They were concentrated there as the last stop 
before their deportation. About 1 35,000 Jews from Germany were deported to the East. 
Only hve thousand survived, most of them from the Theresienstadt ghetto 

• November 9, 1 942 - 20 officials of the Jewish Community administration in Berlin were 
taken hostage because some Jews had been able to escape deportation, either bv suicide or 

* lilJennn^" "'' " ^' ''' '"' '^''''' y^''^ ^^^^ ^00 Jews had committed suicide, to 
escape deportation. 

* IsSSt^'nl'' ■ ""^ l'"^ ''''' '''' ^°-^"^^ Fabrikaknon took place. About 
ounL uT n ^f "''^"^' ""^*^^' "^^^^'y •" '^^ German armament industry were 

.E 943 V a Jrr^^^^^ ^'"^' '' ^"^^•^"*^^' -- ^-000 of them in Berlin. 
1933 Ivhen I^iiire '^^^^^ F'"''"' Association of Jews in Germany. At the beginning of 

oftheWlXinZ ^J^n^'^"'"^ 

emigration from Gen..^r' ' u ! '''''"^■- ^^"8 them about 90.000 from Berlin. Jewish 

then wento^^^ ha^^^^^^^^^ '' ^^^ "" ' '''^ -^en 78,000 Jews left Germany. Many of 

be deponed About 1 5 0( i ^ ' committed suicide upon learning they were going to 
About 1 XOOO Jews escaped deportation because of their "Aryan" spouses. 

AS most of the emigrants were young or middle-aged persons, the number of deaths preatlv 
evceeded births among Jews m Germany from 1 933 to 1939. This figure varied from 5 SOO in 
1933 to 8,000 in 1938. reachmg 10,000 in 1939. At the outbreak of World War ifthere 
remained well over 200,000 Jews in Germany, 80.000 of them in Berlin. It is estimated that 
during the war years about ten thousand Jews in Germany tore off the yellow Stars of David 
which they were obliged to sew on to their garments, and went into hiding to escape deportation 
and extemiination camps, living "underground", half of them in Berlin. For the most part 
ihey arranged fake or false identities. They were called Untergeiauchit. people who 
"submerged" in the underground. They also were known as "U-boats", or submarines. Only 
about twenty-five percent of these "illegals" survived. The rest were denounced, caught by 
the Gestapo or died of malnutrition. Of the estimated 5,000 Jews that went underground in 
Berlin, only between 1 ,200 to 1 ,500 survived. About 1 ,900 Jews returned to Berlin from the 
.oncenlration camps. Today the Jewish Community in Berlin, the largest in Germany, has 
,ihout 9,000 members, mostly coming from the former Soviet Union, who started immigrating 

If the life of the Jews during the Nazi regime could be resumed in one sentence, it would be: 





THE "POLENAKTION" - OCTOBER 27 & 28, 1938 

My activities as the leader of the Hashomer Haizair in Dresden came to an abrupt end on 
October 27/28. 1938, the date of the so-called Po/emikfunh the forced repatriation of Polish 
Jews. About 1 7,000 Jews of Polish nationality, living in Germany, were picked up by police 
without warning. With just tlve minutes* notice to pack the barest necessities, they were 
suddenly torn from their homes. Many were woken up in the middle of the night and herded 
away, without regard for sex or age. to be deported by train to the German-Polish border and 
from there chased over the border into Polish territory. Whole families were rounded up in 
this way. 

About 50.000 Jews of Polish nationality lived in Germany at the time.The Nazis were anxious 
to get rid of them. At the end of March 1 938. the Polish government had passed a decree that 
the passports of Polish citizens residing abroad for more than five years would require 
revalidation, by means of a special stamp to be placed in these passports. On October 6, 
1 938. the Polish govemment announced that the decree would take effect on October 29. the 
deadline for passport revalidation. The Polish Consulate in Berlin was packed with desperate 
Polish Jews who all wanted their passports stamped, but the Consulate refused to do so. as 
they were anxious to get rid of their Jewish citizens living in German)- and elsewhere. Enomious 
queues also formed in the streets outside the Polish Consulates in Vienna and many other 
cities. All countries - except England - did not consider these Polish passports valid anv 
longer atter October 29. without the special stamp required bv the Polish authorities At the 
begmnmg of Octoher 1 938. the Nazi authorities contacted the Polish govemment concerning 
the repatriation ol these citizens. The Poles, who always were notorious for their antisemitism^ 
refused to accept them. The date chosen by the Nazis for the Polenoktion was timed perfectiv: 
two days before the passports of the Polish Jews living in Germany would lose their validiiv 
and they could not be expelled to Poland any more then. 

!l!et' ' ' r !^ ^kTT '''' of citizenship, which is based on the legal pnnciple ofy^. sangiuni., 
d eZn r ' " "' ?P'''^ '"'■'" ''^''' '^' '^^ «f ^he soil), parentage and ethnicitv 
hlTin r " TTu'"^' '"'^ "°^ '''' P'^^^ °^^''^»^- ^^"^y «f tf^- Jews of Polish nationalit; 

a.ionm?T"H '^?^^";h^^^ ''^ ' '«"g time and their children, who kept the PoHsh 
tXl id? '^'.'f^'^y- Notwithstanding, officially being foreigners, every year 
c s fw t : t r 'r^'^" ^^^'^^"^ '-^^"^^ ^^^ ^^^^ permit, this, for instance, was 

^^sSZt^C^^^^^^ ''' '^^" ^^"^ - ^— y^ ^*d -t know a word of 

oiisfi, had never been to Poland, but had to go through this procedure year after year. 

one and a half ^ears ftX th^^^^ T^'' '''"^^" ^^"'"^^ ^^^"^ *" ^^^^i' *" ^^^ ^'^^^• 

^^nronun^^.ls^^^;^''''^''- ^^^y ^-"^ P'ace w^hile I was still in Dresden, 
the text of m^ diar^" dealinu w th.t? u T. ^°'' ""^"^ ^^^ witnesses are left. I reproduce 
that this is my dut? tovtdt o ' "'"' '^'"^^ ^'^^^^ *" '^^ ^"^irety, because I feel 

■sure that vounger ge" „ Tnf T'^T""'- ^' ^^^" "^^^^ ^^^^^^ -"^ -^ ^n"^^ "^^'^ 
during the Nazi reg'nrso thev^^^ u '" '''''''''' '^'' ^''^^'^ ^o the Jewish people 
to be remembered the storv hL r^^'^L" ^P^" ^^^*"' ^^ "^^^t alwavs remember. In order 
story has to be told to future generations again and again. 

Wlien 1 came home in the afternoon [on October 27. 1 938], Frau Eisenhardt was very nervous 
The police had arrested her tenants, a young Jewish couple, and she did not know the reason' 
Some time later they returned, accompanied by a policeman, and had to pack their bare 
necessities within five minutes. Then the policeman locked their room and disappeared with 
ihe couple. We all ventured a reason for this arrest. 1 believed that despite the existing 
prohibition, the man may have continued to exercise his profession as a commercial 
representative without a permit, which was unattainable at the time. I presumed he had done 
so as he had to make a living. After all, how else could people who had no savings survive? 
Frau Eisenhardt had another tenant of Polish nationality, who hid in another room of her 
apartment when the police came to arrest him as well. 

Laie in the evening, Monnie, Lotte Eisenhardt's friend, came running to the apartment. He 
was very upset. He told us that in the evening at the Jewish Community Center, where all 
.lewish organizations were located, they had arrested all Jews of Polish nationality. They had 
taken them out of the courses and meetings that took place there. They had also arrested most 
members of the Hashomer Haizair, who had come together at the Community Center that 
evening to prepare a good-bye party for me - and this of course was the reason 1 was not 
present at that meeting. 

That same evening, all Polish Jews were arrested in Dresden as part of a simultaneous and 
completely unexpected action. All of a sudden they were pulled from their houses and 
apartments, some in the middle of the night, and arrested wherever the police could find 
them - altogether 2.000 to 3.000 people, men, women and children. They were given five 
minutes to pick up their most necessary objects. They were pemiitted to take only ten marks 
with them. They were then taken to the central police prison, but as there was not enough 
space for so many people, part were taken to various large assembly halls. However, there 
was no food for them. The kind Rabbi Wolf tried to talk to them and to bring them some food, 
as far as he could obtain it in the middle of night, but in some places they did not even let him 
lalk to these poor people. Closely watched, herded together in these overcrowded places, the 
terribly frightened Jews waited for things to come, anxious to know what would happen to 
ihem. Every Jew of Polish nationality without any exception had been arrested in Dresden - 
men and women, very old people, children, babies and the ill. 

Very early the next morning, I went to the Jewish Community Center to see if I could help in 
any way. The situation was totally chaotic. The members of the Communit>' Board, as well as 
Rabbi Wolf, were all extremely upset and were rushing around all over the place. The telephone 
did not stop ringing for one moment. Evenbody wanted to know what had happpened. Some 
poor people who did not know anvthing at all about the events and just wanted to collect tneir 
regular monetary assistance also iame, along with people who came for other reasons^ Sorne 
people who believed they could obtain some more information about the previous night 
events also showed up. 

' noticed ,ha, anybody standing around a. ,he Center would only disturb the "Jge"Urnportan< 
^^ork of the Comntunitv Boatd. 1 therefore went to the Ra.Kvay S a on^ wh^r 
people were being herded into trains to be deported over the Pohs "or el he e ^e som 
P-Ple from the Community who had come to hand over »- f° ,i^° /^X „ 'he 
•^^e along on their trip. However, they were not permitted to '^'^ .° '^f ^"/J^^^ ,,/,„ested 
"^'n platform. The police, the SS and the Gestapo had cordoned ofl a track 

-i*ik.TW- ' a 

m ^-^ 'tt * ' 

'T'l *^, 


Polish Jews leading from the street where the trucks arrived to the station entrance. On both 
sides of the 'track there stood in silence a tightly squeezed crowd of curious people who did 
not want to miss this spectacle. It was terrible to watch such a tragic scene. 

Open police vehicles were arriving constantly, full of frightened Jews closely guarded by 
policemen with nfles. The old Jews with long beards had to jump down from the high vehicles. 
Then they were marched off to the station entrance, one behind the other Some were desolated; 
others walked straight and tall: some were defiant. There were women crying, many of them 
old. And then there were the men. some limping, some carrying heavy packs. Everybody was 
carrying a pack, containing the things he or she could pick up from among their belongings in 
the rush when they were rounded up. Some were pushing baby carriages; others had wrapped 
their most indispensable personal objects up in a bed sheet A few people were carrying a 
suitcase: others, a rucksack or a bnefcase. Even the smallest children were carrying something. 

They all arrived by police cars, and then walked by on foot. I knew nearly everybody. I saw 
them all, but they did not see me. 1 did not stand in the front row on purpose. It was horrible 
to see all my fnends, acquaintances and the havehm and haverot, the boy and girl companions 
of the Hashomer Hatzair whose education had been entrusted to me during the last few 
months. All of a sudden, they had been arrested at night and dragged out of their homes. I saw 
my friend Margot. the photographer, who had been taken from the place nearby where she 
went for health reasons. Among the people watching this sad spectacle 1 met her sister, who 
cried terribly. She and a friend of hers had been released at the last moment, because she 
could prove she had already obtained a Youth Aliyah certificate, authorizing her immigration 
to Palestine. Suddenly 1 saw another good friend. Fanni, and her family among the deportees. 
She wanted to run in my direction, but the police held her back. It was heart-rending. A 
terrible wrath overcame me, increased by the fact that I was powerless to react. 


MU^ ^ U^ %^ ^^ '/fi...^^ 

Pages from Klaus ()!n ,„ , j,,,,, ,^0., ,he oven,, of .he 

Polenaktion" in Dresden 


[ o^anaged to reach the tram platform where I spoke to a number of people in the train Then 
a plain-clothed Gestapo official asked me what I was doing there. I said I had relatives amZ 
the deportees to whom I wanted to speak before their departure. He told me to leave the 
platform at once. I went down the stairs and came up again on the other side The otTicial had 
seen me coming up again and threatened to arrest me immediately if he saw me there again 
However, ignoring any danger. I refused to give up and managed to go up to the platform 
once again. 

The platform was guarded by SS, Gestapo, police and the army. I walked the full length of the 
train and talked to many pople. Everybody called me. everybody wanted something from me. 
It was heart-breaking. I talked to my sixteen-year-old friend Fanni Kohn and tned to console 
and encourage her. She was very courageous but her mother was desperate. I bought cigarettes 
for her father, who was a very religious man. Then I talked to RosI Schwarz. another good 
friend of mine. The only thing she asked me for was a pocket comb. In the hurry she could 
not find hers. I gave her mine. I also talked to my good friend Margot Neuding. She looked at 
me with a sad face. Then I spoke with vanous members of our organization. Margot 's father 
wanted to know if his relatives were on the train. An old mother asked me desperately for the 
name of her son to be called out, so she could find out if he was on the train. 

It was simply terrible to see all this misery and affliction. All these people sat or stood tightly 
squeezed in the locked train. In each car there was an armed policeman. The train was so 
crowded that most people had to stand. The air in the cars must have been terrible and the 
sanitary conditions horrendous. Distribufion of foodstuff was not permitted. All this would 
be repeated a few years later on a much larger scale and under even much worse circumstances, 
when the sealed boxcars overcrowded with deportees started to roll off to the extermination 
camps in the east. 

I was running alongside the train all the time and had to watch carefully not to be seen by 
some Gestapo official. Everybody in the train was anxious to be able to speak with someone 
who stayed behind. They asked me to deliver a message or wanted me to find out if certain 
persons were on this train. Finally the train departed. All these people were heading for a 
completely uncertain destiny. In the middle of the night they had been dragged from their 
beds, forced to abandon their apartments, with hardly any time left to take along the most 
needed personal belongings. Their apartments were officially sealed. In a space of only twelve 
iiours they had to leave a city and a country in which they had lived for decades and in which 
ilieir children had been bom. 

^Jmety percent of the haverim and haverot of the Hashomer Hatzair ^tit on the train, arid 
nothmg was left of our local group m Dresden. All the efforts and energy I had spent witti 
I'lese youngsters came to a sudden end. Within a few hours everything had been wiped out. it 
^vas pure barbary, brute force, m short. Fascism. An eyewitness to all these horrible things 
^nd the events to come soon after will never be able to forget them! It was the Nazi reg.rne 
personified. When I left the station, I heard a woman who had watched the Jews bemg marched 
>'ff from the trucks to the railway station saying to another one. 'This was the "^0 " 
^^y of my hfe." I nearly slapped her face. But what would have been the point? So • ^^^^^'^^^ 
^y^elf I just looked at her in a way that made her recoil, out of surpns^ and then sh^ 
^^"^arked, "This one must be a Jew as well." Implicitly she wanted to say hat e-^^^^^^ ^^^ 
^^ould certainly approve and be in favor of the terrible thmgs she had just witnessea. 

r ^ 


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I could not eat or drink anything when I left the station. I just had some black coffee to calm 
down. I telt anger and shock. Just that afternoon I had my second driver's test for truck 
driving. It was already dark. It was raining and the lighting in the small streets was very poor. 
The truck's horn and windshield wipers did not function. The examiner had me constantly 
and unexpectedly turn into narrow streets. They were so narrow that I could hardly manage 
to turn the big old truck around. In spite of all these difficulties, of my rage and shock,! 
passed the examination on that terrible day. 

The Nazis had prepared the Poknaktion quite well. It was earned out simultaneously and 
swiftly all over Germany and Austria to everyone's complete surprise. In Berlin, which was 
home to by far the largest population of Polish Jews in Germany, only the men were arrested 
because the Nazis were incapable of arresting the whole Jewish population of Polish nationalitv 
who lived in the capital. Most of the trains coming from other parts of Germany had to pass 
through Dresden. Meanwhile the Jewish Community there had obtained the permission from 
the Gestapo to set up on the railway platfonm a service to assist the deportees and provide 
them with food on the trains that passed. For this purpose the Community needed young, 
active and efficient volunteers who could help with whatever was necessaiy. RosI Eisenhardt 
and her friend Hasso, her sister Lotte and her friend Monni and I enlisted at once. Trains with 
thousands of deportees were passing through the station constantly. That day the last tram 
went through Dresden after midnight. Next day, many other trains passed through. It was 
terrible to see all this misery. 

Our aid service at the station was organized in the most efficient way. Hot soup was prepared 
in the Jewish Community kitchen and then promptly taken to the station by truck. It was 
important that the soup be kept hot until the trains arrived. Coffee was also brewed and 
distributed hot in paper cups to the thirsty, distressed people on the trains. We handed out 
urgently needed objects, such as soap, toothbrushes and combs. We also distributed postcards 
or wrote them ourselves on behalf of the deportees. We handed out milk for the small children, 
as well as chocolate, rolls, biscuits, cigarettes, and so on. RosI, Lotte and I had to make the 
b ke^'t '^r'^K • "T"^' '' '^'"^' ^''' ^""^^^d ^^"^ °" ^ Sunday. We ran from one 
00 nl V f T ^" ^'"'"^ ^'^ '^'' ^"^"^•^- ^^' ^'^^'^ wondered what we were 

going to do on a Sunday with so many old rolls left over from the day before. 

^^ZTrZr.'': '' '1 'T: "'° "^ ^^^ ^^^^^ --^^^^^ ^^at the Czech crisis had 
C ho'slovaS Tr ; f """' ^"'^^^" ^^"^^" ^^f"g-es were arriving from 
of m^^^^^^^^ 'r'^" ^^'^ P--g through and in one of them I met some 

cc^L n r n s on I"', T'"' ''''''''' ^^^ ^^*" ^'^tributing chocolate, biscuits. 
colIe";d i; t card w^tt H 1"'^' °"^ "^'•^'"^' ^'^^^^ ^^ -"'^ary napkins. Then I 
though I ended't^^^^^ I " ' ^' '''''' °" ^'^ ^^^*" '^ ^^eir relatives and friends. Even 
not enough oil? "^^^^^^^^^^ ^^P'^ -"^ed to wr.te more and there were 

up and eLuragerr """'' ''^^'" ^^ ""'^ ' ^'^^ -°^d, trying to cheer people 

help in my mv^smaTwr^rb^e ' '^ ^Ta """ ' ^""""^ of enormous satisfaction to be able to 
depended so much on us volunteerrTh. ^^'a i^'"'' '^'^ '^''' P°^^ P^^P'^ ^" '^' ^'*"' 
tned to help as much as possible were a rew" 5^ ' '"'^ ^''''^' ^^ '^' P'^^'" ^^"""^ ""' 


I was nearly locked into one of these trains. An official asked me to eet into th. . ■ 
because it was going to leave right away. Fortunately, the Jewish CouZunftv h.T '' "T": 
,he volunteers with an identity card, so that I could convince the ofS S^^^^^ 
Polish Jew but had come to help them. ^' ^^^^ ^ "^^^ "^t a 

Trains from the Rhmeland and all parts of Germany came rolling through. The first trains 
crossed the Polish border without any problem, because the Poles were caught by sumn e 
People on the first trams, who all held Polish passports, could freely travel onward from the 
Polish border to wherever they wanted to go. Many had relatives and friends in Warsaw 
Lodz, Lwow, Cracow, etc. and traveled on to these places. However, shortly afterwards the 
Polish authorities realized what was going on. The Poles then simply reftised to accept their 
Jewish citizens and closed their border immediately and no fiirther trains could pass. 

The deportees on the trains that had already reached Polish territory, were placed by the 
Poles in a big improvised camp at the border town Zbaszyn (called Sponzin in German), nght 
at the Polish-German border. They were also placed there in filthy, condemned military stables, 
in unheated barracks or in private dwellings. The town of Zbaszyn in the province of Poznan 
fPosen) had about four thousand inhabitants but with the influx of these deportees it more 
than doubled its number. The place was not prepared to receive so many newcomers. Five 
thousand people lived there for weeks. Everything was missing and no adequate quarters 
were available for these thousands of people. The cold winter weather and poor sanitary 
conditions led to disease, and sixty-eight people died there.The American representative to 
the League of Nations demanded that something be done, but the Polish ambassador denied 
any impropneties at the improvised dwellings. 

Many of the haverim and haverot of our youth organization landed in Zbaszyn, among them 
my fonner girlfriend Rosi Laufer. She had been taken there from Cologne where, together 
with another haver, she had become the leader of the local group of the Hashomer Haizain I 
sent her a suitcase with warm clothes as it was very cold in Zbaszyn. I also sent another 
suitcase to my friend Fanny Kohn and her family, who were able to travel on to Lwow 
(Lemberg), as they were on the first train departing from Dresden. The young members of the 
youth organizations who were taken to Zbaszyn did not lose their courage and cooperated in 
organizing life in the camp, opening up a laundry, kitchen, kindergarten, and so on. They 
even tried to reorganize the youth organization activities there. The Jewish communities in 
Poland finally managed to intervene, finding some shelter for the deportees in Warsaw and 
other Polish cities. Various oldtimers who held leading positions in the Zionist youth 
movement, as for instance Rosi, managed to obtain an immigration certificate for Palestine, 
tlepaning directly from the camp. Rosi made alivah and went to live in a kibbutz. She mamed 
Walter Leeser. Later they left the kibbutz and moved to Haifa. Later on her husband died. She 
"ow lives in a comfortable senior home in Kfar Saba. We always see her on our visits to 

^Vhen the Poles closed the border, the Geniian authonties at first tried to evacuate *e depoilees 
fern their border town of Neu-Bentschen by forced marches, crossing the Pol'^n-^-^™^" 
^»/der secretly at ntght. Neu-Bentschen was the final stop of the trams '^f^'^'^'^^'l"^'''^ 
y were pulled out of the ra.lway-cars there and chased over the border »"* nfl""^ g" 
^™^. The old people who were too exhausted could hardly -*s.and these nght march 
*" had to throw away most of their belongings on the way, as they became too heavy 




Altogether over 8,000 Polish Jews were dumped off in no-man's-land at the border between 
Neu-Bentschen in Germany and Zbaszyn m Poland. When the Polish police caught these 
unwanted refugees next morning, they tried to push them back again into German territory at 
night, but they were received with drawn guns by the German frontier police. As Poland 
denied their citizen entry, they were forced to languish between two borders, in the cold and 
without food or shelter Nobody wanted these poor people who were being driven back and 
forth through no-man's-land. The Poles then arranged to close the border hermetically. When 
new trains arrived, the deportees had to remain in the trains at the border, in German territory, 
under terrible conditions, closely watched by the German police. 

After two days of uncertainty, orders arrived from Berlin that the trains that had not been able 
to cross into Polish territory should move back to the cities from where they had come, with 
all people on board. Now we saw part of these unhappy people whom we had helped on the 
trains to Poland only a few days ago. back again at the railway station in Dresden. The 
deportees from Dresden had all reached Polish territory because they were on the first train 
that left Germany. Most people from Frankfurt and other German cities, however, came back 
now, and we had to reinstall the aid ser^'ice at the railway station in Dresden. I talked again to 
many people from Frankfurt. Many of the people on the trains were in bad shape, especially 
the older ones, due to the turmoil and the temble hygienic and sanitary conditions on the 
trains. During two full days they were stalled at the border, locked up in their railway-cars, 
with very little food, facing sleepless nights and a completely unknown fuUire ahead. People 
on board the trains became quite distressed and famished. They threw themselves on the 
food and hot coffee we distributed, making our distribution efforts quite difficult. 

We therefore had to ask the station chief to give the order that the passengers had to remain 
on board the trains. This was the only way to make these distributions from one railway-car 
to the other. A member of the Jewish Community had donated large quantities of sausage, 
which we cut into pieces and which I distnbuted in cardboard cartons. This sausage, however, 
was not kosher and I had to announce this expressly in each car. Most of the hungry people 
accepted the sausage anyhow. Some bearded old Jews, however, refiised it angrily. I had 
great respect and esteem for these deeply religious people who in spite of being starved 
refused to eat the fre//' sausage. 

A member of the orthodox Mizrahi organization wanted to tear the sausage carton away from 

mdnc n T 'T' '" *"'**^"*^ ^°' '^' J^^'^h Community to distribute rr.// sausage, 

Sr hiI^'hTh .r. "''' '" ''''' ^*^^^^^ '' ""'"'^ '^' '^-- I' ^ radical young man at the 

S? \ H H ^ """" '"'^''''"' ^^'"^ '^ '^'' "^^"^^"t ^^^ ^o feed these famished people 

embodv who ^"' announcing in eveiy car that the sausage was not kosher, so that 

iullof th '" '"?:'"" "'^^ '^^^^*"g ^he law could to eat it. The 

S«^ ^'' ' P^^^'^"^ '^^ ^'^y -f the hungry people, who were 

wa a iS^^^ 'T'^^' ^ ^ '^y '^^ ^'-t tram lef^ Dresden was .7habbat and this also 

was problem for the religious Jews, though it clearly was a case offeree majeure. 

hotcofTeewedSnb~ "^^^^^^^^ 

Therefore we sometimes'ako Hi ! k . ^"^horities had forgotten to take care of them- 

as well. "'" ^'^^"^"^^'^ '^^' coffee and foodsmffto these German people 

^Ve. the volunteers, always had to be ready during these tumultuous days to get to the central 
„lway station immediately and take up our job there as soon as the Jewish Commumtv 
formed us that another train would pass through. The comnletelv imnmv.cpH .,a ...;„.„_/. 


informed us that another train would pass through. The completely improvised aid assistance 
,f the Jewish Community at the railway station in Dresden functioned very well despite the 
most unfavorable conditions. For us at least it was a small consolation to be able to help these 
poor deportees a little bit. 

Next Samrday evening the Jewish Community seminar, which always was crowded with 
young people listening to lectures at that time of the week, was sad to see. Only a few Jewish 
youngsters remained in the youth organizations in Dresden. Most of them were of German 
nationality, some were stateless and a few had Polish nationality, but had been forgotten by 
the Nazis or could not be found when all Polish Jews were rounded up. Only three people 
were lef^ from the Has homer Hatzair. Of course, the good-bye party that was being prepared 
forme on that fateful evening was cancelled. For my successor in Dresden there remained 
nolhmg to do any more. I would have left Dresden eariier, but of course I remained there 
during these difficult days, in order to be able to help at the railway station, until the last 
trains returning from the Polish border had passed through. 

Now the time had come for me to leave Dresden, af^er a stay of seven and a half months. I 
loved Dresden very much. If I had departed under nonnal circumstances, the railway station 
would have been crowded with members of our youth organization and my friends to bid me 
good-bye. Now that nearly all of them were gone, only Rosl and Lotte Eisenhardt and their 
boyfriends, who all were German Jews, came to the station to say good-bye. Before I left, we 
celebrated my departure with coffee and cake at the Eisenhardts'. I left behind many 
fnendships, dear people, the leadership of the local Hashomer Hatzair group, a beautiful 
city, motorcycle tours in the surroundings, complete independence from my parents and many 
happy days, in spite of the somber outside situation. 

^ c 

Y *, 





On November 9, 1938, only a few days after the Polenaktion, a pogrom empted all over the 
Reich which now also included Austria and the Sudetenland. The Nazis euphemistically 
called this event Kristallnacht, the night of the broken glass, a cynical reference to the tons of 
shattered glass from Jewish storefronts, homes and institutions. 

On November 7, Herschel Grynszpan, a seventeen-year-old student in Paris went to the German 
Embassy. He had received a desperate letter from his parents from the Polish border town 
Zbaszyn. They had been deported by the Nazis from Hanover. Germany during the Polenaktion. 
together with his sister and thousands of other Jews of Polish nationality a few days earlier. 
They were interned there under dreadful conditions. In revenge, Herschel decided to kill the 
German ambassador. Instead he shot a minor official, the third secretary Ernst vom Rath, 
who died of his wounds two days later. 

The Nazis used the death of vom Rath as a welcome pretext to launch their largest pogrom to 
date. The night of November 9/10 was a nightmare for the Jews living in Germany. About 
30,000 Jews were rounded up - 12,000 in Berlin alone - and sent to three concentration 
camps. 1 1,000 were sent to Dachau, 10.000 to Buchenwald and 9,000 to Sachsenhausen. 
Ninety-six Jews were killed that night by the SA men. Several hundreds more died in the 
camps as a consequence of mistreatment inflicted by the guards and from exposure to the 
elements. It was an extremely cold winter. The lucky ones were released after a few days, if 
they could prove that they held a valid visa and were about to emigrate and agreed to sell 
their businesses for a minute sum. Others languished m the camps for months. They all came 
out with shaven heads and frozen limbs and with their physical and mental health senously 

Hundreds of synagogues were torched, Torah rolls and prayer books burned or desecrated, 

Forty of the fifty synagogues in Berlin were destroyed. The only ones not burned down were 

those located m buildmgs that were not detached, because of the danger that the neighbonng 

Aryan property could catch fire too. The fire department and the police had received prior 

mstruct.ons not to mtervene. They were nowhere to be found or they stood by. looked on and 

watched. About 7,500 Jewish stores and countless Jewish homes were smashed or looted. 

1 he damage to property was estimated at several hundred million marks; the value of 

■ Ihon r.'w ^tT ' ^""'"^ '^' ^'^' ""''' ^^^^^^ '^ ^^P*^^^> was about twenty-four 

o ir^^^^^ ""'T' ^'^ '' ^''''^ ^^^ ''^^ '- ^-^ep up the broken furniture, 

nd ta'i' r " V^^ ^'r ''''' ''"^^^^ ^h^ ^^-^^' while they stood around laughing 

• usetom " mT^r ''^""^'^^^■«" <^f Jewish stores by the Nazis was very easy, 

ii e tt ro e' ^ "''?"' ''''' °""^- --^ f°-ed to pamt their names in large 

white ktters on each store window, includmg the additional first name "Israel" or "Sara." 

"o'L'lrtiro^ ^''-'^^ ^-- -d orphanages. They used the pogrom 

was extremely we o« 

school for the'blind, aX ^ H: ~ ' ''''''' ^^^^"^^^^' ^T 't : 

seminary for the science nf h.H f rabbinical seminary and a teachers school, a 

museum, youth departr^enK tn ^^"^"' '''^^^^^' ^^"'^^ homes, libraries, a Jewish 

and came to a suddenTn;^^^^^^^^^^ "!" ^^^^^ ^-^ ^^ these institutions were looted 

after the November pogrom. The Jews and Jewish organizations 

were then forced to pay the German government within six weeks a Suhneopfer that i. .n 
"expiation," amouritmg to the enoniious sum of one billion marks, the equwal'ent of W 
hundred million dollars at the time, payable in four mstalments. plus the cost of renairin^ th. 
Jewish storefronts. ^ ^ "^ 

I was present in Berlin during the events of November 9/10. They occurred only a few days 
after Seldi and I met for the first time. I believe no one who did not live through that penod 
in Germany can really understand what it meant to face this ever-worsening discnmmation 
persecution, chaos, imprisonment and concentration camps. The terror practiced against the 
Jews was simply indescribable. Dunng that November night, the storefronts of all Jewish 
stores were smashed, but that was only the beginning. The next morning, on November 10, 1 
went to the main shopping street in West Berlin, Kurfiirstendamm, to see with my own eyes 
what was going on. I saw a gang of hoodlums armed with crowbars and pickaxes going from 
one Jewish store to the next. They destroyed everything, throwing the merchandise into the 
streets or reducing it to rubble. They also demolished all the furniture, counters, shelves and 
lighting, leaving nothing intact. 

I never will forget the picture of the the ashen-faced owner of the oriental rug store Krisch, 
who stood in the back of his store on Kurfiirstendamm. paralyzed and trembling; watching 
the labors of his lifetime destroyed in a few minutes. Most of the other Jewish store owners 
ran away when the hoodlums approached, but he stayed in his store watching the mob throw 
ink on his precious rugs and completely ruin them. Then the mob went to the next store, 
Etam, where they threw all the stockings and other merchandise on the street. The next 
business to be demolished was the furniture store Redlsheimer. They also pillaged Jewish 
restaurants and cafes. The mob was relatively small, even including some children, the 
Jiingvolk - that is the Nazi boys' organization, m their black uniforms. The hoodlums became 
ever more intoxicated in their destructive rage. 

I went to my optician Riegel on Olivaer Platz. I had left my glasses there for repair. When I 
anived at the store, I found it all smashed up. Mr. Riegel, a Polish Jew, tried desperately, as a 
Polish citizen, to get through by phone to the Polish consul in Beriin, about protecting him 
and his property. But the Polish Consul could not care less; he simply did not give a damn. In 
the evening I walked along Kurfurstendamm. The picOire there was appalling. Nearly all the 
stores were dark, except a few non-Jewish ones. Everywhere there was rubble and shattered 
glass. A few storekeepers were closing over their smashed storefronts with sheets of plywood^ 
On the north side of Beriin the mob mvaded the apartments where Jews lived and ravaged 
them, stealing their property. At the watch store Brandmann, the mob threw all the jewels 
and watches into the street. They immediately disappeared. 

1" the rest of Germany, things were sometimes even worse. In Dresden members of the board 
«*"the Jewish Community had to march through the streets carrying the Torah ^^"^^^'S' ^" 
'hey were forced to desecrate. They were watched by SS men, who taunted them. The be miti^ 
synagogue, which was about 150 years old and had been by one f/^ e^^^^^^^j 
;^chitects of the time, had been dynamited. The place was ^h- -^^^^^^^^^^^ 
o^vns and villages homes belonging to Jews were invaded and " ^ ^^ j,, out 

0^ stolen. The hachsharah places were partially destroyed and the canie cam 
Neuendorf they even killed one of the haverim. 


■♦■» v.» ' 


The German Jewish males began to be arrested all over Germany. I was very lucky not to be 
jailed along with many thousands of other Berlin Jews. I was not registered m Berlin on that 
date In Gennanv one had to register with the local police when moving from one city to 
another - both at' the place one was leaving and again at the new city of residence. If I had 
stayed in Dresden. I would have been arrested too. Though I had registered my departure 
with the police in Dresden, I had not registered yet in Berlin,, as I wanted to stay there only a 
few days before going to hachsharah at Gut Winkel. My departure from Dresden had not 
been processed by the police in Dresden. Lotte Eisenhardt, the daughter of my former landlady 
in Dresden, told me later that on the night of November 9, the police or Gestapo had come to 
arrest me, but I had already moved to Berlin. However, they arrested another Jewish tenant 
living at the same place. They did not come to arrest my father, because in Berlin Ihey did not 
arrest the older Jews, as it would have exceeded the capacity of the concentration camps. 

In the early evening hours, one could see dozens of Jews rushing along Kurftirstendamm. 
They carried a briefcase or an attache case containing pajamas and a toothbrush. They were 
taking refuge with friends who were not in danger or with non-Jewish acquaintances. Some 
people checked themselves into hospitals. My cousin, the lawyer Dr. Walter Abeldsdorff. 
spent all night long riding the subway, from one end to the other. 

At the concentration camps, five hundred people had to sleep in barracks with a capacity of 
only seventy-five.They had no place to stretch out and were deprived of drinking water. The 
temperature that winter was many degrees below zero. The prisoners froze their hands and 
feet in the winter cold. Many old and weak people who were not used to such hardship did 
not survive. They died after a short while. Their ashes were then sent to their families in urns, 
for which the post office charged 3,75 marks, cash on delivery. The wealthier pnsoners had 
to pay for their room and board. There were hardly any Jewish families at the time who did 
not have at least one member detained at a concentration camp in the wake of the November 
pogrom. All remaining Jewish businesses were "aryanized" after the November pogrom. 
Many decrees followed, submitting the Jews to further restrictions and humiliations. 

Both the October 1938 Polenaktion and the November Pogrom Night took place in public. 
During the Polenaktion the Jews were taken to the railway stations by truck and then on foot 
to the platforms. During the pogrom the synagogues were torched and the Jewish stores 
smashed and vandalized, and thousands of Jews arrested in broad daylight, for all to see. The 
allegations of most Gemians after Hitler's defeat in World War II - "we did not see anything, 
we never heard it. we did not know anything about it" - are quite apparently great lies and an 
excuse tojustify the passivity or tacit agreement with the Nazi regime of most German citizens 
at the time It were not just some fanatical Nazis who carried out the gruesome job, and it was 
not carried out secretly either. During the first years after Hitler came to power there was 
pracncally no organized resistance whatsoever in Germany against the Nazi regime, except 
lursnu^h ' '/ '*""' '"'^'' '^'"'"""'^^ g^^^P^ -hose members risked their lives 
m el vt' f " 7rr ''''"*''■ '^'''' ^^^^^ "^'^'^ P^°P»^ were indifferent and accepted 
ularmon^ h.!^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ '^''^"^"^ "°^ ^° '^"^^ ^"^ '--^^^^ the other way. It is estimated 
i« 1 r" '"^ ''' ^^^^' P^P">^^-" «f 'bout sixty-five million at the 

ew sX^tn '■ m"^^ '" "^^ " '""^ ^^^^^ - ^he so-called "Hnal Solution to the 

Jewish Question. Most of them have never been tned for their horrible crimes. 



No exact figures of the number of Jews who left Germany during the Nazi regime are available 
but a good estimate is between 270.000 and 300.000. According to Herbert A. Strauss' article 
■'Jewish Emigration from Germany" published in Leo Baeck Imiiiute - Year Book. London 
Jenisalem. New York, volume XXV ( 1 980), the number of Jews who emigrated from Germany 
between 1933 and October 1941 or were able to escape after that date, when emigration was 
banned, totalled 278.500 by the end of 1944, distributed as follows: 























The main places of emigration were the United States, Palestine. Great Britain and South 
America. About 1 8.000 German and Austrian Jews emigrated to Shanghai, the only place in 
the world at the time where no immigration visas were required. Shanghai thus became a 
haven for Holocaust victims from Nazi Europe, receiving altogether about 25.000 Jewish 
refugees. After the end of WW II, almost all left that city and emigrated to other places, such 
as the United States and Israel. 

By the time of the November 1 938 pogrom, less than half of the approximately 525.000 Jews who 
had been living in Germany at the beginning of 1 933 . when Hitler came to power, had emigrated. 
Diinng the fu-st years of the Nazi regime, emigration was relatively easy, but with the passing of time, 
especially after the Kristallnacht, it became more and more difficult. Dunng the first years ot Hitler s 
rule, the emigration of German Jews proceeded at a rather slow speed. One may ask from hindsight 
why most of the German Jews did not leave Gemiany during the first five years of the Nazi regime, 
^vhen this was still feasible though ever more difficult. One of the reasons was that many Jews 
thought the Nazi regime would not last long. In the begimiing, most of those ^^o emigr^ed we e 
ei^er in political danger, or were young people or faimlies financially not so well-oft I hese^ss 
affluent families had little to lose and they could tiy more easily to make a living o"^^'^^^'™^^^ 
Tlie younger people were not yet set up in their lives and consequently did not ^^.^ ^1^ ^^^^ 
them. emigraL was not too much a problem. There were also the members ot the Z o^^^^^^ -i 
movements and Hehalutz who made aUyah during that time. They wanted to build a new 
l-retz Israel. 

Jews had been living in Germany for over one thousand ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

^^e^e well established. They were prominent physicians, lawyers, arcni . ^^^ .^ .^ ^^^^^ 

^^^'lers, painters, artists, etc. They had their roots in the country, iney k 





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Certainly it is not easy for people with strong 
war I and their ancestors - P-^?;;^ ,,'; existence and family bonds and enngra.e to 
Its .0 leave their -untry oj ^-rtK g^^ ^X„ „„, ,„owmg the language, 
another country, to start all o . ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

Though the annihilation of the Jews was part o ^^^_^^_ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ,„„, ,^ ,,,,,, 

nlnedinHitler-sbookAfcmA'<™/>/.wTittenm .^^^^^ ^^^^^^ discriminatory 

^e"'::^ IV in the beginning. ^-^^^S^^ German .lews miserable. Nobody. 
Tws decrees and persecutions ""f'"^ J^J'JngjS. The way the Polish Jews were brutally 
how ver. could foresee what would hppen^s ^^^ ^.^^^^^^ ,^ ,„,,„, f days 

deported without notice m October '938 or sha j,„„3„nacht. During the war 

tter in November, during the P°7";"'t;bJ;„d imagination. These events culminated 


ofsix million Jews. , , ,u , 

, , fnr most Jews who had not emigrated yet that 
After November 9/10, it became crystal ce.« ^^^ ^^^ ,.^^, ^,,„, ^ „f Jewish 
life in Germany had come to an end. The ^ri a ^^^^^^ ^^^^,y intolerable 

Lnce inNazi Germany. Afterthispo^o-^^;^^^^ ^^^^^^^„^ .,,,,ig„en ou,^ 

Even those who had nurtured ^°^'f^'''^J^^^,,^ peeking to emigrate. Emigration had 
somehow finally lost all '-P^;"'^,',^f; ^Xtm Germany. Bm 

emigration had become a nightmare. 

on Meinekestrasse. through which my Pa-n' ^ "^J rwortdover slammed shut in Jewish 
became virtually impossible to obtain a visa. ^ '>;"!! '^(^^i.^iiy refused requests tor 


Long lines m from of iKe 

Mvel agency Palc*"^*' 
Orienl Lloyd in Berl«>. 

after KrislaHna*'" 
November 1938 


ased from the concentration camps after the November pogrom or to escape 
In order to be re ea ^^ ^^^ indispensable to have a valid visa stamped in one's passport - no 
(,om being taken e . ^^^ ^ ^^.^^ ^^^ instance, the consul general of the Kingdom of 
„,alter ff""' *Jf .J"" ^ today) in Berlin, issued visas for that country. His name was Otto 
Siam (called "^a"'" ^^^^ ^^ij „,k stockings. In order to obtain a Siamese visa, one had to 
Hagedom. He had as ,^^^^^^ 5^,^^ ^^^ such a visa stamped in her passport, dated 

buy several pairs ot n ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^,j ^^ „„ ^^^,, „pen to 

November 30, 1 938^U di ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ,^ ,j,^ Gestapo in case 

to, destination on any sh'P^ ,,__^ ^^^ ^^ emigration." It took some time for the 

°^ ""'' "o Sve) that these visas were of no practical use whatsoever for emigration. 

■ ^ • ,>,„lnn. in charge of emigration were all overcrowded. The 
The offices of the J^-'^V" nTr J w si emSrat.on office - the HUfs.eran der deu^schen 
.ppoinmient schedule at the ""'"e L^n h The Jewish Commumty in Berlin was besieged 
Zen - was backlogged two to «hree montns^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^y 

great influx of ^aple- Jews who urgen^W needed "^^ ^ ^_^, ^^ ^ ^^^ 

Lig ate. The Hekalur. had P^^'-hed a news t^m J^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ,„ 

ylng people of getting out of G^™;"^^^,^;^;^,;.^;,, emigration to Israel later on. Young 
TgnculLal training, was the P«P" J^^.^tfasse to mfortnation. Extra office 
pTople then oished to the central f -/ °" ^^'^ ,y, , ^Iso became a counselor for a short 
ou s had to be instituted. In '>ght of 'J' "^'^e ,„d help the young people and check 
le It gave me great satisfaction to be able to aa ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^, ,„ ^,^^ f ,he 

::■ ,uahr-t.ons for ''-«-''„„t: ; S^ed />— could be sent there, and tha,,^----S^ 
,hegreatestnumberof/,a/»^--m.outofGe™a .« J^^^^ 

of the leaders of the Zionist V^^^^^^antz 0" _^^ ^^^ ^^^ „,„ „e of *e ;^'' ^^^ 

Mmigration to Palestine. He, my "^"''^f^J.^ed fevensWy and m greatest secrecyj or 
HabLm; and other young Zionist 'eaders wo^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^, „, ^t from J-^ ;«^^,^,„^ 
^,,./lB.^onclandestmen.ndownsh .tha^^^^^^^^^^^y„,,de^o^^^^^^^^ 
Eas,Europeancountnes.Theseo -els-^„,,.P,o,^ 

^:^ T :::idvessdssoughttobr^tJ — - ^, ,„„,,„,s were 
po«er, landing at ioff the Mediterrane^^,^|^.^.nent res^^^ 

East European countries, meseu.u '"_„„an coast. From there ine "-^ ^^^e 

power, landing at night off the Mediterranean ^^ P^n^^/^Xgi ' *^ ^^"'''^ 

transported to shore in small boats ° "J J, eceived identity cards be W 

tliat had taken them to shore. When tne u 

a, had taken them to shore. When the ^"^^ .x-j were in order 

could not jail them, because their documen „„ spent various days 

M .he time of the Kristallnacht during Novemb«^l«;;2 ^^^^ 

deep in the snow in the Ardennes mountams p P ^^^^ ^^^^reds of peop 

from Gemiany to Holland and Belgium. It was 

Gemiany. ere boys and girls between 

fifteenand seventeen yearsofage.torwhomS««^^^^^^^j,,„^au^h^^^^^ 

were available from 1933/34 on. issued by the ^ _^^^ ,,^ ,aea of end ng ^^^^ „d 

Freier, the wife of an orthodox Berlin rabb , co" ^ertnany "J^g there. The reaction 

people, most of them belonging .0 that aggfou^^ 

be cared for and educated mostly in kibbuizi , 

« » 

• r 

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u , u .c, nf the Jewish organizations that had been asked to help financially was 
,0 th,s plan by most of the J^w ^^ « ^ aforementioned shaUach (emissary) Enzo Seren,, 
quite eool at the „me. An «;^P ■;"J^;f;;™„,d_ .^e head of the welfare departmen 
who caught fire a. the ,de. ^ "J;";^^ /J" „ p„est,ne, whom Mrs. Freier had contacted, 
of VaadLeu.,M N^''"'^ "";';;*',! p.eier herself then began to ratse firnds for her 

';S^^::::^:^:SzZm. ..... ,.....^^. ...., ,. 

Yo h Al.yah in Berlin. In May 1933 she went to Palestme and after the Z,on,st execuhve adopted the plan, persuaded Henriette Szold to take over the leadersh.p ot the ofT.ce 
in Jerusalem in charge of the project. In 1934 the first group of youngsters from Gemiany 
arrived at Kibbutz Ein Harod. 

Under the direction of Ms Szold, a great American Zionist leader - who inl 9 1 2 had organized 
Hadassah the Women's Zionist Organization of Amenca - Youth Aliyah grew mto a unique 
educational and rescue enterprise. Ms Szold was the head of Youth Aliyah from 1933-1945, 
which during this period saved the lives of 3,200 Jewish boys and girls from Germany. Dunng 
the war years some ten thousand children of all ages from all over Europe escaped the Holocaust 
through Youth Aliyah. By May 1948, when the State of Israel was established, altogether 
29,000 children and youths had been transferred, absorbed and educated by Youth Aliyah in 

Another rescue action for Jewish children from Germany were the Kindertramporte (children's 
transports), a special arrangement for children aged seventeen and under, authorized by the 
British government. A similar bill was introduced in America, but it died in U.S. Congress. 
The first major transports to England - out of Berlin, Hamburg and Vienna - took place in 
December 1938. Most of the young boys and girls received foster care at the homes of English 
families. Altogether nearly 1 0.000 young people were rescued in this way between December 
2, 1938 and September 3, 1939, when England entered WW II and the transports came to a 
sudden end. As incredible as it sounds, England was the only country to admit Jewish refugee 
children from Germany and Austria. No other country followed this humane and generous 

Emigration from Germany and Austria in general became most restricted after the outbreak 
of World War II. From then on it was only possible to emigrate to a few neutral European 
countries and to some countries overseas. Finally, in October 1 94 1 , when the Nazis started to 
implement the Endlosung - the Final Solution - emigration was prohibited altogether. 


When the situation of the Jews in Germany and Austria became ever more critical in 1938, 
President Roosevelt announced that he wanted to summon an international conference on 
refugees from Germany and Austria. In his invitation to thirty-three countries around the 
world he mentioned, however, that he did not expect that these countries would change their 
immigration laws and accept additional immigrants. So the conference was doomed from the 
beginning. Italy was the only country that refrised to accept the invitation altogether. 

The conference took place in France, at the fashionable resort Evian-les-Bains on Lake Geneva. 
Its purpose was to examine the possibilities for resettling the Jewish refugees from Germany 
and Austria. American participation in the conference was less than enthusiastic. For nine 
days, thirty-two delegates, among them nineteen from Latin America, met at the elegant 
Hotel Royal. Uninvited but permitted to make brief statements were thirty-nine relief 
organizations already working on behalf of these refugees, twenty-one of them Jewish. 
Representatives of both the Reichsverlretimg der deulschert Juden (the official central 
organization of German Jews) and the Viennese Jewish Committee were given an opportunity 
to make their plea, speaking on behalf of the potential reftigees themselves. 

The thirty-two nations represented at Evian expressed their regret that they could not let in 
more Jews. The few countries that were still acccepting Jews wanted farmers, not 
professsionals or businessmen. The Jews who still remained in Germany and Austria at the 
time were disproportionately old. No country wanted middle-aged or elderly people. They 
were afraid that this type of immigrants would become a burden to their governments. Though 
the delegates from each country in turn professed their sympathy with the plight of the Jewish 
reftigees, on the other hand they offered all kinds of excuses for declinmg to accept them. 

Each country expressed its own reasoning. The Australian delegate stated, "'We don't have a 
racial problem and we don't want to import one." Canada, which "'"^ 'jr^^^^^^^ 
econor^ic cnsis at the time, justified its reftisal in the following way One ^^ou d be oo 
many." They would, however, accept farmers. Small comfort for the -banned Je- eek mg 
urgently to leave the Reich. Britain had no room on its small island ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Palestine to Jewish refugees. Rooseveh was acting to placate P",^'''^ ^P^^^J^^^^^^^ 
admit additional refugees to the United States beyond ^he yearly G™ anj^A^^^^^^^^^^ 
immigration quota, which was 27.300 at the titne. "^^^^^^ 

country's "demographic equilibrium." Therefore the ^^^ ™ ,, , few refrigees. 

not welcome. Holland and Belgium were willing to S'^^ ^^'"P ^ ^^j j.^e 1 940, the 
Af^er the Nazis invaded the Netherlands Belgium and F an e n y^^ ^^,^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 
30.000 Jews who had found reftige there from 1933 on, tell mio i ^^ 
again. The Swiss government stated quite frankly, "the boat is ru . 

■ ■ H in the conference commented, 
A high official of Brazil's Foreign Ministry who participa e ^^^^^^^ immigration to their 
"All South American republics made it clear m Evian, tnai y ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^^ disorder'." 
countries and would never receive these 'subversive e e .^^gt^er. in connection with 

Brazilian Foreign Minister OswaldoAranha mentioned as ^^ ^j^^, g^azil was not 

the establishment of an Intergovernmental Committee ^j ^^ the Evian Conference 
mterested in helping the refrigees and that his country had pan 
just because the United States had asked it to do so. 


uiA on .nti Na7i intellectual who fled Germany as soon as Hitler took 
Leopold Schwarzsch.ld, ^"f" ''^^^^ „ p,,„ called -Das ncue Tagehuch. - After 

power, was an ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ,,,^ ,„egat.on knew that the situat.on was 

owt theconferenceisover;'Ev,anspe!ledbackwards.s"naw^ Infon.ed people would 

have been indeed to believe that any concrete solution would come out of this conference. 
Under these circumstances, little was expected or accomplished. 

The chief concierge at the very fashionable five-star Hotel Royal where the conference took 
niace is reported to have commented, "Veiy important people were here and all the delegates 
had a nice time They took pleasure cruises on the lake. They gambled at night at the casino. 
Thev took mineral baths and massages at the Etablissement Thermal. Some of them took the 
excursion to Chamonix to go summer skiing. Some went riding. We have, you know, one of 
the finest stables in France. But, of course, it is difficult to sit indoors hearing speeches when 
all the pleasures that Evian offers are outside." 

The only concrete result of the Evian Conference was an agreement among the delegates to 
establish a permanent Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees which "would attempt to 
negotiate with the German government, so that an orderly emigration from Germany may 
take place." Thirty-two delegates took part in the conference of this Committee, which was 
convened a short time after in London, on August 3 and 4, 1938. The Intergovernmental 
Committee tried in vain during a long time to contact the German government. Finally, four 
months after the Committee had been installed, a meeting in Brussels was agreed upon with 
a representative of the Genman govemment. However, the Germans cancelled the meeting 
because of their representative's "sudden illness." The tidal waves of refugees from the Reich 
soon overwhelmed the very few offers of asssistance that appeared. The Intergovernmental 
Committee on Refugees achieved very little before finally being dissolved less than a decade 
after its foundation. 


In the beginning of November 1 938, as there was nothing else I could do in Dresden, I decided 
10 return to my parents in Berlin, and from there go to hachsharah at Gut Winkel near Berlin. 
My tViendship with Rosi Laufer had been over for a year. As usual when I came back home to 
Berlin, I phoned my old friends to make appointments to meet them. One of them was Rudi 
Lichtenstein. He came to my place for coffee on a Sunday afternoon, on November 6. He told 
me then he had to go some place and if I wished, 1 could come along with him. We went to 
Tauentzienstrasse. near the Kaiser- Wilhelm-GediJchtnis Kirche, and then entered a side street. 
Niimbergerstrasse, We climbed up four flights of stairs. When we arrived and Rudi rang the 
bell a female voice asked through the door, "Rudi?" When he said "yes," the girl behind the 
door reproached him for having come so early. She was not ready yet and not dressed. We 
had to wait outside. My first impression was not a very good one. 

Finally Rudi's girlfriend, Seldi Reifen, opened the aparttnent door. He was very proud to 
introduce me. We had coffee but did not stay long, because I had to send off some urgent 
leners for my mother in connection with our emigration, at the nearby Bahnhof Zoo railroad 
station. Rudi and Seldi accompanied me there, where I first had to find the post office to buy 
stamps Then I ran into a tenant of Polish nationality, who had lived in the same apartment as 
! at Frau Eisenhardfs in Dresden, but took reftige in Berlin after the Polenaktioru because he 
was not registered with the police in Dresden. Seldi grew fed up with waiting and insisted 
with Rudi that they should leave right away, but Rudi reftised to abandon his friend at the 
station and waited patiently until I returned. Afterwards we went to Rudfs place and then, 
since we could not have dinner there, we went to my place. All my life I have wondered how 
different our lives would have been, if Seidi had left me at the station on that fateft. day No 
marriage later on, no children, nothing would have been the same. Such apparently trivial 
things can change a person's whole life completely 

Afterwards we went to see a French film La belle e.uipe with Jean Gabia ^' -"J ~ 
on Kurffirstendamm. 1 be. with Seld, about the exact time the ^^ow wouM s rt nd won th 
be.. The enema was aheady packed, as we aawed late. F,rs. *^;"'' -">;,* E,, 
to stand. Then they btought .n several ^ J^/j ^ ^X'nlnt of 
Other. Destiny defimtely was on my side on that date, i^eldi was sed 
me and Rud L a cha Jway behind. Seldi. beautiful '-g " -^^^^^^^^ J 

much, and I started to stroke it gently. She did not object. Then ^ ^^Id her ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 
since I won our bet, as a prize I would like to meet her '^^'^'''''''^^^^^ ,, p,ay truant at 
unverschamt (impmlenl), then she set a very early time, ^^^^"^^ ^.^ ^^^ ^^^j ^er mother to 
her fashion design school where lessons started at eight ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ relationship 

get suspicious. Of course 1 did not know this at the time. 1 had ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^hen the film was 
With Rudi could not be very intense. He and Seldi ^^^'^^^^P^^.^.tSeid, was his girlfriend. 
over. Rudi put his arm under Seldi's in a patent gesture to show me 

eGriinfeld .he place of our 
The next morning I amved puncUially at the big Jewish linen s or ^ ^^^^_^^^^ ^^„^^^, 
date, 1 wondered whether Seldi would show up. 1 nearly ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ „„ 
went by. Finally she amved. She always came qu''^'^'^ ■ ^^^en 1 was riding the bus 

took place daily. This bothered me very much. Once in '" « , ,, early. I .old h.m 
to meet Seldi, I met Rudi on the same bus. He asked m where 1^^ y^^^^^ _^ ^ ^^^ ,„y ^.m 
' *as going to see my dentist. Certainly he would have 4 



, r .J c:,,HinnH I met we went to the nearby was love 
,he whole truth. On the f.rst day ^ '1;;^ I me^, w ^ ,^^ ^^,^_ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

at nrst s,ght. The next ''^J ^ ^ '^J^^^^^ble record player, had to be cranked 
IplayedAmencanjazzrecords h onmyp ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^ 

manually I played ' ^-"1'" *; ^^^^^n" „d'-Sunshowers"fr^^ mS Broad.a. 
BonUoDa,u-.,..^c\\^^ '' fg o 7 o ds and 1 st.ll have these and other ones we 
Melody^ These -^^^l^^^'^^^^ Zm. 1 treasured. Three days after our ,dyll,c 
tr :t r:!' ::iC r orNovember 9 intervened. The short t.nre - less than 
four month! - Sddi and I knew each other in Berhn before separating were politically very 
troubled and sad times indeed. 

One night in November we were walking in the streets of West Berlin. It was so cold that one 
of my ears froze and 1 had to see a Jewish skin doctor Like all Jewish physicians at that time, 
she was permitted to treat Jewish patients only She could not call herself a physician any 
more but iust Krankenbehamiler. caretaker of sick people. The consultation took place shortly 
after 'the November 9 pogrom, and the physician thought this had happened to me in a 
concentration camp. 

Seldi and I spent very happy days in Berlin, if one can distance oneself from the terrible 
situation prevailing at the time. I was twenty years old and Seldi eighteen. Sometimes we 
would go to the movies or to a cafe or to a restaurant, even though this, too, was forbidden to 
German Jews. The law did not apply to Seldi, who was Polish. (After the outbreak of World 
War II, the Nazis did not make those distinctions anymore, of course). 

We went to the very few cafes and restaurants which did not display a sign "Juden 
urwnviinscht. " Jews not welcome. The few Jewish cafes and restaurants that still existed m 
Berlin before November 9 were now heaps of rubble, such as Cafe Dobrin on a comer of 
Kurtiirstendamm, where Seldi and I had coffee and cake just a day or two before it was 
ransacked. We met every day, sometimes twice. In the evening I wrote her very long letters 
that she received by mail the next morning. After a short while, Seldi decided to end her 
relationship with Rudi, as it was not possible to go on like that. When she told him the truth, 
he simply could not believe it and became quite upset. 


u 11 iQig Her registered first name on her birth 
Se, was bom in Berlin on November 21, 1914. Her reysic .j^ that he 

^!v ys called Seldi. 

s Ide Lichtenberg The name Seldi, 
^C IS named after her maternal great-grandmother. ^eio ^^^^^ ^_^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

ace Tding to Alfred J. Kolatsch's Jew/s/r New Name ~ J'^^^ ^^^ ^,^,, indeed. As a 
me ning: happiness, joy, good fortune and ^'^f "5' a is a blessing for everybody! 
mai;erof fact, she always radiates happiness and joy anu 

A the street of the same 
Seldi went to the Heinrich Roller public primary school •^J^'J^'^''^ ,j ,j^,^ ji.tnct was part 
iiame, near Prenzlauer Berg, in the northern part of ^^^" . ^^^ ^^^^ Prenzlauer Berg 3, 
'^fthe East Sector of Berlin. Today at the place ^^^^^'^ 'f' ^Beriinin 1998. The northern 
'here stands the modem Ibis Hotel, where we stayed °n a v ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ .wealthy 

^nd eastern part of Berlin were mostly a workers d'^^^^J" \^^ ,,d raised. As a matter of 
^urfurstendamm neighborhood in West Berlin, where Inv ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ ^he Jewish 
fact, I rarely had visited the northern and eastern pa 
youth movements. 



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,,u,, her father, Israel GeorgReifen, a very conscious Jew. 
Soldi will never forget the "^""^^'"^ r ■^^^^: school and at the same time also the 
told her when she entered the "'■^' .>^^ ,^^^,; j ^„ kykestrasse near Prenzlauer Berg. Israel 
Jewish Community's school ot religi ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ g, ^^^ elementaiy 

said that he expected Seldi to get S""; ■"^'^^;/,^,/,J.,„,,,;,„/., he expected her to get only 
school, but as to the Jewish ^i^hool o re fc . ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^,^^^^ ^^^ 

the best marks in all ^*J^f ^"^"f '/Sent marks. As a reward, the school once presented 
the best in all Jewish subjects and go excel ^^^.^^ Community schools of 

.ccpW *= t»» P"" f ""trrM, ITm. o L i™i.l. pupils K.d .ta.d, M 

- had 750 pupils. 

assisting the ^veekly ^hab" ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^.^^.^yed during 

in the northern part «^^^ ;-;;7J™^ „,, burn it dovv.. as h was not a detached 

Before Pesach 1939. the synagogue was reopened for rehgious serv e ^ « he w 
years from 1940 on, it was used as an amiy warehouse and horse stable. In ^953 twa 
mlelly renovated and reinaugurated by Rabbi Martm Riesenburger, the only o » 
rabb in the German Demoeratic Republic. This synagogue was the only one m M^^^^^ 
that functioned during the communist regime. Seldi and I participated m a --eUB^^;; ™ 
there, when on a visit to East Berlin. Recently, in September 2000. the first V^sbiva on ™ 
soil since the war has been inaugurated at this place, with ten students from around German). 

Through an older girl at the school of religion, Seldi soon became a member of a small 
Jewish youth group, Deufsch Judische Jugendgemeinschafl led by Rudi Bartha. Seldi askeu 
the girl who wanted her to join the group about its purpose. The girl replied that the purpos 
of the group was for the boys to wear white shirts and blue shorts and the girls, white blous 
and blue skirts. Seldi said she agreed that boys and girls should all wear the same clothing, 
and so she entered the group. 

When Seldi finished elementary school, she went to the Konigstadtisches Oberlyzeum, a so 
in the northern part ofBerlin. In 1932. when she was twelve years old. the Reifens decide o 
move to West Berlin and to rent a larger apartment. For Seldi, who had felt quite at home in 
North Berlin, the move to West Berlin was quite a change. She did not feel at home in i^r 
new surroundings. Her mother. Fela, however, always had disliked the proletarian district \ 
North Berlin. It was her ardent desire to move to a better neighborhood. Of course, the re 
in the West were much higher than in North or East Berlin, but Fela was firmly decide ^ 
move. She compensated the higher rent they had to pay by renting out various rooms 
new apartment in the better neighborhood, for which they could obtain higher rents tn 
the North. Many of her tenants were foreigners, mostly Russians with their tamilies, 
were sent to Berlin on commercial missions by the Soviet foreign trade organization, 
these people did not speak German, they preferred to rent rooms at Fela's apartment, beca 


■ Knrn in Warsaw and speaking Polish, she understood Russian and could talk with them 
being P"'" ' 
in that language. 

\A\ narents later lived in a number of other apartments in West Berlin. When 1 met Seldi. 
. Lg^ j^p^i^j^r lived at Niirnbergerstrasse 16, off Tauentzienstrasse. in a good 
^ ■ hh rhood quite near the big department store Kadewe. owned by Tietz until the Nazis 
"'^ t er Seldi's apartment was on the fourth floor. The apartment house, which had no 
T survived the war. Seldi went to different schools while living in West Berlin. The 
1 ^^^ hool she went to was a Jewish school. Due to the rising anlisemitism at the public 

h ^ 1 the Jewish pupils gradually abandoned them and entered Jewish schools. There 
^"^ 7a "areat number of Jewish schools in Berlin, most of them belonging to the Jewish 
rmmunity or to religious institutions. There were also a number of Jewish private schools. 
After 1933, all these schools had to be greatly expanded and new ones were also founded. 

After havine moved to West Berlin, Seldi entered the Zionist youth movement Werkkute. 
tlandlhad the same background.theZionistyouthmovements.Theireuca^^^^^^^^^^^ 

d upbrindng left pemianent marks on the young people who participated >" hem. The 
and upbnnging leii p ^^^^^^^ ^^ j^^^^,^ ^m^Xt^ 

ihe beginning they had to face very hard times. 

. u ™K»r= nf the Werkleule youth movement were 
Contrary to the Hashomer Hatza.r, the members "f *ejfeT« y ^^^ 

nearly^l of German origin. Seldi was one ot the -^ J;^ ^^ ^'^nd had never 
both had immigrated from Poland at the begmmng "''he tw nheth entt^ ^^_^^^ ^^^^^^^ 
cared to become Germans. Therefore, according to German law, being 
Seldi was Polish too, though she was bom in Berlin. 

V^Hen Seldi was thirteen years old. the mrkleu. '^^^^^^^^^.^^ps^^^^ 
Denmark. The whole group bought tickets together tc r ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^.^^ ^^^^^^ p„, 

however, could not travel together with the group becaus ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ j 

Gemtan citizens, an identity card was sufficient. SeW. h d " ^^^^^^^^ .^ 3^,,i„. when the 
it took a few days umil she could obtain it from the Poi|^^ ^,^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^.^^ ^^is summer 
passport finally was issued, her group had left alrea y. ^^^ ^^^^p 

camj and therefore decided to travel to Denmark all by herselt ^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

Because she was so young, her parents would not let h"' ^f ' ^^p'.bout to leave and Seldi 
to speak to her parents, telling them that there w l^'^'^.J ,fe story and .nsisted 
«ould travel together with that group. »<=' Jf "'^j^td ioin her group. She had ready 
no. letting her go, but Seldi was bound and ^'^— j,. Next morning she rose ej 
received her raLay and ship passage from 'l^^/J.^^J^still asleep. She left a not fo^^^^ 
early and,efttheapLmentc,uiet,vjneh^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
parents telling them that she was trave 
^Vhen she came home, her father did 
forgave her soon. 

while her parc.u."^-; ;n her uroup at the summc. .^--r-- 
-''"^'"TotrieLetitne, but her mother 

id not speak to her lor h 



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cQ u- pnt to the Girls" Middle School ofthe Jewish Communis. 
From 1 933 until March 1 936 Seld. vven^^^ ^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^ ^.^ 

at Grosse Hamhurgerstrasse . /. a ^j^j^gj-sj^ jhe elementary school consisted of four 

not want or could not aftord to stu Y ^^^ ^j^^,^ g^j^^^j ^^ Grosse Hamhurgerstrasse 

and the middle ^^^ool of five years^u g , ^^^^^ ^^^ .^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ Mendelssohn, 
was a Jewish boys school only. ^^^^''™^ ^^^ ^oys" school and its seat transferred to 
in ,931 the Jewish girls' - ^ '"^^^^^^^^^^^ had 1025 pupils. 

Grosse Hamhurgerstrasse. In 1934, at its peaK, m. 

J I- \A^.f ^^^v\<ih remeterv in Berlin, inaugurated in 1672. Moses 
Next to this school stood the ""i^^'/^^^ *^ "f^'^^.j there. The cemetery was used until 
Mendelssohn and many other P^^-f'/^^^^^^'^^JgJj ,he cemetery was destroyed by 
Z or ir T=S r- r—es .. whtch haa .en huUt ,nto the 
cemetery wall. 

The cemetery was flanked on one side by the Jewish Middle School and on the other by the 
Lwi h ot Age Home, located at Grosse Hamhurgerstrasse 26. maugura ed '" 1829^The 
cemetetT waV urrounded by a park. The pupils of the Jewish School as we 1 as the residents 
of?he oVAge Home used this park for recreation or taking a walk. Seld. told me that during 
iss she and her classmates used to hide behind the old gravestones of this cemetery. 

In 1942 the Gestapo transformed the Old Age Home and also the Jewish School into a 
Sam^nelhger, an infamous concentration point. The place then became a kind of prison with 
fences, watch posts and spotlights, to prevent escapes. Old and young, men. women, children 
and even babies were squeezed in there together, lying on the floors. They lived under he 
most terrible conditions, awaiting their final transport to the extermination camps in the 
East Today a memorial showing a group of deportees has been erected at this place, in 
memor>' of the 56.000 Berlin Jews who were murdered during the Nazi's regime ot terror. A 
memorial plaque also has been put up there. 

In 1998 we revisited Seldi's old school on Grosse Hamhurgerstrasse. During our previous 
visits to this place, at the time of the German Democratic Republic, a vocational school was 
in operation there, and nothing at all indicated that the place had once been a famous Jewish 
school. We were very glad to see that now a Jewish school is once again open at the same 
place. We went into the building and entered a class. The school now serves the needs of the 
young Jewish boys and girls who. together with their parents, immigrated from the former 
Soviet Union. They are now learning about Judaism for the first time. They also have lessoris 
in all other general subjects. The teacher of the class we entered asked Seldi to tell the pupi 
a little bit about her experience at this school over sixty years ago. Seldi was quite touc e 
about this unique experience. 

While going to school on Grosse Hamhurgerstrasse. at the age of fifteen Seldi started to g 
private lessons after school, in order to earn some money.. She taught various subjec 
younger, slow pupils belonging to the same school, usually two grades below hers. She 
not tell her parents about it, so that she could keep the money all for herself Her parents w 
always very tight with money and they had trouble making ends meet, as Seldi's father 
not have a regular business. When school was over. Seldi did not come home for lunc ■ 
because her school in the northern part of Berlin was very far away from her apartment in 


She decided to have lunch at the kitchen of the Ahavah at nearby Auguststrasse 14/15. This 
building belonged to the Jewish Community and housed various Jewish institutions. There 
Iso was a cooking and nutrition school at this place, directed by Mrs. Hammerstein. The 
leals the apprentices prepared there were served to elderly Jews. A very low price of twenty 
fennig was charged, but for very poor persons who could not atTord to pay. the meals were 
rved free. Seldi decided to have her lunch after school at this communal kitchen. When 
sked by Mrs. Hammerstein if she could pay the regular price of twenty pfennig, she said she 


very poor and was immediately dispensed from paying for her meals. 

n e day after having received her first payment from one of the pupils, she decided to give 
h ^elf a treat. On the same street, Auguststrasse. a little bit farther up. there was an ice- 
am shop. Seldi was always very fond of ice-cream and all things sweet. Instead of buying 
the usual cheap ice-cream cone, she decided that now - after having earned her first money - 

he could aftbrd to order ice-cream in a dish to be eaten with a spoon, at a table in the shop. 
She was comfortably seated right at the shop window, watching the street and the people 
Poine by Just then, while she was enjoying her ice-cream, Mrs. Hammerstein came passing 
bv on her way home. She could not belie\'e her e> es! Poor Sekiiiein was sitting there happily 
relishine her ice-cream. Apparently Mrs. Hammerstein was at first in doubt whether the girl 

itting there behind the shop window was Seldi indeed. So she turned around and went back 
fw steps to double-check. No doubt, it was Seldi in person. The next day at lunchtime. 

V en Seldi asked for her free meal as usual. Mrs. Hammerstem said in an admonishing 
e, "So w" . From now on you will have to pay twenty pfennig or e-h mea Tha - 

the end of Seldi's freee lunch at the communal kitchen on Auguststrassse. n 1999 wh, em 

Berhn we visited that place. The run-down Aha.ah building still stands there, but tor the 

lime being it is not occupied any more. 

half. Seldi learned many practical things ''^'^^^, ^^ „^ 
dairy barns. She was so good at m.lkmg cows that ^e da.ryman ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

and wanted Seldt as the only helper. She also '-" J, "^ "Cgricul.ural apprenticeship 
large groups, how to do household chores, e c. Att^^""' ^ j ^^t ,he go to Frankfurt 
there Seldi returned home. The Uerkle.ue '^^^ership had proposed t^^^^^^^S.^^^^^^^^^^ 

a..M., where they had a local group and also "«'"""", <, .ji however, declined to go. 

They wanted her to learn cooking to people on specal d.ets. Seld,. 

, , p,s Seldi held various part-time jobs in the 
From October 1937 to the end of November 19.8, ^'^ ,^i„g eare of their small 

afternoons. She worked consecutively for ""^'=,^'*'f ,' nending the Feige-Strassburger 
children. When I met Seldi in November 1 938-*^ -as a'so^anen^^^gp ^^ ^^.^ ^^^^, ,.^^^ ^^ 
fashion design school in the mornings. She had obta 
Jewish Community in Berlin, as she is very gifted in aes g ■ 

. Qur musical taste is quite 
Seldi likes ,0 read good books and is very fo"'' "f^^^^^:^; "^^^^^ to members of her [amily 
dififerent, as I am fond of jazz and blues, ^he 'kes "g'^^P; _^^,,, ^as fights or quarrels w^* 
and ,0 other people too. She has a very sweet d'spo J.o^"J,J^. ^^„,,, problems. That ,s the 
anybody. She always has an open ear for other Py ^^^-^^ 
reason why everybody likes her and seeks out ne y 




. ■ r u iQ^R u-hpnT Still was the leader ofthe local //«5/iom^r//a/za/> in Dresden, 

i"^^^^^^^^ agricultural training farm in Gemiany. My stay there, however, had to e 
Sled twice first because of the Polenakiiou m October and then on account of te 
SminNovember.duringwhichitw.uldhavebeenvery dangerous to traveAsoft^ 
required the Gut Winkel administration had already registered me twice with the loca Gestapo, 
but each time I had to postpone my departure. The deadline for my arrival became November 
15. because Gut Winkel could not register me more than three times and my final third 
registration expired on that date. 

From the beginning 1 liked the idea of further agricultural training at Gut Winkel. This training 
farm was located near Berlin, at Furstenwalde/Spree.This was very convenient for me. The 
professional preparation there was first-raie. Gut Winkel had dairy bams, chicken farms, a 
tree nursery and greenhouses for growing flowers. They even made their own canned goods 
as well as apple juice there. The place was under the direction of the agricultural and 
horticultural expert Martin Gerson. He had enormous practical and theoretical knowledge. 
After the Reichskristallnacht, the Central Representation of the Jews in Germany appomted 
him super\'isor and sole responsible for all the other hachsharah centers in Germany. He 
therefore had to travel a lot to visit these places and could not continue giving theoretical 
lessons as before. Gut Winkel was the largest and best organized hachsharah center in 
Germany, with a capacity for about one hundred trainees. It was owned by Salman Schocken. 
a philanthropist and famous publisher of Jewish books. 

Of course, back at that time it was a most difficult decision for me to leave Berlin, since only 
a few days earlier I had fallen in love with Seldi. I was rather undecided about what to do, 
packing my things and then unpacking them again. The idea of living at my parents again 
did not appeal to me. after having lived an independent life in Frankfurt and Dresden for 
about a year. The educational activities at the Hashomer Hatzair had practically come to a 
standstill, so there was nothing left for me to do in Berlin. The only thing keeping me there 
was my new girlfriend, Seldi. 

Finally 1 found the best possible solution under the circumstances. I bought a used motorcycle, 
so that I would be able to visit my love more often, shortening the distance between Gut 
Winkel and Berlin. I bought it relatively cheap (two hundred marks) through my friend Rudi 
Lichtenstein, from a street vendor who sold fruit. A short time after, when returning to Gut 
Winkel from Berlin in the evening as the road was getting dark. I wanted to turn on the 
headlights. I then discovered that the fruit seller had cheated me. The motorcycle did not 
have a dynamo, an electric generator, which charges the battery while the engine is running. 
! was therefore forced to ride in the dark. Without this standard equipment. I had to have the 
batter) recharged constantly and 1 never could be sure that the light was not going to give up 
in the middle of the road. 

1 then decided to definitely go to Gut Winkel. I had waited until the last possible date, November 
15. and even took the last train on that day. Fortunately 1 saw a boy of my age in a leather 
jacket on this train, and by his looks I had a certain feeling that he was on his way home to 
Gut Winkel. The haverim, the companions of the Jewish youth organizations, recognizet^ 

,ach other easily. We introduced ourselves. He was returning from his vacation. I was very 
lucky to meet that boy. because nobody was waiting for me at the train station. It was a cold 
and dark winter night. I was ail by myself with my luggage and nobody was around. I certainly 
would not have found my way to Gut Winkel in the dark. It also turned out that there was no 
bus running to the farm any more. My new haver helped me with the luggage. We had to walk 
jbout half an hour until arriving at Gut Winkel. The boys there arranged for me to stay in 
their dormitory and I was even able to get an upper bunk. 

Many of the haverim at Winkel had already been expecting me for some time and were 
curious to meet me. especially since I had postponed my coming several times. On my part. 
I was sure I would fit into the new community and collective life quite well, as I never had 
anv trouble adapting to a new way of life. I was better prepared for the work at Gut Winkel 
than most of the other young boys and girls, because I had studied horticulture for quite some 
lime and was familiar with it. in practice and theory, whereas the other young people had 
never worked in that field before. 

On some afternoons I was dismissed from work, because 1 gave Hebrew lessons to the people 
there and had to prepare lessons and correct papers. I already had experience, teaching Hebrew 
to young people at the Hebrew School in Frankftirt, which I helped to establish. The Hebrew 
courses took place very early in the morning before work started. Due to the cold - it was 
November - getting up so early was rather difficult for me, especially as 1 went to bed very 
late and then spent some time reading in bed. Seldi had recommended that 1 take along a 
little bed lamp which could be attached to the book by a clamp. This bothered my roommates, 
who argued that they could not fall asleep because of that lamp. 

I liked my new life at Winkel. In the morning there was practical work in the fields and in the 
afternoon theoretical lessons were given as well. I took part m the ^^^^/^^ ~^^ 
beginning I did unskilled work, digging the fields or hoeing strawberry fields. This was quite 
easy for me. I also sorted potatoes with a special sorting machine. 

SeMi, who had received agHcuUu.a. training a, ^^J^^;;^:^:::::';;^ 

there, visited me one Sunday. She showed me arotmd as she knew w 

I. We stole strawberry jam from the Icitchen and drove by 7"^=^;'; '° *\" ^ tas a piano 

There wasacozycafeintiratlittietown where wew^me^^^^ 

on Which we made a sorry attempt to play the tlea waiiz 

wonderful Sunday. 

One day after her birthday, November 21. I visited ^^'^' '^^^^^^^ 
Reichsautobahn, I ran out of gas and had to push my mot ^^^^ .^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ii^ay station 
I sweated a lot in spite of the cold winter day. I lett m> ^^ ^^^j.^ ^^ ^^gj^ ^^ 

Erkner, the halfwav point to Berlin. From there I ^;^"^'""''' "^^j^^l at about two o'clock in 
the S-Bahn. After the visit. 1 returned very late and fl""^^ ^^ ^^e domiitories, so that 

the morning. I had already switched off the engine betore a^ ^^b^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^, He 
the noise would not wake everybody up. The night watcnm .^ ^^^^^ ,^^^ ^^^^ ^^, 

was quite frightened, as I had not told him in ^^"^'' ' ^^.hmen. who were haverim of 
November 9/10 events only a few days earlier, the n g 
Winkel, expected Nazi attacks at any time. 



•'i *' 

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, -[ » , mtJ^L., 

^^'^ , unleashed the dog. The animal, however, 

When he saw me coming, the night watcnm ,^^k_ ;, started chasing a rat. The 

knew me by smell and instead of J"mP'"8 ' ' ^e came to his bedroom window in his 
dog-s barking was enough to wake up M^™" j^^^^^j ,he courtyard and shouted "Who is 
nightgown. With a flashlight m h,s hand »ej^^^ ^. ^^^^^.. ..^^^^ ^^ y„^ coming from so 
there?" I gave my name. "What time is i . „ ..y^ ^.jn j^ik tomorrow morning." 

process of emigration. They planned to ^""^^^'^ ° ''™/ ^^ ^, ,„ ,eave Wmkel after only 
L household. This and my wish to be nearer ckhprrnpt J - ^ ^^^^ 

such a short time. 1 had left my -"'"-f^I^^^^^JP™/,,. Jong them one prohibiting 
Winkel. Shortly thereafter, the Nazis -a '^d "e^ ^^^^''^ jf^ ^ ^J,,^,,, back to Berlin, 

Jews to drive any vehicle -h^'-^f ^^^"^^ ^ ' ^^ eh ap to the son of the janitor of the 
I had to leave it at the repair shop, i had to sen n vci> f 
apartment building where we lived in Berlin. 

work there until June 5. 1943. when he and about eighty trainees were transported to Berl n 

byta I washed by Gestapo agents. They were then marehed through t^e streets ol Berlin to 


building, located directly beside the oldest Jewish cemetery in Berlin. 

During these terrible years. Jews were often marched openly through the streets in columris 
in broad daylight, guarded on both sides by police and the Gestapo. They were then taken to 
the collection points, from where they were to be transported by sealed boxcars unaer 
unimaginable conditions to the extemiination camps in the East. 

Martin Gerson and his pupils were transported to There si enstadt. In October of 1944. when a 
transport of Gerson's group was deported from there to Auschwitz, he did not abandon them. 
He went with them. According to eyewitnesses. Gerson was sent to the gas chambers 
immediately after his arrival, at the age of 42. His wife, Bertel, who had a degree in landscape 
architecture, and their two daughters were taken to Auschwitz four weeks later. 

Gerson was one of those extrordinary people in German- Jewish public life, who sudden y 
became burdened with an enormous responsibility never encountered before. They remaine 
at their posts until the last moment to assist their brethren in organized emigration as long as 
this was still possible. Though many times they could have saved their own lives by emigraimg- 
they considered it their duty to stay behind, sacrificing their life on behalf of their distres^e 
brethren. They themselves eventually perished in the ghettos and in concentration an 
extermination camps. 




Idi and I had known each other in Berlin for only four months, from November 1938 to the 

^ ^f February 1939. These were horrible times for the Jews in Germany. Our personal 

niness during that short time in Berlin - two young people very much in love - was 

shadowed by the lertible climate and tragic situation which sunounded us. We could not 

r- -ace ourselves from what was happening all around us; we were constantly reminded 

of the situation. 

1 Gerson Reifen. Seldi's father, had been deported during the Pokmktion at the end of 
October 1938. a few days before 1 met Seldi for the first time. This deportation left her 

Ither in a desperate situation. Seldi's brother Melech, called Mischa. had not been arrested 
"nd deported in October, because he had delivered his Polish passport to the Polish Consulate 
for revalidation just at that time. As he was without a passport, he could not be deported by 
train over the Polish border like all the other thousands of Polish Jews. He was just jailed for 
one night and then released. He was summoned to the police station two days later^ where a 

rndlv policeman (a few still existed at the time, leftovers from the old Weimar Republic) 
'^rllTZ while examining his documents: ^'Me.scK kau Moss at>r (Man. make 
your getaway!). 
On February ^0 1 939, Seldi and I became engaged, but we did not tell anyone. Since we had 

on our present wedding rings - was the date ot our ^"t-'fe . ^ ; ^ j willpower 

initials stand for Glauhe (faith). L.che (love) and Me (^' 'P°^" ™ '..ed temporaiy 


separation which was to happen very soon. Our future ^^"° J^.^^i^jj^^iion ;„ Europe that 

imminent emigration to two countries, very '"^^'P,",'" ye to overcome the terrible situation 

was worsening steadily, we firmly believed we would beabte 'o o ^^ 

around us and be together again some day in the near future, maybe y 





h ious to all Jews still in Germany at the time that 
After the November pogrom, it became ODv^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^.^^^^^ ^^.^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

i, was no longer possible to B^J ''""^ „^ were finally convinced that in order to save 

hoped that things would straighten out someM, 

their lives, they had to emigrate, the earher the better. 

,■ .. ^„,i,^ Hitler reeime. my father was in quite a unique situation. 
During the six years we lived under the H>™'™^ Jj^j^^ ;„ Germany at the time, because 
He was one of the very few excepnons ™ " f^ ^^ ;2y Nazi legislation excluding the 
his economic situation was -' f ^ '^ ^e^ w^^^^^ theVudonym Rideamus. Among 

Jews from the Gemian economy. My t^''^^"^ J ° ^ ..£,,<,,• alie Schachleln " 

others. hewasthelibrettistofteverysuccssW 

and ■Der ^i^"-' ''"^ ^'■"^^''" ' ^'^'^ "'"^ J/^Se Kollo and Eduard Kunneke, were 
the well-known composers of these o r^t^ . *=> 'J ^°"° ^, „„, ^,„,„„,d ,,^ 

cities, and my father enjoyed the same good income as before. 

1, is thus easy to understand why in the beginning my father was not in a particular rush to 
V G rml in spite of the Nazi regime. Besides, the Jews living in Berlin did not feel the 
ners cu^n as drastically as did the ones living in small towns or the countryside where 
^:e~ was well kno™ by the rest of the population and became an easy target and victim 
of antisemitic discrimination and persecution. 

After November 9 & 1 0, however, things changed drastically. This P^g^^"^ ^'^^^^^.^^^^^'"^ 
on the wall. From that event on. my parents and everybody else mtens.fied their efforts o 
find a country to emigrate to. On December 24. 1 938 my mother obtained from the American 
Consulate General in Berlin a number assigned to us on the waiting list tor candidates or 
future immigration to the U.S.A. Our family received registrafion number 47,764 trom ne 
U S Consulate in Berlin on the waiting list for people bom in Germany. The Consulate at 
same time advised in a circular letter that it was impossible to inform the date our mimigration 
application would be processed. As a matter of fact, there were tens of thousands of Jewisn 
people on the Gennan waiting list at the time who had registered with the American Consulate 
long before us. Consequently they had much lower registration numbers on the waiting list. 
was actually only in February 1 940 that the American Consulate in Berlin wrote to our former 
address there, asking us to present the documents necessary for immigration. At that time we 
had already been in Brazil for nearly a year. 

According to the American immigration laws at the time, a yearly quota was reserved or 
each countr>. for people bom there who wanted to emigrate to the U.S.A. This yearly qut 
normally could not be surpassed. Of course, in 1938 there was an enormous waiting list or 
the immigration quota reserved for people bom in Germany. President Roosevelt could eaM 
have increased the German. Polish and other immigration quotas in 1938/39, in view o 
emergency situation, had he wished so seriously. Roosevelt and Churchill have extraoruin. . 
merits in saving the world from tjranny and dictatorship, but Roosevelt's tragic omission 

authorize substantial additional immigration quotas was a tragic failure to bring more 


fugees into America, before the Nazis prohibited emigration altogether in October 
As a matter of fact no countr\' at all lifted a finger at the time to help the desperate .e\\s 


ted by the Nazis, as so clearly became evident at the Evian Conference of July 1938. 
P^^^^ , the war, the American and British Air Forces also could have bombed Auschwitz and 
^r'"^termination camps, and the railway tracks leading to them, but apparently these mass 
urder installations were not on their priority list. 

h dv had told my parents that tourist visas for Umguay could be obtained through the 

^''"^^ ^van consul in Frankfurt am Main. The consul illegally charged a high price, to be paid 

^^T^ foreign currency. As not everybody had foreign currency (owning it was strictly 

'" L-jden at the lime), the consul also accepted precious jewels in payment of these visas. 

i ents paid his asking price and in return, on January 23, 1939, we obtained tourist 

^ which actually were issued by the Uruguayan Consulate in Paris. Probably the Uruguayan 
-'^^sul in Frankfurt was not authorized any more to issue visas to Jewish people and therefore 
Mto send our passports on to the consulate in Paris. 

i, ,h.t time I could have gone to Eretz Israel by means oiAliyah Bet. I was on the aliyahWsl 

h 1 n^^^^^ wider circle of the Ha.shon.r Haizair leadership. 1 longed to go to Eretz 

r , nd to^fi^^^^^^^ realize my Zionist dreams and ideals. Another proposal was that I go to 

Israel and to finally ^^^''^^ ^ ^^^ ^-^^ ^r people with agricultural 

lolk We would then be together again, this time m another country. 

Meanwhile Seldi had obtained a permit to go to England ^^^^^^^ 

already made the /..../....^tnOutWu^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^,, . ^...ably 

I, was obtained with the assistance of Seldi s unc^ _cn J Kupferstein) - was 

thanks to the foresight of his mother (Seldi s e^andmot^^^^^^ J^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

bom on a BriUsh ship and therefore had f '^^^^^^^^^^ gam^ents. He 
before World War 1 and was established in London as a manutaci 
was quite successful and became a wealthy man. 

As soon as my parents got the tourist visas for Uruguay J^^Jj^J'^^^^^^ possibilities: 
me, 1 did not want to go with them at all. My ;^f ;2^;^,,,;, ^ England. The pressure 
ether go to Eretz Israel by means ofAhyah Bet or to ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ ^^ 
went so far that my mother threatened to commit u ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

really emotional blackmail. Ultimately, my P^^^"^^ P^!^'" ^em to South America. My idea 
many lengthy discussions. 1 finally agreed to accomp^y ^ ^^^ ^, ^,,, back and 

was to help them get seUle^d m the new ^X:y;X^:,^ .onths l--a^^^ 
realize my 

thy discussions. 1 tinally agreeu - ;"" ' ^^ so, and men go ua.. ~ 

p them get settled in the new <^°^^;fX,Uk^ "tenths later made this plan 

Zionist ideals. The outbreak °' *'°^'''Xn ,n "y'^^'**^''""'"'T''ul o 


unfeasible. It was a very difficult decision for me. W movements, cou 

my ideals, to go on alivak after years of working m the ^J"^^^ J ^^^^^^^ g^ at the 
lake advamage of the opportunity, on account oi J 
having to face a great dilemma. ^^^^^_^^ ^^ p^^„,. 

When the HasHon,er Ha.air leadership 1^-^;^^,^'*" organization ^^^ 
l^ruguay. their prompt reaction was to exclude me ro ^^.^ .^_^^ fro-n *e of.a ' ^^^, 
«"'.-«,. had always been a very dogmatic org<miJ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ safeguarded. Th^e^«^^ ^^^ 
'dwlogical questions were not welcome^ Pnnup ,^i„a,ing in ''">'^". ^^.^ greatly 

»f separation between those who realized the ideoj^ ^^ ^^^^^^ , «as, of course. 
liid not. The latter could not belong to the orga 

itt. •'" 

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shocked and offended bv mv exclusion. Small wonder. I just could not understand this decision, 
considering that I had abandoned my intended study at the Ganenbau Hochschuh. the 
horticultural academy in Berhn-Dahlem. on behalf of my educational work for the Hashomer 
Hatzair in Frankfurt and Dresden. The organization had sent me there to be the leader of the 
local groups and I had dedicated myself to this task full time, willingly and whole-heartedly. 
on a purely voluntary basis. 

The responsible leaders, rather than excluding me right away, should have examined each 
case separately. In my case they should have analyzed the reason and circumstances that 
made me take the decision to accompany my parents abroad temporarily rather than making 
aliyah right away and living in a kibbutz as was expected from me. Seldi and I have always 
remained faithful to our Zionist ideology and worked for it all the time. I am not sure, however, 
whether the kibbutz would have been the ideal way of life for me and I doubt that I would 
have spent my whole life there. Probably I am too much of an individualist to have shared 
this collective life. 

After my parents had obtained the visas for Uruguay, my mother started all the preparations 
for our emigration. This was a very strenuous task. She had to go to many German government 
offices to get all the documents necessary for emigration, after making payment of many 
different taxes. She started packing all the things we would take along, including furniture 
and household goods. They were packed in many wooden cases by competent professional 
packers. Before closing the cases, they had to be inspected by a German customs inspector. 
We started auctioning off all the objects we could not or did not want to take along. On 
January 27, 1939, the traditional antiquar>' J. A. Stargard held an auction at our apartment to 
sell part of the valuable autograph collection of many famous people, initiated by my maternal 
grandmother. A special catalogue of this collection to be auctioned off" was printed by Stargard. 
which still is in my possession.The firm Stargard, established in Beriin and specialized in 
autographs, still exists today. The traditional Schottlander Familientag, the yearly Family 
Reunion, instituted by my great-grandfather Lobel. also took place then at our apartment, for 
the last time. 

My parents bought our ship passages to Uruguay through the Jewish travel agency Palestine 
& Orient Lloyd, located on Meinekestrasse, near the Zionist headquarters. The tickets were 
for the German steamer Monte Pascoal, sailing from Boulogne. France, in early March 1 939. 
My parents had all their baggage forwarded to Boulogne to be loaded on that steamer. A few 
days days before our departure to Paris and from there on to Boulogne, some very bad news 
reached us. The Uruguayan authorities had become aware of the dishonest procedure of 
some of the.r consuls in Germany and elsewhere, "selling" visas and earning a fortune, 
rherelore the government issued a new law that wem into force immediately under which 
no Uruguayan consul abroad was authorized any longer to issue visas of any kind. From that 
date on, visas had to be authorized exclusively by the Foreign Ministry in Montevideo. All 
visas already issued by the consuls would lose their validity immediately 

t .IsKfil ) .aSM^^^j r-Q 

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^Ijus- German passport with temporary visa for Umguay and tounsi v 



When my parents were informed about this new law. they obviously became desperate. Mv 
father phoned the Uruguayan consul in Frankfurt at once and asked him what would become 
of us in view of the new situation. The consul replied that as we had already the Uruguayan 
visas in our passports, nobody would object to our leaving Germany and embarking to 
Montevideo on the scheduled steamer. However, upon arrival there, he added, the Uruguayan 
authorities, in view of the new law. most probably would not let us disembark. One can 
imagine how my parents felt. They decided to leave Geniiany anyway and to travel to Pans 
as planned, facing a ver>' bad situation and a completely uncertain future. 

Seldi obtained her British immigration permit on February 20. 1939. the day we became 
engaged. She left Germany on March 16. 1939 and arrived in Southampton the next day. 
From there she traveled to London. She faced a very difficult situation there. She had left her 
mother behind and alone in Berlin. Her father, who had been deported, lived in Warsaw, and 
her brother in Antwerp. 1. her fiance, whom she had known only for a short time, was on a 
steamer to far-away South America. Seldi was only nineteen years old at the time. She lived 
with her cousin Arion and his family in London at first, later moving to a farm in the 
countryside, at Apethorp near Northampton, where she did agricultural work with a group of 
Jewish refugees trom Germany. Shortly before the outbreak of the war. Seldi moved back to 
London. First she lived at the Jew's Temporary Shelter in Whitechapel. the old Jewish quarter 
of London in the Last End. sleeping in a dormitor>' together with forty other women of various 
nationalities. The Jew's Temporary' Shelter once was the haven for thousands of Jews from 
Eastern Europe, who arrived in London between 1 880 and 1 906. friendless and often penniless. 
Later Seldi rented a small ftat together with her brother, who by that time had arrived from 
Belgium. Soldi then began to work as a seamstress in various garment factories. 

Seldi's brother. Mischa. who was one year older than she. had heard of people crossing the 
German-Belgian frontier at Aachen illegally. He left for Aachen with only a briefcase and 
300 marks. That was all his mother Fela could give him for the journey. He met a German in 
a cafe in Aachen who organized illegal transports across the border, charging 500 marks per 
head. Mischa told the man that he had only 300 marks, and the man agreed to take him along, 
as he could take just one more person to complete the transport. Mischa then told him thai he 
would need a little time to pick up his toothbrush and briefcase. But the man advised him to 
leave everything behind, because if Mischa was caught with a toothbrush and other personal 
effects, the police would immediately know he was planning to cross the border. 

Mischa 's group, guided by the same man whom he met in Aachen, crossed the border into 
Belgium at night. A Belgian contact man was waiting for them on the other side with bicycles. 
The relugees then rode to the nearest village. Mischa went on from there to Antwerp, where 
relatives of his mother lived. He stayed there a few months umil his entry permit for England 
arrived, in May of 1 939. Mischa had studied to be a toolmaker at a technical school in Berlin. 
However, the only way to get the permit was as an agricultural worker. He finally got the 
permit - as Seldi did - with the help of his uncle Charles in London. 

Shortly before the outbreak of the war. Seldi's mother. Fela, decided to join her husband in 
Warsaw. By that time her children. Mischa and Seldi. were both alreadv in England. Fela 
wrote her children from Berlin about her plan to join her husband Israel' Georg in Warsaw 
and asked tor their opinion. Both responded in agreement with her plan and mentioned that 
in their opm.on it would be the best thing to do under the extremely difficult situation at the 


„„e. Rather than stay mg behind in Berhn all by herself, with her husband and children abroad 
, would be preferable to join her husband. Nobody, of course, could foresee how this 

would develop in Gei-many and Poland after the war broke out. It was a deadly s.tuanon with 
no way out. 

On March 2, 1939, my parents, my sister Susi and 1 left Germany by train bound for Paris 
When we arrived there, we at once went to the local branch of the Jewish travel agency 
Palestine & Orient Lloyd through whom we had bought our ship passages in Berlin. We 
informed them about our desperate situation, mentioning that we would not be able to 
disembark in Montevideo because our Uruguayan tounst visas had lost their validity. One of 
the persons working at this agency mentioned that he had been informed that the Brazilian 
consul in Marseilles was still issuing temporary visas for Brazil. My mother, who was a very 
resolute person, took our passports and immediately left for Marseilles by night train. 

She arrived at the Brazilian Consulate there early in the morning. She told us that it was a 
sleepy place. She said to the official in charge that she wanted visas for Brazil, for herself, her 
husband and two children, and showed him our passports, all of them bearing the big red "J" 
on the first page, which identified us as Jewish. The consul then simply placed his visa stamp 
in our passports and signed with an illegible signature. These visas, obtained on March 3, 
1939. were temporary. An additional stamp mentioned that the visas were good for a period 
of 180 days and that the bearer could not execute any paid activity in Brazil. 

As incredible as it sounds, at that time a simple rubber stamp on a passport page could mean 
the difference between life and death for the bearer! This Brazilian consul in Marseilles 
saved our lives by granting us these temporary visas for Brazil. By doing so, propably for 
humanitarian reasons, he clearly acted against the prevalent Brazilian immigration policy at 
the time. Only sixty years later, at my request, my son Gabriel Fernando who lives in Rio de 
Janeiro was able through the Brazilian Foreign Ministry to discover the name of the Brazilian 
consul in Marseilles at that time. 1 wanted to know this, so that this courageous man who 
acted against the express instrtictions of his government, would not remain in anonymity and 
his name forgotten. He was Murillo de Souza, Brazilian consul in Marseilles from 193« to 
1941. He was pensioned in 1942. The Brazilian Consulate in ^^^^^-''^^^^f^/^f '" who 
The consulate only functions m Pans now. Had it not existed in Marseilles a he nme- wh° 
knows what would have become of us, because in Pans we certainly would not have obtained 
Brazilian temporary visas then. 

When we ainved in Rio Grande. Brazil, m late March 1939, togj^;^^^^^^^ 
Jews, who had also obtained their visas in Marseilles, I ^'^'fl'^''^^^^^ from 

officer shook his head and said in a loud voice, Todosde ^^'j^j ;„ j^jq je Janeiro. 
Marseilles. He probably denounced this strange fact to the horeig ^^^^^.^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^ to 
which then must have strongly reprehended the Brazilian consu ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

stop issuing visas and infringing the Brazilian immigration p j-^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^ j.^„^^ 
obtained the Brazilian visas, wrote immediately from on boa ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ f^jher urged 
librettists, who had been unable to obtain a visa f*^^ ^"^'^^^ ' ^ However, when my father's 
him to travel to Marseilles at once to obtain a Brazilian ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^-^^ 

collaborator arrived there a short time after, the consul was 

was only very short. Paris and Its 
I was in Paris for the first time. Unfortunately our stay ther ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ a^d 

beauty impressed me very much. The beautiful Champs 


restaurants, children playing, couples in love, the houquinistes. selling their old books and 
prints at the the banks of the Seine river, the bohemians at Montpamasse - everything was 
exciting and new for me. However, there was hardly any time to enjoy all this beauty. 

With the temporary Brazilian visas stamped in our passports, we were now able to travel on to 
Boulogne and take the same German ship to South America, the Monle Pascoai on which my 
parents had originally booked our passages. The only difference was that instead of 
disembarking in Montevideo, we would get off in Rio Grande, Brazil. Our trunks and suitcases 
had already been forwarded to the same ship from Germany. 

During our ship voyage in March 1939, the bloody Spanish Civil War came to an end. after 
three years of uneven fighting. The Republicans had to surrender the territory they still held 
and Franco's troops finally entered Madrid. Hundreds of thousands of refiigees now entered 
France or went to Mexico. The ones not lucky enough to escape in time were killed or jailed 
by Franco's troops. Three to four hundred thousand Republican fighters were thrown into 
French concentration camps. This was the biner end of a heroic fight against the Franco army, 
which was aided by the German and Italian armies and air forces. It also was the end of the 
Spanish Republic and the beginning of the fascist regime there. A few months later, on 
September 3, 1939, World War II broke out, only about 20 years after the end of World War I. 



On March 26, 1 939, our steamer arrived in Rio Grande. It was a good feeling when we finallv 
left the German steamer and, consequently, German territory. The few hotels in Rio Grande 
were all full and my father and 1 had to sleep on the floor of a grocery store among nce and 
sugar bags. My mother and my sister stayed at a hotel. From Rio Grande we took a coastal 
steamer to Porto Alegrc, capital ot the state of Rio Grande do Sul. We decided to go to Porlo 
Alegre, in the south of Brazil, because the only people my parents knew in Brazil were Dr 
Herbert Caro and his wife Nina, who lived in that city. Herbert was the son of my father's 
best friend, the lawyer Dr. Ernst Caro. He and my father had been in the same class at school, 
and for many years we lived in the same apartment house on Joachimstaler Strasse in Berlin' 
Herbert Caro was a well-known mtellectual and an excellent translator in Porto Alegre. He 
translated foreign books by famous authors like Thomas Mann, Franz Werfel, Elias Canetti, 
etc. Nina was a German teacher, who also wrote some children's text books. They were very 
good friends of ours. Both died a few years ago. 

The coastal steamer to Porto Alegre would leave only two days later, and it would take three 
days to reach Porto Alegre. Herbert and Nina Caro were waiting for us at the port in Porto 
Alegre. They had reserved three rooms for us at a cheap downtown boardinghouse, one room 
for my parents, one for my sister Susi. and another one for myself We moved into the place 
with our many trunks and suitcases. There were plenty of cockroaches and mosquitoes in the 
rooms. We stayed at this boardinghouse for several months, awaiting the arrival of the many 
wooden crates containing our furniture, household goods, and so on. All my books and records, 
my typewriter, portable record player, etc. were packed in these crates. At first the Gernian 
exchange authorities refused to grant permission to pay the ocean freight in foreign currency. 
So for some time it was doubtful whether our crates would ever arrive at all. Finally, a few 
months later, after a lot of correspondence, the crates arrived in Porto Alegre shortly before 
the outbreak of the war. My parents then rented a two-story house for all of us in a nice 

Two weeks after our arrival, I saw an ad in the local newspaper, advertising for a gardener^ 1 
presented myself and got the job, though I did not speak Pormguese at all at the tmie. ihe 
lady of the house had to explain the work to me, and we spoke about the salary and work 
hours in French, so that we could understand each other First I had to transp ant grass. 1 had 
never done this before because in Germany grass is grown from ^^^j'^"*^™ 
managed to do it in the Brazilian way. In Brazil at that time grass ^^^^J^^^^^^ 
existing lawns and replanted one by one, while nowadays grass is '"^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ 
rolls to form a carpet Then I had to plant pansies, but these -^'^^^'^^^^^^^^ 
numbers of big ants that cut the leaves and flowers. I had never seen ^"^^ J^ 
I was given beLws and a poisonous gas to fumigate the ants thro g a t m hose P 
mside their hole, but at first I could not light the charcoal in the bellows. 

HmP later 1 Bot another gardening job, 
1 soon learned to speak and write Portuguese. Some nme '<" _^ ^^^j^ j^^^^^.^ ;„ ^ suburb, 
also at a residential home. Later I laid out a new garden lor a ^ ^^^^ jg^j^h history 

At the same time, twice a week, on Sunday mornings and ^"^ '^ ^-^^^^^ founded in 

^nd culture classes for children of the German-Jewish Commun >, 
'936 by emigrants from Germany. 


f . ^ .4 

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*««i." # 


After the new garden was ready, I worked as a lithographer in a local printing shop. As I 
earned very httle there. I left this job after two weeks. Some time later I took a job as a 
secretary at an import finn, writing business letters in English and Portuguese. I had never 
written letters m English before, and of course also not in Portuguese, but I managed to do it. 
I learned the Portuguese language very fast and half a year after I arrived in Brazil was able to 
speak, read and write it. I also did translations of technical manuals from English to Portuguese 
at this same firm. I stayed at this job for three years, from September 1939 to October 1942. 
The owner. Dr. Gastao de Oliveira, was a physician, but he did not exercise this profession. 
He was schizophrenic, but a very intelligent man, who spoke a number of languages. From 
his father, a banker, he had inherited various valuable buildings and plots of land. The well- 
located downtown buildings consisted of many apartments and offices. The plots, situated in 
a developing suburb, were sold by him in instalments to people who built their homes there. 
He imported marine engines and was a pioneer in importing air condifioners and washing 
machines from the United States at a time when these electncal appliances were completely 
unknown in Porto Alegre. 

Since we came to Brazil with temporary visas only, which expired after six months, we tried 
to obtain permanent residence permits upon our arrival, This also would enable me to work 
legally in Brazil. However, the Brazilian authorises denied permanent status to us and all 
other refugees. This was under the instructions of the Brazilian government, headed at the 
time by President Getulio Vargas, a sympathizer with Nazi Germany. Meanwhile, the war 
broke out and the Brazilian government could not expel the refijgees because no other country 
would accept them. Finally, in July 1 94 1 the Brazilian aulhonties granted provisional residence 
and work permits to all temporary or "irregular" immigrants; these could be revoked at any 
time. They were granted "a titulo precdiio " (provisionally) only, until the end of the war. 



After my arrival m Po to Alegre. 1 of course wanted Seldi to come to Brazil very much and 
made every possible eftort to get an immigration permit for her But this was nearly impossible 
at the time, due to the governmenfs antisemitic immigration policy. Although Brazil had not 
entered the war yet. the secret circulars sent out by the Foreign Ministry to all Brazilian 
consulates and diplomatic missions instructed them not to grant visas to Jewish people. 

When Foreign Minister Oswaldo Aranha was visiting his mother in Porto Alegre in February 
1940, 1 went to her house, where her son stayed during his short visit here. I explained my 
situation to him and gave him a petition requesting that a visa be granted to my fiancee in 
London. He promised to take the petition along to Rio de Janeiro, but I never received a 


Ail my other attempts to get a permit for Seldi also failed. I therefore decided to travel to Rio 
de Janeiro, where I could go in person to Brazil's Foreign Ministry, called Itamaraty. and try 
to gel the visa I longed for so much. Everybody here told me that it was an impossible enterprise, 
but 1 had firmly decided to do the utmost to reach my goal. 1 prepared my trip in the best 
possible way. Through personal connections I tried to obtain letters of recommendation. 1 
had also many documents translated, proving that I had a horticultural apprenticeship, worked 
as a gardener in German), had attended the vocational horticultural school there and that 
Seldi had agricultural training in Germany. 1 also obtained a recommendation from a local 
lawyer for whom I had laid out a garden in Porto Alegre. Ail this was very important as 
people with agricultural training had absolute priority as far as immigration was concerned. 

All these documents were attached to the new petition that I had prepared for the Foreign 
Ministry. It was a true masterpiece, much ditferent from the very formal one I had submitted 
here in Porto Alegre a few months earlier. It stressed the absolute necessity 1 had to have a 
woman at my side - my future wife - to help me in planting and cultivating a selected apple 
orchard in the countryside. At the end. the petition stressed how urgently I needed to obtam 
the visa, due to the fact that my bride was residing in London. Her life there was in danger 
because of the war and soon a voyage across the ocean might not be possible any rnore. The 
draft of this petition was written by mv fiiend Stefan Wertheimer. also a reftigee from Germany, 
who recognized the great importance that both of us, Seldi and I. had agricultural training^ 
The final, masterful Portuguese version was prepared by Wertheimer's ^^q"^'"^^"^^' f^ 
Franco, who was an English teacher and also had published a Portuguese-English dictionary. 

Through the intermediation of Dr. Gastao de Oliveira. the ^-^'^f'^'.^Z^'^^^^^^ 
as a correspondent. I contacted Oswaldo Aranha's brother, ose Antom Ara^^^^^^^^ 
■n Porto Alegre. He gave me a personal letter o^-— ^^^^ 
^t the Itamaraty. Through my friend Wertheimer s .^^'"f ;;„^'' ^liriha). I got in touch 
Schultz, who knew Aranha's mother. Luiza de Fre.tas Valle (Dona Lmzmn ),j^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ 

^h her at her residence. I also asked her to give "^^^Z" ^^ j, ,hat without having 
planned to settle in the countryside, as a horticulturist, but 1 couiu 
^y fiancee - whom I intended to marry - at my side. 

Gut Winkel This photo and my 
I showed Dona Luizinha a photo of Seldi milking a cow a ^^^ promptly gave me a 

story obviously impressed her very much. She was quite toucn 




J . u »Af^ ir,5n Carlos Muniz, who held an important government 
letter of recon.menda,,on,ohnd.oJoa^^^^^^^^^^^ of ,,n.gra.,on attd Colon.zation. an 

post. He was the P-^'^'^^^'^'^Z^Zr^^y palace. Several years later he beca,.e 
organ of the Foreign M'"'^'^' '°"'"'^ Jf, anions He held this post at the fme Oswaldo 
the Braz lan representative to the unitea iNduuus. w^ , . . , vt l ^^ 

Aranha presided over the histoncal sess.on of the UN General Assembly on November 29, 
1947. which approved the resolution to partition Palestine. _ _ 


Seldi in agricullural work in Gut Winkel 

Supported by ail this documentation, 1 left Porto Alegre by train on June 28, 1940. The train 
stopped at Sao Paulo three days later. I got out there for a day to get to know the city. I fmall\ 
arrived in Rio de Janeiro on July 3. after a five-day trip. Traveling to Rio de Janeiro by tram 
was cheaper than by steamer. There were no commercial flights in Brazil at the time. 

Upon arrival I went to Itamaraty. The long line of reftigees seeking entrance to the Foreign 
Ministry extended the length of the street. Guards at the door barred all these desperate 
people, who were trying to obtain visas for their relatives in Europe - some even for then 
husbands or wives whom they had had to leave behind - in an attempt to save their lives ai 
that very late date. Most of them were told by an official at the entrance door to come back 
later. In fact, almost no visas were being issued for Jews any more. 

However, the personal letters of recommendation 1 carried opened all the doors for me. I was 
admitted to Itamaraty without any trouble when I waved the white envelope in my hand, 
saying "I have come on the recommendation of Dona Luizinha Aranha." First 1 went to sec 
Oswaldo Aranha's secretary. Dr. Sergio de Lima e Silva. and showed him the recommendation 
of Aranha's brother The secretary informed me that the minister was traveling and would be 
out of town for some time. 

1 then called on Joao Carlos Muniz and gave him the handwritten letter from Aranha's mother. 
Muniz was very sympathetic and promised to do everything he could regarding the maner 
He asked me to return in a few days, but actually 1 ended up waiting several weeks for the 
outcome and had to come back various times. Meanwhile, at the end of August, Dona Luiziniia 
came to Rio, as a grandchild had just been bom. 1 visited her at the hospital. 

Two days later 1 returned to the Foreign Ministry. Muniz told me - to my greatest happiness 
Hiat a permanent visa would be granted to Seldi. He sent his secretary, Laura to accompany 
me to the passport department (which was in another wing of Itamaraty) with instructions to 
issue the visa. There I was told that I first had to take care of a few formalities, such as having 
my signature notarized, etc.. and then, after everything was in order, a cable would be sent to 
(he Brazilian consul in London. After having taken care of the formalities. I was told at the 
passport department that now everything was alright. The cable authorizing the visa would 
be sent to the consul and therefore 1 could return to Porto Alegre right away. 

However, my friend Wertheimer had warned me before leaving that I should be very careful 
with the head of the passport department. Wertheimer had some recent experience, as he also 
had endeavored at the Itamaray to bring his parents over from Germany - and he had finally 
succeeded. He is half-Jewish and Protestant by birth. He is married to a very nice Jewish 
woman. Eva. They live in Rio de Janeiro. We visit each other when we are in Rio or he comes 
to Porto Alegre. 

Wertheimer knew that the head of the passport department, Labienno Salgado dos Santos, 
author of the study "The unsuitability of the Semitic emigration" was a virulent and notorious 
antisemite. At the end of 1 939 the Brazilian consulates were notified that the issuing of visas 
to "Semites" would depend on an authorization by the passport department of Itamaraty. This 
meant it was Salgado dos Santos who ultimately had to authorize the granting of all visas. 

Taking into consideration Wertheimer 's warning, I decided not to pay heed to the passport 
department's recommendation to remm to Porto Alegre. I resolved to stay in Rio until 1 could 
ensure myself that a numbered cable had been sent to the Brazilian consulate in London 
authorizing Seldfs permanent visa or until I received Seldi's cable confimiation that the visa 
had arrived. This was the right thing to do indeed. After a few days, Seldi contacted me with 
the news that no telegram with a visa authorization had arrived at the consulate. I promptly 
rcnimed to the passport department but they could find none of the relevant documents 
regarding my petition and its favorable decision. When I returned to Mun.z departmen and 
told him what had happened, he was furious and sent his very helpftil secretary. Dona Laura, 
to accompany me back to the passport department. 

This had the necessary effect. The docume.s Jnall>^.c^ted at ^^^^^ 
- where they had probably been deliberate y ^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

processed immediately, and on September 5, 1 per onally sent ^^^".^^^ ^^^,^ ,, 5,1^, 
cable to the consulate m London, via Western Telegraph Co togem^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^1^^^^ ^^ 

After Seldi confirmed that the authorization had arrived, r ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ,^ ^.^^ 

September 8. I was finally back on September 12, ^"^^ '^^"""^^jjIj^^j^ of course. I was very 
waiting for the processing and for a favorable outcome ot my p ^^ ^^^'^.^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^jjdie of 
Happy that I finally had succeeded. Very few people were a .^^ to obtain a visa for 

the war, and in spite of the antisemitic Brazilian '"i'^'&'''^'°^^/. .„ an;ounts of money. 
their relatives, not even those who were able and w.lhng to pay g 

arv resident whose visa had 
The entire story is an odd one. indeed. 1. officially a ^^"'P'JJ^i,^,^ ^y own status), to 
^^pired long ago (fortunately no one at Itamaray had as ^^^^,^^^ ^ pennanent visa for 
whom pennanent residence was denied during the war y ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ seldi s 
my fiancee. It seems that such a thing can only happen 1 



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permanent visa was obtained mainly through my personal connections and also due to the 
very .mportant fact that Seld. had an agricultural and I a hort, cultural trammg. Under the 
prevalent legislation at the, agriculturists had absolute priority regarding the 
obtention of an immigration visa. 

I was able to keep my job at the import firm, in spite of having been away in Rio for nearly 
three months Of course, in Rio I spent completely the little I had saved tn Porto Alegre since 
I had arnved one year earlier and even had to borrow the money for my railway return fare 
from my relative, Arthur Seligmann, who lived in Rio. After having returned to Porto Alegre, 
while waiting for Seldi's arrival, I sometimes was afraid to wake up and find that everything 
was only a beautiful dream and that we would not be together at all. 1 just could not believe 
that I had succeeded, that Seldi could come and that we would live together. But then I 
realized that I myself had paid for the ministry's cable authorization to the consul and that the 
whole story was true indeed and not just a dream. 



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Seldrs Pohsh passport wuh for England and Braz.l 







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For a better understanding of this subject, very closely related to the immigration of our 
family to Brazil and Seldi's arrival here during the war. I fee! it would be convenient to 
explore the question in greater depth. In 1930 Getulio Vargas seized power and became 
president of Brazil. Vargas was strongly influenced by the Nazi-Fascist ideology and 
sympathized with Hitler's and Mussolini's regimes. His Eslado Novo regime, proclaimed in 
November 1 917 banned all political parties and established a dictatorship. It was inspired by 
the totalitarian political systems which were in force in Germany and Italy at the time. The 
Estado Novo ( 1 937-45) was racist and strongly discriminated against the Jews. 

On June 7. 1937, Secret Circular no. 1 127 was issued by the Foreign Ministry (Ilamaraty ). li 
was personally authorized by Getulio Vargas. It was sent by Itamaraty to all Brazilian consulates 
and diplomatic missions, prohibiting their granting visas to persons of "Semitic origin." The 
main reason why this and the following circulars were called "secret" was that the members 
of Getulio Vargas* inner circle were afraid of a negative international reaction. Item C of this 
circular reads: 

"Passport visas shall be refused to every person who is known - by his own 
declaration or reliable infomiation - [...] to be of ethnic Semitic origin. In the 
event that there only is 'suspicion*, it is recommended that the authorities delay 
the granting of the visa, until such time as they are able, through efficient means 
of investigation, to clarify the doubt and arrive at a final decision." 

Persons who afl'imied they were not "Semitic" and declared themselves to be Catholic or to 
belong to any other Christian religion had to present their certificate of baptism, which could 
not be of recent date. It had to be prior to 1933. meaning prior to Hitler's rise to power. On 
September 27, 1938, this circular was replaced by Secret Circular no. 1249 concerning "the 
entry of Jews C Israel Has') into Brazilian territory." This and the following secret circulars 
were issued at the time Oswaldo Aranha was Foreign Minister and bore his signature. They 
were approved by president Getulio Vargas. Aranha. who had been Brazilian ambassador in 
Washington, had been appointed Foreign Minister in March 1938. 

The words "of Semitic origin" in the previous circular were replaced in the new circular by 
the word "Israelilas" a term considered at the time more neutral and acceptable, suggesting 
that the Jews would not be considered any more as a uniformly undesirable "race." As a 
matter of fact, the new circular was anti-Jewish without prohibiting the entry of all Jews. 
They could now only obtain temporary visas and their requests for visas had to be accompanied 
by a letter from the government that had issued their passports, stating that there was no legal 
impediment tor their return. Jews from Germany, Austria. Poland, etc. were thus automatically 
excluded. According to further Secret Circular no. 1328. British, French, U.S. and Canadian 
Jews were exempted from this requiremem. They could obtain a temporary visa "without 
any problem " Still in accordance with Secret Circular no. 1 249, Jewish artists and intellectuals 
ol international fame could also be admitted, as well as Jewish capitalists and/or industrialists 
with a minimum capital of 500,000 mil reis (US$29,000.00), if they could prove the transfer 
of this amount and its investment in Brazil. This amount was lowered later on. 

On May 5, 1938, new immigration law no. 406 was issued, enacted through decree no 3010 
(,f August 20, 1938. Its purpose was "to preserve the ethmc constitution of Brazil [ ] and to 
further agricultural work." Eighty percent of the immigration quota reserved for each country 
had to be filled with agriculturists and rural technicians, who had to present due proof of their 
profession. One of the reasons presented by the government for preventing Jews from 
immigrating to Brazil was that they were not agriculturists. This new law was therefore in 
line with the governmental policy to bar Jewish immigration. 

The same law also created the Council of Immigration and Colonization (CIC). a structural 
organ of the Foreign Ministry, but directly subordinated to the Presidency of the Republic. 
The Council had its seat at the Foreign Ministry. Its purpose was to orient and supervise 
immigration and colonization services. The law concentrated in the hands of the CIC the 
power to examine the situation of Jewish immigration candidates. From that time on, the 
power of decision-making regarding matters related to the "Jewish question" was left in the 
hands of the Foreign Ministry and the Council of Colonization and Immigration.This Council 
was composed of seven members appointed by the Brazilian president. The president of this 
Council was Joao Carlos Muniz, precisely the influential person at Itamaraty to whom the 
letter of recommendation from Foreign Minister Aranha's mother was addressed. This probably 
was one of the decisive factors for my petition to the Foreign Minister having obtained approval, 
which certainly was handed down by this Council. 

Many among the Brazilian intellecmal elite and most of the diplomats during the Vargas era 
considered Jews as "undesirable." Antisemitism was prevalent and most of the leading 
diplomats repeated Nazi rhetoric. Some of them were not far behind Goebbels or Streicher in 
their virulent statements. The following citations, all reproduced from the valuable book 
about this subject 'O Anti-Senunsmo na Era Getulio Vargas {im-45) hy Mana 
Tucci Cameiro, represent just a few samples to better illustrate this point. The author of this 
book thoroughly researched Itamaraty's historical archives for nearly two years. 

Francisco Campos, Minister of Justice and the Intenor, -ns-dered the p™ ^^^^^ 
Brazil "incompatible with our immigration policy." In a — .^"^"^/^^^ 
Oswaldo Aranha. dated September 22. 1939, he suggested ^^^^ W^^^^^^^ 
and recommended that consular authorities not grant visas to Jews, not even temporary 

A n t^prlin Cvro de Freitas Valle, sent an 
In November 1939, the Brazilian ambassador in Berlin, ^^^^^.j^^^ .j^^pg^gtive patriotic 

admonishing letter to his cousin, Oswaldo Aranha, >"/*^^"^'^ . ^.Qf bad quality" 

duty," mentioning that it was impossible for h.m to be silent about Jews 

entering Brazil. 

f the Brazilian diplomatic 
In 1938 Labienno Salgado dos Santos, at the time ''"'^''^'^'^^jj^jy ^^out the unsuitability of 
mission in Bucharest, submitted to Cyro de Freitas Va e ^^^^^ ^^ Qs„aldo Aranha. 
Semitic immigration." This study was forwarded by J-rei 

Labienno-s study contained all kind of infamous racist ^<^<^^^°'^^ ^^^m the "disnirbing 
«ith the contents of Secret Circular no. 1 127, ot une iv , .^j.^,^^^,, ^f ,he Semitic 
elements of our country's public order are ^^f f "">' f°""i73„on. he goes on, is that they 
^ace." One of the reasons of the drawback of Jewish immigra 

■^# 7 ♦ 


become agents of con.n.un,sm. He adds that he is aware of the contribut.on of the Jews .n 
LtabS m Russ.a and other countnes. He contmues. 

^•Jews scorn the Christians, either because they consider themselves strperior or 
bccluse they hold resentments for two thousand years of persecu lon^There are 
few naturalL Braz.han Jews who can speak Portuguese. If they do, they cannot 
Ike themselves understood. Nearly wUhout any exception, they come to the 
ilomat.c mission badly clad, dirty, an appearance that reveals avance and 
sordidness. [...] This race rarely works m agnculmre. 

He thinks it wise to warn the consular services, recommending not to admit employees of 
"sem.tic ongm." At the end, he most cynically remarks: ''Stating my opinion I am not moved 
by prejudice of race or faith. I never had them. 1 am dnven exclusively by the interest of 
studying the question with the utmost impartiality." Probably on account of the merits of 
his antisemitic rhetoric. Lab.enno Salgado dos Santos was later promoted by Itamaraty to the 
post of head of the Foreign Ministiy's passport department, in this influemial position, he 
exerted his utmost efforts to prevent further immigration of Jews to Brazil. 

Mario Moreira da Silva, Brazilian consul general in Budapest, points out in 1938: 

"Brazil needs hands, but friendly, sound ones, never, however, parasite [...] hands. 
[...] The Jews do no assimilate and are forever Jews, without any love or affection 
for the country that receives and hosts them. [...] The Jew just knows how to do 
business [...] and uses dishonest means in his trade." 

J. R. Barros e Pimentel, Brazilian consul general in Warsaw, mentions "the ever-growing 
belief in Europe that the Jews are the main promoters and biggest propagandists of communism 
in every continent." He stales that the Jews are "elements that are directly harmful, dissimulated 
as agriculturists." He further refers to the "transplantation of this social cancer." 

In a cable sent to the Foreign Ministry in 1936, Jorge Latour, Brazil's charge d'affaires in 
Warsaw, refers to the Jews as "pernicious elements, undesirable in every country." In a 
memorandum to the same ministry he refers to the Jews as a "cyst among nations." He further 
analyzes the "dominant psychical traces of the Jew," among them: "the love of money resulting 
in greed for profit, nomadism, [...] subversive spirit, [...] a latent anti-social individual," [.-■] 

In a 1936 memorandum the Brazilian commercial attache in Warsaw, captain Pedro Rocha. 
points out the negative aspect of the Jewish immigration. Exaggerating the number of Jewish 
immigrants he states: 

"Brazil will thus end up having the largest Jewish population in the world. It is 
easy to imagine what will become of our country dominated by Judaism. This 
already can be observed in Rio de Janeiro." 

Referring to the German Jews he utters; 

"They completely forget that in their country they are worth less than a leprous 


In a letter to Jorge Latour, he considers the Jews to be: 

"a non-assimilable and egoistic race. Ungrateful, lacking patriotism and highly 
harmful to the country that hosts them. Psychologically degenerated. Stupidly 
intolerant in religious matters, considering the rest of mankind as their enemies. 
These individuals do not adapt to any productive work. [...] They are unhuman 
and lack all scruples, living solely off the exploitation of their fellow citizens. 
They always try to live in the city, where they agglomerate in filthy quarters 
without any hygiene. [...]" 

In 1936, Edgardo Barbedo, Brazilian consul general in Warsaw points out: 

"From immemorial time it has been known that the Jew is not an agriculturist. 
He lives on dirty trade, exploiting other people's misery and many times that of 
his own people." 

Inamemorandum of April 1938. sent by the Brazilian ambassadorto the Vatican, Hildebrando 
Accioly, to the Foreign Ministry, he mentions that the Jews are: 

"stronger or more resistant to assimilation due to centuries of segregation, in 
which the cursed race has lived on the Old Continent. They would thus turn 
Brazil into the fatherland of Israel." 

In August 1938, Carlos Alves de Souza of the Foreign Ministry mentions in a memorandum: 

"The intensification of immigration would destroy our ethnic ^^^ religious uni^ 
and would establish a division of our country into two antagomc t.elds, Jews and 

In the same memorandum he describes the Jews as being: 

"subversive elements of social ^'-tegrat.o.^^J|. P^^^ 
to assimilate by temperament, having no scruples, speculators 
to agriculture." 

10 agriculture. 

Further citations of Brazilian diplomats could be added ^^ "^^"^^^^^^^^ about the 

be redundant. I believe, however, it is necessary to ^.^ .^j^^^^ j^ March 1938. he was 
personality of Oswaldo Aranha. Before he ^ecatne Foreign ^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^ ^^e 
Brazilian ambassador in Washington from 1934 to 19.^/- j^,^ direction. Vargas. however, 
United Slates and tried to influence President Getulio varg ^.Nazi/Fascist sympathy 

sympathized with the German/Italian Axis. He was ^"PP^^;^ .ovemment ofr.cials. In 1 942 
by the war minister, high-ranking generals and other '"* "^^"l^j^/^^f diplomatic relations with 
Brazil, in view of the military development of the wa , ^^^^ ^_^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
the Axis powers and a short time later entered the wa 

ntroversial. While in some 
Aranha's position with regard to the Jewish 'l^^^^J^J^^J.^II^rgrants, for the most part he 
'solated cases he helped m authorizing the entry o 


denied such petitions. In October 1938, he sent a letter to Adhemar de Barros, interventor in 
Sao Paulo, asking thai urgent steps be taken to investigate the suspected existence of a ghetto 
in formation in the city of Sao Paulo "to prevent the aggravation of a situation which could 
become highly detrimental." In the same letter he slates that the Jews and Japanese are: 

"subversive and dissolvent elements with a tendency to create racial cysts, veritable 
foreign bodies within the national organism. [...] The Jew, by tendency, has a 
radical aversion to agriculture and does not identify with other races or creeds. 
Isolated, there may still be some chance he can be assimilated by the environment 
that receives him, as usually happens in Brazil at the present time. As a crowd, 
however, he undoubtedly would become a danger to Brazil's future homogeneity." 

On November 1 9, 1 939, Aranha stated in public, with regard to the entry of Jews into Brazilian 
territory, that he considered the proportion "frightening." In various instances, as documented 
in Tucci Cameiro's book, Aranha denied immigration petitions to desperate people seeking 
refuge in Brazil. I would like to mention just two of these cases. The first one concerns a 
relative of Albert Einstein, the world famousscientist to whom the Nobel Prize was awarded 
in 1921. With the rise of Nazism, Einstein left Germany in 1933 and settled in the United 
States. He was appointed professor of theoretical physics at the Institute of Advanced Smdy 
in Princeton, N.J. In February 1941, Einstein sent a letter to the Brazilian ambassador in 
Washington, Carlos Martins Pereira e Souza. Einstein asked the ambassador, in the name of 
his second cousm, Rodolfo Moss, who lived in Sao Paulo, to bring to the attention of the 
Brazilian immigration authorities the case of Moss's mother, Selma, sixty-four years old. She 
was in a concentration camp in the south of France, "where she was living under the most 
appaling conditions." 

The ambassador forwarded this letter immediately to Oswaldo Aranha, mentioning that 
Einstein deset^/ed high consideration. The Foreign Ministry, under the direction of Oswaldo 
Aranha, however, was not concerned, not even about such an outstanding person as Albert 
Einstein. Forwarded six weeks later to the ambassador and signed by Mauricio Nabuco in the 
name of the Foreign Minister, the decision was as follows: 

"I regret to inform you that at the moment it is quite impossible to comply with 
the professor's request, due to the provisions in force." 

Another unfavorable decision was the case of Cora Meyer, the wife of a manager of an 
important wheat mill in Porto Alegre. She had lived in Brazil for twelve years and her husband 
lor twenty. They had two children at the time, bom in Brazil. In December 1942 Cora Meyer 
visited Aranha's mother, Luiza Aranha, in Porto Alegre (just as I had done two and a half 
years eariier) and then sent her a letter making a dramatic appeal. She asked Luiza to intercede 
at Itamaraty in favor of twenty of her relatives (her parents, siblings, brothers-in-law. etc.) 
who lived in France in great danger, "to save them from the claws of the Germans." Luiza 

promply contacted her son, Oswaldo, asking for his interference On December 17 1942, he 
sent a short formal reply to his mother: 

"Dear Mother, I received your card accompanied by Mrs. Cora Meyer's letter. 
Unlortunately it is completely impossible to comply with Mrs. Meyer's request, 
because the laws regarding the entry of foreigners, mainly European ones, are 



absolutely incontestable As a matter of fact th,s matter depends exclustvely 
the Ministry of Justice. A^iuaivciy 


How fortunate I was indeed that I did not use the recommendation of Aranha's brother to 
Oswaldo's secretary, as an intermediary to the Foreign Minister himself but rather Lui7.' n 
the head of the Council of Immigration and Colonization. Joao Carlos Muniz! 

In November 1 94 1 , the Spanish steamer SS Cabo de Homos, with ninety-five Jewish reftigees 
on board, landed in Rio de Janeiro. These passengers were not pemiitted to disembark They 
had been detained in Cadiz for six months, looking for a ship to take them out of Europe 
Their Brazilian entry visas, issued by the friendly Brazilian ambassador in Vichy, Souza 
Dantas, had expired in the meantime and in spite of his efforts could not be revalidated. 
Personal appeals to president Getulio Vargas, including a telegram sent by the Brazilian 
ambassador in Washington, Carlos Martins Pereira e Souza. and pressure on Foreign Minister 
Oswaldo Aranha on the part of various foreign diplomats in Rio de Janeiro, were of no avail. 
No permission to disembark in Brazil was granted to these desperate passengers. The steamer 
was already on its way back to Europe, when finally the Dutch colony Curasao in the Antilles 
agreed to accept these refugees, on the condition of their being transferred to some other 
place later on.. 

In 1944. Aranha resigned as Foreign Minister. Tliree years later he was appointed Brazilian 
representative to the United Nations by the Brazilian president, Eurico Dutra. In September 
1947, he was elected president of the UN General Assembly which had to decide about the 
partition of Palestine. Two months later, on November 29, the partition was approved in a 
historical meeting of the General Assembly, and the State of Israel created. Aranha, as well 
as the former head of the Immigration and Colonization Council, Joao Carlos Muniz, who by 
then had become the Brazilian representative to the United Nations, both actively supported 
this historical resolution. The State of Israel, however, was not bom "by the tenacity, by the 
faith hill of hope and the dreams full of ideals of Oswaldo Aranha" and he certainly was not 
"the creator of the State of Israel" as his biographer F. Talaya O'Donnell and others want us 
to believe. This is a myth only. The State of Israel was fmit of nearly two thousand years of 
aspirations of the children of Israel, dispersed throughout the worid, and of the idealistic and 
arduous efforts of the pioneers - the haluizim - to rebuild the land of our ancestors. 

Aranha, a defender of democracy and a friend of the United States, no doubt had the great 
merit of having aligned Brazil with the Allies during the war and away from the Ax.s^^-orce^s, 
against strong opposition inside the Brazilian government, Again in Nov-n e , ^^^ ^^ 
undoubtedly in the interest of Brazil to accompany the U.S. ^f J^^'™^ / -^^^ 
Palestine and the establishment of a Jewish State. As a two-«s ^^^^^^^^^^^ recjui.d. 
each vote in favor of the proposition was very important, since " ^ , ^ 

^oubtiul. Argemina, for Stance, abstained and France's vote was -ce^^^^^^ 
moment, when that country decided to vote in favor ot the motion. ^_^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

'0 postpone the vote but Aranha succeeded in having the motion ^^^_^^^ ,^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 
delay The partition was approved by a scant t^vo ^^'^^J^^^n^^^abs^ 
apposed, 10 abstemious (including the United Kingdom) ana one ^ efficiently 

favorable vote was important and so was the fact that Aranha presded skiUtu 
over the General Assembly session that approved the partitio p 



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Oswaldo Aranha, however, assumed different personalities at different tnnes. It cannot he 
overlooked or forgotten that during the decisive time that Aranha was Brazil s Foreign Minister 
(19^8-44) the greatest restrictions against the immigration of Jews were in force. Thousands 
of Jews tried in vain at the Brazilian consulates and diplomatic missions m Europe to obtain 
an entry visa Many Jewish people who already resided m Brazil also tried unsuccessfully at 
Itamaraty to obtain visas on behalf of their relatives m Europe. Most of these petitions were 
denied in view of Brazil's discriminatory, antisemitic immigration policy. Aranha, head of 
Itamaraty undoubtedly supported this policy or went along with it, as we have seen. Thousands 
of Jewish lives could have been saved, but Itamaraty's denial of entry visas culminated in the 
death of these unfortunate people in concentration camps and gas chambers. Itamaraty's 
ultimate responsibility in these cases is evident and undeniable. 

There were, of course, a few laudable exceptions among the Brazilian diplomats at the time, 
such as, for'instance. Luis Martins de Souza Dantas, Brazilian ambassador in Paris and later 
in Vichy. He sincerely tried to help the desperate Jewish refugees and issued visas to many of 
them before and during the war. He therefore was severely reprimanded by Brazil's Foreign 
Ministry, Itamaraty, "on account of the large quantity of visas issued to tounsts." According 
to a statement by J. Edgar Hoover, dated March 1 941 , as mentioned in the book by Americanist 
Jeffrey Lesser. "O Bmsil e a Qiiestao Judaica" (Brazil and the Jewish question). Souza 
Dantas lost the right to authonze visas, because "practically all visas were granted to persons 
of Jewish origin." In August 1 942, after Brazil entered the war at the side of the Allies, Souza 
Dantas was jailed by the Germans when resisting the invasion of the Brazilian embassy. He 
was interned in Bad Godesberg for two years. 

Another laudable exception was the diplomat Joao Guimaraes Rosa, Brazilian consul in 
Hamburg, one of the greatest Brazilian writers. He helped various Jews and was known to 
have exceeded his quota of visas for immigrants. He too was reprimanded by Itamaraty. Just 
as Souza Dantas, he was jailed by the Nazis when Brazil entered the war. The Brazilian 
ambassador in Washington, Carlos Martins Pereira e Souza, also interceded in various instances 
in favor of Jewish refugees. 

Last but not least, it is my duty to mention here Murillo de Souza. the completely unknown 
Brazilian consul in Marseilles. He too was one of the few courageous exceptions among the 
Brazilian diplomats at the time. Contrary to the prevalent policy of the Brazilian authorities 
at that time, on March 3, 1939, he put his stamp in our passports, granting temporary visas to 
my parents, my sister and myself, thus saving our lives. May his memory be honored! To him, 
to the few other Brazilian diplomats just mentioned and to all the other just people who saved 
Jewish lives, the Talmudic verse applies: 



Klaus and Seldi in Pono Alegre. May 1941. shortly after Seldis 
airival from London 


It , ok a month f.r Seldi to get the permanent ^^^^^^^ 

Tl„ Brazilian consulate's office hours were ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ authorization was 

m ondon, the Consulate was nearly always closed. 1 he foreign! 

da dSeptember5, 1940,whi!ethevisawasissuedonOctober4. iv ■ 

A ^eamship of the Royal Mail Line was scheduled to leave for ^^^'^"^ ^^ °^^,. \^^ brother 
clo :,s fare was paid by the Jewish Refugees Committee at in ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ steamships 
M.scha also paid a part. In November - at the last minute - ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^,^^ purposes, and none 
of 'he Royal Mail Line had been requisitioned by the gove ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^^^^ ^^^j^^ jg,^ 
would be available for passenger service for the t'^^e J^^'"^ . ^^j^^ i^^j ^^it her job in London 
the scheduled Royal Mail Line steamer would leave hng ^ ^^^ ^^^^.^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^,,\\ 

and canceled her work permit. As the steamer had been c ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^,^_ she then 
^"pend from the Jewish Refugees Committee """. /"' . f ^hom she knew from the 
moved to Oxford to stay with her good friend ^'^^ ™j^^^^^ 
agricultural farm in the countryside where she and a g o p ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ,„ ^^der to 
after she had arrived in England. Seld. stayed m W ^^^.^^^^_ ,1,^ worked part-time 
^^pplement the small amount she received from the Refuge^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^.j,^ of the writer 
m the household of three Austnan refugee women, 
^ugo von Hoffmannsthal. 

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Oxford- a university town, was free of military or strategic targets. It therefore was not bombed 
during the war bv the German Lufnvafje. While hving in London. Seldi had been subject to 
daily bombardments from mid-1940 on. She had to spend many mghts m air-raid shelters m 
the basements of the apartment houses she lived at or on the platforms of the subway stations 
where hundreds of Londoners spent the night. 

Finally through the assistance of the .Jewish Refugees Committee - Seldi was offered an 
opportunity to serve as escort to a young Jewish woman. .lohanna Wollner. called Hansi, who 
was interned at a mental hospital in Bristol. Her parents had had to leave her behmd when 
they emigrated to Uruguay. She needed to travel now to join her family m Montevideo, but 
since she suffered from a mental illness, she could not travel by herself. This was a very 
fortunate circumstance for Seldi, since Hansi's parents paid Seldi's t'irst-class fare on the 
Blue Star Line's SSAndalucia Star, plus £ 10. the maximum amount allowed to take out of 
the country. 

Seldi and Hansi left Glasgow on February 15, 1941. Seldi had to take care of her. Due to 
Hansi's condition, this was no easy job. in the evening during blackout time, for instance, 
even though the light was on, Hansi would insist on opening up the tightly sealed curtains of 
the cabin she shared with Seldi. This, of course, was a highly dangerous thing to do. Seldi and 
the crew had to avoid it by all means. Due to the war. the ship officially left from a port 
"somewhere in England." It sailed around Ireland, zigzagging constantly and under permanent 
blackout due to the great danger from German submarines. On the way back the SSAnc/aliicia 
Siar carried meat from Argentina to England. During her next voyage, this steamship was 
torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine. 

Seldi arrrived inRiodclaneiroon March 5. I94l.andhad to leave Hansi there, who traveled 
on by herself to the next port, Montevideo, on the same steamer. Seldi stayed a short time in 
Rio de Janeiro. My mother's second cousin, Arthur Seligmann, who had emigrated to Brazil 
back in 1 908 and was established in Rio. along with another relative who worked at his firm. 
Adolph Herzfeld. took care of Seldi upon her arrival, as she did not speak one word of 
Portuguese. She stayed in a hotel for a few days. During that time she visited Seligmann"s big 
farm near Rio, together with him and his second wife, and stayed there overnight. Seldi then 
embarked on a coastal steamer to Porto Alegre and arrived here on March 12. When Seldi 
came to Brazil, she was twenty-one years old and I was twenty-three. 

During the first few months we stayed at a very cheap boardinghouse downtown. 1 earned a 
salaray of 600 mil reis at the time, about US$32.- (one dollar was a little less than twenty mil 
reis). For room and board we paid 250 mil reis. Seldi earned her first money. 200 mil reis, a 
day after she arrived. I took her to the local newspaper. Correio do Povo, where she gave an 
interview about the London bombings. She described how it felt, after those terrible nights of 
terror in that city, to suddenly wake up in peaceful Porto Alegre. Back then, the city had a 
population of only about 200.000. while today Porto Alegre has about 1 .500,000 inhabitants. 

At first Seldi worked part-time. She took care of the small children of friends of ours, the 
Cierman-Jewish family Weil, for three months. Then she answered a newspaper advertisement, 
looking lor an English teacher, placed by the wife of a high-ranking army ofTicer, and began 
to give her lirsl English lessons in late July. Her second pupil, Avani. recommended by the 
tirst one, was the wife of the inurvcnior, Cordeiro de Farias, the federally appointed state 
governor ot Rio Grande do Sul. Avani and her husband lived at the government palace and 

Seldi gave the English lessons there. Her arrival at the palace always was announced by a 
footman who knocked his baton against the ground, calling out ^^pw/essora mglesa - (the 
English teacher). 

Seldi is an excellent teacher. Her pupils always loved her very interesting English lessons 
Some of her old pupils whom she taught a long time ago still send her ftowers on her birthday 
or send greeting cards. Sometimes when our daughter Judith is traveling, Seldi substitutes 
her and Judith's pupils adore Seldi's lessons. 

With Avani's recommendations, Seldi soon had more pupils than she could lake and then 
earned more than I. She therefore passed these pupils on to me and I then started to teach 
English too. We gave lessons to children, young people and adults. I was teaching English in 
addition to my regular job as a secretary. 

After a few months we left the boardinghouse and rented an attic room downtown. We bought 
a bed, a wardrobe, a table, two chairs and a cupboard and were quite happy and proud to have 
a home of our own. Later, Dr. Gastao de Oliveira, the owner of the firm at which I worked, 
offered us to move to one of the two-bedroom apartments in his building. Many of them 
stood empty and therefore I did not have to pay rent or electricity. It was a nice downtown 
apartment with a view over the Guaiba river. We lived there quite comfortably for several 
months until we had to move out when I left my job in 1942. 

Dr Oliveira had a tenant on the ground floor of the neighboring commercial building, which 
he also owned. The tenant operated a nice restaurant there. We had lunch there on weekdays, 
at a special discount price on a monthly basis. One day Dr. Oliveira had some differences 
with the Gennan restaurant owner, who from then on - in his imagination - became his enemy. 
This was the reason he wanted to evict him right away. He told me that we should not have 
our meals there any more. 1 told my boss that though I worked for his fimi, I would like to go 
on choosing my eating place at my pleasure. This was the end. Consequently 1 was fired and 
also had to leave the comfortable rent-free apartment. We then rented two fr<^"t r~^^ 
one-story house near the center of the cty, which was the residence of a Gemian upholsterer 
and his wife. 

I then took on part-time jobs as an English and Portuguese ^«^^f "^f^^^S^^^^^ 
in the evening I gave English lessons. After some time w^^^^^^^^^^ 

a little one-story house with four small rooms and a little garaen w. ^^ ^^^ ^.^^ ^^ 

This house was near my parents' home. The garden, which lay ao ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 
rented the house, was soon in full blossom, as I P'^"^^^ !" f^^^j of Seldi's and my pupils 
ihat grew very fast. It became a pleasure to sit in the S^^'^f^' ^^^ ^jj^atej jn an elegant 
lived nearby in very fashionable houses as our ""j^^reat part of our lessons at 
neighborhood. This was very practical for us as we ^°'' ^ ^' ./^^ ^ell as an icebox. The 
home. Gradually we bought more furniture and ^'^"^^"'^ ^^ j„„ ggainsl the entrance door 
'ceman woke us up every day very early in the mommg. "^^ J^^^ j^^^^. ^^at I imported an 
^nd leaving a long block of ice on the step. It was on y a le y .^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^j^ ^^^,^ ,„ 
electric Phiico refrigerator from the United States. ^^;''' ./en were bom, Seldi heated 
Atlantida. We did not have a kitchen stove. After our oldes ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ade 
'he milk bottles and baby food and everything else on a sma p^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ,^ ^,, .^ly 
'" Sweden, using kerosene. We had a very P""^'^'^' f °^^^ an electrtc shower and 

several years later, after moving to our own house, 
bought a gas stove. 




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We started practically from nothing. Every new acquisition for our house was a real conquest 
and we always enjoyed it very much. All this was completely different from the way young 
Jewish couples here start their married life nowadays. In many instances their parents give 
them a furnished apartment, a car. a refrigerator, a washing machine and everything else 
that makes life more comfortable - often only to get divorced shortly after. 

On May 20, 1944, our first child was bom, a beautiftal baby daughter, Judith Vivien, our 
pride and joy. Some time later, on October 24, 1945, Ruben George was bom. It made us 
very happy indeed that now we had a daughter and a son who could grow up and play 
together. Judith started to talk at a very early age. We told her stories in German, from 
children's books such as Max umi Moritz and Struwelpeter. She soon knew the verses by 
heart and repeated them in German word for word. 

From the earliest age on we started speaking German and English with all of our six children. 
In this way they learned these languages the easy way and spoke them without any effort, 
just by hearing and repeating, long before starting to go to school. Later we hired private 
teachers for all of them for English, German, French and Hebrew. I believe this is the best 
investment we ever could have made. None of our children became overburdened. The 
knowledge of languages, especially English, is absolutely essential nowadays and the earlier 
a child starts learning, the better and easier it is. As a matter of fact, both our daughters, 
Judith and Miriam, made this their profession. 

When we were expecting our third child, in 1948, we realized that we would not have 
enough space m the small rented house. I then bought a plot, 11m x 66m, in a nice but not 
yet developed neighborhood and built my own house on it. After my mother's death, my 
father moved into our new home when it was ready. After a few years, however, the house 
became loo small for us, as we had four children by then. Besides, since I had no experience 
at all when I built this house, various construction defects became evident. So in 1956 I 
tore it down, except for the foundations. I built a new, more spacious and comfortable 
house, in which we have lived until the present date. Being a gardener by original profession. 
I had great pleasure organizing our big garden, planting every ornamental tree, fruit tree, 
shrub and flower myself Today we have grapefruits, oranges, lemons, grapes and various 
other fruit in our garden. During construction, we moved to an apartment just beside our 
house, so I could look down at the building site and watch it at any time. In 1950 I bought 
my ftrst automobile, a British Standard Vanguard. On June 30, 1956, before we moved to 
our remodeled house, my father died pacefully and unexpectedly m our rented apartment. 
at the age of eighty-two. 

For severval years. I was the director of the tennis department of a local Jewish recreation 
club. Tennis has always been my favorite sport, since an early age. However, when amving 
here and trying to get settled, I had to mterrupt this activity. Many years later I started to 
play again. I played with great enthusiasm, singles and doubles, until the age of seventy- 
seven. ^ 

Besides playing tennis on Saturdays and Sundays, durtng the rest of the week I went 
sw,n™,ng a, tu- pool of a local elub near our home. I still go swimming datly whenever 
possible. Usually Seldi comes along. She swims much faster than I 


Seldi and Hike to travel very much. We began traveling abroad in 1951 Atr . 

travel for periods of over three months every few ve.r« i T " ^^^'- ^^ ^-^^t, we would 

about two months. Now we travel every year for six ^.^^^^^^^^ '-'^^ ''''^ ^'^ 

1951 and 1955. were to the United States. Dunng our Lur l h ^ ^ '"^' ''^' '" 

Ford carin Detroit. Wedrove to SanFraiKisco:^!^^^^^^^^^ 

My cousin Werner sold the car for me after we left "' '"^ "^^ '°"'*"^- 

Dunng our second trip, in 1955, I bought a 1951 Cadillac convertible car from a used car 
dealer in New York. It was a beautiful car, which gave us enomious pleasure on the road We 
traveled with this car for two months, starting in New York City. At the end of our trio I 
returned the car in New York to the same car dealer from whom I bought it I put on a total 
mileage of about 20,000 km., crossing the United States from one end to the other It was a 
wonderftil trip. We visited Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, South Dakota 
Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Washington, Oregon. Califomia, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico! 
Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, Washington! 
D,C., Maryland, Philadephia, and New York. 

On the way, we went through Badlands National Park. Mt. Rushmore National Monument, 
ihe Blackfoot Indian Reservation in Montana, the Bighorn Mountains, Yellowstone National 
Park, Glacier National Park. Mt. Rainier National Park, Olympic National Park, Crater Lake 
National Park, Redwood Highway 101, the ghost town Virginia City in Montana, Grand 
Canyon National Park, the Petrified Forest National Monument, the Painted Desert, the Hopi 
Indian pueblos at Wupatki National Monument in Arizona, the huge Carlsbad Caverns in 
Texas, the Great Smoky Mountains and many other beautiful places. 

Altogether we visited over sixty different countries, from Andorra to Zululand, in the twenty 
five trips abroad, which we made between 1 95 1 and 200 1 . We both like to travel to far-away 
and exotic countries. Our visits have included Burma, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, 
Japan, Nepal, New Zealand. Russia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Taiwan, Thailand, 
Tahiti, and Vietnam. We traveled more than once to many of these countries. We often rent a 
car on our trips, as this is the best and most comfortable way to see a country and to enjoy 
nature. We also travel frequently to Europe and Israel. Our youngest daughter, Miriam, bom 
in 1961, has accompanied us on many of these trips, as she also likes to travel to far-away 


*sr^ # 



When the war was over and international trade could be resumed, I contacted various foreign 
exporters and some manufacturers, with the purpose of representing them here on a commission 
basis. I managed to obtain the exclusive representation of several U.S. exporters and a few 
manufacturers and, later, of British and French exporters and some French manufacturers of 
automotive equipment and parts, tools and machinery for overhauling automobile and truck 
engines. Most of the owners of the U.S. export finns where Jewish people. 

I also was able to locate the WolfTbrothers. the former owners of printing factories in Berlin. 
I first got in touch with Mr. Wolff, who always took my father along to the soccer matches m 
Berlin. During the war, he and his wife, who was a friend of my mother's, lived in Italy. Later 
they went to live in Lyon where Mr. Wolff once again opened a postcard factory, called 
Rhodania, just as he had owned in Germany. He printed colored postcards for birthdays, 
Xmas, Easter, etc. The text at the bottom was printed in the language required by the importer. 
At that time such postcards were not yet printed in Brazil. 1 sold the Rliodania postcards very 
well here. Through Mr. Wolff, I contacted his brother, William, who had emigrated to England. 
He formerly was the owner of the big Schwerdtfeger lithography and offset printing factory 
in BcHin, where I was an apprentice for one year before changing to gardening. William had 
become the partner of a big firm in London, Giesen & Wolff, who were making large 
multicolored prints. They produced different series, such as landscapes, children, etc. I also 
sold these products very well in the local market. There was no competition here for Wolff & 
Giesen's quality prints, I was glad that by selling their merchandise here, I could pay back in 
some way the favors the two Wolff brothers had extended to us in Germany,. 

Due to wartime manufacturing and shipping restrictions, there was great demand in Brazil 
for all types of merchandise immediately af\er the war. I sold many different products to 
local finns, and soon most of the well-established firms, wholesalers and retailers, became 
my customers. In the beginning these goods included combs, buttons, plastic bathroom fixtures, 
tumblers, hangers, fountain pens, ballpoint pens, chinaware, glassware, pot cleaners, alann 
clocks, flashlight bulbs and batteries, costume jewelry, playing cards, greeting cards, prints, 
sewing machines, tools and many other products, supplied to my customers mostly by several 
U.S. and also by some European exporters. 

After Brazil had used up most of its foreign exchange accumulated during the war years, 
when there had not been much to import, the government gradually restncted imports, which 
then were pennitted only for essential goods. Therefore I had to drop most of my previous 
lines of merchandise for which no import licenses were available any longer and had to look 
for essential goods, not yet manufactured in Brazil and which thus could still be imported. 

One day in 1947, 1 received an offer from the firm with which I worked most. State Export 
Co., Inc., of New York City. The offer was for "sealed beams," Westinghouse brand, packed 
m cartons of 48. At the time I did not know at all what "sealed beams" meant and it took me 
some time to find out that this was a sealed type of automotive headlights, used in most of the 
U.S. cars at the time. I then oftered these lamps to a local wholesale firm that sold automotive 
spare parts. They immediately placed an order for this merchandise. This was the beginning 
ot my specializing in all kinds of automotive spare parts, and later on, roller and ball bearings 
for automotive use as well. Brazil had no automotive industry at the time and all cars and 

In 1953, by the t,me I was thirty-five years old. besides my own residence I had bu,h two 
apartment houses and a summer house at Atlant.da, a beach about 130 kilometers from Porto 
Alegre. Seld, designed these buildings and then we gave her drawings to engineenng firms 
who drew up the blueprints. I had also bought a nice plot in Gramado, a fashionable resort in 
the mountamside. 

Gradually however, the exchange situation worsened in Brazil and the government was forced 
to introduce import quotas for each firm. Import licenses became increasingly difficult to 
obtain. Due to serious bureaucratic difficulties connected with the obtention of these import 
licenses, my customers did not want to import directly anymore. 

To continue in the business, I established my own import firm at the end of 1956. From then 
on I directly imported automotive spare parts, mostly for Ford and Chevrolet vehicles, genuine 
Ford and G.M. brands, as well as non-genuine replacement parts. For the most part, 1 imported 
ignition parts, distributors and carburetors and their parts, engine parts, ring gears and pinions, 
crankshafts, camshafts, transmission gears, etc. I also imported automotive lamps and ball 
and roller bearings for automotive use. 

I imported mostly from the United States but also, in a smaller scale, from France, England, 
Japan, East Germany and Czechoslovakia. I sold the imported goods to the local market in 
Porto Alegre and vicinity, and to Sao Paulo and some other Brazilian cities. Some n-aveling 
salesmen sold my goods to customers in many cities in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa 
Catarina and Parana. 1 sold mainly to wholesalers, to Ford and Chevrolet distributors, to bus 
companies, and to wholesale and retail stores selling automotive spare parts. 

Altogether, my business acfivities extended over a period of fifty years, from 1945 to 1995. 
First I worked as an import agent, from 1945 to 1955. Then, from 1956 to 1995, 1 had my own 
import firm. During all these years, Seldi always helped me and cooperated in every way. She 
took care of the bank work and accompanied my import license applications at the import- 
export division of Banco do Brasil. This was very important as a prior import license had to 
be obtained for each import. These licenses were ever more difficuh to get due to Brazil's 
increasing lack of foreign exchange. 

When Seldi traveled to Sao Paulo in later years, to participate in meetings of Na 'umai, the 
Zionist Pioneer Women's organization, she connected this activity with business, visiting my 
customers there, obtaining new good clients, and getting important orders from customers in 
Sao Paulo. In later years - when the import situation got more and more difficult - business 
with clients in Sao Paulo was a very essential part of my business. Our firm was strictly a 
family business. I had my office at home and the deposit with all merchandise 1 had in stock 
was in a room in the back of my garage. I had an employee for only a few years. Before and 
after that, Seldi also took care of packing the goods to be sent to clients in other cities and of 
many other activities related to the business. Without Seldi 's permanent and efficient assistance, 
I would not have been able to manage my business durmg this long penod. 

"f \ 


4 r-- ":^ 

A *^_. 

f .r\ v 



However, due to the ever- worsening economic situation in Brazil, with a monthly inflation 
rate of nearly 30% at its peak and the subsequent high cost of the U.S. import dollar, I stopped 
importing in 1 990 and gradually sold out the remainder of my stock. The demand for imported 
automotive replacement parts had decreased drastically, since an automobile industry had in 
the meantime been created in Brazil and many spare parts factories had been set up. Finally, 
in early 1995, after having liquidated my stock, 1 closed my finn, which had existed for 
various decades. 


Se!d> and I have long been active in Jewish organizations. In 1948 Seidi was one of the 
founders oiNaamat P.oneer Women in Porto Alegre, the first Braz.han cty to have such an 
organization. She was president of this very active movement for many years. She is now the 
honorable president ofNa 'amat Porto Alegre and vice-president oiNa 'amai Brazil. 

During the Yom Kippur War of 1 973, Seldi was among the founders of the Women's Division 
of Keren Hayesod- United Israel Appeal - in Porto Alegre, becoming its first President The 
Porto Alegre Women's Division was the first of its kind in Brazil. She also helped found 
Women's Divisions in Cuntiba and in Sao Paulo. In 1 992 Seldi was a founder and first president 
of Porto Alegre's Jewish Women's Council, an umbrella organization for all women's groups 
in this city. Seldi derives enormous satisfaction from seeing the Jewish organizations which 
she helped establish here grow and develop, attracting the younger generation {Dor Hemsheck) 
as well, and thus guaranteeing the continuity of Jewish communal endeavors. 

Seldi was Na 'amat s Latin American delegate at the international meeting of the World Jewish 
Congress in Jerusalem in 1986. on the occasion of its fiftieth anniversary. In 1997 she was a 
delegate to the World Zionist Congress, the World Zionist Labor Congress and the World 
Na 'amat Congress in Jerusalem. She also was the Brazilian delegate to the Na 'amat USA 
congress in Washington, D.C., in the same year. 

In 1998. Seldi received the Excellency Award (Yakir Keren Hayesod), given for the first time 
during Israel's Jubilee Year to fifty prominent Zionist leaders from thirty-two different 
countries, among them Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Shamir and Shlomo Hillel. Three Brazilian 
personalities received this award in 1 998. In the future it will be presented annually to twelve 
distinguished persons, men and women, from all over the world. It is bestowed on outstanding 
leaders of Keren Hayesod - United Israel Appeal. The award, a polished brass figure embedded 
in Jerusalem stone, is prominently displayed in our living room. The plaque attached to it 
bears the inscription "in recognition of exemplary solidanty with the State of Israel and 
outstanding service to the Jewish People." Our whole family felt very proud of Seldi for 
having been chosen among the few people in the world on whom this distinguished award 
was bestowed, a just recognition of her committment, voluntarism and tireless, abnegated 
devotion to Israel and the Zionist cause. 

Seldi, in spite of her important work on behalf of //t-m^/jtr/i. the continuity of the Jewish 
people, the Zionist cause and Medhmt Israel, is a very modest person and usually declines 
any homages, interviews for magazines, etc. Therefore she did not accept the proposal of a 
Jewish city councilor some time ago to become an honorary citizen of Porto Alegre 

My activities on behalf of the Jewish people cannot be compared in intensity to Seldi 's. For 
a long time, I was a member of the board of directors of the Keren Hayesod (the Foundation 
Fund), which is the financial ann of the Zionist Organization, established in 1 920. 1 continue 
to work for this organization. I also was a member of the board of directors of the local 
Zionist Organization, as well as vice-president and member of the board of the Keren Kayemet 
Leisrael (KKL). the Jewish National Fund for the acquisition, development and afforestation 
of land m Israel, founded in 1901. 



334 1^^ ,„„1 German-Jewish Synagogue 

, was a member of .he board "f d^^j- f/ J ^^ , ^as ,.s pres.dem. Recogn.zmg the for several years. From •^^^!,'°, „f,he board of d,ree.orsot the oeal 
Tmponance of Jewish edu-fon, I was member ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ,,„,,,g,rt,„ 

fines such as the Brazilian Zionist 
, was a delegate to var,ous nat.on^ »f " r; ^m Montev.deo ,n 1961 of Centra, the 

Congress in R.o de J--™ '" ' '^^ ' ^^'^ ^ Co™™"'"" """^'"^"'"^ *'°" o'l" IZ' 
:;^:r-:r:«':S: -— s ,n .tm «a m S.0 Panlo tn .... 

.ti^n. which were published in local Jewish 
":3^M,:mS::d synagogue .neons. 


Seldi and 1 had six children, all bom in Porto Alegre; 

Roberto, Miriam Frances and Gabnel Fernando 


\i ,.->n \QAA <;hp first attended ColegioFarroupilha and 
1 nmiTH VIVIEN was bom on May 20, 1944. ^neiirstducnuc b c.^^rMHnRm 

in Jerusalem. 

Later she and her fnend,Renee Stem opened an^ourse^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ _^ 

She, shopped « ^ -^t^^ij^rU of .he. for feUow.h.p. 
Sdencts :tCofeionai L.^.. -n BngUsh speaU.n, countnes. 

In 1965 Judith married Moacyr Scliar. 

M > 




« u ^^\Anrrh">'\ \9M Moacvr was activc iH thc 

Jewish youth movement Haslum.e,^ n I V^- S speciahzed in Pubhc Health 

Untvers.dade Federal do Rio G^''"''^ ° '^ " Idmfs olservices of Hospttal Partenon. of 
and Communny Medtcne. He was the Ch-f of Ad^-on Se ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^_^^^ ^^^ 

the State Health Department, Porto fS-' ^"^^^^^^^^^tate of R>o Grande do Sul. He was 
Primary Health Care, of the Pubhc H^^'* °epartmen,. St ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Director of Pubhc Health Care, and "^ ^ of^Hf ™ ^o B^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^_^^^ ,, 

Department. He was also a physician a ^e^ocal ™„, ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ,,, 
Moacyr has been an ^>^^''^'^"' P^J^"";' 'J, Se He was a visitmg professor at Brown 
Faculdade Federal de Cienctas Me^i-as m Pc^rto A e,r- ^_^_^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

university. Providence, R.l. m 1993 ^"^ ^f =';" "^J ^^^^^^^^ ^y the Science Department ol the 

M«,, o fc .*" »f *• '°"°"'"« "*'" ''°°''" 

Rio Grande do Sul, 1987. ^ .^ 

speeches, conferences ^^d lectures t v ^^ ^^^^^^^^,^, 

interviews about these topics on radio, -j s He is 

the author of about titty do ^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^s have B^^" ^ (^.^rew and 

and children-s literature. ^ S^^^ "Jcemtan, Spanish. Italian, ^^^^2^^^, ,„ Brazil 
languages, including English. F/="^"' ^^ ^as won several literary awa 

Lvl bLn adapted to -^^ ^ ^^^newspapers and magazines, 
and abroad. Moacyr also writes ani 


■^^8 u u the theme of Judaism a constant 

be part of his Ufe. 

Someofh.s most successful pubUcations are-. 






Os Voluntdrios - \919 

A estranhana,dode Rafael Mendes^\9%l 
A orelhade van Gogh -\995 


Osleopardosde Kafka -2000 

Meu Filho. o Doutor - 2000 


T.e foUown. wo..s have been .— . and pu.Ushed .n the United States: 

. r j„N™Vo,k-B.ll».me Book 19S5; ?«!«'■ "" 
„, C,««M. * »■'" ^^JbX™. Bool.. .«& pooke., K.88 

Moacyr and Judith have a son: 

1.1. ROBERTO SCLIAR, bom -/°"°. ^'^%^°'; *:;,:;' .M 
, 979. He wen. to Colegio Israelita Bras, m P°"«/^'f^;^,, 
presen. he computer sc.ence. He l.kes ^- ^^J^^J^^^^, 
I constantly workmg on *e computer and occas.onally earns 
' money providing computer services. 

u nrtr^hpriA 194'i He went to school first at 

1 RUBEN CK.RGE Oli™...b.™.0^^^^^^^^^ 

*ettr™!. -« r-o s, ,u ™.- .. CO.* .-.- 

Brasileiro upon h.s return to Pono Alegre. 
aubens.muUaneous,ys,ud.edS..a,S.ences.dH— ^^^ 

do R.0 Grande do Sul. ,n Porto ^1^^^^;"^ '=^^^;', J.^a. he also study econom.cs because 
He wanted to study only »-^' f''^"'^;^!;;' Mm^^ o^'V '" -^-' '""''''' '" ""t 
1 bel.eved .ha. .t would be hard f^"™,^^ "Jm choose an academ.c career. He 
a decern living. 1 did not ^now. of course that he _^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^j,,^ j 

received a's degree .n urban P'»"'"8 '"^^ s^,^„,,,. u^versi.y of London. 
H,rPh.D. atthe London School o^-" SverSe Federal do Rio Grande do Sul 
He IS now professor "^ Anthropology a. thUm ^ ^^^^^^ A„,uropology and wa a 

,n Porto Alegre. He is chair °^ *^ ^^f ^^^ch' ng and Research Board, and Chair of , 
member of the Senate, member ot '^^ \?';™^f^^^3,d,de Federal do Rio Grande do Suf 
Committee of International Relations °f;^'^ ""^.f^^^^j „f gcience and Technology and 
HeTs a member of the State o^ ^^^^ :^'^J:Z of .he Board of Brazil's Sc.ence 


foreign scientific and cultural J°7,f_ I '^.^"tondon School of Econom.cs and Pol .a 

„„ „„„„„. of 

Delhi; Beijmg; Buenos Aires. TrujiUo, P 


^ If 

■:- ; 



Ruben's main publications are: 

nolcncia c ciilninino Brasil ^, , „ ,935 ■■ 

^ «mr„,x,tos;« * g'-"/'" "''!"T„ln,n,l no Brasil-NafSo. Petropolis-. Voze.. 1992 
A Par,c e Todo-A diver.dade ^" ' ™ «™,, ^ew York: Columbia Umvers.ty. 
Tmdilion mcmers. modem gaucho uknW) m li,a.n. 

in Brazil and abroad. 

He has received the following awards; 

p.. PH. fo. .he essay A...a U.n.. ..-«,... Z>e...,v,.c.,o. awarded b. the 

inleramerican University Association. Sao Paulo. 1971 . 

Honorable mention a. the Concurso S.Wio >^-- — ll^S^SS, ^^ 
Folklore for his monograph O maior movimento de C uUura Foputar 
Tradkiomlismo Gaucho, Rio de Janeiro, 1989. 

Brasil-NaQcio. Sao Paulo, 1993. 

Enco Vannucci Mendes Prize, awarded by the Ministry of Culmr. ^J-^ian^^^;-:^ 
Foundation and Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science, for t 

contribution to the study of Brazilian Culture, Brasilia. 1998. 

FAPERGS (Research Foundation of the State of Rio Grande do Sul) Prize for Distinguished 
Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Porto Alegre. 1998. 

Literaiy talent seemsto run through tlK family When SeMiandlvisited the W 
in Washington. D.C. several years ago. 1 looked up the name Oliven in their files ana 
'ver proud to fmd three generations of Olivens. each writing in a df -n' '« ^ j [^s 
n,any of my father Rideamus" works, written in German; my brother John s m^^ura M. ,^. 
written in English: and mv son Ruben George's books, written m Portuguese. At the 
time 1 also found there my son-in-law Moacyr Scliar's books written in Portuguese. 

In 1974 Ruben George married Arabela Campos. 


She graduated in Social Sciences at the ""-rs^ de der 1 do R o^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
Alegre. She obtained her master s de^ee So^ o^y a ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^,^,^,^^ 

S: Je:iS^-U:^:S oSk . U... Arabe. is specialized ,n the 
Sociology of Education and Higher Education. 

She IS professor at the School o---n of t. U— ^^^^^ 

Sul. Porto Alegre. where she teaches graduate studie^^^^^^^ ., ^^ ^^^ ^^,„„,, 

the vice-coordmator of the R'^f ^-"l^GjouP Edjcauon^^^^ 

Association of Research and Graduate Studies inSoc^^^ 


of Teaching, Research and Outreach. 

...ela ,s the author of the book . .^^^^^^ t^^ZZ^-^^^ 
si.,en,a eJ.caaonul no Bn,s,l (The P^™^^f ^9° she has also written chapters in various 
educational system m BrazU), Pe.ropcji. Vo- . IW. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^_^^ ^^^ g, 

books edited by different authors. P"t"^'^'=d ^ . ^^ j.^^iro. Sao Paulo and Porto 

written articles in specahzed journals. Pf '^'i^'l'^^,, .^article entitled .-/A^rW,.,?'^''/" 

J K K^i^ have two children. Raiaei duu 
Arabela converted toludaism. Ruben George and Arabela have 


^t^ ■■*' 






It? -uM,:: 






^, r-AMPOS OLIVEN was bom in London on 
''""T' n Porto A^re. He fm.shed h>gh school a. Maybeck 
H,gh School m Ber^^'f^; ;^^,j^ federal do R.o Grande do 

and Spanish. 

7 1 DEBORA CAMPOS OLIVEN was bom m Porto Alegre 
2.2. UEBURA V./V1 miptrin Israelita Brasileiro ui 


3. DANIEL OLIVEN was borrr on February 22 1949. He wen 
,0 school firs, at Coleg.o Farrouprlha and then a, Coleg-o 
israehta Bras,le,ro. At h,s Bar Mttzvah jus, as h, br th- 
M,guel Roberto and Gabnel Fernando later on. D^"^^' "^^^ 
the whole Su/r.. the weekly portion of the Torah as well as the 
Nauar./, ,he weekly seleCon from the P;°Phe<-^ " °oks o 
the B.ble, the &««•/;. Just as ^"^ I^uben. Dan el was 
actwe in the Zionist you,h movemen, Iclnul Hahomm Dun. 
He was the leader of a group m ,ha, organization.. 

Daniel studied medicine at the Universidade Federal do Rw 
Grande do Sul. At the age of nine,een. Daniel, together w th 
local group of Jewish students, spent a short time at Kibbutz Givat O^' D"";^]"^; " Jd 
D n el Panicipated in a seminar at Harvard University, Cambndge. Massachusetts. Spono 
by S o Paulo^ Interamencan University Association (abbreviated in Portuguese 
seminar dealt with social and economic problems. Two years later Daniel accompanied 
group of Brazilian studems ,o ,he same seminar as a monUor. 

Daniel liked ,eaching and leCuring. While he was s,ill very young, he ,aught Engh^J^W 
youngsters at the American Institute in Porto Alegre. He also gave lectures on Jewish ^^^ 
and history to young people at Sibm. the local German Jewish Community.^ „" Jewish 
participating in the AUl seminar at Har^ ard. he took leave and gave some lectures on 

cuUure ,o members oi B'nai Bnth, ,he fra,emal Jewish service organizaiion. in Boston. 
Daniel studied medicine at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porlo Alegre^ 

hosp'als. He returned to Porto Alegre in 1983 and worked in his profession,. 


heart attack in his apartmem in Porto Alegre on June 1 1 , 1999, at the age ny 

4 MIGUEL ROBERTO OLIVEN was bom on September 
2 19S2 He went to Colegio Farroupilha and then to Colegio 
hraeUta Brasileiro. In 1969 he wen, to high school m, 
for half a year through the American exchange s uden 
proiam You,h for Unders,anding. He lived wi,h a Jewish 

5 tha, had a son abou, his age. In 1970 he spen a year a 
K"bbu,z Nir Oz in Israel. He went there with a local group of 
the Ziomst youth movement Hashomer HaCmr. 

Mmuel studied archi,ec,ure a, the Universidade Federal do 
r", G ande do Sul in Porto Alegre. After graduating, he^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

fifteeen hundred apartments. In 1 ^^^/^^ he w s ^v° ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ employed by a 

On February 7, 1974 Miguel mamed; 

daughter Tamara. 





A 1 TAMARA OLIVEN (called Tata). She was born in 
Fionanopohs. S.C. on December 28, 1983. She first went to 
Colemo Israehta Bras.leiro and then was a pupil at Leonardo 
da Vmci high school m Porto Alegre. She l.kes actmg m plays 
and has participated in a few jmgles for local publicity firms. 
She also likes to surf the Internet and has her own e-mail address. 
She presently is preparing for the university entrance 
examination to study psychology. 

Miguel Roberto has a new companion now: 


^ ^^1^^ Porto Alegre on July 2, 1956. She first wem to Coiegio Bom 

Conselho and then to Colegio Anchieta. She studied medicine 
at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in Porto 
Alegre. After graduating, she became a residem at the Hospital 
Santa Casa de Misencordia and then at the Hospital de Climcas 
in Porto Alegre. She specialized in internal medicine and 
endocnnology. She has taken vanous graduate and refresher 
courses in different medical fields. She has also participated in 
a number of medical congresses in Porto Alegre and various 
other Brazilian cities. In 1 984 she received the title of specialist 
in Endocrinology and Metabology. Amelia has presented 
numerous conference papers at vanous medical congresses in Brazil. She also published an 
article about her specialty in the magazine of the Brazilian Medical Association and ha. 
lectured at many medical symposiums and courses. 

Amelia is a member of the clinical staff of Hospital Mae de Deus and belongs to the staff of 
Hospital Ernesto Domelles. She is a physician at the Hospital Moinhos de Vento and is on the 
medical staff of endocrinology at the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Concei(;ao. Her doctor s 
office is in downtown Porto Alegre. Amelia has been the coordinator of various university 
and hospital programs in endocrinology and theoretical activities for medical students. 

Amelia is divorced. She has two children from her previous marriage, Vicente and Luiza, 
who both go to high school. 

Miguel Roberto and Maria Amelia have a son Eduardo. 

4.2. EDUARDO OLIVEN {called Duda). He was bom in Porto 
Alegre on August 1 7. 1 997. He goes to kindergarten. 

5. MIRIAM FRANCES OLIVEN was born on July 28, 1 96 1 . 
She went to Colegio Israehta Brasileiro in Porto Alegre from 
kindergarten on. From a very early age. she studied German, 
English. French and Hebrew, just like her siblings. Miriam has 
a great gift for languages. She studied languages at Pontificia 
Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC), in Porto 
Megre. She taught English at a local high school and worked 
as a translator in the foreign news department of a local 
newspaper. In 1986 Miriam went to Berlin to perfect her 
German At the end of 1987 she wem to London and studied 
languages at the University of Westminster. In May 1990 she 
graduatet there in conference interpreting. 

Some time after graduatmg, Miriam started working for the European ParUament as a 

lot and finds her work quite interesting. 

Prom London, M,nam moved to Par^^he.^ ':t::^:Z.ZZ ::::Z 
Beriin together with her companion. Joel Bassaget, a f rencnm 
and script-wnter for children television programs. 

A TABRIEL FERNANDO OLIVEN was bom on March 16, 

iSS™ difference of twenty-one year. b.ween 

udith Vivien and Gabnel Fernando. The same year Gabriel 

tt bo^n we had four celebrations^ Judith, enga^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

r /?,.- \fif-v<jh Judith s wedding, and Oabnei s ani 

we also had our silver wedding. 

f ~- » *■ 

1%^ f 

i/^y ■ 

P*'r' y 



HK*^" ' 






>-- ^. 



f ■ 



346 . ^^^ ^j^g^ school year and thereafter we 

too young. So he went 'o Coleg.o Fanoup.lh^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^, ^„„, ^ 

transferred h,m to Coleg.o 1^^ ■'^^J^ ' 7,en,ng AaM.A^r S/,M''r ser..cejn Hebrew a 
boy, he often conduced pan of.he Fr^ay e J^^^^^ ^^^ ^,,/,, ceremony for eh.ldren a 
various local synagogues. A. ^^^ ^' ^^J';;^,,,^,,, tenn.s player and won many medals and 
S,M: or a, our hom.. As a boy. he ^^^^^^^ ,„ for h,s age group, m smgles and 

,roph,es. in 1975, he -- '^e Braz 1 a enn. ^^^^^P^ ^^^^ _^^^^^ ^^^^^.^^ ,„ ^...^es a, 

doubles, and again m ^•"g'" '" '^' ^.,,^^ ^ ^ther Brazilian cities, 
youth tennis tournaments in Porto Alegre and 

,i,« in Sdver Snrine. Maryland, through the 
,, ,98, , Gabriel wen, to high ^^^'''^X::::V:^:^nLl >ul as his brother Migue, 

American exchange student P^^f^-^J^i.^ad .wo boys about his age. Later the boys and 
before h,m. He iwed with a Jewish family. ha. had y^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^,^ „g,. 

their divorced mother visited us here in Porto A gr 
school team, contributing to its success that year. 

, „.. oabne, traveled to Israel wi. a^ «---;£ ^^^^^ 

remained in Israel for a year, staying at '^^''"'^^f^ ^^^l, .^.^^ations can be seen there. 
;:wn. often mentioned in the Bible^Todayim^^^^^^^^ 


my Bi/r Mitzvah in early 1 93 1 . 

,t was at Kibbut. Megiddo that Gabne. met h«^ Uonor. ^^^^^ 

Brazil, Gabriel started to study -.^^Z'"^, f' " ^"^."^hTun v rsity. After about a year of 
Sul He was only sixteen years old when he entered h^ ""^ve V ,,^,^^d to 

engineering. Gabriel noted that this profession ^^^-^'^^l'^^;2tT^\^ ^ono Alegre, 
journalism, which he studied at Pontificia ^""^^ J,^^^^^^^^ 

,n January 1 988, after deeding to ge, married to Leonora, Gabriel -°-f '"^^^ i:;;"eT^ 
He lediately started to work there as a journalist in '^•'' f„f "/j;^ ^ f ^^^w TeL ' 
GM^„. He worked in different departments of tha -P7;"_f;;;,^3p,, ^.th a very 

dc Janeiro on October 7. 1964. She went to school at Coiefc 
Israelita Eliezer Steinbarg. in Rio de Janeiro. Leono . 
lived at Kibbuz Megiddo from February 1985 to March iy» ■ 
During that time she also took an intensive Hebrew cou , 
r/pcw. at nearby Kibbutz Mishmar Haemek. For ^'Shtjea ^ 
Leonora worked on the financial market, dealing with s o^^ 
and currency exchange and also with gold contracts. In ^^ 
she took a course in diamond trading at the diamond e'*^"^"^ 
Ml Ramat Gan, near Tel Aviv. She then began to stu y 


nsvcholosY and later economics for some time. She opened up a firm of her own. which she 

fater cS She then deeded to study law, following the example of her mother, who is a 

m 1 ggs she graduated in law at the Universidade Estacio de Sa in Rio de Janeiro. She 


of the Brazilian bar (OAB). She is working as a lawyer now. 

Gabriel and Leonora have two daughters: 

6.1. ANABELLA ALBEK OLIVEN was born in Rio de 
Janeiro on November 24, 1994. 

6.2. SUZANA ALBEK OLIVEN was born in R.o de Janeiro 
on October 29, 1996. 





. ■. „„P from Galicia. which belonged to Poland 
Seldi-s paternal ancestors, the ^f^l^^m^. after the end of World War 1. this reg.on 
until 1772, when it was annexed "V A" '™^\"^^i^, „p,„tion. It became a hass.d.c cUade . 

^tr ta r — - -- -* ^^^- "^^ ^''' °"°"^ '' 

religious Jews. 

• ■ riinPodolia a province of the Ukraine, 
HassidismisapopularreligiousmovementJtor^gma^ed, ^^-^^^ ^^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^ 

around the middle of the eighteenth ""'^as W *"» lov or the Guardian of the Good 
, 760). born in Podolia. He became ^'^^''^^.^'^^f^';' ■■;,",„ ,p,ead h>s movement. He taught 
Nam . He traveled through Galica. Volhyn,a ^'"d Po^° '^ ^^^^ .^^ „,„ed - and that purity of 

It all are e.ual before the Ai-f^ -^ X He P '1-^ '^e FaUh m God and Joy of 
heart is superior to a person s study and know dge^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^^ ^ne ,s more 

Life. God is in nature and >n every h mg ^— ^'^^ ,^,„,^dic erudh.on. To laugh, to 
important than prayers and even the '"Jj^l A n ijy is the highest fonrr of prayer. To 

commandments, or milzx'ol- 


reaction to the miserable and backward ^^'^^"^•.^'^,'f P°;;,^„V the 17"- century. Jewish life 
most ofthe Jews in East European counnes wed n the m,d^^ .^ ^ ^^^ 

had rapidly declined after, s Ukra n an Co^sac horde^ ^^^.^ 

decades earlier. n,urdermg hundreds ol thou ands of ws °" Je way. g ^^^^^^^ 

against the Polish landowners ='"'' 't^^^athohc c^rgy. R^^ 

formalist,c. Torah learning, '-^it-nal ly obhgatory for a 1 Jews, h d gr«^^^^ ^_^^^^^^^^ 

a learned and well-to-do elite were quahf.ed ^y ^^^"""'''^^^e "t Hebrew ana ^^ 

,0 devote themselves to the study of the law. The great "^J^ > f i^^X.^dance and 

recite their prayers in the sacred tongue. Thus they were no longer able to tmd y 

consolation in the Jewish religion. 

U , no wonder that under these conditions Hassidism with its new '-hbg;, spreaj rapidly 

tlrrough the simple Jewish population of Galica. Poland, the Ukrame and other parts 

Europe. Hassidism created a religious revolution in Jewish life of its time. 

A, ,he center of the Hassidic movement stood the T-.aMk <The Righteous O"^. ^^^^fj^', 
Mnor a Hebrew acronym, or simply Rebbe (or Wundenehhe later on, if ■"> ^^^'^ ;^,„^ 
aiu ted to him). AJn,or is formed of the Hebrew initials "^ ■4''""-;;^<''™'. ^^'a; he 
Our Lord, Master, and Teacher. The Hassidim (The Pious) regarded the ^-/'j f \^ ^^ 
i-rmediary between God and man. The T.aUM^ words were regarded as ™r^u -s -^ 
prophetic. The pupils or simply the faithful ones would travel - so^^^times from a^ av^a ^.^ 
see their Tzaddik. to listen to his teachings, to seek his advice and counsel, and to obta ^^^^ 
blessing Sometimes the faithful supplicants had to wait for hours "^^ven days until they 
finalh admitted to the hcdd.ks court and could see him and speak to him. On ShaDoa 


Holy Days multitudes of Hassidim would gather at the festive table ,T:sch) of the T.addik. 
clurts llted around popular rebbes in various East European cities. 

The paiacc otlhe HunJerrabb, in Sada&ora 

movement's degeneration. 

only a tew of the hassidic dynasties ^^^^^^^^it^^X^^^^^ 
elsewhere. These include the dynasties ^^^e « ^ R^^^^^^ ^ l^ ^^^.^^^^ ^.^^ called 

Tel Aviv; the Gurer (or Gerer) Rebbe (trom P°l''"^)^='"i' ^^^be was able to transfer 



in Russia), the seat of which ,s now '"Jl^"^^^^^^ 

organized and very active. C'."^"'' ^ashe Jedb the L ^ ^_^ ^^^^^^^ 

centers all over the world, some in su h « P'^^ ,u,ernational network of ..W,c-^,m 

Bangkok or Kathmandu in Nepal. They are he^Jd J headquarters in Brooklyn, 

(emfssanes), young couples sent to "<^h f n^^^.J bar mitzvahs, lead seders (Passover 

open up Jewish schools, synagogues, P^'^^^Tot^^^ ^on. the initials o(Chochn,ak Bmah 
ceremonL),etc.C/i«/.«.f.saHebrewaeron - n. d ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

v.-Da.^ wisdom, understanding, and knowl^e^^ 

Lyady(1747-1813).C/.,^«./conside ed heM P ^^ ^^.j^, ^od is not present^ 

Their religious philosophy teaches that 'h?^; '^^ ^^,„,,„,, ,,, oppose excessive ascetic 
tt^W hassidim stress the -^^^^'"'' °lf'l"Z^ and intellectual contemplations, no 
practices and fasts. The -P'^^^^lf^rjo; and melody all play an important role in this 
emotional ecstasy. Humility, saintliness. joy 
widespread movement. 



* ' 



, ( 

4.^ M 









■V . 




N ■ ' !■ 

> > 


350 ..Thev belonged to the religious Zionist movement 

The Retfenswereavery early Ztomst am y^The^b^^^^ 

Mi-rahi Seldi-s paternal grandparents were bhrn ^^.^^^^^^^ ^ grandeh, dren - 

n^e «enties long before the Naz.s seized power in ^ G.^^^y ,„ Paleslme. 

"ndrentf h,s son Aharon went on. /..^^ 3^^^^, ,„, Esther Dvora 

,n ,931. Elimelech-s grandson Dav,d '^''"^^'°„^,,„d his six siblings to Israel. El.melech 
Snowed. Afewyears later David ro^^^^^^^^ ^,^^,.,,, ^he numerical va ue o, 

brother Mischa. 

U can be said without any -aggeration that the Re,fenfa|^^^^^^^^^ ^^/J, 

Us members played an ^'t::^ ^^2:^,lZon^^ have been established. As we say ,n 
Without such pioneers, the Slate ol israei 


The descendants 

of Seld, Reifen's paternal great-grandparents 

-n23n *?2 -May they be honored! 










Hracha Zippora 

1 , Nechama 



a) Yzreela 

b) Yardena 
c) Aharon 

2 Bertha 


Israel Weiss 

Abraham Baruch 

Esther Dvora 

1 Finchasx 



a)Avi b)Dov 

2 Kathcoo 


} David 00 Helena 

a) Judith 

4 Gila 00 

Harry Maor 

a) An 

3, Mordechai 


a) Naomi 

b^Unc) David 

4. Ell 00 Hilda 


a) Rachel 



a) Eleanor 

b) Mai men 
5 Yaacov « 



a) Rafael b) Ram 

6 Hanni oo 

Hanan Joseph 

7 Elimelech <» 



a) Ghana 

b) Avner 

ISTBel Gerson 


Fela Kupferstcin 

1 Mischa 


a) Evelyinc 

aa) Cat hen ne 

b) Manon 

2 Scldi 


Klaus Oliven 


a) Judith Vivien 

b) Ruben George 

c) Daniel 
d> Miguel 
I Frances 




I. Yaacov 




c) Esther 

2) Yechcskiel 





3) Manfred 


4 Max(Moshe) 

M argot 

a) Ruth b) Meir 
5 AhronNaftali 




a) Shulamit 


c) Elisha 


>a KEILA MIREL. They had 
,. MEIR REIFEN, Seldi's paternal S-^'-^^f .^J'^ "^rRllsel. who marr.ed Balsam, 
three sons, Elimelech. Aizik and Jaacov. and a daughter, Re.s 



IT,ir iMf-lllP ^"' ^^^'^ 





Chaya Rachel Reifcn 



Dombrowo near Tamow m GaUca, Po'^"f ■ '" '«5«. H n m ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

Sp„z, born ,n 1848. Her f^%- ^ ^^^if/J^.'^^J^^^^^^^^^^^ 

belonged .0 the hass,d,c sec, of Sadago-Th-ec^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^,^ ^_^ ,^^ 

1918 and is now part of the Russian Ukraine. 

s2 r. = r-cis."-. "- « »- ■ * '■'- - ^*°- 

where he received his followers. 

Elin^elech was a tradesman and Chaya ^fl^^^ZJ^'^X^'Cr^^^^^^^ 
Llicia, facing very hard '--/"-^f J," ^ rlu If noTongcr provide for his 
died. Elimelech lost his job and '"-"^^ ^^^ , /^^"bbe Mottele Alexander, Ehmelech 
family. So in 1905, at the advice ot the, has^'^^^ ^ .^^j. ,„ ,he province of 

once after EUmelech had already been -"''f^f'^^^^l^elrbroker offered Elimelech 

?ome money he wanted to buy a house for h's family. A ra^ est ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^, ,,„e, 

"uses^o choose from, telhng him 'h^' '^J^^^ ^f,!. showed hiin the ^.ter 

view of the church steeple. ^^^^_^ ^^^^,.^g 

to Palestine at that time to bnng her som 


* . HI*! 

>* ^. 


^ V.>r 

. I 




. r- „ nPw.!naDers and books. She taught herself 
and very intelhgent woman, f ^'"8 ^f^^^ he only Zionist newspaper in Germany. 
German, to be able to read Die M,^he ^^^^^ ^ ^^ her jewelry, so that there 

:;?d;^C— ::rh™^^ 

Ehmeleeh and Chaya Rachel bo^ d.d m P|at^ EJime,^^ SSlsm,t^ H ": 

at the religious Kibbutz Ein H-^^^^^^.';"^ J^.^™ ^Twas part of the German Democratic 
at the Jewish cemetery in Plauen. -l^'^^^^^';^;^ ^"'"^e and the Hebrew mscription on 
Repubhc. They had not received ^"y^^-^^.f^^^ ""^^asststed m th,s task by the retired 
Elimelech-s tombstone had become ■•^g"'''^, ^ " dTrtren L maintenance of the derelict 
Protestant nnnister V6disch in Plauen. ^of ^ ^a^^^^^^^^^^^^ ,,, ..^^ on which Plauen's 

Jewish cemetery, together wuh some "'^^ Ch"stm^^^^^^^^^ ;i,ugionsge,.einde Plauen in 


restore the long Hebrew inscription on \^'!.'°'^^^'°";, f^' °f,„,,ance hall of the cemetery 
gravestones were reinaugurated. P-'-.^f >^t'f p*^ J^f, of Elimelech and the Reifen 
rebuilt. He inaugurated a permanent d.sf^ay he ■ P - u e b ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ 

Family and various objects are on show '" Je M At th^^^^^^^^ tosignitVthatChristianism 
cemetery. V5dischhadaA/«g.«Werected^withacms^^^^ 

:S^^r^^^- :: -^n o:^^L .s wl^ vis^d them in Israel 

several times. 

,0 visit Plauen, without staying there overnight, •"-J"J^^^^^^;S,;°1„„, our short 

a building where the orthodox synagogue was once located, the place where 
used to pray. 

Plauen once had an active Jewish community. It had originally been founded by Gemian 
iiwsTl 884 At the beginning of the 20"' century, a great number ot Jewish tam.hes came 
to Plauen. mainly from Poland and Galicia (the Gahizianers). 

Plauen's Jewish Community reached its peak in 1912, numbering about nine hjd^^^^^ 
clsted of three separate groups. German Jews. Polish Jews^and ^-s rom G 1^^^^^ 
Jews from Galicia were mostly Hassid.m. There were great d.fferenc s between these t 
groups To better understand the situation, 1 believe it is worthwhile to quote an rp 


from an article about the Jewish Community in Plauen, written by its preacher Emanuel 
Heimann before World War I. 

"Naturally there was a yawning chasm separating the members, in a cultural and 
even more in a religious way hut also in a social one. In the middle were the German 
retailers. [...] To the right was the exclusive group of wholesalers and manufacturers, 
and to the left, the not- very-highly-thought-of Eastern Jewish small tradesmen, who 
in turn were divided into two circles that fought greatly among themselves - the 
Polish and the Golilzianer Jews. Even the children of these three classes stayed well 
away from eath other at the schoolyard. The religious distance was even greater. All 
religious tendencies of Judaism were represented here, from the liberal minded 
assimilationist. who never entered a synagogue to the fanatic Hassid, who also did 
not do so. because the service there was not sufficiently orthodox." 

The orthodox Jews, mostly from Eastern Europe - among them the Reifens - had their own 
mall prayer room, called Schul or ShtM. They would not pray in the libera synagogue of 
he LrmanVews Me.r Reifen. Seldi's uncle, father of Yaacov and Ahron Reifen was one of 

f ? nders oHhe orthodox synagogue and religious school in Plauen. Some thirty to forty 


synagogue was inaugurated in 1930, the orthooox s>nag g incorporated a 

the place vacated by the liberal synagogue. The -''''^;;^l^''^lZn\y. It wTs burned 
community center, built in a modem -huec onic sty^e J^ed gh ye^^ ._^ ^^^^^^ 

Plauen-sJewishcemeteryfortheciy'stornterJev^sh— j^^ P^^^^^^^^ 
1945.0nthisoccasionamemorialstelewas,naug.^«dfo the^^^^^^^^^^^ 

under the Nazi regime. The stele was a one-^-^.^P^ 'p* ^^^^ (Sakif). which has its seat in 
Ono. Israel, the chairman of the Association oonne™ ^^^^,,^ ^^^^ ,^^ ^^„ ,,,, ,„ pel 
Aviv, conducted the ceremony in Hebrew, bngiisi. a. 

It was held in the presence of newspaper <=-2"tnThuIed P^reSl'zeShe mayor 
Jews, who came from Israel and the USA^ '^'"^l^^l, Dresden, as well as iomter r, nd 
of Plauen and the president of the Jewish C "'^umty ^ ^^^^ '"'"^^ 'C 

of the victims spoke on this solemn "^^^f "' .^f^Xew the inscription on the stele fror" 
kibbutz Ein Hanatziv. recited kaMsk an - - Hehr^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^,^,^, „ 
Psalm 102 "Let this be written for ages o come- ^„he end ofthe ceremony people 
fnstpt!on into Hebrew and Enghsh tor the foreign guest. A ^^ ^^^ ^^,^ ^^^, „„ ,„p ^nhe 

from Plauen put flowers, and J" Ro-n ^^^^^^^^^ ,,, j,,ish People survived in spite 
stele and the Israeli flag in front ot it, as a sy j^^^^, 

terrible persecution and established their own proud 

4^ * ^ 




\M ' 


(ill-* ^<^' 



Tombs of Elimelech and Chaya Rachel Reifen 


Elimelech and Chaya Rachel had four sons: AHARON, ABRAHAM BARUCH. ISRAEL 

GERSON (Seldi's father, named after his maternal grandfather) and MEIR (named after his 
paternal grandfather). The youngest two of Elimelech and Chaya Rachel's four sons and 
their wives perished in the Holocaust: Israel Gerson and his wife Fela (Seldi"s parents), and 
Meir and his wife Itah Rosa. 

l.LL AHARON REIFEN married Beracha Zippora. As most of the members of the Reifen 
Family, they were early Zionists. They moved from Galicia to Plauen. and later from there to 
Berlin in preparation of their aliyah. Aharon died in Germany in the 1920s, before he could 
go on alivah. Aharon and Beracha Zippora's four children - Nechama. Bertha, Mordechai 
and Eli - emigrated to Palestine in the mid-twenties, long before the Nazi's rise to power. 
They were able to bring their mother, Beracha Zippora. who died in Israel. 

LM.l. NECHAMA. called Netti. came to Israel, together with her sister Bertha, in 1925. 
She liiarried Yitzchak Eisenstein. who fought with Trumpeldor against the Arabs in Palestine 
in 19''0 and was among the founders of Moshav Kfar Yecheskiel in Emek Jezreel. where he 
and his wife lived. In Russia he met Hayim Nahman Bialik. the great Hebrew poet. Yitzchak s 
dauehter Yzreela still treasures a handwritten letter from Bialik to her father and a book this 
poet dedicated to him. Thev had three children - Yzreela. Yardena and Ah3a{)n - and many 
grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Nechama died some years ago at the age of mne^ 
five She was the matriarch of her family. Her son Aharon stayed at the moshav with his 
parents and later took over this property. He died not long ago. 

Nechama-s daughter Yzreela marrried Yitzchak Bloch. who is f ^-^^ J*;^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
daughters and a Ion Yitzchak served with the British Army in Italy during WW II. He nd h 
tTr^:::tMl.^ Nahala. in Emek Jezreel. Yzreela. who ^^<;^^^^\:^ 

lives there and per.nally ^-^ ^^^ ^r a^dS^^ ^^ 

milk production and crops. In 1999 !,eldi Miriam a not far from her sister 

stayed at her nice home for two nights. Yardena lives at ^ ^b"^M ™^n« ^^ 
Yzreela. She has four sons and one daughter. Her h"^^^" ^^;;J^^^^^^^^ 
colonel in the Israel Defense Force (IDF). During the Yom J PP- *" J ™^ ^„,,,h, a few 
of an armed regiment in the Golan He.g>;- H-as ■ ^d the ^^ ting over the phone, 
minutes before his eldest son came to meet him. ne 
but the Syrians overheard the communication. BERTHA was a pediatric nurse. 1?^ ^'l^'^^ji^ed from 1^^^^^^ 
Jerusalem, where she died some years ago She was oi ^^^^^ j^^^^,^^, 

only son. An. He Uves in Haifa and is an artist d-'-^jf _^^ ;^, ,, ^d stay at our home 
Bertha was the only one of the Reifen Family who ever cam ^^^^,_^ ^^^^^^^_ ^.^^^^ .„ ^ao 

in Porto Alegre. On her way back she ^P^"';^'^.^ ''^' ,^ 
Paulo. On one of our visits to Israel, we stayed a tew aay 
Bertha died at the age of eighty-nine. 




fc'Q':' ,1 

'1 ^'tl 


358 learned to be a watchmaker in Plauen, 

1 1 1.3. MORDECHAI (formerly I^l^^f'^'^^^^ ^.g He changed his family name from 

c^me to Palestine together with h.s ^^^^^^^^^^^ fhe German word "Reif.- which means 

.««t hi^tnrv teacher, was loved and admired 
,,,.4. EL.MELECH. called ^-;^,^Z^^S::L He d,ed in 1 982. 
by his many pupils. He was marr.ed «> »' f ^^ J^^, g^^.^ha. 
Eli and Hilda-s three daughters are Rachel. Oila 

o . o„rH RFIFEN (1 884-1 946) married Esther Dvora, also called Esther 
1.1.2. ABRAHAM BARUCHREIFENm4 ^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

Deborah ,1883-1969). In ^ennany^ Abraham dealt ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^,^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
famous. They made aliyah in October 'Ji- ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ad seven 

sell it there. 

on January 20. 1996. He ■™'-'=^/='^'\^' ^'^^^ '" ~ d Yaacov came to Israel with the 

for the family business there. He and h' ;'''l "6^ f ' ^ ^"^^^^^^^ ,„ ^ , ,934 and Gila and 
help of the religious world oreamzatmnMizrahr.PmchasaiTwed^mp 

Vaa'cov in July 1933. They and '^-itbrSti^p^ -^^^ ^^^'^ ^' 

before Hitler came to power were ^"'e to bng then pare ^^^.^^^ .^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Esther Dvora, as well as the.r youngest ^'bl>"f ; "^""' ;™^ ;„ ,^^,3,^, ,ike h,s younger 

Sei^s'-nsr := ;:f^ «Hr ■;:;S"i;» t 

auhe Israel Electr.c Company in Tel Aviv. He was a rehg.ous Jew. 

when she was eighteen years old. She worked m orchards and J- J^^^^^ "^^^ p^, Avi 
she joined the Haganah. Pinchas and Rachel s sons are Ane Abraham (Av,)^ ^^^^ 

works as an economist at the Ministry^ ol Justice. He ,s ---^ to J"d,th^ who wo ^^^^^ 
Leumi. They have two daughters. Yifat Esther -"'^.Ay^'^LeaYtfatis married WU ^^ 

Dov studied economics and business administration and obtained his B.A and M. 
worked in communication for many years and recently retired. KEILA (Kathe) MIREL (a derivation from Miriam), natrted ^^'^^^f' ^^'^^'^^Zt 
grandmother, was born in Radomishl. Galicia on January 3 1910, -d ^d -n Tel A 
July 1 990. When she was about to be bom. her mother went back f-m Ge« to t P _^_^^ 
of her birth in Poland, where her daughter was delivered. Kathe had a German ^on 
bovfriend in Plauen, His name was Uhler. When the Nazis can,e '".P^-" '^^^^^estapo 
hiding. EventualK in 1936. while Kathe was in the basement ot his h>deawayah^o ^^H ^ 
caught him and he was jailed. Kathe then joined her family in Israel. After the 
returned to Plauen which by then belonged to the German Democratic Republic 


arried He received a good pension, which the GDR's communist government paid to people 
who had been politically persecuted under the Nazi regime. Kathe left Israel and returned to 
Plauen in 1 950 to join her love there and marry him after he got divorced. Her mother. Esther, 
was very upset about her daughter's return to Germany and marriage to a goy. She refused for 
ears to speak or write to her. or to talk about her daughter and to see her again. Kathe lost her 
babv at the ninth month of pregnancy. In 1963. Kathe and her husband got divorced, because 
- as she once told us when we met her in Berlin - the Communist party mattered more to him 
than his wife. 

After her divorce Kathe moved to West Berlin. Only after Kathe's divorce was her mother 
EsAer willing to see her again. Kathe came for a visit to Israel in the early '603 and hecame 
fhen reconciled with her mother. Kathe died in Tel Aviv some years ago while on a visit .0 he 
<- V She had no children. We visited her several times in Berlin. She lived in a small 
family. She had no cnua Community in Berlin. At her 

suburban apartment, in ^ J^" ' J^^^'^^^'^ ° ,^;'°,y ^ , ,ub-tenant at one of these apartments 
recommendation our J- ! « - ^^ -J^ ^. ^ ^^^ ^,^,^ p^^,„„, ,,„ ,,,,ed her 

ISmrOetan'- t:s5, thus enabling her to work in all countries belonging to the 
European Community. 

1,23 DAVID REIFEN (1911-1981) - A SELF-MADE MAN 

\rX-s first juvenile court judge 

DAVID. Abraham and Ester Dvora. third chil. -^-i'-r rmlt pi^Ie Cm 
died in Tel Aviv on January 26. 198 1 . He --^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^,.„,,„. p.^id 

Berlin in April 1933. She was -^•"''^^^^^^"Xtrin 1931 before the Nazis came to power^ 
was the first of Abraham's children to go o"«"^J '"J ^^^^, , member of Kibbutz Oiva. 
He had learned to be a baker in G-^'"^^^' '"jfj„,. uct.on and as a builder in Tel Aviv n 
Brenner. From 1932 to 1935 he worked injadcon ^^^^^^ Movement. First he 

1933 he organized youth groups from Ge™an '" m ^^^^ ^ ^.^^ ^„„,hs after 

brought his'brother Yaacov and ^^ -ter Gi.a « ^^_^^^^ ^^ ^„ ^, „, parents. 
Hitler came to power in Gemtany. Late on. n 

Thus David-s entire family was saved from the HO ,^,, Welfare 

■,h the Tel Aviv Municipality s Welfare 
,n 1 935 David was appointed Child We.far^Offic^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^,^ Municipality, s ho.e^; 
Departmem. At the same time, he was an instructor ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ,?'"' im nS 

wayward children. In 1938 he graduated ^sso^. ^^^^^„„g,ehool for sppem^^^^^^ 
class for deaf children in Tel Aviv. H"l» -^^n cha ^ , ^^^ ,„ ,,48, under -Jola h.p 
educationforjuvenilesagedl3tol7 Te^Av-^^,^„,e London Sc^^^^^^^^^^ 
had obtained from the Tel Aviv Mun.cpal ty^ ^^^^^^ ^ ,948 ,0 194 ^^ 

and Political Science and graduated as PSY^hm ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^, °f rdTof . e juvenile 
the commanding officer of the tehabili a. - ^^^^ ^^ .^ ^ ^^^ , of the^l^^^ _^ 

was appointed the first juvenile court udge representative to the a^ ,,,2 .0 

courts in Israel. From 1958 to 1968 h^wa ^^^^^^^^^ "J,"* Hebrew University, 

Consultative Group on the Pteve" >on of Cnm ^^^^^^^ ^^^aw, Hebrew 

1968 he was lecturer at the Institute ot Crim. 






^fc'/ . 




^/' »- ii 

e* .*•■ 


■ j^„t Af the International Association of 
Jerusalem. Fro. .962 to 1970 David was v-P— ^^^^^^^^ Heidelberg Un,versi„, 
Youth Magistrates. In 1975 he e..dua.ed ^^^"['^ ^^^^.^^, , ,,,eareh grant from the 
receiving his Doctor of Philosophy. ^^"^^^^^ ^^ ,^^,^,,d „ the Institute of Criminology, 
Max Planck Institute in Freiburg. From i v ,d ^^ ^^^ ^^^.^ ^^.^^^ p^^^,.^ committee 


various prl^es. David wrote numerous ^^'^ fj ^.^ t ^m/. Co.r, ,„ a a,an„ng Society 


, ^ u■^A inHith She is married to Ephraim Ronen, from Bucharest, 

David and Helena had one child, Judith. She is ^'^""'^^ ^ ■ ^^ Industries. 

been passed on to the next generations. 

The Rcifen Family 

U.2.4. GILA (Oisela, was borr, ,n P'—^r^ elc;ritf:" - " 
Harry Maor from Munich, who died in 1982, H^^;^ ^^c He taught English m Israel 
autodidact who taught h.mself languages^espec a' V Arab.. H g^^^^ 

and lectured m Germany on sociology, J"da f '^^^^^^^^^ .fe he traveled every year 
translating books on these subjects. Dunng '^e -' y^J-;^;^^, ,^^ ^^^„, „„ ,he Jewish 
from Israel to Wuppertal, Germany, conducting here b „„|,ding disabled ones, 

High Holy Days. Gila lives ,n Tel Aviv. S ^ wo ^e^ w J ' , ^^^^ _,„j ,„j,, despite her 
for many years. She specialized in educating '^halleng ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^,^^^,, 

age, she'works with challenged adul.^ Har^ e an ad her children live in the Unite 
marked to Stephen Jacobs, and Ma.mon ( karl ). Elean ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^„j 

States and Maimon, in Germany Eleanor s children 

Julian. . 

1X2.5. VAACOV (Jacob, also called Hemi in Germany w-^^^^^^^ 
27 1 9 1 4 and died in Rehovot on December 1 5, 1 989. H ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ yaacov 

(native-born Israeli), who is deceased. Vaacov - ,m ^P Lstine ^^^ j^^,,, ,elf-de ense. 
enlisted ,n the //.^W, the clandestine o^a— ^, Later on she worked with c Mr- 
Hanna worked in the intelligence ^^rv.ce of the /^^"^ ^„^ „, ,„„hem part othr^ 

Yaacov was the head of the social -c^^''^;,*;^:;",, methods for.rea.mgdepnved^mi e^ 

for thirty years. He initiated new --"f "^^"J.°X ^ept -* new '"^"'"''"""f /"' ' In 
and elde'rly people. He created a n-^^rn wd - -^^P _^ ^^^^^^ ,, „, , in Eng^ n ,^^ 
which became a role model not only '" '^"^'; ' ^ ^^,„ after Yaacov Reifen, m ccog 
1993, the municipality of Rehovo, dec|ded o '"l ^ ^^^ ^^p^^,^„^ ,,, senior citizens, 
of his contribution to enlarge the city s social 

^ i\-- 

■ ^.-*» 



p M (RafO and Michael Ram (RamiV both hve in Rehovot. 
Yaacov and Hanna's two sons. ^^^ ' ^-^^..^d and rented a car. Yaacov and h,s son 
In 1963. after visiting Israel, we went »^^' ^^^^-^^ („ patric.a who is a teacher. 

Raf, joined us there during part of °^' ""J^J^ ,, ^ teachers' seminar. Rati obtained 

specialized in problem children. She ^ ° f^^, ^^ ."..aching at the Hebrew University in 
his Ph.D. in psychology and he ^^ «;" ^ J^ Jonathan. Michal and Ohad. Yonathan is 
Rehovot. Rati and Patricia have three children, 
married and has a daughter. Noya. 

1 ;c married to Ella Zanvelman, a nose, ear 
Rami, a physician specialized in g='^«^-;"'7^ fj,";^,, children. Ruth and Hanan. Rami 
and throat specialist and P'^f "I ^"^.8^"", " ummus an oriental dish which is a favorite m 
recently conducted a research *°7^ f^ ""';, good for preventing certain kinds of 
Israel, consisting of a paste P'^P^^l'j^f^^'^^^,;,, 4. Rami has given lectures on radio 
cancer, heart a.ttacks and keeping f " ^^^l^ ^^^^^out this matter. He recently obtained a 

rA ».u^rii 1917 and died in Tel Aviv in 
1.1.2 6. H ANN A (Hanni) was bom in P'-e" o" D- mbe 7. ^ ^_ - ^ ^^^ ^^.^ ^^^ ^^^^.^^ 

May 1 985 . Hanni was a hospital n"-^-;-^;"^^^*; " „"d later on the first driving school in 
Hanan (Heinz) Joseph, who first owned a t"''^"; ~';^j „„ children. Seldi and Hanni 
Tel Aviv. He died during a trip to Europe in 1 961 . 1 hey 
corresponded for years. 

,,.2.7. EL.ME.ECH (Eli) was bor. in Plauen 0"^^;'^^^^ J^il^l^^^I^a 
April 1 . 1 977. He married Malka Keuhl. who live - Te^^-- ^h was > ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

when he entered the W«g.m,Morces '" P^'-^'7^„";;;*t Jst msurance companies in 
and then was in charge of the Tel Aviv branch ot one "^ J^ ' S^ ^, ^ ^ig law firm. 

Israel. Eli died of a heart attack at the age f i^.^yj^Q^; "^ .^^f^j , project called Levav. a 
Some years ago she. together with her ^'^'^"""'^ °' ^' ™"S afo la's home. Eli and 
supporting framework for ^haUenged pe^^^^^^ -e t ^^^^^.^^^ ^^^^^^ p,„,,,dorf 

Si:" :;: c=.^Hr;;SS -. ^ner Rei.n ,s married to Bilha. They 
have three children, Elimelech (Eli). Gal and Ruth. 

l.U. ISRAEL GERSON (Georg) was Seldi's and her brother Mischa's father. 1 will write 
about him further on. 

U.4. ME.R married Itah Rosa. They lived in Plauen. They ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Meir was one of the founders of the orthodox synagogue and religious school 
1918. He owned a retail store. Meir and Rosa had five sons; 

1141 YAACOV (Jakob or Kurt) was bom on May 23, 1913. He married R°^>- JJ^ 'l^' ^ 
h e'r eious Kibbutz Tirat Tzvi in the Bet Shean region. This P-^^P^-^^f ^J^ .^ was 
profitable kosher sausage factory. Yaacov is one of the founders ot this k-b^ut- -J^^.^, 
established in 1937. It is located near the fomier Jordaman border. In '"47 an 
before the state of Israel was established - heavy fighting with the A-bs took p ace t 
Yaacov and Rosi have one son, Dani. and two daughters. Hadassa -"^f *^^- »^^,';;, ,is,t 
Dani both are married and have children; they live at Tirat Tzvi. Seldi and 1 always 
Yaacov and Rosi whenever we are in Israel. 

114 2 YECHESKIEL and his wife Fenia are both deceased. Their son Neri is an engineer. 
He changed his family name to Ravid. 

114 3 ELIMELECH (Manfred) married Issi. Manfred was a bank employee. He and his 
wit^ lived in Haifa. They had no children. Manfred died on October 7. 1999. 

114 4 MOSHE (Max) lives in Petach Tikva. He married Margot. who died on September 7. 
9001 " Thev have two children. Ruti, a teacher and Meir, who works at a high-tech company. 
Max 'as well as his elder brother Yecheskiel were volunteers in the British Amiy durmg 
World War n. Max was a driver in a transportation unit. 


.: A 



v •■,;:-*-, 

^ ' 





Ahron, named after his uncle. ,s Me>r and Rosa s ^^Jf ^J'^ .^^^ to him and his parents 
n, 1921 . in 1988 he wrote an ^y-''""^^;7;^,f^^:;^ z "a,,,,,,.;,,^ der IsraeLchen 


..,n the vears 19^3-34 the Nazis began the boycott ofthe Jewish stores. The situation 

In the > ears i j.>:> jt h t nnrents were forced to close their 

of ,he Jewish merchants became V ^ bad^O par^ns^w ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

Snd ;:ol'er 28^. .938. The membershtp "^ 'h^^-'^^— 7;;^,:™ 
greatly reduced. Before the Nazi regmre there were about 800 Jews m Plauen. 

1938 there were only 300 left. 

I now wish to report the events which started on October 28, 1 938. It happened on a 
tZJ^TJ^^^^^^^ years old at the tn.e. I was a men.ber ot the rehg,ous 
Z onist youth movement [Tzeirc Mizrahi]. We met every Thursday evenmg. On that 
f en ng Ireturned home liter 1 1 p.m. My mother of blessed memory was prepanng 
pa try and other dishes for the Shahbat. My father was busy wUh h.s correspondent. 
S went to bed before midnight. At one a.m. the bell rang at the entrance ot the 
hous We were ver>^ frightened and looked through the window to see who was 
there. In front ofthe house was a policeman, who wanted to talk to us personally. My 
parents agreed that I open the door ofthe building. 

The policeman entered our apartment and handed us a written order to come to the 
nearest police station immediately. When we asked him what would become ot us. 
the policeman said that within a short time we would return to our apartment. We 
did not believe him, because during the last years many Jews had been arrested like 
this Therefore we took along a small suitcase with personal belongmgs. We lockeO 
our apartment and the policeman took us to a paddy wagon that was parked at the 
next street corner. In the paddy wagon we met some Jewish families who also were 
Polish citizens. Nobody had any idea of what awaited us. About fift>' Jews were 
gathered at the police station. After a short time some SS men appeared and told us 
that we would all be deported to Poland immediately. The SS men did not permit us 
to telephone the Polish Consulate in Leipzig or to contact anybody else. 

The SS men took us to the railway station. We were transported to Chemnitz in a 
special railway car. Upon arriving, we were not permitted to leave the car. Then a 
special train was summoned. Early in the morning the train rolled to the East without 
ever stopping. By the names ofthe stations we noticed that we were approachmg the 
Polish border. We did not get any food or drink. Of course, we all shared the few 
provisions we had. Saturday at dawn we finally arrived. In the meantime it had 
started to rain. The train suddenly stopped in the middle of some fields. The S 
people, who were seated in every car. shouted the order 'Soforl raus! ' - out at once. 
Outside we were surrounded by the SS. We were placed in rows of four and got 

the order to march towards the East. They shouted at us and told us 'Anyone who 
leaves the row will be shot.* So we marched through the fields without stopping, 
without any rest, for three to four hours. We got completely soaked. Some of our 
felloW' Jews were unable to can'y their belongings any longer and left everything 
behind on the road. 

Suddenly the SS disappeared in the fog and we stopped marching. We were in no 
man's land at the Polish border. Behind us was the SS and in Iront the Polish military. 
[Ahron is referring to the no man's land between the border stations Neu-Benlschen 
in Germany and Zbaszyn in Poland]. This situation lasted for about three hours 
because at first the Polish authorities did not permit us to enter Poland. There was a 
Polish railway station nearby. Finally the Polish authorities sent a special train which 
took us to Poland. 

All of us were in a terrible shape, especially the old ones, ai\er so many hours 
without rest or food. When we arrived at the railway station in Cracow, we were 
received by many members of the Jewish Community, who brought us food. All 
Jewish deponees were lodged with Jewish families. We had relatives in Cracow 
who received us very kindly. I myself left Poland illegally on August 1 . 1 939. and 
arrived in Palestine on September 1, 1939."' 

At F;,.ier 194^ a relative saw them for the last time. Later they were muracr 
tt '"inL 'on cTamJ The,r family st„. does not know when and where that happened. 

upon arnving tn Palestine. Ahron and a ^^P jf ;^>X;:n:r ^h^S^^Sr:: 
time until the Kere. Kaycn,c, LcsracI was abl '« ^1'*™ '' ^ f^^ kilometers away 
1946 thev founded there a new rehg.ous bbbutz. E,n ^^^^My lived. Yaacov had 
from Kibbutz T.rat Tzvi. where AhrorTs brother Y;!Vthenewa built fr^ 
made aliyah a few years earlier. This k.bbutz. hke all h- nes^ ^.^^^^ _^^^^^^^^_ 

with hard work and great idealism. Em Hanatz.v. -^ ':^' '^^ P^^/^^ ^^ 
produces plasttc sheets for covering greenhouses, among other go 

Ahron was the maskir (secretary) "fEinHanatziv for many years. He ^ 
d,stribution and delivery to the slaughterhouse ot.onah J ^_^^^^^^. ._^^ ^^^^ 
neighborhood. He is extremely m the ^'^butz energ ^^^^ .^^^,^^j .„ ,,,, „,k. 

ago the kibbutz enlarged and renovated .ts ^V^^^^^ „,,,,„, at the kibbutz in memory 
He was likewise respons.ble for bu.ldmg a ^-^l^^^ll'^^,, ,„ „,embers of this k.bbutz, 
ofthe Jews who perished in the Holocaust and -h - ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

The names of Ahron's parents, of course, are menfo 

f at the religious onaarc 
Ahron married Selma. They had a daughter, Shulamif wh^- a nur ^ ^^, ,,,,, .^a EHsha 
Tzedek Hospital in Jerusalem. She ,s deceas d^ he h ^^_^.^^ ^^ ^.^ ^_,,„„ ,hen we 

who have f,ve children each. We always vstt Ahron 
are in Israel. 





Fela Rcifen 

Israel Rcifcn 



was born Galic.a belonged to Austria. Israel Georg n^^!^"^^ '^^ ^^ ,^ 

^S:^™iN, Seldrs mother. Fela was bom .n Warsaw on e,ar^^ 7jh. 

two children are MISCHA (Melech), bom m Berlin on September 28, 1918, 
(Susi) bom on November 21, 1919. 

M.scha studied at a technical school m Berlin. He arrived in 
London from Antwerp in May 1939, two months after Seld. 
had arrived there. He worked as a toolmaker in London^ He 
mamed Minnie (Wilhelmine) MuUer, a Gemian gentile bom 
m Mumch, who had emigrated to England a short time betore 
Mischa-s arrival. They met in London. Their two daughters. 
Evelyne and Marion, were both bom there. In 1948 after 
deciding to emigrate to Brazil, Mischa. his wife and two 
daughters arrived in Porto Alegre. I had arranged a contract 
for him from a local factory so that he could start working as a 
toolmaker at once. Later Mischa and his family moved to 
Caxias, a city not very far from Porto Alegre. He had receivea 
a better offer there. After some time. Mischa and his family 
moved to Sao Paulo, where more opportunities existed for him in his field. Several years 
later Mischa's wife, who preferred to live in England, left him and returned to Lonao^ 
with their two daughters. After many years of separation from his family. Mischa - 
had become very ill - moved back to his wife and daughters in London in 199„. He ^^ 
there in late 1993. Evelyne has a daughter. Catherine, who presently studies at Cambndg ■ 

Mischa Rcifen 


Israel Georg's three brothers remained in Plauen after their marriages, but he moved to the 
large Bavarian capital, Munich, after getting married to Fela. As a wedding gift, Fela received 
a piano from the bridegroom's parents. She was a very good piano player. Fela's parents had 
set up a lace store for the young couple in Munich, but the store did not prosper. Fela played 
the piano all day long, and Israel, who had attended a business school and was an accountant, 
had no luck in business. 

After a short time the couple left Munich and moved to Berlin, where they rented an apartment 
on Prenzlauer Allee in north Berlin. Fela studied piano in Berlin at the famous Stern 
Conservatory She started to rent out rooms. Israel began working with his brother-m-law, 
David Kupferstein, who was a jeweler, but he also did not succeed in this business. Israel and 
Fela were usually in a tight economic situation. 

The Reifens moved from North to West Berlin in 1932 and rented larger apartments, where 
F.I. rented out rooms They frequently moved from one apartment to another. Smce West 
eSin w as a b tt neighbo hood, Fela could charge higher rents. Israel went to work a. the 

coming from a very religious orthodox fam.l. Israel had had a good Je^sh education He 
was able to conduct reUgrous services, '^ "'''"* ."t^iHoweve, though always 
Torah, an important part of the Shabbat and Je-sh ho ,d y seme. H ^^,.^^^^_ 

short of money, he declmed otters '<; ^^ ^^ '^^ " ^^ .r^Nerther Israel nor Fela ever 
because he did no. want to make ^^usme s out of^ehyo ^^^.^^^^ ^^.,^^^_^ 

endeavored to obtain the German nationahty^Ta^ J s ,h l^^^ ,,,, ,^,,uUs 

Mischa and Seldi, though born '"German .were Poh^hcmz 
matter: "Either being a Pole or a German, I remam a Jew 

,.ae. was skilled m manual labo. He inv.^ 2:;;!^:^ rieSr^His ^ 
as a Jew during the Nazi regime, he '^"""^ "" "^ fj^ his invention for him. The Germmi 
Germany, He had to ask a G-^™-" ^^'l"^ f,^;„l'll and then sold it for DM 6,000. He 
obtained the patent for this invention ""^ Ji^ow. nam ^^^^ _^.^ ^^^ 

gave Israel only DM 600 out ot that amount. When ra p ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ „f 

Lir verbal agreement, the G-- responded^^^^ hard ^^^^ ^ ,„„^ ^,„„, on,me. 
the profits of his invention at « he ha ^^^^^^ 

conducting many experiments, mostly 

, never met Israel Georg. During *e J^— ^ °:tLands of Poii^H^- JJ^^^^ 
met Seldi for the first time, Israel " >k » ";^ ^ ^^„, ,, ^tay in Warsaw"*^' ^ 
Germany - was transported to P"'^"^ overnight H ^^ '^^"'' ."ji ,t ers, 

Seldi-s mother, then tried desperately '° ™^„,phews and nieces. Two of F la sbn,m 

Charles and Albert Kuperstein. had alre^^^ ^^^^, „f ,hree ladies gannem ^^^ 

was a very prosperous "ssman- Hj- ^.^ ,„ „,,,;„ , British entry perm 
Fela wrote many letters to her brother, imp 





368 . -g gjgjgr jn Berlin, airirming that 

and her husband. Bu, Charles. .hougyepea|^.dy-,,„^g^^ ^^^^ ^^_^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^_^^^ ^^^_^^ 

,„s petition for British entry -sas Jo ^^ „.^^,, ,„, application wtth the necesssary 

„he British Foreign Ministry). P^''"'" ^°' .^^ ,,/ ,o„eerned about the additional expenses ot 
Lergy and urgency. He "-y^ZZ^'^Z and possibly having to support the. 

as other family members from Germany. 

„„. Rritish citizen of good standing and a close relative, 
Seldi believes that Charles. asaprospe.ousBt.hct^ 

might have obtained an entr>. pemit f°h.s sister a P _^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

,ned hard enough. However, on the oth r J-j-- ™ ^^ ^^^, ,,^„, ,he extent of the final 

foreseen or imagined, not ^-" '" ' ~ 'J^.i^.he European territories dominated by the 
tragedy - the Slwah - that would betall the Jews in i h ^^ ^j^^^,^^. ^_^,^^ 

Ge'rmans. at the end resulting in their "^ am ChaHes' imermediary to Fela. She 
Mary, had arrived in London f™™ G" he ^sS J*^ f-"^ ^ ^'^ '^'''''' '""'T' 

1939 shortly before the outbreak ot the war. 

in London a letter via Iriends in Italy even afte the on ^^^^ ^^^^ ._^ ^^^^ 

October 16, 1940. Eventually. after Seldi arrived in Braz. land Bm^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^,^. 

letters between Seldi and her parents -- - J ^^'^Jj: 'JJ,^ .^at. there were no more 
received from her parems in Warsaw is d^"=^ "^ ; 7;.^^^ „f ,,,3,, ,„d Fela's from the 
letters, Long after the war was over, Herman G> ""bejg^'' "^" J^' ^^ y^^^, searching 

Warsaw ghetto placed a note in the Jewish "-^P^P-^^^™; P^^'J^f ^ .^plv he sent Seldi a 
for Seldi-s brother Mischa, Seldi go. in '""^^ with G unbe g at once^ln P^ .^ ^ ^^^ 

letter, dated July 13. 1949. written from a sanitarium in ^M- Sjeden^ 1 g ^, ^^ ^^^ 

during the war years. 

Eksjo Sanitarium, July 13. 1949 

Dear Mrs. Seldi Oliven, 

I received your letter of June 2 1 . After the war, I came to Sweden through the Red 
Cross from the concentration camp Belsen. as a very sick person. Already m v^ 
I tried to reach your brother. Mischa Reifen. through the World Jewish Congress in 
London Unfortunately 1 did not receive any reply. For over a year 1 have been in 
sanitarium again and have recemly tried to write to Argentina [meaning Braziij- 

It is very difficult to write this letter to you. But this was your father's last request: 
If 1 survived. 1 would contact you. Since 1 was bom in Warsaw. I met your parents 
in 1939 and we were together frequemly. They showed me your letter saying tha 
you had gotten married and had arrived in Brazil, and that your brother had gone to 
London 1 was with your parems umil June 1942. Then the Germans deported the 

Jews from Warsaw and killed them. Your parents and 1 had no contact for awhile. 
In February 1943, however. I saw your father, who was working at a German 
company. When I asked him. "How is your wife?" he explained ever\thing. One 
day in September 1942. he went to work as usual. When he returned home in the 
evening, your mother was not there. She had been deported by the Gemians. 

Your father and I were alone. The murderers also killed my family. During those 
few months your father changed very much. We tried to do everything to survive. 
In April [1943] the last extermination of the Warsaw Jews occurred. Everything 
was destroyed in flames and the Jews were thrown into the crematoria. 

Due to a fortunate coincidence, your father and 1 were fe to^tay alive We 
arrived at Maidanek, a concentration camp near Lublin, Poland. On May 3, 1943, 
we passed through an inspection. The Gemian SS noticed your father s hemia 
support, and he was killed. His last word was 'Grunberg . 

I fully understand that, when you did not receive any news from your parents after 
the war, you had no doubts that they were no longer alive. 

Best regards, [signed] Herman Grunberg 

Private address: Jonkoping, Sweden, Tegnergatan 16-B. 

.4 -f. aHpIp also a survivor; and their small daughter, 
m 1 951, Hemtart Grunberg: his second ->f^ ^del " al o a su^ ^_^^^ ^.^^ .^ ^^^^^ 


near Tel Aviv. Later they moved '° ^el Av^v JHem ^^^^^^ _ ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^, ^^^ ^^^.^^ 

the Hebrew newspaper Davar in Tel A^'^'^'" 'hen in the Maidanek extemtination camp 
years of confinement, first in the W-^^'- ^^ t^^;. permitted him to do so. We me. 
and finally in the Bergen-Belsen ;''"«;"^ ^^^^^^963, in Tel Aviv. Ruth later rnarried 
Herman Grunberg and his fami y for 'he ^r^^^^^^ ^^^. ,,. .^gret, and emigrated to the 
Wurzel. Ruth and her husband left Israel. '° ^^r Pare"' fe ^^^^ ,968. Our subsequent 
United States. We met the Grunbergs agam " - ^Jj,. J,,, .^at Herman died and that his 

letters to Herman Grunberg went -*" //.^hter. 

When the ghefto was established ''^ .^-^^^^ Jel" ok^O. we. sq^ 
Warsaw and from some other places '" P^ J'J^ ^^e ghetto was surrounded y wal 
area four kilometers long and two-and-a-halt wia ^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^^ ^'''^^cZ 

" teeen kilometers long and three — high^An a^^ ^^. ^^^ ^^^ ._, ^p.,,„„ „,*realcs 
room. They lived on only 184 calories a day. 1 ho 

and of starvation. ,_^ ^^^^^ ^„ ^^.winka, 

.n July of 1942. the Nazis began 'l-^^rT^-Ly were ga.ed and c^^^^ 
Auschwitz. Maidanek, and o^^^^^^^^^.r. s'ent to the exterrnina u n c m J^ ^^^^^^ 
About 300,000 Jews from the Warsaw ght ^^^3_ between 30.000 ad ^ ^^^ 

from July to September 1942. Dur-g th^^ ^ ^^^^ .^ree miles t~"^ L"b'm. M ^^ ^^^^ 
,ews were sent to Ma.^ane^- ^ -^ ^, „, ,,n,p. U was enlarged 
first been established m 1941 as .. h 








iA \ 



370 h s and crematoria were installed. Late 

about 1 50.000 prisoners. In that y^^^-^'^'^l^Zp. Work proceeded day and night, witi, 
in October mX large ditches ^vere dug anh> P ^ , ,,3 . ,,„„, , Jevvtsl, pr.soners. 
the help of spotlights. During a sing e d^^ J" ,i down with machine guns by 

who were forced to line up along ^' ^^''^^I'^.^^My called Ak,ion EnUefcst (Harvest 
police forces and SS. an action the N- ^^ J.,,, eamp. an estimated 360.000 

;:S:::^SdS^mei the. among them 200.000 3ews. 

rlnallv reduced by epidemic outbreaks, 
The number of Warsaw ghetto f ^'^/^^^^ JJ^q.OOO of the 500.000 originally confined 
to the ghetto remained. 1 hen tne oruc 
liquidation of the ghetto. 

Anrll 1 9 1943 - the Germans invaded the ghetto with 

On the first Seder night of P^^^^ " ^P^ '^^^^ ,„d transforming them into a living hell. 

tanks and heavy artillery, setting '- *^^Xg place in the ruins of burned-out house. 

Each house became a fortress, with f'f '"/'^^'^^^^/^.^^ge canals, which the Nazis flooded 

Eventually the fighting ^^;^^'^^^LJ^, ghetto fighters. 

with asphyxiatmg gases to prevent tne mb"i 

The heroic — ghetto revolt ^^ :^^^:;:-S::'^^^^S^ 
comprisedalUhedifTerentJewishgroup .part^ .-^^2^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^,„ ,,„„ .here 

of the Holocaust. Raul Hilberg. amhor °* "™ ,„,nd^ 

were only 750 fighters within the Warsaw gtoo^youn^menn ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

eighteen and twenty-five. They only had a few old ™^ " ^J,^,,„,, ,„ ,he Nazis, 
determined to put an end to the killing °";^^ f^^ ^,^"1943). He belonged to the 
The leader of this organization was Mo^d^^l^a, An.el w icz ( 1 9 ' ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 


The German army, the m.^>. and the SS troops were ^^^^^ 
the notorious Ukrainian. Lithuanian and Latvian ^°'""f ^^, ^'^"f "^J^^e .esistanee of the 
Nazi troops. It nevertheless took the German troops jus as '""^ ° ^J^^^'^^;^ ,,, ,„,„,ry of 
remaining 50.000 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto as it took them to conquer the 
Poland with a population of over thirty million. 

After twenty-eigh, days of heroic but uneven figh^ng, the Warsaw gh^o was fm^^^^^^^^ 

and the revolt ended on May 16. 1943. Many thousands fJ^J.'^J,' "oQ^'^-he remaining 
thousand .lews were caught by the Nazis and ^hot on the spot. Another -^^JJ °^^ ^,^ ,,,, 
Jews were deported to the extermination camp Treblinka and 15.000 to Maiaan 
of the ghetto survivors perished in the Nazi work camps. 

After the end of the war when they knew about Israel and ^^'^'V^^J/^jSestSt wt'of 
brother Mischa decided to have the Keren Kayemet Leisrael plant a little forest in 
Jerusalem, in memory of their beloved parents. Israel and Fela Reifen. 



Q.E.P.D. . I 


?- *■ 

Little forest Horshat 

:.Re„ennea,Jcru..icm..n..emoo, of Israel 





descendants of Seldi* 



1 r 1 
















00 ^ 









Israel Georg 


(Fela and Israel 

Mery | 


1 Livia 



1 Montz 

I Irene 

Georg Reifen 
died in Poland, 

1 Jack 

2, Leo 

died as a child 


2 Moms 



in the 



3 Daniel 

4 Millie 


2 Alice 


2 Regma 

5 Polly 

1 . Mischa 


6, Maiy 

1 daughter 




7 Dollie 

2. Max 


Minnie Muller 




3 Hella 



a) Evelyne 

4 Anja 
^ Paul 

a) Miguel 

bb) Che 

aa) Cathenne 

6. Arion 


cc) Joel 

b) Manon 




dd) Arion 

2. Seldi Reifen 

a) Andrew 

aa) Claudio 

Klaus Oliven 

b) Debra 

bb) Andre's 


b) Daniel 

aa) Judith 




bb) Ruben 

cc ) Daniel 

dd) Miguel 

ee) Minam 

ff) Gabnel 



-^ — 


Contrary to the Reifens, who were a hassidic and early Zionist family from Galicia. the 
Kupfersteins. who originally came from Russia and later moved to Warsaw, were more worldly. 
They were neither hassidim nor Zionists. However, although not being orthodox, they kept 
the Jewish tradition. 

Chawa Sara Kupferetein 

Seldi's maternal grandfather. JACOB K-^*^*^^^; and mv wife Seldi was named 

LICHTENBERG. Chawa Sara's ^^^^ SoM her^t he and Fela, Seldi's 

*re=: r rrc«t " - """ " "" """ " '"" " 

her great-grandmother Selde. She certamly did. 

Both Jacob attd Chawa were bo. ,n ^^^^^^^^^^^"^"^ 
ve,7 young when they mamed. They ™-^ ^7^1"";;° ^orah studies, Chawa Sara turned 
we'e bom tn Warsaw. Wh.le Jacob w^mo J «<> ^,, ,,,,eled widely because 

out to be a capable businesswoman. When f'tsLnMc at the time. They were mostly 
of her business in ostrich feathers, ^^'ch we e »; ^^^^ 
used to decorate ladies' hats and also ^-^ J^^^/^^S.^^en moved from Warsaw to P aue 
of the ig-'eentury, Chawa. ^^^ ^^^'"''•/"f''^;;;" chawa Sara then became involved in the 
in Germany, which had a flourishing lace industry. 

lace business and did very well. ,,, .ent on a business trip. 

When Chawa Sara was expecting her --^^^'^.^Sharles was bo. on hoard Je 
traveleling from Gem,any to London ^-^^^ ,,h, from his birth in .he "W 
ship and therefore was -'o""'-' ;\^;; emom.ion of the Zombie -gs to co- 
Chawa Sara seems to have had a veo^ k e" P ^^^^^^ ^,„„„3l,ty ^f ™^;,",: ^ „,her 
Germany. Many decades later, in ^^-^^y^^^J „„, only for h.s ™o.her and h.^^^^^^^^^ 

::;: ^:i:.:. .n .^3S, by hoM,i. -- — - and his^broj^ 
Charles was able to obtain --S-''-;— ^nd Mischa. Thus Chawa sremarRable 
^^ u..takn for his niece and nepnew. 

Charles was able to oDtam """"^'7^ .^'^hewSeldi 
Adolf and wife, but also for his niece and nephe 
foresight saved their lives. 

,f - 



« • 




, % 

■At ,'>-'"' 

i9 , 


^^He ' 








h r.f Wnrld War I and this business then faeed an 
T,« ,„ H™ »d.d t,r« S-~'^t" — c,o,,,,n8,„. S.. » h„ 

u , .nPl.nen shortly before the outbreak of WW I. Thereupon 
ChawaeventuallywenthankruptnPlauen shortly B ^^ ^^^^ 

she and Jacob left Plauen -^ <" " ,m: toTs e Georg Retfen. Seldi's father, 
behind. Fela, Seldi's n^other. ^vas engaged at '^e tmie to ae^ g ^^.^ ^^^^ 

Chawa .anted to take over the ftrm m London b" « • who ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ _^^ 
J:nrSr^^e;:^-==SorLn.,but lost the lawsutt. Pro. 
that time on Charles refused to see his mother agam. 

Seldi's parents. 

THir::: supported hy Charles. He se, Chawa up a. Adolf s ^or^^s^r^^ 
h,s mother, paying all her expenses, includmg newspaper subsertpuons. -"he end o* 
davs Chawa Sara died in London in 1948, at the age ot nmety-three. Since Charles stu 
S^ed to"' i, her. he never saw his mother again. Both Jacob and Chawa Sara are buried in 


Jacob and Chawa Sara had seven children: Adolf, Mary (Masha), Albert, Rosa, David, Fela 
(Feiga), Seldi's mother, and Charles, all of them bom in Poland, except Charles. 

1 ADOLF and his wife Rachel had a son, Simon, who died as a child in Plauen. Later they 
moved to Berlm. After his youngest brother, Charles, had obtained the necessary entry permits, 
Adolf, his wife and his mother Chawa Sara emigrated from Berlin to London, in 1938. 

2. MARY (Masha) married Vogel. They had six children, all of them bom m Poland. Mary's 
husband died young, as did three of their children, Hella, Johanna and Paul. They all died in 
Poland The remaming children were Livia, Regina (Rebecca) and Arion (Aron). Mary and 
her three children moved first from Polen to Plauen and later from there to Berlin. 

a) Livia married her uncle David. Mary's brother. 

b) Regtna (Rebecca), a ballet dancer, moved from Berlin to Pans before the Nazis came to 
nower In Berlin she danced ballet at the opera when she was a young girl. Her mother Mary 

herself as a fortune-teller in a small town. 

Georges ^ught m the French an.y and ^^^^ :^^:^ZX^^-^^^ 
escaping from the Genr.ans. After '^e ^^e -ne'i^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ the ballet .here, 

worked with the ballet in Pans, once traveled to ^e Soviet u ^,^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ 

We always used to v.sit Regma and Georges whenever we were 
at an advanced age. 

Anon (Aron) was the firs, of the Vogel f-j'^J J-.^ltn" e'^aMiSirol': 
1930s. In the beginning he worked with his ^^^t^rc^^.^ Debra. About 1 937 Arion 
ladies- garment factory there. Anon had '^ ^^^;;"'^;™,„ ,,,,,, Livia, who both moved in 
obtained an immigration permit tor his mother Mai7 

with him. 

man He owned a zipper 

3. ALBERT went to England from Plauen -h^" ^^^^^XoLiel, MilHe. Polly (Perla). 
factory and was well off He had seven e^'ld-n Jax^3,„„, ,^, ,as invited to her cous.n 
Mary and Dolly (Dora). Shortly after SeW. "ive 'n ^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ , 

MilUe-s wedding. Her father A^ert and his brc^h ^ , ^e w d " 

Z the^™! ^::: K^f^rstem. MillieJCup^s^ — -^^^^^^ 


and her husband was a barber. They openeu^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

people commented jokingly that Millie was 

asband was a barber. They ^P^"^" : -- j^ ^,th Seldi. 
mamage. Albert's wife would converse m Yiddish 



* ' 

^'.^ -ft' 

* ■ 


^ ^^'M 

. , „, . fM Thev lived in Dresden and sold lingene in the open-air 
4. ROSA marned David Weissfeld. ^h^^ !';'" ^ .^^ Polemktion on October 28, 1938, 
markets. They had two sons, Montz ana M _ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

Rosa and David were deported by. he Nazis from Desde_^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^_^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 

who had already been living in Santiago, cm _^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 


aivoreedhiswife^Sheandtheir augj 

married again in Chile. His s«°"~ ^ mtelligent. He was a veteran Zionist and 

Moritz and Raquel in Santiago. 

family to Great Neck, N.Y. He is deceased now. 

Milo Max's son, traveled as a young man from New York to Buenos^ Aires, to visit old 
friends. He met Monica there and got married. They were both bom in Buenos Avres- After 
l.vmg some time in New York. Momca became very homesick and the couple de ded to 
return to Buenos Aires for good. Milo works there with chemicals and other merchandise^ 
Milo and Monica have two sons. Claudio and Andres (Andy). We always visit Milo and 
Monica when we are in Buenos Aires. From time to time Milo comes to Porto Alegre on 
busines and visits us then. 

Milo's younger brother. Daniel Ruben, works at a bank in New York. He is divorced from his 
first wife and is is now married to Carolyn. He has no children. 

5. DAVID married his niece Livia, daughter of his oldest sister. Mary. Later he divorced her. 
while still living in Germany. He owned two jewelry stores in Berlin, one of them a large 
store on fashionable Leipziger Strasse. He worked with diamonds, traveling frequently to 
Antwerp. Some time after the Nazis seized power, David left Germany and went to England^ 
where he lived during the war. Later on he left England and went to live in Australia. He die 

David and Livia had two daughters, Irene and Alice, whom they sent to school in Belgium, m 
order to get them out of Nazi Germany. To the amazement of the family members, it was a 
Catholic nuns' school. There they learned to speak French fluently. When Hitler invaded 
Belgium, the nuns gave the girls false papers. The nuns tried to convert the two girls, but tney 
remained Jewish. The nuns saved their lives, keeping them at their institution until the end 
the war. After the war Irene and Alice went to live in London. Ahce manned an Israeli. She is 
divorced, with one daughter. Evelyne, who married a Jamaican. Evelyne and her husban 
live in Jamaica and have four children, Thea, Che, Joel and Aron. Irene 


married an Indian, Nick Menon, from the state of Kerala, who worked for an Indian airline in 
London. Irene and Nick lived there. They had no children. Whenever we were in London, we 
visited Irene and her husband, and we also met Alice there once. Nick died in London on 
November 7, 2000. 

6 FELA (Feiga), Seldi's mother was bom in Warsaw on Febmary 2, 1887. She married 
Israel Gerson Reifen. They had two children, Mischa (Melech) and Seldi. When Israel and 
Fela who lived in Plauen at the time, fell in love and decided to marry, this was not well 
received by either set of parents. The Kupfersteins considered the Reifens too hassidic and 
orthodox, while the Reifens considered the Kupfersteins too worldly, 

7 CHARLES came to England as a young man. He and his wife Mary had two sons. Jack 
and Leo Charles owned three' garment factones in London and became very prosperous. 
In England he changed his name from Kupferstein to Kuperstein. 

#* ■ 




from the Nahum Goldman Museum "^ *e "ish Dmspo ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 


Family Names Division by simply entenng the family name. 


borne by both Ashkenazis and Sephardis. 

•The oUve was one of the seven speces w,th ancient Israe, - b.e.ed A m^mstay 
of the country's agricultural economy, its fru.t was used for food, its oil tor light, tuel 
ritual anointing, its branches for garlands and decoration. 

"in Jeremiah and the Psalms, the people of Israel were compared to an olive tree Its 
eleriaSreshness and greenness were an insurance of Israel's survival despite exile and 

"According to the Talmud, a man was considered blessed if his fields consisted of one part 
giZnelart olive groves and one part vineyards. A community nch in olive groves could 
afford to study the Torah and bring light and wisdom to others. 

"The Midrash says that the dove, in bringing an olive branch to Noah, brought light to the 
world. Today the Menorah and two olive branches are the emblem of the State ot Israel. 

"Zait in Hebrew. Zaitoun in Arabic, Zemor in Berber, Oliveira in Spanish, Olivier in French, 
Ohve in German [plural Oliven], the tree, its fruit, oil and stone are the source ol names 
frequent in many countries. 

"Zemour is documented since the 15^ century with Rabbi Natan Zemour of Biskra, Algena. 
Oliveyra is recorded in the 16* century with Marguerite de Oliveyra of Lisbon, Portugal 
Oliveira in 1635 with Manuel Oliveira of Bordeaux, France; de Oliveira in the early 17 
century with Diego de Oliveira at Rouen, France; and de Oliver in 1 7* century Spain. De 
Oliveira is memioned in 1683, Oliveras in 1722, and de Oliveras in 1790, all of them in 

"These and similar names are often linked to place names, such as those of the North 
African towns Zemmor (one near Constantine, the other near Oran), Azzemour (Morocco) 
and Zemour (in the Nefoussa, Tunisia/Lybia); the Spanish towns Oliva (in the provinces of 
Valencia and Bajadoz); or Oliwa, a suburb of the Polish city of Gdansk (formerly the German 


"Italian variants include Ohveri and Olivetti, German forms Oliwenstein (olive stone), which 
has the Yiddish equivalent Oliweinstein. The English Olivestone is also found in the United 

"Oliven is one of the German forms of family names linked to the olive, recorded at Lissa, 
Poland, in the IS'^cenmry. 

"A distinguished bearer of the Jewish family name Oliven was the German writer and author 
of operetta lyncs, Fritz Oliven (1874-1956), whose pen name was 'Rideamus'." 

MEYER (E359) 

"Literally 'farmer' in German, as a Jewish family name, Meyer is a vanant of the Hebrew 
Meir n^KC]. The Hebrew name Meir means "illuminates" or "radiates." 

"Many Jewish given and family names are based on ideas and symbols embedded in legend 
and history. 

"Lmht (m Hebrew -or") is the pnmal element of creation in all ancient cosmologies. In the 
i It i^ lie trst creation of God, Divine Light (Gen.l: 2-3). In rabbinical hteramre, ,t is 
also the symbol of the Torah, the soul and wisdom. 

(also lieht) or their variants or patronymics. Similarly, the nam 
?re) also 00^^^^^ the symbolic significance ot light or wisdom. 

the 13^ century It appears as 
"As a family name Meir is documented at ArleSj^France.. ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ 

Meiger and Meyger in the 14* century m Stras*o"^t^ V„ .^ , g. centu^. Other variants 
Meyermthe H* century in Genrtany as Maier in Germany in ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^ 

include May ,n Germany and Poland Major '"J^f^/^'ld for their forefathers, famihes 
France and Germany, and M'nno -^ " - ^"^ Jc and Ben-Meir. all meaning ".he 
were called Meyerson. Meyerovitch. M^y^";"^^ J^^ ,^ Mam with Moses Meyer, 
son of Meir." In 1 683 Meyer is documented in Franktur. ^ ^ ^^ ^^^ 

"Distinguished bearers of the lewish family Meyer '^^;:^r:ST^^^^ 
courageous champion of Jewish ui.erests John ^Mey^ _^^ ^,^^, „„„„ Society in eFa^ 
leader, sir Mamtasseh Meyer ( 1 846- 1 930) who to ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ „f ,he N.w 

East; and the 20* century Amencan judge. Bernard 
York State Supreme Court." 

F ^ 

'4 . 

^ 4 










■■M..y Jew,* f.»„ly n.-, « b.«d o„ pl«. of o«» « '»*»«■ 

many Jews called Schottlaender or 
"In Schonland means Scotlan^^^^^^^^^ „„J„fthe suburbs ofDanz.g (now Gdansk 
Schottlander trace the.r ong.ns '° f It) Schottlana. ^__^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

.n Poland), the capual of former West P™-' • wh^- ^^^ ,^ h^,,,^ wes. Gert^any. 

Another town to which these names could be linked is 

c^o. nr <;rnfsman in German) is documented in 
"AS a famOy name, Schott ^-^^^f^^J; gl^~ Schottlander m the 19^ 
the IS'*' century. Schottlaender is recorded in the l« ceniury 


"Oistinguished bearers of the family name ^^^;:^:Z^^:::^ S::Z 
educator and reformer Benedet Schottlaender (1 I^'^^'^J^^^.^iTa,!!) [my great-great- 
Schott; the German optician Israel ^-'d Scho tlaender (^5 18. ) I J g^ .^^_^^ 
grandfather]; and the 19'^-20'' century Russian-born German gyne g 

REIFEN (E603) 

"This name means 'hoop' in German. 

"Interpreted as an occupational name, it is sometimes associated with hoopers and wine and 
fish merchants because of the hoops on hemng barrels and wine casks. 

"Another explanation links Reifen to Raif. the Polish term for the bit of a key, and interprets 
it as meaning locksmith. 

"Yet another source of this German-Jewish family name could be the Hebrew 'Rofe,' that is 


"Moreover, Reifen could also be an abbreviation of Reifenberg. a locality in Central Germany. 


In conclusion of this story, there remains one plaguing question that comes back to mind 
again and again and seems beyond valid explanation. How was it possible and how can it be 
explained that the Shoah - the state-organized mass murder of six million of our brethren 
could ever have happened in the :0*century, in the middle of Europe, originating in a country 
that produced men like Goethe, Schiller and other celebrities and was considered one of the 
most civilized on Earth? One thing is absolutely sure, without the cooperation and worshipful 
broad support of most of the Germans, the horrible events that occurred during the twelve 
years the Hitler regime lasted could never have taken place. 

Hundreds of books and articles have been wntten about this question. One of the recent 
books on this subject is Daniel Goldhagen's HUler s wHHng execunoners. The author speaks 
0?^ tory antisemitism, annihUa.ionis, in namre, and its general dissemination among 
the Gerans He mentions that this widespread type of antisemitism was the reason why so 
ly tru nds of "ordinary" Germans participated as active perpetrators in the Nazi te* 
rLery While mi^^^^dby^-hu.^ 
Blumenthal, ^^^f^ "Z^' J^.^^^,," Vof the newTewish Museum ,n Berlin, in his book by 


together at a unique moment of history. 

regarding this controversial - ^^ ' -^r w. ^ J <. ^--^ 

The governing mayor of Berlin at the ^^^^l^^^^^^^^;^:^^^^ 

again until a short time ago. He personally ^'^^t Germany. Here 1 was. being hosted and 

that moment was how radically things ^^d f-ged n Germ > ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ , 

addressed by Berlin's mayor in person, -^ 'e ^ ^.J^panmen. on Giesebrechtstrasse^ 

to sit on public park benches. The O"-" Jj .^^^ „d , Lher public parks were marked 

came to my mind. From 1938 on, the b nches Ae re ^^^^^ ohv 

"Nur fur Arier" - for Aryans only. There also ^as on y ^_^,^ _^ ^,^ „,|,on,e 

pitLk^d ■■mrfirJuden. ■ ^^^^^^-;^:,:r^ZL^ and read, ,. s.iH was no. 

speech that m spite of alHhe many P— ^^^ 

possible for him to grasp how the Holocaust ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Deuteronomy (25:17-19): .. j *« vnii' 

.-n.n-.: Remember >vhatAma.ekd.d.o you. 


u uom.n the Asaaite, descendant of the Amalekites. 
At the festival of Pur.m we remember H^man ^n^^^^ g ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ,^ ^^^ 

He, as the chief minister of Ahasuems^K. g • synonymous with an enemy 

Persian Empire m the fourth cenUiry B.C. His name 
of the Jews. 

„f anH fiitiire eenerations will never forget 

we mus, do everyth-ng poss.Me so that '^e P-- .^.^^ ^ Lse tew who survwed. We 
,he S/,oa/. To forget means to betray the m,l.onsov,cnm ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

must fight the "^^-f "■^'"'■^'f 7;„,To,gnoreormm™zethege,toc,dethatoecurred 

overwhelming horrendous '=^''',^"" : *f""° '^.^^i^..^, ,hat the Holocaust never happened, 
under the Naz, regime. They d'^to^ h'^'°^ ^y ,n« «i ^^ ^^^_^^ Naz,-Fase,sm 

We must fight nght,st and -^^[^--'^'^""''[XZu^ll sure that the temble catastrophe 

we have learned the lessons of the Holocaust. 

We must always remember the word of the prophet Joel (1:3): 

"Tell your children of it, 

and let vour children tell their children, 

and their children another generation." 

tinnp that the greatest tragedy in the history of our people took 
On the one hand it was in our time that the ^'^^\^'\'J^^^^^^ o„ ^^e other hand, 

place, the Holocaust, victimizing six -••'-"^^/^ ^^^^^^^^ history. We 

S gas chambers, just as Seldis parents and many of our relatives. Six million of 
brethren died in the Holocaust and we could have been among them. 

We both believe the fact that we survived leaves us with a moral obligation to ^^^^^^^^ 
a^Iimi ation and for Hemshech - the continuity of the Jewish people. 1 believe that if our 
Z7Tls,.i^ persecutions and pogroms down through our millenary history, were ab^ 
"tain the sacred flame for so many generations, it is the fundamental duty of our 
generation and of the coming ones to follow in their footsteps. 

To reach this goal, memory, education and knowledge are the foundations and dec.swe » 
It IS necessary to transmit to our children, from one generation to the next our nch he tag , 
history and culture. 1 sincerely hope that the cham will never be broken and that o^J J^^^^^^ 
grandchildren and further generations will continue to be good Jews, faithfully dedicatea 
the Jewish people, its religion, tradition, moral values and to Medinai Israel. 


Ausubel, Nathan. Pictorial Histoty of the Jewish People, New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 

Berenbaum. Michael. The world must know - the history of the Holocaust, as told in the U.S. 

Holocaust Memorial Museum, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1993 
Blumenthal, W. Michael. The Invisible Wall - Germans and Jews, Washington, D.C.: 

Counterpoint, 1998 
Bondy Ruth The Emissan\ Boston - Toronto: Little, Brown and Company, 1977 
Cameiro. Mana Luiza Tuzzi. O Antisemitismo na Era Vargas, Sao Paulo: Ed. Brasiliense, 

Eckert, Brita. Die judische Emigration aus Deutschland 1933-41. Frankfurt a.M.: Eme 

Ausstellung der Deutschen Bibliothek, 1985 
r ,v Rnth The Jews of Germany, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992 
GeLl Hke (eo a^hor). Premiere und Pogrom - Der Judische Kut.urtund 1933-4,. Berim: 


,ranslat,on: "^^ W^'"°'"- N'^* York: Harper & Bros.. 19 2) 


Oxford University Press. New York, "^S .^^^^ verlag. 1959 

Kaznelson. Siegmund. Juden .m f ;'- » ^, '"£ 1' M,,eum Historyczne. 1996 
Lagiewski, Maeiej. Breslauer Juden '«^^«-';7' 7° „. ,„ « Editora, 1995 

^1Z ^.r^r :;- «rr™::..» ■• »...»: «»* — 

Hannover, 1987 Fmnkfurt a M.: Fischer Verlag, 1977 



Vanous authors. y»rfc'/MH/^'t"5^^"' .^- f^^ Berlin, Berlin. 

Various authors. Wegweiser durch das 
Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1987 



:*-'**,-■?''*" • i 


1 '^J fc. ^ ■ 



Will of Rebecca Meyer. Hanover, May 25, 1849 
Will of Ephra.m Meyer, Hanover, August 8 1 849 
W.ll of Samson Heymann Levy, Hamburg. M^y 24. 1876 
Will of Louis Ephraim Meyer, Hanover, May 2L 1891 

Marriage contract between Dr. Fntz « 7^"r;^^~ ^^^ ,„ ,he Schur.juden " 

^^b- S^'^P^ -^ - «^^^^^^^ »— " ^^' 
ContSc, between Mane von Bock, nee von Dachenhausen, for the P^-h-e of a house by 

banker Enhraim Meyer at Calenbergerstrasse 45, Hanover, December 9 1 855 
Copybo^kstlmerLal letters, wrm^^ 

O^S:;:::; ^nS "«rl -Innecnon with Emil L. Meyer, aif^cult obtention 

oU\^ci\i\t Gehcimer KommerzienraL 1914-1918 
Stetnthal. Becca - manuscript, " der Escherstrasse, 1 5 pages, Berlin, 1917-19.4 

Leli^Lnn, Lisbeth - manuscript: "Familie David Schottlander," 13 pages, written in the 

U.S.A. mthe 1940s RoiUnstedter Eooche " b) "das Muhlhausener 

Sieskind, Lothar - manuscript: a) Die Ballensteaier t-pocac, u) 

Dokument " 7 pages, Stockholm, 1984 
Salomonsky & Co.. special pnvate report on Dr. Fntz Oliven and his family. 30 P^g^^- "^dered 
by his future father-in-law. Emil L. Meyer, long before the mamage of his daughter, Berlin, 

Genealogical study of the Oliven Family, 10 pages (pages 7 & 8 missmg), wntten by an 

unknown Silesian rabbi, in the 1930s 
Large genealogical tree organized by Arnold Seelig and Adele H. Meyer. Hanover, 1 89 1 which 
Louis E Meyer "dedicated in love to the Family Members of Ephraim and Rebecca Meyer, 
on the occasion of his 70^ birthday in Hanover, on September 4, 1891, completed by 
adding further generations, in Berlin, 1936, by the same Adele Meyer married Freund and 

Dr. Willi Strauss. 
Large illustrated genealogical tree, organized by Leonie Oliven: The ascendance ot Hans, 
Susc and Klaus Oliven, going back to Court Jew Herz David (1699-1783), Berlin, ca. 

Large genealogical tree, organized by Adele Freund, nee Meyer: The ascendance of Rebekka 
Meyer, wife of Ephraim Meyer, going back to Rabbi Salomo Spira, Hii century, Berlin, 

Genealogical tree BBB (2) Siesskind-Meyer. part of the many Akiva Eger family trees, shown 
in the brochure published by his descendant Akiva Eger, Kibbutz Netzer Serem. Israel, 
head of the Eger Family Association. This and the other trees of the brochure are reproduced 
in Computer Tree 379 at "Dorot", Beit Hatefutzot, Tel Aviv. 


Genealogical tree P, shown in the same brochure as above, organized by Akiva Eger, Kibbutz 
Netzer Sereni, Israel: Ancestors and descendants of Karl Marx (related to Rebecca Meyer 
through Saul Katzenellenbogen, "King of Poland for one day.") 
Small genealogical trees, organized separately by Dr.Fntz Oliven. Porto Alegre, and Leo 

Schottlander, Basel: The descendants of Lobel Schottlander 
Small genealogical tree, organized by Dr. Fritz Oliven, Porto Alegre: The descendants of 

Heymann Oliven and Bertha Danziger 
Part of a genealogical tree, organized by Lothar Sieskind: The relationship between the 

Sieskind - Meyer - Herzfeld Families, Stockholm, 1990 
Genealogical chart, organized by Adele Freund, Berlin: The descendants of Jente Hameln, 

from her first and second marriage 
Genealogical chart, organized by Adele Freund. Berlin: Connections between the 

Oherhofjakloren (Court Jews) 
Genealogical notes, organized by Adele Freund. Berlin: Ephraim Meyer and descendants 
Genealogical chart, organized by Kathe Saul, Petropolis, Brazil: The Meyer Family 
Genealogical chart, organized by Adele Freund, Berlin: Connections between Hemnch Heme. 

Helene Mever, Oppenheim, etc. , 

Genealogical tree (in Hebrew), organized by Ahron Reifen, Kibbutz Ein Hanatziv, Israel: 
The descendants of Meir and Keila Reifen 


Between Hans H. Pmkus, Neustadt, Upper S.lesia^and [^eo- Oliven. Berlin, 1936 
Between Rabbi Dr. M. Weinberg, Wurzburg, and Hans » P "kj '936 
Between Rabb, Dr. M. Weinberg and Dr Walther Meyer, Hanover, 1937 
Between Dr Walther Meyer and Leonie Ohven, B^J '" '^"^^^^^^^ ,,,0-62 
Between Klaus Oliven. Porto Alegre. and Kathe Saul. Rio de ane, o 19 
Between Klaus OUven and Dr. Walther Meyer, Bad Pyrmon. 969 
Between Klaus Oliven and Edith Straus, Berkeley, C I960 66 
Between Klaus Oliven and Lothar S'-k'"d- Sto^ho "iM98 -96 
Between Klaus Oliven and Akiva Eger, Kibbutz Nezer Sereni, 
Between Klaus Oliven and Peter Schulze Hanoven 1989-99 
Between Klaus Oliven and Edgar Herzfeld, ^^f°l]''',\^^,.^2 
Between Klaus Ol-ven and Neil Rosens.ein, Etobeth, RL, 

Between Klaus Oliven and John P«"%L"f"°J''", 995-2000 
Between Klaus Ol.ven and Hans Schottlander^Mumch 199 

Between Klaus Ol.ven and Will Yancey, '°^^^^^^^^, „,„, n.c, 1995-98 
Between Klaus Oliven and Henry A. Landsoerge v ,,95.2000 
Between Klaus Oliven and Margreth Dreifuss, New York, 
Between Klaus Ol.ven and Lars Menk. Berlin^ iv^^ ^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^ ,,97.99 
Between Klaus Oliven and Eva B. -"> A"Ua S^L ^.^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^_,,^ 
Between Klaus Oliven and Gaston G. Kohn, rr 










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LI »• 



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Klaus Oliven - My Family History 


Abbr : R. = Rabbi 

Abelidorft EUi, nie OUven. IS9. 178.207 

Abclulorrf. Malwmc (MicM), ntc Oliven. 1 59, 1 78, 207 

AbclsdorfT.FriE. 178.207 

Abclsdorff. Dr Gtore. 178,:07,256 

Abclsdorff (Abels). Rulh. 207. 208 

AbclsdortTlAbeli). Walter. 207. 208. 28(. 

Abr«hani. Adclhcid. 168 

Ab(ih3m.Hlndcl(Hiniicl. 168 

Accioly, Hildcbiando, 32 1 

Adln, B Heniann, 12 

Adlcr. Mucus, 12 

Adlcr, R Nallian Mucus. 12. 56 

Ae^idy (husbuid of Martha Sthoitlinder). 201 

Alemndcr. Rebbe MoMlc 3SJ 

Allen. Anna Florence INuia), 52 

Allen. Julia (Julie) 5 1, 52 

Allen, Michael Miichel. 51.52 

Anileuici. Mordcchai, 259, 370 

Apt. Benha, 167 

Aruiha. JoM Anionic. 31 J 

Ajanha. Lu./a (Luinnha). 3 M. 3 19. 322. 323 

Aranha. Oswaldo, 291, 313. 314. 319-324 

Am hold. Gcory, 268 

Asudi. Aihcr Rciu, 131 

Auadi, Barry. 131 

Aueibach (family). 12.96 

Aueibaib.R Menachcni Mendel ben Muic. 15 

Atuubel. Nathan. 348 

Baal shcm lov. B Israel ben Elle^eT. 348 

Babel. Isaac. 258 

Bachercf, Dr Helniul95 

BiecLR Leo. 236.265 

Baker. Josephine. 227 

Btndlcr. Hcinnch. 128. 129 

Handlci, Kurt. 129 

Bandlcr, Peppi, 129 

Bubedo. Edyardo. 321 

Bvki. Dan. 136 

Baiki. Geida. nee Straus. 65. 114. 135-136 

BoiVi. Haini, 1)6 

Danos. Adhcniir de. 322 

Banlia. Rudi, 296 

BasiiBcl. Joel, 345 

Bauch>iii(z. Charlolle. see Oliven, Chvlone 

Bchrens. Sctchen Lellmann, 117 

BehieniCohcn,U1iesctUnniann. 117. 110. 121.122 

Behiens, Her? LerltTunn, 120. 122 

Bcinisch, Benjunin, 15 

Bencs, Edunrd. 270 

Bcnjanun. Etibcr . 12 

Benjamin. R JaVob (FrlnkeH, 12. 15,96 

Betend. Abraham. 8, 19.20.24,40,41.43,51.52 

Betcnd. Caroline (Keilche), 20, 41-43. 44. SI 

Berend.tjnel. 23, 31.41,42.44 

Bermd. Rahel. 20. 41. 43, 51. S3 




<•-' ' 

-'" ^-y::-^* 


Bamd. ROschcn (Rcu'chc). 20. 41 . 42. 5 1 

Bncnd. Wolf. 42 

BcTciuIciii. R Smmcl. 20, 42 

Bnymann. R Di ) . 236 

Beciich. GkcI.ZO, 21 

BcnH:h(BchrcDdJastu\R [suchv, 20, 21. 41 

Bcnjch. Rahcl,2l 

Berlin, Jutbh, IIS 

Bcilmn. Elfncdc. I9S 

Brnihaid. honny(ne«Levy), 128, 129. IJI 

Bcmhaid, Martin. 128 

Bcmhard, Olga. 128,129 

Bemhacd. Oscar. 128.129 

Bialik. Hayim Nichman 357 

Binjj, Sergcanl. S3 

Blanck. Juliiu 30, 106 

Bloch. Yita;h»k.3S7 

Blum. Uon. 2S8 

Blumenrcld, 33 

BlumenhaijL-n (RiinncislCTj. 42 

Blunicntlul. Mr. 216 

BluiiKnihal. W Michad. 381 

B6li[n. Hilda - sec Olivcn. Hilda 

Bollmann, Otio, 114 

BonhOfTcr. Diclnch, «) 

Bonhoffei. Gcrtnul. 93, 94 

BonhdfTci. Hcdwig, 94 

Buiinmu, Roberta. 153(1 S4) 

Boiixlwv. Bcf, 250,251 

Brandmant), 285 

Bftnn, IJ7 

Brann, Franz 157 

BrBUfi,Ollu, 2)9 

Braunsicin, Aiihui, 202 

BTauiiiicin, ROza. 202 

Bravnun, Alct, 91 

Bnc^CT, Di Ludwig, 198 

Bneijer, Waha, 198 

BHIIing, Rabbi, 193 

Broder, M. Hcnryk, 208 

Broucn. Franz. 198 

BioLcen. Dr Gcorg, 198 

Brotun. Ursula, 198 

Bruch, Edmund. 95 

Brvcli, Martcllo, 9S 

Bruch. Mynain. 95 

Brilh. KHle, 7S 

Brilnine. Heinrich. 239 

Buber, Manui. 265. 297 

Buchorin, Nikolai I., 258 

Buchholz. Anncli. 205 

Buchholz. Klara. 157 

Buckwic Moniz, 157 

Budge. Bertha, 5 1 

Cahn, LJMcl (Elite) - ux Mc>rr. LIcmI 

Can^rclcng, Counnc) Jeanne, 222. 224 

Canibieleng, Rebecca Snow, 222. 224 

Cambteleng, Robert. 222 

Can^wi, Ptancisco. 319 

Canfms. Mana Ajiietia Alves de. 344 

Canctti. Eliai, 3 11 

Cameiro, Maria LuizaTuccci, 319, 322 

Caro, Dr Emil,31l 

Caro, Dr Herbert 3 i I 

Cati), Nina, 31 1 


Curol. Mary Alice. 201 

C«sp»ry.Lone, 91 

Cutro, EIm Mini dc, ti 

Calhcnnell. llieGiC3[.ofKuuia. I6S 

Chanibcfl»ui. Anhui Neville, 269-270 

Chaplin. Charlie, 33; 

Chiiles-PniKc of Wales. 218 

Chnuclnicki. Bogdan. 348 

Cburcliill, Wintlun, 304 

Clarville, von, 183 

Cohen. Abraham Hei^, 1 17 

Cohen. Sara. 117. 126 

Cohn. Adolf, 28 

Cohn, Alexander, 202 

Cohn. R<!iza 202 

Compuaio, Alice K , sec Meyer. Alice K. 

Cranun. von, 35 

Daladiei. Edouard. 269 

Dan. Kathe. 259 

Daniel. SQ&scI, 38 

Danlas. Luii Manint de Souza. 322. 324 

DanriBn, BIUnKhi(Berta). 149, ISO. ISl 

Danziger. Charlotlc. 157 

Danzi^er, Edd (Adeic), 15U 

Dawn^er, Lcisci (Elicser), 1 SO 

Danzigei, Mosc Jchuda L<)bcl. 1 SO 

DanzigcT. Rebecca, 149. ISO. 1S7 

David. D.. S) 

David. Rebbe Mosbe. 353 

Deuuch. Fneda, 193 

DeuUch, Gerda. see Schonllndcr, Gnda 

Deulsch. Josef. 193 

DeuUch, Stefan, 193, 196 

Diepgen, Ebeihafd, 381 

Dietnch. Mulcne. 214 

DiniiBofl", GcorBJ M.. 241 

DCblin. Alfred. 256 

Dreifuu. Dr Alben. 130, 131 

Dreiiiiss. Alice. 130, 131 

Dreifuss. Anihuny. 131 

Dicifuu. Peter Benjamin, 131 

Drcifuu. Carol. 131 

Drciluu.Cua 130, 111 

Dreifuu. Elaine, 131 

Dreiliiis. Eliubelh Mu|^elh. 131 

Dreifuu. Jacqueline, 131 

Dreifiiu, Lydia. 131 

Dieifuii, Margieih. 127-128, 130-131 

Dreiliiu. PelcrBcnjaniin. 131 

Dreiluu. Rene, 131 

Drcifiiss, Richard. 130-131 

DreiliiM, Rodney. 131 

Dreiliiu, Sheila. 131 

Druckcr, David. 15 

DUIlniann, Michael. 97 

DUllniann. RcbcUui. 97 

Dunxinl, fabienne, 77 

Duira. Eunco. 323 

Dun. Aniunie - set Spiegelbetg, Anionic, 54 

Ebcn. Fnedneh. 232 

EckerjdorlT, Dr Richard. 194-196 

Edward V 1 1, King of England. 2 1 3 

Egei (lanioui rabbinical fanuly). 11,21. 22. 96 

Egcr. ALiva, 22, 250. 38S 

w.% n 

"^ .i f:: 

'4T *J 

■t * 

' n 







Eger. R. Aldva bm Motes II (tbe Younger). 21 , 22 

Eger. R Abva ben Sinnha Bunem 1 (Ihc Elder), 2 1 . 22. 23. 24 

Egcr. Jcaneltc iSchOnchcnl, 21-24 

Egei-R JudaUbUchuOaUil)), 21 

Egcr. R Sabel (Sunucl Uvm) PcreO 21. 24, 59. 8 1 

EgiKJ. Moshe. 357 

Ehrlich. Alice - tee Monwctz. AJice 

Ehflith. Kmhc, 155(15-1) 

Ehrlich. Lubelh - itt Lcdennann. Lubclh 

Ehrliih. Thcodof. 155(153) 

Eichimnn, Adolf. 274 

Einslcm. Albert 322 

Eisenhaidl. Mr^.. 265. 268, 277, 286, 293 

Eisenhardu LoHc, 277. 280. 283, 286 

EisenlMidt. RosI, 266-67. 280. 283 

Eiscnniengef. Johum Andreas. Ill 

Eucnslem, Aharon, 357 

Eiiensiein. Yardena. 357 

EiHoiiein. Yitzchak. 357 

Eiicnsleui, Yaeela, 3S7 

Eliu, luac, 2) 

Eliai. Rftschen. 21 

Engels. Fncdnch. 250. 252-253 

Erith (friend ofKlaus Olivcn). 245 

Emsl Augiul. DukcorHinnuver. 120 

Er7,bcrgcr, Malhias, 85 

EMhiicm. Luiza Canipos. 394 

Esihileni. VicenieCwnpos, 394 

Euclid. 233 

Eugen.Pnnce of Savoy. 121, 122 

Foubender, 51 

Fedetmann. Bella. 259 

Fedcmiann, Xitl ( 259. 289 

Fehr. Lcnimel. 34 

Feige. Herrnuinni 202 

Feigc. Willi 202 

Fcigc, Mrs, 140-141 

Feigcr. Allan. 135 

Feign. Bcnina (Tina). 136 

Fcigei. Use, nee Straus. 57.65. 114. 135-136 

Fcigcr. Haiold. 65. 136 

Ftiger. Philip (Phill. 136 

Feisl, Df Gusiav.9l 

Feisl, Dr Hans. 91 

Feis). I>r Lore. 91 

Feuchriv anger. L«, 256 

Fiedler, Dt, 231 

Fink. Werner 258 

Fi»chcl. EliubcUi (Lili) von, 90. 177. 200, 201 

FiKher. Hcdi. 156 

Fit/gerald, Ella. 257 

Franco, General FtaociMU. 258 

Frank, "Baron" Jacob. 1 7 

Frank. Use. 91 

Frlnkel.Aion (Albert), 90 

Frlnkcl. Augusie. 90 

Frlnkel, Dr Kim. 77.90. 140 

Frtnkel.R Michael (LOb), 12 

Fiinkel. Pelcr. 77 

Frinkel. Rcna. 77 

FrIUiVcl, Samuel. 77. 90 

Frlnkel. Susanne, 77 

Franz Joseph I. Empetot of Austria. 213 

f reier. Recha. 289-290 




■.;'> » 

' V 




Frcudensiein, Di Curt. 78 

Fieudco stein. E 111, IJ9 

Fieudcnsleui, Julius. 76. 78. 139 

Freudmsicin. Sophie. 78 

Freutk-nthil. Ribbi Dt . 166 

Freund.Adtlc. II, IJ.SJ. 117, 145.384,385 

Frcund. Giutav. 55. 65 

FriedllndcT. Eliwbtlh P.. 204 

Fnolnian. R Mo&hc Datid, 35) 

Friednch IH Ftedcntd the Giesl. King of Pnissw). 24 

Fnednch WilhclnillKKingofPniisU). 168 

Fncdnch ofBadcn. Grand Duke, 134 

FilfsBier, 183 

Gabai. Benny. 206 

Gabnel, Cuoline Muie, 201 

Gvu, Anna, 53 

Gans, Emnu, 53 

G»ns.Madcl(Maihilde). 117 

Guu. Phoebus, 118 

Gii». Salnan (Salomon). II7-II8 

Guu, Suununn. 117-1 IS 

Gchikcn.Dr Hans, 78 

Geige. Mr.. 226 

Geucl. Eike. 208 

Ceibird. Rachel. 358 

Genealogical tree of Hans. Sujanncand Klaus Oil v en's ancestors, 14 

Genealogical rrecofihe dcscendanis of Klaus Oliven'spalcmal [3<ai-giandparenli, 1 52 

Gcneolocical tree of Klaus and Seldi Olivcn's children and then faiiulics. 335 

Gemshcim, Paula. 153(154) 

Gershuni. Adanu 131 

Gcnhon. Isiaci - sec Spitz. Isncl Gefshon 

Ccrson. Bene). 302 

Gcnon, Lotle. 1 36 

CcTson. Martin, 300. 302 

Gide.Andrt, 261 

Ginsbure, Pmo, 289 

OmcLelofHamcln. 117-118. 123-125.166 

Goebbels. Dr Joseph, 335, 319 

Goethe. Johann Wolfgang, 235, 256 

Goldcnnns, Hclla. 158(1*7) 

Coldbagen. Daniel. 38! 

Guldschnudl. Emsl. 183 

Goldsthmidi, Hilde. 183 

Goldschmidt, Hugo, 183 

Coldichniidl. Minam. 183 

Goldschmidi. Victor, 183 

Gonipertz. Fni7. 96 

Gonipcra. Hans, 96 

Gomperti, Hemann. 82, 96 

Gonclla. Nal. 2^4 

G6nret,Dr Gerhaid.45, 1M 

Goring, Hermann, 241. 274 

Gowe. Miss. 226. 227 

Goiihelf. B.35 

GrocD. Heinnch. 162, 252 

GraeacT. Di GOnther Richard. 201 

GraeCfcr, Hans Gilnther. 201 

GraeCer, Manannc. 201 

Gracizci, Ma«, 201 

GncDCT. Reinhard. 201 

Groncmann.R Df SeliB. 20. 2«. 29.61,65. 73. 117. 119. 120 

Groi. Jacques. 9 


Groiklaus Whiuy. Diint, 9 
Grou. Helena, 359 
Groumann. Bcrel l&uk, 170 
Gtoumann. Bulc. 170 
GiouiTonn. Sinmcl. 170 
Grounnnn. Veronica, 170 
Grilnbeig, Adelc. J69 
Gnlnbag, Neman. 368-169 
Grimberg. Rulh. 369 
Gninretd. Henry (Hemnch). 1 54 
GrOnreld. Luis*. 155 
Gmnreld. TTiomas. 155 
GrOnfeld Hcnuann, 293 
Gryni/pan, Hnschcl, 284 
Guignaid. Enc. 1 86 
Guinaries Rou. Jolo. 324 
GutDiiann, HCTniann. 128 
Gutmunn, Licscl. 128-129 
Guimunn, Michnel, 128 
Gunnuiui. Walio. 128-129 


Hsfli, Amy, 76. 94 

Hagcilom. Otlo, 289 

Hahn. Beru. 60 

Hahn. Mr ,218 

Hailc Sclauic, (Enipeioi of Abyisina), 204 

Hallci, Herman, 143,213-215.272 

Hallo. Gertnidc. 18 

Hallo, Or Rudoir, IS 

Hallon. Thco. 214 

Hametn. Esther. 124 

Haniclii. GlUckcl of- $e« GlQckcl of Hameln 

Hamcln. Freudc, 1 18 

Hameln, Hayini, 123-124 

Hanicb, Joseph, 117.119. 121 

Hamcb.Malka. 118 

Hanxln, Minam Sarah Jcnic, 1 1 7-124 

Hameln. Moses. 124 

Hameln. Samuel. 118 

Hamm, Leah - ict Spanici. Leah 


Hainiiicrsictn. Alice. 299 

Hontkc. Dr Arthur. 206 

Man Ike. Jnnalhon Theodor. 206 

HtnUe, Tchilla. 206 

Hard. Aric - sec Steinberg. Leo 

Haimann, 227 

Haiusmann. Bcnha, 199 

Kciden, Konrad. 261 

Heilbnuin. Aiie. 251, 2S4 

Hcilbul. Freddy. 96 

Heilhul. LmIic. 96 

Heilbut. Luia. 96 

Hcilbul, Max. 96 

Heilbul. Sicgthcd, 82. 96 

Hone. Hemnch, 117,241 

Heller, Edmund. 156 

Heller, Malwuie. 151, 156 

Heller, Waller. 156 


Hennc, Sella. 203 

Hcnselmann. 91 

Hcrtlem. Felicia (adopted Cliaien. n« Ltvy), 1 : 

Her?, ben David. 23 

Herrfeld, Adoir.59.95,J26 

Herzfcld. Alice (nee PinLus). 89. 90 


Hcfzfcld. Ann Ntomi. S9 

Hencfcld. Edgu. S9 

Henftld, Goflfricd, 8 1 . 89 

KcrzfEld. Irene. 89 

HcTTfeld. Kul. S9, 90 

Hcrzfcld. R Dr Levi. 59. 81. 95 

Hcr/feld. Lilly. 90 

Hmfeld. Michael. 89 

HCTifcId. Nora. 89 

Henfctd. Olio, 89 

HcTzTcld. KuJolf. 89 

HcTzfcId (Hcvtiicia). Ruih. 90 

HMzfcld-Modcm. Renatc. J9 

Henl. TTieodor. 79, 134 

Hew. Elfriedc.90 

H»kclh. Eleanor. 94 

Heydnch. Rcmhud. 274 

Hcyman. Georges, J7S 

Heynann. Edith. 204. 206 

Hcynunn, Joseph. 65 

Heynunn, Theodur, 204 

Heymann, Tony. 204 

Hilberg, Raul. 195. 370 

Hillel.Shlomo. 333 

Hmdenbuit;, Paul vuii. 87-88. 188,239,241 

Hirsch. Buon Maunce de, 223-224 

Hillet. Adolf. 87, 93, 129, 135, 154, 165, 188, 190, 206, 21S, 231. 232. 235. 238. 239-242. 247. 257, 2S8, 261, 269, 

270, 271,274. 286-288, 290, 292. 304. 318. 358. 359. 376. 381. 3B3 

Kolhujin. 84 

Hofmannsthal, Hugo von. 325 

HooicT.J Edgar. 324 

Hurwio, R Pinchai ha-Levi, IS 

Hussein. King of Jordan. 204 

Hutlnn, 183 

Ibancv. Yolanda. 199 

IsenbaHh. Hcnha(sce SchottlSndK, R6a) 

Iscnbanh. Wilhelnt, 184-185 

lsictl«. R Mose*. 15 

Jacobs. Charles Philipp. 77 
Jacobs, Stephen. )61 

Jacob sen, Clara. 127 

Jallc, Else. 96 

Jotre.Hemiann. 82,96 

JaIR, Ludwig. 96 

Jens, Helcne. 131 

Joel (piophel in ibe Bible). 382 

Joel. R .ofWionkc, 12, 15 

Joel, R Manuel. 180.202 

Johami Fnednth. Duke of Huinovet. 1 20 

Johannsen. Dr 35 

Joseph. Hanan (Keinil, 362 

Joseph I, Emperor of AusDii. 122 

Jolson. Al (Asa Yocbon), 232 

Jonathan (Jonas) ha-Levi. 145-146 

Jonghc. Albetl de, 77 

Jonghc. Patrick de. 77 

Joseph 1. Emperor of Austna, 122 

Joseph, Hortensc. 76 

Joiua, R Levi(R Ane Lcibusch), 20 

JUdel, Salomon. 31 

Juil. 1 83 

Kahn. Rudolf. 95 
Kamcnew. Lew B.25S 


. %■ 

/ / 




Knl XII of Sweden. i5 
KiLcenellenbogcn (fimiliy), 12.96 
Kacenellenboi^cn - genealogical tree 15 

Ktacncllcnbogcn. Abigail. 15 

Kitzmcllcnbogen, R Benjamin. 15 

Kstzmcllnibogcn. Dcboia.. 15 

KilzcncllcntKigen. Eliah. 15 

Katzcnellcnbogen. E^lher (net Joel), 1 5 

KatzCTwIlcnbogai, Hindc. 1 5 

Kat7enellci)boeen, Isak EisiL. 15 

Katrencllcnbogen. JaLob(Hakai]osch. Jcu'ishmaiI>T ), 12, 15 

Katzcncllenbogcn. Jakob {ChanO. IS 

KaDcncltenbogcn, R Jakob Benjamui 

Katieneltenbogcn, Jchuda Lflb. 15 

Kslzmellenbogen. Josef. 15 

KatzenillmboBCD, R Mcir Padui (Mabinm Padua), 12. 15 

Kacencllcnbouni. Michla. 15 

Katuncllcnbogen. R Moses. 15 

KaBcncllenbogcn. R. Pinchai. 1 5 

KaEmcllenbogcn. Rcinah. 15 

KatzCTicllenbogcn, R Samotl. 15, 

Kaucticllenbogcn. Sarah 15, 

Kalzentllenbogcn, Saul(ChanO. 15 

Kalzcncllcnbogcn. Saul Judyoz (called Saul Wihl). II. 12, 15.22,384 

KaizencllenbO|:cn, Zbi Hituh Apler. 1 5 

Kaizciisicin. Paul, I 14 

Kaulniann. 42 

Kind. Idi. 157(156) 

Klein. Main 11,231 

Klein, Taniar. 231 

Kleisu Hcirinch von, 256 

Knochc, Mr. 2JI 

KOMei. Belty, 203 

Kohn. Benold. 157 

Kohn.Fanni. 278-279, 281 

KoKn. Gaston (GOnter). 157 

Kohn. Inge, 157 

Kohn, Jakob, 355 

Kohn, Mai]ory, 157 

Kohn, Minia. 355 

Kohn. RKhard. 157 

Kohn, Srcven. 157 

Kohn. Waller. 157 

KoUuch. Alfred J , 295 

Kollo. Ren£. 214 

Kollo. Waller. 213. 214. 304 

KoiBch. Alice. 130 

Korach, Mathilde (Tilly), n** Uvy, 130. 131 

Korach. Di Sic|;lhed 130, 131 

Kom, Ailhiir, 203, 2040 

Kom. Ench. 203 

Kom, Gianino, 204 

Kom, Mela, 204 

Kom, Dt MonrA203 

Kom. Wcrnet. 204 

Kiauskopf. Lilly. 325 

Kfcmski. Minella. 157 

Knsch, 285 

KnlgCT. Anne. 18) 

KriUzTeld. Wilhclm. 161 

KUgelgen. Wilhclni von. 57 

KUnneke. Edua/d. 2 1 3. 304 

Kulb lamily. 265 

Kunze. Alice, 164 

Kupfersicm. Adolf. 374, J75 

Kupferilein, Albert. 367. 375 


KupfosictD. AJiGe3T6 

Kuprerstcin. Chwl«. JOS. 367. 368, 373. J77 

Kupfctslcin, Chiwa Suah. JOS. 373-373 

Kuprenlcm, Daniel. 375 

Kjprcnlcm. 0>\id. 367. 376 

Kuprcnicin. Dolly (Dora). 37S 

Kuprcistein, FcU ' tec Reifcn. Fela 

Kupfetstein. Iicne, 376 

Kuprcnlcm. Jacob. 373. 374 

Kupfcnicin. Mwy, 36S, 37S, 376 

Kuprersicin. Mux. 375 

Kupfnstcin, Millie, 375 

K up fen tern. Moms, 37S 

Kupretsicm. Poll> (Pcila). 37i 

Kupfersiem, Rachtl, 375 

Kupfcrilcin, Rosa. 376 

Kuprtmicui. Simon. 375 

Kulschcr.ChnilophF ,214(215) 

Lagicwiki, Maciej. 182. 191.201 

Lamm, Anna. S3 

Landau. Max. 23 S-236 

LondsbcTjjci, Annie. 52 

Landsbctgcr. Em si, 52 

Landsbngcr. Henry A.. 52 

Lan^ehcuic. Mr . 228 

Lanijcnbach. Fnlz. 95 

Langenbflch. Heic. 65. 95 

Larnjsnbach, Miyucl, 95 

Lant;cnbach, RaqucI, 95 

Landcnbach, Suzana. 95 

Lauallc. hcidinand. 17| 

Latour. JoiBC 320. 321 

LaufiT, Rusi - icc LccscT, Rosi 

Laurens (Leu'ui&ohn). Frank. 19S 

Laurens. Sicphcn Emcsi (Roscnlhil), 198 

Lcdcmunn. Gcoig, 155(153) 

Udmiunn.Elli, 155(153) 

Lnlcrmann. Emsl. 155(153) 

Lcdcrmann. Liibcih, 155 (153). 165 

Leescr. Rosi. nee Laufcr. 260. 262. 264. 276. 281. 293 

Lecscr, Waller, 281 

Leidesdorfec, Isaac. 24 

Leidcsdorfei, Judilh. 24 

Lcideidurfcr. Samuel, 24 

Lcmcke, Ingeboig. 188-190 

Lenin. Vladimir. 1 . 239. 247. 2SJ 

Leopold I . EnpcTor of Aiistna, 1 20, 1 22 

Lesser, Jeffrey. 324 

Levi. Rahcl - sec Sicskind. Rahel 

Levin ILflwenheiin), David. 126 

Leiin. Taubchen. 126 

Levy. Anulic, 128. 131 

Uvy, Ceif (Hirxh). 124 

Le\7. Bdgar. 52 

Uvy. Emil. 52 

Levy, Emsl Monti, 52 

Levy. Eva. 52 

Levy. Fanny (nteLiefmann). 126- 128, 1)1 

Levy, Kelene (see Meyer. Hetenc) 

Levy, Keynnami Philrp. 1 26. 1 3 1 

Levy. HiOel (nee Popatl. 126-127 

Uvy, Maihilde, 127-128, 130-131 

Levy, Julius. 127 

Levy. Michael. 52 

Lcvy.Peler, 52 


^ fc 


Levy, Philip Heyminn, 136-127 

Levy, Simwn Hcynim, 1Z6-I2S, 131 

Levy. Sara. 127 

Le\y. Theodot. 127 

Levy. Wolfgang. 52 

Lcwin, Df Bnino, 204. 205 Dr David, 205 

Lcwui. Di Klaus. 204-305 

Lcwm, Lotic. 172. 204-205 

Lcwin. Martin, 20J 

Le*in. Michelle. 205 

Lew in, Dr Nicola. 205 

Lewin, Dr PiTncia, 205 

Lcwm. Di PclCT. 204-205 

Leviisohti, Aniu. 155 

Le*»iolui. Fanny, 89 

Lewisohn. James, 155 

Lru-iwhn. Mark. 1)5 

Lcwisolin, Oscar. 155 

Lcuiiohn, Richard. 155 

Licliicnbctg. Sddc. 295. J 73 

Lichlcnsrein, Rudi, 257, 259. 293. 300 

Liebloiccht. Karl, 253 

Liebniann. Elmer, 1 18 

Licbnonn. Josi. I IS 

Lierniann. Enuiia (nee Popen), 126. 127 

Licfmann. Hcyinann. 126 

LiniaeSiiva. Dr Scri;ipdc, 314 

Lima, Wicihen. 211 

Lindrr. Kcidi, 202 

LmVcr. Anita S . 135-1)6 

Linker. Debby. 136 

Linker. Eva, nM Straus, 65. 114. 135-136 

Linker. Fted. 136 

Linker, Henty,6S, 136 

Linker. Jcn:1. 136 

Linker. Larry, 136 

Linker. Sharon. 116 

Lion. 28 

Liscrs. JcMia Moso, 1 5 


Lockic)', Harold, 93 

Ub, Jchudj. 12 

L«b. R Judi. 23 

L«b. R Michael (Frankcll 12 

Leb-Drcsden Halcvi. Rabbi, 23 

U*Bcer. Ediih, 59 

Lflwe, liidor. 156. 159 

L6wc. LuJiAig, 156 

LQwcnheini, Ajiiatie. 126 

L6*enhcim. Jacob y, 117, 126 

LOibensiein. Maikus. 28 

Lubbe, Mannui van der. 24 1 

Luna. SalonX) ben Jchiel (Mahantnl), 1 1 

Luieiiibiug. RoMi. 253 

Mich.Lida. 155(153) 
Magnui, Bcndix (Bemhord). 53 
Ma^iu. Caroline. 53 
Magnus, Emilie. 53 
Ma^uv Julius. 53 
Magniu. Montz,53 
Mai^iu. Samuel, 53 
Magnus. Thcrcsc. 53 
Mann. Thomas. 256. 31 1 
Maor, Maiiiion (Karl). 361 

•%** • ^(LEL^ 

*^ ^ 




MMct Mbea :0J 

Muck-Geoig, 203 

MuckwaH Alfred, 183 

Miicl™,«ld.FnQ. 183 

Maiclcwdd. Rou (Elly). IB3 

Mnreules. Chulollc. 90 

ManaThcresii. Emprcuof AusBia. 24 

Marki, Allrctl. H I 

Mukus. Adoir, 2S 

Mill*. Lil>,94 

Man.Kiwl, ll.22.239.2S0.2S2.253.384 

Mithan.Divid. 136 

Mithin. Dalia. 136 

Mithan, Maigalil. 136 

M»noni.CuunL 172 

M»y. Karl. 229 

Mayer. Eugai. 7B 

Mayci. Il«. 78 

Mayn. Jscquet, 78 

Mayer, Maihilde. 78 

McHunh. Teinple, 77 

McLaughlin. Thncsa Marie. 204 

McLean. Evelyn. 97 

McLean. Felice, 97 

McLean. Janel. 97 

McLean. John. 97 

McndeUMhn. Moses, i 1 . 29S. 

Mcnk. Lars. 9. 165. 167. 186. 199. 383. 385 

Menon, Nick. 377 

Meyer family. 9- 12.22, 24. 63- 1 44, 1 65. 379, 385 

Meyer. Adtle (named Frcuod), 53. 54. 55. 65, 384 

Meyer. Adolf, 60. 76, 78 

Meyer. Alice. 55 

Meyer. Alice K.. 97 

Meyer. Anna. 60, 7S, 78 

Mcycf, Anni. 96 

Meyer. Anncnvne. 77 

Meyer. Barbara, 92 

Meyer. Bernard S . 379 

Mcyci. BcHy. 27. J3.65 

Meyer. Clua. 75. 78, 81.90 

Meyer, Cora. 322 

Meyer. Edilh ' sec Siraus. Edilh 

Meyer. Ella, 60. 76,78 

Meyer. Ellen, 97 

Meyer. Else, 82,96 

Meyer, Emnu(Edel), SI. 94 

Mcjcr.EmilL. 9. 64. 75.79.80,87, 99-1 16. 127. 133.134, 137.139. 142. 145, 160, 165,272.384 

Meyer, Ephraim. 8, 10. 19. 23, 27-41. 45. 50, 56, 63-65. 69. 70, 72, 96. 97, 1 10, 


Meytr,Ephnmi (son of Samuel E- Meyer), 31 

Meyer. Etich, 77. 110, 112-114 

Meyer, Frwu. 87, 95, 96 

Meyer. ¥nu. 95, 96 

Meyer. Dr Gcorg, 53, 57. 82-87. 97 

Meyer. Georijina. 97 

Meyer, Greie. 82. 96 

Meyer. Gutu, 75. 77 

Meyer. Heini, 95. 96 

Meyer. Helcnc (nee Levy). 10. 55, 63,75. 76(77), 79.80.99-104, 108.112. 126.128. 

130, 131, 133. 159.223.(384)385 

Meyet, Henncne (Jelle}, 27 

Meyer, Idj, 81,82,91.93.96. 97 

Meyer, Irene, 97 

Meyer, Jacob (Jim), 82. 91. 96 



-p. ■ 






Meyer. Jenny, 81, 89 

Meycf. Hcnnelti<Jetlc).M« Spicgclbctg, Hcnncttc 

Mcya, Joana, 97 

Meyer. Johannt (Hanncbeo). 2T, S3 
Meyer, JohAODC (Anna), SI, 94 
Meyer. John D . 379 
Meyer, KAthc. J5 
Meyci, KUui. 91 (92), 98 

Meyer, Klaus (changed his name lo Morgui, Klius), 77 
Meyer, Klaus Ulnch, 57, 97. 98 
Meyer, Leah, 60, 82. 96 
Meyer, Leonie ■ see Oliven, Leonic 
Meyer, Licsel (Elise), 76. 7S 

Meyer, Lina - {wife o(R Samuel E Meyer), 8. 23- 2S. 53, S6.J7. 60-63, 73. 89. 300 
Meyer, Lin a Frcdenka 97 

Meyer, Louis EphrainvB, 10, 21, 23. 30.40, -12, JS.W (45). 54.60,63-79. 93,98.99, 
105. 106.151.384 
Meyer. Louise. ^S, 78 
Meyer. Ludwig, 78 
Me>er, Mannaiieh, 379 

Meyer, Ma» (son of Louis E Meyer). 60, 76. 78 
Meyn. Man (son of Samuel E. Meyer), 82. 97 
Meyer. Momi (MonCr). 11.27. 42, S3-SS. 63. 65 
Meyer. Moses ben Wh (Schnaittach), 29 
Meyer. Peiet, 91 (92) 

Meyer, Rebecca (nCe Sieskmd, wife ofLouis E Meyer), 21. S3. 54. 60. 63, 72.75,77 

Meyer. Rebecca (net Uvi Waiburj-, wife of Ephraim Meyer)), 8, 10-16. 1 8-20, 23. 24, 27, 28. 3 1 . 32. 40-56. 63. 65. 
96.97, no. III, I 17, 120, 384 
Meyer. Rebecca idauthiei of Morris Meycii 54, 55 
Meyer, Rena. 75. 77, 90, 140 
Meyer, Rila.97 
Meyer, R6schen. 82 
Meyer, Ronaldo. S7, 97 
Meyer. RuprechL 97 
Me>rr, Rulh. 78 

Meyer, R. Dr. Samuel Ephraii.i, 8, 10, II, 12, 20. 23-2S, 27.29.40, 42.43, S3. 5S-63,6S,, 89.91, 93.98 
Meyer. Sarah Gertrude. 53-55 

Meyer. SLesnmnd (son of Louis E Meyer). 64. 75, 77, BO, 81, 110, 140 
Meyer, Di Siegmund (son o( Samuel E. Meyer), 60, 81. 86-88.95 

Meyer. Dr Walthcr, 10-12, IS, 18. 22, 23, 29. 31, 56, S8. 76, 77,79.81, 82, 91.93, 95,96. 145, 385 
Meyerhof. A , 54 
Michael. Eleanor, 361 
Michaclis, Bclty (n^ Meyer). 28 
Michaelis. Hanchen, 28 
Michaelis, Karollne. 28 
Michaelis. Marianne. 28 
Michaelis, Mciei, 28 
Michaelis, Michael, 28 
Michaelis. Mosei, 28 
Michaelis. MS, 33 
Michaelis. Sinion. 28 
Michaelis. Thercse. 28 
Michel. Rulh, 201 
Milch. Klara, 201 
Miller. Fulop, 2S7 
Mini. R Abraham ben Juda. I S 
Minz. Hannah. 1 5 
Moloiov, WM.,272 
Mond. Betiy. 60 
MotaweU. Alice. 155(153) 
MoriHelz. Else - sec Oliven. Else 

MorawcU. Frani (changed his name (o Morton, Fnnk),ISS (IS3) 
Morafteiz-Hella. 155(153) 
MoraweD, Ludwig. 155(153) 
Morawelz. MoriD, 155(153) 
Morgan family, 10 




m^ *crj*: 

^ 0^. 



« *- 

, # '1. 



Mote«uieni, Lint. 59 

MorloD. George. 1 55 

Mou-Rodolfo. 322 

Mou. Sdnu. 322 

Mouncr, Gtetc, S3 

MQllCT, Dr. 235-236 

Muniz, Joio Culos. 314-315. 319, J23 

MQnzcubtie. Willi. 21 1. 239 

Muuolini. Bcniro, 2 1 S. 269, 3 IS 

Nsbuco, Miuricio, 322 
Nipotcon Bonaparlc. I CiS 

Na*T«ol,i,Dr Enul, 21*4 

NawtatAi. Or IIm:, 204 

NiuraOki. Lotlc. 204 

Neubauei. Susi, 1 28 

Ncubaucr. Dr Waller. 128-129 

Neubcrg. L., 54 

Neuding, Mnreoi. 26S, 278. 279 

Ncufcld. Anna. 81. 95 

Ncufcld. M , S3 

Ncuhaus. Albcru8l.94 

Ncuhaiu. Annl90.9l 

Neuhaus.DT Carl 81.94 

Neuhaus. Dorothy, 9 1 

Neuhaus. Eduard, 81.90 

Ncuhaiu. Emsi. 90. 91 

Neuhaus. Fniz (changed his name lo Ncwhoiue, Fiedcric). 94 

Neuhaus, Hans. 76. 94 

Neuhaus (Newhousc), Hciberl 91 

Neuhaus, John. 94 

Neuhaus (Ncwhousel, Kul Thcodor. 91 

Neuhaus. Margarcic, 91 

Neuhaus, Marjonc, 94 

Neuhaus. Molly (Munel), 94 

Neuhaus, Otto. 90, 9 1 

Neuhaus (Ncwhousc), Paul, 94 

Neuiiumn, 2 10 

New-house. Anthony, 91 

Ncwhousc, Ernest George. 91 

Newman, Joanne. 1 57 

O'Donnell, F Talaya. 323 

Oli\eira.DT GastSo de. 3 12. 3 13. 327 

Olivcn fanuly, 76, 145-164. 165, 198. 206, 340. 379, 384 

Oliven. Adolph(Elijihu), 151. 157. 158 

Ohvcn. Dr Albea 153. 154 

Olivcn. Anabctla Albck. 347 

Oliven. Arabeia Campos. 340. 341 

Olivcn. Arthur, I S3 

Olivcn, AugusIctntcSchonllndcT), 165, ISO, 198 

Oliven, Benjamm, 154 

Olivcn. Bertha. 8 

Oliven. Caleb I S4 

OliicnXalhcTint. 1S3<I54) 

Oliven. Channi. 147-149 

Oliven. Charlone. 221 

Ohvcn. Clara iCIlrchcn), 153(154) 

Olivcn. Conrad. 15)-154 

01ivcn,Danicl(sonorKlaut01iven). 342. 343 

Olivcn, Daniel (son oFGregory Oliven), 154 

01i^'cn, Debora Campui. 342 

Olivtn, Dorothea. 153 

01ivcn,Ed.l»rdo, 344, 345 

Ohvcn. Eleanor. 153(154) 

Ohvcn, EliM. 157(156) 



Oliven. Elly - sec Abtlsdorff. Elly, 159, 1 78, 207 

Otiven. EUe. nte Morawctz. 153,154(1551 

Olivcn.FnQlRidcuinis). 140-145. 147, 153(152). 154. 159. 160, 162. I6S, 173. 202, 207-240. 245.252(251), 2S6, 

257, 262. 272. 286. J02, JO4-J09. JM. J28. 330. 340, 379, 384, 385 

Oliver, FnE(jon of Max Olivcn), 154 

Oliven, Gabnel FonuidD. 309, 345. 346 

Oliven, Gerald (Gcrhud), 1 54. 155(156) 

Oliven, Gre(;(oo) 153(154) 

Oliven, H^n4 - tec Oliven. ChuiDi 

Oliven, Huts- *ce Oliven, John F. 

Oliven, Heather, 154 

Oliven. Heinrich (tkhfliia), 151. 158 

01ivcn.Heym»nnMich«el, 9. 147, 149-151, 160,385 

Oliven, Hil(U(Hildc|. 153(154) 

Oliven. Hutda. 153 

Oliven. Israel Chajim- see Oliven. Heyiiiann Michael 

Oliven. Jacobtwn of Hcymann Michael), 145.149. 151-153. 159. 172. 173.387(384) 

Oliven. Jakob [ben] Jonathan (son of Jonathan Otiven),l46, 147 

Oliven. Jakob (ton ofMichael Ldb), 147. 149 

Oliven, Johanna. 152 

Oliven. John F -65. 114. 144. 200,216-222, 340. 

Oliven. Jonathan (son of Michael L6b).147 

Oliven, Jonathan (Jonu) Halevi 145. 146 (oldest Baccsble Oliven ancestot) 

Oliven, Judith Vivien - kc Schar. Ju6th Vivien 

Oliven, Julius (Jonah), 147.151,157,159- 

Oliven. Klaus 22. 65, 105, 114. 144. 173. 174,200,205.208.216-219.225-335.384,385 

Oliven, LaurD Anne 153, 154 

Oliven. Leonie (nee Meyer) 10. 1 1. 17. 18. 25. 54. 63. 77-79. 82. 89-91. 93. 95, 96. 99-105. 1 10-115. 122. 126. 128, 

129. 137- 144. 193,203.208-211.216-,384,385 

Oliven. Leonora 346-347 

Oliven, Lone 154. 155 

Oliven. Louis (Leisei), 151, IS2 

Ohvcn. Ludw>BlS3,154(1S5). 172 

Oliven, Lmse (nee SchoKlflndet), 158, 159-164.273 

Oliven, Malwme (Mietze) see AbelidoriT, Malwinc 

Oliven. Malwuic - see Hellei. Mahunc 

Oliven, Marisa Rozman, 343 

Oliven, Martha. 15b 

Oliven, M«. 153, 154 

Oliven, Michael Ldb. 146-149 

Oliven. Miyucl Roberto, 237. 343-344 

Oliven. Minna (Mindcl). 151.157 

Oliven. Minam Frances. 259. 328, 329. 34S, 359, 360 

Oliven. Neheinias. 147. 149 

Oliven, Oscar. 153, 155-156, 159,210.234,261 

Olivcn.Paula. wife of Albert Oliven. 154 

Oliven. Paula (Pauline). 153. 155 

Ohvcn.Pciel, 151 

Oliven, Rafael Campos, 34 1-342 

Oliven, Robert. 155 

Oliven. Roia. 153 

Oliven. Ruben George. 89. 328. 339-340 

Oliven. Salo(Salu5ch.Sfhaul), 151,152. 156 

Oliven. Sara. 147-148 

Oliven. Sarel. 146 

Olivcn.Seldi(neeReifen),9.22, 52.65.76,78,89.95.97, 120, 131. 135. 154. 161, 164,165. 


353-355, 357. 366-377, 381. 382 

Oliven, Sonic, 156. 159. 234, 261 

Oliven, Susarne Helcne (Suii. Sum), tnaried Sehall. 65. lOS, 1 14, 144. 158. 162. 173. 215-218, 223-229. 233. 236. 


Oliven, Suzana Mbck. 347 

Oliven. Taniara. 343(344) 

Oliver (Oliven). Tliomas Curtis. 222 

Olivet. Andy, 222 

Oliver. John, 222 


Otivd. Joicphine. 222 

Opp« (Oppenheini). Mathilde, 2) 

Oppcnheim. Diiid, 121 

Oppenheim. Hen Woir{Fntz|. 55 

l>i>aihciin(e(>. Samuel, 55. 121, 122 

C^cnhEim, Sanh Gertrude - lec Meya. Sanh Getmide 

Oppenheim, Wolf Jakob, 55 

Oppenhemicr. D( Arthur, 91 

OppenheimcT, Fnnz. 262 

Oppenhcinter, Fntz, ti 

Oppenhemicr (Opicn), Gcrd 91 

Oppenhcimer, Irene, 91 

Oppenhcimei, Walter, **! 

Orbach. Rachel - sec Slcmbng, Rachel 

Orbach. S«v, 255 

Orbach. Yehuda. 253 

Ongin of ihe family names Me)«r, OUven. Rcifen. SchoHlUndn, 378-380 

Ono. Imigard. 54 

Owens. JciSe, 258 

Pacully, Adcle San. 198 
Pacully. Eniil. 198 
Pacully. Gcorg, 199 

Pacully. Luia. 186, 198 

Pacully, Louij. 198 

Pacully. Richard. 199 

Pacully. Rudolf, 199 

Pacully. Sieglned. 198 

Papen. Franz von, 2)9. 241 

Peres. Shimon. 333 

Peron. Evila, 78 

Peiers. Anthony David Max. 90 

Peters. Dma Mugrel. 90 

Peiers. Helen Judith. 90 

PcicTS. Howard John, (Pmkus. Hans- Josef). 90 

PhilcT^orf. Elmieleth. 363 

Philersdorf. Joacov. 362 

Phileudorf. Ran, 362 

Philip. Prince of Grcai Bniain, 2 18 

Pick. Rulh Irene. 97 

PiU(Pelci). Use. 259. 264 

Pill (Pelcs). Shmion 259, 260. 263-264 

PinCTtel, J R Barrose. 320 

Pinkus, Freda Mana. 90 

Pmkui. HansHubcn.90 

Pinkus. Johanna Kedwig, 90 

Pinkus. Josef. 90 

Plaul. Dr , 78 

Plaul. Gerhard. 78 

Ptauu Richard, 78 

Plaut, Waller. 7)t 

Plinius. Pegg>, 90 

Pollack, Marianne D. 90 

Poperl. Samson, 127 

Popen. Zippora. 127 

Pteuis, Hugo, 232 

Priest. AlbcrlO. 28 

Pnngsheim. FnU, 184 

Pringsheiin. Hans. 185 

PniiA Hermann, 97 

Pythagoras. 233 

RaJck. Karl, 258 

Raslii |R Siloiiio ben Isaac), 1 1 

Raih. Emit vom. 284 


Ralhenau, Wilier. 85 

Rccd. John, 257 

RcgcnsbiugcT. 84 

Rcifcn family. J48-371 

Reifcn. Abralum Baruch. 350, 351. 357- 359, 361 

Reifcn. Aharon. 350. 351. 357 

Rcifcn. Ahion (Arnold) Naflali. 354, 355, 364-365 

Rcifen. Arie Abraham (Avi). 358 

Reifcn. A vn CI, 362 

Reifen. Ayala Ua. 358 

Rcifcn. Bctacha Zippora (Aharon Reifen's wife), 357 

Rcifcn, Bcracha (Eli Rcifen'i daughter), 358 

Reifcn, Benha. 354, 357 

Reifcn, Bilha, 362 

Rcifcn, Csthcruic, 3ft6 

Rcifcn. Chaya Rachel. 350. 3S3-JS4 

Rcifcn. Dam. 362 

Reifcn. David. 350. 358-361 

Rcifcn. Dov. 358 

Rcifcn. Elimclcch (Scldi's frandfallici). 350. 351, 353-357 

Reifen. Eli (Eliniclcch),Mn of Aharon Rcifcn, 351.358 

Rcifcn. Elimelcch (Ell), son of Abraham Baruch Reifcn, 351, 362. 

Reifcn. Elisha. 365 

Reifcn. Ella, 362 

Reifcn. Eslhcr. 362 

Reifen. Esihn Dvora, 350. 358. 359 

Reifcn. Evcl>iic. 366 

Reifcn. FclB (Fciga). ate Kupfertlein. 2<)6-299, 303, 108-109. 366-372. 374, 377 

Reifcn. Fenia. 363 

Reifen, Gid(Gadi). 355. 365 

Rcifcn. Gal. 362 

Reifcn, Gila (Giiela), 358. 359. 361. 362 

Reifcn, Hidassa, 362 

Rcifcn, Hanan(K)nof Rami Reifcn), 362 

Rcifcn, Hanan (Hem/), 362 

Reifcn, Honns (Va3Ci>i'*s wife), 361-362 

Rcifcn, Hanna iHannil, 358. 362 

Rcifcn, Hilda. 358 

Rcifcn, Israel Ocorg (Gcrson). 396-298. 303. 308. 309. 357. 362. 366-37 1 , 374. 377 

Reifen. Issi. 363 

Reifen. luh Roi*. 351, 357. 361, 362. 364, 365 

Reifen. Judilh (A\i Reifen's *ife), 158 

Reifcn. Judith (David Reifen's daughicri < sec Roncn, Judith Rcifcn 

Rcifcn. Kcila Mircl (Mcir Rcifcn'i vufc) 

Reifcn. Kathc. (Kcila). 351. 35B-3S9 

Reifen. Malka, 162 

Rcifcn. Manfred (Elimelcch). 351. 361. 363 

Reifen. Margot, 363 

Reifcn, Marion, 366 

Rcifcn, Mei[<ElinKle(h'i father). 351. 353 

Rcifcn, Mcit (Elimclctirs son), 351. 353. 355, 361. 362, 364 

Rcifcn, Meir(Ma» Reifen's son). 361 

Rcifcn, Mclcch - sec Rcifcn. Mischa 

Reifcn, Michael Rani I Rami), 362 

Rcifcn, Michal. 362 

Rcifcn, Mischa (Mclech), 303, 308, 325, 357, 366-172. 170, 171 

Rcilcn (Til). Mordechai (Manlredl, 358 

Rcifcn, MosheiMax), 163 

Rcifcn, Nechama, 35? 

Rcifcn, Nen, 163 

Rcifcn, Noya, 362 

Rcifcn, Ohad. 162 

Rcifcn, Pamela. 162 

Reifen. Pinchas (Paul), 358, 361 

Rcifcn, Rachel. 158 

Rcilcn. Rafael (Rali). 362 

^/ f 


Reifcn. Roii. 161 
Reifen. Ruth. 362 

Rtifcn. RuO. 365 

Rciftn, Seldi - tec Olivai. Scldi 

Rcircn. Scldi's finuly [rcc. 3S2 

Rcircn. Sclma, JbS 

Reifcn, ShuluiuL 365 

Reifen. Yaicot (Jikob oi Kun| - Men Rvifen's wa, 362. 365 

Reifcn. Yucov |Heini| ■ Abraham Reifcn'i son. JS8, 359, 361 

Reifen.lRivid). YMhcikicl. 362(363) 

Reifen. Yini[ Bilier, 3S8 

Reifen, Yonathan. 362 

Rcifcn, Wilhclriine (Minnie). 366 

Rcimonn, Karotine. 28 

Reinann. Sara I nee Mcyn). 28 

Rcimann, Abraham Salontun. 28 


Remarque, Erich Maria. 2S6 

Rewald. A. SJ 

Ribbenuop. Joachmi von. 272 

Ridcamui - ice Oliven. FhK 

RiC);cl<opliciani, 285 

RieMmbuiger. Rabbi MuTin, 296 

Riessci. GabncI, 1 1 

Rmlcin, Allied, 78 

Rmleln, Anna. 76, 78, 79 

Ruilcln. Julius, 78, 79 

Riniein, Liibeih, 78, SO 

Rinicln. Rudolf, 78 

Rmicln. Waller. 78 

Rocha. Pedro, 320 

Rocholl, EmsU "JJ 

Rohm. Emsi. 242 

ROmclmg, 42 

Rokni. Miehal. 8^ 

Romero. Silvio, 195 

Ron en, Ephraim, 360 

Ronen, Judilh Rcifcn. 355, 360 

Roncn. Idil. 360 

Ronen. Oded. 360 

Roosevelt. Franklin Delano. 291, 304 

RoienbuKh, Guiia. 75 

Rosenthal. Daniel. 153(154) 

Rosenthal. David Sdig. 28 

Rosc-nihal, Dcbora, 153(154) 

RoKnthal. Donald. 153(154) 

Rosenthal. Emsi Roland.. 198 

Rosenthal. Baron George voa, 121 

Rosenthal, Henry, 28 

Rosenthal. Dr Karl. 234.235 

Roscnltial. Lecscr, 121 

Roscmhal.Manon. 153(154) 

Roscnlhal, Meier, 28 

Rosenthal. Minna (Mindcl). ntc Meyer. 28, 29 

Rosenthal. Sicphcn Emcsl, 1^8 

Rosenthal, Susan, 153(154) 

Rosen«ald. Mr. 216 

RosUnd. EdiTiond. 233 

Roihc, Flora (Lore). 82.97 

Rolhnie)'cr, 36 

Roihschild, Meyer Anischcl. 55 

Rubeniohn. Hindihe - wc Warburg, Hmdchc 

Rubensohn, Jakob, 18 

Sabbalai Tzevi. 124 
Sachs, Charles. 155(153) 




#/ ^ 



■■.i,« ^'" 

k '*> 






Sachs. Ella. I5S(1S7) 

Stlfcld. Bcmhud. a 

Salgsdo Uoi Sanlui. Ubicnno. 11 S. 3 19-320 

Silumon ftmily. 10 

SiJomon. Arthur, 91 

Salomon. Edilh. 9 1 

Salomon, Ffani , 91 

Salomon, Heinz, 91 

Salomon, King of luael. 204 

Salomon. Michael Andrew. 91 

Salomon, Minna, 104 

Salomon. Minni. 9! 

Salomon, Wcmcr.9i 

Salzci. Muccll, 212 

Sam. Kitdegard. 19! 

Sanncr,Miu. 228-229 


Saul. Gabrielt, 95 


Saul. Gioconda. 9i 

Saul, Hcdwig Sophie (Hele). « 

Saul. Hildc. 9i 

Saul. Ksihe (nCc Seliginann). $2. 55. 57. 73. 76. »2, 95. 99 

Saul. Sally. 95 

Saul. Wemer Paul, 95 

Schall. Herbm. 223, 224 

Schall. Sun - Kc Olivcn. Suunnt 

Schey, Gcihaid. 230, 239 

Schiller, Fnedhch, 256 

Schlesuigcr, Gerhard. 194, 198(199) 

SchlesinnCT, Hans Huberi. 188, 191, 198, IM 

Schlesm^a. KBibc. 186. I9g.|99 

Schlninifcr. Klaiu. 191. 198. 199 

SchlMinger. Lothar. 186. 194. 199 

Schlcsinger, Malke. 168 

Sthnudt. Anna. 95 

SchmidL Hannes. 364 

Schmiltke, Mr 216 

Scbocken. Salmao. 300 

Schdnbsum. Julie, 54 

Schorr. R Ephnim Satnun, 15 

Schon, Hannah. 15 

Schorr, R Jakob. 12. 15 

Schorr. Jcnic. 15 

Schorr, Rabbenu Josef, 1 1 

ScholllUndct fannly, 145, 157. 165-206. J06 

Scholllandcr. AbrahamfAdolf). 168 

ScholllOndcr. Alfred Leo. ISO. 187-194. 197 

Schonlilndcr. Anna. 179, IS! 

Schonllndn. Ard-Heuinch, 180. 187. 18B. 193 

Schonlindcr. Aut;uslc. 152. 159. I6J, ITS. 198 

Schotllandei. Bcmhard. 169 

Schonlindcr. Hmha I Israel Da% id SthoUl&ndcr'snisI wire). 168 

Scholilandcr, Bcnha | Jaunhiei ull.Cibtl Schutilinder), 203 

Schonlmdci. Btnhamirc of Marcus Schonlindci), 168, 180 

SchonllndCT. Bruno. 170. 175. ISO. 199.200 

Schonllndn. Clara. 179. 183 

SchonlSnder. Curt 199, 200 

Schonlindcr. David, 175,201 

Schonlindcr. David Inael. 165-167 

Schonlnnder. David Joachim. 167 

Schonlilndcr. David Marcus, 167 

Schonlindcr. Denny, 195-197 

Schonlindcr. Dorothea (Dora). 175, 187. 188(189). 192.194.202 

Schonlindcr. Enima. 179. 183 

SchonUndei. Erwin. 200 



ScholtUndcT, FcU». 90. 199-201 

ScholtlSndci. Franhslu. 174.202(203) 

Schonlindct. Gcrda. 193-197 

SchotllSndcr. Gertnid, 183 

Scbonlmdci. Hans Jwt™. "«. 182. 188-191. 194. 196. 197 

Scboiilanda, Heds Pcin, 191 

Schoiillndcr. HcnnenctJtnel), 8. 1«. 170 

Sehoiilandcr. Hortmsc. 1 72. 189. 200. 20J 

ScholtlUidn. Israel Iben] Divid, 166-168. 170. 172 

SchonlSndCT, Juliu*. 147, 171. 173. 175. 179-183. 184. 185 (186), 198.202 

ScboitlltndcT. Klibe. 203 

ScbotlUlndcr. Leo. I6S. 1 74, 202 

Schottllndn. Lili - sec FiKhcl, Eliubcth 

Schonlandn, Lins. 1 75. 198 

SehonllUidet, LObel and Hcnriene. dcscendmls of. 175-178 

Sthonllnder, LObel (Chaim U.K 8. IS:. 153. 159. 160. 162, 16S. 168-175. 180. ISI, 186.193. 198.202,306 

Schotlllndcr.Ludnulb(Milla), 186-187, 189, 191-193.196-197. 199 

Sc ho Hi Under, Luisi - see Olivcn. Luise 

SchotilUndcT, Malwinc, 175. 203 

SchonllmdcT, Mircus, 168. 180 

Scholtl&ndcT. Mirgarele (Oiciel, 199. 201 

Schonlinder. Martlia. 199. 201 

Schotllmder, Noenu Jotllc. 191. 203 

SchoillHnder, Norj. 203 

Scholtlander, Dr Paul, 181-183, 186-189, 192-194, 197. 199 

Schonlandci. PauU. 175. 180,204 

Schonlandcr. Pincuv 168 

Scholtlander. Richaid (Bruno Schorllandct's ion), 177. 199-200 

Sdionlinder. Richard (Feli^ Schonlllndcr's son). 177. 201 

Scholtlinder, RoM, nee Slomowska, Julius Schonltader's firsl wife. 1 79 

S<hiHIIindcr, Rozji(Hertha),nianicd UcnbartlUuliusSthonUnder^idiuBhlcr. 175.182-185 

Schunllnder. Sabine. 191 

Schonlinder, Silo. I7S, 180,202.212 

Schonlandcr, Sarah Dorothea. 191 

Scholtlatidcl.Si|!urd. 174. 191,202,203 

Schonlinder. Viclor. 203 

Schiller, Mr , 228 

Schulii.MT 313 

SchulM. Peler. 9, 30, 45. 56. 61. M, 69, 73. 83. 106, 107. 1 12, 1 14, 1 IS. 383, 385 

Schulzc (Rinmeitlcr), 42 

Schwan. Mrs, 143 

Schwarz, Rosl. 279 

SchwaiTnunn, Olgi, 96 

SchwarMchild, Leopold, 292 . 

Scliai Judilli Vinen, 328 (nee Olivcn), 336. 339 

Scliar. Moaeyr Jaime. 336-)38. 340 

Scliv. Kobcno, 338 

Seclig. Anna. 53 

Seclig.Aniold. 53.65 

Seclig, Clara. 53 

Seclig. Ilemime, S3 

Scclig. Maihildc. 53 

Scclie, Wilhdni. 53. 58 

Seliymann. Abtahani. 81, 94 

Selignunn, Anhur. 94-95. 316, 326 

Selignunn, Irene, 95 

Seligmann, Irmyaid. 95 

Seligniann. Kaihc. 94. 95 

Selignunn.Leo, 94, 95 

Sclignunn,Loile,94, 95 
Scligmann. Paul, 94, 95 
Senden.R, IS 
Sncni, Emilio. 249 
Scrcni. Enu), 249-250, 290 
Sencr, Orcn, 360 
SeverioE, Carl, 239-240 


Shunir. Yiohak. Hi 

Shncour. Zalnan of Lyaily. 34Q 

S.eli. Hans, 95 

SiCKbcim.DT. 196 

Sicikuid. D»vid Here. 2J. 24, 63 

Sieskind. Felice. 82.97 

Sicskind. Hcrz Sicsldnil 21,21 

Siubnil. Jakob Hcrz. 23. 24, 57, 61 

Sicskmd. Lma (wife of R Sattuel E. Meyer) - tec Meyer, Lini 

Sieilond, LolhM. 24. 25 

Smkind. Louis. 2i 

Sieskind. Maihilde. 57,61 

Sieskind, RiheUtlso ROichenor RoHlie). 23 

Silbcrbne, Edilh. 263 

Silberfafb. Sicphai. 153(154) 

Silberstcin, 375 

SJIva. Mano Moreua da. 320 

Sinion. 183 

Siiiions. Arlhur, 78 

Smtons, Bemud, 78 

Simons, Eduaid. 78 

Siinons. Helmul. 78 

Sinycr, Di Kun, 208 

Snulh. Bessie, 2S7 

Sobenihemi. Fngenc, 183 

Sobemheini, Martin. 183 

Sobemheini. Dr Walter. IS3 

SondheinKi. Eslhci - sec WarbiUB. Esther 

SondheimcT. R. Hillcl Wolf, IS 

SondheiniLT. Rebekkj. IS 

SondheimcT. Woir, 18 

SannenrcltJ. Dr , 260 

Souu, Catlos AJves de. 32 1 

Souia, Carlos Martins Pereitae. 322, 323 

SouzB, Murillo Martins de. 309, 324 

Spahn, PeiCT, 86 

Spanier, Ella, SI 

Spanier. Emil, 51 

Spanier. Julia (Julie), 51,52 

Spanier. Leah, niamcd Hanim. 5 1 

Spanier. Lcvy(LouisJ, 51 

Spanier. Rftsehm. 42, 43.51. 52 

Spie^clberg. Anionic. 54 

Spiceclbag. Eduaid. 54.64, 110 

Spicgclbcrg. Einilie. 54 

Spiegelbae, Henne(le(Je«e). nte Meyer, 43, 44. 5J, 54 

Spie^clberg, John. 54. 1 10-114. 134 

Spiegclbers, Josef, 53, 54 

SpieyelbcT^. Kurt 54 

Spicgelberi;. Lina, 54 

Spiegelbctg. Louis. 54 

Spiegelbcrg, Montz. 54 

Spin, R Saloino. 1 1 

SpiC Israel Gershon. 353 

Slalin. Josip. 272 

Sleinberg, Leo "Pony' [Arie Harell. 250.253. 259 

Slcin berg. Rachel, 253 

Siembcrg, Yehuda, 253 

SleiDcr. Hasso. 266, 267 

Sleincr, Jercnua (Jerry), 266. 267 

Sleiner. Jetiel, 1 70 

Sicinet.Naftali. 170 

Sicindial, Rcbnxa (Dccca), ncc Meyer, 25. 12. iS-61 , 8 1 -82, 97 

Sleinthat, TTieodar, 81-82 

Slem, Lunan (UB). 243. 247-248. 250 

Straus family. 65. 131-136 


Snu5. Abrahim, 133 
Siraui. Babclle. 133 

Swul. Edilh jnt-c Mcyci). 55. 57, 70. 75. 77. 79. 82. 94, 95. 99, 114.116. 129, 133,,329 

SOjiu. En*-™ (Irwin Y), 114.133. 135-136.261 

Soiiu. Eva - SM Linker. Evi 

Sniu. Fricdnch A. (Fob) 1 1 1. 133-135. 210. 219. 230. 131. 261 

Siraiu. Geriii ■ k< Bafli, Geidt 

Straus, Howard, 1 36 

Straus, Use - sec Fcigcr, Use 

Straus, Maxcne, 1 36 

Straus. Meici Abraham, 1 33. 1 34 

Straus, Oscar. 212, 213 

Straus, Petty, "* 

Straus Wcnict (Stroud, Vcmon), 114, 1 35-136. 230-231. 247 

Strauss. M.. 17 

Stnuss,S.. 51 

SttML Julian. 155(153) 


Strcsemann. Gusiat. 235 

SDOud, Da^-id. 1 36 

Stroud. Dennis. 1 36 

Stroud. Flota. 136 

SDoud. Michael. 136 

Stroud. Ruth 136 

Stroud. Vemon (Snaus, WcTTicr), 133. 135-136 

Slutiui, Andjes. 2o) 

Slulzin. Godofredo, 203 

Stutzin. Michael, 203 

SQsskini] xon Tnnibcrg. 25-26 

Siold. Hennede. 290 

Tal. David. 358 

Til, Ema. 358 

Tal, Naomi, 358 

Tal. Un, 3S8 

Tq)pct-laski, Kurt von, 192, 194 

Thmmiui. Eniit, 239 

Thttlcs, 233 

Thun. Count of (Graf von) 187.193 

Tiller Gull. 214 

Turbcit. FneJnch. 26 

Ttcuenrds, R Di Abraham. 41.43. 51. 53 

Treucnfels, Bertha. 51 

Treucnicts. Gcrson, 41-43.5! 

Trcuenfels. Hennelie iJelle), 51 

Tteucnfels. Jeannclie. 51 

Treuenfcls. Johanna. 51 

Treuenfcls. Lina, 51 

Treucnftls. Rcgina. S L 

Treuenfcls. Rosa. 51 

Tnmberg, SiissKind von - see SUssktnd von Trimbcrg 

TfoptowLU. Ema, 157(156) 

TruploAit2. Kite. 157)156) 

TruplowiEx. Dr Max. 157(156) 

Ttot/ky. Lco.239, 258 

Tutholsky. Kua 256 


if ^ 



w^y '^ 

$ •■■ k% "^^ 

Uhler. 3S8-359 
Ullsicin. Rudoir, 139 
Uuishkin, Daniel. S9 
Utsishkin. David, 89 
Uuishkui. Iddu, 89 
Ufsishkin. Mendel, 89 
Utsishkin. Yrat.89 
Uuithkm. Yoav. 89 

* .f.- 

I, .. • 

& - . 

■If ' 


Uwuhkin, Yuvil. 89 

Virgu. GttuI Jo (Presideni). 3 1 2. 3 1 8-3 1 9. 32 1 

ViciM Enmunuel 111. King ofltaly. 249 

Viktor, Huii. 78 

VilrtoT, Kllc, 78 

Vilrtoi. Kun. 78 

Viktor, Lubclh. 78 

Viktor. Uiw, 78 

Viktor, Ray» Noenu, 78 

ViktocViMor, Will., 78-80 

VMisch. Minisicf, 354 

Vogcl, Andiew. 375 

Vogel. Anon (Aron). 37i 

Vogcl. Dcbr».375 

Voeel. Hclli. 37S 

Vogtl, Josn, 37S 

Vogcl. Johanna. 375 

Vogcl, Livi», 375, 376 

Vogtl. Mary (Mi»h»). 575 

Vogcl, Paul. 37S 

Vogcl. Rcgma (Rebecca), 37S 

Voigt. Dr . 245 

Wachsmann. 157(156) 

Wagner, 157 

Wagnci,Dr Manm. 157(156) 

WatdoFT, Claire. 213 

Waikci, Saiah Kaihcnnc. 20S 

Walker, Thonas More. 205 

Waltach. MugoU 77 

Walter. Alicia, 157 

Waller. Bcm hard. 157 

Waller, Rent, 157 

Warburg, Either, 18.43 

Warburg. Hanle, 12. 16.18.42 

Warburg. Hindchc. 18 

Warburg. Rebecca - sec Meyer, Rebecca 

Warburg, R SaniucI Levi. 12. 16-19. 42.44. 56 

Warburg. Siegfried, 154(155) 

Washmgion, George. 220 

Weaker, Nma, 93 

WedellDt Abraham, 61, 81. 91. 93 

Wedcll. Eberhard George, 93 



Wedcll. Ida.Sl. 91. 93 


Wcdell, Klaus. 9] 

Wcdell.Lilli, 82, 91,96 

Wcdell. Renaie, 93 

Wedcll. Ursula. 93 

Weinberg. Rabbi M 29 

Wcisi. Israel. 357 

Wciureld. Andres (Andy). 376 

Weisifcid, Carolyn, 376 

Weiurcld.Claudio, )76 

Weii&reld, Haniel Ruben. 376 

Wcutfcld. David. 376 

Weissfe1d.0cfda, 376 

Wcusfeld. Minon. 376 

Wcissfeld. Man, 376 

Weissfcld, Miguel Roberto (Milo). 376 

Wemfeld. Monica. )7S 




Werfel, FraiLL J1 1 
Wcmcr. Bcnjumn. 16B 

Wcmer. Bcnhi, IbS 

WeniB. CharloUc (Lolte). 89 

Wwtheimcr, S»n«on, II, SS. 117, UO, 122 

Wenhcimcr, Setchen. 122 

Wtnhcimer, Slcfm. 313. 314(3ISt 

Wolheimcr, Wolf. 122 

Wicluid. ChnMupb Maitm, 256 

Wienci, Anna. 157 

Wiener, CKilic. 157 

Wiener, Divid. (1 57), 158 

Wicnet. Else. 157 

Wienci. Fntz, 157. 158 

Wiener. Hans,(li7).lS8 

Wiener. Lina, 157 

Wiener. Max. 157 

Wienci. Minna. IS7, US 

Wiener. Paula. 157 

Wilhelm I, King of PnissU. 65 

Wilhelrnll. Emperor and King of Pruuia. 107. 184 

WilLc, lone. 96 

Windlhortt. Ludwig. 59 

Winkler. Roseiiiarie. 93 

Winlci. Annie. 52 

WinicT. Grace, 52 

Winici. Dr Jakob. 52 

Wolff. Dr Rabbi. 266. 267. 277 

Wolff. Willi.2N, 215 

Wolff. William. 245. 330 

Wolff. Mr , (William WoJflT* biolhcr). 24S. 330 

Wolff. Mrj. 245 

Wollner. Johanna. 326 

Wollslcui, Franzisk^. 168 

Wolioeen. Emii von, 212 

Woodhead. JoKn. S9 

WuiTcl. 369 

Yinccy, Joel AltMndcr. 201 
Yancey. Michael Joel, 201 
Yancey. William Fredcnc 201 

ZimeU, Lore (ne« Sieskind), 24 
Zinipelmann. Colonel, K3 
Zoch. Aniia. 94 
Zohflf , Oten. 358 
Zweig. Slcfan, 256 


End of My family history /