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Full text of "My recollections of the war of the rebellion;"

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MY RECOLLECTIONS 



OF THH 



WAR OF THE REBELLION 



Bv WILLIAM B. LAPHAM, 

Bki-vet-Major U. S. Volunteers. 



ritlVATKLY I'l.MXTKl). 



AIGUSTA, MAINE: 

BITRLEIGII * FLYNT, IMUNTERS 

1S9-2. 



THE SOUTHERN BATTLE-FIELD. 

"Once this soft turf, this rivulet's snuds. 
Were trampled by a hurryiiio- crowd, 
And tiery hearts and armed hands 
Encountered in the battle-cloud. 

Xow all is calm and fresh and still; 

Aloue the chii-p of tlittiui;- bird, 
And talk of children on th(» hill. 

And l)ell of wandering' kinc are heard. 

No solemn host goes trailing by, 

The Idack-mouthed gun and stiiggcring \v;iiii 
Men start not at the battle cry. — 

O, be it nevei- lieard agnin."" 



^U 






BeMcation. 

®a Pavy (Tynthia, 

§c» WiWum 

and 

JrancciSi §culah 

7"///.>- volume is affectionately dedicated and inscribed by 
THE/R FAT HER. 



PREFACE. 

^\'lly do you not write some of your ixTsonal 
recollections of the War of the Ivebellion, and relate 
some of your })ersoual ex[)eriences tliereiu for the 
anuiseuient and editication of your children? The 
above ({uestion was propounded to me ])y the 
mother of the children, some fifteen or more 
years after the war closed, and so pertinent \\as it 
that it seemed stranue I had not thoujrht of it before. 
I am aware that my experience ^vas by no means 
an exceptional one, that there were very many 
whose army life ^vas much more replete with thril- 
ling adventure than 1 am able to relate, yet in a 
service somewhat varied and covering a period 
embracing the greater part of the war, there were 
circumstances that came und(>r my personal obser- 
vation which may be of interest to the })ersons for 
whom this record is especially made. The minor 
events of a great war are those less likely to l)e 
recorded, but even these to a "[)osterity that 
delights in details," will not be devoid of interest. 

An iirmy is a vast machine of which soldiers, and 
subordinate officers are component parts, and un- 
questioned ol)edience to the will of the commanding- 
general is the chief element of success. This will 



18 made known 1)V being handed down throuuh the 
various orade.s of offieers until it veaehes the [)rivate 
soldier. Whatever the eonnnand may be, whether 
to niareh or eneanip, to eni>:age the enemy or retreat 
from him, in order that the component' parts of the 
great machine^ may act in harmony, no questions 
should be asked and no criticisms made, but when 
moved upon l)y legally constituted })OAver, one si)irit 
should pervade the entire force and that of ])assive 
obedience. AVlien in action, a private or subordi- 
nate officer knows little or nothing of what is going 
on in other })arts of the tield, nor is it necessary 
that he should know. His business is to attend to 
the work allotted to him, and helj) take care of his 
})art of the line. Even the results may not be 
known to him for a time, and when ordered to 
move, he may not know whether it is in retreat or 
advance. So it was with many after the l)attle of 
the Wilderness, and so it was after many of the 
battles of the late war. 

The incidents related in this little volume are 
chietly confined to the regiment and battery to which 
I belonged, and yet what is true of one organization 
whether in cam]) or in the field, is to a certain extent, 
true of others. The drill, the guard duty and the 
canjp sports are essential 1}^ the same, and since 
" w^ar means killing," the methods adopted for this 
purpose in every action, are })ractically the same. 
The Twenty-third Maine Regiment served its term 
of enlistment in doinir uuard dutv on the Potomac, 



from AU'Xiindi-ia to Harper's Ferry. It had no en- 
aaueiuent with the enemy, and yet the death rate was 
uneonnnonly hirge, therehy indicatin<>- the character 
of its service. The Seventh Maine Battery joined 
the army of the Potomac in the march to the Wikler- 
ness, and participated in all the suhseqnent engaa^e- 
ments of that uallant army. There were a ninnher 
of men, includinir the writer, who served in hoth 
of these ori>'anizations and had the varied experience 
incident to both. There were no two organizations 
that left the State to aid in putting down the rel)el- 
lion, that contained a greater pro})ortion of tirst 
class men than the two under consideration. Besides 
a large numl)er of independent farmers, there were 
college graduates, merchants, mechanics, teachers 
and other professional men. They enlisted from 
purely patriotic motives, and served with an eye 
singl(> to the preservation of the Union. More than 
thirty }'ears have elapsed since the regiment was 
organized, and many "of those who survived the 
war, have since gone the way of all the earth. The 
scope ot this work will admit of only brief mention 
of any of them, 1)ut if such l)rief mention shall in any 
manner serve to kec}) green their memories and 
preserve the record of their sacrifices and heroic 
deeds, its preparation and its })ul)licati()n will not 
have been in vain. 

The primary oirject of the publication of this book 
is the amusement and edification of my children. 
From it thev will learn to some extent, of the causes 



8 



that led to the rebellion and secession of the South- 
ern states. They will see how causeless and un justi- 
Hahle was the movement, and how pure and patri- 
otic was the man on account of whose elexation to 
the })residency, they rebelled. They will see how 
an ()\ erruling Providence seemed to iiiiide the Shij) 
of State during the dreadful storm ; how tem})orary 
defeat only served to intensify the })atriotism of the 
loyal states, and ho^v it became apparent that the 
curse of slavery must be removed before complete 
success could crown our efforts. Had success 
attended our armies in the earlier ])attlcs of the war, 
there is no doul)t that a peace would have followed 
\\ ith legalized shivery retained. But this was not 
to be, and for the proclamation of emancipation. 
President Lincoln is entitled to the lasting gratitude 
of the whole American people and of the world. 
If there is one thing more than another for which I 
am grateful, it is that the slavery question has been 
settled, and so settled, in my day and generation, 
and has not been left as a troublesome legacy to my 
own and to other childi'en of the coming generation. 
And there is no act of my life that I look back upon 
with so much satisfaction and jiride, as to the 
humble part I bore in the war necessary to emanci- 
pate the slave. When I think of my years of ser- 
vice in the Union army, I feel that my life has not 
been entirely in vain. 

By the i)erusal of these pages, you, my children, 
will learn something of what the preservation of the 



union of these states has cost, and you will learn 
to prize it all the more highly. You will learn that 
it is cemented by the blood of hundreds of thou- 
sands of our patriotic people who sprang to arms 
to defend and preserve it. You Avill be told how 
they uncomplainingly endured every privation and 
hardshii), and how they unflinchingly faced the 
cannon's mouth to l)eat back the rebel hordes 
that would destroy it, and you will learn to respect 
and revere their })atriotic devotion to country, 
'riiat what you may here read and learn, may 
increase your love of country, cause }ou to i)rize 
more highly the })rivileges you enj()y and make you 
better citizens, is the earnest wish of your 

Father. 
Augusta, Me., Oct. 10, 1892. 



ANTE BELLUM. 



As far l)ac'k as I can ienieinl)or, I was, or thouiiht 
myself, a Democrat. In my early ehildhood, the 
idea was instilled into me that the Tories of the 
Eevolution were the most depraved of human beings, 
and that the Whigs were their immediate .successors. 
I not only disliked the name of AVhig but I was 
innnediately i)rejudiced against any j)erson who 
called himself a Whig, or who was so called by 
others. I felt that there was something wrong- 
about him, and that he was not to l)e trusted. The 
tirst President of the United States whom I remem- 
ber was Andrew Jackson, and to l)e aljle to join in 
a hurrah for Andre\y Jackson, I considered a great 
})rivilege. Of ^vhat great things he had accom- 
l)lished, I was entirely ignorant, but that he was a 
Democrat was all that my youthful fancy recjuired, 
and I felt that I knew he was a great and good man, 
and a patriot. So of Martin Van Buren, his suc- 
cessor. When his election was announced, 1 felt 
that the country was safe for the time being, and 
that the Whigs, the allies of Great Britain and the 
enemies of the republic, had met with another signal 
defeat. 

At the opening of the memorable Campaign of 
1840, I was t\velve years of age, and how much I 



12 



suffered from the noisy demonstrations of the A\'hii>s, 
I cannot describe. It was the famous log cabin and 
hard cider campaign, and the enemies of the Demo- 
cratic party were everywhere aggressive. The 
campaign songs in praise of Tij^pecanoe were in 
every1)ody's mouth, and accomplished more for the 
success of the l»arty. than oratory, eloquence and 
arifument. The Wliio- candidates were sung into 
office. AVhat signiticance there was in the name 
l)estowed upon the President, of "Old Tippecanoe," 
I did not knoAV, or perhaps I might not htive feh so 
sure that the success of the Whig i)arty was also tlie 
success of the Tories and of England. It was some 
years later that I learned that Tippecanoe was the 
name of a river in Indiana, upon whose banks Gen. 
Harrison had fought a famous l)attle Avith the 
Indians, Nov. 11, 1811, near the beginning of the 
War of 1812, and that the Indians were incited to 
hostilities l)y the efforts of the emissaries of Great 
Britain. Nor had I then learned that both General 
Jackson and General Harrison, distinguished them- 
selves in that war and were equally patriotic. I 
only knew that Jackson was a Democrat and Harri- 
son a Whig, and that Avas enough for me to know, 
and in those days I felt that I knew it all. 

I have since learned that soon after the War of 
the Ee volution had given freedom to the colonies, 
two political parties came into existence having no 
reference to the war. One aa.-is led by Alexander 
Hamilton and contended for the centralization of 



13 



})<)W('r ill oi'ck'i' to insure Ji stronu' iiatioiml iroverii- 
ment. The otlicr party ^vns impersonated by 
Tlioinas Jort'orsoii, the author of the Declaration of 
Iu(le[)endenee, who eonteuded for the ditfusion of 
power uniong the .states, or in other words, for the 
doctrine of state rii>hts. These twosystems of politi- 
cal doctrine have come doAvn to us as an inheritance, 
and have in })art, formed the issues that have entered 
into every political cann)aii>n. It was this doctrine 
of extreme state rights that gave a ])retext for the 
slave holding states to secede and precipitate war 
between the two sections of the country, and it was 
the doctrine of a strong Federal government put 
in })ractice and thoroughly carried out, that sub- 
dued the rebellion and preserved the union of the 
states. 

The issues which are before the i)eo})le to-day 
directly involve these two antagonistic ideas which 
are older than the government of the United States. 
There are side issues like the money (juestion, the 
tariff etc., but the real question is the centralization 
or ditfusion of power. On the question of tariti'as 
at present existing, the Democratic paily claims 
that it is unconstitutional, and the question must 
eventually be determined by the courts. The 
(|uestion of currency which is forced ui)on the coun- 
try as an issue, is presented in a form that brings 
into antagonism the State and Federal su})ervision. 
Now% I believe in a strong Federal government, 
sufficiently strong to protect itself in time of war, 



14 



whether at home or abroad, but when it conies to 
the centralization of power to give national control 
to railway and telei>raphic linos, or to other l)ranches 
of business that properly belono- to private enter- 
prise, I would say to the Federal goverunient, 
" hands off." In our })olitical cani})aigns, underly- 
ing principles have frequently l)een obscured 1)y 
side issues, and it is well to l)ear in niiud that 
underneath all these (juestions that are constantly 
l)eing brouglit up and })rcsj^cd to the front, lies the 
old and fundamental (jucstion of state rights, or the 
centralization and diffusion of ])ower. This (jues- 
tion, in some form, has been at issue since the 
formation of the govermnent, is at issue now, and 
will be at issue for 3'ears to come. 

President Harrison died in a month after his 
inauguration, and I felt that his death >vas })rovi- 
dential. That it was the interference of a higher 
power to prevent the consummation of the plans 
and purposes of the AVhig party. He Avas succeeded 
by John Tyler who had been elected ui)on the same 
ticket with him. It was generally understood at 
the time, that Tyler entertained views sonunvhat 
different from those of the leaders of his party, and 
soon after assuming the duties of the presidential 
office, this fact was fully demonstrated. The East- 
ern Argus was about the only })aper that I read in 
those days, and I rememl)er how I was comforted 
by the assurance found in the A7'(jus, that Tyler, 
though elected as a AVhii:-, was in re:ilitv a Demo- 



15 



ciiit : I t'clt that a second iiulcjx'iulciK'c had hccn 

ac'hi(>v(>d and that the country was ai>ain sate. I 

rcmcnihcr a little triph't which the Argus printed 

and which so impressed itself upon my mind that I 

ha\e not forirotton it in the half a century which 

has since elapsed. It was as follows : 

'' Honor to whom honor ii4 due, 
AVe forgive them for ehn'tiug' Tii)pec;nioc 
Because they went for Tyler too."" 

.Vt this period of my life, I knew hut little ahout 
African slavery. I was aware that such an institu- 
tion existed in the far South, hut this was before the 
days of teleiiraphs and railways, and the multij)iic- 
ity of news])a|)ers, so that the knowledge I had of 
it was very indetinite. I do remember how shocked 
I was, when a colored man living in Paris named 
Xatlian Fuller, the tirst and only negro I had e\er 
seen, was hired to go to Virginia to cut timber, a.nd 
was there sold into slavery by the monster who had 
hired him to work, but of the nature of his bondage, 
1 knew nothing, and my sympathy for him was 
mainly l)ecause he could not return to visit his par- 
ents and his brothers and sisters. lie was then 
about twenty-three years old, and his friends never 
heard from him after the re[)ort came that he had 
been sold. He was an intelligent fellow and had 
learned to read and write. He was probably mur- 
dered in being "• lu'oken in," for he was pnmd 
s))irited and woidd prefer death to the kind of bond- 
age that awaited him on the sugar j)lantation where 
he was sold to i>o. 



16 



Toward the close of President Tyler's adminis- 
tration, the question of the annexation of Texas 
began to l)e agitated. Texas had maintained a 
heroic struggle for independence, was settled largely 
by })e()i)le from the states, and sympathy for the 
" Lone Star" was easily excited and quite general. 
There were those who shook their heads, and said 
it meant more slave territory, but tlie " Lone Star" 
shone so brightly as to dazzle the eyes of most 
people, that they could not or did not see what lay 
behind it. The act of annexation was })assed by 
C^ongress, and was signed l)y President Tyler, three 
days l)efore the expiration of his term of otHce, 
March 1, 1845. 

The annexation (juestion had entered largely into 
the canq)aign of 1844, although it was not nuich 
talked about in the political gatherings in Maine. 
I remember that I walked to Bethel Hill, a distance 
of eight miles, to hear Nathan Clifford and John 
Fairfield discuss the })()litical issues of the day. 
Their talk was mainly upon the tariff, but it was 
elocjuent and interesting, and 1 was very proud of 
them. It was known very well, that the annexa- 
tion of Texas would bring on a war with Mexico, 
and I afterwards knew that the South desired that 
very result. The South knew that not only Texas, 
but a good broad area of ^Mexican territory would 
be annexed to the United States as the result of 
such a war, and that in most if not tdl of this terri- 
tory, slavery could ])e made })rotital)le. 



17 



About this tinic or ;i little hctorc, the imti-slaverv 
luoA'cincnt ht'Uiin to (levolop in the tVco states, and 
a liheitv party had been formed in Maine. Its 
nienil)ers were few in nmnher, hut they were men 
of eneriiv and al)ility, conseientious in the work 
they had undertaken, men who stood high in the 
eonnnunity, and who eould ex})ress their views 
either in speaking or writing. Among their tirst 
etforts, was the dissemination of anti-shivery litera- 
ture in the form of i)am})hlets and books, in whieh 
was shown up and painted in glowing eolors, the 
enormity of the tratiic in human l)eings, and the 
misery whieh followed in its train. The eruelties 
])raetieed under the Anieriean system were illustrated 
by both pen and peneil, so that the eye as well as 
the understanding eould take in the wliole seope of 
its atrocities. The separation of families was dwelt 
u})on,the unrestrained licentiousness which the sys- 
tem })ermitted, and its demoralizing and l)rutalizing 
etfect u})on master as well as u})on slave. These 
men were generally regarded as fanatical, and 
extremists they certainly were. Many of their 
statements were flatly contradicted by the political 
press, and some of them were doubtless untrue or 
lii'eath' exaji'o'erated ; but still, it could not be sue- 
cessfully denied that all the al)uses complained of, 
were [)ossiI)le. 

In the annexation of Texas, and the ac(|uisition 
of California and other large areas of new territory, 
the South had triiunphed. Sympathy for Texas in 



18 



her ettbrts to free licr.sclt" from lici' dis!i<>Toe:il)le 
connection with the half civilized rei)ul)lic of Mex- 
ico, was ke))t at the front, while the real (|iiestion, 
that of additional territory for slave labor, wa^; kept 
carefully concealed. The aid of poetry was invoked, 
and the '• Lone Stiir of Texas" hecanie the theme 
of many a })oetical elfusion. 

I well remember part of the tirst .stanza of .some 
verses which were set to the nnisic of a well known 
Scotch sono-, aiid sunu- throuuhout the lenirth and 
breadth of the land. This stanza beii'an as follows : 

••l\'x:iti.-* \\]u) with lloustou t)le(l, 
Texan,* Jat-ki^on often led; 
Friends to yon. onr licarts ai'e wcil. 
Ignited let ns he."" 

The war with Mexico which was brouo-ht on by 
the annexation of Texa.s, lasted from l.S4() to 1<S4<S, 
when, as was expected, the Mexican armies were 
routed, and to secure i)eace, a lari>e area of Mexi- 
c:in territory was ceded to the United States. 
General Ziichary Taylor had concUicted the opera- 
tions aii'ain.st Mexico with distiniiuished ability. 
H(^ was an otticer in the rcii'ular army, and in no 
way responsible for the war, but after it was declared, 
he performed his (Uities like the brave and able 
soldier he Avas. In politics, he was a Whi_u", and 
^vitli characteristic shrewdness, the AMiius selected 
him as their candidate for President in 1(S4<S, and he 
was trium])hantly elected. The Democrats nomi- 
nated Lewis Cass of Michigan. Thouiih a A'ir- 
ginian by birth, President Taylor's views upon 



19 

the siil)j(H-l of shivery, were not in accord with 
those of (he Southern extremists, luul his reconi- 
luendiitions in histirst and only message, gave them 
i>reat oU'ense. 

WhiU' a violent discussion was going on in ("on- 
uress rehitive to his rcw)mmendations, and other 
measures rehiting to the peculiar institution, Presi- 
dent Taylor died after tive days' ilhiess, July !•, 
1850. Millard Fillmore of Xew York, Vice-Presi- 
dent, now succeeded to the presidential office. 

The Mexican War was opposed by Daniel ^^'el)ster 
and l>y many other leading AVhigs, partly because 
it was a Democratic measure, and partly because it 
was regarded by them as waged in the interests of 
slavery. On that account, tlie Whig party came to 
be regarded as anti-slavery so far as the extension 
of that institution into territory where it did not 
alreadv exist, was concerned. A ])rovis() was 
introduced into the bill relating to the disposition 
of the territory actjuired from Mexico, which forever 
excluded slavery from it, and this proviso was sup- 
ported by the Whigs and l)y many Northern Demo- 
crats, and was defeated only by a parliamentary 

trick. 

In 1S52, the fugitive slave bill was jjassed by 
( ouii'Tss and receiving the signature of President 
Fillmore, became a law. The President also ex- 
pressed his determination to have it rigidly enforced. 
This alienated from him many of his strongest 
suppoi-tcrs, but Daniel Webster who was hisSecre- 



20 



tary of State, tstood ])y him. This action of Mr. 
Webster was regarded l)y many of his friends and 
former Whig associates as a hid for the })residency, 
and he never afterwards had their eontidenee and 
support. 

You may now desire to know what were my views 
and feelings u})()n these great (juestions which were 
agitating the })ublic mind, fori was then old enough 
to have ideas of my own, though I have to confess 
that they were warped somewhat by prejudice, and 
early influences. I was o])})osed to negro slavery, 
believing it to be unjust and wicked. I held it to 
be inc()m])atible with the })rinciples of the Declara- 
tion of lndei)en(lence, a document \\'hich 1 hiul ever 
regarded as sacred, and also as incom})atible with 
the fundamental princi})les of our free govermnent. 
But it was a local institution, confined to the Soutii, 
and I felt that the Xorth had no right to nunldle 
with it. It was all wrong, l)utthe South alone was 
responsil)Ie for it. 1 did not ))elieve it was recog- 
nized in the constitution of the United States, and 
therefore, could not in any sense be regarded as 
national. 1 felt that Congress had the right to pre- 
vent its extension into new territory, but had no 
right to al)olish it or in any way interfere Avith it 
in those states where it existed when the constitution 
was framed and adopted. Had the South been 
content to let it remain as it was, in all human ])r()b- 
ability, the institution would have remained to 
this day and perha])s forever. The slave i)ower 



21 



w;is aaii'i'cssivc, and was not only determined to 
carry slavery into all acquired territory where it 
could he made })rolitahle, hut they were constantly 
calliuii' for new safeguards to he thrown around it. 
\Mien Missouri and ]\Iaine were admitted into the 
I nion in 1820, there was a compromise entered 
into and em])()died in the liill for the admission of 
Missouri, which provided that slavery should not 
exist north of a certain line specified. 

I had not lost all confidence in the Democratic 
])arty in 1852 , although my confidence had l)een some- 
what shaken hy the compromise measures, and hy 
the passage of the fugitive slave hill, but I consoled 
myself that, as this uieasure was passed during a 
AVliig administration, the AAHiigs were responsible 
for it, although I could not lose sight of the fact 
that a })ractically solid South had demanded, and 
voted for the ol)noxious measure. Obnoxious it 
was, and could not be otherwise. Il recognized 
slavery as a national institution, and made every 
man a slave hunter. Parties in Congress were 
di^'ided upon the question. Democrats and Whigs 
supported the measure, and Democrats and A^"higs 
voted against it. 

Franklin Pierce was nominated for President. 
lie was a New England man, and had not l>een 
especially prominent in pul)lic aflairs. The plat- 
form ui)on which he was placed was plausible and 
appeared conciliatory. I had faith in the candidate 
and voted for him. Jiut as soon as he was inau- 



22 



gnrated, he gave evidence that he was only a pliant 
tool in the hands of the Southern slave-holders, 
who made every other issue and interest sul^servient 
to their peculiar in>titution. Durina" his adminis- 
tration, the jNlissouri Compromise Act was repealed 
and the troubles in Kansas occurred. The South 
w as determined that Kansas should be a slave state, 
and the North was ecjually determined that it should 
be free. There was a reign of violence there, and 
all law and order were trampled under foot. The 
elections were controlled by people from the neigh- 
boring slave state of Missouri, who were not resi- 
dents, but came for the sole purpose of controlling 
the elections in the interest of the slave-holders. 
During this contest, President Pierce was in full 
accord with the South, and prostituted his high 
office to fui-ther their schemes. He characterized 
the lormation of a free state government in Kansas 
as an act of rebellion. But it a\ as all to no purpose. 
The tiat had gone forth from the millions of the free 
North that Kansas should be fiee and a free state it 
became. The re})cal of the ^Missouri compromise, 
the troul)k^s in Kansas and the intensely })ro-slavery 
attitude of President Pierce, created great excite- 
ment throughout the country, and it rc(]uired no 
prophetic vision to foretell that the old parties must 
soon break up and give place to other two great 
parties, l)etween which the slavery question would 
be the paramount issue. The enforcement of the 
fiiiiiti\(' slave law uas resisted l)v lar^e numlicrs in 



23 



the iVoo states, and •• undei'iiround " railways hy 
which fiiiiitivos fVoiii the f^outh were aided in 
leaehiiig Canada, were known to exist in nearly 
every free state. The anti-Slavery or Abolition party 
wliieh at tirst was eharaeterized as a hand of fanatics 
and disoruanizers, and was looked uj)()n Avith eon- 
tempt hy holh the old parties, had now assinned 
larire i)ro[)orti()ns. They had eminent re})resenta- 
ti\es in hoth branches of Congress, and some of the 
ablest men in the conntry had joined their ranks. 

Meantime, a new element had entered into the 
politii-s of the State of Maine which for a time over- 
sha(h)wc(l all other issnes. This was the Maine 
Li(jnor Law is.-ue. in 1S")1, the ]\hiine Legisla- 
ture };as.scd a law for the su])})ressi()n of driidvinu' 
houses and ti})pling shojis. The legislature was 
Democratic in its make-up, but theie was a large 
1 umber of \\ higs and a good s|)rinkling of Free- 
soilerselei ted. In In.'jO, the Fieesoil candidate for 
(loverner in Maine, polled over seven thousand 
votes. The i)r()hil)itory law was bitterly o])posc(l by 
the leading l)enu)cratic nu'Uibers and l)v a few of the 
^\'higs. l)ut it was jiassed In both branches, signed 
by (iovernor IIul)bard, and became a law of the 
State, (xovcn'uor IIubl)ard. accoiding to Democratic 
usage, was ('ntitle<l to a re-election, but when the 
convention was held, he was opposed by the anti- 
Afaiiu' Law element of his ])arty. and after his 
nomination this element met in couNcntion and 
nominated an anti-Maine Law candidate which 



24 



resulted in the defeat of Governor Hubbard. This 
year the Freesoil party polled less than two thousand 
votes, most of the Freesoilers voting for Hubbard 
in order to sustain the Maine Law. In 1853, the 
Maine Law men held a convention and nominated 
a candidate of their own. This year, the new 
party polled about eleven thousand votes, and the 
following year, having nominated the same candi- 
date, they gave him nearly forty-iive thousand 
votes and they not polling (juite enough to elect 
him, he was elected by the Legislature. The effect 
of the contest over the Maine Liquor Law, was to 
break party lines, to bring together those who 
thought alike under a new and powerful organiza- 
tion, which in 1856, became national and took the 
name of the Republican party. This party in Maine 
was committed to prohi])ition of the li(|Uor traffic, 
and to opposition to slavery extension. In its hrst 
campaign under the new^ name, its candidate for 
Governor polled nearly seventy thousand votes and 
was elected Governor by a large majority. The 
Freesoilers had no separate organization this year, 
and the Whigs only polled a small vote. In 1857, 
there was no Whig candidate for Governor, and 
the Republican majority was nearly twelve thousand. 
In the national issue of 1856, the two candidates 
for the presidency were James Buchanan, Demo- 
cratic, and John C. Freemont, Re})ul)lican. The 
contest was a very exciting one. The New Fng- 
land and most of the Northern and Western stales. 



25 



voted for Frocinont electors, but the South was 
solid for Buc'haniUi, and he was elected, securinii" 
174 electoral votes, to 114 for Freemont ; ]Millard 
Fillmore, the Whig candidate, secured only eight 
electoral votes. 

With the campaign of ISoG, the tirst national 
campaign of the Ke[)u1)lican party, I was in full 
accord, both upon state issues which involved the 
re-enactment of the Maine law which the Democrats 
the year previous had repealed, and upon the 
national question which involved the further exten- 
sion of slaver3^ The result of that campaign has 
already ))een told. Mr. Buchanan's administration, 
like that of his predecessor, was characterized In' 
weakness and indecision. Like his predecessor, he 
yielded implicit obedience to the slave oligarchy 
which had given him the otKce. During his admin- 
istration, the troubles in Kansas continued. John 
Brown made his famous demonstration at Harper's 
Ferry and was captured and hung, and toward its 
close, the secession movement began. Mr. Buch- 
anan had no word of censure for the South, but 
attril)uted the cause of the trou])le to Northern agi- 
tation of the slavery question, contending that 
Congress had no power to force into submission a 
seceding or seceded state. His othcial acts encour- 
aged secession, and his subordinates made every 
preliminary provision to make it successful. The 
Secretary of War dismantled all the Xorthcrn arse- 
nals, and transferred the ordnance storesto the South, 
2 



26 



and the Secretary of the Treasury used up all the 
available funds of the government, and had not a 
dollar to transmit to his successor. 

The contest for the presidency in 1<S()(), was a 
quadrangular one. The Republicans nominated 
Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, the Democratic con- 
vention nominated Stephen A. Douglass of the same 
state, while those who intended to secede in case 
the Republican party should succeed, which seemed 
quite probable, put in nomination John C. Breck- 
enridge of Kentucky. The "Constitutional Whig" 
})arty nominated John Bell. Upon the residtofthe 
campaign hung mighty issues, and it was one of 
the most exciting in the history of the government. 
Abraham Lincoln was elected, having secured 180 
electoral votes, to 72 for Preckenridge, 39 for Bell 
and 12 for Douglass. John Bell of Tennessee was 
nominated by the anti-Lecompton Democrats, the 
''know-nothings," and the old line AVhigs. JNlr. 
Lincoln's election was so decided as to remote all 
doubt as to what was the intention of the pe(H)Ie of 
the L^nited States u})on the slavery que.-tion, and 
the South began to make ])reparations for carrying- 
out their threats of secession. As soon as the 
result became known, drunnning and drilling began 
all over the South. South Carolina was the first 
state to declare herself out of the Tnion, and others 
followed, until the whole South was arrayed against 
the general government. 

The conception and aninms of the slave-holders' 
relx'llion, and pr()l)ably some of its j)lans had ex- 



27 



isted for many years, l)ut it-? initial point or Ix'oin- 
ninjj- may be placed at the tifth day of Octol)er, 
eioliteen hundred and sixty. It had smouldered 
loni>- and had broken out at least on two occasions, 
but it was at the date alcove named that it took form 
and its organization was begun. It was on that 
day that the Governor of South Carolina, a state 
which had lono; manifested a spirit of disloyalty to 
the national government, sent by the hand of a 
special messenger, a contidential communication to 
the governors of what were generally denominated 
the Cotton States. The object of this circular 
letter was to obtain an interchange of o})inions 
which he might be at lil)erty to submit to some of 
the leading citizens of South Carolina. He assured 
the governors that as soon as it should become cer- 
tain that a majority of Lincoln delegates htid been 
chosen, the state of South Carolina would call a 
convention, and in case a single state should secede 
from the Union, his oavu state would sj^eedily follow. 
And should no other state take the initiative. South 
Carolina would take the lead, if she could be 
assured that other states would follow. He advised 
concert of action and sought for information as to 
the disposition and proposed action of other states. 
Other states Avere not long in responding. North 
Carolina being the tirst. The answer of the Govern- 
or of this state was quite conservative, lie stated 
the election of Lincoln, taken by itself would not 
be considered a sutiicicnt cause for disunion and 



28 



that his .state would })r()l)al»ly not call a convention. 
Alabama responded that she would not secede alone 
but would declare herself out of the Union if two 
other states would go out with her. Mississi})pi 
was ripe for the movement and ready to co-operate. 
Louisiana hesitated, and the Governor responded 
that he should not advise secession and did not 
think his state would decide in favor of it. Georgia 
would wait for some overt act. Florida, after the 
lapse of a month, responded enthusiastically for a 
disrupture of the union of the states. 

It was thus demonstrated that outside of South Caro- 
lina and Florida, the rebellion at this time was l)y no 
means a po})uIar movement, but was a cons})iracy 
among certain iire-eating politicians, Avhich the 
masses (f the people neither desired nor expected, 
l)ut which they were e^•entually made to support 
and upliold l)y the artful schemes of these same 
conspiring politicians. South Carolina had long 
been the school of treason, and the writing of the 
letters to other states was only a matter of form, 
for before the answers were received, the consulta- 
tion which they asked for had been held and the 
plans for insurrection and revolution fully agreed 
ujjon. ^fo the legislature which had l)een elected 
in ()ctol)er, and was called together in special ses- 
sion Governer Gist, on the fifth of Noveml)er sent 
a revolutionary message, this being the first official 
notice of insurrection and revolution. From this 
time evervthino- was manaoed in a manner to 



29 



mcroa.se the revolutionaiy furor. The Icaishitiire 
of South Carolina ordered a convention, made larue 
a])i)ro})riation8 and })a.ssed ]n\h for or<ianizin<>- and 
e(]ui})i)ing- the ndlitia ; companies were enrolled in 
all the i)rincipal cities ; there were constant drills, 
harrangues, bonfires, the disi)lay of secession liags, 
cockades, and nothing was left undone calculated 
to arouse the popular furor. A new Governor was 
elected of a still more pronounced secession type, 
and at a convention begun on the seventeenth day 
of December, first at Columbia, and afterward by 
adjournment, at Charleston, a so called ordinance 
of secession was passed on the twentieth, a little 
after noon. 

It is not within the scope of this work to follow 
minutely the })rogress of the secession movement 
from this time forward to the beginning of the 
great sanguinary struggle which followed the inaugu- 
ration of President Lincoln. SufKce it to say that 
the secession of South Carolina was followed by that 
of all the Cotton States and not only of these but 
of Virginia and others. The conspiracy had also 
established itself in the highest official circles of the 
national administration. Three Southern meml)ers 
of the cabinet became ardent and active disunionists, 
besides a large num])er of subordinate officials who, 
regardless of their oaths of office, lal)ored to the 
best of their al)ility to })romote the success of the 
c()n!>})ira(y . In the hands of such men, President 
Buchanan who had become old and enfeebled in 



30 



health, was conplclely i)()werle8s. A feeble eflbrt 
was made to re-enforce and sup})ly the gavri.son in 
Fort Sumter, l)ut the vessel earryinir relief was 
tired upon and oblioed to turn back without accom- 
plishing her object. 

The national ca[)ital was a hotbed of secession, 
and treason stalked o})enly and unrebuked through 
the streets in broad day-light, liuchanan tried to 
arouse himself a little, Imt the members of his cal)- 
inet were all traitors, and he had no more power 
to act than a dead man, and in fact he was })racti- 
ally dead. Some etf'ort was made by Congress to 
avert the coming storm. A Peace Congress assem- 
bled at Richmond, Va., on the day of the meeting of 
the legislature of that state. Among the mend)ers 
was Hon. Lot ]M. Aforrill, United States Senator 
fnnn Maine. Several pro])ositions were oti'ered and 
discussed, but nothing was acomplished. 

The new rebel government proceeded to seize 
and ai)i)ro})riate all the property of the United 
States government in the seceded states. This 
included all the custom houses, post otiice buildings, 
forts, ai'senals, store-houses, ordnance and ordnance 
stores, the sul)-treasury and the mint. As the time 
drew near for President Buchanan to retire from 
office the Southern members of his cabinet and the 
heads of departments, began to sneak away from 
Washington, and the officers of the regular army 
whose sym})athies were with secession, left their 
comnuinds and went South, The convention for 



31 



the organization of the rel)el g()^•e^nnlent was called 
to meet at jMontuoniciy, Alabama, on the fourth of 
February when Jctferson Davis Avas chosen presi- 
dent, and Alexander H. Stephens, vice-president. 

Abraham Lincoln left his home in Springiield, 
Illinois, on the eleventh of February, accompanied 
by a few friends, for AYashington. I'hrough the 
Western states, also through Indiana, Ohio and 
Pennsylvania, he was everywhere received with the 
honor due to the President-elect ot a great and free 
})eople. At Philadelphia he assisted in the raising 
of a United States flag over Independence Ilail, on 
which occasion he made a very impressive speech. 
As he drew near the line which se})arated the slave 
from the free states, there was a decided change in 
the treatment he received. 

The secession element was very strong in Balti- 
more, and the })apers of that city had articles cal- 
culated to incite tumult and mob violence. It had 
l)een openly threatened that Mr. Lincoln should 
not live to be inaugurated, and there is no doubt 
that his assassination had been decided upon. But 
by secretly taking a, train on the evening of Feb- 
ruary 22, the day before he was expected to leave, 
he passed through Baltimore unknoAvn and unsus- 
pected, and on the morning of the twenty-third, 
reached Washington. This ste[) was taken on the 
advice of his friends and against his own wishes, 
but subsecjuent develo})ments showed it to have 
been the part of wisdom. He was inaugurated and 



32 



assumed the duties of his office on the tbuith of 
March, l)ut instead of a united government to 
uphold and sustain him in his res})onsil)h' (hities, he 
stood face to face with another self-constituted 
aovernment, holdinu' })()sitions and maintaining 
assumi)ti()ns so palpahly and diametrically opposed 
to his own, as to necessitate an earlv collision. 



BELLUM. 

Foi-t Sumter was an important defensive work in 
the harbor of Charlcstown, South Carolina, and was 
connnanded l)y Major Robert Anderson of the 
reguhir army. After the re]:>els had seized the 
government property inCharlestown and elsewhere, 
Major Anderson, to avoid a eollision left his (juar- 
ters in Fort Moultrie, and with his small force, 
retired to Fort Sumter. This was on the night 
of December 26, I860. On the fifth day of Jan- 
uary, following, the steamer Star of the West left 
New York with supplies and re-enforcements for the 
beleaguered fort. A dispatch from New York was 
immediately sent by secession sympathizers to the 
ai^thorities at CHiarleston, informing them of the 
sailing of the vessel, its destination and object. 
When the Star of the West reached Cliarleston 
harbor and attempted to steam toward the fort, she 
was tired upon by Fort Moultrie and a battery on 
Morris Island, and being struck by a shot, without 
connnunicating with Major Anderson, she returned 
to New York.^ This was the first hostile gun. On 
the eleventh of April, the surrender of the fort was 
demanded by General lieauregard, and on its refusal 
by the patriotic and heroic Anderson,lire was opened 



34 



upon it on the twelfth. To man the fort he hud 
less than u Inindi'ed men, and only a few guns that 
were in a condition to bo used. Besides he was 
short of su})})lies of every kind. He made a man- 
ful resistance and surrendered only when he could 
no longer hold it. flis surrender was made on the 
thirteenth, and on the fourteenth, he marched out 
with colors tiying. The fort was re})aired by the 
rebels, and formed the chief defence of C^harlestown 
until the close of the war. 

The news of the attack and surrender of Fort 
Sumter was inunediately flashed over the country, 
and created intense excitement. There was iiulig- 
nation in the North which found exju-ession in words 
and deeds, and there was (exultation at the South 
that the ball had been put in motion, and that the 
first victory, though a barren one, was in favor of 
the confederacy. 

On the fifteenth day of A})ril, the day succeeding 
the surrender of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln 
issued a ])roclamati()n calling forth the; militia of the 
several states, to the mnnl)er of seventy-five thou- 
sand men, to be used in the su})pression of the 
rebellion and to cau>e the laws to ])e duly executed ; 
and also calling an extra session of Congress on the 
fourth day of July. This })roclamati()n was received 
with general appro\al throughout the free states, 
though there were those in every town and com- 
nmnity, ^vho sympathized with the South, and who 
opposed the coercion back into the Union, of the 



35 



seceded states. Under this })r()el:iiiiati()ii, one 
re<i"inient of infant ly was assigned as the (juota of 
Maine. 

Not nuieh had l)een done in Maine for many 
years toward kee})inu" up the militia. There were 
a few companies scattered over the State, which 
were officered and some of them were quite pro- 
ficient in drill. The Norway' Light Infantry was 
the only one in Oxford county, and this was not 
officered with any view to active service. This was 
the first company to respond to the call of the Gov- 
ernor of Maine. Some of its officers having- 
resigned, others were ai)})ointed and the ranks 
were speedily filled by volunteers from Norway and 
the adjoining towns. Quite a large proportion of 
the men, and all the officers, were from Norway. 
This com})any was assigned to the First Maine 
Regiment, went into camp for a short time in Port- 
land, and then was ordered to AVashington. Its 
term of enlistment was three months, and it re- 
mained in the vicinity of the capital during that 
time. At the first battle of Bull Uun, it was 
ordered to the front, hut the order was counter- 
manded l)efore the regiment had started. 

At the opening of the "War of the Rebellion, I 
was a single man, engaged in the })ractice of med- 
icine at Bryant's Pond. I was then thirty-three 
years of age, and in the enjoyment of good health. 
A year ])revi()us my office had l)een burned, destroy- 
iuir mv librarv, medical and suroical instruments 



36 



jind implements, my stock of medicines, my wear- 
ino- ap})arel except what I had on at the time, and 
all my private ])apers. There was no insurance, 
and the loss was a severe one. I was recovering 
somewhat from the shock when the war broke out, 
and was achieA^ing a good degree of success in my 
profession. I had lieen a strong partisan in the 
campaign that resulted in the election of Lincoln, 
and I believed that when the overthrow of the gov- 
ernment over which he had been called to preside, 
Avas threatened, it Avas my duty as well as that of 
others, to rally to his sup})ort. 

The Legislature of Maine had been called to- 
gether by the Governor on the sixteenth of April, 
and a large majority Avere enthusiastic in support 
of the general government. An act Avas passed 
])r()viding for raising ten regiments of infantry, and 
authorizing a loan of a million dollars. The lirst 
regiment Avas mustered in for three months and 
the second for two years. The second Avas 
from the eastern })art of the State, Avhile the 
first Avas from the central and western portions. 
As soon as the legislature had made })rovision for 
raising troops, I went to Augusta and took out 
enlistment papers, the lirst given to a citizen of 
Oxford county. Governor Washlnirn advised me 
not to try to recruit a company, but said he Avould 
appoint me assistant surgeon of some regiment, the 
first opi)ortuiiity ; and, said he, "you may con- 
sider yourself the same as appointed if you desire 



37 



such a po.sition and will take it." But this tlid not 
exactly suit my puri)ose. I had talked war iu the 
town where I lived, and expressed myself deter- 
mined to take a hand in it. I had l)()arded for 
some years at a hotel ke})t I)y two Democrats. We 
were good friends enouiih in otlier respects, but 
diflered widely in i)olitics. In speaking of going 
into the army, they had told me that I should 
really sacrifice nothing hy going ; that I would go 
in my profession ; woidd not he exposed to dan- 
ger, and would really he professionally l)enetited 
by the experience I should have. It was largely 
on account of this talk which had been repeated 
again and again, that I determined to go in some 
different capacity than my profession. 

I received the recruiting papers and returned to 
Bryant's Pond. Notice was given through the 
Oxford Democrat, and by posters, and men came 
in about as fast as I could enroll them. In a tew 
days I had two-thirds of a company in canij), and 
it became necessary that they should l)e drilled. 
I had never had any ex})erience in military affairs, 
and not one who had been enlisted was com})etent 
for a drill-master. In this emergency, I made 
arrangements with Moses Houghton of Greenwood 
who had l)een a ca})taiii in the old militia, to take 
charge of the company. He could not do this 
without compensation, and so we arranged that he 
should ])e elected captain and fill that position 
until the regiment should be ready for muster into 



38 



United States service, when he was to retire, and 
I was to succeed him. Mr. Hotiuliton was ])assed 
middle life, and his health had Ix'come so imi)aired 
that he did not think it [)rudent for hhn to yo into 
active service at the front. Meantime, I com- 
menced drilling and the stndy of tactics, and was 
preparing myself to assume command of the com- 
})any, at the time agreed u])()n. A full com])any 
had been raised and reported, and we were daily 
expecting to he ordered into cam|) in Portland. 
But the response had been more general than it was 
supposed it would he, and after the compk'ment of 
the six regiments which the general go\'ernment 
wouhl accept from Maine had been made u}), 
eighteen full companies, including the one I had 
recruited at I^ryant's Pond, were, in accordance 
with general orders, ])aid oH' and nnistcred out of 
the State service. Tliis was a great disappoint- 
ment to many, and not a few Avere thoroughly 
disgusted. I believed it to l)e i)remature, and sub- 
sequent events justified that belief. I had become 
convinced that the South was thoroughly in earnest, 
that her resources had been greatly underrated, 
and that a protracted and sanguinary contest would 
be necessary for a restoration of the Union. It 
was not long before there was another call for 
troo[)s. The battle of Bull Run had been fought, 
the Union troops defeated and had been driven 
back into the d(»fences of Washington. The gigan- 
tic character of the strui>gle now beuan to be 



39 



appreciated, and every loyal state was s])eedily ))iit 
upon a war footinii'. Duiina- the summer and fall, 
Maine reiriments were oriianizcd from the First to 
the Fifteenth. Six batteries of Light Artillery 
were also raised, and a full regiment of Cavalry. 
The First Maine, which was nuistered out early in 
August, was reorganized as the Tenth. 

After my disapp(»intment at not going into one 
of the early regiments, I was in no hurry to re- 
enlist. My interest in the contest, however, was 
unabated, and I ex[)ected to have a part in it before 
it was over. But there was no lack of men during 
the tirst year of the war. Regiments were s})eedily 
tilled, and when organized, there were always more 
than the number required. I had a father and 
mother somewhat advanced in years who had for 
several years de})ended almost entirely upon me 
for their support. Two of my brothers had en- 
listed, and after the tirst iiery ardor had abated, I 
determined to wait until my services should be 
needed. I remained at Bryant's Pond during the 
summer. I had enlistment pa[)ers all tlie time, 
and during the season recruited a good many men. 
Late in the autunm of 18(U, (Governor Washburn 
sent for me to go to Augusta, to assist in looking 
after the sick of the ditferent regiments in camp at 
that i)lace. There was some trouble and delay 
al)out the ap])ointment of a surgeon of the Fif- 
teenth Maine Regiment, and I was tirst assigniMl to 
duty as acting surgeon of that regiment. 1 at- 



40 



tended the morninii- call^; and })re^icril)cd for the 
sick for two or three Aveeks, when a h*ariieon and 
assistant Avere appointed, and I Avas relieved. 
AVinthro}) Hall had been titted up as a tem})orary 
general hospital and put in charge of Dr. Seth 
C. Hunkins, and at his re(|uest I Avas assigned to 
duty there. There Avere then three regiments of 
Infantry, one of CaA'alry and scA-eral batteries of 
Light Artillery in camp in Augusta, and there was 
a large amount of sickness. Measles had broken 
out, and the hosi)ital Avas very soon over-crowded 
Avith those stricken down with the disease. The 
first attacks were not unusually severe, but many 
insisted on returning to their (juarters on account 
of the crowded condition of the h()S})ital, before 
having tully recovered. They had -Sibley tents for 
(juarters, and the cold became very severe. Those 
who had returned pi'ematurely to their quarters, 
generally had a rela})sc, and Avere sent back to 
Winthro}) Hall Hosi)ital to die of jMieumonia. 1 
cannot tell how many died, l»ut there were se\eral 
deaths each day for several days. 

I remained in Augusta until s})ring, when the 
troojis left for the front, and I returned to Bryant's 
Pond. During the season of 1862, four regiments 
of three years men Avere recruited and sent out of 
the State. I received j^ermission and papers to 
recruit i)art of a com})any for the Sixteenth INIaine 
Kegiment, and Avas to have a connnission. I took 
my men to Augusta, Init so many commissions had 
been promised tliat I Avas again left out. 



THE TWENTY-THIRD MAINE 
REGIMENT. 



During the summer of 18(52, the Peninsular eam- 
paign proved a faihire and the army of the Poto- 
mac retreated to James river. General Pope then 
took connnand and was badly defeated in what was 
known as the second battle of Bull Run which was 
fought Aug. 30th. The President called for trooi)S 
to serve for nine montiis and ^Nlaine wtis called 
upon to furnish eight regiments. The Twenty- 
third Maine was raised in Oxford and Androscog- 
oin counties and went into camp near Portland 
early in September. They were here in camp 
wdien the battle of Antietam was fought Septem- 
ber 17th. A large numl)er of personal friends 
joined this regiment so I went to Portland and 
enlisted as a private on the quota of Paris. Soon 
afterward, I was appointed l)y Col. V\'n\. W. 
Virgin, connnissary sergeant, tmd had quarters with 
the non-conmiissioned statf. My messmate was 
Sanuiel R. Carter, a lawyer from Paris Avho had 
l)een appointed quartermaster sergeant. The (juar- 
termaster was A^^illiam P>ray of Turner. Company 
F of this regiment was made uj) of (luotas from 
Paris, Rumford, Dixtield, and some other smaller 



42 



tonus. Horace X. liolstcr ot" Paris was coiiiiuis- 
sioncd captain, .Joseph II. Al)l>ot ot" Ivunitonl, tirst 
lieutanant and (too. M. Park, second lieutenant. 
When the time came for nuisterin<>- the reuinient 
into the United States ser\ice, for some cause never 
explained, T^ieutenant Park declined to he nnistered 
and there was therefore, a vacancy in Company F, 
Solomon C. Bolster, l)rother of the captain, was 
orderly sergeant and tirst in the line of jjromotion. 
But Quartermaster Bray desired to have his brother 
a])pointed commissary seru'eant, and the only way 
that this ould be accomplished was to provide 
some other place for me. This vacancy nave him 
the desired op[)ortunity and he at once set about 
getting me into it. He consulted with and gaini^d 
over the colonel before ap])roaching me on the 
su1)ject. A\'hen he and the colonel })resented the 
matter to me, I hesitated. Although enlisted on 
the (juota of Paris, I was fnmi the town of lA^ood- 
stock, and the (juota from Woodstock had united 
witli that from Turner. I knew thtit Sergeant 
Bolster Avaiited and expected })rom()tion, and as he 
was very popular with the men, I felt that if forced 
u})on the com})any without its consent, the place 
might 1)6 made uncomfortable for me. I very soon 
learned however, that a respectable number of the 
rank and tile of the company were not particular 
about having the place given to Bolster, and were 
willing it should go in ^ some other direction. 
When it became known that an elfort was being 



43 



uiadc to have inc apjjoiiitcd, (fiitc a iuniil)er ciune 
to me and desired me to aecept, if ai)p()inted. The 
ofiieers l)()tli eommissioiied and non-eommissioned, 
l)itterly opposed me, and sent a strong })etition to 
Governor Washburn in favor of 15olster. But 
Governor AVashburn had previously written me that 
he would appoint me if I would aecejjt, and finally, 
at the earnest solieitation of Quartermaster l^ray 
and others, I wrote the Governor that I would 
aeecpt the })Osition. The hostility to me in the 
eompany manifested itself in various ways. So 
marked was it, that 1 did not mess with the officers 
until about the time we were ordered to Washing- 
ton. Emmons, the eompan^^ cook, was my friend, 
and so 1 did not go hungry. Lieutenant Abl)ot 
did not remain long in the service. Soon after the 
rei»:iment reached the Potomac, he was taken sick 
and sent in his resignation which was promptly 
accepted. 1 was then })rom()ted to first lieutenant 
and Sergeant Bolster to second lieutenant. This 
was satisfactory to all parties, and [)eace and har- 
mony prevailed in the com})any from that time. 
The company as finally made up Avas as follows : 

Captain — Horace X. Bolster. 

First Lieut — Wm. B. Lapham. 

Second Lieut — Solomon C Bolster. 

Fikst Sergeant — James H. Barrows, Paris. 

Sergeants — Elery F. Goss, Riris ; Oscar M. 
Tucker, Peru; Joseph P. Packard, Paris; Olcott 
B. Poor, Andover, 



44 



Corporals — Daniel II. Voiiiig, Paris; J^cwis B. 
Newton, Andover ; Aurotstu.s S. Pcrliain, Paris; 
Gill)oi-t E. Shaw, Paris ; Horace Iloliiian, Dixticld ; 
Geo. H. Barrows, Paris ; Edward E. Stevens, 
Rumford. 

Promoted Corporals — Hazen M. Al)bot, Rum- 
ford ; Marion Ilolinan, Dixtield ; Hiram 11. Jack- 
son, Paris; Henry A. Ryerson, Paris; John F. 
Libl>y, Dixtield. 
Promoted Sergeant — Aurestus S. Perhani, Paris. 

MusiCLVNs — Geo. W. Younu", Paris; Daniel D. 
Delano, Peru. 

Wagoner — Joseph Brown, Milton plantation. 

I'IMVATES. 

Bennet, John P., Xewry 

Berry, William, Greenwood 

Bessee, Isaac R., Paris 

Bird, John M., Paris 

Brickett, Henry F., Andover 

Cole, Geo. W., Jr., Paris 

Cununings, Isaac D., " 

Cummings, John C, " 
Dunham. Chas. W., 

Dunham, James P., " 

Eastnnin, Holland F., Dixtield 

Emmons, Israel F., Greenwood 

Farrar, All)ert A., Paris 

Farrar, Granville M., " 

Foster, Lysander P., Peru 

Frost, Samuel B., Xewry 



45 



Giles, Dexter, 
Giles, Geo. W., 
Goodwin, Joel, 
Goodwin, Sanniel, 
Golder, Xathan I)., 
Gray, Wm. L., 
Gurney, Mctov, 
Holnian, Asa, 
Hohnan, Fairtield Jr , 
Ilolnian, Horace, 
Hopkins, Isaac W., 
Howe, Charles F., 
Jackson, Lewis L., 
Jackson. Samuel C, 
Knight, Hiram P., 
Kniuht, Hudson, 
Lang, Wm. P., 
Lufkin, Chas. A. E., 
Martin, AVintield S., 
Merrill, John E., 
Mitchcl, Shnon D., 
Morey, Ainsworth W., 
Morton, Charles H., 
:\Iorton, Milton, 
Morse, Joseph H., 
Newton, John 1)., 
Poland, James P>., 
Porter, John, 
Pratt, Edwin P., 
Richardson, Calvin, 



Paris 

Rumford 

Byron 
Paris 

Dixfield 



Rumford 
Paris 



Rumford 



Paris 

Byron 

Rumford 

Andover 

Paris 

(( 

Andover 
Peru 
Paris 

a 

Greenwood 



46 



Segar, Jiirvis M., Rumford 

Seveiy, Ebon 1)., Dixticld 

Smith, Andrew J., Paris 

Stevens, Wm. F., Kuniford 

Stiles, Enoch D., (Ireenwood 

Swift, Chandk'r, J*jiris 

Twitehell, (ieo. IL, 

Tueker, Hannibal S., Peru 

Viro-iu, Chas. K., Ivuniford 

\'iroin, Geo. J)., 

Virgin, ,James ]\r., '< 

AValker, Cahd) E., 

Walker, Geo. E., Paris 

Warren, Daniel C, DixHeld 

Winslow, Andrew, 

Woodis, ^^'nl., Paris 

Youiii:-. Freeliind, " 

DIED WHILE I\ THE SEltVICE. 

Eewis P). Xewlon, NoAeinher 2, 1<S()2 ; Levi X. 
lionney, October 24, 1<S()2 ; Silas F. Jones, Novem- 
ber 12, 18(52 ; Isaac E. Bessee, l)eceml)er 17, 1<S()2 ; 
L'ysander P. Foster, January 24, 1K()3. 

DISCTIAKOED FOIJ DISAl'.ILITY. 

rioseph P.Packard, January 11, l<S(!o; Daniel 
D. Delano, February 2, 18G3 ; John P. Pennett, 
March f), 18G3; Hiram P. Knight, Decenil)er 18, 
1802: AVilliam Woodis, Fel)ruarv 3, I8(;;j. 



47 



I!j:tui;ned to the uanks. 
George AV. Youiiu', Joseph Brown, Daniel II. 
Young. 

The reeruits for the regiment began to gather at 
tiie rendezvous in Poitland early in Septemher. 
The Twenty-tifth and T\vent\'-seventh Maine Reg- 
iments oeeupied part of the same eneampment. 
The regiment was nuistered into United States 
service Se})teml)er 2nth, 18(x2, to serve for nine 
months. 

FIELD AM) STAFF. 

Wm. AVirt Virgin, Colonel : Enos. T. Luce, 
Lieut. Colonel; Alfred B. Soule, Major; AVinthrop 
II. Hall, Adjutant; William Bray, Quartermaster; 
Jesse P. Sweat, Surgeon ; Kiehard K. Ricker, 
Assistant Surgeon ; J()se}>h C. Snow, Chaplain ; 
Ivoyal E. AVhitman, Sergeant jNIajor ; Sanuiel R. 
Crocker, (Quartermaster Sergeant ; A\'m. B. Lap- 
ham, Commissary Sergeant; Ste})hen B. Kenney, 
Hospital Steward; Wm. AV. Eoss, Drum Major ; 
Robert AL Sykes, Eife Major. 

Before leaving the State, A\'illiam B. Lapham 
was commissioned second lieutenant of Company E, 
and Philip P>ray was appointed commissary ser- 
geant. The only changes in the Eield and Staff 
during the term ot service was the resignation of 
Dr. Richard R. Ricker, January 2, l<S(i8, and the 
a})})()intment of Dr. William C. Towle as his suc- 
cessor, the })romoti()n of Adjutant AVinthrop H. 



48 



Hall to be Captain of Coiii})any B, and the })n)nio- 
tion of Henry A. Noreross, Second Lientenant of 
Company A to be Adjutant. 

After nuister into the United States service and 
while in camp in Porthmd, drilling both comi)any 
and reii'imental, was the order of the day. Colonel 
\'iriiin had been a militia captain, and was well ii|) 
in the tactics, while J^ieutenant (\>lonel Luce made 
u[) in enthusiasm and })erseverance what he at tirst 
lacked in practical knowledge, and soon l)ecanie a 
very etficient otHcer. In pleasant weather, there 
was compan\' drill in the forenoon and battalion 
(bill in the afternoon every week day. There 
was daily })rcscnt, a large number of visitors, 
mostly relatives and friends of the soldiers, and 
the enlisted men were (juite frecjuently ])ernntted 
to visit the city. My duties until nuistered as 
lieutenant, consisted in dealing out rations to the 
men, consisting of fresh beef, dessicated potatoes, 
salt pork, beans, hard bread and sometimes soft 
l)read, lodging with the (|uartermaster sergeant and 
taking my meals with the cook of C()mi)any F. 
Abner F. Jackson of Norway received the a})point- 
ment of sutler of the regiment, and had his (|ua,rters 
erected and opened for business before the regi- 
ment was mustered in. He drove a thriving trade 
while the troops were in Portland, and had for 
customers many from other regiments. 

About the middle of October Colonel \'irgin 
received onUns for the regiment to break camp and 



49 



proceed to Washington. I was mustered in as 
Second Lieutenant of Company F on tlic 14tli of 
October, and wlien orders to go to Wasliington 
came, I was with that company. Tliere was great 
interest to Ivuow where we were to be sent after 
reaching AVashington, l)ut we could only speculate. 
The camp was full of rumors. Some said that we 
were to join a secret expedition against some South- 
ern stronghold ; others that the department of the 
Gulf was our destination. Still others were certain 
that we were to go to swell the ranks of the Army 
of the Potomac. On the 18th of October we struck 
our tents and started for the National Capital. For 
two or three days, the camp had been thronged 
with visitors who had come to bid the soldier boys 
goodbye. There were fathers, mothers, brothers, 
sisters, wives and sweet-hearts, and many a pathetic 
scene was enacted in and around the encam[)ment. 
But the boys l)raced up and ^vhen orders came to 
"fall in," it was promptly done, and the regiment 
moved out with driuns beating, colors flying, and 
many of the men singing "John Brown." Our 
mode of conveyance was by rail to Boston and Fall 
River, thence by sound steamer to Jersey City. 
Arriving in Philadelphia, the regiment was pro- 
vided with a hot dinner, and received words of 
good cheer from the patriotic men and women who 
served it. The patriotism of Philadelphia was 
unbounded all through the war, and no Eastern 
regiment could pass through the city without i)ar- 
3 



50 



taking of its l)()untics. The next place of note 
after leaving Phila(lel})liia, was Baltimore, a hot- 
bed of secession when the war broke out and long- 
after. But the rebellious sjiirit was held in check 
l)y the constant presence of troo})s, and no hostile 
demonstration was made after the Hrst few months 
of the war. The steam cars did not then as now, 
pass through the city, Init the cars were drawn 
through l)y horses from station to station situated 
at the two extremes of the city. There were knots 
of people along the street through which we 
marched, and there were angry and vicious looks, 
showing that the rel)cl spirit was still there, but we 
kept closed ranks and had no fears of being mo- 
lested. We reached Washington in the early 
twilight Monday, and remained at the station of 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad a long time, before 
Ave were instructed where to pitch our tents. It 
was with great difficulty that any one could be 
found who could give us information, and no 
one seemed to know what was to be done with 
us. We tinally marched a shoil distance from 
the railroad, in the suburl)s of the city and 
were shown 1)arracks on low damp ground which 
Avas covered with the dirt and litter of other 
reaiments. We got very little sleep that night and 
the next morning were much jaded out. During 
the day Ave received orders to go into cam]:) on 
Capitol hill, and drew our tents which we ])itched 
in a very windy place, but whcic we had a tine 



51 



view of the city and .surrounding country. The 
-weather was cold, the wind hiiih, and the air for 
much of the time, tilled with clouds of dust. We 
were on an old camping-ground, and there was hut 
little turf left and altogether, it was far from a 
pleasant encampment . 

j\Iy tirst impressions of Washington were some- 
what disappointing. It was larger than I supposed, 
and it was not as thickly settled. Xothing seemed 
to be finished. The Capital building was only little 
more than half completed, the Washington monu- 
ment was up only a few feet above the nearest 
building, while the streets were tilled with nuul and 
tilth. The war had been going on a year and a 
half and the National Capital Nvas a great military 
camp. It was environed by forts, and there were 
soldiers everywhere. At the hotels, at the theatres, 
and on the streets, almost everyone was dressed in 
government blue, and every day one \voukl meet 
army and navy officers of every grade. The 
uniforms of some were new and shiny, while others 
were okl and faded, showing long service in the 
field. 

We left Washington for Seneca Saturday not 
far from noon. It was raining hard, and the march 
that day was a very disagreeable one. The clayey 
soil was heavy and sticky, and we were soon 
drenched with water. We })assed Great Falls and 
reachetl a place called Muddy Branch where we 
were to camp for the night. By this time wo had 



52 



scarcely a dry thread in our clothing, our tents 
were wet, the wood with which we tried to kindle 
our tire was wet, the ground where we put up our 
tents was soaked with water, and altogether, we 
had a very sorr}^ time tor men not inured to the 
hardships of camp life. But there was not nuu-h 
complaining and the boys were generally disposed 
to make the best of it. We were tired with our 
sixteen mile march and turned in (juite early. I 
had a very good night's rest and sleep. 

The twjnty-sixth we moved up to Oft'uts' Cross 
Roads, a few miles from Muddy Branch, and soon 
after to Seneca where we were brigaded with the oDth 
Massachu ;etts, 14th New Hampshire and lOth Ver- 
mont, and called our camp " (j-rover" in honor of 
our brigade commander. Col. Cuvier Grover of the 
regular army, and Brigadier General of Volunteers. 
Colonel Grover was the youngest son of Dr. John 
Grover of Bethel and I was somewhat ac(|uainted 
with him in ante bellum days. He was an accom- 
plished officer, but he did not long remain with us, 
l)elng wanted where the duties were more active 
and responsible. After he left us. Col. Davis of 
the oHth Massachus(^tts assumed command of the 
brigade, though it was subse(iuently ascertained 
that he was not the ranking officer, and Colonel 
\"irgin assumed command. On account of the nuid 
march from Washington to Muddy Branch, the 
severe drenching which the men had, and it clear- 
inir off cold, several were taken sick and the sur- 



53 



geons were ke[)t (j[iiite ha.sy. The hnirii'eou and 
his assistant did not get alono- well t (gether, which 
fact greatly impaired the efficiency of the medical 
staff. Dr. Sweat was a skillful physician, but Avas 
fre([uently ill-tempered. Dr. Kicker was a temper- 
ance man, very <]uiet, fairly skillfid, but he could 
not stand the aljuse of his superior and after a time 
resigned. Dr. Sweat was unpopular with the uien 
at large, and having been engaged in regular })rac- 
tice liefore entering the service, besides having 
l)een previously acquainted with many of the men, 
I was often called upon to prescribe for and treat 
cases in quarters. I was under uo obligation to do 
this, but I could not ^vell refuse, and for several 
weeks, much of my time was employed in treating 
men in their cpuirters. This was not pleasing to 
Dr. Sweat, but I was sustained in this work by so 
many of the line officers and by Colonel Virgin, 
that we had no open rupture. My extra work was 
entirely gratuitous, and with my other duties, ke[)t 
me constantly em[)loyed. I kept no record of cases, 
l)ut from recollection and from applications I have 
had for certificates in pension cases, I think I must 
have treated more than a hundred i)ersons. 

As before stated, Seneca is situated about twenty 
miles above AVashington, on the Maryland side of 
the Potomac. The land here is quite high, so that 
a fine view is had of the Virginia side. At this 
time, the Potomac was the northern limit of the 
insurgent states, and we had no troops on the 



54 



\'ii'i:ini;i side in our \iciiiily. Our rcgiuR'nt w;is 
soiiicwhat l)r()k('ii u\), several companies bein*:- 
detached to <>uard the fords at different points. Our 
si)ecial duty was to guard against raids by re)>el 
cavalry conniianded by such partisans as Moseby 
and A\'hite. The latter was from Maryland, and 
from the same county in which we were encam[)ed. 
The strictest vigilance was enjoin'^l upon us, and 
yet (hiring the several months that we were in this 
service, we never saw an armed rel)el soldier. 
What might ha\'e been, hud we n)t been there, we 
have no means of knowing. There was a large 
stockade fort ab;)ut a mile above our cam]) at 
Seneca, from which the view along the river was 
grand. But the h;)rr()rs of war were notice;iblc 
everywhere, in ruin-vl homsiteid-;, mutilated 
forests and general desolation. 

The boys built winter (juartcrs here, using rifted 
chestnut i)lanks for walls and covering the roofs 
with their shelter tents. Fire[)laoes were built of 
red earth which is composed of clay and lime, and 
when dried by the tire, becomes hard like brick. 
They topped them out with })ieces of split chest- 
nut laid cob-house fashion, and plastered outside 
and in with the same red earth. It was (juite mar- 
vel Ions how (juickly the men learned to adai)t 
themselves to the service and make themselves 
comfortable under snch varying circumstances. It 
does not take the Yankees from the farms and 
workshops, a great while to become good soldiers. 



55 



While here, Joel Perhain iimde us a visit and spent 
two days with us. 

Al)out this time, I received a letter from Hon. 
T. A. D. Fessenden stating that a petition had l)een 
tiled in the })ost office department at Washington, 
asking for my removal as postmaster at Bryant's 
Pond, and saying that the petition stated that I 
" had gone away and left the office in charge of an 
incompetent person." He closed l)y asking me 
what action he should take in the matter. I 
immediately laid the case before Judge Virgin, 
who ad^"ised me to go to AVashington at once and 
attend to it, at the same time giving me leave of 
absence for ten days. An ambulance from the 
regiment was going to Washington in which I took 
passage. On arriving, I sought an interview with 
the appointing power who advised me to remove that 
irresponsible person, and appoint one that would 
be responsible. I had already informed him that 
the person petitioned for was the one I had placed 
in charge of the office. The post office official said 
it was a rule of the office that no one should suffer 
by reason of having enlisted. My business thus 
s})eedily and happily accomplished, I had a few 
days in which to see the sights at the Capitol. 
Congress was in session and from the galleries, I 
had an opportunity of seeing some of the distin- 
guished men of the country. In the Senate, I saw 
Charles Sumner, Benjamin F. Wade, Henry Wilson, 
William Pitt Fessenden and other leadinij members 



56 



of that branch, and in the House, Bingham, Thad 
Stevens, Henry Winter Davis, Vorliees, and others. 
I visited the theater where I heard Forrest, Daven- 
port, the two Booths, Laura Keene, and many 
other leading actors and actresses. I made calls 
on Senators Fessenden and Morrill, and on Re})re- 
sentatives Fessenden and Frye. The time passed 
swiftly and pleasantly, and my leave of absence 
being nearly up, I returned to the regiment, on a 
canal boat. 

While we were stationed at Oftut's Cross Roads, 
I visited the headquarters of the brigade, where I 
had a pleasant interview with General Grover. He 
told me he expected soon to be ordered away. He 
soon afterward inspected our reghuent, and I never 
saw him again. He served throughout the war, 
then did good service in the West at the head 
of a cavalry regiment of which he was appointed 
colonel, and died some years ago. He was a brave 
and true man, and an honor to his town, state and 
country. He left us to join Banks' Red River 
ex})edition al)out the middle of Noveml)er. 

About this time, it had become quite evident 
that there would l)e a vacancy in the medical staff 
by the resignation of Dr. Ricker and I was offered 
the i)lace, and even urged to take it. Governor 
Washl)urn had previously offered me such a posi- 
tion, but I did not feel that there would be perfect 
accord between Dr. Sweat and myself, and l)esides, 
I had decided to serve as a comliatant. 



57 



Thursday, Deo. 2"), I wont down to Otliit's Cross 
Roads to soe the siok we left behind when wo oanio 
to this })laoo. I found the livino- doino- well, but 
three had died. 1 also visited a family by the name 
of Connell ^vitli whou] I had become ac(|iiainted. 
They were nice people and had been very friendly 
and helpful to the sick soldiers. Our former camp 
was very near their house. On my return, I visited 
a family by the name of Higgins, professionally. 
He w^as a coarse, ignorant man, and probably a 
rel)el at heart. I took dinner with him, the [)rinci- 
pal dishes being boiled bacon and cabbage. 

I made a little visit to DarnestoAvn to get a few 
things for our com})any moss. It is seven miles 
from camp and General Banks at one time had his 
headquarters there. There were three stores, a 
church, and some thirty dwelling houses, mostly in 
a dilapidated condition. In the store I went into, 
there was a crowd of rough looking fellows, some 
of thoni gambling, some smoking and some drink- 
ing. The stock in trade seemed to l)e largely com- 
})osed of liquors. One man came in and bought 
tive bottles of whiskey and two pounds of sugar. 
On the way, I stopped at a plantation owned and 
ooou})iod by John B. Dutiotf, a Frenchman. He 
had a tine })Iantation of a thousand acres and his 
crop of wheat was two thousand bushels. Sickness 
seemed to increase, and I was kept cjuite busy 
treating men in their quaiters. 

There Avere some tine singers in the Lewiston 
company, and often in pleasant weather they would 



58 



get together for a coueert. They eouUl .sing a great 
variety of songs inehidiiig tiie hitest war songs. 
These coneerts were very enj()3al)le. 

Sometimes when I stra3"ed from the camp, I 
fonnd wikl })ear trees with fruitage. Tiiough not 
ecjual to best home varieties, they were a great 
treat. I also gathered persinunons which were 
new to me. The skin is astringent and hitter l)iit 
after the frosts, the pulp is mildly acid and very 
nice. The wood one meets with here is oak, 
hickory, sycamore, chestnut and red cedar. There 
is also pine. Oak, hickory and chestnut make 
excellent fuel, but sycamore is almost incombusti- 
ble. When green, it is td)solutely so, and when 
dried, it is not much l)etter. 

Ours was a pleasant cani})ing ground at Otfut's 
Cross Roads and well sheltered. At the north was 
a dense growth of pines, and south and east a tine 
forest of white oak. Westward was a large tield, 
smooth and dry and very convenient for drill and 
parade . 

Al)out thetirst of Novemljer, we heard cannonad- 
ing all day in the direction of Leesburg. It was 
very exciting. We afterward learned that it was a 
cavalry engagement at Aldie in which the First 
Maine Cavalry was engaged and in which its Col. 
Doughty was killed. This was the tirst hostile 
tiring Ave had heard and it seemed not far aw^ay, 
though it actually was <|uite a long distance otf. 

The location of cani})ing grounds and dates of 
events have heretofore been a little confused in 



50 



those IvccoUoc-tions, lor after thirty years have 
chii)sed, the exact order of events is not readily 
recalled. On one occasion I made a trip from camp 
to AVashinirton in a canal l)oat and took special 
notice of })laces aloni>- the route. The captain of 
the boat was a roui>h old Pennsylvanian who had 
his wife alono- to do the cookinjr. He had two pairs 
of nudes to pull the boat, two working at a time, 
and the other })air when off duty had quarters on 
the deck of the boat. These boats on their down- 
ward tri}) were generally loaded with coal or luml)er, 
and on the return, with groceries, cured tish and 
other family supplies. Its rate of speed was from 
two to three miles an hour, including the delay at 
the locks. This trip was made in March, and 
innnense tlocks of l)irds crossed, at short intervals, 
from the Virginia side and passed northward on 
their wtiy to New England. Xoticeal)le on the 
]\Iaryland side was a large farm and house wdiich 
the ca})tain informed me was 0(;cupied by the family 
of a Mr. AVhite who was a relative of the guerilla 
leader. There was a mixture of rebel and Union 
l)eople along the Maryland side and they had a hard 
time in this del)atable land. They were robbed by 
both armies and obliged frecpiently to repeat "Good 
Lord and Good Devil." Many of the sons of the 
r(>l)el families were in Lee's army, and oftentimes 
the head of the family would serve with AVhite's 
guerillas. It ^vas known that they occasionally 
visited their homes, arriving after dark and leaving 



60 



before day. Like other .sections of the South, 
the farmsteads in Maryhmd are large and the houses 
situated far apart. Looldng across to the Virginia 
side, the vistas were scenes of extreme desohition. 
There was no sign of life, and occasional stacks of 
chimneys where farm-houses had been burned were 
graphic monuments of devastating war. After a 
time we came to the Seneca quarries. The rocky 
formation is a high bluff of dark red sandstone, 
deposited in layers and very easy to work. 

The material for the Smithsonian Institute build- 
ing at AVashington was taken from this (juarry. 
Half a mile along are Seneca mills situated on a 
creek of the same name. Vast (juantities of \v^";it 
are here changed into flour, no small part of which 
comes from the upper Potomac l)y this canal. 
These mills, since the war bcran had furnished 
flour for both Union and rebel soldiers, and very 
likely did so again before the contest was over. 
Seneca lock is the next thing to attract our atten- 
tion. It was in this lock that private True of our 
regiment found a watery grave. His l)ody was 
found in the lock, his hands clutching his nnisket 
as though his last thoughts were fixed u})on his 
soldier duties. A "hotel" is hard by here, if a 
place where liquors and ])oor food is dispensed and 
cleanliness is dispensed with, is entitled to such a 
name. In the background was the encampment of 
Captain Lamb's Company G of our regiment, 
occupying the same ground where a company of 



61 



the loth VeniiDiit spent the siimnicr. South of the 
caini), on a little rise, the white headboards of the 
dead Vernionters eould he seen. They lost a large 
number of men here, and it is a low, suidceii, 
malarious plaee. It was an important ])laee and 
needed to be strictly guarded though at great 
sacrifice of precious li\ es. 

Laurel Hill is next passed, so called ))ecause it is 
covered by a thick growth of laurel. The laurel 
here is an everii'reen shrub o-vowinii* amono- the 
chestmits and locusts. It is about six feet high, 
covered with ovate leaves about the size oi those 
of the black alder. The leaves are thick and firm, 
and contain so little moisture that tlie frost does 
not injure them. They are very beautiful in their 
liglit green, shining foliage. The water in the 
Potomac which has moved quietly along for a num- 
ber of miles, here rushes over rocks and through 
gorges, its surface covered with foam and its roar 
heard for a long distance. Now we come to Muddy 
Branch where we cani])ed the first night u[) from 
Washington, and which recalls nothing pleasant. 
We were here some days, and were very glad to 
get away. Company B of our regiment was here 
at the time of this trip, doing guard duty in this 
vicinity. They had been here a long time and 
were heartily sick of the place and its surroundings. 
I have not spoken here of Offut's Cross Roads, our 
second camping place, l)ecause it was situated back 
from the river and could not be seen from the canal. 



62 



Passing dowinvai'd, we soon re;i:-h (livat Fulls on 
the Potoniiic. Here the govenmii'nt h;ul expended 
millions of dollars in eonstrueting works to furnish 
a supply of water to the District of Columbia. Ah 
this was their only dependence during tiie war, it 
was necessary to have it strictly guarded. While 
the boat was passing through the several locks, I 
stepped ashore and was shown througli the works. 
Passing the falls, we were sodu at Chain Bridge 
and then at Georgetown, the southern termimis of 
the cansd. The old boatman had his little son along 
with him to whom I gave a doughnut from my 
haversack. The little fellow did not know what it 
was and carried it to his father for information, 
which he failed to get. The old man declared that 
he had never before seen anything like it. The 
boy ate it after his curiosity was satisfied and, like 
Oliver Twist, wanted and asked for "more." 

About this time deaths were frequent in our 
regiment. There was a funeral almost every day, 
antl fre({uently two in one day. The measles had 
been prevailing in the regiment for some time, and 
the deaths generally resulted from the disease. It 
first broke out in (V)nn)any C. 1 was called to see 
a sick man and pronounced it measles, at which 
Doctor Sweat called me a blank fool, but he soon 
had to own up that I was right. Aurestus Perham 
had the measles and was the special charge of 
myself and Chaplain Snow. He got along very 
well and did not have a relapse. The relapse was 



63 



what itrovcd fatal in many cases. I w:is sent to 
A\"asliinLit()n with some siek men inehidim:" Iliram 
P. Kniiiht of Paris wiio was to be dischai'ued. He 
>v^as too frail for a soldier and never shoidd have 
entered the service. Claude Twitchell was sick 
and I went to see him before o-oing to Washinaton. 
He was in the 14th New Hampshire, and died. 

While in Washington I attended a court mar- 
tial where I tirst saw General jMcClcllan. 1 was 
quite disappointed in his personal ap})earance. 1 
made no my mind then and there that he could not 
be a very great man. At the same time, I saw 
Generals Hunter, Hitchcock, Heintzelman and some 
others. In the Senate, I heard Senator Morrill of 
Maine reply to Powell of Kentucky in a most 
scathing spee(;h. It was the gay season in AVash- 
ington, and notwithstanding the impending crisis 
and the discouraging state of atiairs, ])alls and 
parties Avere the order of the day and night. The 
city was full of officers and all the theatres and 
other })laces of amusement were i)acked nightly. 

December 14tli I gallo})ed across the country to 
liockville, the shire town of ^Montgomery county, 
to get Baltimore ])a})ers. The })lace was dirty, the 
streets muddy and tilthy, and I saw l)ut few people 
save negroes. 

Saturday morning, December 2()th, we received 
orders to leave Cam]) G rover and move to Seneca 
though we did not understand we were to make a 
long stay thi're. Mc broke camj) at eight o'clock 



64 



ill the nioriiinu', and reached our })laee ot" destination 
l)ct()re niii'lit. Wi' lei't nearly a hundred and fifty 
siek at the old eanij). Tuesday night I was officer 
of the })icket, and as the place was new to nie, the 
duties were quite difficult. I stationed pickets at 
five different points, and visited each post several 
times during the night. Tliree refugees came into 
our lines from over the Potomac Tuesday afternoon 
and were detained. They were ragged and filthy, 
but hold and defiant in speech. 

Friday, December 26th, Colonel Virgin had 
orders to leave Seneca and march to P^dward's 
Ferry, about ten miles farther up the river, and 
establish head(juarters of the regiment there. Our 
company and several others were to go. We had 
been at Seneca only three days. We marched 
Along the tow path of the canal. The day was 
warm and with my blanket and overcoat strapped 
upon my back and haversack on my shoulder, I 
found the march (juite tedious. But the travelling 
was excellent, the ground being hard and dry. 
While we were on the route, at one point, a large 
number of colored peo[)le, })r()bably nearly a hun- 
dred came near the river and gave us a character- 
istic serenade. They sang numerous negro melo- 
dies, scores of both sexes joining in the chorus, and 
finally l)egan to dance to the music of several of 
our fifes. We stopped and Avitnessed the })erfor- 
mance for nearly half an hour. It was Christmas 
time and a holiday, and these people were out on 



65 



a lark. We reached the ferry about two o\-h)ck 
in the afternoon, l)ut our tents and cam}) equn)age 
which came l)y canal boat did not come u}) until 
far. into the night. We borrowed a few tents from 
the men of the 39th jMassachusett.s Regiment which 
had l^een here some time, and managed to get along 
quite Avell. This Edward's Ferry and ])laccs near 
by, Conrad's Ferry, Ball's Bluff and Poolesville, 
were quite familiar to me though I had not been 
there before. Ball's Bluff' Av^as the scene of Union 
defeat and the tragic death of the talented and gal- 
lant Colonel Baker. 

The officers of our company burrowed under a 
stack of wheat the first night at Edward's Ferry, 
and though annoyed somewhat by mice, we slept 
quite well. AVe crawled out early Saturday morn- 
ing, and after haying our coffee we were ready for 
pitching our tents. Edward's Ferry ^vas not nuicli 
of a place any way. There was one store kept by 
a man named Viers, and a few old houses. There 
Av^as neither ferryl)oat nor ferryman, and there was 
no call for any, for all crossing the riyer was pro- 
hil)ited. We laid out our camp aliout half a mile 
from the ferry, on the Poolesyille road. It was 
high and dry and afforded a beautiful pr()si)ect of 
the surrounding country and across into Dixie. 
Goose Creek empties into the riyer on the Virginia 
side just below the ferry, and extends back into the 
country nearly at right angles Ayitli the riyer. On 
the north side of this creek mounted rebel scouts 



66 



were said to have been seen tVoni our encampment, 
supposed to ')(' some of White's men. 1 saw none. 
Most of the ])eopk' al)()ut here were known to be 
secessionists, thouizh they, .too, had h'arned to say 
"Good liord and (rood Devil," e(|unl to those we 
left down the river. Many of the families here 
furnished men for AVhite's marauders, and were in 
almost constant connnunication ^\ ith the i>uei'illa 
chief. White's father lived within a short distance 
of our encam])ment, and rockets were sometimes 
sent up from his house in t!ie niulit, doubtless as 
signals to his son on the other side of the river. 
Colonel A'iruin received intelliii'ence to-day (Sun- 
day, Dec. 2<S) that a reuiment of rebel infantry 
had been seen on the other side toward Leesburg, 
and was directed to be on his guard. Colonel 
Virgin w;s-; now in command of the brigade, and 
Lieutenant Colonel Luce, of the regiment. All 
day Sunday the men were at work l)uilding quarters 
in the old way ; walls of chestnut, the interstices 
tilled with mud, the chimneys of mud and the roof 
of canvas. 

A long tarry was looked for here. A good start 
was made Sunday, and Monday night the camj) 
presented a very res})ectal)le a})pearance. We 
were situated in a very tine agricultural region l)ut 
the farms had l)een sadly neglected during the war. 
Wheat is the staple product, and it was stacked in 
the tields where it was cut, or near l)y, and threshed 
there. The man who owned the larae tield where 



67 



our camp was situated was a notorious sccossiouist, 
and when his stacks of i»rain were burned, nobody 
seemed to care. Such flocks of crows I never saw 
anywhere, as I saw there. Millions and millions 
passing and repassing somethnes ol)sc'uring the 
light of the sun. We had ample room for drill 
here, and improved it every fair day. Our regi- 
ment had l)eeome very proficient in the manual of 
arms and in ordinary iield movements. Colonel 
Luce was indefatigable, and kept the men at it, 
though he ^vas always genial in his intercourse with 
otiicers and men. He believed it conduced to the 
health of the men to take a reasonable amount of 
exercise in drilling, and in this he was doul)tless 
riii'ht. Besides it was the duty of officers and men 
to try and render themselves proficient in every- 
thing [)ertaining to the obligations of a soldier. 
The line officers drilled in the manual of arms, so 
that in a short time they could handle the nuisket 
equally well with the privates and non-commissioned 
officers. So the time passed on. We had a field 
hos})ital in tents, but we ap[)ropriated a })art of a 
house belonging to a widow named Fisher, situated 
near our camp. Here we carried our worst cases 
of measles. 

Quartermaster Bray met with a singular incident 
when on his way to Poolseville, Monday, January 
13th. When two miles above our camp, his atten- 
tion was called to a noise l)y the side of the road. 
On examination, he found a nude negro l^aby lying 



68 



in the gm.ss, all mIoiu'. IIu took it ii[) luul curried 
it to a house near by, and after some tallv with a 
wench, thirteen years of a<2je, she owned that it 
was hers, and took it in clitirge. The incident 
caused no little merriment in camp, and Bray did 
not hear the last of it for a li'ood while. 

Ahout this time ( Vii:ipl;iin S!i:)w went to M:iiiie on 
leave of absence. He was the bearer of many ines- 
sao-es of love to friends at home from friends in 
camp. January lOtli I was offic;er of the [)icket and 
was away from camp three days and a h ilf. I had 
with me four sergeants, six corporals and one hun- 
dred i)rivatcs. These were divided into ten squ;ids 
and were detached to guard as many fords on the 
Potomac. The reserve, consisting of twenty men, 
was stationed three miles down river from camp, at 
a point opposite Young's Island. This is one of 
the easiest fords on the river. AVhen we left camp, 
a rain was falling, and it was (piite warm, but in 
the afternoon it cleared off, and the wind l-)Iew fear- 
fully for two entire days and nights. It Avas also 
very cold, so that in the morning our l)l;inkets were 
frozen to the ground. One day while here, I crossed 
the ford, the water at no point being more than two 
feet deep, and visited a plantation on the opposite 
side which was deserted by all save blacks. They 
were very shy at first, but soon l)ecame familiar, 
and got me up a hot dinner of hoe cake and bacon. 
The recent owner was in White's Company, and the 
nesjroes said there was considerable coming to and 



69 



going from the place at night. I wa.s relieved on 
the fourth day and returned to camp much jaded 
out. 

In addition to drill, we had frequent recitations 
from the tactics. Col. Luce acted as instructor and 
most of the line officers were generally present and 
questioned. 

While on picket one day, 1 took dinner at the 
house of Mrs. JNIetcalf, who was a thorough going 
Unionist. She was horn near Pennsylvania line, 
and her associations in early life were with people 
of northern ideas. She told me that l)efore the 
liattle of Antietam, lier uncle was in the advance 
of McClellan's tirmy, and as the rebels passed 
through Antietam her uncle's wife, who resided 
there, raised the Union flag in her doorway, but a 
rebel sharp-shooter inmiediately shot it from her 
hands. She raised it a second time when her hus- 
band, whom she had not seen for months and whom 
she was little expecting to see, came along, and 
there conunenced the dreadful battle of Antietam, 
which he helped to tight in his own door-yard and 
in presence of his Avife and children. The wife 
carried the flag from the door to an up})er a\ indow 
and from there to the house-top. Her uncle fought 
bravely and well he might, in defense of his loved 
ones and in rheir presence. 

Toward the last of January I again visited Wash- 
ington in connection with the sick of the reoiment, 
and returned Monday, the 27th. I visited Lincoln 



70 



and Enieiy Hospitals, and saw several old friends. 
I was solicited before leavinu" camp to aid a soldier 
named Mitchell, who had lonir heen in the hospital 
at Washington, in getting his discharge. I got 
the papers ready and went to the hospital, but 
found that he had been dead three days. Poor 
fellow I His desire to die at home, surrounded by 
friends and relatives, could not be gratified. 

When I returned to camp on the 27th I found 
that Col. Yiroin had ijone to Baltimore to meet his 
wife, who had come on with Chaplain Snow. I 
also found that Lysander P. Foster of our company 
had died, lioutine duties were again resumed, 
company and battalion drill, recitations, picket 
duty, and care of the sick. Col. Virgin and wife 
arrived in camp the last of the month. He engaged 
board at a private house ■situated a mile or so from 
camp. 

'Ihe boys enjoyed themselves in various ways 
when oft' duty. Card-playing was almost universal 
and was encouraged by the officers. It furnished 
occu})ation for the mind, and rendered the men less 
discontented. Sometimes as I sat in my tent in 
the evening a medley of sounds would reach me 
that was really anmsing. All the quarteis had can- 
vas roots, so that what was said within unless in a 
low voice, could be. heard some distance away. 
From one direction would come the sound of revelry 
and mirth. From another the plaintive notes of 
the flute. In one tent, some one was uiviuii' 



71 

off coniniands in ti loud voice, t^uch as "Parade 
rest," '<luides posts," "Forward march," and 
would o() through the entire manual of arms. 
From another tent comes the exclamation, "We've 
euchered you three times," and from a Company A 
tent 1 heai'd a roll call and could easily distinguish 
the names of "Bagnall," "llewey," "Ladd,'' 
"Love," &c. From another tent came notes of 
music and I heard the words "Meet me by moon- 
liuht alone," sung by a quartette of very tine sing- 
ers. Then they sung : 

•• Thpu take ine to my mountain liome, 

My mountaiu home so wild and free ; 
And never move I'll wish to roam, 
From the cot so dear to me." 
This was followed l)y "John Brown," "Marching 
Alonu," "The Star Spangled Banner," and "When 
this cruel war is over." Then the shrill bugle 
strikes u[). calling the sergeants to their evening 
recitations. These varied sounds would 1)e heard 
until nine o'clock when the lights were put out and 
(juiet reigned throughout the encampment. ^Ve 
had a tine set of men in (uir regiment, but many 
of them were mirthful and full of frolic, and fond 
of practical jokes. 

February ISth was a snowy day. At four o'clock 
the sergeant major jiut his head into our tent and 
announced that the companies would appear on 
dress parade at t\w call of the bugle without arms. 
We <lid not (luite understand what it meant, but the 
companies came out and the line was formed. Then 



72 



the colonel etime out and facing the line said : "If 
any wished to engage in snow-l)alling, they could 
go in." And they all went in and had a hilarious 
time. Four hundred persons engaged in the sport 
and a large amount of snow changed hands in a 
Ycvy short time. 

AVord Avas received at the headquarters of the 
brigade that a force of rebels consisting of infantry 
and cavalry had occupied Leesburg, a small village 
in Loudon county, about four miles from the ferry 
on the Virginia side. The news created some little 
excitement, but soon died out. Whether the report 
was true or not, I never knew. The snowfall in the 
late .storm, amounted to a foot, and the traveling 
became horrible. The weather was very disagi'cea- 
ble for nearly a week, so much so that there could 
be no drill. The rise of water in the Potomac 
made the fords hnpassa])le and enabled us somewhat 
to relax our vigilance. 

Though I had l)een commissioned as First Lieu- 
tenant for some months and had worn the stra[)s of 
that rank, I had not been mustered as such. 80 
on March 4th, I took some of our sick on board of 
a canal boat and started for Washington. We 
went the first day to a })oiut a little l)elow Great 
Falls, and laid by for the night. The forenoon of 
the tifth we reached Georgetown and AVashington. 
I transferred my sick to the hospital and the next 
day, I called on Captain De Kussey of the regular 
armv who was nmsterini>- officer. He objected to 



73 



my })apers after a slight examination of them, and 
said I nnist have others. I sent to the regiment 
to have new ones made out and waited day after 
day for nearly two weeks, but no papers came. I 
called again on Captain De liussey Avho again 
examined my papers and pronounced them correct. 
I did not tell him they were the same papers he 
had condenmed before. This was the ^vay business 
was done in some of the departments during the 
entire war. Officers were kept from their com- 
mands for days and days on account of some alleged 
technicality and then it Avould appear, as in my 
case, that there was not even a technicality in the 
way. AVhile waiting in Washington, I visited Fairfax 
Seminary Hospital and Alexandria. I visited the 
house where the gallant Ellsworth was shot and 
other points of interest. Alexandria was a rusty 
old town and but little business seemed to be doing 
except that growing out of the war. I also visited 
the 25th Maine Keiiiment on Arlington Heiohts 
and found the camp in a very pleasant situation. 
They were (juartered in huts covered in with boards 
and a})})eared to be very comforta])le. The fortifi- 
cations at this i)lace appeared to me to be very 
strong, and all the forts l)ristled with heavy guns. I 
had a pleasant call on the medical staff. Doctors 
Carr, True and Bowker. Doctor True is the only 
one that survives at this writing. That evening, I 
S})ent with Major David P. Stowell who was feeling 
very sore over his supersedure, and also with 
4 



74 



Captain John Quincy Adams of the 10th Maine 
who was wounded at Cedar jVIountain and liad not 
then recovered. 

On the night of the Kth, rebel cavahy made a 
raid upon Fairfax court house and carried otf a 
Union l)ri<>adier and his staff. They were all 
cauiiht sleeping. The conscription act was passed 
while 1 was at AVashinoton and alforded great 
pleasure to the loyal element in Washington. It 
incicated that the rebellion Avas to be put down at 
whatever cost. While in Washington this time, I 
went to the theatre frequently. Jt was a great 
}>leasure to witness Daven})ort's Kichard the Third. 
I did not succeed in getting mustered until jNIarch 
2<Sth, when I was mustered in by Capt. Pe Kussey 
as before stated. March 3(lth I started for the 
cam}) at Edward's Ferry which J reached in due 
time. April 5th we had quite a heavy fall of snow. 
We had previously had l>irds and tlowers, and the 
nightly croaking of frogs, but the iandsca})e now 
wore a decided winter as}iect. The snow was 
accomjianied by a heavy gale, and ])icket duty was 
very uncomfortable. I was officer of the })icket 
during this storm and was out in most of it. While 
I was absent in AA'ashington, our camp w:is moved 
to the top of a hill about two-thirds of a mile from 
the old encampment. The removal was a great 
imiirovement as it took us to a dry and clean ti(»](l 
where the grass had made a good start and every- 
thing pleasant and nice. Headijuarters of the 



75 



picket were established at the Ferry, and the officer's 
quarters in the warehouse. The snow went off as 
suddenly as it came, and was followed by delightful 
sunny weather. One day I went out quail-hunt- 
ing, in company with Mr. Mers, the trader at the 
Ferry. He was an expert at shooting them on the 
wing while I was not, and the result was that he 
filled his l)ag while I saw game in })lenty l)ut 
bagged none. I found him a man of some cidture 
and a very pleasant comptmion. 

It was rumored at this time that we were soon 
to move to Poolesville and that the detached com- 
panies would rejoin us. The spring had now lully 
come, and the season for activity in the confronting 
armies. Changes in the position of troops were of 
daily occurrence. We located our camj) near the 
little village of Poolesville, but had not got fairly 
settled before we had orders to break camj) and 
march down the river. I had been appointed on a 
general court martial, and the court had just con- 
vened when word c:une that ^\e must be ready to 
march at three o'clock in the afternoon. \A'e 
adjourned our court at one o'clock, ate our dinners 
and then packed up. We started as usual in a 
drenching rain and marching to Edward's Ferry, 
camped there over night in our wet clothes. The 
rain })()ured down all night and was })ouring down 
when ^ve left in the morning. AVe marched to 
Great Falls and again turned in ^vet and cold and 
without lire. The next morning we started early 



76 



and reached Chain Bridiie in the forenoon. We 
crossed over and tor the lirst time went into camp 
on Virginia soil. ( )ur encani})ment was just over the 
])ridiie. A New I'ork reiiinient was in camp here, 
commanded by Col. J)e liussey who hekl the rank 
of major in the regidar army. He was a brother 
of Captain De Kussey who annoyed me so about 
mustering me, and they were the sons of an officer 
in the old United States army. He praised our 
regimental drill, and complimented us highly on 
our exerci.es in the manual of arms. He was a 
tine officer and a gentleman, and was soon after 
made a l)rigadier. ]May 13th we were still in camp 
near Chain Bridge. We were situated about six 
miles above Washington and in the defenses of the 
city. The weather came on very warm, the mur- 
cury indicating 90" in the shade. We found the 
.s})ring weather here very capricious. There were 
very sudden changes, not at all conducive to health. 
In the early part of the night, an orderly from 
General Heintzleman's headquarters brought the 
report that Stewart's rebel cavalry had crossed the 
Kap])ahannock and was near our out})osts. A regi- 
ment of infantry was sent up to us and cannon 
were placed on Chain Bridge and on A(j[ueduct 
Bridge at Georgetown. The next day we heard of 
this cavalry between us and Bull Run mountain. 
Lieutenant Bolster came up from AVashington where 
he had spent the niaht and was glad to iind us all 
safe. He had heard that we had been attacked and 



77 

the 2od badjy cut to })icct'.s. It was found ai^ain 
that C\)l. Virii'iu was tlic rankino- officer and so he 
took couiniand of the l)rigade which Col.De Kussey 
relinquished very gracefully. On the 14th, about 
5 o'clock, I started out with Major Soule to visit 
our outposts. We Avere on horseback. We went 
u}) the Leesburg pike about three miles and then 
struck off towards Arlington Heights to the Arling- 
ton road, then faced about and returned to camp, 
distant three miles. We passed many nol)le man- 
sions but negroes and women were the onl}'' occu- 
pants. Fathers and sons were in the rebel army. 
Our advance picket line was al)out three miles from 
camp and four miles in length. The detail was 
about one hundred privates beside officers. The 
exigencies of the case here demanded the strictest 
attention to duty, and the cheerfulness and alacrity 
with which our men i)erformed their work was 
highly commendable. Our camp was situated upon 
a side hill where many troops had encamped since 
the war began. The Sixth Maine was here a year 
before. I was out in charge of the picket the 15th 
and IGth. 

Hooker's defeat at Chancel lorsville caused great 
despondency in our camp for he had been the 
favorite and a l)rilliant record was anticipated for 
him. 

The woods looked very })retty at this time. The 
box-wood was in bloom and flowers of various 
shades and hues were very plentiful. I ol>tained 



78 



some Virginia ^iiakc-root and some l)l()()(l-r()()t, 
both t)f ^vhicli h-dXQ beautiful 1)1(),s.soiils. Flowers 
spriuii' u]) in the ])atli\vay of armies, and it is won- 
derful how soon nature asserts herself and hastens 
to reelothe the s})ots made bare by violenee and 
strife. 

^yo Avere still at Chain Bridge on the 17th. 
('haj)lain Snow ^vas with us. lieeause he declined 
to reeei})t for wood Avliieh he did not liaAe, (Quarter- 
master Bray refused him rations. While at Chain 
Bridge he l)oarded in our mess. Captain Bolster 
was quite sick for several days while we were here 
and the command of the company devolved upon 
me. Calvin Kichardson was taken sick here and 
was (juite feeble for some time. He had been a 
good soldier and had always done, his duty without 
com})laint or fuss. We were paid off here and I 
went to» Washington to forward the money sent 
home by the men amounting to $3900. I returned 
to cami) the same night. The fruit trees were now" 
in bloom, and wheat where it Avas sutiered to grow, 
had a good start. At this time, our regiment as a 
whole was healthy and in splendid condition for 
duty. 

Soon afterward, not far from May 24th, we had 
orders to ]\f arch to Alexandria. A raid into that 
old town was feared. AVe Avent into camp near the 
city and conmienced to dig ritle pits which were 
extended in dou])le lines all about the })lace. The 
streets were also closed by means of palisades and 



79 



every precaution taken to prevent an attack or to 
repel it, if it should l)e made. The men worked 
very hard here, and they did it without complaint. 
But time })assed and no raid was made or attempted. 
In all })rol)al)ility the prompt action taken by the 
authorities })re vented it. 

On the sixteenth of June, we received orders to 
march up the Potomac again, though our precise 
destination w'as unknown to us. Gen. Lee was 
marching toward Harrier's Ferry, while the army 
of the Potomac was advancing to head him oft". An 
invasion of the states of Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land was now fully expected. A^^e were to leave 
our cam}) equipage l)ehind and move in light march- 
ing order. Our term of enlistment was so nearly 
out that it seemed very strange that we should he 
sent away so far. But it was not yet out, and 
there was nothing for us to do but to obey orders. 
We marched to the vicinity of Poolesville where 
we remained a day or two. On the march, we 
camped one night near the edge of a wood. 

We had no tents and were olilio-ed to g-et alonjr 

o o o 

with our rubber ponchos. There w^as a severe 
shower in the night and I awoke half covered with 
water. I stood my back against a tree and 
remained standing the rest of the night. Many 
others Avere as badly otf. In the morning we 
resumed our march and after the sun came up and 
our clothes became dry, we felt not the least dis- 
comfort from the night's exposure. We were 



80 



becouiino- hardened and inured to the exposures of 
a sokliers life. While the regiment was halted 
near Poolesville, Company F was detached to <>uard 
the sijgnal station on Sugar Loaf, a conical hill sit- 
uated between Poolesvillc and Frederic. We at 
once repaired to the place, ])ut were destined to be 
there only a short time. While there we had a 
tine prospect of the country round about. We 
could see Frederic very plainly, and by the aid of 
a iield glass saw a rebel cavalry raid, probal)ly 
some of AVhite's men, into the town. The regi- 
ment was ordered to Harper's Ferry, and our com- 
pany was ordered to join the regiment as it passed 
along. The entire brigade was in the column and 
reached a i)()int ()})posite Harper's Ferry on the 
2()thof June. AVe went into camp on jNIaryland 
Heights and formed part of the garrison of this 
place. Gen. Hooker proposed to evacuate the 
place and join the troo})s here to the arm 3^ of 
the Potomac, which was now advancing through 
Maryland on its way to Gettysburg. The war 
department declined to accede, and so General 
Hooker resigned. I saw him for a few moments 
at the headquarters of General French, the com- 
mander of the garrison. On Maryland Heights we 
found the half buried dead of the troops that fell 
there a yetir before. The soil was thin and sterile, 
and in many ])laces, skulls and feet were exposed 
aliove the surface. From this point too we could 
see the advance of Lee's army crossing the Poto- 



81 



mjic a few miles al)ove. Evervthinu- indicated a 
fearful battle, and although our term of enlistment 
had nearly expired, we fully expected to have a 
part in it. What the feelings of the men upon the 
su1)ject were, it was not easy to determine. They 
said but little about it. If any etfort had been 
made to keep them in the service until after the 
crisis had passed, I fully believe they would have 
remained. Colonel Virgin put in no remonstrance, 
and did not notify the commanding general that 
our time was so nearly up. But there were those 
in Washing-ton who were keeping our time, and 
on the twenty-seventh of June orders from the war 
de})artment were issued to the coumianding Gen- 
eral at Harper's Ferry, directing him to furnish 
transportation for our regiment to Baltimore. 

AVhile here, I crossed over to the Virginia side, 
visited the arsenal where John Brown made his last 
stand, and other places of interest. So on the 
twenty-seventh t)f June, the regiment took the cars 
at Sandy Hook and started homeward. In the 
evening, we passed the camps or tents of the 
advance ot the army of the Potomac. They cov- 
ered an immense area, and the glimmer of their 
lights in thousands of shelter tents, Avas a beautiful 
sight. At Baltimore we remained a day waiting 
for transportation which being furnished, ^vc i)assed 
on to Philadelphia. Here we were again feasted 
and earnestly solicited to remain a few days to aid 
in iiuarding the citv from a much feared raid by 



82 



r(0)el cavalry. But the men liad now turned their 
faces homeward and could not be peri-iuaded to 
remain. They had fulfilled their obligation, and 
mo.st of them intended to le-enlist and did re-enlist, 
hut l)ef()re doing so they desired to visit their homes 
and families. Some of the ofhcers would have 
remained but the enlisted men were evidently unani- 
mous or nearly so in their determination to go 
home. No vote Avas taken, but the indications 
were unmistakable. The regiment again took the 
cars and had an uneventf\d trip to Portland and the 
old camp, where on the fifteenth of June, it was 
mustered out of the service of the United States by 
Lieut. Grossman of the liegular Army. The 
Twenty-third Maine Regiment had had no fighting, 
but it had had a great deal of disagreeable ])icket 
duty and no small amount of marching. The loss 
by death from sickness was much larger than the 
average of Maine regiments, and for the time, ecjual 
to many which had been in active service witli the 
enemy. Those who blamed the regiment for leav- 
ing the field when the l;attle of Gettysbur<r was 
impending, were generally ])ersons who did not 
enter the service at all, and in all fairness, were 
debarred from ex})ressing any opinion upon the 
subject. A large number of the men re-enlisted 
and served to the end of the w ar. Many helped to 
make u\) the Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth jNIaine 
Keoiments ; others went out as recruits into the 
Twelfth Maine and other regiments, while (juite a 



83 



miiiilKT went into the new ]);ittery of light artillery 
known as the Seventh Maine. 

As I make this record nearly thirty years after 
the events occnrred and have but little data from 
which to draw, it can only l)e fragmentary, and 
perha})s may he open to the charge of egotism. 
But I started out to write my })ersonal recollections 
of the war for the benetit and amusement of my 
family, and for this reason, I have confined myself 
to facts and incidents in which I had a part or 
which were known to me. 

Many of the officers and men who served in this 
regiment are now dead ; how many, I do not 
know. The living are widely scattered, but they 
were good and true men, and have generally made 
res})ectable citizens. Most of them are on the 
down grade of life and the period of their final 
muster out cannot be very far distant. Colonel 
Virgin has been honored l)y several ap})ointments 
to the supreme bench ; Colonel Luce has won honors 
in the Old Bay State; Major Soule has long been 
dead ; Adjutant Hall became insane and died ; 
Stanle3S captain of Company K died at the insane 
hospital ; Cleaves of Company B has been attorney 
general of the State and elected GoA^ernor ; Lieu- 
tenant Bolstei is called judge in Boston ; Captain 
Bradford of Company D has gone to join the 
majority ; Captain Whituian joined the regular 
cavalry and invented a saddle tree which made his 
fortune ; Captain Prince of Company C has been 



84 



ill Congress from the South and })o,stni!ister at 
Augusta, Ga., while many others, both officers and 
men, have hekl various positions of honor and 
trust which they have faithfully filled. Sutler 
Jackson is a farmer in Norway, and Quartermaster 
Bray is seeking his fortune in Texas. -His two 
sergeants are both dead ; Crocker became insane, 
and Philip Bray died of disease a few years after 
the war. 

Chaplain Snow, then of Norway, has since had a 
settlement in Auburn, and was for a time princi})al 
of Westbrook Seminary, lie is now settled over 
a society in Haverhill, Mass. 

My friend, Israel Emmons, the company cook, 
and one of the l)est, still flourishes at West Paris, 
having tired of city (Greenwood) life, and sought 
a more <]uiet retreat. 

A few words concerning the personnel of Com- 
pany F must close this part of my story. 

Captain Horace N. Bolster is a native of Paris 
and still resides there. He l)elongs to a family of 
military men and was an efficient officer. After 
the return of the 23rd, he was captain of the 16th 
unassigned company, was the mustered captain of 
Company K, 12th Maine March 21, 18(35, and 
resigned August 16, 1865. 

He has since the war, lieen engaged in trade at 
South Paris and has been prominently connected 
with soldier's organizations. 

I have not seen Lieutenant Abbot since the war. 
He was a blacksmith and a native of Kumford. 



85 



He was u tiiu; looking officer, but he had .some fail- 
ings and was his own o-reatest enemy. Lieutenant 
Solomon C. Bolster settled in Roxbury. He was a 
law^^er l)y profession and long served as judge of 
the munici})al court. He has been successful, as 
he has deserved to 1)e. He is a man of integrity, 
and has won the res})ect and esteem of a wide circle 
of ac(|uaintances. Even when he felt a little hard 
toward me for usur})ing his place, I liked and 
respected him all the same, recognizing the fact 
that he had cause. 

Orderly Sergeant Barrows now lives at Bethel 
Hill. He has prospered in business and is at the 
head of the largest manufactory in that town. 

Sergeant EUery F. Goss lives in Auburn and 
docs an extensive business in Lewi.ston. He was 
a sergeant in Captain Bolster's 12tli Maine Com- 
pany. He has l)een a member of the Maine 
Legislature. 

Sergeant Aurestus S. Perliam resides in Wash- 
ington. He has long l)een a trusted officer con- 
nected with the pension department. 

Sergeant Joseph P. Packard was discharged for 
disability, but recovered, and died of some acute 
disease, several years ago. 

Sergeant Olcutt B. Poor resides in his native 
town of Andover, and is an intelligent and thrifty 
farmer. Of Sergeant Tucker, I know nothing 
since the war. 

Of the other non-commissioned officers, (xilbcrt 
E. Shaw, Hazen M. Abbot, Hiram H. Jackson and 



86 



1)0 1'haps .some others are (leatl,!iud()f the wherea1)outs 
of some of the liviii<>;, I know not. John F. Lihl^y 
resides in Carthage, Daniel H. Young in Nel)raska 
and Edward E. Stevens in Rumtbrd. Many ofthe 
l)rivates have fallen into that slee[) that knows no 
waking. It was a good company and one that 
re(j[uired but little effort to keep in good discipline. 
Quite a number of them re-enlisted and served to 
the end of the war. 

The marches and stations of the 23d Maine Reg- 
iment are shown in tlie foUowing tal)le : 

i. Mustered into United States service at Port- 
land, Sept. 21), 1802. 
ii. Left Portland for Washington Octolx'r 1<S. 
iii. Reached Washington Monday evening, Octo- 
ber 20th, and went into camp on Caj)it()l IIIU. 
iv. Left Washington October 25, with orders to 
report to General Cuvier Grover at Seneca, 
Md. 
v. Oct()l)er 2(), went into camp at Lock Xo. 21 ; 

called camp "Canq) Gi'over." 
vi. General Grover left and the command was 

turned over to Colonel P. S. Davis, 
vii. Moved to Offutt's (H'oss Roads November 11. 
viii. December 21 Com})anies B, D and I were 
sent to Great Falls, Comjjany (J to Lock 21, 
Companies (y and II to Seneca tmd the others 
to Muddy Branch, 
ix. Decend)er 26, Company B went to Muddy 
Branch, G to Seneca and A, C, E, F and II 
to Edward's Ferry. 



87 

X. Fel)mary, Comp-Ji^^'es D and (i moved up to 

Edward's Ferry. 
xi. April 18, Companies C and K went to Con- 
rad's Ferry, Companies A, B and E remained 
at Edward's Ferry under Major Soule and^ 
H, G, D and F moved to headcjuarters of 
brigade at Poolesville. 
xii. April 20, Company C moved to Seneca and 

K to Muddy Branch, 
xiii. INIay 5, regiment moved down the Potomac 
twenty-tive miles, crossed Chain Bridge and 
went into camp near Fort Ethan Allan, 
xiv. May 24, moved to Alexandria and threw up 

eai'th-works around the city. 
XV. Returned to Poolesville June 17. 
xvi. June 22, Company F sent to guard the signal 

station on Sugar Loaf, 
xvii. June 24, regiment moved to Harper's Ferry 
and Maryland Heights, and went into cam]), 
xviii. June 27, regiment ordered to Portland, 
Maine. 
xix. Peached Portland July <i. 
XX. July 15, mustered out of service by Lieut, 
F. E. Crossman. 



I 




LIEUT, LAPHAM. 



SEVENTH MAINE BATTERY. 



AVhilc the Twenty-third Maine lU'ginient was in 
the service, the army of the Potomac ^rii stained two 
defeats, at Fredricksbnrg and Chanccllor^^ville, and 
achieved a grand victory at Gettysl)urg. Fred- 
ricksburg was fought on the thirteenth c^f De- 
cember, 1862, Chancelh)rsville from May first 
to the fourth, 18()3, and Gettyslmrg from July 
tirst to the third, following. Yicksburg was 
also captured and the Mississippi oijened to navi- 
gation to the ocean. But Lee's army was not 
captured at Gettysburg and had retreated toward 
Richmond in a condition to continue the war. The 
situation for the final success of the Union army 
was very promising and the success at Gettyslmrg' 
though the victory was not as complete as many 
thouo;ht it should have been, stinmlated the people 
of the h)yal states to continued effort, and by pav- 
ing large bounties recruiting was quite brisk, though 
drafting had to be resorted to in some localities. 
In the latter part of 1863, Maine raised four regi- 
ments of infantry, one of cavalry and a light liattery, 
thouoh some of the oroanizations did not go to the 
front until the spring of 1864. I recruited a com- 
pany for the cavalry, with the promise of a cap- 



90 



tain's coiiiinission, Iiut when the conipaiiy had been 
mostly rcrriiitod, at tlu> i'e(iiu'st of the (iovernor 
uiid with the consent ot'the men enlisted, I changed 
ovei" to liii'ht artillery with the promise of the sec- 
ond })osition. The captaincy of the new 1)attcry 
was ui\cn to AdeUxnt I>. Twitchell who had seen 
honorable service in the Fifth Maine IJattery, and 
who had come to Maine to assist in recruit ing the 
seventh, f^oren K. Ihiiidy who was orderly ser- 
geant of the Fifth Battery was given a lieutenancy, 
and the other two commissions were given to Dan- 
iel 8ta})les of Old Town and Frank Tlior])e of 
Boothhay, hoth of Avhom had seen service in the 
infantry. Our conipany Avas made up mostly of 
veterans and was designated a veteran organization. 
Some of oui" sergeants had previously held com- 
missions. fJohn C. (^uimhy had served as lieuten- 
ant and caj)tain in the Second Maine, and Sergeant 
John E. A\'illis had served as lieutenant in a New 
Ham})sliire regiment. Some of our privates were 
graduates from college, many of them were students, 
and there was scarcely one who liad not received a 
good e(hicati()n. 

We had very c()mforta])le (juarters and had 
c()m})aratively little sickness while at Augusta- 
The cavalry regiment was encami)ed on the State 
grounds very near us, while the twenty-ninth 
and thirtieth were in camp on the Mulliken 
farm, a little out on th(» Wintlirop road. The 
battery was nmstered into the service of the United 



91 



States on the 29tli day of Deeciubcr, l>y Lieutenant 
Joshua Fessenden of the reiiidar army. Canij) life 
in Auiiu.sta was dull and monotonous. The officers 
studied the tacties but as Ave had no ouns to illus- 
trate the text, it was dry and uninterestinu'. AA'e 
had a few men in our company, and only a few, 
who would sometimes get intoxicated when they 
had the opportunity, and these gave us no little 
trouble. We could not keep them in cam}) all the 
time, and whenever they went into the city they 
were (j[uite sure to get into ti'onble. There were 
unscrupulous })eople in Augusta as well as else- 
where, Avho seemed to regard the l)ounty money 
of a drunken soldier as legitimate plunder. Intox- 
icating li(iuors were sold in many places and when 
a soldier l)ecame intoxicated in one of the mnnerous 
dens, he was sure to be rol)bed to his last dollar. 
If a soldier hired a stable team without making a 
definite agreement as to the price before leaving, 
he was often charged five ;ind six times the regular 
price . 

I went to Aul)urn one day in January, and was 
al)sent two days. When I returned a pleasant sur- 
prise awaited me. In the presence of the company 
and in their l)ehalf, a fine gold watch and chain 
were presented to me by Captain Twitchell, \vhich 
I still carry and highly prize. 

AVhile in Augusta, the non-commissioned officers 
and })rivates made up a purse of three hundred 
dollars for the purchase of a horse for Captain 



92 



Twitc'lu'll. The inoiu'v w:is })Iuc(hI in the haiul;^ of 
Corporal Lennan F. Jones who went u}) the Ihie of 
the Grand Trunk Kail way and in due time returned 
Avith a tine stallion, hlaek as the rav(Mrs win<i-. The 
horse was duly presented and |)ro\ cd an exeellcnt 
animal for the pur{)ose for whieh he was obtained. 
He accompanied the battery during' its entire term 
of service, and returned to Maine when the war 
was over. 

The organization of the Seventh Elaine Battery, 
the names of those who served therein, and the 
chang-es that occurred during its service are given 
below : 

Adelbert li. Twitchell, Captain, Bethel. 
William B. Lapham, kSr. 1st Lieut. , Woodstock. 
Loren E. Bundy, Jr. 1st Lieut., Columbia, N. H. 
Daniel Staples, Sr. 2d Lieut., Old Town. 

Frank Thorpe, Jr. 2d Lieut., r)()()thbay. 

( )slK)rne J . Pierce, Orderly Ser<it. , Albion. 
Albert S. Twitchell, Q,. M. Serot., Bethel. 



John E. Willis, Sergeant, 
Howard (lould, " 

William II. Jones, " 
John C. Quimby, " 

Augu.stus Bradbury, " 
Geo. A. McLellan, " 



Gorham, N. H. 

Portland. 

Winthrop. 

Abbot. 

Fairfield. 

Alfred. 



Thomas Q. Waterhouse, Corp :)ral, Portland. 

Augustus M. Carter, " Bethel. 

Omar Smith, " Arrowsic. 

Frank J. Norton, " Ileadfield. 

Alfred H. Briggs, " AVoodstock. 

Benjamin S. Crawford, " Auburn. 

Charles Lapham, " Bethel. 



93 



Joseph T. Merrill, Corporal, 

Everett A. Wentworth, 

Wm. G. Hutchinson, 

Lennan F. Jones, " 

Aiioustus P. Grendell, " 

William Hilton, Musician, 

Frank Q. Bodwell, 

Georo-e S. Kicker, Artiticer, 

Sewall A. Stil lings, 

Algernon S. Chapman, Wagoner, 



Moses H. Arthur, 
William Andrews, 
Stanley C. Alle\ , 
Charles AV. Ackley, 
Samuel W. Barker, 
Benjamin F. Berry, 
Briggs G. Besse, 
Luther Brigiis, 
Horace Burrill, 
John M, Bryant, 
Lorenzo Billings, 
Charles M. liixhy, 
Jesse D. l^isbee, 
Zaccheus Baker, 
Delphinus B. Bicknell, 
AVilliam II. Bean, 
Kuel I\L Berry, 
Albert Billings, 
Joseph W. Bean, 
Alexander Boyd, 
Charles C. Burt, 
Warren O. Carney, 
Lyman Carter, 
John L. Crie, 
Archy S. Cole, 
Geora-e ]\r. Churchill, 



Private, 



Portland. 

Bristol. 

Rum ford. 

Winthrop. 

Penobscot. 

Norridgewock. 

Kumford. 

Hallowell. 

Gorham, N. H. 

Bethel. 

Hallowell. 

Rumford. 

Bristol. 

Rumford. 

Monmouth. 

Wayne. 

Bristol. 

Minot. 

Monmouth . 

Woodstock. 



Cape Elizabeth. 

Norridgewock. 

Poland. 

Kittery. 

Unity.' 

Woodstock. 

Bethel. 

Boothbav. 

Bethel. ^ 

Portland. 

Troy. 

Unity. 

Bethel. 

New Portland. 



94 



Geoi'oe E. Dcwitt, 
Charles C. Daltoii, 
James E. Diulley, 
Asbury E. Eastman, 
Edirar P^merv, 
Ehen M. Eield, 
Albus T. Field, 
James S. Field, 
Lemuel T. Field, 
(leorge H. Farrar, 
James II. Fall, 
Knfus V. Farnmii, 
Alplieus Fuller, 
Joseph U. Frye, 
John Goudy, 
Edward F. Gerrish, 
James ({ould, 
J. A>'oodman (ierrish, 
Sanuiel (joodwin, 
Henry H. Goudy, 
Joel Goodwin, 
Thomas H. Ilyde, 
David S. Hawes, 
John B. Ilazeltine, 
George Ilotham, 
George Holmes, 
Charles E. Ilaynes, 
William M. Hobbs, 
George II. Hutchins, 
George E. Howe, 
Charles B. Howard, 
IIerl)ert E. Hale, 
William Hamilton, 
Ens worth T. Harden, 
liobert S. Plysom, 
George A. Johnson, 



Private, 



Presque Isle. 

York. 

iVIonmouth. 

Rumford. 

Aulmrn. 

Sidney. 

4 i 

Monmouth. 

Dresden. 

Dresden. 

Rumford. 

Woodstoek. 

Bethel. 

Bristol. 

Brunswiek. 

Trov. 

Bethel. 

Rumford. 

Bristol'. . 

Rumford. 

Limington. 

Ti'oy . 

Monmouth. 

Lis1)on. 

Mercer. 

Norridgewock. 

Rumford. 

Bethel. 

Al1)any. 

Norridgewock. 

Unitv. 

Bethel. 

Bristol. 

Alfred. 



95 



Levi D. Jewell, Private, 

George II. Kiiiihall, " 

Charles G. Kenney, " 

John W. Leavitt, " 

flames S. Lowell, " 

George 8. Landers, " 

Charles X. Lindsey, " 

Frank Lancaster, " 

Daniel H. Lovcjoy, " 

Orrin R. LeGrow, " 

Joseph La|)h:ini, " 
Isaac F. Laphani, Anil). Driver, 



A\'illiani iMartin, 
James McLoon, 
Sylvester JMason, 
George W . Marston, 
Finson R. Mclveen, 
Rol)ert W. Manning. 
Ilezekiah G. Mason, 
John Mason, 
flames B. Mtison, 
Alonzo 1>. Merrill, 
Gardiner F. MeDaniel, 
fl()sei)h K. Niles, 
Daniel F. Oakes, 
John G. Frehle, 
Simon Piper, fir., 
James H. Pratt, 
Sanniel fl. Peed, 
vVsa A. Powe, 
Charles (). Randall, 
CharU's A. Reed, 
floseph Jiing, 
Thomas J. Rowe. 
Asa Richardson, 
Ezra Ridlon, Jr., 



Private, 



Woodstock. 

Mercer. 

Bristol. 

A\"inthrop. 

Portland. 

Monmouth. 

Norridgewock. 

Dresden. 

AVindham. 
Rum ford. 
AA'oodstock 
Rumford . 
Bremen . 
Bethel. 
]Monniouth. 
Dresd(Mi. 

]\Iason. 

Bethel. 

A\'o()dstock. 

Ilolden. 

China. 

Webster. 

Fddington. 

Gilead. 

Weld. 

AA'oodstock. 

Daniariscotta. 

Crilead. 

Bangor. 

Monmouth. 

Ilolden. 

Gilead. 

Rumford. 

AVoodstock, 



96 



Alfred Ko])erts, rrivatc, 

Fordinaiid A. Smith, " 

William E. Stevens, "• 

FraiK'is F. Stevens, " 

Charles Stewart, " 

Thomas S. Simms, " 

Sanmel Stevens, " 

(ieoriie F. Sumner, " 

llarve}' B. Sinniions, " 

Lorino- C. Simpson, " 

Austin F. Twitchell, "■ 
Albert Towle, . " 
William L. Twitchell, 

Levi F. Towle, Jr., " 

Howard P. Todd, " 

Edward 11. ^^'aldron, " 

Charles E. Wheeler, " 

Frank S. Wade, " 

Alfred B. Wyman. " 

Apollos Williams, '' 
(Charles A. N. Waterman, " 

George AVilliston, Jr., " 
Edward P. A^'hitney, 

Harvey H. AN'ebber, " 

Freeland Youno-, " 



Durham. 

Portland. 

Unity 

Woodstock. 

Norridiicwock. 

Portland. 

Xorridi>ewock. 

Union. 

Alna. 

Bethel. 

Kenduskeao-. 

Bethel. 

Kenduskeaa*. 

Momnouth. 

Camden. 

Mason. 

Norridgewock. 

AA'ebster. 

(lorham, N. H. 

Durham. 

J^runswick. 

A^'intllro]). 

liristol. 

Paris. 



. JOINED AFTER JANUARY, 1864. 

Josei)h H. Anthoine, Private. Windham. 

Ebenezer A. Brooks, "■ Winslow. 

J()se})h E. Benner, '' Xobleboro. 

Oscar Blunt, " Brownville. 

Augustus Barden, 



Park B. Bachelder, 
]\Ioses W. Bagley, 
liobert M. Commings, 



New Portland. 

Troy. 

Portland. 



97 



Andrew L. Cram, Private, 

Warren O. Douglass, " 

Jonas P. Dudley, 

Joseph H. Dunham, 

Charles Emerson, " 

Willis C. Estes, 

Sewell B. Emery, 

Samuel Fessenden, " 

Francis G. Flao-g, 

Frederick C. Fuller, 

Leverett W. Gerrish, 

Adney C. Gurney, 

Asa D. Hazeltine, 

George Hewey, " 

Lorenzo B. Harringion, " 

Ivory C. Hanson, " 

David D. Hanson, " 

Alfred J. Haskell, 

Frank H. Hamilton, " 

Elery G. Harris, 

Lorenzo A. Jones, " 

James Kelly, 

Martin V. Knight, " 

Elias A. Lothrop, " 

Oscar W. Litchfield, 

Milfrcd Mahoney, 

Isaac J. Marble, 

Aaron A. Merrill, 

Samuel W. Nash, 

James li. Nickerson, 

Isaac F. PoUey, 

David R. Pierce, 

AurestusS. Perham, " 

John Reed, 

Orrin Ross, 



Poi-tland. 

Paris. 

Readticld. 

Paris. 

Turner. 

Troy. 

Poland. 

Rockland. 

Jeft'erson. 

Lewiston . 

Paris. 

Troy. 
Wells. 
Lewiston. 
New Portland. 
Windsor. 
Portland. 
(( 

Gilead. 

Jett'erson. 

Stronii'. 

Troy." 

Scarboro. 

Portland. 

Augusta. 

Brownvillc. 

Pownal. 

Jert'erson. 

Belgrade. 

Portland. 

Porter. 

Paris. 

Porter. 



98 



James A. Eolierts, 


Private, 


Paris. 


Ashley C. Rice, 


( ( 


Windham. 


Charles V. llichards, 


( ( 


Wavne. 


Wintield S. Starbird, 


4 i 


Paris. 


Oliver B. Strout, 


i I 


lV)land. 


Llewellyn L. Stevens, 


li 


Troy. 


Charles W. Smith, 


i i 


i i 


Benjamin F. Snow, 


i i 


Brownville. 


fJohn T. Savage, 


i I 


Portland. 


Henry Stockbridge, 


i i 


Poland. 


Samnel Taylor, 


i i 


( i 


William II. Thompson 


i i 

5 


Xew Portland. 


Edwin AVoodsnm, 


( i 


Poland. 


Laforest Warner, 


(( 


Paris. 


Andrew J. W^oodbury, 


( ( 


Belgrade. 


Thomas M. Adams, 


k ( 


Union. 


George II. Blake, 


i I 


Portland. 


Joseph L. Bennett, 


i i 


Bridgton . 


W^entworth M. Brown 


i i 


Poland. 


Randall Conant, 


i i 


Plymouth. 


Nathaniel C. Dean, 


I i 


A\'e])ster. 


P>mery C. Dunn, 


i i 


Dixmont. 


Harris W. Jordan, 


i i 


Wel)ster. 


Howard W. Merrill, 


i i 


Augusta. 


David H. Merrill, 


i i 


Saeo. 


William L. Newton, 


i k 


Portland. 



Those who were enlisted for the battery, but 
never joined it, and were discharged JVIay 18, 18()5, 
on account of the close of the war : — 



Alvin J. Poland, 
George ^I. Pease, 
Perry Russell, 
Wesley Strout, 
David'O. Sawtelle, 
Charles AV. Wormel 
Elliott B. Walker, 



I^ri vate , 



Portland. 

liridgton, 

Harrison. 

Poland. 

Sidnev. 

Betlu'i. 

Na[)les. 



99 



Whole number enlisted for the batteiy during its 
term of service, 221). 

rRo:\[OTioNS. 

Corporal Augustus M. Carter, promoted sergeant. 
Private Luther Briggs, promoted corporal, 

" I)el})hinus B. Bicknell, promoted corporal. 
" Finson R. jMcKeen, }n-omoted cor][)oral. 
" Ferdinand A. Smith, promoted corporal. 
" Harvey B. Sinnnons, promoted corporal. 
" All)ert Towle, promoted corporal. 
Capt. A. B. Twitchell, ])r<)moted hrevet-major of 

artillery. 
Lieut. Wm. r>. Lapham, promoted Capt. A. Q. ]\r. 

and hrevet-major U. S. volunteers. 
Lieut. Loren E. Bundy, promoted senior 1st Lieut., 
not mustered. 
" Frank rhorpe, 1st Lieut., not mustered. 
Orderl}^ Sergt. O.shorne J. Pierce, 2d Lieut., not 

mustered. 
Sergt. Howard Gould, ])romoted Q. M. sergeant. 
Corporal DelphinusB. Bicknell, promoted sergeant. 
Private Joseph H. Anthoine, promoted corporal. 

" Stanley C. Alley, promoted corporal. 
- " Alfred H. Briggs, promoted corporal. 
" Warren O. Carney, promoted ailiticer. 
" Herbert E. Hale, ]^romoted corporal. 
" Samuel J. Fessenden, promoted 1st Lieut., 

First Maine Battery. 
" Levi D. Jewell, promoted corporal. 
" Orrin R. LeGrow, promoted corporal. 
" Aurestus S. Perham, promoted sergeant- 
major First Maine Mounted Artillery, 
Fei)ruary 11, ISf)"). 
" Samuel Y. Keed, appointed l)ugler. 



100 



CASUALTIES AND DISCHAKGES. 

Sergt. William H. Jones, died of disease April 1, 

1804. 
Musician Frank Q. Bodwell, wounded May 18, 

1864. 
Artificer George S. Rieker, died of disease March 

21,'l8G4. 
Private Moses H. Arthur, discharged for disability 

April'O, 18()4. 
*' AVilliam Andrew, died in hospital August 

27, 1864. 
" diaries W. Ashley, died in hos})ital July 

17, 1864. 
" ^^'illianl R. Bean, wounded May 12, 1865 ; 

discharged. 
" Charles C. Burt, discharged for disability 

April 111, 1864. 
" Lemuel T. Field, died of disease March 

23, 1864. 
" James IT. Fall, wounded ]\Ia\' 12, died 

May 16, 18(54. 
" Samuel Goodwin, died of disease October 

4, 1864. 
" Georire Holmes, discharged for disability 

June 20, 1864. 
" John W. Leavitt, died of disease March 

16, 1864. 
" Robert W. Manning, dro})ped from rolls 

as deserter January 11, 1864. 
" Hezekiah G. Mason, wounded July 25, 

1864. 
" Joseph R. Niles, wounded June 3, died 

July 26, 1864. 
" Asa A. Rowe, died of disease April 19. 

1864. 



101 

Private Charles O. Eandall, ^vounded .May 21, 
1864. 
'' Charles A. Reed, died of disease lebruyra 

17, 1861. 
'' Charles E. Wheeler, died of disease Aug. 

6,1864. ^ ., 

. . Brioos G. Besse, discharged June 2!) , 1 864 . 
'^ LoSnzo Billings, discharged April KK 

1865. " 1 T 1 

- Ebenezer A. Brooks, discharged June i, 

186:k . 

- lienjaniin S. Crawford, discharged tor dis- 

ai)ilitv January 17, 1865. 
'- Archy S. Cole, deserted at Augusta, Alarch 

1, 1865. 
" Georo-e E. Dewitt, died of disease >.ovem- 

be?9, 1864. 
Asbury E. Eastman, discharged June 2, 

1865. 
" John Goudy, discharged for disability June 

10, 1865. 
" James Gould, deserted on furlough Marcli 

28, 1865. 

'' Thomas H. Hyde, transferred to V et. Kes. 
Corps March 15, 18(i5. 

" Ellsworth T. Harden, discharged tor disa- 
bility January 2, 18(55. 

" William C. Hutchinson, discharged June 
2, 1865. 

" Erank H. Hamilton, absent, whereabouts 

unknown. 

Georo-e A. Johnson, discharged tor disa- 
bility January 13, 1865. 

George W. Marston, discharged June 17, 
1865. 



102 



Private Jauics B. Ma.soii, (lischarii'cd for disability 
June 10, 18(i5. 
" CliarlcsO. Randall, discharged tbrdisability 
March 20, iSCo. 
Alfred Koberts, dischari2,ed July 17, 1<S()4. 
" ApoUos Williams, diseharji'ed May ol. 
18(>5. 
Laforest ^^^lrller, died of disease January 
1, 18(>5. 
" Emery C. Dunn, died of disease ^lay 17, 

18G5. 
" Howard W. Merrill, died of disease ]\Iareli 
27, 1865. 
Sylvester Mason, died of disease June 20, 
1865. 
" Alpheus Fuller, wounded by a frairment of 
shell in Fort Sedgwick in February, 
1865, but continued on duty. 

DIED SINCE THE AVAIL 

Lieut. Loreii A. Bnndy. Priv. James Gould. 

" Daniel Staples. "^ " Tlios. H. Hyde. 

Sergt. John E. Willis. " David S. Hawes. 

''' Geo. A. McLellan. " J. B. Hazeltine. 

Corp. Harve}^ B. Simmons. '' W.C. Hutchinson. 

" Orrin R. LcGrow. " Geoi'ge Hewey. 

" Luther Briggs. " David D. Hanson. 

" Omar Smith. " L. A. Jones. 

" Albert To wle. " Geo. A. Johnson. 

" Levi D. Jewell. ^' A. B. Merrill. 

Priv. Samuel W. P)arker. " John Mason. 

' ' Lorenzo Bill i ngs . "Mil fred ^Nlahoney . 

" Zaccheus Baker. " Geo.W. Marston. 

" Ebenezer A. Brooks. " Frank J. Norton. 

" Park B. l^achelder. " J. R. Xiekerson. 

" Wm. R. Bean. " Geo. M. Pease. 



103 



Priv. Charle.s C. Burt. Priv. Joseph Ring. 

" Benj. S. Crawford. " Asa Richardson. 

" Robert M. Cummino-s. " John Reed. 

" Randall Conant. " Orrin Ross. 

" Nathaniel C. Dean. " Oliver B. Strout. 

'^ Asbuiy E. Eastman. " L. S. Stevens. 

" Edgar Emery. " W. L. Twitchell. 

" Willis C. Estes. " Ed. H. Waldron. 

" Eben M. Field. " T.Q.AVaterhouse. 

" Edward F. Gerrish. " Apollos Williams. 

There were many discomforts in winter camp 
life, at the very best, in this high northern latitude, 
thouiih the later reg-iments fared much better than 
those that wintered here early in the war. The 
early regiments lodged under canvas, while we had 
board barracks made warm and comparatively com- 
fortable. But the men grew restive under the dis- 
cipline we were obliged to enforce, and we were 
not sorry when orders came for the Seventh Maine 
Battery to repair to Washington. Following this 
order, there was considerable stir and bustle in 
camp. Men were called in who had received brief 
furloughs to visit their friends, the sick in quarters 
were examined and those unlit for duty were sent 
to the hospital. 

The day of departure was fixed for the hrst of 
Fel)ruary. Ca})tain Twitchell had been boarding 
at the Augusta House, and the legislature being in 
session, he had made the acquaintance of many 
members and their ladies who became interested in his 
battery and were desirous of seeing the men as they 
marched by on their way to the cars. Captain 



104 



Twitc'liell went to the Augusta House leaving me 
in charge of the company and the line Avas formed 
in two ranks. We had made every effort to keep 
li(]uor out of the camp T)y granting no passes t(j 
the city for twenty-four hours, and thought we had 
succeeded. The men came into line pr()m[)tly and 
with great i)recision, and we marched up the avenue 
between the elms, reaching the street in front of the 
State House. Then taking the center of State 
street Ave marched toward the station. The uni- 
forms of men and oflicers were new, and the com- 
i)any made a very fine appearance. As we reached 
the Augusta House where we were to pass in review, 
the doors and verandas were filled with gentlemen 
and ladies Avho greeted us with smiling faces and 
with cheers. 

The company had good accommodations on the 
train, reached Boston and Providence without 
adventure and there took steamer for Jersey City. 
1 st()])ped over in Boston to t:dve some sick to the 
h()s})ital but overtook the company at Providence. 
At Jersey City we were detained for an hour or 
t\A'o, and while there Lieutenant Biuidy's sister 
who was teaching in New Jersey came to see him. 
With us Avas Miss Adeltha, sister of Captain 
Twitchcll who went as far as Philadeli)hia. She 
was in the South teaching when the war broke out, 
and her return to the Noilh Avas attended Avitli 
many hardships and difficulties. She afterwards 
married a Colonel Thompson wiio had command of 



105 



a colored regiiuont during the Avar and f^ettled in 
Pennsylvania. She died a few years after the war. 
She was a lady of al)ility, well edncated and pos- 
sessed of many aniial)le (qualities. 

At Philadelphia the company was the recipient 
of the usual hospitalities and then went on to 
Washino-ton. Our first ni£>ht was s])ent in barracks 
where there were other soldiers, s(jme of whom 
were drunk and noisy and gave us but little chance 
to sleep. The next morning, the battery went to 
the artillery camp, some three miles from the city 
on the Bladensburg road. This was a cam}) of 
instruction and kno\vn as Camp Barry. Several 
batteries were there Asdien we arrived including the 
14th Massachusetts, the 14th New York and the 
2d Maine. The latter had been two years in the 
service, and was ordered there to recruit uj). AVe 
had A'ery nice (juarters and at once entered u})on 
the study of the tactics. 

Contrabands, as negroes are called, were very 
[)lenty about AVashington, and I hired a servant 
named Charles. He had been a slave in Virginia 
and proved to be a most unmitigated scamp. He 
would lie, steal and get drunk and yet he plead for 
forgiveness so effectively that he was retained sev- 
eral weeks. About his only redeeming trait was 
that he was a very tine singer. His voice was 
plaintive and as clear as that of a bird, and I never 
heard plantation songs and hynms sang with more 
touching pathos. But one day I had occasion to 



100 



ifo to town, and when I rcliirned '* (Charley "' was 
uudor arrest and in the uiiard liouso. Little uiorcy 
was shown colored })6o})lc in tlu! district courts at 
that time, and I knew if the olfenihn* should he 
handed over to the ci\'il authorities which would 
doul)tless have been the case, it would go very hard 
witli him, as his oltence was of an auuravated 
nature. So I went to the u'uard house and after a 
little i)arley with the officer in charge, he directed 
the soldier on duty, to allow the culprit to come 
out and see me. Camp Barry was enclosed by a 
high board fence yet not so high but a })ers()n of 
great strength and agility couhl si)ring up, catch 
by the top board and throw himself over. I walked 
with Charley out toward the fence, and then turned 
to him and asked him if he supposed he could get 
over that fence. He said he would like to have a 
chance to try. "Well," I said to him, "you have 
such a chance now and the (piicker you improve it, 
tlie l)etter it will be for you." He re(]uired no 
further hint, and was over tlie feuce almost in a 
twinkling. I never saw him nor -heard of him 
ao-ain. His full name was (yharles Simms. The 
guard had the good sense to be looking in the 
opposite direction, and when I returned by the 
guard house no (questions were asked. 

Connected with the batteries in Camp B irry, were 
many very hard customers, and hardly a day ])asse(l 
that more or less of them were not i)unished by l)eing 
tied to the spare wheel. The usual oU'ences were 



107 



hrcuking from camp, riuiiiing jiway to the city, 
drunkenness and disorderly conduct on their return. 
]\Iany of them di;l not return until hrouiiht in by 
the i)rovost guard. Such were treated as deserters 
and tried as such. Ah)ng toward the hist of 
February, I was detailed as judge advocate of a 
general court martial convened to try a lot of these 
fello\vs. I have the charges and specifications, or 
many of them, at this date. The court was in ses- 
sion some weeks, and some thirty or forty soldiers 
were tried and most of them were convicted. The 
l)unishment was generally light. Forfeiture of i)ay 
and allowances, imprisonment, and police service 
in camp were the usual sentences. 

AVe had now been at Camp J)arry nearly three 
months and as the spring advanced and the time for 
active army operations approached, we naturally 
began to be solicitious, or at any rate curious, to 
know what was to be done with us. We had no 
doubt that we should see active service and that 
was what we wanted. AVe had had drilling to our 
hearts' content and were heartily tired of the routine 
of camp life. There were various rumors in camp, 
l)ut none could be traced to any reliable source. 
And there is something very strange al)out camp 
rumors. The most extravaaant stories will go 
from mouth to mouth and every effort to trace them 
to the fountain head, Avill be utterly unavailing. 
Of course they have their origin, but I never yet 
knew a case where it was found. Some said that 



108 



wc Avere to go with a secret expedition to some 
])oint in the far South, and wlien it was said that 
Burnside was to have charge of the expedition, we 
felt tliat there might be some trutli in it, for we 
knew the Ninth Corps to be short of fiekl artillery, 
and when it landed at Annapolis we had felt and 
expressed the opinion th;it our destiny was more or 
less involved in the operations of this corps. Nor 
did we ol)iect. We had formed a very high o[)ini()n 
of General Burnside. We knew him to be every 
inch a man ; we knew him to l)e patriotic and self- 
sacrificing, nor did we think an}^ worse of him 
because he had failed as connnander-in-chief of the 
army of the Potomac. 

Orders finally came for us to draw our guns and 
other necessary articles, and to be ready to join 
the Ninth Army Corps which was to reinforce the 
army of the Potomac. Tlie Second Maine Battery 
in camp with us, and several others were to be 
attached to the Ninth Corps. This cor})s was to 
come up from Annapolis and march through the 
city of Washington, crossing the Potomac at Long- 
Bridge, and the batteries from Camp Barry were 
to join it as it passed through. Then there was 
great hurry and bustle in camp. Horses were 
drawn ; harnesses and other necessary articles pro- 
cured ; riders were selected and men for the dif- 
ferent positions about the guns. Theoretical infor- 
mation received from the study of the tactics, was 
now })ut in practice, and in this work Lieutenant 



109 



Bundy who had ])eon orderly scrueaiit in the Fifth 
Maine Battery, and was thoroughly familiar with 
everything pertaining to this branch of the service, 
was a valual)le man. Ca[)tain Twitchell had also 
l)een an officer in the same l)attery, and upon these 
two devolved chietiy, the duty of })utting things to 
rights and in shape for active service. 

We had considerable sickness among the men 
while in Camp Barry and lost several by death. 
Sergeant William H. -Tones from AYinthrop, one of 
the most intelligent and accomplished men in the 
company, was among the first to go. He was a 
graduate of Kent's Hill Seminar}", a line scholar, a 
po[)ular teacher and a very promising writer. His 
death was greatly deplored. There were several 
left behind when the battery went from Washing- 
ton, and some started with us who soon fell out l)y 
the way. How well I rememl)er the day ^vhen we 
joined the long column and crossed over Long Bridge 
and into Virginia. We were destined to see many 
a hard fought battle before we should return. The 
Ninth Corps at this time numbered nearly fifteen 
thousand men. There was a division of colored 
troops connected with it, and this was the first time 
I had seen negroes armed. The men of the corps 
had drawn new clothing at Annaj)()lis. and made a 
very fine appearance. In passing through Wash- 
ington and across the 1)ridge and also while passing 
the defences on the Virginia side, the troops 
marched in column of four al)reast, and it took a 



no 



long time for the entire corps to pass any given 
})()int. After jjassing through the defences and 
reaching tlie line of the Orange and Alexandria 
Kailroad, the ,sanie order of march was not insisted 
ii})on and it became very much a "' go as you please." 
The officers of the battery were mounted, the 
drivers of spans were also mounted while the 
detachments walked by their guns or rode upon 
the caisons. 

We now began to tiiid recently deserted camps, 
where troops that had been s[)ending the winter near 
Washington, or along the railroad, had recently 
l)roken cam}) and started for the front. Only a 
light guard was left to })rotect the coimniinication 
with the l)ase of supplies. Our battery was in the 
third division and well toward the rear of the 
column. It was not often that we could see much 
of the line, l)ut once in a while as we ascended a 
hill with a plain beyond, we could see the blue line 
for miles ahead, undulating and writhing like the 
contortions of a huge blue ser})ent. After we had 
reached a point a few miles out, General Burnside 
passed us with his staft\ and the men cheered him 
right heartily as he rode along. On the march 
after that, he would halt at the wayside for the 
column to pass, then he would mount and pass to 
the head of the column, where he would again halt, 
and allow the corps to pass him. His appearance, 
no matter how often, was always the signal for 
vociferous cheering. He was ever popular with the 



Ill 



oiilistcd men. He rodo a lari>e brown horse whose 
tail was docked and very short. He was a famous 
war horse and an animal of o:reat endurance. When 
nisiht came we camped in the most convenient phice 
ah)ni>- the line of march. We had shelter tents for 
the men, while conveniences for camping for the 
officers were taken along with the battery. We 
had our mess chest with earthern cups, saucers and 
})lates, and all other conveniences for getting ui) a 
good meal at any time and place. We generally 
camped wIkh'c we could get a supj)ly of fuel for 
broiling our meat and steeping our coffee, but the 
countr}^ through which we were now passing over 
had ))een fought over so many times and occu- 
pied so long with trooj)-;, that fuel had ' become 
very scarce. We soon learned that chestnut, hick- 
ory', locust and white oak made good fuel even 
when green, and our camping places were generally 
in the vicinity of a grove of one of these woods. 

It has already been stated that most of the l)oys 
of our battery had seen service l)efore, and knew 
iiow to take care of themselves, while the new men 
soon learned the lesson of the veterans. The essen- 
tials for a good camping ground are wood, water 
and a well-drained soil. The tirst thing after halt- 
ing when on the march, was to lay out the camp, 
l)itch the tents, then get wood and build tires. 
The canteens were then tilled with water, and each 
soldier tilled his di})per, })ut in his coffee and held 
it over the tire until it came to a boil. 'He then 



112 



put in his sugar and cooled it down to tlie right 
temperature for drinking. The coftce furnished by 
the government was generally of the tirst (juality, 
and nothing could l)c l)etter for the tired soldier 
than a i)int of this dclecta))le I)everage. Under its 
exhilarating intiuence, he soon lost his tired-out, 
exhausted feeling, and in a short time became as 
gay and as exul)erant as when he set out in the 
morning. I verily ])elieve that but for cotlee, the 
rebellion would never have been crushed out, 
and if the Southern soldiers could have been 
su})plied with it, the contest would h;ive been 
much prolonged. Our beef was driven ak)ng 
with us and slaughtered as it was wanted. As 
soon as the halt for the night was made the Ixief 
was -dressed, furnished to (|Uartcrniasters of regi- 
ments, by them to companies and by the com- 
pany officer to squads, in quantities according to 
the number of men to be supplied. Very soon 
after it was slaughtered it was divided and sub- 
divided into small })orti()ns and stuck upon sticks 
and tlien broiled over the fire. At such times 
the savory odors arising from l)roiling steak tilled 
the air for a long distance beyond the limits of the 
camp. The amount of meat per man was about a 
pound [)er day, and when it is remembered that 
there were tifteen thousand men in the corps, some 
estimate may be made of the number of animals 
necessary to supply the demand for a single day. 
Hard l)rcad, fresh beef, colfee and sugar con- 



113 



stituted tlic inarchina- ration for tlir soldirr. The 
second day out from Washington we readied 
Brandy station. We had passed tlie famous l)ull 
Kun battle ground where twice, the rel)els had been 
successful ; passed Manasas Junction where so much 
skirmishing had been done ; by Warrenton Junc- 
tion the scene of many a ca\'alry tight ; here we 
stopped two days and then passed Catlett's station 
and Bealton ; }xissed Ra[)})alianno:'\ station the 
scene of one of the more recent encouiters where 
the Fifth and Sixth Maine achieved great things, 
and tinally we reached lirandy station in Culpepper 
county where a portion of the army of the Potomac 
had spent the winter. We were now between the 
Rappjdiannock and the Rapidan (Rapid Ann), the 
latter formino- the dividino- line between Orange 
and Culpepper counties, and between the army of 
the Potomac and the army of Northern Virginia. 
A portion of the army had already crossed the 
Rapidan and we halted for a short time at Brandy 
station and camped there, waiting for the roads to 
be cleared so that we could move on and join the 
attacking column. 

Of course, the plan of the canii)aign which we 
knew had now 0})ened, was entirely unknown out- 
side of headcjuai-ters. The army l)eing only a 
machine, subordinate otKcers and men had nothing 
to do but to obe}^ orders. There was no end to 
speculation, for in this free country soldiers will 
think and talk, Init as to what was before us, we 



114 



were all e(|ually in the dark. While at Brandy 
station, I called on the Fourth Maine Battery which 
had spent the winter there. I saw Lieutenant 
Kiinhall and several ])rivate soldiers from Jjethel. 
This battery was attached to the Sixth Army Corps, 
and was under marching orders. The Second and 
Fifth Corps had already left for the tlank movement 
toward Richmond. Tlw order for the movement 
was issued on the second of ^lay, and the move- 
ment was l)egun at inidnii>ht of May Hd. At 
(iliu'mania Ford on the Kapidan, General (irant 
sent a dispatch to (xeneral Burnside to make a 
forced march to join the main army which had then 
crossed into the "old AVilderness." The Itth Corps 
had not yet been assiiiiied to the army of the 
Potomac and was directly under the command of 
General Grant. This dispatch was sent at a quarter 
past one on the fourth of ]May. At that time the 
first division, Gen. Stevenson's was at Brandy Sta- 
tion, while the other divisions were back, some of 
them nearly forty miles from the Ford. Steven- 
son's division crossed the Rapidan on the morning' 
of the tiftii, and toward night the other two divi- 
sions wei'c across. The division of colored troops 
did not cross until the morning of the sixth. 

General Lee who had his headquarters at Orange 
court house, was fully apprised of the })roposed 
movement and his troops left their winter (juarters 
almost simultaneously with ours. I do not propose 
to give anything like a history of the campaign 



115 



which had now l)eru {)})ened, for that has ))een 
Avrittcu aiiiiin and again hy tliosc who were in a 
position to know and \\'h() have wiehled nuieh al>U>r 
pens than mine. A subaltern coukl know but little of 
what was going on except right around him, and it 
is of that little that I pur})ose to speak. 1 was 
only ;i small part ot the great machine, and my dnty 
was to obey orders without question. The battle 
had o})ened ^vhen we were miles away from the 
Rapidan river, and the loud booming of the cannon 
informed us that the two great armies had again 
met in mortal combat. As we drew nearer, volleys 
of nmsketry could be heard, followed by that long, 
indescribable roll of continuous tiring. We crossed 
the Rapichm at Germania Ford, 1)y means of a pon- 
toon l)ridge upon which other corps had crossed 
and which had been left for us. Crossing the river 
we passed into the Wilderness and pushed on 
al)out three miles. It was (pdckly understood by 
us that light artillery could not be used to any great 
extent on account of the density of the undergrowth 
which rendered it extremely difficult even for infan- 
try to get along. The signs that a great battle was 
going on in our immediate vicinity Avere everywhere 
manifest. The booming of cannon and rattle of 
musketry Avas cjuito constant. The ambulances 
were busy in remoA'ing the wounded and army sur- 
geons had all the} could attend to. On the morn- 
ing of the sixth, the Ninth Corps Avas ordered to 
start at two o'clock and take a position l)etween the 



116 



Second and Fifth (\)r[).s, the first division to remain 
in reserve at the Lacy House. Near this tavern, 
the battery lialted for the dny. The woody hill 
al)()vc the tavern, it was thouLi'ht during ilm after- 
noon, might 1)e occupied by artillery, and our bat- 
tery was ordered to take jK)sition there. We 
accordingly proceeded to the crest of this hill. 
Beyond, toward the enemy, the growth was so 
dense as to entirely obstruct the view, luit the 
enemy saw us from their signal stations, and before 
we had unlimbered, the shells began to fall around 
us and in^ close proximity. They htul our range 
completely and were on much higher ground than 
we. The situation Avas taken in from headcpiarters 
at the tavern, and an orderly was sent directing us 
to get out of there as soon as possible. We were 
glad enough to obey and left the hill without tiring 
a gun. But the battery had been under fire, and 
Ave began to feel like veterans. And here we S[,ent 
a large part of the time while the battle of the 
AVilderness was beino- foui>:ht. 

A large number of batteries Avas in our Aicinity, 
and one afternoon an order came for us to harness 
u]) and })roceed as (piickly as possible, toward the 
lva[)idan. It Avas understood that the rel)els were 
l)ressing hard upon our right occupied l)ythe Sixth 
Corps, Avith the idea of turning it and cai)turing our 
supply trains which Avere then in rear of this corps. 
We run our horses at the to}) of their speed, and 
Avent into position as directed. Artillery was 



117 



placed ill position as near t()ii:ctlicr as possil:)lc fou 
tlic distance of nearly a mile. AVhether this for- 
midal)le array of guns prevented the proposed 
attack upon our riirht, I never knew, but it was 
not made, and our supply wagons passed safely 
along toward our left. 

While it was not permissible for any officer to 
stray far from his command Avhile a conflict was 
going on, yet so little could be accomplished with 
artillery that the officers of this branch of the ser- 
vice took some lil)erties. I went to the cleared 
field not far away, where our hospital tents had 
been set up and such a sight as there met my view, 
may I never behold again. There were acres of 
Avounded men stretched upon the ground and the 
few hospital tents were filled to overflowing. A 
very large number were only slightly wounded, 
and this was one of the peculiarities of the battle 
of the Wilderness. In trying to screen themselves 
from the foe, tlie men took position behind trees 
which were too small to protect the whole })erson, 
the arms in the operation of loading being exposed, 
so that wounded arms, hands and legs were unusu- 
ally common. But there were wounds of every 
kind, and the surgeons' knives were kept constantly 
))usy in amputating wounded limbs, and other 
instruments in probing for l)ullets. And so the 
great 1)attle went on. Sometimes one side gained 
an advantage, and then the other, but nt) decisive 
results could be reached either wav. In the thick 



118 



tano'le of the forost, squads of men would <>"ot 
deliiclied from their rcgiuients and waudei- al)out 
and sometimes march directly into the enemy's line. 
This ha})})ened not unfrequently to squads from 
both armies. 8(]uads from the two armies would 
sometimes meet, and the one that was the largest 
generally made prisoners of the smaller. 

Finally, after this thing had been going on for 
some days, there were decided indications that we 
were about to move. But where? We were quite 
sure that no victory had been won, and l)elieved 
that no decided advantage had been gained by 
either side. Were we about to retreat, or recross, 
as had been the case after Chancellorsville ? There 
was great depression in the rank and hie and with 
all who did not understand the exact situation. 
But we harnessed up and moved off toward the 
left with the trooi)s. Still we did not know whether 
^^■e were retreating or advancing. Perhaps w(^ had 
no business to know, only our army was not made 
up of serfs, but of intelligent men, and the meanest 
private felt a personal interest in the result. 
Toward noon we reached the old Chancellorsville 
l)attle ground, and there we sto})ped for dinner. 
The place where the r)th Maine Battery was in 
position when its horses were shot do^\ n and Cap- 
tain Leppein received his death wound, was 
pointed out. Less than a year had elapsed since 
this terrible battle took place, and the bones of the 
slain horse.; were bleaching in the sun on the spot 



119 



where they fell. And now the (juestion would soon 
be decided in our ininds as to whether we were 
retreating or advancing. If retreating, we shoukl 
cross the lvap])ahannock somewhere near Fredricks- 
burg, and if not, we should continue to move by 
the left toward Spotsylvania. The latter proved 
to be our course, and we were happy. I only 
judge others l)y myself, and I was truly ha]ij)y that 
Ave were advancing, which indicated that we had 
not been l)eaten. The rank and tile of the army 
wanted no more retreating, and from the moment 
when we passed the roads that led to the Ra})})a- 
hannock Fords and continued straight on toward 
Spotsylvania, I never had a doubt that General 
Gnint would lead us on to tinal victory. 

As we advanced toward Spots^dvania, we again 
heard the roar of artillery and the rattle of mus- 
ketry, showing that the corps which had preceded 
us were already engaged with the enemy. The 
sanguinary battle of S})otsylvania court house had 
begun. 

In the battle oi the Wilderness, while General 
Lee cannot be said to have l)een worsted, yet he 
had failet to acconqjlish his object, which was to 
fall upon the Union army and prevent its farther 
advance. General Grant hoped to avoid a battle 
at this point, and by pushing rapidly forward to 
gain the open country beyond, before colliding with 
his op|)onent. So up to this time, the hopes of 
neither conmiander had been realized. The advan- 



120 



tage, however, was decidedly with the Union army, 
enahling it to continue its flank movement toward 
the rebel capital. Our loss in the Wilderness was 
very heavy, ))at the losses on the other side were 
bv no means small, and the advantao-e <>-ained for 
our side, we felt to greatly outweigh the cost. 

It was early in the morning, May 9th, that the 
9th Corps moved from Aldrich's on the Orange and 
Fredicksburg plank road to Gates' house, on the 
road from S})otsylvjinia court house to Fredericks- 
burg, and then toward the court house, crossing 
the Ny river at Gates' house, a mile and a half from 
the court house. There are several rivers in this 
part of Virginia, the Matt, the Tay, the Po and the 
JV?/, and when these rivers converge and form one 
stream, the combined water takes the very appro- 
priate name of Mattapony. Wilcox' division which 
was in front, had a brush with some dismounted 
cavalry, and a brigade of Longstreet's corps. It 
was over before the other divisions came up. The 
battery was jilaced in position and was more or 
less engaged for the next three days. It was while 
here that the tirst casualties occurred. Three of 
our men were very severely Avounded. This oc- 
curred on the twelfth of June. The names of those 
wounded were William 11. Bean, James H. Fall 
Avho died four days after, and Charles O. Randall. 
Bean lost a leg and Randall did not return to the 
l)atter3^ 

A little night adventure in which I l)ore a humble 
part, occurred while we were at Spotsylvania. The 



121 



Second Corps was on our right, and the division 
next to the ninth was conunanded by General Bar- 
low. This division had been ordered to charge 
the enemy's works, and General Barlow thought a 
little more artillery than he had, might be used to 
advantage. So he sent to the Ninth Corps, and 
an order Avas issued to detach a section from our 
l)attery and send it up to the point whence the 
change was to be made. For this purpose, the 
right section was detached. The night was very 
dark and rainy, and our course was through the 
woods and over very rough and miry roads. A 
staff officer accompanied us to show us the way, 
and about two o'clock in the morning, we reached 
a place where we were directed to unlimber and 
take the horses back over the brow of a hill, a 
short distance to the rear. We lay down near the 
guns after mounting a sufficient guard, and had a 
little sleep, but as the day began to break we were 
awakened and prepared for action. As it grew 
light, we found ourselves in an advanced position with 
only a light picket line between us and the enemy's 
entrenched position . The spring birds sung sweetly 
in the trees, but other sounds than bird songs were 
to l)e heard ere long. Soon after light, we noticed 
a column of union infantry in our rear a:nd advanc- 
ing upon us. This was the attacking column, and 
the rebels saw it about as soon as we did, and 
opened a heavy lire upon it and us. For a few 
mouDents the air was full of whizzing, whistling 
G 



122 



bullets and as we were l^etween the advancing 
column and the rebel works, we of course had our 
share of the ])ullets. We immediately opened 
upon the rebel line with cannister shot, and after 
the Union coluniu had passed us, we changed to 
shell. Our troops advanced with a cheer. Men 
occasionally fell, but the ranks were ((uickly closed 
up, and after tiring a few rounds, our infantry 
charged the works and carried them. We then 
chano-ed to solid shot which we continued to throw 
into the woods for about an hour. There were 
some twenty guns besides ours, and for a little 
while, we made things lively. Toward noon, the 
union troops returned with the report that the 
charge had practically, l)een a failure. Our troops 
had charged and captured a second line of works, 
but they found a third line impregnable and after 
losing many men in a vain effort to capture it, they 
withdrew. In the afternoon we rejoined the bat- 
tery. And alter several days more of fighting 
there were indications of another Hank movement 
toward the left. Our guns were withdrawn from 
the works, l)ut previously, long columns of infantry 
had passed us marching toward the south. It 
was just at night that we withdrew our guns and 
harnessed up, and about this time active tiring 
was heard in rear of our right and for a little time, 
we feared that our right flank had really been 
turned. We remained where we were for several 
hours until the Hrinu' ceased. The ;itt;ick was made 



123 



by Ewoll's rel^el corps, ^'ith the view of captiiriuii" 
our supply trains. It so happened that General 
Tyler with some ten thousand heav^^ artillery-men 
was on his way to join the army of the Potomac, 
and encountered EwelTs troops in our rear. They 
at once attacked them, and the sound of their guns 
was what we heard. This Avas the first time these 
regiments which had been drawn from the 
defences of Washington had been under lire, and 
they l)ehaved most s[)Iendidly. The loss however 
was very severe, as they stood up and fought and 
did not take advantage of shelter as veteran troops 
always do. The 1st Maine Heavy Artillery was in 
this engagement and lost heavily. The second 
corps which had started toward the left l)ut had not 
gone far, hurried back and liirney's division which 
C(mtained several Maine regiments, had a hand in 
driving the rebels back which was speedily accom- 
])lished. 

In the several engagements at Spotsylvania, the 
i)th CV)rps lost over three thousand men, in killed, 
wounded and prisoners, and most of them were 
lost on the twelfth of May. The losses in other 
cori)s on that day swelled the number to seven 
thousand. The Ninth Corps led in the charge on 
that day, and hence its greater loss. Ewell's move- 
ment on our right and his defeat occurred on the 
IHth. Among the killed of the Ninth Corps was 
General Stevenson, commanding the first division. 
The number of killed, wounded and prisoners in 



124 



the Union sinny at Spotsylvania was 17,723, and 
inclndini; the hattk' of the Wikk'rness, 33,110. 

The movement to the left which was ordered for 
the nineteenth of May, l)iit which was jiostponed 
on account of E well's attack, commenced on the 
20th. Gen. Hancock with the Second (^orps, as 
usual took the lead. The Fifth Cor[)s followed 
next, and as soon as the roads were clear fV)r us, 
the Ninth mo'sed on toward the North Anna river. 
The Sixth Corps remained in the works and were 
suddenly attacked, but the movement on the part 
of the rebels was oidy to ascertain what force was 
confronting them. 

We marched nearly all niiiht, and as it was rainy 
and dark the march was a very disagreeable one. 
We reached Guinea Station on the Petersburg and 
Richmond Kailroad, about two o'clock on the morn- 
ing of jVIay 2 2d. On the 24th we were confronting 
the enemy on the North Anna river, and the Ninth 
Corps was ordered to take position on the right of 
the Second, and seize Oxford, Ixit General Burn- 
side found the enemy so strongly intrenched on the 
south bank that he did not make the attack. The 
Seventh Maine Battery was not re(|uired to do 
much here. From the position occupied l)y us, we 
had a good view of the enemy's works. An occa- 
sional Imllet from a sharp-shooter would reach us 
though the rebel line was well nigh a jnile away. 
While Lieutenant Staples and 1 were conversing 
tou'cther and standing (luite near each other, face 



125 



to face, a ))all passed between us and stniek his 
horse which an orderly was holdinii' a few stci)s 
from lis. StapU's directed the orderly to move the 
horse a little farther away, l)iit the animal, after 
walking a few steps, fell dead. On examination, 
it w^as found that a minnio ball had passed through 
him and was lodged in the hair on the opposite 
side. 

The Fifth and Sixth Corps had considerable fighting 
on the 24th, somewhat to our right, but near enough 
for us to hear the Yankee cheers and the rel)el yells. 
These movements developed the fact that General 
Lee occu})ied a very strong position and one that 
could not l)e carried without great sacrifice of life, 
if indeed it could be carried at all. It was there- 
fore determined to make another fiank movement, 
and this time Cold Harbor was the objective point. 
The Union losses at the North Anna, few of Avhich 
were from our corps, were not far from 2000. The 
army began its fourth fiank movement on the 27th 
of May. Our corps w^as directed to cross the 
Panninkey river at Hanover Farm, and we crossed 
about midnight on the 28th, and after us came the 
trains which did not all cross before the 30th. 
Wilson's cavalry remained on the north bank until 
all had crossed. This river is navigable up as far 
as White House Landing, and when the army 
reached this point the river was full of vessels bring- 
ing supplies of which we had l)een (jiiite short since 
leaving the North Anna. For two days, the officers 



126 



could l)iiy uothiujj:, but we found sonic dry corn in 
•d granary by the road side and with this w^e tilled 
our pockets and ate as we rode along. On one 
occasion we crossed a tield w'here sweet potatoes 
had been planted, and it did not take long tov our 
boys to dig iq) the seed wdiich they devoured raw. 
One day we halted near a large wheat tield. There 
must have been iifty or more acres, and the grain 
was just heading out. A division of cavalry turned 
their horses u})on it, and in a very short time, the 
crop was harvested. I asked an old darkey who 
was sitting upon the fence watching the operation, 
how^ he liked to have his grain harvested in that 
way? "I don't care," said he, "I shouldn't have 
had any of it." We passed through a portion of 
Virginia which had not suti'ered much from invasion, 
and the farms and buildings showed but little of 
the ravages of war. From one })lace we took more 
than three hundred bushels of nice corn. This 
place was owned by a general in Lee's army. We 
also captured quantities of bacon which the men 
highly relished >vith their hard tack. 

It was proper for our men to capture stores of 
corn, bacon and other su[)plies while passing 
through an enemy's country, l)ut some of our sol- 
diers were guilty of certain acts of vandalism which 
it would have l)een much better to have left undone. 
The white inhabitants along our route generally 
abandoned their houses which was a very great mis- 
take. Our soldiers always treated the inhabitants 



127 



civilly, and where tliey remained in their houses, 
they were not molested. One day as we were 
])assing- a house, I noticed that soldiers were going 
in and out and every one who came out had a book 
in his hand. I dismounted and went in. It was a 
tine house, elegantly furnished, and had a very 
extensive lilirary. The cases were of solid mahog- 
any and the books very expensively bound. The 
liln-ary must have contained four or five thousand 
volumes of standard works. But the soldiers took 
them from the shelves, these volumes bound in 
Turkey or Russian leather, resplendent with gold, 
and carried them away. It was an act of |)ure 
^v■antonness, for ^vhat could soldiers in the field, 
liable to go into action at any moment, do with 
costly books ? The}^ were soon thrown away and 
spoiled by exposure. Had the owner's family 
remained in the house, this costly library would 
have l)een i)reserved. 

The boys sometimes called at houses and asked 
for food ; they robbed smoke-houses and hen-roosts, 
caught live pigs, and sometimes confiscated a tul) 
of butter, but this was only living on the enemy 
according to usage when in a hostile country. 
There is no doubt that many of these i)e()})le 
regarded the Union soldiers as but little better than 
savages. At houses where I and others called, 
great surprise would be manifested at the civil 
treatment the inmates recei\'ed at the hands of the 
Yankee soldiers. The colored people were often 



128 



afraid of us at tirst, having been told that we woidd 
surely murder them. At one house where we 
halted for water, the lady of the house ran from 
room to room, n\) stairs and down, screaming at 
the to}) of her voice like a maniac. Nothing that 
we could say seemed to reassure her, and after 
having drawn a })ail of water and quenched our 
thirst, we went away but she continued to scream 
as new soldiers came along, until Ave were out of 
hearing. The colored people, shy at first, soon 
I)ecame familiar enough, and even here where 
Yankee soldiers had never before been seen, these 
})eo})le had some idea that in some way, they were 
mixed up with the contest. They had heard of 
"Massa Linkun," and believed that the year of 
jubilee was at hand. One old colored woman, as 
our column was passing, said to me; "Seems to 
me you don't do noffin up norf l)ut make Avhite men ; 
I never seen so many men afore in all my life." 
The troo])s had l)een steadily tramping by the 
l)lace where she lived for more than twenty-four 
hours, and it is no wonder the poor darky was 
astonished at the number. 

On the 30th of May, the Ninth Cori)s with shar}) 
skirmishing, formed on the left of the Second ( Jorps, 
and toward night had crossed the Tolopotomoy 
river, our right resting on that stream, near the 
Whitlock House, and its left near Shady Grove 
church. Our l)attery was near the left. The Eigh- 
teenth Corps which had been with General Butler 



129 



at the nt)rtli of James river, joined the ariny of the 
Potoiiiae at Cokl Harlwr, and i)articipated in the 
lieree and bloody eno'aaenients at that point. Cold 
Harbor was an im})ortant point to the Union army, 
as it was on the line of our extension to the left, 
and roads concentrated there from l)ethesda church, 
from Old church, from White House, direct from 
New Bridge, and either directly or indirectly from 
all the l)ridges across the Chickahominy above and 
below New Bridge. I do not propose to give a 
statement of the engagements which took place on 
this line. The army of the Potomac remained here 
over two Aveeks and our losses here were very heavy. 
The battery was engaged here on several occasions, 
but for a considera])le portion of the time, was 
1)ehind entrenchments and not actively engaged. 

June 1st, the battery followed the third division, 
and all the guns opened upon the rebel line and 
followed it up until dark. One battery man Avas 
killed here, and one Avounded who sul)sequently 
died of his Avounds. On the sixth of June, the 
battery Avent into position at the Cross Roads near 
Cold Harbor where it remained until the twelfth. 
It occasionally had artillery duels Avith the enemy, 
but Avas well protected, and there were no more 
casualties. 

The Avife of Apollos Williams came to Washing- 
ton Avhile Ave Avere in camp there, and by some 
means, Avhen the battery left Washington, she AA^ent 
Avitli us. Willianifi was mess cook for the officers, 



130 



iiiid after we had uot .so far IVoiii Washington tliat 
his Avife conld not well retni-n, she joined her hus- 
band and assisted him in eooking. Williams was 
from Gorham, N. II. When we reaehcd Cold 
Harbor, our base of supplies was at White House 
Landino', and this athjrded the first op|)ortunity we 
had had of sending jNIrs. Williams baek to AVash- 
ington. Aecordingiy on the tenth of June, as the 
battery was in position and not engaged, we had 
the aml)ulanee harnessed with Levi D. Jewell as 
driver, and with Mrs. AVilliams as passenger, we 
drove to AMiite House where Mrs. AVilliams was 
})ut on a trans})ort and sent off. This place was 
General McClellan's base of supplies during the 
seven days' fight, and it Avas here that he l)urned 
his immense stores Avhen he left for Harrison's 
Landing on the James. I remained here over 
night and on my return the next day, I took along 
with me a few bushels of C^hesa})eake Bay oysters 
which 1 purchased out of a schooner. That even- 
ing on arriving at cam}), wo roasted onr oysters by 
the camp-fire and it was a rich treat. Ofiicers and 
men joined in the feast, and for the nonce forgot the 
dangers with which they were surrounded. Ap[)ol- 
los Williams was taken sick alxnit the time his wife 
left, went to the hospital and never rejoined the 
iKittery. He was a frail man and never should 
have been acce})ted. 

On the eleventh of June, an order was issued 
that there would be no more charging over defences, 



131 



but that the seiu'o of Richinoiul would ho coiumeiiccd 
from \vh(H"c wo thou wero, and that tho city would 
bo advMUccd u[)()U by rouular a|)i)i'oaohes. On the 
vory uext day, thoro was au cngagemont all aloug 
the line ; breastworks were charged and very severe 
losses sustained by the Union army. The reason 
for this charge, I never fully understood. But 
after the repulses or perhaps failures is the better 
term, of the twelfth, it became evident that another 
movement to the left was to 1)0 made. Whether 
the movement was to l)e up the north or on the 
south side of the .lames river, we did not know, 
l)ut the general opinion was that we sh(ndd cross 
the James. The Eighteenth Corps Avas first sent 
away. The Second Corps pulled out and went 
away next and then the Fifth. The Ninth Corps 
moved and crossed the Chickaliomin,\ on the four- 
teenth. On the next day, we crossed the James 
river at Wilcox I^anding, some forty miles below 
City Point. Towards night, of the sixteenth, we 
reached the front of Petersburg. On the eighteenth, 
the battery was engaged with the corps, in driving 
the enemy across the Norfolk railroad. As we 
neared the vicinity of Petersburg, there was evi- 
dence of sharp fighting l)y the Eighteenth Corps 
Avhich had captured several redoubts and driven 
the enemy back to within a mile and a half of 
Petersburg into an entrenched line. Reports came 
to us of the capture of Petersburg and the close 
siege of Richmond, but we found afterwards that 



132 



they were groundless. We renuiined in the position 
we had taken on our arrival until the twentieth, 
constantly throwing shot and shell upon the enemy 
to })revent him from changing his position. 

We then went into position at the Hare House, 
situated within 300 yards of the enemy's entrenched 
line, where we remained working our guns for 
three days. The enemy kept up a constant fusilade, 
and generally picked off every person who showed 
himself above the works. On the 23d, our division 
moved to the left and our battery took a position 
near the Taylor House. This was a much exposed 
position, and there was constant musketry firing by 
the enemy. Our orders here were not to work t'le 
guns except in case of an attack by the enemy, or 
unless the enemy's artillery should open upon us. 

We remained in this position many days. The 
weather was hot and dry, but the nights were cool. 
We had no rain for nearly foily consecutive days, 
and the supply of di'inking water became a serious 
(]uestion. The brooks were dried up and in low 
places the little water found was very impure. 
The Taylor House near which w^e were stationed 
had formerly been a hotel, l)ut wdien we went into 
position, the buildings had been burned. There 
was a trotting course here, and the place was the 
resort of horsemen and others from Petersburs: and 
elsewhere. Near by w^as a large and well filled 
ice-house, and wdien we made our advance, this ice- 
house was between our lines near where our corps 



133 



joined the Fifth. It was a treasure wortlu-ontendiiiii: 
for, and one day after quite a skirmish, in Avliich 
we lost several men, we succeeded in l)ringing it 
within our i)icket line. This ice lasted us nearly 
two weeks, the two corps sharing it alike. A por- 
tion of it Avas taken to the hospitals. So vexed 
were the Johnies at its loss that they tired upon 
every one wdio ap})roached it. 

The next morning after the Ninth Corps made 
its advance, I rode over to the 32d Maiue llegiment 
w^iich was in (leneral Griffin's division. They 
were just taking their breakfasts and the ground 
all along the line was thickly strewn with dead, 
the l)hie and the gray together ; the latter largely 
predominated. A letter written the night before 
but unsealed, showed how complete was the sur- 
prise. It was from a line officer in a North Caro- 
lina regiment to his sister. He said there was a 
report that the "Yanks" were advancing, l)uthe did 
not credit it, "and if they are coming," he wrote, 
"we are ready for them and will surely hurl them 
back across the James." The writer of this letter 
was killed in the rifle })it where he had written it, 
and the successful charge was })robal)ly made while 
he held his pen in his hand. The rifle pit was fllled 
with dead bodies piled one upon another. I found 
Captain Noyes of Norway and others whom I knew 
here and then started to return to the battery which 
was at the right of this })lace. While crossing a 
stream which came down from the enemy's line. 



134 



the pickets got sight of me and o[)en('(l upon nie, 
Wlien I was fording the stream the bullets tiew 
about me in a very lively manner, striking in the 
water quite near and l)uzzing through the air, but 
none of them struck nic or my horse, and wIumi I 
reached the baidv 1 was screened from view by the 
shrul)bery that intervened. 

After the advance of the Second Cor|)s on our 
right, I rode over the ground, soon after the charge 
was made. The 17th Maine and the 1st Maine 
Heavy Artillery were in this charge and lost very 
heavily. The Union dead over the ground which I 
passed, were numerous, though uiauy of them had 
then been interred — a work which was then going 
on. One day while we were in position, John Mar- 
shall Brown who was lieutenant colonel of the 32d 
Maine was wounded in our front, and was brought 
out past us. I had known him well when we 
attended Dr. True's school at Bethel. 

I have said that our position near the Taylor 
House was a very uncomfortable one. The enemy's 
picket line was only a short distance off, and the 
pickets kept up a constant tire. When we tirst 
Avent into this position, an unsuccessful attack had 
just been made upon a strongly entrenched line, 
farther towards Petersburg, and the attacking l)arty 
had been obliged to fall ])ack, leaving their dead 
and wounded where they had fallen. A truce was 
asked for to enable us to recover our wounded, but 
was refused by the rebel authorities, and these poor 



135 



fellows remained between the two lines, exposed to 
the hot sun by day and chillis damp air at night, 
until death came to their relief. Curiosity im[)ened 
some of our men, notwithstandinir the extreme 
hazard of so doing, to look over the works and the 
wounded were seen to move their hands and feet 
for two or three days after they fell. It was a ter- 
rible, heart-rending sight, but one which could not 
be helped. One day as George E. Howe, a private 
in our ])attery was sitting down a little too far in 
the rear of our works to be entirely sheltered, a 
minnie ball })assed over his head so near as to s})lit 
his cai) nearly in two, and cut off some of his hair 
while ihe seal}) was not injured. One day I was 
fitting upon the ])()le of the limber when a ball 
struck the pole within a foot of me, and chip})ed 
out quite a large piece. These incidents attracted 
but little attention at the time, because there were 
so many casualties of a serious nature. 

The guns of the l)attery remained in i)ositi()n in 
front of Petersburg for many days. The famous 
Burnside mine was sprung on the 30th of July. 
On that morning at four o'clock, all the artillery 
along the line was ready to open fire, the explosion 
of the mine to be the signal. There was an hour's 
delay, but at tive o'clock there was a concussion 
that made the earth tremble beneath our feet. 
Then came the artillery tire, such as I had never 
heard, and never expect to hear again. 

Cannon of all sizes belching forth tire and smoke, 
shot and shell screeching through the air ; in tive 



136 



minutes from the opening, the entire landscape was 
shrouded in smol^e, wliile the l)urstino; shells pro- 
duced a lurid appearance, very diflicult to describe. 
While this was going on, the infantry was pouring 
into tlie crater, and there was hand-to-hand fighting 
and a great slaughter on both sides. All this was 
hidden by the clouds of smoke. The w^ounded 
soon began to be brought out and ambulances were 
loaded for the City Point general hospitals. 

Quite early in July, I was taken ill with malarial 
fever. After remaining in quarters until the day 
of the mine ex})losion, I went to City Point and 
from there to Washington. After remaining there 
a few days, 1 had leave of absence for thirty days 
to go to Maine, which was subsequently extended 
to forty-five days. The extension of time was 
given that I might recruit for the battery ; and after 
obtaining what men I wanted, I took them into 
camp in Portland. I then received orders to report 
with my men, at Gall()[)'s Island in Boston IIarl)or. 
We went to Boston hy boat, and in addition to my 
own squad, there were some two hundred and fifty 
recruits for dift'erent regiments in the field. On 
l)oard the steamer, we found a man who was ped- 
dling whiskey at the rate of fifteen dollars per 
canteen. We arrested him, confiscated his liquor 
which was thrown overboard, and on our arrival in 
Boston, the cul})rit was sunnnarily punished. After 
remaining at Gallop's Island three days, I was 
ordered to assist in taking recruits to City Point, 
The steamer Northern Light of the California line, 



137 



was })resse<l into the '<ervice, and with OOd reciuits 
we steamed away for City Point. The day that 
we were to sail at ni<iht, I went over to Boston, 
and when I reached the wharf to return, I found 
that the last steamer for the island, for that day, 
had gone. Here was a l)ad tix. The Noithern 
Light was to sail at eight o'clock and it was now 
six. The wind was l)lowing a gale and ))oatmen 
were very loth to cross over. Finally, after many 
trials, for the sum of twenty-live dollars, I found a 
man who would t;dve me to the island in a small 
I)()at. ^Ve started, Init we had not been out for 
ten minutes when 1 would have given twice twenty- 
tive dollars to have ])een l)ack on the wharf in 
Boston. It was fearfully rough, and we were soon 
wet to the skin, andthe night was unusually cold for 
the season. But we reached the island and that night 
we started for the James river. AVe had DOO 
recruits on l)oard, and a very hard lot. They were 
largely deserters, bounty junipers, and quite a 
nuudjer of rebels who had come to Maine and 
IVIassachusetts by the way of Canada and enlisted 
for the large bounties, then })aid. AVe had a com- 
pany of jVIassachusetts Heavy Artillery as guard, 
and their nniskets were ke[)t loaded all the way 
out. We ke})t the men below at night with hatches 
down, and only allowed them to come on deck for 
an airing for a few hours each day. About nine 
o'clock each evening, wo went l)elow with lanterns 
to see what was going on. A more villainous 



138 



lookino- set of iiicn, I never saw. This party liad 
more, tliaii sixty tliousaud dollars in money, and 
nnu'li of it eliangcnl hands by <»-aml)linir. 

The ])assaij:c was a rouuh one and I was sea sick 
nnieh of the time. In the eonrse of tive days we 
reached Bernmda Hundred where we left our re- 
cruits and the steamer, and on a smaller 1)()at went to 
Washiuiiton to report. The character of the men 
we took out may be judged from the fact that of 
one hundred sent to the Dth Maine, one-half had 
deserted within sixty days, and many of them to 
the enemy. I went to AVashinuton an<l reported to 
the War I);'partment. After beina- there three or 
four days, I was ordered to proceed to the front and 
rejoin the l)attery. This was about the middle 
of Sei)tend)er. The trip down tlie Potomac by 
Alexandria and Mount Vernon was a very pleasant 
one. Reaching City Point, I took the cars on the 
military railway, and.indue time reached the battery 
wdiich was garrisoning Fort Welch at the extreme 
left of the army. During my absence, the Weldon 
railroad hit been taken, the battle of Peebles 
Farm had l)een fought, and our left was then 
threatenino- the South Side railroad, one of the oidy 
two roads left to suppl}^ the rebel capital, and the 
army of northern ^"irginia. 

Soon after I reached the front, Captain Twitchell 
obtained leave of absence for twenty days to visit 
Washington, and I was left for that time, in com- 
mand of tlie battery. We were obliged to be 



139 



vigilant, hecuiisc bcinir on the extreme left tlank of 
the army, we were lia])le to I)e attacked. We were 
now south of Peterslnirg and so near the South Side 
road that we could hear the whistles of the engines 
and see the trains moving to and from Peters) )urg. 
Quite early in Noveml)er, and while Captain 
Twitchell was away, came an order for us to move 
a few miles to the right and occupy Fort Alexander 
Hayes. AVe accordingly packed u}) and nio\ed 
to the })lace which we supposed would he our home 
for the winter. We were much })leased with it. 
It was situated in a pine forest on a part of the line 
where the rel)el entrenchments could not be seen 
and not a rebel in sight. We })laced our guns in 
position and commenced to build (juarters for the 
men, but hardly had we begun, when an order came 
directing us to move still farther to the right and 
relieve a regular battery of the Second Cor})s, at a 
place known on the ])lans as Fort Sedgwick, but 
generally called Fort "Hell "' We knew this place 
very well, as we had occupied a position near the 
right of it. This work Avas laid out in July by 
General Roebling of General Warren's staff, and 
was built by a brigade of Massachusetts l)elonging 
to the Fifth Army Corps, under the direction of 
the late General Wm. S. Tilton, for sometime 
Governor of the Soldiers' Home at Togus. It was 
built under tire of the enemy, and was somewhat 
irregular in its outline. The fort propermounted four 
guns. Then there was a battery on each side called 



140 



battei'ie.s iiiuiil)er 21 and 22, each arranged for two 
guns. The work was on the Jerusalem Plank Road 
whieh leads into Petersburg, and from this fort the 
si)ires of the churches in that city could plainly be 
seen. It was an elevated i)lace and from the to}) 
of the magazine, more than three miles of the 
enem3^'s line and works could be seen. It was so 
constructed that a tremendous artillery tire could 
be concentrated upon it, from l)otli Hanks and from 
the front. The building of the fort was commenced 
on the third day of July, and it was not completed 
until the time of the mine explosion, on the 8()th. 
It Avas constructed of logs, earth, sand bags and 
gabions. There were flankers to protect the men 
wiiile working the guns. Why this work w^as 
named Fort Hell I am by no means sure. One 
story Avas that an ambitious officer of the Engineer 
Cor})s applied his own name to it, which, coming 
to the ears of the divisi(ni commander, l)r()ught out 
an ejaculation which was at once given to the wa)rk. 
It w^as a rule amonsj the connnanders to name all 
forts after officers who had fallen in action and the 
real name of the work in question w^as Fort Sedg- 
wick, named so in honor of the l)rave commander 
of the Sixth Cor})S, who was shot dead at Spotsyl- 
vania court house. But the place might ap[)ro- 
priatcly have borne the other name assigned it, 
without seeking for any other reason than the fact 
that it w^as so situated that the rebels could concen- 
trate a fire upon it, which they did not scruple to 



141 

do upon the .slightest occasion, and sometimes for 
no apparent reason at all. The change from Fort 
Alexander Hayes was made as ordered, in the night 
time, either the last day of November or first day 
of December, 1<S(34. The ajjproach to the fort 
was by a covert or hidden Avay which was a trench 
or ditch sufficiently broad for the gun carriages to 
pass through and so deep that on entering the 
horses ears could not l)e seen above the surface. 
.It was also a winding way, with frecjuent angles as 
sharp as possible and allow the horses and guns 
attached, to pass up to the fort. This covert Avay 
as well as the reports of the officers of the regular 
battery relieved, gave the boys of the Seventh 
Maine to understand something of the nature of 
the position and of the duties which lay before 
them. 

The camp of the battery was located about three 
miles in rear of the fort and near the headquarters 
of the c(n-ps. Quarters were here put up for the 
horses, and a certain number of men were kept 
here to care for them. Captain Twitchell and 
Lieutenants Bundy and Thorpe also had quarters 
and spent most of the winter here while Lieutenant 
Staples and I remained during the entire winter at 
the fort, with the guns. Captain Twitchell occasion- 
ally rode up to the fort to see how matters were 
going on, but did not remain long and lodged every 
night at the camp. 

In addition to the six guns of our battery, we 
had one section of the Third New Jersey Battery, 



142 



under command of a Prussian Lieutenant, Carl 
Machewsky, making eight pieces in all, and as I 
was the ranking officer, the immediate command of 
the artillery in the fort dc\'olved upon me. The 
first step on moving in, ^vas the erection of suit- 
able winter quarters for officers and men. The 
infantry was quartered along in our rear, but of the 
fort itself, the artiller}' men belonging to the two 
l)atteries before named, were the sole occupants. 
As the fort was in an exposed position and the 
rebels had its range so completely that they could 
droi) in their sixty-four })Ound mortar shells at will, 
it was necessary to construct liomb proofs for the 
protection of the officers and men at night and when 
ort" duty. 

The country in the rear of the fort when first 
occupied by our troops, was covered by a heavy 
growth of pine timber, and much of this was stand- 
ing when the Seventh Maine Battery took its posi- 
tion in the fort. The men, most of whom were 
familiar with the use of the axe, having become 
familiar with it in the forests of Maine, at once fell 
to work cutting timber and bringing it into the fort. 
The officers' quarters were constructed in the centre. 
An excavation was first made al)()ut fifteen feet 
square and three feet deep. Timber about a foot 
in diameter, square at the ends and eight feet long, 
were then set close together around and in the 
excavation save only a place for a door. Timl)ers of 
the same thickness were then cut of the required 



143 



length, and laid across the upright timljers for a 
covering. Earth was then })iled around and upon 
the whole to the depth of nearly ten feet, bags or 
gabions of sand lieing placed on each side, and 
upon the top at the rear, to keep the sand in place. 
A chimney was built at the rear side or on the side 
not exposed to the enemy's tire, and on this side 
also was a glass window taken from some reliel 
house, and a door. A descent of three steps took 
one into the interior where there was a room 
al)out twelve feet s(i[uare and eight feet high, 
with tire-place, door and window on one side, the 
other three being timber backed with earth. 

The magazine was connected with the quarters 
as a sort of L with entrance from the outside, and 
protected in the same way. The quarters of the 
men were similarly made only they were not as 
large and were calied by them "gopher holes." 

In this fort the winter of 1864-5 was spent and a 
portion of the s})ring, until the battle of Five Forks 
on our left was fought, and the battery broke 
through and pursued the fleeing re])els into Peters- 
burg. And that entire four months was a period 
of constant watchfulness and anxiety. The posi- 
tion was regarded as an important one, and constant 
vigilance was urged upon us by the cor})s comman- 
der. Our orders were, and they were strictly 
complied with, to have one detachment of men 
constantly at the guns by night, to have two men 
with a light in the magazine, and a guard in our 



144 



own quarters to awaken us at a moment's notice, 
and the offiL-ers to sleep in their uniform, Tliere 
was })rol)al)ly no time durinii" the winter when we 
could not have opened upon the enemy with artillery 
at half a minute's notice. Our fort was within 
four hundred yards of the enemy's main line, and 
within one hundred yards of his entrenched picket 
line, and deserters who almost daily came in had 
some story to tell of preparations being made to 
mine us and l)low us up, which from our position, 
could have l)een done. These rumors kept us on 
the qui vlve, and deep wells were sank in the ditch 
outside the fort, and the depth of the water therein 
constantly noted, as we knew that if mines were 
beino- sunk, the water was liable to be suddenly 
drawn otf. 

From their picket line, the Johnies fired upon 
us every night, l)eginning with twilight and ending 
at break of day. At all times of night when 
awake we could hear their musketry and the zip- 
ping of the 1)ullets passing over our heads. So 
accustomed did we become to these sounds that 
the}^ were conducive to sleep, and a cessation for a 
few moments would awaken us from the deepest 
repose. The reason why they kept up their picket 
firing l)y night has been variously explained. 
Deserters said it was to })revent desertions to our 
side, but if this were the true reason, many took 
the risk, for desertions were of nightly occurrence. 

A battery of sixty-four pounder mortars was 
situated a little to our right and they had practiced 



145 

on us so much that they had our range completely. 
Ahuost every day more or less of these shells were 
dropped into the fort. These monsters could be 
heard at some distance when approaching, and alter 
the report of the discharge the boys would listen 
for the shell and the moment they heard it they ran 
for cover, unless they could see it and made up^ 
their minds that it would not come near them. It 
they burst a few feet above the ground, their frag- 
ments woukl be thrown in every direction and woe 
to the unlucky soldier who stood in their way ; but 
if they buried themselves in the earth l)etore 
exploding they generally did but little damage 
except to throw dirt. Several times during the 
winter our quarters were struck, and each shell 
would throw out a ton or more of earth, but none 
penetrated to do any harm. It was indeed bomb- 
proof. Sometimes these shells would explode 
among the infantry in our rear and I have known 
terribte havoc to be made by a single shell. One 
day I was on the top of our quarters when a shell 
passed over to the rear and I instantly saw fi'ag- 
nients of 1>edding, furniture and cooking utensds, 
coming up through the top of an officer's quarters 
which the shell had unceremoniously entered. 

The rebels would occasionally open on us with 
tield artillery from their earth works in our front, l)ut 
our works were so high and thick that they could do 
us but little harm. As nothing could be gained by 
these artillei V duels and a waste of ammunition was 



146 



about the only result, our orders from the chief of ar- 
tillery were not to open on the enemy unless the 
enemy first opened on us, and never to tire a gun un- 
less in our next morning's report we could give a good 
and sufficient reason for so doing. The commander 
of the infantry that garrisoned the fort, it being the 
same officer who had charge of excavating the 
famous Burnside mine the summer before, a few 
days after we got settled sent me a note requesting 
me to visit him at his quarters. At the interview 
which followed he asked me why I did not occasion- 
ally open on the enemy's works in front ? He said 
he felt himself ros}:)onsil)lc for the safety of that part 
of the line, and thought 1 ought to practice some 
and get the range and distance of their main line, 
so as to be able to assist in defending the fort if 
attacked. I told him that I received my orders 
direct from the chief of artillery at corps headquar- 
ters, and gave him in detail my instructions. This 
did not seem to satisfy him and he insisted that as 
the ranking officer, the artillery in the fort should 
be subject to his orders. Of course I did not con- 
cede the point, l)ut I told him if he would give me a 
written order so that I could have something to fall 
back upon, I would obey it. He said he would not 
give it to me that day, but would think it over and 
proba])ly give me such an order as would })rotect 
me on some other occasion. 

A few da3\s afterwards the adjutant of the regi- 
ment waited on me with a written older from his 



147 



colonel, for iiic to o}ien upon the enemy's works 
with the eight guns under my charge. Preparations 
were soon made, and we opened with solid shot 
and shell upon the astonished rebels. They imme- 
diately re})lied to our fire with gun and mortar, 
and a sharp duel continued for several minutes. 
The colonel made his appearance in the fort, and 
the reason for his singular order was a})parent. He 
was intoxicated and could hardly manage to keep 
upon his feet. As he came along by the officers* 
quarters, a sixty-four pounder mortar shell came 
doNvn near him and broke through the frozen earth 
with which they were covered, and ex[)loded. 
Many fragments of frozen earth were thrown into 
the air, one of which, weighing several pounds, 
struck the tipsy colonel and felled him to 
the earth like a bullock knocked down for 
slaughter. He lay. quivering for several seconds, 
when he was taken u[) and carried to his quarters. 
After coming to himself he sent word to me, sug- 
gesting that I had done enough for the ])resent. 
The result was that three or four of his men Avho 
had come in to see the sport, were killed, several 
wounded by an explosion of mortar shells, and so 
far as we ever knew, the enemy received no damage 
from our guns. A re[)ort was made out in accord- 
ance with the facts and with the colonel's order, and 
sent to headcjuarters ; and we were annoyed no 
more during the Avinter l)y suggestions from infantry 
otBcers, that we "ought to open on the enemy's 



148 



works." This colonel who coiniiiiiiulcd a Pennsyl- 
vania regiment was a braAe and capable officer, hut 
like too many others, he indulged too freely in 
drink, and like other infantry commanders too, he 
thought he had a right to order the light artillery, 
a right which artillery officers would never concede. 
They would take orders only from general officers 
or those acting as such, and from ranking officers 
in their own arm of the service. The colonel to 
whom I have just referred has long since been dead. 
Fort Hell was a spot well known all along the 
army line, and visitors to the army of the Potomac 
did not like to return without carrying away some 
memento from this famous place. I have already 
said that it was a very connnanding ]3osition and 
from the to}) of our central l)omi)-proof when com- 
pleted, the rebel lines could l)e seen for several 
miles; also in a clear day, as stated before, the 
spires of the churches in Petersburg were plainly 
in view. The consequence was that we had many 
visitors, though people as a general thing did not 
care to remain long after the rebels commenced 
shelling us. They did not often open on us on the 
Sabbath, and we generally had more company that 
day than any other. I remember one Sunday 
morning after a severe rain which had converted 
the Virginia clay in our fort into mortar, a large 
party came in and asked permission to go u}X)n the 
bomb-})roof. Among them was a farmer from the 
interior of Pennsvlvania who was nearlv six feet 



149 



and a half tall, and wore a tall, st()ve-pii)C hat 
which made him look like a giant. I climbed upon 
the quarters ^vith them and they were much i)leased 
with the objects that I i)ointed out. But happening 
to cast my eye across to the rel)el fort in our front 
1 saw the end of a sponge staff appear above the 
])ara|)et and then disapi)ear, and I knew y)retty 
well that they were charging a gun. In less than 
half a minute a rifled gun was discharged, and a 
shell })assed over the l)oml)-proof, only a few feet 
above our heads and exploded a little distance in 
our rear. The etfect on our visitors was most 
remarkable. They leaped down the side of the 
earthwork and rolled, slid or tumlded into the mud 
below. The Pennsylvanian lost his balance and 
came down head tirst, and got up and walked away 
with a "shocking bad hat." One shot more was 
tired, and then we could hear the derisive laughter 
of the rebels across the way, Avho had enjoyed the 
sport no less than the boys of the Seventh Maine 
Battery. 

The jokes, however, were not always played by 
the rebels. One day as I was looking across the 
enemy's line into an open tield, I saw a large party 
coming out of a forest beyond, each man having a 
log of wood u[)on his back. There were pro])aljly 
a hundred or more of them. Calling one of the 
sergeants, I pointed out the party to him and 
directed him to drop a shell as near them as he 
could and not hurt them. He complied, and the 



150 



t\vclve-i)ound l)oiiil) })a.s.sc(l over the heads of the 
party and ex})loded ))eyond ; and such a fall in tire- 
wood has rarely been known. Eaeh man threw 
down his log and ran for eover into the fort, and 
our l)()ys set up a shout which nnist have reached 
the ears for which it was intended, for the 
wood party was less than half a mile away. Our 
fort was so near the rebel picket line that conversa- 
tion could quite easily be carried on between our 
boys and the Johnnies. They were not allowed to 
do this as a rule, but sometimes the rule was vio- 
lated. One day I recollect of hearing a rebel picket 
ask one of our boys what battery he belonged to, 
anl he })roniptly replied, "the 107th Maine." The 
Johnny said he did not sup})ose Maine furnished so 
many organizations, and, said he, "You must have 
every man out." This same joke was [)layed by 
other regiments until it became very stale. 

One morning as we were l)usy al)out our routine 
duty, I noticed a stranger looking over the works, 
and as this was of itself a suspicious circumstance, 
I decided to keep my eye on him. He was short 
in stature, had a dark complexion, black mustache, 
and seemed like a foreigner. He went round and 
appeared to l)e inspecting everything, and I \vas 
on the point of asking him his business when the 
Johnnies rendered it unnecessary^ by sending over 
a salutation in the shape of a sixty-four })ound 
mortar shell which exploded in the fort. This was 
speedily followed by another, and our visitor was 



151 



g'lad to cease his inspection and seek .shelter in our 
l)onib-proof. He spent the greater part of the day 
with us as the l)omhardnient was Ivept up, render- 
ing it unsafe to leave the works, a large number of 
shells exploding in the rear. We found him social 
and full of anecdote, and enjoyed his stay very 
much. We found that he was no stranger, though 
we had never before met him face to face. He was 
Thomas Nast, the inimitable caricaturist oi Harper's 
Weekly^ and was then out on a professional tour 
and filling his portfolio with sketches of scenes 
along the army line. 

One of the red letter days of the winter was the 
one upon which commissioners came through the 
lines to meet Secretary Seward and others, at 
Ham})ton Koads, to attempt a negotiation for a 
cessation of hostilities. By common consent, a 
truce was declared all along the line and between 
the picket lines, the l)lue and the gray mingled in 
friendly intercourse. Wood was getting scarce in 
our vicinity, and there were several large trees 
growing (ai the neutral o-round between the two 
lines, which neither side had been able to secure. 
On this day delegations went out from each side, 
cut down the trees and divided the fuel between 
them, each carrying its jwrtion to its respective 
(juarters. The " Yanks" exchanged hard-tack and 
other rations with the hungry "Johnnies" receiv- 
ing tobacco in rc^turn, and there was a general 
swapping of knives and trinkets. We found that 



152 



the rel)el ration at that time eonsisted of three- 
fourths of a pound of corn meal and a fourth of a 
pound of very lean beef per day, with nothing l)ut 
water to drhik. Many of our boys divided their coffee 
rations with the rebs on that day, which to them 
was a great luxury. But towards night we learned 
through the rebels that negotiations had failed and 
the word came " Down Yanks, we've got to shoot," 
and at twilight picket firing was resumed as usual. 
Occasionally^ during the first part of the winter, 
there was an interchange of newspapers l)y oflicers 
in charge of pickets, though this Avas a breach of 
military discipline and against orders. But such 
orders were not always rigidly enforced, and gen- 
eral otficers were often glad enough to })eruse the 
papers obtained in this clandestine way. It was 
while between the picket lines to obtain a pai)er 
that the rebel General Roger A. Pryor was made a 
prisoner and marched to head(|uarters. I did not 
regard his capture as exactly honoral)le as he had 
been encouraged to do so by the action of our own 
officers. General officers frequently came into the 
fort during the winter to take a look at the formid- 
able works of the enemy in our front. On one 
occasion General Grant and his staff'. General Meade 
and staff", and General Parke, commander of the 
Ninth Corps, all came in together. General Hunt, 
chief of artillery of the army of the Potomac was 
a frequent visitor. Such visits though formal, were 
always agreeable, serving jxs they did to break the 



153 



iiionotony :uul relieve the tedium of camp life. 
For even the bombarding of the rebels by day and 
theii- picket tiring l>y night became monotonous after 
a while. 

During the day, when off duty, the boys amused 
themselves in various ways. Card-playing occu- 
l)ied much of the time, but the Seventh Maine l)oys 
never gambled. Lieutenant Sta})les, Lieutenant 
Machewsky of the New Jersey Battery and I, occu- 
pied the bomb-proof quarters adjoining the maga- 
zine, each of us having a bunk to sleep upon. One 
of us was on duty all the time. Machewsky was 
a Prussian by l)irth, a thorough soldier, and brave 
as his countrymen generally are. We could not 
mess together for Machewsky must have his dessic- 
ated potatoes, beef steak and almost everything 
else cooked in vinegar, l)ut we lived in the greatest 
harmony. Some of the boys occupied their time 
in making rings and other ornaments from the gilt 
metal of which the rebel fuses were made. A 
section of the fuse was tiled off and then l)y means 
of a hie and other simple tools, it was wrought into 
a ring and oftentimes (juite artistically done. One 
of the boys sent a ring thus made to a lady friend 
in Maine and received a poetical answer which we 
venture to re})roduce here. 

"I'm atniid that not for luauy 

Are matches 'made iu heaveu,' as we've heaicl tell ; 
But fewer still it seems to me, if any, 

deceive a letter and a ring from hell ! 



154 

"Tli«)ui>li to ))(' serious, I do not Hat tor 

Myselt upon the niissiou of tlu^ I'iu^'; 
Your love for nie is (luite aiiotlr.'r matter. 

And far from thoughts of match or marrying. 

"Yet witli no sort of douhtiug, there are legions 

Of pretty women versed in CupiTs lore, 
Who would (and wisely) tempt the lower regions 

To win as true and l)ruve a heart as yours. 

'•And if I were to choose, or it it mattered. 

What I might clioose, 1 scruple not to tell; 
I'd much prefer to know your heart were shattered 

By a girl's smile, than by a re1)el shell. 

"Farewell I Heaven keep you safe and free from trouble, 
And prove what I have always known full well : 

A brave, true heart, a purpose pure and noble. 
May live unscathed, e'en mid the tires of liell!" 

Some ()fthel)oy8 spent c-()iisi(l('i'al>le time in \yrit- 
inii' to their friends, and it' all the letters written 
from this fort durino; this mcmoral)le fonr months 
could be prodnced, they would not only give ii 
graphic account of the siege, I)ut \vould be a scath- 
ing criticism on the concUict of the war, for almost 
every private soldier felt that he knew just how the 
war should l)e conducted to ensure success. A 
letter before me dated "In the Fort," February 9, 
1(S()5, says : "AYe had ([uite a severe engagement 
on our left abotit ten miles from here recently. 
The action w^as connnenced by the Second Corps 
which advanced against the South Side railway. 
Our troops were successfiU on that day driving the 
rebels some distance and ca[)tiiring a number of 
prisoners. That night it snowed and the next day 



155 



chanired to rain and sleet. On this day the re])els 
attacked a division of the Fifth Corps which was 
out of aniniunition, causinii' itto retreat inconfusioii, 
and the ^^ liole corps fell back through the woods 
three miles. Our loss in prisoners was quite heavy. 
Here the matter rested for the night, and an awful 
night it was for the wounded, the cold rain and 
hail continuing through the entire night. Our 
troo[)s attacked the reljels at day light and driving 
them back re-established their lines. We have 
recently captured a rebel fort from Avhich Ave can 
shell the trains on the South Side railway." 

Another letter dated Fel)ruary 25th, says : "Last 
night we received marching orders and were n\) all 
night, but a heavy rain prevented the intended 
expedition whatever it was. For the winter our 
part has l)een to prevent Lee from sending troops 
against Sherman ; soon it will be ours to advance 
and assist in completing the line of l)ristling l)ayo- 
nets which is closing in around the doomed rebel 
army." These extracts are given merely to show 
how freely the common soldier commented on the 
war and the prospects ahead. Another letter dated 
the same has the following: "A few days ago, I 
saw a little mouse skipping around in the corner of 
my quarters and I felt as proud as Diogenes did 
when he found one in his tub. It really seemed 
like civilized life. But since then they have come 
in great num])ers and are a nuisance. The}^ gnaw 
our clothes, eat our candles and actually run over 
our faces when Ave are asleep and awaken us." * * 



156 



* * "I have just been out to examine the 
rebel picket line. The poor fellow.s are only half 
clad and are suffering severely. Hardl}' any of 
them have overcoats and walk around with blankets 
over their shoulders. This weather must be fear- 
ful for the soldiers in our front whose home is in 
the sunny South. Yesterday morning, an old 
fellow seventy years of age W'ith hair as white as 
snow, deserted and came over to us. He said all 
he asked was a shelter to protect him from the [)iti- 
less storm. He was pressed into a service for which 
he had no love and in which he had no faith." 

I will close these extracts from letters by giving 
a few sentences from one dated January 2()th. 
"AVe were quite startled ]\londiy night 1)y hearing 
heavy firing on our right. The night was dark anj 
rainy, and all was quiet on our front except the 
usual picket firing, when all of a sudden there com- 
menced a most terrific roar of artillery. We were 
all on the qui vive in a moment, but found the firing 
so far away that after we saw the fiash lighting up 
the inky blackness, it was seventy-two seconds 
before we heard the report. It seems that four or 
five rebel rams, taking advantage of the rise in the 
river and the darkness, had made their way down 
to our lines, thinking, doubtless, that our fleet was 
at Wilmington. Their object was to destroy our 
base t)f supplies at City Point. But they w^ere 
disappointed. One of them ran aground, two were 
destroyed and two succeeded in getting back very 



157 



iiiucli (luniaued-" * * * * "The .stonii has 
cleared away and tlie aii- is now delightful. I was 
never in a place where the weather was so tickle ; 
to-day cold and st(n'ni3% next day cold and windy, 
and the next warm and s[)rino:like. We are now 
repairing the damage done to our works by the 
storm. I have a detail of fifty infantry at work 
besides our own men." « * * "-One hundred 
and ten deserters came over to us Monday night. 
They come over, more or less of them, nearly every 
night, and they tell the same story of suffering 
from cold and hunger. They say the rebellion is 
a])()ut })layed out." Some slight changes were made 
in the disposition of the guns early in January, but 
they were only temporar}. 

Slowly passed away the winter months. AVith 
artillery firing l)y day and picket shooting at night, 
it was almost like a continuous engagement, and 
few who had a part in it will soon forget this long 
period of watchfulness. The minor events of the 
war, as previously stated, have faded from the 
memory, but the four months' watch in Fort Sedg- 
Avick will never be forgotten. The strain upon the 
nervous system by so much care and responsi1)ility, 
the exercise of such constant vigilance and the lack 
of a proper amount of rest and sleep, left their 
impress indelibly stamped upon officers and men. 
But time passed, and the bloody drama was drawing 
toward a close. Firmly intrenched on the south 
of the James, from that river to near Hatcher's 



158 



liiiu, threateniiiii: the South Side railway, the only 
conimunicatiou but one between Lee's army and his 
source of supplies, it was a|)parent to every one 
that the sanguinary conflict ^vhich had lasted four 
years Avas nearin<>- a close, (len. Lee foresaw as 
clearly as any one the speedy downfall of the Con- 
federacy, unless it could be aA'crted by a concen- 
tration of his forces and a telling blow upon some 
of the armies that encircled him. Looking the 
ground over he decided to make an attack ui)on a 
point in our lines in front of Petersburg, hoping 
thereby to force our army back to City Point. 

The confederates had great hopes of the success 
of this movement, as I was afterwards informed by 
liev. Nathaniel Head, a very intelligent Methodist 
clergyman and Presiding Elder of the Richmond 
District, whom I met while we ^vere following Lee's 
retreating army, at Xottoway court house. The 
time was even set when our army in front of Peters- 
burg was to be cut in twain and the southern half 
driven back pell mell u})on the other in the direction 
of City Point. The same authority informed me 
that when the attack had been made and had failed, 
his hopes of success and that of many others, 
entirely died out. The point selected for the attack 
was Fort Steadman, at some distance to the right 
of Fort Hell. All the available troops of General 
Lee's army were massed in front of the foit during 
the night, and an attack was made on the morning 
of the 25tli of March. So far as being a complete 



159 



sur[)ri.se, the attack was a marked suecess. Gordoirs 
men charged at daybreak and soon passed over the 
narrow space between the lines and rushed into 
Fort Steadman, which was garrisoned by the Four- 
teenth New York Heavy Artilhny. The garrison 
was taken wholly by suri)rise and made luit a 
feeble resistance. The guns were captured without 
a struggle and inmiediately drawn out at the rear 
and turned on the adjacent forts. 

The news spread along the line like wihltire, and 
foratime everything was in confusion. A German 
officer whose name I cannot recall l)ut who was an 
inspector on the staff of General Tidball, chief of 
artillery of the Ninth Army Corps, hearing the tir- 
ing mounted his horse and rode to the front. In 
the darkness he could not understand the situation 
and soon found himself a prisoner. He cheated 
his captors, however, and soon escaped minus horse 
and watch. After the capture of Steadman, the 
rebels marched on to Fort Haskell and attacked it 
in the rear. But on our side order soon began to 
ccmie out of chaos. The guns in Fort Sedgwick 
were taken out at the rear, the whole company 
being at the front, and under command of Captain 
Twitchell they were turned on the rebel column 
that was attacking our neighbor. Meanwhile the 
gallant General Hartranft in command of a division 
reached the scene, and though his men were mostly 
raw recruits, they behaved like veterans. The 
rebel attacking party, tinding themselves unsup- 



160 



l)orte(l \)y the 20,000 iiu'ii Lcc had iiuissed in our 
front, and lieing 8har})ly attacked l)y Hartranft's 
infantry, and at the same time exposed to a raking 
fire of shot and shell from the guns along the line, 
jorefcrred to surrender rather than retreat through 
the terrilile storm of iron hail. Two thousand sur- 
rendered and as many more were killed or disabled 
by wounds. This was the last otfensive movement 
of Lee's army, and General Meade, taking advan- 
tage of their confusion, attacked their intrenched 
l)icket line a little to our right and held it. 

After the Fort Steadnian affair, which <>ave the 
boys of the Seventh INIaine Battery about as nuich 
excitement for a few hours as they cared to have, 
events, which in two weeks culminated in the sur- 
render of the rebel army of northern Virginia, 
followed each other in rapid succession. General 
Grant issued an order for another left flank move- 
ment to l)e made on the twenty-ninth. The Second, 
Sixth and Fifth Corj[)s were withdrawal, and the 
Ninth Corps, with a division of the Eighteenth, 
was stretched out to man the works and hold the 
line formerly occupied by the four corjjs. The 
flank movement was made by the three corps with- 
drawn, assisted by Sheridan's Cavalry. The battle 
of Five Forks was fought soon after, and the rebel 
line hopelessly broken. On the morning of the 
2d of April, an order was given for an attack on 
the rebel works in our front, and the attack was 
made at (hiy-brcak. Our line was thin, ])ut that 



161 



of the rebels much more so. Their outer line of 
works was speedily ciiptured, and the i»:uns of the 
7th Maine and od New Jersey were transferred to 
the rebel forts which had so long menaced us in 
front. Lieutenant Sta[)les and his detachment were 
the iirst artillery men to occupy the rebel forts. 
Lee's army still held Petersburg, and Heth's divi- 
sion of A. P. Hill's cor})s was ordered to make a 
charge with the view of retaking some of t!ie works 
just captured 1)y our c()r[)s. The attack was sharply 
made but successfully repulsed. General A. P. 
Hill, one of the ablest of Lee's generals, l)eing 
shot dead in an attempt to rally his men. This 
was the last lighting in which the Seventh Maine 
Battery took })art. That night Petersburg was 
evacuated, and so quietly that our pickets, who 
were within a stone's throw of the abandoned 
lines, knew not that the enemy was moving until 
the next morning when they were gone. 

The Ninth Cor[)S then })roceeded in the wake of 
those which had preceded it, through Petersburg, 
Sutherlands, Nottoway court house, Burkesville 
Junction, Rice's Station and High Bridge to Farm- 
ville, where we arrived on the day of the surrender 
of Lee at Appomattox court house, about twenty 
miles beyond. Straggling soldiers in gray were 
constantly being passed all along the line of our 
march ; small arms, cannon and camp equipage 
were strewed along the roadside. While at Farm- 
ville I was detached to take charge of a hundred 



162 



iiieu to })ick y^^ tlio rebel artillery, and wo lauded 
at the railway station, near High Bridge, more than 
a hundred guns of ditt'erent sizes, from the old- 
fashioned six-pounder to the elaborate and costly 
Armstrong gun, manufactared onlij for iht English 
government. Some of the comi)licated fuses belong- 
ing to these guns I still have in my possession, and 
keep them as mementoes of liritish neutrality in 
our great struggle for national existence. While 
at Farmville we heard of the murder of the Presi- 
dent. The first report we received was that Wash- 
ington was in Hames and the President and all the 
members of his cabinet assassinated. 

The rebel army of Northern Virginia having sur- 
rendered, the Ninth Corps with others was ordered 
to City Pv)int. Rejoicing at the termination of the 
great rebellion, but sorrowing at the loss of the 
nation's chief magistrate, the members of the 
Seventh Maine Battery took up the line of march 
from Farmville to City Point, thence by steamer to 
Washington. After remaining at the National Caj)- 
itol a few days, the battery was ordered to Augusta, 
and on its tirrival was mustered out of the United 
States service, June 21, 18(')5. While at Washing- 
ton we took part in the grand review of the army 
of the Potomac, ours being the only Maine Battery 
accorded that privilege. 

Of the history of Fort Sedgwick between the 
time of its erection and our occupancy, I knoAV but 
little, only I know that it had the rc[)utation of 



163 



bciuu- about the hottest plucc along the line, (icu- 
eral C'hamherhiin received one of his wounds either 
within the fort or in its innnodiate vicinity, and 
many were either kiUed or wounded at this [)oint 
daring the summer and autumn of 1S(U. During 
our occupancy we did not h)se a man kiUed, and so 
far as I remember oidy one was wounded and he 
not severely. This was Alpheus Fuller of Wood- 
stock, who was wounded in his foot by a fragment 
of shell. But during the same time many infantry 
soldiers were either killed or wounded, mostl} in 
our rear, but some in the fort itself where they had 
come when the cannonading was going on. Tn the 
last assault upon the rebel lines, the first of April, 
18B5, General Potter, commanding a division of 
the Ninth Corps, was wounded through the body 
while in Fort Sedgwick, and was taken into our 
quarters and laid upon one of our l)unks until he 
could l)e removed to the hospital at City Point. 
In (Ireely's American conflict, and in fact, in all 
the histories of the lvel)ellion, Fort Sedgwick alias 
Fort Hell, is spoken of as an ex[)osed situation 
where skirmishing or fighting was going on much 
of the time. 

In the pursuit of Lee's retreating army, there 
were a few little episodes that may l)e worth men- 
tioning. The battery camped at Nottoway court 
house, and after we had put up our tents a gentle- 
man who lived near ))y called on us and asked that 
an officer of the flattery come and spend th(^ night 



164 



with him. lie thouiiht n coinmis.sioned officer 
might })r()tect him tVom [)redatoiy A^sits by the 
soldiers. I vohiuteered to i>(), and spent a very 
l)lcasant evening with him. He was Rev. Nathan- 
iel Head, a Methodist clergyman, and presiding 
elder of the Richmond District. He told me that he 
was tuUy committed to and in sympathy with seces- 
sion, and had done everything in his })ower to keep 
n}) an interest in his district. He said the people of 
Virginia had the utmost confidence in the ultnnate 
success of secession until General Grant crossed 
the James river and began to threaten their com- 
munication with the South. At the Wilderness, 
S[)()ttsylvania and Cold Harbor, they were told 
that the Union army had been beaten, and still 
that army kept on until it crossed the James river 
and entrenched itself there. 

This discouraged them, but when the attack was 
ab:)ut to be mide on Fort Ste;idniin, thsy were 
promised that the Union army would surely l)e 
hurled back to City Point, and communication with 
the South made sure. This movement proved an 
utter failure, and from that time Mr. Head said 
they had been waiting for the end. -Fust as the 
war broke out, Mr. Head had written a denomina- 
tional work the copy for which he had sent to the 
Harpers for publication. The book had been 
published Mr. Head said, an d he had seen a notice 
of it, but had never seen the book. That night at 
the evening devotions, Mr. Head prayed for both 



165 



iiniiies and bath ii'overnineuts, for notwithstandinof 
the diseouraghig outh)ok, I coukl not fail to see 
that my entertauier had still a little hope that 
Lee's army would escape, and that the confederacy 
would gain a new lease of life. When the battery 
returned after the surrender I again spent a night 
with Mr. Head, birt this night he only prayed for 
the Union army and the Federal Government. lie 
had abandoned all hojie. He was quite aged, over 
seventy, and a man of culture and al)ility. I have 
never heard from him since. His wife had died 
during the war, and his daughter kept his house. 
I have no doubt . that he has long since passed to 
his reward. I have since examined a copy of his 
book and it was ably written. 

As we were marching one day toward Farm vi lie, 
I saw a piece of paper l)lown before the wind which 
lodged against the fence by the roadside. I dis- 
mounted and picked it up. It proved to be an 
inventory of goods belonging to an estate of which 
James Madison was trustee and was made out and 
signed in his well known hand writing. I still 
preserve the paper. A house situated at some 
little distance from the main road, had l)een entered 
and robbed by stragglers from our army, and it 
was here doubtless that the paper had been let 
loose. 

I did not return to Maine with the l)attery. In 
Feln'uary I received an appointment from President 
Lincoln as quartermaster with the rank of captain. 



166 



I did not accept the a])p()intnient until Lee's and 
Johnson's armies had surrendered, and the war 
had come to an end. After the battery left, I 
rej)orted at the (luartermaster-general's office and 
was directed to wait in AVashington for further 
orders. The battery meantime reached Augusta, 
and was soon after mustered out. The battery, on 
the whole, had been fortunate. None of the officers 
and few of the privates had l)een hurt ; many died 
of disease, but the narrow escapes from severe or 
fatal injury were numerous, and a detailed account 
of them would make a long story. The immense 
earth works at Fort Hell, have in great part l)een 
levelled to the ground, but the site of the fort is 
still pointed out to the visitor, and a few years ago 
^vhen Dea. Edward Nason of Augusta was there, 
he cut a young apple tree which had sprung up in 
our qutirters, and brought it home and presented it 
to me. It is large enough for a walking stick and 
is highly prized. 

Concerning the personnel of the Seventh Maine 
Battery, I have spoken but l)riefiy and in general 
terms, and I shall content myself with a few l)rief 
notes on individual members. In o-eneral terms, 
the battery was made up of a fine class of men and 
as a general thing of men below middle life or age. 
There were a few exceptions to this, as would be 
expected in a company comprising about a hundred 
and fifty men. Ca])tain Adelbert B. Twitchell was 
the son of Al})hin Twitchell of Bethel, and had 



167 



had every advantage that a young man could have 
for qualifying himself for usefulness in life. He 
fitted for college under the instruction of Dr. 
Nathaniel T. True and graduided from Bowdoin 
College in LSGO. He tiuight in Newark, N. J., 
until after the war broke out when he enlisted and 
for a short titne ^vas qu-artermaster sergeant in the 
5th Maine Kegiment. He then served as second 
and first lieutenant in the Fifth Maine Biittery and 
had an excellent record. From that battery he 
came to the captaincy of the Seventh Maine Battery. 
After the war, he settled in Newark, N. J., and 
engaged in the lumber busine-is. He married there 
and has a family. He is an elder in the Presbyte- 
rian church an:l his been connected with the man- 
a2:ement of the pu1)lic scliools. He has met with 
the members of the battery only once since the war. 
First Lieutenant Lorren E. Bundy came from 
Columbia, Coos county, N. H. Of his parentage 
and early life, I know l)ut little. From his own 
talk it would appear that his means for ol)taining 
an education were limited, and that he did not, to 
the fullest extent, avail himself of those he had. 
He spent his early life with stage and stal)le men, 
and was a very good judge of horses. He enlisted 
with the Fifth Maine Battery and for efficiency was 
promoted along to first sergeant. From that posi- 
tion, he came to our battery. After the war he 
married and settled in Newark, New Jersey, where 
he died su(hlenly in the spring of 1891, and his 



168 



reiiiaius were 1)r()u<iht for ])uri:il to his old home at 
Cohmihia, N. H. 

Lieutenant Daniel Staples was born in Franklin 
county, l)ut eanie to us from the Penobscot where 
he had been long employed as a surveyor of lumljer. 
He had served two years in the 2nd Maine liegi- 
ment, and had an excellent record. He was the 
only married man among the commissioned officers. 
He was not an ideal sojdier. He was slack in 
taking care of himself, cared nothing for dress or 
show, but he was whole-hearted, conscientious, 
upright antl ])rave. He never shrank from any 
duty however disagreeable or dangerous, and was 
always genial and pleasant. No officer was more 
popuhir with the men than he. After the war, he 
settled in Dexter Avhere he was in trade, but did 
not succeed, and was then night watchman for the 
Dexter Woolen INIills. Here he died, and his was 
the tirst death among the commissioned officers of 
the battery, ;ind the only one until Bundy's death. 
He belonged to the battery association and gener- 
ally attended its meetings. 

Lieutenant Frank Thorpe came to us from 
Boothbay where his father's family then lived. He 
attended school at Brunswick and titted for college, 
l)ut did not go through. He served as second 
lieutenant in the 28th Maine Volunteers. He 
mastered the artillery tactics in a very short time, 
and l)ecanie a very efficient officer. He was some- 
what strict with the men at times, and bv this 



169 



means made some enemies, but he was courageous 
and faithfully performed every duty. After the 
war, he entered the regular army as second lieu- 
tenant of artillery and is now captain in the 5th 
Regiment and stationed in California. 

First Sergeant Osborne J. Pierce came to us 
from Clinton. He was a good officer and was 
appointed second lieutenant but not commissioned 
on account of the close of the war. He had a 
romantic corrcs})ondence with a Bethel girl named 
Twitchell, a distant relati^^e of the captain's, during 
the war, and subsequently married her and settled 
in Chicago. He was an artist and is doing business 
in that line at his place of residence. 

Quartermaster Sergeant Albert S. Twitchell, 
was of Bethel, and this was his first service. He 
had been educated at Bethel Academy, and was a 
distant relative of Captain Twitchell. His consti- 
tution was not strong and after the l)attery went to 
the front, his health soon failed, and he s[)ent a 
considerable part of his term of enlistment in the 
hospital, in which, for a time, he was on detached 
service. His position made him for the most })art 
a non-combatant. After the war, he studied law 
and has since been in practice in Gorliam, N. H. 
He has filled the position of railroad commissioner 
in New Hampshire and on one occasion polled the 
vote of the delegation from Coos county as candi- 
date for governor. He has been very cons})icuous 
in Grand Army circles and veteran organizations, 
8 



170 



and has served more or less on the governor's staff. 
He is a pleasant, agreeable gentleman, of good 
ability, a good writer and somewhat given to 
rhyming. 

Sergeant George A. McLellan should receive 
honoral)le mention in this connection. He hailed 
from Worcester, Massachusetts, l)ut enlisted on the 
quota of Alfred. He was promoted to sergeant 
from the ranks, for efficiency in the i)erformance of 
every duty as well as for conspicuous bravery. 
He was a model soldier, always cool and collected 
in action, social and genial in camp and with no 
1)ad habits. After the war he became an engine 
driver on the European and Xorth American Rail- 
way and was killed by falling under his engine as 
it was thrown from the track. 

Sergeant John E. Willis was a native of Bethel, 
son of Adam AVillis, l)ut came to ns from Gorham, 
N. H. He had served as second lieutenant in a 
New Ham})shire regiment. He was a married man 
of excellent character and was a good soldier. 
After the war, he served as deputy sheriff and was 
killed while attempting to board a train while it 
was in motion. 

Sergeant Howard Gould was the son of Edward 
Gould of Portland and was only nineteen 3'ears of 
age. He was afterward made quarter-sergeant. 
He was efficient and faithful, and after the war and 
since that time until recently has l)een conncu-ted 
with the Eirst National liank of Portland. He has 
been married since the war. 



171 



Sero^caiit AYilliaiii II. Jones ^vas with us only a 
short time, Ix'ino- anionii' the tirst to succumb to 
and die from disease. He was a young man of 
tine mind and principles, a writer of considerable 
merit and deservedly popular with the company. 
He died at Washington April 1, 18 (54. 

Sergeant John C. (^uinby came to us from AI)bot. 
He had served as lieutenant and captain in the 
2d Maine Infantry. He was a very efficient officer 
and remained with the l)attery to the close of the 
war. After the war, he was city marshal of Lew- 
iston and then went West. 

Sergeant Augustus Bradbury was of Fairfield 
and still resides there. He was a quiet man, of 
excellent habits and faithful in the discharge of 
every duty. 

Sergeant Augustus M. Carter from Bethel, was 
promoted from corporal. He Avas the son of Hon. 
Elias ]\I. Carter and grandson of Dr. Timothy 
Carter, an early physician there. He was a good 
soldier and since the war, has l)een a good citizen. 
He engages in farming, lumbering and in civil 
engineering. Ho married jNIiss Stanley after the 
Avar. 

Delphinus P. Bicknell of Poland was promoted 
sergeant for conspicuous In'aver}', and was Avell 
deserving of it. He enjoyed being in a fight and 
could not have too much of it, though in the bat- 
tery he was peaceable and quiet, and much liked 
bv officers and men. Since the war he has been 



172 



employed by the Gran I Trunk R.iilroatl and has 
hid charge of their t'enchig .so far as their road 
traverses this State. 

Alfred H. and Luther Briogs, brothers, came 
from Woodstock. Both had served in the Tenth 
Maine. They l)oth served as corporals, but the 
former was reduced to make a place for the latter. 
They were good soldiers. After the war, Luther 
became a railroad man and was killed at Indianap- 
olis ; Alfred H. married and resides at Mechanic 
Falls. 

Corporal Joseph T. jMerrill was of Portland, and 
I never knew anything of his family. lie was a 
good soldier. A few years ago, while tiring at a 
celebration in Portland, he was severely hurt. 

Corporal Lennan F. Jones was a brother of Ser- 
geant Jones. He is small in stature but very lively, 
and could make things decidedly lively when he 
chose. He performed his duties well in the service, 
and when I visited Andover a few years ago where 
he has since lived upon a farm, f learned that his 
iighting days were not over when he left the army. 
He has made a success of raising Jersey stock. 

Cori)oral Augustus P. Grindell was from Penob- 
scot town and Penobscot Bay. His father has been 
a prominent man in Hancock county, and the son 
has served in the legislature. He was a quiet man, 
a faithful soldier, and has been a good citizen since. 

Corporal Ferdinand A. Smith was from Portland, 
and of his family I know nothing. His service 



173 



wu.s credittil)le, and since the war I have not known 
him. 

Corporal Harvey B. Sininions I remember very 
well as a good soldier and a good fellow, but I did 
not see him after the war, and have known nothing 
of his family. He was from the town of Union? 
and died several years ago. 

Corporal Finson R. McKeen I can vouch for as 
a good soldier, but of his history and family I 
know nothing. 

Corporal Albert Tovvle of Kenduskeag died in 
1889. He was a reliable man everyway, and took 
a deep interest in the battery organization. 

Corporal Charles Lapham was too independent 
to suit the captain, and was reduced to the ranks 
which in no way troubled him. He was a reliable 
man and soldier, of good ha])its which he stood by 
to the end. He had served in the 10th Maine. 

Herbert E. Hale of Xovridgewock was promoted 
corporal for faithful services in every position in 
which he had been placed. He has not changed 
his residence since the war. 

Levi D. Jewell, son of Jonathan Jewell of 
AVoodstock had creditable service in the Tenth 
Maine. He was quiet and reticent, but a brave 
and willing soldier. After the war, he died from 
the effects of injuries received while unloading freight 
from the cars of the Grand Trunk Railroad, at 
Gorham, N. H. 

Orrin R. Legrow of Windham was promoted 
corporal for faithful and efficient service in the 



1Y4 



])atteiy. lie inaiTiotl and settled in Portland after 
the war, where he engaged hi the hnn])cr trade. 
He died in 1889. 

Anrestiis S. Perhani, son of ex-CioNernor Per- 
liani, served in the 2ord iVIaine. lie eame to the 
Ijattery as a recruit in the autumn of 18(54. lie 
was for a time in P'ort Sedgwick, hut February 11, 
was promoted to sergeant major of the regiment 
and went to AYashington. 

Sewall A Stillings, blacksmith, was of CTorham, 
N. H. He was a good workman but fond of his 
cu})s. When the battery left Augusta, he remained 
l)ehind and was taken up as a deserter. The fact 
is, when the l>attery moved, he Avas druidv in a 
saloon on Water street, and when an officer 
entered to arrest him, he jumped from a back 
window and f(dl nearly twenty feet. He broke his 
leg, and it was several months ])efore he joined us. 

Algernon S. Chapman, son of George Chapman 
of Bethel, serv^ed as wagoner and until taken sick, 
did his work well. After the Avar he went South a 
few years, and then settled at Bethel where he has 
engaged in various pursuits. 

Corporal Thomas Q. Waterhouse had l)een a 
teleo-rapher on the Grand Truidv, and after a few 
months with us, was detailed for the same kind of 
Avork on James river. He died soon after the war. 

Corporal Onier Smith did not long serve as such. 
He was a brave man and possessed of great i)hysi- 
cal strength. He was addicted to drinking, and 



175 



when under the influence of drink was quarrelsome. 
He was the only man of the battery that was pun- 
ished l)y being- lashed to the spare wheel. He 
was a sailor and followed the seas since the war 
until his health broke down and he went to the 
Soldiers' Home and died there. 

Frank J. Norton was corporal at first but returned 
to ranks and was put upon detached service. He 
was not long with the company, and of his family 
I knew nothing. He enlisted on the quota of Read- 
field. 

One of the first corporals was Benjamin S. Craw- 
ford of Auburn. He was soon taken sick and was 
discharged for disability. 

AVilliam C. Hutchinson was appointed corporal 
at the organization of the l)attery. He was absent 
sick soon after we went to the front and was dis- 
charo^ed durino- the summer. He enlisted from 
Rumford and had a family. He has since died. 

Everett A. Went worth was an original corporal, 
but was returned to ranks at his own request. I 
have not seen him since the war and never knew 
his family. 

Frank Q. Bodwell, l^ugler, enlisted from Rum- 
ford. In front of Petersl)urg while at the roar, he 
claimed to have l)een wounded by a ball in his foot. 
The wound wdien examined indicated a pistol shot 
wound and powder was blown into it. He had a 
long furlough and applied for admission to the 
Veteran Reserve Corps, l)ut on representations made 



176 



fVoiii the buttery, his application Avas refused. He 
returned to the l)attery and served out the remainder 
of his time as a common soldier. Since the war, 
he has lived in Massachusetts. 

William Hilton from Norridgewock was the other 
bugler and a faithful one. He served out his time, 
and I have met him at various times, since the war. 

Samuel Fessenden, son of ex-Congressman Sam- 
uel Fessenden, and nephew of William Pitt Fes- 
senden, was a meml)er of our ])attery, and until he 
received a })romotion Avhich took him away, he 
faithfully performed every duty as a soldier, even 
to digging in the trenches. He has since l)ecome a 
famous politician and secretary of the Republican 
National Committee. 

James Gould of Troy was a noted member of the 
battery, but noted for gluttony rather than bravery 
in action. He would eat three or four men's allow- 
ance and then look starved. He sold all his extra 
clothing for hard-tack. He went on furlough in 
March, 18()5, and never returned. 

Jesse D. Bisbee was Captain Twitchell's help. 
He enlisted from Brunswick, and since the war has 
been a conmiercial traveller. He moved West. 

Lorenzo Billings from Woodstock never did any 
service. He was attacked with rheumatism when 
we were on our way to join the army, and soon 
after Avent to Maine, where a few years later he 
died. 

Warren O. Carney of Portland became an artiti- 
cer, and alter the war, was in business in Portland. 



177 



He has been route agent * between Portland and 
Bangor, and Grand Tyler of the Grand Lodge of 
Masons. He served well. 

James S. Lowell, ("Jimmy") son of Abner 
Lowell of Portland, was one of our youngest 
recruits. He served faithfully and after the war 
became a telegrapher. 

Isaac F. Lapliam was ambulance driver. He had 
served in the 10th Maine. His health broke down 
in the battery, and he has been much of an invalid 
since the war. He is on a farm in Litchfield. 

One of the coolest men in acjtion in the battery 
was Joseph C. Lapham, known as "Joe," who 
enlisted from Rumford. He was somewhat given to 
drink, l)ut when there was lighting going on, he 
was in his element. He would })erform his duty at 
the gun, chew tobacco and smile and joke, when 
the minnie balls were flying through the air and 
shells bursting all around. 

David S. Hawes was credited to the town of 
Troy, but had lived in various places. He was a 
man of good character and lial)its, had seen some- 
thing of the world, and treated every one with 
kindness and respect. After the war he went 
West, and died several years ago, it is said from 
the eftects of an injury received in the service. 

Benjamin F. Berry was active and energetic and 
l)roraptly did his duty on all occasions. After the 
war, he settled in Kansas and has been very suc- 
cessful in business. 



178 



J(),sei)h W. Beiin was (juitc youilii' Avhen he 
enlisted, but he soon hardeiu'd into a soldier ca[)a- 
l)le of endiirinLi' without eanipliint the hardships 
incident to the soldier's life. He now does business 
in Boston. 

David K. Pierce came to us as ;i recruit and 
serv(ul in the last canipaiiiii of ^he ai'iny of the 
Potomac. After the war he sludied law and has 
become proticient in his profession. He resides at 
Great Falls, N. H. 

Charles G. Kenney enlisted from Bristol and 
served throuuhout with irreat credit. He enlisted 
to take his chances in an extremely hazardous occu- 
pation, and was not surprised that he did not find 
a downy bed of case. His service was highly 
creditable, and so has been his life since. He 
resides in Portland. 

Howard P. Todd came to the l)attery from the 
eastern part of the State, and since the war has 
resided in Aroostook. He was small in stature 
but had a well knit frame, and became a good 
solcb'er. 

George H. Hutchins enlisted from liumford and 
served all through, but his work was to care for 
horses in which he was very proticient. After the 
war he married and settled down in Andover where 
he now lives. 

Jaines McLoon, our jolly teamster, survived the 
war and now lives in Damariscotta. "Jim" once 
had a revolver drawn on him bv a general officer 



179 



because lie [jcivsisted in carrying out the instructions 
of his captain. That night the officer sent for him 
and lie expected it was all u[) with him sure. But 
when he reached the officer's (juarters, the general, 
Avho was alone, asked him his name, where he lived 
and what battery he belonged to, all of which was 
answered, when the general asked him if he ever 
took anything. This was a turn which Jim had not 
ex})ectcd and with face wreathed with smiles, he 
answ<!red "sometimes." The general then called 
his attention to a jug and told him to help himself, 
which he reijuired no second invitation to do. Then 
the general dismissed him, after asking him to 
forget the little unpleasantness of the afternoon, 
and acknowledging that he himself alone was at 
fault. 

William Andrews and Charles W. Ackley, both 
Rumford men, died in hospital after quite long 
})eriods of sickness. They wore both good men. 

All)ert Billings from AVoodstock was a faithful 
soldier, and remained throughout. For many years, 
he has 1)cen road master on the Portland and Ogdens- 
burg llailroad. 

George E. Dewitt from Presque Isle was taken 
sick and died. He was young, only eighteen, but 
a very i)romising young man and a good soldier. 

El)en M. Field was com})any clerk, and a more 
upright, conscientious man, it would be hard to 
find. He died of consumption soon after the war. 
He was from Sidney, ]VIaine. 



180 



James B. Mason from Woodstock ])roved a 
rather feeble man, but he survived the war and has 
successfully engaged in bee culture at Mechanic 
Falls, for which he has a natural aptitude. 

George E,. Niles was severely wounded June 3rd, 
at Cold Harbor, and died in Augusta July 26. He 
was from Hallo well. 

Ezra Kidlon, Jr., had served in the 10th Maine. 
He survived the war and returned to Woodstock. 
He was disabled more or less by sickness. 

James H. Pratt from Woodstock was a faithful 
and reliable man though not particularly robust. 
He returned and still lives. 

William L. Twitchell, l)rother of Sergeant 
Twitchell, went out Avith the battery, and ser\ed 
throuii'h, but his health became much shattered and 
he died soon after the war. 

Apollas Williams left the l)attery soon after his 
wife did and did not return. He died many years 
ago. 

James Kelley came to us in 1864, and was our 
mess cook. He excelled in this, and we regarded 
him as a treasure. He is now in the Home at Mil- 
waukee. 

James A. Roberts who came out as a recruit in 
1864, is a lawyer in Buffalo, New York, and a man 
of wealth and influence. For second wife, he mar- 
ried Martha, daughter of Judge Dresser of Lewis- 
ton, 



181 



Hezckiah G. Mti.sou of ]\Iu.sou was wounded July, 
1864, but recovered and returned. He was a good 
soldier. 

John Mason of Bethel was another of this family 
who never shrank from any duty and remained with 
the battery throughout its term of service. 

Asa A.. Eowe of Gilead was taken sick in Wash- 
ington and died there A])ril 19th, 1864. 

Alonzo 15. ^lerrill from Holden went out with 
the l)attery and staid with it throughout. He faith- 
fully performed his duties and niade a good record 
as a soldier. He resided in Bangor, and had been 
engaged in various enterprises. He has taken great 
interest in keeping u^) the battery organization. He 
died in March, 18!) 2. 

Austin F. Twitchell was of Bethel and a distant 
relative of the C4iptain. He had seen battery ser- 
vice before he joined ours. He was jealous of his 
rights but faithful to his trusts. Since the war he 
has lived in Auburn and Portland, the latter being 
his present })lace of residence. 

Frank Wade was from Norridgewock and has 
resided there since he was mustered out at the close 
of the war. He was a good soldier and faithful in 
the discharge of his duties. He is a member of 
the Battery Association, and (|uite constant at its 
meetings. 

Joseph U. Frye was another good soldier from 
Bethel, and since the war, he has his home in the 
West. 



182 



('harle.s V. Richards is now a dentist at Skowhe- 
lian. He joined the battery as a recruit in 18G4, 
and served to the close of the war, always faithful 
in the discharge of his duties. 

There are many others whom I would like to 
mention, but some of them 1 never knew intimately, 
never knew" of their families, and have never seen 
them since the war. Some of the reci'uits who 
came to join us late in 18(54, I never knew and 
perhaps never saw. They came when the guns 
were at the front and remained at the camp in the 
I'ear until the rebel lines were broken and the war 
was over. I have l»een asked for ceititicates to aid 
in getting pensions, from persons whose names 
even, I did not remember or recognize. The char- 
acter of our men answered our expectations as a 
general thing, though among the recruits were 
some not as good. Only four deserted and two of 
those left us while in Augusta. Those who died 
from ^vounds and sickness or were discharged for 
disability were : Serireant Wm. H. ,b)nes. (ieorge 
8. Ilicker, Moses H. Arthur, William Andrews, 
Charles W. Ackley, Wm. H. Bean, C^harleB C. 
]^>urt, Lemuel T. Field, James H. Fall, Samuel 
Goodwin, George Holmes, John Y. Leavitt, Joseph 
R. Niles, Asa A. Rowe, Charles A. Reed, Charles 
E. Wheeler, La Forest Warner, Geo. E. DeWit, 
Briggs G. Besse, Lorenzo Billings, Ebenezer A. 
Brooks, Benjamin F. Crawford, Asbury Eastman, 
John Goudy, Ensworth T. Harden, Wm. C. Hutch- 



183 



intsoii, Gcoriic A. Johnson, (Jeo. A\'. Marston, 
James B. Mason, Charles (). Randall, Alfred Kob- 
erts, Apollas AVillianis, Emery (\ Dnnn and Howard 
W. Merrill. Thomas W. Hyde was transferred 
to the Veteran Reserve Corps. George H. Blake, 
who joined us as a reeruit in the fall of 18G4, had 
been a preacher, and althouiih he received a large 
bounty and enlisted as a common pri\'ate, he thought 
he ought to be excused from active (hity and be 
permitted to lal^or for the good of souls. We 
made uj) our minds that as he was an enlisted man, 
he should l»e treated accordingly. 

One little incident I onn'tted in its })r()])er [)lace, 
may be recalled here. When on the march across 
the Peninsula, some of our boys caught a cow that 
was feeding by the roadside, and putting a rope on 
her horns, hitched her to one of our teams. That 
night we had milk in our coffee and continued to 
have it with considerable regularity, to the close 
of the war. Several of the organizations had ca})- 
tured and were keeping cows, and late in the fall, 
there was issued an order for all such to be turned 
over to the hos})ital. We then dug a hole about 
ten feet square and lowered the cow into it where we 
fed and milked her all winter. She went with us 
in the })ursuit of Lee's army as tar as we went, and 
after the surrender and we had returned to City 
Point, we disposed of her after we had kept her 
about a year. 

I was ap[)ointed (piartermaster Fei)ruary 21, 
18G5. My commission bears date May 11, 1865, 



184 



and I was to take rank from February 21, })reced- 
ing. It is signed by Andrew Johnson and counter- 
signed by E. M. Stanton. I did not resign from 
the l)attery. After I was mustered, my first order 
required me to remain in Washington and wait 
further orders. The trial of the conspirators, and 
accessories to the murder of President Lincoln was 
to come on and I was able to attend the hearing 
})efore the military tribunal throughout. It so 
happened that General Hartranft, to whose brigade 
we had l)een attached at the Wilderness and beyond, 
was the officer in charge of the court-room, and as 
I was well acquainted with him, he gave me a pass 
covering the Avhole })eriod of the trial. I was 
exceedingly fortunate in this, as the court-room was 
every day crowded, and many who desired admis- 
sion were turned away. I remember vividly to 
this day just how the prisoners looked as they came 
into court in irons, and took their seats. Mrs. 
Surratt was a very large and rather vicious looking 
person, and as cool and unmoved during the trial 
as any of the lot. Paine was a giant physically, 
but evidently of weak intellect. Dr. Mudd was 
ihe ty})ical southerner, with long hair and somewhat 
sinister expression. 

Atzerodt had a villainous looking face judging 
from which, he would be ready for any kind of 
mischief. The face of Harold showed weakness 
and indecision, such as one would expect to find on 
a person who was a mere tool as this young man 



185 



was of tlic priiK-iiJul cons})irator. There were three 
other persons on trial, 1)iit they were comparatively 
insigniticant. The trial lasted many days, and 
then all were brought in guilty though Avith difter- 
ent degrees of guilt. IMrs. Surratt, Paine, Atze- 
rodt and Herald were sentenced to be hanged and 
were executed accordingly. Dr. jNIudd Avas sen- 
tenced to life imprisonment at Dry Tortugus, and 
the other three to lesser terms of im})risonment. 
The last three were pardoned by Andrew Johnson 
and Dr. Mudd has since been pardoned. I believe 
the trial was an impai'tial one, and had I been a 
meml)er of the court I should have brought in as 
the others did. Much was said at the time against 
hanoing; a woman, but there was not the least doubt 
of her guilt, and there would have been no justice 
in treating her diiierent from her fellow-cons})ira- 
tors. Except Booth, she was evidentl^^ the leading- 
spirit in the affair. She exhibited but little emotion 
during the trial, and bore her death sentence with 
almost stolid inditference. There could be but one 
outcome of the trial, and she was aware from the 
beginning what the result nuist be. Conscious of 
her guilt, she could expect no mercy at the hands 
of a court which so al)ly represented an outraged 
nation. 

About the middle of June or a little later, I 
received an order assigning me to duty in the state 
of Vermont. I was directed to ])roceed to Bi-attle- 
boro, report to Colonel Eastman, United States 



186 



provost marshal for that state, and then go to 
MoRt})eIier and await further orders, I did as 
directed, visiting my home in Oxford county on 
the Avay. I found there was very little for me to 
do in A^'rmont. (Quartermaster Frank C). Sawyer 
had been stationed there during the war, and had 
the full run of the business. I was expected to 
assist him l)ut ho soon gave me to understand that 
he needed no help. I then went in for a good 
time. I had free transportation, and visited at 
})leasure Montpelier, Burlington, Brattleboro, Rut- 
land and Saint Albans. I visited the h(mie of 
Kev. Dr. Estes in Jericho, and with him made the 
ascent of ]\Iount Mansfield. I went down the lake 
from Burlington, visited Ticonderoga, Lake George, 
Whitehall and other points of interest, also Platts- 
burg, Rouse's Point etc. Then I obtained leave 
of absence and returned to Maine, thinking that 
my service Avas really over, but I had hardly 
reached Bryant's Pond, when I received notice 
from Colonel P^astman informing me of the sickness 
of Captain Sawyer and directing me to proceed at 
once to Brattleboro. I was there in two days. 
jMy first duty was to proceed to Saint Albans and 
dispose of the horses of the First Vermont Cavalry 
at auction. ]W the time this duty w-as performed 
which occupied only a few days, (^aptain Sawyer 
had so far recovered as to resume charge and I was 
again a gentleman of leisure. I remained in Ver- 
mont until October, when I received an order 



187 



directing mc to proceed to my home in INTaine and 
there await fnither orders. On the thirtieth (hiy 
of October, LSI)'), I received an order from the 
war department which honoraldy mnst(>red me ont 
of the service of the United States on the gronnd 
that my services were no longer needed. On the 
same day, I received a commission from President 
Andrew Johnson, a}>pointing me major of United 
States Vohmteers hy brevet, to take rank from 
October 30. I went to Portland and was paid by 
Major, afterwards Governor Robie, receiving three 
months extra pay jiccording to orders. I was 
mnstered in on my commission as qnartermaster, 
at Alexandria, Virginia, ]May 2(5, 1865, by Lieu- 
tenant Edward Rose of the 56th Massachusetts 
Volunteers, assistant mustering officer of the 
second division of the Ninth Army Corps. I was 
therefore in the service of the quartermaster's 
department a little over five months, I then returned 
to civil and private life. This live months' service 
was a very pleasant closing up of my military life. 
I had receipted for but little property during this 
time, so that my accounts were readily and easilv^ 
settled, and my bondsmen relieved from all res])on- 
si])ility. 

I was glad to exchange my uniform for the dress 
of a civilian, and since the close of the war, I have 
taken no part in military atJairs. I was never in- 
terested in the dress })arade of the home guard, and 
the experience of the war taught us that it requires 



188 



but little service to make a reliable soldier of the 
average American citizen. Few in the volunteer 
service, had a more varied experience than I. At 
first in the State recruiting service ; then on the 
medical stafi' at Augusta ; next in the commissary 
department ; then a line oflicer in the infantry, and 
then an officer in the light artillery. Lastly, I was 
assistant quartermaster and as such was nmstered 
out of the service. I was three times detailed on 
general courts martial, twice in the capacity of 
judge advocate. Of the quality of my service in 
these several positions, it does not become me to 
speak. I have only to say that I tried to do my 
duty, and was never accused of any dereliction. I 
have not cared to talk nuich about the war, believ- 
ing that Avhen the rebels surrendered, it was over, 
and as it had been a war between sections of the 
same country, the less said about it, the better. 
Enough for me it is, that the rel^ellion was thor- 
oughly sul)dued ; that the institution of slavery 
which caused it, is forever abolished ; that a common 
country was left us, and that the union of the states 
is insoluble. 

In the preceding pages which are limited to an 
account of the service of two organizations, but 
little idea is given of the magnitude of the great 
rel^ellion, and the numbers engaged. In 18(il, 
there were one hundred and fifty-six engagements 
including skirmishes ; in 1862, five hundred and 
sixty-four ; in 18()o, six hundred and twenty-seven ; 



189 



in 18H4, seven hundred and seventy-nine ; in 1865, 
one hundred and thirty-tive ; total, two thousand 
two hundred and sixty -one. The great battles of 
the war were as follows : 

Bull Run, July 21, 1861; AVilson Creek, Mo., 
August 10, 1861 ; Lexington, Mo., September 12 
to 20, 1861; Mill Springs, Ky., January 19-20, 
1862; Roanoke Island, February 8, 1862; Fort 
Donelson, February 14-15, 18(52 ; Pea Ridge , March 
5-8, 1862; Winchester, March 28, 1862; Shiloh, 
April 6-7, 1S62 ; capture of New Orleans, April 
18 to 28, 1862 ; Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, May 
31 and June 1-2, 1862 ; Cross Keys, Va., June 8, 
1862 ; James Island, June K), 1862 ; Malvern Hill, 
July 1, 1862; Baton Rouge, August 1, 1862; 
Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862; Second Bull 
Run, August 30, 1862 ; Harpers Ferry, September 

12 to 15, 1862; Mumfordsville, Ky., Septeml)er 
14-1(5, 1862; Antietam, September 17, 1862; 
Pocotaligo, S. C, October 22, 18(52; Fredericks- 
])urg, December 13, 1862 ; Chickasaw Bayou, Miss., 
December 28-29, 1862 ; Stone River, December 
31, 1862, and January 1-2, 1863; Port Hud- 
son, March 14, 1863 ; Fort Pemberton, March 

13 to April 5, 1863; Port Gibson, May 1, 1863; 
Chancellorsville, May 1-4, 1862 ; Vicksl)urg, May 
18 to July 4, 1863 ; Port Hudson, May 27 to July 
9, 1863 ; Beverly Ford, June 9, 1863 ; Winchester, 
June 13-15, 1863; Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863; 
Chickamauga, Ga., September 19-20, 1863; Chat- 



190 



anooga, Xov. 23-25, ISGo ; Olustee, Fla., February 
20, 1864; Sabine Cross lloads, April S, 18(34; 
Jenkins' Ferry, Ark., April 30, 1864 ; Wilderness, 
May 5-7, 1864; Spotsylvania, May 8-18, 1864; 
North Anna, May 23-27, 1864 ; Cold Harbor, June 
1-12, 1864 ; Kenesaw Mountain, June 9-30, 1864 ; 
Briee's Cross Koads, June 10, 18(54; Petersburg, 
June 15-19, 1864 ; front of Petersburg, July 1-31, 
1864; Deep Bottom, etc., July 27-28, 1864; 
Opequan, September 19, 1864; Fisher's Hill, Sep- 
tember 22, 1864; Weldon Eailroad, October 1-5, 
18(54 ; Nashville, December 15, 1864 ; Fort Fisher, 
December 25, 1864, and January 13-15, 1865 ; 
Petersburg, March 25, 1865 ; Five Forks, April 1, 
1865 ; Petersburg, April 2-6, 1865 ; Apj^omattox 
Court House, April 8-9, 1865. 

During the war there were general officers as 
follows : One general, two lieutenant generals, 
eleven m;ijor generals. United States Army ; one 
hundred and twent3'^-eight major generals of volun- 
teers ; thirty-six brigadier generals, United States 
Army ; ti> e hundred and sixty-one brigadier gen- 
erals of volunteers, making in all, including those 
having a brevet rank, two thousand five hundred 
and thirty-seven. Of these general officers, thirty- 
eight were killed in action, twenty-nine died of 
wounds, and thirty-five died from other causes. 

The total number of men who went into the army 
under the difierent calls of the President was 
2,859,132 ; the total number of colored troops was 



191 



18r),097 ; enlisted in the regnlar army during the 
war, 67,000. Maine furnished in all, thirty-three 
regiments, seven batteries and twenty-five compa- 
nies , an a2;oreo;ate of 7 2 , 11 4 enlisted men . D uri ug 
the war, the following casualties in the Union army 
were reported: Killed in action, 61,362 ; died of 
wounds, 34,773 ; died of disease, 183,287 ; acci- 
dentally killed, 306; missing in action, 6,749; 
honorably discharged, 174,577 ; discharged for dis- 
\\h\\\\\, 224,306 ; dishonorably discharged, 2,693 ; 
officers dismissed, 2,423; officers cashiered, 274 ; 
officers resigned, 22,281 ; enlisted men deserted, 
199,045. Ihislist does not include men who were 
mustered out at the close of the war. The total 
loss by death during the war: AYliites, 250,697 ; 
colored, 29,039; total, 279,235. About thii-ty 
thousand died while prisoners of war, not included 
in the above account. 

In the winter of 1861, the entire armies of the 
United States numl)cred only 16,367 men ; in May, 
1865, at the close of the war, they numbered 1,000,- 
516. The ligures oiven in these few statistical 
pages, represent only the Union army, but the rebel 
army was made up of American citizens, and was 
nearly as large and the losses about as heavy, so 
that the losses of men occasioned by the rebellion 
were nearly double those already given. The 
innnense sacrifice of human life constituted the 
greatest loss, for the wealth of any country con- 
sists largely in her stalwart sons, l)ut there were 



192 



other losses growing out of this needless war that 
were of immense consequence ; the destruction of 
pu])lic and private property ; the forced suspension 
of valuable productive industries ; the desolation 
of homes in the track of hostile armies ; the mak- 
ing of countless widoAvs and orphans whose lamen- 
tations went up from every part of the land ; the 
creation of an innnense national del)t the l)urden of 
Avhich is still weighing us down — these are only 
some of the terrible results of our internecine strug- 
gle — the cost of subduing the slaveholder's rebel- 
lion, and of preserving national unity on the basis 
of freedom and equality before the law. 



RETROSPECTION. 

A generation lias been l)orn, has grown up and 
entered u})on the workl's Inisy stage since the ck)se 
of our Civil War. Nearly three decades of years 
have passed, and they have been eventful ones, to 
our own country and to the world. They have 
been years of progress in every department of 
human knowledge. In our own countr3\ the issues 
that brought on the war having been settled by its 
results, those which grew out of it have been 
settled ])y legislation in which a large majority of 
our people, have acquiesced. Peace reigns every- 
where within our borders. The new South has 
entered upon an era of prosperity, and is now 
ready to admit that chattel slavery was a curse 
rather than a blessing. Some little feeling is still 
kept UD between the two sections, by the action of 
political })arties and for partisan purposes, but it is 
ra])idly dying out, and will entirely disappear with 
this oeneration. There Avill never bo any more 
w^ar for the dissolution of the Union, for there is 
no longer any occasion for that sectional strife 
which seeks redress in arms. There will be issues, 
for without them political parties cannot exist, l)ut 
they will, as has recently been the case, be settled 



194 



by the arbitrament of the ballot, and to its decision 
all will yield a cheerful obedience. 

Not until the reconstruction that followed the 
war, could it l)e said of us that we had a connnon 
country with all interests connnon. The institu- 
tion of slavery re((uired special protection by spec- 
ial leiji slat ion, and this at length became a continual 
source of strife. Now we are a reunited people, 
having the same interests throughout the length 
and breadth of our ample connnonwealth. It is a 
source of inexpressible satisfaction to me that the 
great question of chattel slavery was settled, and 
settled forever in my day and generation ; that it 
is not left as a troublesome and dangerous legacy, 
to posterity. I am proud that I bore even a humble 
part in sustaining the government and the country 
against the tremendous shock that was inevitable 
to the abolition of slavery, an institution older than 
the government itself and whose gro\^i:h of two cen- 
turies had given it such deep root that its eradication 
could not l)ut imperil the union of the states. This 
justitia])le pride, I bequeath as a priceless legacy to 
my children. 

In looking back after the lapse of thirty years 
since the l)reaking out of our Civil AVar, I remeinl)or 
many things during its continuance which cause-; 
me to feel proud of my native State. Tlie outburst 
of patriotism was unbounded, tremendous. Fathers 
who were too aged or infirm to go into the service, 
encouraged their sons to enlist, and motliers buckled 



195 



the harness upon their sons and ])ade them li'od- 
.s})eed, with nK)ro than Spartan firmness. Of 
course, there were some exceptions to this, for no 
cause however sacred, has ever yet united an entire 
people, but the patriotic spirit was so much in tlie 
ascendant that opposition was hekl in abeyance and 
scarcely showed itself. During the first half of 
the war, men offered them-;elves to the government 
as fast as they could l)e organized, equipped and 
sent to the front, and these enlistments embraced 
the best young and middle aged men in the 
State. After the great drain of this class of men 
whose patriotism would not admit of their reniain- 
ino- at home, recruitin<>" be2:an to he more ditiieult, 
and it was then that douI)tful patriotism began to 
show itself in the offer of large bounties to recruits 
by cities and towns. People tried to make them- 
selves believe that this was patriotism, but it was 
really an act of cowardice and resorted to only to 
prevent conscription. When a nation's life is 
imperilled, it is the duty of every able bodied man 
to spring into the breach, without waiting to be 
hired or drafted. 

The patriots were either at the front or were 
filling ])atriots' graves, and still the war raged with 
unabated fury, and when and how it would end, no 
one could tell. Many young men who were too 
young to enlist when the war broke out, entered 
the service as they became of suitable age, and made 
excellent soldiers. There were others who would 



196 



enlist only for Itirge bounties, and still another class 
who Avere determined not to go into the service 
under any circumstances. 80 these two classes, one 
composed of mercenaries and the other of cowards, 
concocted the scheme of raising funds u})on the 
credit ot the towns to pay for tilling their f[uotas, 
and many municipalities thereby, l)ecame ahnost 
hopelessly involved. The mistaken i)olicy of such 
practice is shown in the class of jackals and 
buzzards which it brought to the surface. It 
developed a diss of scoundrels who l)0ught and 
sold recruits as they would cattle for the shambles. 
There were brokers dealing in men in all the cities, 
and most infamous were the schemes resorted to 
for carrying on their business. Men who had an 
appetite for drink would be made drunk, and when 
they had soldered off, they would tind themselves 
])ound to militarv service, and be sent otf, perhai)s 
in irons, to the nearest provost marshal's otiice. 
Some of these brokers went to Canada and hired 
men to work in the logging s^vam}) or to cut cord- 
Avood , and they signed a contract to that etfect . These 
documents were either written or printed in Eng- 
lish, and the French Canadians signing them not 
understanding the language, found on arriving at a 
provost marshal's office in the State, that they had 
enlisted to servo for three years, or during the war, 
and were at once hustled otf to the front. It is l)ut 
fair to say that some of them on making representa- 
tion of the facts to the officials, were permitted to 



197 



go liouic, l)ut their ubductors were not punished as 
they should have 1)een. This practice l)ecaine so 
connnon, and the attending circumstances were so 
outrageous, that the Canadian government ottered 
a Lirge reward for the apprehension of those engaged 
in it, aiid this practically put a stop to it. 

One of the most active and most successful tirms 
engaged in this infamous business, had an ofhce in 
different parts of the State, and at each of them, 
men were bought and sold like slaves in the vSouth ; 
and it \vas a travesty on the chief issue of the war 
which was to make men free and not to place them 
in ljondao:e. I refer to this firm because its chief, 
of all the men engaged in the business, in this 
State, was the only one })unishcd, and he not by state 
authorities. He was sentenced to ten years' 
imprisonment and was pardoned out before he had 
served out one-tenth part of his term. There were 
scores if not hundreds of men in the State who 
dabbled more or less in the same kind of transac_ 
tions, to the extent of their abilities. Agents 
appointed to fill the quotas of towns, after having 
purchased a squad of men, if they were ofiered an 
advance by some broker or the agent of another 
town, would either sell out, or charge their towns 
an advance on the men equal to the advance ofiered. 
Of course, this was highly re})rehensil)le, yea, dis- 
honorable, but in the mad pursuit of gain, justice 
and honor seemed to be regarded as of no account. 
Then quotas of towns were credited on men who 



198 



only existed on paper. These were the famous 
"Paper Credits" about whieh so much was said and 
written immediately after the close of the war, 
when an effort \vas made by the legislature to 
investig-ate these things. This paper credit busi- 
ness could not ha^e been successfully carried on, 
Avithout the connivance of officials, both of the 
State and the general government for it took both 
these classes of officers to supervise enlistments 
and get recruits into United States service. It also 
required the influence of somebody in C'Ongress, 
because to accomplish what was desired a change 
had to be made in the official representing United 
States authority in INIaine. As the paper credit 
swindle was a success, it is l)ut fair to presume that 
all the conditions were favorable. By this method 
of tilling quotas, hundreds of credits representing 
recruits having no existence, were sold to towns 
for live or six hundreds dollars each, and the pro- 
ceeds divided among those having a hand in the 
deal. 

In 1870, after two efforts had been made to 
investigate these matters through joint committees 
of the legislature, a commission was provided for 
by an act of the legislature, to investigate the 
whole subject, having authority to summons wit- 
nesses and obtain documentary evidence. The 
commission was an exceptionally al)le one and their 
report made over five hundred pages of printed 
matter. A large edition was printed, but after 



199 



twenty years it is quite dilficult to find u copy. At 
one time, after the general distribution, there were 
hundreds of copies at the State House, but they 
suddenly disappeared. It is supposed that impli- 
cated persons or their friends had something to do 
with the disappearance of these reports. 

The reports of the commission, though followed 
by no prosecutions, served to open the eyes of the 
people to the demoralized condition of things dur- 
ing the closing years of the war, and how it entered 
into the transactions of very many towns. The 
evidence went to show that ao;ents for fillino; the 
quotas of toAvns though liberally paid for their 
services, would receive a bonus from the broker 
for each man contracted for, the receipt given as 
a voucher, being made large enough to cover the 
extra amount paid. 

Men enoaoed in this substitute brokerao-e busi- 
ness, accumulated great wealth thereby, and lived 
like princes. Money obtained so quickly and so 
easily, especially in the hands of those not accus- 
tomed to it, does not generally remain long, and 
except in a few rare instances, it did not in this 
case. Some spent it in extravagant and riotous 
living, ^vhilc others plunged into speculation — 
engaged in selling patent lights that were worth- 
less, in sinking wells that yielded no oil, and in 
mining schemes that produced no ores. And so 
their ill-gotten gains were swept away and left them 
stranded, and obliofed to start in life anew and in a 



200 



more humble Avay. Some of them did not com- 
mence operations until near the close of the war, 
and appeared much disgusted when peace came and 
cut short their career. 

Many of the persons named in the report of the 
connnission were then and still are unknown to me. 
Some of them were insignificant, mere flies upon 
the l)ody politic, who tried to get a trifle while the 
jackals and buzzards Avere gorging themselves. 

On two occasions the Maine Legislature made 
eH'orts to investigate these frauds, but without 
results. There were a few members — enough to 
move an investigation, Avho had clean hands and 
clear consciences, but enough others had been more 
or less guilty of maladministration in fllling the 
towns' quotas, to neutralize all ettbrts for an 
exhaustive inquiry. Committees were appointed 
with a show of fairness, but scarcely any eftbrts 
were made to obtain evidence, while stumbling- 
blocks were constantly thrown in the way of inves- 
tigation. Witnesses were out of the State when 
Avanted, and some of those who came before the 
conunittee either evaded a direct answer or tried to 
burlesque the whole proceedings. Of these trans- 
actions very little can be found on record at the 
State House, for interested parties have made every 
eftbrt to relegate the whole subject to darkest 
oblivion. There Avill be those Avho will think it 
better that these circumstances should not be re- 
called ; that everything relating to this unpleasant 



201 



phase of "■Elaine in the War," shouhl l)e forgiven 
and forgotten. There is no i)hase of the Avar that is 
not unpleasant to some peo})h;. There were rei)els 
in Maine all through the struggle, who rejoiced when 
union })eople mourned , and mourned when union peo- 
ple rejoiced. These are facts of history, unpleasant 
to acknowledge and remember, yet they cannot be 
forgotten ; and no more can the acts of those 
be forgotton, who, taking advantage of the country's 
peril, swindled l)oth State and nation out of their 
just dues and the soldiers out of their rights. 
While we should hold in grateful remembrance the 
names of Howard, Berry, Chaml)erlain, Connor, 
Jameson, Shepley, Burnham, Doughty and scores 
and hundreds of other Maine citizens who earl^^ 
went down to the war, we should remember only 
with scorn and contempt, the names and deeds of 
those who remained at home and tried to lay up 
fortunes l)y the grossest swindling and at .the 
ex})ense of the government and its defenders. I 
have not recalled the names of these })ersons for 
obvious reasons, but if any one desires to know 
who they were, they have only to examine the 
Report of the Commissioners. They will there 
learn no doubt greatly to their surprise, that many 
who were implicated in these frauds were at the 
time, leading men in church and State, and since 
the. war, have been leaders of political parties, and 
recipients of high honors at the hands of the gov- 
ernment they so wickedly swindled and betrayed. 



202 



1 will not })ursue this i)h;iso of the fsuhjcct farther. 
A\'hat J have felt ol)liiie(l to say, is humiliating', but 
I could not say less and make the record intelligi- 
ble. I have shown that while the hearts of a large 
majority of the })eo})le of this State, during the 
entire contest for the ])reser\'ati()n of national unity, 
l)eat responsive to the inusic of the Union, there 
Avere a few whose sordid love of gain became a 
ruling passion, ovcrcauje their })atriotism, and 
resulted in the connnission of uidawful and grossly 
disloyal acts. That they have sutibred more or less 
for their wrong doing, there is no doubt, for while 
virtue iH'ings its own reward, it is ecjually true that 
vice is its own tormentor. 



APPENDIX. 



SUMMING UP. 

The Seventh Maine Batteiy left Canii) Coburn, 
Augusta, Mo., for Washington, February 1, 1864, 
and on arriving there went into Camp Barry, 
which Avas a camp of instruction. 

On the twelfth of April, the battery received its 
guns (light 12 pounder brass pieces) and on the 
tifteenth was assigned to the Ninth Ai:my Corps, 
which it joined while the corps was passing through 
Washington, on its way from Annapolis to the 
front, April 25th. 

The battery enc:un[)ed the first night out, two 
miles beyond Alexandria, and on the twenty- 
seventh took up its line of march, passing through 
Centreville and crossing Bull Run creek, arrived 
at Warrenton Junction on the twenty-eighth, where 
it remained in park until May 4th. 

On the fifth the battery crossed the Rapidan 
river into the old Wilderness, and went into posi- 
tion near the Lacy house Avhere it was for the first 
time under fire. 

On the sixth the battery with many others was 
massed on the right and rear of the Sixth Corps, 
to repel an expected attack to cut oft' our sui)ply 
train . 



204 



Tlie battle of the Wilderness having been fought, 
the battery withdrew and followed the third divi- 
sion of the Ninth Corps on the march through 
Chancellorsville, continuing the march on the 
eighth and arriving at the Ny river on the ninth 
where their guns Avere i)]aced in jwsition near the 
Gale house. and opened fire on the enemy's lines, 
the guns bearing on a point on the left of the turn- 
l^ike road leading to Spotsylvania court house. At 
night Lieutenant Bundy's left section crossed the 
Ny river, threw up a lunette on a hill to the left of 
the road and placed the two guns in position. 

On the tenth two guns were placed in position 
on the line of the third division, one bearing t ) the 
right and one to the left of the road leading to the 
court house. 

On the twelfth the left section (Bundy's), took 
an advanced position on the front line and opened 
on the enemy with shot and shell. Subsequently 
the other two sections took similar })ositions and 
the entire l^attery being several hundred yards in 
advance of any other battery, engaged the enemy 
and was much exposed. Here we had our first 
killed and wounded. The guns were then with- 
drawn and placed in the same position as on the 
tenth and eleventh. 

On the twelfth, in the evening, the right section 
(Lapham's,) moved to the right to assist in an 
attack to lie made the following morning by a 
division of the Second Corps under General Bar- 



205 



low. The iiJiiht wa.s dark mid rainy and the .sec- 
tion found its way throiiuh the woods with extreme 
difficulty. Arriving at the point where the attack 
was to l)e made, the men lay down and obtained a 
couple of hours of slee}). The attack was made at 
daylight, and for a time the battery >vas exposed 
to a galling lire of nnisketry. The section with 
other artillery, opened at first with cannister, then 
used shell and lastly solid shot, being eugaged for 
a couple of hours, when it returned and joined 
the battery. 

On the seventeenth the l)attery ^vas placed in 
position on the right of the Ninth Corps line and 
joined the third division on the eighteenth. On 
the nineteenth the guns were again placed in [)osi- 
tion on the front line of the first division, remain- 
ing there until the night of the twenty-first, when 
they were withdrawn, and the l)attery took u[) the 
line of march towards the North Anna river, where 
it arrived on the twenty-third and threw up a line 
of works. 

During the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth, the 
battery had sharp artillery practice ^vith the enemy, 
our guimers showing superior marksmanship. 

On the twenty-seventh we uiarched with the 
division and crossed the Pannuikey river on the 
twenty-eighth. 

On the thirtieth, we advanced with the division 
and placed one section in position, liearing across 
the creek. The next day, another section was 
placed in position on the front line. 



206 



On the iiiiilit of June Lst, the battery foUowed 
the third diA ision train to the left in rear of the 
line of l)attle, and on the afternoon of the 2d took 
})osition on the line of the division, when the 
enemy pressed our right flank. All the aims were 
opened on the enemy and kept ii[) a ra})id firing 
until dark. 

Durino- the nio;ht our works were much strenofh- 
ened, and on the following morning, we again 
opened fire with marked effect. Soon after, by 
order of the division connnander, the battery was 
l)laccd in a })osition within 350 yards of the enemy's 
works, where we were much exposed. After throw- 
ing up earthworks to protect the gunners, the pieces 
were turned against the enemy and threw shot and 
shell with marked effect. 

At dark, the battery was withdrawn and placed 
in the position of the morning. We here met with 
losses in killed and wounded. 

On the fourth of June, the l)attery Avas moved 
to a position near the Cross Roads at Cold Harbor 
and placed in position where it remained until the 
twelfth, 0})ening occasionally upon the enemy's 
entrenched line and often provoking a return tire. 

On the fourteenth we crossed the Chickahominy, 
and the James river on the 15th, and marching up 
the right l)ank, reached the front of Petersburg on 
the sixteenth. 

On the eighteenth when the Ninth (Jorps drove 
the enemy across the Norfolk railroad, we took a 



207 



})osition on the crest of a hill, coiinnandino- the 
enemy's new line of works, where ^ve ke})t up a 
constant tire, to prevent him from strengthening 
his worlvs, and to assist our troops in making an 
advance. We remained in this position until the 
twentieth, when with the third division, we moved 
to the right. 

We next took u}) an advance position to the left 
of the Hare house within 300 yards of the enemy 
where we o})ened on his works. 

On the night of the twenty-third, the third 
division returned to the left, where the battery was 
placed in the works near the Taylor house about 
fifty yards in advance of the rodoul)t afterwards 
known as Fort Morton. 

The Taylor house was in front of and 700 yards 
distant from the point wdiere the famous Burnside 
mine was sprung on the thirtieth of July. The 
battery remained in this position during the entire 
month. I'here was constant firing from the rebel 
entrenched picket line in our front, and no man 
might with impunity, raise his head above our 
breast work. During the mine explosion and the 
confiict which followed, our battery did good ser- 
vice. 

On the fourth of August, the battery was relieved 
from a ])osition which it liad held under a burning- 
sun for forty-four consecutive days, a longer 
period, it is believed, than any other battery on 
the line, remained exposed to a constant fire ))y 
night and by day. 



208 



On the tbiirtci'iith of Aiiiiii.st, wo were ordered 
into position at Fort Rice, a mile to the left of the 
mine. 

On the nineteenth the enemy opened a sharp tire 
upon us which was continued for an hour, wound- 
in'X one man and disablinii' one gun. 

On the twenty-fourth the battery joined the third 
division near the Weldon railroad, and on the 
twenty-tifth nmrched to the support of the Second 
Corps near Ream's station, returning at night. 

Se})teniher 0th, the guns were placed in a redoubt 
on the Jerusalem Plank road, near the Williams 
house, and remained until the twenty-ninth, when 
Ave moved to the Gurley house. On the thirtieth 
we passed the Yellow tavern, and halted at 
Peeble's farm, near Poplar Spring church. 

October 1, the battery was ordered into jjosition 
at the Peeble's house and remained during the day 
and night, and on the morning of October 2d we 
moved out and took a new })()sition near the Pegram 
house, under a heavy artillery tire, in which two of 
our horses were killed, and the liml)er of one gun 
disabled. 

On the afternoon of the fourth, the enemy 
opened on us with artillery, at the same time, 
advancing a line of infantry which forced back our 
pickets. We replied with energy and continued 
until the enemy ceased firing. 

October 5th, our guns Avere placed in Fort Welch 
at the extreme left, and remained there untd 



209 



Noveinber oOtli, ^\^\wn we moved t()^^'a^d the right 
again and took position in Fort Alexander Hayes. 
We remained here only two days, when we moved 
still farther to the right, and took up our old posi- 
tion in front of Petersburg. 

In the evening of December 2d, we placed four 
of our pieces in Fort Sedgwick (Fort Hell), and 
the other two in a l^attery adjoining, known as 
battery 21. The guns in the fort and batteries 
were in the immediate command of Lieutenants 
Lapham and Staples of the Seventh Maine, and 
Lieutenant Machewsky of the Third New Jersey, 
the former being the ranking officer. The batteries 
of the corj)s had now been organized into an 
artillery brigade, under command of Gen. Tidl)all, 
chief of artillery of the Ninth Corps. Here the 
battery remained until the opening of the spring 
campaign, on the first of A[)ril, and an account of 
its service wdiile here, has already been given. 

April 1st, the l)attle of Five Forks having been 
fought, and the enemy's line broken, orders came 
for us to open all our guns upon the enemy's works, 
as a general assault all along the line was to be 
made at midnight. It was not, however, made 
until the next morning at daylight. 

At four o'clock, April 2d, all the guns opened, 
firing rapidly for fifteen or twenty minutes, then 
suspending for the infantry to charge in our front, 
which was done in splendid shape, and the rebel 
line captured just before the l)reak of day. 



210 



Artilleiyineii boinir wanted to man the rebel 
guns, Lieutenant Staples volunteered, and with the 
men of the second section, placed the guns in posi- 
tion and was soon discharging them upon the retreat- 
ing rebels. 

At noon on the third of A})ril, the batt(My broke 
camp, and i)assing through Petersburg, cani})ed at 
midnight ten miles beyond the city. 

The l)attery being with the rear cor[)s in pursuit 
of General Lee's retreating forces, encamped on 
the night of the 4th near Saw Mill station, on the 
South Side railway, and the next night twenty 
miles beyond at Melville station. On the (3th we 
were at Burksville, and on the 10th at Farmville, 
where Ave were at the time of the surrender. 

While at Farmville, Lieutenant Lapham, Avith a 
detail of 100 men, was engaged in hunting up and 
sending away by rail, the artillery which the rebels 
had dumped into the runs, rivers and swamps on 
the line of their retreat. 

We were at Farmville, Avhen we heard of the 
assassination of President Lincoln. The official 
order communicating the sad news, directed that a 
salute of twenty-one guns be tired, at noon, April 
19th, and the honor was assigned to our battery. 
At the appointed hour, from an eminence beyond 
the town, the cannon s})oke in loud tones, the 
re(|uiem in respect to the illustrious dead. 

April 20th the l)attery took up the line of march 
for City Point, and on the 26th, going on board 



211 

tr;iii,sj)()rts arnvcd in Alextuidriu on the 28tli, and 
cncam})ed ne lu Fairfax Seminary. After the grand 
review of tlie army of the Potomac, in whicli the 
battery participated, and the review of Sherman's 
army, the liattery was ordered home, and was 
mustered out of the service, June 21, 18(i5. 

The I)attery during its term of service achieved 
the riglit to have inscribed upon its colors, the 
following engagements. 

Wilderness. 

Ny River. 

SrOTSVLVANIA. 

North Anna. 
Bethesda Church. 
Cold PIarbor. 
Norfolk Railroad. 
Before Petersburg. 
Weldon Railroad. 
Poplar Spring Church. 
Pegram Farm. 
Fort Sedgwick. 
Capture of Petersburg. 



EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS. 



T>ETTER8 FROM CAMP BARRY. 

Camp Barry, which is the largest artillery camp 
of instruction in the United States, if not in the 
world, is situated on the Bladensburg Pike, about 
one and a half miles northwest of the Capitol. 

It was laid out and organized under the immedi- 
ate direction of Brig. Gen. W. F. Barry, who was 
chief of artillery of the army of the Potomac during 
the time Gen. McClellan had command of that army, 
and who has since, until recently, been inspector 
of artillery, U. S. A. The location has grea" nat- 
ural advantages for a camp, beside being one of 
the pleasantest spots in the suburbs of Washington. 
It slopes gradually toward the south, sufficient to 
drain off the water (juickly after a storm, an all 
im):)ortant consideration in this changeable climate. 
At the base of this slope, a few rods south of the 
camp, is a small stream of pure water, affording 
ample facilities for watering the thousands of horses 
in this camp and in the other camps near by. The 
grounds for the camp were surveyed, and the camp 
laid out about tifteen months ago. Lieut. Col. 
Munroe of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment Light 
Artillery was the first post commander and he was 
succeeded by Maj. Jame» A. Hall, formerly the 
able and efficient commander of the gallant Second 
Maine liattery. The post commander receives his 
orders from the inspector of artillery, whose head- 
quarters are in the city. Gen. Barry has tiUed 



214 



that office until recently, wlien he was onlered to 
Chattanooga to reorganize the artillery of that de- 
partment. He was succeeded by Brig. Gen. A. P. 
Howe of ^Nfaine. Gen. Howe is a graduate of West 
Point and was formerly attached to the regular 
artillery. His inspector and chief of staff is Maj. 
Charles Hamlin, son of the Vice President. 

The new organizations are all ordered into this 
camp where they receive their horses, guns and 
equipments, and remain here until they become 
efficient in drill and discipline. Commissioned offi- 
cers recite in the tactics to the })ost commander and 
the non-counnissioned to the officers of the com- 
})any. Reviews and inspections occur at regular 
intervals and the progress of the different batteries 
is narrowly watched and carefully noted by the 
ins})ector. Old organizations whose numbers have 
been reduced in the tield are also sent l)ack here 
to recruit. 

There are now in this camp fifteen batteries, six 
of them being from New England and three from 
Maine. The old Second INIaine, which has been 
with the army of the Potomac for over two years 
and has participated in all its hard fought battles is 
now here. This battery for efficiency and discipline 
stands second to none from our State, and few, if 
any in the volunteer service has a nol)ler record. 
Capt. Davis Tillson who came out with the battery 
is now brigadier general, and connnands the 
defence of Knoxville. Captain Hall who succeeded 
him is now major, and in connnand of the camp. 
Captain Ulmer was the next in connnand and re- 
signed on account of (Usability. Ca})tain Albert F. 
Thomas is now in connnand and is an able officer 
and very popular with his men. The battery is 
now filled u]) to the maxinuun standard and will l)e 



215 



ready to pjirticipate in the near ap})roacliing cam- 
paign . 

The 3rd Maine is also here. This battery was 
first commanded by Captain Swett, of whom Gen. 
Webster said in his report, "His flashing eye would 
melt down a six j^ounder at a glance." When the 
18th jNfaine was reorganized and changed to Heavy 
Artillery, this battery became Company "M," of 
that regiment. Captain Svvett resigned, and the 
preference of recridts for that regiment so aug- 
mented its numbers that Company "M" again 
became the 3rd Maine Battery. It recently came 
into this camp under connnand of Captain Mayo. 

The 7th Maine has been here about two months. 
It came here with a hundred and forty-three men, 
one deserting and three being left sick at Augusta. 
There has been much sickness in this company 
since its arrival. The measles soon made its 
appeai'ance and as usual a large number had never 
had it. Others had the mumps, and several were 
attacked Avith erysipelas. A peculiar afi'ection of 
the throat and fauces went through the entire com- 
pany. Four have died, viz : Charles A. Eeed, 
Presque Isle ; John W. Leavitt, Winthro}), George 
S. Ricker, Hallo well, and Sanuiel F. Field of 
Presque Isle. 

Several men, induced no doubt by the lai'ge 
bounties, enlisted into this ))attery and managed to 
deceive the sui'geon, who are unfit for service and 
always will l)e. One man has fits and has been dis- 
charged from the service once on account of it. Anoth- 
er has a withered leg and has never done any service ; 
a third has a breach, a fourth is troubled with 
scrofula and there are several who now freely con- 
fess and even claim that they are unfit for service 
and knew Ihey were not when then they enlisted. 



216 



The government has l)cen awfully swindled l)y these 
"hospital bummers," since such liberal bounties 
have been paid, and they should immediately be 
discharii'ed from the service and be made to disgorge 
the money they have so dishonestly received. 

The health of the compan}-, as a whole, is im- 
proving. Several have recently returned from the 
hosjjital and we have but one or two cases now 
wiiich are in any manner dangerous. 

The Second and Third Maine Batteries have the 
10-pounder ritied gun, but the Seventh has the light 
12-pounder smooth bore. At long range the rifled 
guns have the advantage, Init at short range the 

light 12-j)ounder is vastly superior. 

* * * * * , 

The weathei- has been unusually mild even for 
this latitude since we came here. There have been 
but few cold days and we have had much more 
duvst than mud. Spring is already l)eginning to 
put on its beautiful garments and birds and flowers 
are seen on every hand. 

With the advent of spring comes the time for 
active operations in the fleld. Already troops are 
marching in large num])ers toward the front, and 
the army of the Potomac, I'eorganized and rein- 
forced, and under the leadershi}) of the victorious 
Grant Avill soon be on the war path. 

A large portion of the heavy artillery stationed 
about Washington has ])een ordered to the front as 
infantry. This is as it should be. Many of these 
regiments have been stationed here over two years 
and numl)er two thousand men each. They are 
well drilled as infantry and will make a fine addi- 
tion to active service. It is understood their places 
are to be filled to a certain extent by the \^eteran 
Reserve Corps (late the Invalid Corps). 



217 



The National Fair at the Patent Office has l)een 
very successful. It closes by a <>rand l)all this 
evenino-. The President and his lady have honored 
it on two or three occasions by their presence, and 
a few evenings since Gen. Sickles was present and 
made an excellent speech. March 29, 1(S()4. 



DOWX AT THE FROXT. 

Having received from the "military powers that 
be," in this department, a bit of })aper on which 

was stated that "Lt. had leave of absence for 

three days to visit the army of the Potomac on 
important })rivate business," I took it to the provost 
marshal who vised it so as to allow the l)earer 
transi^ortation on the United States military rail- 
road, :nid then without further ceremony I was off 
to the "Front." The term, "Frpnt," though suffi- 
ciently definite, can hardly be said to have a local 
habitation, for at different periods during the war 
it has run in })arallel lines all the way from the 
Potomac to the Pai)idan. At the present time it 
is as far from Washington as it ever has been. 

Cars now connect with the Baltimore trains run- 
ning along in front of the capitol, through iNIary- 
land aA'onue, until it crosses Seventh street, where 
a "military necessity," has caused the erection of 
a way station for the benefit of those who are going- 
down to the battlefields. The cars now run over 
long bridge, but a raib-oad bridge is in process of 
erection, some fifteen or twenty rods below, and 
will soon be finished. 

Leaving AVashington, the road winds along down 
the Potomac to Alexandria. Near that city was 
where the Twenty-third Maine was encamped last 
10 



218 



spring and the long line of riiie pits attest to the 
great amount of fatigue duty performed by the reg- 
iment while there. From Alexandria it branches 
otf from the river, and |)assing along through the 
chain of forts which comprise the defences of Wash- 
ington, we steamed away through held and wood- 
land, the former cut up with a complete network of 
roads, and the latter terribly mangled by the wood- 
man's axe. Halting at several little way-side 
stations, around each of which Avas a little collec- 
tion of canvas tents, the tem})orary homes of the 
railroad guard, who at short intervals all along the 
road is seen dark and weather beaten with nuis- 
ket in hand ready to defend with his life, if 
need be the thoroughfare which alone conunu- 
nicates with, and feeds the great "army of 
the Potomac." Fairfax is soon reached and passed, 
and still farther we pass the Bull Kun stream and 
battlefield, a })ortion of which is seen on the right, 
stretching away toward the Bull Kun mountains, 
then we come to Manassas Junction where the rebel 
army of \'irginia encamped during the memorable 
winter of 1862. On the right al)out Iialf a mile 
from the road stands a large brick house, sur- 
rounded with trees. Here were the head(|uarters 
of Gen. Beauregard. Formerly there was (luite a 
res})ectable little village at Manassas Junction, but 
at this present time there is not a building standing, 
except a few temporary huts built by the govern- 
ment for the use of the soldiers stationed here. 
Fairfax, Centreville, Bull Run, Manassas I A mel- 
ancholy interest invests all these places and the 
numl)erless mounds where sleep the early lun'oes of 
the war, tell their own sad story. 

The country from Manassas to the Rappahamiock, 
a distance of forty miles, is a nearh^ level plain, 



219 



crossed occasionally l)y little branches and rivers. 
There are continuous fields of hundreds of acres, 
enclosed before the war by broad belts of woodland, 
givino' diversity and ])eauty to the landscape. But 
the aspect of the country has sadl\' chanjied within 
the past three years. At Manassas Junction com- 
mences the "Abomination of Desolation." Fields 
are laid waste, fences are destroyed, the inhal)itants 
have fled and hardly a solitary house is standino-, 
and to make the desolation still more complete, our 
ears are continually orceted with the cawin<>- of the 
carrion crow and the screams of the buzzard, those 
foul birds which ever follow in the wake of war and 
slaughter. 

At l\ap|)ahannock station is the place where such 
brilliant laurels were' won b}' the ")th and ()tli Maine 
at the time of the advance of our army in Novem- 
ber. It must have required stronu" nerve and hearts 
of steel to have climbed that hill, at the apex of 
which was a strong earth-work frowning Avith can- 
non, and to the right of which were triple lines of 
rifle pits, from behind which the rebels poured 
volley after volley of "leaden rain and iron hail." 
But nothing daunted, the Union soldiers pushed 
forward and carried the works at the point of 
the bayonet, ca})turing the entire force which 
largely outnuml)ered them. A correspondent of 
the New York Times, who pointed out to me the 
scene of the conflict, remarked that it was one of 
the most l)rilliant things of the war. Crossing the 
liai)pahannock we pass Bealton, and the next stop- 
})ing i)lace is Brandy Station which has l)een the 
scene of so many desperate cavalry flghts. In fact 
the whole country from the Eapidan to the Ilappa- 
hannock has been fought over inch l)y inch, several 
times durino- the war. At Brandv we left the cars 



220 



iiiul .struck off acros.s the country, passing army 
headquarters on the way, and erossino- Hoyl river 
we found the little remnant of the alorious 5th 
Maine encami)ed on the extreme right of the army. 
The history of the 5th is so well known as to make 
superfluous anything said in its praise in this j^lace. 
We were very kindly and cordially received by 
our friend, Colonel Edwards. The regiment is 
encamped in a grove on the outskirts of a large 
])lantation, owned by a Mr. Major, who })asses 
within the rel)el lines when the country is occupied 
by our troops. The police regulations of the camp 
wevii excellent, and not a speck of loose dirt could 
be seen anywhere. They had only one sick in 
hospital, and he was laid up with rheumatism. 
The term of service of this regiment Avill exjjire on 
the fourth of June when most of its members will 

return to Maine. 

***** 

Here we came across our old friend, A. M. 
Edwards, who went from Bethel to Detroit, and 
edited the first temperance paper published in that 
state. When the rel)ellion broke out he joined a 
three months regiment as a })rivate, was taken 
prisoner at the first Bull Run, and remained at 
Richmond nearly a year. On being released he 
raised a com})any for the 24th Michigan Infantry, 
of which he was chosen ca])tain. Since the battle 
of Gettysl)urg where the regiment was badly cut up, 
he has ))een commissioned as major. 

Leaving the Fifth we returned to Brandy Station, 
calling on Lieutenant Kimball commanding the 
Fourth Maine Battery, with whom we had a |)leas- 
ant interview. Captain Robinson who formerly 
commanded the battery has recently been in com- 
mand of the artillery of the Third Corps. His 



221 



health is very delicate and he will })ro])ahly be 
ol)liged to resign. At Brandy we again took the 
train and passed down to Culpepper. All along 
the road on either hand the fields were dotted with 
white tents. Culpepper was named for an English 
lord of that nanie to whom the land where it 
stands was formerly deeded. The town is com- 
posed of quite a number of substantialbrick houses, 
two churches, several stores and I believe three 
public houses. The court house and other county 
buildings are also here. 

General Grant's present headquarters arc at this 
place. A storm of snow and rain had made the 
roads in. a horrible condition 1)ut we came down to 
see the sights and pushed on. Passing up from 
Culpepper towards the east we found the Fifth 
jNIaine Battery camped near the foot of Poney 
mountain. This battery entered the service two 
years and a half ago, under the connnand of Captain 
Leppein. It has several times traversed over the 
entire extent of country, from Centerville to the 
Rapidan, and from Fredricksl)urg to the u}iper 
Potomac. It was through the Peninsular cami)aign 
and fought at Bull Run, first and second, at Cedar 
jSIountain, Antietam, Fredricksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg. Captain G. T. Stevens, who 
now commands the l)attery, kindly loaned us a 
horse, and accompanied us to the summit of Poney 
^Mountain, where is an imi:)ortant signal sta- 
tion. The courses of the Rapidan and Ra})pahan- 
nock rivers can plainly be traced from this elevation 
for a long distance. By the aid of a good glass 
used by the signal oflScer, the eye can follow them 
a great portion of the waj- to where the}' unite near 
Chancellorsville. By the aid of this glass we could 
see the rebel encampments on the south side of the 



222 



Kiipidan so plainly aw to be able to count the logs 
in their huts and see the rebel soldiers near by 
l)layino- foot-ball. Cedar Run mountains are quite 
near Poney Mountain, l)eing on the same side of 
the Ivapidan. There has always been a little eon- 
fusion in speaking of this mountain. There are 
three distinct mountains very near together, all 
l)earing the name of "Cedar llun Mountains," from 
a run which Hows along near their base and dis- 
charges into the Ra|)idan. The elevation on which 
the battle was fought, connnonly known as the 
battle of Cedar Alountain is called "Slaughter 
]\Iountain," from a man of that name who lived on 
and owned the tield where the battle was fought. 
It should properly be called the battle of "Slaugh- 
ter ^Mountain." Below this mountain is Clark's 
mountain on which the lebels have a signal station. 
We remained on the summit of Poney iNlountain 
until after dark, when the cam}) tires of the two 
armies could be seen in every direction. Opposite 
Raccoon Ford is the cam|) of General Kilpatrick's 
cavalry which sends out videttes on all the roads in 
every direction. A brigade composed in part of 
the 39th Massachusetts and l(3th Maine occupies a 
jwsition be}'ond jMitchell's Station and much nearer 
the rebel lines than any other infantry troo})s. 

A vast amount of picket duty is now }x>rtormed 
l)y this army. The railroad is picketed from Alex- 
andria to Mitchell's station, a distance of seventy 
miles, requiring nearly the Avhole Fifth Corps to 
guard it. A picket line is thi'own around the entire 
army ; those on the front and Hanks to watch the 
rebel pickets, and those in the rear to guard against 
Mosby's thieves, who have been exceedingly trouble- 
some during the past winter. 



223 



More or less of the buildings around Cu]i)e})per, 
and in fact all through the country, show marks of 
violence. A brick house we passed on returning 
from Poney INIountain, during the advance of the 
army last winter, was unceremoniously entered l)y 
a shell which in its passage killed a man and his 
little daughter who had left their own wooden house 
a short distance oft' and sought shelter here. 

The army of the Potomac is now in s})lendid 
condition and we predict that when Lieutenant 
General Grant shall see it in one engagement he 
will acknowledge himself greatly deceived in its 
strength and elficiency. There is no army in the 
United States so well disciplined as this, and none 
which has done or will do any better lighting. 

A few trifling incidents added to the prestige of 
his name and })revious success, have already made 
General Grant very popular with the army. When 
the review of the First Corps was being had, and 
when about half through it began to rain. The 
general immediately ordered it discontinued and 
the men sent to their quarters. Another little inci- 
dent characteristic of the man, and I will close this 
somewhat lengthy communication. AYhen the gen- 
eral was coming up to Washington on Thursday 
last, so large a number of re-enlisted soldiers were 
coming up that the train could not accommodate 
them all. Some of them went to a nearly emiity 
l)assenger car, as if to enter, when an officer ordered 
them back saying ''that car was for General Grant 
and his staft'." The general, who was inside, over- 
hearing the conversation, stepped out and charac- 
teristically remarked, "General Grant occupies only 
one seat. The boys can ride," and "the l)oys'' 
immediately filled the car. April (5, 1864. 



224 



ITEMS FKOM THE BATTEEY. 

After many beautiful autumn days, we are now 
havinii' a severe rain storm. It commenced raining 
yesterday evening and has continued up to this 
time, twelve o'clock, with every prospect of a long 
storm. This will necessarily proclaim a truce 
between the l)elligerent parties foi" the time being at 
least. The guns of the Seventh are yet in Fort 
\)'elch, near the extreuae left of the army. Ca})t. 
Twitchell is absent on a brief visit to Maine. A¥e 
are now recruited u}i to the maximum number and 
the new men are ac(iuiring good proticiency in the 
drill. After one of our guns was disabled in front 
of Petersl)uri>", in Auo-ust, one section of the bat- 
tery was turned in. We have recently drawn a 
new section which again gives us the full comple- 
ment of six guns, and we have men enough to man 
them. 

We have within a short time lost three of our 
number by death — two from Kumford and one from 
Aroostook. Samuel Goodwin was one of the Kum- 
ford recruits Avho recently died at AMllet's Point, 
New York. He was a member of Company "F," 
in the 2od Maine Regiment, and re-enlisted in this 
battery. Though somewhat rough in his manner, 
he was nevertheless a good soldier, ever willing to 
perform his duty, and as brave in action as the 
bravest. Let his faults and foibles as a citizen be 
forgotten, and let him be remembered only as a 
good soldier who died in the defence of his country. 

William Andrews was the other Eumford boy 
who lately died. He served in the 10th Maine 
Infantry, but has never enjoyed good health since 
he joined the battery. 

We have just received notice of the death at 
Alexandria, Va., of George C. Dewitt of Aroos- 



225 



took, llo Avas another of our good soldiers. The 
health of our company is now very good. 

The 31st and 8 2d Maine are now encamped just 
in rear of our fort. The 32d is about to be con- 
solidated with the 31st, and I understand that the 
company officers have all concluded to be mustered 
out. This I'egiment has been the most unfortunate 
of any organization from ]\Iaine. It was conn)osed 
of good men, but was not well officered. Colonel 
Wentworth Avas with the regiment only a few days 
while in commission. Lieutenant-Colonel Brown, 
who Avas a splendid officer, was away in the southern 
department when api)ointed, and after joining his 
command was, in a few days, seriously wounded 
and resigned, Avhile the major was removed from 
the command of the regiment and sent to the rear. 
But the 32d will soon be no more. Its identity 
will be swallowed up in the 31st, whose history 
and re[)utation are in strong contrast with those of 
the 32d. And this is entirely due to the fact that 
the 31st has been commanded. As the cold weather 
creeps on, our men will need socks and mittens 
which, Avith the present rates of postage on such 
articles, can be furnished from home. jVIittens for 
the soldiers should have a thuml) and index finger. 
Noveml)er 15, 18()4. 

EXTRACTS FliOM LETTERS FROM THE T^VE^ TY- 
TIIIRD MAINE. 

***** 

Connected with our brigade, is a light battery, 
the Tenth Massachusetts, connnanded by a son of 
Mayor Sleeper of Boston. A few days ago, some 
one on looking across into Virginia, nearly oppo- 



226 



site Edward's Ferry, saw what appeared to ))e men 
throwinu' up earth, and several persons standing 
around. The idea was at once suggested, tliat the 
rcl)els were digging rifle pits, and Captain Sleeper 
asked and obtained permission to stir them up with 
a l)om1). The first shell scattered the i)arty which 
did not rea})})ear. Toward night some one had the 
curiosity to cross over and investigate, and this is 
what he reported to have found : A half dug grave 
with the im})lements for excavating it still standing 
in it ; a box containing the mortal remains of a 
colored man ; this was all ; the battery had l)roken 
up a negro funeral and so frightened the mourners 
that they scattered and did not dare to return and 
tinish what they had undertaken. 

***** 

I visited the Fourteenth Xew Hampshire Regi- 
ment at the re(iuest of Claude Twitchell who sent 
for me and whom I found very ill with pneumonia. 
He was the son of Adams Twitchell of Milan, and 
a young man of excellent lia])its and character. He 
was under age for a soldier and enlisted against the 
wishes of his parents. I found him sick unto death 
lioth in l)ody and mind, for he was very homesick. 
He appealed to me to assist him, but it was too 
late. He died the following day. 

***** 

Stephen B. Kenney, a young medical student, is 
our hospital steward, a young man of marked 
ability and promise. He is very po})ular with the 



227 



men of the regiment, and })articularly so with those 
who have come under liis care at the hospital. He 
s})ares no pains to make them as comfortable as 
l)ossil)le, under the circumstances. (After the war, 
he finished his medical course and settled in Ports- 
mouth, Va., where he held office connected with 
his })rofession, and succeeded well. He now resides 
ill North Carolina.) 

***** 
Tuesday mornino- we marched up and pitched 
our tents on East Capitol Hill, about a mile east of 
the Capitol. Here we remained till Saturday noon, 
when we struck our tents and started on a march 
of sixteen miles to join ourselves to General dro- 
ver's l)rigade. AYe were delayed so long at George- 
town, waiting for our baggage to come up, that we 
only reached a point a mile above Chain Bridge, 
before the night set in dark and cloudy, and we 
tiled otf into the woods, and encamped near the 
river with nothing aboye us save our lilankets and 
the friendly shelter of the sycamore. We resumed 
our march in the morning traveling up the tow-path 
of the Georgetown and Cuml)erland canal. A])Out 
ten o'clock it commenced raining. 

***** 

There is occasionally a complaint of short rations 
of sugar, and it has been pretty broadly hinted that 
goyernment sugar finds its way from the commis- 
sary department, to the sutler's tent, and that the 
men are obliged to liuy from the sutler what they 



228 



ought to draw as a ration from the commissary. 
This may be nothing but talk, though the men who 
tallv it are among the l)est in the regiment. 
***** 
We have lost two by death since I last wrote 
you. Silas F. Jones of Paris, a member of Com- 
pany F, died on the 11th inst., and Ira Floyd of 
Poiter of Company K, died two days after, l)oth 
of typhoid fever. Young Jones was not well afte^' 
we left Washington, but managed to keep about 
until a very few days l)cfore he died. 

Corporal Lewis B. Newton of Andover, a mem- 
ber of Company H, died November 2d, of typhoid 
fever. He was unwell when we left Washington, 
and was obliged to go on board the canal boat at 
Georgetown. Soon after Ave arrived here his dis- 
ease assumed a serious character, and lie continued 
to fail until Sunday morning when death came to 
his relief. He was a very quiet, unassuming man, 
and was liked by his fellow-soldiers. He was 
buried Sunday evening with military honors. A 
quiet spot was selected as his burial place, under 
the friendly shelter of an oak. At the grave 
affecting and appropriate remarks Avere made by 
the chaplain, and then by the light of the moon 
which seemed to look down sympathizingly u})on 
the solemn and impressive scene, we buried him, 
and here his remains Avill mingle Avith the dust, far 
aAvay from his New England home, far aAvay from 



229 

his wife and young children, who have not yet heard 
the sad tidings of his death. 

***** 
Adjutant W. H. Hall has been promoted to be 
captain of Company B, and Sergeant-Major R. E. 
Whitman to be adjutant. He was subsequently 
promoted to be captain of Company D. Orders 
were received for moving Saturday, and at the 
appointed time the boys, with three days' rations, 
and knapsacks strapped upon their backs, were 

ready to march. 

***** 

The regiment is now (Deceml)er 20) distributed 
as follows : Companies C and H at Seneca; E, F, 
A and K with headqarters at Muddy Branch ; G at 
Lock number 21 ; B, D and I at Great Falls. The 
Massachusetts 89th and New Hampshire 14th, with 
l)rigade headcjuarters are at Poolesville, and the 
Vermont 10th is stationed in detachments from 
Poolesville to the mouth of the IMonacacy. The 
place where we are now encamped with reghnental 
headquarters is about two miles below Seneca, and 
eighteen from Washington. 

We left all our sick at the old camp, poor fellows ! 
Some of them will soon be aide to join us, but 
many of them never in this world. We left about 
twenty of Company F's men there, but only two in 
hospital, one, J. P. Packard of Paris. 

***** 

Last Friday some of our cavalry scouts searched 
a house near here and found thirty muskets, thirty 



230 



artillery harnes.se.s, a small cannon, and quite a 
(juantity of ammunition. In another they found 
the amis and equipments of poor Stiles, orderly 
seru'eant of one of the cavalry companies connected 
Avith our brigade, Avho was killed by the rebels at 
their recent raid into Poolesville. White gave 
notice at that time, that he should be over and take 
Christmas dinner at Poolesville, but in the mean- 
time our l)rigade moved up here, and he probably 
chano-ed his mind. On two or three occasions since 
we came here, rt)ckets have been seen to go up 
from the house of Major White's relative undoubt- 
edly signalizing our movements to the rebels on 
the other side. Yet all these men go unpunished, 
their })roperty is protected, and a soldier punished 
if he lays his hand on anything. This may :dl be 
riffht but I confess I cannot see it in that b'oht. 
They are none the less rebels than those in the 
rebel army, and are ready to do us all the harm 
they can, and in my opinion should be treated as 
such. 

* * * * * 

Lieut. Joseph II. Abbott of llumford, of Com- 
pany F, has been obliged to resign on account of 
ill health. He took cold at Washington, Avhich 
brought on a severe and persistent cough, so seri- 
ously impairing his health as to render him entirely 
unlit for dut} . He was very jwpular Avith the 
company, and they were right sorry to part with 
him, but under the cii-cumstances it Avas the best 



231 



thiii<>- ho could do. We all hope that the good 
medical treatment and kind care he will receive at 
home, will soon restore him to health. The vacancy 
will be tilled by the api)ointment of the i)resent 
orderly sergeant, S. A. Bolster of Paris, 

***** 

Since my last communication, we have again 
moved our encampment, we are now at a place 
called Otfutt's Cross Roads, al)out two and one- 
half miles from the river and about the same dis- 
tance from our former place, toward Washington. 
We are now situated in a beautiful })lace on a 
hill sloping towards the west, tlanked on the north 
by a grove of i)ines, impervious to winds, and pro- 
tected on the east and south l)y a white oak wood. 
In front towards the west, the land is cleared for 
nearly a fourth of a mile, making an excellent 
parade ground. Adaptation as an element of 
Yankee character, is nowhere l)etter exhibited than 
among our soldiers in the tield. We have been in 
our new position only three days, and already our 
boys have l)uilt basements of logs two feet high 
under their A tents, gathered rocks together and 
built them chimneys, and made themselves very 
comfoi-table . 

***** 

Near our encam})nient is a high elevation which 
overlooks a large extent of country on the ^Jary- 
land side, and also of the sacred soil over in 
the "Old Dominion." Edward's Ferrv, Harrison's 



232 



Island, Ball's Bluff! These i)laces insignificant 
before the war, but now rendered historic, are 
plainly to be seen from this point. Here the gal- 
lant Baker, acting under the orders of General 
Stone, unhesitatingly crossed the river in the face 
of a vastly superior numl)er of the enemy, Avas 
repulsed, and fell, while leading his handful of 
heroes against the hordes of the enemy. As I 
surveyed the j^lace through a glass, the other day, 
reposing so quietly in the sunshine, having that 
hazy, dreamy appearance that is characteristic of 
Indian summer in the North, I could hardly make 
it seem that it was so recently the scene of one of 
the most sanguinary conflicts of the war. The 
bluff where it terminates abruptly at the river, is 
covered with wood and around the left Avhere our 
troops clambered up, it is covered apparently with 
a small undergrowth. Above is the field where the 
rebels formed their line of battle after coming from 
the woods, and \vhere now repose the remains of 
the many heroes who fell in the brief l)ut ])lo()dy 
contest. 

***** 

Among the Woodstock (|iu)ta, was Galen G. 
Bowker who l)elonged to Company D. He was 
taken sick of the prevailing disorder and died. 
His was the only death of a Woodstock man in the 
regiment. His remains were taken to Brvant's 
Pond for interment, and for a year or two, his was 
the only soldier's grave in the cemetery at that 



233 

place. Bowkei- was a genial fellow, and inuch liked 
by his comrades. 

***** 

Deserters from the Federal army on the IJappa- 
hannock, are often arrested by our pickets as they 
cross the river. ihey generally claim to be 
paroled, but are forwarded to Washington. As 
many as seven have come over in one day, and 
they represent a large numl)er strolling around on 
the Virginia side. Those arrested thus far have 
claimed to be from New York and Pennsylvania 

recjiments. 

***** 

A fearful accident occurred last evening at Fort 
Lyon about a mile from our camp. This fort is 
garrisoned by the 3d New York Heavy Artillery. 
Last evening as workmen were at work in the maga- 
zine tilling shells, a percussion shell was accidentally 
dr()p[)ed which exploded, setting fire to other shells 
and })owder, blo^ving up the entire structure and 
l)urying the workmen in the ruins. One lieutenant, 
a scriieant and eighteen men were killed, most ot 
them ])eing horribly mutilated. A large num])er 
were wounded, some of whom have since died. 
One i)iece of a shell passed into a tent where the 
Avife of one of the captains of the regiment was 
sitting, striking her arm and completely severing it 
from her l)ody. Another piece was driven into a 
tent where an officer was just sitting down to sup- 
per, passing so near his head as to brush his hair 



234 



{ind take away pail of his hat rim, but doing no 
other damage. 

* * * * * 

A private in one of the com[)anies who has 
frequently tried to phi>' the ])ully h:id his eourage 
teste.l the other day, and it was f )un;l wanting. 
He was directed \)y the offi -er of th;? picket to per- 
form some duty which was not agreea,])le to him, 
and on being ordered quite sharply a second time, 
he told the officer that but for his shoulder straps, 
he woukl Hog him. The officer quietly removed 
his coat and laid it down, remarking that with it 
he laid off his straps, and waived all the advantage 
of rank ; addi.ig that he was very glad to give him 
the o})[)ortunity he desired. Xever was bully more 
crestfallen tha i ours, and he sneaked away to his 
post amid the jeers of his comrades who, from that 

moment, no longer feared him. 

***** 

The sergeants in Company A were stalwart men, 
not one of them measuring less than six feet in 
height, and some of them three or four inches over. 
Their names were : Sumner Nason, AVilliani l>ag- 
nall,Ethelbert Caswell, William F. Forbes, Edward 
M. Dearborn and Alvah J. Ilervey. This comi)any, 
mostly raised in Lewiston, came from the shops, 
the stores and the factories and were a superior set 
of men. These sergeants were selected in part on 
account of their height, and at the right of the 
company and regiment, \niu\v ;i very tine appear- 
ance. 



235 



Our l)usiness now i.s to guard tho fords of the 
Potoniac, which are very nuuiorous at present. 
Two commissioned officers and a hundred soldiers 
are daily detailed for this duty. Their beat is the 
tow-path of the canal, which runs along the river. 
The rebels hold the opposite side of the Potomac 
and are fre(]uontly seen 1)y us. We are lial)le to 
be attacked by them at any time. 

***** 

Last night, after we had retired, the adjutant 
came from regimental headquarters with orders to 
have the men sleep with their guns by their sides 
where they could be seized at any time, as we were 
liable to be called up at any moment. But the 
night passed quietly away and we learned this 
morning that the alarm was caused by tho re})ort 
tliat three rebel regiments were within a mile of 
us. It may have been so. 

* * * * ■ * 

Night before last Corporal George Xorwood of 
jNIanchester a member of Company F, 14th New 
Hampshire fell into the lock while on guard, and 
was drowned. .His body will be sent home. The 
8Uth Massachusetts Regiment is joined to our 
brigade and is in camp above us. I believe there 
are no other Massachusetts regiments in the brigade. 
We left the Maine 25th and 27th at Washington. 
They are in General Casey's division. 



236 



* * *- * * 

We reached Edward's Ferry al»out three o'clock 
and soon after it l)egan to I'ain. The l)oat having 
our tents on l)oard not arriving, we succeeded in 
borrowing tents of a portion of a Massachusetts 
regiment quartered here, sufficient for our men 
while the officers picked up lodgings wherever they 
could. Your correspondent, with several others, 
burrowed under a stack of straw and had "elegant" 
lodgings, to use a })hrase of the country. Our 
boat arrived during the night, and the next morn- 
ing we marched up to our present encampment, 
about half a mile from the river, and pitched our 
tents on a spot where several regiments had before 
encamped. 

We made nearly half the distance Avith nothing 
to break the monotonj', when an amusing and char- 
acteristic Southern scene took place on the op})()site 
side of the canal. It is "Merry Christmas," you 
know and of course a general holiday among the 
colored people of the South. As we were passing 
a plantation situated on a hill at some little distance 
back from the canal, we saw several negroes mak- 
ing their way across the field, and soon they made 
their appearance on the opposite side of the canal, 
and followed along with the regiment for ii cou})le 
of miles. There were men, women and children, 
all dressed up in their best "Sunday clothes," and 
all seemingly as happy as merry Christmas and 



237 



pei-hiips a little whiskey, could make them. One 
old fellow seemed really boiling over with mirth, 
and with h;it in hand, sang and danced nearly all 
the way. When we stopped to rest they all pitched 
in and great ])urly males and fat wenches l:)lack as 
sable night, together on the greensward "tripped 
the light fantastic toe" in a manner that would have 
surprised a French dancing master. At length they 
came to a creek, which liindered them from follow- 
ing us farther. With many gesticulations they 
bade us "good-bye," one old fellow crying after us : 
"Good-l)ye, God bress you gemmen. We can't do 
nothing for you, you can do more for us than we 

can for you." 

***** 

The country in this vicinity, l)oth on the Virginia 
and Maryland side, is tine for agricultural pur- 
poses. On each side of the river is a narrow belt 
of ricli intervale, and then it rises higher into 
l)road talde lands, varied here and there by l)eing 
rolled up into slight elevations, sloping only enough 
for drainage, intersected l)y woody ravines, at the 
1)ottom of which generally flows a stream of pure 
water. A little Yankee enterprise infused into the 
inhabitants, a little more taste in the erection of 
buildings, a little more neatness in trimming up 
the trees and shrul)bery, with the curse of negro 
slavery removed, would make this one of the finest 
sections of country I have ever seen. But like all 
places on the border of the so-called confederate 



238 



states, this })lace is sufForing fearfully in conse- 
quence c»f the war, audit will recjuire years of labor 
after it shall have ceased to erase the marks of its 
iron feet. 

Hon. Sidney Perham, member of Congress from 
Maine, came up to see us a few days ago. He had 
many ac(juaintances in the regiment, who were 
very glad to see hiin. Pie came on horseback, and 
while riding along the tow-path his horse stumbled 
and threw him into the canal. He suffered no 
other damage than a thorough wetting. 

Colonel Virgin with his wife is stopping with a 
man named Young about a mile from the camp. 
His host claims to be a Union man but the people 
in this vicinity speak of him otherwise. I hope 
the colonel will not be molested by White's par- 
tisans, but I cannot help thinking he is taking some 

risk. 

***** 

We all very much regret the loss of our recent 
brigadier general, who has l^een ordered to report to 
General Banks, probabl}^ to go into the Texas expe- 
dition. We had seen but little of General Grover 
since we came here, but his gentlemanly and 
soldierly deportment made him \'ery popular Avith 
our 1)oys. Colonel Davis of the Massachusetts 311th 
now commands our brigade, liumors are current 
here every day, about rebel cavalry being on the 



239 



opposite side of the river and scouring the country 
up towards Leesl)uri>", but we know not what 
foundation tliere may be for them. I met Doctor 
Hunkins last evening at Georgetown. He left 
Lees])urg yesterday morning where he had been 
actino- as division surgeon . He informed me that 
rebel cavalry were within three miles of there when 
he left, and would soon re-occupy the place. If 
they do, they may i)0ssibly make another raid into 
Maryland. 

A negro, recently from the Georgetown hospital 
where he had been sick of small-})ox, presented 
himself to our pickets at Muddy Branch a few days 
since, and was taken up to camp where he was fed 
and then sent away, as it was feared he might 
impart the disease to the soldiers. He went to a 
shanty on one of the old picket stations, and the night 
being very cold, he died. Several days afterward 
his body still lay unburied in the shanty. 
***** 

Over thirty teamsters and other employes in the 
quarterrmaster's department, were arrested in Alex- 
andria yesterday, for refusing to take the oath of 
allegiance. These miserable traitors ha^e been in 
the employ of the government for two years, more 
or less, receiving good pay and professing loyalty, 
but when the test was applied in accordance with a 
recent order requiring all government em})loyes to 
take the oath, and all those in the vicinity of Wash- 



240 



inoton to be enrolled and organized for the defence 
of the Capital in case of an attiick, they declined to 
come up to the scratch, and many of them ran away. 
Those arrested were escorted by a squad of our 
men to the old Capital prison. 

* * * * * 

A member of the First D. C. Volunteers came 
over last evening with a wagon and some baggage, 
among which were two nmskets. Going to the 
rear of the Avagon, he seized one of the muskets by 
the muzzle for the purpose of drawing it out, and 
as the hammer struck the side of the wagon it 
ex[)loded the cap, lodging the contents of the gun 
in his right breast, inflicting a wound from which 
he died in a few minutes. 

***** 

To-day I visited the church at Alexandria where 
AVashington and his family attended. The buihl- 
ing has undergone some changes both outside and 
in, l)ut the pulpit and the Washington pew remain 
the same. On Sundays, this pew is generallj" 
filled 1)y soldiers. General Robert E. Lee occu- 
pied a pew near by, l)ut this has no interest to a 
Union soldier since its owner became a traitor to 
his country. 

***** 

The jNIarshall house where the gallant Ellsworth 
was shot down in tlie early part of the war, is an 
object of interest and visited l)y large numbers. 







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