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Sicot^'i. 0. v{«nfa«U. Huailioa. K«al & Co.. Ltd. 

The Kubbas oS Dead Saints. 

{Str paf^c 54 ) 







\ ■& R A ^ J.. 

By H. J. B. WARD/BA. 

■Mny 9f 1^ 


Simpkin, Marthall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., Ltd. 


IRights 0/ Translation Reserved.] 



Section I. — "The Mysterious East" - i 

„ II. — Geography and Travel - - 7 

„ III. — The People and their Ways - 32 

„ IV.— The "Faith" and the 

"Faithful" - 88 

„ V. — History 107 

„ VI. — Topography - - - - 146 

„ VII. — The " Rovers " and their 

Victims - 212 

„ VIII. — Remarks on Books dealing 

with Morocco - 227 

„ IX. — List of Dynasties - - - 233 
„ X. — Index 237 


List of Illustrations. 

The Kubbas of Dead Saints 



An Olive Grove of South 
Morocco . . . - 

- 4 

- 12 

- 20 

- 20 

- 28 

The River Tensift - 

A Beehive Hut - 

A Native Doctor 

A Baggage Mule 

" Matthew at the Receipt of 
Customs " - - • - 36 

A Moorish Dancer • - - 44 
The Mueddhin calls to Prayer 52 
Mountain Berbers - - - 60 
Women of the Atlas • - - 68 
Moorish Barbs - - - - 76 
The Slave Market- 
Borrowed Plumes - - 14 

Customers questioning a 
Slave - • - - 92 

A Little Bit of Traditional 
"Desert" • - • - 100 

An Atlas Track - - • - 108 

Key to Moorish History - - 116 

An Arab Encampment - - 124 

Amzmiz 132 

A Moorish " Front Door" - 140 

The Famous Kootoobeeyah 
Minaret .... 148 

A Covered Street in the 
Southern Capital - - 156 

The Hall of Delights - - 164 

The Great Gate of Marrakesh - 172 

Jugglers and Snake Charmers 180 


A Tangier Scene - . .188 

The Disappointed Litigant ■ 196 

Glouwi Castle .... 204 

Pirate Craft .... 212 

Mountaineers of the Glouwi 
Clan 220 

In the Agudal Gardens of the 
Sultan 2j8 

Butter-making ... - 236 

A Potter at Work • - - 244 

In the Streets of Marrakesh - 252 

Moorish Pipe .... 253 

The Guest Chamber in a 
Moorish Country House - 254 

Postures during Prayer - - 255 

Costumes ... - 256, 257 

Koos-Koos 258 

Brass Water Jug and Basin - 259 

Slippers and Silk Work from 
South Morocco . - - 260 

Marrakesh Leather Work - a6i 

Modern Moorish Coins - - 262 

Various Moorish Articles - 263 

Musical Instruments • • 264 

A Country Girl wearing 
Brooches • - • .265 

Map of Marrakesh - - - 266 

Map of Fez ■ - • - 267 

Saffi Pottery and Fez Metal 
Work 268 

Map of Morocco • Facing 268 

Section L 

== " The 


General Remarks. 

HAT has been known to European The 


Nations for many centuries under the 
title of "The East'"'^ possesses the same 
attractions for the modern Englishman as it did 
for his ancestors far back in the days of the 
Anglo-Saxon and the Dane. The old Goths 
invaded Morocco in such numbers as to establish 
an empire which endured for eighty years, and 
some ethnographical students believe that it is still 
possible to trace the Teutonic strain in the modern 

One of the most famous tragedies of our "Othello. 
world poet, the "Swan of Avon," centres round 
the figure of the Moor "Othello," and the 

* The coast of Morocco is West of Greenwich, but the term " East " 
has a signification other than the strictly geographic one. 

dramatist with his wonderful insight into the 
workings of human nature, even in its (to him) 
unfamiliar form, has depicted in his play the 
true Oriental feeling of a genuine Eastern. The 
same story, under a slightly varied form, occurs 
in the "Arabian Nights,"* that wonderful collec- 
tion of Eastern tales which has become so 
familiar to us, and, indeed, is one of the most 
precious possessions of English childhood. 
Unspoiled The ** Empire of Morocco,"! as it is still called, 

Orien- contains to an eminent degree the unspoiled life 
talism. of the East. Even on the coast, in the towns 
visited by the European steamers, the natives are 
scarcely touched by the Western spirit, and a 
journey a very few miles up country takes the 
traveller to unadulterated Orientalism. 

It is not necessary to make a longer journey 
than that involved in the five or six days 
necessary to reach Tangier, in order to realize 
the difference between West and East, to which 

* Lane's edition, published in 1877, is the best for general purposes, 
it is a literal translation from the Arabic and preserves much of the 
spirit of the originals. Sir Richard Burton's translation is absolutely 
literal and undipped. In the East the sexes are separated, so that it is 
not necessary to cater for mixed audiences as European lit^rateurs 
must do. The style resulting from literal translation is indicated in 
Section III., chap. iii. 

t The name of the country we are considering is variously derived by 
etymologists ; the most plausible explanation seems to be one that 
traces its origin to a latinized form of the word " maur " or "mahur," 
meaning West. 

Rudyard Kipling calls attention in his well- 
known lines :— Contrast 

" For East is East, and West is West, Affords 

" But never the twain shall meet Piquancy. 

"Till the earth and sky stand presently 
"At God's great judgment seat." 

But this very difference gives a piquancy to the 
interest inspired in the one by the other. At 
the same time it renders all the more necessary 
some direction as to the points of interest. The 
writer has been accosted in the streets of Tangier 
by a fellow passenger ashore to see the sights, 
with the question, " What is there to see here ? " and 
yet the questioner was standing in the middle of a 
scene such as he had never witnessed before. It 
was market day, and the country folk had come in . Wq-h 
from the neighbouring villages. The varieties of picture. 
costume, physiognomy and colouring were remark- 
able : a well-born Chief clad in spotless white, 
the hood of his fine soulham drawn over his 
turban, mounted on a magnificent riding mule, 
and wearing a pair of elaborately decorated riding 
boots, had just passed by, his fine cut Aryan 
features expressing no emotion as he gazed ahead ; 
across the street a water carrier had opened the 
top of his goatskin bag and was selling water to a 


is the 



Resort for 




man from the Sudan, clad in that single blue 
outer garment, characteristic of his race. A little 
further on a woman of the lower orders held her 
haik cornerwise across her face, covering one eye 
and the whole mouth. Despite this sad dis- 
advantage, however, she was chattering volubly 
as she bargained for a water melon. 

On board the steamer, anyone who is going 
inland is constantly asked how he is going to 
'* cross the desert," and considerable astonishment, 
sometimes amounting to incredulity, is aroused 
when one states that the ** desert " is for the most 
part exceedingly fertile agricultural land which 
grows barley, maize, and all sorts of corn in 
abundance, and is interspersed with groves of 
olives, fig and almond trees, to say nothing of 
the date palms and (in the South) argan trees 
which form an important feature of the landscape. 

The weather on the coast is exceedingly enjoy- 
able, the breezes blowing in from the Atlantic all 
the year round keeps the mean summer tempera- 
ture within ten degrees of the mean temperature 
for the winter months. In the course of time this 
fact will become known, and along the coast the 
towns will develop into favoured pleasure resorts. 
'Tis a process that has already begun at Tangier, 

In an Olive Grove of Sooth Morocco. 

(see page 4) 

where really excellent hotels are to be found, and 
where Europeans have started to build for their 
own habitation ; Mogador too, in the South, is 
now offering attractions for visitors since the 
opening of its new hotel. Judging from these 
examples, the progress seems likely to move along 
lines which leave the Eastern characteristics 
practically unspoiled, at least for very many years 
to come. It must not be forgotten that contact 
with Europeans on the coast is no new thing : 
it has been going on for centuries, and the contact 
has by no means been entirely or even mainly 
hostile. The Moor is by nature genial, joke- 
loving and hospitable, and although his religion 
teaches him that non-Mohanlmedans are doomed 
to eternal perdition, this belief does not prevent 
him from enjoying intercourse with the doomed- 
for-futurity in this present world. Apart from the 
rare outbreaks of fanaticism which now and 
again sweep across the East in the same way as 
religious " revivals " pass over European countries, 
no European who takes care not to wantonly 
outrage their religious feelings, need expect 
molestation on account of his own. I have 
sometimes been asked : *' What would happen 
if I got into the interior of a * Mosque ' ? " The 

a Touring 

of the 

answer is that probably a Moor connected with 
the place would take you by the hand and gently 
but firmly lead you out again. It is, of course, 
possible that some very ardent disciple of the 
Prophet might use his dagger ; but such ardour 
is rare, and you would probably get out in safety. 
I do not, however, advise the experiment. 
Object of It is in the hope that the notes printed in sub- 

following sequent chapters will prove of use in pointing 
Chapters, out to folk desiring to visit this " Land of 
Mystery " what they might expect to find there 
that this book has been produced. It will serve 
also to remind those who have visited it of what 
they saw, and perhaps to enable those who stay 
at home to transport themselves in imagination 
across the seas. 

Section II, 


and Travel. 

THIS section contains only the few geographical 
details which seem absolutely necessary. 
Any long continued exposition is apt to be 
wearisome, and in the case of a country like 
Morocco, where so much exploration remains to be 
done, geographical descriptions are apt to become 
discussions of points on which authorities and 
explorers differ. Mr. Budgett Meakin's remarks 
on pages 20 and 21 of " The Land of the Moors," 
are eloquent on this point, and the map which 
accompanies the volume is more eloquent still, 
particularly on account of its omissions ! 

I have included in this section a few notes of 

what naturally is interdependent with geography 

and maps: namely, travel. This section covers 

the following chapters : — page 

/. Mauretanian Quadrilateral (Geographical 

Notes) 8 

//. Travel (a ride from Mogador to Marrakesh) 15 
///. Hints to Travellers - • • - 24 
IV. sports and Pastimes - - - - 27 


The Mauretanian Quadrilateral. 

" Maure- 





fronv dry 



Geographically speaking, the North- West corner 
of Africa, which includes Morocco, Algeria, and 
Tunis, forms a coherent whole, whether our point 
of view be orographic, hydrographic, or climatic. 
It is, moreover, so treated by Leo Africanus,* its 
oldest historian and geographer. The whole of 
this territory was at one time joined to Europe, 
and formed part of what is now the Iberian 
Peninsula, from which it was torn by one of the 
convulsions of prehistoric times. Its general 
features maintain to this day rather a South 
European than an African character. 

This Moroccan-Algerio-Tunisian Quadrilateral 
is hemmed in by two kinds of oceans — on the 
North and West by oceans of salt water (the 
Mediterranean and the Atlantic) — on the South 
and East by the great ocean of sand, well known 
under the title of Sahara. As a protection from 
this sea of sand it is in this direction girdled by a 
mountain system which, roughly speaking, forms 

' n 

* See page 187. 

the outer edge of the segment of a circle ;* whilst, 
radiating from the main ridges, runs a whole 
system of smaller mountains and hill ranges, with 
numerous valleys and ravines. The leading 
characteristic throughout is the gradual falling 
away of the highlands in terrace formation to 
an altitude of from i,ooo to 500 feet above sea 
level, the average height of the Moroccan plains 
until the final dip on the coast. 

The distance from Capes Juby and Nun Area 
(opposite the Canary Islands) to Cape Bon over of the 
against Sicily is about 1,500 miles, whilst the " Quadri- 
series of highlands, valleys, plateaux, and border lateral." 
ranges which stretch from the Mediterranean to 
the Sahara have a mean breadth of nearly 200 
miles. This gives the •' Mauretanian Quadri- 
lateral " (as geographers call it) a total area of 
about 455,000 square miles, territorially divided 
thus : — 

Morocco, 220,000 square miles. 

Algeria, 184,000 do. 

Tunisia, 51,000 do. 

455>ooo do. 

* This must not be understood as a statement that the land is 
traversed in its entire length by a distinct and unbroken mountain 
range from Cape Nun on the Atlantic to Monastir on the Mediterranean, 
but only that it is completely occupied by ranges, detached ridges- 
escarpments, and intervening plateaux which collectively form part of 

Nature If we start from the southern boundary, we 

of the first traverse a district that is genuinely desert. 
Country. Owing, however, to the proximity of the 
mountains we shall find, especially towards the 
Western portion, a supply of water, sometimes in 
surface, sometimes in subterranean streams. 
Definite oases result where the supply is 
permanent, but even where it is intermittent a 
growth of herbage is produced, ephemeral indeed, 
but extremely valuable as forage to the nomadic 
tribes which inhabit these regions. 

Travelling in a north-westerly direction, we 
next encounter a zone of lofty mountains, and 
finally we reach the maritime zone, which, in 
Algeria but a narrow strip, runs far inland in 
Tunis and Morocco.* Here the water flows in 
abundance from the mountains and hills, and 
combines with dews and rains to afford ample 
possibilities of growing prolific crops and rich 
pastures for rearing cattle and sheep. 

a continuous mountain system presenting a certain physical unity in 
its general disposition, geological constitution, and main biological 
features. See the account by_ A. H. Keane in " Stanford's Compendium," 
London, 1907, where the writer goes on to show that the lines of the 
Atlas are parallel to those of the Sierra Nevada in Spain. 
• Gustave Jeannot " Etude sur le Maroc." 

Morocco : Special Features. 

The remarks above made as to the abundant Abundant 
water supply on the plateaux, valleys and plains, Water 
between the Atlas and the sea apply specially to Supply. 
Morocco, where the direction of the subsidiary 
chains and hill-ranges is such as to afford free 
circulation to the cooling moisture-laden breezes 
from the Atlantic. These, besides bringing rain, 
temper the atmosphere and encourage animal and 
vegetable growth. 

The Atlas barrier betwixt plain and desert is Atlas 
here more continuous and runs in three parallels ; Ranges. 
known respectively as the Middle Atlas (Northern- 
most), the Great Atlas (Central) and the Little or 
Anti Atlas (Southernmost). These ranges are 
themselves composed of practically parallel ridges 
and include heights equal to the Alps.* 

The passes through this mighty chain are but Passes. 
few and at high altitudes, and that of Bibaoun is 

* The learned Dr. Gustave Jeannot in " Etude sur le Maroc," Dijon, 
1907, page 49— writing of the explorations of the Marquis de Segonsac 
(1899 to 1904) says: — "Let us follow the Marquis in his hazardous 

journeys across the three parallel chains of the Middle Atlas, 

covered with forests, to the Ari Haian (10,000 feet — ) 

the source of the River Sebu and the Djebel Moussa of 13,000 feet — 

4,000 metres thence to the Great Atlas and gaze upon the 

mighty mass of the virgin Sidi bon Abbou " (13,500 feet). The highest 
known peak is Tamjuri (or Tagharat) S.E. of Marrakesh (15,500 feet). 




the only one (4,300 feet) that affords passage to 
caravans of heavy-laden camels.* 

The Saharan districts of Morocco are more 
copiously irrigated by rain, by rivulets, and 
subterranean springs than are those of Algeria, 
and M. Vic. B6rard ("L' Affaire Marocaine," p. 8) 
describes these oases as " Gardens of palms and 
orange trees, lands of double harvests and tropical 

Owing to the configuration of the uplands no 
navigable river in Morocco reaches the coast. 
Some of the drainage tends to the Mediterranean 
through the River Molouiya and a few smaller 
streams, some to the desert through the Wady 
Ghir, but most of it to the Atlantic through the 
Sebou, the Bou Ragreg, the Oum er Rebiah, 
Tensift, Sus, Asaka, and Draa. Partly due to the 
excessive evaporation (owing to the lack of trees), 
and partly to the large quantity drawn off for 
irrigation, the volume of water decreases near 
the coast. The rivers carry a lot of silt which 

* Towards the oasis of Wad Draa and thence to Tafilalt the little- 
frequented passes are 6,000 to 10,000 feet high. These are the means of 
communication southwards from Marrakesh, Fez is no better ofl. The 
one open route from Fez is that in a N.E. direction which passes 
the cleft of Taza and thus pierces the Middle Atlas and its offshoot of 
the Riff at 3,000 feet. Passing through the valley of the Rios 
Innavuen and Messoun this road tends towards Tlemcen and Oran, 


The River Tensift. 

causes the formation of bars at their mouths/'' Climate. 
The climate on the coast is bracing, the winds 
cool, and indeed sometimes cold, even in summer ; 
the temperature varying between 6i° and 71° 
Fahrenheit. On the plain and uplands the 
variations are greater, and slight ground frosts 
are experienced. Lt.-Col. W. G. Macpherson, 
in a most valuable report on the northern district 
between Tangier and Fez and Rabat, comments 
on the great " distinctness with which the 

" mountain outlines were defined at noon 

" we never observed the * heat haze,' or ' brassy 
" sky,' so common in tropical climates. Terrestrial 
" radiation, therefore, takes place rapidly, and the 
" night dews are heavy. At the temperature at 
•* 90° Fahrenheit there was practically no sensible 
" perspiration." 

The period of rainfall is the same as that of Rainfall. 
Spain, viz. : October to April, and this fall has 
not the continuity of tropical, but the intermittency 
of South European rain. In the interior, during 
May, there are often fine drizzles, and occasional 
thunderstorms in June and July. The east wind Winds. 

~^ The Draa, the largest of the Moorish rivers, appears to have been 
in old days a copious river; and (in the upper reaches flowing 
perennially 30 to 40 yards wide and 3 feet deep) ends in an extensive 
shallow lagoon belore reaching the coast. 


for Travel. 


ture on 
the Coast. 

in summer blowing straight from the desert, 
without crossing water, is excessively dry, the 
northerly winds, too, have most of their moisture 
intercepted by the Riff Mountains. The westerly 
wind is the moisture laden breath of the Atlantic. 
In the interior, during winter, the easterly wind 
is cold and bracing ; it is dreaded in summer 
under the name of *' Sharki," or " Tanooli," and 
resembles the blast from a " burning fiery 
furnace." The westerly winds in winter are 
warm and muggy, in summer cool and refreshing, 
and a pleasant relief from the hot eastern airs. 

The best periods, therefore, for inland travel 
are spring and autumn; summer being too hot, 
whilst in winter the rivers, swollen with rain, are 
often unfordable for days together. 

Bridges in Morocco are few and far between, 
and it is not long ago that Fez, the capital of the 
Northern Kingdom, was threatened with famine 
in winter through being cut off from supplies by 
an unusually rainy season. 

The seaboard with its equable climate can be 
visited all the year round; the writer has tried 
various seasons of the year and found but little 
variation in temperature between them on the 
coast, although there is a very considerable 



at a comparatively short distance 


Travel and Topography. 

Travel in Morocco means necessarily riding ; 
there are no made roads, and consequently 
wheeled vehicles are unknown. The animal 
most favoured by the Moor is the mule, and 
good riding mules are very costly, but personal 
experience has tended to produce a strong 
prejudice in favour of the horse. Baggage is 
carried on pack mules ''•'■ or camels, and the 
muleteer rides on top of his pack (" birdah "). 
This consists of twin-panniers of straw ("shwari") 
containing wooden boxes in which the goods are 
stored, slung over a leather "pack" fitted to the 
animal ; the bulkier articles are placed on top, and 
the whole secured by a rope (called "twallet") 
passed over the top and under the animal's belly. 
The baggage animal thus laden will travel better 

* The average load of a pack mule is 2 cwt., that of the ordinary 
camel about double. 




c 2 


with the addition of the human burthen than it 
will without, a fact verified by personal experience. 
It is necessary to be prepared to " camp out," and 
consequently tents with all their paraphernalia, 
camp beds, folding chairs, tinned foods, &c., must 
Cost, be taken. The cost for a single individual is 
high ; but for a party of from lo to 20 the cost 
per head is very moderate. The following brief 
account of one of my recent trips — a journey to 
Marrakesh made from Mogador in August (a bad 
time of year) — will serve to indicate what is to be 
expected. I went alone and had to take five 
attendants, the same number as would have 
sufficed for a party of 8 or 10. 

Account of 
Ride to 

Our papers are in order ; we have letters to 
various influential persons, private and official, and 
are preceded by a Mahkazni {Government soldier- 

At this time of year — the height of summer — it 
is too hot to travel with any degree of comfort 
between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., and we find it best 
to start soon after daybreak, and travel till 9 or 
10 a.m., then make a long halt and start again 
about 3 p.m. to travel till 6 p.m. 


Outside Mogador, our way lies along a tract of 
hard sand stretching along the coast, then we 
plunge inland over sand dunes, the only realisation 
of the legendary *' Desert " with which I am 
acquainted in Morocco. The illustration on 
page loo gives a very good idea of progress — the 
*• Cabalher Ingles " is off his horse, snap-shotting. 

It is a great relief after over two hours of this 
sand-slipping to climb at last up a stony slope on 
to a ridge whence is obtained a magnificent view 
of the country. We then traverse great patches 
of cultivated land where groups of houses are 
gleaming white, and dark patches of forest trees 
mingle with the vivid green of the undergrowth. 
During the rest of the morning we ride through 
clumps of broom, arbutus, myrtle, aloes and lotus 
trees, and it is under the shade of a clump of 
Argan trees by a spring that we tether our animals 
and enjoy our dejeuner. 

Cultivated patches and groves of olive and 
almond trees border our route to "Tuesday 
Market." The place is so named because a 
market is held here every Tuesday*, when the 

* The weekly market is the usual rule ; there is a very well-known and 
a very thriving one held outside one of the gates of Marrakesh and 
called the " Thursday Market." It has given its name to the gate — 
" Bab el K'mis." But one sometimes finds these markets held in places 
where there is no trace of permanent habitation whatsoever. 

Start from 

A bit of 
" Desert." 




Visit to 




wattle bee-hive shaped huts, which lie on our 
right and nearer the brow of the hill, are filled 
with traders. The plaster-built cottages, dotted 
irregularly down the hillside, are all fiat-roofed 
and without chimneys: these are the permanent 
dwellings due to the presence of an abundant 
spring at the foot of the hill. We do not encamp 
here, but seek a private gentleman whose house is 
not far away. We pass through his gate as the 
sun sets over a delightful landscape of pasture 
land, interspersed with olive groves, which come 
in sight as we top the hill. 

We are warmly welcomed by the master of the 
house, who professes a sincere love of the English, 
and plies us in the course of the evening with all 
sorts of questions. He produces a series of 
European photographs and enquires about the 
places to which they relate. One subject to which 
he recurs again and again is H.M. King Edward 
VII., his '* relationship with other ruling families," 
his palaces and the ceremonial of his Court. 

The hour for dejeuner next found us at Tafsdast, 
where a river runs through a fertile valley, the 
slopes of which are thickly clothed with boscage. 
Our table is spread under a giant Argan tree 
whose gnarled trunk has a girth of five and twenty 


feet. It is one of a group of four, and at this time 
of year, when the fruit is ripe, they are covered 
with bright yellow berries like large shiny acorns, 
minus the cups. These fruits, which contain 
a hard nut, stand out brilliantly from the thorny 
foliage, which is as dark as the English yew.* 

I sit smoking my post prandial pipe and lazily 
watching boys driving recalcitrant sheep to and 
from the river. An aged woman, bent and wrinkled, 
approaches — evidently she wants to speak : her 
charms have long vanished, and she no longer 
seeks the protection of a veil. Her granddaughter 
in one of the huts yonder is enceinte and suffering. 
Understanding that I am a " Roumi " (Arabic for 
Roman, still the common up-country term for 
European) she has come to ask for medicine. It 
is the firm belief amongst these simple folk that all 
Europeans are in league with Iblis, the Prince 
of Darkness, and share in his knowledge of arts 
magical and healing. t Entering their miserable 
home, I see the young woman in the half light 

A Doctor 


Prince of 

* The Argan tree is indigenous to this limited area of Morocco and is 
found nowhere else. From the nut is pressed the Argan oil, which is 
used by the common people instead of Olive oil. 

t Medicine and Magic (black and white) are closely allied, and the 
native doctor's wares (see illustration on pageao) are a weird mixture of 
herbs, unmentionable abominations, and written charms. Texts from 
the Koran on slips of paper rolled and taken as pills are specially 


" Text." 




•• Camel's 


(there is no window), the folds of her cloak 
arranged to cover her mouth. After a few 
questions and answers I leave some Epsom salts 
and quinine tablets and come away — with all the 
blessings of Allah. Some weeks later I pass 
through again and off-saddling to enquire after 
my fair patient, find she is " doing nicely, thank 
you." Whether this is due to my drugs, or her 
faith, or to accident, Allah alone knows — " Ex- 
tolled be the perfections of Him that dieth not." 

The close of day finds us nearing a little town- 
ship named Sidi Mukhtar, a name which means 
Lord of Stone. And in the midst of a land of 
stone is it set, nothing but hard rock with loose 
pebbles on top. Little eddying whirlwinds of sand 
rise and soon strong dust-laden gusts blow in our 
face, cutting the skin like whips. '* Yallah ! 
Yallah ! " (hurry up) is now the word, a sand storm 
is rising. 

We urge on our brutes, and half an hour brings 
us into shelter, ready to enjoy the hospitality of 
the Kaid (Governor). 

The ride of the following morning includes the 
crossing of one of the hill ranges, projected at an 
angle to the Atlas. These hills are bare and 
stony, there is but one Argan tree in a ride of 

A Beehive Hut. (see page 22) 

A Native Doctor, (see page 19) 

some miles : this is situated at the western side of 
the pass and is known by the name of " The 
Hermit." It is 9 a.m. when we reach it, the sun 
is already strong, and we are all glad of a few 
minutes halt, a sup of water, and a backward 
glance at the bold sweeps of the hills we have 
passed, Sidi Mookhtar being still visible in the 

After crossing the pass we have a magnificent 
prospect on the other side. Yonder winds a river ! 
there the cornfields begin ! and the clumps of trees ! 
See the smoke rising from that thicket : a little to 
the right of it is Sheshowah. This enchanting 
vision is bounded on the horizon by the Mountains 
of Atlas blued by the distance, and recalling in 
their majesty the fact that there we have the 
cradle of all the ruling races of Morocco, there we 
have the mighty benefactors of the Moors which 
protect them from desert blasts and pour down 
upon the plains a bounteous supply of water. And 
those mountains are still mysterious, their secrets 
have yet to be discovered. Travellers have pene- 
trated them at certain points : but their very 
direction and extent are only generally known ! 

Sheshowah is the most charming halting place 
on the journey, our sojourn there is a veritable 






of the 








picnic under ideal conditions. The flow of the 
river is abundant, and for irrigation purposes it is 
artificially divided into three courses to be reunited 
further down. The trees, the undergrowth, the 
riverside plants and flowers are exceedingly 
grateful after a hot morning struggle with bare 
basaltic rock. 
Mesoudee- When we reach Mesoudeeyah on the following 

yah. day we find that here again the Moors have chosen 
the barest spot in the neighbourhood for their 
walled village. This general rule is followed 
for the sake of safety, so that no " cover" 
may be available for an approaching foe. Here 
we spend the hottest hours of our whole journey, 
in one of the wattled bee-hive shaped huts illus- 
trated on page 20. Water sprinkled on the hard 
earth flooring dries as it falls ; a watch hung by its 
chain from the roof is so hot it can scarcely be 
handled ! . . . At the close of the day we find 
ourselves on the great plain where rows of date 
palms herald our approach to the neighbourhood 
of Marrakesh. All the country is green and 
smiling : we are close by the river, the Wad 
Tensift. We spend our evening and night at 
Khouadra, in a garden belonging to one of the 
Garden nobles who is at present resident in the capital. 

A Hot 

In his absence — his mother, who is in charge of the 
estate,'-^ sends her steward to bid us welcome. My 
camp bed is pitched under a lotus tree (the natives 
call it S'drar) whose branches have been trained 
out umbrella fashion, and where privacy is still 
further ensured by upright bamboos with climbing 

I sink to sleep to the accompaniment of the hum 
of voices. My men, and the house servants are 
feasting! round the camp fire, whilst from a neigh- 
bouring garden comes the tinkle of musical instru- 
ments, a merry party is being entertained with 
song and dance. 

After two hours' riding on the following morning, 
we are skirting a grove of olive and fig trees, when 
the Mahkazni who is on ahead stops and points 
with outstretched finger. I spur up, for I guess 
what he sees, and following the direction, perceive 
a gleaming point in the far distance catching the 
morning sun. It is the Kutubiya,+ the far-famed 
tower erected in the 12th century whilst Coeur-de- 
lion and Saladin were fighting for the " Holy 

and Lotus 


Glimpse o! 

•This fact and others mentioned (see pages 113* and 123) point to a 
difierent condition of woman's life to the one current with those who for 
various reasons like to animadvert against Moorish institutions. 

1 1 refer elsewhere (page 79) to the custom of sending cooked fowls, 
&c., to guests in Morocco. 

J Pronounced Koo-too-bee-yab. 


Sepulchre." Three hours later we enter Marra- 
kesh by the Bab Dukkala, after passing alongside 
the many series of palm groves for which 
Marrakesh is famous. Our five days' ride is over 
and we can forget the hardships, remembering 
only the pleasures, which after all have distinctly 


" Furni- 


Conditions of Travelling. 

In the matter of dress, study comfort not 
appearance. Experience seems to point to Khaki 
as the best wear, with Jaeger under-garments ; a 
sun helmet is almost a necessity for inland travel. 
It is well for even those who " fancy themselves " 
on horseback to " go slow" at first : it is one thing 
to enjoy an hour or two's scamper across an 
English country, and another to spend twelve 
hours in the saddle under perhaps unfavourable 

It is wise to bring your own saddle ; but do not 
imitate the writer, who rashly put a snaffle into 
the mouth of a spirited four-year-old, accustomed 


only to Moorish bits ; fitted him for the first time 
with an EngHsh saddle and English stirrups, and 
then — mounted spurless in a narrow and crowded 
city thoroughfare ! 

With regard to " furniture," it is advisable to 
take your own and have it adjusted to suit the 
animal you are riding. The Moorish bit is a 
cruel lever curb, but it is the only practical thing 
for a mule on whose hard mouth and obstinate 
temper a snaffle makes no impression. Spurring 
is the recognised method of starting or urging a 
beast to a quicker pace, and the Moorish stirrup 
(see page 263) is adapted to this purpose. 

Tinned foods are by far the handiest, and a 
good supply should be taken; tinned fruits and 
tinned milk are indispensable. Camp beds are a 
matter of course, and it may be just as well here 
to add a word of warning when sleeping in summer 
on the road. The following extract from the 
account of a July experience ** on the road " of 
a recent traveller will speak for itself. After 
describing the beauties of some magnificent Rabat 
carpets on the floor of a guest chamber of a 
provincial Governor, he goes on : — 

" Here I have occasion to be thankful to the 
" Press of my Mother Country ! Oblivious to the 






" charms of couching on magnificent Oriental rugs, 
" I have some Daily Telegraphs spread out, well 
'« powdered all over with ' Keating,' and my camp 
" bed spread upon that. O wise precaution ! 
" Those lovely carpets were full of them ! . . . 
"However, as my Moorish friends say: 'If you 
" will travel in summer heat : Allah Achbar ! 
" Mektoob.' " 

Supplies. It is well to take some candles, bread, sufficient 
barley for one day's supply for the animals,* &c., 
because you may not be able to get them. As a 
rule these things can be bought at the N'zalla in 
which, or near which, you camp, and if you are 
partaking of hospitality — which is granted as a 
matter of course — you are supplied with them, 
besides all sorts of cooked food, &c., both for 
yourself and your men. 

Payments You will of course tip the host's servants, and if 

and that host be an official, the "Vail" must be 
" Tips." increased. It is best to give a lump sum to the 
chief servant with the request to have it dis- 
tributed. At an N'zalla the easiest plan is to pay 
for everything you receive, and before leaving to 

* Horses in Morocco and the East generally are fed on barley which 
cools, instead of oats which heat. The losses of British cavalry horses 
in Egypt would have been smaller had the "custom of the country" 
been followed. 


hand the head man a gift for the privilege of 
pitching your tent under his protection ; he is 
really responsible for your safety, so that it is 
quite reasonable to do so. 

Sports and Pastimes. 

The inhabitant of Great Britain goes to watch a 
football match and criticise the performers : the 
Moor goes to watch a "Powder Play" and criticise 
the shooting. In each case a good many of the 
spectators know very little about the matter dis- 
cussed, and certainly most Moors know mighty 
little about shooting. 

The method of procedure consists in the form- Powder 
ation of horsemen into lines of about 12 abreast; Play. 
they next proceed to charge line by line, the riders 
in each line as it flashes up to the saluting point 
pull the horses sharply from a gallop to a stand- 


still* and the soldiers discharge their muskets in a 
volley (more or less). They then spur on, and the 
second line repeats the process till all have had a 
turn, when the " warriors " right-about-wheel en 
masse, and repeat the process so long as the powder 
lasts. Such is the more regular form of the 
*' Play " : wherein the aim seems to be to bring 
horses galloping in line to a sudden stop in order 
to fire a volley, and then sweep on to give the 
second line a chance. There are, however, 
variations in which some attempt at real military 
evolutions of a disorderly kind are made. When 
charging, both before and after ^discharging, they 
play all sorts of pranks with their muskets, flinging 
them in the air and catching them, &c. 
Hawking. In Morocco the hunter may witness the classical 

sport of hawking. It is no unpleasant experience 
to start on a fine morning in early spring, and 
follow a line of beaters crossing a flower spangled 
heath. Moors on foot hold hounds in leash and 
Moors on horseback, equipped with leather gaunt- 
lets, hold hooded hawks secured in jesses, quite in 
mediaeval style. 

*A procedure they are very fond of ; the detail that a continued atiuse 
of it injures the horses appears to be quite immaterial. The Moor is an 
excellent rider, but is absolutely ignorant of how to care for or " nurse " 
his mount, and no rider who values his animal should lend it to a 


A Baggage Mule 
In Marching Trim. 

(seepage 15) 

"To chase the deer with hawk and hound 
Earl Percy takes his way." 

This is precisely what we are doing now, save that 
there are no deer, and that the falcons are flown at 
partridges instead. But the method of "casting 
off" and of " luring" are the same as in the "good 
old days," and unregenerate man will feel the 
same thrill as his forefathers when the bird 
" stoops " to strike his " quarry." 

The hounds course mostly after hares, and are 
trained to allow the beaters to take their prey 
un- mangled from them. 

Partridge shooting is indulged in, mounted on 
mules trained to *' stand fire," and beaters are 
employed to " put up " the birds. I have never 
seen dogs used for this purpose. The partridges 
(Hadjlah, of the vaiiety which we call " Red-legs,") 
are of good size and excellent eating. 

Pig sticking, patronised by the British officials 
in Tangier, helped out by military visitors from 
Gibraltar, is only possible in the North. In the 
South the country is too stony and " cover " too 
thick. So the " Father of Tusks " is tracked and 
shot in the Argan forests of South Morocco, and 
excellent sport he gives. 

With regard to indoor games, draughts (Ddmah) 






and and chess {Santrij) practically hold the field, seeing 
Chess. t}jat cards and all games of chance are forbidden. 
Chess seems a particularly appropriate game for 
an Arab, and is much in favour. Indeed, although 
the game is probably of Indian origin, it came to 
Europe from the Arabs, a fact preserved in the 
term " Checkmate," which is simply '* Shak " or 
"Sheik" (Chief) "Mat" (dead). The game is 
played with the same materials as in England, and 
the only difference in the method adopted by the 
Moorish players I have met is that the Queens 
instead of being each on her own colour, face the 
opponent's King. The peculiar " Knights' move" 
allowed to a King in check I have heard of, but 
not experienced. 
Malfi- Besides these amusements there are night pro- 

king." cessions with paper lanterns and marching 
musicians and dancers got up in all kinds of 
fantastic rigs. These processionists perform all 
sorts of extravagances of the nature known among 
the English as "mafBking." In some cases there 
is an attempt at keeping up a set of characters, 
and it is from this kind of Moorish dance that the 
old English Morris dancing is supposed to have 

Balls and Cinderellas are unknown, the Eastern 


gets his dancing done for him and the "Johnnies " Variety 
of Morocco will sometimes club together to get in Entcr- 
a small troupe of celebrated dancers and singing tainmcnts. 
girls who perform in a garden belonging to one of 
the party, where the "Ball" is often "kept 
rolling" till "the wee sma' hours." 

Section III. 


People and 
their Ways. 

THIS section is an endeavour to give an 
idea of the manners and customs of the 
Moors, not by lengthy descriptions but by a 
series of sketches. 

The two short articles on Government and 
Foreign Rights may serve to indicate the political 
side, those on Architecture, Crafts, and the 
" Humanities," the intellectual and industrial side, 
the other chapters will indicate something of the 
Social Life. 

I am fully aware that much that is 
interesting finds no place here ; but if there is 
enough to give a good general idea of the Moor 
chez lui, my object has been attained. 


The chapters in this section are 

/. — T lie Organization of Goveynment 
II. — Foreign Rights and ^'Protection" System 
III. — A Dinner Party in Morocco - 
IV. — Architecture . . . . . 

v.— Crafts 

VI. — Shopping 

VII.— Apparel 

VIII. — The Moroccan '' Humanities" 
IX. — Moorish Hospitality and Dishes 
X. — A Garden Residence in City Walls • 
XI. — A n Afternoon in the Slave Market - 






The Organization of Government. 

The Sultan of Morocco is spiritual chief first, 
political afterwards : an eloquent indication of this 
is the fact that the members of the first dynasty 
(that of the Idreesi Sheriffs) bore simply the 
religious title of " Imaun" {Leader), see page 92*. 
Their later title was " Emir-el-Mouslimin," then 
" Eniir-el-Moumenin." They were originally in 

of Sultan. 






feudal subjection to Cordova, and it was only 
after the fall of that kingdom in 1031 a.d. that 
the Friday petition {El Khotba) was put up 
for the sovereign of Morocco. The Sultan of 
Morocco owns no allegiance to the Turkish 
" Prince of the Faithful," as he bases his claim 
to spiritual overlordship on a direct descent from 
Ali, the son-in-law of the Prophet (see page 119). 
The succession does not go by primogeniture : 
but, like the old arrangement in Anglo-Saxon 
times, by the choice of a son or other relative 
made by the ruling Sovereign, who trains him for 
the throne. The household duties of the Palace 
are in the hands of negresses, who wash the floor, 
&c. ; men are found only in the kitchen. The 
personal service of the Sultan is in the hands of 
concubines ; the Moualin Ettas (women of the ewer) 
and the Moulet Essaboun (women of the soap), &c., 
serve him at toilet. The Moulet el Makla (women 
of the dishes), &c., serve him at table, the Moulet 
Ettai pour out his tea. The whole arrangement 
is admirably in accordance with the details given 
in the dream of greatness depicted in ** The 
Thousand and One Nights {The Barber's Story 
of his Fifth Brother). 

The system of Government is that of an absolute 


monarchy tempered by the necessity of ruling 
in accordance with the laws of the Mohammedan 
religion. The guardians of these laws are the 
Oulema (Doctors of Religion). It was his failure to 
comply with this necessity that gave the enemies 
of Abd-el-Aziz, the late Sultan, the opportunity of 
dethroning him. The composite nature of the 
" Empire " is indicated by its double Capital, Fez 
in the Northern, and Marrakesh in the Southern 
Kingdom, and theoretically it is the duty of the 
Sultan to divide his year in half, and spend one 
portion in each. Practically what happens is, that 
the Sultan moves about from one part of his 
dominions to the other, with the object of enforcing 
and extending his authority by the strong hand. 
In other words the Ruler is, like many of his 
subjects, nomadic. 

One of the results of this double title, Hereditary 
Saint and Prince, is that whilst the temporal 
power is only obeyed where there are means at 
hand to enforce obedience, the Hereditary Saint- 
ship is recognised everywhere. In other words 
there are two divisions in Morocco (with shifting 
boundaries according to the individual power of 
the Prince, &c.). In the one division — the Blad 
el Maghksen — the Sultan rules in both capacities. 

by Theo- 

" Empire." 

Saint and 

Blad el 



Biad es 








In the other — the Blad es Siba — he is recognised 
only as spiritual chief. A plan, roughly indicating 
the present boundaries between the two, will be 
found inset on the map at the end of the book. 

The Maghksen comprehends the clan of the 
Sultan and the allied families who support him, 
besides a whole army of officials, military and civil. 

The Palace of the Sultan contains a great 
courtyard (El Mechour), circled by offices (Benikas) 
of the ministers (Wazeers) and administrators 
(Oumana). The following are the chief officials 
of the Maghksen : — 

(i) Grand Vizier {El Wazeey El Aadham), 
Home Secretary with two subordinates, 
one for North, one for South. 

(2) Foreign Minister (Wazeer El Bahr). 

(3) Chancellor of the Exchequer {Wazeer El 
Malta), under whose general direction are 
(4), (5) and (6). 

(4) Collector of Revenue {Amin El Dakhil). 

(5) Administrator of Expenditure {Amin Esh 
Slukara or Es Sa-eer). 


Matthew at the Receipt of Customs." 

(6) Administrator of Accounts (Amin El 

(7) War Minister {Wazeey El Allaf ox Wazecr 
El Havh). 

(8) Chancellor of State Property {Amin ala 
Rihaat El Maghksen). 

(9) Minister of Complaints (Wazeer Esh 

(10) Chief Lord in Waiting [Kaid El Meshoura). 

(He introduces to the Sultan and is Military 
Commander of the Palace.) 

Each Benika contains a number of Scribes 
[KotUtah), and an Usher {Mesiiouri), besides a 
number of Makhazni (soldier servants). 

The Hadjib (Grand Chambeflain) forms the Grand 
intermediary between the Administrative Palace Chamber- 
and the Sultan's private quarters. Each of these lain. 
Chiefs is in turn served by a number of 
subordinate officials*, men picked from all 
quarters for their knowledge, their dexterity, or 
their sycophancy. 

* These subordinate individuals become enrolled in one of the 
Maghksen Clans. There are four Maghksen (or Guish) tribes (subdivided 
into clans) all Arab or Arabized ;— The Sheraga, the Bouakhar, the 
Oudaia, and the Sherarda, all ot them settled in the Northern Kingdom, 
with the exception of a clan of the Oudaia settled in the Haouz (South 
Morocco). The garrison of Marrakesh is entrusted to the Rhamna, 
Ahmar, Abda, Menahba, and Harbil. These are not true Guish tribes, 
but pay the nciiba like other submissive tribes. The distinction between 
naiba and Guish tribes consists in the payment of tribute by the former 
and the liability of the latter to military service alone. 




" Terri- 

" Rank 
and File." 

Besides the Maghksen by birth there are others 
who temporarily belong to it by position. Such 
are the Kaids and Sheiks of other tribes, 
the Oumana who are entrusted with financial 
duties and the Maghksen Secretaries, chosen for 

The military service (on which after all the 
basis of government must rest, vis tiltima ratio), 
has, during recent years, quite " gone to the dogs, 
Sir." In old days, under energetic and warlike 
Sultans, the army was professional, a powerful 
and disciplined force of mercenaries, see page 139. 
But in the middle of the last century this was 
given up under the influence of a mistaken notion 
of a national levy. Horse and foot soldiers are 
recruited first of all in the " Guish " tribes, who 
are bound, in exchange for remitted tribute, to 
provide recruits. Besides this the tribes paying 
tribute [Naiha) are called upon to send the Sultan 
their (Harka) squadrons of horse, or (Askar) 
infantry companies to re-inforce the nucleus of 
the " Guish." Then there is a small body of 
Bokhari, descendants of Soudan negroes imported 
as bodyguard, and finally the Meshouara, special 
guards of the Palace. All these troopers may be 
despatched on any errand as Makhazni (soldier 


servants). The recruiting is promiscuous and old 
men and young boys are often found marching 
side by side. From a military point of view 
the result is despicable, they have no martial 
training, their weapons are antiquated, and their 
horses worn out. 

The local government consists of a series of 
Kaids (governors) at the head of the various 
tribes ; each in his own sphere a little Sultan with 
all administration in his hands. But as no means 
of enforcing his edicts is put into his hands with 
office, it is necessary for the Sultan to choose a 
man of power and authority. The Kaid is 
continually "between the Devil and the Deep 
Sea." If he studies the Maghksen he oppresses 
the people he governs, squeezing the maximum 
amount of tribute out of them by fair means or 
foul. If he studies the interests of his people 
he does not get enough money for the Treasury, 
for the Palace authorities, or for himself, and — 
some other is put in his place. 



Devil and 
the Deep 





of Trade 



" Pro- 

Foreign Rights and " Protection." 

A long series of treaties, sometimes observed 
sometimes broken, have at length resulted in 
placing the foreigner in Morocco in a secure 
position. These treaties, which started with one 
in 1339 A.D., confirmed in 1358, were originally 
applicable to all foreigners irrespective of 
nationality, a principle which has been returned 
to (to a large extent) in one of the latest 
agreements, the result of the Conference at 
Algeceiras (see page 144'''). 

The sum total gained has been reciprocal 
freedom of trade, and freedom of travel with 
certain police precautions,'' to which we must add the 
appointment of Consuls with the right of judging 
cases, affecting not only foreign subjects, but those 
enjoying foreign protection. 

This foreign protection means the granting by 
an European Government of a certificate that the 
person " protected " is connected by way of trade 

* These precautions practically mean the hiring of one or more 
Makhazni (Government soldir-r servants), who are supposed to afiord 
facilities for lodging and food en route and to keep travellers out of 
danger (which does not exist). In other words, they are a nuisance to 
yourself and the people you visit. 


or other interests with a member of their own 
nation.''' These certificates apart from official 
protection {i.e., the protection afiorded to Lega- 
tions and the suites attached to them), are of two 
kinds (i) the " Sumpsa," and (2) the " Mohallat." 
The first carries with it full protection, and makes 
the native (or Jewj enjoying it in effect a subject of 
the protecting Government. The latter conveys 
partial protection, and only ensures the holder 
against being arrested or mulct of property with- 
out the laying of information with the Consul of 
the nation which granted the certificate, as to 
what is bemg done, and why. The privilege of this 
"protection" is absolutely necessary for trade ; but 
is open to abuse, and is (too often in fact) abused. 


A Dinner Party in Morocco. 

The following sketch is a literal description of a dinner 
party given on my account, written up from notes taken 
at the time. I have endeavoured to keep up the " Local 
Colour" by narrating it as a Moor would when giving an 

* This system originated under a treaty concluded 25th May, 1767, 
between Louis XV. and Sultan Mohammed ibn Abdallab It wat^ 
extended in 1863, and confirmed in iSSo. 


account to a friend. The song introduced is not the song 
actually sung at the time, but a translation of one used 
elsewhere on a similar occasion. The description of the 
house is absolutely accurate, that of the dancing girl is a 
little "dressed tip," as a Moor would do it, in order to 
give an idea of the Eastern ideal of beauty. The language 
is modelled on that resulting from literal translation of 
Arabic narratives by Lane, Burton and others. 

Now it pleased Allah,* the Compassionate, the 
Sickness Merciful, to inflict upon me the trial of sickness, 
to Health, and during two days and two nights I lay sick 
upon my bed. And the third day the Prophet, 
the Holy One, caused the sickness to cease and 
to pass from me. And as I was reclining upon 
my M'turbahf in the garden, lo, one knocked at 
the door. And I arose and opened and found a 
messenger from my lord and host, Mulai Abd-el- 
kader. " Peace be unto thee," quoth he. " And 
on thee peace." Then delivered he his message — 
" My Lord, the virtuous and the noble, hath sent 
me to ask permission for him to make an enter- 

* The two first of the ninety-nine attributes of God. 
t Kind of mattress or divan. 

tainment as a gratuity for thy safety. "='= I answered 
him " In the Name of Allah,"t and he departed 
and told his master. 

Therefore upon the following day at the hour 
of the evening prayer I arose, and putting upon 
myself the apparel of feasting I entered the house 
of the noble Sheriff, and having greeted the 
house and its master, j he bade me " Mahaber- 
bikum " (welcome) and conducted me to an upper 

And I found myself in a spacious hall whereof 
the walls were adorned in a most excellent manner 
with mosaic work, and all kind of inlaying and 
painting. And the roof thereof was supported 
upon pillars of variegated marble, and the cornices 
of the pillars were gilded with bright red gold, 
and there was a fountain on one side of the hall 
decorated with brilliant tiles and inlaid ; the 
pavement was of coloured marbles arranged in 
exquisite patterns and of great beauty. Then 
the Sheriff took me by the hand and brought me 
to his boon companions and made them known 

* This practice of giving an entertainment upon recovery from 
sickness "as gratuity for safety " (Halawet es-selameh) is usually put 
upon the convalescent ; but here my host, in token of esteem, wished 
to discharge the duty tor me. 

t An acquiescence in the request. 

i It is always necessary to bless the house when crossing the 
threshold; for a similar belief see Coleridge's poem " Christabel." 

" Gratuity 




" Hall of 




Slaves in 

unto me. They were all men of the greatest nobility 
and honour, and they arose and saluted me, and 
I them. 

At the upper end there was a large chamber, 
opening into the hall, separated from it by a 
vast and fretted arch ; and the decoration of the 
chamber was even more ornamental than the 
adornment of the hall. Hither we ascended 
stepping from the durkaah* to the leewan, and 
doffing our slippers, took our seats upon the 
deewan, and they gave me the seat of honour to 
the right of the centre of the sadr.f And the 
carpets upon the platform were of wonderful 
texture and brilliant colours, like unto those of 
Kings, and the apartment was furnished with 
cushions covered with brocade, and small pillows 
and long mattresses with silk-embroidered covers 
such as astonish the minds of spectators. 

Anon, the master of the house clapped his hands, 
and lo ! there entered unto us two black negress 
slaves, of large and handsome make, clad in robes 
of flowered silk, girt below the breasts with broad 
sashes of bright silk, and bright silk sashes also 

» Tbe durkaah is the general level of the floor, the leewan is the 
raised portion (about 6 inches high). As the latter is usually carpeted 
whilst the former is not, slippers are doffed and left at the base of the 
step or ledge. 

t The upper pait of the leewan. 


A Moorish I )am i:k 

By the Fountain in the Hall. 

(see page 67) 

encircled them below the hip. And in their ears 
they bore large heavy gold earrings and gold 
anklets upon their legs, and their hair was adorned 
with circlets of pure gold. 

One of them brought the water for lustration, 
and the other carried the towel.* After washing 
and the customary exhortations, tea was made by 
the uncle of the Sheriff in his customary skilful 
manner,! and then other negresses brought in the 
table and set upon it a succession of dishes of 
every description. 

When our appetites began to flag, our host 
called out, "O Fatima, bring hither the Harisah,"j 
and behold an excellent dish was placed before us, 
whereof the flavouring had been adjusted in the 
most delicious manrier. 

Then said the noble Sheriff to me, " Hast thou 
tasted anything more delicious than the spices in 
this dish," and I answered, '* By the beard of the 
Prophet, I have not," and he said to me, " Eat 
more then, and be not ashamed," and I ate and 
champed with my teeth to show him my appre- 

* For illustration of jug and basin, see page 259; for description of 
washing at meals, see pages 78 and 79. 

t Tea making in Morocco, see page 80, is quite an art. This 
relative of our host (an inmate of his house) was acknowledged " facile 

I Harisah, a meat pudding consisting of wheat, boiled and reduced to 
a paste with shredded meat, spices, and condiments. 

Water and 

A well- 





and Je»t. 

elation." Anon he called for Zirbajah,t and for 
KudrahJ and every kind of delicacy from which 
he could select the tit-bits and place them before 
me,{| until at length we intimated that we had 
had enough of the meats. 

Then caused he to be brought Kunafeh§ and 
various dishes of sweets, open worked tarts, and 
fritters scented with musk. And he made very 
merry and pressed us to eat, saying, " Take of 
this dish for it is excellent, and of these Kataif,'''=" 
for the usual custom in my house is to flavour 
them profusely with musk and ambergris." Then 
he took one up in his fingers, and dipping it in 
the treacle, " Take this one," said he, " before the 
syrup runs from it." 

And we jested and ate till we were satiated. 
Then when the slave girls had brought round the 
basin and ewer with soap, and left us, he produced 

* This is strictly in accord with table etiquette in the East ; an audible 
munching of food, or a loud indrawing of liquor is a polite compliment 
to one's host. This verbal exhortation of the host to eat more when 
the appetite seems to flag is truly Moorish— enjoyment of food there 
implies complete repletion, 

t A marinated ragout flavoured with cummin seed. 

; Fowls cut up and stewed with various spices, and swimming in 
thick gravy with chopped marjoram, sliced onions and kooskoos (see 
illustration on page 258). 

II It is usual to take a tit-bit and put it before a guest whom one 
wishes to honour. 

8 Wheat flour baked like vermicelli and sweetened with honey. 
** Sweet pastries made of flour, honey, and sesame oil, eatea with 
treacle syrup. 


from the back of the leewan a jar of wine. And 
he said to me, " Drink, and let thy heart be merry, 
and thy bosom broaden, for what saith the poet ? " 

" I will drink the wine and enjoy health : 
For verily this beverage is a remedy for disease."* 

And he filled the first cup and drank itt and 
handed me the second, and then another, and so 
round to all the guests who partook of wine.| 
And he pressed us to drink, telling us that the 
wine was made from his own grapes, and by 
Moslems upon his own estates. 

When we had drunk, he clapped his hands and 
bade them admit the singing and dancing girls. 
And there entered a troupe of eight girls bearing 
gimbri and tambourines, and all manner of musical 
instruments,!] under the leadership of a black 
bandmaster with a kamanjah.§ 

And they played for us and ravished us with 
delight, and lo ! one of them arose and came 

* In reference to my recent sickness. 

t It is the custom in the East for the host to drink the first cup to 
show there is no poison in the liquor. 

I It is against their religion to do so ; and it is very rare in Morocco, 
except amongst the highest class, whose superior education raises them 
above prejudice. The fact stated that this wine was made by Moors 
on his own estate is unique. I have never known or heard of any 
other case where the forbidden liquor is handled by any but Jews or 
Christians, As I was dealing with one of the greatest saints in the 
country his sanctity covered tne irreguarity. Moors will say of holy 
men that wine becomes water as they drink it. 

II The gimbri is a guitar with two strings, see page 264. 
i An adaptattOD of the European violin. 


" Flowing 


Arrival of 

B 2 


A Song to 
the Lute. 

" Birds in 

forward, and she was of surpassing beauty and 
loveliness, and elegance and consummate grace. 
In her hand was a lute, and she placed it in her 
lap and leaning over it as the mother leaneth over 
her child, she sang to it thus : — 

" Our estrangement and hatred, oh when will they cease, 
And past pleasures return unto me ? 
'Neath one roof yestereen did we joy in joint peace 
Who so heedless of enviers as we ? 
But Fortune bewrayed us and dis-anion brought, 
And our home's like the desert so drear, 
Sayest thou to relinquish my charmer I ought ? 
Ah ! my heart's but a rebel, I fear ! 
Cease then to upbraid, in my passion me leave. 
Love of thee's ever fixed in my heart : 
O thou who art gone, though ray faith thou deceive, 
My devotion can never depart." 

As she sang her companions took up the refrain 
and echoed it, and played upon their instruments 
in many different variations. 

And the instrumentation and singing of the 
damsels was like unto the notes of the birds in 
Paradise, so that it ravished our ears. 

And the lord of the house sent down to the 
singing girls and musicians fruit and wine, and 
they ate, drank, and were merry. 

Anon he clapped his hands, and lo ! another 
damsel came and stood before us, and she was 


yet more lovely than the former ; high bosomed Eastern 
she was and broad hipped, and her figure was like Beauty. 
the letter Alif,* and she had thin lips, and joined 
eyebrows, and languishing eyelids adorned with 
kohl. And the singing girls performed upon their 
instruments and sang, and this second damsel 
danced to their music and singing. And her 
body swayed as the willow sways before the 
breath of Allah, and her robes sparkled in the 
brightness of the light. Anon the music quickened 
and she cast off her loose robe and quickened 
her movements,! varied more rapidly her postures, 
and stamped with her feet ; so that when she 
ceased she left us shaking with delight. 

And again our host pledged us with the wine The last 
cup, and again we responded to his courtesy, and Joys. 
the singing girls played and danced before us, till 
the night drawing on, our host gave us a hint,| 
and the slave girls brought in the incense burner 
and the perfume sprinkler, |1 and we perfumed 

* The letter is straight — we should say " straight as a dart." 

t The Eastern dancing consists more of swaying the body and limbs, 
posturing and gesticulating rather than hopping about after the Western 
style. The measure is almost invariably quickened at the close. 

J Usually by some such phrase as — Allah eehan-nek, "God protect 

II For an illustration of the incense burner see page 268. The rose- 
water is sprinkled from a " Mirashsh " (or " Kumkum ") a vessel with 
wide body and narrow neck, about 8 inches high, of silver, brass, or 
china ; it has a cover with a small hole. 


ourselves and saluted our entertainer and 
A Koran retired. " Blessed be His Name who reuniteth 
Text, ^jj^ separateth not again." 




ture from 
the Desert. 

(a) Style. 

When the Arabs (the civilizing race) came into 
Morocco and converted the inhabitants to Moham- 
medanism, did they bring any architecture with 
them ? This question is not answered easily, for 
they had but few opportunities of exercising the 
art in the rude lands in which they originated. 
The earliest example of a Mosque is supposed to 
be that at Mecca, founded 705 a. d. But this was 
rebuilt in the 15th century. Experts, however, 
claim that the effects of desert life are plainly 
visible even in the most ornate arabesques. "The 
" spreading arches and the doming of the palm, 
"the light supports of the tent, the knotted ropes 
" of hide that bound them together, the patterns 
" wrought by the wind upon the sand and the 


" scalloped shell, may be traced in many a dainty 
*' arabesque. We see evidence of Byzantine and 
"Persian influences, but the breath that blows 
" through them to-day is still the breath of the 
"desert, fresh, distinct, and proud." (" /« the 
Track of the Moors" by Sybil Fitzgerald). 

Moorish architecture is usually studied in Spain, 
but I have seen enough in Morocco to indicate 
that there is there an unexplored mine rich with 
promise. In a country where fighting has been 
so frequent, and reverence for old buildings is 
chiefly shown by a readiness to use their parts for 
new erections, it is indeed a surprise that there is 
so much left of so delicate and poetical a nature, 
owing, moreover, its greatness not to marble and 
precious stones, but to brick, plaster, and a rude 
cement. The sister towers of the "Giralda" in 
Spain, the " Hassan Tower " in Rabat, and the 
" Kutubuyia" in Marrakesh, are the best known 
examples of old Moorish architecture, and the 
finest examples of the decoration of this style 
may be seen on the towers in Morocco. "*' 

It must not be forgotten that the chief eff"orts at 

*The period when these towers were built seems to have been 
almost unique in the use of carved panel stone work. Similar work is 
visible on the towers and some gates in Rabat, and in the neighbouring 
ruins of Sheiiah. 











decoration are made inside the buildings. This is 
exceedingly natural, for the distinguishing feature 
of Moorish architecture is ornamentation. Now 
the Mohammedan is forbidden by his religion to 
copy the figures even of natural objects. There- 
fore all the ornamentation is founded on a 
geometrical basis, and wonderfully beautiful are 
the designs. They are carried out in mosaics of 
the most costly description, and I have been in 
private houses of rich Moors which are covered 
from floor to ceiling with inlaid mosaic work, 
whilst the roof consists of wooden carvings in 
extremely high relief, enriched with colour and 
inset stones. The towers of the mosques form the 
most striking external features : the minarets from 
which the Mueddhin calls to prayer ■■'■ axe often most 
beautiful, and the doorways both of the mosques 
and important private dwellings are very fine t with 
their horseshoe arches (borrowed originally from 
the Sassanians), and their intricate geometrical 
designs. Lustred tile work+ is a favourite orna- 
ment, and can be as well carried out to-day as ever. 
In the blending of colours the Moors show 

* The opposite page shows two mosque towers with prayer flags flying 
and the Mueddhin chanting bis call, 
t See illustration page 44. 

I See the illustration of the gate of Mansur el Alj (1732) at Mequinez, 

page 172. 


The Mueddhin calls to Prayer. 
Note the Flag Flying. 

(see page 52) 

remarkable taste, a striking contrast to their Contrast 

Jewish neighbours, who overdo the crudity and between 

garishness of their tints. Jews and 


(b) Forms of Building. 

The Mosque {Masjid Jama — or Place of Form of 
Common Prayer) consists in its simplest form of Mosque. 
an open court ''' (Sahn) surrounded by covered 
cloisters (Liwan), with a cistern (Midaa) or fountain 
(usually in the centre). On the side towards 
Mecca is a roofed building (Maksura), in the centre 
of which is a niche (Mihrab) showing the direction 
of Mecca, and by the niche a lofty pulpit (Monbay). 
In part of the latter is a raised platform (Dakka), 
from which exhortations are chanted. 

The ordinary private dwelling consists of an City 
irregular quadrilateral, on three sides of which run House. 
long rooms not more than lo or 12 feet wide. 
The fourth side is given over to the kitchen. The 
central court thus formed is usually open to the 
sky, but surrounded by a covered colonnade which 
supports a second story. The court is paved with 

* In Morocco usually covered by a vaulted roof supported by horse- 
shoe arches on square pillars. I stood one night in Marrakesn at the 
entrance to a large mosque during servics and realised the magnificent 
potentialities for vista effects of this arch. Seen by artificial light the 
picture was most imposing. 


tiles and sometimes the dado also. A fountain 
often gurgles in the centre. '* One of the most 
notable peculiarities of Moorish Domestic Archi- 
tecture," says Mr. Budgett Meakin, " is the 
absolute irregularity of the whole : it is not too 
much to say that save by accident no two lines are 
ever parallel or horizontal." For a description of 
an interior in Marrakesh see page 43, and for an 
account of the ordinary Fez house see pages 166 
and 167. 
Shrines of The Kubbas* (or Shrines) which are dotted all 
Saints, over the country are just plain square walls with a 
dome perched on top, the dome being of smaller 
area at the base than the walls, to allow of a 
coping — usually the only attempt at ornament. 
They are kept well whitewashed and often fit most 
picturesquely into the landscape {see frontispiece). 
The inside contains nothing but hangings, a few 
hideous pictures, and various trumpery offerings. 

' There are certain edifices built beside the tombs of saints inhabited 
by Marabouts (Morabet), which are called Zaouia, and which often 
contain a few books, and are frequented by students (Tolba) of the 
Marabout. These worthies originated at a time when the Musselman 
frontiers were guarded by forts (Ribat). The Mo-rabat (Marabout) 
was the guard of the Ribat, and acquired sanctity by waging holy 
war in border forts against infidels. 




The tanneries of Morocco are famous, and the 
art of embossing and incising in leather is very 
artistically carried out, whilst the silk embroidery 
put upon it is most charming. All the best is 
made from goatskins and finely marked. Sheep 
skins are poor, and ox hides only useful for soles. 
The leather of Tafilalt has the highest reputation. 
The chief towns for leather work are Marrakesh, 
Tetuan, and (to a lesser degree) Fez. {See illustra- 
tions pages 260 and 261.) 

The brass and copper work is good ; the metal 
being now for the most part imported from Bir- 
mingham, beaten or moulded into shape, and then 
embossed or engraved by hand in Morocco. 
Mogador is one of the best towns for the flat work, 
trays, &c., and it is a curious study to stand and 
watch the drawing of the design and its punching 

The native jewellers' work is coarse but artistic. 
The ornamentation upon the arms (swords, 
daggers, guns, &c.) is often very elaborate, the 
adornment upon the two matchlocks in my 
possession consisting of ivory, mother-of-pearl, &c., 


Brass and 



exquisitely inlaid. The scabbards of swords and 
daggers are also elaborately adorned, the whole of 
them being made in the country except the blades, 
which are now imported from Birmingham, as 
they were in the Middle Ages from Damascus. 

Pottery. The pottery is often unjustly despised. The 

forms are excellent, and the slight blemishes which 
seem to be inseparable from purely hand-worked 
articles are of small importance. The work is 
mostly blue on a white ground ; but some fine 
examples of green and white or other colours can 
be found. {See p. 192 & illustration pp. 263 tC 268.) 

Carpets. The Moors are skilful in dyeing silk and 

wool, and some of their silk embroidery is very 
effective. [See illustration page 260). This 
skill is excellently exemplified in the weaving 
and dyeing of carpets, for which Rabat is justly 
famous. The importance of the carpet industry in 
that town is indicated by the fact that 3,000 to 
4,000 are turned out every year at an average 
value of £2 I OS. to £t, per piece. About 200 
houses are employed in the manufacture, which is 
carried out entirely by women. The carpets are 
measured by the Draa (i| feet), and in the 
colouring only vegetable dyes are allowed by the 
Mohtasseb (Town Authority). {See page 187.) 


Tiles are for the most part manufactured at Fez 
and Tetuan. Those of the former city are the 
best, and are turned out in squares, cut down to 
the required shape by the man laying them : the 
latter are made of the shape required, and are 
inferior in quality. {Seepages 167* and ig6.) 




One of the Moors who had come to London on 
a diplomatic mission was walking through the 
" West End," and looking in the shop windows. 
Seeing some tablets of soap exposed for sale in one 
of the celebrated establishments for that article, 
he went inside and asked the price. When the 
assistant told him, he immediately offered half, and 
expressed his surprise at having seemed to give 
offence. His surprise was natural, for that pro- 
cedure is the recognised method in his own 
country, where chaffering is expected over the 
simplest article. " All goods marked in plain 
figures " is a motto unknown in El Mogreb. 

A Moor 
in London. 


tion o( 

Chaffering In that easy-going country, as you stroll along 

the street you will find a great fascination in the 
little booths. The following description from 
Windus, who wrote of what he saw nearly 200 
year ago, is perfectly applicable to-day, and I give 
the extract rather than my own description, in 
order to show the conservatism of the East : — 

" The shops are very small and have no doors 
" to them : but the master having opened the 
" shutters, jumps in and sits cross-legged upon a 
"place raised about the height of a counter; the 
" goods are disposed in drawers round about him, 
" which he can reach, for the most part, without 
" moving out of his place, his customers standing 
" in the street while they are served." 
How to When you walk up to the shopkeeper and ask 

Bargain, about the article that takes your fancy, you would 
do well to make depreciatory remarks, never 
speak enthusiastically even in English, for your 
tone will betray you, though your words may not. 
The dignified gentleman who displays the goods 
will discuss the matter with you, and if asked the 
price will name it. You offer half, and he may 
shake his head and protest, or may even gently 
take the article from your hand and replace it. 
The bystanders will join in and make remarks, 


and before the bargain is concluded there is often 
quite a little public assembly discussing the pros 
and cons. If you are buying severaJ things from 
the same shop get the dealer to give you his price 
separately and make a bid for the lot. 

Further up the street you are perhaps moved 
yourself to make one of a party of critics and 
enjoy the bargaining of others. Should you get 
tired of this you may find a conjurer or snake 
charmer or a story teller, and even if your Arabic 
be not good enough to follow all the points in his 
tale, the pantomime with which it is accompanied 
and the expression on the faces of the audience 
will interest any observer with a taste for human 

One word to the fair sex and I have done with 
this subject. If you ivill wear that white linen 
costume in which you look so charming, madam, 
do not expect to come back spotless from a 
shopping expedition. Even if you are riding (and 
I advise the humble ass) the fittings of the animal 
may leave a mark or two, and the contacts which 
you are obliged to make will leave more. And, do 
not be shocked, if you find that Mohammedan fleas 
are not under a vow of abstinence from the blood 
of Christians. 

" Battant 
le Pave." 

A Word to 
"the Fair." 









laws of the 


tion of 


Costume varies very much in Morocco, according 
to nationality, tribe, and position, as well as 
personal taste. It must not be imagined that the 
sartorial appearance is a matter of indifference, 
express directions are laid down on the subject 
in the Koran. No Moor, however rich, will 
wear a silk dress, it is forbidden, though silk 
tassels and some very limited silk embroidery are 
allowable. Gold and silver adornments, jewels, 
&c., are forbidden ; so that, though watches are 
not uncommon amongst the rich, they wear no 
gold or silver chains, only silken cords. 

It will be best to describe first the most elaborate, 
and a detailed description of a costume of the 
highest class, presented by a rich Sheriff to the 
present writer will serve as a text (see page 256). 

First, there is the "Serwal," loose drawers worn 
next to the skin. They are very baggy and un- 
shaped, and are drawn together at the waist by a 
running cord (" Tukkah "). They are fairly tight 
just below the knee and may be of any colour. 
They must not be longer than is necessary to 


Mountain Berbers 

cover the knee. " God will not have compassion on 
him who wears long trotisers" says the Koran. 

The next garment donned is the " Tshameer " 
(shirt) which is just a long plain linen garment 
reaching to the ankles (Fig. i). This is closed all 
the way down and is slipped over the head. 

Next comes a " K'mees" (Tunic) (Fig. 2) of very 
fine cotton, with wide bell sleeves, open to the 
waist and fastening by a system of silken loops 
and knots. It is provided at the neck with a 
silken open-work collar and a slit fastened by an 
ingenious endless cord. 

Over this is worn the " Kaftan," a very hand- 
some cassock made of the finest wool (Fig. 3), it 
reaches to the ankle and is of a beautiful texture 
and dyed a bright colour. Green is the favourite 
hue, and that illustrated in Fig. 3 has crimson 
silk bands running the whole length of the front 
on both sides visible when open as in Fig 4. It is 
open all the way down and is fastened by loops 
and knots from top to bottom, so arranged that 
the side which has the first loop holds the second 
knot and so on. 

Over this is perhaps placed the "Shkarah"* 

* This is often omitted by the leisured gentleman, who indeed has no 
use for it. 


{p. 256, 

Fig. I.) 


{p. 256, 

Fig. 2.) 


{p. 256, Figs. 
3 and 4.) 


(p. 257, Figs. 
6 and 7.) 




iP' 257. 

Fig. 8.) 


iP- 257. 

Fig. 9.) 

{leather bag), see Figs. 6 and 7, which serves all the 
uses of the European system of pockets. It is 
suspended over the left shoulder by a bundle of silk 
cords (" Mijdul ") woven together in places but 
left loose at the shoulders. 

Next is slipped on a "Farrajeeyah M'jarwan," 
or " Mansureeyah " (Fig. 8) of transparent cotton, 
sufficiently fine to let the colour of the Kaftan 
show through. This again is open from the neck 
to the waist and fastened by loops and knots ; it 
has a slit at the side, and is also provided with a 
hood at the back which may be worn loose (and 
perhaps used as a pocket) or drawn over the head. 
Over this hangs the " Koomeeyah " {dagger) sus- 
pended from the shoulder by an arrangement of 
silk cords. 

Finally we have the "Soulham" a hooded cloak 
woven in one piece, stitched together for the space 
of one inch merely in order to keep the hood in 
position. This is the only official Court costume, 
the hood is usually drawn loosely over the head 
or turban, but is thrown back in token of respect. 
When entering the presence of His Shereefian 
Majesty the left end must be thrown back to 
show that no arms are being worn, as this 
is (for obvious reasons) strictly forbidden. ^ The 


Algerian Soulham is known as the "Burnoos." Burnoos. 

The turban (see Figs. 6, 7, and 8), is not usually Turban. 

worn by unmarried men, and its size depends to 

some extent upon the status of the wearer ; a very 

important person must suffer from "swelled head," 

and his turban corresponds. It consists of a long 

piece of cloth (that illustrated is 12 feet long by 3 

feet widej, and is twisted into approved shape and 

the loose end tucked into one of the folds. The 

colour is white universally in Morocco, although 

the "Shorfa" (descendants of the Prophet) have 

the right to wear green. 

As these garments are not " made to measure," Belt. 
the length is regulated by a "M'dammah" (belt) 
worn over the Mansureeyah. The good ones 
are made of leather covered with a felt-cloth, 
and often gaily adorned with silk threads and 

The slippers {Sriksi) of the men are plain Slippers. 
in colour, and the best are yellow, they are worn iP- 260.) 
with or without socks {T'Kashar). The ladies' 
slippers for indoor wear are very elaborately 
adorned with stamped leather, gold and silk 
embroidery, tassels, &c. 

* When Sir Richard Burton was equipping himself for his pilgrimage, 
he bought a " belt of Moorish manufacture.' 




(p. 256 

Fig. SJ 





Besides the above garments, there is the out-of- 
door cloak of (usually cream coloured) woollen 
material, about six and a half yards long by one 
and a half to two yards wide, with a fringe at 
both ends. This is what the late Mr. Budgett 
Meakin calls "the Lordly 'Ksah," and is used for 
out of door wear in the cooler weather. It is 
folded round the body, across the shoulders, and 
over the head, by a series of twists as difficult to 
describe and as easy to perform as those of the 

A less elaborate costume is illustrated on page 
256, Fig. 5, and consists of a pair of baggy drawers, 
tight waistcoat (Badaiyah), and short jacket 
{Jabadur) with tight sleeves, over which is 
sometimes drawn a Soulham (as illustrated). 

But apparel like this is only possible to those 
whose worldly affairs are comfortable; the poor, 
ov those who wish to appear poor, wear but two or 
three garments, a pair of drawers, a Djellabah, and 
perhaps a shirt. The "Djellabah" is probably the 
most useful combination garment in the world. 
It consists of a rectangular piece of woven woollen 
cloth, closed down the front with a neck-hole cut 
out of the centre and joined to form a hood, the 
sleeves are very short, but ample, considering that 

Lady in Street A ttire. 

the width of the garment exceeds 
its length [see Fig. lo on page 257.) 
A peculiar variety of the 
Djellabah is the " Akneef," a dark 
cloak of goat's hair, with large 
patches of a lighter colour on 
the back. The variation in the 
patches denote the clan of the 
wearer. This is the dress of 
the Berber tribes of the Middle 
Atlas (see illustration on page 60). 

So far we have only been concerned with the 
clothing of men. That of women presents a little 
more difficulty, because the women of the upper 
class are carefully secluded in the privacy of the 
Harem. The poorer women are obliged to go 
shopping, &c., and we consequently catch sight of 
them swathed in the close folds of the Haik. 
This Haik is a variation of the " 'Ksah " the final 
fold of which is brought across the forehead just 
above the eyes, and then folded down each cheek 
like the hood of a nun. When men are present 
the right fold is held up horizontally leaving just 
a peep hole* {see illustration above). 

'* In the "Tale of the Porteress,'' the erring wife goes shopping 
wrapped in her Haik, and accompanied by an old woman. An amorous 
shopkeeper will only part with a much desired piece of cloih for the 







The Fez women rely for their protection on a 
white muslin veil "Litham," which passes over 
the bridge of the nose, the Haik only being used 
for drapery and not face covering. 

The out of door slippers are of coarse red leather, 
and go by the name of " Takashir," those worn 
indoors elaborate, see page 260. Jewellery is 
worn to any extent ; bracelets and anklets, finger 
rings, earrings, necklaces, circlets for the hair, &c. 
The love of gay apparel and personal adornment 
seems to be as prominent with them as with their 
enfranchised sisters. It must not be forgotten 
that an important rite in the marriage ceremony 
is the " display " of the bride to her husband in 
various kinds of bedizenment {often hovYowed). 

A vivid description of an official visit to the 
Shereefian Court at Fez is given by Monsieur 
Viaud (" Pierre Loti ") in Au Maroc. The " thing 
forbidden " is always specially sweet to a literary 
traveller, and with his characteristic audace, our 
author violates propriety by visiting the roof at 
the sunset hour, the sole hour of open air liberty 

price of a kiss. The lady holds out the fold of the Haik in such a way 
that he can put his head under its cover and take his price. The idea 
of concealing the mouth is to take uway the possibility of a kiss, which 
is considered a desecration of her honour. The proverb goes ihal ''a 
woman who allows a kiss refuses nothing," and the Moslems are right 
from the point ot view of the "exclusive possession" theory of sexual 


enjoyed by the women. He describes the closely 
packed roof-tops common to most Oriental towns 
(see pages 52, 132, 188), and the ladies unveiled 
(confiding in the absence of men) who visit one 
another without restraint, walking from roof to 
roof by means of planks or ladders, placed for 
their convenience by the negress slaves, " whose 
voices are like shrill rattles, and manners like 
those of monkeys." Their apparel consists of 
loose tunics of silk stitched and embroidered with 
gold, or of figured muslin worn over a bright 
coloured under-garment."' Their sleeves are long 
and wide, their arms bare and circled with brace- 
lets. The two most conspicuous parts of the 
costume are (i) the deep belt (Hazzam) of richly 
embroidered silk, often incrusted with jewels (real 
or false); and (2) the "Hamtuz" a light silk 
kerchief, covering a cone-shaped paper cap. The 
cap is stiff in front and, the stuff falling loose 
behind, a mitre-like effect is produced. 

When telling his favourite **Yarn"t about an 
old woman disguising a man as a female to gain 

visiting on 
the Rooi 

" Fine 

Aids to 

* Called D'Feen, see figure of Dancing Girl, page 44. 

t I use the word "Yarn" advisedly; these stories of intrigue are 
usually talse. Sir Richard Burton says ; " During the Crimean War 
hundreds of officers, English, French, and Italians became familiar with 
Constantinople and claimed 'conquetes ' ; I do not believe that a single 
bona fid* Moslem case occurred." 



by Men. 

admittance to his love, the Moorish story teller, 
nothing if not detailed, narrates : " She dyed the 
tips of his fingers with henna, decked his wrists 
with bracelets, decorated his hair with the orna- 
mented strings of silk" and clad him in feminine 
apparel. ' Incline thy left shoulder back and right 
forward, and walk with a rolling gait,' quoth she." 

Of course all this elegance only exists amongst 
wealthy women and en grande tenue. But modifi- 
cations of it are adopted by all. The garment 
above called a " tunic," is illustrated on the 
opposite page. The country girl in the centre 
is dressed in plain material ; but it is worn and 
suspended in the same manner as that of the rich. 
The pair of pins is most ingenious in construction 
(for a full sized photo of one with a note on its 
use, see page 265.). 

The division of labour usual between the sexes 
in Europe is reversed ; in Morocco women weave 
the cloths, and men do the tailoring and dress- 

* Over the forehead the hair is cut short ; but two full locks hang 
down on each side of the face, sometimes curled, sometimes plaited. 
The rest of the hair is arranged in from twelve to fifteen plaits or braids, 
worn pendant. These braids are terminated by having attached to each 
of them three black silk strings, bearing at their end flat gold ornaments 
This is called the " Safa," the silk strings are called D'feerah. 


Women of the Atlas. 

(see page 68) 


Some Cursory Remarks on the Moroccan 
" Humanities/' 

(a) Language and Literature. 

Although Morocco is mainly Berber and not Language 
Arabic in blood, still the language spoken is Arabic. 
Arabic. I do not mean that there are no districts 
in which this is not the case ; but roughly 
speaking it is as correct as the statement that the 
language of the United Kingdom is English. 

The reason for the predominance of Arabic 
lies in the fact that the Koran is written in that 
tongue, and here as in all countries where the 
religion is based upon a book open to all, the 
language employed in that book has fixed the 
standard of style and grammar. Sir Richard 
Burton has remarked upon the various opinions 
expressed by philologists upon the subject of 
Arabic and its dialects. The weight of opinion Variations 
seems now to be that the dialectic variations in slight. 
Morocco are comparatively unimportant.* 

* When travelling in company of a British official, whose position in 
Egypt and taste for linguistic studies had given him an intimate 
knowledge of Arabic as spoken in Egypt, I asked him for his opinion of 
Moorish Arabic as compared therewith. He replied that he was struck 
to find how slight the difference was. 

The Koran 
a literary 



The Public 

Elocution - 
ary Art. 

In stating that the Arabic of the Koran forms a 
standard, I wish to avoid all appearance of 
contending that it is a model. As Burton 
remarks, that is no more true than the statement 
that modern English is modelled on the English 
Bible or " Paradise Lost." Nevertheless, the 
influence of these " wells of pure English " is 
immense and lasting. 

Poems existed before the days of Mohammed, 
but they were not written down. Indeed, they 
would probably not have been read if they had 
been. To this day recitation has its true home 
in the East. " A man skilful in reading ' El 
Mutanebbi ' and the * Suspended Poems ' would 
be received by the Arabs of the plain with the 
honours paid by civilisation to the millionaire,"* 
and the enthusiastic audience who hang breathless 
on the lips of the Moorish reciter show the 
profoundest appreciation. Go to any town or 
Souk (market), and at the close of the day you 
will find the reciter and his audience. Gesture 
and all the artifices of the trained elocutionist are 

* Sir R. Burton, who proceeds to state that they_ are critical audiences 
with regard to accentuation and elocution. He instances that " when 
" Burckhardt, who spoke badly, began to read verse to them they 
" waxed impatient and would snatch the book from his hands." The 
susceptibility of the Moors to the appeal of poetry may be abundantly 
instanced, when in the twelfth century, a.d., Abd el Mumin badly 
needed recruits lor Spain, he sent reciters round the country, and met 
with an enthusiastic response. Vide Ibu Khaldun I, 49. 


familiar to these adepts (although they naturally 
vary very much in skill). When our masters of 
elocution introduce music as an accompaniment 
to their performance, they are but following the 
Moorish custom. A story teller of note goes 
about with regular assistants, who summon his 
audience, act chorus, and make the collection. The 
native violin [Kamanjah) tambourine, and single 
drum are the usual instruments employed. The 
musicians not merely assemble the audience but 
punctuate the performance, and even at times 
supply an accompaniment. Nor is the trick of 
leading up to an exciting situation which is "to 
be continued in our next " altogether unknown. 
But this determination to break off can usually be 
unbent by a satisfactory " Tempitation." 


(b) Music and Singing. 

The musical instruments, see illustrations page 
264, mostly in use in Morocco are : The Ginibri, 
(Fig. 5) a kind of guitar with two or three strings 
— sometimes of the rudest construction; the fiddle 
(Kamanjah) which resembles in construction a 















European violin ; the lute (a'ood), (Fig. 4) with 
which Spain has familiarised us ;* the Ghaitah, 
(Fig. 2) a kind of flageolet ; a reed fife {Shibbabah) 
the ordinary instrument of the snake charmer ; 
the double tambourine ; the Darbukhah, which 
consists of a clay cylinder, gaily decked with 
ribbons and having skins stretched across each 
orifice ; tin castanets (Karakab) and various 
forms of drums (Vbil). 

Besides these, the Scotsman would be interested 
in the Zummarah, a kind of bagpipe used by the 
Highlanders of the Riff mountains. It consists 
of a pair of curving horns, fitted to reed or 
wooden pipes, which contain the stops, and 
attached to skins inflated by a mouthpiece (see 
illustration). It seems curious that mountain 
races, no matter how far apart, have almost 
invariably ** evolved " a kind of bagpipe. 

In considering their rude construction the 
" superior person " should not forget that these 
are the parents of most of the modern instruments. 
The strangeness and lack of harmony which they 
produce to ears trained to appreciate the musical 

* There are four strings tuned to E, G, A, D, of the treble clef 
The instrument is played like a mandoline, with a bone, ivory, or horn 


refinements of piano-organs and gramophones,* 
are largely due to the music of the Moors being 
based on the pentatonic and not on the regular 
European octatonic scale. 

What is the effect produced by these strange 
instruments, so primitive yet so popular ? Come 
into yonder coffee house with crumbling walls 

and low doorway.f In the vaulted room 

Moors squat or lie, smoking and drinking coffee, 
and we drink and smoke with them. Soon a 
group of musicians in one corner begin to play 
and chant — we cease to chatter, and in silence 
" lend our ears." 

The music is sweet, primitive and savage, 
making a thrilling appeal to the senses. At first 
the strangeness grates upon us. But gradually, 
as the low measured echo of the darbukkah, the 
gimbri's rasp, and the viol's plaintive wail grow 
more familiar, the melody ever in a minor key, 
with its constantly repeated motif, its slow rhythm, 
its plaint in dreamy monotones wins its way into 

* Apropos of gramophones, I may remark that amongst " progressive " 
Moors of the upper class they are gaining much popularity. The 
records most appreciated are those of instrumental music, especially 

that performed by full orchestras and military brass bands 

t These Cafes are some of good, some of evil repute ; some are in 
vaulted rooms like the one taken as an example here, others open out 
of a roofless courtyard attached to a Fondak. But all are centres of 
gossip ; and— the Press being one of the curses of civilisation unknown to 
me Moor— the seeker after truth will sometimes find it here. 

A Cafe 

Effect of 
this Music 
on the 


the brain and soothes it into dreams. Reality 
fades and we surrender to a feeling of the 
presence of things long past, old memories, vague 
aspirations from a vanished youth. 'Tis like the 
hoarse murmur of the sea on a pebble beach ; 
the same yet different, that soothes yet thrills. 

(c) A Native Poet. 

It would be futile here to attempt any remarks 

Literature, o^ Arabic literature. For an interesting account 

thereof I would refer readers to Reynold A. 

Nicholson's " Literary History of the Arabs " 

(Fisher Unwin). It may, however, be of interest 

to add a few words descriptive of a distinctively 

national Moorish poet, Sidi Hammo, whose verses 

A Berber have been admirably rendered from the Shluh 

Poet, dialect by Mr. R. L. N. Johnson, of Mogador.* 

In " Fadma " the poet paints an autobiographical 

picture concealed by mystic symbolism. Yet he 

is fully understood and appreciated by his rustic 

audiences He loves a maid, Fadma by 

" Fadma." name, he gains her love by championing her in a 

* His volume entitled " Fadma," was published by the " Mogreb-al- 
Aksa," the principal Moorish journal printed in English at Tangier' 
The introduction and notes are admirable. 


singing contest and routing a minstrel who had 

insulted her. He goes out into the world to make 

a name for himself and win her. He meets with 

suffering : 

" Where is she now ? The little sister- friend : 
Who said ' If thou shouldst suffer, none must tend 
• My wounded hero save his loving slave, 
' No other hand his fevered brow shall lave." 
Sick unto death behold her hero lie ; 
Alas! The ' little sister ' comes not nigh." 

He tells of his travelling and his alternations of 

lyric hope and cynical despair, ending by narrating 

the call of his heart that " enough is done, 

now for home and love." He returns, he meets 

his *• Ladye Fair " and ends : 

" Pray tell me, Fadma — by yon sacred dome — 
Is there, 'mid all the boasted drugs of Rome, 
A cure for loving ? If indeed there be, 
From thee I'll take it, sweet, and none but thee." 

Moorish Hospitality and Dishes. 

We are travelling across an undulating country, Demand- 
and as the evening begins to draw in we ing hospi. 
determine to present a letter of introduction tality. 







which we carry to Hamid Ould Sheik Backnish, 
Lord of Gedaadra. Two stately Moors, clad in 
white flowing Soulhams"' with the hood thrown 
back so as to show the turban, advance as we 
dismount, and, holding out their hands, press their 
fingertips to ours. This done they kiss them, 
and place them on their left breast, a greeting 
which we imitate. These are the master of the 
house and his brother, and we confound ourselves 
in mutual compliments. 

After entering the door in the wall I find 
myself in a square courtyard, two sides of which 
are formed by the house and two (set at a right 
angle) by the outer wall. Then through an 
archway and up stone steps to a square and 
windowless ante-room on the first floor, whence 
we issue into the guest-chamber.f This is a room 
narrow in proportion to its length, with a window 
at one end and a doorway at the other ; the room 
is lofty (about 30 feet) and with wooden, beam- 
crossed ceiling. The walls are of painted plaster, 
surmounted by a carved and painted wooden 
frieze. The floors are of cement laid upon 
wooden rafters and covered with straw mats, on 
top of which are thrown gaily coloured hand- 

* See page 6a. 

t See illustration, page 254. 


Moorish Barbs. 

(see pages 15 c~ 24) 

woven carpets. I was well enough acquainted Eastern 
with Eastern customs to pause before entering to Etiquette. 
remove my riding boots and gaiters ; Moors will 
often beg a European to retain his footgear 
when they know enough of Western habits,* but 
they no more expect to be taken at their word 
than does the Spaniard who makes you a present 
of everything you admire. 

Having washed and made myself comfortable Milk. 
in the room, after seeing my portable table and 
chair set up, I ask for a bowl of milk, which is 
promptly brought me — fresh from the cow. Then 
one of my hosts comes to the door dragging by a 
lead a sheep. f This is a present, brought to be A Living 
admired before it is taken away to be killed and Present. 
cooked. I punch the animal in the ribs and try 
to look knowing instead of sheepish, expatiate on 
the excellence of the gift and the munificence of 
the giver, and — off goes the animal to the butcher. 
The Sheiks come in to join us at supper, seating 
themselves on cushions placed in a ring upon the 
floor, and we leave our chairs to join them. The 

* The pains taken by an upper class Moor to make himself agreeable 
to a welcome guest are far in excess of that considered necessary by 
Europeans. He will question the traveller's attendants to find out his 
national habits or even his private idiosyncracies, and having found 
them will make use of his knowledge to put him at his ease. 

t See illustration, page 254. 


The Social 
Circle is 

Green Tea. 




The Right 

social circle consists of the two brothers, their 
farm bailiff, my companion and myself. Two 
negro boy slaves bring in a tray with tea things, 
and the usual green tea, which now forms the 
national drink, is made. Three cups or glasses 
are de rigeur if you would observe the laws of 
hospitality, but so refreshing do I find it after my 
long day's journey that I imbibe seven before I 
finish. Bread baked in small loaves resembling 
large round scones is brought in, broken by the 
host into quarters and distributed. This is the 
well-known ceremonial of hospitality, known as 
" breaking bread." Then the slave-boys set two 
dishes in the midst of the circle. These are two 
large earthenware plattens set upon wooden trays 
and surmounted by conical coverings of plaited 
straw.* They contain wheat pastry with honey, 
sugar and butter, flavoured with spices, the whole 
intensely sweet and sticky. After this dish has 
been removed the boys bring round a brazen jug 
and ewer ; f one pours water over our right hands 
whilst the other dries them with a towel. We 
employ only the right hand for eating, it is 
unlucky to use the left. Next comes our sheep 
(or part of her) cut up in small pieces, stewed, and 

* See illustration, page 258. 

t See illustration, page 259. 


placed in a mound of Kooskoos.* After this 
another washing — then a course of water-melon 
cut up into slices ; then another dish of Kooskoos, 
this time containing roasted fowl, also cut up so 
as to be more easily manipulated. Again we 
wash and again a water-melon is brought in, then 
appears a third Kooskoos containing liver and 
various salad vegetables. After again washing 
and eating water-melon the final wash was 
concluded with a rinsing of the mouth. I light a 
cigar, my companion passes round his cigarettes 
(French abominations) but only one of the Moors 
will smoke — the seductions of my Lady Nicotine 
seem not to appeal to the great bulk of the Moors 
with whom I have come in contact.! 

[/ have specially insisted on detailing the amount of 
washing that goes on in order to remove any imputation 






* This Kooskoos (see page 258) consists of wheat nodules (from which 
is made in England various much advertised "patent breads") called 
by the Moors " Smead." It is carefully washed and steamed so that it 
resembles when heaped together an erection of yellow-white small shot, 
with of course far more cohesion and a softness all its own. The 
stewed meat is put into a hollow made in the top of the Kooskoos; 
olives, turnips and other vegetables crowning the pile. The start is 
made by breaking ofi pieces of bread and soaking them in gravy ; the 
sop is then conveyed to the mouth. 

t On the coast the vice of cigarette smoking has made progress, 
eBpecially amongst the younger Moors, but if the Moor smokes anything 
it IS usually a whiff of Hashish (Indian hemp) which is for the most part 
mixed with tobacco. The pipes consist of wooden stems with bone or 
horn mouth-pieces, and clay bowls which literally hold but a pinch of 
" Smoking Mixture." See illustration on page 253. 


of uncleanliness in eating. ^^ Not only is this far from 
being the case, but "■ table manners " in Morocco are 
excellent and conducted with great regard to etiquette. 
My hosts were to the full as desirous of observing my 
method of eating as I was to see theirs ; but table courtesy 
demands the turning away of the head as the hand goes 
to the mouth, and when I had spoons and forks brought 
Courtesy, in to show tJie European style of handling food^ I had to 
specially request them to ivatch me as I used them before 
they would do so.'\ 

Before we retire to rest the Sheiks Baknish 
insist on my breakfasting with them the following 
morning, a proceeding which naturally results in 
our making a later start than we intended. 
Breakfast. ^^ " break fast " at 6 a.m. ; the meal consists 

of a soup called hassoua, much resembling that 
known as cock-a-leckie. This is eaten by us all, 
sitting in a circle as at our supper party, and each 
dipping a wooden spoon into the bowl. Next 
follows mutton stewed in oil and butter with olives 
(delicious !). Finally comes green tea drunk 
milkless in the Moorish fashion, brewed with 
abundance of sugar and flavoured with mint. 

* In discussing the question as to the relative advantages, from the 
point of view of cleanliness, of hands and spoon and fork, they pointed 
out that you can ensure the cleanliness of your hands tor you wash them 
yourself; for the cleanliness of your utensils you have to rely upon 
servants, and they may wash tbeui properly and they may not. 


One of the Sheiks, in order to emphasize his 
esteem, mounts his horse and rides part of the 
distance with us. 'Tis a fitting finale to an A 
admirable Eastern example of how to *' welcome 
the coming and speed the parting guest." 



A Garden Residence within City Walls. 

When planning a visit to an inland town it is 
necessary to make sure of a lodging, owing to the 
impossibility of Moorish Fondaks,* and to the 
utter absence of anything like hotels. 

It may be of interest to indicate by a brief sketch 
the sort of place that one may look for. The house 
and garden I describe belong to a rich and noble 
family, and are situated in the heart of Marrakesh. 
The accommodation is that which was occupied by 
the intrepid lady traveller, the late Mrs. Isabella 
Bird Bishop, on the occasion of her stay a few 
years ago. The description is extracted from one 
of ray letters written home at the time : — 

• The Moorish Caravanserai ; a series of recesses round an open 
courtyard, wherein the beasts are stabled. See page 157. 


City House 








" Here I am ushered. This is to be my home 
" during my stay in Marrakesh.* I enter from the 
" South side, and turning to the right after passing 
" the stable door, find myself in the garden. 

" The nature of my lodging is best seen from the 
" accompanying rough plan. The walls surrounding 
" the garden are high and massive, built of Tabbia, 
" a material which indeed is employed for the whole 

House of 

Mulai Mufiammed 








A. Trees and shrubs in 
soil, sunk 5 feet below 
the level of C. 

B. Hexagonal fountains in 
middle of C. 

C. Raised stone terrace, 
S feet above soil level 
of A. 

D. Stable. 

E Stone steps leading to 
a first floor, single 
storied, double room, 
with wide verandah on 
which I sleep. 

F. A large wide archway 
opening into H. 

G. Stone stairway leading 
to upper verandah room 
over H. 

H. A verandah room on 
ground floor. This and 
the upstairs room were 
occupied by my ser- 

* This is literally the case. My host invariably sent and asked if I 
could receive him before he visited me. Daily he sent in cooked meats 
from his own kitchens. I paid no rent, but of course "tipped" the 
servants handsomely, and ent a present to my entertainer. 


of the house. The fountains, not constructed 

to spout, are simply receptacles for containing 
' water, which is led to them by a concealed 
' conduit and never fails. The trees planted in the 
' rectangles are lofty and well grown, and their 
' branches afford a perch for innumerable birds 

who increase and multiply without let or 
' hindrance. They are principally sparrows and 
• pigeons, and their voices greet me daily at the 
' coming of daylight. We rise early, for the hours 
' from 6 to 9 a.m. are the best of the day. After 9 
'it begins to get warm, and from 10 a.m. to i or 

2 p.m., it is at this time of the year (July), too 
' hot to do anything but to read or write, or doze 
■ in the shade. If any one comes to call in the 
' morning he usually stays to lunch, and chats or 
' snoozes at will till the abatement of the noontide 
' heat enables him to brave the streets again. 
' The mornings I usually spend going round the 
' city either on horseback or on foot, viewing the 
'streets and the fountains, the houses, the gates 
' and the Mosques. The afternoons are spent in 
' visiting, or wandering round the shops or riding 
'out into the environs. 

" Here I remark the entire absence of unfriendly 
' feeling of the 'Man in the Street.' I observe 

Trees and 





A Friendly 
" Shake." 

" but amicable looks, and more than looks, greetings 
" in the street wherein I often wander quite alone. 
" On one occasion a negro who evidently had had 
" some dealings with the English, grinning all over 
" his face, put out his hand to shake, saying what 
"he meant to be 'Good Day.' 'Twas his sole 
"pretention to linguistic attainment. But if a 
" human countenance can speak in cordial accents 
" his did, whilst the shopkeepers and passers-by 
" looked on with sympathetic smiles. " 


An Afternoon in the Slave Market. 

•< Sok-el- 

" I will call for you at 3 p.m." said Mulai Abul 
Hasan, and with a courteous " b'slamah " he left 
me. Before 4 p.m. we enter the Sok-el-Guezel 
where the slave market is held. This is an oblong 
open space carpeted with sand and surrounded by 
tabbia walls in which are recesses. It is overlooked 
by a Fondak, and overlookers may often be seen 
perched upon the lofty walls. We choose our 
recess, and notice that the centre of the " Sok " is 
occupied by an arcade containing small cells ; here 


The Slave Market. 

A Slave in " Borrowed Plumes." 

(see page 86) 

the slaves await their turns. The sand is sprinkled 
with water, and the Dilals (auctioneers) range them- 
selves in line to open the proceedings with prayer, 
invoking Sidi Abbas" as their patron saint. They 
are twelve in number, their turbans and apparel 
are white, their manners quiet and dignified. 
After prayer, each goes to his own cell and brings 
out the first batch of " goods." These are for the 
most part female slaves and children, intended for 
domestic purposes, the " servant problem " is 
unknown in the East.t 

Taking the woman, girl, or boy by the hand, 
the Dilal leads round the circle, and soon a bid 
is made; this bid is called out until a higher 
offer takes its place. Before raising the price the 
prospective customer has the ** article " led up to 
him, and examines in view of purchase, with more 
decorum, but in the same way as he would treat 
a dog or horse, asking questions in a low tone. 
The appearance of the " stock " is best judged 
from the accompanying illustrations,! the chief 
source of supply used to be Timbuctoo ; but since 
the French occupation this has been stopped. 

* The chief of the " Seven Wise Men '' who are the tutelary guardians 
of Marrakesh. 

t Let those who condemn too hotly remember the "hiring" which 
used to be a feature of English annual country fairs. 

{ Pages 84 and 92. 

ings open 

The First 
" Round." 

ance of the 
" Stock." 



<• Show- 
off " 

Taxes and 

Dining one day with the Governor of Marrakesh, 
after spending the previous afternoon in the 
market, I spoke of the poor quality of the slaves. 
He acknowledged "the soft impeachment," but 
said that they were the following week expecting 
a fresh consignment from the Sus, and if I wished 
he would send his man to see that I got first pick. 

But the sun's rays are slanting more and more ; 
a negress is led by in a richly flowered gown, and 
my Moorish friend is sufficiently interested to call 
her to him. After some preliminaries, he asks 
last bid : " Sixty-five dollars," and he makes an 
advance of five. But the price has gone up ten 
dollars before she comes round again, and he drops 
out of the bidding. Ultimately the woman is sold 
for 95 dollars (about ;^ 13 105.), a very good price, 
considering her appearance. I seem to recognise 
the flowered gown, and find that I am right ; 
costumes Hkely to set off good "points" are pro- 
vided by the Dilals for the occasion. They keep 
a stock of this apparel, which is not sold with the 

The Dilals' commission is 2^ per cent, on selling 
price, and there is a Government tax of 5 per cent. 
Slaves are sold under a warranty given when the 
bargain is concluded before the official Market 


Notary, and bids must be advanced by not less 
than a dollar. 

Apart from the principle of slavery, the lot of the 
slaves is usually comfortable, more so than that 
of many freemen who starve while the slave feasts, Status of 
and one of the severest drawbacks is, I understand. Slaves. 
absent here ; young children and their mothers 
are sold together, usually in one lot. 


Section IV. 

The "Faith" 
and the 

WHEN an European first looks upon a 
Moorish city the prominent features 
which strike his eye are the mosques 
and minarets. There is a true significance in this; 
rehgion (or its observances) enters into every detail 
of Moslem life. 

I have been obliged to be a little didactic in my 
initial description under the title " Religion " ; but 
I hope not " dry-as-dust." The articles on Guilds, 
and the Almanack (which includes Fasts and 
Festivals) spring naturally from it. The chapter 
dealing with Hereditary Saintship may be found 
not uninteresting, and is certainly most important, 
for this idea is the warp on which is woven the 
weft of Moorish political and social life. 

There is a legend told amongst the Moslems 
that the English sent a mission to Mohammed 


enquiring into his doctrine and asking for a 
missionary. The envoys, however, arrived too 
late, the prophet was dead. Many Mussulmen in 
Barbary still hold the view that the English are 
the best disposed towards them of the Western 
nations, and Great Britain is certainly the " most 
favoured nation " amongst the Moors. This may 
really arise from the accounts of our rule in India, 
with which Moorish pilgrims are made familiar 
(from an Eastern standpoint) when on pilgrimage 
to Mecca. There they encounter many co- 
religionists who are British subjects, and learn 
much about the British *' Raj." 

The contents of this Section are : — 


/. — Religion - - - - - go to g^ 

II. — The Almanack - - • - 95 to 99 

III. — Guilds and Confraternities - - loo to 102 

IV. — A Picturesque System of Hereditary 

Saints 102 to 106 



nature of 
medanism . 




No division 


"Lay" and 

" Cleric." 


The religion of Morocco is Mohammedanism. 
" There is no God but God, and Mohammed is his 
prophet " ; that is their creed in its simplicity, 
and that [Lah Allah il Allah Mohammed resoul Allah) 
is the sentence which is five times a day chanted 
from the roof-top of every mosque. It insists on 
the unity and indivisibility of God, founded on the 
teaching of Mohammed as crystallized in the 
Koran, and is essentially monotheistic and 

They believe in a future life for all creation, the 
good in Paradise. The idea that women are 
denied admittance is a libel on Islam, and although 
theological doctors disagree as to whether they are 
separated from man or not, they admittedly attain 
eternal youth. The Mohammedan is in the happy 
position of having no priesthood to intervene 
between him and his God. The Imaum, who 
reads the Koran and preaches the Friday sermon 
in the mosque, maintains himself by other 
occupations in exactly the same way as did the 
Christian priesthood in early days, when James 
was a fisherman and Paul a tent- maker. 


Apart from the two main divisions of 
Mohammedanism into Sunnites and Shi-ites, 
there are various systems of worship.* 

The observances of his reUgion are carried out 
rather more strictly by the Moor than by most of 
his fellow Moslems. Prayer is a ceremonial 
observance, and is executed in a set and formal 
manner ; the personal petition comes at the end, 
when the worshipper stands up and stretches his 
open palms in front of his face as if to receive the 
blessings for which he asks. A Moslem beggar 
when he receives alms does not thank the giver, 
but Allah ! The human almoner is but the 
channel of God's gifts. When free food is given 
out, invitation is given to eat God's food. The 
call to prayer from the mosque towers in the 
night is inexpressibly thrilling. '• The night and 
its darkness have gone, the day comes with light 
and splendour, Lah Allah il Allah, Mohammed 
resoul Allah, come to prayer; prayer is better than 
sleep. Arise, and to God be the praise."! 

The five compulsory hours of prayer are : 

* The four main systems are (i) that of Aboo Haneefah (700-767 a.d., 
Turkey and India) ; (a) Shafiac (764-81C) a.d., Egypt and most of Arabia); 

(3) Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-800 a.d., in Neid and the rest of Arabia) ; 

(4) that of Malik ibn Anas (800 a.d., used in Morocco, Algeria, and 
North Africa generally, excluding Egypt). 

t This last phrase is peculiar to Morocco, and was added by Abd el 
Mumin (see page 127) about 1150 a.d. 

Prayer a 

Call to 


Hours of 



" Church 

(i) Fehdjer (dawn) ; (2) Dhohr (after the 
meridian, about 1.30 ; (3) Asar (afternoon, 
between 3 and 4 p.m.) ; (4) Moghreb (four minutes 
after sunset) ; and (5) Asha, after dusk (supper 
prayers). Ablulljns are compulsory and must be 
thorough ; and as to the method, an observer will 
note that Orientals do not wash in water but with 
it ; the liquid is too precious to waste. If water 
be not available, sand is used or even a clean 
stone. The postures adopted during prayer are 
illustrated on page 255. 

The Moor goes to his mosque on Friday as 
the Englishman does on Sunday, but he leaves 
(usually) his women at home; "Church Parade" 
is unknown to Islam. The ritual is of the 

It is rare for the Moorish mosques to be closed : 

* The Khotbah or address is delivered by the Fair (or Scribe) who 
acts as Imaum, before prayer, which is preceded by the reading of 
public notices and of letters from the Sultan or Kaids. The only other 
mosque employees are the Hazzaba (readers or reciters of the Koran) 
and Mouedhims who keep the gates, do the cleaning and call to prayer. 
The public recital consists of congregational chanting of the prayers 
and ejaculation from the Koran followin,'? their Iraaum (leadei) who, 
turning his back on them, faces like themselves towards Mecca. As the 
"Crier on the Watch Tower'' gives the call for midday prayer, 
thousands of voices within repeat the call in unison, and cry " God is 
most great." Then the " Fahtihah " repeats with open, outstretched 
hands, " Praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds, the Pitying, the 
Pitiful King of the Day of Judgment. Thee we do serve, and seek help 
from Thee : lead us in the perfect way, the way of those on whom is Thy 
grace, not of those on whom is wrath nor of the wanderers. Amen." 
Next follow the ejacnlations, " O Lord, to Thee be praise," and " God 
is merciful." 


The Slave Market. 
Customers questioning a Slave. 

(see page 85) 

some door is always open to receive the devout for 
prayer or meditation. Mosques and saints' shrines 
are maintained from property called "Wakf" 
(entailed) bequeathed for that purpose and entrusted 
to an official known as the " Nadir." It is badly 
administered, and much of the Wakf property is 
let at a nominal rent to be sublet many times over. 
From this cause a considerable sum has often to 
be paid for the key of a house (the sign of 
possession) and a mere trifle as rent. Mosques 
are used in the country as schools, and in the 
towns as college halls for students and professors, 
and have often a Beit el Ginaiz (mortuary chapel) 
attached to them. 

It is remarked by Oscar Maun, the great 
Orientalist of Berlin, that Mohammedanism is one 
of the three great missionary religions of the 
world, and as such has always shown and is 
showing to-day in China, where Mohammedanism 
is making large numbers of converts, an 
adaptability unequalled by the other two.* " The 
emissaries of Mohammedanism are the travellers 

free and 


as Schools. 



* They avoid hurting people's feelings. " In China they are careful 
not to build their mosques higher than other temples, and therefore the 
mosques are not adorned with minarets ; in China, even in government 
circles, Mohammedanism is regarded as uniting the best points of 

Confucianism and Buddhism 
in the ninteentb century." 

Vide Oscar Maun's " Mohammedanism 


and merchants who, in the intervals of trade, 
implant their civilisation and their faith." 
Things fhe drinking of wine is prohibited in this world 

Forbidden. ^^^ ^^ju ]^g allowed in Paradise. Gambling is 
forbidden, so also is usury, infanticide, and the 
oppression of orphans. Unlawful also are meats 
offered to idols, and the eating of blood and swine's 
flesh. The rosary employed by the Mohammedans 
(called Tasbeeh) is composed of 99 beads of wood, 
bone, ivory, &c. There is a sort of handle in 
which the cord is joined, and two additional knobs 
after the thirty-third bead from either end. The 
size of the beads is immaterial, and their number 
represents the 99 attributes of Allah. 
Saint The saint worship, and various festivals now 
Worship, incorporated into Mohammedanism, are probably 
relics of pre-Mohammedan religions, just as the 
Christmastide celebration (mistletoe, yule logs, &c.) 
is pre-Christian. 
Things Apart from the mosques there are saints' houses 
Sacred, and shrines (Zouweeyah) dotted all over the country; 
whilst religious maniacs (either real or sham) are 
venerated as being under the direct influence of 
the Holy Spirit. 

It is difficult to draw a sharp dividing line 
between religion and superstition, but of what 


undoubtedly belongs to the latter there is much in 
Morocco. Falling stars are missiles thrown by 
God at devils trying to pry into heaven. The Super- 
Evil Eye {ain el Kahech) is firmly believed in, and stitions. 
must be avoided by the outstretched palm.* 


The Almanack. 

The Mohammedan year consists of 354 days, Moorish 
with I if years in every 30 (called intercalary Kalendar. 
years) of 355 ; their months are lunar and twelve 
in number. Consequently their festivals, being 
fixed by the day of the month, are continually 
falling behind their date by our reckoning, and 
may occur in any month of the European (truly 
solar) year. 

M. Caussin de Percival corrected the popular Popular 
error that their epoch began on the i6th July, Error 
622 A.D. The Mohammedan year starts with the Corrected. 

* (5 is the lucky, 7 the unlucky number), charms and amulets 
are carried "for luck," lots are cast, the future is pryed into by magic 
mirrors, &c. 

t These eleven intercalary years are the 2nd, 5th, 7th, loth, 13th, 
i6tb, i8th, 2ist, 24th, 26th, and 29th, in each cycle of 30 years. 


and Days. 


month of mourning " Moharram " (Holy), and the 
epoch begins with the first day of that month 
before the Hegeira (flight from Mecca to Medina) 
which corresponded with the 19th April, 622 a.d. 

The names and number of days contained in the 
months are as follows : — 

Moharram, 30. 
Saphar, 29. 

Rabia I. 

(el oolah) 30. 

Rabia II. 
(et tani) 29. 

Juimadha I. 
(el oolah) 30. 

Juimadha II. 
(et tani) 29. 


Ramadhan, 30. 
Schoowal, 29. 
Dhu'l Kadah, 30. 
Dhu'l Hadjah, 

29 or 30. 

According to whether 
the year be intercalary 
or not. 


Schaban, 29 

The result of this is that the calculation of the 
Mohammedan year in European reckoning and, 
vice versa, is somewhat elaborate ; a very useful 
table is printed in Stanley Lane Poole's 
" Catalogue of Indian Coins." 

The days of the week are : — 

Sunday : Yom el had 
Monday : Yom el tneen 
Tuesday : Yom et tlata 
Wednesday : Yom el Arbah 

Thursday : Yom el Khamees 
Friday : Yom el Jumah 
(Day of the Congregation) 
Saturday : Yom as Sibt. 

The day begins in the evening at sunset, not 
as with ourselves, so that what is to us Sunday 
night is to the Moor Monday night. 

The principal festivals are : — (i) Aashur ; Moorish 
(2) Maolood ; (3) Ramadan, the great fast with Festivals. 
its succeeding " Break fast Feast " (" Aid el 
Futoor ") ; and (4) the Sheep Feast (called Aid el 
K'bir, gnat feast). 

Aashur occurs in the month of Moharram, the 
first of the year, and is the time when the tithes 
are paid. These are called " Zakat," and consist 
of a proportion of each man's possessions ; the 
legal percentage seems to be about 2^ per cent. 
In its initiatory conception a fast, the gayer tone 
has been introduced by the fasting being made 
optional, and therefore seldom observed. 

The Aashur is the children's feast, and through- tj^^ 
out Morocco " all the fun of the fair" is the order Children's 
of the day. The youngsters trick themselves out Feast. 
and get up processions as English children do on 
" Guy Fawkes Day." 

Maolood occurs two months later than Aashur, 
and begins on the 12th of Rabia el oolah. It is 
ushered in with the " Watchnight " by music and 
singing, and its first dawn is saluted by the firing 
of guns. It is the favourite time for the rite of 
circumcision. The seventh day is the most festive 
and is given over to processions, and the present- 
ation of offerings to Sheriffs and other Saints. 




This is the date of Mohammed's birthday, kept by 
the Aissouwa confraternity (see page loi), as a 
day of orgies. 

Ramadan is the festival best known in the 
West. It is the great Mohammedan fast when, 
from sunrise to sunset for a whole month, no food 
is eaten. One of the best descriptions is found in 
Burton's " Pilgrimage," and well may it be good, 
for it is a record of personal experience. The 
morning gun-fire brought him abstinence, it was 
his friends and companions whose irritability under 
the torture of hunger is described, he joined in 
the anxious expectation of the last hour, and in 
the thrill produced by the signal gun which 
announced that the day's fast was ended. " Al 
** fitar, Al fitar [fast-break) shout the people, and a 
** hum of joy rises from the silent city .... You 
" exhaust a pot full of water, no matter its size. 
" You clap hurried hands for a pipe, you order 
" coffee, and, provided with these comforts, you sit 
" down and calmly contemplate the coming pleasures 
" of the evening." 

Ramadan is Islam's month of peace, warfare 
and quarrels must cease. In the absence of food 
men "have no stomach for the fight," so true it 
is that an army " crawls upon its belly." 


The " Break-fast Feast " is just the natural Break-fast 
re-action from Ramadan, and consists of general Feast. 
holiday making and visiting. At its close the 
Sultan and the local Kaids receive the taxes. 

The Sheep Feast occurs on the loth of Dhu'l Sheep 
Hadjah, the last month, and commemorates the Feast. 
sacrifice of the ram by Abraham. The official 
part of the programme is carried out thus : — 

"After public prayer (M'sallah) a fine ram is 
" led to the Kadi {Judge), who, with the words * B'ism 
" Illah ' cuts its throat,* A runner dashes forward, 
" and holding with his hand the poor gashed throat, 
" speeds to the Kasbah. Will he reach it before the 
"animal has breathed his last ? The great crowd 
"waits expectant. Hurrah! the unhappy victim 
"was not quite dead, and all around me resound 
"ejaculations of " Allahumma lak el hamd" (0 God, 
"to Thee be praise), and similar pious ejaculations. 
"This omen means a year of abundant harvest to 
"the faithful Moor." 

* This act is announced by the waving of a cloak from the Mosque 
towers and a salute of ai guns. It is usual for the private householder 
to cut a sheep's throat at the same time, and the sheep is eaten the 
same or following day. 



Nature of 
ternities in 



Guilds and Confraternities. 

With regard to confraternities (Taifahs) Morocco 
is in a less advanced position than the other 
Moslem communities. In the latter they are 
few and powerful, because well organised and 
disciplined. In the former they appear to be 
concerned mainly with religious observances ; but 
the Mohammedan religion is so essentially social 
and political that it is difficult to make hard 
and fast divisions. Some of the confraternities 
correspond more to the Western trade guilds; 
workmen of the same trade are grouped together 
with an Elder at the head called the Amim of the 
corporation, who can usually read and write. 
His progress in authority is marked by his 
appellations : beginning as " Ba " or " Abba " 
{father, the same word appears in Hebrew) he 
next becomes " F'Keeh " (Savant) and finally 
" Shaik." He acts as arbiter in disputes, adviser, 
High Priest, &c., is usually advanced in years, and 
his influence dies with him. 

The principal obstacles to the power of the 
confraternities are (i) the "Shorfa" (descendants 
of the Prophet) ; and (2) the Maghksen (Government). 

A Little Bit of Traditional "Desert." 

(see page 17) 

The former are usually too much concerned about 
** loaves and fishes " to merge their individualities 
in a corporate body, and the latter are implicit 
believers in the Roman proverb, Divide et impera. 

When the great confraternity of the Aissouwa,* 
which includes most of the snake charmers and 
others of the lower orders, especially negroes to 
whom its gross rites, dances, &c., peculiarly 
appeal, seemed to be getting too powerful, the 
Maghksen advanced to favour the rival con- 
fraternity of Hamadshaf whose rites are fully 
as gross. These two powerful confraternities thus 
placed in competition, are so far enemies and rivals 
that their votaries not infrequently come to blows. 

The idea of joining a confraternity seems not 
only that mutual help may be thus secured, but 
also that the good offices of the Patron Saint 

* The Aissouwa are followers of Mohaniined bin Aisa of Mequinez 
(seventeenth century) and their annual orgies take place on his birthday, 
kept under a compact with Mulai Ismail (ruled 1672-1727) from the 12th 
to the igth Saphar. The devotees devour sheep and other animals raw, 
tearing them limb from limb whilst yet alive. They cut their bodies 
with knives, and dance themselves into ecstasies or brute passion, chew 
glass, thorn, &c., foam at the mouth and go through the most revolting 
ceremonials. They are supposed to be immune to the bite of snakes or 
other venomous animals. A vivid description of one of their festivals 
is to be found in the Rev. R. Ker's " Pioneering in Morocco." 

t The Hamadsha confraternity are the followers of Sidi AH bel 
Hamadsha, whose Kubba gleams white on the hill of Zarhon near 
Mequinez. They started as the Guild of Acrobats, but have enlarged 
their sphere; their feast is a few days later than that of Aissouwa, and 
they are little behind the latter in their extravagances. To the sound 
of the gimbri, tarijah, gaitah, and t'bil, they cut their heads open with 
axes, smash water jugs on their heads, then poise cannon balls on their 
bleeding craniums and perform juggling feats. 




of the 

an Illus- 
of their 

may be afforded members for facilitating their 
admittance to Paradise, on the threshold of which 
he will meet them. For better security many 
Moors join several confraternities, and this again 
militates against the solidarity and disciphne of 
each separate community. The career of the 
wretch " Bou Hamara," " El Roghi," or whatever 
we may call him, who recently perished at Fez 
under the stern edict of Mulai Hafid (his real 
name was Djilali ben Dris Elyousfi Ezzerhouni of 
the tribe of Ouled Yousef) is an example of the 
power of the confraternities. After a sojourn in 
Algeria, he got himself named Mokaddem of the 
order of the Shadhoulya, forged a Sheriffian 
pedigree, and carried on a struggle that embittered 
the last years of the reign of Abd-el-Aziz, and 
gave even the far stronger Mulai Hafid a world of 

A Ride 

with an 




A Picturesque System of Saints 


Riding from Marrakesh in company with one of 
the sheriffs of Tamshlohat, the present writer 

remarked that as they neared their destination 
men would rush forward to kiss his feet. Now it 
was a potter taking a load of his wares to market, 
now a woodcutter, now just a labourer working in 
the fields. What is the reason for this act of 
vassalship, which is not usually paid to officials 
even of the highest rank ? The answer is that it 
was accorded not to the temporal but to the 
spiritual superior, not to the Prince but to the 
Saint. And the history of the matter runs thus : — 

In the middle of the sixteenth century there 
lived a holy man named " Ghazwanee," a man 
of pre-eminence in the ranks of the " Sheiks." 
These mystics, like the hero of Browning's 
" Paracelsus," spent their lives seeking after absolute 
knowledge of God, not through tradition oral or 
written. The student (Talib) •' pursues a path," 
the goal of which is all knowledge, that is — God. 
The aim of the Sheik who directs his first steps is 
not to impart knowledge, but to produce cKo-racrt? 
(a standing outside of tiie corporal entity). The 
highest station in this mystic path is " Polehood " 
(the attainment of direct communication with the 
'• First Cause "). 

A parallel may be found in the Hebrew 
prophets ; and as the mantle of Elijah fell upon 



Origin of 

Same idea 
in the 

Elisha so did the spiritual authority'^ of the holy 
Aboo Paris (died 1485 a.d.) pass on to Ghazwanee, 
and from him to the Tamshlohat sheriffs. 


One Cow. 




One day the holy man and his disciples are 
passing the grave of Sheik Ibrahim in the village 
of Tamshlohat, half a day's journey from 
Marrakesh ; they find it deserted in consequence 
of a drought. Nevertheless, Ghazwanee turns to 
Abdallah ibn Husain the Hasanee,f a lineal 
descendant of Mohammed, and " This is the 
place for thee, O Abdallah," quoth he. After 
receiving a farewell blessing, Abdallah, his wife 
and his son remain at Tamshlohat. At the time 
their sole possession (despite his descent from the 
founder of Islam) is one cow and a bundle of palm 
leaves. Ghazwanee dies and is buried at Marra- 
kesh ; but still the family of three with their cow 
live on at Tamshlohat. 

The tax gatherer of the Sultan takes the cow, 
and the distracted owner goes to Marrakesh to 

'■' And Barakah {blessing), vide page 201*. 

t Abdallah was a scion of the Hasanee Sherifis, who ruled as Sultans 
of Morocco from 1525 to 1660, when they were succeeded bv the Filalee 
Sheriffs, to which family Mulai Hafid the present ruler belongs, see 
pages 118 and 139. 


reclaim it. Instead of seeking the Sultan he 
visits the shrine of Ghazwanee and communes 
with his dead leader. Passing through the 
" New Gate " on his way home he finds there 
the tax gatherer with his cow. This man had 
been visited in his sleep by a tall man having in his 
hand a drawn sword, who commanded him to take 
the beast back to Abdallah. Soon Abdallah 
begins to work miracles for himself, and material 
wealth pours in upon him -'' until he is able to 
dispense hospitality to thousands of guests for 
whose needs he " daily sacrifices large numbers of 
sheep and cattle." 

appears in 
a Holy 


The above story of the settlement at Tamshlohat 
of this important Sheriffian Family was told by 
Sheik Ahmed, son of Abdallah, to Ibn Askar, one 
of the Moorish chroniclers, who set it out in his 
book published in 1578, whence it is extracted 


* The Kubba of Mulai Abdallah remains at Tamshlohat and sanctifies 
the town, and the Kubbas of the city round the neighbourhood are the 
tombs of his descendants. The sphere of influence ot the Slierifl of 
Tamshlohat is a large one ; it extends over all the provinces of the south 
from the Atlas to the Oum-er-Rebbia, he is the sole proprietor of tlie town 
and neighbouring lands, and the sole beneficiary ot tlie alms of the 
Kubbas ; his yearly income is reckoned to be worth over a quarter of a 
million sterling. 


Such is the authority on the basis of which rests 

the veneration paid to the sheriffs of Tamshlohat, 

This and ex tmo disce omnes. This instance is typical 

instance is of the system of hereditary saints prevalent 

Typical, throughout Morocco. They are descendants of 

the Prophet and their hereditary sheriffdom entitles 

them to both relisfious and secular service. 


Section V. 


Told with a view 
to illustrate 
modern conditions. 

Introductory Remarks. 

ALTHOUGH this brief epitome of Moorish 
history runs to 40 pages, the space occupied 
is not excessive. It is true of most 
countries that you cannot understand to-day unless 
you know something of yesterday, and this truth 
applies with special force to Morocco, which 
without some knowledge of its history would 
be a hopeless enigma. 

The anecdotes inserted are intended not only 
to lighten the narrative, but to illustrate present 
Moorish life. The incidents in the flight of Idris I., 
the building of Fez, &c., might mutatis mutandis 
happen to-day. The stories of Kahena and of 
Zeinab will show that women's life in the East is 
not the mere harem existence it is supposed to 
be. The picture of the future Emperor, too 


poor to pay his boat hire at Sallee, and his nai) 
narrating thereof, are still typical of the vicissitudes 
characteristic of Moorish life and the way they are 

The sources of information are for the most 
part Arab histories known as " Edrisi," '* Ibn 
Khaldun," "Ibn Khallikan," "El Makkari," "Abd 
el Wahid," " En Nasiri," " Raod-el-Kartas," " El 
Ufrani,"and " Aboulgasem ben Ahmed Ez Ziani." 
I have made full use of Mr. Budgett Meakin's 
book, as well as that of Castellanos (" Descrip- 
cion Historica") besides others, but I have in 
each case " verified the references " of modern 

Historical Sketch. 

Early Days. 

Legends. Ancient legends tell of Antaeus, the mighty 

giant son of Atlas, King of Mauretania. The 
monster killed all whom he could catch, to add 
their skulls to a mound which he was raising in 


An Atlas Track. 
No Road for Motors. 

(seepage 209) 

honour of Neptune. Hercules destroyed him, and 
the rocks which guard the Straits of Gibraltar are 
known to this day as the " Pillars of Hercules." 

This story points to the unfortunate experience 
of old-time sailors on an iron-bound coast inhabited 
by savage races, and the Berbers* as the original 
inhabitants of this district, must accept the 

Legend does not become history till the days of 
the Carthaginians who established colonial cities 
on the coast. The first historical landmark is the 
voyage of Hanno,t who seems (about 500 b.c.) to 
have coasted the African shores westwards from 
Carthage and as far South as Sierra Leone. The 
Carthaginians did not penetrate inland, and the 
Romans were the first civilised people to make 
any lasting stay. 

As far as Morocco is concerned the earliest 
Roman occupation dates from the fall of Ptolemy 
in 39 A.D. 

From first to last the Roman occupation of Morocco 

* The Berbers claim for themselves descent from Goliath of Gath, 
the Amalekite giant who fell before the pebble of David, the shepherd 
boy of Israel. 

t Hanno's TrepfTrXous (round voyage) was recorded by him on a stons 
in the temple of Saturn at Carthage and copied by a Greek traveller 
centuries later. See Pliny's " Punicis Rebus Floreatissimis." The 
account was first published in 1534 from a MS. in the library of 










and Jews. 

lasted for roughly 500 years, about the same period as 
their rule endured in Britain, and to this day the common 
name up country for Europeans is Roumi (Roman). 

In 424 A.D. we find Bonifacius, the Roman 
Count (Comes) of Africa, inviting Genseric the 
Goth to Morocco. These kinsmen of our own 
Anglo-Saxons accepted the invitation to such 
purpose as to form a Vandal Empire which lasted 
for about 80 years. Some ethnologists claim still to 
recognise traces of the blood of the fair-haired blue- 
eyed Goths amongst the mixed races of Morocco. 

Justinian, the Byzantine Emperor in 534 a.d., 
re-organized his African dominions and ended the 
Gothic dominion. The Eastern part of the 
Mauretanian Quadrilateral from that time re- 
mained loosely connected with the East Roman 
(Byzantine) Empire till the irruption of the 
Mohammedan invaders in the middle of the 
seventh century ; whilst the Western part seems 
to have fallen under the rule of Romano-Gothic 
Kings of Spain. Abd-el-Rahman ben Mohammed 
ibn Khaldun, an Arab historian of the fourteenth 
century a.d., says : " During the rule of the 
Romans the Berbers professed Christianity, and 
paid their taxes regularly," adding, however, that 
some of them were Jews. 


The Mohammedan Conquests. 

When the disciples of Mohammed broke in 
upon Algeria with the sword in one hand and the 
Koran in the other, they found a governor named 
" Djoredjir " (Gregory) ruling in the name of the 
Byzantine Emperor Heraclius.* They soon 
mastered the Eastern regions, and Kairouan, a 
town three days' journey south of Tunis, was 
founded in 639 a.d. as a point d'appui for further 

About forty years later Okba, a celebrated 
Muslim hero, led (678 a.d.) a raid from Kairouan 
and drove before him what remained of the 
Byzantine garrisons. He found at Tangier, ruling 
in the name of a Romano-Gothic King of Spain, 
a certain Count Julian, who sped him on 
his southward journey to Tarudant, no doubt 
mightily pleased to see the back of him. Thirty- 
two years later Musa-ibn-Nazair undertook a 
fresh expedition, and sent Tarik-ibn-Ziad, his 


Okba at 



* Vide " Abd-er-Rahman ibn Abd-el-Hakem," two copies of whose 
work composed in the ninth century a.d. (rest in the Bibliothdque 
Nationale, Paris. 

Berber lieutenant, across to Spain (710 a.d.) 
incited to do so by Julian,* Count of Algeceiras 
and Ceuta, now hand-in-glove with the Moors 
through the spirit of revenge against Roderic, at 
once his King and the seducer of his daughter. 

•« Solo- The spoils of the Romano-Goths of Spain were 

mon's much more rich and tempting than those of the 

Tabic" at Berbers. A certain ** Solomon's Table," for 

Toledo, instance, taken at Toledo, we hear to have been 
composed of emeralds, rubies, pearls, and other 
precious stones, and to have had 360 legs. The 
story of the missing table leg, and what came out 
of it, forms an important incident in the romantic 
tale of Musa and Tarik, their deeds, their 
ingratitude, and their misfortunes. 
Seductive The ladies of Spain were as captivating then as 

Castilian now. The Arab historians tell us that Musa's 

Beauty, son, ** a man of character and ability," married 
King Roderic's widow, and was so enthralled 
that, to please her, he tried to introduce Spanish 
manners and ceremonials amongst his followers. 

* For the romantic story of Count Julian see the various historians of 
Spain; Dozy and others. The tale of the betrayal of his daughter by 
Roderic, and Julian's revenge, are well told in Southey's poem, 
" Roderic the last of the Goths." Mr. Guayangos, in his English 
translation of El Makkari's " Mussulman Dynasties of Spain," shows 
that Julian definitely joined the Moors and was held in high esteem by 
them. He founded a family which in the third generation became 
Mohammedan, and can be traced with distinction for over two hundred 

They resented the attempt, and the fair lady 
became a widow for the second time. 

It is not to be supposed that the Arab 
enthusiasts had an easy task in subjugating and 
converting the Berbers ; far from it. Their own 
historiographers state that the Berber people 
between Tripoli and Tangier apostasized a dozen 
times, and Islam was only firmly established after 
the conquest by Musa of El Mogreb (Morocco) 
and the expedition of Tarik* to Spain. " After 
*' the Spanish conquest these allies (the Berbers) 
" stayed there, and from that time the nation 
" remained faithful and lost its ancient habit of 
" apostasizing."^ 

Although after Musa's conquest Mohammedan- 
ism was fixed amongst the Berbers (and he fixed 
it by a campaign of religious teachers instead of 
warriors), they none the less showed their un- 
tameable spirit. Moslem Berbers holding the 

* His landing place, the Hill of Tarik — " Jebel Tarik " has since 
become famous as Gibraltar. 

t Ibn Khaldun. The same historian, in narrating the struggles 
between Berbers and Arabs, tells the story of how Kahena, an Amazon 
like Deborah, who was in command of a tribe of Jewish Berbers, 
repeatedly swept back the invaders. This chieftainess (whose n ime is 
familiar to Englishmen as Cohen) was ultimately betrayed by her own 
people. Before the final battle at Mount Auras (694 a.d.), knowing she 
was doomed to defeat, she sent her two sons over to the Arab camp. 
The mother fell ; the sons survived, to command, as Muslims, their 
ancestral tribe. Could Amazonian heroism and mother's love be more 
touchingly exemplified ? 

tion of 
Berbers no 
easy task. 








Kharedjite* creed rebelled in 740 a.d. against the 
Arab Governor of Tangier and beat him in the 

Again and again they vanquished the flower of 
the Arab chivalry, and were only finally worsted 
by Handala in 742 a.d. It was the vigour in 
Morocco of this Kharedjite feectarianism that paved 
the way for the rapid successes of Idris, a 
descendant of Ali, and mortal foe of the Omayyad 


Resume, and Summary of Dynastic Rule. 

General We now approach the date when Morocco 

Glance, begins to cohere into a separate kingdom, and 

must just take a glance at the general condition 

of the Mohammedan world in order to " get our 


* This was a sect who, scandalised by the disputes between Ali and 
Mo'awiya (the first Omayyad Kaleefah), maintained that the Kaleefah of 
Islam ought to be elected by the suflrage of all the faithful, and need 
not belong to the Koreish tribe (that of Mohammed). This protest 
against the accession of the Omayyad Kaleefahs profoundly afiected the 
history of Morocco. Although orthodox Mohammedans in creed, 
doctrine and practice, the Moors are and have always been Protestants 
against the spiritual domination of the Popes of Islam (the Kaleefahs 
of Baghdad, and in later days the Sultans of Turkey). 


Mohammed founded not merely a religion, but 
a dynasty on a religious basis, dating its events 
by the year of the Hegeira (flight of the Prophet 
from Mecca to Medina, 622 a.d.) He was suc- 
ceeded by his father-in-law, Abu-Bekr, in the 
nth year of the Hegeira (632 a.d.), next by Omar 
and Othman, his near kinsmen, and then by 
Ali, his first cousin and husband of his daughter 
Fatima. These are " the Four Orthodox 
Kaleefahs." Ali was murdered in 40 a.h. (661 
A.D.), and Mo'awiya, belonging to a separate 
branch of the Koraish clan (that of Mohammed), 
assumed the throne and started the Omayyad 
dynasty. The rush to Empire was very rapid, 
and by the beginning of the eighth century a.d. 
the dominion of the Kaleefahs extended from the 
Atlantic to the Indus, and from the Caspian Sea 
to the cataracts of the Nile. 

Then started disintegration. Idris, the first 
worker in the field of Moorish nationality, was a 
descendant of Ali and Fatima, and looked upon 
the Omayyad and Abassid occupants of the throne 
as usurpers. Abdul Rahman, who successfully 
separated Spain from the Kaliphate, was an 
Omayyad and denied their rights and those of 
their successors, the Abassids. Other parts of the 



started in 
and Spain. 


world also threw off the secular suzerainty of 
the Kaliphate, although for the most part acknow- 
ledging a spiritual overlordship. The last repre- 
sentatives of the old Kaleefahs took refuge in 
Constantinople, and handed on their spiritual title 
to the Sultan of Turkey ; this tttle has never been 
recognised in Morocco. 

I will now ask my readers to turn to the 
diagram which I entitle, " Key to Moorish History," 
which graphically illustrates the historical sequence 
of the Dynasties : — 

The broad strip at the top numbered (i) indicates that 
Mohammedanism, when it first forced itself on Morocco, 
involved absorption into the Mohammedan Empire ruled 
by the Omayyad Kaleefahs from Damascus. Figure (2) 
shows that Spain was free from Islam till the tide of con- 
quest crossed the straits in 711 a.d. In (3) is recorded the 
fact that the Abbasid Kaleefahs ousted the Omayyads over 
the whole Mohammedan world except Mussulman Spain. 
The next secession from the Mohammedan Empire is 
denoted by (4) showing Morocco under the Idreesi 
Dynasty, whose rule gradually tapers off to nothingness 
before the encroachment of the Berber Tribes (Figure 5), 
which involved a return to chaos. 

Figure (6) marks yet another secession from the domains 
of the Kaleefahs, the formation of a Kingdom of Afrikiya 






13 M 18 


















Key to Moorish History. 

(see opposite page) 

(Algiers — Tunis — Tripoli) under the Aghlabids, who handed 
it on — Figure (7) to the Fatimids, and (8) to the Zayrids. 
We see from Figure (9) that the Hammudids formed a 
kingdom carved partly from the chaos of Morocco and 
partly of Algeria, extending later into Tunis, but losing all 
their Moroccan territory to the Almoravides. These latter 
(Figure 10) restored order in Morocco and extended their 
rule to Spain, where a succession of minor dynasties, 
(Figure 11) had taken the place of the Omayyads of 

Figure (12) denotes the high water mark of the Moorish 
Empire, the rule of the Almohades, who lost indeed in Spain 
to the Christians (Figure 13), but joined Algeria and Tunis 
to Morocco. 

Special interest attaches to Figures (14) and (15), which 
speak of the Crusades. Robert, the Norman Count, of 
Sicily, held Tunis and Tripoli, a little slice from Islam 
re-absorbed by the dynasty of Saladin (Figure 15) the 
adversary of our Richard Coeur de Lion. 

We are reminded by Figures (16) and (17) that in the 
break up of the Almohade Empire two independent king- 
doms — those of the Hudids and the Nazrids — were formed 
in Spain. Boabdil, the last of the Nazrids, saw Spain 
cleared of Mohammedanism. 

The Beni Marin tribes (Figure 18) wrested Morocco from 
the Almohades ; the Zyanids (Figure 19) took Algeria, and 
the Hafsids Tunis and Tripoli (Figure 20). Algeria was 
reconquered by the Beni Marin kings in 1352 a.d., and 
the Moorish Empire thus constituted was handed on to the 
Watasids (Figure 21) who lost Algeria, and the " Empire" 


of Morocco in its present dimensions was transferred to the 
Sheriff dynasties of the Hasanee (22) and the Filalee (23). 
To the latter family belongs Mulai Hafid, the ruling prince. 
The Corsair Kingdoms of Algiers (24), Tunis (25), and 
Tripoli (26), continued to hold sway till modern times, when 
a new factor was introduced : that of France, who — in the 
interests of humanity — took first Algeria, and next Tunis, 
and perhaps the end is not yet. 





The Coming of the Idreesi Family. 

At Alexandria, the capital of Egypt, in the 
month of Dou'l hija, i6g a.h. (June, 786 a.d.), two 
men stand gazing at the fa9ade of a private house. 
One of them, whose dress and appearance bespeak 
his gentle birth, is young and beardless, the other 
in the flower of manhood. The master of the 
house coming out at that moment salutes them 
and asks why they are looking so intently. He 
is told that they are admiring the architecture. 
" You are strangers, then? " " May our coming 
find favour in your sight, we are strangers." 
Further converse shows that the new comers are 
Idris and Rasheed, master and man, fugitives 


from Mecca, where defeat and death had recently 
befallen Idris's father, Imaum Mohammed, fifth in 
descent from Fatima the daughter of the Prophet 
and Ali his cousin. They are welcomed by the 
Egyptian, himself a man of Mecca, who takes 
them into his house and entertains them with 
lavish hospitality. But the Governor of Egypt, 
fearing the power of the victorious Abasside 
Kaleefah, bids them begone, and the fugitives 
make their way first to Tangier (then the capital 
of El Mogreb), and finally to Walily*, situated on 
the Zarhoon Mountains between Mequinez and 
Fez. After six months* sojourn Idris is proclaimed 
king (24th Ramadhan, 788 a.d.), and thanks to 
his hereditary saintship and vigorous personality, 
soon extends his rule eastwards to Tlemcen, and 
south-westward to Rabat and Sallee, in fact, over 
what soon becomes the Northern Kingdom of Fez. 
Such is the start of settled Mohammedan rule 
in Morocco, and such the beginning of the famous 
line of Idrisi sheriffs. It is worth noting that the 
Arab historianf states that " in the country at 
" the time there were but a few Mussulmen ; 
" Christians and Jews were numerous, and Idris 

» Volubilis, near which stands the Zaouia of Moulai Idris, 
t Salah ibn Abdel-Halim, who wrote ia 13*6 at Fez. 




Refuge in 




of Idris. 


ation by a 
tool of 


A Country 

" made all accept the teaching of Islam." His 
coins bear the names of the towns of Tudgha and 
Walili (Volubilis). 

The rapid successes of Idris I. were due to 
(i) the fact that many of the Berber Muslims were 
Kharedjite (see page 114), and (2) that, as the 
Arab historians state, " the greater number of 
the inhabitants were Christians and Jews whom 
Idris forced to join his faith."* 

After ruling for three or four years, Idris 
perished, assassinated by a tool of Haroun-al- 
Rashid, Kaleefah of Bagdad, and hero of the 
" Arabian Nights." His enmity to Idris arose 
from the superior hereditary claim of the latter 
to the chieftainship of Islam. The infant son of 
Idris I. was trained by Rashid, the old servant 
and comrade of the father. 

The closing years of the sixth and those starting the 
seventh centuries were big with fate. Charlemagne ruled 
the centre of civilization, at one end of which Alfred the 
Great {England's darling) struggled against the Danes, 
whilst at the other end Haroun al Rashid reigned over 
the Mohammedan Empire, then at its brightest era. 

On a fair hillside clothed in verdure and forest a 
young Moorish noble is busying himself and a 

* Roudb el Kartas, and Ibn Kaldoun. 

few followers. It is February, in the year of 
our Lord 808, and the country shows the tender 
green due to the influence of spring. An old 
hermit whose crucifix betokens his creed, and 
whose solitude has been disturbed by the bustle, 
asks him what he is doing. " Building a City " 
is the curious reply. The answer seems to 
awaken th£ old man from the lethargy of age 
and, " If this be so, O Emir, I have good tidings 
for thee," quoth he. He then narrates how his 
predecessor at the hermitage told him that a 
city named "Sef" had been located there 1,700 
years ago. The *' Book of Knowledge " of this 
predecessor had also stated that "one day a son of 
" the Prophets should come and rebuild, his name 
" shall be Idris, and his achievements great : he 
" shall plant Islam here, and it shall endure for 
"ever." "Praised be God," said Idris, and starts 
digging the foundations of Fez. 




Idris II. 



This Idris was the son of the founder of the 
Northern Kingdom, whose mountain fastness of 
Walili, the cradle of his father's power, had 
become too straitened for his extended rule. 





The choice of the site of Fez was truly inspired, 
and the city grew quickly. It was added to 
extensively by Yahya I., who came to the throne 
in 848-9, and who gave the site for the famous 
Mosque " El Kairoueen." The original edifice 
was built by a rich and pious Tunisian lady named 
Fatima Oum-el-Benin (mother oj two sons) in 
859 A.D. The minaret was finished in 956, and 
surmounted by the sword of Idris II., which was 
causing strife amongst his descendants.* 

Decline of ^"^ ^^ ^^^ famous mots of the great French 

Idrisi detective Lecoq is " ChercJiez la Femme" and 

Dynasty, certainly the mot seems applicable to the fall of 

dynasties. Yahya the second (fifth in the line 

from Idris) " was a man of depraved morals, and 

" violated a pretty Jewess named Hanyna" (Roudh 

El Kmtas). This rape cost Yahya his life and his 

it The family their throne by starting a series of insur- 

Stranger." rections which finally ended the dynasty. Soon 

one, surnamed ** The Stranger," arose, established 

himself in the mountains, and captured part of 


* See page i68. 

t It will be seen from the description of Fez, page 164, that this city 
was divided into cantonments, which were often hostile to one another, 
and even supported di£ferent candidates for the throne, 

Yahya IV. (904-922 a. d.) lost his capital city to 

a Miknasian Berber Chief, and the greater part of 

his dominions were taken over by the Miknasi 

Berbers, Hasan, the last of the line, surnamed 

" The Vein-tapper,"" on account of his prowess in 

deeds of blood, succeeded in capturing Fez for a 

while : — 

" the rescued banner rose ; 

" But darkly closed the war around 
*' Like pine tree rooted from the ground 
•' It sank amid the foes." 

The " Vein-tapper " perished, and the last of 
the Idrisi family lingered on as predatory chief- 
tains in mountain fastnesses ; while a series of 
obscure and barbarous Berber Chiefs occupied Fez 
one after another, and amused themselves with 
the title of King.f 







The Builders of Empire. 

Zeinab was not only beautiful but wise, and j^ p^^jj, 
had espoused Lacout, the Emir of the Berber Princess. 

» El-Haddjam. 

t Even when moribund the vigour of the Idris blood came out. When 
the Berber contingents passed into Spain with the object of aiding El 
Mostain; the Hammudids, who were descendants, of Idris, took part in 
the expedition and founded the Hammudite dynasty of Spain. 




killed, is 


by the 


" Lam- 
tuna " 




Principality of Aghmat in the S.E. district of 
Morocco. She and her husband Lacout flying 
from the Almoravides took refuge at Tedla in the 
Atlas, but thither their foes made a sudden raid 
and killed Lacout. Abu-Bekr, son of Omar, led 
these Almoravides, a swarm of "veiled horsemen" 
whose shields were of buf!alo hide,* and he married 
the charming widow. 

Whilst in Europe the Norman Duke was pre- 
paring with his legions to carry the Pope's blessing 
by force of arms to the Anglo-Saxons, Abu-Bekr 
and his fiery Lamtuna, burning with religious zeal, 
burst in upon the backsliding tribes of Morocco. 
Zeinab accompanied him ; and — when he was 
recalled by dissensions to cross the Atlas back to 
the cradle of the race — he temporarily divorced 
her and left her with his legions in charge of 
his cousin Yusuf, son of Tashefyn. The latter 
continued his kinsman's conquests and not only 
captured Morocco, but the heart of Zeinab. 

* From their wearing the " Litbam " (veil) these wild Berber horse- 
men were called " Mulaththaniniin," and from their buffalo hide shields 
" Lamtuna." They inhabited the country between the Atlas and the 
Sudan and (after their own conversing waged " Holy War " against the 
blacks of the Sudan. The Almoravides were just in the full flush of a 
newly acquired faith. The name " Ai-Moravide" is a corruption of 
Morabethyn (or Marabouts) see page 117, and marks them as a horde 
of devotees. 


In course of time they hear that Abu-Bekr 
is returning, his task accomplished. Then comes 
the trial of woman's wit. " Go and meet Abu- 
** Bekr at the head of thine army, O my 
" husband, and refrain from dismounting when 
'* you see him, showing him none of the customary 
*• courtesies. But offer him abundance of rich 
*' presents such as are not to be obtained in the 
** Sahara." Yusuf follows his wife's instructions 
and Abu-Bekr finds himself brusquely received. 
Next looking at Yusufs retinue he asks, 
*' Why so many ? " •* To serve me against my 
" foe " is the reply. Then come the train of 
presents, and Abu-Bekr understands that they 
are valedictory. Characteristically he bows to 
" Kismet," gives Yusuf his blessing and retires 
to wage "Holy War " in the Sudan till his 



Yusuf finished his conquest and founded the 
Almoravide Empire. He reigned 47 years and 
built Marrakesh in 1062 a.d., and with true desert 
simplicity worked with his own hands at the 
erection of a mosque — on the site now called the 
Sur-el-Khair. Seven years later he took Fez 



(1069 A.D.). He crossed to Spain at the request 
of the Mohammedans, there to fight Alfonso VI. 
of Leon, whom he conquered. He then forced 
the Spanish Moslems to acknowledge his sway. 
His son Ali who succeeded was born him by a 
beautiful Christian captive. 

* * * * * ■-:< * * 

The After 90 years of Almoravide rule the kingdom 
Almohades fell into the hands of the Almohades, who made of 

succeed Morocco a genuine Empire. 
the Almor- 


The Glories of Empire. 

Origin of Again the change of dynasty had its origin in 
Almohade a religious *' Revival." A desert Berber tribe 
Power, inflamed with reforming zeal, rushed upon the 
settled kingdom and subjugated it. Mohammed, 
son of Tumart, the originator of the movement, 
was a man of mark. He was originally a poor 
student who visited the East and acquired a 


reputation for sanctity.* As a mystic reverenced 
under the title of " Mehdi " {the directed of God) he 
found refuge in the Atlas Mountains not far 
from Marrakesh, and passed on his mission to 
Abd-el-Mumin, who took the Southern capital by 
force of arms in 1 147-8 a.d. Abd-el-Mumin is the 
favourite hero of Moorish history. He was a 
great horseman, his skin was white and cheeks 
ruddy, his eyes dark and his beard thick. He 
was learned in " the Law and the Prophets " and 
a devoted lover of poetry. But, above all, he 
was a great administrator, and passed on an 
organized Empire to his descendants.! 

It was in his time that Sicily was ruled by Norman 
Counts, and the tivo Rogers, father and son, were men 
of great ability. They took Algeria, Tunis and Tripoli, 
and would have carried their conquests furthey\ (says 
the Arab historian) but for a quarrel which resulted in 
war with the Byzantine Emperor, whom they defeated 
and bearded in Constantinople. 

* He was not particular as to the means. When he was beaten, he 
got some friends to allow themselves to be buried alive with breathing 
boles arranged. At night be took his followers to the battlefield and 
addressed questions to the faithful dead. He was answered by his 
confederates who told of the glories of Paradise. When the dupes had 
gone, he buried his friends in real earnest. " Dead men tell no tales." 

t One of the towns re-established by Abd el Mumin was Mequinez 
(iijo A.D.), and the water supply of Sallee was laid on by him. He also 
built the castle at Gibraltar (1161 a.d.). 

J After the death of the second Roger, his son Gregory lost Algeria 
and Tunis to Abd el Mumin, who thus extended his Empire till it 
included Spain and the whole cf North Africa. 

A Preux 

Counts in 




The "Vic- 
torious " 

A Mighty 

Abd-el-Mumin's son, Abou Yakoub Yussef, who 
succeeded him (1163) was a great student,* and 
administrator, who would be better known to 
history, but for his ecHpse by his more famous 
brother '• El Mansur." 

The greatest of this family was Abou Yussef 
Yacoub, who is usually known emphatically as 
" El Mansur " the Victorious (sometimes written 
Almansor). He beat three Christian Kings 
combined (Kings of Castille, Leon, and Aragon) 
on the field of Alarcos (1195 a.d.). Of an early 
adventure of his, the following tale is told : — 

* * * "•' * On his return from 
one of many victorious campaigns in Spain he 
sojourned with his army at Sallee. Their number 
was too great to be accommodated in the town, 
so an encampment was set up for them on the 
other side of the River Bou Ragreg. When the 
Emperor visited this camp and saw its mighty 
numbers he was overcome, and prostrating him- 
self with true Oriental ecstasy of feeling, he 
aroused his courtiers' curiosity. This he satisfied 

* Averroes, one of the most famous Muslim philosophers (his proper 
name is Abu-'l-Welid-ibn-Roshd), was at one time imprisoned by him 
because he wrote " Venus then is one of the Divinities "—a gloss on a 
classical author. He was liberated afterwards on being better under- 
stood and accompanied the succeeding monarch, El Mansur, as a 
closa friend int« Morocco, where he died. 


by narrating how many years ago three travellers 
wanted to cross the river. They had so little 
money that the ferryman could only take two. 
" Well, take my clothes," said the youngest of the 
three, " and I will swim." This was done ; but 
half way across he got tired, and resting his hand 
on the gunwale had it so soundly rapped by the 
boatman, that, for very pain, he could scarcely 
struggle over. That swimmer was El Mansur 
himself, who thus rebuked the flattery of his 

A Story of 
Old Days. 

A Royal 


On the site of his camping ground he erected 
the Royal City of Rabat (1197 a.d.) with its far 
famed *' Hassan " Tower.f The " Giralda" Tower 
at Seville, and the " Kutubeeyah " at Marrakesh, 
are also his work. To him is also due the water 
supply in the latter city which he treated as 
his metropolis. 

At the beginning of his reign Turks came in 
from Egypt (i 186-7) and were enrolled in a troop 
of mercenaries attached to the Emperor, but 
never won a foothold in the kingdom. 

* This story is told by the Arab historian Abd El Wahid, writing in 
1224, about 40 years after the occurrence. 
t See page 187 and footnote. 




to John 
" Lack- 


from the 

The reign of El Mansur's son is remarkable 
only for an embassy sent by King John of 
England to solicit help against his rebellious 
Barons. The story is told by Matthew Paris, one 
of the Ambassadors sent being Robert, afterwards 
Abbot of St. Albans. 

The reign of the Almohades endured 148 years * 
and gave way before a third torrent of desert tribes 
inrushing from the desert, fired with religious zeal, 
and ambitious to '* clean out the Courtyards of the 
Almighty. ''^ 

The Empire Crumbles. 

Descent Like all other families who obtained the throne 

from and whose leaders claimed to rule as ** Prince of 
Moham- ^he Faithful," the Beni Marin chiefs wished to 
establish a descent from the prophet. But that 

* From the Proclamation of Ibn Tumart ii2i,to death of Abu Debbus 
in 1269. 

t Ibn Kaldun tells us that El Mamum, one of the later Almoravides, 
became sufficiently philosophical to rebuke those who believed in the 
■'Mehdi'' Mohammed Ibn Tumart. One of his discourses from the 
mosque pulpit contained the following : " Call not Ibn Tumart ' the 
sinless Imaum,' call hiin rather the wretched sinner and imposter. 
There is no Mehdi but Jesus of Nazareth." Strangely must this haye 
sounded to the simple and credulous zealots of the desert. 



meant Arab not Berber descent, and it was 
notorious that the Beni Marin were Berbers 
and spoke that language. Consequently their 
chronicler composed a pretty story of how a fair 
Arab damozel courted by four admirers gave 
herself to one, and had to seek refuge from the 
others with her husband (also an Arab) in the 
tents of her mother's family (Berbers), where the 
family forgot Arabic and learned Berber. From 
this Arab stock (so the legend runs) sprang the 
tribe of the Beni Marin. 

The fact seems to be that the Beni Marin were 
Berber nomadic tribes, who like the Almoravides 
(Lemtuna) were in the habit of crossing the 
borders into Morocco during the summer, in 
order to pasture and water their flocks and herds. 

The Spanish wars of the Almohades had been 
a serious drain on the population, in much the 
same way as the Napoleonic wars of France, with 
the additional intensity that when the Moorish 
warriors went to Spain they took their families 
with them and stayed there. The fact that the 
Almohades employed not only a " Black Guard" 
of mercenary negroes but some thousands of 
Christian troops, points emphatically to this 
depletion of native Mohammedan warriors. The 

A Pretty 

Beni Marin 





Raoud el 

A " Piece- 

Effect of 
the Civil 

Beni Marin historian — Abou Mohammed Salah — 
(writing in 1326 a.d., the heyday of their 
prosperity) states that in the summer of 1216 a.d., 
these nomad Berbers, on their summer visit to 
Morocco, found the country largely depopulated, 
and instead of returning to the desert settled 

The fanatical instincts and customary restless- 
ness of the new settlers were successfully played 
upon by their leaders, and to use the Arabic 
historian's expression — they " devoured the king- 
dom piecemeal." But a well organized Empire 
like that of the Almohades did not fall without a 
severe and prolonged struggle, and as late as 
1244 A.D. the Almohades won a great battle and 
killed the ruling Emir of the Beni Marin. South 
Morocco was not finally subdued till the capture 
of Marrakesh in 1272 a.d. ; Tangier held out till 

The continuous fighting and struggles that 
went on, and the final victory of the more 
barbarous party, caused a widespread destruction 
and disunion from which Morocco never re- 
covered. None of the Beni Marin Sultans 
displayed the organizing power of the Almoravides 
and Almohades, and the lack of centralized 



Nestlins; at the foot of the Atlas. 

(see page 208) 

government from which the country is still 
suffering is largely due to the anarchic struggles 
of this period. The Almohade battles were 
battles of an Empire against external foes, those 
of the Beni Marin the outcome of internal inter- 
necine strife resulting in destruction. They 
fought indeed in Spain, but as allies not as 
masters"'' of the Spanish Moors. 

Their chief constructive work was the building 
of New Fez (Fez el Jedid) in 1276 a.d. Indeed 
Fez was as essentially the metropolis of the Beni 
Marin, as Marrakesh was of the two preceding 
dynasties. It was adorned by the former with 
the Library Mosque and many other fine 

In 1374 the constant bickerings which charac- 
terised the Marinid dynasty came to such a pitch 
that the kingdoms of Fez and Morocco were split 
at Azimur, the line of demarcation being the river 
Bou Oum er-rebbia ; it was re-united later ; but 
as a sign of decadence the fact is significant. 
Christian Spain was rapidly ousting the Moorish 
rulers, Tunis and Tripoli had gone for ever. 

Allies not 
Masters in 

" Fez El 
Jedid " 

Split in 

* See the reply to Alphonso's legatees by Abu Yussef Yakub in 1276 — 
" Address yourselves to Ben el-Anmar (Moorish King of Grenda), I am 
" but a guest from abroad." 



goes to 



of Corsair 

Finally in 1471 the last direct descendant of the 
Beni Marin dynasty was assassinated. 

El Wattas of Arzila, belonging to a collateral 
branch, succeeded to the throne, and his, the 
Wattasid dynasty, endured for nearly 100 years. 
It is difficult to ascertain the extent of their 
dominions ; but certainly the Portuguese held 
many of the principal towns on the Atlantic 
seaboard, and drew tribute from the tribes in the 
immediate neighbourhood. 

By the time the Wattasid dynasty ended, the 
Corsair Khayr-al-din (Barbarossa) had conquered 
Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli in the name of the 
Ottoman Turks, under whose nominal suzerainty 
they remained till the French took possession to 
the great relief of all concerned. 

The Rise of the Sheriffs. 

South In the early part of the sixteenth century the 

Morocco chiefs of South Morocco took counsel together on 

united the sad plight of their country, and agreed to 


unite under one of the Sheriffs,* named Mohammed 
El Kaim,t"the Upright by Command of God." 
This gave the signal for a holy war ; the Portu- 
guese were driven out of most of their recent 
acquisitions, and_ the Turks hurled back to 

The setting up of these Sheriffian rulers was 
really a reversion to the Idreesi dynasty, both 
families claiming sovereignty through right of 
descent from Ali and Fatima. 

It was just at this period that the Ottoman 
Turks established their authority in Ifrikiya 
(Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli). They entered Fez in 
1554 A.D., but were soon driven out again, and in 
1557 A.D., the reigning Sheriff in Morocco formed 
a project of invading Egypt in revenge. He was, 
however, assassinated by Turkish emissaries. J 

In 1523-4 A.D. the new rulers occupied 
Marrakesh; in 1548 Mequinez; but when the 
Sheriff Abou Abdallah El Mahdi advanced to 
Fez he besieged it in vain. Then came to him 


* Descendants of the Prophet through Ali and Fatima, see page 119. 

t He was buried at Foughal, in Haha, close to Abou Abd S. Meh. ben 
Sliman, and afterwards transferred to Marrakesh. 

t The poet hath said, " Beware of trusting the word of a Turk even 
" when his piety is such that he can fly in the clouds. If he is good to 
" thee 'ti a mistake on his part, if he is evil 'tis from his father and 
" mother."— So says Mohammed Esseghir Ben Elhadj bin Abdallah 
El Ufrani, writing in the middle of the seventeenth century, 

Turks in 
and Tunis. 

to the 




Battle of 

the Three 

Kings at 





duction of 

Abou Errouain, and said, " Will you buy Fez of 
me for 500 dinars ? " Being refused, " You sha'nt 
get it this year then," said the holy man. 
Eventually the Saint got his dinars, and with the 
words " Fez is yours at the end of the year," 
distributed the money to the poor. The Sheriff 
entered Fez in 1549, in accordance with the 
promise bought from the " Holy Prophet." 

One of the Sheriffs (Abu-Marwan Abd el 
Malik) obtained the throne by force of arms from 
his nephew, who fled to the Portuguese and 
induced Don Sebastian to invade Morocco with 
an enormous army. He was defeated at Alcazar 
and killed, as also was his protege. The 
victorious King died of sickness on the day of 
victory, which, as it cost the lives of three Royal 
personages, is often known as " the Battle of the 
Three Kings." 

In 1591 a memorable expedition was made to 
Timbuctoo, where the negroes pleaded for quarter 
with the words, *' We are brother Muslims." 
This raid resulted in the transport to Morocco of 
much treasure, and ivory, both black and white, 
" My Lady Nicotine " is said to have first come 
to Morocco in 1592 riding on an elephant from 
the Sudan, and the legitimacy of her cult has 


since formed a serious subject of theological 

One of the unhappy incidents of the first (or 
Hasani) line of Sheriffs was the five years' 
anarchy which subvened on the death of Abul- 
Abbas-Ahmad (1603 a.d.). The successful candi- 
date was Zidan (a son of Abul-Abbas), who 
was assisted by 200 English adventurers under 
Captain John Giffard. 

These troubles became chronic, and from this 
time onward the history of the kingdom under the 
Hasani Sherifls forms one sad series of sordid 
squabbles, during which the country was torn to 

Five years" 

Series of 




The Filalee Sheriffs. 

The Sheriffs of Sigilmassa* can undoubtedly 
trace their genealogy back to the Prophet 
Mohammed through Ali, at once his cousin and 
son-in-law. They are therefore by birth the 
rightful successors to the Kingdom of Idris. 
Mohammed is said to have given the protagonist 

* The old capital of the oases of Ta-f(h)ilalt (the place of the Hilali 
Arabs) hence the name " Filali Sherifls." 



of this family a fief in Hedjaz, the Eastern division 

of Arabia. The first of the family to settle in 

A Blessing Morocco was Moulai El Hasan, son of Kasim, at 

to the the end of the thirteenth century, on the invitation 

Date of the inhabitants, " in order that their date crops 

Crops. (^ might be blessed by the presence of direct 

•' descendants from the Prophet." * 

Mulai Eshsherif, one of the heads of the house, 
and a favourite leader against the ** Infidels " 
about the middle of the seventeenth century, 
quarrelled with the people of Tabou' asamt. 
His son, Mulai Mohammed, captured their citadel, 
and in revenge the father was imprisoned by the 
Kaid of Sigilmassa. During his captivity he was 
attended by a mulatto concubine, who became the 
mother of the famous Sultan Ismail and his 
brother Mulai Mahdi. Meanwhile, his son 
Mohammed stirred up the people of Sigilmassa, 
ousted the Kaid and formed a little kingdom in 
the Sus. 
The Thus began the advance to the throne of the 
"Great Filalee Sheriffs. The first to rule the whole 
Tafilatta." realm was Rashid (called the «' Great Tafilatta "), 
brother of the Mohammed just mentioned. The 

Father and 




* Vide the " Kitab Elistiksa " of Ahmed ibn Khalid Esslaoui En-nasiri : 
the date-palms of the oases of Tafilalt are still (and justly) famous. 


present occupant of the throne, Mulai Hafid, is a 
direct descendant of the same family. 

At this time (1662 a.d.) Tangier was handed over to Tangier 

the British by the Portuguese as part of the dowry of becomes 

Catherine of Braganza {on her marriage with our British. 
Charles II.). 

By far the most remarkable member of this 
dynasty was Mulai Ismail, who succeeded in 
1672. His favourite city was Mequinez, which 
he practically rebuilt. He organized the tribes 
into " Guish " and " Naiba" (see page 38). 

At his death there were 150,000 "Abids" 
(black mercenaries) half concentrated at Elmhalla, 
the rest dispersed in various garrisons. They 
were well armed and trained, and their offspring 
provided for. After the age of 10 years the 
children of these soldiers — boys and girls alike — 
were taken charge of by the Sultan and educated 
at his expense.* 

on the 

A Black 



* The education given to the boys is interesting. First they are 
divided amoiigsit artificers, masons, blacksmiths, &c., and after three 
years' apprenticeship were expected to perform the duties of craftsmen. 
They v^ere then for a further three years trained to arms, military 
manoeuvres, horsemanship, &c. Finally they were married to the 
female wards of the Sultan and ordered to take their place in the 
ranks. They were given land and materials in their garrison town, 
and expected to build a suitable dwelling-. — See the Arab historian 
Ahmed bin Khalad Ennasiri Essloui, who quotes from the Register of 
Mulai Istaail's Secretary. 


o! Ismail, 





Woos a 


" Princess 

o! the left 


By 1 104 the Sultan had left to no tribe in El 
Mogreb either arms or horses. All were in the 
hands of the Abids (his guard) the Oudaia, the 
Ait Zemmour and the Riffs, who were waging 
Holy War at Ceuta. 

Through Ismail's energy and army organiza- 
tion the coast towns were cleared of Europeans, 
Tangier was taken from the English (1683), 
Larache and Arzila from the Spaniards (1689). 

By the Moslems he was revered as a Saint, and 
a mighty prince, "the Bulwark of Islam." By 
the Christians he was represented as Barbarity 
personified. The truth, as usual, lies between 
these two extremes. His personality was com- 
manding, like that of our own Henry VIII. 
He was cruel when thwarted ; but on the whole 
suited his times and his subjects. His amorous 
aspirations after the hand of the daughter of 
La Valliere and Louis XIV., only indicate an 
ignorance of the social conditions of France. * 

* One of the Redemptionist Fathers (Pere Busnot) gives this portrait 
of Ismail at 80: — " He is of middle stature, his face somewhat lone and 
lean, his beard forked and quite white, his complexion almost black 
with a white spot near his nose, his eyes are sparkling and his voice 
strong. He vaults upon anything he can lay his hand on, and it is one 
of his common diversions at one motion to mount his horse, draw his 
cimiter and cut off the head of the slave who holds his stirrup . . . He 
changes his clothes three times a day . . . He has a ready and spritely 
wit, anticipates the thoughts of such as apply to him, and his answers 
are short and pithy." 


A Moorish " Front Door. 

(see page 52) 

The consequence of this turning of the army 
into a vast " Praetorian Guard," was that at Ismail's 
death (1727) the troops took charge, and in five- 
and-twenty years six Sultans had been alternately 
appointed by them and deposed. At length 
salvation came again from the South. Sidi 
Mohammed bin Abdallali raised an army from 
Marrakesh and the neighbourhood capable of 
beating the black guards and restoring order. 
This able Sultan established a regular intercourse 
with foreign courts. He built Mogador and 
established it as the port of Sus, a punishment for 
his rebellious subjects at Agadir. 

It would be vain to record the endless series 
of petty brawls which ensued on the death 
of Mohammed XVII. who succeeded Sidi 
Mohammed. We need not take as gospel all the 
revolting stories of diabolical cruelty that find 
currency in most Christian " Histories " ; but 
those days of internecine strife were probably 
bloody enough without exaggeration. Amongst 
other figures that of Suleiman (Mulai Sliman bin 
Mohammed 1795- 1822) appears to bear some 
redeeming traits. He finally suppressed piracy, 
and expelled the Turks from Oujda and the 
adjoining district, " which they had set to work 


Order re- 






to administer during the late interregnum " {En 
Nasiri). Suleiman abolished the " Meks " (town 
dues),-'- relying solely on the *' Achours " (port 
dues) from Christians and Jews, and " Zekats " 
(duties levied from Arab merchants). He did 
much for the restoration of the buildings at Fez, 
and ended a successful reign of 27 years by 
selecting a nephew to succeed instead of a son, 
the former being the more worthy. 

French in 

Oasis of 


Modern Times. 

It was during the reign of Suleiman's nephew, 
Abd-er-Rahman, that the French took Algeria, 
when all the authority of the Moorish Sultan 
was strained to keep his subjects from joining 
in " Holy War " — to share in the fate of the 
Algerians. As it was, the subsequent fighting in 
Algeria resulted in a war with France, decided 
by the battle of Isly (1844). In the subsequent 
"rectification" of the frontier between Algeria 
and Morocco, the French recognised that the 
important oasis of Tuat was Moorish. 

* They appear to have been subsequently re-imposed. 


Abd-er- Rahman laid out the Agudal Park at 
Marrakesh. This consists of a series of gardens 
each with its name and gardener, planted with 
one or more kind of fruit tree (olives, plums, 
pears, oranges, &c.), and containing various 
flowers and herbs imported from abroad as well 
as native ; the whole forms a really noble park. 


Ceuta had been Spanish since 1688, and it was 
the custom for the Christians to build wooden 
blockhouses for collection of dues on the 
boundary, whilst on their side the Moors built 
similar constructions. In 1858 the Spaniards 
erected a building in stone and flint and put their 
flag upon it, calling it ** La Corona." The 
neighbouring Moors asked them to pull it down 
and revert to the old custom ; the Dons refused, 
and a Moorish mob demolished it. This resulted 
in war, and the victorious Spaniards exacted an 
indemnity of ;^i4,ooo,ooo sterling, which was 
liquidated by a charge on the Customs, these 
being placed in the hands of European officials.* 
In 1868 was held the " Crystal Palace Market " — 

* Besides this, under the resultant treaty of i860, the Spaniards were 
to have the right of chastising the Berber tribes in the neighbourhood, 
without declaring war on the Sultan. It is in exercise of this part 
of the treaty that war went on during 1909. 

med XVIII. 




L 2 



Aziz comes 

to the 



in other words Napoleon Ill's. Great Exhibition 
at Paris. The Sultan of Morocco sent a special 
envoy with an exhibit of the various products of 
his country. 

The Sultan Mulai el Hasan III., who succeeded 
in 1873, ruled for 21 years and ruled well. He 
kept his turbulent subjects in order, by constantly 
touring round with his army and established his 
authority in Sus. On his death the throne passed 
to Abd - el ■ Aziz, who succeeded peacefully in 
1894. ^^ first he was governed by his Regent, 
Si Ahmad, whose administration was good, but 
after the attainment of his majority in 1900 he 
took over the reins of Government and proved 
himself incompetent to drive his restive team. 

The stormy "Conference of Algeceiras"* was 
held in 1906, as a result of bickerings between 
France and Germany. 

* The principal regulatioDS exacted by the "Algeceiras Conference," 
which started its session on July 30th, 1907, were the following : — 

(i) Police to be placed under the authority of the Sultan, and to 
be recruited by the Maghzen (Moorish Government) from 
(2) This police to be oflScered by French and Spanish instructors, 

selected by France and Spain and approved by the Sultan. 
{3) Their total effective to be 2,000 to 2,500 ; and 

(4) Their Inspector General to be Swiss. 

(5) A State Bank with power of issuing notes to be established. 

(6) Foreigners to have the right of acquiring land and of building. 

(7) On the frontiers of Algeria the enforcement of regulations to be 
the exclusive right of France, and on the Spanish frontiers 
that of Spain. 


In 1907 the French Government revenged a 
riot at Casablanca, wherein some of their subjects 
were slain, by bombarding Casablanca and landing 
an army. This resulted in fresh diplomatic 
struggles between France, Germany, Great 
Britain, and other Powers. 

Following on this activity on the part of the 
" Infidels," the religious instincts of the Moors 
were roused and taken advantage of by Mulai 
Hafid, the brother of Abdul Aziz and Governor 
of Marrakesh. His strength lay in the South 
(whence most of the religious revolutions have 
arisen), and he finally vanquished Abdul Aziz in 
1907. Mulai Hafid is much stronger than his 
brother, and is likely to consolidate his rule if he 
can raise money without involving himself in 
foreign complications in the process. 




Section VI. 


The Moorish Towns. 

I HAVE classified the Moorish towns, and 
given a few words to each class. 
Details to be found in the description of 
the two capitals, Marrakesh and Fez, are not 
repeated, and typical sketches of journies to 
these two cities from the coast are inserted to 
indicate "how we get there." 

The contents of this section are : — 


I. — General Remarks - - - 147 ^o 148 

//. — Route to Marrakes h {from Mazagan) i^g to 152 

///. — Marrakesh - - - - 152 ^0 158 

IV. — Route to Fez {from Larache) - 158 to 162 

V. — Fez 163 to 170 

VI. — Mequinez 171 ^0 175 


VII. — The Coasi Towns — 

(a) Open - - • - 175 <o 194 

(b) Closed - - - - 194 <o 197 

VIII . — The Sacred Cities - • - igy to 203 

IX. — Border Towns and Mountain 

Fortresses ... - 203 to 207 

X. — Some South Atlas Towns - - 207 ^0 210 

XI. — Alcazar - 211 

The Moorish Towns. 

General Remarks. 

Morocco is essentially an agricultural and No great 

pastoral country, so that the great towns to \vhich Industrial 

we are accustomed under modern European Centre*. 
industrial conditions do not exist. At the same 
time the country has always been practically self- 
supporting, so that such articles as are needed by 

the people are for the most part made in the country, jj^ Roads 

Owing to the absence of railways and roads the or 

transport is entirely conducted by means of camels, Railways. 



!ull of 




and Walled 


Plan and 

mules, and horses, and — in order to maintain an 
adequate supply of these beasts — their export is 

The net result is, that with the exception of the 
open ports on the coast, the three " Imperial 
Cities" (i.e., seats of Government) and a few 
" Holy Cities," there are no great collections of 
centralized life. The country is, however, full of 
walled villages and small towns, the latter but a 
grade above the former. These have arisen partly 
from the natural gregariousness of man, partly 
from a desire for mutual protection, and partly 
from the necessity for a centre for the exchange 
of commodities. 

It would be useless to go through a list of names 
and descriptive details which would weary by 
monotonous repetition. I shall therefore deal with 
the towns generally under classified headings. 
The main architectural details and planning will 
be found in the descriptions of Marrakesh and 


The Famous Kootoobeeyah Minaret. 

(see page 157) 


Route to Marrakesh from Mazagan. 

We ride through the new part of the town parallel 
with the seashore, past the trading "Stores" 
and soon, the abodes of men left behind us, 
we emerge into the open country. As the ground 
rises slightly, we overlook the Bay of Mazagan on 
the left, whilst on the other hand rises a small hill 
on which nestle some Moorish country dwellings. 
Before we wheel to the right round a spur of the 
hill, our "Makhazni" {Government soldier) bids us 
take a last look at the city. After a few minutes' 
enjoyment of this truly charming view, we turn 
resolutely inland. 

We make a short first day's ride* and encamp 
in a walled garden planted with fig trees. It is 
evening, and cattle, goats, and sheep are being 
driven to the water close at hand. Herd boys 
tootle on reed pipes ; women come, pitcher on 
head, to draw water, as Rebecca did of old. 

In hopes of peaceful slumber we go to rest ; but 
alas for human hopes ! In the night a thunder- 

* This is always advisable, as any articles left behind or forgotten can 
be sent for; and the precaution is usually adopted, especially by the 
experienced traveller. 

'• Good- 
bye" to 
the Sea. 

A Peaceful 
Evening in 
" Old Test- 


" Eating 

Bread and 




" Little 

Ways" of 

the Camel. 

storm bursts overhead, and — owing to the slack- 
ness of our tent ropes — the canvas "sags," and we 
get wet. 

The morning breaks fine, and we enjo)' a brisk 
ride of two or three hours to a Sok (Market Place) 
where it happens to be market day. We buy half 
a sheep, ready roasted,"^' and capital eating it 
makes, supplemented by fresh baked bread and 
honey. The latter we eat in primitive fashion, a 
chunk of bread in one hand, and a lump of honey- 
comb in the other, and we all agree that " never 
was there such bread and such honey." 

Another four or five hours' riding bring us to 
our halt, the house of a Moor who holds a 
'* Mohallat" (Certificate of Protection, see page 41) 
from one of our party. We are glad of the 
"cover" of his house, for in the night it "rains 
cats and dogs." 

Before we retire to rest we discuss the qualities 
and peculiar " little ways " of the camel, moved 
thereto by an object lesson on the leathery quality 
of the skin inside his mouth, which had been 
afforded us in the course of the afternoon ride. 
You know the " Prickly Pear," and perhaps have 

* It is the custom to roast a sheep whole and dispose of it ready 



had some experience of its prickles ? Well, as we 
passed a cactus hedge of prickly pear we met a 
drove of camels. These animals, without stopping, 
turned their ungainly necks to right and left and 
deliberately bit off and chewed the leaves, barbed 
fronds and all. 

The next morning we cross a small range of 
hills, the climbing of which is too much for one of 
our pack horses, who " gives up the ghost " and is 
left to the jackal and the vulture. Soon we are 
fighting our way against a wind and rain storm, 
and after a few hours are glad of the shelter of a 
bee-hive hut, where we stop the night — of course 
** compounding " with the owner for clearing out. 

Before we start on our next day's ride (in 
brilliant sunshine) we engage a camel for the rest 
of our journey to ease our over-laden animals. 
This beast we send on ahead ; and, travelling 
lighter, we make a ten hours' day of it, riding 
through green fields and copses to a " 'Nzala " 
(enclosed village) in the Djebilet mountains. 
These are a fairly high range of hills, and from 
their top we get our first glimpse of Marrakesh. 

On the following day — after a morning journey 
of five hours-— we ride across the well-known 
bridge {El Kantara) to the city. Now we eat the 

A Prickly 

Alas! Poor 
Dobbin ! 


Hut (p. 20). 

In the 




Dates in 


dates growing in golden clusters on the magnifi- 
cent palms that form so well known a feature of 
the Southern Capital. Eaten fresh like this they 
are juicy and delicious ; but are never exported 
like those grown in Tafilalt. All the palm trees 
swarm with bird life. "Blue Rollers" and 
pigeons dart iridescent all along the banks of the 
Tensift,"^ and everywhere the egret is flaunting 
his white plumage. 



The city is of respectable antiquity, being 
nine hundred years of age (see page 125). As 
the capital of the South it took the place of 
Aghmat (or Ghomat), the site of which lies a few 
hours journey further south. Its bye-name of El 
Hamra (the Red) is amply justified : the city 
walls, 25 to 30 feet high, are made (as usual) of 
tabbia,+ to which the earth imparts a ruddy hue. 

For scenery on the Tensift River see illustration on page 12. 
51 City, see page ; 
t Concrete, stones, earth, and lime mixed, moulded in wooden 

t For plan of City, see page 266. 

frameworks, beaten firm by wooden rammers. The frameworks are 
moved higher as the work progresses. Tabbia building figures very 
largely in the accounts of Christian slaves, by whom most of the existing 
work was done. See page 219*. 


It stands in a well-watered plain amidst magni- 
ficent groves of palm trees, and backed by the 
great chain of the Atlas. In accordance with the 
usual custom of the Moors, exteriors are almost 
totally neglected. The great city gates, those of 
a few private entrances, the mosque towers, and 
some public fountains, form the only imposing 
architectural features ; but the interiors of some 
of the houses are magnificent in the extreme (see 
page 44), and many of the walled-in gardens are 
beautifully kept. The thoroughfares and bazaars 
are humming with truly Eastern life, and in the 
midst of a population of between 100,000 and 
150,000 you will not find twenty Europeans. Of 
picturesque effects and uniquely Eastern human 
interest the streets and the market places are full ; 
whilst if you seek unadulterated beauty which 
will thrill every artistic sense within you, go and 
stand as I have done, upon the summit of a 
tower and look across the city towards the sun, as 
he sets over the roof tops, and edges the fringing 
palm groves and the mountain peaks with brilliant 

I do not know whether it is on account of the 
dryness of the air (see page 13), but certain it is 
that some peculiar atmospheric conditions produce 










City in 




Status of 

colouring, which all travellers pronounce to be 
unique. The tints are immensely varied, but 
there is a marked predominance of red. I hazarded 
a conjecture on one occasion when watching the 
glories of Ghuroob [sunset) in the company of 
some cultured Sheriffs, that perhaps the city's 
bye-name of red was due to sky as well as earth. 
They also had noticed the predominance of the 
colour and admitted the inference. 

Marrakesh is a typical Moorish city, with its 
three divisions of Kasbah, Medina and Mellah." 
The former occupies a quarter separated from the 
city proper by fortifications pierced at the two 
extremities by gates ; that on the West, hard by 
Bab Robb is the Bab (Gate) Hagnaou,* that on 
the East close by the Mellah (Jews' quarter), is 
the Bab el Djedid. 

The Mellah (Jews' quarter) is exceedingly dirty, 
and the streets are full of rubbish which seems 
never to be removed, although in the Medinah the 
work of clearing the streets is regularly performed 
by donkey men who shoot their loads outside 
the walls. All the same, I have seen house- 
interiors in the Mellah spotlessly clean and in 
good repair. The Jews are forced to wear black 

* See plan, page 5i66. 


gaberdines and blue headkerchiefs spotted with 
white : only specially protected individuals are 
allowed in the Medina with shoes or mounted. 
They serve as bankers ; letters of credit are 
usually drawn on Jewish merchants ; whilst for 
European articles the best place to seek is the 
market place of the Mellah. 

The Medina is the centre of interest, and months 
might be spent here with advantage. There is a 
camaraderie about the crowd in such a city as 
Marrakesh that is utterly lacking in a European 
town. I suppose this is partly due to the absence 
of ladies, and partly to the fact that the shop- 
keepers are seated in what are open booths rather 
than shops. You greet and are greeted as you 
pass, in a highly pleasant way. You examine a 
piece of leather work, discuss its qualities, its 
origin, and its price, and pass on without any 
attempt being made to push it on to you. If you 
purchase, good ; if not . . . equally good ; it is 
the will of Allah. 

Some excitement comes in the afternoons when 
the Dilals (auctioneers) are finding buyers and 
disposing of the goods. They work on commis- 
sion and work hard, but the shopkeepers maintain 
their Oriental placidity. 

In the 

" Cama- 








from the 


tion of 


Water laid 

on to each 


The streets of the Kaiseriyah (covered Market 
Place) are protected by a bar or chain drawn 
across them, so that you cannot ride through, but 
must walk. All the Kaiseriyah streets (and some 
others) have bamboos or reeds thrown across 
them, over which are trailed vines or other 
creepers.* The principal quarters of the city so 
treated are L'Moissi, Bab Allan, Rhead, Zeitoun, 
M'zala, Bab Doukala, El Kounadia, Kaspah, 
Sidi bel Abbas, &c. The roadway is often 
sprinkled with water to lay the dust and keep the 
air cool. A further characteristic of Morocco 
trades is here well exemplified : — each trade has 
its own streets. Here are the spice merchants, 
there we find the leather sellers, and so on. 
So important is the latter industry that it is 
further sub-divided, and we have streets lined 
with shoe shops, and others with saddlery, &c. I 
suppose it is difficult to find anywhere finer leather 
and better leather work than here,! very superior 
to anything on sale in the coast towns. 

Water is laid on to each house, and has 
been so from the earUest times, | long before this 
convenience was obtainable in English cities. 

* For illustration see opposite page. 
t Specimens are illustrated on page 261. 
X Vide •' Raoud el Kaitas," p. 386. 


A Covered Street 

In the Southern Capital 

(see opposite page) 

It is the water of the River Tensift tapped about 
20 miles away, and conducted in channels, with 
man-holes at various points. 

Public fountains, the work of pious founders 
abound, the best known and most beautiful is the 
one known from its inscription, " Scherb-oo-Shoof " 
(drink and look) close to the Kaiseriyah. Other 
fountains are those of Sidi Abdul Aziz, of Del 
Moissi, of Bab Aida, and of Bab Rhead. The 
tower of the Kutubuiya dominates the city at 
an altitude of about 260 feet, and is built in 
three stories whose windows are decorated with 
carved stone work. On top stands a minaret 
with three gilded globes. 

Of hotels in the European sense there are none : 
there are "Fondaks," open enclosures for man and 
beast (the best is that of Hadj Larbi) ; but they 
are quite impossible for Europeans. It is neces- 
sary therefore to hire a house beforehand, or to 
carry such letters of introduction as will ensure 

I have elsewhere (page 81) described a Moorish 
private house and garden ; but must add a few 
words in praise of the Agudal Gardens (meaning 
Mazes and pronounced Ahjdal). They are primarily 
intended for utility, but are well laid out, well 










Saints and 


watered, and picturesque (see illustration, page 228). 
They extend beyond the Kasbah and are 
reserved for the Sultan, in whose absence the 
produce is sold. 

The city is under the saintly protection of 
Seven Holy Men* whose graves are here situated. 
The principal mosques other than the Kutubuiya 
are :— That of Sidi Bel Abbas,t lying to the West 
of the Doukala Gate, and dating from 1603 ; 
the Bab Doukala mosque facing the gates, and 
dating from 1558; that of Yusuf bin Tashifin;! 
and that of Sidi Maimoun, close by the Gate 

A Ride to Fez from Larache. 

The preparations, the outfit, and the general 
routine of travel, are the same as those already 
described on page 15, and do not want repeating. 
There may, however, be some interest attached to 

* Sidi Bel Abbas, Mul el K'sur, Sidi Suleiman, Sidi Abd-ulAziz, 
Sidi Kadi-Aiyad, Sidi Yusef bin Ali, and Sidi Imaum Swabili. 

t His hospital adjoins the mosque. 

X Built by Abd el Muuiin in the I2tb century, vide Leo Afiicanus, 
p. 363. 


a description of an actual ride to the Northern 
Capital, which indicates the kind of country 
traversed and the " sights " to be seen en route. 

At last all is ready and we are off. Sunrise 
sees us in the saddle, passing through the city 
gate with faces set eastward. We bid farewell to 
the vineries and gardens outside Larache, and 
skirt the River Loukkos (El Kus) over a plain 
devoted entirely to pasturage and broken only by 
a few meagre tree clumps with a line of forest-clad 
hills fringing the south - western horizon. Our 
immediate destination is the City of Alcazar,* 
which we find in its usual state of dirt and neglect. 

After quitting the city we push through a 
succession of thickets and re-cross the River 
Loukkos.f Now we find ourselves in a fine 
well-watered plain ending in a cluster of orange 
groves, the property of the Sheriffs of Wazzan. 
Soon we mount a series of stony hills, our horses 
and mules literally scratching their way over dry 
tracks, strewn with pebbles ; then once more we 
emerge upon a pleasant track across undulating 
slopes, capable of bearing bounteous crops. 

* See page 211. 

t More correctly written "El Kus," but I follow the conventional 
European transliteration. 


to the 





o! Larache. 

El K'sar 
el K'bin. 


" Scratch- 
ing our 



CAttlc and 

" Cattle 


Ruins o! 

Trees occur but at rare intervals, and then only 
singly or in small and scattered clumps.'^' We 
are constantly passing herds of cattle in the midst 
of which swarm crowds of white Ibis,t long- 
legged birds which are on intimate terms with the 
animals and perch upon their backs, their heads, 
and even their horns. The size and condition of 
the oxen speak eloquently of good strain and fat 
pasturage; they form a striking contrast to the 
under-fed and over-laden asses, mules and camels 
of the travellers we meet. 

Now on the right we are passing the ruins of 
Bosrah,! surnamed "the red" {El Hamra) from the 
colour of the hill of Sidi Amor el Hadi on which 
it stands. We notice that the bastions of the 
fortifications are round, a deviation from the usual 
square style proper to Moorish buildings, which 
suggests that they are the work of European 
designers. The sacred City of Wazzan (see 
page 200) is but five hours distant, and the district 

• Morocco was once a country full of forest land, whence the Romans 
obtained abundance of lions and other wild animals for the arenas of 
their gladiatorial and wild beast fights. Centuries of destruction have 
done their work aided bv hereditary dislike of nomad-descended tribes 
for woods which oflered " cover " to a foe. This destruction of trees 
has resulted in the shrinkage of rivers, every river in Morocco shows 
unmistakeable signs of having possessed a much larger flow of water in 
the " good old days.*' Vide pages 12 and 13*. 

t Called for its fondness for the society of these beasts " Cattle 
Birds " (" Tair el B'Kar "). 

t Supposed to be the site of the Roman Tremulae. It was the capital 
of the district before Alcazar was built. 


through which we are now passing is studded 
with the possessions of the Wazzan Sheriffs. 

We ride through numerous douars (villages) 
where the women come out to stare at the Roumi 
(Europeans) as they pass. 'Tis a fine maize- 
growing tract and rich in flocks and herds. Now 
we pass the cactus-encircled 'Nzala of Djerifi, and 
cross another series of hills and undulations. 
Next come the 'Nzalas of Shemmakha and 
Medmada, and we reach the plain of the Wad 
{River) Redat, a placid affluent of the Sebou. 
Soon another tributary of that river comes in 
view, the Wad Wergha. Here we see in active 
use one of those ingenious pieces of mechanism, a 
Moorish waterwheel. This consists of a large 
wooden wheel upon the circumference of which 
are hinged a series of small troughs. The flow of 
the stream keeps the wheel in motion and the 
troughs on the ascending portion of the wheel 
remain full of water, till at the top, by the action 
of gravity, they turn over and discharge their con- 
tents into wooden gutters which convey the stream 
to the various points where irrigation is required. 

Behold us now arrived on the banks of Sebou 
itself, and we cluster round the '* Upright Stone " 
(Hajrah Wakif), a large rock which forms a 



Redat and 











A turn to 

the East 

and Fez is 

in sight. 

conspicuous landmark at the base of which nestles 
a whitewashed " Kubba " (Shrine). Here the 
river is wide, and we have to cross it to get to the 
'Nzala Sherarda. Our transit negotiated, we pass 
by a series of " up and downs " to the foothills 
of the Zerhoun mountains, behind which lies 
Mequinez.* These mountains are inhabited by 
savage and inhospitable Berber tribes who allow 
no "stranger within their gates," and make short 
work of the Sultan's tax collectors. 

A trying passage through a narrow defile under 
a blazing sun brings our cavalcade out upon a 
pretty green valley whose freshness is most 
welcome. Here we find a stone bridge (rara 
avis in Morocco) across which we travel, with 
energies renewed, over the River Mekkas and 
thence to Oudaia, a halting place where we obtain 
a fine view of the rugged slopes of the Zerhoun 
and Kannoufa Ranges. 

Now a swerve direct to the East leads over a 
vast plateau with our goal at the end of it hidden 
by a ridge. We coast the river and top the ridge 
and lo ! yonder lies Fez-el-Bali, the government 
and official quarter of the Northern Capital. 

* The Royal City, next in importance to Fez and Marrakesh, see 
page 171. 



(34° 6' 3" N. and 4= 38' 15" W.) 

" O Fez, may Allah preserve thy land and thy Arabic 
" gardens and refresh them with the water of his Rhapsody. 
♦' clouds ! Terrestrial Paradise, whose aspect 
" charms and entrances the senses. House piled 
" on House, one and all laved by the sweetest of 

" streams ! to speak of thee is my 

" consolation, to remember thee my delight ! " 

Such is the rhapsody of Abou Mohammed 
Salah, of Grenada, the writer of " Round el 
Kartas " on the Metropolis of the Northern King- 
dom, and certainly the two Capital Cities of the 
Moroccan " Empire" form a wonderful pair ; both 
thoroughly Moorish and un- European, yet so Fez a 
unlike each other. Marrakesh is essentially a City «« City of 
of the Plain, Fez is a City of the Hills. the HiUs." 

The plateau known as the '* Plain of Fez," 
upon the eastern edge of which the town is situated, 
Hes about 1,200 feet above sea level, and runs 
East and West. Thirty miles long and — at its 
widest point — fifteen miles across, it tapers to one 
mile. Fez lies on the Eastern extremity, and is Site. 
bounded to the South by the hills of the Beni 







The Three 


o! the City. 

M'tir, whilst to the North stretch the Zalagh and 
Zarhoon ranges, dividing it from the plain of 
the Beni Hassan. 

There are two elevated points on the outskirts 
from which a good view of the city may be 
obtained ; they are (i) the M'salla of the Governor 
on the South, and (2) the hill of the Mermid 
Tombs on the North.* 

The geological formation is limestone ; but 
sandstone quarries and caverns lie to the North of 
the city, whilst to the South and East beds of 
porcelain clay afford facilities for one of the staple 
industries, pottery and tile making. It is an 
exceedingly difficult city to describe, either by 
word-picture or flat plan, on account of the 
variation in altitude of its component parts. 

Idris II. (see page 121) started the old city by 
building the quarter now known as the ** Aduat " 
(Bank), "El Kairouin," the other bank (" Aduat el 
Andulas ") was added in the ninth century a.d. 
At that time refugees from the Peninsula, victims 
of internecine strife, were allotted the quarter 
named Andalusian in reference to their Spanish 
origin. These two quarters were rivals for 
centuries. A third division, " El Lamteeyin," has 

* See plan on page 267. 


The Hall of Delights. 

(see page 43) 

since grown up. The town was girdled under 
the Benin Marin kings in 1204, with its present 
battlemented ramparts, about thirty feet high, 
constructed of tabbia. 

The whole of the old city (Fez Bali) lies in a 
hollow, and proceeding eastwards we ascend a 
steep slope (taken up by the gardens of El Oyoun 
and the houses of the Talaa) to the state property 
of the Bou Jeloud (father of skins). 

The " New City " (Fez el Jedid) was added in 
1274, and is situated on higher ground to the East 
of the old city. It contains the Kasbah (Govern- 
ment quarter) and the palace on the North with 
the Mellah (Jewry) on the South. 

Fez Bali (the " Old Town ") occupying about 
one square mile, is connected with Fez Jedid (the 
" New ") occupying from four to five hundred 
square acres, by two or three long narrow streets 
of closely packed houses, leading from the centre 
of the town to the Mellah, the rest of the space 
between the two cities being filled by gardens 
belonging to the Sultan, whilst eastwards of these 
lie private gardens. Save for the gardens and 
pottery works (to S.E.) the whole area of Fez Bali 
is dense with narrow streets, which owing to the 
broken surface wind uphill and downhill, twisting 



Streets of 



" Mouse 


Pattern of 

and turning in every direction. The principal 
street " Darb el Tueel " {Long Street) runs from 
the Kairouin to the Dar Maghzen and Mellah. A 
few of these streets are named : e.g., that of the 
" Bab Silsilah " (Chain Gate), a lane leading from 
the " Kaisseriyah " (Bazaar) to the Mosque of 
Mulai Idris, it is paved with red bricks and barred 
by a chain so that only true believers may pass 
along. Another is called " Akbaht el Feeran " 
(ascent of the mouse), a long narrow artery running 
from the lower town to the gardens on the South. 

As a rule the locale of a house is denoted by the 
name of the owner and the district ("Haomah") 
in which it is situated. There are eighteen dis- 
tricts, six in each of the three sections (i) El 
Kairouin, (2) El Andalus, (3) El Lamteeyin. Each 
district is named after a mosque or a trade guild, 
thus the " Haomah el jama Muley Idris " (District 
of Muley Idris Mosque), " Haomah el Jootiyah " 
(Old Clothes District, the Petticoat Lane of Fez), 
the district of " Bahkok " (Plum Market) and so 

The houses are built practically all on one 
pattern ; flat roofed with terraces and three stories 
— "Sifli" (Ground Floor), ''Shaklabeeyah" (Middle 
Floor), and " Foki " (Upper Floor), surrounding a 


rectangular courtyard of 20 by 30 feet, {Wast ed 
day). The material used is tabbia (see page 152). 
The entrance from the street is by a low dark bent 
passage, closed by stout nail-studded doors. The 
courtyards, floors, stairways, verandah, and 
corridors are paved with tiles.* The rooms are 
long and narrow with large arched doorways, 
closed by immense folding doors, in one of the 
panels of which smaller doors are placed. There 
are no windows overlooking the street, and the resulting 
appearance of the streets is very peculiar to a 
European. The Sijli rooms are lofty, the Shaha- 
beeyah, mainly used for servants, stores, &c., less so, 
and those of the Foki lower still : the stairs are 
narrow and winding, the height of each about 18 
inches and the tread narrow. (See pages 53 S- 54.) 

No city in Morocco contains so many affluent 
private individuals inhabiting good houses. The 
citizen life of Fez is highly developed, the in- 
habitants are proud of their birth and white 
skins, they are for the most part of Berber descent. 

The courtyards are supplied with water 
bubbling out of " Anboob " {metal spouts) or " Biz- 
booz" {taps), the waste runs through a slit 2^ 

* These tiles are manufactured and sold in 4J inch squares, and cut, 
by the artisan laying them, to the size and shape required. Most 
colours cost 93.00 per thousand ; but blue tiles cost $12.00. See page 57. 


in Street. 




Water in 


inches by lo inches made in a stone slab set in 
the floor of an adjoining closet (" Beit el Ma "). 

Sources of The water supply of Fez is abundant and is of 
Supply, two varieties : (i) spring water for drinking and 
(2) river water used for domestic purposes. This 
latter flows in innumerable channels under the 
houses and turn a whole host of water mills. The 
draining system is consequently excellent, although 
" trapping " is unknown. The streets are cleansed 
by flushing from trap doors made for the purpose. 
Mosques. ^^ befits a " Holy City " the mosques of Fez 
Bali are very numerous, the most sacred being 
that of the founder Mulai Idris mentioned before 
(page 122). The actual tomb (contained therein) 
and its surroundings are the finest in Morocco. It 
serves as a repository for State documents of the 
first importance, and is supposed to be periodically 

Archangel visited by the Archangel Gabriel, the touching of 

Gabriel, whose garments ensures admission to Paradise. 

Only next in importance is the Kairouin (founded 

859 A. D.) ; this is the State church attended by the 

Court. The large lamp is said to weigh 1,763 

lbs. and to have 509 lights, and it is the task of 

ten mueddhins {sacristans) to call the faithful to 

Famous Player from its tower. It contains all that is left 

Library, o^ ^ ^^^^ magnificent library famous throughout 


the East. Perhaps the most artistically beautiful 
mosques are those of the Andalus on the South- 
East near the potteries, and of Mulai Jacoob at 
the upper part near Fez Jedid. The latter is 
specially venerable and picturesque, with pent 
roof and square pyramidically topped minaret, 
much resembling that of a Christian church. A 
curious sundial (" Dulab ") formed of thirteen 
bowls placed on a line of brackets on the frontage 
of a house opposite forms an interesting object. 
The mosques of Fez Jedid are (i) El K'bir (great) 
the Sultan's chapel ; (2) that of Mulai Abdallah ; 
and (3) El Hamra (the red) with a pretty tiled 

There are public baths (" Hammam ") near 
several of the mosques. They are simply bare 
rooms with tiled flooring ; the water, hot and cold, 
is supplied in buckets, and the bathers' bodies are 
rubbed with scrapers of Berlin wool. 

The gates of Old Fez are seven in number : 
Bab el Maharook* (the Burned) the highest, on 
West ; then Bab Sagma, Bab el Hadid (Iron 
Gate), Bab el Jedid (New Gate), Bab Futah, Bab 
Si bu Jida, and Bab Gisa. 




• So called because on it are stuck the heads of criminals, whilst 
their bodies are burned below. 


New Fez (the White City) has two gates: "Bab 

Kubibat es Smin" [Gate of t lie Pat of Butter), and 

" Bab Sidi bu Nafa." 

Caravan- The old town contains some good Fondaks 

series, (caravanseries), the most important of which are 

those of Najjarin (Carpenters), Kittanin (Cotton 

Spinners), Sharratin (Rope Makers), Attarin 

(Grocers), and the Sara (shady), the names being 

those of the streets in which they are situated. 

Adjoining the Fondak of the Attarin is the 

Morstan (hospital or madhouse) of Sidi Farj. 

The Fez is still the •' University City " of Morocco. 

" Univer- Students are attached to one of five Madrasah 

•ity City." [^School or College) where they lodge. They pay no 

rent ; but buy the key from the last occupant. At 

the Kairouin Mosque they are taught by " Oula- 

mah " (wise men), supported by property left for 

the endowment of " Kirasi " (chairs). Religion 

and law are the principal subjects, the study of 

the sciences is hopelessly obsolete. These students 

Subjects of have an annual festival in which they elect a 

Study. Mock Sultan, a veritable " Lord of Misrule " for 

a week. 

Industries. T^® leather work of Fez is decidedly inferior to 

that of Marrakesh ; but it is celebrated for certain 

articles of clothing and for excellent tiles : whilst 


the " Tarboosh" Fez cap is known in Europe by 
the name of the city. 

Mequinez (Meknas). 

The traveller who, a day after leaving Fez with Contrast* 
its alert population, its well-developed civic life with Fez. 
and the bustle of its streets arrives in Mequinez, 
cannot fail to be struck by the startling contrast 
here presented. After passing through a magnifi- 
cent archway he finds himself in a desolate scene. 
Half ruined towers and walls with crumbling 
masses of " tabbia " surround him on every side. 
No house seems tenanted, storks and birds of 
prey form the sole representatives of life. 
•• It seems no place inhabited 

But some vast City of the dead ; 

All is so calm and still." 

He drives a tent peg in the ground, and en- On Hollow 
countering something hard at the depth of two or Ground. 
three inches finds that he is encamped upon the 
vaulted roofs of empty subterranean chambers. 
Vast and of great extent they stretch for many 
acres. They were the prisons ; some say the 



Work of 




yet ugly. 


granaries and some the stables of Mulai Ismail 
(see page 139). Here laboured the Christian 
slaves captured by his piratical Rovers, working 
in fear of torture and death, eating their hearts 
out for the deliverance that to so many would 
never come. Here worked Thomas Phelps and 
many a stout Englishman with him (see page 218). 
Hard by are two handsome Kubbas (shrines) 
with pointed roofs, green -tiled and topped with 
gilded balls. They entomb all that was earthly 
of two Sultans : Mulai Abd-u-Rahman and Mulai 
Ismail (1672-1727). 

Picturesque though Mequinez be from a dis- 
tance, standing on high ground with park-like 
plantations of olives* at its foot and the bridge- 
spanned river winding near, the architecture, for 
the most part brown shapeless masses of concrete, 
is ugly and devoid of ornament. 

Even the chief street of the Bazaar with its 
reed-protected roof seems to witness but a languid 
trade. The principal articles exposed for sale 
are Farrajeeyah, Caftans, Soulhams, and other 
articles of apparel (see page 61), to which silk 

* To which is due the name " Miknaset ez-Zaitunab " (Meqninez of 
the Olives) an appellation given to distinguish it from "Miknaset 
Tazra," the home of the other branch of the Miknasi Berbers, who 
overthrew the Dynasty of the Idreesis. Mequinez was first founded 
by them in the middle of the tenth century a.d, 


The Great Gate of Marrakesh. 

(see page 154) 

cords dyed in all the hues of the rainbow and 
interlaced with gold, add touches of bright colour. 
Leather work of every description, plain or silk 
embroidered bags, saddlery and slippers are 
succeeded by piles of bright carpets. Further on 
come the Jews, selling spices, sugar and tobacco. 
The " Lion " of Mequinez is its Kasbah, whose 
wonderful beauty is but enhanced by the filthy 
lanes through which the approach is made. The 
ruddy embattled ramparts which fence it in are 
broken by the finest gateway in the country, 
whose gigantic horseshoe arch is set in a 
marvellous series of arabesqued festoons fringing 
a square of wonderfully bright glazed tiles 
arranged in a variety of intricate designs. The 
gateway — called that of •* Mansur the Renegade," 
was finished in 1732 a.d. by the Sultan, Mulai 
Abdallah, son of Ismail {vide "Ez Ziani" page 71). 
It may be of interest as showing the durability of 
this kind of work that there is a detailed descrip- 
tion (page loi) of the part of the Mequinez 
Palace built in the same style as this gateway in 
Windus's "Journey to Mequine? " in 1721, 
printed in 1725, and this account is an exact 
description of what may be seen to-day after 
nearly 200 years of neglect. 


A most 





City Walls. 

of Ismail. 




A Moorish 


The city walls are of the usual tabbia with 
quadrilateral turrets and nine gates. The Palace 
and most of the other buildings of any pretension 
are due to Mulai Ismail (1672-1727) who built 
much, and half-built a great deal more. His 
most significant memorial is to be found in the 
blocks of stone that strew the route from Volubilis 
to Mequinez. The slaves who were bringing 
them — as soon as they heard of the tyrant's 
death — threw them down, and there they lie to 
this day. 

The streets being level have no drainage, and 
consequently the centre of the roadway is a 
puddle of liquid filth, ankle deep in the rainy 
season. The result is that an unusually large 
number of Kabakab (wooden pattens) are used in 
the town, and it is a most amusing sight to see a 
high-class Moor in spotless white garments, with 
raised skirts, wading through the river of mud, 
perched on pattens en route to some shop or the 
house of a friend. 

The Patron Saint of Mequinez is Sidi 
Mohammed bin Aissa, whose " School " degraded 
his doctrines until they now take concrete form in 
the disgusting antics of the Aissouwa Confraternity 
(see page loi). As the city owns allegiance to 


their Patron Saint, Mequinez is the headquarters 
of the Confraternity. 

The river which runs close by the town is now River. 
called the Bou Fekrar ; but was formerly known 
as the " Filfil,"* or the " Bou Amair." The 
fertiHty of the soil of the plateau of Mequinez is 
highly praised by Leo Africanus and other 
Moorish writers. 


Coast Towns.f 

Next in importance come the coast towns, 
which fall naturally into two divisions (a) Open 
Ports ; (6) Closed Ports. 

* ;;: V --^ ;;: ^ * * 

Open Ports. 

The former are the only places to which European 
vessels are admitted for trading purposes. The 

« The authority for this is Mohammed ben Ahmed ben Mohammed 
ben All ben Ghazi, ot the fifteenth century a.d., who wrote an account 
of his native town under the title of " Erroudh el hatun Fi Akhbar 
Miknaset ex-2aitunah," annotated by M. Houdas, under the name of 
" Monographic de Mequinez'' (Journal Asiatique, Vol. 5, 1885). 

t It is not intended in the present scheme to include the Spanish 
possessions. There is but little '' mystery " about them. They consist 
of Alhucemas, Ceuta, Melilla, Penon ae Velcz, Santa Cruz de Mar 
Pequena, and the Zafi'arine Islands. 







List o! 




principal imports are: — Wax lights, calico, tea, 
coffee, sugar, spices, iron goods, tinned provisions, 
biscuits, &c., tobacco, metal in sheets, pottery, 
paints, cement, drugs, matches, clocks and me- 
chanical articles. The principal exports are: — 
Goatskins, ox-hides and sheepskin, almonds, gums, 
grain (including maize, barley, linseed, &c.), eggs, 
oils, carpets, brasswork, wool, dates, oranges, figs. 
The annual statistics in round figures of 
European trade are as follows : — 


£ 1 ,000,000 . . . ;^4oo,ooo 

600,000 . . . 450,000 

80,000 . . . 320,000 

-Casablanca {Bar el Baida), 
Larache {El Araish), Mazagan {El Djedid), 
Mogador (£5 Sueivah)^ Rabat {Rihat el Fatih), Saffi 
{Asfi), Sallee {Sla), Tangier {Tanjah), and Tetuan 

It will be convenient to take cognizance of them 
by supposing that we have embarked in London 
on one of the well-appointed steamers of The 
Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, the only 
English Company that runs a regular passenger 
service to this country, and follow the Mail 


Great Britain .. 

The ports are 


The descriptions are lightened by a few 
extracts from a series of letters written by a 
"Fair Correspondent " to friends and relatives in 
England. I have made use of these on purpose 
to indicate the point of view of the much abused 
" Tourist," who may on his " Round Voyage " 
really get a very interesting "glimpse" (he cannot 
expect more) of Morocco, if he knows the right 
way to go to work about it : — 

The much 




" We left Gibraltar less than three hours ago and here 
we are already off Tangier. As we approach the port we 
have pointed out to us the ruins of the English Mole, one of 
the last remaining relics of the fact that Tangier formed part 
of the dowry of Charles II. 's queen. The view is magnifi- 
cent, and the general effect is that of pellucid sunshine and 
brilliant colouring. 

"We land on a little jetty and proceed straight to the 
"Cecil," the principal English hotel, which stands right 
facing the sea-beach. J. has induced our genial captain to 
lunch ashore with us as a farewell 

"This afternoon we went for a ride round the city. 
The first effect of riding through these narrow streets 
is weird. Apart from the strangeness of everything there 
is a sense of something wanting. After wondering what 
it is for some time, I realize the lack— of mndows. The 
crumbling plaster walls have only doorways, and we have 

We enter 


A sense of 




wash and 



at Work ! 


" Ancient 

to look at the upper stories before we discover anything 
more indicative of life than a peep-hole. Captain M. is 
with us, and as we go in single file I am suddenly aware of 
"strong language" behind me in unmistakeable English. 
Some workmen whitewashing above have splashed him 
liberally and spoiled the effect of his gold laced uniform 1 

" Soon we reach a flat common on which a lot of the 
Sultan's soldiers are encamped, and picturesque ruffians 
they are too ! The only traces of uniform are their 
pointed Fez caps. J. has just ridden on and comes back 
with the news that they are being paid ; the first time, 
he said, that he's known that happen to his Majesty's 

"We go into the prison entrance, which is close by the 
Treasury (*• No money there, French taken all," says my 
donkey boy), and get a glimpse of what the life is like, and 
visit some shops in the main street ; but do not buy any- 
thing, for prices are always higher when the English steamer 
is in, and we shall have plenty of chances later on. . . . 
. . . (later) J. has just returned from Ceuta and Tetuan, 
and we are awaiting the next steamer. We two ladies feel 
now quite " ancient inhabitants," and the people here have 
oeen delightfully kind. We made up a party to ride to 
Cape Spartel the other day, and had a glorious time. I 
have got quite fond of my little grey horse. 

" Last Thursday we went to inspect the Market {'• Sok ") 

which is a never failing source of interest, always full of 

Snake incident and picturesque objects for a "snap." Coming 

Channer home, we saw a snake charmer up a little hill to our right, 


and urging our horses up the cobbled slope we caught him 
at the top and got him to show off his tricks. He played 
the snakes out of his basket with a reed pipe, and all 
through his performance he had two assistants strumming 
a paltry two-stringed guitar (•• Gimbri ")' and tapping a 
drum. I cannot describe all the things he did, but I know 
that he "gave me the creeps" by showing me his nasty 
mouth and yellow teeth, and letting one of the reptiles bite 

his tongue. t The steamer is in now, and 

we go on board to-night. I feel quite sorry to leave the 
pleasant hotel and the town which has so " grown on me." 
This afternoon, after lunch, I took an affectionate farewell 
of the funny old man who has often come into the 
" Cecil " garden to play and sing and dance to us. He is a 
queer old fellow, whose dress is a patchwork quilt made 
by himself, and his strumming and posturing and shuffling 
and singing are most amusing. I hear that he professes in 
youth to have been a regular " Lothario"! : he is hideous 
enough for anything. I have bought lots of pretty things, 
and very cheap too. 

"The centre of Tangier;] is the Great Market Place or 
Sok. All the streets meet here, both those leading to 
the sea coast and those to the suburbs inland, the only 
exception being the route to Tetuan which starts along 
the beach. 

"This Sok is simply and literally a human kaleidoscope, 

* For a list and description of musical instraments see page 71. 

t See illustration page i8o. 

t All the Moors do, they resemble the French in their accounts ot 
their irresistibility and conc^uStes. 

II A plan of Tangier is given in the free booklet of the Royal Mail 
Company, and the European may plunge boldly into any of the streets. 
He can easily find his way back to the beach, even if for a short while he 
" lose his bearings." 



" Creepy 

The "Man 
in the 

The Great 
Sok, the 
Centre of 

A Word 

Picture of 

a Motley 


tions of 




abounding in tl|T study of human interest and never the 
same. Here are the citizens, stately men clad in white 
robes, cheek by jowl with picturesque (and dirty) beggars. 
Peasants of Andjera and Riflf mountaineers stalk by with 
dark djellabahs and guns. Travel stained wayfarers 
from the Draa and men from Sus, jostle prosperous 
merchants from Fez and Marrakesh, whilst through the 
midst of them all circulate the negro water-carriers with 
their doubtful drinks at a farthing a cup, ringing their bells 
and shouting for custom. And this strange medley of foot- 
passengers is still more varied by mounted wayfarers on all 
sorts of beasts from the well-groomed horse to the frowsy 

These extracts will furnish some idea of how 
the unassuming traveller may enjoy a stay in 
Tangier. And it is a marvel to many that 
the town is comparatively neglected. Safety is 
absolute, there are really excellent hotels, and the 
climate is subject to none of those fluctuations 
which are sometimes so trying on the Mediter- 
ranean coast. There is plenty of novelty, and 
prices are moderate. It is true there are no 
carriage drives ; but horses can be hired, and 
there are many possibilities of pleasant excursions. 
Gibraltar is but three to four hours distant, and 
Algeceiras (where by the way is a large hotel with 
charming gardens) is always available for those 
who wish to go on to Spain. 


Jugglers and Snake Charmers. 

(see page 178) 

I know that it is the fashion amongst the more 
adventurous spirits to belittle the " Tourist," and 
to make invidious reference to what can be seen 
of Morocco by a voyage down the coast or a stay 
in Tangier or Mogador.* But such belittlement 
should only apply to the ignoramus who, on the 
strength thereof, poses as having become an 
authority on the subject. I have said before, and 
I repeat it now, that a " Round trip," especially if 
supplemented by a stay at one or both of the 
places named, will give a chance to the sensible 
tourist of acquiring some really first hand acquaint- 
ance with Eastern life. If a taste of the coast 
gives a desire to do a little inland travel (the real 
thing after all) Tangier or Mogador are the proper 
places to start from. 



May be reached from Tangier by land or sea. 
The land route runs from the Sok gate in 
the direction of Cape Spartel, past the ruins of 
Tahadart and across the Rivers Hashif and 
El-Akouas to the closed port of Arzila (27 miles 

* Mogador is rapidly becoming the "hub" of the South Moroccan 
Coast as Tangier is of the Northern. The new Hotel — the " Royal"— is 
vary good, and good hotels are not common on the coast of Barbary. 


Route from 

The Sea 

Route by 



A Barren 

View from 
the Sea. 

from Tangier, see page 197). Thence by a fairly 
level road of 25 miles to Larache, an oleander 
grove about half way affording an agreeable 
halting place amidst ideal picnic surroundings. 

The more usual course is to take the *' Royal 
Mail " steamer, and risk the chance of having to 
wait for the swell on the Bar to go down 
sufficiently to allow of communication between 
the land and the vessel. The coast the whole 
way down consists of low bare cliffs intersected 
with sand dunes, and fringed with shallow waters 
on which the Atlantic rollers produce a dangerous 
surf. The effect is one of desolation, and the 
tracts of land visible from the sea are in point of 
fact the least fertile districts of the country. 
This dreary coast-line is doubtless a fertile cause 
of the conventional impression of *' desert," 
especially when the eyes that gaze upon it are 
accustomed to the white cliffs and green downs of 

After five or six hours' steaming from Tangier 
the steamer halts at the opening of a bay with a 
sandy coast to the North and a rocky bluff to the 
South. Here the River Loukkos finds an outlet 
to the sea, and here is perched Larache ('* El 
Araich ") the site, some say, of the fabled 


" Gardens of the Hesperides." * Its situation is 
charming, and the view from the sea of the white- 
washed houses irregularly piled upon the cliff and 
crowned by two square minarets, is exceedingly 
pretty. A climb of fifteen minutes takes one 
from the Bab {Gate) El Mersa to the Kasbah 
(Government quarter) up roughly paved streets, 
whose cleanliness leaves much to be desired, and 
between rows of tall windowless houses. The 
remarkable feature of Larache is its large Sok 
(Market Place) at the top of the hill. The open 
space is surrounded by a colonnade in front of a 
row of typical Moorish shops. Besides the El 
Mersa gate already mentioned there are three 
others: "Bab el Sok," "Bab er Rhua," and 
" Bab Bahar." Within an easy ride is the site of 
a ruined city called Shammish, supposed to have 
been Phoenician. 

The forest of cork oaksf which surround 
Larache might in business-like hands become a 
source of wealth, at present they are used for 
making charcoal. Orange groves still abound; 

* This tradition is fully discussed by Sr. de Cuevas, at one time 
Spanish Consul at Larache, in the Bulletin of the Madrid Geographical 
Society, 1883-4, He refers the foundation of Larache to Hanno's 
Voyage Circ. 500 b.c. 

t Cork is the bark of an evergreen oak {guercus subtr). The tree 
grows to the height of 30 feet, and is first stripped at the age of 15-30 

From Sea- 
shore to 


of Shops. 







A Legend 

ol Pre- 


but the olive plantations mentioned by the older 
writers have shrunk woefully, although the rich 
alluvial plain is still there awaiting its proper use. 

There is a pretty legend about the saving of 
the city from an inundation ot the sea by Lalla 
Mannanah, whose shrine is located in a village a 
little way out of the town. This lady is the 
Patron Saint of the City of Larache, and is much 
revered in the Gharb, the Province which contains 
Tangier and Larache. 

Larache is a good starting point for a ride to 
Fez, see page 158. 

Joined in 

in reality. 


The two towns of Rabat and Sallee as viewed 
from the sea present the appearance of one ; but 
they are in reality absolutely separate cities, 
distinct in building, in history, and in sentiment.* 
Sallee (34° 2' 7" N. 6° 46" W.) {Sla, the Sala 
Colonia of the Romans), is considerably the older, 
Rabat owing its origin (see page 129) to Yakoob 

* A fact instanced in history by the bombardment of Sallee bv the 
French in 1851, when the inhabitants of Rabat not onl^r ob«yed the 
admiral's orders to refrain from taking part in the fighting ; but even 
took care that all citiaens of Sallee should be ient across the Bou Ragreg 
to their own "graelling." Also see page 324. 


el Mansur at the end of the twelfth century, about 
the time when King John of "Magna Charta " 
fame was beginning his reign in England. 

The thoroughfares of Sallee compare very un- 
favourably with those of Rabat, and are in bad 
condition. Of gates there are six, and there are 
two Kasbah (Government quarter) the old and 
the new. The former (dating from the seventeenth 
century) faces the Bar ; the latter (on the south- 
west) was built in the eighteenth century under 
the Filali ^Shereefs. A fine stone aqueduct (lo 
miles long) supplies the city with water from 
Ismir. Inside the town the aqueduct is left open 
so as to enable the water (running in an open 
stone gutter about one foot wide and two deep) to 
be used for washing clothes, &c. The old port is 
now dry, and the docks for the old pirate vessels 
are gone, but the memories of pirate days still 
linger, and the lighters which convey the cargo 
from the ships are manned by the Rovers' 
descendants who claim the hereditary title of 
" sailor." 

The inhabitants boast of aristocratic descent, 
the claim being specially emphasized by those 
sprung from Moors exiled from Spain in 1610 a.d. 

When we cross by the ferry to the South side 



Old Port 






A trouble- 


of the Bou Ragreg we find ourselves in the Royal 
City of Rabat {Ribdt el Fdtih, Camp of Victory). 
Here there is a double enceinte the inner of which 
has seven gates, and the outer three. Two 
palaces are located in the space between the 
walls. The chief mosque is situated in the 
" Slipper Market," and there is a very good 
specimen of later Moorish work in the Kasbah 
Mosque (built 1730 a.d.). The only other 
mosques worth mentioning are those of Mulai 
Suleiman in the Sooakah, and one" on the road to 
Shellah close to the Palace gate. The Patron 
Saint of the city, Sidi Liaburi, has special charge 
of the Harbour Bar, and when it is troublesome 
he is much petitioned. As this happens on an 
average one day in three throughout the year, it 
will be seen that this cult is in no danger of going 
** out of fashion." 

The troubles in connection with the Bar are 
very real, and spoil the city's attractions for the 
tourist. This is a pity, for it is a handsome town, 
and the surroundings both of Rabat and Sallee 
most charming. The situation is healthy, and 
the tout-ensemble would render it a most desirable 
spot in which to winter, but for the " Disturbing 
Element " of the Bar. 


The two items which give Rabat its renown 
are (i) the Tower of Hassan, and (2) those 
wonderful carpets so famous throughout the East. 
The tower is a handsome structure of fretted 
stone, standing in Lat. 34° 3' 30" N. and Long. 6° 
48' 50" W.'^'- This tower (described on page 129) 
is the landmark by which the "man at the wheel" 
steers when approaching the city. The carpets 
are simply indescribable with their wonderful 
texture and kaleidoscopic mixture of bright but 
never garish colour. They are woven by women 
on hand looms in private houses. The form is 
always oblong, to conform with the shape of the 
rooms in the native houses. 

Shellah is a ruined town, beautiful in decay. It 
was built on the foundation of the Roman town of 
which it bears the name ; but few traces of Latin 
occupation remain. The crenellated wall which 
" King Mansur caused to be built " f is still 
traceable, with a gate on the North-East highly 
commended by the antiquarian Tissot. 

The glories of Shellah were revived under 

* The dimensions, according to Mr. Budgett Meakin's measurements 
are : height 145 feet, thickness of outer wall 8 feet 6 -inches, of inner 
5 feet 6 inches, the intervening air space being 6 feet 6 inches. There 
are five stories completed out of eight planned. There are many rough 
marble pillars at the base destined to support a large structure. 

t Leo Africaitus, in whose pages may oe found a most interesting 
description of Shellah, 

The two 
points of 





•• White 



in 18th 


the Beni Marin Sultans (fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries a.d.) who rebuilt it and made it their 
burial place, so that most of the buildings now 
visible are due to that period ; all are deserted. 


The Spanish name of the town means " White 
House," and it is by this name that it is usually 
known in Europe. The Moorish name is Dar el 
Baida, and means the same thing. It stands upon 
the site of Anfa, a city of whose glories and destruc- 
tion by the Portuguese, 1468, Leo Africanus 
writes with sympathetic pen. It was in ruins 
when he saw it, and so continued till about the 
close of the eighteenth century, when Mulai 
Mohammed began to re-erect its buildings. 
Mulai Abd-er- Rahman continued his grandfather's 
work, until Casablanca, as it now exists, arose. 
It is the busiest of the coast towns, being the 
chief outlet for a great maize and wool growing 

"We anchor off the port in the early morning, the 

French "R.M.S.P. steamer lying somewhat far out and within 

Man-ol- "hailing distance of a French man-of-war; off come the 

War. * ' ^^«^^y Moorish lighters, and in one of them we go ashore. 


A Tangier Scene. 

(seepage 177) 

"This is the port in which the rioting happened in 1907, 
" but, although a year or so ago I could trace many marks 
•• of the bombardment which followed, they are all gone 
"now. The present Custom house stands on the site of 
"the offices of the eighteenth century Madrid Trading 
" Company, ' Los Cinco Gremios Majores.' " 

Casablanca is a town of rising importance, and 
the natural emporium for the districts of Tadla 
and Shawia. The houses are unassuming, and 
the mosques have few pretensions. Nevertheless, 
the city is not without interest, and the main 
streets are clean and well kept. The markets, too, 
are busy and prosperous, whilst the great grain 
stores bear witness to the wealth of the agricultural 
districts behind it. 

The journey from Casablanca to Rabat by land 
is 50 miles in length ; but it can be accomplished, 
I understand, by diligence in one day. When 
riding, the journey is usually broken, as all 
Moorish cities have their gates shut between night 
and morning. 

The land journey to Mazagan (between 50 and 
60 miles) occupies 14 hours, and is thus divided : 
—to Aolad Jerar three, to Dar ould Hadj Kasim 
four, to Azimur four, across the river and thence 
to Mazagan three. 



to Rabat. 

Route to 



guese in 
Name and 




of Israel. 

Here again the usual name is the Europeanized 
form ; and the appropriateness of the Portuguese 
appellation is brought home to everyone approach- 
ing it by sea, for he lands under the frown of 
unmistakeably Portuguese battlements, dating 
from the early sixteenth century. The Moors 
still call it Djedida {The New). 

There is nothing remarkable here, in fact the 
town is below the average for interest. The Jews 
of Mazagan seem to be prosperous and live in 
more style and with a better attempt at refinement 
than in other coast towns. In fact, one of the 
most elaborately decorated Jewish houses I have 
seen in Morocco I was shown over here. The 
taste, of course, was florid ; but, though the house 
was Moorish, and many of the fittings European, 
the whole effect was as unmistakeably Jewish as 
were the handsome, flashing eyed women of ample 
proportions who dwelt therein. 

ted Area. 


The Moorish name is Asfi, and it is believed 
that the area enclosed within its original walls 
was much contracted by the Portuguese in the 


sixteenth century for the purposes of defence. Its 
present wall is lofty and substantial, with three 
gates. It enjoyed much prosperity under the 
Portuguese (who evacuated it in 1541) and for 
nearly a century later. This port used to be the 
landing place for Marrakesh, and is, indeed, the 
natural place for that purpose ; the road is shorter 
and more level than the routes from Mogador and 

The town affords — viewed from the sea — the 
most picturesque appearance, and to watch the 
sun rise over the town is to witness a scene of 
the rarest beauty. Many of the houses are fine 
specimens of heavy cool Portuguese mansions, 
although most shamefully unkempt. 

In the neighbourhood lie many Kubbas (shrines) 
and the village of Sidi Wastel, nestling among the 
hills to the South, specially abounds in them (see 

The old Palace of Muhammed bin Abd-Allah, 
perched above the town, has some fine courts and 
architectural features. 

Portuguese heraldic devices are still said to be 
discernible* over its chief gateway, and the building 

* According to Dr. Leared, " Morocco and the Moors," published 





for the 



A Scene 
of Rare 

Shrines of 




o! Sa»i 






is beautiful in decay. The ruins of a princely 
mansion with painted ceilings, frescoes, richly 
carved door frames, and marble columns may still 
be seen in the Rabat (a suburb just outside the 
main gate). This straggling quarter, originally 
built to harbour a band of rebels and robbers, is 
now used by merchants as a store house. 

A heavy surf renders access difficult ; but a 
good deal of business is still done, though the 
anchorage is dangerous in a fresh south-west 
wind. A French company is trying the ex- 
periment of a skeleton quay, with a result which 
is yet to seek. 

One of the most interesting productions of Saffi 
is the pottery, which is manufactured neai the 
northern gate (Bab Es-Shaba). (See page 56.) 



" Little 


Called by the Moors " Es Soueira " (the Little 
Picture), I could never understand why, until on a 
certain day in June some years ago. I had been 
staying at a Moor's house a little way up country 
and was returning to the city. I reached the 
heights which overlook the sand dunes soon after 
sunrise, and then I saw " the Picture." The sky 


was a brilliant and cloudless blue, so was the 
sea. And the two blended into one with the aid 
of the morning mist ; whilst the soft yellow of 
the sands faded into the blue in such a way that 
I seemed to be gazing upon a fairy palace, a 
picturesque commingling of dazzling white roofs 
and turrets suspended in the air. It was a picture 
indeed and more:— A dream picture, too good to 
be true. 

It is quite modern ; built in 1760,* no romance 
of history hangs about it ; but the Moor is ever a 
Moor, and the life within the walls is in many 
respects as old as the days when Norman and 
Saxon struggled for England. 

The water port has been good, but is sadly in 
need of dredging ; if this were done the port would 
be the best in the country. 

There are two Mellahs (Jewish quarters), but 
Mogador is an exceptional city as far as Jews are 
concerned, as here they " rule the roost." Water 
is conveyed to the city by a closed aqueduct from 
springs near Diabat, and is excellent. 

* In " L'Histoire de la Mission des Peres Capucines," printed at 
Nyort in 1644 (on page 222), there occurs, however, the following passage : 
" Le Roi de Maroc etait se mois d'Aoust en la campagne vers Sapny, 
"pres risle de Mongador, en dessein d'y faire un Port qu'il pr^tendoit 
" fortifier : on tira trente crestiens de la Cezenne pour les y conduire, 
" afin d'y travailler.'' So that the idea of building the town had been 
conceived, and workmen despatched, over a century earlier. 

A Fairy 

O! Modern 


•' Rule the 









Place for 


The town is clean and healthy, excellent fishing 
may be had, and abundance of fowl-shooting. 
There are plenty of little excursions to be made 
in the neighbourhood, and it is an easy matter to 
organize boar hunts in the Argan forest, whilst the 
hard sands are ideal for a morning gallop. There 
is now a good hotel, "The Royal," to which is 
attached a curio store in which purchasers can 
be sure of buying genuine articles. Altogether 
Mogador should appeal to the English tourist who 
wants something a little less hackneyed than are 
most European watering places. 

From Mogador or Mazagan the traveller up 
country must start, and, from the point of view of 
convenience in getting together one's require- 
ments, the former is to be preferred. 

CHAPTER VII. (continued.) 
(b) Closed Ports. 

Difficult of Of these there is little to be said, seeing that 

Access, most of them are inaccessible to Europeans. The 

only two exceptions of any importance are Tetuan 


and Arzila, of which a few particulars are here 
inserted. The little town of Azimur, a short 
ride away from Mazagan, has too little of distinc- 
tion about it to render it worth a separate 
description, although the ride thither forms quite 
a pleasant little excursion. 


A Pleasant 
Ride from 


Tetuan is easily reached from Tangier by a 
route which, starting along the sea beach, crosses 
the mountains by a pass over the Ait el Koda 
Hill, and then debouches on to the Tetuan Plain 
past an olive grove, the scene of the signature of 
the treaty of i860 with Spain. One day is suffi- 
cient for a well mounted horseman ; but for those 
who do not care to spend eight hours in the 
saddle, a halt can be made for the night in tents 
pitched outside a Fondak half-way. 

The name specifies " Place of Waters^'' and the 
streams which descend from the mountains at the 
back of the town justify the title, and afford ample 
irrigation for the gardens and orange groves. 









Peopled by 

sian Exiles 

in 17th 


" Lions " 
o! Tetuan. 

The " sea-port " (called Martil) lies about seven 
miles off, and consists of a roadstead open to the 
Levanters," and therefore insecure. Nelson took 
on stores here before the battle of Aboukir. 

Tetuan is a pretty little town, well kept, and 
magnificently situated. There is one fine mosque, 
and near it are congregated the houses built by 
the Andalusian Moors expelled from Spain in the 
early seventeenth century. They are built round 
line courts surrounded with arcades. 

The houses in the Kitan (the best residential 
quarter) are well built if unpretentious^ The 
" Lions " are (i) the graveyard of the Refugees 
from Spain with Hispano-Moresque Tombs, and 
(2) its slipper mart. The slippers made here are 
excellent, although of thicker and coarser make 
than those of Marrakesh. The tile industry is 
important ; but the tiles are inferior to those of 
Fez. The distinctive Tetuan Djellabah is made 
of stuff striped black and white. The footahs (a 
kind of towel) made here are in much request with 
country girls, who use one as skirt and another 
as bodice. 

* Winds that blow between December and April. 

The Uisappointeu Litigant 

On the steps of the Palace of Justice. 


A market town on the coast of the Atlantic, 
twenty-seven miles from Tangier. It was first a 
Phoenician settlement (Zilis) and then a town of 
Roman foundation, its Latin name being Zilia. 

In later days it was fortified by the Portuguese 
whose small square walls still contain the city, 
and whose armorial bearings may (though half 
obliterated), still be traced on the landgate. The 
town is now in wretched repair, its harbour is 
silted up and its trade gone. The inhabitants 
number about 2,000, mostly Jews. 

The surrounding country is generally flat, with 
slight undulations ; the soil is fertile and cultivated. 
A megalithic circle stands eleven miles inland, near 
a village called " M'zora." The natives call these 
stones by the name of " The Peg " {El Utad) from 
the shape of the largest stone (about 15 feet high 
and shaped like a tent peg). 

Of Ancient 

Traces of 


Sacred Cities. 

There are certain localities in Morocco 
which have retained through centuries a special 






veneration. Several of them are connected 
with Idris* the founder of the Empire. 

Walili or 




or Jew. 


WALILI (or Zarhoun.) 

One of these is Walili,+ where Idris first found 
an abiding refuge from the Abbasside Kaleephahs 
(see page ii8). The town is now more commonly 
known as Zarhoun and nestles charmingly on 
bare hillsides, which, in Idris's day, were covered 
with forests. 

So sacred is the city that it has escaped 
desecration in the continual internecine strife, and 
is still untrodden by any Christian]: or Jew ! Even 
converts to Mohammedanism are not admitted, 
so (justly) suspicious are the Muslims of these 
proselytes. The particulars given are therefore 
but details gathered from the Moorish friends of 
European enquirers. 

There are five gates, one of which — Bab el Hajar 
— gives access to a street ending in a colonnade- 
encircled Sok (market place). On the south side 

• It is said that some hundreds of Zaouiya (shrints) in Morocco bear 
his name; for legends tell that Idris I, was fond of building mosques 
wherever he went. 

t Supposed to be a corruption of the Roman Volubilis. 

t The claim of Jackson to have visited the city in 1801 appears to be 
doubted by the best authorities. 


of this Sok lies the famous shrine, the entrance 
to which is through a plain door and across a 
passage barricaded by a bar. Here are stationed 
the beggars, and not a few of them. The principal 
courtyard lies down some steps, and is built 
entirely of white marble varied and coloured tiles. 
Out of this courtyard opens the portal of the 
" Holy of Holies," raised one step above the 
paved floor and guarded, staff in hand, by 
the Sheriff on duty. Further than this, even the 
faithful must not go ; here the pilgrim kisses the 
threshold, deposits his offering in the chest which 
stands beside the Sheriff, and departs. This chest, 
somewhat pyramidical in shape, is carved and 
painted, and large enough to hold a handsome 
sum, which is inserted through a slit made for 
the purpose. 

Only on the occasion of a visit from the Sultan 
is this doorway opened, and once in his reign at least 
he must go, 'tis a function obligatory on his accession. 
The door opens into a fair sized chamber, in the 
centre of which is the gilded tomb. 

In the same street is situated the tomb of 
Rasheed the servant of Idris, the faithful companion 
of his flight and the tutor of his son, Idris II. who 
founded Fez (see pages 120 and 121). 

The Shrine 


of •• The 

One Visit 


de rigeur. 





tion of the 


The " offerings " of the pious are many and rich, 
and are divided weekly among the chief descen- 
dants of the Saint. The distribution is made by 
the Mokaddem of the Zouiya, who is not a Sheriff 
but belongs to the family of Er-Rami, in which 
the office is hereditary. 

The inhabitants of the city are immune from 
tax-paying and military service, whilst any offender 
who can make his way into it is safe from his 
enemy, even if it be the Sultan himself. 


A Fertile 

A City of 

The City of Wazzan (The House of Refuge, 
— " Dar D'manah ") lies in a land which, if it does 
not " flow with milk and honey," at least abounds 
in springs and olive woods. It is built upon a 
hillside (that of the Bou Halal), and consists 
mainly of a most picturesque pile of tiled and 
thatched gables,* amidst which the (almost 
universal elsewhere) flat-roofed buildings with 
dazzling whitewash are rare. Shrine domes and 
mosque towers are ordinary features, as is befitting 

* Mr. Budgett Meakin states that old prints show this form of 
building to have been also characteristic of Old Tangier. 


in so sacred a spot, and the exquisite structure of 
some of them is the city's only claim to archi- 
tectural distinction. 

Before the year 1675, the site of the present Old Site. 
city was only occupied by mud huts, and the 
Sheriffs* (the heads of the sect of Mulai Tayyib) 
inhabited Ezaggen (or " Azigen "), now a heap of 
ruins opposite Wazzan. Leo Africanus mentions 
the latter town observing " they have a privilege 
granted by the ancient kings of Fez to drink wine, 
which is otherwise forbidden by the law of 

Although much more modern than the shrine of A Magni- 
Idris II. at Fez, the Mosque of Abdallah es- '»cent 
Shareef {the Noble Slave of God) contains some 
admirable architecture. This Sheriff was the 
founder of the glories of Wazzan in 1727, and 
his tomb is one of the most venerated shrines in 
the country. His shrine, is a large square hall, in 
the middle of which stands the tomb itself. The 
floor is of coloured marbles and the roof consists 
of arabesque wood carving in high relief, picked 

* The Sheriffs of Wazzan are some of the most important in Morocco, 
certainly in North Morocco. For an account of these families of Saints 
and their hereditary powers of Barakah (blessing), see page 102. They 
have been granted French " Protection," a result partly of their pro- 
prietary interests in Algeria. They have azibs (homtsteadi) all over 
North Morocco, and indeed are the most important landed proprietors 
in that section of the country. 



out with colours and gilding. The walls are 
tiled to a certain height, above which there are 
inscribed verses from the Koran on a whitewashed 

The streets of the city are steep and narrow, 
and are therefore kept comparatively clean. At 
the bottom end lies the market place, which is kept 
fairly busy, Wazzan forming the mart for the 
Industry, neighbouring districts, although its industry is 
pretty well confined to the making of Djellabahs 
(see page 64). The market days are Wednesday 
and Thursday. 

The water supply is good, the climate healthy, 
and in the neighbourhood cluster quite a number 
of picturesque little villages and hamlets. The 
population is reckoned at about 20,000, 

The journey to Wazzan from Fez (you leave by 
the Segma gate) takes about 20 hours, the distance 
being some 60 miles. After eight hours' travel 
through undulating country, cleared of trees and 
well cultivated, you reach the River Sebou, which 
is crossed at the ford of the Saturday market. 
Thence two hours more are required to reach the 
Azib of Mazariya, belonging to the Sheriffian 
family of Wazzan. Thence to the destination, 
the track runs through a series of properties 


Route from 

belonging to the Sherifts, and, for the last five 
hours, along the banks of the river Redat. The 
ride is pleasant, and the people full of hospitality. 

Border Towns and Mountain Fortresses. 

This slight sketch of the topography of Morocco 
would be incomplete without some reference to the 
mountain fortresses and border towns. 


The Castle of Glouwi is about six days' ride 
from the City of Marrakesh, and the route thither 
lies by the way of Zaraktan, one of the beauty 
spots of the Atlas, where the road runs smooth, 
red and sandy, curving picturesquely through 
piles of rock in the crevices of which creepers, 
maiden hair ferns, and shrubs grow profusely, 
whilst ever and anon a group of oleanders give a 
touch of bright colour. 

This district of the vast mountain range is 


A lovely 



Peasantry • 


A Powerful 




of War. 

inhabited by a race of hardy and industrious folk, 
who terrace every valley, and on the terraces 
grow heavy, well-kept crops of corn and groves of 
walnut trees. 

The Castle itself* is a large double towered pile 
of stone on a hill top. The enceinte consists of 
high crenellated walls, in good condition. The 
principal apartments are lofty, clean and well kept. 

The Ruler is a feudal lord, combining in his 
person, General, Governor, and Judge. He is 
known as The 'N'Glouwi, and is a powerful highland 
chief whose rule extends to the oasis of Tafilalt,t 
the cradle of the ruling dynasty. Upon him lies 
the responsibility of preventing or smoothing over 
any friction between his dependents and the 
French on the South- West Algerian frontier. 

The castle courtyards are always full ; farmers 
bringing in provisions, messengers to and from 
the Eastern districts, litigants, and suppliants keep 
the place in a constant state of bustle. 

The fortress is provisioned for a considerable 
time, the permanent garrison numbers 500, and 
contains a large amount of arms, ammunition, 
horses, mules, &c. 

* See illustration on opposite page. 

t See page 205. 


Glouwi Castle. 

(see page 203) 


Sometimes written " Tafilet," is an oasis or 
rather series of oases famous for two things : 
(i) the production of the finest dates in the world, 
and (2) the furnishing by it (or more correctly by 
its old capital Sijilmessa) of two ruling dynasties 
for the Shereefian throne, one of them being that 
to which belongs the present Sultan. 

Since the destruction of Sijilmessa the people 
live in small fortresses in the oases, which much 
resemble the old " Peels " on both sides of the 
Scottish border. An exceedingly complete and 
well written account of the district is given by 
Mr. Harris in his " Tafilet," wherein he estimates 
the irrigated surface as 400 square miles, almost 
all of it devoted to date palms, so that the crops 
must be considerable. The only other articles of 
importance produced are the sheep and goat skins, 
exported to Marrakesh for the manufacture of 
leather, and some very fine wool obtained from a 
special breed of sheep. 

The ruins of the City of Sijilmessa, in the 
district of Wad Ifli, denote that it was originally 
an important town. Crumbling walls, a mosque 
and minaret in decent repair, and a broken down 

A famous 

Ports or 
«• Peels." 

400 square 
miles of 


Relics of 





bridge over the Wad (River) Ziz, form the sole 
remaining relics of its former greatness.* The 
very name has departed, and its ruins are known 
as Medinat oul Amira {the Royal City). 

Yet still on the two great Moslem feasts the "Aid 
el Kebir "t {gnat or the sheep feast) and the ** Aid es 
Saghir" {the minor feast) the people meet to pray at 
the M'salla {place of prayer) near the old mosque. 

On the 





34° 40' 54" N.— 1° 47' 30' W. 

This little frontier town is only of interest on 
account of its neighbourhood to the Algerian 
Frontier (French). The anti- French feeling of 
the Moors is naturally intensified by this proximity, 
and the authorities have forbidden the entrance of 
any wheeled vehicles. A Spaniard who violated 
this restriction and drove a cart of goods into the 
town had his wares confiscated, and was only 
restored his horse and cart on the conditions of 
immediate departure, and an engagement not to 
repeat the offence. 

* The civil wars under the reign of the Beni Marin dynasty are 
responsible, vide remarks on page 132. 

t The Aid el Kebir is also known as "Aid el Azha " (or vulgarly 
Znha) the feast of sacrifice, and takes place on the loth day of Dul 
Hadjah (the i2th and last month). 

The Aid es Saghir is also known as "Aid el Fitur," and is the 
Break-Fast feast at the end of Ramadan (the gth month) see page 98. 


The town had a certain amount of prosperity 
before the revolt of El Roghi destroyed the 
security of the Caravan route between Taza and 
Fez, and now that that ruffian (whose deeds of 
rapine and cruelty were indescribable) has been 
captured and killed, some prosperity may return. 
It is situated on the slope of a hill, has an 
abundant water supply and produces much fruit. 
Its walls are tottering and it is of no importance 
strategically. Its inhabitants keep up a little 
sugar smuggling across the Algerian Frontier, 
which will doubtless lead some day to a " Rectifi- 
cation of the Frontier " at present ending at 
Sidi Zaher. 

The Bou 



Some South Atlas Towns. 
Tamshlohat, Amzmiz, and Goundafi.* 

Three to four hours' ride from Marrakesh takes 
us to the town of Tamshlohatf situated on the 
banks of the river Sherghaia, and nestling in 

* The route taken was Marrakesh to Tamshlohat, thence to Amzmiz 
then across to Agergour, thence to Agadir el Bour and thence to 

t See page los- 

the Home 
of the 



Red Brick 


page 132. 

A Pretty 

groves of olive trees. The walls are neglected, 
for, being sacrosanct, it has no need of them ; the 
houses are constructed of red bricks made in the 
neighbourhood and furnished with flat roofs. The 
country house of the Sheriff nestles in gardens 
with tall-growing cypress trees. 

After a further ride of six hours, over country 
flat at first, and later containing a few hills, we 
reach Amzmiz,'^ the road rising to an altitude of 
1,600 feet, in the successive gradations charac- 
teristic of the Atlas formation. 

The little town consists of a cluster of inferior 
houses, on uneven ground, built of tabbia, and 
contained in a rectangular wall. Everything 
seems old and crumbling except the mosque, 
which is new. At the north-eastern corner huddle 
a heap of ruins — the old house of the Kaid. The 
present ruler has located his house in an unpre- 
tentious fortification outside the city, and close 

♦There is a very pleasant route to Amzmii from the Coast via Meskella 
(five hours from Mogador). After leaving the latter place, a lovely ride 
through hilly country brings the traveller to the Kaid's house at 
M'toogi, which is on a lofty eminence ; and commands some charming 
panoramas. En route you pass some interesting caves. The chiet 
of the M'toogi clan is a " power in the land," and is famous for his 
liberal hospitality. Then, steering a course parallel with the Atlas 
range you arrive in four more days at Immintannout, prettily situated 
on a river. Thence through a fine olive grove to Elhaira, where the 
country is perfectly fiat. After that you make a call at Mzoudi, which 
contains an olive grove, where is an ideal spot for camping, and an 
excellent breed of sheep, whose " mutton is very good." Another six or 
seven hours' ride will bring you to Amzmiz. 


to a large Kubba (shrine). The market held 
here is a weekly one (Tuesday). 

A few hours of stiff climbing brings us to the 
old castle of the Kaids of Goundafi situated on 
the mountain side. It is a true Eagle's Nest, 
named Agergour.'' Gardens and cultivated 
terraces surround it and stretch to che plain, 
which is dominated by a newly built fortification ; 
then come olive groves and waterfalls, then houses 
screened by high walls and set in greenery. 
From his towers the ruler looks out northward 
upon the Djebilet mountains and the Gilis hills, 
from the foot of which stretches the great plain, 
including in his view the city of Marrakesh, with 
its gleaming Kutubuiya tower. In the centre of 
the landscape stands Tamshlohat ; whilst further 
west lies the town of Amzmiz surrounded by green 
dots which denote the locale of villages and douars. 

After another live hours of rugged travel we 
reach the Goundafi pass, and (with a halt at 
Agadir el Bour) we finally enter the Kasbah, the 
Raid's present headquarters. The scenery en route 
is grand ; one magnificent series of peaks and 
gorges, with fertile, well cultivated terraces, and 
mountain sheep, t 

* The present headquarters are further on, right in the mountains, 
t See pages 8i, 203, &Ci 

An Eagle's 

A Noble 



Kasbah of 
the Kaid. 


Imposingly situated in a valley with the river 
N'fis just under its walls, the building is sur- 
rounded with mean dwellings, and forms by no 
means a luxurious habitation ; the passages are 
black and deep, and the courts narrow. 
A This Kaid is an important chieftain and master 
Highland Qf tjjg mountain region between Glouwi and 
Chief. M'tougi, and he is quite one of the personages 
of South Morocco, although distinctly inferior 
to The N 'Glouwi^'. The position of the latter 
resembles that of The Douglas in mediaeval 
Scotch history ; for not only has he the power of 
his own clan at his back, but he is the head of 
a whole confederation of smaller chiefs. It is 
largely due to his powerful support that Mulai 
Hafid is now reigning in Fez. 

* Seepage 204. 


Alcazar* (El K'sar el K'bir). 

60 miles from Tangier, 20 miles from Lsurache. 

Although the name means " the great^Castle," 
the town is without a wall and, viewed from a 
distance, has a picturesque appearance, with its 
roof tops and its mosque minarets peering over a 
setting of trees and gardens. The Kaiseriyah 
(the ** Bazaar " or market quarter) forms its 
best feature : it is held on Sundays and well 
attended. Parts of the streets composing it are 
covered with palmetto matting, affording an 
agreeable shade. The city abounds in storks, 
the sacred birds of Morocco, who are supposed 
to be Sultans in disguise.f The only fine building 
is the Zouwiah of Mulai Bu Ghalib, one of the 
patron saints. Situated at the junction of 
the routes to Tangier, Tetuan, Fez, Wazzan, 
Mequinez, and Larache, it is surprising that it 
should not be a place of greater importance and 

* The town occupies the site of the Roman Oppidum NoTum " and 
is actually built to a lar^e extent of Roman dressed stones," suggesting 
a possibility of finding mteresting relics of the Latin occupation (says 
Dr. Browne in his note on Leo Africanus). There is a Greek inscrip- 
tion on a stone set into the Mosaue minaret. 

t See Haufi's " Marchen," " Kalif Stork," where is prettily told the 
tale of how a Sultan is punished by God for bis pride by being changed 
into a stork. 





<* Clapham 


Section VIL 

The "Rovers" 


their Victims. 

THIS section will speak for itself: it belongs 
to the " Romance of History," and is 
immortalized in the early chapters of 
" Robinson Crusoe." 

Moorish Piracy is, of course, linked with that of 
Algiers and Tunis, and — to be completely dealt 
with — the history of those pirate strongholds 
should be included. Our present purpose, how- 
ever, is served without their inclusion. 

This section comprises : — 


/. — Moorish Pirates and Christian Slaves 213 ^o 219 

//. — Redemption of Captives • - -220^0221 

III.— The Literature of Moorish Piracy - 222 to 226 

Pirate Craft. 

(see page 216) 

Moorish Pirates and Christian Slaves. 

" It was about the lovely close of a warm summer's day, 
There came a Moorish Pirate-Ship full sail to Plymouth 

Her crew had seen Castile's black fleet beyond Aurigny's 

At earliest twilight on the waves, lie heaving many a 





Such is the amendment required for the start of 
Macaulay's heroic poem dealing with the destruc- 
tion of the Spanish Armada, in order to bring it 
into line with fact. Fleming,* who commanded 
the vessel in question, was only one of a band of 
similar patriotic English sailorst of the Drake and 
Hawkins type, who in order to " singe the King 
of Spain's beard," had placed their skill at the 
disposal of the Moorish Pirates. These latter 
had been specially incensed against the Spaniards 
and Portuguese by the recent expulsion of the 
Moriscos from Spain, and were burning for 

•Whom Hume in his " Historjj of England" calls a "Scottish 
Pirate." I do not know why. There is a double significance in the fact 
that this "Moorish Rover" was commanded by an Englishman, and 
that it was cruising off the Channel Islands. 

t Vide the "True Travels .... ofCapt. John Smith . . . 
between 1593 and 1639," published in i6;o and (juoted by Dr. Brown in 
his introduction to Fellows' " 33 years in captivity." Fleming got the 
Queen's " Pardon" for his information. 




" Singe the 
King of 


f etuan a 

Centre of 





and Moors. 

Origin of 


revenge. Tetuan was largely peopled by these 
refugees, and so effective was their vengeance 
that in 1565 the King of Portugal sent a regular 
expedition against them, which was (as usual) 

Do not forget, gentle reader, when you shudder 
at the cruelties of the Catholic Inquisition, to bear 
in mind also the revolting cruelties of the Moorish 
pirates against Spanish and Portuguese captives 
handed over to them by Protestant English 

The history of the matter seems to be that until 
Moorish fanaticism was outraged by the cruel 
expulsion of the Moriscos (with horrible barbari- 
ties), the Sultans of Morocco had endeavoured to 
maintain friendly relations at sea with European 
natives. That is to say, as far as they could, for the 
port of Sallee,t the first to attain prominence in 
this connection, early succeeded in attaining quasi- 
independence of their rule. Then, when the 
smouldering ashes of Moorish fanaticism had 
been fanned into flame, came the evacuation of 
the ports held by the various European nations. 

* He tried to render the Harbour of Martil impassable by sealing it 
with blocks of stone brought from Grenada, The Tetuan people cut a 
new outlet and began their depredations afresh. 

t See the incident recorded on pages 184* and 2*4. 


Spain left Larache ; Portugal deserted Mazagan 
and Saffi ; Great Britain scuttled from Tangier. 
This not merely opened these ports for the pirates, 
but closed them as harbours of refuge for their 
quarry ; to say nothing of its leaving runaway 
prisoners no port open for escape. 

The Semitic races of antiquity seem to have 
taken readily to the sea : the Phoenicians of Tyre 
and Sidon, and their colonists, the Carthaginians, 
were the finest sailors and most intrepid voyagers 
of their day. But the Moors never shone at sea 
until they had been taught by the English and 
Dutch Protestant foes of Catholic Spain.* Then, 
when they had learned their trade, the Sallee 
Rovers preyed upon all nations alike, and as the 
British shipping became more numerous so did 
the number of British victims to Moroccan piracy, 
and the Moslem sailors would boldly venture to 
await their prey as far north as under the lea of 
Lundy Island. 

Bars protected all the ports used for piracy, and 
consequently the pirate vessels were necessarily 
of light draught. In "the Female Captive," 
(printed 1769, in London) Miss Marsh (afterwards 

* Dr. Brown points to the fact that Felipe IV. of Spain on capturing 
Mamora in 1614, found it "a perfect kennel of European outlaws- 
English, French and Dutch.'' 

tion of 


taught by 
Preyed on 

by Bars. 


An 18th 



The Type 
of Vessel. 


of the 

Mrs. Crisp) narrates het experience, and tells 
us that the " Merchantman " in which she was 
captured, was (after being lightened) taken over 
the bar of Sallee. The little vessel, however, got 
pretty nearly knocked to pieces in the process 
(Vol. II. p. 132). 

The type of vessel employed is best understood 
from the illustrations on page 212. They 
are reproduced from the work written by Georg 
Host (published in Denmark in 1779 and 1781, 
in Danish and German respectively). The 
author was Danish Consul at Tangier for many 
years, his work is accurate and painstaking, and 
his evidence about pirate vessels contemporary. 
In 1766, he states that there were but ten pirate 
vessels of any size, and he gives a list of them, 
with the names of their captains and the number 
of their guns and crews. They range from a 
frigate, of 45 guns and 330 men, through xebeques 
of 16 guns and 126 men, to galiotes of 6 guns, 
30 rowers, and 100 men*. He adds that three 

" These "frigates " were propelled by oars as well as sails, and were 
ringed like brigs. The xebeques were typical Mediterranean boats 
with two or three masts, carrying square sails when "running," and 
lateen sails when "on a wind," The galiote was a purely pirate rig 
with one mast for sailing, but placing its reliance on long sweeps, 
enabling them to board becalmed vessels. Such vessels continued to 
be built as late as 1750 when the captain of an English privateer (the 
"Inspector") was set to work on one at Tetuan. He gives its 
dimensions :— a keel of go feet, a breadth of so feet, with 40 oars, 
g carriage guns, zo swivel guns, and a crew of 130, 


years later the number rose to 20, the additions 
being mostly galiotes, " and that is really the 
strongest fleet of any kind they had ever known."* 
Pidoe de St. Olon, in his work published by the 
command of Louis XIV. (Paris, 1695) gave the 
number as a dozen vessels with 18 to 20 guns in 
bad condition, and a crew of 200. 

There were, of course, large numbers of 
transports in earlier days: the Arab historians 
mention hundreds on the stocks. But these were 
not vessels adapted to " keep the sea," they were 
but transport galleys propelled by oars supple- 
mented by a sail or two on a single mast when 
the wind was favourable. They were necessary 
adjuncts to the conquest and retention of Spain. 

The object of all piratesf is to gain booty, not 
to fight. The Moors, then, would range close 
and invite the captain on board to show his 
papers. This necessitated the withdrawal of the 
chief and a whole boat's crew, and much sim- 
plified their operations. Passengers and sailors 
were stripped of their belongings and taken on 
the pirate vessels, prize crews being sent on 

* Host's figures are practically confirmed in the " Annual Register " 
of I775> page 84 of " Chronicle,'' where the total given is 15 ready for 
sailing and 9 approaching completion. 

t See Defoe's "Adventures of Captain Singleton." 

A French 

ports of 
the Altno- 

The Pro- 

Men and 
for Sale. 



An Adven- 
ture in ft 

Ismail and 
the •• Hey- 
day" of 



1684 A.D. 

board the capture. The captain was usually 
reserved for the Sultan, the rest of the prisoners, 
men and women alike, were sold by auction in 
the manner detailed on page 85. Sometimes a 
little syndicate would combine to purchase a 
captive who seemed likely to have friends to 
redeem him, and questions relative to ransom were 
the first asked. Large numbers professed the 
faith of Islam and married; most of the women 
(except such of the less attractive whose friends 
could afford to pay) were taken into the harems ; 
Miss Marsh narrates in her adventures that she 
met, in the Sultan's palace (1769 a.d.) a " daughter 
of an Englishman who had become a renegade 
and had married a Moorish woman," who was 
very agreeable, but tried to inveigle her fellow 
countrywoman into the Sultan's harem, never- 

The greater number of the able-bodied men 
were sent inland to Fez, Mequinez, Marrakesh and 
other towns. In the days of Mulai Ismail when 
piracy was at its height. Christian slaves to the 
number of between one and two thousand worked 
in his service at Mequinez. Thomas Phelps 
(1684 A.D.) was one of the unfortunate wretches so 
treated (there were 800 in his day). He describes 


the Sultan as " this Monster of Africk, a com- 
position of gore and dust." Ismail was an His 
enthusiastic builder * and not only kept his slaves Captivity, 
hard at it ; but (says Phelps) ** will sometimes 
vouchsafe to work in the Lime and Durt for an 
hour together, and will bolt out an encouraging 
word to the slaves." Phelps escaped with some Escape, 
companions to Sallee, stole a boat, was picked up 
at sea and induced his rescuers to join them and 
help to burn the pirate shipping in Mamora, 
which they did *' hallowing at the sight of so desirable a 
Bon-Jin." So to England, where he was taken 
under the protection of Samuel Pepys, Lord of and 
the Admiralty, and writer of the most famous Narrative. 
diary in the English language, to whom he 
dedicates his " Account." 

* Phelp's description of "Tabbia" building is worth reprinting: 
" There are boxes of wood of dimensions according to pleasure. These 
" we fill with earth powdered and lime, and gravel well beat together 
"and tempered with water; and, when full, we remove the box 
" according to order and withdraw the box planks and leave the matter 
" to dry, which then will acquire an incredible hardness, and is very 
" lasting, for we have seen walls of some hundred yeeres standing (as 
" we were informed) and all that time has not been able to do them any 
" prejudice." See also page 15a*. 

I have myself seen the process often, and on a visit at Tamshlohat 
(where the Sheriflf is vastly extending his country house), like Mulai 
Ismail, I joined in mixing the concrete and handling the stamper. 



Redemption of Captives. 




lished by 

Lists of 




The ransoming of these unfortunates was carried 
out mainly by Catholic priests, who devoted their 
lives to the service of collection of alms for the 
purpose, bargaining with the Moslems, and 
repatriating the exiles. 

In his " Bulla Confirmationis, &c., Sanctissimae 
Trinitatis Redemptionis Captivorum," Pope 
Urban VIII., under date of i8th December, 1623, 
confirms the privileges of the regular orders to 
this Order of the Holy Trinity, founded expressly 
for the Redemption of Captives under the Papal 
Bull of Pope Innocent III. in 1198A.D.* Other 
orders followed them and the worthy priests are 
generally known as Redemptionist Fathers. One 
of the Missions sent from Lisbon by the orders 
of the King Dom Joseph I., between the 
2 1 St February and the i8th May, 1765, rescued 
223 men and 5 women from captivity which had 
lasted, in some cases, 15 years. 

Sr. Mouette (1670 to 1682 in captivity) who was 
rescued by an order named " Ordre de la Mercy 

* See the " Pulcher Libellus" printed at Olysippone, 1633. 


Mountaineers of the Glouwi Clan. 

(see page 204) 

Redemtion des Captifs," speaks from personal 
knowledge when he enumerates, as the work of 
the " Redemptionist Fathers," Christians fortified 
for martyrdom in their faith, sinners convicted of 
sin, boys saved from mutilation for the Seraglio, 
wives rescued for their husbands, and husbands 
for their wives. " Where the province, town, or 
village of France without one of these happy 
redeemed ones ? " 

With characteristic indolence the British Govern- 
ment left the redemption of their captives to private 
philanthropy. Thomas Betton, a Turkey merchant, 
bequeathed property which ultimately became 
worth ;^i 0,000* a year for the purpose. It was 
mostly left to friends and charitable persons and 
churches to send money to British Consuls, who 
with Government approval, but no help, did what 
they could. From time to time on some special 
appeal, the Government stirred ; but only to 
relapse into inactivity. 



* After need for this " Redemption " was passed, the Court of 
Chancery appropriated the bequest for "grants in aid" to church 
schools. Vide " Nicboll's Account of the Ironmongers' Company," p. 346. 


Literature of Moorish Piracy. 



with the 



A " News 

of 1642. 

The literature descriptive of these three centuries 
of Moorish piracy and Christian slavery is a large 
one, and much of it requires to be received 
with suspicion. "Grub Street" could "fake" a 
good story with plenty of horrors, and did it ! 
Genuine narratives, where the personality and 
genuineness of the narrator are plain, contain as 
interpolations fourth and fifth hand descriptions 
of places never visited, and of customs never seen. 
Mougtte's book is marred with padding, and 
Thomas Fellow's book not without suspicion, 
although Dr. Brown has, in his edition, purged it 
of the long extract from Windus. As printed in 
the " Adventure " series of Fisher Unwin, it forms 
one of the most interesting books of adventure 
that can possibly be imagined, and a great pity it 
is that it should be permitted to run out of print. 

An old English " News Letter," printed in the 
year 1642, gives the " News from Sally of a 
" strange delivery of foure English captives from 
" the Slavery of the Turkes," and aptly illustrates 
the fact that the ports held on the coast by 

European Powers served (till their abandonment 
in the 17th century) the useful function of a " Way 
of Escape" to the victims of piracy. It tells 
the story of how four English ships (from Rye, 
Barnstaple, Dartmouth, and *" Apsum ") were 
captured on their homeward voyage from La 
Rochelle. The masters of each merchantman 
were set aside for the Sultan, but made their 
escape and fled to the " Spanish Towne " (ap- 
parently Larache) whence the Governor shipped 
them to Calais. 

A pamphlet printed in London in 1637, under 
the title of " A True Journall of the Sally Fleet 
with the proceedings of the voyage," and published 
by John Dunton, Mariner, Master of the Admiral 
called the " Leopard" gives a list of 329 men, 
women, and children rescued from slavery. This 
brochure comprises a most interesting account of 
an expedition sent by King Charles L, composed 
of H. M.S. "Leopard," "Antelope," "Hercules," 
" Mary," " Providence," " Expedition," " Mary 
Rose," and " Rowbucke," varying from 400 to 
500 tons burden, and mounting from 30 to 40 guns 
each. The expedition started in January, 1637, 

A Naval 
tion in 

List of the 

* ? Appledecombe. 








and by March 29th, "The Governor of the old 
" town did send our King's letter of peace aboard 
" to our Generall and did desire peace with our 
" King, for they are out with the new town" (Rabat). 
This old rivalry* was soon turned to good purpose 
by the EngUsh, a treaty (the text of which is 
printed) was concluded on behalf of His Britannic 
Majesty with the Governor " The Lord Siddie 
Hannet Laishi (probably Sidi Mohammed AH el 
Aish), and the men of Sallee joined in the fight 
against their brother rogues who, says Dunton, 
'* were very cropsicke . . . and called them and 
*' us ' English Dogges.' " Eventually, all the pirate 
ships were taken and smashed, and the little 
expedition returned to England with flying colours 
and British subjects snatched from a living grave. 
John Dunton's qualifications to act as pilot and 
sailing master are detailed in his introduction, 
wherein he dedicates his little volume to the 
Rt. Hon. Lord Vaine, P. C. of the High Court 
of the Admiralty. 

'• Right Honourable, in September last was twelve month 
" I redeemed myself prisoner from Sally, being sent out 
'• master and pilot in a Sally man of warre with twenty-one 
" Moors and five Flemish Renegadoes unto the coast of 

» See page 184*. 

" England to take Christians; brought them unto the Isle 
" of Wight under the command of Hurst Castle, where I 
" was detained as a pirate and sent to Winchester with 
" the rest." 

The picture of the old Sea Dog piloting his pirate 
masters by night under cover of the guns of Hurst 
Castle, and the surprise that daylight brought the 
Moors, is very rich in humour. 

But the " Human Document " which must win 
the approval of all readers, seems to me that of 
the " Female Captive." The preface strikes the 
right note; — "The subject of these volumes is a 
" story of real distress, unembellished by any 
" ornaments of language or flights of fancy," and 
the book carries it out. Miss Marsh's* descriptions 
are accurate, and her language sober and maidenly. 
No man can refuse to award its due meed of praise 
to the artless account of how the poor maid, alone 
in the Sultan's Palace, and trapped into pronounce- 
ment of the Mohammedan profession of faith 
(through ignorance of Arabic), extricated herself 
by truly feminine tact and British pertinacity. 

"Roving" died a natural death when steam 
came in. The cost of modern armed vessels, and 

* She became Mrs. Crisp in consequence of this adventure, so that 
the little volume is not lacking in " Love Interest." 


" Female 



Mrs. Crisp. 

The death 


" Roving." 


the skill required for manipulating them, prevent 
private enterprise in this direction. The only 
possibility nowadays is for national piracy, and it 
is for the prevention of this that Great Britain lays 
down her *' Dreadnoughts." 


Section VIII. 

Remarks on Books 
dealing with Morocco. 

THE books dealing with Morocco fall naturally into 
two divisions — those that make their appeal to the 
general reader and those that cater for the student. 

Of these two divisions the former is the one with which 
I am here concerned : students will naturally search the 
bibliography of Dr. Brown and Sir Lionel Playfair, and 
the catalogues to be found in the various great libraries. 

But there is a large body of general readers who, if once 
interested in a subject, like to go a little deeper than a mere 
dip. For such as these the following notes may be useful. 
The list is selective and not exhaustive, and the remarks 
are put forward only to serve as a guide to the contents of 
the volumes. 

Of modern writers (in English, at all events) the one 
occupying the foremost place is the late Mr. Budgett 
Meakin. His principal works (exclusive of contributions to 
periodical publications) , are : — 

(i) An Introduction to the " Arabic of Morocco " 

(2) The Moorish Empire (1899). (1891). 

(3) The Land of the Moors (igoi). 

(4) The Moors (1902). 

(5) Life in Morocco and Glimpses Beyond (1^05). 
The w6rks numbered (2), (3), and (4) form quite an 

encyclopaedia of things Moorish, and every reader who 
wishes to seriously study the subject is bound to consult 
them ; a process which would be facilitated by fuller indices. 

No. (5) shows a maturity of style that is not reached by 
the others, and deepens one's regret that the pen of the 
gifted writer is now idle for ever. 

Mr. Walter B. Harris, whose dramatic captivity with 
Raisuli excited an interest only second to that of Kaid 
Maclean, is the best equipped of living English writers for 

Dr. Brown 


Sir Lionel 



Walter B. 












the task of Moorish chronicler. His first work, " The Land 
of an African Sultan " (1889), written in a light and amusing 
vein, was followed up by " Tafilet," an account of a journey 
in disguise, which should find a place on everyone's shelves. 
It deals with little known (and at the time almost ««known) 
country, and is moreover a well written narrative of British 

Another member of the clan Harris (Mr. Leonard 
Harris, correspondent of the Daily Graphic), has recently 
published a book largely reprinted from his periodical, 
entitled " With Mulai Hafid at Fez." It is a stirring 
account of a "special correspondent's" adventures, and 
contains many interesting illustrations. I note, by the 
way, that the " Slave Market " view on page 84 is that of 
Marrakesh, and is reproduced from a photograph by 
Mr. A. Lennox, British vice-consul at the Southern Capital. 
Some of the illustrations in the present volume were taken 
for me by the same " Kindly Scot.'" 

A work published under the title of "Morocco" by 
S. L, Bensusan & A. S. Forrest (1906), forms a hand- 
some volume on the subject. The text of Bensusan is 
excellent, and admirably fulfils his object ; that of giving an 
impressionist word picture of what is seen by the " Passer 
By." Mr. Forrest's illustrations are in his own style, which 
is more happily exemplified elsewhere. 

If a book that fascinates by its style and " go" be wanted, 
read Mr. Cunningham Grahame's " Mogreb-al-Acksa. " If 
scholarship and quaint historical legend be desired, it will 
be found in Mr. T. H. Weir's " Shaikhs of Morocco." The 
account of the Tamshlohat Sheriffs, to be found on pages 
102, &c., was first brought to my notice in the pages of this 
book, and supplemented afterwards when I was their guest 
at Tamshlohat. 

M. Eugene Aubin printed an interesting account of 
travels and research in 1904, under the title of " Le Maroc 
d'Aujourd'hui," which, has been translated into English, 
and published by Messrs. Dent, in 1906, under the title of 
" Morocco of To-day." It is one of the best modern 
volumes on the subject, although the style is necessarily 
lost in translation. 

Another translation of a work published originally in 
French is " Among the Moors," by G. Montbard. This 


In the Agudal Gardens of the Sultan. 

(see page 157) 

gentleman (a French journalist) whose line drawings profusely 
embellish the volume, was accompanied on his pilgrimage 
by Mr. Walter Harris (see page 205), and unless my literary 
flair has misled me, Mr. Harris has had something to do 
with the text. 

Mr. Hugh Stutfield's volume "A Ride through Morocco," 
is interesting, although some of his criticisms seem founded 
on insufficient data. 

Although the missionary's point of view is apt to be 
biased, yet — making due allowance for the fact — the little 
volume published by Dr. Kerr, under the title of " Pioneer- 
ing in Morocco," is well worth reading. It is the personal 
narrative of ten years' work at Rabat, and the plain 
sincerity with which it is written invests it with much 

Two ladies — Miss Isabel Savory and Lady A. G. Grove — 
have contributed amusing volumes, the former under the 
title of "In the Tail of the Peacock," a reference to a 
popular Moorish proverb. Lady Grove calls her book 
• Seventy-one Days Camping in Morocco," and writes in 
chatty style. 

" Moorish Lotus Leaves," by Cowan & Johnson (the 
latter of whom also wrote a Guide under the title of 
" Morocco ") has been allowed to go out of print. 'Tis a 
matter of regret, because well-known books, written with 
ripe personal experience, are none too common. A 
reference (with extracts) will be found on pages 74-75 to 
" Fadma," another of Mr. R. L. N. Johnson's productions. 
It is a great pity that an inexpensive little book of such rare 
merit should not be better known in England. 

Dr. Spence Watson's "Visit to Wazzan " (1880) is 
interesting, albeit a little too much " coleur de rose" ; but 
his visit was paid under exceptionally favourable auspices. 

Of books appealing to folk who like a little stiffer reading, 
the " History and Description of Africa" by Leo Africanus,* 
published by the Hakluyt Society, possesses a rare charm. 
Dr. Brown's introduction and notes are masterly pieces of 
acute research and interesting style. 

With regard to the flora, the " Morocco and Great 

* El Hazan el Wazzani el Fksi, a noble Moor educated at Fez' 
captured in 1517 and sent to the Pope. He became a Christian, and 
wrote the best treatise extant on Mohammedan countries. 


Dr. Kerr. 

Miss I. 
Savory and 
Lady Grove. 

Cowan and 










Georg Host. 

Dr. Leared. 

E. Ashmead 

L. de 


Atlas " of Sir J. Hooker is still the authoritative work, 
albeit that Mr. Budgett Meakin in " The Land of the 
Moors" has added many interesting facts and details, 
whilst Mr. Thompson's accounts of his journeys, published 
in the transactions of the Royal Geographical Society, and 
extracted in "Stanford's Compendium of Geography " by 
A. H. Keane, are notable recent contributions to our 
limited knowledge. 

Of the piracy literature there is a curious dearth, con- 
sidering the modern taste for adventure. " Barbary 
Corsairs," by Stanley Lane Poole, in the " Story of the 
Nations " series, is a sober narrative of the historical side of 
the question. " The Adventures of Thomas Fellow " (with 
Dr. Brown's notes), a human document of great interest, 
ought to have ' ' caught on " more than it seems to have done. 

Of the old standard books the best is that of Georg Host, 
referred to on page 216, published in German and Danish. 
This and Windus's " Journey to Mequinez " (1725 a.d.) 
(referred to on page 58) are the " original sources " of many 
productions. Dr. Leared's "Morocco and the Moors" 
(1891) is a standard book ; but the statements are not reliable. 

Quite a recent book has appeared from the pen of Mr. 
E. Ashmead Bartlett : — " The Passing of the Shereefian 
Empire." It reminds me of a book which was published in 
Paris in 1886 from the pen of L. de Campon : — " Un 
Empire qui Croule." Mr. Ashmead Bartlett's graphic pen 
limns with characteristic touches those thumb - nail 
sketches with which his name is linked. If the colouring be 
at times a little strong, well 'tis the " difaut de sa qualM." 
Our author is pessimistic, and will hardly allow the Moor 
any patriotism. Really, the trouble is that he has too 
much ! His devotion to his village and his tribe leads him 
into deadly feuds with other villages and other tribes. I 
have been struck by the close resemblance of Morocco to 
mediaeval Scotland. The feuds of the Scottish nobles and 
clans invited the attentions of Edward I. Yet even that 
mighty and skilful leader can hardly be said to have won a 
permanent success. 

By far the most voluminous and valuable work has, 
however, been done by the French (all honour to them). 
Whatever we may think and wish about French territorial 
aspirations, our literary indebtedness to France is incalcul- 


able. The Arab histories, to which I refer on page io8, 
have been translated for their learned societies* and their 
Government. The savants who have done the work have 
added (in many cases) learned and delightful introductions, 
notes, and notices. 

The maps printed for the army and those of R. de Flotte 
de Roquevaire are vastly ahead of anything produced 

Their famous men of letters like " Pierre Loti " (M. 
Viaud) contribute charming little volumes like " Au 
Maroc." Others, like M. Ren6 Le Clerc and M. H. 
Gaillard, contribute useful and picturesque accounts of 
" Le Commerce et I'lndustrie a Fez," and " Une Ville de 
r Islam." They are prolific in handy little books of travel 
like " Le Maroc Septentrional," packed full of useful hints, 
or of books like M. Gustav Wolfram's " Le Maroc, ce qu'il 
faut en connaitre" or M. Kerdec Cheny's "Guide du 

Those who like compendiumistic literature should consult 
" Le Maroc '' of A. Cousin and D. Saurin ; those who want 
impressionism, " Un Crepuscule dTslam," by Andre 

The political happenings and position are well put in 
" Etude Politique " by Mons. G. Jeannot, who prefaces his 
remarks with a few notes well selected and ably expounded. 
The international complications and French claims are 
acutely and eloquently expounded in M. Victor Berard's 
" L'AfTaire Marocaine." 

Of special interest are two works of delightful reading and 
solid information, gathered first hand in the one case and 
practically so in the other. I refer to the volumes recording 
the wanderings and discoveries of the Marquis de Segonsac, 
and those of the " Pilgrim " of Mons. A. Moulieras (" Le 
Maroc Inconnu "). Such efforts as these are so fine that it 
seems an impertinence to praise them, one can only admire 
and appreciate. Here we are in the closest possible contact 
with the real people in the real country. The history of 
the gathering of the information is a romance. 

The Marquis de Segonsac's volume deals with " Voyages 

* Vide publicaiions of I'Ecole Speciale des Langues Orientales 
vivantes ; those of the Bulletin du Societe Geographic de Marseilles ; 
hose of I'Afrique Francaise, the Revue de Paris, &c. 

R. de Flotte 
de Roque- 

" Pierre 

R^ne Le 
Clerc and 
M. H. 

M. Gustav 

M. Kerdec 

A. Cousin 


D. Saurin. 


Mons. G. 

M. Victor 

Marquis de 


au Maroc, 1899 to 1901." The first part is concerned with 
the Riff and Djebala, and includes Tangier, Fez, Melilla, 
and Wazzan. The second he calls the " Beraba " (Berber) 
and deals with the district embraced between Alcazar, Fez, 
the River Molouiya and the River Sebou. The third part 
treats of the "Sus," and embraces Marrakesh, Tarudant, 
Tiznit, Agadir, Mogador, &c. The traveller crossed the 
Bibouan Pass and passed round many " tight corners." 
Mens. A. M. Moulieras is Professor of Arabic language and 

Moulieras. literature at Oran, and instead of voyaging in person, 

employed trustworthy natives who traversed the country 
and brought back to him information which he has 
embodied in his volume " Le Maroc Inconnu." Of course, 
much of its value depends upon the reliability of the people 
employed. But the twenty-two years over which M. Mou- 
beras' work has extended, the knowledge and experience he 
has himself acquired, seem to render it impossible for him 
to be seriously deluded. His volumes are most fascinating ; 
his principal pilgrim, Mohammed ben Tayyeb, a most 
picturesque figure. As an instance of this man's work, let 
me extract the following adventure : — 

Our pilgrim is journeying in the R'mara (Ghomara). 
One day in the mountains on the way to K'aa Sero, he is 
stopped by five men. " Whence comest thou ? " " From 
Tetuan, I am of the Beni Said."* Five guns are at his 
breast in a moment. He cries "Oh, but I am not a Saidian 
really, I only went there to study. "t Then one of the 
villagers threw a handful of dust in his eyes. Whilst using 
his hands to rub it out, he has all his clothes and belongings 
filched, save one ragged shirt. Thus accoutred he goes 
into the village of K'aa Sero and enters a mosque. Here 
he is admitted to the class, given clothes and a lodging 
for the night. In the morning a Crier is sent round the 
village chanting " Who stripped the Talib {student) 
yesterday? " Up comes a man with " I know," and gives 
the list. They are sent for, and after some questioning 
confess. They then perforce return the traveller's belong- 
ings amidst their fellow villagers' jests, laughter, and jeers. 
* A hostile tribe. 

t These wandering students go to a town, enter a mosque, and ask for 
teaching. If the places be not all full they are admitted. They subsist 
on charity or what they can earn. It matters not what their age is, 
whether it be 16 or 60. 


Section IX. 


To supplement the " Key " on page ii6, the following 
tables may be found useful. 

IJreesi T)ynasty. 


788 (i) Idris I., son of Abd-Allah. 

791/2 (2) Minority of his son. 

793 {3) Idris II. — son of (i), and founder of Fez. 

828 (4) Muhammad — son of (3). 

836 (5) Ali — son of (4). 

848 (6) Yahya I.— son of (4). 

(7) Yahya II. — son of (6). 

(8) Ali II. — grandson of (3). 

(9) Yahya III. — grandson of (3). 

904 (10) Yahya IV. — great grandson of (3). 

921 Interregnum of Usurper. 

922/5(11) Hasan, the "Vein-Tapper" — descendant of (3). 

With Fez finally lost to the Dynasty in 

925 A.D., it still struggles on : — 
925 (12) Kennoun — descendant of (3). 
949 (13) Abou '1 Aish Ahmed — son of (12). 
955 (^4) E^ Hasan — son of (12). 
986 Dies and ends dynasty. 

The Emirs of the Miknasa and Maghroua Berbers suc- 
ceeded in overthrowing the Idreesi Dynasties, and held Fez 
alternately till it was taken by Yusuf ibn Tashfin in 1069. 


Jllmoravide Dynasty. 


(i) Yahya — son of Ibrahim el Djedali. 

(2) Yahya — son of Omar. 
1056 (3) Abou Bekhr — son of Omar. 
1061 (4) Yusuf — son of Tashifin, 
1 106 (5) AH — son of (4). 
1 143 (6) Tashefin — son of (5). 

1 146 (7) Mohammed Ishak — son of (5). 

1 147 He is killed at Marrakesh, and dynasty ends. 

Jilmohade T)ynasty. 

1 128 Death of Medhi {Ibn Tumart). 

1 130 (i) Coming of Abd el Mumin. 

1 163 (2) Abou-Yakub-Yusuf — son of (i). 

1184 (3) Abou-Yusuf-Yakub(" T/i^F/ctomMs")— sonof (i). 

1199 (4) Mohammed Nasir — son of (3), 

1214 (5) Yusuf Mostansir — son of (4). 

1223 (6) Abd el Wahid— son of (5). 

1224 (7) El Adil — son of (3). 
1227 (8) Yahya — son of (4). 

1229 (9) Aboul Ula Idris Mehmoon — son of (3). 

1232 (10) Abd el Wahid — son of (9). 

1242 (11) Ali es Said — son of (0). 

1248 (12) Omar Murtada — descended from (i). 

1266 (13) Abd '1 Ula Wathik — descendant of (i). 

1269 Conquered and killed by the Beni Marin, and 
dynasty ends. 

Beni Marin T)ynasty. 


Othman I. 
Muhammad I. 
Abou-Yahya Abu-Bekr. 



1258 Abou Yusuf Yakub. 

1286 Abou Yakub Yusuf. 

1306 Abou-Thabit Amir. 

1308 Abou-1-Rabi-Suleiman. 

1310 Abou-Said Othman II. 

1331 Abul Hasan Ali. 

1348 Abou-Aynan. 

1358 Said. 

1359 Abou Salim Ibrahim. 
1361 Abou Omar Tashfin. 
1361 Abd el Halim. 

1 361 Abou Ziyan Mohammed II. 

1366 Abd-ul-Aziz. 

1372 Muhammed III. — Said. 

( Abul Abbas (El Mustansir) 

^^^"^ (Abd-al-Rahman. 

The kingdom divided into Kingdom of Fez and 

Kingdom of Marrakesh. 
1384 Musa. 
1384 Muntasir. 

1386 Muhammed IV. (H^fli/nft). 

1387 Abul- Abbas [El Mustansir) restored. 
1393 Abou Paris (and Son). 

1408 Abou Said. 

1416 I . , [Kingdom again divided. ' 

^ \Yakub ) 

1424 Abdallah. 

1470 Sharif. 

Watasid T>ynasty. 

1470 Said {Sheik Wat'as). 
1500 Muhammed I. — son of Said. 
1530 Ahmed — son of Muhammed. 
1550 Muhammed II. — son of Ahmad. 


Hasanee Sheriffs T)ynasty. 


1544 Muhammed I. — Sheik. 

1557 Abd- Allah. 

1573 Muhammed II. 

1575 Abou-Marwan-Abdal-Malik I. 

1578 Abul Abbas Ahmad. 

. Sheik . 

1603 J Abou-Faris [ Rivals. 

^ Zaydan -' 

1608 Zaydan — alone. 
1628 Abou Marwan (Ahd-al-Malih II.). 
1630 Walid. 
1635 Muhammed III. 
1654/8 Ahmad II. 

Filalee Sheriffs' ^Dynasty. 

1664 Rashid {The Great Tafilatta). 

1672 Ismail {brother of Rashid). 

1727 Ahmad (" The Golden ' ). 

1729 Abd-Allah {with 3 rivals), 

1757 Muhammed I.— son of Abd-Allah. 

1789 Yazid — son of Muhammed. 

'' r, , . \ {rival brothers). 

1795 Suleiman J ' 

1822 Abd-al-Rahman. 

1859 Muhammed II. 

1873 Hasan. 

1894 Abd-ul-Aziz — son of Hasan 

1907 Hafid — son of Hasan. 


Butter Making. 

The milk is put in a goat skin, slung as illustrated, and swung to 
and fro till the butter forms. 

Section X. 


Figures in bold type represent principal reference. 
Figures marked J show the reference to illustration. 
Figures marked * show that the reference is to a footnote. 

" A True Journal " - - 223 

Aashur 97 

Abassid (Kaleefahs) - - 115 
Abdallah ibn Husain 104, 

104*, 105 
Abdallah es Sheriff - - 201 
Abd-el-Mumin - 127, 158 
Abd el Wahid - - - - 108 
Abd-er-Rahman — 

(Historian) - - - m 
Also vide Ibn Khaldun. 

(Sultan) 142 

Abd-ul-Aziz 102, 144, 145 

Abul-Abbas 137 

Abdul Rahman - - - 115 
Abids (Black Troops) 139, 

139*. 140 

Ablution — 

(Ceremonial) - • - 92 
(General) - - 78, 259 1 

Aboo Paris 104 


Aboo Haneefah - - • 91* 
Abou Abdallah (El Mahdi) 

Abou Errouain - - - 136 
Abou Yakoub Yussef - 128 
Abou Yussef Yakoub vide 

El Mansur. 
Aboukir (Battle) - - - 196 
Abu-Bekr — 

(ist Kaleefah) - - - 115 

(Son of Omar) - 124, 125 

Abu-Marwan - - - - 136 

Accounts of Rides - - 16 

Achours (Tax) - - - - 142 

Adornment 68 

Africanus — vide Leo. 

Afrikiya 116 

Agadir 141 

Agadir el Hour - - - 209 

Agergour 209 

Aghlabids 117 

Aghmat - - - - 124, 152 
Agudal (gardens) - 143, 157 



Ahmed-ibn Abdallah - 105 
Ahmed-ibn Hanbal - - gi* 
Aid el Futoor - - - - 97 
Aid el K'bir - 97, 99, 99* 
Aissouwa - - 98, 101, loi* 
Ait Zemmour - - - - 140 
Akneef - - - - 60 J, 65 
Alarcos (Battle of) - - 128 
Alcazar — 

(Battle) 136 

(City) - 159, 210.211 
Allah - - - - 20, 42, 43 
Also vide Attributes. 

Alexandria 118 

Alfred (the " Great ") - 120 
Algeceiras — 

(Conference) - - - 144 

(Town) 112 

Algeria - 

(Area) 9*| 

(General) 8, 10, 118, 141 
Ali (Mohammed's son- 
in-law) 115,119,135*, 137 

Alif (letter) 49 

Almanack - - - - 95-99 
Almohades - 117, 126-130 
Almond — 

(Trees) 17 

(Fruit) 176 

Almoravides 117, 124*, 

124, 126 

Aloes 17 

Alps II 

Altitudes 9 

Amins (administrators), 

list of 36 

Amzmiz - - 207, 208, 208 

Anboob 167 

Andalusian Moors 164, 196 
Ania—vide Casa Blanca. 
Annual Register - - - 217' 


Antaeus 108 

Apparel — 

(For Travel) - - - 24 
(Moorish) - 43, 60-68 

(Slaves) 86 

Anti-Atlas — vide Atlas. 
A'ood — vide Lute. 
Arabian Nights - - - 2 
Arabic (Moorish) - - - 69* 

Arbutus 17 

Archangel Gabriel - - 168 
Architecture — 

(General^ - - 32, 50 
(Domestic) - 43, 50, 

53, 166, 167 
Area of Morocco - - - 9 
Argan Tree 17, 18, 18*, 20 
Argan Forests - - - - 29 

Ari Haian 11 

Aristocratic Descent - - 185 
Armada (Spanish) - - 213 
Arts Magical - - - - 19 
Arzila - 134, 140, 181, 197 

Asar - 92 

Asfi — vide Safifi. 

Asha 92 

Ashmea.6— vide Bartlett. 
Askar (infantry) - - - 38 
Atlas (Mts.)— 

(Anti) II 

(Mystery of) - - - 20 
(Ranges) - - - 8, 11 
(South Towns)- 207-210 
Attractions of — 

(Tangier) - - - - 180 
(Mogador) - - - - 194 

(Rabat) 186 

Attributes of Allah 42, 94 

Aubin (E.) 228 

Auctioneers — vide Dilals. 
Auras (Mt.) 113 


Averroes • 
Azimur - 


• - - - 128" 
133, 189, 195 


Bab — vide Gate. 

Backnish (Sheiks)- - - 76 

Baggage 15 

Bagpipe - - - - 72, 264I 
Bags (Leather) 61, 257 J, 261 1 
Banquet Chamber 44, 44! 

Barbarossa 134 

Bargaining 58 

Bartlett (E. Ashmead) - 230 
Bars (River) - - - - 13 
Basin - - - - 45, 46, 259+ 

Baths 169 

Beauty (Moorish) - 48, 49 

Beds 16 

Bee-hive Hut - 18, 20, 151 
Beit el Ginaiz - - - - 93 
Belt - - - - 63, 63', 67 
Belton (Thos.) - - - - 221 

Benikas 37 

Beni Marin - 117, 130-134 

(Origin of) - - 130, 131 
Beni Hassan - - - - 164 
Beni M'tir (Mts.) - - - 164 
Bensusan, S. L. - - - 228 
B^rard (Vic.) - - - - 231 
Berber Costume - 60I, 65 
Berbers - - 109, 109*, 162 

(Conversion of) - - 113 
Bibaoun Pass - - - - 11 
Birdah — vide Pack. 
" Birds in Paradise " - 48 

Birds 83 

Birmingham - - - - 55 
Bishop (Mrs. Bird) - - 81 


Bit 24, 25 

Bizbooz 167 

Black Guard - - - - 131 

;e1 Maghksen) - - 35 
;Es Siba) - - - - 36 
Blue Rollers - - - - 152 

Boabdil 117 

Boars 29 

Bon (Cape) 9 

Boniface (Count) - - - no 
Boon Companions - - 44 
Border Towns - - 203-207 

Bosrah 160 

Bouakar (Tribe of) - - 37* 
Bou Fekrar (River) 

(various names)- - - 175 
Bou Hamara - - 102, 207 
Brass Work- - - 55, 268 
Bread . . . . 78, 150J 

Breakfast 80 

Breezes 11 

Bridge 162 

British Government - - 221 

Broom 17 

Browne (Dr.) - - - - 210 
Budgett Meakin 7, 108*, 227 
Buildings (Private) - - 53 

Burnoos 63 

Burton (Sir R.) 63*, 67*, 

70, 98 
Butter Making - - - - 236 
Byzantine Influences - 51 

Cactus 150 

Caf6 Chantant - - 73, 73* 
Caftan — vide Kaftan. 


Camel 150 

Camp Beds 25 

Campon (L. de) - - - 230 
Canary Islands - - - 9 
Carpets (Rabat) - 25, 56 
Carthaginians - - - - 109 
Casablanca — 

(Bombardment) - - 144 
(General Notes) 188-189 

Castanets 72 

Castellanos 108 

Castilian Beauty - - - 112 
Castles - - 204, 204 j, 209 i 

Cattle 10 

Cattle Birds - - - - 160 

Camels 15 

" Camel's Neck " - - - 20 
Camping - - - 16, 25 
Capital Cities 35, 152-8, 

Cecil Hotel (Tangier) - 177 
Ceremonies - - - 91, 92 

Ceuta 112, 143 

Chaffering - - - 57, 58 

Chairs 16 

Character of Moors - - 5 

Charles I. 223 

Charles II. 177 

Charlemagne - - - - 120 
Cheny (Kerdec) - - - 231 

Chess 30 

Chevrillon (Andre) - - 231 
Christian Slaves - 217-221 
Church Schools - - - 221* 
Closed Ports - - - - 194 
Climate — 

(Coast) - - - 13, 14 

(Inland) 13 

Coast Towns - - 175-197 

(Also see separate Ports.) 
' Coeur-de-Lion " - 23, 117 


Confraternities — vide 

Colours (Taste in)- - - 53 
Conference (Algeceiras) - 144 
Conjurer- - - 59, 179, i8o| 

Consul 41 

Cookery - - - 45, 46, 79 

Cordova 34 

(Dynasty of) - - - 116 J 

Cornfields 21 

Cork Oaks - - - 183, 183' 
Corsair Kingdoms 118, 134 
Cost of Travel - - - - 16 
Costume — vide Apparel. 
Cottages (Native) - - - 18 
Country House - - - 76 
Courtesy - - 77*, 80, 81 

Cousin (A.) 231 

Cowan (G. D.) - - - 229 
Crafts - - - 33,55, 56 
Crisp (Mrs.) - - 215, 225 

Crops 10 

Cruelty 141 

Crusades 117 

Cultivated Land - - - 17 
Cunningham Grahame - 228 
Cushions (embroidered) - 44 

Daggers - - - 56, 62, 257^ 
Daily Routine - - - - 83 
Ddmah — vide Draughts. 
Damascus ----- 56 

Dancing 30 

Dancing Girls - - - - 47 

Darbukkah 72 

Dates ------- 152 

Date Crops 205 

(Blessing) - - - - 13S 



Days (of Week) - - - 96 

Deewan 44 

Defoe 217* 

D6jeuner 18 

Desert 4, 16 

Dews ID 

D'feen - - - - 44I, 67 

D'feerah 68* 

Dhohr 92 

Diabat 193 

Dilals - - - - 85, 155 
Dinner Party - - - - 41 
Dishes - - - 78, 80, 258I 
Djebal Moussa- - - - 11 
Djebilet (Mts.) - - 151, 209 
Djedida — vide Mazagan. 

Djellabah 64 

Djerifi ('Nzala)- - - - 161 
Djoredir — vide Gregory. 
Dr. Browne - - - - 210* 
Doctor — 

(European) - - - - 19 
(Native) - - - 19*, 20J 
Domestic Architecture — 

vide Houses. 
Double Title (of Sultan) 35 

Dozy 112* 

Draa (River) - - 12, 13* 

Draughts 29 

Drawers 60 

Dress — vide Apparel. 

Drum 72 

Dukkala Gate - - - - 24 
Dunes — vide Sand. 
Dunton (John) - - . . 223 
Durkaah 44 


Edrisi 108 

Egret 152 


Egypt 118 

^Kffraai.^ ----.. 103 

El Hamra 152 

Elijah 103 

El Kairoueen (Mosque) - 122 

El Kantara 151 

El K'sar el K'bir — vide 

El Kus (River) — vidg 

El Makkari - - - 108, 112* 
El Mansur(Adventure of) 128 

Elmhalla 139 

El Mutanebbi - - - - 70 

Elocution 70* 

El Roghi — vide Bou 

El Ufrani (Historian) 108, 135 

El Utad 197 

El Wattas 134 

Empire (Composite 

Nature of) - - - - 35 
En Nasiri - 108, 139*, 141 

Epoch 96 

Epsom Salts - . - - 20 
Es Soueira — vide Mogador 
Etiquette - - 77, 80, 80* 
(Table) 45, 46*. 78, 79 
Etude sur Maroc - 10, 11 
Evil Eye ... - 95, 196I 

Exports 176 

Ezaggen 201 

Ez Ziani . . - - 108, 173 

Fadma - - - - 74, 75 

Fahtihah - 92' 

Fanaticism 5 

Farrajeeyah - - - - 172 


Fatima - - 115, iig, 135* 

Fatimids 117 

Fehdjer 92 

Festivals - - 97, 98, 99 
Feudal Lords - - 204, 210 

Fez 136 

(3 Cantonments of) - 164 
(General Notes) 163-170 
(History) - - - - 141 
(from Larache) 158-162 
(Northern Kingdom of) 

115, 121, 133 
(Site) ... - 
(Water Supply) 

Fez (Bali) 

(City Gates) 
Fez (Jedid) — 

! Building of) 
Mosques) - 
Fife - - - . 
Filalee Sheriffs 



- - 133 
121, 122 

- - 169 

- - 72 

118, 137.145 
Fitzgerald (Sybil) - - 51 

Fleas 59 

Fleming (Capt.) - 213, 213* 

Flotte (de) 231 

Fondak 81, 84, 157, 170, 195 
Foods (Tinned) - - - 25 
Footah — vide Towel. 

Forage 10 

Forbidden Things- - - 94 
Foreign Rights- - 32, 40 
Forrest (A. S.) - - - - 228 
Fortresses(Mountain) 203-207 

Foughal 135* 

Fountains - - - 43, 83 

(Public) 157 

France 118 

French - - 141, 204, 206 
Friday Petition - - - 34 1 

Friday Service - - 92, 92* 
Friendly Feeling - - - 83 

Frigates 216 

Frontier(Rectificationof) 141 
Furniture (Horse) - - 25 


Gaillard (M. H.) - - - 231 
Gait (of Ladies) - - - 68 
Gaitah - - - - 72, 264J 

Galiote 216* 

Gambling 94 

Garden (A City) - - - 81 
Gardens — 

(Moorish) - - - - 22 
(Sultan's) — vide Agudal. 
Gates — vide the names as 

given in accounts of 

the various Cities. 
Geography - - - - 7-14 
Geometrical designs - - 52 

Genseric no 

Ghazwanee 103 

Gharb 184 

Ghomara 232 

Ghomat — vide Aghmat. 
Gibraltar- - - - 113*, 177 
Giffard (Capt. John) - - 137 

Gilis (Hills) 209 

Gimbri - - - 47, 71, 264 J 
"Giralda" Tower- 51, 129 
Glouwi - - - 203, 204 

Goliath 109* 

Goths I, no 

Government - - 32, 33 
Grahame — vide Cunning- 
Gramophones - - - - 73* 
Gratuity for Safety - - 43 



Great Atlas — vide Atlas. 

Gregory iii 

Grove, Lady A. G. - - 229 

Grub Street 222 

Guayangos 112* 

Guest Chamber - 76, 254 J 
Guilds - - - - 100.102 
Guish Tribes - 37*, 38, 139 


Hadjib {Chamberlain) - - 37 
Hadjrah Wakif — vide 

" Upright Stone." 

Hafsids 117 

Hairdressing - - - - 58* 
Hall (Moorish) 43, 44J, 164+ 
Hamadsha - - - loi, loi* 
Hammam — vide Baths. 
Hammudids- - - 117, 123* 

Hamtuz 67 

Handala 114 

Hanno - - - - log 109* 

Hanyna 122 

Harem Life- - - 23*, 107 

Hares 29 

Harisah - - - - 45, 45* 
Harka (Cavalry) - - - 38 
Harris (Leonard) - - - 228 
Harris (Walter B) 

(Author and Explorer) 

205, 227 
Haroun el Rashid - - 120 
Hashif (River) - - - - 181 
Hasanee Sheriffs 104*, 

118, 137 j 
Hassan Tower 51, 129, 187 

Hassoua 80 

Hauff (Author) - - -211 
Hawking 28 


Hazzaba 92* 

Hazzam 67 

Healing Art - - - - 19 
Hebrew Prophets - - 103 

Hedjaz 138 

Heraclius (Emperor) - iii 

Hercules log 

Hereditary Saintship 

33, 35, 102.106 
Hesperides (Gardens of) 183 
History (Key to) - 116, 117 
History - - - - 107-145 
Holy Cities — vide Sacred. 

Honey 150 

Hooker (Sir J.) - - - 230 

Horses 148 

Hospitality 75 

Host (Georg) - - 216, 230 

Hotels 5 

'• Cecil " (Tangier) - 177 
"Royal" (Mogador) i8i* 
Houdas (M.) - - - - 175 
Hounds - - - - 28, 29 
Houses (Private) 53, 76, 

166, 167 

Hudids 117 

"Humanities" - 33, 69 
Hut (Beehive) - - 18, 20^ 

Ibis 160, 160* 

Ibn Askar 105 

Ibn Khaldun 108, no, 120 
Ibn Khallikan - - - - 108 

Iblis 19 

Idreesi Dynasty - - - 116 
Idris I. - 107, 115, 118, 119 
IdrisII. - - 120,121, 164 



Ifli (River) - - - - - 205 

Ifrikiya ------ 135 

Imaum - - -33, 90, 92' 
Imperial Cities - - - 148 

Imports 176 

Incense Burner 49, 263 J, 268| 
Industrial Centres - - 147 
Instraments— vide Musical. 
Irrigation - - 12, 22, 161 
Isly (Battle of) - - - 141 
Ismail— wVfe Mulai I. 

Jeannot (Gustave) - 10*, 

II*, 231 
Jellab — vide Djellabah. 

Jesses 28 

Jeweller's work 55, 66, 265I 
Jews no, 154, 155, 190 
Johnson, R. L. N, - 74, 

75. 229 
Juby (Cape) - - - . 9 

^T ',^' \' ^^5. 46, 259t 
Juhan (Count) in, 112, 112* 
Justinian no 

Kabakab — vide Pattens. 
Kaftan - - - 61, 172, 256I 
Kahena - - - . 107, 113* 

Kaid -- 20 

Kaids 38, 39 

Kairouan m 

Kairouin (Mosque) - - 168 



Kaiseriyah 156 

Kamanjah - - - 47, 71 
Kannoufa (Mts.) - - - 162 

Karakab 72 

Kasbah 154 

Kasim 138 

Kataif - - - - 45^ 45* 
Keane (A. H.) - - 10, 230 
Keating 's Powder - - 26 
Kevdec— vide Ch6ny, 

Kerr (Dr.) 229 

Kharedjite - 114, 114*. 120 

Khotbah 92* 

Khouadra 22 

King Edward VII. - - 18 
King John (" Lackland ") 130 

Kitan ig6 

K'raees — vide Tunic. 

Ksah 63 

Koomeeyah — vide Dagger. 
Koos-Koos - - - 79, 258I 
Koran 70 

(Text) -...,- 50 
Kootoobuiya (Mosque 

Tower) - . . 23, 51 
Kootoobeeyah (Tower) 

129, 148!, 157 
Koraish (Clan) - - - 113 
Koran — 

(Dress Regulations) 

60, 61 

(General) - - - - 90 

(Texts) 20 

Kubba - - 105*, 162, 2og, 
Kubbas - - - - 172, 191 
Kubba (Shrine) 

(Frontispiece) 54 
Kudrah - - - - 46, 46* 
Kunafeh - - - - 46, 46* 
Kutubiya (Mosque 
Tower) — vide Kootoobeeyah 

A Potter at Work 

(see page 56) 



" La Carona " - - - - 143 

Lacout 124 

Ladies' Dress - - - - 65 
Lalla Mannanah - - - 184 
Land Cultivated - - - 17 
Language - - - 69, 69* 
Larache - - 159, 181.184 

(History) - - - - 140 
Lamtuma— t;i(i« Almoravides. 

La Valli^re 140 

Leared (Dr.) - - 191, 230 
Leather - - - - 55, 205 
Leather Work - 55, 156, 

173, 261J 
Le Clerc (R.) - - - - 231 

Leewan 44 

Legend (about England) 88 

Lennox, A. 228 

Leo Africanus 8, 158* 

175, 187, 188, 210*, 229 

Levanters 196 

Literature 74 

Litham 124 

vide Veil. 
Lord of Misrule - - - 170 
Los Cinco Gremios 

Majores 189 

Loti (Pierre) - - - - 66 
Lotas Tree (S'drar) - - 23 
Lotus (Tree) - - - - 17 

Louis XIV. 140 

Loukkos (River) - 159, 182 

Lustration 44 

Lute 72 


Macaulay (T. P.) - - - 213 
Mafficking 30 


Maghksen - - 36.38, 100 

(Tribes of) - ■• - - 37* 
Magic - - - - ig, 19* 
Mahaberbikum- - - - 43 
Mahkazni - - - 16, 23 
Mail Itinerary - - - - 176 

Makhazni 149 

Malik ibn Anas - - - 91* 
Mamora - - - - 215*, 219 

Maniacs 94 

Mansureeyah - - - - 62 

Maps 269 

Marble 43 

Market — 

^Tuesday) - - - - 17 
(Thursday) - - - - 17 
Marsh (Miss) — vide Crisp. 

Martil 196 

Marrakesh 16, 51, 81, 

135. 135*. 141. 143, 

145, 151, 203 
(Building of) - - - 125 
(Covered Streets) - - 156 
(From Mazagan) 148-152 
(From Mogador) 16-24 
(Gates) 154 

i General Notes) 152-158 
Kaiseriyah) - - - 156 
Patron Saints) - - 158* 
Unique Colouring) - 153 
Water Supply) - - 156 

Maolood 97 

Matchlocks 55 

Mattresses 44 

Matthew Paris - - - 130 
Maun (Oscar) - - - - 93 
Mauretanian Quadrila- 
teral - - - - 8, no 
Mazagan - 149, 189, 190 
M'dammah — vide Belt. 
Mecca 89, 115 


Meakin (Badgett)— vide 

Medicine 19* 

Medina 115 

Medinah 154 

Medmada (Ns.) - - - 161 
Megalithic Circle - - - 197 
Mekkas (River) - - - 162 

Meks (Tax) 141 

Mellah ... - 154, 193 

Melon 79 

Merchant's Dress 64, 256J 
Mesoudeeyah - - - - 22 
Mequinez 119, 135, 139, 

162, 162*, 171-175 
Mequinez — 

(General Notes) 171-175 
(Kasbah) - - - - 173 
(Patron Saint) - - 174 
Middle Atlas — vide Atlas. 

Mijdul 62 

MilitaryOrganization 88,139 
Minaret - - - - 88, 52 J 
Missionaries - - - - 93 
Mogador 16, 17, 55, 192-194 
(Attractions) - - - 194 
(History) - - 141, 193* 

Moghreb 92 

Mohallat - - - 41, 150 
Mohammedanism — vide 

Mohammed — 

(ibn Tumart) 126 

126*. 130* 
(El Kaim) - - - - 135 
Mohammed bin Abdallah 141 
Mohammed ben Ahmed — 
(Historian) - - - - 175 

Mohtasseb 56 

Mokaddem 102 

Mole (English)- - - - 177 


Monastir 9 

Montbard (G.) - - - - 228 

Months 96 

Moorish Character - - 5 
Moroccan " Humanities" 

33. 69 

Morocco 8,10 

fArea) 9 

(Kingdom of) - - - 133 
(Special Features) 11-15 
Moriscos (Expulsion 

from Spain) - - - - 213 

Morris Dances - - - 30 

Mosaic Work - - - - 43 

Mosque - - - - 50, 88 

(Construction of) 50 

53. 53* 187 
Mosque Towers - - - 72 

Mouedhims 92* 

Mouette (Sr.) - - 220, 222 
Moulai El Hasan - - - 138 
Mouli^ras (A.) - - 231, 232 
Mountains - - - 8, 9, 10 
Mountain Scenery - - 203 
Moussa (Djebel) - - - 11 
M'toogi (Kaid) - 208* 210 

Mo'awiya 115 

Mueddhin 52 

Muhammed bin Abd- 

Allah 191 

Mulai — see names with- 
out the insertion of 
this title. 
Mulai Abd-er-Rahman - 188 
Mulai Abdallah - - - 173 
Mulai El Hasan - - - 144 
Mulai Eshsherif - - - 138 
Mulai Hafid 118, 139, 145 
Mulai Idris (Mosque) - 168 
Mulai Ishmail's Stables 172 
Mulai Mahdi - - - - 138 



Mulai Ishmail 138, 140, 
140*, 141, 141* 

174, 218, 219 
Mulai Mahommed - - 138 
Mules . - - - 15, 148 
Musa-ibn-Nazair 11 1, 

112, 113 
Music- - - - 71, 73, 264I 
Musical Instruments 71, 264I 

Myrtle 17 

Mystics 103 


Nadir 93 

Naiba Tribes - 37*, 38, 139 
Napoleon III. (Paris 

Exhibition - - - - 144 

Nazrids 117 

Necromancy — vide 

Negress Slaves 44, 46, 

84^, 86 

Nelson 196 

Neptune 109 

News Letter - - . - 222 
'N'Glouwi (The) - - - 210 
Nicotine (My Lady) — 

vide Tobacco. 
Nomadic — vide Tribes. 
Nun fCape) - . . . g 
N'zalla (General) - - - 26 

(For special N'zailas see under 
separate names.) 

Oases - - - - 
Object of Book 
Obligatory Rite 






Official Papers - - - - 16 

Okba Ill 

Olive (Trees) - - 17, 23 

Omar 115 

Omayyad Kaleefahs 

114, 115, 116 
Orange Grove - - - - 183 
Order of Holy Trinity - 220 
Organization — 

^Army) - - - 38, 139 
(Government) - - - 33 
(Palace) - - 34, 36, 37 

Othello 2 

Othman 115 

Ottoman Suzerainty 34, 116 
Oudaia (Tribe of) - 37*, 140 

Oudaia 162 

Oujda - - 141, 206, 207 

Oulamah 171 

Oulema 35 

Oumana 38 

Oum er Rebbia (River) - 133 
Oxen i6o 

Packs (Mule) - - - ,- 15 

Panniers 15 

Palace Organization - - 34 
Palm Groves - - - - 24 

Papal Bulls 220 

•* Paracelsus " (Browning) 103 

Paradise 90 

Paris Exhibition - - - 144 

Partridges 29 

Passes . - - - II, 12* 

Pastimes 27 

Pastures 10 

Patron Saints - - - - 158 



Pattens (wooden) - - - 174 
Paymaster (of Sultan) - 178 
Pellow (Thos.) - - - 222 
People (and Their Ways) 32 
Pepys (SamueH - - - 219 
Perfume Sprinkler - - 49 
■jrepiirXovs — vide Hanno. 
Phelps (Thos.) - 172, 218 
Phoenician (Old City) - 183 
Pidoe (de St. Olon) - - 217 
" Pierre Loti " - 66, 231 

Pig 29 

Pigeons 152 

Pilgrimage 8g 

Pipe 79. 253t 

Piracy 141 

(Close of) - - - - 225 
Literature) - - 222-226 
(Moorish) - -213-226 
^Origin of) - - - - 214 
(Vessels used in) 
2121,215,216,216*, 217 
Pirates (Descendants of) 185 

Poems 70 

Poetry 74 

Polehood 103 

Poole (S. Lane) - 96, 230 
Ports Closed - - - - 194 
Portuguese - 135, 190, 191 
Postal Addresses - - - 166 
Pottery 56, 56, 192, 

263 t, 268 I 
Powder Play - - - - 27 
Praetorian Guard - - - 141 
Prayer — 

(Call to) - - 52, 52 1, 91 
(Ceremonial) - - - 91 
(Forms of) - - 91, 92* 
(Hours of) - - 91, 92 
(Postures of) - 92, 255 J! 
Prickly Pear - - - - 150 | 


Priestly Domination - - 90 

Processions 30 

Prophet (The) - - - - 42 

Prophet 45 

"Protection" - - - - 40 

Provender 25 

Provisions 16 

Punic — vide Carthaginians. 


Quadrilateral — vide 

Rabat 51, 51*, 184, 

186, 187, 189 

(Attractions) - - - 186 

(Carpets) - 25, 56, 187 

(Foundations of) - - 129 

(Hassan Tower) 129, 187 

(Patron Saint) - - 186 

(Suburb of Saffi) - - 192 

Rain - - - - 10, n, 12 

Rainfall 13 

Raj (British) - - - - 89 

Ramadan - - - 97, 98 
Raoud-el-Kartas 108, 

120, 132, 163 
Rashid (The Great 

Tafilatta) 138 

Reciter - - - 59, 70, 71 

Recruiting - - - 39, 70* 

Redat (Riverj - - 161, 203 
Redemption (of Captives) 

220, 221 



Redemptionist Fathers 

193*, 220, 221 
Religion - - - - 90-95 

Rent 93 

Revenue of Zouiya - - 200 

Riff(Mts.) 72 

Rifis 140 

Rights (Foreign) - - - 40 
Rivers (List of) - - - 12 
R'mara — vide Ghomara. 

Roads 147 

Roderic - - - - 112, 112' 

Romans 109 

Ropes 15 

Rond-el-Kartas— vide 

Roumi - - - - ig, 161 
Routine (Daily) - - - 83 
Rovers (of Sallee) 185 

214, 215, 223 
Royal Hotel (Mogador) 

181*, 194 
Royal Mails. P. Co. (The) 

176, 179' 
Rosary 94 

Sacred Birds - - 211, 211* 
Sacred Cities - - 197-203 

Saddle 24 

Sadr 44 

Safa 68^ 

Saffi - - - 190, 191. 192 

Sahara 8, 9 

Sahara (Borders of) - - 12 
Saintship (Hereditary) — 
vide Hereditary. 


Saints — 

(Patron) 158 

(Tutelary) - - - - 85 
Saint Worship - - - 94 
Saladin - - - - 23, 117 
Sallee - - 108, 184. 185 

Sand Dunes 16 

Savory, Miss I. - - - 229 
Scale (Pentatonic) - - 72 
S'drar — vide Lotus. 
Seasons for Travel. 
Sebou (River) - - 11, 161 
Segonsac(Marquis de) 11,231 
Servant Problem - - - 85 
Serwal — vide Drawers. 

Servants 16 

Shafiac 91* 

Shammish 183 

Shawia 189 

Sheep - 10, 77, 150. 150* 
Sheep Feast — vide Aid 

el K'bir. 
Shellah - - - - 51*, 187 
Shemmakha (Nz.)- - - 161 
Sheraga (Tribe of) - - 37* 
Sherarda (Tribe of) - - 37* 

(Nz.) 162 

Sherghaia (River)- - - 207 
Sheriff - . - - 43, 45 
(Costume of) - - - 60 
Sheriffs (Dynastic) — vide 

Hasani, &c. 

(Wazzan) - - - - 201 
(Tamshlohat) - - - 102 
Also see Hasani and Filali. 

Sheshowah 21 

Shirt 61, 256* 

Shooting 27 

Shopkeepers - - - - 155 
Shopping - - - 33, 57 



Shops 58 

Shorfa - loo 

Shwari — vide Panniers. 

Si Ahmad 144 

Sicily 9 

(Counts of) 117 127, 127' 

Sidi Abbas 85 

Sidi Bel Abbas - - - 158" 
Sidi Bou Abbou (Mt.) - 11 
Sidi Liaburi - - . - 186 
Sidi Mukhtar - - - - 20 

Sidi Wastel igi 

Sierra Leone - - - . 109 
Sierra Nevada - - - - 10 
Sigilmassa - 137, 137*, 138 

Sijilmessa 205 

Singing Girls - - . - 47 
Sister Towers - - - - 51 

Slave Boys 78 

Slave Market - . 84.87 

Slavery 87 

Slaves — 

(Tale of) 84 

(Dress of) - - 44, 86 
Slippers - - - 63, 66. 260 J 
Smoking — vide Tobacco. 

Snaffle 25 

SnakeCharmer 178,179, 180J 
Sok - - - - 84, 150, 178 
Soldier Servant — vide 


Song 48 

Song and Dance - - - 23 
Soulham - - 62, 172, 257I 

Soup 80 

South Atlas— vide Atlas 


Southey 112* 

Spain 10,112,116,123*, 

,^ . . ^33, 133* 

(Treaties) - - 143, 195 


Spanish War - - - - 143 
Spartel (Cape) - - - - 181 
Spence Watson — vide Watson. 
Spiced Dishes - - 45, 46 
Spice Merchants - 156, 173 

Sports 27 

Steamer (Royal Mail) - 182 
Stirrups (Moorish) - - 26 
Storks - - . . 211, 211* 
Story Teller - 59, 70, 71 
" Stranger (The) " - - 122 
Streets (Vine Clad) - - 156 

Students 170 

(Peripatetic) - - - 232 
Stutfield (Hugh) - - - 229 
Succession to Throne - 34 

Suleiman 141 

Sumpsa 41 

Sumptuary Laws - - - 60 

Sundial i6g 

Superstitions - 94, 95, 95* 
Supplies (lor Travel) - 26 
Sus - - - 138, 141, 144 
Suzerainty (Turkish) - 34 

Swords 56 

Sybil Fitzgerald - - - 51 
Systems (of Religion) - 91* 

Tabbia 82, 152, 152*, 219* 
Table Manners 45, 46*, 

78, 79 
Tabou 'Asamt - - - - 138 

Tadla 189 

Tablet— vide Tafilalt. 

(Etymology) - - - 137 
(Oases of) 12*, 205, 206 



Tafsdast i8 

Tagharat (Mt.) - - - ii 

Tahadart i8i 

Talib - - - - . 103, 232 
Tambourines - - - - 47 

Tambourine 72 

Tamjurt (Mt.) - - - - 11 
Tamshlohat 102, 104, 

105, 105*, 207 
Tangier - - - 3, 177-180 

References) iii, 114 
(History of) - 139, 140 

Tanneries 55 

Tarboosh 171 

Tarik-ibn-Ziad 11 1, 112, 113 

Tarudant iii 

Tasbech — vide Rosary. 
Taxes — 

(Achours) - - - - 141 

(Meks) 141 

(Zekats) 141 

Tax Gatherer 36I, 104, 

105, 162 

Tea 78 

Tedla 124 

Temperature — 

^Inland) - - - 13, 16 

(On Coast) - - - 4, 13 

Tensift (River) - 152, 157 

Terraces 9 

Tetuan - 195, 106, 214, 232 
•' The Peg " - - - . igy 
Thompson (J.) - - - - 230 
Tiles - - 43, 57, 167, 167* 

Tile Work 52 

Timbuctoo - - - 85, 136 
Tinned Foods - - - - 16 

Tips 26 

Tissot 187 

Tobacco 79, 79*. 136, 233 J 


Tmjography - 15, 147.211 
"Tourists" - - 177, 181 
Towels - - - - 45, 196 

Trade 176, 189 

Travel — 

(Conditions of) 16, 24 
(Hints for) - 15, 16, 149 
(Seasons for) - - - 14 
Transport - - - 15, 147 
Treaties - - 40, 41*, 144 
fAlgeceiras) - - - 144* 
(Spanish) - - - - 143 

Tremulae 160 

Trees 17 

^Demolition of) - - 160* 
(Lack of) - - - - 12 
Tribes (Nomadic) - - 10 

Tripoli 118 

Trousers - - - 60, 61 
Tshameer — vide Shirt. 
Tuat (Oasis) . - - - 141 

Tudgha 120 

Tuesday Market — vide 

Tukkah 60 

Tunic 61, 256 J 

Tunis- - - - 8, 10, 118 
Tunisia (Area) - - - - g 
Turban - - - - 63, 257^ 
Turks 129, 135, 135*, 

135, 141 
Tutelary Saints - - - 85 
Twallet — vide Ropes. 

University 170 

'• Upright Stone" - - i6i 




Vandal Empire - - - no 

Vehicles 15 

Veil 66 

" Vein-Tapper " (The) - 123 

Vines 23 

Vine-clad Streets - - - 156 
Violin — vide Kamanjah. 

Visiting 18 

Volubilis - 118*, 120, 198* 


Wad — vide River. 

Wakf 93 

Walili- - - 118. 198. 199 
Warpaint (Feminine) - 68 
Washing 45,78,79,80*, 259I 

Watasids 117 


(Closet) 168 

(Laid on) - - - - 156 

(Melon) 79 

Seller) 3 

(Supply) - - 10, II 

(Wheel) 161 

Watson (Dr. S.) - - - 229 
Wazeers (List of) - - 36-37 
Wazzan 159, 160, 198, 

200, 201, 202 
Wazzan Sheriffs - - - 201 
Weir (T. H.) - - - - 228 
Wergha (River) - - - 161 
Winds - - - - II, 13 
Windus {Writer) - 173, 230 
Wine - - - - 47, 47*. 49 
Wolfram (Gustav) - - 231 


Women (Position of) 23, 

23*. 90 



Yahya IL 122 

Yahya IV. 123 

Yallah (Hurry) - - - - 20 
Year — vide Almanack. 
Yuauf (son of Tashefyn) 

124, 125 


Zekats (Tax) - - - - 141 
Zalagh (Mts.) - - - - 164 

Zaraktan 203 

Zarhoun (Mts.) - - - iig 
(Walili) - - - 198, 199 

Zayrids 117 

Zeinab - - 107, 123, 124 
Zerhoun(Mts.) — vide Zarhoun. 

Zidan - 137 

Zilis — vide Arzila. 

Zirbajah - - - 46, 46* 

Ziz (River) 206 

Zones 9 

Zouiyas (Revenue) 105*, 200 

Zowiya 94 

Zummarah — vide Bagpipe. 
Zyanids 117 


< &■ 7. Utttr Thntnts Street. London. 

In the Streets of Marrakesh. 

(see pages 152 to 158) 

fSWaps and Plates 
Illustrative of 
<t/Irts and Qrafts^ 
tApparel^ ^c. 





The Guest Chamber in a Moorish Country House 

My host brings a sheep as a present. It was killed and eaten for supper (sec page 77), 




1. Washing wim 
wafer, san3 or sfone. 

2. First posifion 



■ 3 Secon3 position 

■ 4.Tmrd posifion. 

5. A Hnjci 
peculiar k 



(see pages 60 to 68) 

(N.}r — Figs. I, a, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 illustrate successive stages in the production of the effect of 9.) 
Fig. I.— Tshameer (shirt). Fig. 2.— K'mees (tunic). Figs. 3 and 4.— Kaftan. 

(For continuation of this costume see 6, 7. 8 and 9, over page). 
Fie. 5.— Illustrates a ditlerent dress, that of a merchant (see oaee 64). 


Figs. 6 and 7.— Kaftan, with turban and bag. Fig 8.— Mansureeyah. 

Fig. 10. — Shows a common Moor in a Djellabah— the dress of tlie " People." (see page 64.) 

A. — Koos-Koos. 

K.— Eartlienware dish. 

C. — Fowl cut up and stewed with spices. 

D.— Sliced onions and other vegetables. 

K.— Wooden nlatter on which the disihe^i at 

pri hv fhp iilaitpH straw rnvpr Ivl •ihnwn ahov 

Brass Water Jug and Basin. 

Tlie water is poure<l over the hands, and soap is placed in the receptacle in the middle of the basin 

Slippers and Silk Work from South Morocco, 

-A pair of lady's pink slippers, embroidered with gold tlirea<l and coloured silks. 

-A pair of girl's slippers, red with blue inseition, and gold thread work. 

-A pliin pair of (yellow) boy's slippers. 

-A long piece of white cloth embroidered with yellow silk (worked in an Harem). 

Marrakesh Leather Work. 

I and 2.— Leather bags, embroidered with silk. 
3.— Leather cushion— the pattern excised by hand. 

Modern Moorish Coins. 

A.— S'baueeya S'ree-ira— ,'4 Peseta— i/aoth Dollar. B.— S'baueeya Kbee-ira— J Peseta— i/ioth Dollar 

•C.— Erbaa Eryal— J Dollar. D.— Nas Eryal— J Dollar. 

I. — A brass tray. 2. — A pair of porcelain dishes. 

3. — An earthenware incense burner. 4. — Earthenware candlestick. 

5, 6, 7, 8.— Saffi pottery. 9. — A Moorish kettle (iron). 

10. — A water pot (for cooling water). 

II.— A pair of Moorish stirrups. 12.— A shell bag from the " Sus.' 

Musical Instruments, 

{see pages 71 to 73.) 

I— R'bab. a two-stringed fiddle played with a bow. 
2.— Gliaitab, a flageolet. 3. — A one-stringed Ginibri. 
4-— Lute. 5.— Two-stringed Ginibri. 6. — Zummurah 

A Country Girl wearing Brooches like that enlarged. 

The material is silver, and the size is about twice that of the bottom plate 



Saffi Pottery, and Fez Metal Work. 

1 and 2.— A pair of vases, blue and white. 

3-— A water bottle, blue and white 

4.— Lamp. 5.— Incense burner. 6.— Water bowl (for drinking). 

DT Ward, H J B 

310 Mysterious Morocco