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EAST AND WEST
DOROTHEA CHAPLIN, F. s. A., SCOT.
Copyright 1938 by
Mrs. Dorothea Chaplin,
All rights reserved.
Printed in Denmark,
H. P. Hansens Bogtr., Kbhvn.
The Boar in Britain 9
The Serpent and other Tribes 24
The Symbol of the Deer ... 45
Indivisibility and Relativity 56
Symbols and Customs 68
Glimpses of Prehistoric Times 101
Connecting Links 112
Picts and their Antecedents 128
Serpents in Margate Grotto 31,32
Serpent design at Nigg 33
Serpent Viking Ship 38
Stave church at Borgund 42
Rock Drawing on Traprain Law 46
St. George, Rothenburg 64
Gundestrup Bowl 82
Rock Drawing on Traprain Law 131
The Tomachar Stone 137
THE BOAR IN BRITAIN.
The Boar symbol, which appears in various places in the
British Isles, seems to be closely related to St. Andrew, as a
pre-Christian figure. In the coat-of-arms of St. Andrew's, Fife,
the Patron Saint of Scotland appears with a Saltire, or Cross
of St. Andrew in the background, but there is no sign of
crucifixion. Below the Cross are a Tree and a Boar, neither of
them Christian emblems, but both of them Aryan symbols. The
Saltire of the Picts was in existence long before the days of
Christianity, as were all forms of the Cross; and many ancient
symbols found their way into crests and coats-of-arms at a very
much later period.
Boars make their appearance carved upon rock and stone,
and as hog-backed tombstones, in different parts of Britain,
although they are not very numerous. Examples are the pillar-
stone, near Inverness, called the Knock-na-Gael Stone, on
which there is a Boar, the carving on the rock-fortress at
Dunadd, in Argyll, where the first Scottish king was crowned,
and a Boar in Haddington; hog-backed tombstones on the
Abercorn estate, near Edinburgh; on the Isle of Inchcolm in
the Firth of Forth, and in the churchyard of St. Andrew's,
On the oldest inner wall of St. David's Cathedral, in South
Wales, near the Shrine of St. Andrew, the first Patron Saint
of St. David's, there is a carving of a Boar, and it is probably
connected, mythologically, with this saint.
Tracing the whereabouts of the symbolic Boar in Britain,
we find the Croft of Muickan, or Pig's Place, near Glengairn,
in the Braes o' Mar, Aberdeenshire. This Pig, or Boar must
have been a sacred animal; a Boar legend is claimed both by
Glen Muick and Glen Cluny; but, as the Gaelic word Muc
means Boar it seems more probable that the legend originated
in Glen Muick. The Muick is a small tributary of the Dee, and
mountain peaks in the neighbourhood bear the same name.
According to legend, a child was stolen by a wild boar,
which became its foster-mother. When the child was eventually
restored to its parents it received the name of Andrew, in
consequence of this episode, and the MacAndrews in the neigh-
bourhood claim descent from the Boar fosterling. It was an
Aryan*) custom to derive the ancestry of a clan, or tribe
from some deifical being, sometimes an animal.
In Glengairn, or Glengardyne as it used to be called, there
is a St. Ca's Well, but the origin of this saint is lost in the
mists of antiquity. There is an Indian deity of the name of
Ca, or Ka; and Ka is the first letter of the old Brahmi alpha-
bet. Ka is Brahma, the Creator, first person of the Hindu
trinity. He sometimes appears as Daksha who is the father of
Muni, whose name is identical with the old name for St.
The parish church at Anderby, in Lincolnshire, is very
old, and is probably on a site which is still more ancient, the
name of the place (the Borough of Ander, or Andrew) being
St. Andrew's, Holborn, is so old that the origin of its
foundation is unknown, and St. Andrew Undershaft, Cornhill,
suggests the Fertility Cult with which St. Andrew is connected.
Andersfield, in Somerset, is possibly reminiscent of pre-
Christian times when certain fields were set apart for conse-
cration. St. Andreas, a parish and village on the Isle of Man,
*) Not used racially; the Eastern peoples class firstly by religion, and
afterwards by race ; why should there have been an exception in
the case of the Aryans?
possesses a modern church, but which is dedicated to St. An-
drew. The dedication, the name of the place and two Runic
crosses in the churchyard testify to the antiquity of the site.
There are also several tumuli in the neighbourhood.
Pevensey Castle, in Sussex, stands on the site of Andriada,
or Anderida, a Roman-British fortress; and the name suggests
Andrew, or Ander.
In the old Cornish language the word boar was bora,
and so it may have been farther North and West. The Severn
Bore is said to have been the Severn Boar. Boreham, in Essex,
may derive its name from the word bora as the church is
dedicated to St. Andrew,*) also Bor stall, in the hundred of
Ashenden, Bucks, where there is a Boar legend.
The following names may also be connected with this
sacred animal, the surnames Burton, Burford and Bur-
wood, or the Town of the Boar, the Ford of the Boar and
the Wood of the Boar; and the place-names Burton-Pedwar-
dine in the wapentake of Ashwardhurn, Lincolnshire, and Bur-
ton-upon-Stather in the wapentake of Manley, in the same
county, in both of which St. Andrew is the Patron Saint.
Burton-in-Kendal, in the Lonsdale Ward, Westmoreland, was
originally called Borton, demonstrating a philological transi-
tion from O to U. It is said to be a contraction of
Borough-town but what is there to support this conjecture?
When compared to the other places with similar names it
seems much more likely to have been Boartown. The river
Ken separates Westmoreland from Lancashire, and, presum-
ably, gave its name to the town of Kendal. It is worth no-
ticing that there is a river Ken in India, near Allahabad.
Borley, a township in the parish of Ombersley, Worcester-
shire; Borley, in the union of Sudbury, Essex (the name said
to mean Boar's Pasture ) ; and Berwick, a chapelry in the
hundred of Londsdale, may follow in the same track of mytho-
logical names, with Boscombe (St. Andrew), near Amesbury,
*) The names of some of the churches mentioned are from Bell's Gaze-
teer of England and Wales, published in 1837.
Wilts, and Boscombe (St. Andrew), Hants, both of which
may have been the Combe of the Boar. Burton-Overy (St.
Andrew) in the hundred of Gartree, Leicestershire, with the
others mentioned, may be associated with the Boar, and, pos-
sibly, more besides.
There is Barrow Hill in Derbyshire, which may have re-
ceived its name from barrows, or perhaps from the Boar, as
St. Andrew is the Patron Saint of the church. Bordesley, War-
wickshire, has the same dedication; Burlingham (St. Andrew)
(1287), Norfolk, and Burnham, Somerset (St. Andrew)
(1309) may come from the same source. There are also the
following names of united parishes to be considered.
The village of Burwell, in the hundred of Staplehoe, in
the county of Cambridge, contains the united parishes of St.
Andrew and St. Mary, the latter probably succeeding Brigit
as the Patron Saint. The name of the place suggests the Well
of the Boar. Burstock, in the Bridport division of the county
of Dorset, has a chapel dedicated to St. Andrew, and the name
Burstock may also be derived from the Boar. Bridport, on
the river Brit, is obviously named after Brite or Bride, and
another example of the association of St. Andrew with St.
Bride may be noticed in South Wales where the Bay of St.
Bride is close to the Shrine of St. Andrew and the Boar carving
in St. David's Cathedral.
The Sanskrit name for the Boar is Baraha, or Varaha,
and it looks as if certain surnames and geographical names
had been derived, some of them from one form of spelling,
and some from the other; those already reviewed, from Bar aha y
and the following, from Varaha.
The church of Bere Ferris, or Ferrers, in Devonshire, is
dedicated to St. Andrew, and the parish takes its name from
the Ferrers family, whose name in old records, is sometimes
spelt Farer and Ferrar; and, probably, the surname Far-
rar is of the same origin. The ancestry of this family must
be exceptionally remote as more than one pre-Christian symbol
is associated with it. The family is described in Lode's Peer-
age as the ancient Barony of Ferrers of Chartley. The
famous breed of Chartley cattle was their property, and, in
common with a few other herds now almost extinct, is the old-
est in Britain.
There are Deer supporters to the Ferrers coat-of-arms, and
the Deer, representing Narayana, is another pre-Christian
symbol. The Horse-shoe, also of Aryan origin, as an emblem,
is connected with this family, according to the author of The
Ingoldsby Legends. A silver Horseshoe was due from every
scion of royalty who rode across one of the manors of the Lords
A situation were two rivers meet was considered of great
allegorical importance in prehistoric times, and this occurs at
Bere Ferris, where the Tavey and Tamar join at its southern-
most angle. Other names which may have originated from
Varaha are F erring (St. Andrew) in the rape of Arundel,
Sussex, Fersjield (St. Andrew) Norfolk, and Firsby (St. An-
drew) in the wapentake of Candleshoe, Lincolnshire.
We might now take Andrew, the White Island, the Boar
and Brigit in regard to their allegorical origin. We have plenty
of evidence that Andrew was formerly Ander, as in An-
dersfield and Anderton. In a small book in the church of
St. Andrew Undershaft one may notice that the name was
sometimes spelt Adr. It may have come originally from that
of the Indian sage Narada, son of Muni, and have passed
from Narada to Adr, Ander and Andrew. At St.
David's we find Muni, the Boar and Andrew (Narada?).
There is a similar possibility of contraction in the name of
Narayana, Hindu King of Shells, with A' an, Keltic King of
Shells; i.e., from the Sanskrit Narada to the Keltic Adr;
Narayana to A'an; and other names such as Trivandrum to
Tyndrum in Scotland, and pronounced with the Y long;
Vibhandaka, an Indian Hunter, to Finn, the name of the
Great Hunter of the Gael, with Rishyasringa, the name of the
son of Vibhandaka, who was born of a Hind, to that of
*) See The Spectre of Tappington.
Ossian, the name of the son of Finn, whose mother was a
Long before the time of the Roman invasions into Britain
this island was known to the Cymric people as Y Wen Ynys,
or the White Island. It was called Alba, or Alban, a name
betokening Whiteness of colour.
Narada is associated with a White Island, in the Mahab-
harata, the second great Sanskrit epic. This White Island was
visualized by Narada from Mt. Meru, in Central Asia. This
holy mountain is in the Altai range, formerly called the Sumeru
range. From thence issued forth the tenets of the Aryan, or
Sumerian faith; and in later days the Hindu religion, the old-
est extant at the present time, succeeded the Aryan religion.
Narada, when visiting the old sage, Narayana, on the
top of this mountain, had a vision induced through high
Toga puissance in which he saw the White Island which he
afterwards visited in company with other sages. It lay to the
North-west and was thousands of miles away. According to
Hindu allegory, this is the direction in which Narayana, or
Vishnu, manifested himself in the Boar incarnation.
In India the Boar is looked upon as a symbol of Fertility
because, following Nature, he was the first agriculturist. Long
before Man's appearance on this planet the Boar used his
snout and tusk to plough and furrow the land in search of
roots, and, incidentally, prepared it for the sowing of Seeds.
Thus, the Boar became the emblem of the Fertility Cult. The
Seeds, the Sower and the ground in which the Seeds are sown
are viewed from both a mental and a physical standpoint.
The Fertility Cult includes the preparation of the Mind as
well as the material ground, and the mental soil must also
be fertile if Seeds of Thought are to produce good results,
otherwise the Seeds will be wasted.
For the information of those who are not familiar with
Hindu mythology it is necessary to explain that, in his first
incarnation, Vishnu appeared as a Fish because Water was
*) Santi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata.
here before Land. Vishnu made his second appearance as a
Tortoise, or Turtle because this animal lives partly in the
Water, and partly on Land. In his third incarnation Vishnu
became a Boar, an animal which lives entirely on Land. There
were more incarnations, but not those which concern the
As regards the White Island (Sveta Dwipa) Narada seems
to have been a delegate of Narayana. After he had been vouch-
safed a view of the island he went there at the behest of
Brigit, or Brite was revered throughout the British Isles,
and beyond them long before she became a Christian saint;
she was a representation of the great Aryan Mother as shown
by her name. Brite is a form of Bhrati, or Bharati, and coincides
in many respects with Sarasvati, of whom Bharati is a form.
Bharati is mentioned in the Vedas.
The festal day of Brigit in the Christian Calendar is the
first of February, and the Indian Bharati is also worshipped
at this time, in accordance with the movements of the Moon.
Sarasvati is one of the two wives of Vishnu, and represents
the Mind of the Mother Goddess.
Guinevere, wife of King Arthur, is the White Apparition;
she and St. Bee, or Bega seem to be the same character in
rather different forms, and both of them to be Sarasvati in
the ulterior background. St. Bee, Be Find or Bo Find was the
White Cow in pre-Christian Britain, and the White Cow is
St. Andrew was known as Merrie Andrew in the Middle
Ages; he was associated with the Maypole dances outside the
Church of St. Andrew Undershaft, and the Undershaft was
the Maypole. Narada, also, has characteristics displaying Merri-
ment, and is fond of playing practical jokes, although a great
The name of Muni may possibly be traced in the place-
name Munslow in Shropshire. It is also the name of a
hundred of this country. The parish of Munslow has a church
dedicated to St. Michael, who is also the Patron Saint of Mac-
clesfield, in Cheshire, (the Field of Michael).
In Sanskrit genealogy not only is Narada a son of Muni,
but also Makal. Mahakala, or Makal is a form of Yama, who
is god of Death, and also one of the Adit y as or component
parts of the Sun. The personal feast of Yama takes place in
the month Asvin (Sept: Oct:). It is held in honour of Kali,
or Mahakali, the female form of Mahakala, and the time of
year accords with Michaelmas, the Feast of St. Michael. Kali,
or Cali is the presiding deity of Calcutta, and represents Night;
her festival takes place at Midnight. It must be she who ap-
pears with a Black face, or in whose honour some of the Ferti-
lity celebrations in Europe are held, in which the men blacken
St. Michael is well to the fore in Brittany. A tumulus
bearing the name of St. Michel shows the pre-Christian origin
of this saint; the tumulus is a large one. Mt. Michel was
formerly called Tumba. The Welsh word for a sacred pillar
is Twmpath, and in Prakrit, the popular language of the
Hindus, at the time when Sanskrit was spoken, it was Thumba,
facts which may, or may not show a linguistic connection.
St. Michel of Brittany was formerly known as Mekel. Before
the construction of the main road between Carnac and Trinite-
sur-Mer the passage-way crossed the stream at the foot of the
tumulus. It was closed by a barrier of wood; and, according
to tradition, Paotr St. Mekel, himself, stood there during the
night, and mounted the backs of late-comers who were making
their way home in either direction. But, as a rule, Mekel was
not visible. Why should it be St. Michael who concerns him-
self with the delinquencies of late home-comers? Because he
is Time, the Reaper!
Makal, or Mahakala is Siva, third person of the Hindu
trinity, and the great Reaper who carries the Scythe of Time.
Mahakala is called the Master of Yama. He is Rudra, the
terrible Storm-god, and the Vedic form of Siva.
The usual sacred spring is to be found at the foot of the
tumulus, and it bears the name of St. Michael's Fountain. On
the top is a chapel which probably replaced a shrine dedicated
to the original Mekel, god of the Winds. He is still venerated
in the form of St. Michel by the fisher-folk; and the women
go to the chapel to pray for favourable winds when their hus-
bands and sons are at sea. When these women are dusting
the church they push the dust in the direction from which
they wish the winds to blow.
The fish-wives and their men-folk of Newhaven, Mussel-
burgh and Cockenzie, near Edinburgh, hold their annual
festival at Michaelmas; and, no doubt, their merry-making
was once in honour of Mahakala, or Kali, as with the fishers
Makal, as Yama, takes on a legal aspect in an allegorical
sense. Yama is Lord of Souls, and functions through Chitra
Gupta as Judge of the Dead. The representation of St. Michael
in this capacity may be seen in St. Martin's Church, Ruislip,
Middlesex, where this saint is represented in a wall-painting,
weighing a Soul; and, in Westminster Abbey, on the shrine
of Edward, the Confessor, St. Michael may also be seen weigh-
ing a Soul, while the Devil stands by, and places his foot on
the scales in order to cause them to balance unfavourably for
Apparently, Yama, or Saman was worshipped in Ireland
under the name of Samhain. The Feast of Saman is still
observed in Edinburgh at the time of All Hallows. The wor-
ship of the Manes evidently took place here in prehistoric
times in the same zodiacal month (Oct: Nov:) as the Feast
of the Manes in India, although, in Scotland, the origin of
the festival has long since been forgotten. The Writers to His
Majesty's Signet, or Scribes as they used to be called, seem
to be closely connected with Saman, and it is possible that the
festival is theirs in view of the fact that Saman is Mahakala,
an allegorical Judge!
The Writers of the legal profession in Edinburgh seem to
have been a caste in former days, as they wear a special dress
for royal and civic functions, and take their part as a distinct
body of citizens on these occasions. It is worthy of note that
the Kayashtha, or Scribe caste of Hindu India claim descent
from Yama, or Saman!
It seems possible that Muni, the mother of Makal and
Narada of the Aryans, became in Keltic realms the mother
of Mekel and Ander.
St. Michael was known as Micheil among the early Kelts,
and there were shrines in his honour on the West coast of
Scotland, in the Hebridean Isles and also in Alaska.
Mon is the Mother of Wales, and it does not seem un-
reasonable to assume that Mon is Muni, mother of the Deva-
Gandharva Narada, Leader of the Heavenly Musicians!
Mon, or Mona gave her name to the Isle of Anglesey off
the Welsh coast, and Mon is a prefix to many place-names
in the British Isles, nearly all of which are distinguished by
marks of great antiquity, and frequently of ecclesiastical
The Sanskrit word Muni also means sage, and Narada,
himself, is a Muni. From this may have arisen the English
monk. Additional letters often creep into words in this
country, and the K may have been acquired in this con-
nection as in the place-name Monkton, which is pronounced
Near St. David's is the Well of St. Non, the mother of
David, or Dewi Sant, and it may be that both Monk and
Nun issued from this seat of ecclesiastical learning.
The place-names with the prefix Mon may refer, either
to Muni, as the deifical personage of that name, or to sages.
Monymusk and Pittenweem were sub-priories under the Priory
of St. Andrew's, and here again we find the name Muni asso-
ciated with Ander, or Andrew.
Loch Monivaird, in Perthshire, covers about thirty acres;
and the parish of Monivaird contains the varied remains of
remote antiquity . Monifieth is near the Gar-hills, where
there are a number of cairns; and other examples of names
with this prefix are Monikie, in Angus (Forfar), and Moni-
mail, in Fife; also Monyash, in Derbyshire, where many relics
of prehistoric times are still in being.
Monaquillan, in Tipperary, and Monivea, in Galway, are
Irish examples. Monivea may be compared to Moniaive, in
Galloway, in the South-west corner of Scotland. There is also
the surname Galloway to compare with these.
Kilmun, in Argyll, seems allied to these in nomenclature,
and to have been a shrine to Muni.
That the White Island is Britain has already been suggested
in a book written some fifty years ago, by Colonel Wilford;
but so much having been discovered since then, the atmosphere
should be clearer now for investigations into this subject.
In the ancient literature of India, probably containing still
more ancient matter, facts are clothed hi mythological form,
as scholars have been realizing of late. It is possible that, in
this case, the writer is describing in language which appears
to us fantastic, a series of incidents which actually took place
although the characters mentioned may be allegorical, or
In the Mahdbharata an account of the White Island is
given to King Yudhishthira by Bhishma, as having happened
so long ago that it had been almost forgotten even in that
The Welsh bard Taliessin, writes thus of Britain:
A numerous race, fierce they were called,
First colonized thee, Britannia, Chief of Isles.
Here Brigit, Brite or Britannia seems to take the form of
the Mother Goddess, Durga, as she holds her Trident. As is
not at all an uncommon situation in mythological times, the
Island of Britain becomes a personality, none other than Brigit,
or Britannia! Taliessin definitely alludes to Britannia (Brite)
as an island; who can she be but the White Island? Brite, the
original form of Brigit in the British Isles, apparently, is iden-
tical with Bharati (Sarasvati), the White Goddess of the
King Arthur and Guinevere are said to have been married
at Camelford, in Cornwall, and there is also their close asso-
elation with Camelot to be taken into consideration. In the
earliest versions relating to Arthur, the Arthurian Chronicles,
and Layamon's Brut, these and other mythic characters na-
turally exhibit more of their origin than in the later ones.
The Campbells are The Seed of Diarmid of the Boar,
and the crest of the Marquess of Breadalbane, one of the
Campbell chiefs, consists of the Head of the symbolic Boar.
This animal was sacred in Argyll, part of the Campbell
country, and also in Lindisfarne, where it might not be men-
tioned on account of its sanctity.
Members of the Clan Campbell are Children of the Sun;
their name in Gaelic is Kammell, and it looks as if there might
be some legendary connection with Arthur and the localities
associated with him, but only in those areas where he partakes
more of the character of the Sun than of the Moon.
The river Camel in Cornwall was also called Cambula,
introducing a B, as in the case of the name Campbell,
also of Cambus Kenneth formerly Camus Kenneth and
possibly of Ombersley,*) the Lea of Uma (Gauri, or Durga,
second wife of Siva).
Cademuir, in the Lowlands of Scotland, near the Tweed,
is the site of a battle in which King Arthur is supposed to have
been engaged, and Cadbury Hill, in Somerset, may be com-
pared to it, philologically. This old British camp was formerly
known as Cadeberie, and on the top of it is King Arthur's
According to tradition, Merlin is buried under a Thorn-
tree where Tweed and Powsail meet ; and it was Merlin who
built the hall of Camelot for Arthur which is believed to have
been on Cadbury Hill, Somersetshire, from which the village
of Queen Camel is not far distant.
It is not unlikely that Arthur, sometimes called Ardar, is
Aditya (Vishnu), with two wives, Queen Camel (Lakshmi)
and Guinevere (Sarasvati).
Camelot is spelt Camalat and Kamalat by Leland
*) See p. 11.
and other writers; and on Elizabethan maps it appears as
Camalleck, showing that formerly it was sometimes spelt
with a K. Surely Queen Camel must be Kamala, who. is
Lakshmi, one of the two chief aspects of the Mother Goddess.
Lakshmi represents her Outward form, and Sarasvati, the In-
tellectual aspect. The Sanskrit name Kamala sometimes takes
the form of Kamalatmika, which may b^ compared to the
English forms, Kamalat and Camalleck.
Arthur's Knights of the Round Table may be the Twelve
Months of the Year, although their number varies. Vishnu
comprises the Twelve Adityas in his one allegorical person;
he does not make a thirteenth figure although, in addition to
forming the Whole, he is also one of the Twelve.
The Lotus is one of the symbols of Narayana (Vishnu);
and one may see it in Winchester Castle, and in a window of
the Bodleian Library at Oxford. The design in the centre,
supposed to be a Rose, is more like a Water-plant, and the
transverse lines in the middle of it suggest the mathematical
elaboration of the Indian conventional Lotus, or Chakra of
Sree, or Lakshmi. The Round Table, in this form, dates from
about the reign of Henry, the Eighth, and thus the Tudor
Rose probably supplanted the Lotus as an emblem.
It is worthy of note that, in the South-west of Scotland,
there is a sheet of water which is sometimes called Loch Ar-
thur, and sometimes, the Lotus Loch ! Here is Arthur with the
Lotus! There are many more mythological and linguistic links
between India, America and the British Isles, as I hope to
In regard to Indian matters I have had the assistance of
Mr. Akhilachandra Palit of Cooch Behar. This scholar of the
Kayashtha Sabha, or All-India Association for Men of the
Writer Caste, has put at my disposal the fruits of his own
extensive research and study in relation to the Aryan system
of culture and religion in the East, and its attendant mytho-
logy, as found in the original Sanskrit text.
The realm of Nature, as seen in this allegorical setting,
is the female aspect of Brahma, or Brahman, the One and
only God; she is Mahamaya, the Great Mother, who reveals
herself in many forms. All the lesser goddess forms are con-
tained in her, and she is the mother of the trinity (the Family) .
The trinity of the Hindus consists of Brahma, the Creator,
Vishnu and Siva. Brahma, the Creator, is distinguished from
the One, Supreme Being by an accent over the last letter of
his name. He, also, assumes the shape of the Boar. Bromfield,
Bromley and many other British place-names have originated
from this mythic character.
Vishnu, the second person, is the great being who resides
in the Sun; and Siva, the third person, is the Sky-god, or
Heaven Father. All the numerous deities of the Hindu pan-
theon are contained in one or other of these three. The trinity
is not the Godhead, although contained in It. Hinduism is
Monotheistic, under a plurality of forms.
Sanskrit literature provides the only key which fits the lock
and opens the door, at least partially, disclosing the meaning
of many of the Pictish symbols, such as the Bull, the Mirror
and the Disc of the Sun on Scottish rocks; it also helps to ex-
plain the actions of symbolic personages. The Sun's Disc ap-
pears with the Boar on the Knock-na-Gael Stone, and at
Dunadd, as in countless instances in British symbolism.
In common with other symbols, that of the Boar forms a
link between Keltic Aryans and Indian Aryans, by means of
an American bridge, which is supported by tradition from
both American Indians, and Indians of India.
St. Michael, in his form of Micheil, shows definite proof
of pre-Christian origin by the shrines which were dedicated
to him in the West of Scotland, and in Alaska. Little doubt
can exist but that the various Pictish symbols and mythic
figures were introduced into the British Isles by some of the
very early tribes professing the Aryan faith, and with the
Druids as their priests.
Bur ford Bridge (the Ford of the Boar), at the foot of Box
Hill in Surrey, is not far from the village of Mickleham where
the church is dedicated to St. Michael (Makal).
The connection of Micheil and Ander, or Michael and
Andrew, with the Boar is evident here, and still more so at
St. David's with its obvious Aryan beliefs.
The carving of the Boar (Bar aha) is seen near the Shrine
of St. Andrew (Narada}, in the town formerly known as Muni,
the name of the mother of Narada and Makal, near the Bay
of St. Bride (Bharati), and situated in the White Island
(Sveta Dwipa), in a North-westerly direction as seen by the
sage Narada from Mt. Meru. Narada, at the bidding of Na-
rayana, allegorically or otherwise, went to the White Island,
the region in which Narayana (Vishnu) manifested himself
as the Boar.
What other explanation can be given for this sequence
of events, as related in Sanskrit literature, and their reflection
THE SERPENT AND OTHER TRIBES.
The religious community of the Aryans, or Sumerians, with
their head-quarters on the holy Mt. Meru in the range of
mountains, formerly called Sumeru, now called Altai, seem
to have included many nationalities.
The religion which continues to-day in the form of Hin-
duism reverts to the Sanskrit Rig Veda as its most ancient
book, and which may be the oldest book in the world. Ortho-
dox Indian scholars in their own region, place the Vedas at a
much earlier date than do Europeans, but as the history of
the Hindu recedes into a past infinitely longer than ours, it is
not an easy matter to be precise with dates.
The contents of the Vedas, and of the epics probably con-
tain matter which is much older than the books themselves,
even if these are more ancient than the period assigned to
them by European scholars. The Atharva Veda is thought
to be older in its subject-matter than even the Rig Veda. It is
concerned with the details of ritual, much of which continues
among us at the present day; it gives elaborate descriptions of
the Chakra, for instance, a symbol which is found throughout
During the Bronze Age, and possibly earlier, the Hindus
from Northern India dominated a large portion of the globe,
and were politically powerful. In those days accounts of col-
onizations and happenings of all kinds were handed down by
word of mouth by people with scientifically trained and stu-
pendous memories, and when they appeared in Sanskrit litera-
ture, they were clothed in mythological garb.
The Chart at the end of the book gives a rough idea of
the world as they saw it. Followers of the Aryan religion, or
culture, spread far and wide. These beliefs pervaded America
in the form of Shamanism, and possibly in other forms as well.
The Aryan peoples have left traces of themselves in the
various legends and mythic characters in Keltic and other
regions; and although they may have altered considerably in
some cases, nevertheless, they seem to have retained many of
their pristine characteristics.
The people of the Sidh and the Gandharvas of India wor-
shipped Soma, or Can, the Moon-god, as their special deity.
Bali, or Vali is King of the Netherworld (Patala), and
appears to link together India and Great Britain by a route
across America, which stands roughly in relationship to India
as the Netherworld, or Antipodes. Britain is called the Island
of Bali, and Bali seems to be Balor, a Fomorian, or god of
Night. He is a grandson of Indu; and, in Hindustan, Indu is
a name for the Moon-god. Bali or Balor sometimes appears to
be a form of Kian, or Can, the Moon-god, although he is
generally regarded as a Sun-god. It may be that he eloped with
Ethne (Tara). If this be the mythological case in the British
Isles, it would coincide with the Indian tale, in the Matsya
Purana, in which Can, the Moon-god, elopes with Tara. The
Pillar of Bal-nath in the State of Rajputana, is dedicated, not
to Vishnu, the Sun, but to Siva, the Moon-god, and represents
the Siva linga.
Budh, the beautiful son of Can, or Soma, and Tara, is the
planet Mercury; and, in at least some respects, Lugh (with
the G pronounced) resembles Budh; Lugfr is the son of
Ethne and Kian of the Kelts.
By following the tracks from Asia to America, and from
thence to Britain by the pathway of tradition there is much
to be considered in regard to Indo-Keltic affinity.
Alexander von Humboldt expressed the opinion that there
may have been an empire in the North of America between
the latitudes 36 and 42 composed of people in an advanced
state of civilization, superior to that of the Mongols, or Tartars,
of Central Asia, and he thought that the founding of this em-
pire preceded the Mongolian invasion.*)
The invaders made their way with great difficulty**) across
the narrow strip of land which existed at that time between
the two continents, Asia and America. This land-passage is
now under the water of the Behring Straits, but to no great
depth even at the present time.
The first person to lead an expedition to the Netherworld
from Asia may have been Sagara, King of Ayodhya (Oudh),
an ancestor of Rama, of the Ramdyana. Sagara is recorded as
having dug the ocean, with his sixty thousand sons.
Many, possibly hundreds of years later, Ravana, King of
Lanka, set forth on a journey of military adventure, in which
he used aeroplanes!***)
Valmiki, author of the Ramayana, tells how Ravana visited
Patala, where he found Daityas and Serpents already estab-
lished in splendid cities which might well answer to some of
the buried cities of America.
The Daityas were of huge stature, and the Fomorians of
Britain correspond to them in this respect, and also as Water-
gods. The Daityas, in so far as they were human, must have
been closely associated with the Serpents in their peregrinations
into new territory. Ravana, to whichsoever set of people he be-
longed, was also very big.
When on these expeditions Ravana took with him, as one
of his generals, Prahasta; and this officer is mentioned later
on in connection with the great struggle against Rama, as
carrying a Serpent standard.
The Nagas, who included the Serpents, evidently played
a conspicuous part in ancient history.
The Rakshas, or Rakshasas, when outside the realm of
*) ^Narratives, vi., 323 324.
**) According to the Kich6 MS.; see Tylor's Early History of Man-
***) See Matter, Myth and Spirits.
mythology, may have been a lesser tribe contained within a
larger one. The Ramayana relates how the Rakshas, under
Ravana, found their way to Patala; and how when King Ra-
vana arrived in the city governed by Vasuki, or Sesha, he
brought the Serpents under subjections Sesha of India is a
king, or deity of the Serpents in the Netherworld, and there-
fore it looks as if Sesha (popularly Shesha) were the forerun-
ner of the numerous Shoshonee, or Snake tribes of North
Rasatala, one of the seven divisions of Patala, was the
abode of Serpents and Asuras, and was under the rule of
Bali, Sesha and other chief s. Bali, in allegorical or human
form, took up his residence in Patala. He seems to have gone
to the Antipodes (America) after it had been occupied for
many centuries by Aryans like himself; he then appears to have
gone from thence to Britain, the Island of Bali, Beli or Bel.
TheNagas, when recognized as Snake tribes,*) seem to have
inhabited North and South Dakota, Idaho, Ohio and Wyom-
ing, with the Snake, or Lewis River running through their
The Horned Serpent was the god of the Muskhogean
Confederacy in America, and of its descendants, the Choc-
taws, Cherokees and Creeks, etc. The Creeks had a Fire cere-
mony which they called by the name of Pushtika, a word com-
posed of two Sanskrit syllables!
There are many mounds in America shaped in the form
of a Serpent, especially in the State of Ohio, the name of
which may have emanated from the Sanskrit word A hi, a
A fort was discovered in Ohio which has an earthen enclo-
sure, terminating in two mounds, with a paved way between
Taking everything into consideration one does not seem
to be propounding a very nebulous theory if one suggests that
the Aztecs of Mexico derived their name from Astika of. India.
*) See the Encyclopaedia Britannica for the Snake Tribes in America.
Mr. Bhattacharya, the author of Indian Images, speaks of
a statue of Manasa holding a child in her lap, and suggests
that the child is Astika; Manasa is the same deity "as Nagamata,
mother of the Nagas; and Astika is the nephew of Vasuki,
King of the Naga tribes in the Netherworld. The words
Astika and Swastika have terminating syllables which
correspond precisely with the last syllable of Pushtika, the
name of the Fire ceremony of the American Indian Creeks.
It is recorded of Astika that he had great gravity and
intelligence, and was reared in the palace of the Snakes. This
leads one to a consideration as to whether Astika may not have
been a hero, or god of the Aztecs of America, and the origina-
tor of their name. There are more points stressing this possi-
Mr. Bhattacharya writes: She (Manasa) is flanked with a
canopy formed by seven hoods of cobras. 'Manasa' means
'mindborn'; it is also a name for the Cactus-plant. This plant
is useful in curing snake-bites, ad a certain kind, called Phani-
Manasa, has the appearance of a cluster of expanded hoods of
cobras, which may explain the origin of this goddess.
It is rather a strange coincidence, if coincidence it be, that
the coat-of-arms of Mexico should include an Eagle holding
a Serpent in its mouth; and that there should be a Cactus-
plant on these armorial bearings. It is on record in India that
the Eagle destroyed the Serpent!
When King Janamejaya was persecuting the Serpents in
Northern India, and their complete extermination was in view,
a Hindu sage called Astika, induced him to forego his activi-
ties against the Nagas. The name Aztec suggests a corrup-
tion of Astika, and, under these circumstances, it does not
seem improbable that the Snake Aztecs of Mexico derived
their name from the Serpent Astika of India.
The sect of Shamanism, the cult of Yama, or Saman, may
still be traced among the Siwash Indians of America. They
regard Mt. Takhoma, in the State of Washington, as sacred.
The name of this mountain is composed of two syllables, the
last is Sanskrit; but the first is of doubtful origin, possibly
Sanskrit. Tak is the first syllable of Takshasila, the stone fort
of the Naga chief, Takshaka, in Northern India. Homa is
found as the termination to another American geographical
name, that of Oklahoma. Homa is a sacrificial rite.
Soma is the drink offered to the Aryan gods. Takhoma
is said to mean the mountain-breast of Milkwhite Waters;
and, in India the divine beverage Soma is described as the
juice of a milky climbing plant. This mountain is now known
as Mt. Tacoma, or Mt. Rainier.
Brigit, a Serpent deity, worshipped at Candlemas, the
festive season of Soma, or Chandra, the Moon-god, is as-
sociated with the Dandelion, containing a milky substance.
In addition to these signs of Sanskrit nomenclature in
America there is the name of the Narada Waterfall on the
holy mountain of Takhoma. The sage Narada of India, it will
be remembered, was a Gandharva, and Soma was the special
deity of the Gandharvas!*)
The British dominion of Canada bears a Sanskrit name,
and is known in Germany as Kanada. A sage in India of the
name of Kanada founded a School of Philosophy in which
he set forth the atomic theory.
Yama, or Saman is depicted in gruesome shape, as an
Alaskan god, in a model which may be seen in the State Mu-
seum of Berlin; and we may recall that there were shrines to
Micheil in Alaska, and that Micheil is manifestly Mahakala
Kubera, or Kuvera, the Hindu god of Riches, is Chief of
the Yakshas, who milked the earth, and apparently crossed
the seas in order to facilitate the operation. Their particular
deity was also Soma, the Moon-god.*) The territory of Kuvera
is in the North (of America?). Kuvera was turned out of
Lanka by his half-brother, Ravana, who took possession of it;
and Kuvera seems to have sought refuge elsewhere, and trea-
sure in other lands. Alaka, the capital of Kuvera, suggests the
*) See Indian Images.
name of the gold-seekers country of Alaska on the North-west
coast of North America, where the cult of Shamanism was
One of the titles of Kuvera is Nidhipa, i. e., Protector of
Nidhis (Riches), and when explorers in India were looking for
treasure they worshipped Kuvera, who has exhaustless wealth
in the form of gold. The gold is kept in a jar guarded by
Nagas are said to be treasure-hiders, that some of them
were treasure-seekers who discovered the gold mines of Alaska,
does not seem to be quite beyond the range of probability,
especially when the fact is taken into account that traces of
their deities are to be found in that region.
Kuvera is Pingala, and Pingala may have found a Keltic
counterpart in Fingal of the British Isles. There are at least
two Serpent Mounds in Scotland, one at Largs, in Ayrshire,
and another, and better known one near Loch Nell, in Argyll;
the latter is in the parish of Kilbride (the Shrine of Bride).
This neighbourhood is associated with Fingal, King of Shells,
who presides over a well near the Serpent Mound, and is the
possessor of the famous Gave, near lona.
There are many relics of the Serpent emblem in Britain.
The remains of the great shrine at Avebury, in Wiltshire, proves
it to have been one of the largest Serpent temples in the
world, rivalling some of the ancient structures in America.
The shape of the Serpent at Avebury has been clearly demon-
strated by Stukeley.
The large temple at Carnac in Brittany is supposed to re-
present the convolutions of a Serpent; and Brittany probably
received its name from Brite, or Bride, a Serpent deity.
The wonderful grotto at Margate is serpentine in form,
and is evidently of great antiquity. It has attracted the at-
tention of orientalists on account of the symbolic shell orna-
mentation which decorates the walls, and which is accomplish-
ed so skilfully that it could not be reproduced in these days.
At the entrance to the Grotto a tiny figure was to be seen
not long ago. It sat in a contemplative attitude, and held a
Cup. In the interior, and on what is called the Snake panel,
there is this pattern of Two Serpents; and the Two Serpents
Serpents in Margate Grotto.
may be seen on a bracket below the central oriel window over
the doorway of the exceedingly old Star Inn at Alfriston, in
There are two places in Scotland of the name of Nigg,
one in Kincardineshire, adjoining Aberdeen, on the Bay of
Nigg, the other in Ross-shire, and both show signs of great age.
Serpents in Margate Grotto.
The Kincardine Nigg has the ancient chapel of St. Fittick;
and at Nigg, in Ross-shire, there is a cross on which are incised
mythological serpentine forms. This remarkable stone is des-
cribed as One of the most graceful of the Pictish obelisks.
Chandwick, Nigg, may be named after the Moon-god, Chand,
or Can. The illustration below of a carving at Chandwick is
a wonderful specimen of Keltic ornamentation with intricate
designs, combining Serpents and Dragons.
Serpent design at Nigg.
The name Nigg, as also that of Nignol in Brittany, may
have originated from Naga, or from JVagi, a Lady Serpent.
The emblems of the Serpent and Dragon are identical as
regards symbolism; and they are the heritage of the Nagas,
and the descendants of the Nagas.
A dragonesque emblem was found in the Orkney Is-
lands (Dorkaine), part of the mythic kingdom of King Lot,
or Loth, father of the Serpent deity, Guchulinn. He, himself,
may be identical with Budh, the Dragon of Wisdom; and
Cuchulinn a form of Peredur, the Indian Pururava, son of
Budh, or Budha.
The Swastika emblem, found on burial urns in the Keltic
regions of Europe, and in America, testifies to the imprint
of Naga footsteps; and also to the fact that, in at least some
respects, their religion was Aryan. The urns which have been
discovered with this mark upon them are among the most
definite signs of the presence of tribes following some form of
Aryanism. Cremation is one of the four cardinal tenets of the
Hindu religion, successor to the Aryan religion.
The Swastika is one of the oldest symbols in the world,
if not actually the oldest; and it is the emblem of the Nagas.
Reference to this symbol is found in Sanskrit literature; and
it is probable that the Saltire of the Picts, and the crossed
Swords of the Scottish Sword Dance are founded upon the
The Serpentine in Hyde Park is suggestive of the Nagas.
At the Eastern end is the bridge overlooking a small pool where
the water begins to flow underground. Here there are some
springs, and immediately below the parapet the ground begins
to slope. At the foot of this incline is a large stone, or monolith
affording evidence of Druidic association in the past.
Through a grant of Edward, the Confessor, there is a con-
necting link with Westminster Abbey, but there may have been
communication between the springs and the grounds of the
present abbey through the working of a Druidical settlement
at Westminster long before this date.
Between Sheffield and Glossop is the Snake Pass. The chief
deity of the Algonkin Indians is Glooskap (Glossop?) ; and he
is equated with Votan, the Snake deity of America who makes
the assertion that he is a Serpent of the line of Chan,*) pre-
sumably Can, the Moon-god. When Votan makes this an-
nouncement he seems to be explaining that he is of the Serpent
race, so prominent in the Northern states, and that he comes
of the line of Can, or Chandra, the lunar deity.
The Algonkins worship the Great White Hare, the Moon.
Pillar-stones in the British Isles were often occupied by deifical
personages, as in India. These formed little shrines, and it may
be noticed that there are several Hare-stones in Britain. One
of these marks the division between the parishes of Cruden
and Peterhead. Cruden was part of a Pictish kingdom, and
had a Druidic temple.
*) See the Popul Vuh.
Very important as regards prehistoric research is the dis-
covery made by Mr. Ludovic Mann and others as recounted
in the Times (19. 9. 38, and previously) of a Serpent
temple at Knappers, near Kilbowie, not far from Glasgow.
The name Knappers may be connected with Knapdale,
and with the Ball-game played in Pembrokeshire under the
name of Knappen. The find at Knappers -is a wooden struc-
ture, said to be the finest prehistoric building in wood yet
discovered. The vessels found in this temple belong to the
Stone Age and the succeeding Bronze Age. The temple con-
tains a large number of Serpentine figures!
The Sanskrit word Sarpa (pronounced somewhat like
serpa) gives the impression that the English word serpent
is derived from it. The old Cornish word for Serpent was
Sarf; F and P being interchangeable, this produces
Sarp, is it not a lingual bridge between the two?
Near Wiesbaden, in Germany, and where there are traces
of the Kelts, there is a place called Schlangenbad, or the Bath
of the Snakes; these may have been human Snakes, as there
are signs of prehistoric people in the neighbourhood.
The Sun-god, Lugh, otherwise Lot, King of Lothian, who
is also the planet Mercury resembles Budh (Mercury) of India,
as Lugh is god of the manifold Sciences, and both represent
the Dragon of Wisdom. Budha is quite distinct from Buddha,
the ninth incarnation of Vishnu, and the founder of Buddhism,
and is very much older.
Cuchulinn, or Kukil Can is the Feathered Serpent, and a
son, or part of Lugh. Sometimes he appears to be identical
with Eochu, but as a Serpent deity he seems to be more close-
ly connected with Lugh.
The Feathered Serpent who appears in Mexico and among
the Mayas is an important deity of the Serpent tribes, and this
gives support to the theory which I am venturing to put for-
ward that the Serpents, or Snakes came to Britain, via America.
Kukulcan of the Toltecs, and Quetzalcoatl, or Quetzalhuacoatl
of Mexico were both Serpent deities, as also Votan and Gloos-
kap. Votan is probably identical with Wotan, or Odin, the
Cuchulinn is called Setanta. The tribe Setantii, who in-
habited the County-Palatine of Lancaster, were known in
Wales as Cocholyn, and it is obvious that the Setantii took
their name from this deity of the British Isles. It is probable
that the Setantii were a Serpent tribe, or clan. These early
tribes left many signs of the Aryan religion in the British Isles
and Brittany; the names Setantii and Setanta are almost
identical with Sitanta, one of the spurs of the holy Mt. Meru,
in Central Asia.
In the realms of mythology Sitanta is the resort of Siddhas
and Gandharvas, (Heavenly Musicians), of whom Narada is
the Divine Leader.
What is the origin of the Irish name Tipperary? There
is a state in India called Tippera, as is well known to those
familiar with that country. It is called Tripura by the Ben-
galis, and is under the Province of Bengal, like Cooch Behar.
Tripura is a name for the Mother Goddess in the form of
Durga, the second wife of Siva, and identical with Uma and
Gauri. The name Tippera originates from a hill-tribe, the
members of which claim to belong to the Kshatriya caste;
the second main caste of Hindu India, formerly that of War-
riors and Kings. May not some of the original Tippera tribe
have settled in that part of Ireland which is now the county
of Tipperary? Bansha, in this county suggests Bean-Sidhe (pro-
The Nagas in Bharatakhanda (Northern India) were divi-
ded into clans. Sir Grafton Elliot Smith drew attention to the
proficiency of the Nagas in navigation; and the Abbe Do-
menech remarks, in connection with America, that: the divi-
sion of tribes into clans, as in the Highlands of Scotland,
exists among the Red-skins from time immemorial.*;*)
The tribe Taxilii inhabited the tract of land now known
as Aberdeenshire, and these are the people who are the most
*) Seven Years Residence in the Great Deserts of North America.
likely to have come from Taxila (Takshasila) in Northern
India, when comparisons are made between the names Taxilii,
Taxila and Takshasila, Taxila being a European contractipn
According to the Ramayana the province of Gandhara,
in Northern India, was invaded by an army of Rama, led by
his half-brother, Bharata, in conjunction with the uncle of
Bharata, who sent troops to assist his nephew. There are several
Bharatas, one of whom is spoken of as a royal saint, and is
mentioned in the Vedas. The name is an important one; Bhara-
tavarsha is the realm of King Bharat, a worthy descendant
of Manu, the Self-born. The Bharatas must have comprised
an immense tribe.
Rama's half-brother, Bharata, founded the City States, or
Boroughs of Takshasila and Pushkala, in Pushkalavati, in what
are now the districts of Peshwar and Rawal Pindi; and he
placed his two sons as rulers over them. The Sanskrit word
Pura is the equivalent of the English word Borough, and the
Scottish Burgh. At Guildford, in England, the word is to be
seen, in a notice relating to the Castle, in the form of Burh,
omitting the G, and which may be the original. In India,
to this day, the word Purusha, amongst other meanings, stands
for Townsman, or Burgher. It seems probable therefore that
Borough, indicating a self-governing town, originated from
Pura, the Sanskrit designation for a City State; and that Pura
or Pur, the termination of so many place-names in India, is
identical with Burh, the old British form of the word
In the Adi Parva of the Mahabhdrata there is a description
of the Sarpa-satra, or Serpent sacrifice. This was performed
by King Janamejaya at Takshasila many years, or perhaps,
centuries after its foundation. When divested of its poetic and
outer shell it reveals a ghastly war of extermination waged
against all the Serpent tribes of that district. Their fallen for-
tunes may have caused a remnant of them to leave their coun-
try, and to make their way as refugees to America and Britain,
having been saved through the good offices of the sage Astika,
who pleaded successfully for the cessation of the sacrifice and
the lives of the Serpent people.
A figure of Kuvera, god of Wealth, was discovered at
Taxila, and similar figures were found in the Peshwar district.
There were both male and female forms of this deity.
/ 4 r
Serpent Viking Ship.
Skanda, the Field-marshal of the Army of the gods, appears
to have given his name to Scandinavia, and also to have sup-
plied the word Scandal, meaning Battle to the Gaels; he
is a form of Mangala (Mars), also of Kartikeya.
The first inhabitants of Scandinavia, or the first semi-
cultured inhabitants, seem to have gone thence from the Bri-
tish Isles, and to have retained the symbolic Dragon in their
midst. This is the Dragon which the Welsh have to-day as
their national emblem; and it may be perceived by observant
people in a variety of old carvings in all parts of Britain.
An illustration of a Ship is given in Early London,*)
and it has a Serpent, or Dragon at the prow. This may not
have been a very unusual figure-head for a ship in those times,
but it is worth noticing; the stem of the ship is formed by the
tail of the Serpent the Ship is in fact a Serpent!
While in Norway for the Prehistoric Congress held at Oslo
in 1936, I noticed that the Gokstad Viking Ship has a line of
round shields on either side of it, representing the originals
which were sixty-four in number, and in alternating colours
of Black and Yellow. These colours, attributed to King Arthur,
Uthr Pendragon and St. Antony, may have been those of the
Serpent tribes. Black and Gold are the colours of Ananta, or
Sesha, the great Serpent deity of India.
The bow of the Viking ship found at Oseburg, and de-
scribed by Professor Schetelig of Bergen, is in the shape of a
Serpent, or Dragon, like that illustrated by Sir Walter Besant,
and is called the Serpent Ship. It is a very large open boat
made entirely of oak, and of tremendous strength, not to be
matched in these days when wood is the only material in its
composition. It became the grave of a queen.
I am indebted to the Archeological Museum at Oslo for
their kind permission to reproduce these photographs of the
Serpent Ship, and of the wooden plaque found inside it.
The disc discovered in this ship resembles an Indian chakra,
or sacred Wheel. There are many varieties of Chakras, or
Yantras, all with deep allegorical meanings. One of these
Chakras is the Wheel of Lakshmi, or Sree; and another kind
is one of the four symbols of Narayana, the great Serpent
who floats on the Cosmic Ocean. The Disc, or Chakra of
Narayana represents the Mind whose thoughts, like the
weapon, fly swifter than the Winds.
The Dragon ornament, so frequently seen in Norway, was
used in the first instance for secular buildings; but in those
times these were hallowed also, and cannot be looked upon
as entirely secular if they were under Aryan influence.
*) By Sir Walter Besant.
The Dragon decorates the exterior of the little stave church
at Borgund, near Laerdal, which is dedicated to St. Andrew.
The church dates back at least to the thirteenth century, al-
though constructed entirely of wood. The ground on which
it stands was probably sacred for hundreds of years before
Plaque in Serpent Ship.
that. St. Andrew and Bride are also associated here, and I
thought I saw the remains of a Druidic Circle not far away?
Carvings of the Cross of St. Andrew ornament the interior
of this tiny Norwegian church, but the cross is frilled, and
has a boss in the centre proving that, as a symbol, it is older
than that of the apostle St. Andrew. This symbolic frilling is
seen in Hindu architecture, one example of which is that at
Dimapur, in the Naga Hills of Assam, and mentioned by Fer-
gusson. There are illustrations in his book of huge elaborately
carved pillars on which this frilling is included.
The style of the Norwegian church at Borgund is likened
in the guide-book to that of an Indian pagoda. A pagoda is
correctly described as Indian because the word pagoda is San-
Drawn by M. Mitra of Cooch Behar.
krit, although, possibly, more familiar to us in connection with
China. It seems probable that Chinese pilgrim-students took
back the idea to China, after studying at the famous Buddhist
university of Nalanda, near Gaya. Mr. Dutt describes the
style of a typical house in Bengal as having cornice brackets
which project from under the curved beams upon the veran-
dah of the house, their outer ends supporting the eaves-
board.*) The curves, a distinctive feature of Chinese archi-
tecture, are probably also of Indian origin.
Hieun Tsang writes a description of the monastery and
Stave church at Borgund.
says: The houses of the monks at Nalanda were each four
stories high. The pillars were ornamented with Dragons and
beams resplendent with all the colours of the rainbow ....
the roofs were covered with glazed tiles of brilliant colours.
Here is the Dragon in its original setting, or at least as far as
written records take us.
*) See Living Traditions of the Folk Arts of Bengak, by G. S. Dutt,
I. G. S., in ^Indian Art and Letters, March, 1935.
The Hindu trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, are re-
presented with Serpent hoods on old temples near the Ganges;
and it would seem that the Nagas, although racially not the
same set of people as the other Aryan tribes, were nevertheless
in some way closely associated with the Aryan religion.
There is a certain kind of Snake in India which has a
Swastika on its expanded hood; as this was the emblem of the
Nagas, and is found in many countries, it seems to point to
the diffusion of the Serpent tribes, and also to their one time
connection with the Sanskrit language.
Some of the linguistic ties, as alluded to below, have al-
ready been mentioned, and others will come in later.
Canada, Cree, Narad a, Maya, Rama.
Canada, the name identical with that of the Hindu sage who
propounded the atomic theory.
Cree Indians, with a name similar to that of the river Cree in
Galloway, Scotland, and that of St. Catherine Cree, in
London; the latter, with a Wheel in one of the windows,
the Wheel of St. Catherine and Chakra of Sree of India.
Sree is frequently alluded to as Cree in the Mahdbhdrata.
In an earlier form the initial letter of this name was hard, with
the sound of K; and is thus identical with the name of the
Cree Indians of North America.
Narada, the name of a waterfall on Mt. Takhoma, or Rainier,
identical with that of the Indian sage, son of Muni, and
who was noted for travelling over sea and land.
Maya identical with Maha Maya, the great Aryan Mother.
Rama, the name of a tribe in Central America, identical with
that of Rama, hero of the Ramdyana.
Possible derivations from Sanskrit.
Alaska, Niagara, Homa, Tulsa, Ohio, Shoshonee, Pipil,
Alaska from Alaka, the name of the capital of Kuvera, Hindu
god of Riches, and whose wealth takes the form of gold!
Niagara from Nirjhara, which Sir Monier Williams interprets
as A waterfall, cataract, mountain torrent, cascade.
Homa, the termination to Takhoma and Oklahoma, the latter,
a State occupied by Snake tribes, and in which there is
a place called Tulsa, similar to the sacred Tulsi of India.
Ohio inhabited by Snake tribes, from A hi, a Snake.
Shoshonee, or Snake tribes of America, from Shesha, the po-
pular form of Sesha, the name of the Serpent deity of
India, who ruled over Patala (the Antipodes).
Pipil, the name of a tribe in Central America, from the sacred
Pippal-tree of India.
Uruguay from Urugaya, a name for Vishnu; and there may
be many others identical with, or approximating to Sans-
Guatemala from Ketumala.
THE SYMBOL OF THE DEER.
The emblem of St. Kentigern is a Stag. Themis, the mother
of Kentigern, is the wife, or daughter of Lot, King of Lothian,
who appears to be Lugh, the Sun-god. According to tradition,
Themis, or Thenew was violated by Ewen, King of Cumbria,
who seems to have been one with the mythological Eochu, or
Eoghan, Priest-king, or Priest-Warrior at Tara, in County
Meath, Ireland, where formerly a famous Druidic settlement
Although Thenew did not submit to it voluntarily she was
punished for this assault. By King Lot's orders she was placed
in a two-wheeled cart, and precipitated from a steep rock
which is thought to have been Traprain Law in Haddington,
and which was previously called Dunpeledur.
That Thenew was a deity can scarcely be contested. The
cart in which she was sitting was overturned, but she escaped
unhurt, and a beautiful, limpid fountain sprang from the spot
where the cart fell. It is recorded that: She was set in a cart
on the top of a mountain, and this shows the tale to be alle-
gorical, and mythologically localized, because Traprain Law
is not a mountain.
The tracings, or scratchings on this rock are very strange,
and certainly picture the result of this episode, as related in
the Aberdeen Breviary. The prominent portions of the
cart of their own accord, perforated the hardest stones, leav-
ing a perpetual mark; and one may see the marks on the
rock two thousand, or more years afterwards!
Rock Drawing on Traprain Law.
But King Lot was displeased with the result of ^this event,
and Thenew was sent to a place with the very significant name
of Aberlady, on the coast of Fife. She was sent away in a
shallop made of osiers, and covered with hides and pitch,
without a rudder, to be swallowed up by the dreadful and
unfathomed ocean. Thenew was wafted to the Island of
May, at the mouth of the Firth of Forth; and then tossed
by the waves of the sea, sustained by a prodigious attendant
*) By courtesy of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
shoal of fishes she was miraculously conducted in a
Coracle, or Curragh, against the stream, to Cullenross, or Cul-
ross, where her son, Kentigern, was born beside a smouldering
Fire on the beach. Thenew and her child were rescued by the
monks of St. Serf, and Kentigern was educated at their school,
teaching the boys, or the monks, how to produce Fire.
The Abercorn church, on the southern bank of the Forth,
is dedicated to St. Serf, or St. Sair: and, viewed from an
allegorical standpoint, the emblematic Stag appears to be none
other than St. Serf, himself. Antelopes support the coat-of-arms
of the Duke of Abercorn.
Saar, a Doe, is the mother of Ossian, and it would seem
that Serf, Sair and Saar, and also the French word
Cerf, originated from the Sanskrit contraction Sar. Sarnath
(Sanskrit, Sarayanga-Deer: JVatha-Lord) is the name of a
renowned Deer forest near Benares, where Prince Siddartha
preached his first sermon. According to the Buddhists he thus
Set in motion the Wheel of Religion. The emblems of the
Wheel, or Chakra, and the Deer may frequently be seen to-
gether, carved on Asokan pillars.*)
Ossian, son of Finn, a Hunter, is probably a symbolic Deer,
(and his mother, the Scottish Unicorn), coinciding with Ri-
shyasringa of India, son of Vibhandaka, a Hunter. Ossian,
or Rosgrana, probably owes its derivation to Rishyasringa.
Mriga-Sira means Head of a Deer (Afnga-Deer: Sira-
Head), and is the name of one of the twenty-seven constella-
tions. It gives the name Mriga-Sira to the eighth lunar month
of the Hindu Calendar. This month is also known as Agra-
hayana, the beginning of the Year: and the word Agra-
hayana seems to have been converted by the Greeks into
Orion. At one time the Hindu year began at the commence-
ment of this month which covers the latter half of November,
and the first half of December. The Keltic year also began
at this time, in very early days.
This month is associated, mythologically, with the Deer,
*) See ^Cambridge History of India.
as also the constellation of Orion, which is astronomically
connected with Mriga-Sira.
During the fierce encounter which took place between
Siva and his father-in-law, Daksha, when gods and mortals
fled in terror, the Deer leaped into the Sky. According to
Hindu mythology, it may still be seen in Orion, pursued by
the Great Hunter, Siva.
The Feast-day of St. Nicholas, the sixth of December, falls
within this month. He is Santa Glaus, who drives a team of
Reindeer. St. Nicholas is the Patron Saint of Abbot's Bromley,
Staffordshire, and Reindeer horns are given out from the
church by the Vicar, to the men who perform the Horn-dance.
The account of Kentigern's birth, when viewed in the light
of Aryan mysticism, would indicate the birth of a Son through
Fire and Water, the masculine and feminine elements of
Creation. Allegorically and actually the Sun and the Moon
together cause the fusion necessary for the production of the
Seed, or Son. Kentigern was born of the waters, like Agni,
the Indian Spirit of Fire ; and the mother of Kentigern appears
to be a form of Apah, or Narayana in feminine form, the
In Aryan allegory a river, or the mouth of a river is re-
presented as Apah, and we may compare the English word
Aperture, and the Gaelic prefix Abar, converted into
Aber, with this Sanskrit word Apah. The prefix Aber
makes its appearance in numerous instances in the British
Isles, in the neighbourhood of a sea-coast, or for an estuary,
or geographical aperture.
Aberlady is assuredly connected with the Divine Mother,
represented in this instance by Themis. The mother of Kenti-
gern arrives in a Coracle (the Boat of the Sun), and all is
enveloped in an allegorical atmosphere, with the smouldering
Fire, and the reception by the mythic figure of Serf, or Sair.
Themis, impersonating the Cosmic Waters, is also the
Spirit of the river Thames, from whom, obviously, it received
its name. Sanskrit literature throws much light upon the
significance of Keltic allegory, and this is an example. The
sacred Tamasa, mentioned in the Ramayana, the first great
Sanskrit epic, may have given its name to the Thames, and
to Themis, as I suggested in the first edition of Matter, Myth
and Spirit, published in 1935. The Oxford Dictionary of
English Place-names refers to the name Thames as cognate
with the Sanskrit Tamasa, a tributary of the Ganges.
The nymph Sabrina presides over the river Severn, pro-
bably also sacred at one time. The deifical existence of Sabrina
has been prolonged indefinitely by Milton in Comus; Sa-
brina lives on in English literature while Themis has been al-
most forgotten although she is the wife, or daughter of the
Sun-god, Lot of Londonesia; and no less a personage than
the Spirit of the river Thames!
Thus, in London's mythological atmosphere, Kentigern is
the offspring of the holy waters of the Thames, which here
flows into the sea. Hector Boece, writing in the sixteenth cen-
tury, speaks of Kentigern as descendant of a royal stock, for
he was born of the divine Thames.
The saintly figure of Kentigern is known over widely-
spread areas in Britain ; in Wales he is looked upon as of Welsh
There is apparently no authority for the alleged meeting
of St. Kentigern with St. Columba at the stream Molendinar
when Kentigern arrived there from Wales to found the city
of Glasgow. It is now thought that Molendinar, or Mallena
was allegorical, and not an actual stream, and that it may
represent the Ebb and Flow of the Ocean. St. Malena is the
Patron Saint of Mullion, or Malena on the Cornish coast.
It is interesting to compare the following description of the
Malini of Sanskrit literature with the Malena, or Mallena of
Roaming through a great Indian forest King Dushmanta
came to the delightful retreat of some munis (ascetics).
Sacred fires were burning here, and near by flowed the sacred
and transparent Malini with every species of water-fowl play-
ing on its bosom. The king beheld on its banks many ani-
mals of the deer species.*) Near Naini Tal, a place well
known to Europeans, is the Lake Malina Tal.
The Malini was only a small stream, but it has been im-
mortalized by the Hindu poet Kalidas. Sakuntala was brought
up in a sacred grove on the banks of the Malini. The Chakwa
(Sanskrit Chakravaka], or ruddy duck calls to its mate near
this sacred stream. This bird, according to the poetic tradi-
tion of India, is the ideal of conjugal fidelity, and is frequently
mentioned in Indian classical literature.
Kentigern is the son of Eochu, (St. Nicholas?), and if
Eochu is the Indian Kartikeya which he appears to be, Kenti-
gern would be a Son-god of Siva's family, in his pre-Christian
existence. Like Agni, he is represented as a Priest, and a Pillar
of Flame. A Tree is seen in the coat-of-arms of Glasgow, as at
St. Andrew's. This is associated with Kentigern, the founder
of the city, as an ecclesiastical settlement.
The Deer, symbolizing Sacrifice, may have been imper-
sonated by Sair, or Serf, as the head of a monastery where
Abstinence, or Self-sacrifice would be in practice. As an alle-
gorical Deer St. Serf, or Sair receives the child whose emblem
in later years is a Stag.
St. Nicholas, also connected with the Deer, is the Patron
Saint of Children. He appears to be identical with Eochu (or
one of the Eochus), and Eochu to be identical with Kartikeya,
in this respect, if not in any other. Kartikeya and Shashthi, or
Mahasena and Devasena are the Guardian deities of New-
born Babies. These Sanskrit names probably produced the
British surnames of Masson and Desson, as both Hindus
and Kelts have a habit of contracting names.
Devasena, in Keltic spheres, seems to have been Edain, or
Etain. Max Mueller connects Eta, or Etari**} with Deer.
The Keltic word has acquired an I, which is not at all un-
sual; the Sanskrit name Saman added an I in Ireland,
and became Samhain, but kept its original form in Scot-
*) See Adi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata, translated by Protab Chandra
**) Mandala I., Hymn 165, Verse 5, of the Rig Veda.
land. Etain may be identical with Ethan, or Ythan in the
North-East of Scotland, south of the Moray Firth, and in the
region of the Abbey of Deer, also to be compared with these
is Eta as an alternative for Cree (the Cree Indians).
Etain is thought to have been the wife of Angus, of Mider
and of Eochu; and these husbands were probably hers in dif-
ferent incarnations. When Mider of Bri Leith takes away Etain
from Eochu, and carries her off to his Elf-Mound, he declares
that she was his wife in a previous incarnation. The doctrine
of Reincarnation was taught by the Druids, and at least two
of these marriages represent separate incarnations. Rebirth is
one of the cardinal tenets of Hinduism; and, of course, is not
a Christian belief.
Edain, or Etain, wife of Eochu, King of Tara, at one stage
of her deifical existence, resembles Devasena, goddess of Fe-
cundity, and wife of Kartikeya, of India; and Edain may be
the second, or third incarnation of Tara, herself.
Bress, or Breas of the Kelts is the son of Angus Og, and
the father of Eochu. Brihaspati of the Hindus is the son of
Angiras, and the father of Kartikeya.
The Keltic Breas, like the Indian Brihaspati (as a form
of Agni), is beautiful, and everything beautiful was compared
Who is St. Dunstan, Patron Saint of Blacksmiths? Probably
a mythic character brought to the British Isles by people
seeking for Iron. His former name was Drostan, or Drust-agni,
and he seems to be one with Drishtadyumna, a son, or part
In the parish of Fowey, in Cornwall, there is an inscribed
stone at the lodge-gates of Castle Dor, Menabilly, where there
are Four Turnings. On this stone is the word Drustagni, and
at the back is the Tau Cross. Professor Loth expresses the
opinion that the Tau Cross is not part of the pagan cults of
Rome, but that it is of the paganism of Gaul, i. e., of
This stone at Menabilly is a memorial to Trystram, whose
previous name was Drustan, or Drustagnus. Trystram was a
High Priest, possibly a Priest- Warrior, like Bress and Eochu.
Trystram may have been the allegorical Drishtadyumna of the
Aryans and Breas may have been Brihaspati (Jupiter), Priest
of the Celestials!
In Buchan, Aberdeenshire, St. Dunstan was Abbot of Deer.
This saint may have been both human and allegorical, but he
certainly had a pre-Christian existence. He is well known in
London as the Patron Saint of St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, and
of the old church of St. Dunstan' s-in-the-East, also there is
St. Dunstan's Hill, in the London district, near to which are
Roman remains. St. Dunstan is known in the North of Scotland
as St. Drostan. There is a church at Halkirk, Sutherlandshire,
not far from Georgemas, dedicated to St. Drostan; and in
Angus there are reminders of him in Droustie's Well and
Droustie's Meadow. Drustie^s Fair was also held at one time
on this Eastern side of Scotland.
The place-name Angus. may have come from the deifical
personage Angus Og. The Keltic name Angus is sometimes
spelt Anguis, and may once have been Angiras. Angiras
of India is one of the mentally-generated sons of Brahma, the
As regards the very ancient Book of Deer, and the Abbey
of Deer, these are not supposed to have any connection with
the animal of that name. It is not unlikely, however, that this
is actually the origin of the word Deer in this connection.
The date of St. Dunstan in the Christian Calendar is the four-
teenth of December, covered by the Hindu month Mriga-Sira,
(the Head of a Deer).
Before the Abbey of Deer was built a famous Keltic monas-
tery stood on the spot. Nothing now remains of the abbey
except the outline, and ruins of buildings formerly attached
to it. The stones of this venerable edifice were carted away
for secular purposes after the Reformation, but the property
has been acquired by the Roman Catholics, and, consequently,
will be carefully preserved in the future.
St. Giles appears at Elgin and in Edinburgh with his em-
blem of a Hind. There is a church dedicated to St. Giles in
Baildon, Yorkshire, the name of the place suggesting an old
Keltic fort. The town stands on the river Aire, and if this is
named after the great Mother Arya, it would be a probable
site for a shrine to an Aryan god.
The colours of Edinburgh appear to be Black and White,
those of an Antelope. Rishyasringa (Ossian?) is the White-
footed Antelope. A Maiden clothed in Red appears in the
coat-of-arms of Edinburgh, with a Doe beside her. It would
seem that she is Edain, or Etain. In old records Edinburgh is
called Eidyn, and also Etin; and these old forms seem to be
allied to the two names Edain and Etain, introducing an
I, as in other cases, into the original word Etan.
Etain, transported by Mider to Bri Leith, in Irish legend,
is probably associated with Mider in Edinburgh as the river
Leith flows through this city. Edain may be the feminine form,
or the mother of Aed, the Fiery Torch, who is sometimes
mentioned as being the son of Lugh, or Lot, and whose
daughter was beloved by Ossian.
In Edinburgh, with Arthur's Seat as the most striking fea-
ture in the landscape, it looks as if Aed and Arthur might be
one. It has been noticed that Arthur's character differs slightly
in this neighbourhood. Allegorically, Glasgow is a City of the
Sun, and Edinburgh, of the Moon. Siva's predecessor in Vedic
times is Vayu, who rides a Deer, and carries a Flag.
Marichi, a will-born son of Brahma, the Creator, also seems
to be the Deer, if he is related in an allegorical sense to
Marich of the Ramayana. Rdvana, King of Lanka, wishes to
abduct Sita, the lovely wife of Rama, at this time in the
Dandaka Forest. To accomplish his object the wily Ravana
compels Marich to assume the form of a Deer. Marich, using
his potent illusory skilk, takes the form of a Deer, and ap-
pears before Sita while she is gathering flowers. This wonderful
deer, having its down resembling gold, horns resembling ex-
quisitely fine diamonds, color like the newly-risen Sun and
resplendence like that of the orbit of the planets that
illusive deer seeing Rama's wife, began to move around as if
lighting up the forest (with the fire of its beauty ). Rama,
at the bidding of his wife, who returns to the hermitage, follows
the deer, and is thus lured away, giving Ravana the desired
opportunity of securing Sita.
The Rakshasas were Hindus and it may be that Marich is
allied to Marichi who married Apah, of whom the Keltic
Themis appears to be a form Themis, the mother of Kentigern
whose emblem is a Stag. King Mark of Cornwall and the
surname March may have originated from Marich, Ossian,
with a Doe mother, is a possible counterpart of Rishyasringa,
who is a descendant of Marichi. Ossian may be the original
St. Serf, or St. Sair, taking his mother's name Saar, ac-
cording to Keltic, and also according to Hindu custom.
Muni, mother of Makal and Narada, and, possibly, in
Keltic lands, mother of Mekel and Ander, is one of the wives
of Kasyapa, son of Marichi.
Brahma, the Creator
King Mark of Cornwall Marichi
Nudd (?) Kasyapa
Rosgrana (Ossian) Rishyasringa
Oscar, or Oscara Alamvusha
At Abbot's Bromley, of which St. Nicholas is the Patron
Saint, the Morris Dance suggests a connection with the Maruts,
or Wind-gods, whose vehicles are Speckled Deer. Rudra ( Vayu)
of whom Makal (Michael?) is a form, is Chief of the Maruts,
according to some accounts, sometimes it is Indra who holds
At Leith, the Port of Edinburgh, there is, or was, an old
chapel of St. Nicholas to which James, the Fourth, used to
make pilgrimages, and all may be connected with Eochu (St.
Nicholas?), Etain and Mider of the far-off past. Rudra may
have given rise to the British names Rudd, Ruthrie, Rod-
erick and Rutherford. Near Aberdeen, is the place called
Ruthrieston, where there was probably a stone in honour of
Ruthrie (Rudra?) at one time.
The remarkable monument in Aberdeenshire which is now
known as the Newton Stone,*) has been removed from its
original position. It was previously in a fir plantation close to
the present toll-gate of Shevack; and as it was formerly on
the Pitmachie land Mr. Diack thinks it must be the Pitmachie
Stone. The meaning of the inscription is obscure; it is in old
Latin, but one of the letters takes the form of the Swastika,
betraying an earlier influence. The word Ette, which is also
on the St. Vigean's Stone in Angus, is identical with the
woman's name Ete, mentioned in the Book of Deer. This
may have been the deifical personage Etain, wife of Eochu.
If St. Vigean is St. Fechin of the race of Eochu it is not
unsuitable to find the name of his wife inscribed on the stone.
The next word on the Pitmachie Stone is Evagainnias which
Mr Diack interprets as Eogan (Eochu).
The inscription on the St. Vigean's Stone begins with the
name of Drosten; and thus Drostan (St. Dunstan), Abbot
of Deer, is also associated with Ette, or Etain, the Deer.
The family seat of the Earls Ferrer, who were mentioned
in the first chapter, is Ettingham, in the County of Warwick.
Surely there must be a connection between Ettingham and
Etain, or Ette; also an association between these and the Ber-
wicks of Attingham, with Attington Hall as their seat. This
baronial family have a crest formed by a Stag; three Stags'
Heads in their coat-of-arms; and the Sinister Supporter is a
*) See The Newton Stone: and other Inscriptions*, by Francis Diack
INDIVISIBILITY AND RELATIVITY.
The pre-Christian church of the Picts continued to observe
many of its old customs and habits long after the introduction
of the new religion into these islands. Monks, in Hindu fashion,
used to go away and live in solitude among the wilds of Nature,
as part of their monastic life and training; both Kelts and
Hindus having, in the first instance, obtained their religion
from the same source. No distinct line can be drawn between
pre-Christian and Christian; they merge like all other thought,
both religious and secular, also in many of their characteristics.
On the whole the early Church gave an example of great
wisdom and tolerance in blending and grafting the rites and
ceremonies of the Aryan religion on to the Christian. This was
far less hurtful, and more humane than a policy of destruction.
Many of the Latin saints show equation with early Keltic
characters. St. Andrew, as a Christian figure, probably took
the place of Ander, or Adr. The Indian sage, Narada, seems
to have evolved in Keltic regions into Adr, Ander, and finally
into St. Andrew, Patron Saint of Scotland.
Merrie Andrew of the Middle Ages preserved the playful
characteristics of Narada, which, in the case of the Indian sage,
may have had something to do with the freaks of Wind and
The deities of the Aryans are the forces of Nature, but
including Man who cannot be separated from the rest of
the Cosmos. All is interwoven and interdependent; the Sun,
the Wind, the Moon and the Tides, Mountain and Cloud, like
Man himself, are all parts of the One stupendous Whole.
As envisaged by the Aryans of old, Nature includes the
Mind as well as the Body. The human mind cannot be looked
upon as individual beyond a certain point which cannot be
precisely defined. A great man passes away and leaves his
thoughts transcribed ; in other words, he leaves part of his mind
behind him, but his individual mind cannot be entirely disso-
ciated from the minds which have influenced him in the past,
nor from those which may be impressed by his in the future.
There are no boundaries to the individual mind, nor to the
collective one. Mind is all One and indivisible, and so are all
religious and scientific conceptions; there are only artificial
barriers between them, and this is also evident with political
When votes are taken on any particular Bill before
Parliament they do not keep rigidly within Party boundaries;
if they did there would be no object in taking them!
Past, Present and Future arc indissolubly bound together,
and this makes it worth while to give a little attention to
Much light is thrown upon the veiled happenings of the
distant past if we hold these facts in mind. The Fertility Cult
includes the Mind and mental activity as well as bodily activity.
Intellectual Seeds, like physical Seeds, must be sown on fertile
The word May is very significant in the British Isles; in
connection with Maypole festivities it is associated with St. An-
drew. Forteviot in Perthshire is connected with St. Andrew,
and at the western end of the village is May Water, the river
In the Aboyne Records, Walter Davidson is mentioned as
the Prior of Maya, or May. The Sanskrit word Maya is
pronounced somewhat like mye, and May field in Galloway
is pronounced myefield. The name of May field in Sussex,
has apparently been Anglicised, like Mayfield in Derbyshire.
The village of this name in Sussex is full of tradition centering
round St. Dunstan (Drostan). May Fires once burned on May
Hill, not far from Mole Arthur, a Druidic camp on the
Herefordshire Beacon, in the Malvern range, and there are
many indications that the word May is connected with ritual
and religion. Themis arrives in her Coracle on the Island of
May at the time of the birth of her son, Kentigern, and
probably she is a form of the Aryan Mahamaya, the Great
Mother. The other names with the word May as the whole,
or part of the name, may all be founded on the Sanskrit Maya
or Mahamaya long before the Greek Maia came into deifical
being, although her name probably came from the same source.
St. Michael seems to be connected with the cult of
Shamanism, which is not surprising if he is recognized as Makal
of the Aryans. Makal is Yama, and Shamanism is the cult of
the Sramanas*) the cult of Yama, or Saman. The Eskimos
in the Polar regions, among whom this cult prevails, were
called Innuits, and this is probably the name of their Mother
Goddess because a form of the great Mother was known in the
Western Highlands of Scotland as Anait, and near Kinnoir,
Huntly, on the Eastern side is Annet's Well.
The scene of the Knappers excavations is partly in the
Glasgow district of Anniesland, so it is evident that Annie, or
Anait was the deity to whom the Serpent temple on this site
was dedicated. It may be that Aine of Ireland is the same deity,
and that Aintree, near Liverpool, was named after her. She
may be one with Anne, sister of King Arthur, who probably
was the goddess of St. Anne's Well on the Malvern Hills in
close proximity to the Druidic camp which is still known as
There are frequent reminders of Micheil, or St. Michael
throughout Scotland, as there were in the North-West of
Micheil and Anait seem to be associated in America, in
Scotland and also in Africa.
One may notice in the London Library some pictures, or
*) See Matter, Myth and Spirit*.
vignettes on the Ethiopia amulets there. On these are depicted
St. Michael and the Sun and Moon. They are thought to re-
present the Legend of Aynat.
In Abyssinia there is a place called Makalle, a name akin
to that of Michael, or Makal. Ethiopia was an extension, one
might say, of the great region of Bharatavarsha,*) colonized,
or inhabited by peoples of the Aryan faith, though not neces-
sarily Indians. In this part of the world Vishnu appears as a
Tortoise, or Turtle, the form which he took in his second in-
An ancient Wooden Platter was found about ten miles from
Zimbabwe in Mashonaland. There is a large Turtle in the
centre of this Dish, and round the rim are some zodiacal char-
acters in primitive form, and amongst other emblems are the
Sun and the Moon, and a Triangle, the latter being the Hindu
The Turtle is the special manifestation of Vishnu in the
Varsha, or division of Bharata, as regulated by the Rishis.
The Platter was discovered in a Cave which was probably
sacred. That this Dish was connected with the Aryan peoples
is probable on account of the symbols, and the area in which
it was found.
In some English counties, at the prime of the moon, people
were accustomed to say: It is a fine moon, God bless her,
and, in Scotland, there are still some who curtsey three times
to the Moon, saying: Bless you, my Lady.
In Bayley's Etymological Dictionary we find an article en-
titled The Moon. The moon was worshipped by the
Britons in the form of a beautiful maid, having her head
covered, with two ears standing out. Surely this is the wor-
It may be because there were two Balis, that the figure
of Bali, a Sun-god, sometimes appears with characteristics of
a Moon-god, but no clear line can be drawn between them with
regard to Britain, apparently. Bali was a king, an allegorical
*) See Chart.
monarch, both in the Netherworld and in Britain. He is
descended mythologically from Brahma, the Creator, Marichi
and Kasyapa, in one of his forms. He sometimes appears as a'
son of Indra, an aditya, and thus a Sun-god.
Balor (Bali) is the father and husband of Ethne (Tara, the
Blue Sarasvati). Ethne, or Aethne, seems to be identical with
Pallas Athene of Greece. In her lesser form, Ethne is Sarasvati,
goddess of Wisdom, like Athene; and Tara also is associated
Tara is the mother of the Indian Budh; and Ethne (Tara?)
is the mother of the Keltic Lugh. Bali is sometimes the father
of Lugh. In India there is a Bali who is of the Lunar dynasty.
Bali of Britain resembles the first Bali of India (a Daitya) in
that he is a Fomorian, and the second, in his descent from Indu.
The Keltic Indu, ancestor of Bali, has a name corresponding
precisely with that of the Sanskrit Indu, the Moon.
Many Beal fires were lit throughout Britain in honour of
Bali, or Beli, and Belin's Gate in London is a reminder of him.
Many places in the British Isles have received their names
from the sacred Ash-tree, the symbol of Light and Fire. The
surnames Ash and Ashley, and the place-names Ash and
Ashstead, for instance.
In Surrey, the Manor House of Ash stands on Ash Green;
it was built in 1279, and was once a fortified monastery. The
site is supposed to be that of a Druidic temple. This Manor
House is mentioned in one of the True Ghost Stories, in a
tale by Maude ffoulkes.
The great Fire-god, Siva, is Lord of Ghosts, and is followed
by a train of spectres!
Ash, in Kent, with ancient relics, has a chapel dedicated
to St. Nicholas. This saint appears to be connected with sacred
Trees, all showing the Aryan atmosphere, Ashill, in Norfolk,
has a church dedicated to St. Nicholas, as also Ashmore, in
Dorset. The sacred Ash-tree seems to be personified by Ash-
toreth, the consort of Bal, in Semitic countries.
In the Times (17.4.36.) Professor Langdon discusses
an early Canaanite inscription, part of which can be deciphered
on a fragment of a terra-cotta bowl found on a rubbish-heap
at Lachish (Tel Duweir) in Palestine. On Plate viii of the
Palestine Exploration Fund (1933), published by Mr
Starkey, there is a picture of this bowl. Professor Langdon reads
the Sinaitic script as Ba'al-lil, or however the last two letters
may be vocalized; and he compares this name with the
Canaanite deity Beliy a-al ; the first part of this compound word
appears to be Sanskrit, and the second part, Arabic. It obviously
refers to the pre-Christian and pre-Judaic-Bal, or Bel. North
of Lydda in Palestine is Qalqiliya. In Peru, the Mother God-
dess is Mama Quilla, and in the Eastern Pyrenees is the Gorge
St. George, near Quillan. Ma is Sanskrit for Mother. Ila is
a form of Lakshmi, wife of Vishnu, and is probably the
foundation for the Peruvian, the Basque and the Palestinian
names. There is no Q in the Sanskrit alphabet, but this letter
probably crept in later. Beliya-al, seemingly is named after Bali,
Lydda, after his son, Lugh, or Lud, and Qalqiliya, after Ila,
the consort of Lugh.
And now we come to St. George, Patron Saint of England,
and so closely connected with St. Michael in the Garter
ceremony. Lydda, or Lud, in Palestine is the place where St.
George is supposed to have suffered martyrdom. Very little
history is attached to this saint in spite of his important position
in England. It is thought that he came from Syria, but his
history becomes considerably enlarged if visualized in the sphere
of allegory and mythology.
St. Michael is the Patron Saint of Helston, in Cornwall,
where the Furry Dance takes place annually on the eighth of
May, about the time of St. George's Day (Old Style). The
oldest part of the dance is performed by the Boys of the town,
and one boy wears the Red and White Flag of St. George,
although I understand he is representing St. Michael. The
festival is said to take place on the day of the Apparition of
St. Michael. I think the figure on a mule(?) must once have
been the Mother Goddess Kali, with a Black face (Mahakali,
the feminine form of Makal).
During the Fertility celebrations of this Spring festival, a
song is sung by the Boys which is very old, and contains an
allusion to St. George, who may be the same figure as the
According to the reproduction given by the Folk-dance and
Song Society, Jack-o'-the-Green moves round with slow,
circulatory movements among the dancers during these
The word George means husbandman. St. George is
the Divine Husbandman, but seems also to be associated with
Traders. He appears in this form at Gubbio, in Umbria, Italy,
where the people are of Keltic origin, and quite different to
their neighbours. A ceremony of high antiquity takes place in
this ancient town, on, or about the fifteenth of May.
St. George and St. Antony accompany St. Ubaldo, Patron
Saint of Gubbio, when the cortege makes its way round the
town. An ecclesiastical procession takes place at the same time,
and goes in the opposite direction, but associates at one point.
The figures in the form of the saints, and carried in the
civic procession, are made of wax, and are called the Ceri;
Cer is an old Irish name for wax.
The men who 'carry the Ceri wear a Red and White
uniform. These are the colours of the Morris Dancers in some
places, supposedly of St. George, and also those of the Fire-god,
Agni. It is more likely, as has been suggested, that these are
actually the colours of the Church, not the personal colours of
St. George. They throw this saint into the light of a Priest-
Warrior, like Agni, who is both a Brahmin and a Kshatriya.
St. Antony is a Fire-walker, and sometimes appears with
the face of a Goat; Agni, the Indian Spirit of Fire, is first
White and then Red, and his vehicle, representing masculine
virility, is a He-Goat. The name of Antony was formerly
Tantony, and it is significant in this connection that tan
means fire, and that it should be the first syllable of the
name Tantony. Tanunapat, a form of Agni, has a name
meaning Lord of Fire.
Before the Cero is elevated a vessel of water is emptied over
it and thrown away. This piece of ritual accords with that of
the Hindus in regard to images. In India the image itself is
sometimes thrown away after a ceremony is ended as it is
merely an object for conveying some symbolic idea, a picture
in more realistic form than if represented in a lesser dimension.
On the evening of the proceedings at Gubbio bonfires are
lit on the surrounding hills, and the town is illuminated, pro-
ducing a charming effect, and carrying out the old Keltic
custom of Beacon lighting.*) The festival seems to be both
religious and civic.
As regards St. George, it is curious that we should find
Georgemas close to Halkirk, in Sutherlandshire, in view of
the fact that in the old traditional Furry dance at Helston the
exceedingly ancient song is sung, referring to St. George, and
including the words Hal-an-Tow of which the meaning is lost
in the mists of antiquity. It is probable that Georgemas was
once the scene of festivities in honour of St. George, or his
predecessor in Keltic lands, as both Hal and Mas are pre-
St. George's Well, Padstow, Cornwall is legendary; and
was probably sanctified long before the coming of the Chri-
stian St. George. According to tradition, a spring of crystal
water burst forth when St. George had trodden on the spot,
and since that time it has never ceased to flow.
St. George is well represented in Keltic districts on the Con-
tinent, and many churches are dedicated to him. In Carinthia,
Austria, he appears as the Green George, no doubt he who
gives his name to so many old English hostelries. At the lovely
little town of Dinkelsbiihl, in Bavaria, the large and beautiful
church is under his patronage. At the Corpus Christi festival
in June the church is decorated with Birch-trees. About fifty
young trees stand in the chancel and the side aisles, and against
the tall, Gothic pillars in the nave.
An ecclesiastical procession winds round the town, as in
many other places, and Grass is strewn along the streets by
youthful members of both sexes. Grass is the symbol of fresh
Life from the Sun, and is personified in India by Kusa and
Lava, the sons of Rama, and of the Earth Mother, Sita
(Lakshmi). Grass is borne on the head at the Cooch Behar
Fire festivals, in Eastern Bengal.
The seats of St. George's, Dinkelsbiihl, are massively carved
St. George, Rothenburg.
in alternating designs. On the first there is a Scallop-shell at
the top, and below there are Seeds, with a graceful, elongated
Bud, and small Flower. On the second is a Flower in full
bloom, with a Basket of Fruit on the top, forming in all an
allegory of Life a representation of the Fertility Cult of
which St. George is evidently an impersonation.
The above shows the figure of St. George on a fountain in
Rothenburg, Bavaria. He is depicted as a Warrior with the
Naga head-dress of Feathers. As an allegorical personage St..
George fights the forces of Darkness, and has a special, sym-
bolic Sword, such as is possessed by Agni. The spiritualistic
characteristics of St. George are demonstrated by the fact that
he became a Christian saint, and that innumerable churches
have him as their Patron Saint, including the one described
above with its carvings allegorizing Life in Seed, Blossom and
Fruit. It is highly probable that the flag of St. George, Red
and White, is that of the Church when the fact is taken into
consideration that the colours are those of Agni, the Great
The Shield with the colours of St. George in London's coat-
of-arms has a Sword, or Dagger in the First Quarter. The
weapon is the Sword of St. Paul. St. George and Lugh are
associated at Lydda, in Palestine, and also in London, the
Town of Lud. Lugh, apparently, is Mercury, god of the Mani-
fold Sciences, and, as such, a reflection of the Indian Budh
The London armorial bearings are supported by Two
Dragons, symbolic animals with which both St. George and
Lugh are associated. The Helmet at the top is surmounted with
the Left Wing of a Dragon. The idea is probably very much
older than the coat-of-arms. Dragons appeared thus for the
first time in 1633, but the Helmet with the Dragon, or Griffin
Wing contains the symbolism of a very much older insignia.
George may be Gwargi (Light), and identical with Gorgie
of Scotland, whose name is pronounced with hard Cymric
G's, also with Garga of India, an Architect, and with a
temple dedicated to him in the Rewa State.
The George and Dragon Inn at Gorton, in Cheshire, sug-
gests association with Gorgie, and an origin for the place and
personal name of Gorton.
There is a mound in Berkshire called Dragon Hill; and,
as in the case of other mounds in the British Isles, and many
in America, it is not known whether this mound is artificially
constructed, or not. On this Berkshire hillock King Gaarge
is supposed to have killed a Dragon, and to have rescued a
maiden from its clutches; but the rescue of this princess by
St. George, or King Gaarge, is probably a legend of the age
of chivalry, and knighthood, and is obviously of much later
date than those of St. George as an allegorical being. Even if
he had been killing a monster of some kind in the shape
of a personification of Darkness there seems no particular
reason why the hill should be named after the wild beast. It
would seem more probable that the mound should have been
called after the king than that the victim should have received
that honour; also where would the living dragon come from?
It is noteworthy that there is a Dragon's Mound at Finglen-
ny, near Rhynie, in Aberdeenshire; and that it is known as
Wormie Hillock. There is also Worm-Hill in the County Pala-
tine of Durham, where there are brine springs. A legend is
attached to Worm Hill in which a formidable Snake is said
to have been killed by one of the Lambton family.
The Welsh colours, Red and Green, are those of Yama
(Mahakala) of India. St. Michael, or Micheil of Britain some-
times appears in scaled armour, and it may be that he is the
Red Dragon of Wales, son of Muni, or Mon, the Mother of
Wales. There were Two symbolic Dragons in Britain, one
Dark, and the other, Light. This may account for the Two
Dragons sometimes seen carved in stone, or wood. The Two
Dragons are associated with Night and Day: they are the
two guileless Dragons, Dark and Light.
The Dragon being of so much importance in Britain, and
elsewhere in prehistoric times as a symbol makes it appear
probable that the mound in Berkshire, Wormie Hillock and
Worm Hill were specially made in its honour, and that they
were shrines to George, Gorgie or Gwargi, a reflection of Garga
in India. Garga is a son of Brahma, the Creator, and Gargya
is his son, or any man born in his line.
In the Reliques of Ancient English Poetry there is a
poem on the legend of the birth of St. George, and it leaves
no doubt but that St. George is himself the Dragon.
The Weird Lady of the Woods says to Lord Albeit, father
of St. George:
Verse 22. Sir Knight, thy lady bears a son,
Who, like a dragon bright,
Shall prove most dreadful to his foes,
And terrible in fight.
Verse 38. Fair as the sweetest flower of spring,
Such was his infant mien:
And on his little body stampt,
Three wonderous marks were seen.-
Verse 39. A blood-red cross was on his arm;
A dragon on his breast;
A little garter all of gold
Was round his leg expressed.
Verse 40. Three careful nurses we provide,
Our little lord to keep.
But the small boy disappears mysteriously, to the intense
grief of his father, and only reappears when he reaches man-
hood. His mother dies after giving birth through great suf-
fering to a Dragon!
From the Book of British Ballads (1842).
SYMBOLS AND CUSTOMS.
The Keltic hero, Cuchulinn, has been likened to Achilles,
but actually he is greater. The Greek hero displayed his pro-
wess like Cuchulinn, but was actuated by personal motives,
and revengeful intentions. Cuchulinn chose a short life for
the sake of his country, and he fought and suffered for it; the
conception of the Keltic deity is therefore higher.
The ghastly accounts of battle, so graphically described in
Irish literature pourtraying this legendary period, closely re-
semble in style those given in the Ramdyana and the Mahab-
Chariots are associated with this deifical being and his ex-
ploits, which is in keeping with Hindu traditions and epic tales.
These vehicles are a great feature in the Mahabhdrata War,
and charioteers often take a leading part. Chariots are also of
importance in the yet older epic, the Ramayana, when the
fierce contest between Rama and Ravana is taking place.
As a Boy-god who performs marvellous deeds at the age
of six, or seven years, Cuchulinn, apparently, is a form of
Eochu, corresponding to Kartikeya of India. Kartikeya ac-
complishes wonderful feats at the age of six, or seven days!
Cuchulinn seems to combine both Bird and Serpent. When
he shows himself as the Cuckoo he represents the first; and in
his character of the Feathered Serpent, in the second. But it
is combined symbolism, and Cuchulinn seems to be identical
with Peredur son of Lugh, both Serpents.
Apparently, Cuchulinn, or Kukil Can of the British Isles,
like Kukulcan of America, derived his name from the Sans-
krit Kakila, or Kokila, a name for the Cuckoo!
Kukulcan of the ToltecSj who preceded the Aztecs in
Mexico, is the Plumed Serpent, the word Can meaning
Not only is Cuchulinn remembered in -Scotland and Ire-
land, but also at Wareham, in Dorset, where the Cuckoo legend
has been handed down for centuries. This deity may also be
associated with Cuckmere, Cuckfield and Heathfield in Sussex.
A Cuckoo Fair is hefd annually at Heathfield, and the legend
relating to it tells of an Old Woman letting a Cuckoo fly out
from a Basket. The Basket, like the Corn Measure, has an alle-
gorical significance in India; it is the Yoni of the Creatress,
or Earth Mother, a simple, but beautiful conception founded
on the laws of Nature. The Cuckoo, in this case, probably
represents Spring, and all that goes with it.
The ancient Ball-game is still played in this country. At
St. Columb, in Cornwall, it is called Hurling, and is played
with a wooden Ball, covered with Silver. The game is thought
to have been part of a religious ceremony as the Ball is thrown
out of the church window. The ceremony takes place at
The Ball-game is played at Sedgefield, ten miles from Dur-
ham, and at several places in England and Scotland. It con-
tinues to be played with zest at Jedburgh (Gadburgh, town
of the Gadenii), and at the same time of year as at St. Co-
lumb. This season, Candlemas-tide, was probably the festival
of the Moon-god when the Ball-game was first introduced to
these parts. It was, and may still be played at Kirkwall, in
the Orkneys, and also at a place near Darmstadt, in Ger-
Kirkby Malzead, near Ripon, is another scene of the Ball-
game. Here the players wear Red and White jerseys. The game
used to be played in Derby, Dorking, Epsom and Bromfield
in Cumberland. Ashbourne, in Derbyshire, where I believe it
is still played, recalls the sacred Ash-tree, symbol of Light;
Epsom shows signs of connection with the Horse (Vishnu,
the Horse-headed One) ; Bromfield like Broomfield in Essex,
Bromley, in Kent; and Abbot's Bromley, or Paget's Bromley
in Staffordshire, relates to the Field of Brahma, first person
of the Hindu trinity. Thus the nomenclature of these places
associated with the Ball-game, obviously arises from Aryan
The Ball-game enters into American legend, and is asso-
ciated with the Rabbit (the Moon). It seems also to accord
with an Ossirian rite, but probably derived from India. What
evidence is there that the ceremony originated in Egypt?
Attention was drawn not very long ago to some Ball-play-
ing in a window in Gloucester Cathedral, and it was likened
to Golf. Such a subject as ball-playing is not likely to have
found a place in a sacred building unless some religious signi-
ficance had been attached to it. Probably, at one time it had
this character. At the funeral of the last Captain of the St.
Andrew's Golf Club, as on previous occasions of the kind,
draped Silver and Gold Golf balls, presented by generations
of members of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. An-
drew's were carried in the procession.
An allegorical Ball-game, or incident with a Ball is
described in the Adi Parva of the Mahdbharata. It is related
how the princes came out of the city and began to play with
a ball, and when they were thus playing the ball fell into a
well. The boys cannot get it out, and presently they see a
Brahmin approaching; he is Drona who after this event be-
comes their Preceptor. He says to them: Shame upon your
Kshatriya might, and on your skill in arms. The water of the
well had been dried up. Drona was a skilled archer, and had
a mighty bow, and quivers full of arrows with him. He offered
to help them, and threw down his Ring into the well. Then
taking a few grass-stalks, growing near, he sharpened the ends.
Putting one of them in his bow, he shot the improvised arrow
into the well; and it stuck fast to the Ball; he then sent down
a second piece of grass, and several more, and finally made a
chain long enough to raise the Ball and Ring to the sur-
face, using mantras, or chants beforehand in order to invest
the Grass with the virtue of weapons. Grass typifies Virile
These Kshatriya youths, typical of Young Manhood, are
the sons of Kunti, or Prithvi, the Earth Mother, and it looks
to me as if the whole account was allegorical. Drona is train-
ing them in the Science of Arms, of which he is Master. Drona
is a descendant of Brihaspati, Preceptor to the Aryan gods,
and Breas, or Bress of the Kelts appears to be his counterpart.
The Kaurava and Pandava princes seem to have been play-
ing a game similar to that played by Cuchulinn, and the
children of King Arthur. For the Indian game a wooden ball
was used, or a short stout stick which took the place of a ball.
One or other of these was struck with a wooden club of some
length, which is not unlike some descriptions of the Ball-game
in the British Isles, that at St. Columb, for instance, where
the ball is of wood, and that at Scone, the historic seat
of royalty, in Perthshire. At Scone, the ball was hit with a
club, made of brass, and called a hurly.
The village of Chilham in Kent has a legend which has
been under discussion recently. King Lucius is said to have
reigned at Chilham during the second century, A. D.; but
this does not seem a very probable date for the Sun-god, Lugh,
who, in all probability, is no other than King Lucius, or King
Lud. It seems more likely that Chilham was a shrine in honour
of Lugh, at a much earlier date, and that the syllable chil
is a rendering of Til, or Taltiu, the name of the foster-
mother of Lugh.
St. Peter's, Cornhill, was traditionally founded by this king,
as also Westminster Abbey. The legend appears to be a mytho-
logical, Romanized outlook for the founding of a temple on
this site by Lugh, the Sun-god, in pre-Roman times, for the
housing of Aryan deities. The chief of these deities, as regards
Westminster and St. Peter's, Cornhill, was probably Fal, or
Peredur, the son of Lugh.
There is much Aryan mysticism about Westminster, and
it was probably based on the highest idealism, according to the
Budh and IIS, Ida or Ira, the Indian Parents of Creation,
seem to find a reflection in Lugh, and his consort Ila, or Alain.
Pururava is the son of Budh, and Ayu is the son of Puru-
rava. Peredur is the son of Lugh, and Aife (with the F
silent) is the son of Peredur, or Cuchulinn, in more or less the
same allegorical setting.
Brahma, the Creator
Can, or Kian = Ethne (Tara) Soma, or Can = Tara
Lugh = Alain, or Ila Budh = Ila
Pururava is represented in some of the Vedic legends as
the Upper Fire-stick in the sacrament of Fire, the nymph
Urvasi is the Lower Fire-stick, and Ayu is the sacrificial Ghi,
or Melted Butter which is poured upon the Flames. All is alle-
gorical and full of meaning, and many beautiful legends are
woven around Pururava and Urvasi.
At Abbot's Bromley, during the Horn Dance, one of the
men taking part wears a White costume, such as might once
have been worn by a Druidical priest. This man carries a
Ladle, now used for collecting money. In ancient times it was
probably a sacrificial accessory for Fire ceremonies, coming
down to us in the form of a sacramental Spoon.
More than one kind of Ladle is used for this purpose in
India. It is the Sruva which seems to coincide with the one
carried in the Horn Dance. The Sruva is a cubit in length,
and is made of wood, with a double extremity, or two collateral
excavations. The Keltic Ladle would seem once to have been
a symbol of Brahma, like the other; it has the double ex-
tremity, and is to be seen in Bromley, in a religious procession,
on ground which, possibly at one time, was the Field of
Brahma. The man who takes it round wears something in the
nature of a priestly vestment, and the dance is distinctly as-
sociated with religious ceremonies of a pre-Christian period.
St. Nicholas, Patron Saint of Abbot's Bromley, or Bagotfs
Bromley, appears to have been a Son-god, and thus a form
of Brahma associated with Fire ceremonies. The dance, how-
ever, does not take place at the time of his festival, but early in
September. This is the time for Snake worship, and coincides
with a similar dance performed by the Navajo Indians in Ame-
rica, and with the festival of Snakes in India. Both the time
of year, and the serpentine character of the dance give this
impression. The festival in the Punjaub takes place in the zo-
diacal month of Aug: Sept:.
Many mythological beings are associated with the City of
London, and elsewhere, and these may be seen to this day,
their heads often adorned with Fruit and Flowers emblems
of the Fertility Cult.
In Copenhagen, not far from the King's palace, there is
an old building which was once the palace of a Count. This is
ornamented with Flowers and Fruit, but still more striking are
the Elephant-heads, the trunks encircling Fruit-pods. The Ele-
phant must once have been Ganesh, the Elephant-headed Ferti-
lity deity of India!
The London Stone, now outside the church of St. Swithin,
is of immense antiquity, and very little remains of it. This
pillarstone was a huge monolith at one time, and, in all pro-
bability, was looked upon as a habitation of the Sun-god, Lugh,
father, or husband of Themis, the river Thames.
Lugdunum, the Fort of London, is named after Lugh, or
Lug, also Ludgate where a hotel sign still exhibits the name of
King Lud. Lugh's name, in one or other of its various forms,
appears in many places throughout the country, including
Lydd, in Kent, Lydney, in Gloucestershire; and Lyddington,
in Rutlandshire; also in the surnames Lug and Lydiard.
Lugh, or Lot, is king of the mythical region of Lochlann.
In the old MS., the Battle of V entry, Lugh is called King of
the World ! It is related how Conn went to the palace of Lugh,
in the LandL of Sidh, outside of which was a Golden Tree.
Conn had never seen anyone so tall, and so beautiful as Lugh.
If Lugh and Budh are identical Lugh is part of Arthur
(Narayana) . The Indian Budh is part of Narayana who wields
the spiritual Sword for the dispelling of Darkness, and the
letting in of Light, intellectual as well as physical.
The Seven Stars of the Great Bear are the Seven Cele-
brated Rishis. This circumpolar constellation in the latitude
of London is the Plough-share, Charles 5 Wain, or Arthur's
Wain; and in the Indian Pur anas it represents the Seven
Rishis. The Wain is known in Sanskrit as Sakata, a Cart, or
Waggon. St. George, closely connected with these figures, and
with London, seems also to be associated in this setting with
the mythic character of Ploughman.
As a carved figure in Westminster Abbey St. Nicholas is
seen carrying a Baby in a Basket. May it not be that this Baby
is Lugh brought forward from an ancient legend in which he
is said to have been placed in a Basket at his birth, and thrown
into a river or the sea. (The Cosmic Waters). He is borne
by St. Nicholas, the Patron Saint of Children, who is possibly
his father, Eochu, the counterpart of Kartikeya, Guardian
deity of little Children, and Babies.
This is definitely a Fertility allegory, and the Basket is
the Receptacle of the Earth Mother, containing the human
The Serpent deity, Peredur (Sir Perceval) corresponds with
Cuchulinn in some respects, and is probably another form of
the same deity. Pururava is a king, and so may Peredur have
been in an allegorical sense. He wears a golden Tore round
his neck indicating that he is a deity, otherwise, an ideal being,
but not a god in the sense that we understand the word God.
The Abbey contains an allegorical figure of a bearded man
in armour, over which are the Mass vestments. This image is
said to represent All Hallows; and it occurs twice in the Abbey.
This allegorical representation of a Priest-Warrior is not often
seen. In an Aryan light the Priest- Warrior is both a Brahmin
and a Kshatriya, a member 'of the first two main castes of
Hindu India. Agni is a Priest- Warrior, and a member of both
Peredur, apparently, is the son of Lugh (Mercury), the
son of Ethne (Tara, Venus), the daughter of Vran, the Ocean,
corresponding to Pururava, who is the son of Budh (Mercury),
the son of Tara (Venus), the daughter of Varuna, the Ocean.
Among the Kelts the Seed is allegorized as the Apple, and
Avallach, or Avalon, is the Apple Orchard containing the
symbolic Fruit; it is the Holy Grail in a Fertility aspect, Tir-
nan-Og, or the Land of the Ever- Young.
In India Brahma, the Creator, is the Seed, or Fructifier.
The Apple-tree in Europe is a reflection of the sacred Jambu-
tree; and Avallach of Avaloka. Avaloka, or Avalohana is the
act of Seeing, or Looking into; and I think the connection may
be noticed in regard to Eve in the Garden of Eden. When she
tasted the Apple her eyes were opened, and the same know-
ledge came to her as to Gwion Bach in the Land of the Kelts,
when he dipped his fingers into the Cauldron of Keridwen
(the Holy Grail) and tasted of the Seeds of Knowledge. But
in the case of Eve the Fruit was forbidden because the ac-
count is not being given by Aryans, but by the religious body
holding the Judaic faith, that which replaced Aryanism in
Palestine in the same way as Christianity replaced Aryanism
among the Kelts.
As the Seed, or Fructifier Brahma is represented by Phala.
The Keltic deity, Fal, who was the occupant of the Stone of
Destiny at Tara, is probably a representation of Phala, or
The Abbey of Westminster is said to be on the site of a
temple to Apollo. It may have been this to the Romans, but
before their time the presiding deity was probably Fal, called
Phol on the Continent, and of whom Apollo is the Greek form.
Fal must have been known in the British Isles long before
Apollo had any deifical existence. Fal may have evolved into
St. Paul in later times as frequently we find St. Peter and
St. Paul united. Westminster Abbey is dedicated to St. Peter,
and the Cathedral of London (distinct from Westminster), to
St. Paul. Fala, a combined parish with Soutra in Midlothian,
is probably a shrine in honour of Fal, whose Stone of Destiny
followed him to England. St. Peter and St. Paul are the Patron
Saints of the church at North Curry, in Somerset, as in many
other instances, also of the old church at Baden-Baden in
the Black Forest, amidst Keltic and Druidic surroundings.
Near to the church is the Drachengasschen (Dragon's Lane).
Fal and Peredur are two forms of Brahma, the Son, if they
are the Aryan Phala and Pururava.
In the early Keltic versions of the Grail legend Vran, the
Fisher king, is Guardian of the Sanct Greal, corresponding to
Varuna of India, who is Guardian of the Cosmic Ocean.
Both Vran and Varuna sometimes appear as triple-faced.
Varuna, who possesses a name mentioned among those of the
Naga tribes, is Regent of the West, and in mythological spheres,
he is Lord of all Seas, Rivers, Streams and Oceans; and his
consort, Varuni, is Queen of the Aqueous Empire.
Ripon, in Yorkshire, is called Rhypum in the Chronicles
of the Venerable Bede. At Boroughbridge, about three miles
away, there are three huge Druidical pillars in the form of
Arrows, and with legends of the Car Deisal, or Way of the
Sun, attaching to them. The Sun-wise passage is represented
by the Swastika symbol of the Nagas.
Following an ancient custom, a Horn is blown from the
Four Corners of the Market-place in Ripon by the Wakeman
at nine o'clock when the Curfew Bell is ringing from the cathe-
dral. Four Corners, or Four views of the universe are con-
nected with the Hindu Brahma. He is sometimes given Four
Faces, as the only way of representing the outlook in stone,
The venerable edifice at Ripon is both a cathedral, and a
minster, and is dedicated to St. Peter and St. Wilfred, the
former being the earlier dedication. Until quite recently Apples
used to be given during service time to the congregation in
the cathedral on Boxing Day at the Yule-tide season.
Vran, or Bran, grandfather of Peder, or Peredur, is Lord
of the Knowledge-giving Salmon; and both the cathedral of
St. Peter at Ripon, and the Abbey of St. Peter at Westminster
have Salmon legends attaching to them.
Aillil, (Alain or Peredur) casts a Ring into the water, and
it is swallowed by a Salmon.
Peredur, or Fal seems to have been the central figure of a
Druidic settlement at Westminster, on which site the Abbey
now stands, and also the church of St. Margaret, whose em-
blem is a Dragon.
A drawing dating back to the thirteenth century, and re-
presenting St. Christopher bearing the Holy Child across the
stream, has been discovered recently in the Abbey; the Child
is holding an Apple.
During the age-old Coronation ceremonies in Westminster
Abbey the ritual includes the king's visit to the Four Corners
of the Theatre, an action full of Aryan significance; and it
may not be irrelevant to quote the following from the Ma-
The great Pururava held sway over thirteen islands of
the sea. The Paurava line was descended from Pururava,
and the founder was King Dushmanta, gifted with great
energy. And he was the protector of the earth bounded by
the four seas. And that king had sway over the four quarters
of the world. And he was lord also of various regions in the
midst of the sea.
The shrine which may have preceded the Abbey of St.
Peter at Westminster was probably dedicated to Peredur, as a
form of Brahma the Creator. A temple to Brahma must have
a door on all four sides the Four Doors of the Sky. This
might explain the mystery (as it is at present) of the ritual of
the Four Corners which takes place at the Coronation cere-
mony for British kings.
The most solemn part of the Coronation service and the
oldest is the Sacring. or Hallowing of the king, or possibly,
in his earliest form, the Priest-king. This ancient ritualistic
*) See Adi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata, Section Ixviii.
practice suggests that at some remote period, the British king
was also a Priest.
During the Sacring the king is divested of his mantle, under
which is a suit of White Satin; the Colobium Sindonis is
slipped over this. It is a vesture of fine, white cambric, or
lawn, without sleeves, or with short sleeves, fastening with
three buttons on the shoulder.
The Aryan conception of a New spiritual Birth seems to
be the import of this part of the ceremony. The garment is
actually in the form of the Robe of an Infant.
The crowning over the sacred Stone of Fal, who had to
do with the destiny of Kings, and who, apparently, emerged
from the Indian Phala, shows once more the non-existence
of a sharp dividing line between Past, Present and Future,
or between one form of religion and another.
The Hindu Coronation ceremony is described in the
Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, so it is small wonder that
our ceremony should be recognized as of such immense anti-
quity. This Indian account is translated by Martin Haug, and
there is also a description in the Agni Purana; the Vedic
formula is very elaborate.
That the throne at Westminster should have the feet of a
Lion is another indication of the Aryan origin of the cere-
mony, although in rather later times the royal thrones of Egypt,
Assyria, Babylonia, Chaldea and Persia and other Eastern
countries were all provided with Lions' feet. The Sinhasa,
or royal seat in the Hindu ceremonies is made of Gold, and
Sinha is a Sanskrit word for Lion. The royal Sceptre is a
Rajadanda (the Rod of Yama) indicating Dharma, or Religi-
ous Law. From this may have been produced our word Rod.
Mace is probably a corruption of Musala, the Pestle in
regard to a Pestle and Mortar, and an attribute of Siva. The
Curtana, the chief of the Three Swords brought for the Coro-
nation at Westminster, or wherever it is held, is the Sword of
Mercy, and has a similar name to the Sanskrit word Kartana
(pronounced curtana). This word is derived from the Sans-
krit root Kart-to cut; in ancient times the Kartana was not a
Sword of Mercy, apparently, but a weapon used for human
sacrifice. This, however, seems to be the origin of the English
In former times the Curtana was carried on these occasions
by the Earls of Chester; and it is worth while to notice that
the ancient city of Chester was known at one time by the purely
Sanskrit name of Deva, which means God.
The English word Vestment may owe its origin to the
Sanskrit Vasa, meaning to clothe. Our word rites has more
than probably emanated from Rita, wife of Dyus Pitara, the
Sky-god. Dis Pater was the Keltic name for Dyus Pitara. Rita,
personifying the Laws of Nature, is Sarasvati.
At Scottish coronation ceremonies a genealogical recitation
formed part of the proceedings; and in olden times this may
also have taken place in England. A genealogical recitation in
regard to both the ancestries of the bride and bridegroom
formed part of the marriage ceremonials in ancient India ( Vide
the Ramdyana, Book I., describing Rama's marriage) and it
is still in vogue amongst the higher castes of Hindus.
Peredur, Aillil and Cuchulinn, apparently one personality,
possess symbolic Rings. At the Coronation ceremony in West-
minster Abbey the King is presented with a Ring which be-
comes his own personal property. This Ring has one large
Sapphire, and four long-shaped Rubies, encircled with Dia-
monds; the colours are therefore Red, White and Blue. The
design is a Cross within a Circle which is known as the Cross
of St. George; and allegorically is the Ring of the Priest-
Warrior, Defender of the Faith!
These were the colours which Sir Perceval (Peredur) saw
in a vision on the summit of a mountain, when pursuing his
quest for the Holy Grail. They are the colours of the Serpents
of Vasuki's race, but, apparently, not of all the Serpent tribes,
and clans. Vasuki was a Serpent king of the Netherworld
(Patala), and Red, White and Blue are the colours of the
great Mother in her anatomical aspect.
Eochu, priest-king at Tara, received a Ring from his priest-
ly father, Breas, who, himself, received one from his father.
The symbolic Ring of Kentigern is still to be seen in the
Glasgow coat-of-arms in company with a Bird, a Bell, a Tree
and a Fish.
It is stated in Indian writings that Ila is both father and
mother of Pururava,*) and also that he is the son of Budh
and Ila. There is a purely mythological tale about Ila's change
of sex from a Man to a Woman.**) It seems probable that
Alain, Aila or Ila of the Kelts is herself the Holy Grail. In
India Aila is the son of Ila. Grail may once have been Ail,
or Ailam because G and Gr sometimes creep in at the
beginning of a Gaelic word. This may have happened in the
case of Aine and Grainne.
Aila means the son of Ila, and Aida means the son of
Ida, the same personality. The Keltic counterpart of Pururava
as Aida may be Peredur as Aed, or Aidan, the Fiery Torch.
When the Aryan religion was replaced by Christianity it
may be that the apostle Peter, with a similar name, caused a
blending of the two religions, when the Abbot Melitus was
instructed from papal headquarters to erect Christian churches
on the sites of the old shrines.
Southern Scotland and Northern England had much inter-
religious association. Pedwell, in Northumberland, near Nor-
ham-on-Tweed, is still known for the service which takes place
annually at the commencement of the salmon fishery, when
the net is cast upon the swirling waters of the Tweed ; Ped-
well is manifestly named after Peredur, or Peder. The Percy-
lieu Stone, originally at the Salmon Well, Hillhead of Clatt,
Aberdeenshire, is incised with Fish and Horseshoe symbols,
and seems to combine the names of both Peredur and Lugh.
The English word Feather appears to have come from
the name of Peredur, the Son-god. Gill Pheadair in Galloway
is translated Kil Feather, the Shrine of Peter.
Sir Herbert Maxwell explains Castle Feather in Whithorn
as Peter's Castle. The Abbey of Whithorn is in Glen Luce,
*) Adi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata, Section Ixxv.
**) See Matter, Myth and Spirit*, pp. 39, 40.
Wigtonshire, and is one of the oldest ecclesiastical centres in
the British Isles, but at the Reformation the Abbot and his
community were driven out and killed, and all records were,
destroyed. The name Luce seems to be derived from that
Castle Feather suggests a parallel with Featherstone Castle
in Northumberland which has Druidical stones at its gateway.
In the vicinity of Featherstone is Proudy Hill, apparently
traditional as it is the scene of Beacon Fires on festive oc-
casions; the name might be a corruption of Peredur.
The old family of Fetherston, or Fetherstonhaugh, have
Three Feathers in their coat-of-arms. These Feathers of Pere-
dur, the allegorical Son-god, evidently became in much later
times those of the Prince of Wales, heir to the British throne.
Kilpeter in South Uist, Hebrides, also indicates association
with Peter, or Peredur; and another shrine to this mythic
character evidently existed in Kilpeter in Renfrewshire. This
place joined the parish of Kilallan, thus uniting in nomen-
clature, and possibly in worship, the deities, Ila and her son,
In Lothbury, one of the streets of Lugh's town (London),
and with a Keltic name embodying that of Lugh, there was
found an ancient Silver Bowl which may be allied, mytho-
logically, to the Silver Cauldron brought by the Picts, or Pitts
The Silver bowls of a sacred nature in Pictland have a
counterpart in the huge Gundestrup Bowl which was dis-
covered in Jutland and which is now in the Danish National
Museum in Copenhagen. This great silver vessel may have
obtained its name from the Sanskrit Kunda, a sacrificial Bowl.
It is embossed with mythological representations, and by kind
permission of the Museum authorities, I am able to show the
details of two of the plaques on this ancient Cauldron.
The deifical figure on these plaques is thought to be Cer-
nunnos, and it is suggested that he represents the Sky-god. It
seems more probable, however, that Cernunnos, as seen, on
this bowl, is Herne, the Hunter, with whom he is sometimes
Dorothea Chaplin 6
identified. The observations in regard to the figures on these
plaques made by my Indian correspondent, Mr. Palit, have
helped me towards the conclusion that a divine Hunter is the
more likely aspect, although both are forms of Siva.
The figure in Plaque 1. on the Gundestrup Bowl is sitting
on the ground, in oriental fashion, with the left leg bent like
the right one, but a little more extended. The right leg is bent
with the toes touching the inner aspect of the lower calf. Both
arms are bent at the elbows with the forepart of the arm raised,
the hands being on a level with the shoulders. The figure is
holding two objects. Within the clenched fist of the right hand
is a circular symbol; and in the left, a Serpent; round the neck
is a Tore, indicating divinity. The face is oval and clean-shaven
with the lips closed, the whole countenance showing a peaceful
and contemplative attitude, or meditative mood. The hair ap-
pears to be arranged in coils, or matted strands which cover
a portion of the forehead. Two straight horns with six branches
on each appear to have protruded from the matted hair on
the top of the head. The two horns of the stag close by are of
similar height, and also have six branches. The artist may have
caused the stag, standing close to the figure, purposely to
resemble the deity in order to indicate a close affinity between
The figure is clothed in a close-fitting striped garment,
with a girdle round the waist. The Ring is furnished with two
heads, and is rather like the anklets worn by women in Upper
India; it appears to be serpentine in character, the two heads
furnishing two knob-like ends, one probably male, and the
On the right hand of the figure above the stag is an ante-
lope, fashioned like a horse; and which possibly has a double
meaning. It has a mane, two horns and a long tail with a
chain, or rope hanging in front.
On the left of the figure is a boar with unnaturally long
legs, and either claws, or paws instead of hoofs, suggesting
the intermixture of a Wolf symbol; the tail is long and rope-
like. The boar, like the stag on the left, is looking rather af-
fectionately at the figure, and is close to it. Just above is a
tiger in the attitude of stalking some quarry, with his mouth
gaping. In front of the tiger is an unclothed boy riding bare-
backed on a dolphin; his hair is in the same style as that
of the sitting figure. In front of the boy is another antelope,
similar to the one on the other side. Below these figures are
two lions, heavily maned on the breast, facing each other in a
semi-rampant position, but in a playful mood. The background
is decorated with what may be intended for a Lotus in triads,
as each group, consisting of three buds, is surrounded by water.
The animal above the serpent is distinctly a boar with bris-
tles on its back, and a snout which has an indication of one
tush, just above the nose, although the legs and feet are not
those of a boar.
The naked boy riding on the dolphin looks like a type of
one of the followers, or attendants of Siva.
Taking the picture as a whole it seems to represent Siva,
in Keltic form, in the attitude of an ascetic, in his manifes-
tation of Pasupati, or Lord of Beasts. The animals here pour-
trayed are those which live on land in water, and on swampy
ground; there are grass-eaters, flesh-eaters and mixed-eaters
The second plaque with its frolicsome animals, apparently
also represents Cernunnos. In Fig. 2 he appears to be deeply
sunk in meditation, and to be making a mudra gesture. The
oriental character of this representation is emphasized by the
two conventional animals like elephants, and by the two
The picture of Cernunnos, in Fig. 1, embossed on the
Gundestrup Bowl, is a replica of that in Sir John Marshall's
book on Mohenjo Daro, in Sind. As a picture it is precisely the
same, although the style of the drawing differs considerably,
and here the elephants are unmistakable. It is to be seen fairly
frequently at several places in Southern India.
A carving at Rheims, in Northern France, depicts Cernun-
nos in the cross-legged attitude of an ascetic, with Horns, Tree,
Deer and Bull, five attributes of Siva. Cernunnos, in Keltic
regions, seems to take the form of the Great Hunter, or Lord
of Beasts, Siva.
Taltiu was the daughter of the great and good Magh Mor,
and the latter personage, although represented as a male deity,
has a name which sounds as if it might have emanated from
Mahamaya. The name of Taltiu may be perceived in one or
two places not far from London, the town of Lugh, her foster-
Tilaburg (the Free Town of Tila) is the old name for Til-
bury and is derived from Taltiu ; and Tilty, in Essex, is called
after this goddess. The present old church of St. Mary, at
Tilty, is on a very ancient site; it is a small chapel which was
formerly a hostel for student-pilgrims, thus it would appear to
have been a pre-Christian settlement, at one time, with Taltiu
as the presiding deity.
In County Meath, Ireland, there was formerly a place cal-
led Teilte, a seat of royalty. This place was famous for its
great Lammas Fair, held about the first of August (Lammas-
tide). This was one of the four festivals of the Sun-god, Lugh.
In Truro, Cornwall, there is a Lammas Street, and also a
Lunar Terrace, names one does not meet with in non-Keltic
There is a town called Lugh in Italian Somaliland, the
name corresponding precisely with that of the British form of
Mercury. It is also found as a Sanskrit word, as an alternative
to Laghu*} but whether there is any connection between
Laghu and Budh of India, I do not know.
Lugh is on the river Juba, close to the Abyssinian border.
J and Y, also B and V being interchangeable Juba
emerges as the same word as the Sanskrit Yuva! Two more
names in this African region suggests Sanskrit origin, Mongalle
and Sudan. There is an island called Mingala in the parish of
Barra, in the Outer Hebrides; and that, and the African
Mongalle might be derived from Mangala (Mars), a form of
Kartikeya and Skanda. Then, as regards Sudan, Sudha is
the (celestial?) food of the Nagas; it is also the beverage of the
gods, which places the Nagas in a high position! Sudhansu
is the Moon as the repository of Nectar. Sudha may be the
origin of Sudan, and also of the British surname Soddy.
Egypt is believed by some Indians to have been part of
Bharatavarsha,*) and it is thought possible that the Nile was
sacred to Nila Sarasvati (the Blue Sarasvati). The Nile was
called Hafi at some ancient period. At the present time the
sacred river Ganges has sixteen names, and it is quite possible
that the Nile had two at the same time.
If the semi-mythical Taliessin is correct the early Cymric
people came from Asia, not from Egypt, and there are many
signs that he was right.
That part of the African continent which contains the Zim-
babwe ruins, Mashonaland in Southern Rhodesia, appears to
be older than Egypt, as Egypt; possibly it is older than India.
One may notice that Scotland has a Glen Affric, and the
Isle of Man, a Princess Afreeca. As P and F are inter-
changeable in the British Isles, it suggests a like transformation
in regard to the name Africa, because that continent was
formerly called Aparica, a name composed of two Sanskrit
Glen Affric is mentioned in old Gaelic records as Affaric,
*) See Sir Monier William's Sanskrit Dictionary.
To the South Australian aboriginal apa means water,
and all may be connected in the far-off past with Apah, or
Narayana in feminine form, the Cosmic Ocean.
Narayana, as Apah, or Mahamaya, seems to have been the
ulterior inspiration for the South Australian word, the name
of the continent of Africa, an ethereal princess in the Isle of
Man and a forest, glen, loch and river in Scotland !
The meaning of Narayana is One whose abode is on
Water; but Water in this connection is not the composite
liquid known by the chemical formula of H20, but is the
Primordial Cause of the Cosmos, personified by the female
aspect of Brahm, the One and only God.
The name Somaliland resembles that of Sumali, uncle of
the notorious Ravana of the Ramdyana who made adventurous
militant expeditions into the outer world. A tribe called
Sumallika is mentioned in the Bhishma Parva of the
Vasuki is sometimes referred to as King of the Nagas and
sometimes as King of the Pannagas. The legal word pannages
may be allied to the word Pannaga, of Sanskrit literature. From
Pannaga may have come into being the place-name Penge
and, as regards the first syllable, the surname Pankhurst.
Besides Vasuki, the following are all mentioned as
Naga names, Pingala, Nila, Karkotaka, Ugraka and Venin,
showing the importance of the Nagas in very early times.
Venin may be compared to Venom.
It seems probable that the Shoshonee, or Snake tribes of
America took their name from the Aryan Sesha, or Shesha,
King of the Serpent race. According to Sanskrit writings
Brahma, the Creator, persuaded Sesha to pass through the
earth in order to reach Patala (the Netherworld), and this may
have been a mythological way of describing a journey to the
Antipodes. Sesha was adjured by Brahma, to support the earth,
and this mythological suggestion may have indicated emigra-
tion, and attention to the welfare of the sons of Earth, in this
case the new settlers in Patala. (America?).
The Shoshonee tribe was a very large one, the parent of
many North American tribes and clans. The State of Okla-
homa, which seems to have derived its name from the Sanskrit
language, includes a place of the name of Tulsa seemingly
obtained from the sacred Tulsi, or Basil-plant of India. Tulasi
is looked upon as one of the wives of Vishnu. What is the
origin of Tulse Hill, in London?
The Nagas, looked upon as treasure-hunters, may have
given us our word nugget, more particularly so as the hunt
was for gold!
These proprietors of the Swastika emblem seem also to have
done some work in Fiji as recently a giant monolith has been
brought to light on one of the islands of the Fiji group; and
Swastikas, four inches deep, are incised upon this great relic
of the past.
There is plenty of evidence of Naga footsteps both in
America and in the British Isles, through place-names, and
also through the study of sacred animals and other symbols
associated with them.
Achil Island in County Mayo, Ireland, the Ochil Hills in
Scotland and the Welsh place-name Uchil are thought to
be derived from the same root; they all resemble the Sanskrit
word Akhil (Akhila), which means A11, or the Universe.
It may be that the surname Baldwin originates from the
Keltic god, Balder; that Loth, Louth and Lowther are
the result of the Aryan habit of deriving names from a deity,
and that they emanated from that of Lugh, or Loth; Shar-
man from Shaman, or Saman (Yama) ; Chaundy and
Cundy from the Moon-god Chand, or Can, and so on. The
Irish surname Ram may be derived from the Indian Ram, or
Rama; Ramsbury, in Wiltshire, suggests the borough of Ram;
and more significant still is Ram's Island off County Wexford,
in Ireland. There was a Rama tribe in South America, I do
not know whether it is still in existence.
The name of Puloman, a Danava, might be linked with
that of the English family of Pulman. According to some ac-
counts, Puloman is the father of Suchi, wife of Indra, and who
is Queen of the Celestials. The surname Such may owe its
origin to Suchi.
Morris, as a surname as well as a kind of dance, may
have evolved from Marut, of whom Indra, King of the gods,
is the Leader. The church at Abbot's Bromley, with its dedi-
cation to St. Nicholas, suggests a connection with the Maruts
through the Deer emblem.
In the Journal of the Folk-dance and Song Society (Vol.11,
1935) there is a report of a lecture by Miss V. Alford in which
the lecturer makes the statement that: We may accept without
question the derivation of 'Morris' from 'Morisca'. Later on in
her lecture she says that the Christians and Moors did not turn
into the Morris Dancers of Hijar, but the dancers into Chris-
tians and Moors, and this some time after the re-conquest of
Tcruel in 1711.
Miss Alford tells us that the Santa Oriosa dancers repudiate
the name of Moors, yet she says: They are Morris Dancers
if ever there were any, and they are attached, not to a fight,
but to a miracle-working, pre-Christian goddess. Why then
should MorrLs be derived from Morisca which is a word
denoting Spanish Mahomedans of Moorish origin? It will be
remembered that Mahomedans entirely disapprove of anything
in the nature of a goddess. Therefore the theory does not seem
very consistent. The battle between the Moors and the Chri-
stians is probably a late form of a very ancient ceremony of
From whence originated the names Montmartre and
Martres? Montmartre, on the outskirts of Paris, is a district
full of legendary tradition.
At Martres, near Toulouse, there is a sacred Well where
it is customary to bathe the eyes. This well is dedicated to St.
Vidian whose image, in the Aryan fashion, is immersed in
water on certain occasions. Who is St. Vidian, possibly allied
to St. Vigean of the British Isles, who is also the proprietor of
a Healing Well?
The Druids of old divided themselves into three sections
among whom were the Physicians. These doctors were called
Vaids,*) and with this name we may compare the Indian
word Vaidya which, to this day, is an appellation of the Hindu
physician, in Bengal. Siva, mythologically, is Vaidyanath, or
Lord of Physicians.
The Vaidyas were represented at the International Congress
of Medicine, held in London in 1913, by Mr S. M. Mitra.** )
His paper covered the Ayurvedic system for the whole of India,
which, though veiled in Mythology, includes valuable
medicines, from the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms,
and would be a great asset to our own.
Is it not probable that Vaid is a contraction of Vaidya,
and that the names Vidian and Vigean are allied to it?
A Mirror is the invariable accompaniment of the Morris
Dances together with Ribbons and Bells. I have heard no
suggestion as to the signification of the Mirror. In India it is
the sure cognisance of Gauri, second wife of Siva.
The Morris Dancers are more particularly connected with
Siva if these are in the nature of Fire festivals. Their colours,
Red and White, are those of Agni, of Siva's family, and they
carry the emblem of Siva's second wife, Gauri, Durga, Uma or
Parvati. Basques used to dance Morris Sword dances at St.
Sebastian, and later on higher up, in a more remote region.
They wore Red and White for these dances.
Among the many incised stones in the county of Morayshire
in Scotland four were found on the promontory of Burghead,
and on these there are Bulls of conventional design which bear
a striking resemblance to the Bull Nandi, vehicle of Siva.
Burghead used to be called by the Pictish name of the Broch;
and, apparently it can vie with any part of Scotland as regards
antiquity. At least two of these stones with Bull carvings are
preserved in museums, one in Burghead, and one in Edinburgh
in the Museum of Antiquities. The Mirror is also seen in the
neighbourhood of Burghead, and surely a symbolic link must
exist between this and the Bull, allegorically representing the
emblems of Gauri and Siva.
*) See Toland's History of the Druids* (1813).
**) See Congress Reports (Hodder and Stoughton).
The Clavie ceremony, a festival of the dim and distant
past, but carried on at the present day, makes a most impressive
picture as one stands on the hillock overlooking Dourie Mound
where the altar is situated. Photos taken on the mound itself
are not nearly so effective.
The Fire on the Altar flares up brilliantly, and finally
the blazing tar-barrel rolls down the hill, while the inhabitants
snatch lighted faggots from the flames, for luck! Burghead is
not the only place where this custom was in vogue; it was also
kept in some parts of England; but on the promontory on the
Moray Firth, close to the water it produces a remarkable scene
with the Beacon Fire visible for miles around from both sea
The Bulls, the New Fire, for which no match may be used,
when it is lighted, and many other signs on the Broch point
to a former connection with Siva worship.
Many places in England with the prefix Brock possess
churches dedicated to St. Peter. Brockhall, or Brockhole, in
the hundred of Nobottle-grove, Northamptonshire, for instance,
and Lee-Brockhurst, in Suffolk. Broxash, Herefordshire, has
an ancient church dedicated to St. Peter, who was also the
Patron Saint of a church near Burghead. Brooke, in the soke
of Oakham, has a chapel of St. Peter; also Brooke in the
hundred of Clavering, in Norfolk, the place-name indicating
association with the Clavie ceremony.
Brockthrop, Brookrup, or Brookthrop in Gloucestershire,
unite the two forms of the word broch and brook, and
the surnames corresponding to these are probably also of
The ancient stone Circles called the Clava Cairns, are to
be found near Nairn, and Burghead. It will be remembered
that the Earls of Cawdor are associated by Shakespeare with
this district, and the Clava circles. Cador sprang to horse as
spark does to Fire,*) and was probably once the allegorical
figure of Eochu, or Kartikeya, who sprang from Fire.
*) Layamon's Brut, 214812.
Near the village of Lumphanan (Llanfinnan), twenty-
seven miles from Aberdeen, is the Well of Macbeth, and the
Cairn of Macbeth is on the slope of Perkhill, less than a mile
South-West of Lumphanan. Macbeth appears to be an alle-
gorical figure also.
The Macbeths, or Bethunes, hereditary physicians in the
Western Isles, are one of the oldest families in Burghead, on the
other side of Scotland!
Dunsinane, in Perthshire, connected by Shakespeare with
Macbeth, is a great prehistoric hill-fort on the Sidlaw Hills, a
name suggesting the Land of Sidh.
Farther South, in the valley of the Manor Water, five miles
from Peebles, is an ancient British fort called Macbeth's Castle.
On the top is a rock-basin of the kind connected with Healing;
and thus there is a chain of evidence to proclaim the dominance
of one religious community in pre-Christian times throughout
the British Isles, and beyond them.
Peterhead, in the district of Buchan in Aberdeenshire is
the most easterly town in Scotland, a situation which may have
caught the attention of the imaginative Picts. Apparently, it
was named after Peredur, who in these islands merged into the
form of St. Peter. In 1560, Peterhead was a small fishing vil-
lage, and the peninsula on which it stands originally belonged
to the Abbey of Deer.*)
There is a well at Peterhead which is said to contain a
greater quantity of Muriate of Iron than any other spring
water which has as yet been discovered; nevertheless, in these
days, the well is disused, dirty and well-nigh forgotten.
When from a prehistoric point of view one looks at Britain
as a whole, and not merely in sections, one is struck by the
prevalence of mythological names, and of their connection with
one another in widely different areas. Take Peterhead, for in-
stance, and this particular well, which is called the Wine Well.
It is one of the Six Wonders of Buchan, and may be compared
*) See An Historical Account of Peterheack, by James Arbuthnot, Jun.
with the legendary history of the small river Alan in the South-
West corner of Wales. Tradition tells how the symbolic Wine
of the gods flowed through the bed of this sacred stream !
The Wine Well at Peterhead, named after Peder, or
Peredur, was apparently regarded in ancient times as con-
taining a divine beverage; and the allegorical stream in Wales,
containing the Wine of the gods, is obviously framed Alan after
Ila, the mother of Peredur. Peredur is Alain, or Aila, the son
of Ila who corresponds to the Indian Ila (Lakshmi). Ila is
the great Earth Mother, the Ail, or Grail? A mythological as-
sociation between Peterhead and St. David's seems fairly
evident. The Sanskrit word Ila, Ira, or Ida means Earth,
Wine and Water, and Aila probably gave us our word
Ale This national drink enters into many an old English
There is a church dedicated to St. Peter at Allendale, in
Northumberland. This place stands on a hill on the eastern
bank of the river Allen, and there are numerous signs of
springs in the neighbourhood. As regards nomenclature, North-
umbria may be associated with Umbria, in Italy*) and Om-
bersley, in Worcestershire,**) and all of them with Uma, or
Gauri, forms of the Mother Goddess.
A church at Ashby-Parva, in Leicestershire, and another at
Ayott-St. Peter, or Ayott-Parva, in Hertfordshire, have St. Peter
as their Patron Saint. Parva is Sanskrit but, in this case, may
be a corruption of Peredur, as it is an alternative to Peter.
St. David, in the form of Dewi Sant, appears to be a fol-
lower of the great Aryan Mother. His father is said to be
Sanddhe, and it looks as if the families of Sanders, Sanderson
and Shand may have had Sanddhe as their tribal, or deifical
The Leek, or Luce, a Welsh national symbol, and also that
of one of the Welsh regiments, may be connected with Lugh,
or Luce. Sanddhe ordered the soldiery to place a Leek in their
*) See p. 62.
**) See p. 11.
caps, and this action had some allegorical significance. The
Leek, or Daffodil, represents Light, or the Rising Sun, and
produces David, the Rosy Dawn of Day, and the Dawn of
One may compare Sanddhe and the Leek with the Indian
Sandhya. This Sanskrit word literally means the Juncture of
Night with Day, and of Day with Night. Sandhya is a name
for the goddess Durga, but when applied to this deity the word
stands for Morning and Evening Prayers.
In consideration of the fact that Sanddhe's men are told
to don the Leek, or Light of Day, it looks as if .Sanddhe is the
personification of these Junctures; and that his son, David, is
the personal representative of the Dawn of a New Under-
standing, in the learned ecclesiastical centre which afterwards
took his name.
St. David was born in an allegorical manner; his mother
evidently personifying the Cosmic Waters in the form of the
Spring of St. Non. This is the traditional birth-place of David,
near of kinne to the worthy Arthur, King of England. St.
Non may be Anne, Annet or Grainne, goddess of sacred
Springs, the word goddess being purely allegorical, and in
no way usurping the claims of monotheism.
Muni (St. Non?) is the sister of Aditi, mother of the Adi-
tyas, and, in the form of Anne, she is the aunt, or sister of
Morgan le Fay is the sister of Anne, or the same personality.
The Welsh name Morgan represented a clan in Aberdeen-
shire, and this Clan Morgan is mentioned in the Book of Deer.
The families of Sandlands and Sandilands may have formed
a clan in the distant past, and may have derived their name
from Sandiliya, and not from any geographical description.
There is a Sandiliya gotra, or clan in India, derived from a
famous sage of that name, to which many Brahmins, and a
few Kshatriyas of Bengal belong. Sandiliya is the father of
Hutasana (Hu, the Mighty, of Wales?).
Members of the Clan Allan (believed to be the Stuarts)
are of royal lineage since time immemorial, and once may have
claimed descent from the Great Mother, Ila.
The Aila dynasty of India swelled into gigantic propor-
tions, and some of their offspring may have formed the Clan
Scotland is teeming with names of a mythological character.
The river Cree, or Chree runs through the South-west corner
of it, Sree, or Shree is Lakshmi, goddess of Prosperity, from
whom evolved Ceres. The British surname Cree, and the Cree
Indians in Canada may have received their names from the
same source. The river Cree in Galloway may once have been
sacred, impersonating Sree, goddess of Fortune; and one of her
shrines may have been at Ceres, in Fife.
Minnigaff, of great antiquity, on the Cree, may have der-
ived the first part of its name from Muni. All these signs of this
deity in place-names, may be connected with the multiplicity
of links in other directions. The Cree flows through Minnigaff
and Newton Stewart where Lammas-tide is still observed.
Irvine, on the Ayrshire coast, has an annual Fair of great
age, and the place was probably named after Erbin, or Ervin,
grandson of Lugh.
The Trostan Moors are reminiscent of Trystram, or
Drustan, associated with Mayfield, in Sussex, and probably also
with Mayfield in this district. Here is Ellisland, the Land of
Ila, consort of Lugh, also Sweetbit and Sweetheart Abbey.
The neighbourhood of Moniaive and Dumfries is rich in
prehistoric remains, and the Roman camp at Tibber has
retained its /?n?-Roman name. Arthur's Seat, Lotus Hill,
Arthur's Loch and Beeswing village are all situated on the
stretch of land between Glasgow and the Solway Firth; Car-
gan's Pow (Cargan's Head), Cattan's Loaning and Dun Cow
village are not far away.
Crossmichael and Borgue are in the South of Galloway;
the latter, a village in Kirkcudbright, is described as Tara's
mighty boro', but I was unable to discover anything more
relating to this description.
If one delves deep into the sources of personal and place-
names while bearing in mind the mythological tendencies of
our prehistoric forefathers the pursuit is endless, and promises
a rich harvest. But at this early stage of the study of nomen-
clature from a mythological point of view, it is impossible to
do more than make suggestions which at least demonstrate
mythological unity in many areas, and have as much founda-
tion as many of the geographical interpretations.
Across the Solway Firth, and near the Roman Wall is
Luguvallium, the valley of Lugh, or Lug. Carlisle, associated
in old ballads with King Arthur, was Luguballa.
The Isle of Anglesey was the last of the Druidic settlements
in Britain, and very learned, like the others. The doctrine of
Pythagoras was taught to the students in this establishment.
It was situated on the Lands of Lugwy (Lugh?); on which
is Arthur's Quoit, a stupendous cromlech. This island was also
called Sena, a Sanskrit word which forms a termination to
Mahasena and Devasena, names for Kartikeya and
Shashthi, and possibly Eochu and Edain. Sena means army,
and applies to the Divine Army of which Skanda, a form of
Kartikeya, is the generalissimo.
Bo Find, the sacred Cow of Gaeldom, and the personality
of Bo Find, or Boinn must be associated with Inisbofind, an
island off the coast of Galway, in Ireland. The Holy Cow
represents the fruitful Earth, and is impersonated by Sarasvati
(Speech), as the wife of Brahma, the Creator. Through Speech
the Earth produces mental Fruit.
Aboyne, on Deeside, is thought to be connected with the
river Boyne, in Ireland, and with Bo Find. There is an antique
Stone at Aboyne with an inscription in which occur the words
Maqqo Tal, and these are interpreted by Mr. Diack of Aber-
deen as MacTal. In The New Road*) by the Scottish
author, Neil Munro, this passage occurs: Glen Coe was loud
with running waters falling down the gashes of the bens, the
curlews whistling, and the echoes of McTala, son of Earth,
*) See Chapter viii, p. 83.
who taunts. Whether the Gaelic word Tal, or Tala bears
any relationship to the Sanskrit word as used in connection
with Malina Tal and Naini Tal, I do not know. The lake
Malina Tal, if associated with the sacred stream Malini, is
in a classical atmosphere. The word Ted in its Sanskrit form
would be Tola.
There are several names in Sanskrit for the Earth, one of
which is Kuh, precisely the same as the German word for
Cow. The^ Sanskrit word Bhuh represents the Earth as a
Holy Cow, who, herself, takes several forms.
The Clan Buchanan might find a connection here with
regard to their remote ancestry, if they have not already done
so. In a transitional stage the name seems to have been Bo-
quhanan, with the Q silent, as in Balquhidder. Previous
to this the name was in the form of Bohanan, or Bohannan.
I arrive at this conclusion on account of having met an elderly
American about two years ago whose family, so he told me,
had been in Virginia for two(?) centuries. His name was
Bohanan, and he traced his pedigree to the Scottish family of
Buchanan. He said that his was the earlier form of the name,
and that in his family it had never been altered, but had pre-
served its original form.
I notice that a book on Yoga has been published recently
by an Indian, and that the author's name is Behannan; surely
the Keltic name of Bohannan is associated with it, as also
the deifical personage Bo Find, or Be Find, Bo, or Bwch, the
Holy Cow of the Kelts?
A Scottish word which seems originally to have been con-
nected with the sacred Cow is bothie. Dr. Grant, in his Scot-
tish National Dictionary, describes a bothie as any primitive
shelter of any kind; but, at one time, according to the quota-
tions given by Dr. Grant, it was a Dairy-house. In this con-
nection Pennant calls it a bothay. Some accounts tell how it
was the custom for a dairy-maid to place a rod of the Roan-
tree over the doorway of the bothay. This custom may have
been put into practice on Roan Island off the coast of Suther-
landshire, amongst other localities.
The word in Gaelic is bothan (pronounced bo-han),
and this shows clearly the link with Bo, or Bwch, the mystic
Cow of the Kelts, and also seems to show an affinity with the
Sanskrit Bhuh. At the present time, Bothan is a British sur-
name, and probably emanates from the same source.
The Indian goddess Vinata is the mother of two sons and
a daughter. One of the sons is Garuda, or Garura, the Eagle;
and the daughter is Sandamani, a Flash of Lightning. The
British family of Sandeman may owe their name to this alle-
O gentle Vinata, there is in the midst of the ocean, in a
remote quarter, a delightful and fair region inhabited by the
The Serpents have definitely left their mark in this island
of Britain. Pingal, or Pingala was a Serpent king, and Fingal,
owning a well near the Serpent Mound in Argyll, may be alle-
gorically related. There are two Pingalas in Sanskrit literature,
one an attendant on Surya, the Sun, a Vedic deity; and an-
other, a sage after whom one of the Upanishads received its
name. Fingal of Scotland is probably one with the Earls of
Fingall in County Meath, Ireland, where Tara, one of the
most distinguished centres of Druidism, still affords impressions
of its former high estate.**) There is a Finghall parish in the
North Riding of Yorkshire.
The Earls of Cavan have a name which may have come
down from Chavanya, son of Bhrigu and brother of Sree, or
Lakshmi. The mother of Chavanya is Khyati (Fame).
The Adit y a Bhaga is Lord of Trees, and the Sanskrit word
Bhaga stands for an Oak-tree. Many oaks grow on the Hima-
layan Mountains. It seems rather a curious coincidence that
at Bagot's Bromley, the ancient domain of the Bagot family,
there is the Needwood Forest containing some of the finest
oak-trees in the kingdom and that they are the property of
this family with a name not unlike Bhaga. There is a chaly-
*) Astika Parva of the Mahdbhdrata.
**) See Tara: a Pagan Sanctuary, by Dr. Macalister.
beate spring in the park. Bagot's Bromley is in the parish of
Abbot's Bromley. This parish was also called Bromley-Paget's,
including the name of another old Staffordshire family, that
of the Pagets. It may be that Bhaga is the foundation for both
The importance of the Oak as a symbol in this neighbour-
hood is evidenced by the Oak-leaves and Dak-apples to be
seen in a silver design on the green knee-breeches of the Horn-
Bagborough, in Somersetshire, seems also to be connected
with Bhaga, one of the Shining Ones of India.
It is worth while to notice that a church dedicated to St.
Nicholas, as at Abbot's Bromley, is found in the place called
Sevenoaks! Also that the church of St. Nicholas, partly in the
parish of Guildford, is on a very old site, and that there are
Oak-leaves surrounding Guildford's coat-of-arms.
The principle shrine of Brigit in Ireland was in an Oak-
grove in County Kildare; the name Kildare means a shrine
connected with some sacred Tree, in this case, of the Oak. The
word dair is sometimes translated oak, and it is thought
that the word Druid was derived from it. Possibly, this is the
derivation of Druid, and at one time it may have had a
similar meaning to the Sanskrit Deva-Daru, or Timber of the
gods, applying to more than one kind of Tree. There are five
special kinds of celestial Trees, in India. The sacred Deodar
is of the coniferous order, and in the Asiatic Review for
April, 1937, there is a picture of a Hindu temple in a grove
of Deodars. Dair, Deodar and Deva-Daru may all be
The Mother Goddess, Bride is a Ddnava, and may have
presided over Denmark. Her sons are the Tri Dei Dana, or
trinity of the Ddnavas in Britain. Bridestow, in Devon, where
there is an ancient church dedicated to this saint, is apparently
the Stow of Brite. The name is pronounced locally Brit-es-tow.
In some parts of Scotland, on St. Bride's Eve, Bride used
to be welcomed from the sea-shore (as coming over the sea) ;
the people called from their houses: Bride, Bride,*) come
in, your bed is ready; Preserve the house for the trinity.
Why the trinity? because it represents the Family.
The term Arya, or Aryan covered only the three twice-
born castes of India. The Sudras, or fourth main caste of the
Hindus were a subject race. They were, however, not debarred
from the caste system, and were accorded an honourable place,
though a lowly one. Even a Sudra may become an ascetic of
the highest spiritual rank, not being exceeded even by the
Brahmins, in some circumstances. The Sudras, mostly of a
primitive type in those early days, were given a position be-
fitting their capabilities; and special laws were applied to them
for their protection.
The royal burgh of Inverary suggests the association of the
Mother Goddess, Arya, or Gauri, with the estuary of the Ary.
The Aryas, or Aryans received their name from this goddess,
and, naturally, it would be of importance to the Keltic Aryans.
*) In the glossary to Macbeth, in the Israel Gollancz edition of Shake-
speare the word Breed is described as family, or ^parentages,
and, in Scotland Bride is pronounced breed.
GLIMPSES OF PREHISTORIC TIMES.
The Crescent, seen in the coat-of-arms of the university of
St. Andrew's is not a Christian symbol; it is a symbol of the
great Aryan Mother, in the first instance, but often appears
on the Continent in association with the Christian Madonna
Many coins have been found on Karn Bre, or Cam Brae,
near Redruth, in Cornwall. The goddess Keridwen is repre-
sented on these coins. The Ark, or Half-moon was the Basis,
added to this was, sometimes the head of a bird, probably the
Hen, the mother of the mystical Egg; at others, the neck and
head of a Mare, also symbolic of Ked; the legs, when supplied,
being represented by four tallies, such as were used in the re-
ligious, judicial, or magical ceremonies of the Druids. At other
times, the ark, or moon, as the basis, was made to assume the
appearance of the mystical Sow, the prolific animal. Knots of
serpents, symbolic of the Druids themselves, are said to be
found among the sculptured remains of this sept, whose ob-
ject, it would appear, was to conceal their mysteries under
hieroglyphic symbols, single or combined.*) The Half-moon
is the Ark floating on the Cosmic Waters.
In the remote past colours were of great significance. When
the Picts tattooed themselves Blue and White with the use of
woad, there was probably a symbolic meaning attaching to
*) See The Druids, Note O., by the Rev. John B. Pratt, M. A. (1861).
these colours of the great Mahamaya in her character of Night.
The colours of St. Andrew, as Patron Saint of Scotland, are
Blue and Silver, and it has been explained by the Lyon Clerk
at the Court of the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh, that the actual
Scottish flag is Azure, a St. Andrew's Cross Argent, and
that the Cross is not, as usually represented, on a dark blue
ground, but on a foundation of Sky-blue. The flag is thus re-
gistered as a Blue and Silver Badge of the Scottish nation, in
the Public Register.
The St. Andrew's Cross of the Basques is Apple-green, and,
as explained in a letter to the Times (8. 4. 37.), the Green
and White are the colours of Silurian Wales; (and so of our
Tudors), the basis is the Cross of Santander, as in the Union
Jack of Great Britain of 1603 1800; but there is charged
upon it as in that case, a square cross, not the red cross of St.
George, but the black cross of St. Devi of South Wales, which
is incorporated in the arms of the See of St. David. The design
is British; the colours are Cymric.
The Black in the arms of the See of St. David's (formerly
with St. Andrew as the presiding saint) may have some as-
sociation with the Shield of Sir Gaheris, one of Arthur's
Knights. This Shield has the Cross of St. Andrew in Blue and
Silver, with the addition of Black. All these Shields of Arthur's
Knights are Egg-shaped, coinciding with the Ovoid form of
the hill-top of Mole Arthur, a former settlement of the Druids,
and from whence they proceeded round the hills with symbolic
Eggs suspended from their necks.
The churchyard of St. Breage, in Cornwall, is round; and
I am told that Egg-shaped stones are frequently dug up here.
These are natural stones brought from the sea-beach, and
chosen on account of their shape.
Much scientific knowledge known to the Druids must have
disappeared. Professor Cooksey, when lecturing at Southamp-
ton in 1904, expressed the opinion that the civilization of the
Druids was under-estimated, and that the mistake arose from
the comparison of the Romans with themselves.
The Briton and Keltic laws are said by Spenser to consti-
tute a body of regulations, which though unwritten, and de-
livered only by tradition from one generation to another, were
intended to enforce the principles of equity.
The Druids had the direction and education of their chiefs.
Certain selected individuals were specially trained and instruct-
ed in worldly knowledge in addition to the tenets of religion.
The Druids also taught their pupils to respect the value of
time, and to speak the truth.
Much Druidical influence may have left its impression on
this country. One may read in the Times (1. 2. 36.), the
Prime Minister has said: 'Nowhere was the village community
so real and so enduring a thing as it was in England for at
least twelve centuries of its history. In every parish men met
almost daily in humble, but very real self-government to be
judged by their fellows, to settle the ploughing times and
harvest times, the fallowing and grassing rules for the whole
district.' This selfgoverning principle in small communities
continues to this day in some places on the West Coast of
The management of Indian rural communities and villages
was no less good in India. Sir Frederick Lely writes: The
ancient village system of a headman, advised by a Panchayat,
or Council of Five Elders, has preserved the rural population
throughout India during innumerable centuries, and has con-
ducted local affairs in each area to the great benefit of the
inhabitants under Hindu emperors, during the supremacy of
the Moghuls, and even in British times.
Under the caste system there were caste elders, and these
saw to it that caste rules were observed. Are the Elders of the
Church of Scotland the official descendants the conductors
of this system? In Aryan Scotland, and probably elsewhere, in
Keltic regions, the highest class was composed of priests and in-
tellectuals, speaking generally, the thinkers of the community.
The second was formed by the nobility, (in India by royalty,
warriors and scribes) ; next to the nobility came the craftsman
class. This is precisely the order of the three twice-born castes of
India; the fourth caste being composed of peasants, or serfs,
and people engaged in the humbler tasks of life.
British organization in India was built on the foundation
of Moghul organization, which itself, was raised upon that of
In pre-Christian days in Britain, and for some centuries
afterwards, religion lay at the root of everything as it does in
the East. Before the installation of the new Master of the
Worshipful Company of Wyre Drawers of the City of London
in 1936, a service was conducted by the Rector at St. Mi-
chael's, Royal College Hill, and the address was given by the
Rector of Beckenham, Mr. Boyd. As reported in the Times
(7. 1. 36.), he said: The City of London is rightly jealous
of its ancient traditions and ceremonies, which enshrined ideals
and conceptions that were of permanent value . . . one of the
finest traditions of the City was the association between the
Companies and religion. Every City Livery Company, he be-
lieved, had its origin in a religious fraternity.
The ancient settlers in Britain lived in a world which was
enlivened by song and poetry, and echoed the customs of the
East, where bards, minstrels and story-tellers wander from
place to place. All classes are entertained. The poorer classes
may be seen to this day congregating in the shade of some large
tree when their work is over to listen to the Kathak, or Bard,
who dilutes some of the culture of Hindustan for their enter-
tainment and instruction.
The British Constitution) a magnificent heritage of the
past, possesses the quality of flexibility because it is unwritten;
hence its powers of endurance. The Hindu Religion, for the
same reason, is built upon a rock. It is elastic, and unwritten,
free from the bonds of dogma, which inculcates Tolerance.
Never within memory has it been the direct cause of war, and,
with the caste system and all its drawbacks, is the oldest system
in the world! It bends, without breaking, like the British Con-
The Druids were adepts in arts of which we know very
little, such as colour-blending, also the power of making them-
selves invisible. Probably only a few of the Druids acquired
this faculty, and those who specially trained themselves, under-
going the necessary self-discipline. In full, this was a very
severe and lengthy training, but may have been of much lesser
extent for the development of some of these powers.
The mystic Land of Sidh was a great mental training-
ground in India. The power of assuming an ihiperceptible form
at will, or of becoming invisible, is the first of the eight classes
of Sidh training, and is called Anima. The poet Shelley is
thought to have known how to achieve invisibility. Peredur
was given a precious stone which made him invisible at will;
and King Arthur possessed a tartan which gave him the same
advantage. This mantle belonging to Arthur was made of
diapered satin with an apple of ruddy gold at each corner
thereof . It may have come allegorically from the Land of
Sidh with which Arthur was associated. When Uthr Pendragon
wished to carry away Igerna, or Igraine, wife of Gourlois, King
of Cornwall, the wizard, Merlin, obligingly changed his ap-
pearance so that he resembled her husband; and thus, through
the result of this incident, Arthur came into the world, accord-
ing to this account. The change of appearance may have
been an actual happening in real life, the so-called magician
using Yoga power, or some peculiar science not known to
everyone, and which would accomplish this effect.
After the introduction of Christianity, apparently powers
of all kinds which were not understood were put down to
witchcraft and sorcery, in civic quarters. The Church seems
always to have recognized two kinds of powers, only one of
which was evil this until the Reformation.
The first Lord Lytton, who understood the East, explains,
through one of his characters, Sir Philip Derval, in his book
A Strange Story, how that all which is mysterious is not
necessarily Black Magic, although the latter exists. Certain
laws, unknown to the generality of mankind, can be used and
have often been applied for good purposes.
It may be that the City of London submerged itself under
a wave of Black Magic when the Saxons arrived there, be-
cause, according to accounts of those times, they were so fear-
ful of the strange effects which manifested themselves, that
London was actually abandoned by them for a time.
The Druids employed methods, probably of a scientific
nature, to repel their foes from off the coast of Ireland. They
produced a mist which may have been composed of gaseous
matter of some description.
Oscar, or Oscara is the son of Ossian, and his name is
associated in some way with the Human Voice. Alamvusha,
son of Rishyasringa and of whom Oscar is possibly the counter-
part, is a Rakshasa,*) and is possessed of illusory powers.**)
These faculties may have been ventriloquistic because Rishyas-
ringa and Alamvusha are descendants of Marichi. According
to the Ramayana, Marich, also a Rakshasa, uses ventriloquism
while carrying out the plan for securing Sita.***)
Oscar is descended in a direct line from Mark, King of
Cornwall (Marichi) ; Nudd (Nugent, who appears to be iden-
tical with Kasyapa, son of Marichi) ; Finn (Vibhandaka), and
Ossian (Rosgrana, who, apparently, is identical with Ris-
King Mark of Cornwall is the uncle of Trystram (Drustan),
who, in the form of St. Dunstan, was the Abbot of Deer!
So recently as about fifty years ago there seems to have
been a case of employing the art of invisibility as a protection
in a dangerous situation in Edinburgh. It purports to have
happened to a doctor of that city whose housekeeper was a
Keltic woman from the Highlands. This old woman had been
with him for many years and was much attached to him. One
day the doctor received a call from someone unknown to him
in a low quarter of the town. He was preparing to set off to
visit the patient when his old housekeeper came and implored
him not to go, as she knew through the second sight, she told
him, that he would be in great danger, if he attempted to go
*) See the Drona Parva of the Mahabhdrata.
**) See the Bhishma Parva of the Mahdbhdrata.
***) See pp. 53, 54.
to see these people. But the doctor replied that he must respond
to the call. Before he left his housekeeper gave him a parting
injunction: Remember, she said, that you will see without
being seen, and that you will hear without being heard.
The doctor found the house in a very poor neighbourhood,
and knocked on the dilapidated door, which was opened to
him by a frowsy woman. Although he was standing in front
of her she did not appear to see him, and bawled out: Who's
there?. This she did a second time, and then she perceived
the doctor, and took him inside. His experience soon told him
that he must be very wary. He was conducted to a room where
a group of people were gathered round the bedside of an old
man. It struck him that he would be expected to hasten the
end of the patient, after which it might be deemed expedient
to silence him also by closing his career.
It occurred to the doctor that he was becoming invisible
and visible by turns, as referred to by his housekeeper. Be-
coming more familiar with the idea he found that he was able
to put this power into force, and also to control audibility. He
availed himself of these strange faculties thus bestowed upon
him, and which could have been brought into play only
with considerable mental effort on the part of his faithful
attendant. Finally, he was able to extricate himself from one
of the most perilous situations in which he had ever found
himself; and returned home pondering over the valuable gifts
received from his Keltic housekeeper. In this case, as also with
Fire-walking, it seems that the power can sometimes be trans-
I believe it is in the English annals of the Indian Mutiny
how the notorious Nana Sahib, when taken prisoner by the
British, succeeded in duping his captors, although the incident
is not recorded precisely in these words! This curious art of
invisibility seems to have been used to effect the escape of Nana
Sahib. He was escorted through the streets by British soldiery,
in full view of hundreds of people; and, seemingly, without
the slightest chance of regaining his liberty. But, much to the
amazement of his guards, he vanished, and another man was
seen in his place.
I do not think it could have been realized by the British
that Nana Sahib was there all the time! This may have been
an instance of assuming another form at will, so frequently
referred to in the Sanskrit epics. Possibly it was due to the
application of Yoga science, either by Nana Sahib himself, or
by others, to whom the art was known. Nana Sahib was never
It looks to me as if the churches at Tintagel, and of St.
Kerid at Truro, have at the Lych Gate an arrangement for
Fire-walking. The bars of stone on the ground over a small
pit are said to be for the purpose of keeping out animals, but
animals might break their legs in this way. It seems much
more likely that Fire was placed under these stone planks
at the entrance to the church at certain seasons, for Fire cere-
As in later times, the early peoples dispelled the mono-
tony of life with their festivals, some of which were Solar,
and others, Lunar. In ancient days the Keltic Calendar was
lunar, as was also that of the Hindus. The Calendar is of great
importance to the Hindus, as it has always been, and probably
was among the American Indians, the British and the Bretons,
of which traces still remain. The Indians of San Juan Ca-
pistrano, California, had a seasonal Calendar of this descrip-
In Keltic spheres when the Tuatha were conquered, alle-
gorically, or otherwise, the Land of Sidh became the abode
of Elves and Fairies, and it is probable that Elves are related
to Elphin, and Elphinstone. The Tuatha, who were the people
in Britain who possessed powers which appeared to be magical,
retained their power of disappearing and re-appearing at will.
The Sidh power, however, at this stage, must soon have been
on the wane, until it completely faded away, crushed by people
who did not understand it. Some traces of it, apparently, were
left behind, but not as an organized power, with centres for
The Dark Tower of the King of Elfland in Childe Row-
land has been compared to the Maes Howe of Orkney.* X
Elfland was ruled by the King of Phairie, who, with his
Fairy consort, rode at the latter end of harvest, at All Hallow
E 5 en. This is the time when the last produce is brought in
from the fields; and when the spiritual Harvest is remembered
at the time of All Souls. The Harvest festival was a very
important one, and there was much ceremony attached to it.
According to an account from Elgin, published in British
Calendar Customs,**) those who took the last load of grain
from the stack-yard had their faces blackened; this must have
been a tribute to the goddess Kali, whose festival is observed
at Michaelmas, and whose colours, Blue and Silver, were
borne by the Fairy cavalcade. White shields they carry in
their hands, with emblems of pale silver; with glittering blue
Pratt, in his History of Buchan (1858) says much the
same of the Fairies, namely that their special time was Hallow-
mas Eve. Although this is not Michaelmas, the Feast of Kali,
it is connected with the Manes, and Mahakala. Pratt relates
how the Fairies rode forth in courtly procession with their
Queen. The trampling of the tiny hoofs of their horses, and
the music of their bridle bells, might be heard in the passing
Meave, or Mab, closely related to Ethne (Sarasvati), and
possibly the daughter of Etain and Eochu, has the character-
istics of the children of Kartikeya and Shashthi, who resemble
their parents. She is associated with Babies, who she sometimes
steals from their parents. Mab became, Queen of the Fairies,
and possibly, at a later stage, St. Mabe of Cornwall, Patron
Saint of the village called Mabe. There is a St. Mab's Cross
on the outskirts of Wigan.
Highland fairies come always from the West; and travel
through the air on Whirlwinds.
*) See Childe Rowland*, p. 193, Folk-Lore (1891).
**) (Vol. I., Scotland) by Mrs. Macleod Banks, President of the Folk-
When in Wiesbaden in 1936, I noticed St. Nicholas, a pos-
sible successor to Eochu and Kartikeya, going in human form
on his time honoured round to visit the Boys and Girls of the
neigbourhood. Perhaps he is a mythic descendant of the Snakes,
or Serpents of Schlangenbad.*) At the same season of the year,
the beginning of December, about the time that Kartikeya is
being worshipped in India, the Boy Bishop was remembered
once more at the old Cinque Port of Romney, in Kent. This
medieval ceremony was connected with St. Nicholas, Patron
Saint of the Young, and took place on his Feast-day, the sixth
of December. That St. Nicholas evolved from Eochu is by no
means put forward as a certainty, but he distinctly bears the
character of Kartikeya in respect to Children.
At West Tanfield, in Yorkshire a beautiful church is dedi-
cated to this saint (St. Nicholas). The name of the place, which
is also found in the Lothians of Scotland, indicates Fire in a
symbolic sense. In one of the windows of this church at West
Tanfield St. Nicholas is seen with his Three Bags of Gold, with
which he rescued some girls from being sold into slavery on
account of the poverty of their father, according to legend. He
is also thus represented in the church of St. Nicholas at New-
bury, Berkshire. The name Thanington, formerly Taning-
tune, includes the word Tan, and there is a church of St.
Nicholas at a place of this name in Kent. Thanet obviously
derived from the same source as Thanington is the name
of that which may have been a sacred island containing the
Shell Grotto with Aryan emblems on the walls. The old church
of St. Nicholas-at-M^aJ^ near Reculver on the Kentish coast,
may be compared to the church of St. Nicholas, in Somerset,
at a place called Combe St. Nicholas, and near the village of
Wadeford, not far from the Northay Barrow.
The Combe is a little way above the church. It is an artifi-
cial mound, and was excavated in 1935. Evidences of cremation
were discovered and a fragment of a Bronze Age cinerary urn
which is now on view in the church.
*) See p. 35.
A list of Bishops of the Sumerseate is also to be found in
the church. Is Sumerseate the seat of the Sumerians, or
Aryans who received the tenets of their faith from Mt. Meru
in the Sumerian range, now known as the Altai Mountains?
Somerset has many traces of the Aryans, and it may be that
they gave to it the name of Sumerseate.
One of the peaks of the sacred Mt, Meru is known as Ka,
and this may be compared to St. Ca's Well in Aberdeenshire.*)
Mt. Meru stands kissing the heavens by its height. It is
graced with streams and trees, and resounds with the charming
melody of winged choirs.
) See p. 10.
The Fairy Cross in Somerset, and Sidbury, Sidmouth and
the river Sid in Devon, remind us of fairy habitations in ad-
dition to the numerous Fairy Knowes in Scotland and Ireland,
and many reminders of the Fairies in other parts of the British
Isles, and Brittany.
In Huon of Bordeaux Arthur takes the form of a fairy
monarch, and is heir to the kingdom of Oberon, his brother.
It is recounted of Arthur, in his mythic character, that he slew
the Demon Cat of Losanne; but, according to Andre de
Coutance, Arthur was really vanquished and carried off by
the Cat; but Andre remarks that: One durst not tell that tale
Not long ago some antique pottery was discovered in the
Bean Valley in Kent. The name Bean suggests Bean-Sidhe
(Banshee), the Woman of the Hill, or the Woman of the Fairy
Mansions. A Hill in this sense is a knoll, or Fairy Knowe, and
Bean-Sidhe may have been sacred in the days which preceded
the Tuatha fairies. Bansha, in Tipperary, also suggests as-
sociation with the fairies. Beanbridge in Devon is not far from
Kentisbeare, which possesses a name suggesting the pura, or
Borough of Kunti, the Earth Mother.
Aed, Keltic god of Fire, and possibly, in Edinburgh, the
same character as Arthur, is the son of Ronan, in Scotland, and
of Ainmire, King of Tara, in Ireland. The name Ainmire
may possibly have left traces in the surname Anmer for
which, I understand, no origin has been given.
Aed is closely connected with the Sidh, and is described as
a man between two worlds.
The Siddhas are those who have attained Siddhi. These are
attainments of super, or extra human powers, reached, in
varying degree through Yoga practice. Anima, or Animan, the
first, is the power of reducing oneself to very small dimensions,
practically a state of invisibility, and which would seem to
apply to the fairies in a mythological sense. The Siddhas dwell
betwixt earth and heaven, and thus the description of Aed tal-
lies with this one, and makes it not unreasonable to assume that
the Keltic Land of Sidh corresponds to the Land of Sidh in
In the old Irish MS. The Destruction of Da Derga's Hostel,
there are allusion to Fire ceremonies such as take place at
Cooch Behar, and other places in India at the present time.
The festival at Cooch Behar is in honour of the goddess Durga.
In this old epic there is mention of Peacocks within the
precincts of Tara. These Birds, and others with Tufts, or
Crests including Pheasants, symbolize Fire. The Mandan In-
dians, who live on the banks of the Yellowstone River in North
America, call themselves the People of the Pheasant although
it is a bird which they have never seen. In Breton folk-lore
a Golden-crested Wren is called the thief of Fire; and, in
India, the Sanskrit word Sikha which is used to denote the
Crest of a Bird, literally means Flame. According to Hindu
mythology Sikhin is one of the synonyms of Fire, and Sikhins
are Fire-birds or the Crested ones. The Sparks which rise from
the Fire are mythologically the attendants of Siva.
Agni, of Siva's family, the Spirit of Fire, is the sacred Tree,
or Pillar of Flame; and Svaha, the consort of Agni, is the
mantra, (invocation) for the libation which feeds the flames,
all of which is highly symbolic. The Vedas, the oldest classical
writings of the Aryan Hindus, teach that Fire is the originator
of all life on this planet, but that Fire (the Sun) is powerless
to produce Life excepted when united with Water (the Moon),
consequently the Sun and Moon (Fire and Moisture) are held,
allegorically, to be the Parents of Creation. These two elements
unite and produce the Seed, or Son.
It is explained in the Vishnu Purana how Fire never actual-
ly dies out, otherwise it could not be re-kindled. Agni, the Fire-
god, has been the inspiration for some of the most majestic
hymns in the whole realm of literature, and his image is one
of the most beautiful. When represented by Indian artists the
form of Agni is brilliant, like the Rising Sun. He is adorned
with a flowing beard, and his body with a sacred Thread. Agni
holds a kamandalu, or Water-pot, of the kind used by ascetics,
in his left hand, and in his right, he holds a chaplet, or Rosary.
The whole figure appears in a halo of Shining Flames, and is
sitting on a seat shaped like a Half-Moon.
Agni sometimes appears in a Kunda (sacrificial vessel) with
Seven Rays, or Flames issuing from his head.
According to legendary tradition, the Battle of Agned was
fought in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh; and one of the
old names for Edinburgh Castle was Castel Myned Agnedh;
do we see traces here of Agni? The Sanskrit word Agni-idh is
the Inflamer of Fire. And there is a Half-Moon Battery on the
Castle rock! The ancient chapel is dedicated to St. Margaret
whose symbol is a Dragon. Arthur, also connected with Edin-
burgh, wore the Dragon symbol. Aed is the Fiery Torch of
the Kelts, Kentigern is a Pillar of Flame, and so is the Indian
Agni! The emblem of Kentigern is a Stag, and a Doe ap-
pears in the Edinburgh coat-of-arms.
The term Durgapuja, meaning the festival of Durga, is an
alternative to Devipuja for the Fire ceremonies at Cooch Behar,
and suggests that the Irish hostel at Tara was that of Devi
Durga, hence the reason for the Fire ritual taking place at the
same time as in India at the Vernal and Autumnal Equinoxes.
In some of her aspects Durga is terrible like the tremendous
and fearful powers of Nature, but in others, she is beautiful,
like Nature in her lovely expressions.
Brigit, or Brite (Britannia?) with her Trident, and Rule of
the Sea, is Gauri, or Durga, in the form of Bharati, who is
mentioned in the Vedas.
Durga has Ten Arms, or Hands, representing the ten points
of the compass. All the gods gave their best weapons to her
for the struggle with the Demon, in which she is engaged. This
represents the contest between the higher forces against the
lower, with the resultant subjugation of the latter. Durga is
the impersonation of an impregnable Fort .against the forces
of Darkness. She is Vijaya, the goddess of Victory, and the
supreme Protectress of all distressed and destitute people. It is
possible that the Keltic fort of Dundarg was dedicated to her.
The following extracts are taken from a hymn addressed
to the goddess Durga (Bhishma Parva, vi., 23).
I bow down to you, O goddess Arya, the successful com-
mandant of armies You are bedecked with various orna-
ments and you bear a flag-staff with the tail-feathers of Pea-
cocks. O goddess, you wield the weapon known as the Trident,
you bear a Sword and a Shield. I bow down to you Oh
Wolf -headed goddess You are Fire himself. You ever abide
in great trees in the houses of your devotees and always
in Patala You give splendour to the Moon and to the
The English words Muniments and Munitions carry
the same meaning, the first indicating a protection against the
forces of Ignorance, and the second, against physical forces of
Darkness. These probably had their origin in the personality of
Muni, or from the word Muni (Sage), Muni allegorically
holding the same position as Durga.
Brihaspati, Preceptor to the Aryan gods, is a form of Agni.
He is the planet Jupiter, and, as a mythological figure, the
husband of Tara, and an ancestor of Drona.
Judging by their place-names, the Kelts revered a personage
of the name of Drona, or Dron. The surname Dronsfield and
Dronsfield, in Derbyshire, as also Dronley, in Angus, suggest the
Field of Drona; Angus may have been the mythological
successor in Keltic lands of Angiras, a spiritual son of Brahma,
the Creator, father of Brihaspati, and from whom the Indian
Drona is descended. There was a tribe, or mythological
company of Angirases in India.
Brihaspati, son of Angiras, is the father of Bharadwaj, an
ancestor of Drona; and Breas, son of Angus, may be the father
of Budwas, an ancestor of the Keltic Drona.
Dron is the name of a hill in Perthshire described as a
grassy summit of the Ochils. Within a dell on its southern
slope are the remains of a twelfth century chapek, where, in
yet more ancient times, there may have been a shrine.
The precincts of a Pictavian palace at Forteviot, in Perth-
shire, are marked by several crosses, or pillars, and are asso-
ciated with the name Dronochy, a name which may be
compared to the Sanskrit Dronacharya.
In Peebleshire the ancient hill-fort of Cardrona rises from
the valley of the Tweed between Peebles and Innerleithen; and
the presiding deity, or hero of this British encampment may
have coincided with the mythic figure of the same name who
took a prominent part in the Mahdbharata War, and who has
been already mentioned in his character of Preceptor to the
sons of Mother Earth.*)
The history of Cardrona, if there is any, is hidden in a veil
covering the past; it is not improbable that there is tradition
lying under the surface of this old hill-camp.
The Sanskrit word Drona means a Pitcher, or hollow vessel,
made of wicker, a kind of Basket. This is a simile brought down
from allegorical heights into a mythological sphere. The Pitcher
is the Container of the symbolic Seed, and appears to connect
Drona with the Fertility Cult, all in accordance with his descent
from Brihaspati. The Drona, or wicker vessel was of a kind
for measuring Corn, and is the representation in simple guise
of the Great Mother, Earth. The account of the birth of the
Keltic Conaire evidently puzzled the translator of the Destruc-
tion of Da Derga's Hostel because there is a question-mark after
the description of the wicker fence in which his mother was
enclosed before he was born. The Indian allegorical setting
seems to disclose the mystic meaning of this passage in the
ancient Gaelic MS.
* See pp. 70, 71.
During the Mahabharata War Drona attained to the rank
of atiratha, and became leader of the army of the Kurus, or
Kauravas. When he made his entry on to the field of battle
a Pitcher and a sacrificial Altar were depicted on his standard
showing that the Corn Measure was a sacred emblem; Drona
was a Brahmin, and also a Warrior, and in an allegorical sense,
the Pitcher was his mother.
King Jayadratha, also on the side of the Kurus, drove on
to the field with a magnificent standard affixed to his chariot;
and on this royal flag was emblazoned the device of a Silver
Boar: Like the goddess of Corn incarnate, endued with all
beauty and producing every seed.*)
Cardrona in the Lowlands of Scotland, Caer Droia in
Wales, the City of London, towns of the name of Drayton, and
the Trojan fort in Asia Minor seem all to be linked in one
long chain to the allegorical general Drona of Mahabharata
Caer Droia, like Troy of classic times, is of a circular
character, and is a symbolic Maze. Professor J. E. Lloyd states
that in old Welsh literature the city of Troy is sometimes
styled Caer Droia, and not only is there this remarkable tie
between Troy and Caer Droia, but London, or Caer Lud,
(the Fort of Lugh), is described as the Pattern of the Great
Troy.**) The Fort of Troy, with its Wooden Horse asso-
ciations, possibly connects it with the Wooden Horse customs
of the British Isles, called Marie Lwd in Wales.
It is worth noticing in connection with Troy that, on
modern maps, the site is in Bigha, and recalling that the Keltic
word Bega is the name of a saint, and also means Life ; this
in comparison with Bighapur (the Town, or City State of
Bigha) in India and which has a name identical with the
region in which Troy was situated. Some association must surely
exist between the Keltic deity Begha, who became St. Bee,
the place-name Bigbury, in Devon, Bigha in Asia Minor and
*) Santi Parva of the Mahdbh&rata, 105.
**) See Gumaean Gates*, p. 112, by W. F. J. Knight.
Bighapur, in the valley of the sacred river Ganges, in what are
now the United Provinces.
At the entrance to the Dardanelles, and not far from the site
of Troy, is Kumkale, which may bear some relationship to
Kali, such as a Cathaktimba, or combe in her honour.
Canak, also in this neighbourhood, is a reminder of the
Hindu poet, Canakya, or Chanakya, whose famous couplets
have entertained Hindu India through countless centuries.
We find the site of Troy thus described by Gibbon : Ancient
Troy, seated on an eminence at the foot of Mount Ida, over-
looked the Hellespont ; and we may recollect that Ida, or Ila
is a form of the Aryan Mother of the universe; also that Ila
is the wife of Budh (Mercury), whose British counterpart may
be Lugh (Mercury), whose Fort of London is the Pattern of
the Great Troy.
During Herr Dorpf eld's excavations in 1894 it was as-
certained that the first foundation of Troy belongs to the
earliest Bronze Age.*)
The geometric Circle, Wheel or Chakra seems to be re-
presented in Britain as the Wheel of St. Catherine.
Taking into account the fact that Trystram has emerged
from Drostan, and Tintagel from Dundagel it might
be that the root of Troy is not tro, but dro. Drayton,
thought to be associated with these, has kept the initial D,
like Drona in Cardrona, and like Droia. Another ex-
ample of this philological transformation may be noticed in the
name of the river Tauber flowing through territory in Bavaria
formerly occupied by Kelts, the original name being Dubra.
In English usage the American Indian word Dodems becomes
totems. Thus it may be seen that in the course of centuries,
this change has occurred in several instances. The root, of the
entire word for a mystic Circle seems to be Dro.
It is possible that there is a bond between the Trojan Hector
*) See article in the Times (22. 5. 36.), The Real Troy, by E. J.
Forsdyke, Keeper of the Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British
and the British mythic figure, Syr Ector, father of Sir Kay, and
brother of Launcelot.*)
The Indian Drona is a Teacher, and military Tactician in
an allegorical atmosphere. He teaches how to construct Circular
ramparts, as emphasized by the following. Like the early
Hindus, the early British arranged their military forces in con-
centric Circles; and, in Sanskrit, this arrangement is called
Chakra Vyuha (Chakra- Wheel; F^wAa-arrangement of forces
in battle array. In The Civilization of Ancient India, Mr
Dutt says that the Sanskrit epics faithfully describe the manners
and customs of the ancient Hindus, and this although the ac-
counts of battles may be entirely mythical and symbolic.
In the Drona Parva of the Mahabharata a description is
given of the Chakra Vyuha arranged by Drona, which over-
came the heroic son of Arjuna, and caused his death. In
the rear of the first array Drona arranged a second, in the
form of a Lotus, and within the Lotus was another dense
array called the Needle, which was impenetrable. The array
consisted of two parts, one of which was the Lotus enclosing
the Needle, and the other, in the shape of a Wain (Sakata**) )
was apparently an oblong.***)
The Lotus, in this case, would appear to be the emblem
of Brahma, the Creator, although it is also an emblem of
Lakshmi and of Narayana. Here it is formed by Drona, a
descendant of Brahma.
To the initiated, so I am told, the Lotus reveals everything
relating to the innermost, occult significance attaching to
Mahamaya, or Mahalakshmi. It is actually one symbol, al-
though connected with more than one mythological figure.
The array staged by Drona was full 48 miles in lengths,
and its back portion full 20 miles in width. The array
figured partly a Circle, and partly a Sakata****)
Drona is described as being cased in a white coat of mail,
*) Sec Sommer's Notes on Malory's King Arthur.
**) See p. 74.
***) See map of the Cardrona estate.
****) See Drona Parva of the Mahabharata.
with a beautiful turban. He stood in the mouth of the array
at the entrance to the Sakata.
In another part of the Drona Parva we read: Like a
circle of fire-brands the mighty Drona careered through the
army of the Pandavas; an apt description for a descendant
There can be no doubt but that some of the Scottish and
Irish rivers are regarded as personalities; the Tweed, for
instance, flowing past Cardrona, is always spoken of as Tweed,
and the source is Tweed's Well, the property of Tweed! This
personage sometimes holds converse with a neighbouring river !
Dee, in Aberdeenshire, also shows signs of animation, and small
wonder if she is Devi, a goddess.
Aberdeen lies between the estuaries of Don and Dee. The
Don, like the river Danube, or Donau on the Continent, seems
to have received its name from Brigit or Danu. As the Danube
pursues its course to the sea it glides past the Deva Hills, near
Many weems, or subterranean Earth-houses, often called
Eirde houses, are found in Aberdeenshire, and also in the He-
brides. The word weems is derived from the Gaelic Uamha
(with the M silent), and it means Cave. One sometimes
finds gif for if in old Scottish writings, showing that
occasionally the initial G is dropped before a vowel; and
thus the Gaelic Uamha may once have been Guha, the
Sanskrit word for Cave.
Some of the clans show signs of a deifical derivation such
as the Clan Campbell, from Kamala; the Clan Morgan
(Mackay) from Morrigu, the Clan Macneil, from Nila Sa-
rasvati, and the Clan Maclean from Eoghan, or Eochu, ac-
cording to its Gaelic name.
In Galloway, Terregan (Tir Eoghain, or Eogan's Land)
is the Land of Eochu; and, on the same lines, Tarland, in
Aberdeenshire, might be the Land of Tara, and this although
the name varies considerably in early records. Etain seems to
be a form of Tara, and she is the wife of Eochu, King of Tara,
in Ireland. The surname Tarr might originate from this
A cinerary urn was found in this district, bearing witness
to Aryan tenets; both Tarland and Migvie, adjoining it, show
signs of sanctity, and of Aryan conceptions, and Migvie has a
Druidic Circle. There are several Blue Cairns in Scotland, one
of which is the Blue Cairn of Ladieswell in the Tarland neigh-
bourhood, and this may indicate association with Tara, or the
The hillside of Aikey Brae in Buchan, near the Abbey of
Deer, slopes down to the river Ugie. There is a stone circle
at Aikey Brae, well-known to archeologists and antiquarians.
In Scotland these Circles were sometimes called The Auld
Kirk, or the Church of Annoid, although no church has ever
been there. Annoid is probably the Mother Goddess, Annet, or
Anait, otherwise Grainne, connected with Stonehenge. A
famous Fair used to be held on Aikey Brae, and was called
The Pictish name of Ugie has no origin assigned to it.
The Abbey of Deer stood at the head of this stream. The root
Ug is Sanskrit, and there are several mythic figures whose
names are founded on it. Ugrasena,* ) a king mentioned in the
Bhagavata, and other Puranas, Ugraretas, a form of Rudra,
Ugraka, mentioned in a list of Serpents, and Ugradanstra, the
daughter of Meru. That Ugie is connected with the Serpents
is highly probable, being situated in the region of the Taxilii
tribe. Ugra is a name for Siva, in the form of Vayu. The
tribe Icenii in East Anglia, with Boadicea, or Boudicca as
their priestly Warrior Queen, were originally called Ugainiau,
suggesting a philological association with Ugie in Scotland,
Ugborough in Devon, Ugworthy in Somerset and Uggeshall,
in Suffolk. Ugworthy is also a surname.
There is also the river Ugley in Essex. It is said by Indians
that the Hooghley, on which Calcutta is situated, was named
*) Ugrasena, Makal and Nirada are three of the sixteen Deva-Gand-
by the English. If this be the case it would be rather curious if
a Sanskrit name had found its way to England, and had
returned to Calcutta!
It would seem that certain mythic characters were borne
across the ocean to Britain from America by the Serpent tribes,
also bringing with them an early representation of the Holy
Grail in symbolic form.
The well-known antiquarian and historian, Sir William
Skene, writes in Celtic Scotland: Reaching to the mountain
chain of the Mounth to the Moray Firth were the 'Taexili'*)
who gave their name to the headland now known as Kinnaird's
Head. Their town Devana is placed by Ptolemy in the Strath
of Dee, near the Pass of Ballater, and close to Loch Daven
where the remains of a native town are still to be seen, and in
which the name of Devana seems yet to be preserved. In a
footnote on the same page he adds: A11 editions (i. e., of
Ptolemy) agree in placing Devana in the interior of the country
at a distance of at least thirty miles from the coast. Its identity
with the sea-port of Aberdeen rests upon the authority of Ri-
chard of Cirencester alone.**)
It is true that the Romans were in this neighbourhood, and
that they had a predeliction for Romanizing personal and place-
names, but I venture to think that this name is not Latinized.
Aberdeen may have been called Devanha; this name may
still be noticed in the town. The word Deva has many adapta-
tions as a compound substantive, and Ha frequently makes a
termination to a Sanskrit word. The H is clearly pronounced,
and is therefore not very likely to have been dropped. Taking
everything into account it looks as if Devanha is more likely
to have been the name of Aberdeen, than Devana. That both
Devanha and Devana are connected with the Aryan Serpents
seems highly probable.
Though the word is in English the idea of the Lotus as a
name for the Lotus Loch, in Galloway may have come down
*) See pp. 36, 37.
**) See Loch Kinnord: its History and Antiquities*, by J. G. Michie.
from remote antiquity; a so-called Lotus-leaf design is one of
the patterns of Keltic craftsmanship. In the case of Loch Daven,
or Devana in the Strath of Dee, the Sanskrit name may have
been retained because Devana is a Sanskrit word meaning
Lotus!*) It was also a name in Leicestershire, where there
was a roadway thought to have been constructed by the
Romans, and called Via Devana, but the Sanskrit word was in
existence long before the Romans could have named the loch
in Aberdeenshire, and the roadway in Leicestershire.
The town near Loch Daven may have been Devana.
In the neighbourhood of Loch Daven and Loch Kinnord
are the Fairy Faulds where Dr Joseph Robertson, an eminent
antiquarian, discovered several circular foundations. The Kin-
nord Loch was formerly known as Loch Kander; the Lotus
is the Sun, and Kander may have been Candra, the Moon-
god. Aberdeen composed of two parts in early times, was pre-
sided over by St. Nicholas and St. Machar. It may be that St.
Nicholas is Eochu of Tara who married Etain (Tara), god-
dess of Learning and of War, and that St. Machar is Macha,
Keltic goddess of War, mother of Aed, and possibly, a form
of Etain (Tara).
Vessels of various sizes were found in the very extensive
Pictish lake-dwellers settlement of Loch Kinnord and Loch
Daven; and one of them was a canoe, thirty feet in length,
hollowed out of a single piece of oak.
Some years ago a boating-party, including Mr Michie, was
on Loch Kinnord when one of the party, Mr Charles Brown
now of Aberdeen, saw a canoe lying at the bottom of the lake.
The others came cautiously, one by one, to avoid upsetting the
boat, and looked at the prehistoric canoe which is still in the
same position. The land around is full of relics of all kinds to
The Romans were astonished at the aquatic achievements
of these natives. Loch Kinnord and Loch Daven both have
artificial islands which are described as a marvel of ingenuity*.
*) See Sir Monier Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary.
In Kashmir, or Cashmere, which was inhabited by Nagas,
there are artificial, floating islands on which the natives grow
cucumbers, melons, etc: The dominant race in Kashmir are the
Dogras, and the Maharaja, himself, is a Dogra. There was, at
least, one Pictish chief called Doghra, and this may have been
the name of a tribe, or clan in Scotland at one time. So many
ancient Scottish records have been destroyed that very little is
known about Doghra, or about the Picts in general.
The name Ruthrieston, or Rudrieston, near Aberdeen,
points to a connection with the deity, Rudra, of the Aryans,
who may have inhabited a monolith of this name. In old
records it is sometimes called Rudriestoune. Rudby is probably
the Borough of Rudra, and there are many other names sug-
gesting a connection with this allegorical figure. Ruthrie, in
Scotland, is Roderick and with this ancestry it is not surprising
that there should have been a famous Roderick Dhu (Black
Roderick). In England the name takes the form of Robert.
Ruthrie may have given the name Rufford to Rufford
It is very strange to see the old well in Duthie Park, Aber-
deen, with pillar-heads on each side of the well-house on which
are either Serpents, or Feathers leaning forward, this in a region
occupied by the Taxilii; and it struck me as still more curious
that flower-beds, edged with box, executed at the present time,
are in the form of Serpents with the Egg between them. This
on the banks of the sacred river Dee!
On the fifteenth century pulpit in King's College may be
seen designs of Serpent-Dragons. The pulpit was originally in
St. Machar's Cathedral, near the river Don.
It is recorded of King Arthur that the similitude of two
serpents was upon the sword in gold, Arthur's Cove is in
Aberdeenshire, and the Serpent hero, King Arthur, gives per-
sonal form to the legendary atmosphere of the Taxilii region;
as also Brigit.
The City States of Takshasila (Taxila) of Northern India,
and inhabited by part of the Serpent race, was founded by
Bharata, an allegorical relative of Brigit (Bharati), or Danu
The State of Texas, which formerly belonged to Mexico,
may have been Taksha at one time.
Other Vedic and Serpent deities are Laghu and Tara.
Laghu, according to Sir Monier Williams', has Lugh as an
alternative. Tara is associated with places in the British Isles,
but only in name; as a mythic personality she seems to have
faded away completely, except, possibly, under other names.
A tablet has been found in Colchester on which it is stated
that it was put up by one Lossio Veda, describing himself as
Caledo, a Caledonian Pict. Lossio may be connected with the
river Lossie flowing through Elgin, near the Priory, and with
Lossiemouth not far distant. Lossio may be a reflection of
Veda, a character in the Mahabharata. The Indian Veda
seems to personify the Vedas, like Sarasvati (the Word).
These sacred books are for the guidance of the mind, be
cause it is considered essential that the mind should be under
proper control in order to prevent Speech from becoming mere
Loch Nell, or Loch-a-Neala, at the foot of the Serpent
Mound in Argyll is the Lake of Swans, and might be con-
nected with Serpents also. The chariot of Tara, or Nila Saras-
vati, is drawn by Swans, and her arms are entwined by wrigg-
ling serpents. Nala, husband of Princess Damayanti, was closely
connected with Swans, and was intimately associated with Kar-
kotaka, a Naga raja, or Serpent king. Either of these may have
laid a foundation for legendary conditions associated with Loch
Nell and the Serpent Mound, situated in the parish of Kil-
Sages disguised as swans inhabiting the Manasa Lake,
came to see Bhishma.*)
Manasa is the Serpent deity, mother of the Serpents.**)
Kuvera's capital, as localized by Hindus, is in Tibet near
*) Bhishma Parva of the Mah&bh&rata, 119, 97.
**) See p. 28.
the Manasa Lake. Is it merely coincidence that the Keltic
Fingal has the same name as Pingal (Kuvera), that Fingal is
the mythic proprietor of a well close to the Serpent Mound in
Scotland, and that one of the generals of the Hindu Ravana,
half-brother to Kuvera, carries a Serpent standard?
Merlin of the Kelts constructs a flaming Dragon (as an
emblem, identical with the Serpent), and this he gives to Kay
to bear on his standard. Kay is the son of Syr Ector (Hector
of Troy) ; and Lugh, Launcelot or Lonan, within mythological
range of the Serpent Mound, is possessor of the Fort of Lon-
don, the Pattern of the Great Troy!
The facts that three of the peaks of the holy mountain
Ben Cruachan are visible from this artificial hillock, and that
there are traces of an altar on the mound testify to the religious
atmosphere of this area; and the half-cremated remains which
were found in the Serpent's head afford evidence that the
religion was Aryan. The name of the lake immediately below
suggests association with the tradition of India, and the whole
neighbourhood is veiled in Keltic mythology. The lake extends
to Glen Lonan, where there are some sculptured crosses. This
name has its replica in the Isle of Man, where there are some
curiously marked stones resembling others in Wales.
It is just possible that Lonan is derived from the Serpent
deity, Lugh. His name has acquired an N both in London
and in Lund.
The cathedral church in the University town of Lund, in
Sweden, is dedicated to St. Lawrence, and it is evident that
this is the Christian form of Lugh. In Somerset we find
Lydeard-St. Lawrence, with the old and the new name com-
bined, as in some of the London church dedications.
Lugh, or Laghu, is mentioned in the Vedos. Laghu means
Light as with the Keltic Lugh. The deity Lugh, as the son
of Ethne (Tara) would probably have a deifical habitation
near Loch Nell, and the Serpent Mound.
The Chart, or diagram at the end of the book gives some
idea of the way in which the ancient world was divided by
the Rishis, or their human counterparts. There were nine divi-
sions, according to some accounts, and the partitions seem to
have extended far beyond the boundaries of India; and to
have included a large portion of the globe.
The name of Sumeria, inhabited by Sumerians, is probably
associated philological ly with the Sumeru Mountains. These
people holding the Aryan faith, and consequently monotheistic,
were in possession before the conquest of the country by the
Semitic Assyrians and Babylonians, and it may have been the
Cymric traditional Summer Country.
All the islands in the Southern Pacific and the Indian
Ocean are included in these divisions. The most important of
the nine divisions must have been Ilavritavarsha, in which was
situated the holiest of holy mountains, Mt. Meru.
One may read in the Vishnu Purana the original of the
Oh Brahmana, the Lord Vishnu is present in the Bhadra
Varsha in his manifestation of the Horse-headed One.
He is present in the Ketumala Varsha in his incarnation
of Boar, and in the Bharata Varsha as Tortoise.
The Lord Govinda Janardana (Vishnu) is present in the
Kuru Varsha in his Fish incarnation. And the omnipresent
Hari (Vishnu) is present in the whole Cosmos. *)
Although there can be no exactitude in these divisions as
given here, there is an indication of direction in regard to the
different incarnations, implying that they were more or less
in various regions.
*) See Chart.
PICTS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.
Evidences of the underlying doctrine of Monotheism, form-
ing a background to a plurality of forms, have been noticed
during the recent excavations in Palestine. Pre- Judaic dis-
coveries have revealed many signs of the religions of the
Wise men, when speaking of such different gods as Indra,
Mitra, Varuna, Agni, Suparna (the Eagle), Yama and Vayu,
intend to convey the idea of One God only, under different
names and aspects. Here is a declaration from the Rig Veda
of this monotheistic principle which forms the basis of Hindu-
ism, as derived from Aryanism.
Much that was considered unthinkable forty, or fifty years
ago has now loomed upon the archeological horizon as within
the range of possibility, and sometimes even of probability;
but mythology is still regarded as an unsuitable subject for in-
tensive study, and, for the most part, is ignored. Nevertheless,
it is intimately bound up with the prehistoric past, the records
of which are frequently presented in mythological guise.
The Sanskrit word Archa implies an image; and as the
very core of archeology in pre-Christian times was the image
(an allegorical picture) of the living force personified for
whom the temple was built, or to whom the Combe, or Tirtha
was dedicated, it seems that Archa is assuredly the foundation
for the words Archeology and Archeologia. The faith of
the Hindus coincides in so many respects with that of our
Keltic forefathers that it would not be surprising if this should
be the case.
The symbols of the Hare, Serpent, mystic Egg, Swastika,
Bull, Mirror, Chakra, and Boar all find a place in the sacred
literature of the Hindus, and relics of all are to be found in
America and the British Isles; unless, in the case of America,
the Bull, Mirror and Boar are absent?
The Hare is associated with the Egg at the Easter Lunar
festival, and appears as a deity in America. We may read in
the Salya Parva of the Mahabharata: On every recurring
day of the New Moon, O Monarch, the god (Soma), having
the Hare for his mark, bathes in the excellent tirtha of
Prabhasa, and regains his form and beauty.
It may be remembered that the Serpent followers of Vasuki
are Red, White and Blue, and that these colours are also asso-
ciated with Peredur of the British Isles. In the old legendary
tradition of Wales, inhabited by some of the Pictish tribes,
Merlin and Vortigern are connected with some Red and White
Serpents in conflict with one another, and definitely human.
This looks as if the three colours had represented three tribes,
or clans within the larger tribe. The story concerning these
two Cymric mythic figures is in connection with a building
defended by ramparts on an isolated rock in Carnarvonshire,
South of Snowdon. Very faint remains of old fortifications
are still to be seen there; and the Serpents are alluded to in
the following lines:
And from the top of Brith so high and steep,
Where Dinas Emris stood, shewed where the Serpents fought.
Undoubtedly, King Arthur was a Serpent of the Serpent
race. He and his father wore the Dragon emblem on their
helmets. Mole Arthur, on the Malvern Hills, has on its summit
the Hen's Egg, which, in Aryan allegory, is surrounded by the
Egg-encircling Serpent, the Sun! And the Shields of King
Arthur's Knights take the Ovoid form.
Cademuir Hill in Scotland, Cadbury Hill in Somerset and
Cadeleigh, near Tiverton, in Devon, are probably all named
from the same source, like the name Devon itself, which is
found in Perthshire.
There is a tradition that on the night of the Full Moon
King Arthur and his Knights ride round Cadbury Hill, which
is inhabited by Fairies. The horses are shod with Silver, and
when the procession has wound round the hill they go to
water their horses at the Wishing Well. The special time of
year for this ceremony seems to be Christmas Eve and St.
The mythic kingdom of Lot, related to, or closely con-
nected with Arthur, is now divided into Midlothian, West and
East Lothian. Midlothian is Edinburghshire, full of remi-
niscences of Arthur, and other mythic figures.
One of these is Modred, or Mider, Arthur's son and
nephew. Modred, originally, may have been the aditya Mitra,
a twelfth part of the Sun. In Prakrit, the language of the people
when Sanskrit was spoken by the more educated classes,
Mitra becomes Mihir, not unlike Mider. Mitra is the
god of Procreation, and Mider is the Morning Dew; and al-
though this would not suggest similarity of meaning in these
days it was otherwise in the time of the Picts.
St. Antony is also remembered hi the remains of an an-
cient chapel on the slopes of Arthur 3 Seat, with a Wishing Well
close by, and Druidical stones at the back of the well. Antony's
former name of Tantony is a reminder of other names in-
cluding the syllable Tan, such as Glentanar, and the river
Tanar, in Aberdeenshire, and Taunton, in Somerset, which was
formerly known as Tantona. These may all be connected with
the Sanskrit Tan (Fire).
West Lothian, or Linlithgowshire still shows signs of its
prehistoric inhabitants, and the ancient burgh of Linlithgow,
with its palace of the kings, is presided over by St. Michael,
or Makal, yet more ancient than the burgh. East Lothian
contains the legendary Traprain Law, on which the rock-
tracery is so remarkable. Some of it may be seen in the
Museum of Antiquities in Edinburgh; and this illustra-
Rock Drawing on Traprain Law.
tion, like the previous one, kindly lent to me by the Society of
Antiquaries of Scotland, gives some idea of it. These curious
markings on this great slab of rock may be displaying the Maze,
or Labyrinth associated in this instance with Themis as the
The houses on Traprain Law consisted of wattle and daub,
like many other prehistoric dwellings. A small cemetery was
discovered on this Iron-Age hill-top, and it consisted of a group
of cinerary urns bearing witness to the fact that the Aryan
custom of Cremation was prevalent among these hill-dwellers.
Cai, or Kai (Sir Kay), foster-brother of King Arthur, seems
to have been the occupant of the Caiy Stone which stood in
a field on the outskirts of Edinburgh not long ago, but which
is now enclosed by a wall. It is a large monolith, and its con-
tinued existence may be due to the fact that there is more
of it underground than above the surface. It may be associated
through the British god, Kai, with Kartikeya. Kai is a Fire-
walker, like St. Antony, also connected with the environs of
Edinburgh, and Kartikeya is a Fire-god.
There was also an ancient pillar-stone at Dawston, or
Degsastane, near Jedburgh, in Roxburgh, formerly known
as Rokisburgh. This stone was at the head of Liddesdale,
suggesting association with Lugh, or Lud. The Indian Daksha,
who may have been the deifical occupant of this monolith,
is an important figure in Hindu mythology. He is the father-
in-law of Siva, or Mahadeva, with whom he had such a
mighty quarrel. Daksha has sixty daughters, among whom are
Sita, the first wife of Siva; Aditi, mother of the Adit y as; Diti,
mother of the Daityas; Dana, mother of the Danavas; Muni,
mother of Makal and Narada, and Kadru, mother of the
Although Makal and Narada may have been mortals, or
both deities and men, their mother, Muni, was certainly a
deity; and, as a form of the Mother Goddess, she is evidently
the Moon. Muni, identical with Mon and Mona, the
former names for the Island of Anglesey, may be compared
to the Danish M0n, pronounced somewhat like meurn. This
is the name of an island off the coast of Seeland, and in ojd
maps it may be seen as Mona (in 1860) as Moon Island.
The old name for St. David's sometimes took the form of
Mynyv; and the Cymric Y is pronounced much like the
Danish O, when the latter is modified.
At the extreme North of the Island of Finn (Fiinen) in
the centre of Denmark is Finn's Head (Fyns Moved). This
promontory is situated in the district of Hindsholm, and not
long ago a gold Ring was discovered on Fyns Hoved by a small
boy; and it is now in the National Museum at Copenhagen.
Brockdorff, a little farther South, but also in Hindsholm, may
be the Town of the Deer as the Gaelic name for a Reindeer
was Brac, and may be mythologically connected. Hindsholm
may be compared with the district of Hyndsland in Glasgow,
a city founded by Kentigern, whose emblem is a Stag.
Odense, the capital of Fiinen, is named after Odin, or
Wotan, the Feathered Serpent.
On the Island of Jutland (Jylland), where the great Silver
Bowl was found at Gundestrup, there is a place called Skander-
borg (the Castle of Skanda?), the property of the Field-marshal
of the Army of the Aryan gods!
Denmark (Danmark or the Field of Dana) probably re-
ceived its name from Dana, or Brigit, mother of the Danavas.
Bali seems to be connected with both the British Isles and
with America. His son Vana is Mahakala (Michael). St. Va-
lentine's Day, the fourteenth of February, is Candlemas-tide
(Old Style), and it would seem that Bali, or Vali, when re-
sembling the Moon-god, is St. Valentine in pre-Christian form.
Ethne (the Blue Sarasvati) is the daughter of Balor (Bali?)
in Keltic spheres, and she becomes his wife. Bali of India is a
descendant of Brahma, the Creator; and Sarasvati of India
is the daughter of Brahma, and becomes his wife a striking
parallel between the ideas of Kelts and Hindus! The allegorical
meaning of this relationship is the earth produced by the
sovereign Creator, and also fertilized by him.
Brahma, the Creator (Ka)
Degsa (Ca) Daksha (Ka)
I ' I If
Mekel Ander Makal Narada
Ethne (Etain) possesses a name which represents the sym-
bolic Deer. In relation to Great Britain it is evidenced by the
sacred river Ythan, near the Abbey of Deer, in Buchan; and
by Ettingham the name of the estate in Warwickshire be-
longing to the Ferrers family, who have Deer supporters to
their coat-of-arms. As regards America, the American Reindeer
is known as a caribou; and the word Etthen means Cari-
bou. The Cree Indians are called Etinu, thus demonstrating
association with both Sree (Lakshmi) and Ethne (Nila Sara-
svati). Eta is synonymous with Cree, in regard to this tribe of
North American Indians; and Eta is the Sanskrit word which
Max Mueller describes as indicating a certain kind of Deer.
The ancient literature of the Hindus tells how King Sagara
of the Solar race, dug out the measureless deep, and how
he was presented with a Fiery Weapon by his Preceptor Aurva,
grandson of Manu. Aurva, himself, had a hundred sons, and
these had offspring who spread by thousands over the earth.
There is much to substantiate the- belief that a huge body
of invaders (prospective settlers) made their way to America
and Britain from Asia; as alluded to (as far as America is
concerned) in the Kiche MS.; and, apparently, these early
invaders of Patala and of the British Isles were Danavas,
Daityas and Serpents, in human form. Their emblems may
be seen throughout America, and their tracks followed through
country where they have left innumerable relics.
Guatemala may be part of the Ketumalavarsha, in which
Narayana manifested himself as the Boar. When in conver-
sation with Narada on the King of Mountains, Mt. Meru,
Narayana says to this foremost of men, I am the Pitri of
both the Pitris and the deities Becoming the Equine-
head,*) I rove through the Western and the Northern Ocean*,
*) See p. 127.
between which is Guatemala, and in which is situated the
White Island, as seen from the Sumeru range.
The essence of the religious aspect of the Aryans is to be
found in Britain and America, North, Central and South.
Mr. Christopher Dawson, in The Age of the Gods (1934)
quotes the following relating to the beliefs of the Tlingit In-
dians of Alaska: The Tlingits do not divide the universe
arbitrarily into so many different quarters ruled by super-
natural beings. On the contrary, supernatural power impresses
them as a vast immensity, one in kind and impersonal, inscrut-
able as to its nature, but whenever manifesting itself to men
taking a personal, and it might be said a human personal form
in whatever aspect it displays itself. Thus the sky spirit is the
ocean of supernatural energy as it manifests itself in the sky,
the sea spirit as it manifests itself in the sea, the bear spirit
as it manifests itself in the bear, the rock spirit as it manifests
itself in the rock, etc., there appears to be but one name
for this spiritual power, Yok.*)
With regard to these manifestations we might compare a
passage from the Ramayana relating to Hanuman, the monkey
divinity, who, though conversant with the sacred literature,
nevertheless displays his simian characteristics when he thinks
he has found Sita in Lanka. Demonstrating great joy, that
leader of monkey-bands rejoiced exceedingly. And thereat
(Hanuman) struck at his hands, kissed his tail, exhibited signs
of glee, frolicked, sang, darted towards the pillars, shot up to
the top thereof, jumped down to the earth, manifesting his
The word Yok employed by the Tlingit Indians must
surely be the Sanskrit word Toga, or Tog, which actually means
a Yoke (of self -discipline). Siva, third person of the Hindu
trinity, is the Master of Toga. It may be that the name of the
*) J. R. Swan ton, >Social Conditions, Beliefs and Linguistic Relations
of the Tlingit Indians*, Twenty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau
of American Ethnology.
**) The italics are mine.
Tlingit Indians of Alaska contains some remembrance of the
The Eastern Snakes, farther South, call themselves, or were
called Washakie's Band; what can this mean but Vasuki's
Biand, or the tribe of Vasuki, Snake king of the Netherworld?
The Pennacook tribe of Indians, whose name is reflected
at Pennicuik in Scotland, was the strongest and most in-
fluential of the Pennacook Confederacy, and therefore its
members were more likely to extend their influence than one
with lesser activity. Apparently, they reached the shores of
Kansa is a Danava, son of Ugrasena, mentioned in the
Adi Parva of the Mahabharata, and may have been the ori-
ginal Patron of the American Kansas City.
Sir Grafton Elliot Smith pointed out the likeness in Maya
carvings to Indian elephants, and Indians with typical head-
Indian navigators it was known had combed out the is-
lands in the Pacific, such as Easter Island and many others,
and it was unthinkable that they should not have discovered
a continent that stretched from pole to pole.*)
Asiatic artists among the Mayan settlers would bring with
them a recollection of the Elephant, which is the vehicle of
Indra, and one of the vehicles of Vishnu. A stone at Fergus,
Dyce, Aberdeenshire, has the Elephant symbol and also a
Z-rod. The latter symbol is also found on the Tomachar Stone,
and on the carved stone at Migvie in the Strath of Dee. The
Migvie Stone bears on the obverse a cross of plait-work, with
the double disc, and Z-rod. This emblem might possibly be
the Thunderbolt and Hook in conjunction with one of the
other emblems on this stone; and which is referred to in the
Ramayana and the Bhagavata.
When Hanuman, the Monkey Messenger, roves round
Lanka he notices palaces and houses shaped like the Thunder-
bolt and Hook. Many goddesses, including Durga, hold a
*) Morning Post, 26 March, 1926, Birth of Maya Culture*.
Hook, and the Thunderbolt is a symbol of Indra, god of Rain.
The signs of a Flag, a Thunderbolt and a Hook on the soles
of the feet are considered very auspicious, and were found on
the soles of Krishna.
The beautiful Migvie Stone is six feet high, and has a
Horseshoe among its symbols. In the Times (15. 8. 38.) an
The Tomachar Stone.
article appeared entitled Horse-shoes, and it shows a link
with India. It is a far cry from Gloucester city to the plains
of India, but there the feet of Government bullocks are shod
with half-shoes (we used to call them cues in this country)
which have just such nail-holes and nails as were popular in
Britain before the Roman occupation.^
In one of her forms, the Keltic Mother Goddess must have
been Gauri, with the Mirror symbol. The Aboyne Stone on
Deeside has the Mirror incised upon it; and the Formaston
Stone which also has Keltic Basket-work. On a stone at Meigle
a Serpent appears with the Mirror.*)
St. Sita of Christian times may have emerged from Sita,
*) See Sculptured Stones of Scotland*, by Romilly Allan.
wife of Rama, and the ideal of Hindu Womanhood. Sita, like
Grainne of the Kelts, is goddess of sacred Springs. Numerous
thermal wells in India are dedicated to the Queen of Rama,
and they go by the name of Sita-Kundas, or Sita's Wells. In
Europe the emblem of St. Sita is a holy Well! The surname
Sitwell is thought to have originated from the French, but
might owe its origin primarily to Sita (Lakshmi).
The royal sage, Kratha, an Asura, mentioned in the Adi
Parva of the Mahabharata, may once have presided in Keltic
form over Crathie, in Aberdeenshire.
The London coat-of-arms already described as having the
Wing of a Dragon above it appears to me to be more closely
associated with the Griffin than the Dragon, although the
Dragon takes such a prominent part in prehistoric symbolism.
The Griffin is associated with Apollo, and thus probably with
the Christian St. Paul and the pre-Christian Fal (Phala).*)
This mythic creature is seen at Temple Bar, the gateway to
the City of London.
The London churches, in some instances, have retained
mythological reminiscences; their names seen to be linked in
certain cases, with allegorical figures of a pre-Christian age.
St. Nicholas Cole Abbey; St. Bride's Church, with Bridewell,
presumably the Well of Bride (Bharati); St. Nicholas Aeons,
which, possibly has for its second name a corruption of
Eogan, or Eochu, and St. Catherine Cree in Leadenhall
Street, which seems to possess a memorial to Cree, or Sree, in
its second name. This church has a St. Catherine's Wheel
(Chakra) in one of the windows, not at all ancient as regards
its execution, but nevertheless carrying forward a symbolic idea
of immense antiquity. Within a short distance is St. Peter's,
There is a church dedicated to St. Catherine at Barnby-
on-the-Moor, described as within the liberty of St. Peter's,
York. A Fair is held here on the Thursday preceding St.
Peter's Day. Marlborough possesses a church dedicated to St.
*) See p. 65.
Peter within a very short distance of the ancient Mound in
the College grounds; and, above it, in Savernake Forest, is
the very old church of St. Catherine. One may remember in
this connection that St. Peter, in the form of the Christian
Peder, or Peredur, is the son of Ila (Sree, or Cree).
The emblematic Wheel (Chakra, or Yantra), symbol of
Lakshmi, or Sree, represents the Sun. Another Sanskrit word,
Ratha, also means Wheel, and the old Irish word Raes
has the same meaning, and also shows a connection with the
Chakra. Near the Shannon and the village of Shana Golden
in Ireland is Castle Shenet, or Shanid, possibly named after
Shani (Saturn), who, in India, is the god Yama. This Irish
rath, or earth-work is in the form of a Chakra, suitably asso-
ciated with Yama, a twelfth part of the Sun! The Indian
Shani, god of Misfortune, has his reflection among the Gaels
as Shanny. He was probably honoured at one time at Shen-
field in Essex.
Professor Jung of Zurich makes reference to the Disc of
the Sun in Modern Man in Search of a Souk. But, if I under-
stand rightly, he speaks of it only in connection with Buddhism.
This religion founded by Buddha, the ninth incarnation of
Vishnu, is very much less ancient than Hinduism, and its
emblems. The conventionalized Sun's Disc is a mathematical
elaboration of the numbers four, eight, sixteen, and so on; a
point which may be noticed in some of the Sun temples in
The Lord Buddha codified Hinduism, and Buddhism is a
replica of it. Hindu deities appear under other names in
Buddhist Japan, and there are other signs of the Hindu religion
in the background.
Who brought the Chakra and introduced the Boar symbol
to these islands if not the Picts? And who can prove that, in
the first instance, the Chakra was taken from Switzerland to
Britain? The direction in the first case may have been the
The Red and Yellow Sun Dance of Professor Jung's coun-
try was performed in London during the International Folk
Dance Festival in 1935, and is charming with its Sun-flower
effect. It is, however, more probably of Hindu than of Buddhist
The Boar seems to have left philological tracks in certain
quarters in England, as I have already endeavoured to show;
and I have since discovered some more possibilities which seem
worthy of consideration; Burham, called Borham in Domesday,
Boresford, Herefordshire (the Ford of the Boar), Borrowash,
Derbyshire, Borrowby, near Leake, North Riding of Yorkshire,
Borrow Beck, Kensdale, Westmoreland and Bosworth Hus-
bands, Leicestershire which, in the Domesday Book, is Bares-
worde (the Worp of the Boar).
Boscombe and Burlescombe in their former mode of spel-
ling, Boscumb, or Boscumba, and Burlescumb more
nearly approach the Sanskrit word Cathacumba, in regard to
their second syllables, than in the later forms.
Edburton, Sussex, like so many other places with similar
names, has a church dedicated to St. Andrew.
Ferry Hill, six and a half miles from Durham, may have
something to do with the symbolic Boar (Varaha}. In this
modern village there is the fragment of an old stone cross,
called Cleve's Cross, which is supposed to commemorate the
valour of one Roger de Ferry who slew a monster wild boar.
This might be a legend of later times, like that of St. George
killing the Dragon, and this hero of Ferry hill may have im-
personated the Boar.
As regards Borreaton Park, Shropshire, the author of the
Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names suggests that the
prefix may be Boar. Burwarton, in the same county, appears
in Domesday as Burertone (the Town of Bar aha, the Boar?).
Burwarton Hall, is the seat of Viscount Boyne, whose name
probably owes its origin to a mythological source. Boyne,
probably Scotch in the first case, and afterwards Irish, is pro-
bably identical with Aboyne, and the name of the river
Boyne in Ireland; all founded on Bo, the sacred Cow of the
Kelts, allied to Bo Find, St. Bee, or Bigha and Brigit. The crest
of Viscount Boyne is an Oak-tree, and the shrine of Brigit at
Kildare was in an Oak-grove. Brigit is Bharati (Sarasvati, the
Holy Cow), and closely connected with Gauri, whose emblem
is a Mirror; and with Varuni, wife of Varuna, the Ocean.
Two Mermaids with Mirrors appear as Supporters to the coat-
of-arms of the Viscounts Boyne, emphasizing the Aryan origin
of their family.
The Fomorians, when represented in a mythological light,
as in The Destruction of Da Derga's Hostel, may be identical
with the Indian Vyamas, or Fumes. In Dowson's Classical
Dictionary, he describes the Vyamas as the Pitris of the bar-
barians^ In the atmosphere of Tara the Fomorians seem to
coincide with the Vyamas as the Hostel was the scene of Fire
ceremonies. At Kilmorack in Scotland there is a hill called
Dun-Famhair (the Fomorians' Hill). Famhair is a Gaelic
word from which Fumes might have originated, both
emanating from the Sanskrit Vyama. According to Manu and
the Rig Veda, as given by Dowson, these particular Pitris
were of a class called Agni-Dagdha. As the Dagda is a Keltic
god of Fire surely it cannot be merely a coincidence that the
words Dagda, and Dagdha are practically the same?
Pitri takes the form of Pita in the Sanskrit nominative
Singular; and, with the discarding of the terminal A, the
word becomes Pit, from which may have originated the Bri-
tish surname Pitt and the people called Pitts, or Picts.
It Is remarked by Alexander Macbain that: Not a line
of either poetry or prose has been recorded as Pictish. If
Pictish was the name of a language this is strange, but was
it? Pictish in the early days of Pictish history may have been
a religious term, and without any racial significance whatso-
ever, like the words Hindu and Muslim, or Mahomedan
as a Muslim is called in Europe.
The Pitris of ancient India appear to be the ancestors of
the Picts, in a religious sense. They were not a nation, and
probably neither were the Picts. There is no language of the
Hindus, as Hindus, although many languages are spoken
among them, according to their nationality. It is probable that
for the same reason, the Picts never spoke Pictish, but that,
according to which part of the British Isles became their home,
they spoke an early form of Gaelic, Cymric or Norn.
Pittar is a surname among Bengali Hindus.
The Pitris, or Pitaras, came to be called Pinda.*) Penda
is a pagan king of Mercia !
Galedo, or Lossio Veda, as a Pict, may be associated with
the Irish earldom of Caledon. This noble family have for Sup-
porters to their coat-of-arms Dexter, a Mermaid with a Mirror;
Sinister, an Elephant, and their seat is recorded in De Brett's
Peerage as Derglodge. Derg is suggestive of the goddess
Durga, or Gauri, whose Mirror may be observed in rock-
carvings in Morayshire, in which county are Lossiemouth and
the river Lossie!
There is a Castle of Dundarg in Buchan.**)
When Narayana is conversing with Narada on the heights
of Mt. Meru prior to the departure of the divine Musician
for the White Island, he tells Narada that the inhabitants have
lunar complexions, apparently describing in mythological
parlance, the blonde faces of the islanders.
Taliessin writes thus of the first settlers in Britain:
Men of the country of Asia,
Men of the country of Gafis,
Said to be a skilful people,
But the district is unknown.
Book of Taliessin, liv.
The theory that the early British settlers found their way
here from Egypt does not accord with this account as Taliessin
distinctly mentions Asia as their home. He refers to Serpents
(the Serpent, or Naga race?), who can be traced to Asia;
and among them he places himself.
*) Santi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata.
##) See The Border History of England and Scotland^, by Ridpath.
I am a Druid.
I am an artificer;
I am a scientific one.
I am a Serpent.
Book of Taliessin, Ixxxix.
Further of himself Taliessin says:
Prince of Chief Bards am I to Elphin,*)
And my original country is the region of the summer stars.
Elphin, apparently, was used both as a personal, and
as a geographical name; and as the latter it obviously refers
to the White Island (Sveta Dwipa).
The name of the American State of Minnesota means
whitish water (Minn-water; sot ah- whitish) ;**) and hviti
is an Irish word for white. Both these words indicating
whiteness may be of Sanskrit origin (Cf. sotah and sveta,
also hviti and sveta).
Taliessin is the son of Gwyn who is equated with Finn, or
Find, the Great Hunter of the Gael; and, as I have already
suggested, Find may be identical with Vibhandaka, who lived
in an Indian forest; Taliessin being identical with Ossian, or
Rosgrana, the counterpart of Rishysringa of India, and the son
Taliessin is the allegorical Seed. Kerid, or Keridwen, known
under these names in . Wales and in Cornwall, is the Spirit
of Various Seeds, and the mother of the Son-god, Taliessin.
Keridwen places her infant son in a Coracle (the Sun-boat),
and he floats on the Cosmic Ocean. He is discovered by Elphin,
otherwise Alba, from whom may have evolved the names of
Elphinstone and Alva.
Is not this allegory relating to the birth of Taliessin very
full of symbolic meaning? The Cauldron of Kerid, and the
Holy Grail of Ila are one and the same, representing Sarasvati
*) The island of Alba, or Alban.
**) See Seven Years Residence in the Great Deserts of North American.
and Lakshmi, the two chief aspects of the Mother Goddess in
Keltic form, and this Cauldron, or Grail is brought from some
Taliessin, as a newly-born child (the Son) arrives in an
allegorical manner from Asia, in the Ship of the Sun, and this
Serpent child, who later on becomes a Druid, is received by
Alba, or Elphin, personifying the White Island!
KETUMALA VARSHA || 5 off g!f BHADRASVA VARSHA
"~ ~~ c> ;a
VAVU---- Chs. 34 and following
MATS y A- -Chs. 133 and following
VISHNU- --Port I. Ch. 2. and following
BHAGAVATA- Part Y Chs. 6 and following
/.Other Mahapuronas also give the some information
Mahobharato Bhishmo Parvo. (Book H) Ch.Sand following
Mrs. DOROTHEA CHAPLIN
Abbey of Deer, 51, 52, 121 ; of
Westminster, 17, 34, 71,
Abbots Bromley, 54, 72, 73, 98, 99
Aberdeen, 120, 122124
Aberdeenshire, 10, 52, 66, 80,
Aboyne Records, 57 ; Stone, 96, 137
Abyssinia, 58, 59
Aditya (the Sun), 20
Adit y as, 16, 21, 88, 89, 99, 130,
1 39 ; mother of the, 94
Aed, Keltic god of Fire, 53, 80, 112,
Africa, 59, 86, 87
Agni, Spirit of Fire, 50, 51, 75, 113,
114; colours of, 62, 90;
vehicle of, 62
Aikey Brae, 121 ; Aikey's Fair, 121
Aillil, Aila, or Aida, 77, 80, 9395
Alan, or Ila, 80, 9395
Alaska, 18, 22, 29, 30, 43, 44, 135,
Alba, or Alban, 14, 143, 144
Alford, Miss V., Lecture by, 89
Algonkin, or Algonkian Indians of
Allan, Clan, 94, 95
All Hallows, 17, 74, 109
Altai Mountains, 14, 24, 111
America, 2430, 58, 134136;
American legend, 70 ; Mexico,
27, 28, 125
Anait (Anahata), (Mother God-
dess), 58, 59
Ananta, or Sesha, Serpent deity, 39,
Andrew, St., 913, 15, 42, 56;
colours of, 102
Andrew's, St., 9, 18, 101
Anglesey, Isle of, 18, 96, 132, 133
Angus (Angiras), 52, 115, 116
Angus (Forfar), 18, 52, 55, 115
Antipodes (Patala), 2527, 87, 115
Antony, St., 39, 62, 130
Apah, the Cosmic Waters, 48, 54,
Apples, Symbolic, 75 77
Argyll, 1, 1921, 30, 100, 125
Arthur, King, 1921, 39, 94, 102,
105, 124; in Fairyland, 112,
Arya, 53, 115
Aryan religion, 24, 33, 34, 77, 78,
Aryas, or Aryans, 22, 57, 100
Avalon, or Avallach, 75
Ayrshire, 30, 95
Aztecs, 27, 28
Bali, or Beli, 25, 5961, 133
Ball-game, 69 71
Basket, or Corn Measure, 69, 74,
Basques, 61, 90, 102
Bavaria, 6365, 118
St. Bee, or Begha, 15, 117
Be Find, or Bo Find, 15, 98
Berkshire, 65, 66, 110
Bhaga, an adit y a, 99
Bharadwaj, Indian deity, 116
Bharata, 37,- 124, 125
Bharatavarsha, 37, 59, 127
Bharati, 15, 19
Bighapur, 117, 118
Birds symbolizing Fire, 113, 115
Boadicea, or Boudicca, 121
Boar symbol, 914, 20, 22, 23,
140; incarnations of, 15, 21
23, 127; legends, 10, 140;
Bothie, 97, 98
Bowl, Gundestrup, 81 84
Boy Bishop, 110
Boy deity, 69
Brahma, the Creator, 10, 22, 76,
133; Ladle, 72, 73; temples in
honour of, 77
Brahma, or Brahman, the One Su-
preme Being, 22
Brahmin Caste, 62, 74
Bran, or Vran, 75 77
Bress, or Breas, 51, 52, 116
Brigit, Brite or Bride, 12, 15, 19,
29, 99, 100
Brihaspati (Jupiter), 71, 115, 116
Brittany, 30; Breton folk-lore, 113;
St. Michael in, 16, 17
Buchanan, Old name for, 97
Budha (Mercury), 25, 35, 72, 74, 75
Buddha, 35, 47, 139
Bulls, Sacred, 90, 91
Ca, or Ka, Indian deity, 10, 134
Caer Droia, 117
Campbell, Clan, 20
Camps, British, 20, 58, 92, 116
Can, or Chandra, the Moon-god,
Canada, Name of, 29, 43
Cardrona, 116, 117; name of, 118
Cashmere, or Kashmir, 124
Cat, Demon, 112
Catherine, St., 43, 118, 138, 139
Cernunnos, Keltic god, 81, 84
Chair, Coronation, 78
Chakra, or Sacred Wheel, 24, 40,
41, 138, 139; in warfare, 118,
Chart, 25, 126, 127, 144
Cheshire, 15, 16, 65, 79
City States, 37, 124, 125
Clans, Allan, 94, 95 ; Buchanan,
97 ; Morgan, 94 ; Sandiliya, 94
Clavie ceremony, 91
Colours, Symbolic, 65, 79, 101 ;
Basque, 102; Scottish, 102;
Constitution, British, 104
Cooch Behar Fire ceremonies, 64,
Coracle, or Curragh, 47, 48, 143
Cornish language, 11, 35
Corn Measure, or Basket, 69, 74,
Cornwall, 19, 49, 51, 101, 102, 109;
Ball-game in, 69, 71 ; Furry
Dance, 61 ; Padstow, 63
Coronation ceremonies, 77 79
Cosmic Waters, or Ocean, 41, 48,
76, 87, 101, 143
Council of Elders, 103
Cow, Sacred, 15, 96, 97
Cree Indians of America, 43, 51,
Cremation, Hindu custom of, 33,
34, 110, 121, 126, 132
Cross, St. Andrew's, 1, 102; Tau
Cuchulinn, 36 ; as Boy-god, 68 ; as
the Cuckoo, 68, 69 ; Feathered
Cuckoo legend, 69
Cumaean Gates, 117
Cumberland, 9, 69
Curtana, or Sword of Mercy, 78, 79
Da Derga's Hostel, 113, 114, 116,
Dagda, Keltic god of Fire, 141
Dairy-house, or bothay, 97, 98
Daityas, 26, 60; mother of the, 132
Daksha, 10, 48, 132
Danavas, 88, 99
David, St., 18, 93, 94
David's St., 9, 12, 93, 94, 102, 133
Deer, Abbey of, 51, 52; Book of,
52, 55, 94
Deer emblem, 13, 47, 48, 50, 52
Denmark, 73, 8184, 132, 133
Derbyshire, 12, 18, 57, 115, 140
Devasena, or Shashthi, 50, 51, 96
Devonshire, 12, 13, 99, 112, 117,
118, 129, 130
Disc of the Sun, 22, 139, 140
Dorset, 12, 60, 69
Dragon emblem, 33, 38 42, 65, 66,
129; deities, 66, 67
Drona, 70, 71, 115120
Drostan (Sir Trystram), 51, 52, 55,
57, 58, 106
Druids, 58, 89, 90, 101106; Ash
Durga, Mother Goddess, 36, 94,
114, 115, 136
Durham, 66, 140
Dyus Pitara, 79
Eagle, The, 28, 98, 128
Earth allegorized as a Cow, 15, 98
Earth houses, or weems, 120
Earth Mother, 63, 64, 69, 71, 93,
Edain, or Etain, 50, 51, 53, 96
Edinburgh, 17, 53; Castle, 114;
Egg, Symbolic, 101, 102, 129
Elephant symbol, 73, 136
Elgin, 52, 109, 125
Elliot Smith, Sir Graf ton, 36, 136
Eochu, King of Tara, 45, 50, 51,
Essex, 11, 121, 122, 125
Ethne, 25, 60, 133, 134
Fairies, 108, 109, 112, 130; Fairy
Fal, Keltic deity, 71, 7578, 138
Feather, Castle, 81
Feathers, Symbolic, 80, 81
Fertility Cult, The, 1416, 63, 64,
Fife, 9, 18, 4648, 95
Fingal, 30, 98, 125, 126
Finn, the Great Hunter, 47, 143
Fire symbolized by Birds, 113, 115
Fisher-folk, 17; in Brittany, 16, 17
Flag, Basque, 102 ; Indian, 26, 117 ;
Scottish, 102; of St. George,
Fomorians, 25, 26, 60, 140, 141
France, 16, 17, 84, 89, 112
Furry Dance, 6163
Gaelic, 10, 20, 38, 48, 86, 97, 98,
120, 133, 141
Galloway, 19, 43, 57, 80, 95, 120
Games, Ball, 35, 6971
Gandhara, Province of, 37
Gandharvas, 25, 36; Deva-Gand-
harvas, 18, 121
Gauri, Mother Goddess, 90, 137
George, St., 6167
Germany, 35, 6365, 69, 110
Glasgow, 49, 133; coat-of-arms, 50,
Gloucestershire, 70, 73, 91, 137
Grail, Holy, 75, 79, 80, 143, 144
Grainne (Grace), 121, 138
Grotto at Margate, 30, 31
Gubbio ceremony, 62, 63
Guinevere, wife of King Arthur, 15,
Haddington, 9, 45
Hampshire, 11, 12, 21
Hanuman, Monkey Messenger, 135
Hare, Symbolic, 34, 70, 129
Hari, the Developed Seed, 127
Hebrides, 18, 81, 86, 120
Herefordshire, 91, 140
Herne, the Hunter, 81, 82
Hinduism, 14, 22, 104, 139; tenets
of, 34, 51
Horn-dance, 54, 72, 73, 99
Horse-shoe symbol, 13, 80, 137
Humboldt, Alexander von, 25, 26
Ila, 61, 80, 93, 143
Indian Images, 28, 29
Indian village life, 103
Indivisibility and Relativity, 56, 57
Indra, an adit y a and King of the
Invisibility, Cases of, 105108
Ireland, 51, 85, 88, 96, 103, 114;
Castle Shenet, 139; Kildare,
99; Tipperary, 36
Italy, 62, 63, 93
Ka, Indian deity and mountain
peak, 10, 111
Kai (Sir Kay), 118, 119, 126, 132
Kali, Indian deity, 16
Kartikeya, 50, 74, 91, 96, 132; as
Kayashtha, or Scribe Caste, 17, 18
Kelts, 35, 56, 62, 118
Kent, 30, 31, 61, 99, 110, 112;
Chilham, 71 ; Margate Grotto,
30, 31 ; Romney, 110
Kentigern, 45, 4750, 80
Keridwen, Keltic Mother Goddess,
75, 101, 143
Ketumalavarsha, 44, 127, 134
Knappers, Excavations at, 35, 58
Kshatriya Caste, 36, 62, 70, 71
Kubera, or Kuvera, god of Wealth,
29, 30, 38, 125, 126
Kukulcan, Serpent deity, 35
Kunti, or Prithvi, the Earth Mo-
Lachish (Tel Duweir), 60, 61
Lake dwellings, 123
Lakshmi, or Sree, 20, 61, 95
Leek symbol, 93, 94
Leicestershire, 12, 93, 123, 140
Lincolnshire, 10, 11, 13
Loch Nell, 30, 125
London, 34, 104 106; churches,
10, 52, 71, 138; coat-of-arms,
65, 138; Fort of, 73, 117, 118;
Lot, King of Lothian, and of Lon-
donesia, 33, 35, 45
Lotus emblem, 21, 119, 122, 123
Lugh, the Sun-god, 25, 35, 45, 71,
73, 74, 125, 126
Lydda in Palestine, 61, 65
Mah&bh&rata, 14, 125; quotations
from, 49, 50, 77, 129; Serpent
sacrifice, 37, 38; War, 68,
117; White Island, 14, 15, 19
Mahamaya, 21, 22, 57, 58
Mallena, or Malini, 49, 50
Malvern, 58, 102, 129
Man, Isle of, 10, 11, 86, 87, 126
Manasa, Serpent deity, 28, 125, 126
Mandan Indians, of America, 113
Maruts, 54, 89
Mashonaland, 59, 86
Matter, Myth and Spirit, 26, 49,
Mayas, 35, 136
Maypole, 15, 57
Maze design, 117, 132
Meave (Queen Mab), 109
Medicine, Ayurvedic, 90
Merlin, 20, 105, 126, 129
Meru, Mt., 14, 24, 111, 127; Si-
Mexico, 27, 28, 35, 125; coat-of-
Michael, St., 1518, 58, 59, 61,
66; in Brittany, 16, 17
Midlothian, 76, 130
Mind, 14, 15, 39, 41, 57, 125
Mirror symbol, 90, 137
Mitra, an aditya, 128, 130
Mitra, S. M., 90
Modern Man in Search of a Souk,
Modred, or Mider, 51, 130
Mohenjo Daro, 84
Monoliths, 34, 73, 132; in Fiji, 88
Monotheism, 21, 22, 128
Moon, The, 59, 86, 101, 132 133;
Hare, or Rabbit, 34, 59, 7.0,
Morayshire, 90, 91, 125
Morris Dancers, 62, 89, 90
Mother, The Great, (Mahamaya),
21, 22, 57, 58
Mounds, Sacred, 30, 65, 91, 110;
in America, 27
Muni, 10, 13, 16; possible associa-
tion with place-names, 15, 18,
19, 132, 133
Nagas, 2628, 33, 34, 65, 87, 124;
celestial food of, 86 ; as trea-
Nalanda University, 41, 42
Names, Personal, 12, 13, 20, 50,
89, 94, 95, 9799
Nana Sahib, 107, 108
Narada, 1316, 18, 23, 43
Narada Waterfall, 29, 43
Narayana, 1315, 87, 134; Sym-
bols of, 41
Nature, Forces of, 56, 57
Navajo Indians of America, 73
Niagara Falls, 43, 44
Nicholas, St., 50, 54, 73, 110;
Combe St. Nicholas, 110; in
Westminster Abbey, 74
Nila Sarasvati (the Blue Sarasvati),
Norfolk, 12, 13, 60, 91
Northumberland, 80, 81, 93
Norway, 39 42 ; Stave church, 40
Ohio, 27, 43, 44
Oklahoma, 29, 88
Orkney Islands, 33, 69, 109
Oscar, or Oscara, 54, 106
Ossian, 47, 53, 54
Palestine, 60, 61, 128
Palit, Akhilachandra, 21, 82
Patala (the Netherworld), 2527,
44, 87, 115
Peacock as Fire-bird, 113, 115
Peebleshire, 92, 116, 117
Pennacook Indians of America, 136
Peredur (Sir Perceval), 72, 74 76,
79, 80, 105, 139
Perthshire, 18, 57, 71, 92, 116
Peterhead, 92, 93
Peter's Castle, 80
Pevensey Castle, 11
Picts, or Pitts, 103, 141 ; pre-chris-
tian church of, 56 ; Pictish,
141, Pictish lake-dwellings, 123
Pillar-stones, 9, 34, 75 ; in India,
Pingala, 30, 98, 126
Pitris, 134, 141
Place-names, 1015, 1823, 36,
49, 52, 60, 91, 93, 95, Amer-
ican, 2730, 43, 44, 143;
Indian, 117, 118; derived from
Mahamaya, 57, 58 ; Miscel-
laneous, 61, 65, 66
Platter, Wooden, wirth Turtle, 59
Puranas, 25, 74, 88, 121 ; Vishnu
Purana, 114, 127
Pururva, son of Budh, 72, 74 77,
Quetzalcoatl, of Mexico, 35
Rama, 26, 43, 53, 54, 79
Ram&yana, 26, 27, 37, 53, 68, 79 ;
Black Magic, 105, 106; Hanu-
Rlvana, 26, 27, 29, 53, 54
Rig Veda, 24, 50, 78, 88, 141
Rings, Symbolic, 79, 80
Ripon, 76, 77
Rita (Sarasvati), 79
Rivers, Sacred, 48 50, 93
Rocks and Stones, 76, 78 ; inscribed,
51, 55; Sculptured, 9, 80, 90,
136, 137; Traprain Law, 45,
Roxburgshire, 69, 132
Round Table, The, 21
Rudra, god of the Winds, 16, 54
Sabrina, nymph of the Severn, 49
Sagara, King of Ayodhya, 26, 134
Salmon, 76, 77, 80
Saman, or Shaman, Feast of, 17
Sanddhe, father of David, 93, 94
Sarasvati (the White Goddess), 15,
19, 79, 96
Seeds, Symbolic, 14, 47, 64, 65, 75,
114, 117, 142, 143; in Camp-
bell motto, 20
Serf, or Sair, St., 47, 50
Serpent, or Dragon emblem, 30
33; Mound, 30, 125; temple,
Serpent, or Dragon deities, 34 36,
Sesha, or Shesha, 27, 39, 44, 87
Seven Years Residence in the
Great Deserts of North Am-
Shahmanism, 25, 28,58
Ships, Viking, 39, 40
Shoshonee tribes of America, 27,
44, 87, 88
Shropshire, 15, 140
Sidh, Land of, 73, 105, 108, 112,
Siddhas, 25, 36, 113
Sita, wife of Rama, 63, 64, 136
Siva, 22, 25, 43, 47, 60, 132, 135;
as Lord of Beasts, 84 ; as Lord
of Physicians, 90 ; vehicle of,
Siwash Indians of America, 27
Skanda, Field-marshal of the Army
of the gods, 38, 133
Sky-god, 22, 79
Snake tribes of America, 27
Snake workship, 73
Soma, Moon-god, 25, 29, 129
Somaliland, 85, 87
Somersetshire, 10, 12, 20, 76;
Camelot, 1921 ; Combe St.
Sree, or Lakshmi, 21, 61, 95, 98
Staffordshire, 48, 72, 73, 98, 99
Strange Story, A, 105
Suffolk, 91, 121
Sumerians, 24, 1 1 1
Surrey, 22, 37, 60, 99
Surya, Indian Sun-god, 98
Sussex, 11, 13, 31, 57, 69
Swastika, 28, 33, 34, 43, 76, 88 ; on
Newton Stone, 55
Swords, Symbolic, 65, 78, 79
Takhoma, Mt., 28, 29
Takshasila (Taxila), 29, 3638,
Taliessin, 19, 141143; Book of,
Tara, the Blue Sarasvati, 60, 66,
Tara in Ireland, 45, 98
Tau Gross, 51
Tauber river, 118
Taxilii tribe, 36, 37, 121, 122, 124
Thames, 48, 49
Themis, or Thenew, 45 49
Thunderbolt and Hook, 136, 137
Tippera and Tipperary, 19, 36, 112
Tlingit Indians, of America, 135,
Tortoise, or Turtle, 14, 15, 59,
Traprain Law, 45, 46, 130
Tree, Sacred, 9, 43, 44, 50, 60,
Tribes in early Britain, 36, 37, 121
Trinity, Danava in Britain, 99,
100; Hindu, 22, 43
Troy, 117119, 126
Tuatha dc Dannan, 108
Tumuli, 11, in Brittany, 16
Ugic river, 121
Uthr Pendragon, 37, 105
Varuna, an aditya, and the Ocean,
| 75, 76
Vasuki, King of the Serpents in the
Netherworld, 27, 28, 79, 87,
Vedas, 24, 113, 125
Vigean, St., or Vidian, St., 89;
Viking Ships, 39, 40
Villages, Regulation of, 103
Vishnu, 21, 22; Horse-headed One,
127, 134; Incarnations of, 14,
15, 59, 127
Votan, Serpent deity, 34 36
Vran, or Bran, 75 77
Wain, Charles', or Arthur's ; 74 ;
Wales, 9, 22, 23, 102, 129; River
Alan, 92, 93
Warwickshire, 12, 55
Wells, 16, 20, 52, 138; Macbeth's,
92 ; St. Ca's, 10 ; St. Vidian's,
89 ; Wine Well, 93
Westminster Abbey, 17, 34, 71, 74
White Island, The, 1315, 19, 23,
WhitKorn, 80, 81
Wiesbaden, 35, 110
Wiltshire, 11, 12, 30, 138, 139
Worcestershire, 11, 93
Word, The," (Speech), 96, 125
Yama, god of Death, and an adit y a,
"1618, 29, 58, 88, 139
Toga, or Tog, 14, 135, 136, 139
Yorkshire, 52, 53, 69, 76, 77, 98,
Zimbabwe ruins, 59, 86