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G. E. BUTT. 

To face Title Page. 




Eighteen Years Missionmy in South Africa 
President of the Primitive Methodist Conference, kj5 







Liverpool TO Cape Town. 

Busy Pier- Head — Leave Taking — Sunday on Board Ship— • 
Concert— A Dance — Ladies' Cricket— Pillow Fight — Early 
Morning View — King Neptune — Liberal Bill of Pare — 
Fancy Dress Ball — Landing — Meeting of Friends .,. 1 


Cape Town to Bulawayo. 

Northward— Mode of Travel — The Hex River Mountain — 
Kiinberley — Sunday at Vryburg — A Native Service — 
Tiger's Kloof — Bible Society — Own Church Represented — 
Difficulties — Prospects — Send Off — Change of Scene — 
Lonely Farmers — In Bulawayo — The Town— The Matopos 
—"The World's View." 14 

The Victoria Falls and Broken Hill. 

The Hotel — Family Party — First Impressions — The Bridge- 
North Bank — Livingstone Island — Palm Grove — Rain 
Forest— The Falls— The Gorge— Up the River— Pig Island 
— Shooting the Rapids — Hippos at Play — Leaving the Falls 
— No Shops- Sleeping on the Track — The Hunter — The 

.-!'^? Kafue — The Young Wife— New to the Country — The 
Sources of the Zambesi— Game on the Way Up — Broken 
Hill ... ... 42 


Broken Hill to Nambala. 

First Camp— Drink !— First Night in Forest— My First Shot- 
Market in the Forest— A Fine Antelope— New Stores — 
Character of the Forest— Bringing the Tree to the Tent— 
A Lion in the Grass — The Mumba Camp — The 
Mission 67 


Work at Nambala. 

Buildings — Church — ^Nlahowany Seats — Medical AYork — Brick- 
Making — Garden — Worship at Sun-Down — Sunday 
Services — More Medical Work — Brass Buttons for Money 
— Training Oxen — Six Months for Attempting Life of 
Native AVorker— A Fire— The Man Who Failed to Get a 
Wife 90 


Nambala to the Kafue. 

Monos — Kakiao — Hunting — An Evening Market — Fig Trees 
— A Sunday with the Heathen — A White Wonder— Fine 
Herd of Antelope — River at Last 112 

Kafue to N'Kala. 

An Early " Trek "—Stuck in Sand-High Wind— A Chief to 
Lead — Lions and Leopards — A New Leader — A Hunting 
Party — A Trader in Cattle— Crossing the Kafue— In Sight 
of NKala Mission — Missed the Way ... 127 

Work at N'Kala. 

Site and Buildings — Our Feelings — First Mission to Heathen 
— First House — In Charge of Evangelist— His Devotion — 
Sunday Services — Interview with the Natives — The Graves 
of N'Kala 137 

A Week at Nanzela. 

Journey on Mule — Reception — Mission House — Mr. Smith's 
Work — River- — Gardens — Buildings — Men at School — 
Children Boarders — Sewing Class — Class Meeting — Sun- 
rise — Child Saved — Influence of the Mission 154 

A Sunday at Naxzela. 

The Quiet of the Day— Call of Messenger and Bell— Congre- 
gation— Service — An Advantage of no Windows in Church 
— The Lord's Supper — A Church in the Desert — Native 
Missionary Zeal — A Great Opportunity of Expansion — 
The True Method 172 



Nanzela to Kasanga. 

Medicine for Cattle— Blind Chief — Road Missed — The Chief 
Shaloba — His Village — People — Nannvala Camp — 
Lagoonof Kaf ue — BoileaCheese — Downthe Kaf lie — Native 
Fishers — A Lion in the Way — \\ ithin Sight of 
Kasanga ISo 


Kasanga as a Site for New Mission. 

Chief — Head-Men— Evening- Service — Wives — Camp Fire — 
Beyond the Light — An Early Visit— Dressing under Ob- 
servation — Presents — A Day of Inspection — A Fine Oppor- 
tunity * 204 


Return to Nanzela. 

Lion Tracks — A Place for Out-Station — Our Old Friends of 
tlie Camp — Shaloba finds us Carriers — On the ^Var-Patll — 
Home Again 214 


Nanzela to Kalomo. 

An Early Start — Sunday Evening in Heathen Village — Man 
^Mauled by Hj-ena — How the Villages are Protected — A 
Leopard's Howl — A Great Wind— An Unpleasant Day — 
Dry Pits — AVater ! Water 1 !— Carriers Foot Sore— The 
Trader and Lion — Wild Pig and Feast — Breakfast with 
Magistrate — Old Seat of Government — The Station at 
Last — Last Camp Fire — Why did Missionaries bring 
Magistrates — Why Pay Taxes — Government brings Peace 
— Railways and Cattle — Own Case — White Men and 
Taxes— Want Two Years' Rest 222 


Some Native Habits and Views. 

Trades— Basket- Work — Pottery — Wood-Work — Smelting— 
Forge- Work — Bellows — ^lusic — The Great Organ — The 
Drum-Dancer — "Ditzee" — Serpents — Dry House in River 
— Men — Lions — Leopards and Dogs — "(Jry" ... 246 



New Livingstone and the Government. 

Town Badly Laid Out — Administration — New Map — Govern- 
ment Friendly — Medical Work — Prohibition of Drink — 
The Late so-called Rising — What about the Future — Is it 
to be Peace ? — Litsea — A Commercial Who Knew (?) — A 
Trader's Testimony — Servants to be Trusted — Post Office 
Scene — Justice and Peace 268 



G. E. Butt Frontispiece. 

The "Persic" Facing Page I 

Four-Berth Cabin 


Dining Room 


Reading Room 


Looking Aft 


Principal's House, Tigere Kloof 




Class Rooms 


Rhodes' Statue 


Government House 


Great Dam 


Rhodes' Grave 


Victoria Falls 


Main Falls 


Panoramic View of Falls 

. 53 



Above the Falls 


My First Camp 


Washing-Day on Journey 


Grinding Corn 


Crossing the Chibila 


Staff at Nambala 


Brick- Yard, Nambala 

. 101 

Medical Work at Nambala 


Building at Nambala 


Boy with Sore Legs 


Luse and Her Husband 


Sable Antelope 


Crossing the Kafue 


Building NcAV Church at N'Kala 

. 141 

First Mission House at N'Kala 



The Graves at N'Kala ... 

Staff at Nanzela ... 

The Motherless Child ... 

Half-Caste Boy 

Mission House, Nanzela 
Mission Church, Nanzela 


Early Breakfast at Kasanga 
On the Koad in the Mashila 

Mission Workers 

School Boys 

Raniathe and Keniuel . . . 
Native Blacksmith 
Native Organ and Dance 
Livingstone Station 
Loading Coal at Wankie 







. 179 

. 193 

. 209 

. 217 

. 233 

. 233 

. 249 

. 249 

. 255 

. 277 

. 277 


T T will be known to many of my readers 
that I spent about eighteen years on our 
South African Mission. That Mission was 
seventeen years old when I went to it ; and it 
v»ras felt the time had come when we should 
be training our own native workers. It was 
known to the Home Committee that I had a 
technical training before coming into the 
ministry; and as they wished the Training 
School at Aliwal North to be conducted on 
industrial lines, they called me to undertake 
the work. 

At this time plans for our new Mission north 
of the Zambesi were being matured. And 
it was hoped our new departure at Aliwal 
would result in finding native workers for that 
Mission. We began in a small way with only 
four pupils. But the numbers soon increased. 
Our aim was to produce self-helpful teaching- 
evangelists; young men who would be able 
not only to teach a school, lead a class, and 
preach; but assist also in the industrial work 
of the Mission, even to the extent of building 


their own house. The students, therefore, 
were prepared for the teachers' examination 
under the Cape Government; they received 
careful Scripture instruction and lessons in 
elementary sermonising; and their afternoons 
were spent in learning brick-making, car- 
pentry and the various branches of building. 
This gave them their handiness, and with what 
results will be seen in some of the following 

At first it was very difficult to get students 
willing to go to the Zambesi. The country 
seemed far away and strange to them, and, 
indeed, dangerous. Later developments in 
Africa have been so great and rapid that it is 
already difficult to realise how distant the 
Zambesi seemed at the time of which I write. 
It took our first Mission party eleven months 
to make the journey in their ox-waggons. I 
recently covered the same ground in a train 
de luxe in a less number of days. But 
gradually their missionary zeal prevailed, and 
first one, and then another offered himself 
for the work. Having thus been associated 
with the training of the men, I could not be 
indifferent to their work. 

But I had a further ground of interest in our 


South Central Missions. The European 
Missionaries usually spent a time at Aliwal 
North before going forward to the scene of 
their work. The first party spent six months 
with us; the next wa^s with us during the 
whole period of the Boer war ; for just as they 
were ready to go forward the war broke out, 
and all the roads were closed. Some of them 
came to us on furlough. So we not only got 
to know the men but their work also. 

We could not, therefore, help feeling a 
great interest in our Zambesi Mission ; and had 
we been a few years younger we should have 
offered ourselves for work there. But failing 
this we conceived a great desire to visit the 
country; and often told both Europeans and 
natives that we should surely come some day 
and see them at their work. 

My hands were too full of service while in 
charge of Aliwal Mission, to admit of any 
holidays, excepting when I came home on 
furlough. I had, therefore, to wait for the 
realisation of my desire until the time had 
come to retire from the work in Africa. And 
even then, the calls at home held me for three 
years without a break. But the time came at 
last, and I started on my great holiday with 


an eagerness it would be hard foi* a school 
boy to beat. 

Writing a book on my journey had never 
entered my thoughts. I have a somewhat 
wide circle of friends, Missionary and other, 
and I decided to write copious notes of my 
journey from day to day, and send them home 
as a circular letter. But by the time I 
reached Broken Hill I began to realise that I 
should be able to give information concerning 
the country, the people and our work, that 
would help the Missionary interest at home. 
Henceforth I wrote with that end in view. As 
the form will indicate, the paragraphs were 
written from day to day; while the objects 
described were before my eyes ; and the views 
set forth were warm in my thoughts. Only 
revision has been done since returning home. 

I offer no apology for writing chiefly from 
the point of view of a Missionary. I could 
do no other. Mine has been a Missionary 
life. It was a Missionary journey I under- 
took; and in publishing this book my motive 
is Missionary. 

The pictures in the first three chapters are 
lent by the White Star Co., the Bi-itish South 
African Co., and mv friend Mr. Willoughbv, 


of the Tiger's Kloof Institution; to all of 
whom I tender my best thanks. I am indebted 
for the remaining pictures to Mr. Kerswell 
and Mr. Price who, together with their wives, 
did so much to make my journey both a 
pleasure and a success. I must also mention 
the great courtesy of the Government officials. 
I visited four Government Camps, and was 
made to feel at home at each, and received 
assistance that money could not have pur- 


Liverpool to Cape Town. 

/^N Thursday, July 2nd, 1908, I left 
^^ Liverpool in the good ship " Persic " for 
my long projected journey to South Central 
Africa. The pier-head presented a picture 
full of movement and interest. Leave-taking 
is not a pleasant exercise — the last few 
moments reaching near to agony. This will be 
my seventh time across the Atlantic. It has 
always been kind to ine. I have never missed 
a meal. The " Persic " is a fine and steady 
ship. We are settling to the voyage splendidly. 

Sunday, July 5. 

A lovely morning — quiet, bright, and just 
warm enough to be pleasant. The passengers 
are dressed in their best — some of the men 
even have their top hats on. What the sailors 
are obliged to do in working the ship is done 
in a more subdued way than on other days. 
There was a large gathering at morning ser- 
vice ; and in the evening we had sacred singing 
in the library. 

A fortnight on board ship, with many people 


you have never seen before, is a good oppor- 
tunity for the study of human nature. And it 
is not long before they begin to classify them- 
selves. The more studious exchange books 
and papers; and this is often followed by the 
exchange of views on men and things. Others 
are after fun and sport. Drink and gambling 
get more and more in evidence as the days go 
by, and the restraints of strangeness wear 

The entertainments included many things. 
We had several evening concerts — one on 
deck — but beyond three or four fine voices 
there was nothing remarkable. Cricket 
matches are being played most days. English 
V. Colonials, Married v. Single, and so on. 
And they really do seem to get a lot of fun out 
of it. 

Tuesday, July 7. 

This evening we passed near the Canary 
Islands, which was our first sight of land since 
leaving our own shores. We were too far off 
to see very distinctly, and the atmosphere was 
rather hazy. The Peak of Teneriffe seemed 
to rise majestically out of the sea. We could 
only see the general out-line ; our glasses even 
failed to show us the snow-clad top. 


A considerable section of our little company 
seems to depend on dances for any pleasure 
they are to find during the voyage. It is easy 
to give them facilities, as there is a good band 
on board. 

Thursday, July 9. 

We are having delightful :weather, and we 
are making good even running each day — 
varying from 320 to 326 miles each 24 

Even the ladies have had a cricket match 
with the men to-day; but the latter can only 
use their left hand. It afforded much amuse- 
ment. Then there was a pillow fight. This 
is great fun. The method is very simple. 
The combatants sit on a pole facing each 
other. Each is supplied with a pillow, and 
they belabour each other till one loses his 
seat. Beds are placed under the pole to break 
the fall. There were many other events; but 
I only saw the above two, as a little of this 
kind of thing is enough for me. 

Friday, July 10. 
We are well in the Tropics. My cabin 
companion this morning complained very 
much of the heat, and wanted me to join him . 


But I had to report a good night's rest. Two 
things are in my favour — he is very stout, and 
you know how I am; and then I have the top 
berth, which is the more airy. There is a 
little labour in reaching it, but to a light 
weight like myself this is nothing. 

I was up early this morning, and went on 
the highest deck to enjoy the cool breeze. 
The heavens were a httle over-cast, the sun 
not yet being able to break through. Far 
away beyond the general sky-line the sun was 
shining behind the clouds; and for about a 
mile wide illumined the waters for a long 
distance beyond. It was like a broad path of 
light along which the play of the sun could be 
seen on the rising and falling waves, making 
the movement of the sea a wonderful revela- 
tion of shade and colour. 

Tuesday, July 14. 
As far as the sports are concerned, the 
great event of the voyage took place to-day. 
The great Trial of Neptune. This was new 
to me. They do not have it on the mail ships ; 
and some of the Captains on this line do not 
allow it. But ours gave permission under 
certain restrictions, the chief of which was 



To face page 4. 


that all who took their trial should be 
volunteers. This is the idea : — King Neptune 
holds a court for the punishment of offenders. 
There is a public prosecutor, police, and 
imaginary charges are prepared against the 
prisoners. The sentences vary. The 
heaviest included to be shaven and dropped 
into the tank. The barber was furnished with 
a huge wooden razor. He had many 
assistants, one of whom did the lathering by 
means of a bucket and white-wash brush. 
Then, at the end, all who had taken part in the 
trial were raided by the prisoners, and had to 
face the tank. It caused great amusement. 

A number of things on this voyage are quite 
new to me. There is only one class. We 
do not all pay alike; the cabins are classified, 
and that governs the pay. But this is the only 
difference; there is only one table. The food 
is abundant, and in great variety, and well 
cooked. The serving could be improved. 

Friday, July 17. 
This evening, what, to the ladies, is the event 
of the voyage, took place — a fancy-dress ball.' 
According to report it was a great success. 
But I had heard enough about it previously to 

B 2 


sicken me ; so I retired to the library and had 
a good read. 

Tuesday, July 21. 
We have now reached our last complete day 
on the ship. The weather has been lovely, 
and the ship the steadiest I have ever been on. 
To-night we shall pass near where we were 
wrecked when coming home during the Boer 

Wednesday, July 22. 
Most of us were on deck soon enough to see 
the sun rise. It was a glorious sight. There 
was a high range of mountains running in a 
line with the coast, and the sun came up from 
behind them. The sea was quiet. The 
heavens were bright. The gradually increas- 
ing light gave us a revelation of beauty never 
to be forgotten. Table Mountain seemed to 
emerge from the sea in all its impressive 
grandeur of size, shape, and shade ; and when 
a closer view brought out the details of the 
gcene the picture was complete ; for we could 
see the city itself extending along the base of 
the mountain as though supplicating its pro- 
tection. The view was worth the 6,000 miles 
we bad voyaged to see it. The exclamations 



io face paye S. 


of those who saw it for the first time Were full 
of grateful surprise. 

By 9 o'clock all was ready for landing. 
These Australian liners do not enter the dock. 
When it is rough the passengers are slung 
over the sides of the ship in a basket, which 
is more exciting than comfortable. To-day 
we were able to pass quietly down the ladder 
to the tug. 

Mr. and Mrs. Legg kindly entertained me 
during my stay in Cape Town. Mrs. Legg is 
daughter of my old steward and friend, Mr. 
Knight, of Aliwal. Mr. Legg was able to help 
me in preparing for my up-country journey. 


Cape Town to Bulawayo. 

Friday, July 24. 
T EFT Sea Point for town shortly after 
breakfast, as I had to arrange to get 
my things to the station, and make a few fresh 
purchases for the journey. Called on my old 
friend Col. Crewe. I expect to see him again 
at Christmas at Aliwal. He was Colonial 
Secretary in the late Progressive Government, 
and is now one of the Leaders of the Opposi- 
tion. He gave me a letter of introduction 
to the Secretary of the Chartered Company 
at Bulawayo. It is likely to be of great 
service to me. 

At 11,30 I said good-bye to my friend Legg 
and oui train steamed out of Cape Town for 
the North. The first part of the journey was 
through vine-yards, — what is called the wine- 
farming district, but by bed time we had 
reached a part of the country which is very 
bare both of trees and grass. 

Mr. Legg was able to render me a great 
service just at the last. I was put into a com- 
partment with four others. When Mr. Legg 


saw this he went and spoke to the conductor. 
He pleaded my age and the length of my 
journey, and not in vain, for he secured a 
small compartment for me that, when filled, 
only holds three, and I am likely to have it 
all to myself. There is a nice little table in 
it, and I am able to write with as much com- 
fort as though in my own study, always, of 
course, excepting the motions of the train. 

Saturday, July 25. 

I had a good night in the train. After a 
wash and good breakfast, felt fit for a good 
read and some writing. The weather is 
delightful, not a cloud to be seen. The nights 
and mornings, however, are rather cold. It 
is winter, but to those who have never been 
here before, it is a brilliant summer. 

We have a long heavy train, and have been 
losing time. We are now running 90 
minutes late, and I fear it may be more before 
we reach Kimberley, where we are due at 
6.20 to-night. 

There is a good bit of novelty in train 
travel in South Africa. It is a single track, 
and the line keeps to the surface of the 
country, going up hill and down, like ordinary 


roads. It is a narrow gauge, and the curves 
are very sharp. The coaches are put on the 
wheels Hke the tram cars at home. This 
secures that the curves are taken with ease 
and safety. There are no separate sleeping 
coaches, but each compartment is fitted up to 
sleep four persons. The seat on either side 
draws out, forming two good beds; and a 
part of the back above each seat lifts up ; thus 
forming two other beds. The fast through 
trains, called fast because they run less slowly 
than other trains, are furnished with a kitchen 
and dining car ; and you can be supplied with 
good food at moderate charges, when all 
things are considered. The attendance is 
very good, and the officials are obliging. The 
comfort of a journey compares favourably 
with homi travel ; we say nothing of the speed. 
We came up the Hex Eiver Mountain early 
this morning. We had two powerful engines 
— one in front and one behind. This is safer 
than both in front, because if any of the 
couplings broke it would prevent a terrible 
accident. It is 2,400 feet above the sea ; and 
the gradient in some places is so steep that 
the two engines could only reach a walking 
speed. It would be difficult to say how many 


times we described the letter S. The maze 
of peaks was very wonderful to look upon; 
and shortly after we reached the top the sun 
began to rise from behind one of the spurs. 
For a long time the vast plains appeared 
oppressed with shadow, while the lofty peaks 
were bathed in sunshine. We had an artist 
on board the ship and I wished he could have 
seen the vast expanse of Hght and shade. 

We reached Kimberley safely in the even- 
ing, where I had to change. This town is in 
a bad way. Eetrenchment at the mines has 
been the order of the day for some time, and 
now they are closing down. I had a talk with 
a gentleman who boarded the train here, and 
seemed to know a good bit about the 
unsoundness of business in Kimberley. I 
'asked him, amongst other things, if he really 
thought De Beers would close down for any 
length of time, or if they were only trying to 
bluff the Government. He quite thinks it is 
a duel between the Government and the Com- 
pany, and is intended to secure better terms 
for the lattei*. 

Sunday, July 26. 

Eeached Vryburg this morning at 4 o'clock, 
an hour late. The station is a mile from the 


town and 7 miles from Tigers Kloof, the place 
I was wanting to visit. It was very dark, and 
bitterly cold, so I took the hotel trap and, 
getting into a comfortable bed when the town 
clock struck 5, I slept till 9.30, and then got 
a good breakfast and enquired what churches 
were in the town. There is no Methodist 
Church but there is a Congregational. It is 
near the hotel. The Rev. Mr. Heath is the 
Minister. He hails from the Midlands, and 
has a brother a local preacher with us in the 
old land. He invited me to take the service, 
but as I was still tired, I stipulated that he 
should take the first part of the service, then 
T preached and pronounced the Benediction. 
Nothing would do but I must go home with 
him. I did not need much persuasion, as I 
dislike hotels, especially on Sundays. It was 
in my plan to go out to Tigers Kloof in the 
afternoon at 4 o'clock by train, but after 
dinner one of Mr. Heath's laymen, a leading 
merchant in the town, came in and offered to 
put me up till morning and then drive me out. 
This was arranged and later he suggested that 
Mr. and Mrs. Heath should go out with me 
for a drive. Mr. Heath invited me to preach 
in the evening, but I asked to be excused as 


I was feeling very tired. He therefore went 
to get ready for the service, and I had a good 
sleep. After a cup of tea I was much 
refreshed. I went down to the hotel to get 
my overcoat and pay my account, and in the 
street I met the Wesleyan native minister, for 
the Wesleyans, I found, have a native church 
here. He knew me years ago at Aliwal, when 
he was working with the Wesleyans in the 
Herschal District, and I could remember him 
after we had conversed a little. He pressed 
me to preach at the evening service. I could 
not refuse, as it is over three years since I was 
in a native service. He called for me after 
supper, and I went out to the native town, a 
mile and a half. It was a delightful service. 
Their simple devotion, beautiful singing, and 
deep attention were like a spiritual breeze 
from the old Aliwal days. I got back soon 
enough to hear Mr. Heath's sermon. 

Monday, July 27. 
We had a beautiful drive out to Tigers 
Kloof. Here a very fine Training School is 
being built up. It belongs to the London 
Missionary Society, and is in charge of my old 
friend the Eev. Mr. Willoughby, who, it will 


be remembered, was King Khami's Missionary 
and accompanied him to England, and was 
his friend and interpreter. Mr. Willoughby 
is not only an experienced Missionary, but a 
well-read cultured gentleman, and he is 
rendering a very important service to his 
Society in putting the top stone to the work 
begun by Livingstone and Mofiat. 

I heard from the native Minister of Vryburg 
that two of our own old students are in the 
neighbourhood, one is a Wesleyan Minister; 
and the other, I am sorry to say, is a Minister 
of the Ethiopian Church in Vryburg itself. 
Had I known this earlier, I should have called 
on him. 

Tuesday, July 28. 

I have been much interested in going over 
the Institution. It is being developed much 
on our own lines at Aliwal, only is more 
extensive. It is religious, educational and 
industrial. The aim is to produce workers 
who shall be able to help and improve the 
people in the whole scope of their life. 

The Eev. Mr. Lowe, Wesleyan Minister 
of Johannesburg, called to-day on his way 
down from the Falls, where he has attended 
a meeting of Missionaries on behalf of the 


Bible Society, in whose interests he is at pre- 
sent working by permission of liis Conference. 
He expressed his regret that our Missions 
were not represented at the Conference. I 
was able to tell him what Messrs. Smith and 
Chapman had done in the work of translation 
and what his Society (the British and Foreign 
Bible Society) had done for us in printing the 
Gospel of Mark. It was news he was glad to 
hear. I met Mr. Lowe some years since in 
Johannesburg, and it was a pleasure to meet 
him again and spend a day together at Tigers 

Wednesday, July 29. 

Took prayers this morning in the Institution 
and gave a brief exposition of the parable of 
the sower. 

Made a more extended survey of the work 
of the Institution than I was able to do yester- 
day. They have about 50 in residence — only 
half the number of last year. This is the 
result of trade depression, especially De 
Beers retrenchments. It has made many 
thousands of pounds difference in the spend- 
ing power of the natives in this district. And 
then, they have to contend with another 
difl&culty, which, I fear, will take much time 


to remove — the low educational status of their 
students when they enter school. The 
L.M.S. have not made education a strong 
point in their work in this country, hence the 
great backwardness of their people. The 
Institution has been at work four years and 
they only have one pupil teacher at present. 
They are really doing the work of an elemen- 
tary school, because they cannot get students 
sufficiently advanced to put forward in the 
teachers' course. 

So far as buildings are concerned, Mr. 
Willoughby has started with elaborate and 
complete plans and is putting them up in 
sections as he has time and means. He has 
half the class-rooms up, a little more than half 
the dormitories, and the carpenter's shop is 
completed and furnished with a steam saw and 
cutter. He is now building a very fine dining 
hall and principal's house. He has both plan 
and funds for teachers' quarters. The walls 
are of stone and brick — very substantial, and 
the whole, when finished, will have a noble 
appearance. May the work greatly prosper 
and prove in every way worthy of the noble 
men who laid the foundations of Christ's 
Kingdom in Bechuanaland. 


Here also I found our own church much 
represented. The office work is in the hands 
of Mr. Willoughby, Junr., one of our local 
preachers from Redruth, and Mr. Gillender, 
the Head-master, is a son of the Eev. R. 
Gillender, the Superintendent of our Lymm 
Circuit. He is a very efficient local preacher, 
and deeply interested in mission work. The 
Principal thinks himself very fortunate in 
having such an excellent head-master. I 
took tea with them (he is just married) this 
afternoon. At present tliey occupy a little 
house of three rooms, which only need the 
roses and woodbine to secure the ideal of 
" love in a cottage," but they have a much 
more elaborate house looming in the near 

Thursday, July 30. 
Tigers Kloof is a siding. My train was due 
to leave this morning at 2.7. The guest room 
— a one roomed detached house near the rail- 
way is fitted with a wood stove. My host 
kindly had the fire lit and a supply of wood 
laid in in case the train should be late. This 
proved a pleasant precaution, for the train 
was 90 minutes late. I had a clock in the 


room timed to run down at 1.15. I was there- 
fore able to sleep till the last minute. It was 
my wish quietly to leave at such an unearthly 
hour without breaking anyone's rest, but Mr. 
Gillender would insist on seeing the Ex- 
president off "in due f orm^^' ' as he expressed 
it, so I had his company during the long wait, 
and his kind help in getting my belongings into 
the train, and I shall long cherish grateful 
memories of the hospitality of the brave 
workers of Tigers Kloof. 

The first part of my journey to-day is 
through a flat, bare country, which looks 
sufficiently poor to make one wonder how 
cattle can live and men grow rich. Then 
about noon we entered the region of a range 
of mountains, which presented a very agree- 
able change of scene, but by three o'clock we 
have reached the flats again; and nothing is 
within view but a dead monotony of bushy 

Five o'clock. We are now passing through 
a sandy country. My coach is towards the 
back — last but one — of the train and the very 
paper I am now writing on is covered with a 
fine dusty sand. The steward has just been 
with afternoon tea — not before it was needed. 


Friday, July 31. 

I am now in Bulawayo. We steamed into 
the station true to time^ 9.40. We had made 
up the hour we were behind during the night. 

Early this morning a gentleman and lady 
and their little three-year-old girl came into 
my compartment. They were very chatty and 
kind, and gave me a good bit of information 
about the part of the country we were passing 
through. They have been out three years, 
and came from near Manchester. They have 
a farm through which the train passes, and 
they also keep a store. They came out for 
his health, and he is quite well here, but it is 
a lonely life — 50 miles south of Bulawayo and 
their nearest neighbours a long way off, but 
they seemed happy and hopeful, and glad to 
have some one to talk their plans over with. 
The land is good here both for cattle and corn. 
The woman told me she had a brother a 
Primitive Methodist. Wherever I go I find 
the influence of our Church. 

My nephew, Mr. Halse, was at the station 
waiting for me, and has kindly put me up and 
is showing great hospitality. 

I am surprised at Bulawayo — both the size 
and beauty of the town are quite beyond my 


expectations. I have not seen much of it yet, 
but I can see at a glance that it consists of two 
parts — the business part which is near the 
station, and the residential part, which is 
half an hour's walk away on gently rising 
ground, and hidden away among trees and 
shrubs, many of the latter in flower. All the 
streets are very wide, and even the business 
places stand off at a respectful distance from 
each other. The whole town is lighted by 
electric lamps. 

The business atmosphere of the place is 
bright and brisk — a great gain on the present 
state of Cape Colony. People also are coming 
up in great numbers from down country — 
glad to get away from the influence of the 
Dutch. Rhodesia, I think, has before it a 
great future. It is in the hands of the British, 
perhaps, more than any other part of Africa. 

Saturday, August 1. 
Another glorious morning. I have been 
watching the heavens ever since I landed at 
Cape Town, but have not yet seen h cloud. 
As you breathe the lovely air, it seems to give 
you new life. Eemember this is winter, yet 


To face paye 30. 


I am sitting on the verandah finishing my 
English mail, which must be posted to-day. 

Sunday, August 2. 

I had a quiet day of rest. Mrs. Harrison 
and I had a cab and went to Church in the 
morning. Our Wesleyan friends have a large 
church but small congregation. It wag a 
bright little service — over in 7 minutes under 
the hour. The sermon lasted only 15 minutes. 
No one could complain that the service was 
too long. 

We did not go out at night. We were about 
3 miles from Church. We had a quiet even- 
ing together and retired early. 

Monday, Augtist 3. 
My nephew, Mr. Halse, had arranged a 
visit to the Matopo Hills, the last resting 
place of Cecil John Rhodes. The party con- 
sisted of Mrs. Harrison (Mr. Halse 's sister, 
who for several years was a member of my 
choir at Aliwal) a friend from Johannesburg 
and myself. We had a fine 16 horse power 
motor car, driven by a man who had been at 
the business for many years. The car was 
like a thing of life under his direction. Where 



the roads were good we went at the rate of 
30 miles an hour. The distance was 30 miles 
each way. 

It was a glorious day — not a cloud to be 
seen, yet not too hot. The road on the whole 
was very good, a few rough places, but 
nothing to grumble about. The country 
through which we passed is a combination of 
grass, bush and forest, with here and there 
Native and European farms. About 18 miles 
on the road we came to the finest dam I have 
seen in Africa. It was formed by building a 
head- wall to a natural basin among the hills. 
Land extending for many miles below the dam 
is under water, and is thus rendered very 
fruitful. Rhodes spen^ £30,000 in building 
the dam. In approaching the Matopos we 
passed through several miles of lovely park 
and nursery grounds, where nature and art 
join in yielding a profusion of beauty I have 
seen in no other part of the country. Here 
is a stretch of primeval forest the hand of 
man has never touched; yonder is an 
expanse of well-ordered beauty of gum trees, 
pines, and many others, interspersed with a 
great variety of flowering shrubs; and yet 
further on we came to extensive nursery 




gardens, full of choice fruit trees — the orange 
and lemon trees laden with fruit. 

We reached the foot of the "World's 
View," about eleven o'clock. We first 
kindled a fire and made a delicious cup of tea, 
rendered the more grateful and refreshing by 
our hot and dusty ride. We now started on 
our stiff climb of 25 minutes to the grave. It 
took us much longer than this, however, as 
we had often to stop and admire the scene of 
rugged grandeur that was open to view as we 
ascended. At last we reached the grave and 
with bared and bowed heads stood around it, 
and tried to realise its significance. There is 
not much to see beyond the natural formation 
of the place. A field of bare granite, around 
the outer edge a series of huge boulders — 
some of them far exceeding in size the blocks 
at Stonehenge, and in the centre the grave 
blasted out of the solid granite. It is covered 
by ai roughly wrought slab on which is fixed 
a bronze plate, with the plain inscription 
"Here lies the remains of Cecil John 
Rhodes "; that is all, excepting the view — 
the " World's View " ; and who can describe 
it with either pen or brush, or both? East, 
West, North, South, as far as the eye can' 


reach, and beyond, an unbroken succession 
of granite peaks, irregular in size and shape, 
but all joining to complete the massive 
grandeur of the scene. 

A little way from the grave is the monument 
built at Rhodes' expense in honour of 
Wilson's brave party. This is built of care- 
fully worked granite blocks, many of which 
are 7 ft. by 3 ft., 6 in. by 3 ft. A large 
bronze panel is built into each of its four sides, 
bearing life size figures of the party. It bears 
the simple inscription "To the Brave." It 
was only a little way from this spot that 
Rhodes took his life in his hand and met the 
warlike Matebele to secure peace. No one 
should come to Bulawayo and leave without, 
if possible, seeing the Matopos. 

After descending to a suitable place near 
the base of the mountain, we had an open air 
lunch and a little rest, which was much needed 
after our climb. Then we made a little 
further survey of the neighbourhood, taking 
note of many wild fig and plum trees; just to 
add to the wild character of the scene, shortly 
before leaving, we saw a troop of monkeys 
under a big fig tree. I judge they were com- 
mencing their early supper, but seeing our 

To face page 31 


approach and not realising the relationship, 
they took refuge in the rocks. 

The homeward journey was very delightful 
and we were safely in town by five o'clock. 


Victoria Falls to Broken Hill. 

Tuesday, August 4. 
T3 ESUMED my up-country journey this 
morning at 10.15. My stay in 
Bulawayo was an unbroken pleasure. My 
friends spared neither time nor labour to 
promote this. The Wesley an Minister was at 
the station to see me off and bid me God- 
speed. He also wished me to give him a 
Sunday on my return journey. I have 
promised, if I am able to spend a Sunday in 
town, to give him at least one service. 

That part of the country between Bulawayo 
and the Falls, which we did during the day, is 
mostly forest, with a tendency for the timber 
to grow bigger as we proceed. But the top 
half of the journey, including Wankies, was 
done during the night. I shall hope to see 
this on the return journey. 

Wednesday, August 5. 
Eeached the Falls at 7 o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Coffee was brought round a little earlier 


than usual to give us time to dress and pack 
before the train stopped. 

The hotel is about 50 yards from the 
station; it is capable of accommodating 200 
guests, and is quite up to date, not, however, 
in its buildings; they are one-storey iron 
erections, lined with wood and matting. 
There are no less than four distinct buildings ; 
but they are so arranged as to form a main 
centre, and two wings, with verandahs and 
covered ways. The whole place is lighted 
with electricity. Everything is clean. The 
tables are splendidly served. The sitting and 
dining rooms are liberally fitted with air-fans, 
but this is winter, and these are not needed 
just now. 

I was fortunate in falling in with a 
nice family, Wesleyans from East London 
(father, mother, and two daughters) and 
two gentlemen known to them; so we 
made a party of seven and agreed to 
go together. Mr. Brown lives at the 
hotel, and keeps boats and a motor-launch. 
He gave us his terms, and we engaged him to 
take us up the river to-morrow. Meantime 
he offered to be our guide in seeing the Falls 
to-day. This greatly added to our comfort 


and enabled us to make more of our time. 
We started out for the day, it being arranged 
for our lunch to be sent over the bridge to the 
north side of the river. 

We left the hotel at 9 o'clock, and pro- 
ceeded to the bridge which spans the Gorge. 
This bridge was made at Darlington and 
brought here in sections. It has the distinc- 
tion of being the highest in the world. The 
work was carried out with such care that not 
a life was lost in its erection, and yet it was 
built without a scaffold. It was built out 
from the opposite sides of the Gorge till it met 
in the middle. The bridge is 650 feet long, 
the centre arch has a span of 500 feet; its 
foundations are in the solid rock of the sides 
of the Gorge 250 feet down. The height from 
water to the rails is 350 feet. It is 30 feet 
wide; double rails are laid, though only one 
set is needed at present. We paid a shilling 
toll to cross this bridge. 

We went round to the North Bank, and took 
a boat (an American canoe) for Livingstone 
Island; so named because Livingstone landed 
on it, and crept down on his hands and knees 
and looked over the Falls. He also cut his 
name on a tree; the only time, he saysj he 


To face imt/e t4. 


ever indulged in such a piece of vanity. The 
tree is still there, carefully fenced, and I 
noticed a beautiful orchid growing on one of 
the highest limbs. Livingstone speaks of 
having seen the footprints of a hippopotamus. 
In this respect we were like him, for we could 
see the huge creatures had been there very 

After returning from the island, we 
descended into the Palm Kloof or Grove. The 
road is fairly good. We descended 400 feet, 
and then we reached the waters of the Gorge. 
The palms, many of them, are over 50 feet 
high, and they stand so thick on the ground 
ytou cannot pass between them. There is 
also here and there, some very fine timber in 
the Kloof. When we reached the top again 
we were tired and needed rest and lunch. 
Both were within reach; and left us ready 
for a further inspection. 

The afternoon was spent in passing through 
the Eain Forest; so named because it is con- 
stantly being deluged by the spray of the 
Falls. This rises, often, to a distance of 
2,000 feet, and descends on the forest in 
heavy rain. We had to protect ourselves 
with umbrellas and macintoshes; and even 


then we were wet. A good road has been 
made through the dense fern and tree life of 
the forest; and at points of advantage short 
roads have been cut out to the brink of the 
Gorge to give a better view of the Falls. 

I do not know how to describe the Falls. 
You cannot see them till you get close to 
them; and then there is no point from which 
you can see the whole extent of them at once. 
This lessens the first impression. But after 
you have taken it in sections, the awful 
grandeur of it possesses you and you feel as 
though you can see and hear the great 
Creator in His works. Let us in imagination 
go up the river about four miles to a point 
where both banks of the river can be seen — 
the only one for many miles — as islands 
generally obstruct the view. Here the river 
is two miles wide. From this point to the Falls 
it gradually narrows and is broken into 
channels by islands. At the Falls the river 
is one and a quarter miles wide. Here the 
water suddenly drops 400 feet into a gorge 
which runs at a right angle to the river. The 
water in the Gorge cannot be fathomed, but 
it has been calculated that it can be a little, 
if any, less than 1,000 feet deep. The first 


stretch of the Gorge, that which runs the width 
of the river, is fairly straight. Then it flows 
towards the East, but in such a way as to be 
running alternately North and South ; and this 
continues 40 miles down, when the Gorge 
gradually opens out into a wide river again. 

This is a very rough description, but it will 
help you to understand more fully the wonder 
of the whole thing. Along the edge of the 
precipice the water is broken by islands and 
boulders, but this is the dry season. Mr. 
Brown told us that when the river is in flood 
the falls are nearly continuous, and that in 
the Gorge below the water rises 50 feet. 

Thursday, August 6. 
Shortly after breakfast we started for the 
motor-launch — our party of seven, Mr. 
Brown and two native boys. We went about 
eight miles up the river to an island that is a 
favourite place for picnics. A French 
Mission Station is near — Old Livingstone, in 
charge of one of the Jalla Brothers. As I 
wished to call and pay my respects, Mr. 
Brown rowed me over in an American canoe. 
During our conversation, Mr. Jalla asked 
which island we were on. I said "The 


Zambesi Island." Said he, "I never heard 
of that island before." I explained where it 
was. He laughed and said " They must 
have changed the name." It had always been 
called "Pig Island," from the fact that his 
predecessor on the Mission had trouble with 
his pigs, and put them on the island that they 
should not stray, and then the Brother 
shrugged his shoulders and smiled and said 
he soon had no more trouble with his pigs for 
the crocodiles ate them. I found from Mr. 
Brown the island had recently been named 
Zambesi Island. 

The scenery up tlie river is very lovely. 
We passed many beautiful islands — one three 
miles long, and very fruitful. Many cattle 
were on it ; the natives having them in charge 
living there. Mr. Brown took us in his little 
boat up to the first rapids above the Falls. 
The boys carried the boat above the rapids. 
The whole party could not enjoy the 
privilege, so I and the three ladies were 
selected for the honour of shooting the rapids. 
The boat was guided by the owner and two 
natives, who are very expert. It was a most 
exciting experience. What they fix up in 
London is nothing to the real thing. We all 


got a little wet, of course; and one of the 
young ladies was drenched, and after we 
returned to the island she had to get away 
from us and take her outer garments off and 
dry them in the sun. This was soon done and 
she said, laughing, she would not have missed 
the experience for anything. 

We commenced our return voyage about 
5.30 and were reaching the end about sun- 
down. We had been hoping all day we 
should see a hippopotamus, and began to fear 
the pleasure would be denied, when we were 
lucky enough to see five sporting in the water 
before coming out to feed. Mr. Brown 
turned the boat in their direction to give us a 
closer view. It was a fine sight to see these 
huge creatures — one weighs two tons — play- 
ing in the water like school boys. The whole 
day was full of pleasure. 

Friday, August 7. 
I felt it right to devote this day to duty. 
New Livingstone, the seat of Government, is 
seven miles away. The train goes at ten and 
returns at 4.30. I took the journey to call on 
the Administrator. It would not have been 
respectful to have passed into his country 


without doing this. He received me 
courteously, and gave me an open letter to 
any of their representatives, requesting them 
to give me any help I may need. Govern- 
ment House is a fine place. They speak of 
the North Western Government as very poor, 
but I could see no token of it as far as the 
Administration is concerned. 

I got back at 4.30 and went and had a final 
look at the Falls, as I have to leave "at 7 
to-morrow morning. It was delightful to sit 
on the verandah in the evening surrounded 
with all the advantages of civilisation, and yet 
the hippopotami feeding a hundred yards 
away. Only a few evenings ago two gentle- 
men went beyond the grounds of the hotel 
for a walk. One of them struck a match to 
light his pipe. This attracted a hippo- 
potamus, and if the man had not climbed a 
tree he would have been killed. 

Saturday, 'August 8. 
We should have left the Falls for Broken 
Hill this morning at 7.15; but we were an" 
hour late. This last part of my rail journey 
is a little over 400 miles. There is no pro- 
vision for food on the way, and we are to be 


in the train till Monday afternoon — two and 
a half days, and two nights. There are no 
shops at the Falls, so there was nothing for 
it but to get the hotel people to put me up a 
box of provisions. 

During the day I had a companion in my 
compartment — a gentleman going up country 
hunting; it was said at the Falls that he w^as 
an English Duke, travelling under an assumed 
name. At any rate, he was a very nice fellow, 
and when we had lunch he gave me a lettuce 
and a bottle of mineral water, which were 
very acceptable. In the evening the gentle- 
men in the next compartment left the train, 
and I was able to take it for our better accom- 
modation in sleeping. 

Sunday, August 9. 
The train stopped last night about 9 o'clock. 
There was no station. It just stood still on 
the track, where there was a water supply. 
This is not done because it is dangerous to 
travel in the night, but to give the men work- 
ing the train an opportunity of getting rest. 
The same men have to take the train through. 
This is done, of course, to save the cost of a 
double set of men. 


This morning I was up early, between five 
and six, before the sun; and got out and 
collected wood to boil my little kettle, and 
make a cup of tea. It was delicious, like most 
of our other comforts and pleasures, all the 
more enjoyable because earned. I was able 
to return the hunter's kindness by giving him 
a cup of tea. We exchanged notes a little 
during the day. He told me he was on a 
hunting expedition; and when I told him 
where I was going; he said, " It is very brave 
of you, at your time of life." I am sure he 
is not more than ten years my junior, and yet 
he seemed to think nothing of the courage of 
his own expedition, though attended with 
greater danger than my own. I told him that 
in this journey, I was simply realising a 
pleasure that I had looked forward to for 
years ; and felt I was making as little sacrifice 
as he was in pursuing it. But he shook his 
head and held to his own view of the case ; so 
difficult is it for us to understand each others 
pleasures. Had I been obliged to undertake 
his expedition, which will cost him many 
hundreds of pounds, and many deprivations 
before he reaches home, that would indeed 
have been a hardship ; but my own mission is 

< 0% 

is ° § 
o ^'^ 

•^ ^ "=> 

■^ a 



the crowning joy of my life. When he left 
the train in the evening to join his waggon, 
he lifted his hat, and grasped my hand and 
bid me God-speed in my work as though 
taking leave of a martyr; I reciprocated his 
kind interest, and hoped he would find all 
the sport he wished and reach home in safety. 

This afternoon we crossed the Kafue. It 
is a beautiful river, larger than the Orange at 
Aliwal. The railway crosses by means of a 
very fine bridge; nothing like the Falls 
bridge; but still fine of its kind. Its iron 
supports stand on cement blocks well bedded 
in the river. It consists of 13 spans of 100 ft. 
each. I was greatly surprised to find a river 
so wide and full. 

When we reached our destination for the 
day, some distance North of the Kafue, 
several people left the train; among them 
a gentleman and lady who, if certain 
tokens, which shall be nameless, can be 
trusted, have recently been married. I 
believe he had been down country to 
fetch his young wife. A lot of natives 
met them as carriers. His first care was 
about his wife — to get her loaded up 
and on the road. He called up the stretcher- 

D 2 


bearers. They came forward with the 
hammock. When she saw it, I heard her ask 
her husband, " Have I to go in that thing? " 
When her husband, for answer, assured her it 
would be " all right," she seemed to 
experience a great revulsion of feeling, and 
I could see tears coming in her eyes, as she 
said : " I can never go in that thing." Just 
then, in making his arrangements, her 
husband had to go a little distance from her, 
and I moved near the poor soul and said to 
her: '* Don't be frightened; you must not 
think of walking. This is the only mode of 
travelling up here. It is perfectly safe. I 
have 200 miles to do in that way." She tried 
to smile, and thanked me, and the next I saw 
was that she was loaded up, and being borne 
away at a trot. 

We stopped for the night this evening at 
6 o'clock. I quickly got my evening meal, 
and did two hours' writing. It is very 
difficult in this part of the journey to write 
when the train is in motion, it rocks so much. 

Monday, August 10. 
Up early again this morning, but had not 
time to boil my kettle outside, as the train 


started at 6 o'clock. I boiled it, therefore, 
with the spirit stove, and made a good break- 

I forgot to mention on Saturday morning 
that I met some returning Missionaries at 
Livingstone, on their way down from 600 
miles north of Broken Hill ; that is to say, they 
had already come 1,000 miles on their way 
home, and they had 7,600 still to go to reach 
Southampton — a Missionary and his wife and 
two children, and a lady worker. They are 
Brethren. They told me their mission is near 
the sources of the Zambesi, that it is at first 
a tiny stream bubbling out of the ground ; that 
their little four year old girl had stood 
across it, with a foot on either bank, and yet 
I had just seen it where it is two miles wide. 
And the Kefue, the beautiful river I have just 
described, is one of its tributaries. The 
wonders of this country are constantly 

The general character of the country all the 
way up from the Falls is forest, with here and 
there a little open country ; but the forest, that 
is, most of it, is not so dense but what grass 
can grow. There is much game, but it is not 
often seen from the train. I saw a buck one 


morning, and some others saw a wild pig ; but 
the noise of the train causes them to move out 
of sight. 

We reached Broken Hill at 2 this afternoon. 
The 'arrival of the train is a great event, for it 
only happens once a week. A great crowd 
was at the station. Among them I soon found 
Mr. and Mrs. Kerswell, who received me with 
great kindness, and evident pleasure. Mrs. 
Kerswell had not been feeling very well, and 
when it was decided to fetch me with the 
waggon, it was arranged for Mrs. Kerswell 
to come, as a means of improving her health, 
and she is already much better. Their camp 
is pitched about a mile from the station, just 
outside the township. They have been here 
since Saturday to give the oxen a good rest 
and attend to business. This is the base for 
the Mission, though 120 miles away, and they, 
I was glad to find, are combining business 
with pleasure in thus fetching me. 

My 2,000 miles rail journey is now finished. 


Broken Hill to Nambala. 

T WISH you could look around, this 
■^ my first camp. You would see the 
waggon as larder and store ; 'a little 
tent for myself, with a nice stretcher or 
camp bed in it; and a larger one for Mr. 
and Mrs. Kerswell, which is also the living 
room during the day. Then we have camp 
tables and chairs. I am now sitting in the 
door of my tent at one of these tables, writing 
this account. 

Our first business is to sit and have a good 
talk; nothing can be done till this is over — 
the old friends, the old and new countries, 
the journey by sea and land, the Mission, etc., 
etc. Then came the evening meal, and it was 
a surprise to me. Mr. Kerswell is a good 
shot it turns out, and our table was the richer. 
So after the make-shift of the train, I made a 
royal meal ; and after evening worship, I went 
to my new quarters prepared to enjoy the 
night in a tent bed. 


I may say we used the new native hymn 
book, and sang two hymns — one written by 
Eobert Moalosi, native teacher, and 6ne by 
Mr. Chapman. 

I have now had the opportunity of testing 
our camp by a night experience. And I must 
say it stands the test well. I had a splendid 
night's rest. It was a great treat to be able 
to take off all my day clothing, and at once 
get into my night suit and my bed. After a 
good meal I was able to look round, and still 
further survey the situation. 

Broken Hill is only a small township, and 
only the shadow of its former self. While it 
was the head of the railway construction, and 
the mines were in full swing, there were many 
people and much doing. But now the rail- 
way is finished to here there is a pause, a 
further section not being organised as yet. 
The mines are all closed, waiting, they say, 
for more complete machinery ; but I fear their 
money is gone, and no return has been 
received yet. Whatever the cause the 
disastrous fact is indisputable — no work is to 
be had, and many are waiting for it; and the 
white people out here are almost as bad as the 
blacks in this respect. They spend their 

WASHING DAY ON OUR JOlltNEY. To face page 68. 


money as fast as they can get it. Drink ! 
Drink ! ! That is the trouble The late Post- 
master here, only a fortnight -since, blew his 
brains out in the office — a bright clever young 
fellow, a colonial, educated for the Dutch 
Church, an M.A., a good servant of the 
Government, but a drunkard. He was under 
notice for this cause alone ; and although they 
were giving him a lower appointment down 
country, the disgrace was too much for him 
so he took his life. His accounts and moneys 
were found in perfect order. 

I got a letter from the Post Office during 
the evening, the first that had reached me 
since leaving home. I also had business at 
the store, laying in tinned food for the 
journey. All this had to be done at once, as 
we were to leave at four in the afternoon for 
our first "trek." 

During the incoming journey Mr. Kerswell 
had killed 7 head of game — 6 buck and a wild 
pig — enough to supply their own needs, and 
use for barter to get other things at the native 
villages. But as one cannot always depend 
on so good a supply, they brought a dozen 
cock:erels with them in case of need. These 
are let loose during the day; but the waggon 


is their home, and they will not stray. At 
sun-down they return to their box for, the 
night. But as we were striking tents at four 
they had to be caught, and they did not wish 
it, so there was some fun. All hands, includ- 
ing the dogs, assisted. At four all was ready. 
The great two-handed whip cracked like a 
gun, and we commenced our waggon journey 
of 120 miles, through the forest. 

Before leaving Broken Hill I may mention 
there are only three European ladies here — 
two who are wives and mothers, and one who 
is the Hospital nurse — perhaps the most 
courted lady in the country. The South 
African Lakes Co., is the leading store in the 
place. It is in the hands of Scotsmen. It 
does not matter how far you travel, you find 
" Sandy " in evidence, and usually gather- 
ing in the " bawbees " with great facility. 
The Scotch make the best of Colonists. 

Very scant provision is made for the 
religious needs of the people of Broken Hill. 
A Church clergyman comes up very occasion- 
ally from Bulawayo — about three or four 
times a year ; and the sad thing about it is that 
this seems to be quite enough for them. The 
Sabbath is spent chiefly in hunting and other 


pastimes. Nothing is done for the natives. 
Surely the fields are white to the harvest, and 
labourers few. 

Wednesday, August 12. 
I have had my first night in the forest. We 
" trekked " last evening about five hours. 
Our first business was to get our evening 
meal, as we had had nothing but a cup of tea 
and slice of cake since dinner. It is no 
trouble to make a big fire, as the forest is 
everywhere full of dead wood. The kettle 
soon boils. We have a cup of cocoa and fried 
buck, and, of course, bread — the latter made 
on the journey. While we are making and 
enjoying this meal (for we get very hungry), 
the boys are putting up the tents, by which 
time their own supper is cooked. We turn 
in about ten; and we sleep the sleep of the 
tired. The oxen remain tied to the trek- 
chain; and they lie down almost as soon as 
they stop. Safety for man and beast is 
secured by two big fires — one near the oxen, 
and one near the tents. The boys roll them- 
selves up in their blankets, and sleep round 
these fires; the smell of which is enough to 
keep off the wild beasts, 


At three in the morning the signal is given 
to resume the "trek." All hands are at 
work to strike tents and pack up. We are 
able to get a little sleep in the waggon dur- 
ing this " trek." It will last to about 9.0, 
when we out-span for the day, and the oxen 
are put to graze. The tents are again 
pitched, and for the day rest, we try to have 
them under a tree, as the sun gets very hot. 
We prepare a shady kitchen, and by 10 
o'clock we have a good breakfast served. 
We always have porridge; the meat varies 
according to what the gun supplies. After 
breakfast each does according to his 
bent — read, write, sleep, or sometimes 
take a sun-shade and have a walk. 
You are fairly safe in the forest during 
the day; it is at night the wild beasts 
come forth. We get a good dinner about 
two, of soup, vegetables, meat, and some- 
times fruit. Then a short rest, and at 4 
another " trek." 

I have given a full description of this first 
day, because most of the other days v/ill be 
like it. The " treks " vary a little in length 
because of the water supply. The day rest 
always has to be where there is water for the 


oxen, so sometimes we travel a little longer 
or shorter than we otherwise would do. Of 
course, these journeys are timed for the dry 
season. It is a little rough sometimes in the 
waggon because of the roads, as wdien the 
wheels strike the stump of a tree. But with 
a few drawbacks, we have all the comforts of 
home in an out-door movable life. My 
health, so far, is excellent; and it is doing 
my friends much good. 

Another delightful and restful night in the 
forest. The sun-sets and the sun-rises are 
beyond description. The hunting is done at 
the beginning of the evening " trek," and at 
the end of the morning's; as the game feed at 
those times, and hide themselves during the 
heat of the day. Our larder was get- 
ting short, and Mr. Kerswell went out 
with his rifle to get a buck. After 
tramping about seven miles, and seeing 
nothing, we had to make our evening meal of 
tinned stuff. This was not appreciated after 
feasting on venison and partridge. 

As our need was great, I also went out 
next morning with the shot gun, hoping to 
get some bush doves, or guinea-fowls. I 
did get a chance at some doves ; but not hav- 


ing a dog, I lost my game in the long grass. 
I saw no guinea-fowls, but I did shoot two 
big birds. But when I got back to the waggon 
I was vexed to find they would not do for 
our breakfast. The natives, however, feasted 
on them, so the labour was not all lost. 

Friday, August 14. 

Mr. Kerswell started out this morning early 
in search of game. He has a boy with 
wonderful sight. We call him the hunter. 
He can see the game in the long grass where 
a European can see nothing. They had not 
been gone ten minutes before we heard the 
gun. This was followed by a loud whistle, 
and we knew he had killed. We sent out 
two natives, and they brought in a fine doe, 
as much as the two could carry. By eight 
o'clock they had also secured a fine buck. 

Now it transpired that we were short of 
meal for the boys. We, therefore, sent out 
to the village, not far away, to say if they 
would bring a present of meal, we would 
give a present of meat. This brought us our 
first market on the outward journey. Some 
brought meal, some maize, some fowls. The 
buying, or rather, exchange, is conducted by 


the cook, who has charge of supphes. The 
natives all sit round in a circle^ with their 
goods in front of them. The cook goes 
round and selects what he is willing to accept. 
If there is anything not up to the standard 
required (and they are not over particular 
:what they bring), it is rejected. He is dis- 
posed to drive a hard bargain, and his master 
has sometimes, for his own credit, to ask 
him to be a little more liberal. When the 
transaction is over they salute by giving a 
clap, and retire. We were now set up for a 
day or two, and did no hunting in the even- 
ing; for we do not hunt for the love of it, 
but when we need meat. 

By Saturday we had the dust and grime of 
our forest journey on us; and during the 
morning we all had a lovely bathe — I a warm 
one, and it proved a great refreshment. 

The cook reported that our meal would 
not hold out till Monday, and we had but 
little meat to buy with. Then there was the 
difficulty of Sunday, and although the natives 
hereabouts do not know one day from 
another, we wished to avoid buying on Sun- 
day. So we decided to get through our first 
*' trek" as early as possible; and to be so 


far in touch with civiHzation as to do our 
shopping late Saturday night. We therefore 
started as near four in the afternoon as pos- 
sible. Mr. Kerswell and his boy went for- 
ward with the rifle. It is our habit to walk 
three or four miles every evening, when the 
heat of the sun has abated a little. It relieves 
the load, and gives us exercise. Now we 
had not been walking more than half-an-hour 
before we could see Mr. Kerswell and his boy 
had game in view. Then a little later we 
heard the gun and the whistle, and we knew 
they were successful. Then we had a pretty 
sight. Five beautiful antelopes ran along the 
brow of the hill away from our friends. And 
when they were iiot more than 250 yards from 
them, they stood and looked back — a sign to 
us that one of their number was left behind. 
This proved to be the case. Mr. Kerswell 
had shot a fine young buck, not quite full 
grown, judging from its horns, but quite as 
big as a two-year old ox at home. The 
waggon had to wait on the road while the boys 
dressed and cut up the meat. Mr. Kerswell 
could easily have had another shot; but, as I 
have said before, he only shoots to supply our 
needs; and we now had enough meat to last 


several days for use, barter, and presents on 
the road. We are constantly meeting people, 
Government servants, and others, who are 
glad to get a piece of meat. One of the boys 
went on to the village where we were to out- 
gpan, and gave them notice of our coming, 
and that we had meat, and wanted meal, eggs, 
sweet-potatoes etc. When we reached the 
place many were waiting for us with their 
goods. Quietly teUing the cook to be liberal 
in his prices our shopping commenced; 
orthodox at least in this, that it w'as now ten 
o'clock. Our meal bags were well filled, and 
we went to bed with our fears removed. 

Sunday, August 16. 
We had an earlier " trek " than usual, and 
resumed our journey later in the afternoon, 
so as to have the day quiet. We were near a 
village, and sent to invite the people to come 
to the camp for service. We were sorry to 
find a trader was at a village a few miles off, 
and the people had gone there for trade. All 
days are alike to them as yet, and I am sorry 
to say the traders, when they are out for 
trade, that is, visiting the villages, as in this 
case, make no difference. 


We had a service with our own people : 
sang several hymns from the new hymn-book, 
had the ten Commandments, and prayer. 
Mr. Kerswell cannot preach yet in the 
language, but thanks to Mr. Smith's book, 
and the help of the native assistants, he can 
converse with some ease, and read fluently. 
I was surprised to find what good head-way 
he has made in the time. 

We commenced our ' ' trek ' ' early to 
make up a little for the short run of yester- 
day. We did not trouble to look after game, 
as we were well supplied with meat, and also 
food for the boys. 

I noticed the forest varies a good bit, 
especially in the size of its timber. For a 
few miles it will be small, but high, not much 
bigger than scaffold poles, but nearly all 
hard wood, nothing in the nature of deal. 
Then we come to a part that will look very 
much like an old-fashioned orchard at home, 
and you would think the country was rich in 
fruit trees, only there is but little fruit. 
Then, again, there is a stretch of fine timber ; 
but, as a rule, not so near together but that 
grass can grow for the game. This is winter, 
and there has been no rain since last March; 




and yet many of the trees are as green as we 
should expect to see them in spring, and 
there are tokens of new fresh life everywhere ; 
in bushes, shrub, flowers, and grasses; and 
all the game I have seen have been sleek and 

The country so far has been flat, but Mr. 
Kerswell tells me it will be hilly and even 
mountainous further on. 

The days are very hot. We usually find 
shade for our tents under the trees; but to- 
day this was not easy. I began to feel very 
hot as I sat in the tent writing. Presently 1 
noticed an unusual movement outside; and 
in a little while a delightful shade fell on the 
tent. I looked out and found the boys had 
cut leafy boughs of trees and planted them 
round the tent. So if they could not place 
the tent under a tree, these children of the 
forest knew how to bring the tree to the tent. 
It was smart, and mine was the comfort. 

To-day we were able to see the Nambala 
mountains. It is a fine range about three 
miles from our Mission station. But it is 
a long way off yet. We shall not get there 
till Friday evening. We can see a great dis- 
tance in this climate. 

B 2 


Wednesday, August 18. 
We reached camp rather early this morn- 
ing; and, as on Friday morning we were to 
call at the Magistrate's Camp at Mumba, 
Mr. Kerswell was anxious to get a buck to 
make a present of meat. They often send 
such a present to the Missionary, and he, 
naturally, likes to return the compliment 
when he has the chance. As it was a cool 
morning, and the country looked likely, I 
thought I would have a turn round with the 
shot gun. But I was less lucky than the time 
before when I went out ; for now I shot some- 
thing which not even the natives would eat. 
I thought it was a veiy fine pigeon ; but when 
I picked it up I became doubtful. Its beak 
and claws were the wrong shape, and sure 
enough it was a kind of pigeon-hawk — it had 
just the colour and markings of the wood- 
pigeon. I also came upon a pair of very 
small buck. Indeed, I saw them at a distance 
before I fired at the hawk ; but I had no idea 
I could get near enough to them with a shot 
gun. But presently I came upon them again, 
in a quiet grassy spot, and only 60 yards 
away. My charge, "as the event proved, was 
really too light, but I let go and hit one. It 


staggered, but did not fall, and reached some 
reeds before I could catch it, where I could 
not stalk it without a dog. I was sorry to 
think the hyenas would get it. Mr. Kerswell 
returned without having fired a shot. 

We are now in a hilly region. Indeed, it 
began yesterday. The views we get are very 
beautiful ; and there are many signs that game 
is very plentiful. But the game is wild, the 
result of being so near the Magistrate's Camp, 
I judge; for his people, like the Missionaries, 
have to use the gun to get meat. 

The lions in this neighbourhood have been 
rather threatening of late. Mr. and Mrs. 
Kerswell saw one when they were coming into 
Broken Hill. It was during their night 
" trek." He jumped out of the grass at the 
dog; and followed them along the road. He 
did not come very near the waggon, but they 
could see his eyes in the darkness shining like 
small fires. They had a good bit of meat in the 
waggon, and some of it was rather '* high." 
This, no doubt, was the attraction. Night 
.after night, we had the hyenas about our 
camp. But then we are safe from their fear 
of the fires. One night, just after getting 
into bed, I heard a confusion among the boys 


outside, and then Mr. Kerswell's voice. I 
called out to know what was up, and they had 
seen a lion creeping through the grass, not 
towards, but away from the waggon. The 
fires had frightened it. 

Friday, August 20. 
After breakfast and a good wash to rid our- 
selves of some of the grime of the forest, we 
called at the Camp; but were sorry to find 
only one European, the Postmaster, in 
charge. The Magistrate, and Captain of 
Police, with their staff, were away in the 
District, which is a large one, attending to 
outside duties. I am glad to find all the 
authorities are very friendly to our work, 
and ready to do all they can to strengthen 
the hands of the missionaries. Mr. Hindes, 
the Postmaster, received us with great kind- 
ness, and showed us round both the Civil and 
Police Camps. The Magistrate's Camp con- 
sists of a series of large round huts with high 
roofs. The roofs extend over the walls about 
five feet, and are supported with posts from 
the ground. This acts pretty much as an 
open air room, and helps to keep the hut 
cool. The Post Office, the Court House, as 


well as the dwellings of the staff, are all huts 
of this kind. The walls of the huts are 
formed by fixing posts in the ground at short 
intervals. The spaces between are filled in 
with reeds; and then the whole is carefully 
plastered inside and out. The walls inside 
are plastered to a smooth face and colour- 
washed. The ceilings are of canvas or very 
cheap calico. We had dinner in one of these 
huts. It was cool and pleasant. The huts 
stand off at a good distance from each other; 
and plantains, orange, lemon, and other trees 
are planted around; and away in the back- 
ground were smaller huts for offices, and for 
the native attendants. The whole was beauti- 
fully clean and orderly. 

After this inspection we went round the 
Police Camp. The Captain is an amateur 
builder, and in consequence his camp is more 
ambitious. There are two square houses; 
one of them was built by the previous Captain. 
This is now being renovated and improved in 
other ways ; and the magistrate is to occupy it 
when he returns from his present journey. 
The Captain has just built himself a better 
house. Its walls are of well-burnt bricks; 
and it has a verandah on three sides. The 


rooms are high. All the carpentry is home 
made, of local timber; and the workmanship 
is really good. The other houses are round 
huts. There are 70 native poHce. There is 
a fort, and prison, and the usual offices. The 
Camp is ten miles from Nambala. 

They have a number of pets about the 
Camps — such as a wart-hog, bush pigs, etc. 
One of the latter was carried away not long 
since by a lion. 

About two o'clock we left for the last stage 
of our journey; and it proved a new experi- 
ence. It was by means of the Mashila; that 
is the thing I saw the lady carried away in 
along the line. It is really a strong can- 
vas hammock suspended on a pole, which 
projects at each end sufficiently to rest on a 
native's shoulder. Ten boys are a proper 
number for a Mashila; and they take turns; 
and they are very expert in changing. They 
can do it without stopping, and, indeed, with- 
out checking the speed. It is ten miles from 
Mumba to Nambala ; but they did it in a little 
over two hours. They have a Mashila song 
which they sing often on the journey, without 
fail when they are passing a village. I have 
not been able to get the full meaning of it, 


but it Bounds like a musical dialogue and 
responses; and, like the natives in the south, 
the men have fine voices, and their harmony 
is perfect. I feared the motion of the 
Mashila would be unpleasant; but this is 3, 
mistake. It was very agreeable, and I felt 
no ill effects. 


Work at Nambala. 

Saturday, August 21. 
1\ /T Y first night and day at Nambala have 
been full of interest. I had not 
slept under a roof for fourteen nights, and 
it was very grateful to be in a walled room 
again. i- 

The new Mission House, as compared with 
the magistrate's quarters, even the im- 
proved ones he is to occupy when he returns 
from his present journey, is, indeed, a 
palace; and there is nothing at mine or camp, 
in all North West Rhodesia to compare with 
it, excepting the Governor's residence at 
New Livingstone, and that is not much in 
advance of it. The rooms are large and lofty 
and well-furnished; the walls are of well- 
burnt bricks ; two of the rooms have bay win- 
dows with French doors; and there is a 
spacious verandah on three and a half sides 
of the house. The roof is high and thatched 
in the most approved way. The teacherg 
live in huts similar to those at the Mumba 


Camp; and those who are working, or are 
being trained on the Mission, occupy huts of 
the same general character, but smaller. 
The church has been opened only about 6 
months. For two years and a half the ser- 
vices were held under a big tree near the 
carpenter's shop. The church was built by 
Eobert, the Teaching Evangelist, who got his 
training at Aliwal. The walls are formed in 
the same way as the huts are built. (See my 
description in Chapter IV.) The roof is high 
and well thatched, and open to the ridge. 
There are window openings, but not glazed; a 
porch, but no door; there is a pretty rostrum, 
and the floor is well supplied with plain seats 
made of native mahogany, and it looks very 
nice. The church will seat from 250 to 300. 
Mr. Kerswell hopes to build a much more 
substantial church before long. Then a 
partition will be placed in the present one, 
and one end will be used for a workshop, and 
the other for a school room. 

This morning Mr. Kerswell had to give a 
good deal of attention to medical work. This 
had got a little behind during his absence. 
I was glad to find the magistrate and his staff 
are kind to the natives in this way. This is 


not included in their duties, but they do it 
from interest. After breakfast I went round 
the Mission. We visited the brick-fields, and 
saw about 20 boys making bricks; some 
digging clay, others mixing it, some bringing 
water, others working at the moulds and 
others placing the newly made bricks on the 
floor to dry. It was a busy scene. We also 
visited the garden and helped to pick green 
peas for to-morrow's dinner. And this is 
winter, remember. The garden is near the 
river, and can therefore be freely watered. 
I think, when the Mission is a little more 
developed they will be able to grow most of 
what they need. 

Just before sun-down the bell was rung for 
worship. All on the Mission are expected to 
attend. To me it was an impressive service. 
The church was half filled. A hymn was 
sung, and a prayer offered, with the Lord's 
prayer and benediction; and then a retiring 
hymn. The full dress of the Mission boys is 
a white shirt. Those who are hired on the 
Mission simply wear a loin cloth. And this, 
be it remembered, is a great advance on 
nothing, which is the dress of many in the 


Sunday, August 22. 
This will be my only Sunday at Nambala. 
As far as the Mission is concerned, the 
Sabbath is well observed. All unnecessary 
labour is set aside. There is a quiet restful 
air about the place, and all are in their 
best clothes, and on their best behaviour. 
At 10.30 church begins. One of the teachers 
had gone round to the nearest villages yester- 
day to tell the people that to-morrow would 
be the Sabbath, and invite them to church. 
And he was careful to tell them that Maruti 
Makanda (the old or chief of the 
missionaries) would speak to them. They 
began to approach the Mission rather early 
for 10.30, for they only have the sun 
to guide them as to time. The church 
was quite filled. Two chiefs, and a 
number of head-men, were in the congrega- 
tion. Mr. Kerswell read the hymns, the Com- 
mandments, and a portion of Scripture; Mr. 
Diphooko offered prayer, and Robert Moalosi 
interpreted for me. So we all had a hand in 
the service. Order and reverence prevailed 
throughout; the attention to the address was 
very marked; and the general demeanour of 
the people left nothing to be desired. It is 


evident our staff here are gaining the con- 
fidence and respect of the people ; and in due 
time they must reap if they faint not. 

In the afternoon I held an English service 
for the Mission staff. The Postmaster came 
down from the Camp and joined us; and said 
with some feeling, as we returned to the 
house : ' ' That is the first service I have 
attended for two years." I noticed in the 
service he seemed greatly interested. May 
it be made a blessing to him. 

We spent a quiet evening together. I felt 
very tired. The climate is hard to work in; 
and by nine o'clock I was glad to retire. 

Monday was a busy day. Before breakfast 
I was at the surgery to see the medical cases 
treated. There were eight in all — some of 
them very bad, one poor boy about half 
grown, with great sores on his legs. He has 
been hke this for years, and no doubt but for 
the help he is getting at the Mission it would 
have claimed him as its victim. He is now in 
a fair way of being cured. In another case a 
great toe had become so rotten as to 
expose the bone. Here the decay had been 
arrested, and new flesh is growing. They 
seem very liable to sores. Their flesh readily 


decomposes. In the early stages of the work 
in this country medicine must play an im- 
portant part ; and I would urge that every man 
sent here should have at least one year's 
medical training, more if possible, but never 

We had many callers to-day — people who 
came to pay their respects to the visitor. 
Their salutation is peculiar. They sit on the 
ground and clap their hands. Among others, 
two chiefs and a head-man came. I made 
them a present of a small looking-glass. It 
was painful to see their delight, so completely 
are they little children in knowledge and 
experience. They looked at themselves in 
the glass, touching their hair and eyes, and 
their little beards, to satisfy themselves that 
they were real ; and then they looked at each 
other, and made many exclamations of won- 
der, and fell to clapping in thanks for the gift. 
They are tall finely-made people, and behind 
the child-like mind I feel sure there are fine 
powers waiting to be developed. Our Mission 
here is full of opportunity and promises high 

To-day I have made a thorough inspection 
of the whole station. There are two saw pits, 


a carpenter's shop, blacksmith's forge, the 
church before described, and about 25 huts. 
There are also two granaries for storing corn. 
This consists of maize and Kaffir corn. It is 
bought from the natives at low cost — about 
four shillings a bag. 

All kinds of work have to be done on the 
Mission. To-day the waggon driver was 
breaking in oxen. This is not an easy matter. 
A pair of them are yoked in behind a pair 
of broken oxen. They are first walked about 
without anything to draw, to get them used 
to the yoke. And then later they are attached 
to a log which they have to draw. But from 
the first they will often lie down and refuse 
to move. The boys will get hold of them, 
and lift them up, and even then they will 
refuse to use their legs, and fall down again 
as though dead. The whip is brought into 
play, but it is no good. As a last resort one 
of the boys will get the end of its tail between 
his teeth, and give it a nip. This acts like 
magic. The seeming dead thing comes very 
much to life, and springs up and rushes for- 
ward to some purpose. 

Mr. Kerswell is having a good many thorn 
trees cut down. They are no good for tim- 


ber, but useful to burn the bricks ; and it gives 
the grass a chance to grow. He wanted a 
rope to assist in this. It would have cost 
£5 out here. He has had one made from 
the bark of a certain tree. It has only cost 
5s. and it answers well. It is refreshing to 
find a Missionary so resourceful, and able to 
save the church's money by utilising what 
he finds on the ground. 

Wednesday, August 25. 
The conduct of some of the English traders 
came under my notice this morning. I find 
it is much the same as in the early days down 
country. They meanly take advantage of the 
ignorance of the people as to the true 
value of their corn and cattle ; as also the value 
of money. For example, one was buying an 
ox. He said to the owner : " That is a fine 
ox, it is worth two pounds; but as I want it 
very badly I will give you three pounds." 
The man was delighted, and received, as he 
thought, three pounds. But it was three 
bright brass buttons. Another, passed a 
bright penny telling the people it was a big 
sovereign. He got a pound's worth for it. 
And when Robert our teacher explained to 


the man it was not equal to a "tickey," a 
threepenny piece, you can judge of the man's 
surprise. He had never seen a penny before. 
There is no copper in circulation up here. I 
am glad to know the Magistrate does not spare 
these men when they come before him; and 
for this reason the Europeans say of him : 
" He is a good enough man, but a d — sight 
too friendly to the ' niggers.' " 

A case was brought to the Mission to-day 
which throws a sad light on the social, and, 
indeed, moral condition of the people. A 
woman had been married to a man in another 
village some distance from her own. Things 
went fairly well for a time, until one of her 
brothers-in-law began to thrash her. While 
she was prepared to recognise the husband's 
right to do this, she drew the line at brothers- 
in-law. So she left her husband to return to 
her own people. On the road she met a man, 
a perfect stranger to her. He asked her 
where she was going. She told him. 
** No;" he said, ''that is not true, you are 
wandering, you are lost, and I have found 
you. You are my slave," And he took her 
to a village, and sold her and her baby for 
corn. The woman watched her opportunity, 



To face page 100. 


and ran away, and reached home; but was 
obliged to leave her baby behind. Now they 
want to get the baby. Her brother has taken 
up the case for her, and brought her to the 
Mission for help. Before there were Magis- 
trates in the country the Missionaries them- 
selves had to settle such cases, and the people 
still come to them for advice, as in this case. 
Mr. Kerswell advised them to take their case 
to court, and gave them a letter in which he 
set forth the strong points. The woman will 
get her child in the end, and the man who did 
it will be punished if the Police can trace him. 
The Government sets its face against all 
kinds of slavery. Only it so happens that this 
village is in another district, and these poor 
people will have to travel 20 miles each way 
to get justice. But apart from the Missionary 
and the Government they would have no 
redress. To them it is a great gain on what 
they before had. 

There were 18 cases at the surgery to-day. 
In one case an operation. The more I see of 
this work the more I am convinced of its 
utility. Henceforth I shall be even a much 
stronger advocate of the medical training for 
our men who come to the Zambesi; and this 

F 2 


strongly in preference to a medical mission- 
ary. The stations are so far apart, and 
travelling is so difficult and slow, that one 
man would be of little use. The work presses 
and is constant on each Mission. Besides, a 
year's good training, such as they get at 
Livingstone College, is a fine equipment for 
practice out here; and gives the Missionary a 
medical status relatively equal to a fully 
trained doctor at home. 

Another interesting medical case. One of 
the boys who works on tlie Mission went 
to his village 13 miles away in connec- 
tion with the death of one of his people. 
A woman in the village had been 
suffering a long time from three sores 
on her foot — one of them a half inch deep. 
He told her of the great medicine man at the 
Mission. He gave medicine to all who came. 
She started off on foot, with her two year old 
child at her back, and walked the 13 miles. 
She arrived this morning in a pitiful condition, 
and received her first aid; Mr. Kerswell is 
confident he will be able to heal her. She 
was in a very dirty condition beyond what the 
journey implied. He told her she would have 
to wash, and keep herself clean, or he could 


not help her. She pleaded she had lost a 
child, and she could not wash while she was 

I had a long talk with Diphooko to-day 
about the trouble he had on the road when he 
went to bring his wife and family up to Nam- 
bala. It happened two and a half days from 
here. He was walking on in front of his boys, 
who stayed to eat some wild fruit on the way. 
He came to a village, and enquired of some 
women sitting outside their huts the way to 
the water. They told him in a civil way. He 
passed on, and next met a native man per- 
fectly naked. He saluted him, and asked : 
' ' How is this that you are not dressed ? ' * 
The man did not answer him, and he saw by 
this that he was angry. He therefore passed 
on without saying more. In a minute or so 
he looked back, but cannot tell why unless 
it was God inclined him to do it for his own 
defence; for he saw the man creeping after 
him, and aiming a blow at his head with a 
big stick. He was able to ward off the blow. 
Then he came at him with his spear. Now 
he found other men were closing in upon him 
with spears, and he received many stabs in 
his hands and arms while warding them off. 


He thinks they would have killed him, and 
that their motive was robbery, but just before 
he was quite exhausted, two other natives 
ran up and stopped them, saying to the man 
who led the attack, in their own language, 
of course, which was known to Diphooko; 
" What! you up to your old game, are you? 
Just out of jail, and you want the life of this 
stranger to bring trouble on us all." With 
this they stopped, and his life was saved. 
These two men insisted on going to the 
Camp, that innocent people should not be 
blamed. Diphooko was there under the 
doctor and could not proceed with his journey 
for a fortnight. The man got six months. 

Diphooko seems a very nice fellow. He is 
a mason and bricklayer; and also makes the 
bricks. Mr. Smith got him from Kimberley. 
He was a Wesleyan local preacher; and is 
.always ready to help in the evangelistic work 
of the Mission. Mr. Chapman has been most 
fortunate in having two such men to help him 
do the heaviest work in founding the Mission. 

This brother has had another trouble, as 
the natives call it. It happened here on the 
Mission. His kitchen caught fire one day, 
when his wife was ill in bed, and he was at 


THE noY "WITH sore legs at nambala. 

To face page ine. 


work on the new house. And befoi:e he could 
get there the place was completely burnt out. 
The huts consist chiefly of reeds and grass; 
so a fire is only a question of a few minutes. 
He was left very bare after the fire, but is get- 
ting a few things together again now. But 
notwithstanding his " troubles," I was greatly 
pleased with the view he took of them, and 
also with his great interest in the work of the 

Mr. Kerswell speaks in the highest terms of 
the work and devotion of these men ; and Says 
he would be helpless without them. And I am 
glad to notice he treats them as brethren and 
co-workers; and he is finding his reward in 
the yeoman service they are rendering. I 
ought to say Diphooko takes the services 
every third Sunday, and assists Eobert in lead- 
ing the class Sunday afternoons. 

The boys who work with Diphooko in the 
brick yard are mostly hired, and, of course, 
are all heathen. But even as hired servants 
they are in the way of being evangeHsed, for 
they live on the Mission for the time being, 
and attend daily prayers, and Sunday services. 
One of them came to day to ask permission to 
fetch his wife. As the result of a httle 


enquiry it was found that he had not lived 
with his wife yet. She was retained in the 
village of her people, till he was able to pay 
the dowiy. How much was it? A full grown 
cow. He was now ready, and wanted to go 
and fetch his wife from her village to his own 
village. It would take him three days. Per- 
mission was given; and the next we saw of 
him he was dressed out in a number of fine 
things, including a red cap, all of which he 
had borrowed, and wa§ off like a chieftain to 
fetch his wife. He will not be so amply 
clothed again, it is to be feared, for many 

This young man four days later returned 
a sadder, if not a wiser man ; for he found the 
girl married to another, the reason assigned 
being that he had been too long in coming. 
But worse than this, his fine " togs " aroused 
their envy, and they followed him into the 
forest with their spears with the intention of 
robbery with violence, which is likely would 
have meant death. But fear lent swiftness to 
his heels, and he made good his escape. We 
enquired with some anxiety as to his darkened 
prospects, but were soon relieved by being 
told of his new plans for comfort. The 


prudent man had called at his own village on 
his way back, and referred the case to his 
own people. They had their eye on another, 
girl whom he hoped to get in a few days. As 
is usual with them, he was wonderfully 
philosophical over the whole business. 

We spent the afternoon in preparing for our 
journey to Nanzela. Mr. Kerswell is going 
with me, which will enable me to hold a con- 
ference with them on the work. It is a great 
thing to prepare for a journey here. You 
can depend on nothing on the road but meat 
and meal; and, of course, the meat supply 
depends on your success in hunting. It is 
conceivable this may be very uncertain. 
Many things may contribute to this. If, 
for example, a party has passed just before 
you, the game will be wild and hard to get; 
whereas, if they have not been disturbed for 
some time you can approach them much 
more easily. 


Name ALA to the Kafue. 

A BOUT eleven in the morning, August 27, 
we said good-bye to Nambala, and com- 
menced our south-west journey towards 
Nanzela — Mr. Kerswell on his bike, and Mrs. 
Kerswell and I each in a mashila. We had a 
15 mile journey to do, to reach the waggon, 
which had been travelling during the previous 

I need say nothing of this part of my 
journey, beyond this, we rested twice on the 
road for about 15 minutes, and got there 
about four o'clock. And after having a brief 
meal, we commenced our evening " trek," 
and went on to a late hour . 

About eight miles out of Nambala we came 
to the largest and best village I have seen in 
North West Rhodesia. It is called Mono's; 
that being the name of the chief. The huts 
are large and well-built, and they have exten- 
sive gardens. They have no cattle, as this is 
in the fly belt, but they can keep goats and 


fowls. I have noticed that where the people 
can keep cattle they do not look much after 
gardens, and vice versa. About four miles 
further on we came to another large village — 
Kakoa's. This chief is the father of Mono ; 
and both father and son have a number of 
head-men under them. Here they are out of 
the fly belt, and have many cattle. 

I have suggested to Mr. Kerswell that now 
the school is well in hand, it would be a good 
thing to give Mono's an occasional Sunday 
service. Three or four school boys could go 
out to assist in the singing; and, perhaps, it 
could be extended also to Kakoa's. As there 
are three of them, a monthly service would not 
come very often for each, and there would 
yet be at least two at home each Sabbath for 
the services. I have also suggested to Mr. 
Kerswell that an occasional service at Mumba 
Camp say once a quarter would be a good 
thing, without being a great tax. At present 
they get no service whatever, and although 
there are only five Englishmen, their needs 
should not be forgotten. Besides, they 
are all friendly to the Mission and its work 
and ready to do what they can to help. There 
are also about 70 native police and messengers 


in Camp who could be given a brief service 
during the same visit. 

Saturday, August 28. 
This morning at sun-rise I went out for a 
little shooting. I came upon a small herd of 
reet-buck. They are about the size of a year 
old calf, only longer in the legs, and they can 
run, I hit one at a very long range, that is, 
long for me — about 200 yards, but it got 
away into the long grass, and having no dog, 
we were unable to stalk it. I had a shot-gun 
with me, as well as a rifle; and on my way 
back to the waggon I shot two eagles and a 
wood-pigeon. The boys have skinned the 
former for me, and the latter will figure in to- 
morrow's dinner. By this time we were very 
short of meat, as we only brought a little of 
a buck Robert had shot to give us a start. 
We had tinned meat with us, as a last resource, 
but it seems a shame to be using this, a small 
tin of which costs 2s. 6d., while the plains and 
forests are full of game. When we com- 
menced our evening " trek," therefore, about 
five, Mr. Kerswell and I both took our rifles; 
and just before sun-set, in about an hour, 
we came on a small herd of reet-buck, four 


Lvise was a slave rescued from Portuguese 
Raiders and handed to the Missionary 
by a Government Official during Mr. 
Baldwin's time at X'Kala. 

To face page 114. 


or five. Mr. Kerswell shot and missed, when 
the leader of the herd stood out before me at 
150 yards distant, broad side on. I let go 
and it fell like a log. But judge my humilia- 
tion when I found that Mr. Kerswell had shot 
at the same moment. I was a little in front, 
and the two shots so entirely coincided that 
I heard but one. Mr. Kerswell in his 
generosity wanted to call it my shot ; but as he 
had a superior rifle, and was in good practice, 
I felt the chances were against me, and would 
not have it. On our way back we got two 
more pigeons, so to-morrow's dinner is 

We camped for the night near a village. 
The people came out in great numbers to 
salute and trade. It was a weird scene. 
The young moon already gone down. The 
heavy looking forest timber around us. Our 
waggon, tents, and blazing fires in the centre of 
a small clearing, and the dusky forms of these 
scantily clothed wild people standing out in 
the fire-light, all sitting or crouching on the 
ground, some with sweet-potatoes, some 
with eggs and fowls , and a few with corn and 
meal. The latter is not easy to get on this 
*' trek," as their crops were poor last year. 


Although we had meat to offer in exchange, 
they all wanted cloth, that is calico. One 
yard of this makes them a full dress. We 
spent about 15 yards. I think I have men- 
tioned before, that our native cook does the 
buying. As it was late he did not stop to test 
the eggs; and when he did this next morning 
it was found that nearly half of them were 
bad — some having live chicks in them. They 
bring their meal in little baskets the shape of a 
deep dish. It is their own work. One man 
in handling his basket let it fall, and, behold, 
the bottom was filled with sweet-potatoes 
instead of meal. Our boys, and even his own 
people laughed at him very much. He had 
the grace to appear very ashamed of what he 
had done. I fear he had come into contact 
at some time with a trader who had left his 
conscience in England or Germany. 

On Sunday morning we pitched our camp 
early near a large village, and under the finest 
wild fig tree I have yet seen. I measured it, 
and found it to be 15 feet in circumference. 
Its head was in fine proportion to its body, 
and covered a circle which measured 90 feet 
across. We found ample room for our 
waggon and two tents under its grateful shade. 


This proved a delightful camping ground in 
more ways than one, Our first and greatest 
need in travelling in this country is water. 
Here we found a considerable river, so we 
had plenty of clean water; and also a good 
supply of grass for the oxen, our second 
great need. Then, the quantity of human life 
was great for this country. The chief and 
many of his people came out to greet us ; and 
before the sun was very high we invited them 
to join us in a service; which consisted in 
much singing; each verse of the hymn being 
read out, and repeated by our boys, and, 
I was delighted to notice, before we had 
reached the end of our first hymn, the people 
also were joining in the repetition. I think 
Mr. Smith has done a work greater than even 
he realises in reducing the language of the 
people to a system. Here is a Missionary, 
Mr. Kerswell, new to the work, he has only 
been in the country a few months, he has had 
no assistance in the language but what Mr. 
Smith's book and his native helpers have 
given him; and yet he can read the hymns. 
Scripture stories, and even the Scriptures 
themselves, in such a way that the heathen — 
who do not know, till we tell them, what a 


missionary is, or that their language is in a 
book — can understand him. I thank God for 
this great achievement, and see in it a great 
promise of success in this Mission. We all 
joined in repeating the Lord's prayer, also in 
the native language. The Ten Command- 
ments were read, a gospel story, a prayer 
from one of the books, and, tlii^ough one 
of our boys who understands English better 
than he can speak it, a few words of explana- 
tion and exhortation were spoken, in which 
they were told who we were, where we were 
going, and what was being done on the 
Mission Stations. All this was interspersed 
with much singing; and it was a source of 
great pleasure to me to notice, that what is 
true in the South, is true here. The natives 
are naturally very musical, in proof of which 
I need only mention that a number of them, 
before we reached the end of a hymn, had not 
only caught the words, but were joining in the 
tune, especially when it consisted of a simple 
measure. At the close of the service we had 
a little free conversation. We asked ques- 
tions, the people ask:ed questions; we 
answered theirs, and they answered ours; and 
we thus found they would like to have a 


Missionary and a school. Here is another 
splendid opening : A big village on the 
banks of a river, with smaller villages within 
easy reach. It is a great opportunity. 

The rest of the day we spent in quiet 
converse and reading, and we felt we had 
worshipped God under our own " fig tree," 
with none to make us afraid, though hundreds 
of wild people were all around us. 

I had quite forgotten to mention a little 
incident which touched me very much. 
Mrs. Kerswell had not been out in the open, 
but sat in the tent, as she had a little head 
trouble, during the time of service. When 
the people had moved away we noticed a 
company of women sitting at some distance, 
and staring with a fixed gaze that was pain- 
ful to see. We went out to ascertain the 
cause ; and found that in passing the tent they 
had caught sight of Mrs. Kerswell, and had 
dropped on the ground as though transfixed. 
They told us they had never seen a white 
woman before ; and might they sit and look at 
her; would we drive them away if they did? 
No. They were quite welcome. She was a 
woman hke themselves. They were invited 
to come nearer. And I must own that what 


they saw was calculated to impress them. 
Mrs. Kerswell is a tiny lady with a sweet 
face, large eyes, and an abundance of fair 
hair. She had on a simple, neatly fitting, white 
dress; and as she sat in her folding chair, 
with these scantily dressed black figures 
before her on the ground, she presented as 
complete a contrast as the most lively fancy 
could picture. And yet, I believe, in my 
soul, that in her graces of character and life 
she is a beautiful prophesy of what these, hei; 
sisters, may become. She stepped forward, 
and spoke a few words to them in their own 
language. They held their breath from 
eagerness, and looked ! and looked ! again 
and again. Knowing what a great treat it is 
to them, and wishing to send them away with 
something in their hand, Mrs. Kerswell got 
a tin of salt and gave each woman a tea- 
spoonful; and after further looking, they 
slowly moved away to their own poor huts, 
with what to them was a strange vision of 
grace and beauty they will never forget. I 
have no doubt they will spend hours in think- 
ing and speaking of what they have seen and 
heard to-day. 

On Monday we stayed where we saw many 


indications of the presence of big game. And 
just as we were preparing to pack up one of 
the boys reported a herd of roan antelope in 
the plain behind us. We went through the 
trees, and sure enough there was the 
prettiest sight we had yet seen — from 15 to 
20 fine creatures. I selected the largest bull 
I could see; but the range was long, 300 
yards; that is long for me, who am out of 
practice, with failing sight; many sportsmen 
would have taken it easily at 600 yards, and 
more than that. I missed the vital spot and 
succeeded only in breaking one of its fore 
legs. A wounded animal at once separates 
from the herd, as though to give them a 
chance of getting off; and a humane sports- 
man will not shoot at anything else till he has 
secured the wounded. In stalking this huge 
creature my ammunition gave out, and I 
should have lost him, but for the help of Mr. 
Kerswell, who having dropped one, as the 
result of half-a-dozen shots, took up the chase 
for me. We gave one to the villagers, and 
kept one for our own use, and to barter for 
meal. We made the chief a good present at 
our next camping place, and secured some 

things we much needed. 

a 2 


We reached the river about 6.30. Found 
a trader's station here — a few huts; one for 
shop; one for store; one to live in, and two 
or three near the cattle compound for his 
native boys. I think he is a German- Jew; 
intelligent and civil, and much in favour of 
Missions, because they improve trade. Mr. 
Smith's proposed new mission will be about 
20 miles from this; but he thinks it would be 
well to set up several instead of one, and that 
on both sides of the river. His candour was 
quite delightful. The people would soon buy 
cloth and blankets, if only the Missionaries 
would come; whereas he is now very much 
shocked to see the women around their fires 
with nothing on. 

^e invited him to supper. But he had 
just eaten a cold fowl — they are not much 
larger than partridges — but he sat and had a 
cup of tea with us. He gave us particulars 
about the road, and left us at bed-time, with 
the renewed hope we should fix up many 
Mission Stations on both sides of the river. 
I forgot to mention he gave us sweet milk for 
our supper and breakfast, which is always a 
great addition to our comfort in the forest. 


Kafue to N'Kala. 

Wednesday, September 2. 
AJIT'E were moving early this morning 
hoping to do a good ' ' trek ' ' to- 
wards the Drift, which is 20 miles further 
up the river. But we soon began to 
encounter delays. In the first place we 
could not find the track; or, rather, we 
could find too many, some made by 
the trader's cattle, and some by the big 
game, of which the country hereabouts is 
full; and we were perplexed, not knowing 
which was the right track. We had at last 
to call up one of the trader's native boys to 
show us the road. Then we went forward 
and made fine speed for about two hours; 
when we found our leader had left the path, 
and taken us across some mealie gardens. 
We got into a stretch of deep sand, where 
the oxen stuck fast. There was nothing for 
it but to out-span for the day, as the sun was 
now high. We found good water and plenty 
of grass, which is generally the case where 
game abounds. 


To-day brought us a still further dis- 
comfort; it proved to be the first real windy 
day I have experienced since reaching the 
country. We were camped in a stretch of 
recently burnt grass, and everything was soon 
covered with the ash. But you get to accept 
this kind of thing as a matter of course; and 
(vhether in your food, or clothes, or bed, or 
wherever it gets, it is all the same — a part 
of your experience. 

When we started for our evening ** trek " 
we got a chief to lead us into the right path. 
He had to take us about three miles, but he 
did it cheerfully, and we made him a present 
of a yard of calico and a piece of meati — a 
saddle of buck. He was well satisfied, and 
left us in great good humour. Now we were 
sure of the road, and made good headway, 
till we came to a place where we had to 
remove the stump of one tree and lop the 
head of another to get through. A waggon 
passes along this road at such wide intervals 
that in places it becomes overgrown, and has 
to be cut out afresh. This helps to make 
patience the chief condition of travel in this 
land of dense forests, and vast plains. About 
9.30 we reached a lonely spot where the road 


was bad, and the oxen could go no further. 
We had our supper, and in the security of a 
big fire went to bed, for we are in the land 
of Hons and leopards, creatures not to be 
despised by weary travellers. 

On September 3 we camped for the day 
under two beautiful wild fig trees, in front 
of a big native village. These villages con- 
sist, usually, of a set of squares, each square, 
I judge, under a head-man; but this one is a 
half circle. There is no crowding. In a 
number of places the huts are only one deep ; 
in a few places two deep; and in only two or 
three places, three deep. It is 300 yards 
across the half circle. The trees under which 
we are camped are in the centre. It is really 
a pretty sight stretched out before us as far 
as nature is concerned — ** only man is vile " 
— some of the huts are spacious, and look to 
be well built. 

Our arrival at eight this morning caused 
great excitement. Men, women and chil- 
dren came out in great numbers to greet us, 
and watch our doings. Every movement 
seemed full of novelty and interest to them. 
My beard and long dressing gown came in for 
much remark; one would point from behind 


anotiher ; a child would run to fetch an adult ; 
and an old mother would bring a little one to 
behold the wonder; and so it went on. Mr. 
Kerswell was eyed with seeming respect, 
because of the authority he was exercising in 
issuing orders; but the wonder of wonders 
was still awaited. It came presently. Break- 
fast was ready, and Mrs. Kerswell stepped 
from the waggon to pass to the tent. They 
could not control their exclamations; and 
their gesticulations carried them out of them- 
selves. The men were no-where, and nothing 
when the "better-half " appeared. 

The chief was one of the first to approach 
us. He brought with his own hand a basket 
of sweet milk, just warm from the cow, as a 
present. He went back with a leg of buck, 
and a beaming face. 

During yesterday's ** trek " we fell in with 
a boy of this village, who was returning from 
the trader's, where he had been to make 
purchases for his people. He '* trekked " with 
us during the night, and slept with our boys, 
and I have no doubt they fed him. He 
became very friendly; and as the road was 
bad to find, and we feared losing our way 
again, we asked him to go on with us and 


show US the Drift. He was quite willing ; and, 
indeed, seemed pleased to go. But when 
we were ready to make a start, an elder 
brother turned up, and objected. It now 
became apparent that he belonged to the 
chief's family; and, they, thinking we needed 
him very much, wanted to make a big thing 
of it. It is wonderful how much the world 
seems akin where selfishness is concerned. 
What would we give? Would we shoot them 
meat, or give them skins ? No ! We would 
giVe them a present. This did not satisfy 
them. Then Mr. Kerswell took his pocket 
compass out and showed them ; and explained 
that if there was no road we could find our 
way by that. It could speak even in the 
night. This greatly impressed them, and they 
were content to let him go. 

Friday, September 4. 
A hunting party passed us to-day — Lord 
somebody. I did not take the trouble to 
enquire which of the noble families of Great 
Britain he represented; but he belongs to the 
'Army, I believe; so has nothing mucH to do, 
and is out here with a friend for a few months' 
shooting, to fill in time, and, perhaps, to kill it. 


Their equipment was ample — the finest span 
of oxen, 18 — I have seen out of Cape Colony; 
tents, etc., three horses, and many servants. 
Their aim is record heads, and the slaughter 
they make is something dreadful. 

We also passed a trader, visiting the 
villages to buy oxen. His average price is 
£2 per head. This is sometimes paid in 
money, and at otheic times in calico. 

The Kafue is a fine river. Where we cross 
to-day is about 200 miles higher up than the 
railway station. Here from bank to bank is 
about 500 yards; but the river is low at this 
season, as there has been no rain since last 
March. On the north side quite 50 yards of 
the bed is dry sand. Then the water begins ; 
shallow at first, then about knee deep; and on 
the south side to the bed of our waggon. 
The bottom is at first coarse sand; then it 
thickens until it is fine gravel. Where we 
entered the river the approach is easy. 
Indeed, the natives have made gardens down 
to the water's edge ; but on the south side the 
bank is deep and steep; at least one in two. 
Our oxen passed over the dry sand with great 
labour. They took the water bravely; but 
when about 20 yards in they stuck fast. 


There was nothing for it but to unload the 
waggon. Accordingly all the boys were 
called up, and everything had to be carried 
on their heads to the other side. This took 
nearly two hours, and the sun was getting 
low, and we began to feel anxious that we 
should not extricate the waggon before dark. 
We now made a good start, and after many 
tries reached the south side. Now our real 
trouble began. The front wheels ran into the 
soft bank, and would not rise. A council of 
war was called. The last thing that meant 
weight was carried ashore. When all our 
effects were cleared out, first Mrs. Kerswell, 
and then myself, were carried high and dry 
on a sturdy native's shoulders; and even then 
the waggon still stuck, and we began to think 
we should have to take it to pieces, and carry 
it up bit by bit. By this time the sun was 
down, and out here darkness soon follows. 
There was still time for a final effort. An 
ox had fallen sick earlier in the day. This 
meant a pair had been out-spanned. These 
were brought up and added to the team. 
Eopes were attached to various parts of the 
waggon, and a last supreme effort made by 
all the human and brute force at our com- 


mand. I am not even sure that Mrs. Kerswell 
did not add to the shout of it, when out came 
the waggon, and, without a stop — for that 
would have been disastrous — it was safely 
brought to the top of the steep bank. The 
load was soon replaced, and we quickly 
resumed our evening " trek," which was con- 
tinued till ten o'clock. 

From this point we sent a runner to Mr. 
Price, to tell him we should spend Sunday at 
N'Kala, and suggesting that, if convenient, he 
should meet us there. 

We started our morning ** trek" at five, 
hoping to reach N'Kala by eight. But here, 
again, the way proved longer and heavier 
than we anticipated, and we did not arrive at 
our destination till ten. Within three miles 
of the Mission we missed our way, and got into 
some native gardens, which resulted in 
another stick. Some natives, judging who we 
were, came and pointed out our mistake, and 
we found ourselves, to our great joy, pre- 
sently approaching our N'Kala Mission. 

Work at N'Kala. 

npHE N'Kala Mission is situated on slightly 
■^ rising ground, on the side of a grassy 
plain with a river running through it; and 
forest spreading out at its back. When we 
emerged from the forest on the opposite side 
of the plain the Mission presented a very 
pretty picture. In the fore-ground, as the 
most prominent feature, a,s I think should 
always be the case, is the large well-built 
Church. It is the best church I have yet 
seen in the country — not so nicely finished as 
the one at Nambala, but larger, and much 
more substantially built. The walls are of 
sun-dried bricks, two feet thick, with a 
verandah all round. This verandah greatly 
adds to the coolness of the building, and is a 
protection to the walls. Then the Mission 
house comes into view, and a number of 
superior looking huts. As you get nearer, 
you can distinguish the carpenter's shop, the 
saw pit, and other indications that it is a 
centre of many activities, which, in travelling 


over a hundred miles, you have seen no sign 
of till now. 

Before we reached the station, Ramathe, 
the Teaching Evangelist in charge, was out to 
receive us; and we did not need speech to 
proclaim our welcome, his beaming face was 
sufficient. We were soon out-spanned, tents 
pitched, open-air kitchen arranged ; aild while 
break^fast was beiiug prepared we simply 
revelled in our morning ablutions. It was 
between eleven and twelve before we got our 
first meal ; but when was a meal ever so sweet? 
Travel and hunger are a grand preparation for 
a good breakfast. 

Early in the afternoon Mr. Price arrived 
from Nanzela, and the remaining hours of the 
day were spent in fellowship, for which the 
loneliness of the life out here is a sad prepara- 

I have now had time to carefully look 
round the Mission. I need not say I have 
done so with great interest, and for several 
reasons. This was really our first Mission to 
a purely heathen people. I knew its 
honoured founders — Messrs. Buckenham and 
Baldwin. They had spent six months with 
me at Aliwal on their way up. I had assisted 


them in their outfit, followed them in thought 
and prayer on their lonely and difficult 
journey, and now I have had actual 
experience of travel in the country which 
enables me still further to understand the toil 
and sacrifice of their life here. And now I 
am standing on the very ground where, with 
their lives in their hands, they laboured and 
suffered. For at the beginning the people were 
very unfriendly, and treated them with great 
suspicion. Here is the first little square hut 
Mr. Buckenham built. It has recently been 
re-thatched, but in other respects it is as he 
left it. It has a very high roof, which greatly 
added to its comfort, or rather lessened its 
discomfort; for if it had been low as well as 
small, it would have been intolerable. It 
was from this roof the poor fellow fell and 
received hurt, which, I have no doubt, 
hastened the end. 

Two houses have disappeared from the 
station — the one occupied by Robert Moalosi 
fell into decay, from the ravages of the white 
ants, and the house Mr. Chapman occupied 
was dismantled when he removed to Nambala. 
There is a well-built house of two rooms with 
a verandah, built by Mr. Baldwin for a study 


and surgery. It is occupied by Mr. Price 
.when he visits the station, and during my brief 
stay I have the convenience and comfort of 

A part of the plan of extension, three years 
ago, when Nambala was opened, was to make 
N'Kala an out station of Nanzela, with a 
Teaching Evangelist in charge. Since then 
the work has been in the hands of D. 
Ramathe, one of the young men sent from 
Aliwal. He was never a very quick student, 
but a nice fellow of excellent character. I 
am glad to find that the experiment (for this is 
the first station to be thus treated), has so far 
been a success. He was not one of my most 
successful men in the shop work, but since 
being thrown on his own resources, he has 
developed fair aptitude. He has built the 
house he lives in. It has three good rooms. 
It stands in an enclosure which secures it 
against the lions. He is now building a 
kitchen, and guest chamber, that he may have 
a room for a friend or brother teacher when 
he comes along. All this is the property of 
the Church. Mr. Price tells me that Eamathe 
has done the chief work in building the 
church, which reflects great credit on him and 


his helpers. There is an aspect of the 
devotion of this young native worker, which 
touches me very much. As in the case of the 
Europeans, the women and children suffer 
most here. He has lost two children, and his 
wife has had to go down country twice, 
because of her health. ^e has been in 
Basutoland now for some months, and to bear 
the medical and other expenses thus involved 
he is living on the coarse and common food 
of the people here. He has had neither bread 
nor meat for months. He cannot afford to 
buy flour; and although game is all about 
him, and he has a gun and rifle, he cannot get 
cartridges, and yet, without a murmur, the 
brave fellow sticks to his post. We invited 
him to dinner with us, and our bread ran 
short. I asked him if he could lend us a 
piece till our cook had baked ; then he had to 
tell me of his position. It will never be 
known how much our work owes to these 
men. They bear great privations, and say 
nothing about it. 

At eleven o'clock Sunday morning we held 
service. The church was not crowded, but it 
was a good congregation. The church leaves 
room for growth, as all new churches should. 


It has three aisles, one in the centre and one 
on either ,side. The seats consist of walls 
built of sun-dried bricks, the height of a seat. 
This may sound very primitive, but it is a 
great advance on what the people are used to, 
for in their huts they sit on the floor. Most 
of the churches in Basutoland are thus seated. 
The window openings are filled in with well- 
made frames, but not glazed. The church 
is lofty and open to the roof. It was a hot 
day, and a good congregation, but no discom- 
fort from heat. 

The service was very impressive — no con- 
fusion — even the heathens are well behaved in 
God's House. The school children were in 
front, and they formed the choir, but the 
whole congregation joined in the singing. 
The sermon fell to my lot. Mr. Price, in 
their own language, told them that I was an 
old missionary, and had come to give them 
my blessing in their work. I gave a short 
address before preaching; told them I had 
always felt a great interest in their Mission; 
had known Mr. Buckenham and Mr. Baldwin, 
a'nd all the men who had come to them; and 
that I had trained at Aliwal all the native 
workei^s that bad come to them. Then 


followed the good old story of ' ' Jesus and 
His love." " My own son," as I called him, 
Eamathe, interpreted for me. 

After service they all gathered at our 
waggon. They wanted to speak to the 
' ' Maruti Makanda ' ' (the great or chief 
Missionary). I was the oldest Missionary they 
had ever seen, and with them age is greatness. 
Mr. Price facetiously observed, he wished my 
grey beard was in the market, it would be a 
great asset to him. Well, they began their 
talk. The chiefs and head men were in the 
front; and the people formed a big and wide 
circle. The front people did the talking. At 
first one chief did most of the talking; but as 
they warmed to the work, others lent a hand, 
until the whole of the front rank were taking 
a fair share. They began by thanking me for 
coming. They now saw a great (old) chief 
for the first time ; and they knew he would be 
able to do what they wanted, etc. They all 
possess a lot of native diplomacy. When 
they begin to flatter you can be sure they are 
going to blame, or ask for some great thing. 
It was soon apparent they had a grievance, 
and that they could nurse it well. The policy 
of working this station was changed at the 

H 2 


time Nambala was started. Till then a 
native and European agent had been in 
charge; that is, in residence. It was felt by 
the men on the spot that the time had come 
when a good native agent would be sufficient. 
Accordingly, Mr. Chapman was released for 
Nambala, and Ramathe placed in charge, 
with what assistance could be given him from 
Nanzela, only 16 miles away — very near for 
this country. The results show that the 
change d|id not prejudice the work. The 
N'Kala Station has never been more promising 
than now. I was cognisant of these facts 
before the interview began, and was, there- 
fore, ready with my answer. Their first com- 
plaint, came at the tail of a long speech in 
which had been mentioned the names of all 
the missionaries who had been here; their 
white missionary had been taken away, and 
they wanted another in his place. I replied 
with a speech equally long. I had known 
each of the honoured men they had men- 
tioned. Indeed, they had all been with me 
at Aliwal before they came to them, etc. But 
this was a big country ; I had already travelled 
more than 200 miles in it, and everywhere I 
saw many villages and people without 


missionaries; and they were all equally our 
children, and we wanted them to have the 
Gospel; besides, they had been very slow to 
receive the Gospel. (The people making 
these complaints are still heathen.) The 
missionaries had worked hard and long, and 
they would not leave their old bad life. 
Mr. Chapman naturally felt he would like to 
try somewhere else, as there were so many 
people still waiting for the Gospel. And then 
they had not been left without help, 
Missionary Ramathe was with them. He 
was one of my own sons. I had trained 
him since he was a youth. He was a 
good teacher and preacher, and if they 
followed him he would lead them in the 
right way. And, then, Mr. Price was 
coming over from Nanzela, and his wife, too, 
to help them occasionally. So that they were 
still well provided for. Now this proved a 
wise reply, for it placed them on the horns 
of a, dilemma; either tkey must accept the 
change, or go against my own gift in the 
person and work of Ramathe. Their 
natural courtesy would not allow them to 
do the latter, their inclination was dead 
against the former. But they are clever 


talkers, and so they found a way out. 
Yes. They had nothing to say against 
Ramathe. His work was good. But 
there was much he could not do. They 
wanted a store on the Mission like they used 
to have in the white missionaries' time ; so that 
they could bring their corn and get cloth to 
clothe their children for school, etc. 

Now I had to explain that the conditions in 
the country had changed; that when the 
Missionaries first came, and for years after- 
wards, there was no Government and no 
Traders in the country. Now there were 
both, and the Missionaries could no longer 
keep a store. Here I may mention that the 
change is not quite to the advantage of the 
native. The Missionary used trade to supply 
his own needs; the trader to make profit, and 
a small one does not satisfy him, and this is 
at the cost of the native, and he knows it. 
So they said the store was far away, and the 
arrangement was not satisfactory. Here 
Mr. Price chimed in and reminded them that 
the Mission still bought its corn from them, 
and that they were in need now, and would 
take all that was brought to them. This 
proved an unlucky reference. Yes. They 


could bring their corn, but could not get their 
pay. This I much resented. When had the 
Mission failed to pay? Now, in several parts 
of the crowd they declared debts had been 
standing since last May. I appealed to Mr. 
Price. Yes. He was very sorry to say it 
was true tliat they had not been able to pay 
ready cash. When pushing on the work of 
the new church, rendered the more urgent 
because the old church had fallen in, they ran 
out of cloth, and there was none at the time 
to be had at the store. Accordingly, they 
had to go into debt, or stop the work of the 
church. There was a surprise in all this for 
Mr. Price. He had secured cloth some time 
since, and sent it over to pay this debt, as he 
thought; but, as by this time Ramathe was in 
need of more corn, he had let the old debt 
stand, and used the cloth for present need. 
Meantime, in the thought of the natives, this 
debt, the first they had ever experienced, was 
put to the credit of the new management. As 
a new supply of cloth is on the way, I made 
a full explanation of the case to them, and 
assured them they would be shortly paid in 
full, and in future ready cash. They are 
real children. A little thing pleases them. 


This was the only grain of real comfort they 
could have got out of the interview; and yet 
they went away greatly pleased, and giving 
me much credit. 

We were now able to get our dinner in 
peace, after which I had a final walk around 
the Station. To me the most pathetic spot is 
the little graveyard. It is at the back of the 
Station, and under a fine tree, that, I am 
sorry to say, is dying branch by branch. The 
sacrifice of life on this Mission has been 
great. Dear little Elsie Buckenham was the 
first. The first Mrs. Pickering renders the 
spot still further sacred to us. But as far as 
numbers are concerned, however, the chief 
sacrifice has been made by our Aliwal native 
workers. Robert Moalosi has two children 
buried here; and the present Teacher, 
Ramathe, two; and, then Josaph, whose story 
of suffering and devotion I have often told, 
buried his wife here. The dear soul came 
over from Nanzela to nurse Mrs. Moalosi. 
She developed black-water fever and died in 
a few days after her arrival. I stood bare- 
headed at these graves and thanked God for 
the devout lives which had been given for the 
redemption of the heathen of this part of 



To face page 150. 


Africa. It is a beautiful sacrifice, complete 
in its scope, for Christian England and 
Christianised Africa join hands in making it; 
and therein is typical of the final triumph of 
Christ, when all nations, and kindred, and 
people ''shall crown Him Lord of all." 
These graves seal the country as ours, and are 
a pledge that the worst in the land may be 
saved. The forefathers of both races lying 
in those graves were more degraded than the 
poor blind souls around here; and what the 
dear old Gospel has done, it will do, and all 
Africa shall be saved. 


A Week at Nanzela. 

( \ N Sunday afternoon we bid adieu to the 
^^"^ friends at N'Kala and started for 
Nanzela — Mrs. Kerswell in a mashila, I on a 
mule, and Messrs. Price and Kerswell on 
foot. I had not been in a saddle for 
at least six years, perhaps much longer, 
but we did not make more than five 
miles an hour; so no discomfort was 
to be expected. The boys with the mashila 
led, I followed, and we soon left the 
gentlemen behind ; for although they are both 
strong fellows and good walkers, they could 
not do more than four miles an hour, as the 
road was very sandy. We reached home an 
hour before them. But they had their rifles 
and were perfectly safe. 

We did not reach Nanzela till after sun- 
down. The people of the station heard us 
approaching; for, as usual, the mashila boys 
were singing ; and they all came down the road 
to meet and greet us. We found Mrs. Price 
awaiting us — a little lady of gentle speech and 


gracious smiles; but, I am sorry to say, suffer- 
ing much from the cUmate; and yet, abound- 
ing in courage, as in capacity for cheerful 
suffering. Her thoughtful kindness had pro- 
vided a warm bath for each of us. It was a 
grateful advance on the ancient hospitality, 
in which only the feet of visitors received 
such attention. After the heat of the day, 
and the dust of the journey, it was equal to 
hours of rest. 

Monday morning I was up early anxious to 
inspect the Mission. I began with the 
Mission House. The present one is the second 
in succession, and was built by Mr. Smith. 
It reflects great credit on him. One wonders 
how he was able to combine so much 
practical work with so much literary work. 

His grammar is a monument of research and 
industry; I go into the schools and find the 
children reading the Scripture stories he 
wrote; and in the services they use mostly 
hymns he composed; and then his greatest 
work of all is the translation of the Scriptures. 
And yet I am being entertained in a model 
Mission house built by him. 

The house is lofty, spacious and convenient. 
It will be sufficient for the next 20 years. The 


doors and windows were imported ; all the rest 
has been created on the spot. And then, he 
made much of the furniture. I am sitting at 
a study table which would adorn any study at 
home; there are convenient and well-finished 
book-shelves on three sides of the study, and 
in the dining-room there is quite a handsome 
side-board, stained and varnished, beside 
which there are ornamental tables and 
cabinets. Most of these things are made from 
the timber of his packing-cases. The house 
has a verandah all round it, and looks what it 
really is — a home of convenience and 

The church is old and not very good. It 
is built of sun-dried bricks, but the walls are 
thin and low. Its roof is in fair repair, and 
it will last a few years yet. But I feel sure 
the growth of the station, after a time, will 
demand a larger and better church. 

The old Mission house is now used as a 
surgery, and a spare room; I have suggested 
to Mr. Price that if a little was spent on the 
spare room, it would make a good guest 
chamber. They are short of bedrooms in the 
new house. A round hut, a good one, is used 
as a store. 


There is a carpenter's shop. No station 
could be complete without this. Also a saw- 
pit under a big tree, where the trees are cut 
into the size and shape required. A cart 
house, and a few small huts for ofl&ces, com- 
plete the home cluster of buildings. The 
whole is enclosed by a strong stake fence, 
which helps to give protection against the wild 

Tuesday, September 8. 

This morning Mr. Price and I had a walk 
round the grounds. A few hundred yards 
from the station there is an extensive plain 
headed by the river. Many parts of it at 
present are rather bare; but in the rainy 
season it is under water, and then, later, full 
of long grass. The river is from 30 to 40 feet 
wide, and in some places very deep. It has 
in it plenty of fish, a good many croks, 
and a few hippo. It could be easily 
utilised for garden purposes by means of a 
wind-mill pump. We also walked round the 
garden. Some of the native people of the 
station have gardens near the river. They 
grow maize, Kaffir-corn, and cassava — a kind 
of root which does not require much cultiva- 
tion^ and can stand the dry season. It is 


dried, then reduced to flour by stamping, and 
made into cakes or porridge. Mr. Price's 
garden is between the river and the house. 
He is going in extensively for fruit trees — 
oranges, lemons, plums, apples, grapes, and 
others. Mi^s. Price has a taste for flowers, 
and these are being cultivated. We are 
now approaching the end of winter, but 
the spring has not commenced. The time of 
flowers and fruits, is not yet; and before then 
I shall be gone. But I can imagine what it 
will be like — a very paradise. 

Wednesday, September 9. 

This morning Mr. Price took me round to 
some of the out-buildings. 

The school children live on the station. 
They vary in age from five to thirty. Eight 
are married, and have their own homes. 
Until recently they have been living in the 
usual round hut. Mr. Price has made a new 
departure by starting them to build square 
houses, I went round to-day and had a 
look at them. One is finished; a good 
house of three rooms, with a good roof. 
The roof is extended beyond the walls, 
and supported from the ground by posts. 


thus forming a covered way, or verandah 
around the house. Even in this the 
influence of the Missionary's example is 
seen; for the house is really a baby 
Mission house. Then the element of healthy 
rivalry comes in; for the boy who has most 
recently begun to build is evidently bent on 
building the best house. It looks as though 
this house, in some respects, will be equal to 
that occupied by the teacher. This, to those 
at a distance, may seem a small matter, but 
it is really very great, and shows that they 
have left the indecencies of their old life 
leagues behind. The younger children live 
together — the boys on one side of the teacher, 
the girls on the other. The girls, until 
recently, occupied some old huts. Now they 
have a nice square house, well thatched, and 
carefully enclosed, with ample yard space. 

The boys still occupy an old house built 
long ago by the teacher Joseph. But a new 
house for them is Mr. Price's next move. 
The present is not only dilapidated beyond 
repair, but is too small. Twenty boys 
crowded into a small space is not healthy. 

The young men among the pupils are the 
servants of the Mission, and support them- 


selves while they are getting their education. 
The children, until recently, had to feed and 
clothe themselves. This meant that they had 
occasionally to go home to fetch their food, 
and it happened as often as not that they did 
not return. For it must be remembered that 
many of the parents do not want them to be 
in school, and are often opposed to it. Mr. 
Price found that he could feed them for a 
penny per day, and, of course, their clothing 
is very slight; although it is made up so 
tastefully by Mrs. Price, that they look very 
nice. The extra cost is already partly, and 
will eventually, be fully recouped by the work 
they do; for both boys and girls work out of 
school hours. But the gain to the proper 
work of the Mission is immense. It secures 
regular attendance, it keeps them from their 
heathen associations in the evenings; and, 
instead, retains them in sweet and wholesome 
physical and moral environment. I believe 
the arrangement will greatly conserve the 
higher results of our work. 

When a teacher was wanted for this school 
four years ago, we had not one ready to leave 
the school at Aliwal ; but through the influence 
of Eamathe, who was then down for his health. 


I was able to secure one from Basutoland. 
Kemuel is his name. He is still here and 
doing a good work. He had no industrial 
training, and felt this a great disadvantage at 
first; and even now he is not of the same 
service he would be if he had been thus 
trained. He takes no part in the work out of 
school hours; whereas Eobert and Eamathe 
take the direction of it, and do a good deal 
themselves. The defect is also seen in his 
own house. He built it himself, and tells me 
Mr. Smith helped him in the roof; but, while 
it is fairly good, it is much inferior to that built 
by Eamathe at N'Kala. He is, however, a 
good teacher and evangelist. 

There has been no European on this station 
for several years who had received a technical 
training. Mr. Smith received a good deal of 
help in this respect at Aliwal, and signs of it 
are present in every room of the house he 
built; but he did not receive enough to make 
him an expert. Mr. Price has received none 
whatever, though showing great handiness. 
Their tools, therefore, especially their saws, 
have got into a bad condition. We are put- 
ting them in good order — Mr, Kerswell the 
pit-saws, and I the hand-saws. It was a work 


of time, and I may add, a work of love. So 
we have a turn in the work-shop each morn- 

I used one morning in visiting the School. 
59 were in attendance. They were divided 
into four classes. I went carefully through 
their work. The text books are in their own 
language. I could only judge of the fluency 
of their reading, and this was very good. I 
saw the slate and copy-book work, and heard 
their singing. The order and conduct of the 
school is excellent, and the work I could judge 
was very satisfactory. The register is well 
kept, and the average of attendance high. 
Seven of the top boys are taken in English 
three times a week by Mr. Price. This is a 
new arrangement, but three of them are show- 
ing that they are apt pupils. 

Towards evening we had a sail down the 
river. It is a native boat — what is called a 
"dug out "; that is, they take a solid tree 
the right size and length, and by means of 
their small axes they hollow them out, and 
bring them to the right shape. The one we 
went in is about 20 ft. long. The natives do 
the paddling standing, and they can go at a 
great rate. These are the kind of boats used 


by the natives on the Zambesi ; and it was one 
of these a hippo, upset when poor Buckenham 
lost his camera, and came near losing his life. 

This afternoon tlie weekly class meeting 
was held. As in other services, singing takes 
a prominent place. We opened by singing 
two hymns, sitting. The only attitudes 
throughout were sitting and kneeling. Two 
of the women offered prayer. Then another 
hymn, and a portion of Scripture on prayer, 
in which occurs: " Ask and receive, &c." 
Another hymn, and an address by one of the 
two young men who help in the outside work, 
Samuel, by name. The address lasted about 
ten minutes, and was delivered with surprising 
ease, grace and fluency. It was founded on 
the portion read. Another hymn, two more 
prayers, and the Benediction. It was a 
beautiful little service, highly calculated to 
promote spiritual life and fellowship. I 
ascertained that their prayers are very simple 
and direct, and full of beautiful confidence. 

I have seen many sunrises and sunsets 

in this country. The former is what many 

people do not often see at home ; and I do not 

want to take too much credit for it out here. 

But when travelling you often get it without 



choice. It comes about in this way. We do 
two ' ' treks ' ' a day — one in the early morn- 
ing, starting an hour or two before sun- 
rise; and the other in tlie evening, starting 
two hours before sun-down. So you get 
abundant opportunity to observe both the 
beginnings and endings of the days. This 
I have done with great interest. This is the 
long dry season up here. I have seen no 
cloud since coming to the country. The 
sun is never obscured. We often have 
very lovely sunsets down in the south; 
but there is a feature of beauty here I have 
never seen before; for half an hour or so, 
before the sun disappears below the horizon, 
it ceases to cast a shadow, and you can look 
steadily into its face. It is Uke a ball of 
deep red fire, and often appears as big as a 
waggon wheel. Its colour gradually deepens, 
until the whole western sky is glorified by the 
reflection. The same is true of the sunrise, 
when the eastern sky is equally beautiful. 
Saturday afternoon Mr. Price was printing 
some photos. This has to be done in the 
shade. I had previously called his attention 
to the above feature of the sun-set; and he 
now noticed that although the sun was still 


quite high above the horizon, there was not 
hght enough to print- 

Mrs. Price holds a sewing class on her 
verandah once a week. Most of them are 
married women. They have their babies with 
them; but even the babies seem to give but 
little trouble. I was sitting in the study 
writing, and did not know they were there, 
until, just before they finished their work, 
Mrs. Price came and asked if I would like to 
see them. Then I went out and saw fourteen 
of them busy at work. I went round and 
looked at what they were doing. As far as I 
could judge, they were making great progress. 
Mrs. Price has taught one of the women to 
work the sewing machine. And when they 
put a new calico ceiling in the dining room, 
this woman did the seams. This means a 
revolution in their social life. 

News came during the week of the death 
of a young mother, who had been living 
on the Mission, but had gone to her people 
to be confined. She was a fine, healthy 
woman, and her death comes as a great 
surprise. Mr. and Mrs. Price are very con- 
cerned about the child. They do not know 
whether it is alive or not ; but all the chances 


are against it. They do not under such cir- 
cumstances, openly murder the child, as 
before the Missionaries came, but it is 
neglected, and allowed to pine away and die. 
Mrs. Price has sent out to the village, hoping 
to rescue the child, if yet alive. The women 
were just in time, and early one morning 
Mrs. Price came into the study with a beam- 
ing face to show me a little black mite rolled 
up in her apron. It is a little boy, and if it 
had been her own it is difficult to see how she 
could have been more excited. While I am 
writing she is giving it its first bath, and it is 
lifting up its strong voice in stout protest; 
but it is only the beginning of a life that will 
be physically clean, at all events; and I pray 
it may grow up under the fostering care of 
the Mission to be * ' a seed to serve Him, and 
a generation to call Him blessed." 

As the result of careful enquiries, I have no 
doubt the child owes its life to the influence 
of the Mission. Mr. Kerswell tells me that if 
the case had happened at Nambala the child 
would have been buried with its mother before 
they would have known anything about it. 
It has been the custom of generations. In 
their wild state they have no idea, of artificial 


feeding. To them, therefore, nothing is more 
natural than that mother and child should be 
together in death. The Mission at Nambala 
is only three years old; and while those in 
immediate touch with it are being influenced 
for good, especially in the elementary 
decencies of Hfe, those in the remote districts 
are as yet scarcely touched. Whereas, in the 
case of the older Missions, as here at Nanzela, 
the whole district has been lifted to some 
extent; with the result that many of their 
more shameful heathen practices have been 
discontinued, and others are observed as by 
stealth. While this is far from all we wish, 
it is a great gain, and a preparation for some- 
thing better. This child is a case in point. 
The fa ther has been sometime on the Mission, 
and pleaded that they were the children of the 
Moruti, and thus the child was saved. 


A Sunday at Nanzela. 

O UNDAY, September 12, was a great day at 
Nanzela. I wish I could fully describe it. 
I was up early. The whole atmosphere of 
the morning was rest and quiet. This in itself 
is a great result. I have spent two Sabbaths 
in villages, and among people where every day 
is alike ; and I am able to appreciate the differ- 
ence. I have been here now six working 
days, and have noticed that they are very 
busy. They begin at sun-rise by the ringing 
of the bell which calls the people to work, 
and they do not work quietly. They sing at 
their work, and shout in concert; so that 
there is not only activity, but noise, and 
sometimes more noise than activity. But this 
morning every one was quiet, clean, and 
dressed in their best, and I was delighted to 
notice there was no needless work in the 
Mission House. The necessary cooking had 
been done the previous day. Saturday after- 
noon had been a time of preparation for the 
Sabbath. I am old fashioned enough to 


think this is as it should be. The Evangelists 
came to supper with us after the day's work 
was done. We spent the evening together 
on the verandah. Ramathe spoke of his 
Aliwal days; asked why I did not bring the 
old Mrs., his mother, with me. I explained 
to him the trouble of the Mexican, and that 
the sea gave her trouble. He said I must 
give him her address, and he would write to 
her. And then he mentioned a very little 
thing which had ever since influenced him. 
He said Mrs. Butt found him one Sunday 
morning washing his handkerchief which he 
should have done the previous afternoon. She 
looked at him, and said : " Dionysius, is this 
what you are going to teach those poor people 
to do at the Zambesi." He had never for- 
gotten it, and he said he had never dis- 
regarded it. And from the feeling with 
which he spoke I quite believe him. 

As a part of the preparation for the Sabbath, 
after prayers Saturday evening, the bell rang 
for a long time. Indeed, the boy was sing- 
ing a hymn while he rang, and he rang till he 
had finished the hymn, I had to enquire 
what this meant, as it was new, and I found 
that this is done to let the people know that 


to-morrow is Sunday. Messengers go round 
on Saturday to warn the villagers; but the 
bell is used as a further help, in case 
travellers should be passing within sound, 
they also may know and carry the news. No 
stone is left unturned to help the people who 
have no clocks, no calendars, and, without 
the Missionary, no knowledge of the day. 

At ten o'clock this morning the bell rang 
for the first time. This was an hour before 
service time, and was to tell the people they 
should be getting ready. Some of the 
villagers had begun to arrive long before this. 
Many of them take the opportunity of com- 
ing early to visit their friends on the station. 
At eleven the church was packed. The 
women sit on the right and men on the left, 
as you enter the church. This church has 
three aisles — one in the centre, and one on 
either side. All the seats were full, and 
people sitting along each of the side aisles. 
It was the best balanced congregation I have 
seen. Generally, there are more men than 
women ; but at Nanzela they are "about equal ; 
a sign, I hope, that the women are coming 
to their own through the gospel. 

The Christians, the school children, and 


the seekers, I was glad to notice, were nicely 
clothed. But many of the heathen, includ- 
ing some of the head-men, were dressed only 
in a small skin or piece of cloth. The cloth- 
ing is a great problem. They do not need 
much to secure their comfort, and to secure 
even a little is very difiicult and costly at 

Good order and reverence characterised 
the whole service. One little peculiarity I 
noticed. There are no windows to the 
church — only framed openings. When any- 
one wanted to spit or relieve his or her nose, 
they would quietly move towards the nearest 
window opening, and leaning far out so as to 
hide the head, would take the relief they 
needed. I could mention a European race 
down South, many of whom would not take 
this trouble to be decent, even in church. 

It is well to avoid long exercises in the 
service. So the prayers, lessons, and two 
addresses, were all interspersed with hymns. 
Most of the latter are short, and the tunes 
are quick and bright. Their singing is very 
good; and I was pleased to notice that the 
heathen took their full share in this part of 
the service. We had two addresses. Mr. 


Kerswell took the first — a gospel address; 
then I addressed them. I think I have 
before explained that my age and grey hair 
stands for much with them. I have tried to 
use this to enhance their value of the work 
that is being done for them, and of the oppor- 
tunities that are within their reach. For 
example, I told them of my visit to the 
school on Thursday, and to the class on 
Friday, and how delighted I was with what I 
saw in each case. Then I went on to tell 
them how sorry I was that more of them were 
not using these privileges; that as I went 
through their villages I saw many children 
running wild that ought to be in school; that 
some before me even were, like myself, get- 
ting old and grey, and had not yet received 
the gospel. Then I appealed to the chiefs 
and headmen to be the true fathers of their 
people by accepting the gospel and sending 
their own children to school. It is along 
these lines chiefly that I am hoping my visit 
will strengthen the hands of the Missionaries. 
At the close of my sermon at N'Kala., last 
Sunday, I made a similar appeal; and 
Ramathe, the teacher, has reported that it has 
already brought him more scholars. 


I shall not soon forget the service — the 
crowd of eager faces; the strained attention; 
and the very evident presence and power of 
God. Most of the people here are Barotse; 
and I must say they are a fine, good looking 
people. Many of them have very nice 
features, and the tJbick lips and flat nose are 
not much in evidence. It is easy to see that 
many who are yet heathen are much influ- 
enced by the Mission. As a recent token, I 
may mention that three or four young fellows 
come over from a village two miles away 
to attend evening worship. Sometimes they 
come riding their oxen, which they tie to a 
tree a little way from the Mission, and some- 
times they walk. It is a pleasing sign, and 
may be a forerunner of much that will cheer 
the workers. 

At four o'clock w^e had a combination ser- 
vice — an English service and the Lord's 
Supper. And we tried to make one prepare 
for the other. I preached in English on the 
great love of God as seen in the gift of Jesus. 
Then I had the great joy of presiding at the 
Lord's Supper. We had the Commandments, 
suitable scriptures, and hymns in the 
language of the people; and then the 


emblems. This is really a church in the 
desejit. For hundreds of miles round, these 
are the only baptised Christians. They are 
ten in number, but they are the earnest of 
tens of hundreds, yea, thousands; that will 
follow, as surely as the sun will rise in the 
morning. I could not help remember that 
37 years ago, the membership of our Aliwal 
Native Church was smaller; now it is 680. 
How ever long a kind Providence may spare 
me, I shall always be able to see the scene of 
this afternoon. The five native women, one 
with a baby in her lap, all of them well 
dressed; the five native men, all able to use 
their hymn-book, and read the Scriptures; 
and at least two of the women were doing 
this. Their devout attitude, the intense 
feeling depicted on their expressive faces, 
and at the close, their offering placed on the 
plate, an amount, as compared with their 
income — a shilling — which was at once a 
rebuke and inspiration to those of us who had 
inherited a thousand years of Christian nur- 
ture. There were also present the two native 
agents, Mr. and Mrs. Price, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Kerswell. I think we all felt it to be a 
most gracious season. 



To face intye 178. 


After supper, the Evangelists said they 
would like to speak with Mr. Price and myself 
about the work. We went out on the 
verandah, and spent two hours with them in 
the cool of the evening. Eamathe was the 
spokesman, perhaps because he knows me 
best, and has a little advantage in the matter 
of English. We had noticed that they were 
much moved at the Lord's Supper this after- 
noon. Eamathe now said that the condition 
of the people was on their hearts. They felt 
they were not doing enough for the heathen 
outside. They had come to ask that they 
might be allowed each to go and settle in some 
heathen village, to live and work among the 
people. They both named a village — one 
about 20 miles from here, and another still 
further, where they knew some of the people, 
and where they had reason to beheve the 
people would be willing to receive them. 
We were both touched by their spontaneous 
expression of true missionary zeal; Mr. Price 
was especially pleased, because some such 
plan had been in his own mind, and when, 
sometime ago, he named it to Kemuel, he had 
shrunk from it, and much preferred the 
safety and comfort of Nanzela. They must 


be under a great pressure of duty and interest 
to make such an offer. 

In the first place they are in greater danger 
from the people than Europeans are. The 
simple folk up here think a white man knows 
everything, and can do everything. He is 
regarded with a certain measure of super- 
stition. This is a protection to him. They 
do not thus regard an educated black man, 
as our friend Diphooko found to his cost, 
when he came near losing his life, at the 
hands of natives. Our native agents know 
this. Their offer, therefore, is not without a 
measure of courage. Then, too, it means 
that they are willing to leave good homes, 
and settled conditions of life and work; and 
commence where there is nothing but wild 
people and heathen conditions. They will 
have to build their own house, church, and 
whatever else is needed. Service has 
evidently fitted them for higher and fuller 

We said all we could to encourage their 
plan. But, of course, had to show them that 
their present posts must be filled first. This 
means the employment of two new native 
agents; and this cannot be done without the 


sanction of the General Missionary Committee 
•as it means additional outlay; but we shall 
both strongly recommend it to the Committee. 
It would constitute a new departure in our 
work here. We have a case where a station 
founded by a European is manned by a 
native, and as an experiment it is far from 
being a failure. It is Ramathe and N'Kala. 
But we have no example of a station 
founded by a native agent; that is, up here; 
we have plenty such in the south, and a num- 
ber on our Ahwal Mission; and I do not 
know one that has not been successful. If 
it can be made a success here it will greatly 
help the solution of our great problem, 
which is largely one of expense; for where 
one European can be supported, four well- 
trained native agents can be supported. 

I was glad to find there are two young men 
at Nanzela who help in evangehstic work ; and 
Mr. Price is doing his best to help them in 
their preparation for the work. In the study 
of the Scriptures, in elementary sermonising, 
and in the general direction of their readings, 
he is giving them regular assistance; keeping 
well in view the ultimate goal — their full 
equipment for the work. But meantime we 


must still get help from the south, and the 
more of this the better. In most things it is 
quite as efficient as European agency, and 
very much cheaper; so that in this way our 
money is made to cover very much more 
ground. To a church of our limited means 
this should be a first consideration. The 
founding of Missions, and the general over- 
sight, should be in the hands of Europeans, 
and the more experienced they can be the 
better. But the chief of the work should be 
done by these trained natives, and experience 
shows that they only need to be treated with 
respect and confidence, as brothers and co- 
workers, to make trustworthy and successful 
agents. Both Mr. Price and Mr. Kerswell 
tell me they would have been helpless in their 
work, but for the glad co-operation of their 
native brethren. 


Nanzela to Kasanga. 

Wednesday, September 16. 
T T was a part of my plan to visit Sejobas ; but 
news had reached me here that they are 
short of food in the district ; and that I should 
need to take food enough for the return 
journey of my carriers. This would greatly 
increase the labour and cost of the journey, 
and as the danger is that Mr. Fell will have 
to stop work and pay off his people, my chief 
purpose in going would be prevented. It 
was to help him in the finish of his house and 
church. I have, therefore, been obliged to 
decide it would be unwise for me to attempt 

Before leaving England, Mr. Smith much 
pressed me to visit the neighbourhood of his 
proposed new Mission — Kasanga. I am now 
able to make this visit. We made a start 
this morning. Mr. Price has been wanting 
to make an Evangelistic visit in that direc- 
tion foE some time, and he is taking advantage 
of my presence to make it now. He promised 

K 2 


Mr. Smith some time ago that he would try 
to get over, and explain to them why his 
coming had been delayed. Because they 
expected him about last March — or at the 
end of the rainy season. Mr. Price is on 
mule back, and I am in the mashila. The 
distance from Nanzela to Kasanga is about 
60 miles. We expect to do from 18 to 20 
miles a day. 

We commenced the journey by crossing a 
vast plain, most of which is under water in 
the rainy season, and which is soon after 
covered with grass seven feet high. What 
was left of this after the feeding of the 
summer, has recently been burnt. The plain 
is now covered with short grass of recent 
growth. I have before mentioned that 
although there has been no rain since last 
March, there are tokens everywhere of 
returning spring, End this young grass is one 
of them. 

Our first halt was a village about six miles 
on our way. We rested under a fine fig tree 
in the centre of the village. The chief and 
his head men were soon in evidence to salute 
and welcome us. We did not stay long, as 
we had not yet reached the place of our noon- 


day rest. When he knew that I was the 
" Maruti Makanda," he at once became 
extravagant in his requests. He asked that 
I would give him medicine to keep his oxen 
from dying. They make no provision for 
feeding their cattle in winter; and, as a 
result, they lose many of them .at this 
season. I told him I had no medicine that 
would prevent them from dying; but I could 
tell him a way that would be much better. 
Instead of burning the grass to get ^t the 
game, they should cut it at the end of the 
Summer, and bring it home near their kraals ; 
and then in winter, when the cattle came 
home from the veldt at sun-down, they were 
to give them a little; and this would keep 
them in good condition, and they would not 
die. They died not for the want of medicine, 
but for the want of sufficient food. I backed 
up this by telling him what I had seen in 
Southern Rhodesia ; where they not only thus 
secured food for the cattle, but sent much 
away down country, and made a market of 
it. I strongly advised Mr. Price to set the 
example in providing for the mission cattle 
in this way. Hundreds of tons are burnt 
every year in the plain alone referred to. 


If only a small fraction of it was carefully 
made into hay the cattle could be well fed. 

At noon we reached another large village, 
and camped for three hours. We had a light 
meal, cake and tea, which is to take us 
through to the end of the day's " trek." 
The head men came out to see us; but their 
chief is old and blind. After we had rested 
a time, we went into the village to see him. 
He came to the door of his hut to speak to us. 
As he sat there on his haunches, he was a 
palthetic figure — old, grey, feeble, and his 
shrunken limbs and face drawn out of their 
original shape. He was also hard of hear- 
ing, so that his chief wife, who sat at his 
side, had to repeat to him what was said. 
Mr. Price gave him a little English tobacco, 
which greatly delighted him. He asked a 
small present of calico to complete his dress. 
The huts were very poor, and the surround- 
ings of the village were everything that one 
would not desire. The kraal for the cattle 
was in the centre, and this seemed the 
cleanest part of the place. I have no doubt 
the "age and feebleness of the chief have 
something to do with this, but while left to 
themselves they do not show much desire for 


We were late in reaching our camping 
place this evening. I never thought I was 
so heavy as since I have been travelling in the 
raashila. I have only six boys, and I ought 
to have at least eight, and better still if there 
w^ere ten. But we were disappointed just at 
the last of four boys, so we have to do the 
best we can. Whether travehing by 
mashila or waggon, I always aim at doing 
two hours on foot — one in the early morning, 
and one in the evening. We started this 
afternoon at tw^o, and at four I alighted, 
expecting we should reach the end of our 
day's journey by five. But it proved longer 
than we thought, and the roads were very 
sandy; so that at five we were a long way 
off, and I was tired and hot; and as the sun 
was near the horizon, I put on an extra 
garment, and entered the mashila. The 
road got worse for sand, and so narrow that 
I had to watch for the thorns to save my 
face and hands. It was long after dark when 
we reached our camping ground — it was near 
a village, and under two fine trees — one a fig, 
the other a thorn tree. Our kitchen boys 
missed the track in the darkness, and did not 
reach us till eight o'clock. We could get 


nothing to eat or drink till they came ; and we 
were in a very bad way: "Dead with 
hunger," as the natives say; for we had only 
had a cup of tea and small veldt cake since 
our seven o'clock breakfast. However, our 
cook can make things hum, when his own 
hunger, as well as his master's need, urge 
him on. We made a huge supper; which, 
after a tarry around the camp fire, and sing- 
ing and prayers, was followed by bed. The 
wind had gone down with the sun, and as the 
night was warm we slept with our tent doors 
open. I hope we slept the sleep of the just; 
we certainly did of the tired. 

Next morning we made a start at 6. I 
began with an hour's walk. It was cool and 
lovely. At 8 we reached h big village I 
was anxious to see. It is 23 miles from 
Nanzela, and our people had been giving it 
services as an out-station for the last six 
months. They visit it about once a month. 
It is where, I think, the teacher, Kemuel, 
should be placed. 

The village is about three-fourths of a vast 
circle. A very fine thorn tree is near the 
middle. We chose this as our camping 
ground, for an hour or so, as we wanted to 


interview the chief and head men. They 
soon came to salute us. The chief, Shaloba, 
is about 50, a tall, good-looking man, with 
clean cut features. The magistrate, Mr. 
Dale, thinks well of him, and so do the 
Missionaries and Evangelists. There are 
many indications about the village that he is 
above the average as a ruler. Their huts 
are superior; and many of them are new, 
and others comparatively new; showing that 
he will not allow them to live in tumble down 
places. His own huts are very large. We 
went into his last new one; it is only half 
thatched as yet, but is already occupied; but 
this does not mean much in a country where 
from choice we sleep with one end of our 
tent open. If they get the roof covered by 
the time the rains come that will be sufficient. 
This hut is 30 ft. in diameter. It is lofty and 
airy. He has one chair, the gift of the 
Magistrate. This he placed at my service 
with great pride. I noticed that over the 
door way, inside, he had suspended two rings 
made of bark. They were neatly made, and 
linked together. I belcame feuspicious and 
enquired what they were for. In all serious- 
ness he told me they were " medicine" to 


give him power with the people. We told 
him that the only power worth having as a 
ruler was that which belonged to his own 
character and hfe. But I fear this was too 
abstract and ideal for his comprehension, 
and he would still use his long-tried medicine. 
And after all, he is not so far behind the 
people who in good faith place horse-shoes 
over their doors to bring them good luck; 
and these abound in the civilised parts of 
South Africa. 

This chief has shown his friendship to the 
Mission, by sending four of his children to 
the Nanzela School — three boys and a girl. 
I told him I was glad to hear he had children 
at school ; that I strongly approved his having 
a teacher near his village; and that I should 
recommend it to our Church at home. He 
said the great chief had brought him " good 
news to-day "; that he would send his own 
children, and use his influence with his people 
to send theirs; and then, to the surprise of 
myself and Mr. Price, he said he would see 
that the children were fed. At Nanzela, and 
Nambala and, indeed, at N'Kala, too, we 
have to feed the children to retain them in 
school. They have to work out of school 


hours, which may be regarded as an equiva- 
lent for their food. The promise of the chief, 
therefore, in this matter of food indicates a 
great advance in the interest of the people 
in getting their children educated. This will 
make a good place for Kemuel, who gets on 
well with chief and head men, and would be 
accepted by the people. There are smaller 
villages within easy reach; and these would 
be influenced by the attitude and example of 
the chief. 

Our next " trek " was only four miles. We 
would not have taken our noon rest so soon, 
but there is no water at a convenient distance 
beyond. We camped under another fig tree. 
It measured 26 ft. 6 in. ; and the head extends 
from the trunk 50 ft. all round. This village 
is not large, but compact. The chief came 
out. We told him of the prospect of a 
school at Shalobas. He was much pleased, 
and said they should be able to send their 
children, and sometimes attend the services. 

We did a long afternoon's " trek " of four 
hours. The last hour I walked. We reached 
the Camp (Magistracy) at sun-down, and were 
received with great hospitality. 


Friday, September 18. 

This morning we had a good look round 
the camp. It is pleasantly situated on 
rising ground, covered with park-like 
trees and shrubs. The soil is very 
sandy, but so far as any cultivation has 
been done, it is fruitful. It is near the south 
bank of a lagoon of the Kafue. This extends 
about six miles from the river, and in several 
places it is fully 500 yards wide. Crocodiles, 
hippopotami, and fish are plentiful. It is a 
fine stretch of water. 

We were unfortunate in missing the 
Magistrate. He was away for a fortnight up 
his district, which is a very large one. Mr. 
Watson, his assistant, was in charge, and 
did the honours for us. We spent a day and 
two nights in camp, End resumed our journe]^ 
greatly refreshed and rested. 

The camp, in most respects, resembles the 
Mumba camp, which I have previously 
described; with this difference, there are not 
so many police and no forts. It is just a 
magistracy; there are not therefore so many 
huts. There is no square house in the camp. 
There is one, however, in course of erection; 
but this is for a stable. 


The court-house is the most primitive I 
have seen. It consists simply of a roof sup- 
ported with stakes, and a fourth of the circle, 
that portion behind the bench, is filled in with 
reeds, and plastered. The court, therefore, 
is open to view on all sides, excepting the 
back. The residential huts are nicely built 
in the usual inexpensive way, with a reed 
enclosed verandah around them. They are 
cool, and healthy. I remarked to Mr. 
Watson that the roof of his hut was nicely 
done. The spaces between the rafters had 
been nicely filled in with reeds, and the thatch 
neatly laid on and dressed. He said, " Yes, 
it is a very good roof, but a calico ceiling 
would be a great comfort." The Govern- 
ment in North-west Rhodesia cannot be 
charged with extravagance. 

Most of the police are married men, and 
hiJve their wives and families with them. 
Natives though they be, this is the most home- 
hke part of the camp, for women and chil- 
dren were in evidence. The Europeans are 
all bachelors, and live a very solitary life. 
Their servants are the rough native boys of 
the country ; and have only received the train- 
ing in house and kitchen work, which their 


masters have been able to give. Our host 
was in the trying position of having a new 
cook, or rather, a new boy, who was trying 
to cook. Some of his mistakes were at once 
laughable and vexatious. For example, his 
master told him the other day to open a tin 
of cheese. He did so forthwith, and put it 
in the pot and boiled it. In honour of our 
breakfast a tin of fresh butter was opened. 
It was then placed in the kitchen, where the 
sun could shine on it all day, with the result 
that when we came to our evening meal it 
was a pot of oil. The astonished and inno- 
cent look on the boy's face was worth the loss 
of the butter. But in spite of these little 
irregularities we received royal entertain- 
ment at the Namwala Camp. 

We could have resumed our journey by 
land or water. We were able to choose the 
latter, through the kindness of Mr. Watson, 
who not only placed his boat at our service, 
but accompanied us. 

It was rather a stiff day — 24 miles, but 
was relieved a Httle by being down the river. 
We had a Canadian canoe paddled by four 
boys; and a dug-out paddled by two. We 
started at 6.30, and went till 9.30, when we 


landed at a trading station, and had break- 
fast. By tliis time we were both hungry and 
thirsty; and I think we must have given our 
cook great satisfaction; for we cleared up 
everything he brought on tlie table excepting 
the bread, and there was so httle of that left 
he said he would have to bake in the evening. 
We now made another good stage down 
river, and then came to about a mile of rapids, 
where I and the cook landed, and walked to 
the further end, and where we made a fire 
and got tea ready. The others had to take 
to the water, and pilot and drag the boats 
between the rocks. As we were now within 
an hour's row of our camping place, we 
decided to rest till about four. 

The river varies a good bit in width, from 
two hundred and fifty to five hundred yards. 
Its banks are mostly covered with a great 
wealth of vegetation and timber; some of the 
scenery is beautiful beyond comparison. 
The river abounds in all kinds of wild fowl — 
cranes in great variety, ducks, and geese in 
countless flocks. We had no shot gun with 
us, or we could have filled the boat. Mr. 
Watson is an expert shot, and knocked over 
two birds with his big game rifle — one a fine 


spur-wing goose, which would be at least 
20 lbs. Crocodiles and hippopotami are 
plentiful. A fine old bull of the latter 
class showed his head very near to us 
towards the end of our voyage. There 
was a scramble for the rifles. The 
boat was stopped ; and a wait made for 
him; but the old fellow had evidently caught 
sight of us, and was in no mood to be caught 
napping. For although he can remain under 
only a given time, when he had perforce to 
come to the surface, he did it so cautiously 
that only the slightest eddy could be seen in 
the water, and there was no chance of a shot. 

As we approached the end of our voyage 
we saw two natives in a dug-out boat fishing. 
They both stand up in the boat, one to 
paddle, the other to fish. The fisher stands 
at the head of the boat, and watches for the 
fish. As the boat is moving forward at a 
moderate rate, he throws his spear — one made 
expressly for this sport, thin and barbed — 
into the shoal of fish. They had not been at 
it long when we came up to them. They had 
already caught three. We bought them for 

We reached our camping place shortly 


before sun-down, and found my mashila 
bearers and the rest of the carriers had been 
there long enough to have the tents up, beds 
made, wood collected for the cook and every- 
thing ready for our night's rest. While 
dinner was being prepared, we got a good 
wash; and heard from our boys the news of 
the neighbourhood. This proved to be a 
little exciting; for we found that in addition 
to being near the crocodiles and hippo- 
potami, a lion was prowhng round, and 
had bitten an ox, and a shepherd had 
seen him on the plain this very day. 
Presently, the head man came to salute 
us, and make a present. We! sought 
further information, and got another, and, I 
judge, the true version. No ox had been 
bitten, but the lion passes this way to the 
river to drink most evenings. But this did 
not prevent us sleeping with our tent doors 
open, or our sleeping soundly during the 

Without exception, the fig tree under which 
the boys had pitched our tents is the largest 
I have yet seen. It measured 36ft. in circum- 
ference; its limbs and head are in proportion. 
The trunk is not very high. The Magistrate, 


when on circuit, and has to hold a court at 
this village, holds it under this tree. It 
must have been like coming home to Mr. 

Sunday, September 20. 

We are about eight miles from Kasanga, 
and as we are anxious to hold service there 
this evening, we decide to rise early, and do 
most of the journey before the heat of the 
day comes ofl,. Accordingly, we make a 
good breakfast, and are on the road by 6.30. 

We are now camped at a small village, 
where we shall have lunch, and rest awhile, 
and then go into Kasanga soon enough to get 
our tents pitched for the night, and hold an 
evening service. We cannot get them during 
the day, unless they knew we were coming; 
they are in their fields, and out in the forest 
during the day ; but in the evening, when they 
know of our arrival, they will gather in great 

We left our camping ground about three 
o'clock, and reached Kasanga at four-thirty. 
In approaching the village, we had to cross 
a vast open plain, with a grove of palms 
stretching along one side of it. The village 
is behind this grove; or rather, it is a series 


of villages, extending the whole length of a 
sandy rise, with gardens interspersed 
between them. There are more people near 
together than I have seen in any other part 
of the country. I have a letter from the 
Magistrate, in which he says that a mission 
here would touch 10,000 people. Of course, 
this would include out-stations. 



Kasanga as Site for a New Mission. 

" I "HE news of our arrival at Kasanga 
soon spread ; and the chiefs and head 
men, of whom there are many, came to salute 
us. The head chief is a man of about 55, 
turning a little grey. He has an air of refine- 
ment about him, supported by the smallest 
hands I have ever seen a native to possess, 
and clean-cut fine features, with a slight 
ascetic cast, and very plausible manners. 
His present was a very small quantity of corn, 
about enough for our mule's supper. The 
second in command was a slightly stout man, 
with bald head, and round mild face. He 
appeared kind and motherly; and his present 
showed his generosity — a good basket of 
nicely ground meal. The next in order was a 
tall bony man, deeply pock-marked, with big 
eyes, and an intense eager temperament. 
Moreover, he seemed to lead in the honesty 
of his expression, and the straighforward- 
ness of his manner. The next man was full 
of health and strength, but much younger 


than the before named. The head men pre- 
sented nothing very remarkable beyond their 
number. But they were all of fine physique. 

Our interview was full of interest. They 
could remember Mr. Price had come with 
Mr. Smith; and they could remember a part 
of the hymn Mr. Smith tried to teach them. 
They had not forgotten that Mr. Smith had 
promised to come and live among them, and 
they had been looking for him. We 
explained the delay, and told them if all went 
well he would come after the next rains. 
Hearing this, they became very excited, and 
said we had brought them very good news. I 
told them that when the Mission was estab- 
lished they would have a church and learn to 
pray, like the Nanzela people, that they would 
also have a school in which their children 
would learn to read and write, and many other 
things. This, they said, would be very good, 
and they would send their children. We 
said nothing of the material advantages that 
would accrue as they get their eye on these 
fast enough. 

In the evening, as we expected, the people 
gladly accepted our invitation to attend 
service. It was a weird scene. A camp fire 


in front of our tent ; the people sitting around 
us on the ground; the chiefs and head men 
formed the inner circle; the people, tier after 
tier, forming wider circles; until they passed 
out beyond the reach of the fire light, and 
we were unable to gauge the full extent of 
our congregation. The head chief was the 
first to arrive, with his women, and some of 
his children. I do not know the exact 
number of his wives; but he had seven or 
eight with him; fine, Strapping women, 
liberally dressed in skins of various wild 
animals. The children looked healthy and 
happy. Some of the little girls had pretty 
features and figures; and if cleaned and 
dressed would be really beautiful. They 
have well-formed heads and the forehead that 
crowns the face is in fine proportion. I called 
Mr. Price's attention to this feature, and he 
readily agreed that the proportion is very 
fine. I feel sure they possess high mental 
and moral possibilities ; and as they sat before 
me I could not help asking myself : Will our 
Mission be soon enough to rescue the bigger 
boys and girls from the life to which they 
have been born? I could not but bitterly 
regret the previous year that had been already 


lost ; and if only my visit can be made to help 
our people to realise the sacred obligations 
and high possibilities of the work out here, 
then there will be no more delay. 

The service consisted of singing, prayer, 
and a short exhortation. We sang only two 
hymns, but sang each several times, especially 
one that goes to the tune of ' ' Precious 
Name." Each verse was repeated twice to 
help them to remember the words, and was 
sang several times to help them to the tune. 
The women were not well behaved. As soon 
as the singing stopped they would begin talk- 
ing; and when we came to the prayer, and 
bowed our heads and closed our eyes, 
" Now," said they, " they are dead "; and 
began to laugh. The Christian native that 
was with us rebuked them, and asked, " Were 
they dogs to act in such a way?" The old 
chief, too, told them to be quiet. When the 
singing was started again they chimed in as 
though nothing had gone amiss. The 
women impress me as being very frivolous, 
and I fear they will be very slow to respond 
to higher things. The men conducted them- 
selves with dignity, and self-restraint; and 
appeared to disapprove of the conduct of the 


women. In spite of this sad defect, we had 
an excellent service, and even the women, I 
believe, will remember it and talk about it 
with pleasure. 

Next morning we were up early, anxious 
to get the whole length of the sandy rise, and 
see all the villages, before the sun was too 
high. Early as we were, 5 o'clock, the 
head chief was at our tent door soon enough 
to see us get out of bed. He sat and quietly 
made a study of our toilet, and when it came 
to combing and brushing my hair and beard, 
his exclamations were many. Wherever I 
go these children of the forest are thus 
impressed. The Government officials and 
missionaries shave. It is likely I am the 
first man any of them have seen with a long 
beard, In our journey this morning Mr. 
Price heard one man say : "He is a 
lion." Now this should be a great 
compliment; for they hold the lion in 
high respect. My dressing-gown, too, 
was a great attraction to the chief, 
especially the girdle, which he asked me to 
give him. I told him it was the only one I 
had, and a chief would not like to deprive me 
of it. But I was giving him credit for high 


feeling which he did not care to own. The 
second chief came a little later, and was 
interested in seeing us feed. We did not 
make any presents last evening in acknow- 
ledgment of theirs; but did so this morning. 
The first chief got a piece of calico; we gave 
the second some salt. It was not enough to 
please him, but he did not say so. He 
simply said: " This is strong salt, it is a 
portion for a child." We gave him more, 
and he was satisfied, and made a fine salute. 
I made him a present of a small looking-glass. 
I doubt if he had ever seen his poor old pock- 
marked face before. He had a cone at the 
back of his head, and a feather stuck in it. 
He shook his head, and was greatly amused 
at the feather shaking up and down. He 
further said: "I see Mingalo in it." 
" Yes," said Mr. Price, " that is really you 
yourself that you see." His women are away 
working in the fields; so when he had done 
with himself he thought of his women, and 
said that when they came home they would 
never stop looking at themselves. 

The head chief accompanied us along the 
villages. We did not go quite the whole 
length, but we went far enough to see that 


the villages extend over four miles. They 
are fairly well built, and in several, repairs 
and re-erections were going forward. The 
people at each village seemed glad to see us. 
The old chief told them who we were, and 
explained that they were likely to have a 
mission among the villages. And then he 
grew eloquent about the material advantages 
to be expected. There would be plenty of 
work — some would hoe, some would build, 
and there would be a store, and they would 
get what they wanted. And not a word of 
higher things; and why should we expect it, 
or be disappointed because it is not there. 
These poor people are rich in human nature; 
and the material advantages of a mission 
touch them at every point of their limited life ; 
and, after all, this heathen chief is not so far 
behind the trader I met the other day, who 
wanted lots of new mission stations because 
of the business they would bring to his store ; 
and he has behind him a long course of 
religious teaching, for he was a Jew. The 
fact is we must take the heathen just where 
we find them, and be thankful that they have 
an eye to the material advantages, and 
through these we must try to lift them to 


higher things. And it is not without signifi- 
cance that we find the same principle in tlie 
Scriptures : First, the natural, and after- 
wards, the spiritual. Even in the old chief's 
eager putting of the case, there was room 
for comfort ; they were to work for what they 
were to get. 

I have written the above account while 
sitting under a spacious mimosa thorn tree, 
with several of these villages within sight, 
and many of the people coming and going 
before my eyes, and I want to say that I have 
seen no finer site for a mission station since 
I entered the country. Given time and 
labour, and moderate expense, and Mr. 
Smith should be able to put in the foundations 
of a strong and fruitful mission. I envy him 
his glorious opportunity; and even now, if 
ten years younger, would be a competitor in 
this hopeful field of labour for our Church 
and this people. 


Eeturn to Nanzela. 

Monday, September 21. 
W/ E left this afternoon at 2.30. And as 
the result of three hours' "trek," 
covered 10 miles. Thunder was in the air, 
a dust-storm overtook us, and I felt the first 
spot of rain since landing in the country. It 
was intensely hot, and when we reached our 
camping ground we were all very tired, and 
hungry. Our mid-day meal is usually rather 
light; but morning and evening we do great 
justice to anything in the shape of food. 

We again saw the tracks of lions, one of 
them, the boys decided, was a very large one. 
This knowledge led to our seeing the rifle was 
in good order, and in a handy place, but did 
not suffice to close our tent doors. Our 
dog barked in the night, and woke me up. I 
sat up in bed to look for the lion, and sure 
enough there it seemed to be. But when I 
rubbed my eyes, and looked again, it was 
a palm bush, which in general outline re- 
sembled the figure of a lion. Another dis- 
appointment. It is tantalising to see they are 


in your neighbourhood, and have even pre- 
ceded you along the road, yet not get a siglit 
of them. 

We were up early next morning. We had 
made a good breakfast, and were on ' ' trek 
by 5.30; but early as we were, the old 
chief and some of his people were up to see 
us off. The wind was already high, and we 
were troubled with dust on our journey. We 
called at a village about eight miles on the 
road, named Kokebells. It will most likely 
be one of Mr. Smith's out-stations — the one 
that will bound his station on the Nanzela 
side. It is 18 miles from Kasanga, or 
Maria, as it is often called locally. We were 
disappointed in finding the chief and most of 
his people away at their gardens and cattle 
kraals. It is a large village, and looked a 
very suitable place for church and school as 
aij out-station. 

We did not stay at Kokebells more than 
half-an-hour, and pushed on, four more miles, 
to the Namwala Camp, where our friend Mr. 
Watson received us with his usual kindness, 
and gave us a good lunch, which, after our 
early breakfast, and 12 miles heavy *' trek," 
proved acceptable. 


Mr. Watson pressed us to stay for the 
night, but we thanked him and explained 
our anxiety to get to Nanzela to-morrow, 
about 3.30, therefore, we made a start to do 
a " trek " of six hours. 

We have not been fortunate in the matter 
of game on this journey. In a general way 
the carriers seldom have meat, but when they 
are on a journey they expect the master's gun 
to help them. Until this evening they have 
not had a bite of meat. We have seen game, 
but it has been far away, and wild. This 
evening we shot a small buck; so they got a 
grand supper, and they made merry over it. 

We did not reach our camping ground till 
after dark. But our tent was soon up, and 
dinner cooked. Through getting no game 
we have had to depend chiefly on tinned 
foods, but our prudent cook had bought 
some fish this afternoon, so we had an agree- 
able change in the shape of a fresh fish 
dinner. The chief and his people soon came 
to greet us. He is the man who told us we 
had brought him good news, when we told 
him a school and church were likely to be 
built three miles away. He now felt 
honoured that we should choose to sleep at 


his village, and said: "I have found good 
fortune to-day in your tarrying here to 
sleep." Mr. Price said, "We are glad to 
find our friends thus." The chief further 
said: " You have come to visit me; now I 
shall some day visit you at Nanzela." Mr. 
Price replied, " He would be glad to see and 
welcome him there." He supported his 
professions of friendship by bringing a liberal 
present of sour milk and meal. The former 
is a great luxury to the natives, and, indeed, 
to many Europeans out here. 

We arranged for a very early start from 
this village. If we get through, which we 
hope to do, it will be 26 miles. We started 
at 5 — quite half an hour before sunrise. 
We are now resting under a large thorn tree 
while breakfast is being cooked. We have 
only six carriers for the mashila. I have 
been easing them a good bit by walking, but 
it is still hard work for theni. As to-day is 
to be a very long journey, Mr. Price called 
at Shalobas, to get an extra carrier or two. 
The old chief was full of excuses, many of 
which, I have no doubt, were genuine. 
Many of his people were away hunting, others 
were at the gardens. Mr. Price at last 


appealed to his vanity. Said he : " Our old 
chief will be returning to England. He will 
tell the people about the great chief Shaloba; 
and, then, if he has to tell them he could not 
find him a few carriers the people will 
naturally think what kind of a chief is that 
who cannot find a missionary a few carriers 
when he is in trouble on the road." This 
put him on his mettle, and he found us three, 
not without real difficulty as so many of his 
people were away. Before the interview 
closed it came out that he was hurt because 
we had slept at the village of an inferior 
chief, and yet only three miles from him. 
Mr. Price explained that we started intending 
to reach his village, but it got very dark, and 
we were tired, and had to turn in at the nearer 
one. This reason seemed to satisfy him, and 
he recovered his old civility. 

After lunch to-day we came n^ar having a 
fight among our carriers. And, as is usual, 
even among civilised people, in such cases, it 
was about a very small matter. We had just 
finished with a fruit tin, and it was thrown 
away. Two boys rushed to get it, and in a 
moment they were at each other's throats. 
If we had not intervened, blood would have 


been flowing in a second or two, for the other 
boys were taking sides, and we had a number 
from two tribes with us. While everything 
runs smoothly they agree very well; but as 
soon as any friction arises, their tribal blood 
is hot, and there is trouble. 

We reached Nanzela this afternoon at four. 
This is the longest "trek" I have made in 
one day since leaving Broken Hill — 26 miles, 
and a very hot day. We were not expected 
till to-morrow, but, I think, we were none the 
less welcome fof that. On the whole we 
had a very pleasant journey, and I have been 
much interested in what I have seen of people 
and country. To cover the journey, I 
travelled about 160 miles — 20 by boat, 
walked about 30, and did the remainder in 
the mashila. My health is keeping wonder- 
fully good. Indeed, the visit so far has been 
a fine pleasure trip, thanks, largely, to the 
kindly help of the missionaries, and, I must 
not omit, Government officials. 


Nanzela to Kalomo. 

T HAVE spent the week quietly at Nanzela, 
joining our friends in their daily life. 
Have done a little work in the carpenter's 
shop, with the result that some of the Mission 
furniture is stronger in its joints, and will last 
the longer. It has been a great joy to help 
our friends in some of these things. 

We are now putting the finishing touches 
to the preparations for my departure. I 
have a five days' journey to Kalomo, by 
carriers. Our plan is to Siart early in the 
morning, and reach a village 17 miles away, 
where we hope to hold an evening service. 
We have sent on three boys with loads to-day 
to give the people notice. 

Before closing my visit here I wish to 
place on record my high appreciation of the 
great kindness of Mr. and Mrs. Price. They 
received me as one of themselves, and placed 
their best at my service. I shall long remem- 
ber them and their work. Their difficulties 


are many, but the joy and honour of their 
work are great. 

October 4. 

Made an early start and reached the 
village at 3.30. The boys sent on had 
gone to the wrong village; so we had 
to send for them, which took an hour 
and a half. Another thing was against our 
meeting : there was a beer drink at a village 
some distance off, and many of the people 
had left to attend it before our messengers 
arrived. We feared at first we should get no 
service. But the people left in the villages 
came, and we had a good gathering. Two 
of the chiefs brought me a small present of 
meal, and said they were very glad I had 
come so far to see them, and that I had 
arranged to give them a service in passing 

We did not hold a long service, for the sun 
was just setting, and some of the people had 
to go to other villages, and there were women 
and children present. Kemuel, the teacher, 
conducted. We opened by prayer, had only 
a little singing, and I gave an address. 
Kemuel closed with a few words. I noticed 
the women were much better behaved here 


than at Kasanga. Perhaps, the reason is 
they have been having occasional services 
much longer. At Kasanga they had only two 
services before, the last of which had been 
nearly two years since. 

The road to Kalomo is infested with lions, 
and other wild beasts. We are now approach- 
ing the end of the dry season, and our camp- 
ing ground to-night is near a great watering 
station. There is no water between here and 
Nanzela, so all the game of this great dis- 
trict — 17 miles — are divided between this 
place and Nanzela for drinking, and the wild 
animals follow the game. We laid our plans 
accordingly. My tent was pitched in an open 
place, and four fires made around it, of 
course, at a long distance, as it is very hot 
now without fires. Our self-possession was 
not increased by the fact that I have a native 
carrier who was once mauled by a hyena. He 
has about his face and neck many deep scars, 
and one side of his mouth is gone, and yet he 
can carry a load like any other man. It 
shows the vitality of his race, that without 
medical help he could recover from such a 
mauling, and grow strong again. The way 
the villages are built along this road shows 


the people's conception of their danger. 
They are enclosed within very strong fences, 
made of tough long poles. These are set 
deep in the ground, and lean outwards at an 
angle of about forty-five degrees. This gives 
an effective defence. 

Long enough before the camp was quiet I 
was off in my first sleep, from which I was 
aroused near mid-night by the nerve-splitting 
howls of a leopard. There was a dead silence 
in the camp, excepting for the snoring of the 
tired carriers, but what was much worse than 
the silence was the darkness which prevailed ; 
for the fires had burnt low. I called the 
Teacher, and asked him if he had heard the 
leopard, and found that his sleep had been 
too sound. He was quite awake now, and 
soon had the camp astir, and the fires 
replenished. The ruddy glow lit up the 
heavens; but only small snatches of sleep fell 
to my lot afterwards. I often heard 
Kemuel caUing for the fire to be renewed. 

We had another unpleasant change during 
the night. In the evening we sat at supper 
in the open air, with a naked candle burning 
on the table. The air was so quiet that the 
candle burnt as steadily as it would have done 


in a room with door and windows shut. I 
went to bed with the doors of my tent opened. 
Towards early morning a tempest of wind 
arose, which threatened to unroof me. Some 
boys had to hold the ropes, while the others 
tightened the pegs of the tent. I had, so to 
speak, to be battened down to keep my little 
ship in the desert in safety. As soon, how- 
ever, as the wind had abated a little, I opened 
the door of my tent again, for I could 
scarcely breathe for heat. 

The second day was the most trying of my 
experience, since coming into the country. 
To begin with, there was no water supply for 
20 miles. So that we had to do that " trek " 
before we could finish our day. Two of our 
carriers turned foot-sore, a thing that often 
happens, but had not fallen to my lot till now. 
The boy with our kitchen appliances lagged 
behind, so that I got no breakfast till twelve 
o'clock. And, then, it has been the hottest 
day of my experience. During the four hours 
we had to rest in the forest we could get but 
little shade, only a mimosa thorn, and their 
foliage is not very thick. Even the trunk 
of the tree gives you no shade, for at this 
time of the day the sun is directly over your 


head. I sat under the tree with an umbrella 
over my head; and, then, I could do nothing 
but drink; but, unfortunately, I had little to 
drink, for the supply of water we started out 
with was nearly exhausted, and we had nine 
miles to do before we could get more. 

Travel in this country helps you to under- 
stand the figures of the Bible taken from thirst. 
The first result of the great heat is thirst, and 
this heightens your sense of the importance 
of water. The natives are none too provident 
in this respect, and will often start on a long 
dry "trek" with an inadequate supply on 
the off chance of getting some where not 
expected. Their conduct often becomes a 
study. There are many places along the road 
where water can be found for at least three- 
fourths of the year, and if they are dry at 
all it is just now. When the carriers are 
approaching one of these they quicken their 
steps, and rush in among the reeds hoping to 
find water. The expression of grieved dis- 
appointment on their faces is pitiable to see 
when there is none. Yesterday they had a 
surprise which made them almost dance for 
joy. They did laugh and sing. They were 
approaching a pit where water could usually 


be found. One ran on ahead, and had a 
look, and then turned towards us and shook 
his head. As we got up to the place another 
turned aside and looked at the dry hole. As 
he looked his countenance lighted up, and he 
shouted, "Menzhi! Menzhi!!" (the native 
word for water). I went and had a look. 
The pit was about ten feet across, and five feet 
deep, hke a huge dry pan. But in the centre 
someone had dug a small hole about five feet 
deep, and at the bottom there was water. 
The first in his hurry had overlooked this. I 
shall not soon forget the spectacle. Eight or 
ten of the boys who had already come up, 
were sitting round the sides of the pit, pant- 
ing. I wondered at their patience, until I 
noticed a movement among the tall reeds a 
little way off. There I saw one of the boys 
cutting down a veiy long reed. He cut a 
piece about six feet long out of the middle of 
the reed. Then he took a length from the 
small end of the reed to use as a ram rod. 
With this he cleared the knots out of 
the larger piece, until it was a perfect 
tube. He carefully blew the dust out 
and handed it to the boy nearest the 
hole. He had rightly judged the depth. 


Each in his turn got a good drink from 
this primitive artesian well in the desert, 
and then happened a little stroke that 
touched and surprised me ; the reed was care- 
fully laid at the side of the hole for the use of 
any other thirsty traveller that should come 

In our evening " trek " I relieved the sore- 
footed carriers by lending two of my mashila 
boys, and to make it up to them I walked for 
an hour. We did not reach camp till after 
dark. What with the heat, and walk, and 
worry, I was about done up; and had a dish 
of hot bovril, and a little fruit, and went to 
bed. We spent the night near a village where 
their water supply is from a hole that is not 
accessible to game. We were therefore free 
from wild beasts; and I slept from eight till 
three, and commenced the new day as fit as 

At four next morning we had our roll call, 
and found our two boys quite unfit to carry 
further. We tried to hire two in the village, 
but found all the fit men were away, having 
been called by the Commissioner for some ser- 
vice. Of course, they will get paid, but for 
the time being they are beyond our reach. 


There was only one way out of the difficulty, 
so that way I proceeded to take. I paid the 
sick boys half their wages. They had only 
done two of their six days' work, but I 
thought it best to err on the side of liberality. 
Then I took two of my mashila boys and 
gave them the loads of the two sick ones. 
Now this left me with only six mashila boys, 
whereas I should have at least eight. Indeed, 
Mr. Smith and Mr. Price, both heavy men, 
are obliged to have ten, or better still, twelve. 
The advantage of my light weight is that I 
can do a journey the same class at from 15s. 
to £1 less than they can. If we had to travel 
at home according to weight what a revision 
of fares would be necessary. I told the brave 
six that I should relieve them by walking 
morning and evening, and at the end should 
pay them for the extra work. On the strength 
of this we have made one of our best '* treks 
this morning. Last night and this morning 
there is a nice change in the weather. It is 
not nearly so hot. 

Towards the end of this morning's " trek " 
we came upon the trader I have previously 
referred to. He is also on his way to Kalomo, 
so we are travelling together. We told him 


of our trouble from the wild beasts Sunday 
night. But soon found he thought but little 
of it. It is a case of familiarity breeding con- 
tempt. He asked if I fired when I heard the 
leopard so near. I said; "No! why should 
I when I could not see it? " " Oh," said he, 
"to frighten it. They all clear when they 
hear a shot." And then he proceeded to tell 
me what happened to him last week. His ser- 
vant woke him up one night, and told him 
there was a lion round the kraal, and the cattle 
were frightened. He took his rifle, and went 
out. The night was very dark — no moon — he 
could see nothing. So he fired two or three 
shots. Next morning he went out very early 
to shoot some meat for his boys. 400 yards 
from his house he came upon a hartebeest 
killed by a lion. There had been a desperate 
fight. One horn of the hartebeest was broken. 
But the victory was with the lion. The harte- 
beest had been ripped open and left. His 
explanation was that this stage of the conflict 
had been reached when he fired his shots, and 
that the lion had been so frightened that it left 
its prey. The trader had the hartebeest, and 
would need no more meat for a few days. 
Towards evening, as we were travelling 


together, we sighted a herd of wild pigs. We 
were anxious to get one, as neither lot of our 
boys had tasted meat yet, on this journey. 
Now the trader is the best shot, but he had the 
poorest rifle. He had no cartridges for his 
own, and had to borrow what he called an old 
" calabash," which was really an out-of-date 
rifle, such as are sold to the natives of the 
country at fancy prices. It was decided he 
should use our rifle, and the result should be 
shared. After a little clever stalking the 
second biggest of the herd was brought 
down — young and fine. It was carried in 
triumph to our camping ground. He 
explained to his boys it had to be equally 
divided. This did not please them. Their 
master shot it, and it was fairly theirs. He 
explained further, that if he wished to give his 
friends half, that would be a sufficient reason 
for the division; but that in this case, it was 
their rifle and cartridge that secured the meat ; 
and therefore half was justly theirs. They 
were convinced against their desire. For in 
addition to their innate selfishness, they 
belonged to a different tribe to our boys. He 
stood by to see the division made. All went 
well till they came to the head, when they 



To face page 232. 


made an elaborate explanation that they could 
not split the head. The trader knew that this 
was a subterfuge to get the whole head 
for themselves, and so have the best of 
the bargain, which would have been the 
cause of great exultation. *' Well," said 
he "I am rather sorry, for I wanted 
the division to be equal. Give the whole 
of the head to my friend's boys." This 
was a fine stroke. It really split the 
head ; for in two seconds a small axe had done 
the needful, and the division was complete. 
A royal supper in both camps left much for the 
journey this morning; and while I am writing 
this under a thorn tree, my boys are seated in 
the forest, within earshot, discussing another 
meal, their appetite sharpened by a twelve 
mile " trek " which took them from 5 to 10. 
Thursday morning at five o'clock we com- 
menced the final stage of our journey. Seven 
miles on the road we came to the Kalomo 
Police Camp. There is a Post and Telegraph 
Office. I had a little business to do for Mr. 
Price. The Magistrate insisted on my taking 
breakfast with him. He was very civil and 
kind. But as soon as I could decently do so, 
I excused myself, and resumed my journey. 


Another three miles brought us to the station. 
About a mile and a half out we passed the site 
of the old seat of Government. It was found 
to be very unhealthy; and although much 
labour and money had been expended there, it 
was removed about 18 months since to New 
Livingstone. The buildings are still there, but 
in ruins. Windows and doors, and other fix- 
tures, have been removed to use elsewhere; 
but sufficient remains to show that some of the 
buildings were very substantial and fine. The 
gardens too, were nicely laid out, and were 
rich in flowers. One cannot but feel sorry for 
the change. 

We reached the station at 10.30. The 
train did not pass till 9.30 in the morning. I 
am camped under a thorn tree near the station. 
Here change is seen. When the Government 
Camp was a mile and a half away this was a 
busy centre. The buildings are still here, 
but all closed. No one is in charge. When 
the train comes along I shall be picked up by 
those working it, and the guard at some 
time during the journey down country will 
come to the compartment and offer to supply 
me with a ticket. And thus very slowly 
North West Rhodesia is being developed — two 


steps forward, and one backward, and so on, 
slow but sure. 

This afternoon has been a busy time. I had 
to settle with my carriers, as they wanted to 
spend their money at the store. After pay- 
ing them their money I gave each carrier a 
double handful of salt as a present. This is 
a great luxury to them. Eough salt is 3d. 
per pound and not easy to get at that. They 
gave me warm thanks, and went away to spend 
their money at the store, like a lot of happy 
children. They are easily pleased, and not 
difficult to satisfy in the matter of pay. They 
brought me and my belongings 80 miles for 
5s. per head, and fed themselves. They 
shared with us any meat we shot on the road ; 
but that did not happen to be much on this 
journey. I have since heard from Mr. Price 
that they reached home in good time, and 
were well satisfied with their journey ; although 
the most of them were foot-sore. 

After business was done we spent a long 
evening around the camp fire. I usually 
enjoyed these times — the day's tramp done, 
and bed-time approaching. It was the best 
time for conversation with the natives; and 
as this was our last night together, all seemed 


inclined to make the best of it. I had 15 
carriers, and Kemuel, the teacher; so we were 
17, all told. They varied in age from about 
20 to 50. The chief spokesman was one of 
the older men — a tall, big, bony man, with a 
wide mouth and strong face, but not lacking 
indications of kindness. 

His first question pointed to a prevalent 
mistake among them, which is not to the 
advantage of the Missionaries. "Would 
* Moruti ' tell them why the Missionaries 
brought the Magistrates into the country? " 
They were glad to have Missionaries, but did 
not want Magistrates. There is one aspect 
of the case which is quite sufficient to con- 
firm them in this belief. Our Missionaries 
were the first white men in the country, and 
for several years they had to be both Magis- 
trates and Missionaries. And even yet many 
of the people prefer to have their disputes 
settled by the Missionaries. The position is 
not without an element of danger. The 
Magistrates are naturally jealous of their 
prerogatives, and the Missionaries are glad 
to be peace-makers. Like most cases of 
transition there need to be care and conces- 
sion on both sides. 


Now I explained to the natives that the 
Missionaries did not bring the Magistrates. 
That it was owing to their anxiety to bring 
them the Gospel that they were in the country 
first. That if the Missionaries had not been 
there the Magistrates would have come just 
the same. And, then, I in my turn asked a 
question. "Why did they object to the 
Magistrates?" The answer, as I expected, was 
near at hand, and promptly given. " Because 
they taxed the people." So I had to explain 
that there could be no Government without 
taxation. The taxes were not taken out of 
the country, the Magistrates did not have 
them; they were spent for the good of the 
country. And that although the taxes did 
not come back to them directly, yet indirectly 
they received much more than they gave. 
** How can that be? " they enquired. " We 
can see the ten shilhngs we have to pay the 
Government every year. It is a handful of 
money, and it is very hard to get." But they 
could not see anything that came to them in 
return. Then I would help them to see. 

Earlier in the day the spokesman had given 
me a bit of his own history. He was a 
Barotse ; and when quite a young boy he had 


been stolen by a native who dealt in gun- 
powder, and he had carried him away into 
North-East Africa and sold him as a slave. 
After a few years he met some men who were 
going West, so he ran away from his slave- 
master, and got as far as Nanzela, where he 
settled as a free man. " Now," said I, 
" that can never happen to any of your boys 
and girls; because the Government is against 
slavery, and are strong enough to protect 
your children against it. Is not that some- 
thing worth having in return for your taxes? " 
Their faces all brightened, and they answered, 
*' That is very good." 

Remembering that it is well to make them 
think for themselves a little, I said, ** There 
are many more advantages ; but I do not want 
to point them all out myself. I want you to 
find some of them for yourselves. Just think, 
and see if you can name to me something in 
which you are better off now than you were 
before the Government came." They looked 
at each other and began to speak among them- 
selves. I did not trouble the Teacher to trans- 
late what they said. But after a short time, 
one spoke for the others: "Yes, we do 
remember one thing that is a great gain to 


US. It is peace. We now live in peace. 
But before the Government came we were 
constantly fighting, and killing each other. If 
we had a dispute about our cattle, or lands, 
oi: women, or children, we always fought 
about it. Now we take the case to the Magis- 
trate, and he settles it for us." Then I took 
the opportunity of pointing out to them that 
one of these fights would cost them in property 
many taxes, not to speak of the lives which 
were lost. 

But I had not done with them yet. It is 
always more impressive to them if you can 
give them something in the nature of an 
object-lesson. They are just little children 
in knowledge. The abstract is difficult to 
them. They want it in the concrete; to see 
it as it were on the black-board. So I took 
next the railway, which was right there before 
them. During the afternoon they had been 
much interested in seeing a herd of cattle 
loaded into two big trucks ready for the morn- 
ing train. They were still standing within a 
stone's throw of our camp. I recalled the 
scene to their minds, and asked them where 
those cattle came from. " Oh, they had 
been bought from the natives." "Just so," 

N 2 


I said. " Before the railway came you had 
scarcely any market for your cattle and 
corn. Now you find a ready sale and good 
prices; and it was the Government who 
brought the railway, and they kept it going." 
This again, they said, was good. 

Again, like children, they need " line upon 
line," to impress it on their minds. So I 
finished with my own case. " You have 
been serving me for four days. I have just 
paid you for your service, more than half the 
amount of your tax for a whole year. You 
see I am an old man, and could not have come 
into the country without the help of the rail- 
way, so here again, is another advantage of 
having the Government." I was about ready 
for bed now, and intended the foregoing to 
close the interview. But the spokesman 
came up as fresh as ever with another ques- 
tion re taxation: " Were the white men in 
the country taxed? " " Yes, they are taxed 
much more heavily than the natives, and in 
more ways than one. For example : they had 
to pay a heavy tax for shooting game, rang- 
ing from £5 to £50 per year, according to the 
kind of game they wanted to kill. But the 
natives were free to kill what they like and as 


many as they liked, and had nothing to pay." 
This appeared to be very satisfactory. But 
out came another question. " Did we pay 
taxes in England? " " Oh yes! We all paid 
taxes in England. Even the poor people, who 
had no cattle, and no land to grow corn; only 
had what they could earn with their hands. 
All paid taxes. No country could be great 
and strong without. Therefore, they must 
not grumble about their taxes." 

At this point they converse a little among 
themselves; and then their spokesman said 
they wished to thank Moruti for his words of 
wisdom; and they could now see that taxes 
were good. And when in their own villages 
the people were grumbling about the taxes, 
they would not fail to remember what Moruti 
had said, and they would tell the people. 
They hoped I would have a safe journey home, 
and come and see them another day. We 
had our evening worship, and after sitting a 
little while with Kemuel, I went to my tent 
for bed. But in a few minutes the spokesman 
was standing at the door of my tent with a 
beaming face. A brilliant thought had struck 
someone among them, and he had come to 
get it executed at once. They had been pay- 


ing taxes now, I think, they said for six years. 
It was a long time, and they were very tired. 
They wanted Moruti to help them by writing 
to the Government, and telling them to let the 
people rest for two years, and in that time 
they would be strong again, and be ready to 
pay the taxes. I had to show them that this 
was an impossible request. That Govern- 
ment had to go on all the time, and therefore 
taxes could not stop. My friends will think 
all this very elementary. But I must remind 
you that every thing here is elementary. The 
people are elementary; their conditions of 
life are elementary; their needs are elemen- 
tary. They need elementary knowledge, and 
elementary Government, and elementary 
Gospel. Our greatest blunders and failures 
arise from forgetting this — we attempt and 
expect too much. 

Only two of my carriers had seen the rail- 
way. When the train came in sight they 
were very excited. A good bit of shunting 
had to be done. This was also a source of 
great interest to them — the engine with equal 
ease running either way, and putting ofi and 
taking on trucks — all this was very wonderful 
to them. The last I saw of them as the train 


moved off south, they were all standing in a 
line, with their hands extended and mouths 
open, like one transfixed. We had a pleasant 
run down, and reached Livingstone at four in 
the afternoon. 


Some Native Habits and Views. 

T HAVE often referred to the life of the 
people of the country. But there are a 
few outstanding features I would like 
especially to set forth. 

In a rough way they have trades among 
them. They are clever at basket work of 
various kinds. Many of their vessels are 
made of reeds and grass; some as plates and 
dishes for domestic use. They weave them 
so closely that they are water-tight. An old 
chief brought me a present of sweet milk in 
one. They make mats the missionaries and 
civil servants are glad to use. 

They work in potteiy too — make pots 
and pans and pipes, the latter beautifully 
finished. In wood work they are in advance 
of any natives I have seen. Perhaps the 
presence of timber has helped to produce this. 
They make combs, spoons, bowls, stools, and 
many other things. Their spears and bows 
and arrows, and even their axe handles are 
works of art. They use the bow for hunting, 


but the spear is their constant companion. 
They are very expert in throwing it, and they 
use it for many things; for defence, for hunt- 
ing, to skin and dress an animal; even in my 
travels I came to have a lot of confidence in 
it, and felt all the safer because my carriers 
were thus armed. Next to the spear, both 
for defence and service, comes the axe. It 
is not a big thing — about 2 in. by 6 in. in the 
blade. Its shank passes through the end of 
the handle, which is about 18 in. long. With 
these small things they cut down big trees, cut 
out their boats, clear the forest for their 
gardens, and most of their carpentry is done 
by it; it acts as a plane, a spoke-shave, and 
many other tools. 

Most of the above depends on their black- 
smithing, and in this they are very clever. 
They smelt their own ore by means of 
charcoal. This morning I had the good 
fortune to see a smith at work. His outfit is 
simple, all his own creation. A large flat 
stone is his forge. He has two hammers — one 
large and heavy, the other small and light. 
They are both of the same pattern — one end 
has a flat face, the other end is much like a 
very blunt axe. The handle, in each case is 


only a foot long. It takes, therefore, a 
strong hand to use the big hammer. They 
have tongs made on the same principle as 
sugar tongs, only, of course, much longer and 
stouter. The bellows took my attention 
most; it is really a very ingenious contrivance. 
Imagine two wooden bowls with long handles, 
the bowls attached to each other, and the 
handles bored to make them tubes. Each 
bowl is covered with a piece of nicely dressed 
skin, not tight but baggy, with a handle 
attached to the centre. These are worked 
up and down alternately, which sends the 
wind evenly through the handle-like tubes. 
So far the bellows are all of wood and leather ; 
and must not, therefore, be brought too near 
the fire. To complete the connection, and 
yet keep the necessary distance, a clay fire- 
proof pipe is prepared — bell shaped at one 
end, and tapering down to the required size 
at the other. The two wooden tubes of the 
bellows rest in the bell-shaped end, the other 
is in the fire. Thus an even blast is suppKed. 
The same appliance is used for smelting. 
They always work in pairs — it takes one to 
manipulate the bellows, both hands being 
required; and the other to work at the forge. 


They use stones as files. Some of their work 
is beautifully finished. Mr. Price employs 
one of these smiths to make his garden hoes. 
They stand much better than anything he can 
get from England. 

On another occasion I saw two men mak- 
ing axes and preparing handles for them. 
They were using an iron anvil let into 
a block of wood. I tried to buy a 
small axe, but we could not agree about the 
price. He wanted a piece of calico for it; 
but our waggon was a long way off. A yard 
costing 2|d. in England, would have satisfied 
him. But he would not take a shilhng; he 
wanted two, and I woud have given them, but 
my boy said : "No; too much. Will buy in 
another village." 

The natives here, like those in the South, 
are very musical. They have their own 
musical instruments, as also their own war 
songs, and festive music. One day I saw a 
native dance. It was evidently a big affair, 
for the music was led by the King's musician 
— a tall, straight, grey, dreamy looking man. 

He had, what I suppose I must call the 
organ of the country, for it is much more a 
wind than stringed instrument. Its native 


name is Budemba. It is about four feet wide, 
and has fourteen keys. These are of hard 
wood 2 in. by 18 in. ; they are held together 
by strings of gut, and suspended over the 
pipes. The pipes consist of calabashes, which 
they grow freely in their gardens. They 
grow in various shapes and sizes; some like 
a cup, others like a basin, and some long, 
like huge cucumbers. They are opened at 
the end they were attached to the vine, the 
inside taken out, and dried in the sun. The 
skin is thin, but dries out hard and tough. A 
selection is made with great care to get them 
the right length and size. I noticed in the case 
before me the two longest had been joined; 
a piece had been taken from one a size larger. 
The smaller part had been put into the larger, 
and fixed and made air-tight by some kind of 
natural gum. The pipes ranged in length 
from about 18 in. to 9 in., and from four to 
two inches in diameter. They were carefully 
suspended so that the mouth of each pipe 
came under a key. I noticed that each pipe 
had a round opening near the bottom. It 
would be about three-quarters of an inch. 
This was covered with a very thin white sub- 
stance, which pulsated when the music waj" 


being made. On enquiring, I found this was 
made of spider's web. The instrument was 
suspended from the shoulders of the per- 
former by a rope of skin, and kept clear of 
his person by a curved stick. It was thus 
completely suspended, and yet his hands were 
free. To produce music he used two sticks 
very like drum sticks, only the knob at the 
end is formed of native rubber. He has a 
stick in each hand, and strikes the note he 
wants with great certainty and quickness. 
He often plays before the King, and I must 
say he produces real music. He is supported 
by three drummers. 

The drum is cut out of solid timber. It 
looks like an old fashioned cannon — 18 in. 
at one end, and tapering off to 6 in. at the 
other. It is hollowed out so as to leave the 
walls an inch thick. The outside is orna- 
mented with a kind of dog-toothing and 
carving. The big end is covered with parch- 
ment of their own make, and the small end 
left open. This also is suspended at their 
side by means of a skin rope. They do not 
use a stick, but play it with their hands and 

The music is sometimes supported, or 


rather it supports a kind of recitation, which 
is in good time and tune. But this is 
generally between the dances. The whole 
performance wonderfully confirmed my idea 
of the musical aptitude of the native races of 
Africa. Here we are among the most wild 
people our Church has touched, and they are 
found to be naturally as musical as the more 
advanced tribes in the South. 

The dance is much more difficult to 
describe. The people, young and old, are 
round in a ring. They clap their hands, 
keeping time with the music. The dancer 
comes out in the ring, and begins the dance, 
also keeping time. At first, it is chiefly a 
leg and foot performance, with certain toe 
and heel scrapings on the ground, which 
sends the dust flying. Then he becomes 
more excited, until he throws himself on the 
ground; and sometimes sitting and sometimes 
prone on hands and feet like a four-footed 
beast, he works his body till he is like a man 
in convulsions, and yet still keeping time to 
the music. This goes on till he is exhausted; 
and then another takes his place ; and in their 
endurance they seek to out-do each other. 
The women also join in the dance ; but in this 


case only one entered the ring, perhaps, 
because Europeans were present, and she 
kept on her feet. But we saw enough to show 
us that in their pleasures, even, they are very 
degraded. The only touch of higher things 
was the music, and that was coarse and rude. 

Then comparative quiet was restored, and 
we saw a war dance. The organ now retired, 
and only one drum was used. The young 
braves came out looking very wild, brandish- 
ing their spears, and striking them into 
imaginary enemies, and as they returned, sent 
the dust and stones back from their feet as a 
token of contempt of their enemies. Some 
used an axe, some a club, and some both. But 
I could not see that the brutality typified was 
really any worse than that of the battle of 
Aliwal, where Christian was pitted against 
Christian, and the din of battle was as hell 
let loose. The women were not without their 
share in this dance. They clapped their 
hands and shouted to lead the men on ; and if 
one seemed more fierce than the others he 
secured the most clapping and cheers. 

It was altogether a sad spectacle; and, 
perhaps, to me the saddest part of all was 
that the little children entered into it with 


such abandon. So entirely did it captivate 
them, that after the music and dancing had 
ceased, I saw some of the little naked figures 
still working their bodies. Indeed, after the 
dance had broken up, and the people dis- 
persed, I still saw an odd child here and 
there doing it. It shows how far down and 
back our agents have to go to save this people, 
and it leaves no wonder the work is slow, and 
results so long delayed. 

One morning Mr. Price had before him a 
case of " Ditza " ; that is, a case of the wife 
leaving her husband, and going to another 
man for protection. When she has done that 
she can be redeemed or brought back only 
by giving an ox. This is their own strange 
law. The reason the case was brought to 
Mr. Price is that the couple have been living 
on the Mission. The woman is quite young 
and good looking. She has a little girl of 
two years old — a bright little thing, who was 
playing in the sun while the case was heard. 
The man claiming the ox first stated his case. 
He lived in a village about three miles away. 
On a certain day this woman had come and 
claimed his protection by throwing ashes over 
him. So many days after the husband and 


his friend came to fetch her back. He said 
to them : ' ' There she is ; take her ! ' ' But 
she ran from them and threw more ashes over 
him. Now she was his, and must be 
redeemed. Then the woman made a long 
story, which did not at first seem to have much 
bearing on the case, about other women com- 
ing to the hut ; but at last it began to appear 
that she had failed to get her husband's food 
ready; that when he came home from work 
the pot was still cold; but she made a great 
virtue of this; that when he ordered her to 
do it, she set about it at once. Then, 
presently, it app'eared also, that when the 
other women were with her in her husband's 
absence, the child was playing about, and put 
her hand in the fire; and sure enough there 
were the marks on the little hand and arm. 
When the husband came home he used swear 
words at her and threatened to flog her. In 
the night she slipped away, and slept in the 
forest; and in the morning she went to the 
village, and saw a woman working in her 
garden. She went to her and told her story. 
The woman took her home and fed her and 
her child, and suggested she should go and 
claim the protection of the man in question. 


She did so, and his claim was the result. Now 
the husband objected to nothing she said. 
But this was not the only trouble she had 
made. She had been a bad wife. Some time 
ago she had committed adultery, but had been 
given another chance. In the end she was 
ordered to leave the station, and the man 
was told he would get no ox. He was very 
angry, and said the case was not settled yet. 
Of course, he can keep the woman, but it 
seemed pretty clear he would sooner have an 
ox. Mr. Price told him if he was not satisfied 
with the decision he could go to the Magis- 

The whole case throws a sad light on their 
social life. The husband is not a Christian; 
but he has worked and lived on the Mission a 
long time, and is a respectable man. His 
wife is his only trouble. The young women 
, seemed to think they have nothing to do but 
nurse children. They neglect their homes, 
and defy, and some of them even thrash 
*heir husbands. The older women work. 
'The women need the Gospel here, not so much 
to save them from the tyranny of the men, 
as from their own degradation. 

The chiefs at Kasanga told us of an 


accident on the river in which two 
natives had been drowned. They were 
carrying corn for the Government in a 
dug-out boat. They told us a long water 
serpent had upset the boat. The chiefs knew 
all about it they said, and vied with each other 
in giving us the information. The whole 
thing turned out to be one of their many 
fables, excepting the drowning of the young 
men. That was a sad reality. This is the 
story. The boat had been upset by a ser- 
pent about ten yards long. It has many 
heads; and lives in a dry house under the 
water. When it catches a person it takes 
him to that house, and it licks him over the 
face and body, and he becomes like itself, and 
is never again seen. They so evidently 
believed what they said that it would 
have been cruel to have laughed at 
them, and every difficulty that we sug-^ 
gested, was promptly met by something 
equally impossible; and we were sorry 
to notice that a baptised native we had with 
us — the very one that gave Mr. Smith such 
invaluable help iii his language-work — also 
believed in the whole story. And yet I do 
not know that this should surprise us very 



much; it is not so long ago that witchcraft 
and other equally absurd things were believed 
in in the Home Land. And we do not forget 
that not alone in heathen mythology does the 
serpent: do duty for the evil one. Their 
witch-doctors claim to give them medicine 
against this serpent, and those who take it are 

While we were away at Kasanga, our 
people at Nanzela had some lively times with 
lions. It happened one Monday night. Four 
passed close to the Mission House. Their 
roar is described as awful. It awoke all the 
villagers; and they were out beating their 
drums and shouting for all they were worth. 
This is not to frighten them away, but to give 
them notice of danger. It is connected with 
another of their fables. I have just had a talk 
with Kemuel, the teacher, and the people, 
since the lions came, have been telling him all 
about it. They believe they can choose what 
animal they will enter when they die. The 
witch-doctor can give them medicine to 
secure their wish. He puts certain things in 
water. They after a time decay, and worms 
come in them. Then the people who want 
the medicine are called. They choose a 


worm that is the most hke the animal they; 
want to enter at death, and swallow it. 
Henceforth they are not to take anything very 
hot or the worm will die. When the person 
dies he is buried leaning on his side, and a 
reed is placed in his ear that is uppermost, 
which reaches to the top of the ground. This 
is to let the worm come up at the right time. 
It first becomes about the size of a rat, then 
as big as a cat, if it is to be a tiger or lion. 
They say one of their head men died about 
nine months ago, who had taken medicine to 
be a lion ; and their belief is that the lions the 
other night came to fetch him away from the 
grave, so that he can go to the forest, and be 
a real lion. They beat the drums and shouted 
to give them notice there was danger, because 
white men have guns. When the late head 
man died, he was carried in a given direction 
to be buried. The lions, they say, passed 
along this path. They have their own way of 
distinguishing whether a lion is a man or a 
lion. If it comes prowling about, without 
warning, then it is a real lion, and they will 
kill it if they can. But if it roars, as those 
did the other night, it is not a lion but a man. 
One of the four they beheve to be an old chief 


who died about three years ago. He is a full 
grown lion now with a big voice, and it was 
he who spoke so loudly. They are as sure of 
all this as of their own existence, and have 
told it to Kemuel without a doubt. 

It is now getting near the end of the dry 
season, and water is very short. The lions 
had evidently come from a distance to the 
river to drink. 

Leopards are often here. Mr. Price tells a 
good story about one. It came one night 
after the fowls. The dogs rushed out at it. 
Two of them went too near. The tail only 
of one was seen next morning; and the other 
was found up a tree. There was a white 
visitor here at the time, and he set his mind 
on shooting the leopard. So he had the dead 
dog carefully tied fast in the tree where it had 
been left by the leopard. He set some boys 
to watch, and prepared himself a bed in a hut 
close by. He woke up during the night and 
thought he would go out and report progress 
for himself. The dog was gone. He went to 
his boys, and asked, " Where is the dog?"- 
*' Still up the tree," say they. Either they 
had gone to sleep, or the leopard had out- 
manoeuvred them. The language in which 


the visitor expressed his disappointment is 
not recorded. It takes a clever huntsman to 
trap a leopard. 

Funerals among the heathen are almost as 
costly as they are at home. When their 
people die they make a great feast. They call 
it a *' cry." Wherever the near relations 
are when they hear of the death they must 
return home. The finest oxen in the land are 
kept for these funeral feasts. While we were 
camping in a village not far from the Kafue 
one of these " cries " took place. The hut 
is towards the end of the village, and not more 
than a hundred and fifty yards from my tent. 
The grave of the young man is in front of the 
hut, and is marked by a number of newly- 
planted poles. As near as we can make out 
from a neighbour, the death took place about 
three months ago; but a brother of the 
deceased was a long way off, and returned this 
morning shortly after our arrival, bringing 
a two-year old ox for sacrifice. The " cry 
at once be^an. We wondered at first what it 
was. But the thing soon became clear. The 
man from the journey, and the local men of 
the family began to rush up and down in front 
of the hut and grave, making a great ciy, or 


lamentation; and making as though driving 
their spears into the ground. This is to drive 
awaj; the death spirit, and free the hut from 
further danger. While the crying is going 
on, a number of youths — I judge members of 
the same family — are hunting the young ox 
round and round in the neighbourhood of the 
gi'ave, and at every convenient turn giving it 
a spear thi:ust, and sometimes leaving the 
spear for a time sticking into the poor brute. 
The ox^ becoming exhausted through loss of 
blood, gradually ceased its moaning and lay 
near the hut and died. Presently, the men 
ceased crying, and went and dressed the ox, 
and I saw it joint by joint, carried into the hut 
for the feast. The crying will be resumed 
this evening, and will go on day after day 
till the meat is done. This scene has filled 
me with an overwhelming sadness. 

We have entered this country in the name 
of Christ and our Church. How long is it to 
be before we bring the light to these dark 
villages? Even while this scene was being 
enacted, some women came from another part 
of the village to " look " at Mrs. Kerswell in 
the next tent. She spoke kindly to them; 
she told them who we were, and why we were 


in the country ; and asked them if they would 
like a missionary to visit them. The answer 
was the same we always get: " Yes, they 
would like one." There is the same readi- 
ness wherever we go. I have travelled now 
about 200 miles in the country, and have 
called at many villages, and wherever I have 
enquired there has come the same answer. 
We are just scratching the moral soil, at three 
centres only in this vast North West Ehodesia ; 
and yet there is not a spiritual garden-patch 
in all England that would yield anything like 
so ample a harvest as could be gathered any- 
where in this vast countiy. I could covet 
no greater honour in the service of Christ's 
Kingdom than to be able to help our people at 
home to the realisation of the splendid oppor- 
tunities for service ready to our hand in this 
vast country. 


New Livingstone and the Government. 

' I ^HE township of Livingstone is very dis- 
appointing, not in the site, nor the 
character of its buildings, but in the way it is 
laid out. The streets are narrow, and the 
building plots small. Government House is 
a nice place, and the grounds in front are 
spacious, and well laid out. But at the back 
and ends it is crowded. The Standard Bank 
has been allowed to build close up at one end, 
and it is bounded by a road at the other end, 
and by a narrow street and small buildings 
at the back. Then the Livingstone Hotel is 
close by — a very nice place. I and a friend 
had dinner, bed, and breakfast there. The 
cost was reasonable and we never wish to be 
better served. The proprietor is making a 
heroic effort to extend his borders, and is 
putting up some really good buildings. But 
he is cramped for room. The offices and 
stables are unpleasantly near the best 
verandah, and there is scarcely room to turn 
a wagonette in the yard. In leaving Bula- 


wayo you feel you have left behind you 
the man who thought in continents, and in 
reaching Livingstone you do not feel that you 
have found a man that can think even in 
decent townships. And yet there are thou- 
sands of acres of land all round waiting the 
convenience of the people. 

All the missionaries speak well of the 
Government of the country; and all I saw of 
its administration confirms their good opinion. 
I visited four magistracies, one or two of 
which I have described in previous chapters. 
I called on the administrator on my way up, 
to pay my respects and explain the purpose of 
my mission. I was sorry to find him in poor 
health; but he received me with great kind- 
ness, and showed a lively interest in our work, 
especially the industrial part of it. He 
assured me that whatever the Government 
could do to help the extension of our Mission 
would be done with great heartiness. He 
gave me a new map of the country. It is 
only tentative; but it is a good beginning. 
Maps, like everything else that is worth any- 
thing, have to grow from less to more; and 
when I was coming down country I made the 
acquaintance of a gentleman who has just 


been engaged to complete the survey of 
North- West Ehodesia. He has been 
employed in this kind of work for many years 
in other parts of Africa. The work therefore 
is likely to be well done. The administrator 
also gave me a letter; of introduction to the 
officials, asking them to do all they could to 
promote the success of my visit; but I am 
glad to say I never had to use this. Wher- 
ever I went I was received and treated as a 
welcome visitor. 

At all the magistracies visited, I was 
pleased to notice the interest taken in the 
natives. The officials are not merely ser- 
vants of their Government. While they 
would be themselves the first to disown being 
in any sense missionai'ies, they do freely and 
effectively one part of a missionary's work : 
They care for the health of the people. Quite 
late one evening at the Namwala Camp, while 
we were there, a man brought a little boy who 
had been fishing, and had thrust the fish- 
spear through his foot. He was promptly 
and kindly treated. It is no mean advantage 
to have the administration of justice associated 
with such generous service. We called again 
aft this Camp a week later on our return 


journey. We found this little fellow, with 
his foot carefully bandaged installed as house 
boy or page. Mr. Watson, the assistant 
magistrate, had taken a fancy to him, and had 
retained him at 2s. 6d. per month, and food 
and clothing. We did not at first know him, 
he was so changed. When we first saw him, 
the skin of a small wild animal was all the 
clothing he wore ; now he was rigged out in a 
striped shirt, and a fine loin cloth, and 
looked like a little chieftain. He waited on 
us at table, and was really very handy. Of 
course, as a servant, he is in the process of 
making; but I can see he is quick to learn. 
He stands in the room where he can keep 
his eye on his master, and promptly responds 
to any indications that come from that 
quarter. But you will do well to keep your 
eye on him also; or you will get salt when 
you want sugar, and find your plate whisked 
away before you have finished with it. I 
gave him, as I thought, twice over, dis- 
tinctly to understand that I wanted no more 
tea; but presently I found another brimming 
cup placed at my side. And as a cup of tea, 
more or less, especially more, makes but 
little difference in that clima'te, I quickly 


drank it, and said nothing about it. I have 
no doubt the little fellow will have a good 
time in his new station. 

One splendid feature of the Government is 
the absolute prohibition of the Drink Traffic. 
As contrasted with the West Coast, and, 
indeed, many parts in the South, this is a 
huge advantage. The natives make a drink 
of their own which is fairly strong. But they 
use it only on special occasions. They do 
not booze. When travelling you have no fear 
your carriers will be incapacitated by drink. 
The people are sober, respectful, and peace- 

I have been asked: " What about the late 
reported rising in North- West Ehodesia? " 
And have to answer, that after passing 
through the supposed affected area, I am 
obliged to take the official view: *' That the 
trouble did not exist in fact." One of the 
officials received from a native a cock-and-bull 
story about what was taking place a hundred 
miles away in another man's district, how the 
natives had refused to pay the tax, and were 
holding secret meetings, etc. This official had 
an attack of nerves — perhaps he was in bad 
health — and became an alarmist; and where 


Europeans are few and distant from each 
other, it is easy to see such reports would 
gather weight. But the irony of the position 
is this; that his Camp was one of the most 
distant from the seat of the supposed trouble ; 
he possessed the only fort in the country, 
with a mounted maxim and 70 armed men; 
and yet he and his immediate friends were 
the only ones who became agitated. He 
advised all the missionaries to take their wives 
out of the country, and did other wild things. 
And yet there was not a word of truth in the 
reported refusal to pay tax, and not a sign of 
unrest could be traced anywhere. The burn- 
ning of our store at Nambala is believed to 
have been the result of an accident — perhaps 
some combustible in the store itself, exploded 
by the great heat. The so-called rising has 
become a by- word throughout the country; 
you have only to name it to cause a smile, and 
call forth not complimentary remarks respect- 
ing those who believed in it. 

Again, I have been asked : '* What are the 
probabilities of a war in North-West 
Rhodesia? Is the history of Southern 
Ehodesia likely to be repeated up there?" 
I had of necessity to spend a good bit of time 


at hotels, and to meet many people other than 
missionaries and officials; and I must confess 
that I heard much loose talk about coming 
trouble, especially when Lewanika, the pre- 
sent King, dies. My own view is that no 
importance is to be attached to this loose talk. 
In most cases the wish is father to the thought. 
War brings money and trade into the country ; 
and it means the hurried and brutal subjuga- 
tion of the natives; and that harmonises with 
their own desire to kick and hammer them 
into shape. 

As a sample of the above I will relate the 
substance of what I heard while sitting on the 
verandah of the Livingstone Hotel. A tall, 
well-dressed, nice-looking native came along 
the street. Two or three other natives of 
decent appearance were with him. It was 
easy to see he was someone above the ordi- 
nary run of natives. A gentleman whose 
acquaintance I had made in the train, said to 
the gentleman sitting next to him : " Yonder 
is a smart looking native, who is he?" 
** Oh! " said the other, " that is Letsea, 
the King's son." " Indeed," said my friend, 
" what kind of a man is he? " "A bad 
lot," said the other. " He is a sly, cunning, 


vicious, restless, ambitious fellow. There 
will be a big trouble when his father dies." 
*' I am sorry to hear that," said my friend. 
"He does not look such a terrible fellow." 
" That is the mischief of it," replied the 
other. " He has very plausible manners 
which makes him only the more dangerous." 
I thought to myself, here is a man that speaks 
with the confidence of personal knowledge. 
He must have hved in Letsea's village ; he not 
only has a general, but special knowledge of 
the man. He seems to know his secret 
thoughts. I am not one to receive such 
testimony without testing its value. So I 
took the trouble to find out who this man was. 
And can you believe it? He was a com- 
mercial traveller, just out from England, and 
coming up country for the first time, and, 
therefore, knew absolutely nothing first hand. 
He was simply retailing what he had gathered 
from hotel gossip. 

Next day I gained some first-hand know- 
ledge which is a complete answer to the above 
mischievous rubbish. While sitting on the 
verandah of the hotel I had noticed another 
gentleman whose attitude towards the natives 
seemed to be very friendly. For I saw him 


go across the street and shake hands with the 
whole party, and talk several minutes with 
Letsea, and then walk away with one of the 
party to a refreshment stall within sight, and 
stand treat with coffee and cakes. Now it so 
happened that next day this gentleman and I 
travelled in the same compartment down to 
Bulawayo. We had to spend the whole day 
and night together. We, therefore, at once 
set about knowing each other. After some 
general conversation, I said: "I noticed at 
Livingstone yesterday you seemed to know 
Letsea and his party? " " Yes," he said, " I 
am a trader in his country, I have been there 
for five or six years. My head-quarters are 
near his village. I know both he and his 
people well." " I have heard," said I, 
*' very conflicting views of Letsea since I have 
been in the country. I should deem your 
candid opinion of him a great favour." 
" Well," he replied, "he is a man and a 
native; and, therefore, has his faults. But I 
have always found him a fair-minded, reason- 
able, and just man; and as a ruler he is 
splendid. He has greatly improved the 
general condition of his people during recent 
years ; and he gives warm support to the work 



To face page :^"C. 


of the missionaries." " Then," I enquired, 
"you do not think that Letsea will give 
trouble, should he survive his father." His 
answer was prompt and emphatic. " Letsea 
give trouble ! The thing is unthinkable. He 
is as peaceable and law-abiding as any man in 
the country, not excepting the administrator 
himself. There will be no trouble in North- 
West Rhodesia while the people are treated 

I further said to him, " I noticed yesterday 
that you seemed especially friendly with one 
of Letsea's followers." " Yes, I have good 
reason to be. He is one of Letsea's head- 
men. Some two years ago I fell ill with fever 
at his village. He and his people nursed me 
through it, and when I was sufficiently 
recovered carried me to my own place. I 
shall never forget their great kindness." 
" And may I infer that you think well of the 
people as well as their rulers? " He 
answered me as it were in the concrete. For 
he said; " You will see shortly what I think 
of the people. For I have a grazing farm 
between this and Wankies; and 400 head of 
cattle are running there. They are simply 
in charge of two natives. They make 


excellent servants when properly treated. I 
treat them, and pay them well ; and they risk 
their life for me. Indeed, they often do in 
defending my cattle against wild beasts." 
Presently we passed through his farm. Some 
of the cattle were within sight fat and sleek. 
And when we stopped at the nearest station, 
sure enough there was one of his servants to 
greet his master, report, and receive orders. 
Just a heathen native, with a loin cloth as his 
complete dress, and a spear and dog for his 
defence. Primitive people who can thus 
honour and repay just treatment are not the 
people to give trouble while they are treated 

And this is the ground of any real uncer- 
tainty that may exist with regard to the future. 
If we could be sure the natives would always 
be treated justly, then we should feel quite 
sure there would be no war. But the 
possibilities of injustice are always present, 
even when the Government is friendly. 
While the superior officers are just, and 
many of them, even generous, it often hap- 
pens that the subordinates are less scrupulous ; 
and when beyond the ken of their superiors 
will cuff and abuse the natives. In a Post- 


office, which shall be nameless, between 
Broken Hill and Bulawayo, I saw what is 
typical of much the natives have to bear. It 
was English mail dispatch day. There was 
no one at the counter; and from the sounds 
that came from adjoining rooms, it was 
evident all hands were engaged with the mail. 
It was a very hot day, and the roads were 
deep in sand; so that when I reached the 
grateful shade of the office I was glad to lean 
against the high counter which runs across 
the office. During the minute or two I was 
waiting, a native, a Government messenger; in 
uniform, came in with his arms full of letters 
and papers; and placed them on the counter, 
with his arms still round them, as if to keep 
them together. In a few seconds a junior 
clerk came forward, and caught sight of the 
attitude of the native. He rushed towards 
him, and hissed through his teeth: '* Take 
your arms from the counter and stand back." 
It was not so much what was said, though that 
was bad enough, as the tone of the voice, and 
the violence of the movement when the rush 
was made towards the counter. I promptly 
left the counter, and stood beside the 
frightened native as a protest against such 


brutal treatment. The young fellow evidently 
felt the rebuke, for he coloured to the roots 
of his hair, but said nothing. To some this 
may seem a very small matter, but it is typical 
of a general system. Subordinates are 
generally very young out here. Authority 
turns their heads; and the poor defenceless 
natives have to suffer in consequence. 

While the above conduct is regrettable, and 
often much resented by the natives, it is not 
in itself sufficient to cause war. The natives 
are a long-suffering, patient people; quietly 
accepting in their own country, at the hands 
of strangers, many hard knocks, and much 
bad treatment. Should it ever become the 
policy of the Chartered Company to have war, 
the war will come. History points to the 
possibility. It has happened before. It 
would be difficult to find a native war that was 
not provoked by the aggression or oppression 
of some Government. The trouble in Natal 
is a case in point. The Europeans there are 
m a very small minority. They fear the 
natives; and instead of trusting them they 
oppress them. They are following the same 
policy of repression which the late President 
Kruger pursued towards the Uitlanders. 


While heavily taxed, the people are carefully 
shut away from all participation in the 
Government of the country. They may hang 
Dinizulu and a few of his head-men, but the 
trouble will still grow until the policy is 
changed. In the Cape there is no trouble. 
Why? Because the Government's policy is 
just. Native education and self-government, 
are promoted, and, as the people qualify, 
they are freely admitted to the Franchise. 
And while the Chartered Company's Policy 
remains what it is — peaceable and progres- 
sive — there will be no war in North- West 


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