(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Sessional papers of the Dominion of Canada 1917"

p^b^^c 



iX\o^ 



jw_uoc/ 

Can 

r 



SESSIONAL PAPERS 



VOr.UME ,21 



SEVEJ^TH SESSION OF THE TWELFTH PARLIAMENT 



OF THE 



DOMINION OF CANADA 



SESSION 1917 A 

0- ' 



U-'. 





VOLUME LTI. 



7-8 George V 



AliiliaLctical ludi.x to Sessiojial Papers 



A. I'JlT 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



TO THK 



SESSIONAL PAPERS 



OF THE 



PARLIAMENT OF CANADA 



SEVENTH SESSION, TWELFTH PAELIAMENT, 1917. 



A 

Acadia Coal Co., documents re Concilli- 
ation Board to employees of 1916.. .. 102 

Adertising of Canadian Products by 

sample goods in France ,. 20oa 

" Agricultural Instruction Act " — Report 

on 15c 

Agriculture, Report of Minister of year 
191'6 15 

Agriculture, Dept. of, numbers of em- 
ployees in from 1911 to 1917, etc. . . . ISSp 

Agriculture, total expenditure in, by Gov- 
ernment in each of years from 1904-5, 
1916-17, etc 222 

Aliens, number of interned, nationality of 
each on Public Works since 1914.. .. 141 

Americans, number in Canadian Regi- 
ments since 1914 141a 

Ammunition, Order in Council re rules re- 
specting employees near wharves. . . . 43b 

Arbitration Boards, applications made to 
Labour Dept. for, by workmen of N.S. 14 S 

Annstrong, S. A., aplpointment of, as 
Director of Military Hospitals Com- 
mission ; 115 

Auditor Generals Report, Vols. I, II, III 
and IV. 1916 1 

B 

Batialion, 2l0th. respecting the locating 
of, at Regina and Moosejaw 27 

Baugh. Edward Levi, re release of, from 
Penitentiary 219 

Beam Trawlers of V. S., re privileges 
granted to respecting ports in U. S. . . 206 

273G0— 1 



Beaver Harbour Wharf, Halifax Co., re 
repairs, etc., to in last fotir years.. .. 

Boards of Concilliation, Industrial Dis- 
putes Act, etc., 1916 

Bonds and Securities, detailed statement 
of, 1916' 

Breakwater, re repairs on at Souris, 
P.E.I,, years 1915 and 1916 

Breakwater at Breen's Point, Co. of Anti- 
gonish, N.S., since 1911 

Breakwater at Souris, P.E.I., correspond- 
ence re IDIS-K 

British Isles, natives of, number of en- 
rolled in Canadian Regiments since 
1914 

British Columbia, correspondence with 
Government of, with Dept. of Marine 
and Fisheries in B.C 

British Columbia, between Imperial Gov- 
ernment and re validation of certain 
Acts of „ . . 

British Columbia, Hydromotric Gurvey 
1915 

British Columbia, correspondence with 
Imperial Goverrmient, re validation 
Acts of Legislature of 

Buildings and oRiceo, number of rented 
by Government, in Ottawa years, 1914- 
15-16-17. etc 

Bulls, thoroughbred sent to Co. of Dor- 
chester, etc., Quebec 

By-elections, year, 191C 



119 

36a 

63 
127 
12S 
200 

143a 

209 



214 



265 



7-8 George V 



Alplinl»fti<Ml Tiidi'x to Sessional Papers 



A. 1017 



C 

Canadian Army Medical Service, report 
on. Gen. B.iptle 90? 

Canodlan Army Medical Service, report 
on. Col. Bruce 90 

r.^nacjl.an Hallways, correspondence re 
CommLssion respocting condition of. 
namee of Commissioners 7S 

Canadian War Records Offlce, London. 

Knpland, report of. to 1917 fil 

Canadian Manufacturers Association, cor- 
respondence with, re aupplles for the 
front 159 

Canadian Northern Railway, Order in 
Council, re 4-5 George V, chap. 20, S-15 18.'. 

Canadian War Record? Office, report re 
from date of foundation to January 
1917 61 

Canadian ships, re requisitioning of, by 
Government 225 

Canadian ^Northern Railway System, copy 
financial statements re 237 

Canadian Northern Railway System, copy 
statements re advances made to by 
Government, etc 2376 

Canadian Northern Railway System, copy 
of Mortgage Deed of Trust to Domin- 
ion Government.; 237o 

Canadian Expeditionary Force, number 
of officers and men classed as unfit for 
service, etc 261 

Canadian Biology 1915-1916 38a 

Canadian Government Railways : — 

Return re lands sold by, from October 
1915, to September 30. 1916 68 

Canals Statistics, 1916 20a 

Census Statistics of male population, 
ages of 20 and 45 194 

Census Statistics re strength of Canadian 
Units in England, also in France. St. 
Lucia, etc 143c 

Censors, Decoders, etc., names, addresses, 
etc.. of 93 

Censors, Decoders, etc., names, addresses, 
at Hazel Hill and Canso, N.S., 1916, 
amount expended, 1916 136 

Civil Service : — 

Number of permanent employees in 

Department of Finance, 1911 13S' 

Number of permanent envployee* in 

Department of Finance, up to 1917.. 138r 
Number of permanent and temporary 
employees in Department of Indian 

Affairs 1^'^ 

List of Canada, year 1916 30 

Number of permanent employees In, in 

1911 — isJo. of added since 138f 

Number of permanent employees in 
Department of Marine and Fisheries, 
No. added since 1386 



.Number of permanent employees in 
Department of Naval Affairs, No. 

added since 138a 

Civil Service Insurance Act, 1916, state- 
ment respecting 57 

"Ivll Service, statement re superannu- 
ation and retiring allowances. 1916.. 5S 
Civil Service, number of employees per- 
manently in the Department of Militia 
and Defence in 1911 and 1917, etc.. 138 
Civil Service, re pay to members of, in 

military service of Canada 188 

'ivil Service Commission, report of 1916. 31 
Civil Service, number of, etc., Department 

of Justice 138d 

r>ul o:irgoes, report of Commission to 
inquire Into, conditions re delivery of. . 142 
Coa'. operations. Order in Council appoint- 
ing Director of, for B.C 212 

'oal re District No. 18 of Alberta, docu- 
ments, etc., B.C. coal operators associ- 
ation 212a 

Cold Storage Companies in Canada, re 
price and amount of commodities sold 

by 210 

nommission of Conservation, report of . . 73 
Commissions concerning soldiers re pen- 
sions, hospitals, etc., created since war. 236 
Commissioner of Live Stock, province of 
Saslyitchewan, names of persons em- 
ployed with 252 

Commissions, date and object of all ap- 
pointed since 1911. to date 161 

Conductors, brakemen, drivers and fire- 
men, number of, on Canadian Govern- 
ment Railways, between Moncton and 

Campbellton 156 

Conservation, Commission of. Report of. 

for year 1917 264 

Cost of living. Report of W. F. O'Connor, 

Commissioner relating to 210a 

(■^ustoms duties, refund of, etc., statement 

re 75 

' 'ii.>~tonis. report of department of year 

1916 11 

Documents vp Conciliation Board relat- 
ing to employees at Plctou, N.S.. 104 
List of all employees In 1916, in round 

house at Pirate Harbour, N.3 101 

Number of persons appointed to, from 
January 1916, to March 31, 1917.. 175 
Criminal Statistics for the year 1915.. .. 17 
D 
viiiy and cold storage commissioner, re- 
port of. year 1916 15a 

Davidson, Sir Charles — 

Reportof, as Commissioner, evidence 
taken before, re war expenditures ; 
also report of, re small arms ammu- 
nition ; purchase of submarines and 



7-8 Goorcre V 



Alphabetical Iiid(\\ to Sc>sioiiiil Piipors 



A. 1917 



military cloth (Auburn Woolen Mills 

Co.) 60 

Davles, William Oompany, Ltd., and Mat- 
thews-Blackwell, Ltd., Order in Council, 

re Investigration 210b 

Defence of Canada, order 1917 197 

"Destructive Insect and Pest Act," regru- 

ations under 58 

Dismissals : — 

Mr. H. D. McKenzie of Stellarton, N.S. . 79 

Frank Dunlop, of Sydney Mines 95 

Mr. Spenny, trackmaster on short line, 

Canadian Government Railway, etc. 153 
L6on Roy, as Interpreter to Department 

of Interior * 154 

D. MoDermid, superintendent of Fish 

Hatchery, N.S 165 

Moses H. Nickerson, Inspector of Life 

Saving stations, N.S 167 

Augrustin D. Lauteigne, postmaater of 

Island River, Gloucester Co., N.B. , 178 
John R. Mcintosh, postmaster, Cum- 

ming's Mountain, etc., N.S 180 

John McDonald, janitor of Public build- 
ing, Inverness, N.S 198 

Hector Urquhart, Cape Breton Co., N.S., 

appointment of successor 201 

Divorces, number of, granted in Canada 

by Parliament since 1867 98 

Dominion Lands, Orders in Council re 
management of, in 40 mile railway belt, 

B.C 67 

Dominion Lands, Orders in Council re 

"Railway Water Belt Act," 1916.. .. 66 
Dominion Lands, Orders in Council re 

" Forest Reserves and Park Act," 1916. 65 
Dominion Lands, Orders in Council re 

"Dominion Lands Act," 1916 69 

Dominion Lands, Orders in Council re 

"Dominion Lands Sui-vey Act," 1916.. 64 
Dominion Police Force, account of, etc., 

1916 59 

Doukhobours, re exemption from Military 

service of 224 

Dredging : — 

Relating to work done at Ste. Anne de 
Bellevue, Pointe Fortune, Ottawa 

river, etc 123 

Dredging at wharf at Isle Perrot, north 
and south, Dorion Bay channel, Vau- 

dreuil, etc 123a 

•Dredging at Margaree Harbour, X.S,. 

during 1913, 1914, 1915 and 1916.. .. 134 
Dredging at Ste. Anne de Beilevue, Pointe 

Fortune, Ottawa Rivers, etc 241 

Duchemin, H. P., Commissioner, re 

amount paid to 181 

Duties, re payment of, on account of 
claims against certain provinces, by 
Minister of Justice 229 

27360— U 



Employees, number of. In Departments of 
Labour, Interior, Public Works, etc. .. 

FOmployees, names, salariea, etc., of, volun- 
teering from Department of Interior 
and Indian Affairs 

Rnlistment of men for overseas service, 
number of, etc 

Estimates, year ending March 31, 1918.. 

Estimates, supplementary, year ending 
March 31, 1917 

■"Estimates, supplementary, year ending 
March 31, 1918 

Exchequer Court, Copy of New t'.ule re 
practice and procedure in 

Exchequer Court, Proceedings of re 
Indians on Sydney, N.S. Reserve. . . . 

Exchequer Court, Proceedings re Quebec 
and Saguenay Railway, Quebec and 
Montmorency Railway, and LotbiniSre 
Megantic 

ETxchequer Court, Copy of Rule 200 of, 
re procedure 

Exhibition Train, correspondence re or- 
ganization of, in France 

Experimental Farms, Report of Director 
and Officers of, 1916 

Exports in different commodities, amount 
of, for first nine months of present 
fiscal year 

Express Statistics of Canada, year 1916 

Extension of Parliamentary term, etc., 
correspondence re 

Extension of Parliamentary term, etc., 
further correspondence, re 

External Affairs, Report of Secretary of 
State for 1917 



First Contingent, No. of Battalions of 
leaving Canada, etc 

Fishing in the tida! waters of province 
of Quebec, relating to 

Fish, dried, wine, etc., trade in between 
Portugal and Canada 

Fish, scrap, names and P. O. addresses of 
purchasers of, from works at Canso, 
1916. 

Fisher, Ward, Inspector of Fisheries, 
Western N.S., i-e disbursements ot, 
1912-1913 

Food Controller for Canada, Order In 
Council, re appointment of , 

Fuel Controller for Canada, Order in 
Council, relating to 

Furloughs granted to men after enlist- 
ment for harvesting purposes 



Jeographic Board, Report of, for year 
1916 



217 



220 



143a 
3 



100 
157 

48a 
100a 
20.1 

16 

186 
20s 

74 

74a 

3, -5 

213 

251 

97 

116 

208 
192a 
192 
107 

25cl 



i-b George V 



AipLabetical Ludcx to Sefcsional Papers 



A. 19i: 



G 

:> rman nationality, number of persons 
of, employed in Departmenta of Service, 
«•<« 176 

'liard, ex-Af P.P. for Compton, re employ- 

, ment of, by Government 223 

Governor General's Warrants, on account 
of years 1916-1917 4P 

Governor General's Warrants, issued 
since adjournment of Parliament, 
February 1917 49a 

• Irain Commission, re report from, to 
Department of Trade and Commerce. 184 

Grain Supervisors, Board of, Order in 
Council, respecting 193 

Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, quantity 
of freight carried over, between L6vis 
and Moncton 80 

Gravel, Mr. Alfred, re appointment of, 
etc., as Harbour Commissioner of Que- 
bec 71 

Gracing Leases, documents relating to. . 112 

"Grilse," H.M.C.S. re inquiry into 
damages sustained by 164 

H 

Halifax and Eastern Railway, naming of 
Stations on 150 

Halifax Herald, Evening Mail, and Royal 

Print and Lithographing Co., Halifax. 25 7 

Hansard Translation Staff, correspond- 
ence with Chief of, 1917 215 

Harbour improvements at Tracadie, Co. 

of Antigonish, N.S., 1916.. .^ 126 

Harrigan Cove Wharf, Halifax Co., re- 
pairs, etc., to, in 1914-1915 120 

Harvesting furloughs granted to men after 
enlistment, etc 107 

High Commissioner's Office, names of 
stafif, etc 9 6 

Horses for war purposes bought in 

Canada 92 

Hydrometric Survey of British Colum- 
bia 1915 25c 

Hydrometric Survey of Manitoba 1915.. 25/ 

Hydrometric Surveys (Stream Measure- 
ments), Report of 1915 25c 

I 

Immigration Service in city of Montreal, 
No. of persons, etc., employed in.. .. ^3 

Immigration Service and Land settlement, 
correspondence between Federal Gov- 
ernment and provinces, re H2 

Immigrration of Supt. of, re advertising in 
United States newspapers for farm 
hands 113 

Imperial War Conference, paperF, re, 

1917 42o 

Imperial War Conference, extracts from 

Minuteu of 4Lv: 



I 

Indian Affairs, Report of Department of, 
year ended March 31, 1916 17 

Inland Revenues, Reports, Returns and 
Statistics of, year ended March 31, 
1916 • 12. 13, 14 

Insurance, Report of Superintendent of, 
year 1916 8 

Insurance Coys. Abstract statement of, 
year 1916 9 

Interior Department, number of clerks, 
etc., belonging to inside service, paid 
from outside service il 

Interior Department, Annual Report of, 
year ending March 31, 1916 2o 

Inverness Harbour, X.S., re opening of. . 248 

J 

Jones, C. G., Surgeon-General, Interim 

Report of, on Army Medical Service. . I'Ob 

Judges, Province of Quebec, travelling 
expenses of, etc 174 

K 

Kelly, Thos., re treatment of, in Stony 
Mountain Prison 145 

King's Regulations and Orders for the 
Army 195 

King and Wallace Shipyards, Ltd., re 
contract for delivery of wooden auxi- 
liary ship 267 

Kitsilano Indian Reserve Report on.. .. 85 

Labour report of, for year ending March 

31, 1916 36 

Lambert, Hyppolite, re cancellation of 
mail contract to 1S2 

Lamond and Harrison, re contract for 
construction of one wooden auxiliary 
ship 2* 7 

Lebel, Polydore. re sus[)ension of, as engi- 
neer on Intercolonial Railway, In 1916. 152 

Le Blanc, Maurice, Department of Public 
Works, Co. of Bonaventure, re travel- 
ling expenses of 240 

Librarians of Parliament, Report of Joint 
do 4 

Liquor, Return re amount of, brought 

into Canadian Territories, 191fi 147 

List of shipping of Dominion of Canada 
to 1915 22 

List of shareholders in Chartered Banks 
on December 31, 1915 6 

Local Tribunals, Copy of "Gazette," 12th 

September, containing list of 276 

Luceville Station, I.C.Ry., re changing of 
name of Saint Luce, to 118 

Lyall & Sons, re contract of, between 
Government and, for rebuilding Parlia- 
ment Buildings 105 



7-8 George V 



Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers 



A. 1!J17 



M 

Malls :— 

Contract to J. C. Shields and oUiera for 
carrying mails from Ashcroft to Fort 

Georgre, B.C 13& 

Documents re contract from Tatama- 

gouche to New Annan, N.S 9P 

Documents re contract between Grand 

River and Fourchu, N.S 231 

Rural routes established in Qu'Appelle 
since January 1916, also date of . . . . 272 
Mail route, change in Margaree-Inver- 
ness, to other points 273 

Male persons, regulations re departure of, 
from Canada, Order in Council re.. .. 162 

Manitoba Hydrometric Survey, 1915.. .. 2:i) 

Manitoba Legislature Act passed by, 

amending the "Jury Act" 140 

Manual of Military Law, 1914 196 

Margaree Harbour, pier at 246 

Margaree Harbour, breakwater at 24 6o 

Marine and Fisheries, Report of, years 

1915-1916 21 

Marine Agency at Pictou, N.S., re closing 
of,.etc., in 1916' M 

Marine and Fisheries, supplement to Re- 
port of, (Steamboat Inspection).. .. 2:; 

Members of Parliament, names of, belong- 
ing to overseas forces, etc 100 

Members of Parliament, names of, belong- 
ing to overseas forces, supplementary. 109( 

Members of Parliament, names and num- 
ber of, serving with forces 1091 

Members of Parliament, names, supple- 
mentary 109c 

Members of House of Commons, names of, 
serving or have served with Canadian 
army 109 

Members of House of Commons, names of 
serving or have served with Canadian 
army 109( 

Members of House of Commons, names of, 

numiber of, date of appointment, etc. . 109? 

Members of House of Commons, serving 

or have served in Canadian army.. .. 109f 

Merchandise, re quantity of, exported into 
foreign countries since August 1, 1914, 
etc 207 

Military Hospital at Halifax, Report of 
Commission respecting 170 

Military Hospitals Commission, Report of 
work of, to date 1917 li'S 

Militia Council, Report of, year ending 
March, 31. 1916 3o 

Militia General Orders promulgated to, 

1915 to 1917 94 

Militia and Defence, ex-Minister of, cor- 
respondence between Premier and.. .. 160 

Militia, Department of, re amount spent 
advertising for recruits in Canada.. .. 171 



M 

Military Staff, North Vancouver, names, 

duties, salaries, etc 235 

Military Division No. 6, Halifax, namrp, 

occupation, salaries, etc 23. '.n 

Military Service Council, Order in Council, 
appointing to assist administration of 
Military Service Act 269 

Mines Branch, Department of Mines, Re- 
port of 1915 26o 

Mines Department, Geological Survey. 
Report 26 

Miscellaneous Unforeseen Kxpenses, state- 
ment re, from 1916 to 1917 CI 

Mc 

McCuaig, Clarence J., correspondence be- 
tween Department Militia, and first 
purchasing committee 263 

-M.jFarlane, Dan, re claim of, against De- 
partment of Railways, 1917 151 

McKee, A. J., and T. J. Dnimmond, The, 
vessels 149 

McLeod, Sir EJzekiel, Hon. Louis Tellier, 
Report of re Hon. Robert Rogers.. ,. 230 

N 

National Battlefields Commission, State- 
ments re Receipts and Expenditures.. 55 
National Service Board of Canada, Orders 

in Council, re establishment of 4 6 

Naturalization, certificates of, to Alien 
enemies, Order in Council, recommend- 
ing 275 

Naval Service : — 

Amendments to regulations, re pay, 
allowances, and pensions to invalided 

men from Naval Service 45^ 

<:'anadiian Biology, 1915-1916 28a 

Copies of Orders in Council re super- 
annuation of Blair Kent in Naval Ser- 
vice Department, also command 
money ; Hardlying money ; establish- 
ing rates of pensions : regulations 
for enrollment of men ir. volunteer 
Naval Reserve, and order made 
under War Measures Act re persons 
of enemy landing in Canada.. .. 43 
Copy Order in Council, re payment and 
Specialist allowances to overseas 

division 43d 

Extract from Order in Council, re 
Regulations respecting Separation 

Allowance payment 43a 

Extract Order in CouRcil, No. 1783, 

re pay, allowances and pensions. . 43e 
Eictract Order in Council, No. 1871, 

re pay, allowances and pensions. . 4 3e 
Radiotelegraph regulations, copy of 

amendment to 506 



T-'^ Tioorge V 



Alpliabctical Indox to Scs-sional Tflpers 



A. 1917 



Repulaiions re rank of Chief Skipper 
in 

Regulations re persons on stores, 
wharvts, etc., on which am.mutiilion 
Is handletl, Order in Counoil re- 
specting 

Regulations re i)ay and allowances 
to men after discharge. Order in 
Council respecting 

Report of Department of, for year end- 
ing 1916 

Report of Fisheries Branch of Xaval 
Service, 1915-1916 

Report of Department of year 1916.. 

Travelling allowances, Ofticers and 
men of, also allowances re lodging, 
etc 

Defence of Canada, order, Order in 

Council re 

News print paper. Order in Council, re 

exportation, price, sale, transport, and 

control of 

Newspapers, " Le Canada," " La Presse," 
" La Patrle," " Le Pays," " La Vigie," 

and "La Soleil," amounts 



43f 



43b 



43i 



38 



43/ 



457i 



114 



216 



O'Connor, Commissioner, re cost of living. 

Reports of, re sugar 

O'Connor, Commissioner, re cost of living, 

Reports of, re Anthracite coal 

O'Connor, Commissioner, re cost of living, 
cold storage conditions in Canada.. 

Okanagan Telephone Coy 

Oliver equipment 

Overseas Forces, re number of appli- 
cants rejected on account of physical 

unfitness, etc 

Overseas Forces, number of men enlisted 
for, number since discharged, and where. 
Orders in Council, Copies of: — 

Re appointment of Parliamentary 
Under Secretary of State for Exter- 
nal Affairs 

Re appointment of Parliamentary Secre- 
tary, Department Militia and De- 
fence 

Re appointment Minister of Overseas 
Military Forces from Canada in 

United Kingdom 

Respecting, wheat Hour, and Semolina 
imported into Canada free of duty.. 
Ottawa Improvement Commission, Re- 
ceipts and Expenditures, 1916 

P 

Parliament Buildings, re claims of losses 
by fire at, 1916 

Parliamentary National Service Commis- 
sion, correspondence re 

Parliamentary term, War extension of.. 



189 

100 

210(1 

249 

lOS 



143 



14 3(1 



41 



41 



41 



106 



Patriotic Fund, amounts subscribed and 
voted, amounts by provinces, counties, 

etc 

Patriotic Fund, amounts paid into, pro- 
mised, etc 

Patenaude, Hon. E. L., Letter of, to 

Prime Minister re resignation 

Pearson's post ofllce, Nipissing, change 

of location of 

Penitentiaries, Report of Minister of Jus- 
tice, year 1916 

Pension Regulations, copies of Order in 

Council respecting 

Pensions of officers or dependents, re ex- 
change of, between Imperial and Can- 
adian Governments 

Pensions and separation allowances, offi- 
cers, warrant officers, etc 

Pier at Margaree Harbour, N.S 

Postmaster General, Report of year ended 

March 31, 1916 

F'ost Office, Canard and Splitlog, petitions, 

etc., re 

Post Office, Pearson's re removal of, etc. 

Post Office, Department, number in paid 

from outside service, names, salary, 

etc 

Printing of Parliament, Reports of re 

economy in printing public documents. 

I'roprietary or Patent Medicine Act, re 

petitions for repeal of, from Physicians, 

etc 

Public Accounts of Canada, year ended 

March 31, 1916 

Public Works, Report of Minister of 

year ended March 31, 1916 

Public Works, expenditures made by, 
since 1916 in different provinces of 

Canada, etc 

Public Printing and Stationery, 1916.. 

Q 

Quebec and Saguenay Ry. Co., Quebec 
Railway, Light and Power Co., Lot- 
bini^re and Megantic (Railway Co., and 
Quebec Railway, Light, Heat and Power 
Co, copy of agreement between Gov- 
ernment and 

Quebec and Saguenay Railway Co., etc.. 
Exchequer Court proceedings, re. . . . 

Quebec and Saguenay Railway Co., Judg- 
ment by court fixing price paid for, etc. 

Quebec City Board of Trade, correspon- 
dence between, and Premier re Report 
of Commission on Railways 

R 

liadiotelegraph Regulations, Amend- 
ments to, since 1914 

:a<liotelcgrai)h Kegulatlons, Amendments 
to re ship stations within Canadian har- 
itours 



110a 

no 

206 

179 

34 

168 

168a 

238 
240 

24 

89 
179 

227 
183 

259 

2 

19 



130 
3' 



48 

48a 
48» 

239 

50 

50a 



7-8 Georffp V 



Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers 



A. 1017 



R 

Railway Commissioners, Report of Board 

of year 1916 20a 

Railway Transport Commission, Report of 

1917 

Railway Subsidies, amounts expended in 
Canada years, 1912, 1913, 1914, and 

1915 

Railway Employees' Magazine, re estab- 
lishment of, etc 

Railways and Canals, Report of Depart- 
ment of year 1916 

Railway Statistics 1916 

Rails taken up on G.T.P. Railway.. .. 
Rails, sent to France for use of, in war. 
Recruiting Officers, chief, or special, names 
and rank of, since beginning of war. . 
Recruiting in P. E. Island, names, ad- 
dresses, etc., of parties engaged therein. 
Recruiting Officers, names and number of 
appointed in Province of Quebec, etc. 
Recruiting of soldiers for overseas ser- 
vice, statistics re 

Refund of Customs duties, etc., state- 
ment re 

Refund of Tolls or duties from Depart- 
ment of Marine and Fisheries 1916. . 
Registrars for purposes of Military Ser- 
vice Act, Order in Council, appointing 

to Provinces of Canada 

Returned Soldiers, correspondence re be- 
tween Federal and Provincial Govern- 
ments 

Returned Soldiers, Order in Council re 
preference in appointments to Civil 

Service 

Returned soldiers, number of, receiving 
employment from the Government.. .. 
Rogers, Hon. Robert, McLeod-Tellier, Re- 
port, 7-e 

Rogers evidence, exhibits, connected with 
McLieod-Tellier, Report concerning. . . . 
Rogers, Hon. Robt., correspondence be- 
tween, and the Premier of Canada, re 

resignation 

Roseberg, P. O. correspondence, re change 

of location of 

Ross Rifle. Pupers re withdrawal of. from 

service ; 

Ross Rifle, Order in Council, re taking 

over of. by Government of Canada. . 

Ross. Sir Charles, Copy of contracts, etc. 

Ross Rifle, date, and number of last 

ordered, recommendation for. etc.. .. 20 1 
Roy. L6on, appointment of. as interpreter 
Department of Interior, and also dis- 
missal 154 

Royal Canndian Navy, re allowance to 
accountant officers In receiving ships. . 77 



121 

155 

20 
20! 
146o 
146 

233 

226ci 

226 

143i 

75 



277 



86 



163 



218 



230 



23(V 



260 



ITT 



HI 
137 



Royal North West Mounted Police, cancel- 
lation of agreements between Govern- 
ments of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and 
Alberta, re services in those provinces. 

Uoyal North West Mounted Police, re ter- 
minations of agreements between Gov- 
ernment of Canada and Provincial 
Governments 

Royal North West Mounted Police, Report 
of year 1916 

ftoyal Society of Canada, statements of 
receipts and expenditures, 1916.. .. 

S 

Salmon Nets, correspondence re removal 
of, from parts of coast of Inverness 
Co 

Salt, correspondence re supply of, for 
fisheries of Maritime Provinces 

Sealers of B.C., documents re claims of, 
under last treaty with United States.. 

Secretary of State, Report of year 1916. 

Seed Commissioner, Order in Council, 
appointing, and authorizing purchase of 
seed wheat, etc 

Seizure of certain fishing boats, tackle, 
etc.. Straits of Northumberland, 191S 

Sevigny, Hon. Albert, correspondence 
between, and Sergeant-at-Arms. . .. 

Seventy-eighth Highlanders of N.S., 
name and rank of officers in 1914. . 

Shields, J. C, Inland Express Co., con- 
tract for carrying mails from Ashcroft 
to Fort George, B.C .' 

■ihip Harbour Lake, N.S., re sale of tim- 
ber from, to Mr. Andrew Webber.. 

-ockeye Salmon, papers re prohibition of 
export of, from B.C 

■Soldiers, alleged maltreating of, in 
Quebec, evidence collected re 

-:outhern Slav Committee, memo, pre- 
sented by, re aspirations, claims, etc., of 
Slavs 

■;tate and Mines. Departments, number of 
employees in from 1911 to 1917, inclu- 
sive 

Statute passed by Manitoba, Intituled : 
" An Act to amend the Jury Act." 
Papers, re 

Stenographic reporting for different com- 
missions, amount paid for 

Stenographic reporting for different com- 
missions, amount paid for 

Stoning of Troop trains. Report of Cora- 
mission of inquiry 

Storm Signals, re appointment of a man 
in charge of. at Grand E:tang and Mar- 

garee Harbour 

Sydney Daily Post, newspaper, re amounts 
paid to by Government since 1911 . . . . 



70 

70a 

28 

54 

189 

211 

26S 
29 

144 
253 
187 
262 

139 

84 

72 

173 

228 

138;i 

140 

203 

203(1 

172 

271 
256 



i-^'^ <Jeorge V 



Alphabetical Index to Scbsioiial Papers 



A. 1917 



Tail, Sir Thomas, correflpondence r« 

4 appointment, etc., to National Service 
Board ST 

Tait, Sir Thomas, correspondence addi- 
tional re appointment, etc., to National 
Service Board y'n 

Target practice rod, corresiiondence re 
between Department Militia, War Pur- 
chasing Commission, and British War 
Omce 254 

Telegraph Statistics of Canada, 1916.. .. 20/ 

Telephone Statistics of Canada, year 1916. 20d 

Temporary Loans, Statement of, from 

1916 to 1917 52 

Territorial defence of Province of Que- 
bec, correspondence with Armand La- 
vergne re 191 

Thetford Mines, P.Q., correspondence re 
labour trouble at 103 

Tidal waters of Province Quebec, rights 
of fishing in 251 

Topographical Surveys Branch, Report of 

1915-1916 25? 

Trade and Commerce : — 

Report of Department of, Part I, 1916. 10 
Report of Department of, Part II, 191ft 10< 
Report of Department of. Part III, 

1916 10' 

Report of Department of, Part IV, 

1916 1" 

Rc-f>ort of Department of, Part V, 

1916 10< 

Report of Department of. Part I, 

1916.. .* I''' 

lieport of Department of, Part VII, 

1916 1'. 

Trade Unions, Annual Return, re 62 

Trade Con^mission to Great Britain, 
France and Italy, 1916, Report of . . 221 

Transcontinental Rajlway, Report of 
Commission of, 1916 3i 

Transcontinental Railway, List of points 

where rails removed 1-"'' 

Transcontinental Railway, List of points 

where rails removed l^tn 

Tribunals, Local, Copy of Gazette con- 
taining list of -"^^ 

V 
Unclaimed Balances in chartered banks 
of Canada, December 31, 1915.. .. 7 

V 

Vale Railway, Copy of agreement con- 
cerning lease of 4" 

Vancouver, Documents re purchase of 
land in, for purpose of an Armoury 
since 1913 232 

Veterinary Director iieneral. Report of 

year 191& I'-f 

Victoria Bridge, Montreal, Copy of Order 

in Council, increasing toll rates on.. 117 



War Purchasing Commission, Report of 

1915 to 1916, inclusive 4' 

War Conference, Papers relating to, in 

1917 42 

War Measures Act, re British ships in 
f'anada, etc., re<|ui8ition of, for war 

purposes 1'" 

\V;ir Badges, Rules and Regulations re 
for members of Canadian EJxpedltlonary 

Force 274 

Ward Fisher, Inspector of Fisheries, 
Western Nova Scotia, disbursements 

of 1912-1913 208 

Wet Canteen system overseas, corres- 
pondence re abolishment of 204 

Wharves : — 
" at Upper Prospect, N.S., 1915.. .. 124 
" at Shad Bay, repairs to, in 191.5.. 12.''« 
" at Mushaboom Harbour, N.S., in 

1913 12f. 

" at Port Dufferin West, Halifax Co, 

N.S., in 1913-14 131 

■■ at Port Dufferin East, Halifax Co, 

N.S., in 1916 132 

" at Ecum Secum West, Halifax Co., 

N.S., construction of, at 133 

•' at McKay's Point, exten.sion of and 

repairs to 199 

" at Craignish, N.S 202 

■• at Harrigan Cove, Halifax Co., N.S., 

repairs to, in 1914-1915 120 

" at Isle Perrot, Vaudreuil, Pointe 

Cavagnal. Hudson, etc 122b 

" at Finlay Point, N.S 242 

" Breakwaters, etc., Co. of Anti- 

gonish, N.S 243 

" of the Government at Crose Point, 

New Carlisle, etc., Quebec 244' 

" at Marble Mountain, N.S 245 

" at Port Hood, N.S 247 

Correspondence re wharves at Isle 
Perrot Sud, X'audreuil, Pointe 

Cavagnal, etc 122 

" Correspondence re w'harves at Isle 
Perrot North, South, Vaudreuil, 
Pointe Cavagnal, Hudson, etc.. .. 122o 
\Vh;ii-.es. Breakwaters and other public 

works, Co. of Guy.«boro, N.S 250 

Wheat, wheat flour, sexnolimi, Orier in 

Council re , 106 

Whitehead, N.S., life saving station at. 

Order in Council referring to 27S 

Willi.s Kelzer, application of re Fishing 

weir at Square Cove, N.S 16C 

Wooden Auxiliary Sailing Ships. Con- 
tracts for, — 



Yukon Territory, Ordinances of 7C 

t'ukon Territory, Orders in Council re 

Government of TCa 

Yukon Territory, Orders in Council re 

Government of 1917 76b 



8 



7-8 George V Alpliabetii:al Index to Se&aional Papers A. II'IT 



LIST OF SESSIONAL PAPERS 

Arranged in Numerical Order, with tJieir titles at full length; the dates when Ordered 
and when Presented to the Houses of Parliament; the Names of the Senator or 
Member ivho moved for each Sessional Paper, and whether it is ordered to he 
Printed or not Printed. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 1. 

(This volume is bound in tlu'ee parts.) 

1. Report of tlie Auditor General for the year ended ?li>t March, 1916, Volume 1, Parts a b and 

A to K ; Volume n, Parts L to U ; Volume III, Parts V to Z ; Volume IV, Part ZZ'. 
Preser^ted by Sir George Foster April 19. 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessionctl papers. 

CONTENTS or VOLUME 2. 

2. The Public Accounts of Canada, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1916. Presented by 

Sir Thomas White, February 1, 1917. . .Prmfcd for distribution and sessional papers. 

3. Estimates of sums required for the service of the Dominion for the year ending on the 

31st March, 1918, and in accordance with the provisions of " Tlie British Xonh 
America Act, 1867," the Governor General recommends these Estimates to the Hou?e 
of Commons. Presented by Sir Thomas White, January 31, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

4. Supplementary Estimates of sums required for the service of the Dominion for the year 

ending on the Slst March, 1917, and, in accordance with the provisions of "The British 
North Ame'rica Act, 1867," the Governor General recommends these Estimates to the 
House of Commons. Presented by Sir Thomas White, February 5, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

5. Supplementary Estimates of sums required for the service of the Dominion for the year 

ending on the 31st March, 1918. Presented by Sir Thomas White, August 17, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

6. List of Shareholders in the Chartered Banks of the Dominion of Canada as on December 

31, 1915. Preeiented by Sir Thomas White, January 25, 1917 Xot printed. 

7. Report on certified cheques, drafts or bills of exchange, dividends remaining unpaid and 

unclaimed balances in Chartered Banks of the Dominion of Canada, for five years and 
upwards prior to December 31, 1915. Presented by Sir Thomas Whita, January 2', 
1917 ,, ..\otpriH:rd. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 3. 

(This volume is bound in two parts.) 

8. Report of the Superintendent of Insurance for the year 1916. Presented hy Sir Thomr.s 

White, Jxdy 27, 1917 Printed for distribiotion and sessional papers. 

9. Abs'tract of Statements of Insuiance Companies in Canada for the year ended Decembfr 

31, 1916. Presented by Sir Thomas White, May 2, 1917. 

Print e<1 for distribution and sessional papers 

9 



-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Paperg- A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 4. 

10. Report of the Department of Trade and Commerce for the fiscal year ended 3l9t March, 

1916; Part I. — Canadian Trade (Imports In and Wxporta from Canada). Presented 
by Sir 0«org:e Foster, April 19, 1917.. ..Printed for distribution and aeasional paper*. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 5. 

lOa. Report of the Department of Trade and Conwnerce for the fiscal year ended March 31, 
1916: — Part II. — Canadian Trade with France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the 
United States. Presented by Sir George Foster, January 25, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

lOb. Report of the Department of Trade and Commerce for the fiscal year ended March 31, 

1916 — Part III. — Canadian Trade with British and Foreign Countries (except France, 

t Germany, United Kingdom and United Stales). Presented by Sir George Foster. 

April 19, 1917 Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

10c. Report of the Department of Trade and Commerce for the fiscal year ended March 31, 
1916 (Part IV, Miscellaneous Information). Presented by Sir George Foster, June 4, 
1917 Printed for distribution and stssional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 6. 

lOflf. Report of the Department of Trade and Commerce. Part V — Grain Statlstica, compiled by 
the Inspection Branch of the Department, Ottawa, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 
1916, the crop year end«d August 31. 1916, and the season of navigation ended 
December 14. 1916; and Report of the Board of Grain Commissioners. Presented by 
Sir George Foster, June 8, 1917.. .. Printed for distribution atid sessional papers. 

lOe. Report of the Department of Trade and Commerce, for the fiscal year ending March .31, 
1916 (Part Vl. — Subsidized Steamship Services, with Statistics showing Steamship 
TraflRc to Dect^mber .31. 1916, and Estimates for fiscal year 1917-1918). Presented by 
Sir George Foster. May ?. 1917 Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

\Of. Report of the Department of Trade and Commerce for the fiscal year ended March 31, 
1916: Part VII — Trade of Foreign Countrip„s. Treaties and Conventions. Presented 
by Sir George Foster. 1917 Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 7. 

11. Report of the Department of Customs Cor the year ended March 31. 1916. Presented by 

Hon. Mr Reld. January 29. 1917.. ..Printed for disfrihnHon and se.ssionnl papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 8. 

12. 13, 14. Reports. P.eturns and Statistics of the Inland Revenues of the Dominion of 

Canada, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1916. Part [. — liJxcIse. Part II. — Weight* 
and Measures. Gas and Electricity. Part III. — Adulteration of Food. Presented by 
Sir fames Lougbeed, January 26. 19 \7.. .Printed for diatributinn and ses.sinnnl onpers. 

15. Report of the Minister of Agriculture for the Dominion of Canada, for the vear ended 
Marfh 31. 1916. Presented bv Hon. Mr Burrell. January 26, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and ses.sinvnl oavera. 

15rt. Report of the Dalr>' and Cold Storage Commissioner for the flscal year ending March .31. 
1916. (Dairyincf. Fruit. Extension of Markets and CJoId Storage.) Presented by Hon. 

Mr. Burrell. 1917 ffot printed. 

10 



7-8 George V Alpliahrticnl Tiidox to So.^sioiiiil Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME S—fonchidnd. 

151^. Report of the Veterinary Director General for the year ending March 31, 1916. Presented 
by Hon. Mr. Burrell, 1917 Printed for distribution and sessional paprrs. 

15c. Report on "The Agricultural In.struction Act," 1915-16, pursuant to Section 8, Chapter 
5 of 3-4 George V. Presented by Hon. Mr. Patenaude, January 31, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 9. 

(This volume is bound in two parts.) 
IS. Report of the Director and Officers of the Experimental Farms for the year ending 31st 
Mai-ch, 1916. — Volumes I, II and III. Presented by Sir George Poster, August 13, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

17. Criminal Statistics for the year ended September, 1915. (Appendix to -the Report of the 

Minister of Trade and Commerce for. the year 1915.) Presented by Sir George Foster, 
1917 Printed for distribution and sessional papers 

18. Return of By-elections for the House of Commons of Canada held during the year 1916. 

Presented by Hon. ^Mr. Speaker, 1917 .Kot printed. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 10. 

19. Report of the Minister of Public Works on the works under his control for the fiscal 

year ended March 31, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Rogers, January 26, 1917. 

^ Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF. VOLUME 11. 

20. Annual Report of the Department of Railways and Canals, for the fiscal year from April 

1, 1915, to March 31, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Cochrane, April 19, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and ses.tional papers. 

20«. Canal Statistics for the season of Navigation, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Reid. May 7, 
1917 Printed for distribution ajid sessional papers. 

20b. Railway Statistics of the Dominion of Canada, for the year ended 30th June, 1916. Pre- 
sented iby Hon. Mr. Cochrane, April 24, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessioiial papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 12. 

20c. Eleventh Report of the Board of Railway Commissioners for Canada, for the year ending 
31st March, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Cochrane, January 23, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

20''. Telephone Statistics of the Dominion of Canada, for the year ended June 30, 1916. Pre- 
sented by Hon. Mr. Cochrane, April 19, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

20e. Express Statistics of the Dominion of Canada, for the year ended June 30, 1916. Pre- 
sented by Hon Mr. Cochrane, April 25, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

20/. Telegraph Statistics of the Dominion of Canada, for the year ended June 30, 1916. Pre- 
sented by Hon. Mr. Cochrane, April 19, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

20(7. Report of the Royal Commission appointed to consider the general problem of transporta- 
tion in Canada, comprising : — Report of Sir H. F. Drayton and Mr. W. M. Acworth ; 
Report of Mr. A. H. Smith ; and. Appendices A and B, being Report of Appraisal of 
Canadian Northern Railway System and Grand Trunk I'aciflc Railway, by Mr. iJeo. 
P. Swain, C.E. Presented by Sir Thomas White, May 2, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 
11 



7-8 George V Alithabctical Lidcx to Sessional Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 13. 

21. Forty-ninth Annual Report of the Departmtnt of Marine and Fisheries, for the year 

191 5-1 B — Marine. Treeented by Hon. Mr. Ilazen, January 23, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

22. List of Shirping issued by the L>ei.;irinniit of Marine and Fisheries, being a list of vessels 

on the Registry Bool<s of the Dominion of Canada, on the 31srt day of December, 1916. 
rresonted by Hon. Mr. Hazen, September 4, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

23. Supplement to the Forty-ninth Annual Report of the Department of Marine and Fisheries 

for the fiscal year 1915-16. (Marine) — Steamboat In-spection Report. Presented by 
Hon. Mr. Hazcn, April 19, 1917 Printed for distribution and sessional papers- 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 14. 

24. Report of the Postmaster General for the ye:ir ended 31st March, 1616. Presented by 

Hon. Mr. Blondin, February 1, 1^11.. .Printed for distributioyi anel sessional papers. 

25. Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, for the fiscal year ending March 31, 

1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Roche, Januarj' 22, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 15. 

256. Annual Report of the Topographical Surveys Branch of the Department of Interior, 
1915-16. Presented by Hon. Mr. Roche, June 19, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

25c. Report of Hydrometric Surveys (Stream Measurements), for the calendar year 1915. 
Presented by Hon. Mr. Roche, April 19, 1617. 

Printed for distributioyi anel sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 16. 

25d. Fifteenth Report of the aeographic Board of Canada for year ended March 31, 1916. 
Presented, 1917 Not printed. 

25e. Report of the British Columbia Hydrometric Survey for the calendar year 1915 (Water 
Resources Paper No. 18 of th« Dominion Water Power Branch, Department of the 
Interior). Presented by Hon. Mr. Roche, July 5, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

25/. Progress Report of the Manitoba Hydrometric Survey for .the calendar year 1915 (Water 
Resources Paper No. 19 of the Dominion Water Power Branch, Department of the 
Iiiterior). Presented by Hon. Mr. Roche, July 7, 1917. 

Printed for distribution atiil tetsional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 17. 

26. Summary Report of the operations of the Geological Survey, Department of Mines, lor 
the calendar year, 191 fi. Presr-nted by Hon. Mr. Meighen, August 2S, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

26a. Summary Report of the Mines BranoJi of the Department of Mines, for the calendar y<:.r 
ending 3l8t December, 1915. Preaemted by Hon. Mr. Patenaude, April 19, 1917. 

Printed for distribution anel sessional papers. 

12 



7-8 George V Alpliabctical Index to tScbsioual Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 18. 

27. Report of the Departinent of Indian Affairs for the year ended March 31, If'ie. Pre- 

penled by Hon. Mr. Roche, January 22, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

28. Report of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police, 191G. Presented by Sir Robert Borden. 

April 19, 1917 .. ..Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 19. 

29. Report of the Secretary of State of Canada for the year ende<l March 31, 1916. rresente<l 

by Hon. Mr. Roche, August 18, 1917 Printed for distribution and sessioneil papers. 

30. The Civil Service List of Canada for the year 1916. Presented 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

31. Biglith Annual Report of the Civil Service Commission of Canada for the year ended 

August 31, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Patenaude, April 19, 1917. 

Pri7ited for distribution and sessional papers. 

32. Annual Report of the Department of Public Printing and Stationery for the fiscal year 

ended March 31, 1916. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, July 31, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

33. Report of the Secretary of State for External Affairs for the year ended March 31, 1917. 

Presented 1917 Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 20. 

34. Report of the Minister of Justice as to the Penitentiaries of CanaAa. for the fiscal year 

ending March 31, 1916. Presented 1917. . .Prwted for distribution and sessional papers. 

35. Report of the Militia Council for the Dominion of Canada, for the fiscal year ending 

March 31, 1916. Presented by Sir A. E. Kemp, February 3, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

36. Report of the Department of Labour for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1916. Pre- 

sented by Hon. Mr. Crothers, January 22, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

36a. Ninth Report of the Registrar of Boards of Conciliation and Investigation of the pro- 
ceedings under "The Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, 1907," for the fiscal year 
ending March 31, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Crothers, January 22, 1917. 

Printed for distribtition and sessional papers. 

37. Twelfth Annual Report of the Commissioners of the Transcontinental Railway, for the 

year ended March 31, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Cochrane, April 19, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21. 

38. Report of the Department of the Naval Service, for the fiscal year enddns March 31, lf'16. 

Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, January 22, 1917. 

Pi-intcd for distribution and sessional papers. 

38". Supplement to the Sixth Annual Report of the Department of Naval Service, Fisheries 
Branch, — Contributions to Canadian Biology, being studies from the biological stations 
of Canada, 1915-1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, June 4, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

3Sc. Lobster Conservation in Canada, by A. P. Knight, MA. 

Printed for distribiUion and sessio7ial papers. 

39. Forty-ninth Annual Report of the Fisheries Branch of the Department of the Naval 

Servii^e, 1915-16. Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, Januai-y 22, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

13 



r->< George V Alpliabctital ludi'x to Sessional Papers A. 1917 



CONTEirrS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

40. The R<»port of the Joint. Librarians of Parliament. Presented by Hon. Mr. Speaker, 

January 19, 1917 Not prinfed. 

41. Copies of Orders in Council, as follows: — 

P.O. 1917, dated the 15th day of July, 1916, respecting the appointment of a 
Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for External Affairs dijrlng the continuance 
of the war. 

P.C. 2576, dated the 21st day of October, 1916. respecting the appointment of Hugh 
Clark, Member of the House of Commons for the ETlectoral District of J^orth Bruce, 
to the position of Parliamentary Under Secretary for Exernal Affairs, during the con- 
tinuance of the present war. 

P.C. 1720, dated the 15th day of July, 1916, respecting the appointnnent of a Par- 
liamentary Secretary of the Department of Militia and Defence, during the continu- 
ance of the present war. 

P.C. 1730, dated the 19th day of July, 1916, respecting the appointment of Fleming 
Blancliard McCurdy, Member of the House of Commons for the Electoral District of 
Shelburne and Queens, to the position of Parliamentary Secretary of the Department 
of Militia and Defence, during the continuance of the present war. 

P.C. 2651, dated the 2Sth day of October, 1916, respecting the establi.shment of a 
ministry In London charged with the administration of the overseas forces of Canada, 
and the direction and control of the expenditures abroad In connection therewith. 

P.C. 2656, dated the 31st day of October, 1916, respecting the appointment of 
Honourable Sir George Halsey Perley, to the position of Minister of Overseas Military 
Forces from Canada in the United Kingdom. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, January 
18, 1917 Printed for sessional papers only. 

42. Papers relating to the Imperial War Conference, 1917. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, 

January 22, 1917.. PiHnted for sessional papers only. 

42«. Copy of a Parliamentary Paper (Cd. 856'6), containing extracts from the Minutes of the 
Proceedings of the Imperial War Conference, 1917, and Papers laid before the Con- 
ference. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, June 15, 1917. 

Pnnted for distributioji and sessional papers. 

43. Copies of Orders In Council, as follows : — 

P.C. 64-15-25, dated the 29th June, 1916, authorizing the superannuation of Mr. 
Silas Blair Kent, a clerk in Sub-division " B " of the First Division, employed as 
chief fishing bounty officer of the Naval Service Department 

P.C. 3192, dated 30th December, 1916, Regulations governing the payment of 
Separation Allowance in the Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Naval Canadian Volun- 
teer Reserve. 

P.C. 3108, dated 19th September, 1916, Regulations governing payment of "Com- 
mand Money " to officers on " Special Service," etc., In the Royal Canadian Nav^y- 

P.C. 2942, dated 29th November, 1916, Regulations governing payment of "Hard- 
lying Money " in the Royal Canadian Navy. 

P.C 2442, dated 11th October, 1916, Amendment to Order In Council P.C. 1334, 
dated 3rd June, 191S, establishing Rates of Pensions for the Military and Naval Forces 
of Canada. 

P.C. 2130, dated 9th September, 1916, Regulations for enrolment of men In the 
Royal Canadian Volunteer Reserve for service in the Royal Navy. 

P.C. 1939, dated 18th August, 191€, Order made under War Measures Act, 1914, 
to reduce risk of persons of enemy nationality landing in Canada under guise of 
neutrals. Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, January 22, 1917 Not printed. 

43a. Copy of extract. from Order in Council No. P.C. 942, dated 5th April, 1917, with reference 
to Regulations governing the Payment of Separation Allowance in the Royal Canadian 
Navy. Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, June 11, 1917 Not printed. 

43b Copy of extract from Order in Council No. P.C. 1397, dated 21st May, 1917 : Rules and 
Regulations to apply to persons who are employed In or who are In or in the vicinity 
of any store, wharf, etc.. In or upon which any ammunition, etc., is handled. Pre- 
sented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, June 14, 1917 Xof ipi-intcd. 

14 



7-8 Qeorg3 V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Contimicd. 

43c. Copy of Extract from Order in Council No. P.C. 1576. dated 11th June, 1917: Regulations 
instituting the rank of Chief Skipper and Skipper In the Royal Canadian Navy. Pre- 
sented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, June 20. 1917 Not printed. 

43d. Copy of Order in Council. P.C. 69/1774, dated 28th June. 1917, containing Regulations 
for the PajTTient of Specialist Allowance to R.N.CV.R, and R.N.C.V.R Overseas 
Division. Presented by Hon, Mr. Hazen, July 9. 1917 Not printed 

43c. Copy Extract from Order In Council, P.C. No 1783. dated 29th June, 1917: — Rules and 
Regulations governing the issue of Pay, Allowances and Pensions, Department of the 
Naval Service — Copy Extract from Order in Council, P.C No. 1871, dated 6th July, 1917 ; 
— Amendment to the Regulations for the payment of Separation Allowance to the 
dependents of those on Active Service under the Naval Service Department. Presented 
by Sir James Lougheed. July 12, 1917. (Senate) Not printed. 

43/. Extract from Order in Council. P.C 1993 of the 17th July, 1917: Scale of Subsistence 
Allowances to Officers and men of the Naval Service when travelling on duty. — And 
also. — Extract from Order in Council, P.C 1994 of the 17th July, 1917: Scale of 
Allowances in lieu of lodging, provisions, fuel and light, for Officers and men of the 
Naval Service. Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, August 6, 1917 Not printed. 

439. Extract from Order in Council. P.C 2105. dated 9th Augnist. 1917: Amendments to regu- 
lations for the issue of pay. allowances and pensions to officers, warrant officers and 
men invalided, etc.. from the Naval Service Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, August 
27. 1917 Not printed. 

43ft. Extract from Order in Council ("Defence of Canada Order"), P.C. No. 2277, dated the 
17th August. 1917: — Amendments respecting iNaval Service. The Senate. .2Vot printed. 

43i. Extract from Order in Council, No. P.C. 2433, dated 1st September, 1917: — ^Regulations 
re P^ and Allowances to Officers and Men after discharge from the Canadian Naval 
Service. The Senate Not printed. 

44. Correspondence relating to the withdrawal of the Ross Rifle from the Canadian Army 

Corps Presented by Sir Robert Borden. January 22, 1917. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

45. Report of the War Purchasing Commission, covering period from its appointment on May 

8, 1915. to December 31. 1916 Presented by Hon. Mr. Kemp, January 23.. 1917. 

Not printed. 

46. Copies of Orders in Council respecting the establishment of a National Service Board of 

CJanada, and appointments thereto, under the provisions of the War Measures Act, 
1914. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, January 23. 1917. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

47. Copy of Agreement between His Majesty the King and The Acadia Coal Ck>mpany, Ltd.. 

concerning the lease of the Vale Railway. Presented by Hon. Mr. Cochrane, January 
2.'?, 1917 Not printed. 

48. Copy of Agreement between His Majesty the King and The Quebec and Saguenay Rail- 

way Co., The Quebec Railway Light, and Power Co. The LotbiniSre and Megantlc 
Railway Co., and The Quebec Railway Light Heat and Power Co., respecting the 
acquisition by the Government of the said railways Presented by Hon. Mr. Cochrane, 
January 23. 1917 Not printed. 

48a. Return to an Order of the House, of the 23rd April, 1917, for a copy of all proceedings 
in the Exchequer Court of Canada, and judgment of Mr. Justice Cassels concerning the 
reference of the Quebec and Saguenay Railway, the Quebec and Montmorency Railway 
and the Lotbinifire and Megantic Railway. Presented June 21, 1917. Mr. Lemleux. 

Not printed. 
15 



r-& George V Alphabetical Lidex to Scssioiial Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

48b. Return to an Order of the House, of the 14lh May, 1917, for a copy of the Judgment 
delivered by Mr. Justice Cassels on the 24th day of January, 1917, In the matter of 
fixing the price to be paid by the <'.overnment for the Quebec, Montmorency and 
Charlevoix Railwaj', the Quebec aiid Sagnienay Railway, and the Lotblni^re and 
Megantlc Railway, under the atatute of last session. Chapter 22, 6-7 George V. Pre- 
sented June 27. 1917. Mr. Graham Xot printed. 

49. S:rit<nient of Governor Generaro Warrants Issued since the last Session of Parliament 

or. account of 1916-17. Presented by Sir Thomas White, January 25, 1917. 

Not printed. 

49o. Slattment of Governor General's Warrants Issued since the adjournment of Parliament 
on February 7. 1917. Presented by Sir Thomas White, April 24, 1917..2V^o( Printed. 

50. Copy of Amendments to the Radiotelegraph Regulations since the 1st August, 1914. 

Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, January 25, 1917 Kot printed. 

50a. Copy of Amendment to subsection (d) of section KM of the Radiotelegraph Regulations ; 
Operation of ship stations within a Canadian harbour. Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen. 
January 29, 1917 Xot printed. 

SOb. Copy of Amendment to Radiotelegraph Regulations issued by the Minister of the Naval 
Service, under Section 11, Chapter 43, of the Radiotelegraph Act, 3-4 George V. Pre- 
sented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, April 19, 1917 Not printed. 

51. Statemen-t of Expenditure on account of "Miscellaneous Unforeseen Expenses," from the 

Ist April, 1916, to the 18th January, 1917, in accordance with the Appropriation Act of 
1916. Presented by Sir Thomas White, January 25, 1917 Not printed. 

52. Statement of Temporary Loans Issued since April 1, 1916, to 18th January, 1917. Pre- 

sented by Sir Thomas White, January 25, 1917 Not printed. 

53. Report and Statement of Receipts and Expenditures of the Ottawa Improvement Com- 

mission to March 31, 1916. Presented by Sir Thomas White, January 25, 1917. 

Not printed. 

54. Statement of the Receipts and Expenditures of the Royal Society of Canada, for the year 

ended April 30, 1916. Presented by Sir Thomas White, January 25, 1917.. .Not^printcd. 

55. Statement of Receipts and Expenditures of the National Battlefields Commission to Slsi 

March, 1916. Presented by Sir Thomas White, January 25, 1917.. ..Not printed. 

56. Statement of Superannuation and Retiring Allowances In the Civil Service during the 

year ending 3lst December, 1916, showing name, rank, salary, service allowance and 
cause of retirement of each person superannuated or retired, also whether vacancy 
has been filled by promotion, or by appointment, and the salary of any new appointee. 
Presented by Sir Thomas White. January 25, 1917 Not printed. 

57. Statement in pursuance of Section 17 of the Civil Service Insurance Act, for the year 

ending March 31, 1916. Presented by Sir Thomas White, January 25, 1917. 
, Not printed. 

58. Regulations under " The Destructive Insect and Pest Act," pursuant to Section P, 

Chapter 31 of 9-10 Edward \ai. Presented by Hon. Mr. Burrell, January 26. 1917. 

Not printed. 

59. Account of the average number of men employed on the Dominion Police Force during 

each month of the year 1916, and of their pay and travelling expenses, pursuant to 
Chapter 92, Section 6, Subsection 2, of the Revised Statutes of Canada. Presented by 
Hon. Mr. Doherty, January 26, 1917 Not printed. 

60. Copy of the evidence taken before the Hon. Sir Charles Davidson. Kt., Commissioner 

appointed to inquire into the purchase by and on behalf of the Government of the 
Dominion of Canada, of Arms, Munitione, Implements, Materials, Horses, Supplies, and 
other things for the purpose of the present war, and as to the expenditures and pay- 
ments made or a^rreed to be made therefor ; together with the Beport of the said Com 
missioner concerning the sale of Small Arms Ammunition ; purchase of Submarines, and 
Military Cloth (Auburn Woollen Mills Co.). Presented by Hon. Mr. Melplien. Janu- 
ary 30, 1917 Not printed. 

10 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. I'JlT 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

61. Report submitted by the ofliccr in charge of the Canadian Records Office, London, Kpr., to 

The Right Honourable Sir Robert Borden, G.C.M.G., M.P., Prime Minister of Canada, 
on the worlf of the Canadian War Records OfRce since the date of its foundation to 
the 11th January, 1917. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, January 31, 1017. 

Not printed. 

62. Annual Return respecting Trade Unions under Chapter 125, R..S.C., 1906. Presented by 

Hon. Mr. Patenaude, January 31, 1917 Not printed. 

63. A detailed statement of all bonds or securities registered in the Department of the 

Secretary of State of Canada, since last return (22nd January, 1916) submitted to the 
Parliament of Canada under Section 32 of Chapter 19, of the Revised Statutes of 
Canada, 1906. Presented by Hon. Mr. Blondin, January 31, 1917 Not printed. 

64. Return of Orders in Council which have been published in the Canada Gazette, between 

the 1st January, 1916, and the 31st December, 1916, in accordance with the provisions 
of Section 5 of " The Dominion Lands Survey Act," Chapter 21, 7-8 Edward VII. Pre- 
sented by Hon. Mr. Roche, February 1, 1917 Not printed. 

65. Return of Orders in Council which have been published in the Canada Gazette, between 

1st January, 191G, and the 31st December, 1916, in accordance with the provisions of 
"The Forest Reserves and Parl< Act," Section 19, of Chapter 10, 1-2 George V. Pre- 
sented by Hon. Mr. Roche, February 1, 1917 Not printed. 

66. Return of Orders in Council which have been published in the Canada Gazette, between 

the 1st January, 1916, and the 31st December, 1916, in accordance with the provisions 
of Chapter 47, 2 George V, entitled " Tlie Railway Belt Water Act." Presented by 
Hon. Mr. Roche, February 1, 1917 Not printed- 

67. Return of Orders in Council which have been published in the Canada Gazette and in the 

British Columbia Gazette, between 1st January, 1916, and the 31st December, 1916, 
in accordance with provisions of Subsection id) of Section 38 of the regulations for 
the survej', administration, disposal and management of Dominion Lands within the 
40-mile Railway Belt in the Province of Britisii Columbia. Presented by Hon. Mr. 
Roche, February 1, 1917 Not printed. 

68. Return showing all lands sold by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company during the year, 

from the 1st October, 1915, to 30th September, 1916, together with the names of the 
purchasers, in accordance with the Statutes of Canada, 1886, Chapter 9, Section 8. 
Presented by Hon. Mr. Roche, Febi-uary 1, 1917 Not printed^ 

69. Return of Orders in Council which have been published in the Canada Gazette, between 

1st January, 1916, and the 31st December, 1916, in accordance with the provisions of 
Section 77 of "The Dominion Lands Act," Chapter 20, 7-8 Edward VII. Presented by 
Hon. Mr. Roche, February 1, 1917 Not printed. 

70. Certified copies of Reports of the Committee of the Privy Council, approved by His 

Excellency the Governor General on the 29th November, 1916, giving authority for the 
cancellation on and from the 1st January, 1917, of the agreements between the Govern- 
ment of Canada and the Governments of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, respec- 
tively, respecting the services of the Royal North West Mounted Police in those 
provinces. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, February 1, 1917. 

Printed for sessional papers only 

70a. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General, of the 31st January, 1917, 
for a copy of all documents, letters, messages, correspondence, etc., respecting the 
termination of the agreements betv/een the Government of Canada and the Govern- 
ments of the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta in reference to the Royal North 
West Mounted Police. Presented June 1, 1917. Mr. McCraney Not printed. 

71. licturn to an Order of the House, of the 20th March, 1916, for a copy of all telegrams, 

letters and correspondence concerning the appointment of Mr. Alfred Gravel, Harbour 
Commissioner of Quebec, and concerning all other candidates for the positiim of 
Commissioner on the Harbour Board of Quebec, to represent the South Shore. Pre- 
sented February 2, 1817. Mr. Bourassa Not printed. 

27360—2 17 



7-S Goorpe V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21~r on tinned. 

72. Return to an Adtirt-ss to His iJoyal Highness the Governor Oenerat, of the 2nd February, 

19H, for a copy of all Orders in Council, correspondence, petitions, telegrams and other 
papers or documents bearinj? date between the years 1RS5 and 1914 In any way relating 
to the prohibition of the export of Sockeye Salmon from the Province of British 
Columbia. Presented February 2, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

73. Seventh Annual Report of the Commission of Conservation for the fiscal year ending 

March 31, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, February 5, 1917 Not printed. 

74. Copy of correspondence between Sir Robert Borden and Sir Wilfrid Laurier respecting 

proiiosals for the extension of the term of Parliament, November 3, 1915, to January 
3, 1917. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, May 23, 1917. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

75. Detailed Statement of Customs Duties and the Refund thereof, under Section 92, Consoli- 

dated Revenue Act, for the year ended March 31, 191fi. (Senate) Not printed. 

75a. Detailed Statement of all Remissions and Refunds of the Tolls or duties for the fiscal year 
ending March 31, 1916. — Also, — Supplementary statement of the Remissions and 
Refunds of Tolls and Duties from the Department of Marine and Fisheries. Pre- 
sented by Hon. Mr. Patenaude, April 19, 1917 Not printed. 

76. Ordinances of the Yukon Territory, passed by the Yukon Council in 1916. (Senate). 

Not printed. 

76o. Return of Orders in Council passed under the provisions of Section 18, of Chapter 63, 

Revised Statutes of Canada, " An Act to provide for the Government of the Yukon 

Territory." Presented by Hon. Mr. Patenaude, April 19, 1917 Not prmted. 

y 

76b Return of Orders in Council passed in the j'ear 1917, under the provisions of Section 
IS, of Chapter 63, Revised Statutes of Canada, "An Act to provide for the Govern- 
ment of the Yukon Territory." Presented by Hon. Mr. Sevigny, July 5, 1917. 

Not printed 

77. Copy of extract from Order in Council No. P.C. 43/263, dated 27th January, 1917, 

authorizing Regulations governing the payment of Allowance for the Accountant 
Officers in the Royal Canadian Navy of Receiving Ships and Depot Ships, in accordance 
with the provisions of Secton 47, Chapter 43, 9-10 Edward VII. Presented by Hon. 
Mr. Hazen, February 6, 1917 Not printed. 

78. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all corre- 

spondence respecting the appointment of a Commission to investigate the financial and 
economic condition of Canadian railways, showing the names of the Commissioners, 
the rate of their remuneration, along with the names of the secretaries and engineers 
appointed by them, or by the Commission, and the rate of their remuneration. Pre- 
sented February 6, 1917. — Sir Wilfrid Laurier Not pHnted. 

79. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all pa,per3, 

letters, telegrams and other documents relative to the removal of Mr. H. D. McKenzie 
as mechanical foreman at Stellarton on the Canadian Government Railways, and the 
appointment of his successor. Presented February 6, 1917. — Mr. Macdonald. 

Not prHnted. 

80. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a return showing the 

quantity of freight carried over the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway between L<5vis and 
Moncton since that portion of said railway has been operated by the Canadian Govern- 
ment Railways System. Presented February 6, 1917. — Mr. Copp Not printed. 

81. Return to an Order of the House of the 12th April, 1916, for a Return showing: — 1. How 

many clerks there are in the Interior Department who belong to and are paid from the 
outside service vote and who work in the inside service? 2. The names of said clerks? 
3. Salary paid to each? 4. How long each has been in the service of the Department? 
'). If all or any of these clerks have passed any examination. If so. what eximination 
and en what date or dates? Presented February 6, 1917. — Mr. Turriff.. ..Net printed 

18 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

82. Return to an Order of the House of the loth March, 1916, for a copy of all correspondence 

between the Government and the Provinces, regarding Increased co-operation In the 
Iiromotion of immigration and land settlement, commencing with a letter of the 
Minister of the Interior to the Provincial Prime Ministers, in November, 1911. Pre- 
sented February 6, 1917. — Sir Wilfrid LauHer Not printed. 

83. Return to an Order of the House of the 27th Mai'ch, 1916, for a Return showing: — 1. The 

names and salaries of the persons employed in the Immigration Service in the City 
of ^Montreal ; their respective salaries when appointed and what they receive at the 
present time? 2. Which of such employees are given travelling or other expenses, and 
how much lias been been paid to each on that account since their respective appoint- 
ments. Presented February 6, 1917. — il/r. Lachance Not printed. 

84. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a return showing the 

quantities of timber cut, and the sum paid therefor, to date, under the lease or sale 
of timber made by the Indian Department to Mr. Arthur Webber from lands situated 
near Ship Harbour Lake, Halifax County, together with the name or names of all 
surveyors of the timber cut from the said Indian lands under the above-mentioned sale 
or lease, and copies of all reports made in connection therewith by said surveyors. 
Presented February 6, 1917. — Mr. McLean (Halifax) Not printed. 

85. A copy of the Special Report made by the Royal Commission on Indian Affairs on the 

Kitsilano Indian Reserve, together with the Order in Council passed on the 28th 
March, 1916, and all other papers and correspondence relating to the Report. (Senate). 

Not printed. 

86. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General, of the 31st January, 1917. 

for a copy of all correspondence exchanged between the Dominion Government and 
the Provincial Governments inviting them to a conference on the subject of making 
provisions for returned soldiers, including a copy of the proceedings of the conference 
which took place on the 10th of January at Ottawa on the same subject. Presented 
February 7, 1917. — Sir Wilfrid Laurier Printed for sessional papers only. 

87. Return to an Order of the House, of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all correspon- 

dence between any Member of the Government and Sir Thomas Tait referring to his 
appointment to, and resignation from, the National Service Board. Presented February 
7, 1917. — Mr. Graham Printed for sessional papers only. 

87«. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all corre- 
spondence between Mr. Murray, Secretary of the Manufacturers' Association, and any 
Member of the Government, or Sir Thomas Tait, as head of the National Service 
Board, concerning his suggested appointment as Secretary of the National Service 
Board. Presented June 1, 1917. — Mr. Grahayn Not printed. 

88. Correspondence between the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition concerning 

the formation of a Parliamentary National Service Commission. Presented by Sir 
Robert Borden, February 7, 1917 Printed for sessional papers only. 

89. Return to an Order of the House, of the 5th February, 1917, for a copy of all petitions, 

letters, telegrams, reports and other documents relative to the closing of the Canard 
and Splitlog Post Office and the opening of Loiselleville Post Office, in the County of 
Essex, together with a copy of all petitions and documents relative to the establish- 
ment of rural mail routes from the Loiselleville Post Office. Presented February 7, 
1917. — Mr. Wilcox Not printed. 

90. Report on the Canadian Army Medical Service, by Colonel Herbert A. Bruce, Special 

Inspector General, Medical Services, Canadian Expeditionary Force, dated at London, 
England, 20th September, 1916. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, February 7, 1917. 

Not printed. 

90rt. Report on the Canadian Army Medical Service, by a Board of Officers, presided over by 

Surgeon-General Sir William Babtie, K.C.M.G., C.B., V.C., dated at London, England. 

December 22, 1916. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, February 7, 19n..Not printed 

27360--2J 19 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

90b. Copy of Interim Report of the Surgeon-<Jeneral G. C. Joncss, Director Medical Servicea. 
Canadians, in reply to the Report on the Canadian Army Medical Service by Colonel 
Herbert A. Bruce, Special Inspector-General, Medical Services, Canadian Expedition- 
ary Force, dated London, September 28, 1916. Presented by Sir Edward Kemp, May 31, 
l&n Not printed. 

91. Return to an Order of the House, of the 7th February, 1917, for a copy of all letters, 

telegrams, papers and other documents relative to the closing of the Marine Agency at 
Pictou last autumn, and as to the re-opening of said agency. Presented April 19, 1917. 
— Mr. Macdonald Not printed- 

92. Return to an Order of the House of the .^th February, 1917, for a Return showing: — 1. The 

number of horses that have been bought in Canada for war purposes in each of the 
years 1914, 1915 and 1916, resepctively, (a) for the Canadian Army; (b) for Britain; 
and (c) for France and our other Allies. 2. The amount paid for the horses in each 
of the years for the different countries mentioned. Presented April 19, 1917. — Mr. 
Edwards Xot printed. 

93. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a Return showing: — 1. The 

names, home addresses and former occupations of all censors, decoders or other 
employees of the Government in the different cable stations in Nova Scotia during the 
calendar year 1916. 2. The name of the person who recommended each of the said 
censors, decoders or employees. 3. What salary was paid to each of said persons 
for the calendar year 1916. Presented April 19, 1917. — Mr. Sinckiir. . . .Not printed- 

94. Copies of General Orders promulgated to the Militia for the period between December 

30, 1915. and February 8, 1917. Presented by .Sir Edward Kemp, April 19, 1917. 

Not printed. 

95. Return to an Order of the House of the 11th March, 1915, for a copy of all charges, 

correspondence, letters, telegrams and ether documents relative to the dismissal of 
Frank Dunlop, of Graves Point, at Sydney Mines, in the riding of North Cape Breton 
and Victoria, N.S., and the expenses of such investigation in detail. Presented April 
19, 1917. — Mr. McKenzie Not printed. 

96. Return to an Order of the House of the 3rd April, 1916, for a Return showing: — 1. The 

names of the staff in the office of the High Commissioner for Canada in London? 2. 
Whether any of these officials are natives of Canada. If so which ones? 3. Whether 
it is true, as alleged, that Canada is the only British Dominion which employs none of 
its natives in its High Commissioner's Office. Presented April 19, 1917. — Mr. Proulx. 

Not printed. 

97. Return to an Address to His Royal Highness the Governor General, of the 22nd February, 

1915, for a copy of all Orders in Council, memoranda, correspondence or other docu- 
ments in the possession of the Government, or any Department thereof, relating to the 
trade in dried fish and wines between Portugal and Canada. Presented April 19, 1917. — 
Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

98. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a tabulated statement 

showing the number of divorces granted by the Parliament of Canada since 1867. Pre- 
sented April 19, 1917. — Mr. Lemieux Not printed. 

99. Return to an Order of the House of the 3rd February, 1916, for a copy of all letters, 

telegrams and other documents, including tenders, relating to the mail contract from 
Tatamagouche to New Annan and Tatamagouche Mountain, in the County of Colchester. 
Presented April 19, 1917. — Mr. Macdonald. Not printed. 

100. Copy of nenv Rule in substitution of Rule 23'6 of the General Rules and Orders now in 

force rejsrulating the practice and procedure in the Exchequer Court of Canada, made 
on tlie 16th day of February, 1917. Presented by Hon. Mr. Patenaude, April 19, 1917. 

Not printed. 

20 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21~Continucd. 

100a. Copy of Rule 200 of the General Rules and Orders now in force regulating the practice 
and procedure in the Exchequer Court of Canada ; also, Copy of General Ordbr 
respecting fees and costs in the EJxchequer Court in the exercise of its jurisdicton as a 
Court of Admiralty. Presented by Hon. Mr. Patenaude, May 3, 1917 Not printed. 

101. Return to an Order of the House of the 5th February, 1917, for a return showing a list 

of all persons employed during the year 1916 in, the round-house of the Canadian Gov- 
ernment Railways at Pirate Harbour, N.S., as brakemen, telegraphers, cleaners and 
labourers, showing the dates of their appointments and length of time employed respect- 
ively, and also the monthly rate of wages paid to each of said employees. Presented 
April 19, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

102. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all letters, 

papers, telegrams and other documents relative to the application for, and the granting 
of, a Conciliation Board to the employees of the Acadia Coal Company in the spring of 
1916, the proceedings of said Board, and all other papers in relation to the same. 
Presented April 19, 1917. — Mr. Macdonald Not printed. 

103. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all correspon- 

dence, telegrams and documents of all kinds exchanged between any person or persons 
and the Department of Labour or any other Department of the Government relating to 
the labour trouble at Thetford Mines, P.Q., and also copies of all correspondence 
exchanged between the different Departments of the Government respecting the same 
question. Presented April 19, 1917. — Mr. Yerville Not printed. 

104. Retujifi to an Order of the House of the olst January, 1917, for a copy of all letters, 

papers, telegrams and other documents relative to the application for, and the refusal 
to grant a Conciliation Board as petitioned for under the Industrial Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act by the employees of the Canadian Government Railway at Pictou, who were 
members of the Longshoremen's Union at Pictou during the year 1916. Presented April 

19, 1917. — Mr. Macdonald Not printed. 

105. Return to an Order of the House of the 7th February, 1917, for a copy of the contract 

between the Government and the P. Lyall & Sons Construction Company for the recon- 
struction of the Parliament Building. Presented April 20, 1917. — Mi: Murphy. 

Printed for Sessional Papers only. 

106. Copy of Order in Council P.C. 1062, dated 16th April, 1917, ordering that wheat, wheat 

flour and semolina be transferred to the list of goods which may be imported into Can- 
ada free of duty of customs. Presented by Sir Thomas White, April 20, 1917. 

Printed for Sessional Papers only. 

107. Return to an Order of the House of the 19th April, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 

Whether the Government is aware as to whether there are cases in the Military Service 
in which men after enlistment have been given leave on harvesting furlough, and during 
such leave have been injured by accident, and who have in consequence of such accident 
incurred hospital bills, and who having been treated in hospital have returned to military 
duty and been discharged on account of injuries so received. 2. If so, whether claims 
have been made for hospital care and treatment. 3. If such claims have been recognized 
by the Government. 4. If not, why not. 5. If so, what action has been taken in con- 
nection therewith. 6. Whether in such cases the enlisted person is not entitled to pay 
up to time of discharge, and also the payment of his hospital account. Presented April 

20, 1917. — Mr. MacNutt Not printed. 



o yiie 
hivi 



total value of the Oliver equipment, so-called, supplied the Canadian soldiers who 
crossed to England since the commencement of the present war. Presented by Sir 
Edward Kemp, April 20, 1917 Not pi-intcd. 

109. Return to an Order of the House of the 19th April, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. The 
names of the Members of Parliament who now belong, or who did belong to the Overseas 

21 



1-6 George V Alphubotical Index to SesHiomil Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

Forces or the Militlu Kori-i-s of Canada since the present war was declared. 2. Wheth.-r 
these Members or any of them wore, or are in receipt of pay from the Militia Depart- 
ment and In receipt of their indemnity as Members at the same time. 3. Whether the 
wives of these Members, or any of them were, or are in receipt of separation allowance. 
Presented April 20, 1917. — Mr. Hughes (Kings, P.E.I.) Not printed. 

109«' Supplementary return to an Order of the House of the 19th April, 1917, for a return show- 
ing: — 1. The names of the Members of Parliament who now belong, or who did belong 
to the Overseas Forces or the Militia Forces of Canada since the present war was 
declared. 2. Whether these Members, or any of them were, or are in receipt of pay from 
the Militia Department and in receipt of their indemnity as Members at the same time. 
3. Whether the wives of these Members, or any of them were, or are in receipt of separa- 
tion allowance. Presented April 24, 1917. — J/r. Hughes (Kings, P.E.I.) . . . .Not printed. 

109''. Rrturn to an Order of the House of the 2oth April, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. How 
many Members of the House of Commons are serving or have served in the Canadian 
Army. 2. The names of each of said Members, the date of appointment, and rank. 3. 
The names* of those Members who have resigned or have withdrawn from military 
service and the date of withdrawal or resignation. 4. How much has been paid to each 
for military salary, expenses and separation allowance to wife or relatives, respectively. 
Presented May 31, 1917. — Mr. Turriff Not printed. 

109c- Corrected copy of a return to an Order of the House of the 25th April, 1917, for a return 
showing: — 1. How many Members of the House of Commons are serving or have served 
in the Canadian Army. 2. The names of each of said Members, the date of appointment, 
and rank. 3. The names of those Members who have resigned or have withdrawn from 
military service and the date of withdrawal or resignation. 4. How much has been paid 
to each for military service, expenses and separation allowance to wife or relatives, 
respectively. Presented June 14, 1917. — Mr. Tun-iff Not printed. 

110. Return to an Order of the House of the 19lh April, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. What 

amounts have been given to the Canadian Patriotic Fund .to December 31, 1916, and 
what amounts have been promised for 1917, by the different counties, towns and cities 
in each of the different provinces. 2. The names of the different counties, towns and 
cities, and the respective amounts subscribed and promised by each. 3. What counties, 
cities and towns in each province, if any, have not contributed any amount to the said 
fund up to the present time. Presented April 24, 1917. — Mr. Edwards. . ..Not printed. 

110«. Return to an Order of the House of the 19th April, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. How 
much money has been subscribed and voted to the Canadian Patriotic Fund by each of 
the different provinces to December 31, 1916. 2. How much money has been paid to the 
Canadian Patriotic Fund by each of the different provinces during the same time. 3. 
How much money has been promised by county, township, city or other grants by each 
province for the year 1917. 4. How many persons in each province have received assist- 
ance from the Canadian Patriotic Fund to December 31, 1916. 5. The total amount so 
expended in each province. Presented April 24, 1917. — Mr. Edxoards. . ..Not printed. 

111. Copy of Order in Council P.C. 802, dated 23rd March, 1917, in respect to taking over of the 

Ross Rifle Factory by the Government of Canada. Presented by Sir Edward Kemp, 
April 24, 1917 Xot printed. 

112. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all documents. 

letters, telegrams and other correspondence in the Department of the Interior, relating 
to Krazing leases numbers 2785, 2803, 2843, 3701, 3998, 4G03, 5566, 6220 and 6221. Pre- 
sented April 25, 1917. — Mr. Steele ^o^ printed 

113. M'^moianOum from the Superintendent of Immigration respecting the advertising by the 

Canadian Government in United States newspapers for farm hands to work in Canada : 
together with a copy of the advertisements and instructions concerning the nme. Pre- 
sented by Hon. Mr. Roche. April 2.", 1917 Xot printed 

22 



7-S George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 101' 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21~Continnrd. 

114. Copies of Orders in Council: — 

P.C. 341, dated the 7th day of February, 1017, respecting the exportation of news- 
print paper in sheets or rolls by license only under regulations by the Minister of 
Customs. 

P.C. 445, dated the 17th day of February, 1917, containing orders and regulations 
respecting the price, sale, control, distribution, transport, etc., of newsprint paper in 
sheets or rolls. 

P.C. 1059, dated the 16th day of April, 1917, empowering the Minister of Custom.s 
to fix the quantity and price of newspjint paper furnished or to be furnished to the pub- 
lishers in Canada by the manufacturers ; and controlling the distribution and delivery 
of the same. 

P.C. lOGO, dated the 16th day of April, appointing R. A. Pringle a commissioner 
to conduct an inquiry into and concerning the manufacture, sale, price and supply of 
newsprint paper within the Dominion of Canada. Presented by Sir Thomas White, April 
26, 1917 Not printed. 

115. P.C. 3412, dated the 19th day of December, 1917, concerning the appointment of Mr. S. A. 

Armstrong as Director of the Military Hospitals Commission. Presented by Sir Thomas 
White, April 26, 1917 Not- printed. 

116. Retui-n to an Order of the House of the 3rd February, 1917, for a return showing the 

names and post office addresses of all purchasers of fish scrap from the reduction works 
at Canso in 1916, showing the price paid by each of said purchasers. Presented April 
26, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

117- Return to an address to His Excellency the Governor General of the 23rd April, 1917, for 
a copy of the Order in Council increasing the toll rates on Victoria bridge, Montreal, and 
also a copy of all petitions, telegrams, letters and other documents referring to said 
increase. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. Lemieux Not printed. 

118. Return to an Order of the House of the 23rd April, 1917, for a copy of all letters, tele- 

grams, petitions and all other papers concerning the substitution of the name of Luce- 
ville given to the Intercolonial Railway Station of Ste. Luce, County of Rimouski, 
Quebec. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. Lemieux Not printed. 

119. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all vouchers, 

correspondence, etc., in connection with the repairs to Beaver Harbour Wharf, Halifax 
County, within the last four years. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. McLean {Halifax). 

Not printed. 

120- Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all correspon- 
dence, vouchers, etc., in connection with the repairs to Harrigan Cove Wharf, Halifax 
County, in 1914-15, under the foremanship of James McDonald. Presented April 30, 
1917. — Mr. McLean {Halifax) Not printed. 

121. Supplementary return to an Order of the House of the 16th February, 1916, for a return 

showing: — 1. The amounts expended in Railway Subsidies in Canada during the years 
1912, 1913, 1914 and 1915. 2. The amounts by provinces, and the names of the lines to 
which granted. 3. Amounts expended on the construction of Government-owned rail- 
ways in Canada during the above years. 4. The amount expended in each province, and 
the name of the line of railway on which such expenditure was made. 5. Amounts ex- 
pended on harbour and river improvements in Canada during the above years. 6. The 
amounts by provinces and the particular places where expended. 7. Amounts expended 
on the building of public wharves, public breakwaters, and public dredging in North 
Cape Breton and Victoria during the years 1905 to 1911. inclusive, including the expend- 
iture on Government railways. 8. Amounjts expended for like purposes in the said 
county, during the years 1912, 1913, 1914 and 1915. Presented April 30, 1917. — .Wr. 
McKenzie Not printed. 

122. Return to an Order of the House of the 19th April, 1916, for a copy of all letters, petition.^!. 

correspondence and telegrams exchanged between the Government, its district enf:ineer. 

23 



7-S George V AlphabLtioal Index to Sessional Papers A. 191" 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

and all other i)er.sons, concerning either the construrtion or repairing or purchase of the 
wharves at the following places: He Terrnt Sud, the Church in the Village of He Perrot. 
the Village of Vaudreuil. I'ointc Cavagnal. Hurtson, Ulgauil. (Jraham, Pointe Fortune, 
anil He Perrot Nonl. Also, a copy of all speoiflcatioHB and reports already brought down 
at my retiuest in relation to the documents iirior to and since iy04, and a statement of 
the amounts that have been paid for such construction or repairs, and to whom Ih'V 
wore paid. Presented April 30, 1917.— Wr. /ioj/rr Not printnl. 

122a- Rettirn to an Order of the House of the ICth February, 191fi, for a copy of all letters, 
petitions, correspondence, telegrams and reports, exchanged between the Government, 
the engineers residing in the district, and all other persons, concerning the construction 
and ryjalring done to the wharves mentioned below, since 1904, and of all data and 
reports already produced at my request and relating to documents prior to 1904 ; also 
the amounts of money paid for such construction and repairing, and to whom paid : — 
The wharf at He Perrot North. South, and at the Church ; of the Village of Vaudreuil ; 
r.f Pointe Cavagnal ; of Hudson ; of Graham ; of Rigaud, and of Pointe Fortune. Pre- 
sriittd April 3ii, 1917.— 3/>-. -Boj/cr Xot printed. 

122^- Return to an Order of the House of the 30th April, 1917, for a copy of all letters, petitions, 
correspondence, telegrams and reports exchanged between the Government, the resident 
engineer and all other persons, concerning the construction and repairing done to tho 
wharves at He Perrot North, South and at the Church; Village of Vaudreuil. Pointe 
Cavagnal, Hudson, Graham, Rigaud and Point Fortune since. 1904. Also, a copy of all 
data and reports regarding above already produced at my request relating to documents 
prior to 1904, showing the amounts of rnoney paid for such construction and repairing, 
and to whom paid. And also, return to an Order of the House of the 30th April, 1917, 
for a copy of all letters, petitions, correspondence and telegrams exchanged between the 
Government, the district engineer, and any other persons concerning either the con- 
struction, repairing or purchase of the wharves at He Perrot South, the Church in the 
Village of He Perrot, Village of Vaudreuil, Pointe Cavagnal, Hudson, Rigaud, Graham, 
Pointe Fortune and He Perrot North, since 1904. Also a copy of all specifications and 
reports already brought down at my request in relation to above prior to, and since 1904, 
giving a statement of the amounts that have been paid for such construction or repairs, 
showing to Avhom they were paid. Presented August 13, 1917. — Mr. Boyer. 

Xot printed. 

123. Return to an Order of the House of the 19th April, 1910, for a copy of all letters, petitions, 
corresppndence and telegrams exchanged between the Government, its resident engineer, 
and all other prsons, concerning the dredging work done at the following places: — Ste. 
Anne de Bellevue, Pointe Fortune, Ottawa River Channel between He au Foin and He ;\ 
Paquin, Graham channel, Rigaud channel, Hudson Heights channel, Hudson, Como, 
Pointe Cavagnal, channel at Vaudreuil Village, Dorion Bay channel, He Perrot Church, 
He Perrot Sud Wharf, and He Perrot Nord Wharf. Also, a statement of the amounts 
paid to different persons, companies, etc., for such work, the dates, etc.. and a copy of 
the estimates already brought down at my request, the whole since 1904. Presented 
April 30, 1917. — Mr. Boycr • Xot printed. 

123^- Return to an Order of the House of the 16th February. 191t;. for a copy of all letters, 
petitions, correspondence, telegrams and repoi'ts exchanged between the Government, the 
resident engineer of the district, and all other persons, concerning the dredging work 
done at the places below named, and the amount of money paid to divers, persons com- 
panies, etc.. for such work, as well as the statements already presented at any request, 
the whole since 1904 : — At the wharf of He Perrot, North, South and at the Church; in 
Dorion Bay channel; at Vaudreuil Village channel; at Pointe Cavagnal; at Como; at 
Hudson ; at Hudson Heights channel ; at Graham channel ; in the Rigaud River chan- 
nel ; in the Ottawa river ; He aux Poires channel ; at Pointe Fortune, and at Ste- Anne 
de Bellevue channel. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. Boyer Not printed. 

124- Iteturn to an Order of the House of the 3rd May, 191G, for a copy of all letters, telegrams, 
bills, vouchers and memoranda in connection with the repairs to the wharf at Upper 
Pre spect, Halifax County, N.S., in 191.'). Presented April 30, 1917. --.Wr. McLean 

(lialifa-T) Xot printed. 

24 



T-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sc'-sional Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21~Con finned. 

125. Return to an Order of the House of the 3rd May, 1916, for a copy of all letters, telcBrams, 

bills, vouchers and memoranda in connection with the repairs to the wharf at 
Shad Bay. Halifax County, N.S., in 1915. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. McLean 
(Halifax) Wot printrd. 

126. Return to an Order of the House of the 1st Febru;iry, 1917, for a copy of all correspond- 

ence in the possession of the Department of Public Works bearing date after September, 
1911, relating to the expenditure of money voted last session for harbour improvements 
at Tracadie, in the County of Antigonish, including copies of all letter's relating to the 
same written by Mr. G. A. R. Rollings to the said Minister of Public Works or to any 
other member of the Government. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair. .Not printed. 

127. Return to an Order of the House of the 3rd February. 1917, for a copy of all letters, 

telegrams, reports and other documents received by the Government during the years 
1915 and 1916, relative to the repairs required on the breakwater at Souris, P.E.I. 
Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. Hughes (Kinys, P.K.I.) Not printed. 

128. Return to an Order of the House of the 1st February, 1917, for a copy of all correspond- 

ence in the possession of the Department of Public Works bearing date after September, 
1911, relating to the extension of a breakwater at Breen's Point, in the County of Anti- 
gonish. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

129. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all corre- 

spondence, vouchers, etc., in connection with the construction of the- Mushaboom Har- 
bour Wharf, Halifax County, in 1913. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. McLean 
(Halifax) Not printed. 

130. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a return showing all ex- 

penditures made since March 31, 1916, by the Public Works Department in the several 
provinces of Canada, specifying the name of the work, the amount already spent thereon, 
and the estimated total expenditure in each case. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. 
McLean (Halifax) Not printed. 

131. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all correspond- 

ence, vouchers, etc., in connection m ith the construction of the Port Dufferin West 
Wharf, Halifax County, in 1913-14. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. McLean (Halifax). 

Not printed 

132. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all corre- 

spondence, vouchers, etc., in connection with the repairs to the Port Dufferin East 
Wharf, Halifax County, in 1915. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. McLean (Halifax). 

Not printed. 

133. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all correspond- 

ence, vouchers, etc., in connection with the construction of a wharf at Ecum Secum Wosr_ 
Halifax County. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. McLeav ^^a'lHf, , .. . .Not printed. 

134. Return to an Order of the House of the 27th March, 1916, for a copy of- all correspondence, 

letters, telegrams, etc., in any way referring to the dredging at Margaree Harbour, In- 
verness County, N.S., during 1913, 1914, 1915 and 1916. Presented April 30, 1917. — Mr. 
Chisholm Not printed. 

135. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 1142, dated the 24th day of April, 1917, under the provi- 

sions of the War Measures Act, 1914, containing regulations under which British ships 
registered in Canada, or under construction for neutral owners, may until further order 
be requisitioned by His Majesty for the carriage of foodstuffs, etc., or for any purpose 
whatsoever; and cancelling Orders in Council, P.C. 2923, dated the 24th day of 
November 1916, and P.C. 1915, dated the 31st day of March, 1917, in respect thereto. 
Also certified copy of a report of the Committee of the Privy Council, approved by His 
Excellency the Governor General on the 30th day of January, 1917, respecting the 
exercise of the requisitioning power by His Majesty's Government in the case of Can- 
adian vessels. Presented by Hon. Mr. Reid, April 30, 1917 Not printed. 

25 



"-8 Gcorgo V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 2l~Cont{nued. 

136. Hcturn to an Order of the IIou^je of the 23rd April, 1917, for a return show- 

inK: — 1. Tho namcH, former post offlce addresses, occupations and salaries paid to the 
censors and decoders In the employ of the Government at Hazel Hill and Canso during 
the year 1916. 2. How much has been expended in connection with this service at Canso 
and Hazel Hill since the first of August, 1914, up to the present date. 3. How much has 
been expended In connection with the said service In embracing all the stations in the 
province of Nova Scotia from August 1, 1914, up to the present date. Presented May 2, 
1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

137. Return to an Order of the House of the 23rd April, 1917, for a copy of all contracts and 

agreements between Sir Charles Ross, his successors or assigns, and His Majesty the 
King, represented by the Minister of Militia and Defence, since and including the agree- 
ment between them dated the 27th day of March, A.D., 1902. Presented May 2, 1917. 
Mr. Sorthrup Printed for Sessional Papers only. 

138. Return to an Order of the House of the 23rd April, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. How 

many permanent civil servants or officials were in the employ of the Department of 
Militia and Defence on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 31st of March, 
1917. 2. How many temporary civil servants and employees of all kinds were in the 
employ of the said Department on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 
31st of March, 1917. 3. How many permanent civil servants or officials were appointed 
by said Department since the 1st of August, 1914. 4. How many temporarj- civil servants 
and employees were employed by said Department since August 1, 1914. 3. What was 
the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses to both permanent 
and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1914. 
6. What was the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses of all 
permanent and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 
31, 1917. 7. How many civil servants were appointed by said Department since October 
10, 1911, under the provisions of Section 21 of the Civil Service Act. Presented May 
2, 1917. — Mr. Macdonald Not printed. 

ISS" Return to an Order of the House of the 2nd May, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 
How many permanent civil servants or officials were in the employ of the Department 
of Naval Affairs on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 31st of March, 
1017. 2. How many temporary civil servants and employees of all kinds were in the 
employ of the said Department on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 
31st of March, 1917. 3. How many permanent civil servants or officials were appointed 
by said Department since the 1st of August, 1914. 4. How many temporary civil servants 
and employees were employed by said Department since Augrust 1, 1914. 5. What was the 
gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses to both permanent and 
temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1911. 6. 
What was the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses of all 
permanent and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 
31, 191T, ' ^'iw many civil servants were appointed by said Department since October 
10, 1911, under the provisions of Section 21 of the Civil Service Act. Presented May 
16, 1917. — Mr. Chisholm Not printed. 

138!'. Return to an Order of the House of the 2nd May, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. How many 
permanent civil servants or officials were in the employ of the Department of Marine 
and Fi.«heries on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 31st day of March, 
1917. 2. How many temporary civil servants and employees of all kinds were in the 
employ of the said Department on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 
31st of March, 1917. 3. How many permanent civil servants or officials were appointed 
by said Department since the 1st of August, 1914. 4. How many temporary civil servants 
anil cmiiloyees were employed by said Department since August 1, 1914, 5. What was the 
grosK amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses to both permanent and 
t€-mporar>' civil .servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1911. 6. 
What was the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses of all 

26 



7-8 George V Alpluibolical Indrx to Sessional Papers A. liMT 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Coxlhnwd. 

permanent and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 
31, 1917. 7. How many civil servants were appointed by said Department since October 
10, 1911, under the provisions of Section 21 of the Civil Service Act. Presented May 
31,1917. — Mr. ^inclmr Not printed. 

138f- Return to an Order of the House of the 9th May, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. How 
many permanent civil servants or oflTicials were in the employ of the Department of Ex- 
ternal Affairs on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 31st of March, 
1917. 2. How many temporary civil servants and employees of all kinds were in the 
employ of the said Department on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 
31st of March, 1917. 3. How many permanent civil servants or officials were appointed 
by said Department since the 1st of August, 1914. 4. How many temporary civil servants 
and employees were employed by said Department since August 1, 1914, 5. What was the 
gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses to both permanent and 
I temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1911. 6. 
What was the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses of all 
permanent and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 
31, 1917. 7. How many civil servants were appointed by said Department since October 
10, 1911, under the provisions of Section 21 of the Civil Service Act. Presented June 
1, 1017. — il/r. Sinclair Not printed. 

IZSd. Return to an Order of the House of the 9th May. 1917, for a return showing: — 1. How 
many permanent civil servants or officials were in the employ of the Department 
of Justice on the 10th day of October. 1911, and how many on the 31st of March, 
1917. 2. How many temporary civil servants and employees of all kinds were in the 
employ of the said Department on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 
31st of March, 1917. 3. How many permanent civil servants or officials v.-ere appointed 
by said Department since the 1st of August, 1914. 4. How many temporary civil servants 
and employees were employed by said Department since August 1, 1914, 5. What was the 
gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses to both permanent and 
temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1911. 6. 
What was the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses of all 
permanent and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 
31, 1917. 7. How many civil servants were appointed by said Department since October 
10, 1911, under the provisions of Section 21 of the Civil Service Act. Presented .June 
21, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

1386- Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a return showing :^1. How 
many permanent civil servants or officials were in the employ of the Department 
of Finance on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 31st of March, 
1917. 2. How many temporary civil servants and employees of all kinds were in the 
employ of the said Department on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 
31st of March, 1917. 3. How many permanent civil servants or officials were appointed 
by said Department since the 1st of August, 1914. 4. How many temporary civil servants 
and employees were employed by said Department since August 1, 1914, 5. What was the 
gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses to both permanent and 
temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1911. 6. 
What was the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses of all 
permanent and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 
31, 1917. 7. How many civil servants were appointed by said Department since October 
10, 1911, under the provisions of Section 21 of the Civil Service Act. Presented June 
29, 1912. — M. Maclean (Halifax) Not printed. 

138/. Return to an Order of the House of the 2nd May 1917, for a return showing: — 1. How 
many permanent civil servants and officials were in the employ of the Department of 
Indian Affairs on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 31st of March, 
1917. 2. How many temporary civil servants and employees of all kinds were in the 
employ of the said Department on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 
Slat of March, 1917. 3. How many permanent civil servants or officials were appointed 

27 



(icor-i' V Ali>lial)tti(;al liuicx tu SL^siunal Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continurd. 

by said neparlimnt Kiiice 1st of August, Hil4. 4. How many temporary civil servants 
and employees wore employed by said Department since August 1, 1014, 5. What was the 
gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses to both permanent and 
temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1914. C. 
What was the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses of all 
permanent and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 
31, 1917. 7. How many civil servants were appointed by said Department since October 
10, 1911. under the provisions of Section 21 of the Civil Service Act. Presented by Hon. 
Mr. Koche, July 10, 1917. — Mr. Kyle Xot printed. 

138i' Return to an Order of the House of the 23rd April, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 
How many permanent civil seivants or officials were in the employ of the Department 
of Agriculture on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 31st day of March, 
1917. 2. How many temporary civil servants and emi^loyees of all kinds were in the 
employ of the said Department on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 
31st of March, 1S17. 3. How many permanent civil servants or offlcials were appointed 
by said Department since the 1st of Augu.ot, 1914. 4. How many temporary civil servants 
and employees were employed by said Department since August 1, 1914, 5. What was the 
gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses to both permanent and 
temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1914. 6. 
W^hat was the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses of all 
permanent and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 
31, 1917. 7. How many civil servants were appointed by said Department since October 
10, 1911, under the provisions of Section 21 of the Civil Service Act. Presented August 
15, 1917. — Mr. Hughes {P. E.I.) Xot printed. 

138''. Return to an Order of the House of the 2nd May, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. How 
many permanent civil servants or officials were in the employ of the Department of State 
and Mines on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 31st of March, 
1917. 2. How many temporary civil servants and employees of all kinds were in the 
employ of the said Department on the 10th day of October, 1911, and how many on the 
31st of March, 1917. 3. How many permanent civil servants or officials were appointed 
by said Department since the 1st of August, 1914. 4. How many temporary civil servants 
and employees were employed by said Department since August 1, 1914, 5. What was the 
gross amount paid by said Department for §alaries and expenses to both permanent and 
temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1911. 6. 
What was the gross amount paid by said Department for salaries and expenses of all 
permanent and temporary civil servants and employees for the fiscal year ending March 
31, 1917. 7. How many civil servants were appointed by said Department since October 
10, 1911, under the provisions of Section 21 of the Civil Service Act. Presented August 
21, 1917. — Mr. McKenzie Not printed. 

139. Return to an address to His Excellency the Governor General of the 23rd April, 1917, 

for a copy of the Order in Council and all other papers in connection with the awarding 
of the contract to J. C. Shields and others, or to the Inland Express Company for 
carrying the mails from Ashcroft to Fort George, B.C. Presented May 2, 1917. — Mr. 
Turriff Xot printed. 

140. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General of the 31st January, 1917,. 

for a copy of all correspondence exchanged with the Governement of the Province of 
Manitoba concerning a statute passed by the Legislature of Manitoba at its last session, 
entitled, "An Act to amend the Jury Act"; together with copies of all Orders in 
Council respecting same. Presented May 3, 1917. — Sir Wilfrid Laurier.. Not printed 

141. Return to an Order of the House of the 7th February, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 

The number of Interned aliens, and nationality of each, employed on public works since 
the 4th August, 1914. 2. The number employed in industrial work in the provinces of 
Canada, and the nationality of each, since the 1st of August, 1914. 3. The number so 

employed at the present time. Presented May 3, 1917. — Mr. Kyte Not printed. 

28 



I 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 101" 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

142. Return to an Order of the House of the 2nd May, 1917, for a copy of the report of the 

Royal Commission appointed by Order in Council, 20th September, 1916, to inquire Into 
and report upon the conditions in regard to the delivery of cargoes of coal to coasting 
vessels in the Maritime Provinces. Presented May 7, 1917. — Mr. Iluohes (Kinffs, 
P.E.I.) Not printed. 

143. Return lo an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 

How many applicants for enlistment in the Canadian Overseas JForces have been 
rejected on account of being physically unfit. 2. How many have been discharged after 
enlistment for the same reason. Presented May 7, 1917. — Mr. Steele.. ..Not printed. 

143«. Return to an Order of the House of the 30th April, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. How 
many Americans have enrolled in Canadian Regiments since the commencement of the 
war. 2. How many natives of the British Isles are so enrolled in Canada since the 1st 
of August, 1911. Presented July 31, 1917. — Mr. Boulay Not printed. 

143b. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 
How many men have enlisted in Canada for overseas service. 2. How many of these 
have been subsequently discharged as unfit. 3. How many of these were discharged in 
Canada, and how many overseas. Presented May 7, 1917. — Mr. Graham. .Not printed. 

143c- Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 
Whether the Minister of Militia or any of the authorities of the Militia Department has 
official statistics as to the recruiting of soldiers in Canada for overseas service. 2. If 
so, what the correct figures are of enlistments in the differ^t overseas regiments raised 
since August, 1914, to date («) Canadian speaking the French language; (&)Canadians 
speaking the English language and born in Canada; (c) British subjects by birth born 
outside of Canada; (d) British subjects by naturalization; (c) British subjects by 
birth born outside of Canada ; (d) British subjects by naturalization ; (e) French Can- 
adian soldiers in regiments commanded by officers speaking the English language raised 
In the province of Quebec; and (/) French Canadian soldiers in battalions raised in the 
other provinces of Canada. Presented June 14, 1917. — Mr. Lanctot Not printed. 

143f/. Copy of Census Statistics showing Summary of Strength of all Units of the Canadian 
Expeditionary Forces in England, period 14th May, 1917, together with statement show- 
ing number of Canadian troops in France, England, in the Near East, St. Lucia and in 
Canada, June, 1917. Presented by Sir Edward Kemp, June 15, 1917.. ..Not printed. 

144. PC. 2314, dated 7th October, 1916, appointing a Special Seed Commissioner and three 

assistants, with authority to pui'chase seed wheat to fill requisitions for seed from 
municipal governing bodies in districts that have suffered crop failure due to the pre- 
valence of rust and frost. Also, P.C. 3073, dated 14th December, 1916, authorizing the 
Special Seed Commission to purchase seed oats and seed barley to fill requisitions for 
seed from municipal governing bodies and farmers' organizations in districts where 
there is no supply. Presented by Hon. Mr. Burrell, May 8, 1917 Not printed. 

145. Return to an Order of the House of the 1st February, 1917, for a copy of all communica- 

tions, reports and documents concerning the alleged treatment of Thos. Kelly, a pri- 
soner in the Stony Mountain Penitentiary. Presented May 9, 1917. — Mr. Buchanan. 

Not printed. 

146. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 11S3, dated 28th April, 1917, authorizing the granting, at 

the request of His Majesty's Government in England, of a further 300 miles of rails for 
use in France in connection with the war. Presented by Hon. Mr. Meighen, May 10, 
1917 Not pri>ited. 

146o- Return to an Order of the House of the 13th June, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. Be- 
tween what points on the Canadian Northern Railway Line west of Edmonton the rails 
are to be'taJten up to be placed on the Grand Trunk Pacific Line. 2. B«-tween what 
points on the Grand Trunk Pacific Line west of Edmonton the rails of the Grand Trunk 
are to be replaced by rails of the Canadian Northern Railway. Presented June 14, 

1917. — Mr. Oliver Not printed. 

29 



r-8 George V Alpluibctical Index to Sessional Papers A. 191 T 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21 -Con tinned. 

146''. Tabulated stiitemcnt showinp list of points on tlie Eastern Division of the National 
Transfontinontal Railway from which rails were lifted for shipment overseas to France, 
mileage lifted at each point and replaced with rails from Intercolonial Railway (to- 
gether with a map accompanying same). Presented by Hon. Mr. Cochrane, June 21, 
J9J7 Not printed. 

147. Return called for by Section 88, of Chapter C2, Revised Statutes of Canada, requirintr 

that the. Minister of the Interior shall lay before Parliament, each year, a return of 
liquor brought from any place out of Canada into the Territories by special permission 
In writing of the Commissioner of the Northwest Territories, for the year ending 3l8t 
December, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Roche, May 11, 1917 Not printed. 

148. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General of the 30th April, 1917, 

for a copy of the application for Arbitration Boards ma^de to the Labour Department 
by the Provincial Workman's Association or its oflicers and the United Mines Workmen 
of Nova Scotia or its ofUcers. Also a copy of all letters, copies of letters and other 
documents relating to this matter, along with all letters, papers, other documents and 
Orders in Council relative to the appointment of a Commission to investigate labour 
and other conditions in the County of Cape Breton. Presented May 11, 1917. — Mr. 
Kytc Not printed. 

149. Return to an Order of the House of the 2nd May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, copies 

of letters, telegrams, reports and all other documents relative to the purchase of the 
two vessels, A. J. McKee and T. J. Drummonds, by the Railway Department under the 
Order in Council dated April 17, 1917. Presented May 14, 1917. — Mr. Macdonald. 

Not printed. 

150. Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all correspoiul- 

ence, telegrams, memoranda, etc., by and with the Department of Railways in con- 
nection with the naming of stations on the Halifax and Eastern Railway. Presented 
May 14, 1917. — Mr. Maclean (Halifax) Not printed. 

151. Return to an Order of the House of the 23rd April, 1917, for a copy of all statements, 

reports, evidence, letters and other papers and documents in the possession of the 
Department of Railways and Canals relating to a claim for a horse belonging to one 
Dan McFarlane, injured at Brinley Brook, N.S., by the Canadian Government Railway. 
Presented May 15, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

152. Return to an Ord«r of the House of the 25th April, 1917, for a copy of all documents, 

papers, correspondence and reports concerning the suspension of Polydore Lebel, 
engineer on the Intercolonial Railway at Rivifire du Loup, as a result of a wreck in the 
year 1916. Presented May 15, 1917. — Mr. Lapointe {Kamouraska) Not printed. 

153. Return to an Order of the House, of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all letters, 

telegrams and other documents relative to the removal of Mr. Spenny as Trackmasiter on 
the Short Line, so-called, of the Canadian Government Railway, and to the appoint- 
ment of Henry Gray as his successor. Presented May 15, 1917. — Mr. Macdonald. 

Not printed. 

154. Return to an Address to His Royal Highness the Governor General, of the 7th Februai-y, 

1916, for a copy of all papers in connection with the appointment of L4on Roy as inter- 
preter in the Department of the Interior; and also a copy of the Order in iCouncil, 
documents and correspondence relating to his dismissal. Presented May 16, 1917. — 
t>ir Wilfrid Law'icr Not piHnted. 

155. Return to an Order of tlie House, of the 30th April, 1917, for a copy of all letters, papers, 

telegrams and other documents relative to the establishment of the Canadian Govern- 
ment Railway Employees Magazine, showing the circulation thereof, the cost of pro- 
duction, receipts, and the persons employed In connection therewith, giving a sitate- 
ment of the amount received by said persons from the Railway in any capacity. Pre- 

sen'.ed May 21, 1917. — Mr. Macdonald Not printed. 

30 



-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Fapcra A. 101' 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

156. Return to an Orcier of the House, of the 22nd March, 1916, for a Return showing: — 1. 

The number of conductors, brakemen, drivers and firemen, respectively, who were on 
duty on fhe Canadian Government Railways between Moncton and Campbellton during 
the month of February, 1916. 2. The number of hours each of the above mentioned 
trainmen and enginemen were on duty each trip between said points during said month 
of February, 1916. Presented May 21, 1917. — Mr. Copp Not prmted. 

157. Report of Exchequer Court proceedings under Section 49A of the Indian Aot, in respect 

to the removal of the Indians from Sydney Reserve, Nova Scotia. Presented by Hon. 
Mr. Roche, May 22, 1917 Not printed. 

158. Report of the work of the Military Hospitals Commission from its inception to the 

present date. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, May 23, 1917 .Vo( printed. 

159. Copy of correspondence between Members of the Government and the Ctmadian Manu- 

facturers Association respecting the purchase of supplies for the CanadliUi Expedi- 
tionary Forces in England and at the Front. Presented by Sir Ro'ocrt .Bordc-n, May 
23, 1917 .Not printea. 

1G9. Return to an Order of the House, of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of the correspondence 
between the Prime Minister and the ex-Minister of Militia and Defence, wV.ioh led to 
the latter's resignation or dismissal from the Government. Presented by Sir P.obert 
Borden, May 23, 1917. — Mr. Hughes (King's, P.E.I.) Not printed. 

161. Return to an humble Address of the Senate to His Excellency the Governor CJeiieral, 

dated the 2Gth day of January, 1917, for a statement showing the date and object of 
all commissions instituted by the Government of the day, since Its accession to power 
in 1911, up to the present date; the number of days during w^hich each of these 
commissions sat, giving the names of the individuals who formed part of such com- 
missions, and what was the cost of each to the country. (Senate.) Not printed. 

161ff. Part Return to an humble Address of the Senate, dated the 7th day of February, 1917. 
to His Excellency the Governor General, for: — A statement showing the date, the 
object and the personnel of all commissions Instituted by the late Government from 
its accession to power in 1896, up to the accession to power of the present Government 
in 1911, the number of days during which each of these commissions set, and what 
was the cost of eaoh to the country. (Senate.) Not printed. 

162. Order in Council P.C. 1433, dated 24th May, 1917, containing regulations concerning the 

departure out of Canada of male persons who are liable to or capable of national 
service of a military or other character. Presented by Hon. Mr. Roche, May 29, 1917. 

Not printed. 

163. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General, of the 23rd May, 1917, for 

a copy of the Order in Council, if any, providing that preference in appointments to the 
Civil Service should be given to returned soldiers. Presented May 29, 1917. — Mr. 
Boulay Not printed. 

164. Return to an Order of the House, of the Srd February, 1917, for a copy of all reports 

findings, evidence, memoranda, etc., in connection with the inquiry into the damages 
sustained by H.M.C.S. Grilse en route from Halifax to Bermuda. Presented May 30. 
1917. — Mr. Macleaii (Halifax.) Not printed. 

165. Return to an Order of the House, of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, peti- 

tions, correspondence, telegrams and reports in any way referring to the dismissal 
or retirement of D. McDermid, Superintendent of Fish Hatchery at East Margaree, 
and the appointment of his successor. Presented May 30, 1917. — Mr. Chisholm. 

Not printed. 

166. Return to an Order of the House, of the 25th April, 1917, for a copy of all letters, tele- 

grams, reports and other papers and documents relative to the application of Willis 
Keizer of Hall's Harbour, King's County, N.S., for a license to operate a fishing weir 
al Square Cove, King's County, N.S. Presented May 30, 1917. — Mr. Maclean (Halifax.) 

Not printed. 

31 



i-b (Jeorge V Alphabetical liidt-x to So-sif.uial Tapers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

167. Return to an Address to His EJxcellency the (iovernor General, of the 23rd April, II'IT, 

for a copy of all correspoml'Cnce, memoranda. Orders In Council, e^c, in reference to 
the dismissal of Moses H. Xlckerson, as Inspector of Life-snvlnp: Stations in Xova 
Sootia I'resented May 30, Uil7 — 3fr. Mnclcnn (Ifalifar) \ot printed. 

168. Copies of Pension RcRulalions with amendments iind as amended to Ffbrnnry 2S, 10' 7. 

with copies of Orders in Council relating thereto. Presented by Sir Thomas Whit' , 
May 30, 1917 Printed for sessional papers only. 

168a. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 277, dated 30th January, 1017, regarding pensions of 
officers or their dependants in respect of the exchange of officers between the Govern- 
ment of Canada and the Imperial Government. Presented by Sir Kdward Kern;', 
August 20, 1917 Sot printed. 

169. Return to an Order of the House, of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, corres- 

pondence,, petitions, telegrams and reports between the Minister of Marine an '. 
P'isheries'and any person or persons in any way referring to the removal of the salmor 
nets on that portion of the coast of Inverness extending east and west from the moutl 
of the Margaree River. Presented May 31, 1&17. — Mr. Chishobn Not printed. 

170. Return to an Order of the House, of the 2nd May, 1917, for a copy of the report of tii 

Commission appointed to investigate the condition of the Military Hospital at Halfax, 
with a copy of the evidence taken by said Commission at Halifax and all other docu- 
ments in the possession of the Department of Militia and Defence in connection with 
such investigation. Presented May 31, 1917. — Mr. HincUiir .Vof printed. 

171. Return to an Order of the House, of the 7th May, 1617, for a return showing the 

amount paid or spent by tJie Department of Militia in advertising for rcruits in 
Canada, showing the persons, firms and corporations to whom the payments were madr-, 
up to April 1, 1917. Presented May 31. 1917. — Mr. Macdonald Xot printed. 

172. Finding of the Court of Inquiry appointed by the Adjutant-General by Orders dated 

the 1st May, 1917, for the purpose of collecting and recording evidence in connection 
with the allegations contained in several newspapers that Troop Trains -had been 
stoned passing through Rivi&re-du-Loup, Quebec, and other places, and for the purpose 
of collecting and recording any other evidence which, in the opinion of the Member.-^ 
of the Court, in any way relates to or has a bearing on this matter. Presented by Sir 
Edward Kemp, May 31, 1917 Xot prinlid. 

173. Finding of the Court of Inquiry appointed by the Adjustant-General by Orders dated 

the 1st May, 1917, for the purpose of collecting and recording evidence in connection 
with the allegations contained in several newspapers accusing the citizens of Quebec 
of maltreating or allowing to be maltreated, soldiers returning from the War and 
passing through or sojourning in Quebec, and for the purpose of collecting and recording 
any other evidence which, in the opinion of the Members of the Court, in any way 
relates to or has a bearing on the matter. Presented by Sir Edward Kemp, May 31. 
1917 Xot printed. 

174. Return to an Order of the House, of the 7th May, 1917, for a copy of all account;--. 

letters, claims, correspondence and other documents relating to the following amounts 
mentioned in the Report of the Auditor General 191C. Vol. 11. page I-i — 11 : — Mr. 
Justice L. P. Pelletier, travelling exiienses, $S77 ; Mr. Justice I. X. Belleau, travelling 
expenses, $1,984.44; Mr. Justice T. H. Chauvin, travelling expenses, $1,421.25; Mr. 
Justice B. LeTellier, travelling expenses, $1,923.80. Presented May 31, 1917. — Mr. 
Lanctut .Vof printed. 

175. Htturn to an Order of the House, of the 30th May, 1917, for a Return showing: — 1. Tlie 

number of persons appointed to permanent position on the Canadian Government Rail- 
ways from January 1, 1916. to March 31, 1917, who were not previously employed on 
the said Railways. 2. Their names, salaries and the positions to whicli they were 
appointed. Presented May 31, 1917 — Mr. Copp Xot printed. 

32 



Y-8 George V Alphabetical Index tu Scs^j^^ioual Papers A. I'JlT 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

176. Return to an Order of the House, of the 12th February, 1915, for a Return showing how 

many persons of German nationality are eniployed in the several Departments of the 
Federal Government, in what capacity and the salaries received respectively. Pre- 
sented June 1, 1917. — Mr. Dclisle Not printed. 

177. Return to an Order of the House, of the 1st May, 1916, for a copy of all corres-pondence 

and papers relating to the change in the location of the post office at Rosietoerg, Alberta. 
Presented June 1, 1917. — Mr. Buchanan Not printed. 

178. Return to an Order of the House, of the 8th May, 1916, for a copy of all correspondence, 

letters and telegrams relating to the dismissal of Augustin D. Lauteigne as Postmaster 
of Island River, Gloucester County, N.B. Presented June 1, 1917. — Mr. Turgeon. 

Xot printed. 

179. Return to an Order of the House, of the 31st January, 1917, for a copy of all letters 

and telegrams in the Post Office Department in reference to the removal of Pearson's 
Post Office, Township of Casey, in the Constituency of Nipissing, from where it was 
located to its present location. Presented June 1, 1917. — Mr. Turriff.. ..Not printed. 

180. Return to an Order of the House, of the 5th February, 1917, for a copy of all letters, 

reports, papers and other documents relative to the dismissal of John R. Mcintosh as 
Postmaster of Cummings Mountain, Pictou County, and the appointment of James 
Cummings as his successor. Presented June 1, 1917. — Mr. Macdonald. . . .Not printed. 

181. Return to an Order of the House, of the 2nd May, 1917, for a Return showing :^The 

gross amount paid by the Government since October, 1911, to H. P. Duchemin, of 
Sydney, N.B., for services and disbursements under the Public Inquiries Act. or other- 
wise. Presented June 1, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

182. Return to an Order of the House, of the 3rd February, 1917, for a copy of all corres- 

pondence, letters, telegrams and other documents concerning the cancelling by the 
Post Office Department of the rural mail contract granted to Hyppolite Lambert of St. 
Antoinfi, in t(he County of Lotbiniere, Que. Presented June 1, 1917. — Mr. Fortier. 

Xot printed. 

183. Reports, pursuant to a Resolution of the House adopted on the ISth May, 1916, based 

on a recommendation of the Joint Committee of both Houses on Printing of Parliament, 
requesting information from the several Departments of Government with the view to 
effecting all possible economy i!i the matter of public printing and the distribution of 
public documents, and the extent, if any, to which such recommendations have been 
carried into effect. Presented by Hon. Mr. Patenaude, June 1, 1917.. ..Not printed. 

184. Return to an Oi-der of the House, of 21st May, 1917, for a copy of all correspondence, 

reports and recommendations, if any, from tlie Grain Commission to the Department of 
Trade and Commerce or any other Department of the Government at Ottawa, follow- 
ing a Tneeting of the Grain Commissioners held in Lethbridge this year. Presented June 
1, 1917. — Mr. Buchanan Not printed. 

185. Order in Council passed in conformity with provisions of 4-5 George V., Chapter 20, S-15 

(C. X. Railway.) — (The Senate) Not printed. 

186. Return to an Order of the House, of the 3rd February, 1917, for a return showing the 

quantity and value of exports in following commodities for the first nine months of 
present fiscal year : — Horses ; brass and manufacturers of same ; wheat, breadstuffs ; 
oats and grain other than wheat ; automobiles, bicycles, motorcycles and parts of same, 
including engines and tires; railway cars and parts; chemicals; copper and manufac- 
tures of same; cotton manufactures; explosives; iron and steel and manufactures of 
same ; firearms and munitions ; leather and manufactures of same ; meat and dairy 
products ; alcohol ; vegetables, dried and canned ; lead ; wearing apparel of all kinds ; 
zinc and manufactures of same ; paper and manufactures of same. Presented June 4, 
1917— ilfr. Maclean (Halifax) Printed for sessional papers only, 

27360—3 33 



-8 Gcorgo V Alphabetical Index to Se^3ioIlal Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Coidinued. 

187. netuni to an Orcler of the House, of the 30th April, 1917, for a copy of all documents, 

oorresponflence, letters, teleerams, me^ioranda and reports exchanged between the Ser- 
(Efoant-at-Arms of the pTouse of Commons and the Honourable Albert S^vigny ; the 
Serjeant-at-Arms and the Justice Department, and between the Department of Justice 
and the Honourable Albert S^vlgny, concerning certain effects, furniture and orna- 
ments connected with the Speaker's Apartments. Also, copy of all accounts, receipt.'', 
bills of lading and transportation accounts concerning the said effects, furniture ami 
ornaments. Presented June 5, 1917. — Mr. Lanctot Kot printed. 

188. Copy of Order in Council P.C. 1457, dated the 29th May, 1917, respecting pay to mem- 

bers of the Civil Service who join the Military forces of Canada either by voluntary 
enlistment or otherwise from and after the date hereof. Presented by Sir Thomas 
White, June 6, 1917 ^ot printed. 

189. Copy of General Reports of W. F. O'Connor, K.C., Acting Commissioner re Cost of Living. 

concerning the production, cost, selling prices, and distribution system of refined sugar. 
Presented by Hon. Mr. Crothers, June 6. 1917 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

190. Copy of Reports of W. F. O'Connor, on the subject of the Anthracite Coal busine.ss in 

Canada. Presented by Hon. Mr. Crothers, June 6, 1917. 

Printed for distribjition and sessional papers. 

191. Return to an humble Address of the Senate to His Excellency the Governor General, 

dated the 22nd of May last, showing a copy of :— All correspondence exchanged between 
the Government or its Ministers, the Minister of Militia, the Militia Council, Major- 
General F. L. Liessard, C.B., Inspector-General, or any other person, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Armand Lavergne, O.C, the &lst Regiment or any other person, on the subject 
of the territorial defence of the Province of Quebec, as well as copy of all Orders in 
Council or documents relating to this subject. — (Senate) Not printed. 

192. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 1579, dated 8th June, 1917, appointing a Fuel Controller 

for Canada. Presented by Sir George Foster, May 12, 1917. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

192a. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 1460, dated 16th June, 1917, re the appointment of 
an Officer to be known as Food Controller for Canada, and specifying his powers and 
duties. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, June 19, 1917. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

193. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 1&0'4, dated 11th June, re the establishment of "The 

Board of Grain Supervisors of Canada." And also. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 
1605, dated 11th June, 1917, appointing certain persons as members of " The Board of 
Grain Supervisors of Canada." Presented by Sir George Foster, May 12, 1917. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

194. Copies of Census Statistics of male population of Canada, Cen.sus of 1911, between the 

ages of 20 and 45, both years inclusive, according to conjugal condition and nativity. 
Presented by Sir Bdward Kemp, June 13, 1917. 

Printed for sessional papers o7ily. 

195. Copies of The King's Regulations and Orders for the Army, 1912, re-printed with 

amendments published in Army Orders up to 1st August, 1914. Presented by Sir 
Edward Kemp, June 13, 1917 Not printed. 

196. Copies of Manual of Military Law, War Office, 1914. Presented Sir Edward Kemp, 

June 13, 1917 Not printed. 

197. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 987, dated 10th April, 1917, as amended by Order in 

Council No. 1451, dated 25th May, 1917: Regulations, being as Consolidation of and 
ad<lilions to various Orders in Council made in consequence of the War, the whole to 
be known as the "Defence of Canada Order, 1917." Presented by Hon. Mr. Hazen, 
June 13, 1917 Not printed. 

34 



7-8 George V Alphabetical IikIl-x to Sessional Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

198. Return to an Order of the House, of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all let'ters. 

petitions, correspondence, telegrams and reports in any way referring to dismissal, 
retirement or resignation of John McDonald, as Janitor of public building at Inver- 
ness, and the appointment of his successor. Presented June 15, 1917. — Mr. Chisholm. 

Not pi-inted. 

199. Return to an Order of the House, of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, 

petitions, correspondence, telegrams and reports received by the Government since 
September, 1911, to the present day, in any way referring to the extension and 
repairs to McKay's Point Wharf, Inverness County. Presented June 15, 1917. — Mr. 
Chishol))! iVot printed. 

200. Return to an Order of the House, of the 7th May, 1917, for a copy of the replies 

wliich the Government or the Department of Public Works sent to the Resident 
Engineer or other parties in answer to letters, telegrams, or reports in connection with 
the breakwater at Souris, P.E.I., during the years 1915 and 1916. Presented June 
15, 1917. — Mr. Hughes (.King's, P.E.I.) Not printed. 

201. Return to an Order of the House, of the 23rd May, 1917, for a copy of all corres- 

pondence, telegrams, recommendations and other communications relating to the 
dismissal of Hector Urquhart, as lineman on the Dominion Government telegraph line 
between Grand River and Enon, Cape Breton County, Nova Scotia, and relating to 
the appointment of Dan. A. McLennan to said position. Presented June 15, 1917. — 
Mr. Kyte Not printed. 

202. Return to an Order of the House, of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, 

petitions, correspondence, telegrams and reports received by the Government since 
September, 1911, to the present day, in any way referring to the extension and 
repairs to Craignish Wharf. Presented June 15, 1917. — Mr. Chisholm . .Not printed. 

203. Return to an Order of the House, of the 3rd May, 1917, for a Return showing: — 1. The 

amount which has been paid for stenographic reporting for the different Commissions 
or inquiries which have been held by the Government since Xovember, 1911, to the 
present time. 2. The names of the persons to whom these amounts have been paid 
for stenography and the respective amounts paid to each of them. Presented June 
15, 1917.— -il/r. Verville Not printed. 

203rt. Return to an Order of the House, of the 3rd May, 1917, for a Return showing: — 1. The 
amount which has been paid for stenographic reporting for the different Commissions 
or inquiries which have been held by the Government since tXovember, 1911, to the 
present time. 2. The names of the persons to whom these amounts have been paid 
for stenography and the respective amounts paid to each of them. Presented June 
2S. 1917. — 3Ir. Vei-ville Not printed. 

204. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General, of the 9th May, 1917, 

for a copy of all papers, petitions, telegrams and all other documents sent to the 
Government urging upon them the necessity of abolishing the wet canteen system 
in the camps overseas. Presented June 15, 1917. — Mr. Lemieux Not printed. 

205. Copies of all correspondence, memoranda or other documents received by or sent by 

the Right Honourable the Prime Minister and the Honourable the Minister of Trade 
and Commerce, concerning a project to advertise Canadian products by the organiza- 
tion of an exhibition train of sample goods in France. (Senate) Not printed. 

205". Supplementary Return to an Order of the Senate, datert the 7th June last, for a 
Return showing: — Copies of all correspondence, memoranda or other documents 
received by or sent by the Right Honourable the Prime Minister and the Honourable 
the Minister of Trade and Commerce, concerning a project to advertise Canadian 
products by the organization of an exhibition train of sample goods in Prance. 

The Senate Not pHntcd. 

27360—3* 35 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

206. I^etter of the Honourable E. L. Patenaude, MP., to the Right Honourable the Prime 

Minister, resigning his position aa Secretary of State for Canada, and the letter of 
the Prime Minister In acknowledgment thereof. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, 

- ,o ,„,- yot printed. 

June 18, 191 < 

207. Return to an Order of the House, of the 3rd May, 1917, for a Return showing: — 1. How 

much merchandise has been exported from Canada into Foreign Countries since the 
first of August, 1914, to the present time? 2. How much of these goods have gone 
through the Port of Hamburg? 3. What countries have imported this merchandise 
from Canada, and the respective amounts for each of them? Presented Jui^ 18, 
1917— Jl/r. Vervi»e Xot printed. 

208. Return to an Order of the House, of the 3rd February, 1916, for a return showing the 

itemized disbursements of Ward Fisher, Inspector of Fisheries for Western Nova 
Scotia, for the year 1912, amounting to $3SS.40, and the year 1913, amounting to 
|1,0'09.84. Presented June IS, 1917. — Mr. Laii- Xot printed. 

209. Rf-turn to an Order of the House, of the 23rd April, 1917, for a copy of all papers, 

documents, petitions, memoranda, correspondence, etc., with the Government of British 
Columbia or any member thereof with the Fishery Officers of the Marine and Fisheries 
Department resident in said Province, and with any Company, person or persona 
relating to prohibition of the export of British Columbia salmon since January 20, 
1913. Presented June 18, 1917. — Mr. McKenzie Kot printed. 

210. Statement of Amount and Price of Commodities purchased and sold (including export 

and home consumption) by Cold Storage Companies in Canada from January 1 to 
December 1, 1916. Presented by Hon. Mr. Crothers, June 18, 1917 Xot printed. 

210a. Report of W. F. O'Connor, K.C., Acting Commissioner re Cost of Living, concerning 
Cold Storage Conditions in Canada. Presented by Hon. Mr. Crothers, July 13, 1917. 

Printed for distribution and sessional papers. 

210^. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 2021, dated 23rd July, 1917, recommending the further 
investigation into the premises, books, papers and records of the William Davies 
Company, Limited, and Matthews-Blackwell, Ltd., as disclosed by the report of W. 
F. O'Connor, Acting Commissioner on the Cost of Living, on the subject of cold 
storage conditions in Canada, and appointing G. F. Henderson, A. B. Brodie and 
Geoffrey Clarkson with aJl the powers of Examiners under Part I of the Inquiries 
Act to inquire into the books, papers, etc., of the said companies; also to recommend 
in writing to the Minister of Labour a standardized system of costs accounting appli- 
cable to the cold storage business by which the net profits of cold storage companies 
in Canada may from time to time be readily ascertained. Presented by Hon. Mr. 
Crothers, July 25, 1917 Not printed 

211. Return to an Order of the House, of the 11th June, 1917, for a copy of all correspon- 

dence, telegrams, requests, petitions and other papers in the possession of the 
Department of Trade and Commerce relating to providing a supply of salt for the 
fisheries of the Maritime Provinces. Presented by Sir George Foster, June 22, 1917. 

Xot printed. 

212. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. No. 1725, dated the 25th June, 1917, creating the 

position of Director of Coal Operations for the southeastern coal fields of the Province 
of British Columbia and the suthwestern coal fields of the Province of Alberta, known 
as District 18. And also, — Copy of Order in Council, P.C. No. 1726, dated the 25th 
June, 1917, appointing W. H. Armstrong, of thie City of Vancouver, Director of Coal 
Operations under the provisions of the above Order in Council, P.C. No. 1725, dated 
25th June, 1917. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, June 25, 1917 Xot printed. 

212". Return to an Order of the House, of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, 
reports, communications and documents passing between the Minister of Labour and 
the Department of Labour and the officials of District No. IS, United Mine Workers 

3G 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. l^ilT 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

of Alberta, and the officials of the Alberta and Eastern British Columbia Coal Oper- 
ators' Association, concerning the requests made by the Miners for an increase In 
wages «lue to the increase in the cost of living, between September 1, 1916, and the 
present time. Presented July 12, 1917. — Mr. Buchanan Xot printed. 

213. Return to an Order of the House, of the 13th June, 1917, for a Return showing: — 1. 

How many battalions of infantry left Canada with the First Contingent? 2. The 
number, and the designations of the different units of artillery which left with the 
First Contingent? 3. The number and the designation of the different medical corps 
which left Canada with the First Contingent? 4. The number and the designation 
of all the other units which left with the First Contingent? 5. The names, rank and 
duties of the supernumerary officers who left with the First Contingent. Presented 
June 26, 1917. — Mr. Lachance Kot printed. 

214. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General, of the 30th May, 1917, 

for a copy of all correspondence, letters, cables and other documents exchanged 
between the Imperial Government or any of its membeTS or officials with the 
Canadian G-overnment or any of its members or officials, relative to the question of 
the proposed legislation by the Imperial Parliament to validate certain Acts and 
proceedings of the Legislature of British Columbia. Presented June 27, 1917. — Mr. 
Macdonald '. Kot printed. 

215. Return to an Order of the House, of the 4th June, 1917, for a copy of all correspondence 

between the Chief of the Hansard Translation Staff of the House, the Clerk of the 
House and the Speaker, since April 19, 1917, to date. Presented June 28, 1917. — 
Mr. Lemieux Not j^'inted. 

216. Return to an Order of the House, of the 27th March, 1916, for a return showing the 

amounts paid by the Federal Government from the 1st July, 1S9'6, to the 1st 
October, 1911, to the following newspapers: Le Canada, La Presse, La Patrie, Le 
Pays, of Montreal, La Vigie and Le Sold}, of Quebec. Presented June 28, 1917. — 
Mr. Boulay Not printed. 

217. Return to an Order of the House, of the 3rd May, 1917, for a Return showing the 

number of employees of the following Departments after 1896, and after 1911, 
respectively, viz. : — Inland Revenue, Interior, Public Works, Marine and Fisheries, 
Militia and Defence, Labour and Department of Trade and Commerce. Presented 
June 28. 1917. — Mr. Boulay Not printed. 

218. Return to an Order of the House, of the 7th May, 1917, for a Return showing the 

number of returned soldiers who have been given employment in the various depart- 
ments of the Government. Presented June 28, 1917. — Mr. Lemieux.. ..Not printed. 

219. Return to an Order of the House, of the 25th June, 1917, for a copy of the reports made 

by the Penitentiary Surgeons in connection with the release from Penitentiarj- of 
Edward Levi Baugh. Presented July 4, 1917. — Mr. Murphy Not printed. 

220. Return to an Order of the House, of the 21st May, 1917, for a return giving the names 

and salaries of employees of the Interior and Indian Departments, (a) Inside Service 
and (b) Outside Service, who volunteered for overseas service, and who were paid 
their full civil salary in addition to their military pay and allowances. 

Those who volunteered for overseas service and who were paid a sufficient portion 
of their civil salary in addition to their military pay and allowances to bring their 
pay up to the amount of their civil salary. 

Those who volunteered for overseas service and who received consideration 
(stating consideration) on account of their civil employment in addition to their 
military pay and allowances. 

Those who volunteered for overseas service and who do not receive any con- 
sideration on account of their civil employment in addition to their military pay and 
allowances. Presented July 5, 1917. — Mr. Oliver Not printed. 

37 



7-8 George V Alplmbetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

221. Report of Special Trade Commission to (Jrea-t Britain, France and Italy, May- 

September, 1916. Presented by Sir George Foster, July 5. 1917 Not printed. 

222. Return to an Order of the House, of the 13th June, 1917, for a Return showing: — 1. The 

total expenditure connected with Agriculture by the Federal Government in each of 
the fiscal years from 1904-05 to 1916-17, inclusive. 2. How much money waa set 
apart by the Agricultural Aid Act of 1912 to assist the Provincial Departments of 
Agrriculture to imirove and extend their worl<? 3. How much of above amount was 
given to each Province, and what was accomplished in each Province as a result of 
8uch assistance? 4. How much money was set apart by the Federal Government under 
the Agricultural Instructions Act of 1913, and under the provisions of the said Act 
what amounts were respectively allotted each year to the several Provinces? 5. 
What the general purpose of said Act is, and to what extent that purpose has been 
made effective in each Province. Presented July 5, 1917. — 3Ii: Edwards. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

223. Return to an Order of the House, of the 11th June, 1917, for a Return showing: — 1. 

Whether Mr. Giard, ex-M.P.P. for Compton, is an employee of the Government? 2. If 
so, since when? 3. The number of employees under his orders and their respective 
names? 4. What salary does said Giard receive? 5. The salary of each employee 
under his charge? 6. Whether he has bought, for the Government, any animals for 
breeding purposes? 7. If so, how many, and the price paid for each? 8. Where these 
animals were bought? 9. How many of them have been rejected or returned to the 
Government or to Mr. Giard? 10. If any have been refused or returned, why? 11. 
Where the said breeding animals are at present? 12. What the Government or the 
Department of Agriculture intends to do with the animals so refused and returned to 
Mr. Giard? Presented July 5, 1917. — Mr. Gauvreaii Not printed. 

224. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General, of the 31st January. 

1917, for a copy of all documents, letters, messages, correspondence, reports and 
particularly an Order in Council dated 6th December, 1898, respecting the exemption 
from military service of the Doukhobors. Presented by Hon. Mr. Roche, July 9, 1917. 
— Mr. McCraney Not print '^d. 

225. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General, of the 31st January, 

1917, for a copy of all Orders in Council and other documents on file in the Depart- 
ment of Marine and Fisheries relating to the requisitioning of Canadian ships by the 
Canadian Government. Presented July 11, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

226. Return to an Order of the House of the 7th June, 1917, for a return showing the number 

of recruiting officers which have been appointed in the province of Quebec, with the 
names, addresses, nature of functions and salaries of the same. Presented July 11, 
1917. — Mr. Carvell Not printed. 

226a. Return to an Order of the House of the 18th June, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. The 
names and addres.ses of the parties on Prince Edward Island who have been engaged 
or who are now engaged in recruiting for the army and navy or doing other work of a 
like military character, since August, 1914. 2. The remuneration or pay each of the 
said parties receives and the allowance given for travelling or other expenses. 3. The 
total amount each person has received up to the 1st of June, 1917. Presented Ju!> ?,\, 
1917.— 3/r. Hughes (P.E.I.) Not printed. 

227. Return to an Order of the House of the 12th April, 1916, for a return showing: — 1. How 

many clerks there are in the Post Office Department who belong to and are paid from 
the outside service vote, and who work In the inside service. 2. The names of said 
clerks. 3. Salary paid to each. 4. How long each has been in the service of the 
Department. T,. If all or any of the clerks have passed any examination. If so, what 
examination, and on what date or dates. Presented July 14. — Mr. Turriff. .Not printed. 

228. Copy of a memorandum presented by the Southern Slav Committee to the representatives 

of the British Dominions, setting forth the aims and aspirations of the Jugo-siavs 
(Serbs, Croats and Slovens) subject to Austro-Hungarian rule. Presented by Sir 

Robert Borden, July 20. 1917 Xot printed. 

38 



7-8 George V Alphahcticiil Jiulcx to St'ssiojuil i'apcrs A. I'M 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

229- Claims made by Minister of Justice relating to payment of duties by certain provinces. 
(Senate.) Not printed. 

230. Copy of Report of Honourable Sir Ezelviel McLeod, Chief Justice of the Province of New 

Brunswicl<, and the Honourable Louis Tellier, retired Judge of the Superior Court of 
the Province of Quebec, Commissioners appointed under the Inquiries Act of Canada, 
being Revised Statutes of Canada, 1900, Chapter 104 and Amending Acts, by virtue 
of an Order in Council passed on the 6th June, 1917, whereby the said Commissioners 
were empowered and directed to conduct an inquiry and investigation for the purpose 
of reviewing and considering the evidence taken by Mr. Justice Gait, a Commissioner 
appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba on the 15th day of July, 1916, to 
investigate and report upon certain matters of concern to the Local Government of the 
said province, in the execution of such Commission, and to review and consider his 
reports and findings on such evidence ; and to report whether such evidence sustains 
or supports the findings of the said Commissioner, as set forth in such reports, in so 
far as they reflect upon or prejudicially affect the honour or integrity of the Hon. 
Robert Rogers or the honesty of his dealings or transactions. Presented by Hon. 
Mr. Doherty, July 27, 1917.. ..Printed for distribution-— Members and Senators only. 

230a. Copy of evidence, exhibits, etc., in respect to the Report of Honourable Sir Ezekiel Mc- 
Leod, Chief Justice of the Province of New Brunswick, and the Honourable Louis 
Tellier, retired Judge of the Superior Court of the Province of Quebec, Commissioners 
appointed under the Inquiries Act of Canada, being Revised Statutes of Canada, 1906, 
Chaptar 104 and Amending Acts, by virtue of an Order in Council passed on the 6th 
June, 1917, whereby the said Commissioners were empowered and directed to conduct 
an inquiry and investigation for the purpose of reviewing and considering the evidence 
taken by Mr. Justice Gait, a Commissioner appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Manitoba on the 15th day of July, 1916, to investigate and report upon certain matters 
of concern to the Local Government of the said province, in the execution of such Com- 
mission, and to review and consider his reports and findings on such evidence ; and to 
report whether such evidence sustains or supports the findings of the said Commissioner 
as set forth in such reports, in so far as they reflect upon or prejudicially affect the 
honour or integrity of the Hon. Robert Rogers, or the honesty of his dea,Iings or 
transactions. Presented by Hon. Mr. Doherty, August 9, 1917 Not printed. 

231. Return to an Order of the House of the 13th June, 1917, for a copy of all correspond- 

ence, letters, telegrams and other papers relating to a contract for carrying mails 
between Grand River and Fourchu, in the County of Richmond, Nova Scotia, in the 
years 1916 and 1917. Presented July 28, 1917. — Mr. Kyte Not printed. 

232. Return to an Order of the House of the 30th April, 1917, for a copy of all papers, letters, 

telegrams and documents relative to the purchase of land in Vancouver, B.C., for the 
purpose of an armoury, since January 1, 1913. Presented July 30, 1917. — Mr. Mac- 
donald Not pi'inted. 

233. Return to an Order of the House of the 1st February, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 

The names and present rank of all appointees as Chief Recruiting Ofiicers or as District 
or Special Recruiting Officers, not local or regimental, made since the beginning of the 
war. 2. The dates of their respective appointments. 3. The ages and vocations of 
respective appointees. 4. The name of military organization, if any, in which appointees 
had previously served. 5. The rank of appointees while serving in any military orga- 
nization. 6. Whether the services of any of these appointees have been dispensed with. 
7. If so, their names, and dates on which they were retired. Presented July 31, 1917. — 
Mr. Turriff Not printed. 

234- Return to an Order of the House of the 31st January, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 
The date of the last order given by the Government to the Ross Rifle Company. 2. The 
number of rifles ordered. 3. Whether a recommendation of the British Army Council 
for the utilization of existing Canadian facilities in manufacturing the new and im- 
proved Lee-Enfield was received by the Government. 4. The date of the recommenda- 
tion, and when it was received. 5. Whether the recommetidation has been acted upon. 
Prjsented July 31, 1917.— Mr. Turriff Not printed. 

39 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— CojdinucJ. 

235. Return to art Order of the illouse of the 20th June, I'Jl", for a return showing: — 1. The 

names of the members of the military staff at North Vancouver. 2. Their respective 
duties or occupations. 3. The rank and rate of pay of each. 4. The amount that has 
been paid to each. 5. Upon what date or dates the members of the said staff cnlisteil, 
and how long they have been attached to the staff. Presented July 31. 1917. — Mr. 
Murphy Xot printed. 

235a. Jleturn to an Order of the House of the 21st June, 1917, for a return showing the names, 
rank, pay, and nature and place of employment of all ofllcers attached to headquarters 
at Halifax and the various departments of the military service or connected in any way 
with Military Division No. 6. Presented August 2, 1917. — Mr. Tobin.. . .Xot printed. 

236. Keturn to an Order of the House of the ISth July, 1917, for a return giving a list of the 

different Commissions created since the beginning of the war, concerning the soldiers, 
their pensions, hospitals, etc., showing the names of the various Commissioners who have 
comprised said Commissions. Presented July 31, 1917.— Vr. Boulay Xot printed. 

237. Copy of Financial Statements in respect to the Canadian Northern Railway System: 1. 

Balance Sheet, 30th June, 1916. 2. Statement of Securities Issued and Fixed Charges, 
30th June, 1917. 3. Statement of Liabilities, 15th June, 1917. 3a. Statement of Equip- 
ment Account. 4. List of Securities for Loans. 5. Gross and Net Earnings, 30th June, 
1917. 6. Comparison of Earnings, 1913,^1916 and 1917. 7. Statement re Capital E>:- 
penditure and Betterments, year ending 30th June, 1917. 8. Mileage. And also, — 
Statements showing bonds, etc., authorized, issued and outstamling, and net procee<ls 
therefrom; interest payable during the period July 1, 1917, to June 30, 191S ; and 
estimated cash requirements for period July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918, in respect to the 
Grand Trunk Railway and Grand Trunk Pacific Branch Lines. Presented by Sir 
Robert Borden, July 20, 1917 Xot printed. 

237" Copy of Mortgage Deed of Trust securing an issue of $45,000,000 of Canadian Northern 
Railway securities, guaranteed by the Dominion Government, issued under the legisla- 
tion of 1914. Also, — Copy of Mortgage Deed dated 26th 'June, 1916 — The Canadian 
Northern Ontario Railway Company to His ^Majesty the Kin'g — securing certain 
advances from a loan of $15,000,000 made by His Majesty to the -Canadian Northern 
Railway Company. And also, — Copy of Audit of Revenue and Expenditure Accounts 
of the Canadian Northern Railway System for the months of May, June, July, August, 
September, October, November and December, 1916, and for January and February, 
1917. Presented by Sir Thomas White, August S, 1917 Not printed. 

237^. Statement of amounts advanced by the Government of Canada to the Canadian Northern 
Railway Company on interest account to date. And also, — Financial Statements of the 
Canadian Northern Railway, as follows: — 1. Interim Condensed Balance Sheet as at 
April 30, 1917. 2. Statement of estimate of cost to complete lines and terminals under 
construction and financial provision for same. 3. Statement of Contractors' and other 
Construction accounts outstanding, 30th June, 1917. 4. Memorandum re unsold lands. 
5. Estimate of amount required for betterments and rolling stock for three years. I're- 
sented by Sir Thomas White, August 13, 1917 Xot printed. 

238. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 18S1, dated 19th August, 1916, recommending that in the 

case of officers, warrant officers and non-commissioned officers reverting to lower rank 
Jn order to proceed to the front, no reduction in separation allowance or pension shall 
be made. And also, — Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 2008, dated 2oth July, 1917, can- 
celling Order in Council. P.C. 1615, dated 13th June, 1917, and amending Order in 
Council, P.C. 1881, dated 19th August, 1916, in respect to separation allowances and 
pensions to those reverting to lower rank, in order to proceed to the front. Presented 
by Sir Edward Kemp, August 2, 1917 Xot printed. 

239. Return to an Order of the House of the 30th July, 1917, for a copy of all correspondence 

exchanged between the Board of Trade of the City of Quebec and the Prime Minister 
on the subject of the Report of the Special Comnii.'^.';ion on Railwaya Presented 

August 2, 1917. — Sir Wilfrid Laurier Xot printed. 

40 



7-8 George V Alphabetical liuk-x to Sebsioiial Papers A. r.)l7 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Coniimied. 

240. Return to an Order of tl^e House of the 13th June, 1917, for a statement phowing the 

travellinj? expenses of Maurice LeBlanc, general foreman of the Department of Public 
Works, Bonaventure County, since his appointment to date. Presented August 8, IHIT. 
— Mr. Marcil (Bonaventure) Xot printnl. 

241. Return to an Order of the House of the 30th Api-il, 1917, for a coi)y of all letters, peti- 

tions, correspondence and telegrams exchanged between the Government, the resident . 
engineer and all other persons concerning the dredging work done at Ste. Anne de 
Bellevue, Pointe Fortune, Ottawa River channel between lie au F'oin and lie Paquin, 
Graham channel, Rigaud channel, Hudson Heights channel, lie Perrot Church, lie 
Perrot South wharf and, lie Perrot Xorth wharf, since 1914. Also a statement show- 
ing the amounts paid to different persons or companies for such woi-k, giving the dates 
of payment, along with a copy of the estimates already brought down at my request 
regarding the above, previous to 1904. Return to an Order of the House of the 30th 
April, 1917, for a copy of all letters, petitions, correspondence, telegrams and reports 
exchanged between the Government, the resident engineer of the district, and all other 
persons, concerning tlie dredging work done since 1904 at the wharf of lie Perrot 
North, South and the Church, Dorion Bay channel, Vaudreuil Village channel, Pointe 
Cavagnal, Como, Hudson Heights channel, Graham channel, Rigaud River channel, 
Ottawa River, lies aux Poires channel, Pointe Fortune and Ste. Anne de Bellevue chan- 
nel. Also a statement showing the amount of money paid to divers persons, coin- 
panies, etc., for such works, along with copy of statements already presented at my 
request in connection with the same work, previous to 1904. Presented August 8, 1917. 
— Mr. Boyer. Xot printed. 

242 Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letter.s, peti- 
tions, correspondence, telegrams and reports received by the Government since Sept- 
ember, 1911, to the present day, in any way referring to the extension and repairs to 
Finlay Point wharf. Presented August S, 1917. — Mr. Chisholm Xot t)riHte(l. 

243. Return to an Order of the House of the 30th April, 1917, for a copy of ail correspondence 

in the possession of the Department of Public Works bearing date after September 1, 
1915, relating to wharves, breakwaters and other public works situate in the County of 
Antigonish, Nova Scotia. Presented August S, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Xot printed. 

244. Return to an Order of the House of the 7th May, 1917, for a copy of all documents, 

correspondence, reports, accounts, pay-lists, etc., in connection with the work done on 
the Government wharves at Cross Point, Miguasha, St. Omer and New Carlisle, Quebec, 
since 1912. Presented August 8. 1917. — Mr. Marcil (Bonaventure) Xot printed. 

245. Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, peti- 

tions, correspondence, telegrams and reports received by the Government since Sep- 
tember, 1911, to the present day, in any way referring to the wharf at Marble Moun- 
tain. Presented August 13, 1917. — Mr. Chisholm Xot printed. 

246. Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, peti- 

tions, correspondence, telegrams and leports received by the Government since Sep- 
tember, 1911, to the present day, in any way referring to the extension of the pier at 
Margaree Harbour. Presented August 13, 1917. — -1/?-. Chisholm Xot printed. 

246". lieturn to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, peti- 
tions, correspondence, telegrams and reports received by the Government since Sep- 
tember, 1911, to the present day, in any way referring to the breakwater at Margaree 
Harbour. Presented August 13, 1917. — Mr. Chisholm Xot printed. 

247. Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, peti- 

tions, correspondence, telegrams and reports received by the Government since Sep- 
tember, 1911, to the present day, in any way referring to the Port Hood wharf. 

Presented August 13, 1917. — Mr. Chisholm Xot printed. 

41 



-S George V Alphal.ctical Imlcx to Sessional Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

248. Tteturii to :in Onler of lliir House of Uie Hlh May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, peti- 

tions, correfpoiulence* telegrams and reports received by the Government since Sep- 
tember, 1911, to the present time, in any way referring to the opening of Inverness 
Harbour. Presented August" 13, 1917. — Mr. Chisholin Not printed 

249. Return to an Onler of the House of the 2.'5rd April, 1917, for a copy of all papers, docu- 

ments, petitions, memoranda, correspondence, etc., with reference to the (Government 
of the Dominion of Canada building competing telephone lines in British Columbia 
paralleling lines already in operation of the Okanagan Telephone Company, Limited. 
Presented August 13, 1917. — Mr. Carvell Not printed. 

250. lieturn to an Order of the House of the 30th April, 1917, for a copy of all correspondence 

in the Department of Public Works bearing date after September 1, 1915, relating to 
wharves, breakwaters and other public works in the County of Guysborough, Nova 
Scotia. Presented August 13, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

251. Return to an Order of the House of the 30th April, 1917, for a copy of all papers, records 

and other documents concerning the leference by the Dominion Government to the 
question relating to the exclusive right of fishing in the tidal v.'aters of the province 
of Quebec. Presented August 15, 1917. — Mr. Lemieux Not printed. 

252. P^oturn to an Order of the House of the 9th Julj', 1917, for a return showing the names 

of all persons employed in connection with the Office of the Commissioner of Live Stock 
in the Province of Saskatchewan, showing the salaries and expenses paid them ; and 
also showing the number of stallions and bulls placed in Saskatchewan when the said 
office was established. Presented August 15, 1917. — .Vr. Thomson (Qu'Appelle). 

Not printed. 

253. Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, tele- 

grams and reports between the Departmeht of the Xaval Service of the Department of 
Marine and Fisheries, and any and all persons in connection Avith the seizure of certain 
fishery boats, fishing tackle and equipment being used in the illegal fishing of lobsters 
in the Straits of Northumberland in the fall of 1916, together with a copy of the 
evidence taken before one M. G. Teed, Esquire, acting as a commissioner to inquire into 
this matter, and his report and finding thereon. Presented August 16, 1917. — Mr. Copp. 

Not printed. 

254. Jieturn to an Order of the House of the 30th July, 1917, for a copy of all correspondence 

between the Department of Militia and Defence of Canada, the War Purchasing Com- 
mission of Canada, and the British War Office, concerning a target practice rod or the 
use of same by the Canadian Expeditionaiy Force. Presented August 20, 1917. — Mr. 

Maclean (Halifax) Not printed. 

£55. Return to an Order of the House of the 7th June, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. 
Whether the Department of Agriculture supply thoroughbred bulls for improvement of 
stock to applicants for the same. 2. If so, if any such bulls have been sent into the 
County of Dorchester, Quebec, and when. 3. At whose request these bulls were sent, 
and if they belonged to the Department of Agriculture. 4. If so, on what condition 
they were sujiplied. 5. From whom the department purchased the animals referred to. 
6. The price paid. 7. If any official of the Department of Agriculture has made an 
investigation as to where these bulls are at the jiresent time. 8. If so. the substance 
of their report. 9. Whether the said bulls are being used for the purpose for which 
they were intended. Presented August 21, 1917. — Mr. Lanctot Not printed. 

256. Return to an Order of the House of the Ist August, 1917, for a return showing the 

amount which has been paid to the Sydney Daily Po.<it. newspaper, by all the depart- 
ments of the Government for printing and advertising, since the 1st of November, 1911. 
Presented August 21, 1917. — Mr. Kyte Not printed. 

257. Return to an Order of the House of the 1st August, 1917, for a return showing the gross 

amount paid to the Halifax Herald, the Evening Mail. Halifax, and the Royal Print 
and Lithographing Company, Halifax, by all the departments of the Government for 
printing, advertising and all other services since November 1, 1911. Presented August 

21, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

42 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A. 1017 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Continued. 

258. Return to an Order of llie House of the ISlh June, 1917, for a copy of all accounlH, 

papers, claims and correspondence regarding demands put forwacd by all persons who 
have claimed to have sustained loss or damage by the fire in the Parliament Buildings 
in February, 1916. Presented August 21, 1917. — Mr. Lancldt Not printed. 

259. Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all communications, 

letters, reports, petitions and other documents on behalf of the Physicians and Medical 
Associations of this country, asking for the repeal of The Proprietary or Patent Medi- 
cine Act and the presentation of a new Act on the matter in order to render more 
efflcient the control of these medicine preparations, and to add on the prohibition list 
such drugs or medicines as are generally dangerous to health and conducive to certain 
criminal practices. Presented August 21, 1917. — Mr. Lapointe (. Ka-viouraska) . 

Not printed. 

260. Copy of correspondence between the Honourable Robert Rogers and the Right Honour- 

able Sir Robert Borden, Prime Minister, with reference to tlie resignation of the former 
as Minister of Public Works of Canada. — (Tlie Senate.) Not printed. 

261. Return to an Order of the Senate dated the 11th day of July, 1917, for a Statement 

showing the number of officers and men of the Canadian Expeditionary Force who have 
been classed as unfit for military service; wliether the military authorities have given 
consideration to the possibility of utilizing the services of tliose men in a secondary 
capacitj' ; whether those who have been classed as unfit continue to draw military pay ; 
the number who have deserted from the various units isetv/een 1st October, 1914, and 
1st June, 1917 ; and the number discharged from the various units since 1st October, 
1914. — (The Senate.) Not printed. 

262- Return to an Order of the Senate, dated 7th June last, for a return showing: — 1. The 
name and rank of each person who at the outbreak of the war in August, 1914, was an 
officer, commissioned or provisional, of the 7Sth Regiment (Highlanders), of Pictou 
County, Nova Scotia. 2. The length of time each of sucli persons was attached to said 
regiment. 3. («) The name of each of said officers who joined the Canadian Overseas 
Forces. (b) The unit to which he was attached, (c) The ranlt with which he was 
attached, id) The date at which he was attached. 4. The name of each person wlio 
since tlie outbreak of war became attaclied as provisional officers to said 78th Regiment 
and tlie date at which such person became attaclied and liis rank. 5. (a) The name of 
each of the officers referred to in paragraph 4 who joined the Canadian overseas forces. 
(&) The unit to which he was attaclied. (c) The rank witli which he was attaclied. 
(ri) The date at which he was attaclied. 6. The name of eacli of the officers referred 
to in each of the foregoing paragraphs who were in active service at the fighting front, 
the units with which they served, and the length of time tliey served. 7. Particulars 
as to each of the said officers showing where each one was on May 1, 1917, to what unit 
he was attached, and what his rank was at that time. 8. If any of these officers have 
gone to the fighting front since May 1, state name, unit, rank and date. — (The Senate.) 

Not printed. 

263. Part return to an humble Address of the Senate to His Excellency the Governor General, 

dated the 8th instant, showing all the correspondence between the Department of 
Militia and Defence and Clarence J. McCuaig ; also, between the same and the first 
Purchasing Committee appointed by Sir Robert Borden, of which the Honourable 
Robert Rogers was Chairman, and between the said Clarence J. McCuaig and the Com- 
mittee of which the Honourable Sir Edward Kemp is or was Chairman, or with any of 
the members of the said committee. — (The Senate.) Not printed. 

264. Eighth Annual Report of tlie Commission of Conservation for the fiscal year ending 31st 

March, 1917. Presented by Hon. Mr. Burrell, September 1, 1917 Not printed. 

265. Return to an Order of the House of the 30th August, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. The 

number of additional buildings and offices that have been rented by the various depart- 
ments of the Government in the City of Ottawa during the calendar years, 1914, 1915, 
1916 and 1917. 2. The names of the le.ssors, the length of the lease and the respective 
rentals of said buildings. 3. What department in each case is occupying said premises. 
Presented September 3, 1917. — Mr. Sinclair Not printed. 

43 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Iiidcx to Sessional Papers A. 1917 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21~Cont{uue(l. 

266. Rtturn to an (.)iiUr of tlic House of tlie 11th July, I'JlT, fo a copy of all correspondeiice 

and other documents relating to the granting to beam trawlers registered in tlu- Inited 
States the privilege of using ports in the Province of Nova Scotia for the purchasing 
of supplies, the shii)piiig of men, etc., without license therefor as required under the 
modus videndl. Presented September 3, 1917. — .Vc. Kytc Not piinlal. 

267. Copy of contract dated Sth March, 1917, between His Majesty the King and Wallace 

Shipyards, Limited, for the construction and delivery of one wooden auxiliary sailing 
ship. Also, — Copy of contract dated 1st June, 1917, between His Majesty the King and 
Lamond and Harrison for the construction and delivery of one wooden auxiliary sailing 
ship. Presented by Hon. Mr. Cochrane, September 3, 1917 Not printed. 

268. Return to an Order of the Senate, dated the loth day of June last, for a return made to 

an Order of the Hou.se of Commons, of the 7th February, 1916, for a copy of all corre- 
spondence and reports on the claims of Sealers of British Columbia under the last 
treaty with the American Republic, and all papers connected therewith. — (The Senate.) 

Not printed. 

269. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 224.J, dated 3rd September, 1017, appointing the Deputy 

Minister of Justice, Oliver Mowat Biggar, of the City of Edmonton, John H. Moss, of 
the City of Toronto, Louis Loranger, of the City of Montreal, and Lt.-Col. H. A. C. 
Machin, of the Town of Kenora, Ont, a council to advise and assist in the administra- 
tion and enforcement of the Military Service Act, 1917, to be known as the Military 
Service Council. Presented by Sir Robert Borden, September 4, 1917.. ..Not printed. 

270. Return to an Order of the House of the 21st May, 1917, for a copy of all reports, letters, 

telegrams, correspondence and any other papers in connection with the question of 
locating the 210th Battalion at Regina and Moosejaw respectively during the winter 
of 1916-17. Presented September 6, 1917. — Mr. Knowlcs Not printed. 

271. Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, corres- 

pondence, telegrams and reports received by the Government since September, 1911, 
to the present day, in any way referring to the appointment of a man in charge of the 
storm signals at Grand Etang and Margaree Harbour. Presented September 6, 1917. — 
Mr. Chishohn Xot printed. 

272. Return to an Order of the House of the 7th May, 1917, for a return showing the different 

rural mail routes established in the constituency of Qu'Appelle since the 1st day of 
January, 1916, showing their location and date of establishment. Also, a list of all 
rural mail routes now being established or under consideration at the present time in 
the same constituency. Presented September 7, 1917. — Mr. Thomson (Qu'AppcUc). 

Kot printed. 

273. Return to an Order of the House of the 6th March, 1916, for a copy of all telegrams, 

letters, petitions and documents of all kinds in any way referring to the change in the 
Inverness-Margaree mail route from the west to the east of the Margaree river, from a 
point at Margaree Forks to Chapel Bridge. Presented September 7, 1917. — Mr. Chi.s- 
holm Not printed. 

274. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 2199, dated 10th August, 1917: Rules and Regulations 

enacted in lieu of the Classification, Rules and Regulations contained in Order in Coun- 
cil, P.C. 1296, of the 15th May, 1917, in respect to War badges for members of the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force. Presented by Sir Edward Kemp, September 13, 1917. 

Xot printed. 

275. Copy of Order in Council, P.C. 2.552, dated 13th September, 1917, recommending that 

Certificates of Naturalization may be issued under the Naturalization Act, 1914, to 
alien enemies who have resided for many years in Canada, on its being shown that 
they are clearly in sympathy with the United Kingdom and its allies in the present war, 
and that they have no pro-German or other alien enemy aHiliations or connections. 

Presented by Sir Robert Borden, September 14, 1917 Xot piinted. 

44 



7-8 George V Alphabetical Index to Scsbioiial Papers A. I'JlT 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 21— Concluded. 

276. Copy of Canada Gazette dated 12lh September, 1917, containing a list and location of 

Local Tribunals established to hear and decide applications for certificates of exemption 
from Military Service. Presented by Hon. Mr. Doherty, September 14, 1917. 

Not printed. 

277. Copies of Orders in Council, dated 15th September and 17th September, 1917, respectively, 

appointing Registrars for the Provinces of British Columbia, New Brunswick, Quebec, 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta and Prince Edward Island, under the provi- 
sions and for the purposes of the Military Service Act, 1917. Presented by Sir Robert 
Borden, September 17, 1917 Not printed. 

278. Return to an Address to His Excellency the Governor General of the 2nd May, 1917, for 

a copy of all Orders in Council, letters, telegrams, etc., to or from any employee of the 
Government in reference to the improvement and equipment of the life-saving station 
at Whitehead, Guysborough County, N.S. Presented September 17, 1917. — Mr. Maclean 
(HaUfax) Kot printed. 

279. Return to an Order of the House of the 14th May, 1917, for a copy of all letters, peti- 

tions, correspondence, telegrams and reports received by the Government since Sep- 
tember, 1911, to the present day, in any way referring to the dredging and building of 
piers at Mabou Harbour. Presented September 19, 1917. — Mr. Maclean (Halifax). 

Not printed. 

280. Return to an Order of the House of the 13th August, 1917, for a return showing: — 1. The 

different amounts paid for commissions and expenses in connection with the flotation 
of the different loans made by Canada since 1914. 2. The respective amounts paid in 
connection with each loan. Presented September 19, 1917 — .1//-. Macdonald. 

Not printed. 

281. Return to an Order of the House of the 5th September, 1917, for a copy of all corre- 

spondence, letters, telegrams, petitions, etc., in any way referring to an application 
for a public wharf at Chimney Corners, Inverness County, X.S. I'resented September 
19, 1917. — Mr. Chisholm Not printed. 

282. Return to an Order of the House of the 29th August, 1917, for a return showing copies 

of all accounts, memoranda, vouchers, telegrams, letters, etc,, in reference to payments 
to George H. Boyce, of Windsor, N.S., District Foreman of Public Works Department, 
since his appointment to office. Presented September 19, 1917. — Mr. Maclean (.Halifax). 

Not printed. 

283. Return to an Order of the Senate dated the 1st day of March, 1916, showing a copy of 

all correspondence between the Government and the British Columbia Boards of Trade, 
and also between the Government and the Canadian Manufacturers' Association, in 
reference to the request made by the British Columbia Boards of Trade for the appoint- 
ment of a Dominion Customs Officer at the Port of New York. — (Senate.). 

Not printed. 

284. Part return to an humble Address of the Senate, dated the 14th of August, 1917, to His 

Excellency the Governor General, for a return showing the name of every judge of the 
Supreme, District and County Courts in all the provinces of Canada, for the year 1916, 
together with a statement or the moneys paid to each of such judges for that year for 
(a) salaries; (6) travelling expenses; (c) allowances of all kinds; (d) for services 
as Commissioners; (e) and any other payments; and also, showing the names of 
judges who have performed services as Commissioners, or in any other public capacity 
without compensation. — (Senate.) Not printed. 

285. Return to an humble Address of the Senate, dated the 9th August, 1917, to His Excel- 

lency the Governor General, showing all the documents relating to the purchase by the 
Militia Department of "Bonnie Bel Air" from W. T. Rodden, Esq., a part of num.ber 
nine (9) on the official plan and book of reference of the Parish of Lachine and 
specially the report of the lawyers who examined the titles. — (Senate.) . . ..Not printed. 

45 



7 GEORGE V 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 



A. 1917 



REPORT 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 



FISCAL YEAR ENDING MARCH 31, 1916 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF PARLIAMENT. 




OTTAWA 

PRINTED BY J. dk L. TACHfi, 

PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 

1916 



[No. 38—1917] 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 A. 1917 



To Field Marshal, His Eoi/al Highness Prince Arthur William Patrick Albert, 
Duke of Connaught and of Strathearn, K.G., K.T., K.P., etc., etc., etc., etc., 
Governor General and Commander in Chief of the Dominion of Canada. 

May it Please your Koyal Highness: 

I have the honour to submit herewith for the information of Your Royal High- 
ness and the Parliament of Canada, the Sixth Annual Report of the Department of 
the Naval Service, being for the year ended March 31, 1916, except the Fisheries 
Branch, reported in a separate publication. 

I have the honour to be. 

Your Royal Highness's most obedient servant, 

J. D. HAZEN, 

Minister of the Naval Service. 



38— li 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 A. 191 T 



CONTENTS 

Page. 

Deputy Minister's Summary of Annual Report 7 

Chief Accountant, Financial Statement 22 

Director of Naval Service, Report on Naval Service 2*8 

Director of Stores, Report on Stores Branch 30 

Director of Naval Service, Report on Fisheries Protection 36 

Superintendent of Tidal and Current Survey, Report on 41 

Chief Hydrographer, Report on Hydrographic Survey 54 

Canadian Arctic Expedition, Report on 71 

Director of Naval Service, Report on Lifesaving Service 81 

Superintendent of Radiotelegraph Service, Report of 84 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 A. 1917 



REPORT 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 



FOR THE 



FISCAL YEAR ENDING MARCH 31, 191G 



Ottawa, June 23, 1916. 

Honourable J. D. Hazen, 

Minister of the Naval Service, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report on the Department of the Naval Service for 
the year ending March 31, 1916, under the following headings: — 

1. Naval Service. 

2. Stores. 

3. Fisheries Protection. 

4. Survey of Tides and Currents. 

5. Hydrographic Survey. 

6. Canadian Arctic Expedition, 

7. Life Saving Service. 

8. Radio Telegraphs. 

L— NAVAL SERVICE. 

H.M.C. NAVY. 

During the past year the requisite number of the personnel for manning H.M.C. 
Ships and Establishments has been maintained by the entry of men with previous 
naval experience and by the employment of R.N.C.V.R. officers and men. 

H.M.C.S. Niohe was employed, under the command of the Rear Admiral Com- 
manding, North American Station, until September, 1915, when, owing to the very 
considerable amount of almost continual steaming that she had done since the out- 
break of the war, it was considered that the general state of the machinery and 
boilers Would not warrant her continuance of this duty. As a depot ship was 

7 



8 DFr.\nr}n:\T of the .v.it.ia. kervice 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

urgently needed at Halifax to accommodate numerous drafts of men, and as a 
parent ship for the vessels employed on patrol work and other operations on the 
Atlantic coast was urgently re^iuired it was decided to pay the Niohe off and 
recommission her for the purposes indicated. Throughout the remainder of the 
year she proved suitable for her new functions, and of considerable utility both in 
connection with the Canadian and the Imperial services. 

n.M.C.S. Rainbow has been continuously employed on the Pacific Coast patrol 
and other important duties, under the orders of the Imperial Senior Naval Officer 
at Esquimau. 

Submarines C. C. I. and C. C. II. and their parent ship, II.M.C.S. Shearwater 
(Submarine Depot) have been continuously employed in connection with the defence 
scheme of the Pacific coast. 

A large number of other vessels, both governmental and private, have been 
utilized in connection with the defence of the coasts, on such duties as examination 
sen'ice, mine sweeping, patrol and other necessary work. 

Ihe Naval Volunteers, which were established just prior to the outbreak of the 
war, developed largely in the TVest, where some 400 officers and men are enrolled. 
A considerable number of these volunteers have served continuously in the Hainhow 
and in other vessels based on Esquimalt since the outbreak of the war. Their 
services are also being utilized in the various .ser\^ices on the Atlantic coast. 

RKCIUITINC — ADMIIiALTV. 

In April, 1915, the Admiralty requested the department to select men to be 
trained as pilots for the Royal Naval Air Service. The department received hundreds 
of applications for entry from all parts of the Dominion. These applications were 
given individual attention and likely candidates were interviewed and medically 
examined. All those accepted were sent to private flying schools to obtain their 
Aero Club certificates, and upon obtaining them were sent to England. Although 
the number originally called for by the Admiralty was twice increased, the depart- 
ment was able to obtain the necessary number of suitable candidates, the majority 
of whom have already obtained their Aero Club certificates and been sent to 
England. The total number accepted during the year is two hundred and fifty. 

The department has recently been requested by the Admiralty to ascertain what 
men could be entered for the Auxiliary Patrol (Motor Boat) Service. Several 
hundred applications have been received, and these have been classified, pending the 
arrival of the recruiting committee from England, who will take up the work of 
examining the applicants and making final selections. 

NAVAL INTELLIGENCE BRANCH. 

The duties and work carried out by the Naval Intelligence Branch of the depart- 
ment have increased considerably in magnitude and importance and have been per- 
formed in a very satisfactory manner during the past year. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE SAVMj SERVICE 9 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

NAVAL DOCKYAKDS. 

With respect to the Naval Dockyards, both establishments have been worked to 
the full output, a considerable amount of overtime having been worked. The nature 
of the work done has been practically all repairs. 

Halifax is being used as the base for vessels of the North Atlantic fleet which 
has been lately strengthened; the dockyard is being used for carrying out repairs to 
these vessels and keeping them in going order. No. 4 jetty has been repaired and 
lengthened so that it will now accommodate large ships. A contract has been placed 
for a 30-ton steam wharf crane for use on this jetty with a view to having available 
suitable lifting appliance for hoisting out damaged parts of warships should the 
necessity arise. The N^ohe has been fitted up as a very efficient receiving ship. 

At Esquimau yard the expenditure and personnel have risen correspondingly, 
and .work has been carried out on Imperial and Allied vessels, as well as those of the 
Canadian Service. The total amount of money paid per month in wages for the two 
yards is approximately 300 per cent more than that customary to be paid for the 
same period prior to the war. 

In addition to the repairs to the vessels of the fighting fleet, the dockyards are 
carrying out the large number of small items of repairs needed to the various vessels 
now employed for auxiliary purposes for patrol and other defensive vpork of the 
coasts. 

Having regard to the facilities available, this work has been carried out satis- 
factorily. Considerable overtime has been necessary in order to expedite the com- 
pletion of the repairs. 

Subsidiary work in the nature of repairs and refits of the various vessels belong- 
ing to the different branches of the Naval Service have been undertaken during the 
year, and repairs of vessels of other departments of the Government have also been 
effected. Repairs to buildings and plant incidental to the upkeep of the establish- 
ment in accordance with conditions of transfer have also been completed. 

The officers and staff of the dockyards have carried out their duties in a zealous 
and conscientious manner, which has enabled the urgent work necessary in these 
yards during the period of the war to be satisfactorily and expeditiously completed. 

ROYAL NAVAL COLLEGE. 

The Officers of the Royal Naval College continue to report most favourably on 
the cadets, both as to their mental and physical progress during the past year. 

The midshipmen who have been serving in ships of the Royal Navy and Royal 
Canadian Navy have also been favourably reported upon and have proved themselves 
capable and efficient. Fourteen midshipmen, who entered the college in January, 
1911, were promoted to the rank of Acting Sub-Lieutenant on December 1, 1015. 
Two of these officers are now serving in the British Submarine Service, and foiir 
Lieutenants and five Engineer Lieutenants are serving in vessels of the Grand Elect. 

An examination for the entry of cadets to the college was held in May, 1915, and 
out of eight candidates six were entered. 

The report of Vice-Admiral C. E. Kingsmill on the Naval Service may be found 
at page 28. 



10 DrPART^rr.xr or rm: \\\\i. sf.kmce 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
II.— STORES BRANCH. 

Tho Stores Branch of the Department of the Naval Service is divided into three 
sections as follows: — Purchasing and Contract section, Stores section, Transport 
section. 

PURCHASING AND CONTRACT SECTION. 

The Purchasing and Contract section has in its charge all purchases and con- 
tracts, including chartering of vessels, contracts for the erection of buildings and all 
installations in connection therewith, victualling of ships' crews not victualled by 
the department, and the purchase of all necessary stores and supplies of every descrip- 
tion; not only the Naval Service proper but all the other branches of this Depart- 
ment are served. 

In order to carry out the work in an efficient manner, an estimate of the require- 
ments for the year is made out by each Ship and Establishment at the beginning of 
the year, and a stock adequate to meet the requirements is stored at Halifax and 
Esquimalt; supplementary requisiti<nis are then filled in through the year as required. 

It is the duty of the Purchasing and Contract section to call for tenders for all 
supplies necessary to keep up these stores. During the past year all the supplies 
requisite were obtained by this branch, those embodying small amounts being pur- 
chased locally where required. All ordnance stores and ammunition were procured 
from the Imperial Government. 

During the past year purchases to the extent of $2,485,269 were made, of which 
Naval stores, including coal both for the Canadian and the Imperial ships and trans- 
ports, amounted to $1,913,766. 

STORES SECTION. 

The activities of the Stores section depends largely upon the demand for 
supplies. It is the duty of this branch to ascertain that the supplies on hand are up 
to requirements and that a shortage therein does not occur. 

The Stores section attends to supplies not only for the ships of the Nav«l 
Service but also for nine ships of the Fisheries Protection Service, Fisheries Patrol 
boats, six Hydrographic Survey vessels. Royal Naval Canadian Volunteer Reserve. 
Radiotelegraph service, Life-saving service, fish hatcheries and other fishery estab- 
lishments throughout the Dominion. 

The requirements for Naval purposes have increased greatly since the beginning 
of the war, particularly in supplies for the dockyards, where manufacture and repair 
work is being carried on continuously. 

In addition to the above, this section also provides to a large extent for the 
Imperial ships stationed on Halifax and Esquimalt and for transports. 

Supply depots are maintained at both Halifax and Esquimalt dockyards. Experi- 
enced store ofiioers supervise the work and are responsible to headquarters for the 
proper carrying out of their duties. 

As large reserves of stores are necessary in order to meet requirements of ships 

and establishments at the present time, it was necessary during the past year to 

ncrease the amount of stores on hand. At the commencement of the year the value 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 11 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

of stores at Halifax was $376,000, and at the end of the year the stores totalled in 
value $504,763. At Esquimalt $2'80,000 worth of stock was on hand at the beginning of 
the year, and $298,532 worth at the end of the year. 

At the cominencemont of the year, requisitions are prepared by the Store officers 
covering, as far as possible, all the requirements for the maintenance of reserve 
supplies during the year. Supplementary requisitions are submitted throughout the 
year for any unforeseen requirements. 

At Halifax, during the past year, 97,421 tons of coal were handled, and at Esqui- 
malt 26,129 tons. Supply depots were also maintained at outlying points during the 
past year for the convenience of vessels engaged in the Gulf of St. Lawrence patrol 
and for outlying establishments. 

TRANSPORT SECTION. 

Shortly after the outbreak of war, owing to the necessity of utilizing all avail- 
able tonnage and to cope with the traffic, this department undertook to supply the 
empty Admiralty colliers with cargoes for European ports. This scheme gradually 
developed into the present organization under which this department, in conjunction 
with Mr. A. H. Harris, Acting Director Overseas Transport, is enabled to ship 
thousands of tons of material daily from all ports of Canada to the allied nations. 
The sailings of this service now average more than one a day. By the co-operation 
of the different railway companies throughout Canada the service has gradually 
improved until at present no difficulty or congestion of traffic is experienced, as the 
immense quantities of freight are directed to one or another Canadian port for ship- 
ment. 

Through the courtesy of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, their docking 
facilities at the different ports have been placed at the service of the Overseas Trans- 
port. This has proven of great advantage and has aided considerably in rendering 
the trans^port service most efficient. 

A statement, showing the growi;h of the Transport Service, and also a statement 
of disbursement accounts of Overseas Transport Service for the past fiscal year may 
be found in the report of Mr. J. A. "Wilson, Director of Stores, at page 30. 

III.— FISHERIES PROTECTION SERVICE. 

The following vessels belonging to the Fisheries Protection Service were in com- 
mission during the past year: — 

East Coast — Canada, Constance, Curlew, Petrel, Gulnare. 

Great Lakes. — Vigilant. 

West Coast. — Malaspina, Galiarvo, Restless, Newington. 

During the year the Canada was on active naval service and was, therefore, 
not available for Fisheries Protection duties. 

The Curlew patrolled the bay of Fundy and west coast of Xova Scotia, following 
the American fishing fleet to prevent fishing within the three-mile limit. When not 
occupied on this service she was utilized at Halifax in connection with naval opera- 
tions. 



12 nr:r.\nT]fi:\T or the .v.iv.i/. sKRviri: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Till' Coiishinrr wiis cn^'aKitl <iii naval dvitics tlirmi^hont the year, with the 
exception of a short eniiso on FiBherics Protection work during December. 

The Petrel was eujraged during the year on naval work as -well as on Fisheries 
Protection duties. She was also utilized by the Director of the Naval Service in 
carrying out inspections of life-saving stations. This vessel rendered assistance on 
several occasions to vessels in distress. 

The Gidnare was engaged throughout the year on naval duties and was not 
available for Fisheries Protection service. 

The Vigilant was commissioned on the 1st April, 1915, and at once proceeded to 
the west end of lake Erie to patrol the fishing grounds. The vessel was also used at 
different times throughout the year to inspect the life-saving stations on the Great 
Lakes. She contiiuied throughout the season to carry on the patrol work to enforce 
the international fisheries regulations. During the year this vessel steamed 3,751 
miles and seized 1,531 fishing nets, which were sold by public auction. 

The Malaspina was engaged in Fisheries Protection duties as well as on Examina- 
tion Service in connection with naval operations at Esquimalt. 

The Galiano was also utilized at different periods in naval work and when her 
services were not required at Esquimalt she proceeded on her regvJar Fisheries Pro- 
tection duties. 

The Restless and Newington were both engaged on naval service continuously 
and were unavailable for Fisheries Protection work. 

The report of Vice-Admiral C. E. Kingsmill on the Fisheries Protection service is 
appended at page 36. 

IV.— TIDAL AND CURKENT SURVEY. 

The Tidal and Current Survey Branch has for its object the investigation of 
tides and currents, and the publication of the information obtained to aid naviga- 
tion in waters w'here the movements of tides and currents were previously unknown. 
For this purpose tide stations were established at carefully selected i)oints along the 
coasts, where observations are taken. From these observations the behaviour of the 
tides and currents is determined and reduced to governing laws. By obtaining this 
information for a sufficient period, the officers of the branch are able to predict 
scientifically the tides of the future; and to prepare tide tables for the principal 
stations or ports of reference, and for the turn of the tidal streams. The tides at 
the harbours throughout each region are brought into relation with these principal 
stations; so that the tides in any locality can be readily found wnth reference to the 
tide tables. The investigations already made afford information for the time and 
variations of tides and currents for the greater portion of the navigable waters of 
the Dominion. The results of the investigations and the tidal predictions are pub- 
lished yearly in the " Tide Tables" which are issued well in advance of the year for 
which they are made out. 

In addition to the regular work of the branch, the question of mean sea-level is 
given careful attention. From the earliest days it was realized that this information 
would be indispensable as a basis for extended levelling. It has now proved so. to 



DEPARTMENT OF THE iY.4V.lL NERVICE 13 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

the Department of Public Works and to the Geodetic Survey in connection with 
their levelling operations. As the levels determined by the Tidal Survey have been 
preserved by reference to bench marks which were established at all points where 
tidal stations have been operated, the information required was readily available by 
reference to these. Had this not been foreseen, the work of the other departments 
would have suffered serious delays in obtaining this basis. 

During the past year, a similar basis has been provided for the extended levels 
which are being carried on over the railway system of Prince Edward island. The 
accurate value of mean sea-level at Charlottetown which has been determined by the 
Tidal Survey from five years of continuous observation, was utiliased for this pur- 
pose. Another province has thus been placed on a satisfactory basis as regards its 
levels. 

Similar information has been obtained and supplied for Hudson bay in connec- 
tion with the line of levels carried from Winnipeg by the Surveys Branch of the 
Interior Department. 

Investigations of the currents were carried on in important navigable waters on 
both the eastern and western coasts during the past year. On the eastern coast, the 
Grand Narrows and Bras d'Or lakes on the route from Halifax to Sydney were given 
particular attention, as well as the gut of Canso. The complex tidal and current 
irregularities in these vvaters have, as a result, been reduced to law and referred to 
established stations. The true relation of the current to the time of the tide will be 
obtained from the tide tables for the coming year. 

Important work has also been carried on in the Saguenay district. This district 
is rapidly growing in importance as an industrial centre. After exhaustive observa- 
tions had been taken, comparisons with Quebec and Father Point were made, so 
that the time of high water and the depth of water available may be obtained. The 
results of these investigations will be published in the tide tables. 

The work on the western coast was no less successful. Five principal tide 
stations were maintained in continuous operation throughout the year. Observa- 
tions were also taken at Caulfeilds in the strait of Georgia, to supplement the 
information given for that region in the tide tables. The observations were also 
utilized for comparison with the time of slack water in the passes investigated 
during 1914 and 1915. 

Investigation of the currents was carried on at Dodd narrows, in Gabriola pass 
and Porlier pass. Owing to the force of the current through these narrow passages, 
the towing of lumber and coal, as well as ordinary navigation, are limited to the' 
time of slack water. The object of the work is to obtain data by which the time of 
slack water can be correctly predicted. The information of this nature given in the 
tide tables already covers the two most important passes, namely Active pass and 
Seymour narrows, and is being continually added to. 

Much has been done during the year in the improvement of the methods of 
calculation for these passes and narrows. The relations between slack water and the 
time of the tide have been scrutinized; and further light on the various methods 
which give best results under different conditions has been obtained as the investiga- 



14 T>rr\nT\!i:\T or Tin: .v.ir.iA skiivke 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

tions proceed. The outcome is an improvement in the basis of calculation by which 
greater accuracy is secured for future years. 

The work in Hudson bay has been continued during the past year. The results 
have been most useful to the Department of Railways and Canals in connection with 
the work on the terminal of the Hudson Bay railway at Port Nelson. Both there 
and in James bay. great assistance has been received by co-operation with other 
surveys. The department supplies these surveys with tide registering instruments 
which they supervise. The information obtained is eventually handed over to the 
Tidal and Current Survey when it has served their own purposes. Such co-operation 
has also been arranged on the St. Lawrence and in British Columbia. 

Advance information with reference to the tides, and slack water, is supplied to 
manufacturing and shipping interests for their information before it can be pub- 
lished in the tide tables. 

The demand for tide tables is continually growing. Besides their direct service 
to mariners, they are of great value to business concerns and fishermen who require 
to know the time of the tide, or the behavi&ur of the different tidal currents along 
the coast. The demand for the Pacific Coast fide tables required" an issue of 15,000 
copies. An abridged edition giving the tide tables for Vancouver and the strait of 
Georgia is also widely circulated and requires 10,000 copies to supply the demand. 

The tide tables for the eastern coast are also greatly in demand, 8,000 copies 
being required. Pocket editions of the tide tables for Eastern Canada are also pub- 
lished in two sets, one for St. John and the bay of Fimdy and another for Quebec 
and the St. Lawrence. The edition is found very useful on account of its convenient 
size. A total issue of 18,000 copies of these two publications is now necessary. All 
editions of the tide tables are supplied upon request, free of charge. 

The report of Dr. W. Bell Dawson, Superintendent of the Tidal and Current 
Survey is appended at page 41. 

v.— HYDROGKAPHIC SURVEY. 

During the past year the work of the Hydrographic Survey Branch was carried 
out in the following districts: — Halifax harbour and approaches; Queen Charlotte 
islands; St. Lawrence river; lake Ontario; lake Superior; James bay. Automatic 
gauges were also maintained throughout the year in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence 
river. 

Owing to complaints both from the officers of the Royal Navy and the Merchant 
Marine that the soundings in the approaches to Halifax harbour were inaccurate, a 
survey party in charge of Capt. F. Anderson was sent in C.G.S. Acadia to examine 
the offshore conditions in that vicinity. The area between Sambro island and Egg 
i.sland and for a distance of twenty miles offshore was carefully surveyed. Xo slioals 
were located, but the contour lines were closely charted and show slight variations 
from the old ones. 

The improvements to Halifax harbour were also surveyed, and the results will 
be communicated to the Admiralty for the correction of their plans of the harbour. 
In addition to this work the party also established a " measured mile " in Bedford 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 15 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

basin for the use o£ the dockyard officials. A Canadian chart showing the results 
of the survey will be issued. 

In addition to the regular work of the survey the Acadia was used in connection 
with the fishery investigation conducted by Dr. Iljort. Two trips between Halifax 
and Newfoundland were made in this connection during the season. 

The surveys in the vicinity of Queen Charlotte islands were carried out by a 
party in charge of Lt.-Commander P. C. Musgrave in C.G.S. Lilloett. Before taking 
up the regular work in that vicinity, however, a survey of Fisherman bay, at the 
north end of Vancouver island was made. Similar work was also carried out at 
Milbank sound, and the approaches to the Skeena river were examined. The party 
then proceeded to the Queen Charlotte islands. A member of the Geodetic Survey 
accompanied them for the purpose of selecting a point for the main triangulation 
along that coast. 

The survey of the east side of Queen Charlotte islands between Rose spit and 
Cumshewa head for a distance of ten miles offshore was completed, and the survey 
of the coast line of Graham island was extended from Frederick island to port 
Lewis. An examination of Skidegate inlet was also made to the west end of East 
narrows and buoys and beacons were placed in the channel for the Department of 
Marine. Soundings were taken in Dixon entrance and between Fan island and 
White rock at the entrance of Browning entrance. 

During the season, 90 miles of coast line were surveyed, 276 square miles were 
sounded and 930 linear miles of sounding were done from the ship and boats by the 
survey party. 

The weather in this district ovping to rain and fog is the cause of much loss of 
time in carrying on the surveys. During the past season twenty-six days were lost 
through rain and the party were able to work only 80 out of 186 working days. 

Mr. Charles Savary in charge of a party in C.G.S. Cartier carried out survey 
work in the St. Lawrence river between Matane and cape Chat on the south shore 
and pointe des Monts on the north shore. The work in this area is now completed 
and a chart giving the results of the work will be published. During the past season 
this party traversed 90 miles of shore line and took 1,000 miles of soundings from 
the deck of the ship and from boats. 

A survey was also made at Chicoutirai and the position of buoys \va3 noted for 
entry on the new chart of this area about to be published. During the winter of 
1914-15 the Cartiev was used for examination service and it was not ready for service 
under the Hydrographic Survey until June. This delay shortened the season con- 
siderably for the St. Lawrence party. 

The survey of lake Ontario was in charge of Mr. G. A. Bachand with a party in 
C.G.S. Bayfield. The survey of the west end of lake Ontario, Hamilton bay, Port 
Dalhousie, Port Credit, Oakville, and Bronte harbours was completed. This com- 
pletes the work at the west end of the lake and charts of the whole area and of the 
harbours mentioned will be published shortly. 

In the latter part of the season a survey of Kingston harbour and approaches 
was begun. The work will be completed during the coming season. During the year 



16 inirMiTMKST OF THE .v.ir.i/> service 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

90 miles of traversing were done and 460 miles of sounding from boats and 280 miles 
from the deck of the ship were taken. 

Mr. II. 1). Parizcau with a .survey party in C.G.S. La Canadienne carried out the 
work of this branch in lake Superior. A survey was carried on at Owen Sound and 
Byng inlet. The work begun the previous year at the latter place was completed, 
and a chart giving the results of the work is under preparation. An inspection of 
buoys at Little Current was made so that they might be in accordance with the chart 
recently issued. 

The main work of the party was carried^out between Oiseaux bay and Copper 
island, where off-shore soundings were taken. This work completes the survey of 
the north shore of lake Superior from Pigeon bay to Otter head, with the exception 
of Xipigon and Black bays. During the fall the triangulation of Xipigon bay was 
commenced. The party traversed 43 miles of coast line and sounded 624 miles from 
boats and 535 miles from the deck of the ship. 

The James bay sun'ey was in charge of Mr. Paul Jobin. The party proceeded 
to Moose Factory by way of Cochrane. At Moose Factory they chartered a small 
vessel for the season to carry on the work. A survey of the mouth of Moose river 
was completed, and a chart has been prepared. The party then surveyed the south 
of James bay as far as Charlton and Strutton islands. Upon the completion of this 
work they returned to Ottawa. 

Conditions for navigation in James bay were reported to be generally good 
during the season. The ss. Bonaventure arrived at Strutton island on the 3rd 
August, having encountered very little ice in Hudson bay. 

During the year, eleven automatic gauges were operated on the Great Lakes. On 
the St. Lawrence river sixteen gauges were operated. Particulars of the work in 
connection with the automatic gauges may be obtained from the report of the Hydro- 
graphic Survey Branch. 

In addition to the r^ular work of the branch considerable assistance has been 
given to the Tidal and Current Survey. Tide-registering instruments have been 
maintained by the different survey parties, particularly in the St. Lawrence river 
and James bay, and the information obtained has been handed to the Tidal and 
Current Survey. 

The work of the Hydrographic Survey has been carried on successfully during 
the past year. Several members of the survey have enlisted for active service and 
their absence has been keenly felt in carrying on the work. 

The report of W. J. Stewart, C.E., Chief Hydrographer, is appended at 54. 

VI.— CAXADIAX AKCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The Canadian Arctic Expedition which, for the past two years, has been attract- 
ing popular attention, has come through another year of successful exploration, and 
has added many interesting and instructive facts to the history of the arctic region.^. 

During the first year, owing to the unusual ice conditions, the expedition, which 
was divided into two divisions, was unable to proceed as far into the northern regions 
as had been planned. The southern division were prevented by the ice from follow- 
ing the coast further than Collinson point, Alaska, and were obliged to winter there. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 17 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

The members, nevertheless occupied their time very profitably from an expeditionary 
point of view and successfully carried out surveys of the coast as far as and including 
the Mackenzie delta. They also made a special study of the life habits of the 
natives in the vicinity, took tidal observations and carried out astronomical work. 

The northern division were also unfortunate. The party in the C.G.S. Karluh were 
carried by drift ice far to the eastward along the north coast of Canada. ]\[r. 
Stefansson and three companions in an attempt to reach shore from that vessel, 
on a hunting trip to increase the supply of fresh meat, were obliged to seek shelter, 
during a gale, on Thetis island. While there, the vessel was carried away and the 
party were left on the shore with very little provisions, and with winter approaching. 
The explorer's great experience in northern travel, however, enabled him to reach 
Collinson point without any great difficulty, where he joined the southern division. 

The party in the Ka/rluh were carried about for four months in the ice. In 
January, 1914, the vessel was crushed and sunk, and the party were obliged to encamp 
on the ice. The short diary entries of Captain Bartlett (Naval Service Annual 
Eeport for 1915, page 22) tell more clearly than lengthy reports of the hardships 
encountered by the members from the time the vessel was sunk until they were 
finally rescued. €aptain Bartlett's bravery and devotion to the members of the 
expedition are shown in his simple statement, "I intend to-morrow to leave with 
Eskimo for the Siberian coast .... leaving the men on the island." The 
distance to the Siberian coast is 160 miles, .across the ice, which was in a broken-up 
state, making travel very difficult and dangerous. He succeeded, however, in reach- 
ing shore and reported the fate of the vessel and the position of the survivors to this 
department. 'The department sent a relief expedition which succeeded in rescuing 
the party from "Wrangel island. 

Mr. Stefansson, upon his arrival at Collinson point, decided that the Karluk 
party could not be counted upon to carry out the work of the northern division. The 
whereabouts of the vessel and its ultimate fate were unknown to him for over a year 
later. Although the absence of the Karluk, with supplies, was a serious handicap, 
he .did not hesitate to adopt the one remaining course open for the exploration of 
Beaufort sea, that is, a journey on foot over the ice. He made all preparations and on 
March 22, 1914, accompanied by two men, he set out on foot over Beaufort sea. His 
objective was Banks island. On the journey from Martin point he made every 
effort to cover as much as possible of the little known areas of Beaufort sea west of 
Banks island. He continued his research on the sea ice until their food supplies 
became so low that they were obliged to live on limited rations, and were depending 
upon loose cakes of ice to carry them through the open leads. The scientific investi- 
gations carried out both on this journey and afterwards on Banks island are of 
great value. During the journey the eminent explorer showed the greatest courage 
and endurance and demonstrated his devotion to the work of the expedition. The 
desire for further investigation induced him to remain on Banks island until the 
sea ice again became firm, when he set out on a journey still farther north, over the 
ice of Beaufort sea. This journey brought him along the west coast of Prince 
Patrick island and thence north to cape McClintock. Here he found a cairn in 
which were deposited the records of Capt. F. L. McClintock, dated 15th June, 1853. 

38—2 



18 DEPARTMEyr OF Till-: XAVAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
Captain McClinkick was, at that time, carrying on investigations in the nortli in 
search of some cluo as to the fflte of the Franklin expedition. It is a notable fact 
that under practically the same circumstances Mr. Stefansson was able to carry on 
successfully a trip on foot over the ice, whereas the Franklin party succumbed. This 
is entirely due to the efficiency of modern firearms and to the great experience of 
Mr. Stefansson himself. He insists on all the members of his party adopting the 
life methods of the Eskimo while in the north, for his experience has shown him that 
this is the best means of combating scurvy and other diseases prevalent in the 
northern regions. 

Upon leaving cai)e McClintock the party followed a course about northea.st by east 
for three days, when new land was sighted. During the time they remained in the 
vicinity of this new land the weather was so foggy that they were unable to obtain 
reliable readings for its exact location. The land, from what they saw of it, was of 
considerable size, hills and mountains appearing particularly to the northeastward, 
at a great distance. It is hoped that during the winter of 1915-16 the party were 
able to obtain much more definite information with, reference to their discovery. 

As by the time they reached the new land the season was well advanced and the 
summer of 1915 was fast approaching, they were obliged to hasten south to Banks 
island. Early in August the party arrived at Kellett, Banks island, from the northern 
ice trip, and immediately made arrangements with a whaling vessel to be taken to the 
mainland. The reports forwarded to the department contain a full description of the 
ice journey made and the scientific work carried on. 

The northern division were unable to attain the proposed base on northern Banks 
island but were obliged to winter at Princess Royal island, Prince of Wales strait. An 
ice journey was undertaken in April 1916 when Mr. Stefansson and party set out for 
the new land discovered last year. During the summer and fall of 1916 it was pro- 
posed to investigate thoroughly the new land working from a base at Winter Harbour, 
Melville island. The northern division of the expedition will probably return to civili- 
zation late in 1916 or in the summer of 1917. 

The southern division left Collinson point on the 25th July, 1914, and proceeded 
along the north coast of Canada to the eastward until they entered Dolphin and 
rnion strait. Here they found an ideal harbour from which operations could be 
carried on. This harbour was unmarked on the charts, so they named it Bernard 
harbour. It is situated on the south shore of Dolphin and Union strait, about mid- 
way between cape Bexley and cape Krusenstcrn. 

Using Bernard harbour as a base, the party have been carrying on survey work 
along the coast and also investigating the mineral deposits between cape Parry and 
Kent peninsula during the past two seasons. The habits of the Eskimos of the 
eastern regions, which, prior to Mr. Stefansson's expedition and life among them 
between 1908-13, were very little, if at all, known, were given further study, and 
many new facts with reference to them were brought to light. 

The southern shore of Victoria island was also visited and the ethnology of 
the Eskimos carefully investigated. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE N'AVAL fiERVICE 19 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

The work of the southern division throughout has been most thorough, and tlio 
area allotted to them has been covered in a very complete manner. During tho 
summer of 1916 the different surveys under way should be completed, and tho 
expedition is to return south in the fall. 

A complete report of the scientific work carried out by the different parties and 
also a chart of the dift'ercnt journeys made may be found at page 71. 

VII.— LIFE-SAVING SERVICE. 

The object of this service is to render assistance to the crews and passengers 
on ships in distress and to rescue persons from vn-ecked vessels along the Canadian 
coasts. 

The Department of the Naval Service also undertakes to reward bravery in life- 
saving at sea. It does not, however, deal with cases of life-saving in the rivers and 
on the coasts; such cases should be brought to the attention of the Royal Canadian 
Humane Society at Hamilton, Ont. 

During the past year thirty-seven life-saving stations were maintained through- 
out the Dominion, and the required number of drills have been performed by eacli 
station. Frequent inspections of the various stations have been made to ascertain 
their being in an efficient condition. 

The following table gives the number of stations in each province, together with 
information respecting their crews : — 

East Coast. 
Province. Number of Stations. Crew. 

Nova Scotia 1.^), One with a permanent crew, who live at the 

station throughout the year ; 

Two with permanent crews during the 
season of navigation only, and 

Twelve with volunteer crews, who drill twice 
a month and are called out on the oeca- 
sion of a wreck. 

New Brunswirk 4, One with permanent crew ; 

One with permanent crew during the 
season of navigation only, and 
Two with volunteer crews. 

Prince Edward Island. 5, With volunteer crews. 

&reat Lakes. 
Province. Number of Stations. Crew. 

Ontario 10, Three with permanent crews during the 

season of navigation only, and 
Seven with volunteer crews. 
• 

West Coast. 

Province. Number of Stations. Crew. 

British Columbia. 3, With permanent crews. 

As motor-boats are now replacing sail-boats in many of the fishing districts, the 
danger of the fishermen's vessels becoming disabled is gradually diminishing. The 
fishermen are also able to render assistance to one another in cases of breakdown, so 
that in many instances it is unnecessary for the life-boats to put to sea. 

38— 2i 



20 



nFPARrMKXT OF THE .\.\VAL SEIiVirE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
Assistance was, however, rendered on many occasions to the occupants of vessels 

wrecked or in danger. On several occasions the ves-sels themselves were brought into 

Bafe anchorage. 

Particulars of services rendered by individual stations are contained in the 

report of Vice-Adnmriil ('. E. Kinf^sniill on the Life-saving Service at page 81. 

VITT.— KADIOTELEGEAPII BRANCH. 

During the past year the work of the Radiotelegraph Branch has been carried 
out in an efficient manner : 142 stations composed of Government commercial and 
coast stations; government ship and licensed ship stations; public and private com- 
mercial stations; training schools and licensed experimental stations, have been 
operated throughout the Dominion. At the commencement of the war all amateur 
stations in Canada were closed down. * 

The following stations on the East coast, formerly operated by the Marconi 
Wireless Telegraph Company, have been taken over and are now operated by the 
Department of the Naval Service: Camperdown, N.S., on the 1st May, 1915; North 
Sydney, N.S., on the 1st August, 1915; Point Riche, Nfld., on the 1st September, 
1915; Sable island. N.S.. on the 1st January, 1916. 

The amount of business handled by the East Coast, Great Lakes and West Coast 
stations shows a decrease over last year. This decrease is directly attributable to the 
war and the placiiig of these stations on a war basis. The business at LePas and 
Port Nelson stations on the Hudson Bay chain shows an increase. Following is a 
comparative statement of business handled during 1914-15 and 1915-16 : — 





1914-15. 


1915-16. 


Increase 

or 
Decrease. 

Decrease . . . 
Increa.se . 


Messages . 


Words. 




Messages. 


Words. 


Messages. 


Words. 




East Coast 

Great Lakes 

West Coast 

Hudson Bay 


59,846 

1.5,785 

98,386 

5,259 


1,196,512 
326,-505 

1,.532,526 
32.5,961 


45,195 

13.617 

95,048 

7.617 


864.020 

259,366 

1,103,-395 

570,281 


14.6.51 
2,168 
3,338 
2,358 


3.32.492 

67,139 

429,131 

244,320 


Totals 


179,276 


3,381,504 


161.477 


2,797,062 


Net decrea.se 


17,799 


584,442 



The total revenue from this pervice during the past year amounted to $8,494.99. 

The department requires that all those entering the Radiotelegraph service as 
operators, pass a proficiency examination to determine their qualifications prior to 
acceptance. During the past fiscal year one hundred and seven operators were exam- 
ined at different points throughout Canada ; out of this number fifty-two were 
successful. Applications for entry as operators in the Radiotelegraph Service should 
be addressed to " The Deputy Minister, Naval Service Department, Ottawa." 

On account of the confidential nature of the messages passing through the 
hands of radiotelegraph operators, and the secret instructions with which they must 
be entrusted during the present time, it was considered advisable to enlist in the 
Royal Naval Canadian Volunteer Reserve all the wireless operators in the employ of 



DEPARTME^'T OF THE yAVAL HERYICE 21 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

the department; for this purpose the rank of wireless operator was instituted, and 
regulations were drawn up to meet the requirements in this connection. The 
operators have now been enlisted in the K.NjC.V.R. 

In addition to its regular work the Radiotelegraph Service has on many occa- 
sions been instrumental in obtaining assistance for vessels in distress and in com- 
municating instructions from their owners. 

The usual repairs to keep the different stations in an efficient condition and 
regular inspections of all stations were carried out during the year. The power of 
the North Sydney station was increased by the installation of a new transmitting 
apparatus of 2-k.w. power. Repairs were also carried out at Point Riche, Alert bay, 
Cape Lazo, Dead Tree point, Digby island, Estevan, Gonzales hill, Ikeda, Pachcna, and 
Triangle island stations. Work has been started on the new radiotelegraph station 
at Mansel island; the men and material necessary to carry out the work were trans- 
ported in C.G.S. Burleigh to Mansel island where the eight mast anchors and build- 
ing foundations were installed, and construction shacks were built. Preparations 
for the erection of the buildings and masts are now completed. When the station is 
completed it will be utilized to communicate with ships entering Hudson strait 
and bay. By the use of this station vessels entering Hudson strait will then be 
able to communicate via Mansel island and Port Nelson stations with tlie outside 
world. 

The department, in addition to the above-mentioned work, has equipped all 
munitions transports running between Canada and England with radiotelegraph 
apparatus and has supplied operators and supervised the operation of the stations in 
connection therewith. This work has been carried out on behalf of the British 
Admiralty, with whom an agreement has been drawn up for that purpose. 

The total number of persons employed in the Radiotelegraph Branch during the 
past fiscabyear was four hundred and four. 

The branch has carried out in addition to the above a great amount of work of a 
confidential character in connection with the war. It is got advisable at the present 
time to give particulars of this work. The report of Mr. C. P. Edwards, Superin- 
tendent of the Radiotelegraph Branch, is appended at page 84. 

GENERAL. 

I have much pleasure in expressing my satisfaction at the efficient manner in 
which officers of the department have carried out their duties during the year. 

I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant. 

G. J. DESBARATS, 

Deputy Minister. 



22 



DErARTMEyT OF THE .VAVJL HEUVKE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Ottawa, August 10, 1916. 
The Deputy Minister, 

Department of Naval Service, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith a financial statement showing the 
expenditure under the various appropriations, and the revenue received by the 
department during the fiscal year ended March 31, 1916. 

The expenditure on account of H.M.C.S. Niohe, H.M.C.S. Rainbow, submarine 
C.C. 1 and C.C. 2 and depot, H.M.C.S. Shearwater shore depot and extraordinary 
expenditures for the dockyards at Halifax and Esquimalt have been charged to War 
Appropriation. The ordinary expenditure for the up-keep and maintenance of the 
Koyal Naval College, Halifax and Esquimalt dockyards has been charged to the 
Naval Service Appropriation. 

A statement of stores supplied, work done and advances made on behalf of the 
British, French, Japanese, and Russian Governments is also submitted. These dis- 
bursements amount during the fiscal year 1915-16 to $2,976,621.72, and to this 
should be added the sum of $708,996.46 transferred from fiscal year 1914-15, thus 
making a grand total of $3,685,618.18 debited against the Allies during fiscal year 
1915-16. Credits and cash received during the year amount to $2,967,217.45, leaving 
an outstanding balance of $718,400.73 which is not included in the amounts charged 
to War or Naval Appropriations, but carried forward in suspense to the fiscal year 
1916-17. 

I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

L. J. BEAUSOLEIL, 

Chief Accountant. 



Statement of Jobs completed in the Workshops, and Stores Supplied by the Halifax 
and Esquimalt Dockyards, during Fiscal Year 1915-16. 



Service. 



Naval service 

Fisheries Protection service . 

Hydrographic surveys 

Life Saving service 

Radiotelegraph service 

Fishery Patrol service 

British Admiralty 

French " 

Russian Government 

Japanese " 

Commonwealth of Australia. 

Dept. of Marine 

" Militia and Defence. 
Sundries 



Wages paid . 
Salaries 



Halifax. 



$ cts. 

425,504 64 

20,289 22 

13,638 75 

2,478 

7.916 05 

6,422 11 

200,590 17 
1,170 56 
1,325 18 



403 89 



2,692 37 



682,431 72 



Esquimalt. 



30, 655 35 



$ cts. 

339,643 31 

35.251 24 

10,024 52 

356 50 

4,090 81 

320 59 

112,234 06 



2.153 84 



3,909 92 
1,741 38 
2,945 96 



512,672 13 



156,445 97 198,902 22 



34,096 66 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NATAL SERVICE 



23 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

Statement of Appropriation Accounts for Fiscal Year 1915-16. 



Service. 



Appropriation 



Expenditure. 



Balance 
unoxpcndcrl. 



Naval service 

Fisheries protection service 

Hydropri-aphic surveys 

RadioteloKraph service 

Tidal service 

Patrol of the Northern Waters of Canada 

New Fisheries Protection steamers 

Rewards for saving life, including life saving service 



Fisheries — 

Salaries and disbursements of fishery officers 

Building fish ways and clearing rivers 

Legal and incidental expenses 

Canadian Fisheries Museum 

Oyster culture 

Cold storage and transportation of fish 

Dogfish reduction works 

Services of customs officers re Modus Vivendi licenses. . 

Fisheries Intelligence Bureau < 

Fisheries patrol service 

Exhibit of fresh and cured fish (Toronto Exhibition) — 

Fish breeding establishments 

Inspection of canned and pickled fish 

Building fisheries patrol boats 

Fisheries patrol steamer for Lake Winnipeg 

Removal of obstructions, Fraser river 

Investigation of Hudson Bay fisheries 

Compensation to Captain Peter Carlson 

Marine Biological Stations and Investigations 

Expenses investigating claims for compensation under 
Pelagic Sealing Treaty 

Civil government salaries 

Contingencies 

Fishing bounty 



RECAPITULATION. 



Naval service 

Fisheries 

Civil Government. 
Contingencies 



Fishing bounty 

War appropriation . 



S cts. 

1,000,000 00 

375,000 00 

.390,000 00 

350,000 00 

35,000 00 

85,000 00 

30,000 00 

125,400 00 



S cts 

401,722 28 
145,241 00 
231,629 42 
188,358 25 
16,793 23 
75, 616 44 



95,065 65 



S cts. 

598,277 72 

229,7.59 00 

158,370 58 

161,641 75 

18,206 77 

9,383 56 

30,000 00 

30,334 35 



2,390,400 00 



1,154,426 27 



1,235,973 73 



305,000 00 

30,000 00 

4,000 00 

8,000 00 

6,000 00 

150,000 00 

60,000 00 

900 00 

5,000 00 

190,000 00 

15,000 00 

400,000 00 

25,000 00 

32,000 00 

100,000 00 

30,000 00 

10,000 00 

4,500 00 

26,000 00 

4,100 00 



247,5.39 58 

5,205 55 

1,138 98 

6,646 80 

4,470 95 

89,459 10 

32,137 86 

439 65 

4,618 64 

153,933 97 

10,928 97 

275,079 38 

12,327 75 

21,423 10 

49,212 81 

7,007 83 

442 17 

4,500 00 

26,000 00 

4,049 15 



57,460 42 

24,794 45 

2,861 02 

1,3.53 20 

1,.529 05 

60,540 90 

27,862 14 

460 35 

381 36 

36,066 03 

4,071 03 

124,920 62 

12,672 25 

10,576 90 

50,787 19 

22,992 17 

9,557 83 



50 85 



1,405,500 00 



956,462 24 



448,937 76 



170,600 00 
50,000 00 



150,795 81 
42,869 71 



19,804 19 
7,130 29 



220,600 00 
160,000 00 



193,665 52 
158,741 05 



26,934 48 
1,321 15 



2,390,400 00 

1,405,500 00 

170, 600 00 

50,000 00 



1,154,426 27 

9.56,. 562 24 

150,795 81 

42,869 71 



1,235,973 73 

448,9.37 76 

19,804 19 

7,130 29 



4,016,500 00 
160,000 00 



2,304,6.54 03 

158,741 05 

3,274,019 94 



1,711,845 97 
1,321 15 



Total expenditure from appropriations, fiscal year 1915-16. . 

Suspense accounts (recoverable) transferred to fiscal year 
1916-17, being amount due for stores supplied. and work 
done on behalf of tha British, French, Russian govern- 
ments, etc •* • • ■ 



5,737,415 02 



718,400 73 



6,455,635 75 



24 



DFPARTMEXT OF THE .Y.IT.IL SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Statement of Appropriation Accounts for Fiscal Year 1915-16 — Continued. 

SUSPENSE ACCOUNTS. 

Amounts outstanding in respect to stores supplied, work done, and advances made, ete. at end of fiscal 

year 1915-16. 

British Admiralty... $ 607,t,.'i. i., 

British war office 26,94»i i>'> 

Commonwealth of Australia 54,981 97 

French Admiralty 18, 205 88 

Russian CJovernment 6, 618 Go 

Militia and Defence Department 2,014 .55 

Department of Marine '. 428 48 

Miscellaneous.. . 1,578 58 



I 718.400 73 



Statement of Revenue of the Department of the Xaval Services for Fiscal Year 

ended March 31. 1916. 



Royal Naval College — College fees (13 cadets) 

Fisheries revenue 

Modus Vivendi (licenses to United States fishing vessels) . 

Casual revenue 

M i.scellaneous revenue 

Wireless apparatus licenses 

Wireless operators examination fees 

Radiotelegraph revenue: — 

Alert Bay station 

Cape Lazo station 

Dada Tree station 

Digby Island station 

Estevan Point station 

Gonazles Hill station 

Ikeda Head station 

Pachena point station 

Point Grey station 

Triangle station 

Mala.spina station 

Camperdown station 

Magdalen Islands station 

Kingston station 

Midland station 

Point Edward station 

Port Arthur station 

Port Burwell station 

Sault Ste. Marie station 

Tobermory station 

Toronto station 



cts, 



491 11 

347 85 

413 17 

.429 95 

,508 89 

810 01 

86 72 

43 25 

340 14 

923 41 

72 

154 73 

574 57 

2 12 
9 19 

17 24 

12 74 

6 07 

11 02 

3 14 
16 64 



S cts. 

1 , 300 00 

96,376 26 

9,912 00 

55, 185 87 

985 32 

227 00 

119 00 



8,202 68 
$ 172,308 13 



DEPARTMENT OF THE XATAL ^SERVICE 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

FiSHKRiES Eevenue for Fiscal Year ended March 31, 1916/ 



25 



Provinces. 



Amount 
Collected. 



Refunds. 



Net 
Amount. 



Ontario 

Quebec 

New Brunswick 

Nova Scotia 

Prince Edward Island 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Yukon 

Modus Vivendi licenses 



$ cts. 

2,600 65 
7,006 89 

15,098 80 
7,109 18 
3,165 35 
5,926 00 
3,215 00 
5,2.37 85 

46,872 54 
315 00 



cts. 



1 00 
140 00 



20 00 
10 00 



96,547 26 
9,912 50 



171 00 
50 



$ cts. 

2,600 65 
7,006 89 

15,097 80 
6,969 18 
3,165 35 
5,926 00 
3,195 00 
5,237 85 

46,862 .54 
315 00 



96,376 26 
9,912 00 



$ 106,288 26 



26 



DEiwnTMr.yT or the .v.ir.i/. service 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 







M CO 


t^ 


00 


CO CO OS CO 





iccor- 


ot- 


c» 


CO ©t- 


Oi-r 


C-1 


3 




X 


a> -H 


© 


00 


■xr '»< 00 CO c-x 


CO f © 


CO CO CO 


■>J< lO 1-1 t— © CJ 







t5S 


"9 


jg 


-- f -- C-l t^ 


■f 00 IM 
CO OCO 


t^ co» t-- 


CO 00 c^i 1^ in 


© 








OS -f CO 00 


« c> t^ 


CO CO t^ — CO CO 
t^ 00 •^ l~ CO •«>< 




^ 


4* 


CO 





CC 


CO XO t~ ^ OS 


OS ■<»< 


COU5 








' 


■^-f 


OS 


OS 


000 00 '^ US 


CS COCM 


ss§ ^' 


©"■*io esst^'-ij 

.-1 ci CO CMOO 


:* 


H 




3 p5 


cn 


t~ 


ICCO-H 


t^ 








*-H 


»— t 


r^ 1-H 


t-f-H 


*"• 


CM 




















CO 


















c^i r~ 












© 


•50 


en 


























^ CO 














•<*' 


H 


u 


























CO CO 














© 


•eJ 




























CO C-1 














00 


M 


























CO "0 














t^ 


OS V 




























•^co 
§2 














00 
00 


Non- 

ffective 

Pay. 




— 35 





s 






























« 


00 


X 








t^ 




































•^ 


u 


23 


CO 


CM 


































§ 


S 


^ 


CO 00 


C^ 






































w 




.— CO 






































rt' 


t>r 


w 1 












































CM 






•* 


00 


•r 


to lO 


© UO "It 


© 














"S 


_« 


. 


■2 


C-- -^ 


c 


■* 


-H CO OS CO 


ess © t- 


CM 














c 


•<!»< 


cpar- 
.tion 
How 
.nee. 


ZJ 


t~ 





i.- 


t- C33 C^l OS C33 


00^ oc 


CO 














CO 


t^ 




^ 


t^ 


co 


1^ t^ CO t^ CO 


OS lO t^ 


© 














e^i 


f- 


Vi 


CO 


00 


OS 


>-( OS OS •-< »o 


-r ic CO 


00 














CO 


00 


1 CB =< == 






t^ 




oTcM'co'rt (N 


*^ 


















OS 




-, 




3g 


C-l 




C3 cvi ira t- 


10 CO CO 


© 






•c 


CO" 


com 


10 


Misc. 

ffcctivc 

ervices. 


'fl 




CO 


C) ^ lO t-i ».o 


C^l •<)< cs 


OS 






CO 


t^ 


©© 


CM 


u 


Tjl 


10 


CO 


1.-3 ■* 10 <M OS 


c-1 CO r- 


CO. 






© 


CO oc 


CO 




CO CO 


C-1 


c- 


■<«< CJS 10 OS CO 


-^ oc 


C^l 






© 1- 


00 ■* 


£2 


CO 



o'-o 


CO 
00 


c^ 
in 


CO -.0 00 

OS C-Tc-I 00 


t- 00 c 


CM 

CO 






Tj.in 

C^J-h" 


© m 
t^c^ 


00 
CO 


WOJ 




CM 






"^ 












•>*" 


CO 























t~ 


<T 






CD 


CO 


































t^ 






© 


CO 03 5f) 




































00 
CM 


CO 






|§2 


«» 


































OS 


t^ 




. 


^"^1 




































■»!< 
^ 


oT 

CO 




s 


pq 












































1 1 




■"^~ 
















oc 


-^ 


















© 


Q Oi u 


m 




















00 © 




















© 


eha.'i 
Ship 
Altc 
ions. 


u 
«© 




















00 

0S»0 




















CM 

© 


£^"0 c ^^ 




















CM 


-^"o" 




















"* 




















C3S 


-H CM 




















CO 






























CO 


1 




-- 


-* 




-.H CO CO c 


•# lO ir 






oc 


t^ Tf CM 






CO 


Oi 


CO 


(M t- 


c: 




OS CO t^ -- 


^ CM CN 






CC 


.-H r-( CM 






CM 


■s-«-ii 





00 — 


CO 




t^ 10 CO r~ c 


© 00 If 






t- 


CD t~ ■* 






_( 




CO 


t-- 




CO -H 00 tr. 


S3S 






t- 


«0 CM © 






«i 


ft C C3 03 


e« 




CC 




0-* CD —1 CC 









1-1 CM 






CO 


<U 0315) § 




cs'ir: 


oc 




■^"^"t--" O" 


tCco'c^ 








essrt" 






oeT 




CO-* 


CO 




I-H rt '"' 








5 








s; 






05 




C£ 


t- • . . 














c 


CM 


J, m 


M 


r^ 






































*"• 


ti .S 





00 




C 



\ ^ 






























CC 


i 


«» 






a 





































ft 










































T* 


















































ir 


u- 


c 


■> 
































© 


J>- £ 


M 


oa 


> 


■> a. 


3 »0 
































CM 


_m 





"■ 


> c 


> 


s 00 
































10 


'm Ci C 




05 «c 


c^ 


c- 


T-l 
































."S 


^ " S 


«^ 


^ t- 




■^ 


































10 


3 c.£ 










































^ 


02 «t. 












































CU 
















































iO c 


) c 


C£ 


> T-< if3iO C 


> »o©«f 


> 










©" 




"c 


10 


s 


CO 


■oc 




0< 


3 Tj< CO t>- OS tr 


t^iOt- 












© 




r- 


© 





CO c 


> c 





s -^ CO in •« c: 
3 ci 00 >c c<i -^ 


co — 1 c: 












CM 




oc 


<=a 






•>»• r- 


- c 




© Ol 












CM 




c 


10 


"S"? 


o» 





J <^ 


c- 


J t^ r-t 














»— t 




c^ 


© 


fc. 




co- 


r e^ 


■- 


r i-Ti-T 




















cm" 


-^cc 






























'^ 






os 1- 




> t- 


OS OS M* -^ o' 


) 'I'oooc 


3 






© Tf<CM 




"a 


^H 


ores 
,nd 
low- 
ces. 


EW 


T-H 0( 


j o< 


5 C 


3 t^ t^ CO CSS c: 


> t^CM 


S 






CM C^l CM 






t^ 


"S 


a> 


3 c 


3 C 


5 t^ .-H OS -- c; 


> t^eoc 


3 






© CM © 




c 


S2 






3 f- 


C£ 


3 en CO cs CS 


Oi-^ c 


> 






t^ © t^ 




CC 


CO 


»» 




1 <^ 


1 C£ 


3 OS 0-^ Tl< 


t^ oscc 


) 






COCM T)< 




Cs 


© 


<-> C!-- C 




























CQ ■< 53 




'I 




<^ C- 


1 OOOCO 


crscM"-"! 








OOCM 




c 


1.H 






C£ 


! t- 


<N COC^ r-l — 


i-i C<1 












Tt 


© 






Cl 


















CO 






ic a 


3 c 


3 f- 


OS C^) — t^ t^ 


t^ — 0( 


3 ■* 






• CO 


CM 


, 


X 


If 


3 t- 




< CM OSOO r^ — 


< CMOC 














•© 


CO 


83 c^ 
Pi e3— C 





^ - 


■> C 


3 -^ 


M t-H OS c<i ira c 


3 CO CO t> 


■* 












CO 


t^ 




t^ 2 


> c 


> a 


3 CO CO CO OS T) 


< T-< osh. 


. CM 












10 


S2 


^ 


CO ir 


5 


3 t- 


C^l 00 CM CO c 


> ■»!» oor- 


CD 












00 


© 






























<: « 




S? 


3" « 


?" ? 


3 t^ CO coco ir 
3 Tj< CO CO 1-c — 


", -^aac 


3 «0 












© 


© 
CO 






ci - 






















r^ 






;- 






-N . - - - 




• +> • (U 


. l^ 




3Q 

3g-Sa 








§ 

si 

ft— 

CO 

w 




"0 ^ 

5?? 


: B 

3« 

■' en 



\l\ 


• 1 "c 

:co c 
■coa 

5^ ! 


5.1 iSgs^ 

2- •" : - 

5,!» ^aj a: CO «5 . 
^d aqdod"? 


'. c3 
•-3 

03 

:^ 

■CO 

3^^ 


.~ c 

:ccc/ 

?^^ 


■ 00 

a 

; 




r t 

CO s 


i2 

CO 

;d: 


c 
c 

> 

c 


1- 
c 

X 

. c' 
= 
C 

ST. 

' c 

J c 


c 
c 

c. 
c. 

— 

i 

C 

a 


! 






tl 


5ti 




S ' 




s 


:Ji 


:5 


:k 


W 


S 


:s 


3<J 


p. 


;w 


w 


n 


«^ 


n 


3: 


c 


; 



DEJ'ATiTME'ST OF THE 'SAYATj SERVICE 



27 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 



o t-- CO a» "0 CI oi 

CO ;D C3 ■^ <M ira CO 



_. ^ H -t^ (M O 00 

ooinoiOooO'^iM-pooocnco 
moo-^(MiMiocoi^-20>-i(M-H 
... .-0 .... 

ot— ooto oiocotoo 

Oi CO OO >- t^ -H 

o 



».< .-t< CI 



OS 



a 



n « ' — I 



»-i O 00 O Tt) O "O 

CO o 00 (M rH in to 

00 CO -H (M O in !M 
CD lO O O C^^ CO o 
O! 05 "-H C-1 O >0 03 



.3 >- 

M O 



-^ O lO 
CO -^ 
t^ CO 



<M -^ 00 <M CD 

^ ^ "^ c^i CO 

05 ^ 00 (M .O 

■^ o 00 ^H -tj r^ 
>o o CO o •-; iM 



T-l I— I lO !.< lO 



<-i t^ CO 

O .-* <N 
.^ -4J CD X5 



CO r- C5 CO 03 

CO 1-1 .CD OJ .-c 



T-l CO fi IM 



o o 



• o 



tf 






S L. m 
M o S 

p4cnS 



aj - 

t) to 

>H B > 

£ O C 

"12 el 

<U :> c3 cS u 
TJ P a ft m 



> 

CD >l 

W C3 



"5 ^ 
"I 



a o 



Q <;o 



28 DKrXTiTMKST OF TUK .Vll i/. SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



NAVAL SERVICE. 

Departaiknt of the Naval Service, 

Ottawa, April 1, lOlfi. 

The Deputy ^linisttT, 

JJt'partment of the Naval Service, 
Ottawa, Canada. 

Sir, — 1 have the honour to report regarding the Naval Service, for the fiscal year 
ending March 31, 1910. 

The progress, both mental and phj-sical, of the cadets at the Royal Naval College 
at Halifax still proves most satisfactory. An examination for the entry of cadets to 
the college was held in May, 1915, and six cadets were entered. The officers of the 
college continue to report most favourably on the cadets, and the midshipmen who 
have been serving in ships of the Royal Navy, H.M.C. ships Niohe, Rainbow, sub- 
marine C.C.I, and C.C. 2, and patrol vessels, have also been most favourably reported 
upon and proved themselves capable and efficient. The fourteen midshipmen who 
entered the college in January, 1911, were promoted to acting sub-lieutenant on 
December 1, 1915. Two of these officers are now serving in the British Submarine 
Service. Four lieutenants and five engineer lieutenants are serving in vessels of the 
Grand Fleet. 

The requisite number of the personnel for the manning of all H.M.C. Ships and 
Establishments has been maintained by the entry of men with previous naval experi- 
ence, and by the employment of R.N.C.V.R. officers and men. 

H.M.C. S. Niohe continued to be employed under the command of the Rear 
Admiral Cominanding, North American Station, until September last, when, owing 
to the very considerable amount of almost continuous steaming that she had done 
s^nce the outbreak of the war, it was considered that the general state of her machinery 
and boilers would not warrant her continuance on this duty. This fact, in conjunc- 
tion with the urgent necessity of a depot ship, to be used to accommodate numerous 
drafts of men passing through Halifax, and of a parent ship for the vessels employed 
on patrol work, etc., on the Atlantic coast, caused the decision to be made to pay her 
oif and re-commission her for the purposes indicated. Since that date, she has proved 
suitable for her new fmictions, and of considerable utility both in connection with the 
Canadian and Imperial services. 

H.M.C. S. Rainbow has been continuously employed on the west coast in trade 
protection and other important duties, under the orders of the Imperial Senior Naval 
Officer of that station. 

The two submarines and their parent ship, the Shearwater, have been actively 
employed for the defence of the British Columbian coasts, 

A large number of other vessels, both governmental and private, are being utilized 
in connection with the naval defence of the coasts on such duties as examination 
service, mine sweeping, patrfds, and other necessary work. 

The Naval Volunteers which were established just previous to the outbreak of the 
war developed largely in the West, where some 400 officers and men are enrolled. 
These volunteers have done good service both ashore and afloat, a considerable num- 
ber serving continuously in the Rainbow since the outbreak of hostilities, whilst others 
are in IT. M.S. Xeirrastlc and various vessels at Esquimalt, including the submarinea 
and their parent ship, the Shearwater. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAfj f^ERVICE 29 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

A considerable number of E.N.O.V.R. offlccrs and men arc also employed in 
various ships on the East Coast. 

In April, 1915, the Admiralty requested the department to select a considerable 
number of men to be trained as pilots for the Royal Naval Air Service. This involved 
a very considerable amount of work and correspondence, many hundreds of applica- 
tions for entry being received from all over the Dominion. These were gone into 
individually, and arrangements made for interviewing and medically examining likely 
applicants. All those accepted then went to private flying schools to obtain their Aero 
Club Certificates, and, upon obtaining them, were sent to England. The number 
called for by the Admiralty was twice increased, but the full quota was obtained ; and 
the great majority entered up to the present have now obtained their flying certifi- 
cates and been sent to England. 

Recently the department was also requested by the Admiralty to ascertain what 
men could be entered for the Auxiliary Patrol (Motor-boat) Service. Several hundred 
applications have been received, and these have been classified, pending the arrival of 
a recruiting committee from England, who will make final selections. 

The duties and work carried out by the Naval Intelligence Department have 
increased considerably in magnitude and importance, and have been carried out in a 
very satisfactory manner. 

I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

C. E. KINGSMILL, Vice-Admiral, 

Director of the Naval Service. 



30 DKPARTMEyr O/' 77//; .V.iV.l/. SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



STORES BRANCH. 

Ottawa, July 21, 191G. 
The Deputy Minister, 

Department of the Naval Service, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Stores Branch for the 
Sscal year ending March 31, 1916. 

In keeping witli the organization of the branch, and for convenience, the report 
is divided into three sections : — 

1. Purchasing and contract section, 

2. Stores section, 

3. Transportation section. 

I. Purchasing and Contract Section. 

The duty of this section is to execute and supervise all contracts and purchases. 
This includes the chartering of vessels, the making of contracts for the erection 
of buildings and other permanent structures, for water supplies, electric light and 
power, telephone services, etc., for the victualling of ships crews where the victualling 
is not done by the department, and the purchase, by contract or otherwise, of all 
necessary stores and supplies of every discription. In addition to the Naval Service 
proper, the following branches are served in this way : Ilydrographic Surveys. Tidal 
and Current Surveys, Radiotelegraph Service, Fishery Protection Service, Fishery 
Patrol Service, Fish Breeding Service, other fisheries services. Life Saving Sen^ice. 

As far as possible all branches utilize the stock-keeping facilities maintained at 
the dockyards at Halifax and Esquimalt, and draw supplies from these points. The 
mam duty of this section is, therefore, the procuring of supplies in replenishment of 
stores kept there. 

Demands are received from each dockyard at the commencement of each year, 
providing, as far as possible, for all requirements during the ensuing year. Sup- 
plementary demands are received at intervals thereafter providing for unforeseen 
requirements. 

Demands are classified under six headings, and include : Provisions, clothing and 
materials, medical supplies, naval stores, consisting of lumber, metals and hardware, 
tools, textiles and cordage, packings and rubber goods, paints and oils, leather goods, 
glass, furnishings, brushes, etc., electrical supplies, and fuel; ordnance stores and 
ammunition, and stationery and printing. 

Tenders are called for the main items by advertisement in the press. The lesser 
items are purchased by limited tender, i.e., tenders distributed amongst known reli- 
able firms, or in cases of special patented or proprietary articles, by direct order. 
Items of small value, where no benefit can be derived through purchase in the wider 
markets, are referred back to the dockyard for purchase locally. Certain other items, 
peculiar to ships of war, t re obt;iinable, under existing conditions, only from or through 
the Imperial Government. These are demanded by special requisition, for\y:irdod 
tlirough the office of the High Commissioner in London. Stationery and printing is, 
of course, all pi-ocured tln-ough the Government Printing and Stationery Depart- 
ment. 

As far as possible, contracts are made to call for fixed quantities, of .specified make 
and quality, for delivery within a given period. In cases where the exact require- 



DEPARTMEST OF THE AAVAE .SERVICE 31 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

meul-.s caimot be actually forecasted, or the facilities do not permit of large quantities 
being stored, contracts are made to call for delivery as required. This applies also to 
supplies of a perishable nature, such as fresh provisions. 

Miscellaneous demands from the Fisheries and other branches, that cannot con- 
veniently be referred to the dockyards, are dealt with to best advantage along similar 
lines. 

Considerable purchases were made on behalf of the Imperial Government, and 
in lesser degree on behalf of the Australian Navy and Allied Governments. 

As far as possible, all purchases were made in Canada, from Canadian manu- 
facturers. 

Contracts were entered into for the charter of eighteen vessels of varying dimen- 
sions, and nineteen large motor launches, for service as required. Expenditure under 
this head totalled $373,139. 

Altogether twenty-three ships were victualled by contract, necessitating the execu- 
tion of a like number of contracts. 

Contracts were maintained on both the east and west coasts for the supply of 
fresh provisions at short notice to all service ships requiring such, both Canadian and 
Imperial. Also contracts were made for the supply of staple provisions. The Imperial 
Government and ships of the Imperial service took advantage of these contracts to a 
very considerable extent. Exclusive of purchases made by Imperial ships direct, pur- 
chases under this head totalled $262,973. 

Contracts were entered into for materials for uniforms and clothing, for the 
making of uniforms and clothing, and for ready-made clothing of all kinds. Con- 
siderable difficulty was experienced in this connection owing to the great scarcity of 
raw materials and dyes, but these were overcome. Purchases under this head 
totalled $211,842. 

Medical supplies to the value of $7,026 were purchased as required by ships 
and establishments to replenish. 

Difficulty was also experienced in placing contracts for metals and procuring 
deliveries, owing to the unprecedented demand for the manufacture of munitions, 
and to the diversion of labour and facilities to this purpose. There was, however, no 
dislocation of operations on this account. Other naval stores were procured to best 
advantage, either by contract or purchase. Contracts were made for coal, to be sup- 
plied as required, not only to ships of the Canadian Service, but also to ships of the 
Imperial Service, and to transports. Altogether purchases under this head totalled 
$1,913,766. 

Practically all ordnance stores and ammunition were procured from the Imperial 
Government. Purchases under this head totalled $42,852. 

All stationery and printing was procured through the Government Printing and 
Stationery Department. Purchases under this head totalled $46,810. 

Following is a summary of the purchases made during the year: — 

Provisions $ 262,973 

Clothing.. 211,842 

Medical stores 7,026 

Naval Stores, not including fuel 832i,503 

Fuel 1,081,263 

Ordnance and ammunition 42,852 

Stationery and printing 46,810 

$2,485,269 

II. Storekeeping Section. 

The work of the whole branch hinges largely on the activities of this section, 
and the activities of the section depend on the demand for su'pplies. Organized 
primarily for the purpose of keeping ships of the Naval Service supplied with stores, 
the branch has expanded in keeping with the growth of the department, until, in addi- 



32 DEPARTMENT OF THE NAYAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

tion to ships and establishments of the Naval Service proper, service is also rendered to 
nine ships of the Fishery Protection Service, a number of small vessels connected witli 
the Fisberj' Patrol Service, six vessels of the Hj'dropjraphic Surveys, and to the Royal 
Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve, the Radiotclef?raph Service, the Life-Saving 
Service, and to the fish hatcheries and other fishery establishments throughout the 
Dominion. Necessarily the work of the dockyards in the manufacture and repair 
divisions has increased also in keeping with the growth of the department, and the 
filling of demands from this source is not the least of our duties. 

During the year there were added to the Naval Establishment three small ships 
by purchase, two others by loan from private individuals, two by transfer from other 
departments of the Government, and thirty-seven vessels of sorts by charter, or forty- 
four in all. Of the latter, nineteen were motor launches, requiring little aside from 
uniforms, and fuel and oil, in the way of stores. 

In addition, during the year ships of the Imperial Service, and transports, and 
in lesser degree ships of sister colonies and allied Governments, have taken increased 
advantage of our facilities to secure supplies, drawing freely as occasion demanded. 

Supply depots are maintained at both the Halifax and Esquimalt dockyards. 
These are in cliarge of experienced store officers, who supervise the work and who 
are responsible to headquarters for the performance of the duties allotted to them. 
It is their duty to be prepared at all times to provide and issue supplies, of what- 
ever nature required, to all ships and establishments under the jurisdiction of the 
department, and to such others as may be approved by headquarters; to make a strict 
and careful accounting of all such issues; and to see that all supplies purchased are in 
accordance with specifications and suitable. 

The variety of stores handled is necessarily very wide, and includes staple pro- 
visions; uniforms and clothing of all kinds and materials; medical supplies, surgical 
instruments and hospital equipment; lumber of all kinds; metals of all kinds and in 
every state of manufacture; hardware and tools; textiles and cordage; packings and 
rubber goods, paints, oils, glass, leather goods, brushes, furniture and furnishings, 
tackle, navigating instruments; charts and other miscellaneous supplies of every 
nature; electrical stores; fuel; and ordnance and ammunition. In the inspection 
and choosing of these expert knowledge and wide experience are essential. For 
ships of war particularly, excellence of quality and reliability are of almost vital 
importance. 

The nature of the service demands that large reserves must be maintained and 
kept readily available at all times. In times of peace ships' requirements can be fore- 
casted very accurately, as their allowances are regulated carefully and authorized by 
warrant. In time of war, however, these allowances are increased automatically, and 
in addition, preparation must be made for the unexpected. Ordinarily and within 
reason these reserves are based on six months' requirements for all purposes. To the 
end that all demands might be met promptly, reserves for this year were materially 
increased, particularly at Halifax, at which point it was anticipated the bulk of the 
unexpected business would be done. At the commencement of the year the reserves 
at Halifax totalled in value $376,000, and at Esquimalt, $280,000. At the close of the 
year the reserves at Halifax totalled in value $.504,763, and at Esquimalt $298,532. 

At the commencement of the year requisitions were prepared as usual, pro- 
viding as far as possible for all requirements for the ensuing year, and the main- 
tenance of reseiT^es. Unforeseen requirements were covered by supplementary requisi- 
tions as necessary, those of an urgent nature being purchased locally to best advant- 
age. Receipts during the year totalled in value, at Halifax, $639,096, and at Esqui- 
malt, $301,866, involving, all told, approximately 9,000 transactions. 

Issue transactions during the year numbered approximately 10,000 at Halifax 
and 8,000 at Esquimalt, aggregating in value $.510,333, and $283,334, respectively. 

The Imr)erial authorities have kept in reserve at both dockyards large supplies 
of special stores for use of ships doing duty in North Atlantic and Pacific waters. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NATAL SERVICE 33 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

These reserves are confined to stores peculiar to parlicnihir shii)s and not common to 
all. Assistance was afforded them in the handling? and accounting for these. Trans- 
actions and values in this connection are not included ahove. 

At the commencement of the year there was in stock at Halifax, 13,984 tons of 
coal, and at Esquimalt 9,700 tons. During the year there was received, at Halifax 
(),902 tons, and at Esquimalt, 5,94G tons. Issues during the year totalled, at Halifax, 
13,938 tons, and at Esquimalt 11,544 tons. As this was in large part Admiralty coal, 
the total value is not included in the figures given above. 

In addition, very large quantities were accounted for in direct issue to ships 
by contractors and from colliers. In this manner 97,42*7 tons were handled at Hali- 
fax and on the east coast, and 26,129 tons at Esquimalt and on the west coast. 

Supply depots were maintained at outlying points for the convenience of vessels 
doing duty along the Atlantic coast and in the gulf of St. Lawrence. 

A general stocktaking was inaugurated at both dockyards in the fall of 1915 
and completed at the close of the year. Stock to the value of approximately $800,000 
was brought under survey, and the result, under the circumstances, was most grati- 
fying. 

III. Transportatiox. 

The arrangements under which the department in conjunction with Mr. A. H. 
Harris, Acting Director of Overseas Transport, is responsible for the necessary work 
in connection with the export of materials on behalf of the Imperial Government, 
have been continued in force and greatly extended during the financial year 1915-16. 

This service had its origin shortly after the outbreak of war, in the provision of 
cargoes for empty Admiralty colliers returning from this side of the Atlantic to 
European ports. Since then it has gradually developed into the present organiza- 
tion under which several thousand tons of material of all kinds are gathered every 
day from all parts of Canada at the ports of loading and are shipped overseas. 
' ■ The sailings under this service now average more than one a day. All ships are 
fine modern vessels of suitable capacity for the Canadian trade, and are allocated 
by the Admiralty for this service as necessary. 

Control of the trafiic inland, by rail and otherwise, its reception and storage at 
the shipping ports, the allocation of cargo to the different ships, and stowage on 
board of the various materials so as to provide for the maximum use of the tonnage 
at our disposal comes under the jurisdiction of Mr. Harris and his staff, who have 
been lent to the Government for this purpose by the Canadian Pacific Railway Com- 
pany. 

The movement and control of the ships are under the direction of the department, 
who act for the Imperial Government, and are the medium of communication with 
them on all matters relating to the service. 

During the season of navigation on the St. Lawrence the arrival, loading, and 
despatch of ships proceeded with regularity. The average time of loading being 
under five days for each ship. 

Owing to the unusually severe winter conditions and consequent snow blockades 
on the railways during February and March, the work was performed under great 
difficulties during the winter season of navigation. 

In view of the greatly increased export business and consequent congestion of 
shipping at St. John and Halifax, the task of finding accommodation for all vessels 
required the most careful consideration and constant attention from the port and rail- 
way authorities and staff of the transport service. At St. John practically no delays 
were experienced, but owing to the longer railway haul and less efficient equipment the 
congestion was more acutely felt at Halifax. 

38—3 ' ' 



34 



DEPARTMENT OF THE A. 4 1. 1/. SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Arrangements have been made with the harbour authorities for the provision of 
dock accommodation at Montreal, St. Jolin, and Halifax as necessiyy for the efficient 
handling of the vessels. 

Through the courtesy of the CaTiadian Pacific Railway authorities, thoir facilities 
at all ports have been placed at the disposal of the service. Advantage has boon 
taken of these to a large extent. 

All disbursements, with the exception of those on account of bunker coal, on 
behalf of the service are made in the first instance by that company, who are after- 
wards reimbursed by the department on presentation of certified claims covering the 
expenditure incurred on account of each ship. 

Contracts for the supply of bunker coal have been arranged for with Canadian 
firms, and many thousands of tons have been purchased for the use of the various 
vessels in the sers'ice. 

Arrangements have been entered into, as necessary, for the docking, repair, and 
fitting of ships for special purposes and for the supply of such provisions, stores, and 
gear as are required while the ships are in Canadian ports. 

In addition to the ordinary work of the service, more than forty cargoes of timber 
have been exported from Pacific and Atlantic Coast ports. These aggregate upwards 
of 125,000,000 feet b.m. in the period under review. 

The following statements show the growth of the service, its extent, and the 
disbursements made on account of the same by the department. 



Overseas Tonnage Cleared, 1915-16. 



Month . 


Port. 


Tons. 


Total. 


Month. 


Port. 


Tons. 


Total. 


April 


St. John. N.B 

Halifax N S 


23,218 
12,089 


Tons. 
35,307 

43,331 
38,859 

41.187 

58,544 

69,891 


October — 

November. 

December.. 
January, . . . 

February... 
March 

Total 


Montreal, Que 

Charlotte town. P.E.I. 
Vancouver, B.C 

Montreal, Que 

Vancouver, B.C 

St. John, N.B 

Halifax, N.S 


54,479 

1,385 

14, 173 


Tons. 




St. .John, N.B 

Montreal, Que 

Halifax, N.S 






9,060 

26,085 

5,286 

2,900 




May 


90,916 
12,282 


70,037 




New York, U.S.A.... 
Montreal, Que 




June 


38.859 


67,484 
35,600 


103, 198 




32,272 

3,951 

362 

4,602 




uly 


St. .John, N.B 

Halifax, N.S 


103 OS 4 




65,516 

30,126 

9,610 












Vancouver, B.C 

Montreal, Que 

St John, N.S 






Vancouver, B.C 

St. John, N.B 

Halifax, N.S 






38,312 
7,293 
6,6.36 
6.303 


105,2.52 


August 


79.808 
51.769 




Halifax N S 






Vancouver, B.C 

Montreal, Que 

St. John, N.B... 

Vancouver, B.C 


St. John, N.B 

Halifax, N.S 


131,577 




109,225 

63,692 

621 


September. 


49,704 

6,587 

13.600 




Esquimalt, B.C 


173,538 










973,805 













DErARTME^T OF THE T^ATAL SERVICE 



35 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

Statement of Disbursements on Account of Overseas Transport Service, April 1, 

1915, to March 31, 1916. 



Bunker Coal. 



Stevedoring, supplicH and 
ships expenses, etc. 



Repairs, fittings, 
alterations, etc. 



Total. 



$760,993. 



?674,654 



5185,200 



$1,620,847 



General. 

It is desired to express gratification at the manner in which the staff of the Stores 
Branch at Ottawa and at the dockyards have performed their duties during the period 
under review. All have shown by their zealous and painstaking efforts and the constant 
interest they have taken in the work, their desire to build up an efficient service. At 
the dockyards, in particular, the work has been strenuous. The routine work of the 
department has proceeded without friction or delay. Constant unforeseen require- 
ments have arisen and have been dealt with in a manner which reflects great credit 
on the Naval Store officers and their staffs. 

At headquarters the staff, though short of members lent for service temporarily 
to the dockyards to assist in coping with the greatly increased work there, have been 
able to deal effectively with all qvxestions arising and have spared no efforts to keep 
pace with the increased work and responsibility. 

The Naval Store officers at Esquimalt and Halifax, and the heads of the pur- 
chasing and storekeeping sections at headquarters deserve great credit for their work 
during the year. 

As regards the transportation section of our work, for obvious reasons no details 
have been entered into. The harmonious relations which have existed between the 
acting director overseas transport and his staff and the department, and the ready 
co-operation in all matters relating to the transport service have made the duties of 
great interest and pleasure. Too much cannot be said of the remarkable work which 
has been accomplished by Mr. Harris and his staff. 

I have the honour to remain, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. A. WILSON, 

Director of Stores. 



38— 8i 



36 i)i:r.\RrMi:\T or Tin: .v.ir.w, .service 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



FISHERIES PROTECTION SERVICE. 

DK^AKTME^■T OF TIIK NaVAL SERVICE, 

Ottawa, April 1, 1916. 

Tlie Deputy Minister, 

Department of the Naval Service, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report as follows regarding the Fisheries Protection 
Service for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1916, as to the number of vessels and men 
employed, the stations of the different vessels, brief descriptions of the same, and the 
names of the commanding officers. I have also included extracts from the reports of 
the various commanding officers to give some idea of the work carried out during the 
season. 

I may add that although it was found necessary to utilize these vessels to a great 
extent for examination service, mine-sweeping, and other duties in connection with 
defence, both on the East and West Coasts; at the same time instructions were given 
to commanding officers to keep a strict lookout for any infraction of the fisheries laws, 
while primarily occupied with other duties. 

The Fisheries Protection Service still consists of ten vessels, although one of 
these, the Canada has been commissioned under the White Ensign for considerably 
over a year, and will probably continue in the Naval Service until the cessation of 
hostilities. 

NAMES OF VESSELS AND THEIR COMMANDING OFFICERS. 

Canada. — Lieut. Commander C. J. Stuart, R.N.R. 

Curlew. — W. J. Milne. 

Constance. — J. E. Morris. 

Gulnare. — Clement Barkhouse. 

Fetrel.—C. O. McDonald. 

Vigilant. — P, C. Robinson. 

Galiano. — Lieut. R. M. Pope, R.N.R. 

Malaspina. — Holmes Newcomb. 

Restless. — Charles Moore. 

Newington. — (Chartered) — IT. R. Bilton. 

C.G.S. "CANADA.'^ 

Is a twin-screw steel ship, length 206 feet, beam 25 feet, draught 11 feet 2 inches, 
registered tonnage 411 tons, speed 16 knots. When on fisheries protection duty she is 
armed witli two 12-pdr. (^.F. and two 3-pdr. Ilotclikiss guns. The vessel is electrically 
lighted tliroughout, and is fitted with a powerful searchlight. Her complement is 
sixty officers and men, all told, and she was built by Yickers, Sons & Maxim, Limited, 
England, in 1904. She is commanded by Lieut.-Commander Charles J. Stuart, R.N.R. 

The Canada was commissioned under the White Ensign, as above stated, shortly 
after the outbreak of hostilities, and has not since been engaged in fisheries protection 
work. 



DErARTMl'lST OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 37 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

C.O.S. " CURLEW." 

Is a composite, single-screw vessel, length IIG feet" 3 inches, beam 19 feet 8 inclios, 
draught 11 feet, speed lOi knots, and registered tonnage 157-85 tons. Her comple- 
ment is twenty-two officers and men, all told, and she is commanded by Capt. W. J. 
Milne. 

On April 1, 1915, the ship was at H.M.C. dockyard, Halifax, undergoing repairs, 
on completion of which she returned to the bay of Fundy station. Here after a few 
days on naval service she patrolled the fishing grounds off St. John, Grand Manan, 
Brier island, and Seal island, searching for illegal fishing, also visiting the life- 
saving stations at Brier and Little Wood islands. On the Slst May a dispute among 
the salmon fishermen at Gulliver's cove, Nova Scotia, was settled by the commanding 
officer, and on the 2nd June the United States fishing vessel Martj A. Osier was stopped 
at Black's Harbour for a breach of the Customs laws and turned over to the Customs 
authorities, who imposed a fine upon the owners; the vessel was later transferred to 
the British- flag. 

The early part of June was spent in watching American steam trawlers to prevent 
fishing in Canadian waters or other breach of the law. During the latter part of the 
month assistance was given to the overseer of fisheries in obtaining evidence to con- 
vict two Canadian fishing boats of engaging in the use of purse seines in the vicinity 
of Moore's Bank, Brier island, the owners and crews of these vessels being heavily 
fined. 

Part of July, ship was engaged in carrying out orders from headquarters in 
matters connected with defence, and from August to the end of December she carried 
out fisheries protection duties except for short periods now and then when called upon 
for other services. During August the United States smacks fishing for lobsters out- 
side territorial waters near Seal island were carefully watched to prevent fishing within 
the three-mile limit. In November, Little Wood island and Brier Island life-saving 
stations were again visited, and on the 14th December the fishing schooner Allert J. 
Luiz, blown ashore at Yarmouth in a gale, was taken off and towed to safety. 

Seal Island life-saving station was visited on the iTth December, Curlew after- 
wards leaving for Halifax, where she arrived on the 23rd, and was docked for minor 
repairs. 

She proceeded on naval duties again about the 23rd January, and continiied on 
them until the end of the fiscal year. During the winter she was able to render 
assistance to the capsized schooner Fricillia^ and the three-masted schooner Moama, 
wliich was found anchored in dangerous proximity to the rocks off the Sugar Loaf. 

During the year, various foreign vessels, yachts, lobster smacks, and sardine boats 
in the harbours and territorial waters were boarded, their crew lists and other docu- 
ments examined, and orders given them to report at the customs house; the fisheries 
officers were assisted in their duties, and fishing boats searched for illegal gear. 

The commanding officer reports very few pollock schooled about Grand Manan 
during the past season, but that an unusual number remained all summer schooling 
in the tide rips at Brier island. Early in the season a considerable number of pollock 
were caught with purse seines outside the territorial waters about Brier island. 

C.G.S. "" CONSTANCE.-" 

Is a single-screw composite steamer, whose length is 115 feet 6 inches, beam 19 feet 
6 inches, draught 11 feet 6 inches, and registered tonnage 125 tons. Her complement 
is twenty-three officers and men, all told, and she is commanded by Capt. J. E. Morris. 

Constance was required for examination service and other defence purposes 
throughout the spring and summer of 1915 ; on the 27th October she went into dock- 
vard hands and remained there until the 19th December, when she took a short cruise 



38 DFrARTMi:\T OF TIN-: A.I I 1/ sF.I{\ HE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

in the straits of XortluiiiilM'rlajid and alon^ the west coast of. Capo I>retoii, before 
returning to naval duty. On the 2Stli February she again returned to Halifax for 
annual refit. 

During the year Constance steamed 8,874 miles. 

C.G.S. " rKTIJEL." 

Is a steel, siugle-serew ship, length IIG feet, beam 22 feet, draught 9 feet, speed 
11 knots, and registered tonnage 191 tons. Iler complement is twenty-four officers and 
men, all told. Tlie vessel was commanded by Capt. Clement Barkhouse until the 15th 
^Nfarch, after which date Capt. C. O. ^McDonald took charge of the vessel. 

This vessel re-commissioned at Shdburne, N.S., on the 1st April, 191.5, and up 
to the 2Gth May was on defence duty; she was then placed in dockyard hands for 
annual refit, on completion of which, about the 18th June, she proceeded to Canso 
and Cheticamp wlicre the life-saving stations were inspected. 

Throughout the remainder of the year she was required for naval purposes, with 
the exception of a few days spent in inspecting life-saving stations, having boilers 
cleaned, etc. On the 14th September an unsuccessful effort was made to refloat the 
schooner Vera B. Roberts, stranded on the east end of the island (Pictou), and on 
2nd February assistance was rendered to a disabled motor-boat which was found drift- 
ing seaward; this boat was towed to Head harbour. The American tern schooner 
Andrew Nehhinger, which grounded at Beaver harbour, was also taken off and towed 
to safe anchorage. 

C.G.S. " GULNARE." 

Is a steel, siugle-«crew vessel whose length is 137 feet, beam 20 feet 5 inches, 
draught 12 feet, registered tonnage 262 tons. Her complement is twenty-five officers 
and men, all told. This vessel was commanded by Capt. C. T. Knowlton up to 13th 
October, 1915, when he resigned and the ship was placed under the command of Mr. 
Sm'th, tirst officer. On the 8th January, 1916, Capt. P. C. Robinson was placed in 
command vmtil relieved by Capt Clement Barkhouse, appointed commanding officer 
from the 15th March, 1916. 

Throughout the year the Gulnare was required for naval duties and was not avail- 
able for fisheries protection service. She steamed 6,894 miles, and was at sea 3,901 
hours. 

C.G.S. "vigilant.'' 

Is a twin-screw steel ship, whose length is 177 feet, beam 22 feet, draught 9 feet 
6 inches, registered tonnage 242 tons, and speed 16 knots. She is electrically lighted 
throughout, and fitted with a powerful searchlight. Her complement is thirty officers 
and men, all told, and she is commanded by Capt. P. C. Robinson. 

On the 1st April, 1915, ship was put into commission at Port Dover, the necessary 
repairs have been carried out during the winter months, and she at once proceeded 
to the west end of lake Erie to patrol the fishing gTounds. In May the vessel visited 
the life-saving station at Point Pelee, where the ship's crew assisted the life-saving 
crew to build a now run-way for launching the life-boat. The latter part of June and 
tlie early part of July was spent at Port Colborne, where the electric welding of the 
boilers was completed. Vigilant then proceeded to lake Ontario, where she cruised 
until 21st July, when she returned to lake Eric. On the 23rd July the Canadian 
fishing tug Anko, adrift in lake Erie, was picked up and towed to Port Dover. 

During August and September pati'ol work was carried out continuously, as 
American fishcrmin were actively engaged in illegal fishing in the vicinity of Long 
Point. The work of patrolling the boundary line was continued until the 18th Novem- 
ber, when the ve-o-cl pr c cilccl t > P( rt Colborne to meet the Director of the Naval 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 39 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

Service and the ConsultiiiK X:iv:il l<]iijj;incor, the latter examining the engines of the 
vessel. She then proceeded on i)atrol duty again until the 7th December, when, ice 
having begun to form, orders were sent to lay up for the winter, and the ship went 
into winter quarters at Port Dover on the 17th December. 

During the season the usual amount of poaching was attempted. In past years 
poachers always used buoys on their nets, but this season they adopted the plan of 
setting nets without the least mark on them, so that they could not be seen and almost 
all of the nets seized were taken with grapple. The owners of the nets could find them 
by running from a mark buoy south of line. In all the ship steamed 7,351 miles and 
seized 1,531 nets, the greatest number of which were sold at auction and the proceeds 
forwarded to the department. 

C.G.S. " MALASPINA.''' 

Is a steel single-screw vessel, whose length is 160 feet, beam 26 J feet, draught 12^ 
feet, speed 14i knots, and displacement 700 tons. She is electrically lighted through- 
out and fitted with a powerful searchlight. Her complement is thirty-three officers 
and men, all told, and she was built by the Dublin Dockyard Company, Dublin, 
Ireland, in 1913. She is commanded by Capt. Holmes Newcomb. 

In April this vessel was on examination and other services, but in May proceeded 
to patrol the northern waters on fisheries protection service, returning to Esquimalt 
on the 6th June ; on the 9th June she was inspected by the Director of the Naval Ser- 
vice, afterwards being placed in dry dock for painting and overhaul. From the 6th 
July to the 22nd September the vessel was on fisheries protection service with the 
exception of two days when her services were required at Esquimalt. During part of 
this time the Sea-lion Commission were on board, making investigations. From 
the 1st October to the 13th December she was cruising in northern waters and then 
returned to Esquimalt for other service, which continued until the 6th January, 1916. 
From the 7th January to the 27th February, ship was in the dockyard undergoing 
repairs, after which she again went on naval service. From the 7th March to the end 
of the fiscal year Malaspina cruised along the coast .on combined naval and fisheries 
protection duties. 

C.G.S. " GALIANO.''' 

Is a steel, single-screw vessel, length 160 feet, beam 26^ feet, draught 12i feet, 
speed 14^ knots, and displacement 700 tons. She is electrically lighted throughout and 
fitted with a powerful searchlight. Her complement is thirty-three officers and men, 
all told, and she was built at Dublin, Ireland, by the Dublin Dockyard Co., in 1913. 
She is commanded by Lieut. R. M. Pope, R.N.R. 

This vessel was in commission on the 1st April, 1915, upon which date she left 
Union bay and proceeded to Esquimalt. On the 8th April she proceeded on naval 
duties, and while in the vicinity of Massett also interviewed the fishery overseer, Mr. 
Harrison. The vessel then returned to Esquimalt via the west coast, arriving on the 
17th April. From the 23rd to the 26th .April she was utilized in connection with mine- 
sweeping in company with C.G.S. Malaspina. On the 29th April she proceeded north 
on fisheries protection duty. A schooner sighted back of Discovery Island was found 
to be the Liefe of Seattle, anchored for shelter, but as the weather had then cleared 
she was ordered to sea. Galiano proceeded on patrol until the 2nd May, when orders 
were received to return to Esquimalt, when she was utilized for other service until 
the 31st. On the 1st June ship proceeded to Vancouver to meet the Director of Naval 
Service who remained on board for some days, making a tour of inspection of the 
life-saving stations ; on the 12th June he was landed at Vancouver and ship returned 
to Esquimalt, proceeding on regular fisheries patrol work on the 19th, and continuing 
in that service until the 2nd August, when she returned to Esquimalt for other service. 



40 DEPARTMEXr OF THE .V.IF.IL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

On the 17th August slie again proceeded on fisheries duty along the coast of Van- 
couver island, and on this cruise the Aineri(;an fishing hoat Solnno of Seattle was seized 
for fishing within territorial limits and handed over to the Chief Inspector ot J^'ish- 
eries at Xew Westminster. On the ;^>()th August, ship returned to Esciuimalt, and on 
8th September was placed in drydoek for repairs, after which she undertook naval 
duties until 7th October, when fisheries work was again taken up, and the fleet of 
boats operating arcwmd Beecher bay was visited. About the 20th October Galiano 
lirocee<led to Alert bay, and cruised on the west coast of Vancouver island until the 
;!Oth; weather conditions on this cruise were reported very bad. She then returned to 
Ks(iuinialt and acte<l under the orders of the Naval Service officials until 29th Feb- 
ruary, on which date she wr>nt into drydoek for refit. Between the 15th and 28tb 
^farch she again acted under naval orders, afterwards preparing to take up the 
regular work of the fisheries protection service for the coming year. 

During the year sixty-one Canadian and four American vessels were spoken, and 
thirty-seven place-^ were visited; 8,200 miles were steamed on fisheries work and 2,882 
on Naval Service. 

c.G.s. "'restless.'" 

Length 71 feet, beam 17 feet, draught 7 feet, is commanded by Capt. Charles 
Moore. 

This ves-el has been employed continuously on naval duties at Esquimalt, since 
the outbreak of war. On the 12th May, 1915, she underwent her annual inspection 
and refit, returning to duty on the 22nd May. She was again docked on the 22nd 
November for refit of machinery and boiler, returning to duty on the 3rd December. 
During the year Bestless steamed 1,522 knots and was under way 627 hours. 

c.G.s. " NEWIXGTOX." 

Is a chartered vessel and has been throiighout the past year employed on naval 
duties, and therefore unavailable for fisheries protection. She is commanded by H. 
R. Bilton. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. E. KINGSMILL, Vice Admiral, 

Director of the Naval Service. 



DEPARTMEXr OF TIJE NAVAL SERVICE 41 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 



SURVEY OF TIDES AND CURRENTS. 

Department op the Naval Service, 

Ottawa, March 31, 1916. 

The Deputy Minister, 

Department of the Naval Service, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report regarding the Survey of 
Tides and Currents during the twelve months ending March 31, 1916. 

Considerable progress has been made in directions which will contribute to the 
greater accuracy of the tide tables in future years, in addition to the regular work of 
their preparation and pviblication, and the maintenance of the tidal stations them- 
selves. Further information on the tides and currents in eastern Canada^ has now 
been added to the tide tables; and in several cases the methods of calculation have 
been improved by revision and the incorporation of additional data to extend the 
basis from which they are ;niade. The region of Northumberland strait, which has 
always been a complex one, has now been dealt with comprehensively; which will 
benefit the harbours there, including the new car ferry terminals, to which special 
consideration has been given. - The currents in Bras d'Or and Grand Narrows were 
investigated, and their movements brought successfully into relation with the tide 
tables. Some observations were obtained in the gut of Canso, which at least enable 
the extremely complex nature of its ctirrents to be definitely understood, and their 
behaviour to be explained. The tidal observations at the head of the Saguenay have 
made it possible to give satisfactory tidal data for the whole region, which will be 
helpful to the growing industries there. 

In British Columbia, the time of slack water in additional navigable passes has 
been reduced to law, and further observations obtained to improve the accuracy of 
the tables calculated for the principal passes. This will be of benefit to the lumber 
and coal industries, as well as to general navigation. The data from which the tide 
tables for Nelson in Hudson bay are calculated, have now been revised throughout, 
and improved by the incorporation of further observations. Tidal information from 
new localities in James bay has been obtained, which will enable this survey to fur- 
nish fairly good data for any railway terminals in that bay, until more complete obser- 
vations can be secured. 

Further data for mean sea-level as a basis for levelling operations throughout 
Canada, have been furnished to other departments; especially for work in British 
Columbia. For the extended levels throughout Prince Edward island which are in 
progress, the true value of mean sea level at Charlottetown has been supplied. This is 
based on five complete years of tidal observations ; and no such accurate value could 
be obtained at short notice when important levelling operations are imdertaken. 

PRIXCIPAr. TIDAL STATIONS. 

There are six principal stations maintained in eastern Canada, from Quebec to 
the entrances of the gulf of St. Lawrence, and in the bay of Fundy. All these require 
to be constructed with tide pipes protected by a surrounding air chamber in which 
heating is supplied, to prevent freezing in winter, and thus to secure a continuous 
record. In British Columbia there are five principal tidal stations which are main- 



42 DEPARTMEWT OF THE .V.1T-.4L SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

iaincd in continuous operation throughout the year. Various methods are employed 
to obtain correct time at these stations; at some of them the time being obtained 
direct from the sun by a meridian instrument; at others a chronometer is used, or a 
hifjrh-^Tade watch where the time can be checked by telegraph or by wireless signals. 
I'he other essential to give value to the observations is a correct datum, which is main- 
lined from year to year by special levelling at the station, and by comparisons made 
';iily by the observer. 

The harmonic analysis of these observations made during the past year has been 
c liicfly for the benefit of eastern Canada; as more of this was done for the Pacific 
loast the year previously. Two complete years of tidal record from Quebec were 
ubmitted to analysis, two years from Father Point, two from St. Paul island, and 
!\To from rharlottetown; as well as one additional year from Victoria, B.C. This 
work will improve still further the accuracy of the tide tables for these ports. 

FURTHER TIDAL OBSERVATIONS OBTAINED. 

The tidal observations during last season were carried out for definite purposes; 
is the tidal stations were either established for reference, or to obtain data for 
ievelopments in new regions. They may best be smnmarized imder the various 
regions where they were taken. 

Nortlnimherland Strait. — There were two objects in view here; to complete the 
eastern end of the strait, along the coast of Cape Breton island, by obtaining obser- 
vations at Port Hood and Cheticamp; and to obtain data for the car ferry to Prince 
Edward island, now under construction between cape Tormentine and Carleton head. 
As a reference station for comparison, a tide gauge was established at Pictou; and the 
permanent stations at St. Paul island and Charlottetown afforded simultaneous obser- 
vations for comparative purposes. 

This work was started early, at the end of May, to cover the period of the solstice, 
IS the region is known to be under the dominant influence of declination. The 
iigineers in charge of the car ierry works, Mr. F. B. Fripp at cape Tormentine, and 
Mr. H. M. Downing at Carleton head, were supplied with registering tide gauges, 
;ind they kindly undertook to give the observations their supervision, to see that the 
time was accurately kept, and the datum level for the height of the. tide correctly 
maintained. 

The outcome of this work is explained further on, in its general relation to 
Xorthumberland strait as a whole; and the grouping of its harbours for tidal accuracy. 

Cape Breton; northeast coast. — On this coast the tide gauges were erected at St. 
Ann harbour, which is developing as a shipping port; and at Sydney, as the only 
'bservationg so far obtained there were for one month in 1901. The time of the tide 
at these harbours is referred to St. Paul island; and the difference in time as found 
for Sydney in 1901 by a special method for dealing with so short a period of observa- 
tion, was oidy modified tb.ree minutes by the' result of the new observations. These 
further observations will have other uses, however, in connection with tide levels, etc. 

By comparison of the new results with the former observations of 1901 at Neil 
liarbour, values for Tngonish were also obtained, based on difference of establishment, 
which will be quite satisfactory. 

Sagurnay region. — The railway from Chicoutimi to Bagotville in Ha Ha bay at 
the head of the Saguenay, and the shipping facilities which are under construction at 
Bagotville, are indications of the growing importance of this region. 

The only observations previously available at Chicoutimi were taken in 1897 for 
two months; but they were sufficient to show the remarkable similarity of the tide 
there to Quebec. The extended observations of last season will now give reliable 
differences with Quebec for high and low water; and will make the tide tables, which 



DEPARTME'ST OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 43 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

are computed locally, as accurate as our published tables. The tide scale for height 
in the observations was set accurately in correspondence with the low-water datura 
established by the Public Works Department. The rise of the tide as given on the 
chart, proved to be erroneous; probably owing to misunderstanding regarding the 
change during the freshet period in the river. The actual rise of the tide has now been 
ascertained, with distinction from the freshet levels. 

At Bagotvillc, which is at the true head of the Saguenay inlet, the tide was fouijd 
to be in correspondence with Father Point on the Lower St. Lawrence. This will 
enable the tide throughout the whole of the Saguenay to be known; as the new observa- 
tions show that the difference in the time of the tide from Tadoussac to Bagotville is 
only twelve minutes. So small a difference can readily be allowed for, in the naviga- 
tion of the Saguenay, and by the industries along it. The new information obtained 
will thus apply to the whole region; and the tide is an important matter, as the rise 
is from 17 to 18 feet at spring tides. 

Lower St. Lawrence. — Observations were obtained last season by co-operation with 
the Hydrographic Survey, at Grand Mechins and Godbout; this latter place being 
practically the same as Point des Monts, the true dividing point between the gulf of 
St. Lawrence and the estuary. The establishments, which indicate the time of the 
tide, were seriously out until recently, for the region between Father Point and 
Anticosti'; but sufficient observations have been secured in recent years to enable a 
general revision to be made. 

Tide levels at the summer stations. — Wherever a low-water datum existed, it was 
made use of for the new observations. At cape Tormentine and Carleton head, the 
established datums were utilized for reference ; and a low-water datum at Pictou, which 
was determined by this survey in 1902, has been used for all observations since obtained. 
At Sydney, the masonry building on which the Tidal Survey bench-mark of 1901 was 
placed, was demolished; but it was found possible to recover and maintain the same 
levels as in the former observations. At Port Hood, Cheticamp, and St. Ann harbour, 
new bench-marks were established to which the tide levels were referred. At Chicou- 
timi and Bagotville, the tide scales for the observations were set accurately in corre- 
spondence with the original low-water datums established by the Public Works Depart- 
ment and by the Chicoutimi and St. Alphonse Railway, which are defined by existing 
bench-marks. 

By thus fixing the tide levels permanently with reference to bench-marks, the 
observations are much enhanced in value; as they become available in harbour 
improvements or dredging for which the levels of high and low water at extreme tides 
are of importance. On the other hand, if this trouble is not taken, the tide levels are 
quite lost after a few years. Their value is evident, as the levels must be known in 
advance, when any wharf repairs of consequence or other harbour improvements are 
undertaken. 

Pacific coast. — In 1914, when the moon still maintained as great a range* in 
declination as it attains during the 19-year cycle, a tide gauge was established at 
Caulfeilds, the pilot station near point Atkinson, in the strait of Georgia. The tide of 
the open strait is thus being obtained, which is practically identical with the original 
station at Sand Heads ; and the observations will be maintained for two complete years 
to supplement the Sand Heads series. A truly corresponding datum level for refer- 
ence ha-s also been determined. 

These observations at Caulfeilds were also utilized for comparison with the time 
of slack water in the passes which were investigated in 1914 and 1915. It is known 
that the time of the tide at Caulfeilds does not differ more than five minutes with 
Sand Heads; and a comparison with the simultaneous tidal record there, is more 
steadily accurate than with the ]:)redietcd times at Sand Heads. The Caulfeilds 
station is thus serving a double purpose. 



44 DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Observations were obtained at (langes harbour last season; an important shipping 
point for produce in the (iulf ishiiids. Tlie ori,t,'inal Admiralty low-water datum was* 
utilized lor the e observations, and aecurate time was used. 

Two tide gauges were lent to the Ilydrograpliic Survey for use on this coast; and 
in this way observations have been obtained at Shingle bay at the mouth of Skidgate 
inlet to compare the open tide with the range within the inlet at Queen Charlotte 
city. This comparison was continued at the two places simultaneously for over two 
months. Further tidal record was also obtained at Pacofi in the Queen Charlotte 
islands. The object of tliese observations is jn-imarily for the reduction of soundings 
in the hj'^drograpliic work, and the registering gauges save much trouble and expense 
in obtaining this information ; while at the same time the record obtained is of value 
to this survey. 

The observations at Nelson in the seasons of 1911. 1912. and 1913, consisted of 
readings on a staff or fixed scale, taken by the Ilydrographic Survey, which were 
afterwards plotted as tide curves. The various standards of time used were local, 
eastern standard and central standard, this last being the correct standard time for 
Nelson. iBy careful reduction, by which the observations were brought to the same 
time standard and also to a iniiform datum, good results were obtained. 

In 1913, two registering tide gauges were supplied to the Railways and Canals 
Department, there being thus a duplicate instrument in case of accident; and Mr. D. 
W. McLachlan the engineer in charge at Nelson, kindly undertook the supervision of 
the observations. There was much difficulty in obtaining correct time, however; so 
that when the observations of 1914 were reduced, it was found that they could only 
be utilized for the difference of time between high and low water, which is one of the 
essential factors that the observations afford. Now that the wireless station is estab- 
lished, the difficulty in obtaining correct time has been overcome. The observations 
of 1915, in charge of Mr. A. Sutherland, the wireless operator, have thus been entirely 
satisfactory, except for interruptions occasioned by carelessness during construction. 
It has always been found that during construction no respect is paid to a tide gauge; 
and filling will be thrown around its column, choking it up, or a derrick arm will strike 
it- and destroy it; although the whole design of the works is based on the data for tide 
levels which a tide gauge affords. 

In James bay, further observations have been obtained by co-operation with the 
Hydrographic Survey and the Timiskaming and Northern Ontario Eailway, to whom 
tide gauges were supplied. The observations thus obtained were taken at Strutton 
island off the mouth of Rupert bay; during two months; and at Moose river, both in 
the estuary and at Ship sands off its mouth. It is in these vicinities that any railway 
to James bay is likely to have its terminus. 

INVESTIOATIO.V OF THE CURRENTS. 

Pacific coast. — Of the four passages between the Gulf Islands, Active pass is the 
most important, as it lies on the main route between Vancouver and Victoria. Next 
to this is Porlier pass, with a heavy freight traffic; and for these two, complete tables 
of slack water are calculated and published in the Tide Tables. These two are now 
utilized as standard passes to which others in this region are referred. The mariner 
thus finds the time of slack water in other passes by applying a difference of time to 
the slack-water tables, instead of taking a difference with the time of the tide. This 
is quite as convenient, and the result is more closely accurate, for the reasons explained 
in the Tide Tables. 

Observations begun in the previous season in Dodd narrows, were continued 
throughout the winter until April, 1915. The observer was then moved to Gabriola 
pass, where observations were obtained for six months, from 'May to October. These 
passes, though accommodating a large local traffic, have uninhabited shores; and it was 



DEPARTMENT OF THE -^AYAL SERVICE 45 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

necessary to erect a temporary house for the observer and his cook, and to provide a 
complete outfit and supplies. For comparison with these passes, simultaneous obser- 
vations were continued in Porlier pass; and to make double use of these observations, 
the tidal stantions at Caulfeilds was maintained, which gives a tidal record for the strait 
of Georgia; as the comparison with this tidal record affords an extended basis from 
which to calculate slack water in Porlier pass itself. 

From these observations, and the resulting comparisons for extended periods, 
■differences of time for high-water and low-water slack Avere obtained for Dodd narrows 
and Gabriola pass, which enable the time of slack water to be accurately known in 
them. This is the information chiefly desired, as transportation is largely carried on 
by towing, which must be timed to go through such passes at slack water. 

Another important region for which observations have been obtained, is Seymour 
inlet; which runs into the mainland opposite the northern end of Vancouver island. 
The object in view is to obtain the time of slack water in tlie narrow opening that leads 
into Seymour island itself, which is 35 miles long; together with Belize inlet, Federick, 
Nugent, Mereworth, and Alison sounds, which open off it. The total area of these 
inlets and sounds is so large that the rise of the tide within them i^ only 6 to 8 feet; 
while in the open the rise is 14 feet on the average. Such a difference of level causes 
the tide to pour through in a torrent, as it rises and falls. The region around this 
group of inlets and sounds is an important lumbering area; but the entrance is unin- 
liabited, and there is no regular means of communication. The importance of know- 
ing the time of slack water is very evident, as any attempt to tow lumber out at any 
-other stage of the tide necessarily results in wreckage. 

The difficulty of installing an observer in a suitable spot was overcome; and 
correct time was obtained with a chronometer. Observations of the time of slack 
water, which is brief and definite, were secured for six and one-half months in 1915. 
To obtain the time of high and low water for comparison, a tide gauge was erected at 
Wadhams in Kivers inlet, only 25 miles distant. It was not at all certain, however, 
that the time of slack water would have any constant relation to the local tide; and 
considerable investigation was required before a satisfactory result could be obtained 
from the observations. 

Great Bras d'Or and Grand Narrows. — The traffic through these narrows is partly 
local and partly on the through line from Halifax to Sydney ; as many steamers prefer 
the inside route by way of the Bras d'Or lakes. 

These lakes are connected with the ocean by the Great and Little Bras d'Or which 
communicate with the first expanse; and this again communicates, through Grand 
Narrows with a second and larger expanse. The rise of the tide in the open is 3 to 
5 feet, but the lakes have not time to fill up in the tidal period, and their variation in 
level is only about 6 inches. 

The time of slack water, at the turn of the current, was observed at the entrance 
to the Great Bras d'Or during daylight for three months in 1915; and it was obtained 
at Grand Narrows by means of a registering apparatus, day and night, for five months. 
This apparatus was especially designed, and worked electrically. At both localities, 
arrangements were made to obtain accurate time for the observations. ' 

The main object in view is to obtain from these observations a time difference 
hetween the turn of the current and high or low water at one of the tidal stations for 
which Tide Tables are published. The chief difficulty is to find such a difference which 
is reasonably constant; so that the mariner can know which way the current is run- 
ning, by simply applying the difference to the time of the tide in the Tide Tables. If 
the difference is not constant, the result would be misleading. 

As the rise and fall in these lakes is so slight, no relation is obtainable with local 
high water. Also, as the level is so nearly constant, the turn of the current coincides 
-approximately with half-tide in the open. Preliminary trials showed the variation in 



46 l>FrAnT.]ff:\T of THK .V.lT.l/> SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

the (liflFcrence between current and tide to be about 1^ hour early or late, in an 
irregular way. This shows the amount of error that may possibly result from the use 
of a constant differcnee; which it is the ol)ject of the investifration to reduce. 

The first series of trials was made for the mouth of the Great Bras d'Or, which 
was likely to be less complex than Grand Narrows. Each trial comparison between 
current and tide was based on two or three weeks of observation. The leading trials 
made and the general procedure were as follows: — 

The difference between high and low water at St. Paul island and the time of 
slack water, was not very satisfactory; and the difference with Pictou was even more 
variable, which pointed to an earlier tide as being better tlian a later one. Also, it is 
now known that in Northumberland strait, the current accords best with the tide in 
the two opposite directions across the gulf. Combining these ideas, a trial was made 
with the previous high water at Halifax for the one slack, and the previous low water 
at Father Point for the other slack. This gave an improvement, and the relation with 
Father Point was remarkably constant, the greatest variation being only thirty-three 
minutes eai<ly or late. The difference itself was large and unwieldy, however, being 
about lOJ hours, yet showing such constancy. The outstanding variation is largely 
due to a strong alternation in the successive differences, when the moon is in high 
declination. 

Further trials were therefore made with the following low and high water at St. 
Paul island instead of the previous ones. As this brought the opposite tides into the 
comparison, it reduced the troublesome alternation to less than one-fourth, and made 
the general variation as low as in the result obtained from the tides in the opposite 
directions, as above indicated. As it had also the advantage of being simpler in its 
application, it was accepted as the best relation obtainable for slack water. 

With the help of these indications, a series of comparisons was then made with 
slack water at Grand Narrows, in a similar way. Comparisons with St. Paul island, 
Halifax, and Father Point showed a variation of over one hour, early or late, with 
little to choose between them. Another reasonable supposition was that the mid-time 
between high and low water ought better to agree with the time of slack; but the result 
showed no improvement as regards variation. Also, as slack at Grand Narrows is 
later than at the mouth of Bras d'Or, this seemed to indicate a comparison with a 
place where the tide itself was later. On making trial with Pictou and Charlottetown 
accordingly, this latter proved the best reference station that could be found; although 
the variation still amounted to nearly an hour, early or late, at the extreme which 
occurs occasionally. 

Instead of taking the mid-time of the tide for comparison, the reverse method was 
then tried for Grand Narrows; namely, a comparison with the mid-time between 
slacks, representing the time of maximum velocity of the current. This method had 
proved eminently successful in Northumberland strait. Trials with Pictou and St. 
Paul island on the basis showed that the variation with the tide was only thirty-five 
to forty minutes early and late; thus reducing the variation to less than two-thirds 
of its amount in the best result obtainable in the comparison with the time of slack 
water. 

When this method was tried for the mouth of Bras d'Or, it also showed a marked 
improvement; the best results being given by the relation with the previous high water 
at Halifax and the previous low water at St. Paul island. The variation was thus 
reduced to little over thirty minutes, early or late. 

This method should be the most serviceable to the mariner, as it will enable him 
to find readily the time at which the current is strongest in one direction or the other, 
and thus to judge which way he will find it running at any given time. Any error in 
the exact time of maximum strength is also of comparatively little consequence for 
his purpose, whereas if the time of slack water were out, because of its variation, he 
might find the current already running in the opposite direction to what he expected. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL (SERVICE 47 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

The final outcomo of those investigations was to obtain differences of time with 
the Tide Tables which give the time of the "middle of flood" and the "middle of 
ebb " in these passages. For the Great Bras d'Or the differences apply to high water 
at Halifax and low water at St. Paul island; and for Grand Narrows they apply to 
high water at St. Paul island and low water at Pictou. The results in figures will be 
given in the next Tide Tables published. This middle moment in the run of the tidal 
streams will enable it to be known whether the flood or the ebb is running, which is 
the matter of chief practical importance. 

The gut of Canso. — This strait connects two regions in which the tide is of two 
distinct types, although the range is nearly the same; being 4 and 4A feet at its two 
ends at spring tides. At the northern end, diurnal inequality is highly developed, 
and one tide in the day may be reduced to a IcA^el stand for ten or twelve hours. At 
the southern end, the tide is of the ordinary Atlantic type, and the inequality is 
scarcely apparent. Also, as the time of high water is not simultaneous at the two 
ends of the gut, the tidal streams are necessarily complex in their time relations; 
while in strength they often attain 3J knots. This general explanation has been given 
in the Tide Tables since 1906. 

Observations of the turn of the current were obtained for nearly three months in 
1915, by the captain of the car ferry Scotia, assisted by his first officer. These included 
notes every two or three hours during the night, so that the observations were fairly 
continuous. A digest of these observations shows that the proximate influence of tide 
levels may be ignored, and the behaviour of the current brought into direct relation 
with the declination of the moon, which is the primary cause of the diurnal inequalitv 
in the tide. 

A current which is under the influence of declination, should have an equal run 
in the two directions when the moon is on the equator. But in this case, it was found 
that the runs never became equal; and this led to the discovery of a dominant flov.- 
southward, represented by an average of 2^ hours longer flow in that direction during 
the course of the tidal period, or half lunar day. Consequently, when the moon is on 
the equator, and the flow is as nearly equal in the two directions as it becomes, the 
flood runs for 4 hours 65 minutes northward, and the ebb for 7 hours 30 minutes south- 
ward, on the average during the tidal period. 

It was also found that at the extreme of the moon's position, when it is at its 
maximum declination north or south of the equator, the current turns only once in the 
day instead of twice, as tidal streams usually do. The two runs are also made unequal, 
as before, by the dominant flow southward; and the actual periods become ten hours 
northward and fifteen hours southward, as an approximate average. 

The period in which these changes take place, is the declination-month of 27i days, 
in which the moon crosses the equator twice, going north and south. When the moon 
is near the equator, the behaviour resembles an ordinary tidal stream, turning twice 
a day, but in the course of the next six or eight days, two of the runs in the day 
increase in length till the other two are reduced to a period of weak current and then 
disappear altogether, leaving only one run in each direction by the time the moon 
reaches its maximum declination north or south. From then on, the transformation 
is reversed for six or eight days, until the moon again crosses the equator. Through- 
out these changes,, there is an over-balance in favour of the southward direction a? 
explained. 

Under these conditions, it is only possible for the current to have a definite relation 
to' the time of the tide when the moon is near the equator ; that is, during two groups 
of about three days each which occur twice in the declination-month. It is not 
necessary that the relation should be with the tide in the gut itself; as the obseiTations 
so far obtained appear to show that the best relations to the tide are with high water 
in Northumberland strait and low water in the Atlantic; or possibly with the tide 



48 UF.P.XRrMKST OF TlIK SAYXL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

at St. Paul island, which is exactly opposite the gut at the other end of Cape Breton 
island; and as the tide is there intermediate in character between the two ends of the 
^'ut, it may thus avcra|?o the inequalities. 

The preatcr How southward in the jri't of Canso, appears to correspond with the 
constant outward flow from the gulf of St. Lawrence towards the Atlantic, which takes 
place around the north end of Cape Breton island. 

The etTect of the wind upon the current is chiefly due to the raising of the water 
level during north and northwest gales, in the angle of the gulf of St. Lawrence at 
the northern end of the gut. The flow in the southward direction is then increased, 
or prolonged to some extent. Winds from the opposite quarter have less eff"ect. The 
disturbance is also more apparent if a storm occurs wliile the current is in a tran- 
sition state, when there would be normally long periods of slack. Far too much 
has been attributed to wind influence, however; as the main features in the behaviour 
of the current have astronomical causes; and the strontrest winds in the summer 
season are unable to obliterate these features. 

IMPROVED METHOD OF CALCULATIOX. 

After, the tide tables for the six principal harbours on each coast have been cal- 
culated by means of the tidal constants which result from harmonic analysis, there 
are next eight tables for secondary localities or for the time of slack water and the 
turn of tidal streams, that require to be computed; besides the tide tables for Nelson 
in Hudson bay, and three tables required for the summer season. These computations 
are made by means of ditierences with the ports of reference, which usually vary in a 
more or less complex manner. " The values used are improved upon, when further 
observations are obtained as a basis; or it may even be possible to modify the system 
of computation itself if any improved method can be discovered. 

Seymour Narrows. — A very large traffic passes through these narrows; not only 
the Canadian coasting steamers, but also the United States trade to Alaska, although 
the shores are uninhabited. Since the first observations of slack water were obtained 
by the United States Coast Survey in 1897, two additional seasons of observation 
have been secured by this survey, making a total of twenty-two months in all. 

The calculation of the time of. slack water is based on three principles already 
arrived at: (1) the tide on these coasts is of the declination type, and the variations 
to be allowed for, are in accord with the declination of the moon, and the declination 
of the sun during the year; (2) the time of slack water is quite out of relation with 
the local tide, but accords with the tide of the open ocean, outside Vancouver island, 
the best reference station for this tide is Port Simpson; (3) the best relation with 
Port Simpson is with the previous tide for high-water slack, and with the following 
tide for low-water slack. 

For high-water slack, the difference with the time of high-water is fairly constant, 
although evidently subject to an annual variation with the declination of the sun. 
The problem was to determine this variation from observations in the summer half of 
the year, when the values are all high. This has been done by a method which is 
substantially that of anamorphic coordinates. In this way. the variation of twenty- 
two minutes between the two solstices is allowed for in calculating the tables of slack 
water for 1910 and onward. 

For low-water slack, the differences with the time of the tide show a marked alter- 
nation with the upper and lower transits of the moon. Up to the present time, this has 
been allowed for by basing the difference upon the large tides and half tides at the port 
of reference; but the result was not entirely satisfactory. Li the summer; an oppor- 
tunity was obtained to investigate the matter afresh, during a period of quiet day« 
after the tidal stations for the season were put in running order. After tabulating 
all the observations in the three years in accordance with the moon's declination, with 



DEI'ARTMKM' OF THE SAVAL SERVICE 49 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

distinction of the transits, an entirely satisfactory result was obtained; and its unusual 
character brought to light the physical reason why the relation with the large and half 
tides as formerly used, had given rise to uncertainty. The chief difficulty in arriving 
at true values was due to the night observations being wanting; as slack water can 
only be observed in the day time. On this account, when the alternation is strong, the 
high values are definitely found from a large number of observations, but the low 
values from very few. A check upon them was obtained, however, by making their 
difference the same as from the high values to the average, which was found inde- 
pendently. The actual alternation in the differences for successive low-water slacks 
may amount to a little over an hour. To apply this method of calculation, a com- 
plicated technique is required; partly because of the unusual physical characteristics 
already referred to, and partly because of the adjustments required which vary from 
month to month according to the position of perigee in relation to declination. With 
these precautions, the method itself gives excellent results. 

Seymour inlet. — Observations of the time of slack water in the entrance to this 
inlet, which opens off Queen Charlotte sound, were obtained during last season; but 
it proved to be a problem of unusual difficulty to find any definite relation between 
slack water and the time of the tide. There is no constant relation with the tide in 
the open sound, in the vicinity; and a comparison with Port Simpson showed that if 
the time of slack water were obtained by a constant difference of time with the Port 
Simpson tide tables, the result might be in error by a whole hour, early or late, when 
the moon is in high declination. 

An extended investigation was therefore undertaken, based vipon the interval of 
time between successive slack waters ; this interval alternating from ten hours to fifteen 
hours in the case of low water, when the moon is in high declination. The intervals 
between successive tides at all the principal stations were worked out for comparison, 
under corresponding conditions; in the endeavour to find a tidal station where the 
behaviour is similar. It was eventually fovnid that the slack at high water could be 
referred to high water at Clayoquot; but in the case of the slack at low water, the 
alternation was greater than at Port Simpson and less than at Sand Heads. From 
this indication and an exhaustive series of comparisons, the method of finding the time 
of low-water slack was reduced to the following rule : Take the time of high water at 
Port Simpson and the next following high water at Sand Heads, which is from two to 
five hours later; and find the mid-time between the two. From this mid-time, subtract 
six hours five minutes. The result will be the time of low-water slack. 

Porlier Pass. — It has recently been discovered that the time of slack water in one 
pass can be referred to another pass with a better result than can be obtained by refer- 
ring it directly to the time of the tide. In this way, Porlier pass has now become a 
standard pass to which slack water in Dodd narrows and Gabriola pass are 
referred by difference of time. The simultaneous observations required in obtaining 
these differences, have afforded eighteen additional months of observations in Porlier 
pass itself. With the former observations obtained in 1900 and 1907, there are now 
in all thirty-six months to utilize as a basis for the calculation of the slack-water 
tables for this pass. 

As slack water in some of the pa-se.s is found by difference of time from Active 
pass, as well as from Porlier pass, it is evidently desirable to improve the method of 
calculation for these passes themselves, when so long a series of observations is now 
available. The new relations discovered recently, gave hope of this; as in the straits 
and narrows off the gulf of St. Lawrence, it is found that the turn of the current may 
correspond with high water in the one direction and low water in the other. The 
investigations for Seymour inlet also threw new light on the relation of slack water 
to the tide at the various stations, as indicated by the intervals between successive 
tides. The experience of recent years also makes it clear that slack water may not 
have any definite relation to the time of the local tide. 

38 — i 



50 i)rp\h'TMi:\T OF Tin: s.w \i. service 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Thee new methods were applied to slack water in Active and Porlier passes, 
respectively. The investipratioiis need not ])e detailed, as the methods themselves have 
already been explained. The result eventually found was that a marked improvement 
in the calculations can be gained by referring high-water slack in these passes to the 
tide of the ojien Paeific at Clayoquot, whereas low-water slack is in good accord with 
the tide in the strait of Georgia. The need of treating the large and half tides sepa- 
rately in the calculations has also been looked into, as well as the question of annual 
variation in the values. It is satisfactory that the calculations for these important 
passes to which others are referred, will now l)e placed on the best possible basis. 

I^clnon, Hudson hay. — At Nelson, the time of high water is calculated from a port 
of reference, and the time of low water is derived from high water by means of the 
duration of the fall of the tide. This duration varies throughout the course of the 
mouth, and the series of valuer require d for calculation purposes has been improved 
by utilizing the further observations of 1014 and 1915, giving in all a basis of five 
seasons' observations for this series. 

The height of the tide is calculated witli direct relation to the moon. It has been 
a difficult matter to maintain a uniform datum at Nelson, from which the height is 
measured ; and as the low-water datum of the chart was altered besides, it was advisable 
to revise the values for height throughout. During four seasons, the observations for this 
purpose which could be correctly reduced to datum, amounted to nearly eleven and one- 
half months in all. The variation in height from springs to neaps, required a correc- 
tion in the period of the anomalistic month for the moon's distance; as the change in 
height from -this cause amounts to 1-80 feet. There was much difficulty in arriving 
at this correction, owing to the short series of observations in each season. When 
determined satisfactorily, by methods which it would be too technical to enter upon, 
the correction was applied to the heights as observed, and the main variation deter- 
mined during the course of the synodic month, from springs to neaps. This main 
series, and the correction which over-runs it in another period, enable the height of 
tide at Nelson to be calculated directly from the moon's position. 

It may be considered as quite an achievement to produce tide tables by such 
methods for a port in an entirely new region. These tide tables have been published 
since 1914, with gradual improvement; and they now include complete data for the 
tide in Hudson strait, which have been deduced from early observations as explained 
in last year's report. 

Northumberland strait. — In this strait, the tide undergoes rapid modification: 
but with further observations in recent years and a careful revision of method, all 
the harbours along the strait have now been brought into the best relations possible, 
with the ports of referenc*^- 

Pictou, because of its central position in the strait, was early chosen as a secondary 
port of reference, to equalize the variation fn the two directions. The observations 
of last season have made clear that the whole area from the west shore of Cape Breton 
island to Baie Verte can be referred to it. The tide at Pictou was formerly calculated 
from St. Paul island, but the variations were complex; and since Charlottetown was 
made a principal station, Pictou is calculated from it by means of two series of vari- 
able diiferences, for high water and low water respectively, in the period of the lunar 
month. The basis for these two series has now been extended to include six seasons 
of observation, between 1901 and 1915, making twenty-eight months in all, of simul- 
taneous comparison. This will aiford a very satisfactory basis for future calculation. 

In the western end of Northumberland strait, from cape Tormentino to the west 
point of Prince Edward island, the tide becomes very complex, with actual change in 
type from one harbour to another. Careful investigation and many comparisons show 
tnat this area can best be referred to Charlottetown ; as the diurnal inequality is quite 
hifflily developed there as in Hillsborough bay. The time relations with Charlotte- 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL HERYICE 51 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

town for Summerside, cape Tormentine, and Carleton head opposite, are especially 
satisfactory; and reliable data for the new car ferry terminals will thus be available. 

Eise of the Tide. — In most regions, both in eastern Canada and on the Pacific 
coast, it is possible to give values for the rise of the tide at springs and neaps, in the 
usual way. But in some regions, notably in the strait of Georgia, the tide is of such 
a type that the springs and neaps can no longer be distinguished. So far, a mean 
value for the rise of the tide has been given in the tide tables ; but this is not as service- 
able practically as might be desired. 

A special reduction was therefore undertaken to obtain a better result. It was first 
nece sary to correlate at the various localities, the datum levels from which the rise 
is mea-iured; and in doing so, proportionate variations had to be allowed for, which 
were quite complex owing to the special character of low water. The amount of rise 
was then made truly comparable by computing for each locality the difference of level 
between the low-water datum as determined, and the average high water. In this 
average it was necessai-y to allow with special care for annual variation as well as for 
the monthly variations, to obtain comparable results. Without entering upon techni- 
calities, it will suffice to state that as a result ratios were arrived at, which will enable 
the mar in- r to know the rise at any locality by simply applying a percentage to the 
height of the tide as given in the tide tables. The whole region from Victoria and 
Vancouver to the head of the strait of Georgia, and onward to Queen Charlotte sound, 
has thus been dealt with consistently. 

TroE LEVELS AND OTHER INFORMATION SUPPLIED. 

It is evident that the ultimate basis for extended levelling must be mean sea-level, 
which can only be obtained from tidal observations. This was pointed out before the 
geodetic levelling of recent years was commenced; and the foresight in this matter 
from the bf^ginning, will be seen from a publication by the Tidal Survey, issued in 
1903 :— 

" Tliis survey, as a branch under the Ministry of ]\rarine, has for its pri- 
mary object the determination of the time-relations of the tide, and the turn of 
tidal currents, for the information of mariners. The determination of levels 
is thus quite collateral to the object which the department has in view; but it 
was A^ery evident that a large amount of important information could be secured 
by taking more complete levels, and by establishing bench-marks at all tidal 
stations at which recording instruments were placed, even for a few months. 
The additional work involved was therefore undertaken from the outset. Even- 
tually as the observations are continued, the value of mean sea level, extreme 
tide levels, and other factors of importance, are determined with reference to 
this bench-mark. Although there is as yet no general system of levels in Canada, 
these results are of value locally in the meantime; and they also furnish a basis 
for any more extended geodetic levelling which may be undertaken." 

This foresight is now bearing fruit, in furnishing the basis referred to; and it is 
gTatifying to report that another province has been placed in a satisfactory position, 
in regard to its levels, during the year. Extended levels are being taken tlu-oughout 
Prince Edward island along its railway system; and as a basis for these, the survey 
was able to furnish to the engineers of the Intercolonial railway an accurate deter- 
mination of mean sea-level at Charlottetown, referred to a bench-mark there. The 
determination is made from five complete years of tidal observation, deduced from the 
height of the tide at every hour, day and night; the value for each of these years being 
thus the average of 8,700 individual measurements. In addition to the basis, tide 
levels were also supplied for Sunnnerside and Georgetown, derived from tidal observa- 
tions in those harbours. 

38-4J 



52 DFr.lRTMFXr OF THE S.WAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V,, A. 1917 

For the long lino of levels extending to Hudson bay, the Topographical Surveys 
Branch of the Interior Department desired to have a value for mean sea-level at Nelson, 
to fix the elevation of the extremity of the line. The tidal observations there are much 
broken; as they have been obtained from three diil'erent sources, taken for different 
purposes; but this survey has taken much trouble to reduce them all to one uniform 
datum, as otherwise they would be valueless for this object. The determination of 
mean sea-level was made from three priods of one lunar month each, in different years; 
and as the valuer in the individual months differ only by 007 foot, or less than an 
inch, the result is more closely correct than the best levelling can give on a distance 
of 200 or 300 miles. The resiilting value for mean sea level, as furnished to the 
Topographical Surveys Branch, was given with reference to the permanent bench-mark 
on an anchor bolt in masonry, and also with reference to the low-water datum as 
adopted for the charts by the ITydrographic Survey. 

There has been considerable correspondence rgarding the levels in British Colum- 
bia ; to correlate the Vancouver city datum with the tide levels, to ascertain the relation 
of the harbour datum at New Westminster with the low-water datum in the open, and 
so forth. Information on the levels has also been requested in connection with deep 
borings and dredging, or to establish a low-water datum. 

The new information obtained during the season by this survey, has been com- 
municated to the Ilydrographer of the British Navy, when it affords improvement to 
the data for Canada, which are published with the British Tide Tables. Advance 
information is often communicated also to railways and manufacturing companies, 
to which the tide is of importance, for their convenience before it can be issued in the 
Tide Tables. The information afforded to city and harbour engineers andi to other 
surveys, much of which requires to be worked out from some special point of view, 
may serve to show the value of this survey to others, in addition to its primary service 
to navigation. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The Tide Tables containing tidal information for Canada are published in two 
sets, one for the eastern coasts, of wiiich 8,000 are printed, and the other for the Pacific 
coast which has now been increased to an issue of 15,000. For eastern Canada two 
abridged editions are issued, of pocket size, one for Quebec and the St. Lawrence and 
the other for St. John, N.B., and the bay of Fundy. These two additions now amount 
to 18,000. There is also an abridged edition issued for the southern part of British 
Columbia, where there is a large demand for local tide tables for Vancouver, the Fraser 
river, and the passes in that vicinity. 

This edition was issued for the first time in 1915 and has met with a very wide 
circulation, so much so that the issue now requires to be increased to 10,000. It is 
found very convenient and serviceable by all classes, from pilots to fishermen and for 
motor-boat traffic, as explained in the last report. The Tide Tables on the Pacific 
coast are essential to the lumbering industry and the coal trade as well as to the 
ordinary navigation. The tables are of much use to fishermen, as the best catch is 
often taken during some special stage of the tide. 

The Tide Tables are supplied without charge to all the steamship companies and 
and to all applicants for them. They are largely circulated through the agencies of the 
Marine Department, Customs offices, pilot associations, and shipping offices. A large 
proportion of them are mailed individually, and many are sent in reply to requests 
received. 

The Tide Tables for eight important harbours in eastern Canada and the Pacific 
coast are now republished by the British Admiralty; together with all new informa- 
tion obtained. Tidal infurmation for the St. Lawrence is furnished annually to the 
Department of Marine and Fisheries for their publication on the St. Lawrence Ship 
Channel, for the use of pilots. Tidal information for the summer season is also sent 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL RERVICE 53 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

locally to Tadoussac, Little Metis, and "Nfiirray Bay for eonvcnience to those frequent- 
ing these summer resorts. Advance information, based on the observations of last 
season, has also been forwarded to tlie shippinp: interests and manufact\irers in Cape 
(Breton and the Saguenay rep:ion. In those various ways the information obtained 
by this survey has a very Mnde circulation and should reach all who require- it. 

STAFF. 

The staff of this survey for the office and field work, comprises only four in addi- 
tion to the superintendent; together with the outside tidal observers, who number six 
in eastern Canada and five on the Pacific coast at the permanent tidal stations. In 
addition to these, several others are employed locally in the summer season in the 
observation of tides or currents; and there are engineers as well as other surveys, who 
gave their co-operation in obtaining observations in the more remote regions. 

In the iield work last season, Mr. S. C. Ilayden supervised the observations of the 
currents in the passes of British Columbia, fitting out the observers and also inspect- 
ing the tidal stations on that coast. In eastern Canada, Mr. H. W. Jones supervised 
the erection of several summer stations in the Cape Breton region; as well as the 
current observations already described, in the narrows leading to the Bras d'Or lakes. 
He also inspected those of the principal stations which required it. In the Saguenay 
region, Mr. K. B. Lee assisted the superintendent in the establishment of tide gauges 
and levelling. 

During the summer season, the tidal record from the principal stations accumu- 
lates and re(]uires attention in the winter. Tlie number of months is thus short in 
which the reduction of this record and its preparation for analysis has to be made. 
The observations at the summer stations have also to be dealt with; and the slack 
water observations in the passes and narrows require to be brought to practical shape 
for calculation purposes, as explained in the earlier part of this report. There is also 
the calculation and publication of five sets of Tide Tables to be carried out during the 
winter months. This work is done by the same staff as above mentioned; with the 
assistance of Miss IST.R. Carter in the reduction, as well as acting as stenographer in 
carrying on the correspondence. 

I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

W. BELL DAWSON, 

Superintendent of T\dal Surveys. 



54 DKIWUTMEyr OF THE SATAL S-ERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY. 

Department of the Naval Service, 

Ottawa, March 28, 1916. 

The Deputy Minister, 

Department of Naval Service, 
Ottawa. 

gjii^_I htive the honour to submit a report on the work of the Hydrographic 
Survey during the fiscal year 1915-lG. 

During the year no additions were made to the equipment of the survey, but what 
we have has been kept in first-class condition. 

Due to hostilities in Europe the staff has been considerably reduced, Messrs. 
Knight, Turner, Lawson, Delaute, MacDonald, Miller, and Smith having volunteered 
and been accepted for service. 

The following parties were in the field during the summer of 1915 : — 

lgt_ One party, with the steamer Acadia, under Captain Anderson, working in 

the approach to Halifax harbour. 

2„d.— One party, with the steamer lAllooet, under Lt.-Commander P. C. Musgrove, 
R.N., working around Queen Charlotte islands, British Columbia. 

3i.(j One party, with the steamer Cartier, in command of Mr. Charles Savary, 

working in the St. Lawrence river, between Father point, pointe des Monts and cape 

Chat. 

4th. One party, with the steamer Bayfield, in charge of Mr. G. A. Bachand, 

working in lake Ontario. 

5th. One party, with the steamer La Canadienne, under Mr. II. D. Parizeau, 

working in lake Superior. 

(5th. — A party, using a small chartered schooner, under Mr. Paul Jobiu, working 

in James bay. 

7th. — A party looking after the automatic gauges on the Great Lakes and St. 

Lawrence river. 

ATLANTIC COAST SURVEY. 

Owing to many complaints, both from officers of the Royal Navy and of the 
Merchant Marine, about the inaccuracy of soundings in the approach to Halifax har- 
bour, it was decided to undertake an accurate survey of off-shore conditions and the 
area embraced between Sambro island on the w-est and Egg island on the east, and 
extending from 15 to 20 miles off-shore was carefully examined. No shoals were dis- 
covered, but the contour lines are now closely charted and show very slight variations 
from the old ones. 

In this work, 1,400 miles of linear sounding, from the deck of the ship, over an 
area of 700 square miles was done. Observations for latitude and longitude were 
taken in Findley cove, McNab island, and Day cove. Ship harbour. The latter was 
connected by triangulation with the positions in Halifax harbour, and a good agree- 
ment obtained. The longitudes were obtained by the use of five chronometers and 
through wireless time signals received from Arlington, Va. 

For the triangulation bases were measured at the entrance to Halifax harbour 
and on the beach inside of Egg island. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 55 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

The improvements in Halifax harbour and vicinity, made since the issue of 
Admiralty Chart No. 311, have been carefully surveyed and will be submitted to the 
Admiralty for the correction and improvement of the chart of the harbour. 

A Canadian chart will be issued showing the result of the offshore work during 
the past summer. 

During the season, considerable work, having no relation to ordinary hydro- 
graphic work, was done by this party, such as the establishment of a measured mile 
in Bedford basin, and detailed examination of the narrow channels of the entrance, 
for the information of the dockyard officials. 

Two cruises, under the direction of Dr. Joham Hjort, were made between Halifax 
and Newfoundland for the purpose of obtaining olfshore soundings and other infor- 
nnition relating to an oceanographical study of that portion of the Atlantic ocean in 
connection with the fisheries of the Dominion. At the close of the surveying season 
a similar cruise was undertaken by Captain Anderson, acting under instructions from 
Dr. Hjort. 

The Acadia arrived at Halifax on the 25th November and was laid up there, the 
surveying staff returning to Ottawa. 

The surveying staff consisted of Captain Anderson and Messrs. L. C. Prittie, J. 
L. Foreman, and E. J. Fraser. Captain Anderson reports very favourably of his staff 
and Captain Eobson, they having rendered him every assistance in their power. 

I regret .to say that considerable difficulty was experienced with the boilers and 
engines during the season, and between five and six weeks were lost during this time. 

PACIFIC COAST SURVEY. 

This party, under Lieut.-Commander P. C. Musgrave, E.N., with Messrs. O. E. 
Parker and L. E. Davies, as assistants. Captain Griffiths, sailing master, and Mr. A. 
Borrowman, first engineer, left Esquimalt on board the steamer Lillooet on the 13th 
April. 

Owing to Lieut.-Commander Knight being still on service with the Rainbow and 
Mr. J. A. Turner with the forces in Europe, it was decided to lay up the schooner 
Naden at New Westminster. 

The party first made a survey of Fisherman bay, at the north end of Vancouver 
island, and examined a reported danger said to lie 18 miles west of Triangle island, 
and another one about 9 miles southwest of the same spot, but no indication of any 
obstruction could be found. 

In the early days of May a survey was made of a large portion of Millbank sound 
and a hunt was made for a shoal marked in that bay, but no sign of it could be found. 

Later on a survey was made of " Blind Slue " and of the w^estern portion of 
DeHorsey island, in the approach to Skeena river. 

Between the 16th and 20th of May an officer of the Canadian Geodetic Survey 
joined the party and a cruise was made to Queen Charlotte islands with the intention 
of selecting a point for the main triangulation along that coast. 

Between the 20th May and the SOth October the party was engaged in surveying 
various points around the Queen Charlotte islands and of the east side of Hecate 
strait. The east side of Queen Charlotte islands has now been surveyed for a distance 
of 10 miles offshore, between Eose spit and Cumshewa head. A small amount of 
sounding was done at the western end of Dixon entrance and in the approach to port 
Louis, whilst the coast line of the west side of Graham island has been extended from 
Frederick island to port Louis. 

Considerable examination was done extending the survey of Skidegate inlet to the 
west end of East narrows, and in this connection the work of marking this channel 
by buoys and beacons, for the Department of Marine, was undertaken. 



56 DEr.AJiTMEyT OF TUE .\/lV.l/> SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Some further surveying was done for a distance of 8 miles oflFshore, between P'an 
island and Wliito rock, at the entranco to Browninf? passage. 

To summarize, during the season, about 00 miles of ooafit line were surveyed, some 
27G square miles were sounded and 930 linear miles of sounding were done from both 
the ship and boats. To convey some idea of the difficulties of surveying on this coast, 
I might mention that of the 168 working days, sixty were lost through bad weather, oi 
which twenty-six were rain, but on the whole the season was rather better than 1914, 
because the party had eighty days of actual work as compared with only fifty in 1914. 

ST. LAWRENCE RHER SURVEY. 

Mr. Charles Savary, being in charge of the survey work at the lower entrance to 
the St. Lawrence river, had for assistants, Messrs. E. Chysens, M. A. McKinnon, and 
C. Smith, with Capt. H. J. McGough as sailing master, and Mr. E. Belanger as chief 
engineer, on board the steamer Cartier. 

The steamer was used in the winter of 1914-15 in the examination service at the 
entrance to the bay of Fundy and for this reason was not able to be outfitted and made 
available for work until the 23rd June when she left Quebec to survey between Matane 
and cape Chat, on the south shore, and pointe des Mouts on the north shore. This 
work is just about completed, and a sheet embracing the above mentioned district will 
be handed to the King's Printer this spring. 

During the season Mr. Savary and party traversed 90 miles of ocean line, sounding 
1,000 miles from the ship's deck and 400 miles from the boats. 

Returning in the autumn the steamer visited Chicoutimi to locate the buoys in 
the river there for placing on a new chart being compiled. The old surveys which 
had been used for this work were found to be quite inaccurate, and more work was 
therefore necessary. It is hoped that this chart will be forwarded to the King's 
Printer in the spring. 

Mr. Savary reports that his staff and ship^s officers have given him valuable 
assistance during the season. Mr. Smith enlisted for service overseas at the close of 
the season. 

The steamer is laid up at Quebec, and only slight repairs to her engines will be 
required this winter. 

LAKE ONTARIO SURVEY. 

This survey, under Mr. G. A. Bachand, is composed of Messrs. J. W. Beauchemin, 
E. B. MacCoU, and W. K. Willis as assistant surveyors; Captain McQuade, sailing 
master, and John Nisbet, chief engineer. The party fitted out the steamer Bayfield 
at the lighthouse depot, Prescott, Ont., and left there on the 26th April last. The 
season between this date and the 20th September was taken up in completing the survey 
of the west end of lake Ontario, Hamilton bay, Port Dalhousie, Port Credit, Oakville, 
and Bronte harbours; tliis completes the survey of the lake, and charts of these har- 
bours as well as the coast will be placed in the hands of the King's Printer this spring. 

On the 21st September the party left for Kingston and started a survey of that 
harbour and approach, working from Snake island to Cataraqui bridge and between 
Bell point on Wolfe island to point Pleasant on the west. This work will be completed 
this- spring. 

During the season, in addition to the triangulation necessary for tlie work, there 
were' 00 miles of traversing done, 400 miles of sounding from "boats and 280 miles 
from tlie deck of the ship. 

The party returned to Prescott on the 30tli October, and the ship laid up at the 
Dominion lighthouse depot for the winter. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE SAVAL SERVICE 57 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 3B 

LAKK St I'KUIOU SURVEY. 

This work is in charge of Mt. II. 1). Parizeau, who has for assistants, Messrs. II. 
H. Lawson, F. R. Mortimer and II. L. Leadman, but the former joined the overseas 
forces last winter and was therefore not available for work during the season. The 
party uses the steamer La Canadienne, with Captain Playter as sailing master, and 
Mr. N. C. Munro as chief engineer. 

After some slight work surveying and locating changes and improvements in Owen 
Sound harbour the party left the latter place on the 28th April and reached Byng 
inlet the following morning. Work was resumed there on the plan of Byng inlet, 
which was started in the autunni of 1914, and was completed on the 5th June, and a 
chart has been prepared, which is now with the King's Printer for publication. 

Leaving Byng inlet the party proceeded to Little Current to inspect the positions 
of the buoys in that channel that they might be in accordance with the new charts 
recently issued. 

On the trip between Little Current and Sault Sto. Marie opportunity was taken 
to examine some suspicious soundings in False Detour channel and off the south shore 
of Drummond island. In one case it was found necessary to remove a shoal printed 
on the chart and in another case to register a shoal that had been uncharted. 

With the assistance of the steamer's crew a new automatic gauge was installed 
at Michipicoten harbour, in accordance with the desire of the International Commis- 
sion and its order relating to the control of the levels of lake Superior. 

Regular surveying work was resumed on the 15th of June at ship sounding off- 
shore between Oiseaux bay and Copper island. The survey of the north shore of lake 
Superior is now completed from Pigeon bay as far east as Otter head, except for the 
large Nipigon and Black bays. There remains only one shoreline between Otter head 
and cape Gargantua and around Michipicoten and Caribou islands. 

When autumn weather set in, about the middle of September, it was deemed 
advisable to move the steamer La Canadienne to quieter waters, and a triangulation of 
Nipigon bay was undertaken and completed. 

During the season, Mr. Pariseau and party traversed 43 miles of coast line, 
sounded 624 miles from boats and 535 miles from the deck of the ship. The party 
reached Owen Sound on the 30th October, and laid up the steamer there, the officers 
returning to Ottawa. 

After laying up the steamer, Mr. Parizeau visited Key harbour and searched for 
a new danger reported there, on which a vessel had struck, but ascertained that the 
accident was due to a misplaced buoy. He also visited Penetanguishene harbour and 
made a survey of changes that have taken place there since the last issue of the chart. 

JAMES BAY. ' 

Mr. Paul Jobin was again placed in charge of the work in James bay, with Mr. 
R. T. Bowes, assistant. 

The party, consisting of the surveyors and five men, left Cochrane on the 6th of 
May, proceeded down the Moose river and arrived at Moose Factory on the 12th. The 
launch which had been left there was first overhauled and a small schooner hired from 
Revillon Freres to be used for a houseboat for the party. 

A survey was made of the mouth of Moose river, and a plan of this has been 
prepared. Upon the completion of this work the party moved to Strutton and Charl- 
ton islands to do some sounding in Charlton sound, which was completed on the 21st 
September. The party then returned to Ottawa via Moose Factory and Cochrane, 
arriving here on the 15th of October. 

An automatic gauge was erected at the mouth of Moose river, and two months' 
record of the tides obtained; this has been handed over to the Superintendent of the 



58 DEPARTMENT OF THE XAVAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Tidal Survey. Conditions for navigation were generally good this year; the ss. Bona- 
venture arrived at Strutton island on tlie 3rd August, having seen only a small quan- 
tity of ice in Hudson strait. 

AUTOMATIC GAUGES. 

The following eleven gauges were operated on the Great Lakes during the year 
1915: 

Port Arthur Luko Superior.. . . Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mifhipicotcn Harbour " June 15 to Dec. 31 (new). 

Sault Stc. Marie Above Locks Jan. 1 " 31. 

Sault Ste. Marie .-. Below Locks Jan. 1 " 31. 

Collingwood Georgian Bay May 22 to July 27. 

Nov. 22 to Dec. 31. 

Goderich Lake Huron May 21 " 15. 

Isle Au.x Pechc.« Detroit River Jan. 1 " 31. 

Fighting Island " Jan. 1 " 31. 

Port Colborno Lake Erie Jan. 1 " 31. 

Port Dalhousie Lake Ontario May 20 " 15. 

Kingston " Jan. 1 " 31. 

During November, 1915, the Collingwood gauge was installed in such a way as 
to secure complete yearly records. The only gauges on the Great Lakes not now 
obtaining yearly records are Goderich and Port Dalhousie, but arrangements have 
been made for such an installation of the Port Dalhousie gauge at Port Weller, when 
the- approaches to the New Welland canal are completed. Records of the Michipicoten 
harbour gauge cannot be reduced to mean sea-level until such time as an elevation for 
our bench-mark is obtained from the Geodetic Survey. 

On the St. Lawrence river the following sixteen gauges were operated for the 
Montreal-Quebec Ship Channel Commission and the Montreal "Water Level Commis- 
sion : — 



Pointe Claire Lake St. Louis 

Verdun St. Lawrence River. 

Montreal Harbour 

Longuc Pointe 

Varenncs 

Vercheres 

Lanoraie 

Sorel 

Lake St. Peter 

Three Rivers 

Batiscan 

Cap a la Roche 

Richelieu Rapids 

Pointe Platon 

Neuville....- 

St. Nicholas 



May 


24 to Dec. 


31. 


Aug. 


20 


' > 


31 (new). 


April 


20 




31. 


" 


21 




31. 


" 


22 




7. 


" 


23 




6. 


" 


17 




6. 


" 


10 




6. 


" 


17 




2. 


" 


14 




2. 


" 


21 




3. 


May 


10 




3 (new). 


" 


12 




3 


April 


21 to Nov 


.30. 


'• 


22 to 


Dec 


. 2. 


" 


23 


" 


4. 



The above gauges were operated in a more satisfactory manner than in previous 
years, and in very few cases were there any breaks to cause incomplete records. The 
Pointe Claire and Verdun gauges are still operating to obtain winter records. The 
Montreal and Longue Pointe gauges were operated till January 10, 1916, when high 
water made it necessary to remove them before flooding. 

All gauges on the St. Lawrence river are now connected with authentic Canadian 
bench-marks with elevations by latest adjusted level line. 

During 1915 there was an addition of five new gauges, making twenty-seven 
during the summer months and eleven during the whole year. 

The automatic water gauge work is conducted by Mr. C. A. Price, assisted by 
.Nfessrs. A. R. Lee, Wm. J. Miller (on active service), C. G. Smith (until June 11, 
1015), and C. F. Hannington (from July 12, 1915). 

Attached are the following appendices, giving records obtained from the gauges : — 

I. Table showing corrected elevations of Bench Marks and corrections to be 
applied to Water Surface Elevations of Lower St. Lawrence, as given in r^orts of, 
1913 and 1914. 



T)EP.\TiTMENT OF THE AMT.47> HERYICE 59 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

II. Monthly Mean Water Surface Elevations of the Great Lakes, for 1915, referred 
to United States datum or mean sea level. 

III. Daily mean elevation of Lake St, Louis at Pointe Claire. 

IV. Daily mean elevation of St. Lawrence river at Yerdun. 
Y. Daily mean elevation of St. Lawrence river at Montreal. 

VI. Daily mean elevation of St. Lawrence river at Longue Pointe. 

VII. Daily mean elevation of St. Lawrence river at Yarennes. 

VIII. Daily mean elevation of St. Lawrence river at Yercheres. 

IX. Daily mean elevation of St. Lawrence river at Lanoraie. 

X. Daily mean elevation of St. Lawrence river at Sorel. 

XL. Daily mean elevation of Lake St. Peter at Eange Light No. 2. 

In closing this report I have to express my thanks to all the members of the staff 
for the valuable service they have rendered during the past year. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

WM. J. STEWAET, 

Hydrographer. 



60 



DEPARTMENT OF THE XAVAL SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Corrected Elevations of Bench-marks, and changes to be applied to Water Surface 
Elevations, of Lower St. Lawrence river, given in the Keports of 1913 and 1914. 



Location. 


Old Elovfition 

of Benrh-inark 

used till 

Jan. 1. 1915. 


New Elevation 

of Beneh-mark 

used .sinee 

Jan. 1. 1915. 


Correction 
for Readinn-s 
1913 and 1914. 


Montreal.. 


36-46 


36-46 






40-66 


40-477_ 


— 183 








32-451 


31-97 


— 481 








30-844 


30-78 


— 064 








37-399 


37-399 








Sorel 


46-80 


46-80 










26-526 


26-403 


— 123 








26-70 


26-565 


— 135 








29-736 


29-68 


— 056 








56-381 


56-481 


+ •10 








16101 


16-19 


-I--089 








29-43 


29-53 


+ -10 







DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 



61 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 



eS 


a- 
en 




c 




CO 








00 




o 

-fl 
t- 

«5 




o 
■o 

CO 




eo 




<M 




Oi 

i 

CI 




6 
Q 


in 

o o 


o 

s 


CO 

o 

CO 

ira 


IM 

cn 




00 

00 


o 

"5 


o 




CO 

CO 

-r 
•r 

C-1 


> 

o 


to 




(M 

CO 


OO 
O (M 

"1 




CO , 
"5 


o 
CO 

CO 


in 


00 

i 


Ci 
OO 

-Ifl 

IM 


O 




O 


05 

CO 

00 






to 

00 


in 

CO 


o 

OO 

CO 

U5 


OO 


00 

<M 


o 

(M 
IM 


CO 


CO 

CJ o 


o 


CO 
00 


-T3 
il 

O 
S 


00 

Oi 


s 


OS 

o 
4i 




00 

C--5 
IM 


CO 

(M 


3 
< 




CO 
00 

o 

CO 


CO 


3 


CO 

o 

o 


CO 


05 


9 




in 

IM 






05 

i 




00 00 


03 


(M 


CO 


o 

00 


o 


IM 

o 

<M 


d 
3 


C5 

1 s 


CO 

CO 


O 
00 




o 


CO 


CO 
U5 


00 




(M 


03 


115 


o 


o 


CT5(M 


CT> a 
»c p 




CO 
CO 


CO 

z 


cOo 

to c 

<M O 

fc-l 


o 

IM 


a 

< 


1 § 


CO 

o 

s 


o 










CO 

00 

CO 


CO 

iM 

CO 
"0 


IM 






s 

-*< 




(M 

CO 

1 i 


o 
o 


<32 
CO 

00 










00 

IM 

CO 
«5 


00 

IM 


CO 
iM 

«3 






o 


f^ 


1 i 


C3 

o 

s 


o 
=o 

00 










o 

CO 


iM 








CO 
IM 


>-5 




i 


3 

OO 










CD 

c.? 


CO 


(M 

o 






03 
IM 


Location. 


c 
• Cl 




c 




c 
c 

5 

cc 




1 

& 

c 

c 


) 


c 
c 

c 




;^ 




& 
c 


: 
1 


c 
c 




c 

£ 

p 
t 

c 

p- 




c 
c 

rr 

j2 


1 


i 


c 
c 


. 


t- 
> 








> 

c 

'5 

c 

c 

C 


! 


c 
c 

t- 

X 






p 


J 

5 
5 










c 


2 

■3 

3 

J 
< 

3 





62 



Di:i'\ni Ml \T or riir \ in/, sum ice 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Daily Mean Water Surface Elevations of Lake St. Louis, at Pointe Claire, Que. Ele- 
vations are above Mean Sea-level and are referred to Bench-mark CCCCIII on 
Southeast corner of Roman Catholic church. Elevation, 83-95. 



Days. 


1915. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1 




68-37 

68-30 

68-28 

68-24 

68-21 

68-17 

68-16 

68-12 

68,09 

68-08 

68-00 

67-98 

67-97 

08-07 

68-16 

68-23 

68-22 

68-10 

68-12 

68-11 

68-08 

67-99 

67-92* 

67-99 

68-04 

68-04 

68-07 

68-11 

68-11 

68-06 


67-98 
67-92 
67-92 
67-93 
67-98 
67-94 
67-95 
67-88 
67-77 
67-73 
67-75 
67-80 
67-80 
67-78 
67-77 
67-72 
67-67 
67-66 
67-68 
67-74 
67-70 
67-67 
67-63 
67-58 
67-51 
67-47 
67-45 
67-42 
67-42 
67-42 
67-39 


67-31 


G7-fi'> 


67 •A') 


67-44 


67 -SR 


2 




67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
68 
68 
68 
68 
67 
67 
67 
67 


29 
23 
10 
13 
24 
35 
43 
58 
68 
73 
76 
74 
74 
75 
78 
76 
71 
70 
72 
75 
77 
91 
06 
14 
10 
04 
90 
80 
82 
87 


67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 


80 
77 
73 
69 
70 
70 
71 
74 
71 
67 
60 
50 
50 
56 
62 
65 
61 
53 
55 
54 
53 
53 
51 
46 
38 
47 
47 
41 
43 


67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 


35 
37 
50 
63 
73 
75 
72 
71 
67 
68 
72 
74 
72 
67 
55 
47 
52 
56 
56 
54 
51 
47 
39 
44 
47 
51 
52 
49 
43 
41 


67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 


47 
43 
39 
23 
17 
12 
13 
15 
24 
20 
11 
16 
26 
33 
31 
29 
24 
04 
10 
41 
55 
56 
48 
31 
18 
12 
16 
21 
33 


67 
67 
67 
67 
67 

"66 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 


30 


3 




'>6 


4..: 




■>! 


5 




10 


6 




07 


7 






8 






9 






10 






11 '. 






12 






13 




9=)* 


14 




O'' 


15 




13 


16 u 




45 


17 




69 


18 




58 


19 




34 


20 




31 


21 




3'> 


22 




''4 


23 


68-74* 

68-75 

68-75 

68-68 

68-59 

68-51 

68-49 

68-41 

68-37 


16 


24 


''1 


25 


?5 


26 


•>?, 


27 


?6 


28 


33 


29 


30 


30 


59 




88 












68-59 


68-12 


67-66 


67-67 


67 


60 


67-56 


67 


27 


67-30 



* Denotes Mean of less than 24 hourly readings. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NATAL SERVICE 
SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 . ' 



63 



Daily Mean Water Surface Elevations of St. Lawrence River taken at Verdun, Que. 
Elevations are above Mean Sea-level and are referred to Bench-mark " V4 " on. 
R. Bennett's house opposite wharf. Elevation, 58-07. 



Days. 










1915. 












May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1 










.34 25* 


34 04 


34 05 

34-07 
34-06 
34-05 
34-03 
34-04 
34-01 
33-99 
34 00 
34-00 
34-00 
33-99 
33-99 
33-99 
33-99 
34-00 
33-99 
33-98 
33-94 
33-93 
33-96 
34-03 
34-05 
34-03 
34-02 
34-00 
33-98 
33-98 
33-97 
33-97 


33 98 


2 










34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 


24* 

23 

22 

20 

16 

17 

17 

17 

18 

17 

14 

12 

11 

12 

13 

13 

13 

13 

10 

10 

11 

10 

10 

10 

04 

01 

03 

03 

03 


34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
H 
34 
34 
34 


04 
02 
07 

n 

12 
14 
16 
16 
14 
14 
15 
16 
16 
15 
13 
09 
09 
09 
09 
09 
09 
08 
06 
06 
07 
07 
07 
07 
06 
OF, 


33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
33 
33 
33 
33 
34 
33 
34 
34 
34 


08 


3 










90 


4 










98 


5 










96 


6 










95 


7 ; 










95 


8 










95 


9 










95 


10 










95 


11 










94 


12 










o-? 


13 










91 


14 










94 


15 










03 


16 










?0 


17 










39* 


18 










V 


19 










13 


20 










05 


21 










08 


22 










05 


23 










99 


24 










97 


25 










96 


26 










96 


27 








34-36* 

34-32 

34-27 

34-25 

34-26 


01 


28 








99 


29 








06 


30 -. 








74 


31 








76 














Mean 










34 


13 


34-09 


34 00 


34 06 

























* Denotes Mean of less than 24 hourly readings. 



64 



DKl'AnTMFST OF Till' \ H I /, sKUVKK 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Daily Mean Water Surface Elevations of St. Lawrence River taken at Montreal, Que., 
(Foot of Lachine Canal). Elevations are above Mean Sea-level and are referred 
to Bench-mark No. 637. Elevation, 36 46. 













1915 










Days. 






































- 


.\pril. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1.. 




23-25 


21-06 


20-45 


19-31 


19-87 


19-33 


18-86 


18-85 


2... 




23 


32 


21 


41 


20 


52 


19 


46 


19 


72 


19 


31 


18 


90 


18 


87 


3... 




23 


38 


21 


01 


20 


37 


19 


31 


19 


70 


19 


15 


19 


04 


18 


81 


4 




23 


11 


20 


78 


20 


23 


19 


00 


19 


62 


19 


12 


19 


00 


18 


78 


5 




22 


85 


20 


59 


19 


99 


18 


89 


19 


50 


19 


18 


19 


14 


18 


75 


6 




22 
22 
22 


56 
33 
16 


20 
20 
20 


41 
28 
10 


19 
19 
19 


90 
90 
94 


18 
19 
19 


93 
00 
10 


19 
19 
19 


44 
48 
58 


19 
19 
19 


55 
67 
68 


19 

18 
18 


01 

87 
94 


18 
18 
18 


89 


7 




87 


8 




83 


9 




22 


06 


20 


23 


19 


91 


19 


38 


19 


63 


19 


76 


18 


97 


19 


03 


10 




22 
22 
22 
22 
22 


11 
18 
05 
34 
19 


20 
20 
20 
19 
20 


20 
08 
04 
99 
16 


19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


74 
65 
71 

87 
88 


19 
19 
• 19 
19 
19 


63 
66 
72 
75 
73 


19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


66 
67 
65 
68 
58 


19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


78 
69 
70 
76 
69 


19 
19 
18 
18 
18 


08 
06 
91 
78 
73 


19 
18 

18 
18 
18 


04 


11 


83 


12 


58 


13 ' . 




63 


14 


97 


15 




22 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 


09 
93 

80 
70 
78 
68 
47 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 


27 
37 
45 
49 
14 
21 
30 


19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


90 
86 
84 
73 
68 
71 
72 


19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


76 
80 
99 
84 
71 
65 
63 


19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


59 
61 
57 
48 
30 
36 
29 


19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


75 
45 
13 
18 
17 
27 
29 


18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 


79 
93 
80 
65 

87 
71 
86 


18 
18 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


80 


16 




85 


17 




07 


18 




55 


19 


- 


'',5 


20 


21-35* 

21-29 


16 


21 


18 


22 


21-09 


21 


17 


20 


27 


19 


61 


19 


67 


19 


48 


19 


31 


19 


13 


19 


16 


23 , 


20-97 
21-04 
21-12 
21 • 19 


21 
21 
21 
21 


21 
24 
29 
46 


20 
20 
20 

20 


42 
37 
44 

40 


19 
19 
19 
19 


53 
40 
43 
41 


19 
20 
20 
20 


76 
04 
22 
33 


19 
19 
19 
19 


41 
39 
36 

17 


19 
19 
19 
19 


31 
18 
16 
10 


19 
19 
19 
19 


22 
22 
07 
01 


19 
19 
19 
19 


?,?, 


24 


26 


25 


25 


26... 


33 


27 


21-49 


21 


31 


20 


39 


19 


35 


20 


28 


19 


57 


19 


15 


18 


94 


19 


11 


28 


21-82 
21-91 
22-73 


21 
21 
21 
21 


23 
35 
12 
11 


20 
20 
20 


46 
51 
46 


19 
19 
19 
19 


31 
35 
32 


20 
20 
19 
20 


14 
02 
95 
03 


19 
19 
19 


53 
42 
33 


19 
19 
19 
19 


18 
14 
13 
01 


18 
18 
18 


76 
81 
74 


19 
19 
19 
19 


16 


29 


25 


30 


44 


31 


81 


















21-45 


21-96 


''O 


41 


19-76 


19-67 


19 


5? 


19-36 


18 


93 


19 05 





































Denotes Mean of less than 24 hourly readings. 



DEPAPTMEXT OF THE Y.lF.l/> SERVICE 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 



65 



Daily Mkan Water Surface Elevations of St. Lawrence Eiver at Longue Pointe, Que. 
Elevations are above Mean Sea-level and are referred to Copper Plug Bench-mark 
in southeast corner of Longue Pointe Asylum pump-house. Elevation, 40-477. 





% 








1915 










Days. 








































Apiil. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1 




22-28 


19-84 


19-23 


18-10 


18-57 


18-09 


17-59 
17-56 
17-71 
17-70 
17-87 
17-80 
17-70 
17-77 
17-79 
17-88 
17-88 
17-75 
17-57 
17-52 
17-57 
17-68 
17 -.58 
17-41 
17-70 
17-57 
17-65 


17-60 


2.. 




22 
22 
22 
21 
21 
21 
21 
20 
20 
20 
20 
21 
21 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 


33 
39 
09 
79 

47 
21 
00 
89 
89 
96 
84 
08 
02 
92 
76 
62 
48 
54 
46 
£3 


20 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
19 
19 
19 
18 
18 
19 


22 
80 
55 
36 
19 
04 
82 
94 
93 
82 
81 
78 
88 
98 
06 
15 
21 
90 
95 
01 


19 
19 
19 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 


1.3 

02 
75 
58 
59 
63 
61 
49 
43 
46 
62 
63 
64 
62 
63 
52 
43 
43 
46 


18 
18 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 


22 
09 
76 
64 
66 
73 
84 
09 
33 
34 
38 
44 
46 
49 
50 
68 
55 
43 
35 
34 


18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
17 


41 
39 
30 
19 
12 
14 
24 
31 
37 
38 
38 
43 
35 
35 
31 
25 
18 
03 
05 
97 


18 
17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
17 
17 
17 
17 
IS 


10 
94 
89 
91 
27 
40 
43 
52 
56 
47 
44 
49 
42 
49 
22 
91 
92 
89 
97 
00 


17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
17 
18 


6? 


3 




59 


4 




57 






57 


6 




71 


7.. 




71 


8 




66 


9 




86 


10 




87 


11 




67 


12 




43 


1.3 . . 




44 


14 




79 


15 . 




60 


16 




68 


17 




9?, 


18 




.38 


^9 




1? 


20 




99 


21 


20-02* 


02 


22 


19-90 


19 


92 


18 


98 


18 


36 


18 


39 


18 


17 


18 


03 


17-86 


18 


01 


23 


19-74 


19 


95 


19 


19 


18 


28 


18 


46 


18 


11 


18 


04 


17-95 


18 


12 


24 


19-80 


19 


97 


19 


15 


18 


17 


18 


69 


18 


06 


17 


94 


1800 


18 


17 


25 


19-89 


20 


00 


19 


21 


18 


19 


18 


85 


18 


11 


17 


91 


17-86 


18 


15 


26.. 


19-96 


20 


18 


19 


18 


18 


17 


19 


00 


17 


94 


17 


84 


17-80 


18 


24 


27 


£0-28 


20 


07 


19 


15 


18 


13 


18 


98 


18 


33 


17 


87 


17-74 


18 


00 


28 


20-68 


20 


00 


19 


21 


18 


08 


18 


86 


18 


30 


17 


91 


17-58 


18 


00 


29 


20-80 


20 


14 


19 


25 


18 


12 


18 


77 


18 


20 


17 


86 


17-62 


18 


11 


30 


21-66 


19 


94 


19 


22 


18 


10 


18 


68 


18 


11 


17 


84 


17-49 


18 


38. 


31 * 




19 


9? 






18 


08 


18 


74 




17 


74 




18 


86 
















Mean 


20-27 


20-79 


19 


16 


18-51 


18-38 


18-24 


18-11 


17-71 

* 


17-90 



Denote:? Mean of less than 24 hourly readings. 



;)8 — J 



66 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Dmi.y !\fE.\N Water Surface Elevations of St. Lawrence Kiver taken at Varennes. Que. 
Elevations arc above Mean Sea-level and are referred to Crow's foot Bench-mark 
on stone wall in rear of wharf. Elevation, 31-97. 





















1915 
















Days. 

1 




















April. 


Ma.v. 


June. 


July. 


Auk. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Xov. 


Dec. 


1.. 




21-21 


18-42 


17-84 


16-56 


17 00 


16-50 


15-94 


15-97 


"> 




21 


24 


18 


91 


17 


95 


16 


66 


16 


81 


16 


54 


15 


84 


16-04 


3 




21 
20 


28 
95 
fil 


18 
18 
17 


46 
13 
91 


17 
17 
17 


76 
58 
?5 


16 
16 


56 
22 


16 
16 
16 


78 
68 
58 


16 
16 
Ifi 


36 

28 
?7 


16 
16 
16 


01 
03 
'>6 


1602 


4 




16 01 


.5.. 




16-04 


6.. 




"JO 


?3 


17 


71 


16 


99 






16 


51 


16 


63 


16 


?3 


16-21 


7.. 




19 


91 


17 


5'' 


16 


99 






16 


5?, 


16 


81 


16 


15 




8.. 




19 


69 


17 


25 


17 


06 


16 


20 


16 


60 


16 


87 


16 


25 




9.. 




19 


55 


17 


37 


17 


06 


16 


43 


16 


71 


16 


98 


16 


25 




10.. 




19 


51 


17 


35 


16 


96 


16 


71 


16 


79 


17 


05 


16 


29 




11.. 




19 


54 


17 


27 


16 


90 


16 


76 


16 


81 


16 


97 


16 


30 




12.. 




19 


42 


17 


26 


16 


91 


16 


81 


16 


83 


16 


90 


16 


18 




13.. 




19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
18 
18 
18 
18 


71 
64 
52 
37 
24 
06 
07 
98 
76 
41 
42 


17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 


30 
32 
48 
59 
70 
75 
40 
47 
53 
53 
79 


17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
16 
16 
16 
16 
Ifi 


08 
12 
13 
12 
11 
00 
88 
86 
89 
80 
71 


16 
16 
16 
16 
17 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 


88 
91 
96 
95 
12 
99 
86 
76 
75 
83 
85 


16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 


91 
82 
80 
75 
66 
59 
44 
43 
34 
54 
51 


16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 


94 
87 
92 
64 
29 
30 
27 
35 
40 
43 
44 


15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 


94 
86 
79 
99 
91 
74 
15 
06 
05 
21 
32 




14. 






15 






16 






17 






18 






19.. 






20 






21.. 


18-56* 

18-47 

18-29 




22 




23 




24... 


18-38* 


18 


41 


17 


76 


16 


62 


17 


10 


16 


45 


16 


39 


16 


41 




25.. 


18-54* 


18 


45 


17 


81 


16 


64 


17 


27 


16 


52 


16 


35 


16 


30 




26.. 


18-59 


18 


63 


17 


76 


16 


64 


17 


43 


16 


37 


16 


31 


16 


27 




27.. 


18-99* 

19-43 

19-60 


18 
18 
18 


54 

48 
68 


17 
17 

17 


74 
79 

81 


16 
16 
16 


59 
54 
57 


17 
17 

17 


43 
35 

27 


16 
16 
16 


75 
73 
63 


16 
16 
16 


29 
30 
26 


16 
16 
16 


24 
04 
09 




28.. 




29 




30.. 


20-50 


18 


49 


17 


80 


16 


56 


17 


17 


16 


,54 


16 


20 


15 


87 




31 




18 


46 






16 


53 


17 


'>n 




16 


in 


























19-40 


17 


70 


16-99 


16-89 


16-65 


16-52 


16 


10 







































Denotes Mean of less than 24 hourly readings. 



DEPAUTMEAT OF THE NAVAL 8ERTICE 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 



67 



Daily Mi-iAx\ Water Surface Elevations of St. Lawrence River taken at Vercheres, Que. 
Elevations are above Mean Sea-level and are referred to Crow's foot Bench-mark 
on North side of windmill near wharf. Elevation, 30.78. 



4.. 



6... 

7... 

8.. 

9.. 
10.. 
11.. 
12.. 
13.. 
U... 
15... 
If).. 
17... 
18... 
19... 
20... 
21... 
22... 
23... 
24.. 
25... 
26.. 
27... 
28... 
29.. 
30.. 
31.. 



Days. 



1915. 



April. 



1717* 

17-27 

17-40 

17-51 

17-91 

18-43 

18-69 

19-65 



Mav. 



20-38 
20-4r 



19-61^ 

19-31 

18-97 

18-71 

18-55 

18-49 

18-51 

18-40 

18-69 

18-63 

18-52* 

18-36 

18-21 

17-99 

17-98 

17-88 

17-67 

17-34 

17-30 

17-26 

17-32 

17-49 

17-42 

17-40 

17-62 

17-46 

17-44 



June. 



July. 



16- 
16- 
16- 
16- 
16- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 
15- 



Aug. 



67 


15 


80 


15 


59 


15 


39 


15 


06 


14 


74 


14 


70 


14 


75 


15 


77 


15 


71 


15 


67 


15 


69 


15- 


87 


15 


93 


15 


94 


15 


96 


15 


96 


15 


86 


15 


72 


15 


68 


15 


•70 


15 


62 


15 


53 


15 


44 


15 


46 


16- 


46 


16 


43 


16- 


42 


16- 


46 


16- 


46 


15 


44 


15 



-46 
-54 

-45 
•10 
-91 
-86 
•90 
•00 
•25 
•52 
•56 
-60 
-67 
-71 
-77 
-76 
-89 
-78 
-64 
-54 
•53 
-60 
-63 
-85 
-03 
-18 
•22 
-14 
-08 
-99 
-99 



Sfpt. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Mean. 



18-25 



1649 



15-00 



15-62 



15-44 



15-30 



14-92 



Denotes Mean of less than 24 hourly readings. 



38- 



68 



nrrwRTvi \ I <>i j in. \\\ \i. >i:i:\i< i: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Dmi.v Mkan \V:itt.'r Surface Klcvations of St. Liiwn'iice Kiver taken at Lanoraie, (^ut.. 
Kk'vation.s are aWove Mean Sea-levi-l and are referred to Beneh-niark top of iron 
pin in Ilydrographic Suition west of api)roaeh to Lanoraie wliarf. Elevation, 
37.399. 



4.. 

.5.. 

6.. 

7.. 

8.. 

9.. 
10.. 
11.. 
12.. 
13.. 
14.. 
15.. 
16.. 
17.. 
18.. 
19.. 
20.. 
21.. 
22.. 
23.. 
24.. 
•2.-).. 
26.. 
27.. 
28., 
29.. 
.'',0. 
31., 



Day.« 



1915 



.\pril. May. 



Mean. 



16-84* 

16-61 

16-38 

16-27 

16-16 

15-92 

15-71 

15-76 

15-92 

16-07 

16-55 

17-11 

17-46 

18-46 



16 -.52 



19 24 
19 -.30 
19-23 
18-83 
18-47 
18 02 
17-fK) 
17 41 
17 15 
1704 
16-99 
lG-92 
17-18 
17-15 
1701 
16-88 
16-75 
16-50 
16-41 
16-27 
1606 
15-74 
15-64 
15-58 
15-63 
15-80 
15-75 
15-83 
16-09 
16-01 
15-98 



16-92 



June. 



14-93 



July 



15 

15- 

15- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

13- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

14- 

13- 

13- 

13- 

13- 

13- 

13- 

13- 

13- 

13- 

13- 



14-21 



Aug. 



■18 


13^ 


-.30 


13 • 


-07 


13 • 


-83 


IS- 


•46 


IS- 


-00 


13^ 


■94 


13 • 


-00 


13 • 


•04 


IS- 


03 


IS • 


•04 


13 • 


•09 


13 • 


•27 


14 • 


••34 


14^ 


•.35 


14^ 


•40 


14^ 


•42 


14 • 


•31 


14^ 


•11 


13^ 


•03 


13 • 


•05 


13- 


•97 


13^ 


•89 


13- 


•82 


14- 


•84 


14^ 


•88 


14^ 


•87 


14^ 


•89 


14 • 


•94 


14- 


•96 


14^ 


•93 


14 



1395 



St'pt. 



14 05 
1381 
1371 
13-59 
13-48 
13-45 
13-51 
13-63 
13-81 
13-95 
14-00 
14-03 
1415 
14-08 
14-03 
13-92 
13-76 
13-65 
13 -.53 
13-52 
13-53 
13-66 
13 68 
13 60 
13 70 
13 62 
1398 
13 90 
13 80 
13-72 



13-76 



0«t. 



13-63 
13-68 
13-45 
13-35 
IS -.35 
13-59 
13-85 
14-03 
14-18 
14-28 
14-24 
14-14 
14-14 
1403 
13-98 
13-69 
13-31 
13-27 
13 .30 
13 37 
13 45 
1348 
13 46 
1353 
13 52 
13.52 
13 42 
1336 
13-29 
13-17 
13 09 



13 62 



Nov. 



1292 
1277 

12 92 

13 01 
13 -.36 
13-46 
13-48 
13-62 
IS 64 
1360 
13 .58 
13 47 
13 14 
1295 I 
1296 
1310 
12 95 

12 76 

13 37 
13-45 
13 -.30 
13-26 
13-40 
13 -.55 
13-50 
13-48 
13-43 
13-24 
13-25 
12-96 



13-26 



Df<- 



1292 
1296 
1300 
1304 
13 20 



• Dcnrito.'; Moan of le.^s th:in 24 hourly reading-^. 



DFi'Mn wnjyr of the yxvAL service 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 



69 



Daii.y Mean Water Surface Elevations of St. Lawrence River taken at Sorel, Que. 
Elevations are above Mean Sea-level and are referred to Canadian Bench-mark 
MCCCVII on northwest side of entrance to Sorel Post Office. Elevation, 46.80. 













1915 








Days. 


















April. 


May. 


.June. 


•July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oft. 


Nov. E 


f-c. 


1 




18-83 


15 -.39 


14-73 


13 -.50 


13-65 


13-22 


12-51 1 


2-5? 


2 




18-91 


15-83 


14 


86 


13-51 


13 


41 


13 


25 


12 


37 1 


2-55 


.3 




18-83 
18-45 


15-39 
14-95 


14 
14 


62 
38 


13-42 
13-08 


13 
13 


29 
15 


13 

r? 


02 

9? 


12 
1? 


51 1 
60 1 


2-60 


4 




>-67 


.5.. 




18-04 


14-65 


14 


02 


12-83 


13 


05 


12 


93 


12 


97 1 


2-83 


6... 




17-57 
17-13 
16-86 
16-68 
16-56 


14-40 
14-18 
13-96 
13-97 
14-02 


13 
13 
13 
13 
13 


57 
47 
51 
58 
59 


12-75 
12-76 
12-87 
13-14 
13-41 


13 
13 
13 
13 
13 


03 
08 
21 
41 
57 


13 
13 
13 
13 
13 


13 
42 
62 

77 
88 


13 
13 
13 
13 
13 


09 ... 
13 ... 

28 ... 
30 ... 

22 ... 




7... . 






8... . 






9 






10 


16-81* 




11 


1709 


16-50 


14-00 


13 


61 


13-47 


13 


62 


13 


85 


13 


21 ... 




12 


17-64 


16-45 


14-05 


13 


66 


13 -.54 


13 


65 


13 


74 


13 


10 ... 




13 


17-65 


16-67 


14 15 


13 


83 


13-62 


13 


78 


13 


75 


12 


78 ... 




14 


17-40 


16-65 


14 15 


13 


91 


13-68 


13 


71 


13 


62 


12 


56 .. 




15 


17-05 


16-52 


14-27 


13 


92 


13-76 


13 


66 


13 


53 


12 


56 ... 




16 


16-71 


16-40 


14-25 


13 


98 


13-74 


13 


53 


13 


25 


12 


70 ... 




17 


16-44 


16-27 


14-31 


13 


98 


13-77 


13 


36 


12 


87 


12 


54 ... 




18 


16-16 


16-02 


14-35 


13 


88 


13-65 


13 


24 


12 


83 


12 


38 ... 




19 


15-92 


15-91 


14-27 


13 


70 


13 -.52 


13 


12 


12 


88 


12 


99 ... 




20 


15-79 


15-76 


14-13 


13 


61 


13-41 


, 13 


12 


12 


95 


13 


12 .. 




21 


15-68 


15 -.53 


14-13 


13 


63 


13 -.39 


13 


16 


13 


03 


12 


96 ... 




22 


15-43 


15-23 


14-23 


13 


55 


13-47 


13 


29 


13 


06 


12 


88 ... 




23 


15-20 


15-11 


14-55 


13 


48 


13-55 


13 


31 


13 


04 


13 


01 ... 




24 


15-25 


15-04 


14-62 


13 


42 


13-72 


13 


21 


13 


13 


13 


15 ... 




25 


15-43 


15-10 


14-62 


13 


43 


13-93 


13 


32 


13 


11 


13 


11 ... 




26 


15-60 


15-27 


14-53 


13 


47 


14-08 


13 


25 


13 


11 


13 


11 ... 




27 


16-06 


15-27 


14-50 


13 


48 


14-12 


13 


60 


13 


01 


13 


05 




28 


16-66 


15-36 


14-56 


13 


52 


14-06 


13 


51 


12 


93 


12 


86 ... 




29 


17-04 


15-00 


14-59 


13 


00 


14-02 


13 


40 


12 


85 


12 


86 ... 




30 


18-03 


15-55 


14-61 


13 


58 


13-96 


13 


32 


12 


74 


12 


58 ... 




31 




15-51 




13 


=i5 


13-75 






12 


65 


















Mean 


16-43 


16-44 


14-45 


13-78 


13-53 


13 


37 


13-20 


12 


88 ... 





Denote.s Mean of less than 24 hourly readings. 



70 



nrr\Rr\ff:\T or the \\v\n kfrvice 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Dmi.v ^[kax Water SurfiU'o Elevations of Lake St. Peter taken at Range Light No. 2. 
Elevations are above Mean Sea-lovel and are referred to Bench-mark, a brass plug 
in north side of confretc pier. Elevation, 18.603. 



Day 



191.'') 



.\pril. May 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec, 



3 




4 








6.. . . . 








8 




9 




10 




11 




12 




13 




14 




15 




16 




17 




18 


15-27* 


19 


15-08 


20 


14-91 


21 


, 14-77 


22 


14-52 


23.. 

24.. 

25.. 


14-28 
14-26 
14-47 


26 


14-73 


27 

28.. 

29 . 

30 

31 


.15-23 
15-82 
16-28 
17-06 



13-75 
13-84 
13-62 
13 -.35 
12-99 
12-45 
12-26 
12-27 
12 -.37 
12-45 
12-46 
12-52 
12-68 
12-76 
12-78 
12-84 
12-85 
12-75 
12-51 
12-39 
12-36 
12-29 
12-22 
12-18 
1216 
12-24 
12-28 
12-35 
•12-39 
12-42 
12-35 



-83 
•81 
■61 
-48 
-.52 
-74 
-07 
-42 
•60 
-72 
-74 
-63 
-63 
•48 
•27 
-02 
-59 
-52 
■67 
•75 
-90 
-96 
-89 
-05 
■05 
-04 
-97 
-81 
•70 
-61 
-49 



II 41 



Mean. 



15-13 



15 



13-44 



12-62 



12-18 



11-97 



1199 



11-84 



* Denotes Moan of less than 24 hourly readings 



DFr.iRTMENT OF THE yAVAh SERVICE 71 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

CANADIAN ARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The Canadian Arctic Expedition, under the leadership of Mr. Vilhjalniur 
Stefansson, was fitted out in the summer of 1913. The expedition was divided into 
two divisions. The northern division sailed in C.G.S. Karluk from Victoria on the 
20th July. The vessel became icebound and the party were unable to reach Banks 
island, where they were to have wintered. 

Near Thetis island Mr. Stefansson, with D. Jenness, B. M. McConnell, and Geo. 
IE. Wilkins, undertook a hunting trip to the mainland. During a gale which followed, 
the vessel was carried away and they were obliged to join the southern division winter- 
ing at Collinson point. The vessel was carried about in the ice for three months, 
until January, 1914, when it was crushed and sunk. In endeavouring to reach land 
eight members of the shipwrecked party were lost. The remaining members succeeded 
in reaching Wrangel island, whence, with three exceptions, they were rescued and 
landed at Victoria. 

Upon the arrival of Stefansson at Collinson point he immediately began prepara- 
tions for a trip, on foot, over the ice of Beaufort sea. Although the fate of the 
Karluk was not known to the party at Collinson point, Mr. Stefansson realized 
that the men in that ship, owing to ice conditions, could not be counted upon to carry 
out the work of the northern division. As the work of this division was to consist of 
the exploration of Beaufort sea to the west of Banks island and Prince Patrick island, 
oyer areas hitherto unexplored, Mr. Stefansson undertook the trip on foot, across the 
ice, to carry out this work. 

For the purpose of utilizing the supplies therein, and to assist him during the 
summer of 1914, he purchased the auxiliary schooner North Star. 

Before setting out, Mr. Stefansson gave instructions to have a ship (preferably 
the North Star) sent north to Banks island during the summer of 1914 in the event of 
his not returning to camp. The length of his trip over the ice was to depend entirely 
upon ice conditions and the possibility of establishing himself at a more northerly 
base. 

The ice party, composed of Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Ole Andreasen, Storker Stork- 
erson, accompanied by a supporting party, left Martin point on the 22nd March, 1914. 
After leaving the land-fast ice, the party experienced great difficulty from the drift 
of the flow which had been set in motion by a gale a few days previously. The drift, 
southeast, following the trend of the shore, was so fast that only two miles northing 
a day was averaged during the first two weeks. Mild weather added further to the 
difficulties of travelling. The party were further delayed by an accident to Captain 
Beneard, which necessitated his return to shore. 

On the 7th April the party reached N. Lat. 70° 20' 04", W. Long. 140° 50' 30". 
From this point the supporting party returned to shore, leaving the ice party to pursue 
their trip to the north. On the 9th April the party were obliged to pass through fields 
of loose ice in some instances ferrying themselves across open spaces on single cakes 
not more than 50 feet square and two feet thick. During the night of the 9th April 
a terrific gale set in which caused the ice to raft considerably. 

Cold weather set in after this storm and the travelling over the ice became com- 
paratively good. Up to the 27th April, clear, calm weather prevailed. The thermo- 
meter varied from ten to twenty degrees below zero. The distance travelled ranged 
from fifteen to twenty-five miles a day. Thus far their direction had been due north 
approximately along the 140th meridian. 

On the 27th April they arrived at N. Lat. 72° 58' 28", W. Long. 140° 47' 30". 
Owing to the advanced season and the scarcity of food animals on the floe it became 
necessary for them to make for land. They shaped a great circle course for cape 
Alfred, Banks island. During the first few days, owing to the character of the ice. 



72 iti:r\mMK\T of the v n j/, sfryice 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

tlii'v niaik' iiiort' imrlliiii^ tliaii a ;.M'cal <ircle i-oiirsc requires. On the 4th May they 
were in X. Lat. 73° 49' 11", W. Lonfj. 13:3° 09', and on the 13th May they crossed the 
74tli parallel at the 130th meridian. 

After the ijth May, (tpen leads were numerous. The party were from this dat€ 
on half rations, althoujrh the dofjcs were given full food allowance to prevent them 
from weakening. On the 15th May a seal was .shot, and thereafter an abundance of 
food was obtained. On the way to land forty seals and eight bears were shot. 

On the 24th May the party were stopped by a lead which was too wide to cross. 
They were then in N. Lat. 74° 05' 34", W. Long. 128° 01' 45", or about forty-five miles 
from the Gore islands near cape Alfred, Banks island. They were not able to cross 
the lead until the 5th June, when they had drifted over 40 miles west and a little 
south. Throughout the month of May young ice in the leads retarded progress as the 
raft was difficult to handle. During June the leads did not freeze over, and they were 
negotiated without difficulty. 

Land was sighted on the 22nd June. The southerly drift encountered had carried 
the party south of cape Alfred. They landed at Norway island on the north coast 
of Banks island on the 25th Jmie, ninety-six days after leaving Martin point. 

In succeeding to reach Banks island by a trip on foot across Beaufort sea, Mr. 
Stefansson and his party made it possible to carry out the work as originally planned. 
The party carried only two weeks' provisions with them on leaving Martin point. 
They were, however, able to live ninety-six days and remained in good health. Mr. 
Stefansson thus demonstrated, during this trip, his theory that a white man can live 
on the resources of the northern lands and ice fields. 

On this journey a portion of Beaufort sea hitherto unexplored was covered. The 
continental shelf extends off the Alaskan coast for a distance of 50 miles, after which 
the descent is very steep. Outside the continental shelf soundings taken with 1,386 
meters of sounding wire gave " no bottom " until about 50 miles off the west coast of 
Banks island. The bottom off this coast descends gradually and in terraces. 

Throughout the whole area over which the party travelled careful observations of 
current action were taken. 

On the journey across Beaufort sea no islands were sighted. This fact, together 
with the results of soundings taken would indicate that no land exists for a consider- 
able distance on either side of the area covered between Martin point and Banks 
island. 

The summer of 1914 was spent examining the shores of Banks island in that 
vicinity. It was ascertained that its west coast abounds in harbours which afford excel- 
lent protection to ships. Near Norway island, what is shown on Admiralty charts as a 
point of land extending from the mainland was found, uiwn investigation, to be an 
island. It was named Beneard island. An investigation of Wilkins river, which 
empties east of Beneard island, was made. This river is the largest in northern Banks 
island. 

Archaeological investigations carried on brought negative results; it was ascer- 
tained from the remains of old camps and other signs that no Eskimos have resided 
permanently in northern Banks island for at least one hundred years. 

The survey work of the party during the summer of 1914 was confined to making 
maps of Norway and Beneard islands and Wilkins river. 

The party journeyed south to Kellett, arriving on the 11th September, where they 
met Geo. 11. Wilkins and party sent north in the Mary Sachs with supplies. Owing to 
damages sustained in the journey to Kellett, the vessel had been beached. Mr. Stefans- 
son prepared winter quarters at Kellett and stored sufficient food supplies to maintain 
them during the coming winter. The party were occupied at this work until the 26th 
November. 

On the 22nd December Mr. Stefansson, with the Eskimo Natkusiak set out on a 
aledge trip to De Salis bay on the southeast coast of Banks island to locate anv Eskimos 



DKI'Airi Mi:\T OF Till-: All l/> SKUMCE 73 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

wiiitoriiig- there. Coiisideriililc difficulty w^is exix^ricnced on the journey over land 
owing: to the uneven nature of southern Banks island, across which they travelled. 
T>o Sails bay was readied on the 3rd January, l!»ir>. The party proceeded across Prince 
of Wales strait and followed the coast of Victoria island alons' a ') or mile stretch, a 
few miles north of Ramsey island, but no trace of people could be found. Owing to the 
advance of the winter and the necessity of making preparations for an ice trip to the 
north over B(^aufort sea, the party were obliged to return to Kellett. They arrived at 
Kellett on the 27th January, where preparations for the ice trip were well under way. 

Early in February, 1915, Mr. Stefansson, accompanied by Storker Storkerson, Ole 
Andreasen, and Charles Thomson, and with a supporting party consisting of Crawford, 
Xatkusiak. and Wilkins, set out from Kellett, on an ice trip to explore Beaxxfort sea. 
They followed the shore of Banks island to cape Alfred. From this point the support- 
ing party returned. ]\Ir. Wilkins was instructed to go south to bring the schooner 
Norili Star to Banks island in the spring for the use of the northern division. For 
some days after the supporting party left them the ice party found travelling good. 
They soon came to a part, however, wdiere currents keep the ice broken during the 
whole year. Soft snow, open leads, and rafters began to cause numerous delays. Pro- 
gress was further delayed by the dogs becoming footsore. 

On the 26th April in N. Lat. 75° 44', W. Long. 126° 01' the party met with the 
only accident of the .i(nirney. In passing over some thin ice the sled broke through. 
Although it was pulled on to solid ice before it had time to sink, the load was saturated 
with water. Had the sled been lost the ice trip would have ended there. The next day 
was spent in drying out the load. 

On the 28th April they obtained their first '' no bottom," sounding at a position 17 
miles northwest of N. Lat. 75° 44', W. Long. 126° 01'. In taking soundings at this 
point the party improvised a sounding wire by utilizing the 860 meters of good wire 
which they had,' together with strong linen fishing line, making up a line of 1,286 
meters. As the above mentioned position was about off Lands End, Mr. Stefansson 
decided to risk the whole line to try to get bottom. It was all paid out, but no bottom 
was reached. In taking up the line, however, owing to the great strain on the rather 
heavy fishing line, it broke and all of the line and some of the wire was lost. 
Thereafter the party were limited to 828 meters, which had to be the maximum depth 
of all their future soundings. 

Up to the latitude of Lands End, currents had chiefly interfered with progress by 
creating open water that prevented advance, rather than by carrying the party back, 
though they drifted back slightly. On account of the devious character of the sled 
course through rough ice, the keei^ing of rdiable reckoning was difficult. 

After the 1st May the drift of the ice was about S.S.W. The current had the trend 
of the west coast of Prince Patrick island. Owing to the great areas of young ice 
encountered and the presence of open water to the westward, the party were obliged 
to postpone further research in that direction until the next year. They changed 
their course so that they traA^elled in a general northerly direction which brought them 
along the west coast of JPrince Patrick island. To the west of Prince Patrick island 
the current was steady and unifonn over large areas. By the 20th May open water 
forced them to seek land-fast ice. Before they could make land they were carried 50 
miles south. During May the ice in the open leads did not freeze over sufficiently to 
permit the passage of the sled. In some instances they were obliged to negotiate the 
open leads by ferrying themselves across on loose cakes of ice. 

Land-fast ice was finally reached some 8 miles off shore from Prince Patrick island 
in N. Lat. 76° 05'. The supply of kerosene gave out, and cooking was thenceforth done 
with seal blubber. 

In following the coast of Prince Patrick island, north, they found it so low that it 
was necessary, in many places, to dig deep holes to determine if they were on land 
or sea. • 

On the 15th June they reached the islands off cape McClintock. Up to here they 
had carried on charting of the shore-line. 



74 i>i:rM;nii:M of tiii-: a.ii i/> skrvick 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

At oape ^fcClintoek they found n cairn in wliidi were discovered the records of 
F. Ty. ^fcClintook. These records read as follows: — 

"CYLINDER BURIED 10 FEET TRUE NORTH FROM THIS 
TAIRN.— None. 

"TRACES.— None found. 

"PARTY: All well. Have examined this shore to the south eastward for 
about ir)0 miles. Tlie sled is now rcturninp: to the SE. preparatory to crossinj; 
to Mt'lvillo island. I am about to proceed to the westward with a light sledge 
and two men for three marchct? and will then return after the main ])arty and 
make the best of my way to point Nias and Dealy island. 

" F. L. ^McClintcx'K, 

" 15th June, P.M." 

On the reverse side of the sheet there is a i)rint('d form. In the appropriate blank 
•paces are entries showing that the party depositing this record were from the Intrepid, 
that it was deposited on the 15th June, 1853, and it was signed again by McClintock. 

The party proceeded three days to the northward, and on the morning of the third 
day sight(>d land not shown on any chart. JThey were at the time near the intersection 
of 117 W. meridian and the 78th parallel north. The visible portion of the shore 
appeared in a northeasterly direction from this locality. On the 19th June they 
arrived at the new land and journeyed in a southeasterly direction along the shore. 
On the 21st June they crossed a large bay which extended over 20 miles inland. This 
they named Wilkin's bay, after George H. Wilkins of the expedition. The accompany- 
ing chart gives approximately the position of the new land and the shore-line travelled 
as described by Mr. Stefansson. (See page 79.) 

From observations taken from prominent points in the vicinity the land appeared 
hilly and extended beyond their vision. During the few days which they remained in 
the vicinity the atmosphere was foggy and they were unable to see far. To the west- 
ward, however, the visible portion of the land appeared low and uniformly snow-clad. 
To the east and northeast partly snow-free hills of some elevation could be seen, 
apparently at a great distance. The only thing which gave a clue to the direction of 
the coast to the westward was the water sky over the shore lead, which ran at first in a 
direction somewhat north by northwest and then turned abruptly to the west. The 
})resumption is that the shore has a somewhat similar trend. 

Animal life on the new land is plentiful, seals, caribou, foxes, lemings, hutchins 
geese, gulls, owls, longspur and buntings having been seen. 

It was also ascertained that a continuous chain of small islands or reefs, running 
west of those marked on the chart, connects Prince Patrick island with the new land. 
The line where the landfast ice meets the ice that is continually in motion at all 
seasons passes about 12 miles from the new land. This is probably the average dist- 
ance of the floe from Prince Patrick island also. 

Owing to the advance of the season, the party were obliged to return to Banks 
island for the summer work. The return journey was uneventful. They returned on 
the east side of Prince Patrick island. Travelling over the ice, owing to thaws, was 
bad. They arrived at Kellett on the 8th August, 1915. 

The party were absent on tliis journey 171 days. Tiiey took with them very little 
food supplies, as their sledges were loaded with other re^iuisites for the trip. Yet they 
were able to live in a healthy condition throughout, and were short of food at no time. 
This is the longest successful trip by foot on record in the history of Arctic 
exploration. 

A considerable portion of Beaufort sea hitherto unvisited was covered during this 
trip, and the shores of Prince Patrick island were also closely investigated and sketches 
of the shore-line were madi;. 



DKPMiTMF.ST OF THE yAVAL SKRYIQE 75 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

Oil the 19th August the Polar Bear, an auxiliary schooner engaged in fishing and 
trading, arrived iit Kellett. As Mr. Stcfansson was anxious to reach the mainland and 
return to Kellett before the freezi^ up of Beaufort sea. and as the North Slav had not 
arrived at Kellett, he purchased the Polar Bear from Captain Lane. 

lie proceeded to Biiillie Island, (expecting to find the North Star there. As it had 
not yet arrived, he left instructions for it to proceed to Banks island without com- 
municating wifh him. lie then went to Ilerschel ishmd where the Ruhy, containing 
supplies for the expedition, was met. Althougli a good outfit was sent in that vessel, 
the sui)ply of sleds and sled material was short. The services of the Atkon, a shallow 
draught power boat, belonging to the English Church Mission, were obtained to send 
after sledges belonging to the expedition which were up the Mackenzie river. 

The Atkon left Herschel island on the 22nd August, and Mr. Stefansson in the 
Polar Bear felt on the following day. Upon his arrival at Baillie island he purchased 
the Gladiator, a small auxiliary schooner adapted to work in the ice, to use between the 
winter base at Kellett and the more northerly base to be established. The presence of 
the Gladiator at Kellett would leav(> the members stationed there independent of the 
rest of the expedition. It would also afford j.rotection to the party further north in the 
event of damage to the Polar Bear. 

The Gladiator was sent in search of the Atkon, which had not been heard of since 
leaving Herschel island. If the Atkon had not reached Kittegaryuit, where the sleds 
were to be obtained, tilie Gladiator was to pick them up and return to Baillie island. It 
was then to be utilized in shipping distillate to Kellett and, in company with the North 
Star, was to proceed to the north end of Banks island, the North Star having arrived at 
Baillie island and proceeded to Banks island in accordance with instructions. Accord- 
ing to the latest report the North Star sailed from Kellett on the 24th August for 
Prince Patrick island. If the party in her were unable to reach so northerly a point 
they were to establish a base in JSTorthern Banks island. 

No uneasiness was felt as to the fate of the Atkon, as weather conditions were 
ideal and a fair wind prevailed. The vessel probably met with some minor accident 
which necessitated landing. The members could easily join the southern division, as 
she probably managed to get past the Mackenzie. 

Mr. Stefansson, in the Polar Bear, set out from Kellett for Northern Banks island 
on the 9th September. From there they planned to establish a base on Prince Patrick 
island early in the fall of 1915 from which the expeditions in the winter and early 
spring could be carried out. 

The party in the Polar Bear however in endeavouring to get north on the east side 
of Banks island were able to proceed only as far as Princess Royal island. Prince of 
Wales strait, where they wintered. The North Star was unable to get further north 
than Kobilliard.island on the north west coast of Banks island where the party wintered. 
The ice trip over Beaufort sea to be undertaken in February or March of 1916 with 
the North Star as a base could not be carried out owing to the loss of some dogs and 
the unfit condition of others. Under the circumstances Mr. Stefansson did not wish 
to attempt a trip over the open sea. He, with a party, however, set out in April for the 
new land discovered the previous year. At the time of the latest reports received he 
had attained the north west coast of this land. After carefully investigating this land 
the party were to return soiith as far as Melville island in the fall of 1916, where the 
members of the Polar Bear crew who had not gone north were to store sufficient pro- 
visions to carry them through the winter. This base was to be located at Winter 
Harbour, Melville island. The time of the return to civilization of the whole division 
is not definitely known but will probablj' be late in the fall of 1916 or in the summer 
of 1917. 

The health of the northern division of the expedition is reported to be excellent. 
With the exception of the men lost in attempting to reach land from the Karluk and 
J. Jones, engineer of the Polar Bear, who died of heart disease, there have been no 
deaths in this division. 



76 n^p^T?T^fE\T or rin: v.nt/. ^r.uvicE 

7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 
SOITIIKIIN DIVISION. 

Till' siiutluTu (livisidii of tlu' i'Xi)i'dition suilod from Victoria in C.G.S's. Alaska 
j.nd Mara Sarlis on the lOth nnd 20th July, V.^Vi, resjjoctively. Owing to ice conditions 
tlic iiarty were uiiahlc to reach Coronation iiu]i, where their winter <iuarters should have 
been established, and they were ohliped to winter at Collinson point, Alaska. As pre- 
viously reported, the southern party were joined at Collinson point by Mr. Stefansson. 
Throujrhout the winter nnd spriii"; of 11114 the scientific members carried out investiga- 
tions in that vicinity. 

Early in June. I'.lH, (ie<>. 11. Wilkins was sent to Denuirkation i»oiiit to take 
eharpre of the Norlli Star which had been purchased by ^Ir. Stefansson. 

On the 7th July the Alaska and Mary Sachs were free from the ic^. The i)arty 
were delayed until the 25th July on account of ice holding close to the shore outside 
the harbour. On the 25th July they left Collinson point. They reached Demarkation 
point on the 4th August, where they took up the supplies i)urchased by !Mr. Stefansson. 
They arrived at Herschel island on the 5th August, where they met Mr. Wilkins with 
the Xorth Star. 

On the lltli August Geo. H. Wilkins, in charge of a party in the Marij Sachs 
sailed for Banks island. This party purposed to locate the Stefansson party if possible. 
Proceedings after their arrival at Kellett, Banks island, have been reported in connec- 
tion with the northern division. 

The members of the southern division left Herschel island on the ITth August, 
and Bailey island on the 22nd August. On the 24th August the party came to a har- 
bour near Chantry island, which is unmarked on the charts. This harbour is situated 
about 15 miles east of Cockburn point, on the niiiijiland, and on the south side of 
Dolphin and Union strait about midway between cape Bexley and cape Krusensterii, 
directly south of Listen and Sutton islands. The harbour is practically land-locked, 
with an average depth of four fathoms. The division made their headquarters for the 
coming winter at this point and named it Bernard harbour. 

During the summer the sea' was practically clear of ice east of Herschel island, 
while west of that place the ice remained closely packed. 

On the Cth September, Dr. Anderson, accompanied by Messrs. Sweeney, Castel, 
Blue. Sullivan, and two Eskimos, set out in C.G.S. Alaska from the new base for Her- 
schel island for supplies. They arrived at Herschel island on the 11th September and 
loaded the required supplied. On the return voyage the vessel was frozen in at Bailey 
island. 

Leaving Mr. Sweeney and Enginei^r Blue in charge of the vessel. Dr. Anderson, 
with the remaining members of the party, set out on foot along the coast on the 20th 
November to join their division at Bernard harbour. They arrived at the base on the 
25th December. 

During the winter Dr. Anderson, with Aarnaut Castel, attempted a trip to fort 
Noman to despatch mail. Owing to rough ice on the Coppermine river, and deep snow 
on the Deas river, they were unable to carry out the journey. They returned to the 
base, arriving on the 1st April, where they found that the winter's work i\i\d been car- 
ried on in a satisfactory manner. 

John K. Cox and D. Jcnness surveyed the coast in detail from the winter base 
east along the north side of the strait to cape Krusenstern and as far as point 
Lockyer. 

D. Jenness during the winter succeeded in bringing to liglit much information in 
connection with the hitherto little known groups of Eskimos in this region. He found 
that the groups are not so definite as was fornu-rly isupposed. but that they are prett.v 
thoroughly mixed. He took gramoi)hone records of Eskimo songs and spoken words 
and he succeeded in learning man.v of the different dialects spoken by the native-^. 
He carried out all the trading with Ihe Eskimos, and collected large numbers of speci- 
mens of their tools, weapons, clothing, etc. In the early spri)ig he made arrangements 



DEPATrrMi.sT or the ami 1/. sKnyjcK 77 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

to go to Victoria island to study the othnolofry of the natives there. He set out for 
Victoria island on the 18th April, where his investigations should add materially to 
the already exhaustive information compiled. He was to return to the base as soon 
as the sea would freeze in Dolphin and Union strait in the fall of 1915. 

Keiuioth G. Chii)man and Dr. J. J. O'Neill started on the western survey from 
Bernard harhour on the ITth March. It had been decided that Mr. Chipman should 
work with Dr. O'Xeill in covering this region, as they had already made a ])reliminary 
reconnaissance by sled as far west as Keat's point in November and December, 1914, 
and were familiar with the features of the problems to be encountered. They went 
west as far as the southwest portion of Darnley bay in order to connect with the 
previous surveys of the cape Parry peninsula. From this point the survey was carried 
eastward during Ai)ril. the season being much further- advanced than it was farther 
east during the same period. As there are no rock exposures near the coast on the 
south side of Darnl(>y l)ay. Dr. O'Neill was able to remain on the east side of the bay 
to carry on geological investigations. One of the largest unnamed rivers flowing into 
Darnley bay was ascended for some distance. Considerable assistance was obtained 
from the friendly aid of Capt. C. Klengenberg, an ex-whaler and trapper, and from 
a family of Alaskan Eskimos, who were temporarily located on the east side of the 
bay. Captain Klengenberg's son acted as interpreter for the party. 

The rock exposures around the coast were found to be quite continuous from the 
south of cape Lyon around to the east of Dewitt Clinton point, and Dr. O'Neill was 
able to follow them uj) and made a practically continuous section, including one or two 
important contacts on the diabase with the prevailing dolomitic and coiiglomerate 
rocks of that section of the coast. A good series of geological specimens was collected 
by Dr. O'Neill at all points touched, including certain fossils from the superficial 
formations around Darnley bay. Dr. Anderson set out from Bernard harbour on the 
21st April and met Messrs. Chipman and O'Neill coming east near Deas Thompson 
point on Amunsden gulf. The Eskimos, Ikey and Palaiyak, who were with the party, 
were sent on to Bailey island with the mail, and to help on the Alasha. Dr. Ander- 
son returned to the eastward with the survey party. 

Mr. Chipman reports that the whole country surveyed is evidently a portion of the 
coastal plain described by Tyrrel (Tyrrel, J. B., report on the Doobaunt, Kazen and 
Ferguson rivers, volume 9, page 158), which west of Hudson bay reaches an elevation 
of 500 to 600 feet, and varies in width from 75 to 300 miles. 

Inland on the east side of Darnley bay beach gravels and terraces were found above 
500 feet, and everywhere east of t^iat point the country for some distance from the coast 
is of the same type. From Darnley bay to th^ east of Deas Thompson point there 
are a nnnil)er of high ])oints but no definite system of range is apparent. The highest 
< f these points are near the Croker and luman rivers. The coast has a well-defined 
shore-line of rock or boulders and gravel. None of the rivers flowing to the coast 
east of Darnley bay extend any great distance inland, for their valleys are small, and 
both valleys and beds indicate a very heavy run-off in a short time. The Croker is 
the largest river, with its delta built out a short distance, and occupies a triangular 
valley some 4 miles wide at the coast, and extending inland for 3 or 4 miles. The 
river spreads out over its delta, and none of its channels are very definite. The beds 
of this and other rivers are composed of heavy boulders, and the quick run-oft" is further 
indicated by the continuous sand bars built across their mouths when the water is 
low in summer and fall. At the back of Darnley bay two fairly large rivers flow to 
the coast. 

The survey of this entire stretch of coast line was completed northeast to the base 
station to connect with the survey made by Mr. John R. Cox. The coast line as 
traversed from cape Lyon east is seen to be somewhat straighter than the charts show. 

Messrs. Chipman, O'Neill, and Anderson reached the station at Bernard harbour 
on the 24th ^fay. Throughout the spring uimsunlly mild and clear weather prevailed, 



78 in:rMri \ii:\T or iin: ^A\AL seuvke 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

\siii«li iiiablcd tlie diffurent partio 1o i;iirry out their work to the host possible 
ndvantafjo. John R. Cox. with Jas. Sullivan as oamp assistant, on the 16th April, 
took lip the survey which ho hnd left f>fT at point Tvoekyer. Coronation pulf. He con- 
tinued to survey around Basil TTall hay. cape ITearne, cape 7\endall. up into Back's 
inlet, and up the Rao river. lie ascended and surveyed the Bac river for about VO 
miles until it forked into two small crocks. Mr. Cox found rather larpo willows at fre- 
quent intervals on the Bae river after ffottinfc some wa.v from the coast, but no spruce 
or other timber was found. After reachinfr the head of the Bae river, he made a six- 
day portajre across country with his sled, striking the Arctic coast on the south side of 
Stapylton bay. He also surveyed a section of the coast from Yoniifr point fthe west- 
ern end of Stapylton bay) oast of the home station, reaching Bernard harbour on the 
2.^>th ^fay. He found that South bay (southwest of Cape Bexley) is somewhat deeper, 
and Stap.vlton bay is not so deep as the existing charts indicate. Maps covering the 
results of these surveys are in course of preparation. 

Mr. Fritz Johansen, marine biologist, botanist, and entomologist, carried on exten- 
sive work throughout the year. He collected and preserved considerable marine and 
fresh-water biological material from the harbour and from the neighbouring lakes, 
ponds, and streams. A practically complete collection of the local flora has been pre- 
served, and the large collections made at Collinison point, Alaska, and Herschel island. 
Yukon territory, have been arranged. A good many interesting entomological speci- 
mens were obtained, and he also succeeded in rearing some larvae collected the previous 
season at Collinson point, and working out some hitherto unknown points in the life 
history of the various forms of Arctic insects. He obtained interesting data in con- 
nection with the various insects at the northern limit of spruce trees during a short 
trip up the Coppermine river, in February. About 500 specimens of mammals and 
birds, besides a number of sets of eggs, with nests, M'ore collected. Photographs of the 
uepts of Arctic birds were also taken. 

On the 21st May, 1915. George H. Wilkins, James R. Crawford, and an Eskimo, 
arrived at Bernard harbour from Kellett, the base of the northern division ; they came 
on foot from Kellett, making the journey across the soiithern end of Banks island, 
Prince of Wales strait. Prince Albert Sound and Dolphin and Union strait, in twenty- 
five days. 

Mr. Stefaiisson had sent this party in charge of Wilkins to the southern base to 
bring the Sorth Star to Kellett for the u.se of the northern division as soon as possible 
after the o])oning of navigation. 

Mr. Wilkins brought a cinematograph outfit with him from the northern party 
base and exposed about 2,000 feet of film, principally of views of the local Eskimos. 
He has also made a very good series of portrait studies of the Eskimos, men. women, 
and children, for Mr. Jenness' ethnographical work, and has taken photographs of 
growing plants, flowers, insects, birds, mammals, etc.. which are of great scientific as 
well as of artistic value. 

During the summer of 1915 it was i)roiX)sed to carry on the survey of the coast 
east of Bernard harbour as far as Cape Barrow. Mr. J. R. Cox and Dr. J. J. O'Neill 
set out from Bernard harbour to the eastward on the 9th June. The party were to pro- 
ceed by sled, if possible,*to the Tree river or the Unialik, or one of the other small rivers 
on the south side of Coronation gulf east of the Coppermine river. During the early 
summer they were to carry on geological work up some of these rivers as far as they 
would judge desirable and then eastward along the coast as far as Cape Barrow on 
the western extremity of Bathurst iidet. At Cape Barrow the circumstances of the 
season and the condition of the party and boats were to determine the extent of the 
survey which would be made of Bathurst inlet during the latter part of the summer. 
They desired to finish as much as jmssible of the eastern end of the assigned territory 
during the sunnner, leaving the region nearer Bernard harbour for the early fall or 
(oniing s])ring when the luifinished ends could be worked to better advantage from the 



DEPARTAfENT OF THE yAVAL SERVICE 



79 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

base station. To enable these arranprements to be carried out it was necessary that the 
North Star be utilized to ship supplies of provisions' and gasolene, upon the opening 
of navigation, to designated points along the shore, where caches were to be made. 

It was also essential that the party should have a boat to assist in carrying out their 
work. As the North Star was the only vessel available at the southern base, the Alaslca 
being at Bailey island bound for Herschel island before coming to Bernard harbour, 
it was necessary to use it to carry out the work in connection with the eastern survey 
before turning it over to Mr. Wilkins to be taken to Banks island. The North Star 
was loaded for her trip east before the break up of the ice, so that she would be able 
to proceed innnediatoly upon the opening of navigation. 




80 i)i:r \m \ii:\T or riii: \ ii w. skuvue 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

The suumiiT <il" 1!>15 in this area was, however, very eold, and the ice melted 
slowly. liernard harhour was free of ice from the 20th July, but Dolphin and Union 
strait was hloekod. A steady strong northwest wind, practically a gale, for three or 
four days kept drifting the ice down into and bloc-king up the strait until the 1st 
August. 

On the !»th August the vessel was worked out through tlie ice east of Chantry 
island and then north of Lambert island, thence around cape Krusenstern. 

On the 10th August, ice, lightly massed, was found on the south shore from 
Chantry island to the south side of Lambert island and to cape Krusenstern. After 
passing cape Krusenstern very little ice was encounten^ and Coronation gulf was 
entirely free to the eastward. 

The i)arty in the North Star reached Epworth point (Tree river) and found that 
Dr. O'Neill and J. R. Cox had worked in that region fVom early in June until they 
got their boat out in Coronation gulf on the ;30th July, and then had gone east to cape 
Barrow. Upon arrival at cape Barrow a beacon was found stating that the survey 
party had reached that point on the 2nd August. Caches of provisions and gasolene 
were put down at Epworth point and at cape Barrow. The North Star was then 
handed over to ^Ir. Wilkins to be taken to Banks island, and the party continued the 
survej- further eastward, using the gasolene launch and a skin boat. The*North Star 
proceeded to Bailey island, where instructions had been left by Mr. Stefansson to 
proceed immediately to Banks island and thence as far north as possible. 

Messrs. K. G. Chipman, J. R. Cox, J. J. O'Neill, and Dr. R. M. Anderson, com-, 
loosing the eastern survey party, carried on survey work along the coast in the vicinity 
of cape Barrow throughout the summer. They returned to the base at Bernard har- 
bour in the fall where the different surveys were completed to the base station. 

The survej' of the mainland coast line in detail was completed from the west side 
of Darnley bay to a point well down into Bathurst inlet including a large number of 
the islands in the Coronation Gulf region, as well as large portions of several of the 
hitherto unexplored rivers of the region, including one of the Darnley Bay Rivers, the 
Croker river flowing into Amunsden gulf, and the Rae river and the Tree river flowing 
into Coronation gulf. The geological features of the region have been investigated 
and the relation of the different formations studied in detail at the most important 
points of contact. ^ 

The geobigical investigation included the detailed niai)i)ing and estimation of th<' 
available copper-bearing rock in a great new area hitherto little known in the Bathurst 
inlet region. Dr. O'Neil reports vast quantities of copper-bearing rock in which he 
saw native copper in this region. 

Mr. D. Jenness. ethnologist, made a careful !-tudy of the language, maimers, cus- 
toms, etc., of the natives of Victoria island as well as a collection of specimens of their 
tools and dishes, and has taken gnimophone records of tlieir dance songs and shaman- 
istic performances. 

The marine biologist. Mr. Frits Johansen. has also made extensive collections of 
Arctic insects and other >pecies of the little known animals of the north. 

The southern division should complete the survey of the territory allotted to them 
during the summer of 191G. 

With the exception of engineer Blue, who died of scurvy during the winter of 
191.3-14, the health of the southern division of the expedition is reported as very good. 

The expedition, both northern and southern divisions, are to return from the north 
in the fall of IKlfi or early in 1!)17. 

Very valuable scientific work has been carried on by both the iiortliern and 
southern divisions, and much useful information, both as to the nature of the areas 
investigated and the inhabitants of the Far North, has been obtained. 

Com]>lete reports covering the whole period from the departure until the return of 
the expedition will lio ijrcjiared ujkhi the arrival of the members from the north. 



DKr\RT.yEXT OF THE ^.WMj fiERVTCE 
SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 



81 



LIFE-SAVIXG SERVICE. 



Ottawa, l.st April. 191fi. 
Tho Deputy Minister, 

DepartuKMit of the Naval Service, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to re])ort below with referenee to the Life-saving Service 
of Canada for the fiscal year endin"- 31st March, 1916. 

Every year now the work of these stations seems to be gradually lessening and 
the life-boats are used more for t^ie salvage of property in most cases than for saving 
life. 

The station at Kincardine, Out., has been done away with, as the buildings were 
badly in need of repair and the services rendered did not seern sufficient to justify 
further expenditures. 

Frequent insj^ections of the various stations have taken place during the year, 
and the regular drills have been carried out. 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

Bay View. — Permanent crew. Some fourteen fishing boats have been towed to 
safety; the life-boat also succeeded in towing the schooner Cora and Gertie oft the 
rocks west of Digby gut, after six hours' work, on the 10th February, 1916. 

Herring Cove. — Volunteer crew. This crew succeeded in saving part of the cargo 
of the ss. Perry, which ran ashore on the 7th June, 1915, in Chebncto harbour, and 
became a total loss. They were also of considerable assistance in running lines, stand- 
ing by, etc., for almost the whole four days while the oil tank s.s. Potomac was ashore 
at Willis' pom? in February, 1916. 

Seal Island. — Subsidized volunteer crew. Went to the assistance of the fishing 
schooner Little Ruth, grounded on the southern side of the island in May, 1915, and 
towed her oflF. Landed a considerable amount of lumber from the abandoned schooner 
Lewis K. Cottingham. 

Whitehead. — The volunteer crew at this station succeeded in towing the schooner 
James U. Thomas off when it was stranded on the eastern side of the harbour in a 
dangerous position in ISTovember, 1915. 

XEW BRUNSWICK. 

Cape Tormentine. — This volunteer crew assisted in refloating a steam trawler 
which grounded on Jourmain Island reef on the 2nd August, 1915. 

Richihucto. — Permanent crew. Various disabled fishing boats received assistance 
from this station; also the barkentine Ocean Ranger and the schooner Nova Zemhla 
were refloated. The schooners Beaver and Seedonis were rendered assistance. 



ONTARIO. 

Point Pelee. — Permanent crew. — Stood by for two days, when the schooner 
Phillip Minch grounded in a fog on the southeast shoal, on 4th May, 1915. In Decem- 
ber the Victory grounded on the east side of Point Pelee; tho life-saving crew pro- 
cured a tug and she was towed off after two days. A boy was also saved from drown- 
ing in July by one of the members of this crew. 

38—6 



82 



DEPARTMFKT OF THE yAVAL RERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Toronto. — Permanent crew. On tlie Srd Autrust, 1915, in the worst storm of the 
season the steamer Alexandria went a.^hore; the life-saving crew took off four members 
of the crew, including the captain, the others having left the ship previously. This 
station, which is very up-to-date and well equipped, is kept busy during the season of 
navigation in watching the various pleasure boats which are so numerous in that 
vicinity. Last year 107 launches, yachts, sail-boats, etc., grounded, capsized or other- 
wise disabled, were assisted, besides eleven hydroplanes, and nineteen injured persone; 
twenty-one drowned persons were also recovered, and the pulmoter was used thirteen 
times. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Banfield. — Permanent crew. The gasolene launch Sarita, with four people on 
board, wa.s taken off a reef near cape Beale and towed to safety, on the 28th June, 
1915. In September the vessel Dexter floated on a reef at Blizzard if-land and the crew 
succeeded in taking her off and towing her to safety. Several launches also received 
assistance. 

Clayoquot. — Permanent crew. The Anglican Mission launch went ashore on the 
rocks near Tofino on 16th November; the lifeboat took two men off, and at high water 
next day succeeded in floating the vessel. On 25th November crew was called to 
the assistance of the Carelmapu and succeeded in saving five men; eighteen persons 
were lost. 

Uchu'let. — Various launches, etc., have received assistance from the permanent 
crew at Ucluelet, which crew was also called out to the Carelmapu. The coxswain 
reports the work on the station as being mainly preventive, the crew constantly ren- 
dering assistance to vessels before thfe dariger has become too great. 

The attached statement shows the number of stations in each province, with the 
number of their crew, name of coxswain, description of boat, and date of establish- 
ment. 

I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

C. E. KINGSMILL, Vice-Admiral 

Director of the Naval Service. 



LIFE-SAVING STATIONS OF CANADA. 



No. 


Stations. 


Estab- 
lished. 


Coxswain. 


Crew. 


Dosffiption of Boat. 


1 


Xew Brunswick. 
Little Wood Is. (P) 

RichibuPto (P.N.) 


1910 

1907 

1908 
1912 


Harrv Harvcv 


8 

7 

7 
7 


Becbe-McLell%n twin screw 
motor boat; schooner chart- 
ered for winter months. 

Race Point .surf-boat 24 ft. 
long. 

Bccbe-McLellan self bailing. 


2 
3 


Thos. Lpgoof 

E. F. Fliegcr., 
I.Allen. 


4 


Capo Tormentine 





DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 



83 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

LIFE-SAVING STATIONS OF CANADA— Concluded, 



Stations. 



Nova Scoliii. 

Rakor's Cove 

Blanche 

Clark's Harbour. 

Canso 

Devil's Island. . . . 



Dunf'an Cove. 
Herring Cove. 

Pictou Island. 
Port Mouton. . 



Scattarie 

Seal Island, (P).... 

Whitehead 

Chetieamp, (P.N.). 



Bay View, Digby, 

(P.N.) 



Westport, Brier Is. 
P. E. Island. 
Priest Pond 



Charlottetown. 

Souris 

Cascumpeque.. 
Alberton 



Britiah Columbia. 

Banfield, (P) 

Ucluelet, (P) 

Clayoquot, (P) 

Ontario. Great Lakes. 

Cobourg 

Collingwood 



Godericb 

Long Point, (P.N.) 

Point Pelec, (P.N.).. 
Port Hope 



Port Stanley, 



Toronto, (P.X.). 
Consecon 



Southampton, 



Estab- 
lished. 



1886 
1889 
1900 

1885 

1886 
1885 

1889 
1889 

1885 

1880 

1890 

1911 

1911 



1909 



1907 
1907 



1907 



[19091 
11907/ 
1908 

1908 



1882 

1885 

1886 
1902 
1900 
1889 

1885 

1883 
1898 

1907 



C'oxsw&,in. 



R. L. Baker 

Edgar Rwaine.. 

Byron Swim 

J. J. Barrigan 

B. H. Henneberry 



.1. W. Holland 

Edw. V. Dempsey. 

Duncan McCalluiu. 
Walter Cook 



Jas. Nearing 

Smith G. Penney 

.John Phalen 

L. J. AuC^oin 



J. W. Hay den. 
Ralph Welch.. 



Cha^s. Campbell. 



E.White 

Pius Cheverie. 
Joshua Hutt. , . 
S. Gallant 



Geo. Murray... 
F. Tyler (act.). 
J. Mcljcod 



D. Roonoy... 
G. F. Watts. 



Male. McDonald. 

Jas. Smith 

L. Wilkinson 

John McMahon... 



W. Brown. 



W. F. Chapman. 
R. Bedford 



Hector McLeod. 



C'rew 



14 



De.scription of Boat. 



Dobbin's pattern .self-righting,. 
28 ft. long. 

Beebe-McLellan surf-boat, self- 
bailing, 25 ft. long. 

Beebe-McLellan, self-bailing, 
25 ft. long low ends. 

Dobbin's pattern, surf-boat, 
self-bailing, 25 ft. long. 

Beebe-McLellan surf-boat, self- 
bailing, 25 ft. long. 

Dobbin's pattern self righting 
and bailing, 25 it. long. 

« a it 

Beebe-McLollan surf-boat, self- 
bailing, 25 ft. long. 

Beebe-McLellan boat on East 
side. 

Beebe-McLellan boat on West 
side. 

Dobbin's pattern surf-boat, 
self-bailing, 25 ft.-long. 

Beebe-McLellan, twin screw 
motor boat. 

36 ft. self-bailing, self-righting 

power boat. 
Subsidized motor boat. 



Board of Trade rocket appa- 
ratus. 
Beebe-McLellan self bailing. 



Board of Trade rocket appa- 
ratus. 



Self-righting, self-bailing, 36 

ft. power boat. 
Doherty's Improved Beebc- 

McLellan, 25 ft. long. 



Dobbin's pattern self-righting 

and bailing. 
Beebe-McLellan self-b ailing 

surf-boat. 
Surf -boat. 



Dobbin's pattern, self-righting 
and bailing. 

Beebe-McLellan surf-boat, self- 
bailing, 25 ft. long. 

Two motor launches. 

Dobbin's pattern, self-righting 
and bailing. 

Becbe-McI/ellan, surf-boat, self 
self-bailing. 



XoTE. — Stations marked "P ' have permanent crews, always on duty; those marked "P.N." have crews 
always on duty during the s.:'ason of navigation. The other stations simply have volunteer crews, 
which drill twice a month and are called out on the occurrence of a wreck. 

r,8— 6* 



84 



in:r'\RT)fr\T or rm: \\\\r. shuvkh 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



KADlOTF.I.KCliAIMI SKKVKK. 



The Drputy Minister. 

D('l>artinciit of the Xaval Si-rvico. 
Ottawa. 

j^,|._ — 1 have the honour to present herewith the annual report of the Radiotele- 
firaph Branch for the fiscal year ending the 31st March, 1916. 

The total number of .stations in operation in the Dominion and on ships registered 

therein is as follows: — 

Government commercial stations 1 

Coasrt stations ^^ 

Oovernment ship stations 24 

Liicensed ship stations 64 

Public commercial stations 3 

Private commercial stations 4 

Radio telegraph training schools 2 

Licensed experimental stations 2 

Total 142 

The following list show.s the location of the land and coast stations in Canada, 
Tlieir range, call signals, owners, and by whom they are operated: — 

Co.xsT Station's for Commtinication with Ships. 
EAST COAST. 











Range 




'Sumo. 


AVherc situated. 


Owned by. 


Operated by. 


in 

nautical 

miles. 


Call 
Signal. 


Belle Isle. Nfld. 


Belle Isle Straits 


Dominion 

Government. 


Marconi Wire- 
less Tel. Co. 
of Canada. 


250 


VCM 


Pt. .\mour. Xfld.. 




" " 


" 


150 


VC-L 


Pt. Riche. Nfld... 


Gulf of St Lawrence... 


" 


" 


250 


VCH 


Harrington, P.Q 


" .... 




" 


150 


VCJ 


Heath Pt.. P.Q 


Gulf of St. Lawrence. . . 
(.\nticosti Isld.) 






250 


VCI 


Cape Ray. Nfld. 


Cabot Straits 




" 


350 


VCR 


Cape Race, Nfld.. 


North Atlantic 




" 


400 


VCE 


Grindstone Island, P.Q 


Gulf of St. Lawrence 
(Magdalen Isld.). 






200 


VCN 


Fame Pt., P.Q 


Gulf of St. Lawrence.. . 


** 


" 


250 


VCG 


Clarke Citv. P.Q 


" .... 


" 


" 


250 


VCK 


Father Pt., P.Q 


River St. Lawrence 


;■ 


" 


250 
100 


VCF 


Gros.se Isle. P.Q. 


VCD 


Quebec, P.Q 


" .... 


" 


" . . 


150 


VCC 


Three Rivers. P.(2 


" 


" 




150 


VCB 


Montreal. P.Q 


" 


" 


" 


200 


VCA 


Cape Sable, N.S 


North Atlantic 


" 


" 


250 


VCU 


Partridge Isld., St. John, N.B. 


Entrance St. .John 
Harl)our, N.B. 






250 


VCV 


Cape Bear. P.E.I. 


Northumberland Strait. 






150 


VCP 


(Janiperdown. N.S. 


Entrance to Halifax 
Harbour. 






250 


VCS 


Sable Island, N.S 


North Atlantic 




" 


300 


VCT 


Halifax, N.S 


Halifax Dockyard 




Department of 
t he Naval 
Service. 


100 


VAA 


Pictou, N.S.. 


Northumberland Strait. 


Marconi Wire- 
less Tel. Co. 
of C^anada. 


Marconi Wire- 
less Tel. Co. 
of Canada. 


100 


VCQ 


North Sydney. C.B 


.North Sydney, C.B 


" . . 


" 


100 


VCO 



nEPArri ]ii:.\T of the naval hekvice 



85 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

Coast Stations for ('oniiiiunieatiou witli Sliips — Concluded. 
GREAT LAKES. 



N'miK 



Where Situated. 



Owned l>v. 



Opeiateil \>y 



Range 

in 

nautical 

miles. 



Call 
Signal. 



Port .\rt.liur, Ont 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont 

Tobermory, Ont 

Midland, Ont 

Point Eclward, Ont. 
Port Burwell, Ont... . 

Toronto, Ont 

Kingston, Ont 



Port Arthur, Ont 

Sault Ste. Ont 

Entrance Georgian Bay 

Georgian Bay.. 

Lake Huron 

Lake Erie 

Toronto Island, Ont 

Barriefield Common.. . 



Dominion 
Gov(;rnment. 



Marconi Wire- 
less Tel. Co, 
of Canada. 



350 



350 
350 
350 
3.50 
350 
350 
350 



VBA 



VBli 
VBD 
VBC 
VBE 
VBF 
VBG 
VBH 



WEST COAST. 



Gonzales Hill, B.C. (Victoria) 

Pt. Grey, B.C. (Vancouver). 

Cape Lazo, B.C 

PachenaPt., B.C 



EstevanPt., B.C. 
Triangle Isld., B.C. 
Ikeda Head, B.C.. 



Dead Tree Pt., B.C. 



Dighy Island, B.C., Prince 

Rupert. 
Alert Bay, B.C 



Victoria, B.C. 



Entrance Vancouver 

Harbour. 
Strait Georgia, near 

Comox, B.C. 
West Coast Vanvoucer 

Isld.^ 

South of Hecate Str 

South of Moresby Island, 

Q.C.I. 
South of Graham Isld., 

Q.C.I. 
Digby Isld., Entrance 

Prince Rupert Har. 
Cormorant Isld., B.C.. . 



Dominion 
Government. 



Department 
of the Naval 
Service. 



250 

150 

350 

500 

500 
450 
250 

200 

250 

350 



VAK 

VAB 

VAC 

VAD 

VAE 
VAG 
VAX 

VAH 

VAJ 

VAF 



HUDSON BAY 



Port Nelson. 



Hudson Bay. 



Dominion 
Government. 



Department 
of the Naval 
Service. 



750 



VBN 



LAND STATIONS. 



Le Pas, Man. 



For communication with 
Port Nelson only. 



Dominion 
Government. 



Department 
of the Naval 
Service. 



750 



VBM 



86 



Di:p.\nTVEyT or thk s\v\l service 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Licensed Commercial Stations. 



Name. 


Where Situated. 


OwntMl by. 


Operated by. 


Range 

in 
nautical 
miles. 


Signal. 
Call 


Public Commercial . 
UlaceBay, C.B 

Louidburg, C.B. 

Newcastle, X.B 

Private Commercial. 

Ocean Falls. B.C 

Powell River, B.C 


Near Glace Bay, C.B. 

Cape Breton 

New Brunswick 

Ocean Falls, B.C 

Powell Rivei, B.C 

Glengarrj' Sub. Calgary. 

Sec. 11, Township 23... 


Marconi Wire- 
less Tel. Co. 
of Can., Ltd. 

Universal 
Radio Synd. 

Ocean Falls 
Powell River 

Co. 
Alberta Oil 

Co. 


Owners 

Owners 


3,000 

Reception 
2,500 

150 
30 

50 

.50 


G.B. 

only 
CL 

CD. 
CH 


Glengarr>', Alta 

.Section 11, Township 23 


CJ 
CK 



Licensed Experimental Stations. 



Name . 


Where Situated. 


Owned b> . 


Call 
Signal. 


Marconi Test Room.. 

79th Overseas Btln 


Rodney St., Montreal.. . 
Brandon, Man 


Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of 

Canada, Ltd. 
79th Overseas Btln 


XWA 
XWB 



K.vDioTELEOKAPii Training Schools. 



Name. 


Where Situateil. 


Call 
Signal. 


Dominion Telegraph & Wireless Institute. 
Columbian College of Wirelcs.s 


Vancouver, B.C 

Victoria, B.C. , 


Licensed for 
reception 
only. 



Amateur Radiotelegraph Stations. 
All amateur stations were closed down at the outbreak of hostilities. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 87 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

Licensed Ship Stations. 

The following list shows the vessels of Canadian register which are equipped 
with radiotelegraph apparatus, their call signal and by whom they are owned and 
operated : — 



Name of Sliip. 



Port, of Kegistrj- 



Namt' of Owners. 



Name of 
Coinpany operating 
the Station. 



Call 
Signal. 



S.S. Assiniboia. 



Alberta .... 
Athabaska. 
Manitoba... 
Keewatin. . 

Boston 

Hamonic. .. 
Huronio.. . . 
ProvinJ'e. . . 



Empire 

Salvor 

Prince Albert 

Prince John 

Florence 

Princes.se Beatrice., 
Princess Charlotte. 

Princess May 

Princess Royal 

Tees 

Camosun 

Princess Adelaide. . 



Princess Mary 

Princess Alice. . . . 

Princess Ena 

Princess Sophia.. 

Saronic 

Lord Strathcona. 

A. W. Perry- 

Royal Edward... 
Royal George. . . 
St. Ignace 



Chelohsin. 
Morwenna. 



Prince Arthur. 



Prince George. . 
Halifax 



" Douglas H. Thomas. 

" Princess Maquinna. . . . 
Car Ferry "Ontario No.l" 
SS. Naronic 



Seal. 



Montreal, P.Q. 



Yarmouth, N.S... 
CoUingwood, Ont. 



Port Arthur, Ont. 



Victoria, B.C 

Prince Rupert, B.C.. 



Toronto, Ont.. 
Victoria, B.C. 



Vancouver, B.C. 
Victoria, B.C.. . 



Vancouver, B.C. 
Victoria, B.C. 



Sarnia, Ont. . 
Quebec, P.Q. 
Halifax, N.S. 
Toronto, Ont. 



SS. 



Deliverance 

Bessie Dollar 

Venture 

Yarmouth 

Princess Patricia. 
Dalhousie City... 

C.^orona 

King.Hton 

Toronto 

Hazel Dollar Victoria, B.C. 

(,'hippewa iToronto, Ont.. 



Port Arthur, Ont. 



Vancouver, B.(". 
Montreal, P.Q 



Yarmouth, N.S. 



Halifax, N.S. 
Sydney, C.B. 



Victoria, B.C 

Montreal, P.Q 

Port Arthur, Ont. 

Windsor. N.S 



Liverpool, N.S.. 
Victoria, B.C.. 
Vancouver, B.C. 
Yarmouth, N.S. 
Victoria, B.C.. . 
Toronto, Ont 



Can. Pacific Railway. 



Northern Nav. Co. 

Great Lakes Towing 
and Wrecking Com- 
pany 



Marconi Wireless Tel 
Co. of (Jan.. . . . 



B.C. Salvage Co. 
Grand Trunk Pac. 



Ry 



T. Eaton 

Can. Pacific Railway 



Union Steamship {,"0. 
Can. Pacific Railway. 



Northern Nav. Co... . 

Quebec Salvage Co 

Plant Line 

Canadian Northern SS. 



Owners. 



M. W. T. Co. of C 



Owners 

Marconi Wireless Tel. 
Co. of Canada 



Great Lakes Towing 
and Wrecking Co... 

Union Steamship Co. 

The N.Y. Nfld. Hali- 
fax Shipping Co. 

Boston and Yarmouth 
SS. Co. 

C. A. Plant SS. Co. 
Dom. Coal Co 



Can. Pacific Railway. 
Ont. Car Ferry Co. . . 
Northern Nav. Co.. . . 

Halifax Trading and 

Sealing Co. 
Southern Salvage Co.. 

Dollar SS. Lines 

Union SS. Co 

C.P.R 



N. St. C. & T. N. Co. 
C. SS. Lines 



Dollar SS. Lines. 



Owners 

Marconi Wirelcs; 
Co. of Canada 



Tel 



Owners 

Marconi Wireless Tel 
Co. of Canada 

M. W. T. Co 

Owners 

M. W. f.'Co... ■■■.■■ 
0^wneris 

M. W. .T. Co 



VGI 

VFQ 

VGG 

VGH 

VGC 

VFS 

VGD 

VGE 



VFR 
VFP 
VFV 
VFL 
VFM 
VFT 
VFC 
VFE 
VFH 
VFG 
VFK 
VFZ 

VFA 

VFB 

VFD 

VFJ 

VFI 

VGF 

VFX 

VFW 

VGB 

VGA 

VGL 
VGN 

VFN 
VGJ 

VGK 
VGP 
VGR 

VGT 
VGU 

VGW 
VGV 

VFO 

VFF 

VGX 

VGY 

VGZ 

VEA 

VEB 

VEC 

VED 

VEE 

VEH 



88 



i)Kr.\frr\n:.\T or mi-: xaval .survive 



Licensed Ship Stations — Concluded. 



7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 



Xftiiie of Ship. 



Port (A Hcuistry. 



.\!i!iic of Owners 



Name of 

Company operating 

the Station. 



r-aii 

Signal. 



SS. Garden City 

" Chk'ora. 

" Maca.ssar. . 

" Cayuga 

" Majestic. 

" Casrap<'<lia 

" Dfsola 

Tug "Harri.-ion" 

Car Fcrr>' "Ontario No. 2" 
SS. IinptToyal 

" Armenia 

" Turret Crown 



Toronto, Ont. . . 

Halifax, N.S 

Hamilton, Ont. .. 

Toronto, Ont 

C'ollingwood, Ont 

Quohoc, P.Q 

Montreal, P.Q. . . 
Owen Sound, Ont 
Montreal, P.Q 

Sarnia, Ont 

Montreal, P.Q .. 
Newcastle, G.B.. 



N. St. C. & T. N. Co. 
C. SS. Lines 

Atlantic Fruit Co 

J. Harritson & Sons.. 
Ont. Car Ferry Co.. 

Imperial Oil Co ... 

R. Lawrenre Smith... 

Coastwise SS. & Barge 

Co 



M. W. T. Co. 



Owner; 
M. \V. 



r. ( o 



Owner.- 



VEI 

vi;i 

VHK 
VEL 
VEM 
VEO 
VEP 
VFY 
VER 
VGM 
VES 

ZH 



GrOVERNMENT StK.VMERS EQUIPPED WITH EaDIOTELEGK.VPH IxST.\LL.\T10.\S. 

Operated by the Department of the Naval Service. 



Nan 




Call Signal. 



H.M.C.S. A^to6e... 

" Rainbow. . 
C. G. S. Canada 

" Acadia 

" Malaspina.. 

" Galiano 



400 miles 
2.50 " 
1.50 " 
200 " 
200 " 
200 •• 



VDA 
VDB 

VDC 
VUT 
VDU 
VDV 



Operated by the Department of Marine and Fisheries. 



Name 




C. G 



S. Stanley. . 

Lady Lauricr 

Aberdeen 

Druid 

Montcalm 

Lady Grey 

Quadra 

Eatevan 

Dollard 

S'eicington 

Lurcher Lightship... 
Simcoe 



Aranmorc. 

Prince Edward Inland. 



VDE 

VDF 

V^DG 

VDH 

VDJ 

VDL 

VDM 

VDN 

VDO 

VDP 

VDR 

VDS 

VDQ 
VBY 



DEPARTMENT OF THE XAVM. SHin ICE 



89 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

Operated by the Department of Railways and Canals. 



Name. 



RariKO 



Call Signal. 



('. G. S. Durlei) Chine... 
" Shcba 



200 rnil( 
200 " 



VDQ 
VDZ 



Operated by the Post Office Department. 



Name. 



Range. 



Call Sign:! 



C, G. S, Lady Evelyn.. 



100 iiiilc.-^ 



VDX 



Operated by the Customs Department. 



Name. 


Range. 


Call Signal. 


C;. G. S. Margaret . 


200 miles. 


VDW 







Operation of the Coast Station Services. 

The following stations on the East Coast previously operated by the Marconi 
Wifeless Telegraph Company of Canada were taken over from that company, and are 
now operated by the Department of the Naval Service: — 

Camperdown. N.S., on May 1, 1915 
North Sydney, N.S., on August 1, 1915. 
I'oint Riche, Newfoundland, September 1, 1915. 
Sable Island, N.S., January 1, 1916. 

The amount of business handled by the East Coast system shows a decrease from 
last year's business, amounting to 14,651 messages, containing 332,492 words. 

The Great Lakes system (operated by the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company 
of Canada, Limited, under contract) shows a decrease of 2,168 messages containing 
67,139 words. 

The West Coast system (operated directly by this Department) shows a decrease 
of 3,338 messages containing 429,131 words. 

Th^ LePas and Port Nelson stations (operated for the Department of Railways 
and Canals by this Department) handled 7,617 messages containing 570,281 words, 
an increase of 2,358 messages containing 244,320 words.- 

Table I shows a comparative statement of the business handled by the ditt'oreut 
systems during the last six years. 



90 



in:PARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 





M 


3> 


, 




^ 






n 






5 
i 


X 




t»' 




M 

5 
M 


'^ 












a 


•J3 


§ 


CO 


C9 




s| 


•^ 


ri 


CO 


M 


r^ 



7 GEORGE V, a. 1917 










^ 


— 






CO 


>r, 


^ 




OS 


X 


m 






08 


CS 







K O ^ K 



DEPARTMFKT OF THE NATAL SERVICE 91 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

REVENUE. 

The total revenue collected during the year amounted to $8,494.99 af^ainst 
$ll,738.3."i in 1914-15. The West Coast service shows a decrease of $3,934.94, the 
Groat Lakes a decrease of $7.76, and the East Coast an increase of $699.34. 



T.\Bi,i-; No. 2. — Comparative Statement of Revenue received by the Coast Stations 
Services during the past Seven Years. 



1J09-10. 



1910-11. 



1911-12. 



1912-1.3. 



1913-14. 



1314-1.5 



1915-16. 



East Coast . . . 

Great Lakes... 

West Coast . . . . 

Totals 



$ cts. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 



Nil. 



$ ris. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
3,108 63 



$ cts. 
229 57 
Nil. 
4,484 77 



$ cts 

' 475 Op 

17 08 

9,928 40 



$ cts. 

318 42 

27 55 

15,992 70 



3,108 63 



4,714 34 



10,420 48 



16,. 338 67 



$ cts. 

322 99 

85 92 

11,329 44 



11,738 35 



$ cts. 

1,022 33 

78 16 

7,394 50 



8,494 99 



92 



nnr \RTMr\r or rin: vtri/, sHinich: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 







— ir: C-. 1- 


^ 


I - 


- -f »re »c — 


s? 




J 


I, ce>i«— !--»• — osao — 




^ 


'^ O woe M 0« O OS r^ — 


-J< 






-••^Q — oce>»fci'*05 


o> 




* 


^ cc "ft-r osM-rco-f 


CO 






^ ^ «^ 


»>■" 


x 












t^ 


to. 


: 


o 


- 


-• .- 


~ «ft O M "5 00 '»'-«" — -' 1^ t~ r^ 


cc 


Vet, 


— 0O«O to 1^ qC CJ M 00 O f Ci 
^ — iSstOM 00»0 MCC^ •» O 

-t f<3 V C^ C-t "5 M -^ M CC "C -f 


f 


© 






-H -f cs eoocot^ — O • 


CD 




X 


■M ift C^ 


— CO o CO — ' J^ • 




s 


"w 


— iC o 


C-. CO -f ac 


CD 


i 


o 


-o"cr«^i 


^•rc'i ■m" 


e-i 




^ 


f 


05 


C-l 


• 


Q ^ <M 

5? X -»• 


fl CD 00 "J- © CO 


CD 


c n 


X 


CO >ret^ CO 


CO 


Ps 


a 


!^ — OS* 


— 1^ CO — 


c-t 


is 




— 


■X 


CI 


tf 










S 










ao o c^ o ec oc -* — t^ Oi ■ 
S t^ o © — i^ M lO -I- o 


~cJ 




tc 


t^ 




•3 


:r ic cj ic ® 05 cc t^ t~ o • 


© 




i. 








o 


— iftt^l^'MO — C^O-l" 


i« 


it 


^ 


:c — N •.-'-< ■^ (M c<i — — 


CO 








X 


CO 


1 


ccosc^oicccocto-^os ■ 


"J- 


.;^ o 




CD 




* 

S 


r-T -^ -c m" — -^ e-i" t-i e-i — ■ 


©" 




X 




-r 




s 










•* 05 ^ to t-- — ■ CC •»*■ t^ CO ■ 


CO 




no 


CS t^ >C 00 O -"l" CO — CC 00 ■ 


CO 


X 


T3 


^cooc c<i •'f »o •* 00 1^ ■ 


t^ 


3 £ 


bi 






'^ £ 


O 


CO — — iCMO 


0-. 


o-g.c 


^ 


~ 


CO 




t^ O t^ 'J' t «3 t^ OO "5 CO ■ 


CO 


P^i 


X 


t^C^O — OOOCOOO'^- 


c*^ 


a 


a-^ -* t^-^f n 


d 


ir 


53 
X 
K 


rC 


= 


01 






o 


s 










•*<MC3CO(Mt^t^-*-*CO ■ 


ire 


a; 


COCOO'O^OCOOiCCCO • 


^- 


"C 


oc-*to — -rLO-ficosio • 


CO 


&-I 






!= . 


^ 


CO -f e^J <M — C: CO w • 


>> 


^ 


M — 


© 


TH 










(Mccco-rriC^Neoac-*" • 


v^ 


-/ - - 


*/3 


r^ .^ » — OS CO — Tj- ire 


CI 


|c^ 




t^ — ■^ C) — 


© 


'« ^ 








3 C 


CO 






=°^ 


0^ 










•>»• 05 O •* t^ ■* »re »^ "J CO 


oc 


X 


X 


'J' OOM — COOCO ■* ^ CO ■ 

oc^ »c >re "5 CO o — 00 ^ ■ 


(M 


K 


•c 


I^ 










= c 2 


• 


O O W CI — 1~ t~ 


CI 


^ 


05 CO — ire 


© 
PI 






u^ _ _ ^ ^ CO 00 c: CO iM ■ 


t^ 


y. 


r*>C-lCM00Ol^— t^COCS ■ 


CM 


& 


— 01 — — t- CO -J- ■ 


•* 


-w 


a 


CO ^- CO 


c<r 


> 


X 








X 






'H 


c 






^ 


s 










00 1^ ^^ O — • oc CO CO -- O ■ 


■* 


X 




O — T -t CO t^ "re CO c<i o ■ 
•*co«re — cooooo»0' 


© 




X 


ire 










c Z 




— — 1^ CO CO ■M c: CO • 


ire 




o 




00 


■ 111 


^ 








CC I^ S -r CO — M- iM CD CO 


<M 


i 5^ 


X 


•aoooo — C-) "re — — CO 


00 


S 


e>i CO — ■ oi c: CO c^i 


00 


P 


1^ 
1 


- -* ~ 


ire 


'C 


s 






























*i . . .ZI-s X Q. . 








.5 












<r ■ t 5 ir o 




















o . . 0— t '- 




c 
'/ 


5 


2 

> 


c 




5 


c 

t 

b 
c 




§ :• 1 1f 

— 'it-hcttx'^ 


r' 














>.- p— 


— " 


'--• 


»-- 


r" 




•— . ^^ ',•—'%-' 





cc ire t^ © 

->• ^ C LO 

- ■ "- X -r 

ire CO 'f © 

~. © C CO 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NATAL SERVICE 



93 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 



<_ 




-<< C-l -fl 05 -t 1^ -1 


c 


•^ 


> u o j; 


Ji 


1^ O — — <M O CO — 


•^ 


^ 


iM — cc 05 1- o :r> e^ 


00 


n " M r 






t^ 


1 S|5? 


v.> 














' 




oooo«cooi^ 


CI 


•s = 


ii 


OOOOtOCOO"" 


ira 


^6 


w 


00000^0!>. 


-*< 


.9 '3 S 




OOOOIM"#0<> 


00 


y> 


iC »0 »f5 lO »0 CO »o •(■ 




^S 






oo' 

CI 






05 (M O 00 -H CM ;0 


05 




tn 


00 -t >0 CD lO — C^l 

00 CO O O 'O Its >o 


CO 


73 


•^ 


y—* 


<u 


L. 








-< M 00 -»< oc -^ 


^ 






.— >-< (M 


•-: c 








^! 










— O 'fS -^ CO t^ CO 


CO 




CJ 


O >CI^ ?0 t^ — CD 




— CD t^ C^I — 1 


o 


1 


" 


co' 












S 










-f O O O rf CO cc 


f 




X 


O O t^ OO — 00 CD 


-+• 




u 


-*i oc t^ a> 00 -H ^ 


^-l 




CO t--.' L-f co' co" "m' — ' 


oo 


5r£ 


^ 


•o 




1 C ¥ 










t- f- CO CO O t^ CD 


OS 


X 


CI lO CO '^ t^ C<l M* 




-1 

1 


si) 

ej 
tn 


CO C^ CO iM ■* "-I CD 








ira lO 'O ■ o t^ ■ 


CI 




t: 


— o^ 


CI t-- 




CD 


1 't « 


■^ 




^H 




CO 


3 O 


u 










' ^ s^ ,^- 


O 










1 «^S 


ji; 










rnmen 

ess bet 
Statio 












X 

C3 


>— t- i-i 


—1 CO 




T)> 


^ c 












> 












c 


Cj 










O 


S 














CD CD 35 O t^ O OJ 


t^ 


c 


X 


<M O 05 — ' 05 CO CO 


CO 


o 


o ira CO o >f5 c<i t^ 


.-* 


§1 


co" o co" cd" -*>" im" — " 


>o" 






CO 


O fc- 


•^ 






+i Oj • 












O (M 'M C^ CO r- o 


CO 


'f. 


c<i © •c) e~) CO 05 00 


t^ 


1 


CQ f IM CI — 1 


CO 




w 






"1 


o 

s 










CO CO ^^ iO 05 CD t-- 


t^ 


CO 


X 


O 00 -< (M -^ 05 CD 


CO 


m 


T3 


cq — Tf o CO d 


Ui 


i 


u 








O 


1— * ^^ 


CO 


'm £3 x' 


fe 






3 « C 








vate B 
bet we 
Statio 








1 

X 


(M OC O CI — • O — 1 


o 


« t^ CO t(5 d CI 


CI 
CI 




X 






^ 


o 






P-i 


g 










— COrtiCDCD — — If: 


t^ 


m 




CD010003COCOCD 


-T>< 


-/■j 




CJ >C — -.D O "O 05 CO 


-*• 


3^ _ 


1- 






.s = 


_o 


CO o" ~t 02 oo' co' ^' — 


o 


'x ^ 




— C) 


r^ 


^■^a 


"^ 






^—J.-. 


■A 

1 


COOSOOt^OoOrfCD 


>n 


.>2 


CO 00 CI Tf T)< -»< ^ CI 


>c 


oc CI CI »»• Tf CO CO 


CI 


X 


■— 


■*' 




X 






^ 


o 






frn 


S 






































































































-«■ 


? 




.o 
















5 


'2 

5 


X 






T3 














*2 « o_;'3 >- 


c 














I 




o 


'/ 




1 H 












f£ 






i 


c 


c 


c 


i5 




1 



— CO 'O — 

CO CO 

- •-* VD 

CO 05 00 t^ 



-a'G 



O o 



94 



DF.PAHTMEST OF TTIF \ATAT. SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



2 * 



, 












t 


























-/: 'y 


Z' 


, 


1 i ^ 




^ 


^ 


•O 








06 C 


1 t- 1 


?a« 


3 

e 


t 




'J- 












cc r^ If} 

cc 'J' U5 


J» 


" 








ti 














'- ;^ 


•» 






U5 












^ 


© 
































• to OOOOOOO — O-fOOOOOOOOCJCCI-iJ 1 


.9 3 




i -» oooo-rcc". •cc 


© © '^ © "^ "; © "1 -.c C5 1 cc 1 


c 


— © o o o M S o — tr 

^ O «C »0 T I »C SC "C "S "C t^ 


c — -r. ci — — © -o S5 c 

©5'C©©a:©ut — o- 


cc 




»-c •c t^ *c c. >: »c i^ cc — 


"~ 


^S 




-H CO w— "e-j cc c>3'*'ccM cc cc Mwe-j e^ M ccw -t 


g 








ocMO-rccfCioj 


« r^ • — o: 5C o 00 >o 


© 






X 




C^— CSC0Ot^->»'C-4 

to<— M-iccuic-j^t^ 


«^ 






•c 


o 






b 


t>. ...... 






w • 






•n- O W C © 05 


«c-H . ^"„'c cc 


i>r 


..^ <n 






C<5 — -JS CI ;0 


oc — 


1^ 












M 


i © 












i 


«o -r — — 05C-. «c<;u5 


oe t>. • ic o: e-j -^ 1^ c-i 
?*•<»■ -H -^ t^ c. cr. 


1^ 




1/5 e^) — — -r© — ©00 


e 




-" cr. cc <M -*• M -a* 


© -r — 




F 




J 


— . — ■* 


•V 


»c 


^•^ 




s 














•^ M — • O: oc Ci re -r 


i-»© • — ccj-^csTu: 


C) 






«r 




l««00C^CC-^t^tO 


00 © A — «.c c) 00 »-c 00 








'w 




cc>ccoct^ci-<r-* 


cc 

























oc'f CO Th « tt> 


t^ >c ■ cc cj cc cc 


cI 


- tB 












t- 


-, o 




























IP 




00 © ■* "5 X Ci OC 1- 


©— cc^ococ-^oc — 


t^ 






.-HCMOOOOOlf^CO 


© irs ■ cc U5e^>«ic — 




o S 






U5 C-l -H ^ M cc 


c< a: — -H ci e- 


© 


«^S 
















s 










J 






ec -^ © oc — © ■* cc © 


— t^ • 00 Cl t^ © i-C 


-^ 






n 


CO if:r-T»'moco:».'5-«< 


f — ■ -H © O 




© CM 


© 


K 




'C 


00 cs — (Mt^siooec 


CJ »c t^ -, 




"^ t- 


c< 


3 C 




u 












^ o 




O 


cj cm""-! -^j""-^ 


c-i" cc cc cc 




**• t^ 


cc 


^Is 




^ 


cc 


~ 






X 


0*> O 


















72 


n •^•"J- — re©-r--H"-1 


cc C« CM t>. — 




•O iC 


© 




O "*> O IM © C-J — t^ 


cc t^ ■ t>. ® 




o c 


tC 


If 




— cc t~ c. 


c< cc e-j •<«• 




LCr- 


X 














■>»• 




S/ 












o 




S 












•4^ 






.f — «D t^ c<j CO IS cc 


00 — cc © C) cc LC 


-^ -t 


^^ 


.^ c: 








c-1 ■>»• © cc >c re — © 


00 © © cc t^ 30 cc 




© 


^ c; 








— — ce« — 33CCC5 


cc © t^-^ «o o cc 


cc S- 


-f 


§£ 




u 
















■<*< cc C-l M cc © 


C) — © ■»► © IC c 


c' 


o£ . 




^ 




«(M « — 




-*■ 
















» 

g 




ccot~-<*"t^irt— 100 


t^ 00 ■*©->l<©©© — 

— © ci~c^o — -^t"- 


lO 


S o S 






O00'»»<"5©»CCM0C 


00 


§os 






iO^^^iC— IC 


— lO CI cc "t c>) — 


■«r 






c3 








t^ 


'is 














^r\ Ct 




Ci 










"■"i 




s 






• 












CC©iO00 00©00 


-< »^ ■ "3 00 • ■ O •* 


© 


K 




8D 






oc t~- M -T CC lO es 


cc — CM © 






OS — 


C-l 


« 




^ 






^ ■<»' 00 ■— — o © 


cc 05 • cc 






Cl ■«»■ 


cc 


& 




i~, 


















^ 




o 






IC — © »!> 


— cc • 








iC 


'k S m 




^ 






■>!■ 


"" 








t>. 


vatc Bu 
betwce 
Station 
























to 






O 05 05 © W t^ 00 


•- cc ■ ^ © 






cc — 


1 " 








rt CC i« — 00 CC t^ 


— © ■ ^ 






-<Cq 


t>. 








O cc cj 

CJ 


^© . 








© 
cc 


'u 






















p- 




S 


























O — CM cc "5 OC »0 


cc »c ■ 00 "- 


\r 


© in t-- 


^^ 


« 




cr} 




t^-* to — < — ■ 


t^ 


© .^ - 00 


© 


©cj re © 


cc 


« 




T3 




O'J't^ — OD 


■^ 


ic-»t< ec 


IC 


© •«»• ^ cc 


cc 


Si _ 




ki 
















e c 




O 




rC— " 


■^ 


O l« 


u- 


^ © 


X 


■» o . 

3 >- X 




jj 




^ 






""■ 


cc 


vatc B 

o and f 

Shipi 


















O 




OM o;r^«o -^ 


00 


CMt^ © 


© ic cccc 00 


© 






ceo M CM 




c^ — ■ cc 


■«r cc LC — 


U5 






•* © 


cc 


cc cc cc CI Ui 


© 








»o 




t>-" 


— < -M 




73 










£ 




















































X 












































^ 






: 


5 




















































































.; 


i 






■o 




•d 
























eg 














e 




B 
























Jr 






= 


: 






A 




-S 






























7 
c 


? 




r 

■^ 
X 


cc 


J. 

? 


l-l 

O i 




u 

3 




c 


"c 


ill 

:; t- c r 


o 
> 

'■5 "5; 


II 






'/ 




O.U = a. 5 a.£.= = c. i; 


■f: i .:i 3i ? i: t r c ° 


r- 








_c':3'-5e«i-SC3v:iv^ 












Oh 


C_ 


C 




A 


c- 




•^K 


1 


— 


^ it 


c 


r^ 


'h 


;s 


c/: 


'■^ 







. .© LC 

CI t^ cc lC 

■«r X — © 



E ^.c 

"c c 2 

^ ^ "■ 3 © 

"c "p w > r: 

c 2 '^ C l- 

'es'd'a s: -^ 

o ,'c ,0 3 "[^ 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NATAL {SERVICE 



95 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 









,^ o 





o 




2 to 


■-0 


2 




^ to 


to 


z 




CO 


CO 


> 




««> 






OJ 










tf 














,; «o c 


CO 


"2 c 




5 "S c 


»c 


OS 


CJ 


" M c 


M 


c 


lO >r 





C3 


«s> - <=« 




CO 








IM C 


IM 






CO 


OS "■ 


■* 


T3 




"O 


IM <y 


IM 


4) 











(M 


+J w 




^ 








• « o 


























■^ o- 


t^ 






w 




o- 









1 
o 














CO c 









w 




(^ 


CO 






-o 


00 c- 









(^ 












o 




e^ 


CO 


gS 




^ 






"^ 
















•c c 


»o 






1 


CO w 








c<- 


•* 






02 












o 












s 














--H C 


,-H 






m 


»o t- 


<M 


'H f= 




-o 


03 Oq 


M 


2 Si 




;h 








£. ^ 




O 


^- 




eo 






^ 








o a> o 














CO 

M 


5: s 


(M 










»\ 




(S 








> « 




t/3 
CO 








o 




0^ 








O 




s 








-4^ 






c 





_ =i 




to 


fc «: 


CO 


T3 01 




■c 




10 


C C 




u 








c3 K 




jO 


■* e^ 


co" 


oS . 










'^ 


iness t 
Gover 

Ships 
















oc -* 


IM 




CI 

1 


00 tr 


00 


M 
















o 


















00 






M 






CD 






t4 




CC 


to 


a. 




o 




c- 


03" 


3 O C 




^ 




ec 


CO 




















cc 


CO 




CS 




t-- 


t^ 
t^ 


.'*■ 




a: 












»: 








i- 




aj 








Ph 




S 














■<* 


t- 


r-i 


tc 






CN 




■f 






■D 


C<1 


? 




* f 




t. 








.S £ 




J3 


"- 




IM 


= 2.- 




S^ 






















c 


«: 


00 




aJ 


(3C 


CC 


■* 


*!«(« 










_> o 




CO 












en 








■p *" 




o 








Ph 




s 








d 












_o 
























'5 












s 












-»j 












«; 




> 








., , 




a. 








o 




c 








g 




> 




"c 




a; 




t 

c 


3 


t 



H 








:? 


s 




1 



t^ oc to o 



M to © to 



*-c 
P 3 aJ 

X *- c 

E^l 

u ^ 

J2^ O g 

"ee cj c8 e: 

^ *J +5 ♦i 

0000 



62 



96 



i>i:r\rrrui:\T of 77/ f amt.!/, service 




7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 



^ P^ 



DEJ'Ah'TME^T OF Tllll y.W ATj HKliVICE 97 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

EXAMINATIOX FOR CKUTIFICATRS OF PROFiriEXCY IX RADIOTKLF/JRAPIIY. 

A total of 107 operators were examined duriMi,' tlie year, including 42 re-examina- 
tions; O^ candidates were successful and 55 failed. 

The following list shows the names of the successful candidates for certificate 
of proficiency in radiotelegraphy : — 



Number of 
Certificate. 



Date of 
Certificate. 



Name. 



Grade of Certificate. 



Where Examination 
held. 



Mav 



Aug. 
July 
Sept. 



April, 21st 191.5. 
■ 16th 1915. 
16th 1915. 
21st 1915. 
21st 1915. 
21st 1915. 
21st 1915. 
21st 1915. 
21st 1915. 
30th 1915. 
30th 1915. 
26th 1915. 

8th 1915. 
12th 1915. 
June.. 7th 1915. 
Julv 6th 1915. 
19th 1915. 
19th 1915. 
10th 1915. 
19th 1915. 
30th 1915. 
26th 1915. 

7th 1915. 

7th 1915. 

4th 1915. 

15thl915. 
17th 1915. 

1st 1915. 

1st 1915. 
13th 1915. 
13 hh 1915. 
13th 1915. 
13th 1915. 
16th 1915. 
22nd 1915. 
12th 1916. 
20th 1916. 
13th 1916. 
1.3th 1916, 
20th 1916. 
13th 1916. 
25th 1916, 
19th 1916, 
18th 1916, 
24th 1916 
17th 1916, 
25th 1916 
23rd 1916 
March 6th 1916 

6th 1916 
22nd 1916 
22nd 1916, 



Oct. 
Nov. 

Dec. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Taylor Fred 

Lister, W. K 

Holmes, J. J 

Wilkie, A. H 

Lind.say, C. C 

Laurie, W. L 

Paterson, F. G 

Galhraith, R. A. H. 

Rus.scII, A. H. K 

McKinnon, A 

Barnes, W. S 

Mclntyre, C. M 

Anderson, J. L 

Lovlee, R. P 

Argyle, J. V 

DcsLauriers, H. E.. , 

Barnsley, Jack 

Olson, J. E. H 

Crawford, J. A 

Calverley, W 

Muir, C. A 

Sheepwash, W. J 

Hill, A. P 

Adams, William. . . . 

Campbell, R. A 

Ward, W. E 

Sullivan, W.J 

Armstrong, W. L 

Unwin, A 

Russell, R. V. H.... 
McDougall, E. W... 

McAdam, W. J 

Hassell, W. G 

Cooper, E. W. A.... 

Parkin, W. L 

Gagnon, C. H 

Burgess, W 

Ward, V. H 

Rushbrook, S. H... 

Gale, G 

Hillyer, L. A 

Brannen, H. H 

Parent, J. G 

Brown, W. A 

Garner, E 

Bragg, J. F 

Theriault, A. J 

Graves, E. L 

Caesar, T. P 

Foote, G. C 

Welsman, T. S 

Duncan, W. C. C... 



1st Class 

1st Class Ship 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

2nd " 

1st " 

l.st " 

1st " 

Is. " 

1st " • 

1st " ■. . 

1st " 

1st " 

l.st " 

1st '^ 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st Class Coast and Ship. . 

1st Class Ship 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " .\ . . . 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st Class Coast and Ship.. 

1st Class Ship 

1st " 

1st " 

1st " 

1st Class Coast and Ship. . 

1st Class Ship 

1st " 

1st Class Coast and Ship.. 

1st Class Ship 

1st 

1st " " 

1st 

1st Class Coast and Ship. . 



Toronto, 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Toronto, 

Toronto, 

Toronto, 

Toronto, 

Toronto, 

Toronto, 

Ottawa. 

Ottawa. 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Ottawa. 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Ottawa. 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Halifax, 

St. John, 

St. John, 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Victoria, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Halilax, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Halifax, 

Ottawa. 

Victoria, 

Halifax, 

Victoria, 

Toronto, 

Toronto, 



Ont. 
B.C. 
B.C. 

Ont. 
Ont. 
Ont. 
Ont. 
Ont. 
Ont. 



B.C. 
B.C. 
B.C. 
B.C. 

B.C. 
B.C. 
B.C. 
B.C. 

B.C. 
B.C. 
B.C. 

N.S. 

N.B. 

N.B. 

B.C. 

B.C. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 

B.C. 

B.C. 

B.C. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 

B.C. 

N.S. 
B.C. 
Ont 
Ont. 



38—7 



98 



iu:i'Mri\ii:\'r of tiii: \.\\m. sijhvive 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

The following holders oi" ccrtirifMlcs of profiiMciicy \n radiotek'grapLy passed a 
successful examination in the operation of otlier equipments and have had their 
original certificates amended accordingly. 



Certificate Number. 


Name. 


Additional Equipment. 


114. 


Campbell, R. A 


1-7 K.W. and 0-5 K.W. 


Clt... 


Downer, J. H 


Ship and 2 K.W. Coast 
Stations. 

1-5 K.W. Ship Station. 


CS.... 


Fenwick, J. R 


1-5 K.W. Ship Station. 


119... 


Russell, R. V. H 


1-7 K.W. Ship Station. 



.ASSISTAXCK RENDERED TO SHIPS DURIXG THE YEAR BY THE OOVERXMEXT RADIOTELEGRAPH 

SERVICE. 

West Coast. 

SS. Princess Maquinna. — On the 11th July, 1915, the ss. Princess Maquinna 
stranded opposite the North Pacific cannery in the Skeena river, but refloated at 
full tide at 11.45 p.m. Messages were exchanged during the time the vessel was 
ashore between the captain and the agents at Prince Rupert and Victoria, via the 
Digby Island station. 

SS.il/oriposa. — On the 8th October, 1915, the ss. Mariposa was wrecked on 
Pointers island at 5 a.m. Communication with the Mariposa was made by the 
Triangle Island station through the ss. Despatch. At 8 a.m. the Despatch reported that 
she had reached the wreck at 7.43 a.m. and launched boats at 7.45 a.m. and that they 
were then picking up all the passengers from the beach. At this time the Mariposa 
had a bad list, the forward hold being full of water and all fires out. At 9.45 a.m. 
the Despatch had all the Mariposa's passengers aboard and sailed for Ketchikan. 
Constant wireless communication was maintained throughout bj'' the Triangle Island 
station. 

SS. City of Seattle. — On the 12th aSTovember, 1915, a message was received from the 
SS. City of Seattle at 5.45 a.m. advising that she would arrive at Prince Eupert at 9 
a.m. An answer was sent to this message by the Digby Island station to which no reply 
was received; fifteen minutes later the City of Seattle ran ashore at Evening point, 
Granville channel. The Digby Island station called the boat repeatedly during the 
morning, but no reply was received from her. 

SS. Princess Maquinna. — On the 1st February, 1916, the SS. Princess Maquinna, 
southbound from Prince Ivupert, struck on Maud island, Discovery passage, at 1. 
a.m. The commander made all speed to Menzie's hay, where the vessel was beached. 
The Cape Lazo station was in constant communication with the SS.PHncess Ma- 
quinna, and messages were exchanged between the captain of the vessel and her 
owners at Victoria without intorruiition or dolay. The wrecking steamer Salvor was 
despatched to the assistance of the Princess Maquinna, but the latter vessel eventually 
refloated and proceeded to Victoria under her own steam. 

SS. Camosun. — On the 7th March, 191G, the SS. Camosun advised the Digby 

. Island station at 5.15 a.m. that she was ashore 2 miles north of Lima point, Digby 

island. The Camosun hadjcft Prince Pupert the previous night at 10 o'clock en 



DFIWUTMIIST OF THE .V.ir.t/> SKHVICK 99 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

rmitc for Massett, and was returning for shelter when she went ashore in a blinding 
snowstorm. The local agent of the Union Steamship Company was immediately 
advised of the accident, and by a.m. both the SS. Prince John and RS. Princess 
Sophia were ready to render any assistance required. The Camosun's passengers 
were taken oflF by a tug and the SS. Salvor was ordered to proceed to the scene of the 
accident in order to pull the Camosun ofF. 

East Coast. 

SS. A. W. Perry.— On the 8th June, 1915, the SS. A. W. Perry went on the rocks 
outside Halifax harbovir during very foggy weather. The steamer sent out signals 
of distress which were immediately answered by the Camperdown station, and the 
C.G.S. Premier. The whole of the passengers and crew were saved, about sixty per- 
sons in all. 

Unsuccessful attempts were made to refloat the vessel. 

Great Lahes. 

The radiotelegraph stations on the Great Lakes were not called upon to render 
any assistance to distressed vessels during the year. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION, ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS. 

East Coast. 

Point Eiche. — The transmitting range of the Point Eiehe station was improved 
by the installation of new apparatus, at a cost of $409.94. 

North Sydney. — The power of the North Sydney station has been increased by 
the installation of new transmitting apparatus of 2 k.w. power. The set operates from 
the local power supply, and a musical spark is obtained by means of a non-syn- 
chronous disc discharger. The total cost of the installation amounted to $906.79. 

Great LaJces. 

No construction was undertaken on the Great Lakes during the year. 

West Coast. 

Alert Bay. — The masts and hoist engines were thoroughly overhauled. The 
8-horsepower engine was fitted with high-tension ignition system and both engines 
fitted with the central oiling system. 

Gape Lazo. — A new aerial was erected at this station. The second engine was 
fitted with high-tension ignition system and central oiling system. 

Dead-Tree Point. — Masts and station thoroughly overhauled. A new disc was 
installed and transmitting gear rearranged in the engine room. 

Dighy Island. — Masts, hoist engine, and station overhauled. A further ground 
connection was installed and connected up the existing ground system. A new 
receiver was put in, and both engines fitted with the central oiling system. 

Estevan. — The 1-k.w. set has been refitted and a new receiver supplied. Eoth 
engines have been equipped with high-tension ignition system and central oiling system. 

Gonzales Hill. — A new tranformer was installed increasing the power at the 
station from 3 to 5 k.w. Station was overhauled generally and a new receiver 
supplied. 



100 /)/;/Mff7'u/;.\7' or the .v.ir.i/> (service 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Ikeda. — ^fasts, trarawny, hoist, and station generally thorouphly overhauled. 
Both poiicrntors were Httcd with synchronous discs, and tlic transmitting gear rear- 
ranged. 

Pachnia. — -The tree mast was cleaned down and fitted with stays, and a top- 
mast and yard greeted. The standard mast was thoroughly overhauled. A synchron- 
ous disc was fitted to the 2-k.w. set. Both engines have been equipped with high 
tension ignition system and central oiling systems. 

Triangle Island. — Masts and station were thoroughly overhauled. Both gener- 
ators have been fitted with synchronous discs and the transmitting gear re-arranged 
and a new receiver installed. The two engines have been fitted with the central 
oiling system. 

HUDSON BAY .\XD STRAIT. 

The schooner Burleifjlb was outfitted and took a load of cement and lumber and 
a construction gang of twenty men to start work on the new radiotelegraph station 
on Mansel island. The schooner arrived at the island on the 19th of August and 
left again on the ISth September, 191.5. The eight mast anchors and building founda- 
tions were installed (approximately 270 yards of concrete) and construction shacks 
were erected to accommodate a gang of fifty men. 

Everything is now in readiness to proceed with the erection of the building and 
masts. It is estimated that the installation will take sixty working days to com- 
plete, provided reasonable weather is encountered when erecting the two 300-foot towers. 
"When completed, the Mansel Island station will communicate with the outside world 
via the station at Port Nelson, Man. The latter station is owned by the Department 
of Railways and Canals, and communicates with a similar station located at Le Pas, 
Man., at which point connection is made with the Great Xorth "Western Telegraph 
system. Both the Port Nelson and Le Pas stations are operated by the Department 
of the Naval Service on behalf of the Department of Railways and Canals. 

CRUISE OF THE SCHOONER "bURLEIGH." 

Outward voyage. — The departmental three-masted schooner Burleigh, 149 tons, 
equipped with 40-horsepower gasolene auxiliary, left Halifax on the 20th July, 1915, 
for Mansel island (at the western entrance to the Hudson strait), taking a gang of 
twenty-four men and material to commence work on the radiotelegraph station which 
will be established on the above island. 

The schooner arrived off cape Chidley (the eastern entrance to Hudson strait) 
sixteen days later (5th August), and ran into heavy ice; no progress was made for 
three days owing to ice and strong currejits. On the 8th August the ice eased up, 
and she continued through the strait. Loose ice was prevalent across the mouth of 
LTngava bay, but not sufficient to seriously delay progress. No ice was encountered 
after the vessel was half-way through the strait, and she finally arrived at Eric cove (at 
the western entrance to the strait) on the 17th August. 

It will be noted that the vessel took ten days to get through the strait. This, 
however, was more due to prevailing head winds than to ice; the time lost on account of 
the latter is estimated at three to four days. 

The auxiliary power on tl\e Burlrigh is inadequate, the same not being powerful 
enough to drive her against even a moderate head wind. 

Mansel Island. — The Burleigh arrived at Mansel island on the 18th of August, 
and was moored in the cove at the north end of the island.' The party remained 
there until the 15th September. During this period snow squalls were encountered 
on the 24th and 20th of August, and 13th and l7th of September, respectively, but 
enow did not fall in any quantity; the temperature varied between 32° and 35° F., 



DEPARTMi:.\T OF THE yAYAL SERVICE 101 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

risinir at times as \\\^\\ as 40°. The nlfjlit tomperatiiro was Tniicli the same as the 
day. There were very few calm clays, the usual weather being strong breeze to moder- 
ate gale, and for three days there was one heavy gale. 

Return Voyagp. — On the return voyage the Burleigh left Mansel island on the 
evening of the ISth September, cleared cape Chidley early on the morning of the 
24th (5 J days), arriving at Halifax on the 5th October. 

During the return voyage through the strait no ice was encountered or sighted, 
with the exception of one large iceberg in Ugava bay, and very little snow. The greater 
part of the mainland was, however, covered with snow. 

OPERATORS. 

In view of the importance of the work in which the government wireless opera- 
tors are engaged, the confidential nature of the messages passing through theii 
hands, and the secret instructions with which they must be entrusted, it^ was con- 
sidered advisable to enlist in the Eoyal Naval Canadian Volunteer Reserve, all the 
wireless operators in the employ of the Department of the ISTaval Service. 

A rating as " wireless operator " has therefore been instituted in the Eoyal 
Naval Canadian Volunteer Reserve, and authorized by Order in CouncilP.C. 162, dated 
the 29th January, 1910. The following regulations for the government of the rating 
have been established : — 

Wireless Operators. 

Regulations for the institution and sovernment of the rank of wireless operator R.N.C.V.R., 
authorized by Order in Council P.C. 162, dated January 29, 1916. 

Wireless Operators : 

(1) A rank in the R.N.C.V.R. to be known as "wireless operator" is hereby established. 

Period of Enlistment : 

(2) Wireless operators will be required to enlist in the R.N.C.V.R. for a period not exceeding 
the duration of the war. 

Grades : 

(3) The following grades of wireless operators are established: — Chief W/T operator, 
First class W/T operator. Second class W/T operator, Third class W/T operator. Fourth class 
W/T operator, learner. 

Rank : 

(4) Chief W/T operators will rank as non-executive chief warrant officers. 
Remaining grades of W/T operators will rank as non-executive warrant officers. 

W/T operators will take precedence similar to corresponding rank of non-executive warrant 
officer in the Royal Canadian Navy, but junior to those ranks. 

Rates of Pay : 

(5) Rates of pay for W/T operators will be as follows: — 

Per Month. 

Chief W/T operator $ 62 50 

First class W/T operator 5.5 00 

Second class W/T operator 5'0 00 

Third class W/T operator 45 00 

Fourth class W/T operator 40 00 

Learner 20 00' 

Special Allotvances : 

(6) W/T operators whilst acting as "officers in charge" will receive special allowance as 
follows : — ■ 

Per Month. 

First class station $ 15 00 

Second class station 10 00 

Third class station 5 00 

Ship station 5 00 

(7) The Minister is also authorized to establish special additional allowance in the case of 
operators attached to specially isolated stations, such as those of the Hudson Bay division, etc. 
Lodging, Provisions, Fuel and Light Allowance: 

(8) When lodging, pr-ovisions, fuel and light are not supplied by tha Department, the 
following allowances will be made; 



102 i)i:i'\Jn'Mi:sr or the s.wm. seumce 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

East Const. 

For Month. 

Provisions 5 20 OK) 

Lodging, fuel and light 7 50 

Consolidated $ 27 50 

West Coast. 

Per Month. 

Provisions $ 22 50 

Lodging, fuel, and light 8 00 

Consolidated $ 30 50 

Travelling Expenses : 

(9) W/T operators when travelling will receive sustenance allowance as follows: — 

Between 5 
24 hours. 9 hours, and 9 hours. 

. Kast coast $2 50 $1 25 fO 75 

West coast 2 75 1 50 85 

Uniforms : 

(10) Free uniform and kit will be granted to every W/T operator on joining, as follows: — 
2 monkey jackets, 2 waistcoats, 2 pairs trousers, 1 cap, 2 cap covers, 1 overcoat, 1 suit canvas 
overalls. 

Upkeep of Uniforms : 

(11) An annual gratuity of $37.50 will be allowed to each W/T operator for upkeep of kit. 
Badges : 

(12) W/T operators' uniforms will bear the following distinction badges, according to class: 
Chief W/T operator Wings of Mercury, 1 R.N.C.V.R. stripe without 

curl beow. 

First operator Wings of Mercury, 3 stars, below. 

Second operator Wings of Mercury, 2 stars, below. 

Third operator Wings of Mercury, 1 star below. 

Fourth operator Wings of Mercury. 

Learner Wings of Mercury. 

The above to be gold badges placed on the sleeve, the Wings of Mercury to be half-way 
between the elbow and the end of the sleeve ; the cap badge to be the same as non- 
executive warrant officer. 

No Separation Allowance: 

(13) No separation allowance will be made in the case of W/T operators. 
Other Allowanees: 

(14) No allowances, other than those specifically provided for in this order, will be allowed. 

TRANSPORTS. 

Under an arrangement with the Admiralty, the department has equipped with 
radiotelegrapli apparatus all munition transports plying to Canada, and is supplying 
operators and supervising the operation of the stations on their behalf. 

PERSONNEL. 

The personnel of the radiotelegraph service in the Dominion is as follows: — 







GOVER 


PfilEXT. 




Commercial. 




Head- 
quart- 
ers. 


Coast 
Sta- 
tions. 


Land 
Sta- 
tions. 


Ship 
Sta- 
tions. 


Head- 
quart- 
ers. 


Coast 
Sta- 
tions. 


Land 

Sta- 
tions. 


Ship 
Sta- 
tions. 


Engincons and officers in charge... . 
Operators 


1 


20 

35 



2 


2 
5 

1 


49 

7 

r 


7 

52 
2 


31 

35 

3 

3 


19 
17 
32 


66 


Otlicr employees 


5 

3 




Executive ofiicials and inspectors. . 










9 


63 


8 


57 


61 


72 


^ 


66 



Total personnel, 404. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 103 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38 

I am pleased to report that the staif dircetly in the employ of this department have 
taken {;reat interest in their work and have carried out their duties in a satisfactory 
and efficient manner. 

In addition to the work outlined in this report a very considerable amount of a 
confidential character has been undertaken in connection with the war. 

It would be inexpedient to give details of the latter at the present time, although it 
comprised perhaps the major portion of the branch's activities. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. P. EDWARDS, 

General Supcrinlendent, Government Radiotelegraph Service. ■ 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a A. 1917. 



SUPPLEMENT 



6th ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF NAVAL SERVICE, 

FISHERIES BRANCH 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



TO 



CANADIAN BIOLOGY 



BEING STUDIES FROM THE 



BIOLOGICAL STATIONS OF CANADA 
1915-1916 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF PARLIAMENT. 






OTTAWA 

PRINTED BY J. dk L. TACHF, 
PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLE>.T MAIKSTV 

1917 
[38a— 1917] A 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a A. 1917 



THE BIOLOGICAL BOARD OF CANADA 

Professor E. E. PRINCE, Commissioner of Fisheries, Chairman. 

Professor A. B. MACALLUM, University of Toronto, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Professor L. W. BAILEY, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B. 

Professor A. H. R. BULLER, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

Rev. Canon V. A. HUARD, Laval University, Museum of Public Instruction, Quebec, P.Q. 

Professor A. P. KNIGHT, Queen's University, Kingston, Ont. 

Professor J. P. McMURRICH, University of Toronto, Toronto. 

Dr. A. H. MacKAY, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. 

Professor J. G. ADAMI, McGill University, Montreal. 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a A. 1917 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 
I. The Winter riatiktoii in tlie neiglibourliood of St. Andrews, 1914-15.. .. 1 
By Professor J. Playftiir McMurrieh, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of 
Anatomy in the University of Toronto. 
(With table showing Plankton Distribution.) 

IJ. Diatoms and Lobster Hearing 11 

By Prof. W. T. MacClement, M.A., D.Sc, Queen's University, 

Kingston. 
(With six figures in the text.) 

III. On the Scales of the Spring Salmon 21 

By C. McLean Eraser, Ph.D., Curator Pacific Coast Biological 

Station, Departure Bay, British Columbia. 

(With four Plates and two Graphs.) 

IV. On the Life-History of the Coho 39 

By C. McLean Fraser, Ph.D., Curator Pacific Coast Biological 

Station, B.C. 

(With three Plates and six Graphs.) 

V. An Investigation of Oyster Propagation in Richmond Bay, P.E.I., during 

1915 53 

By Julius Nelson, Ph.D., Biologist, New Jersey Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 

VI. The ^larine Algff of the Passamaquoddy Eegion, New Brunswick. ... 79 
By A. B. Klugh, M.A., Queen's University, Kingston, Ont. 
(With one Plate.) 

VII. On Serially Striped Haddock in New Brunswick 86 

By Professor Edward E. Prince, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S.C., etc.. 

Dominion Commissioner of Fisheries, Ottawa. 

(With one Plate.) 

VIII. Notes on the Phyto-Plankton of the Bay of Fundy and Passamaquoddy 

Bay 93 

By Professor L. W. Bailey, M.A., Ph.D.. LL.D., F.KS.C, 

Emeritus Professor of Natural Llistory, University 

of New Brunswick. 

IX. The Geological Features of the St. Croix River and Passamaquoddy Bay. . 109 
By Professor L. W. Bailey, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., etc.. University 
of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B. 
(With Map.) 

iii 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 33a A. 1917 



PREFACE. 

BY PROFESSOR EDAVARD E. PRINCE, LLD., D.SC, F.R.S.C, etC, DOMINION COMMISSIONER OF 
FISHERIES, CHAIRMAN OF THE BIOLOGICAL BOARD OF CANADA; MEMBER OF THE BRITISH 
SCIENCE GUILD, LONDON; VICE-PRESIDENT INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES CONGRESS, WASH- 
INGTON, D.C., 1907 ;and chairman of international relations, American fisheries 

SOCIETY. 

The series of nine biological papers, included in the present publication, com- 
prises a selection of the researches completed by various members of the scientific 
staff, last season, and includes some work done in previous seasons at the two Cana- 
dian Biological Stations, at St. Andrews, New Brunswick, and at Departure Bay, 
British Columbia. 

Several very important investigations might have been included, but are not 
really complete at this date; two bearing directly upon the utilization of certain fish- 
products for food ; but they will be published in the next volume of " Contributions." 
The question of a serial publication, or of the issue of separate papers as they^ reach 
completion, has occupied the attention of the Biological Board, especially in view of 
the fact that some researches can be completed earlier for publication than others, 
and yet are held back in order to appear in the same volume with papers which for 
various reasons cannot be hastened. About twenty trained scientific workers from 
eight different Universities have during the past season attended one or other of the 
Stations, and all engaged in marine and fishery studies of special interest, and in 
most cases of direct value practically and scientifically. 

Purely scientific problems, while not neglected, have not formed a prominent 
feature in the biological investigations at the stations under the Board, and on many 
occasions there has been official recognition of the value to the Government of the 
researches undertaken. This appreciation of the practical bearing on the great fishing 
industries of Canada, of their work, has been a great satisfaction to the staff. Most of 
them carry on their work without recompense from the Government, and in no case 
has adequate recompense been possible. The main reward has been the satisfaction 
which original discovery in Science affords, the satisfaction of adding to man's know- 
ledge of Nature and her resources, and of solving the pressing problems which the 
great industries on our seas and inland waters offer for solution to trained scientific 
experts. 

During the year 1915 Dr. Johan Iljort, Director of Fisheries, Norway,. continued 
tlic comprehensive survey of the waters of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Maritime 
Provinces shores which he had commenced the year before. Such a fishery survey, 
having special reference to the hei-ring, cod, etc., had been considered by the Biological 
Board in 1909, and the Board had decided to enlist, if possible, the skilled aid of Dr. 
TTjort, or some Norse expert to be selected by him, and, as Chairman of the Board, 
] wrote to Dr. Hjort on the subject. Professor E. W. McBride, who was then the 
representative of McGill University on the Board, followed up my communication, 
and Dr. Hjort replied recommending a qualified junior member of his scientific fishery 
staff; but, owing to cei-tain conditions involved, the proposal remained in abeyance. 
Two years later the proposition was revived by the Biological Board, who laid the 



vi DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

natter before the Tlon. the Minister because of the fact that the ordinary appropria- 
tion avaihiWo was too limited to allow of a large expenditure upon such a fishery 
expedition. No final decision was reached until 1914, when the scheme took practical 
shape and Dr. lljort, in the fall of that year, began his researches. During his second 
season (1915) in (^anada ho carried o\it a very elaborate series of investigations, and 
several members of the liiological staff took part, including Professor Willey, Dr. A. 
G. Huntsman. Dr. J. W. ^favor, and Commander Anderson and other officers of the 
Naval Service Department. 

A series of volinninous memoirs, most of them fully illustrated, is now in the 
}.rinter's hands, and the results of this imi)ortiint Atlantic Fishery Expedition will 
be of permanent interest and value. 

As in iirevious volumes of the Hii»lii<iic;il C'ontributions, I give a brief resume 
ot the several papers which follr)W, for cctiivenience of reference, and to afford a ready 
means of knowing some of tlie main points set forth by the authors. 

1. TiiK \ViNri:i! Plankton, St. Andrew.s, 1914-l.j. — (Professor McMurrich.) 

Previous J'lankton investigations have been carried on iji summer; but in view 
of tlie importance, as a source of nutriment for marine fishes, of the minute organisms 
floating in the sea, it appeared desirable to study these organisms in winter, as well 
as during the warmer months of the year, and ^Mr. Arthur Calder, a permanent officer 
of the St. Andrews Biological Station, made collections from September, 1914, to May, 
191"). About twenty stations were visited regularly and suitable plankton nets used 
at the surface and at a depth of three fathoms. The depth and temperature (of the 
air and water), and the condition of the tide, were recorded on each occasion. Pro- 
fessor Mc^Iurrich ])oints out that the collections at three fathoms depth showed greater 
abundance than near the surface; but the finer net used at the latter level may have 
influenced the result. The author grades the occurrence of the different species 
identified by him as " abundant," or " frequent," or " occasional," or " rare," and a 
study of the synoptical table, at the end of the paper, gives at a glance the comparative 
results. Among the microscopic plant-forms, the sub-globular Coscinodiscus (four 
species) is most constant, but it increases in abundance as spring comes on. Next, 
but much less constant, is Biddulphia. Ckaetoeeras, four or five species, occurs 
throughout the winter near the surface; but Thalassiosira and Rhizosolenia become 
suddenly most abundant in ^fay and Ai)ril. Ceratium and Peridinium, several species, 
were not frequent. 

Curiously enough, some familiar animal forms seemed to be absent in winter, 
snch as the Foraminifera, Radiolarians, and Infusorians, a few of the latter only 
occurring. Similarly Hydroids, and Echinoderm larvae, were rare in contrast to their 
frequency in summer. Higher animals, e.g., worms, mollusks, and the like, were rare, 
one Sagitta being taken on January 1st, and a number of Plutei, and Tlolothurian ova 
and larvae, in April and ^lay. Minute crustaceans form, as a rule, a most abundant 
e^.ement in the zoo-plankton, and the Copepods or water-fleas appeared during the 
winter to be most constant, very few of the Cladocera being taken (viz. a si^)ecies of 
Podon about the middle of October at three fathoms depth; Temora, Harpacticus, 
Zaxis, etc., being abundant or frequent, but Calani, species of which the rarest forms 
were I'arathnlestris Jacksoni, not brfore recorded in west Atlantic waters, and a 
single IlalUhalestrit. Larval crabs and allied forms were rare, no lobster fry occurred; 
but Tunicate larvae were secured early in November and January, and Aiijiendicu- 
larians in October. Only a few fish eggs and one small shore fisli (pelagic stage) were 
obtained. 

The winter plankton in these waters would not appear to be so abundant or varied 
as anticipated; but it may be that, by using modified nets and by more extended work, 
areas of plentitude may be discovered to which the schools of young fish resort for 
feeding purposes. 



PREFACE vii 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

2. Diatoms and Lobstkr Rkari.\(;. — (Professor MacClemeni.) 

Professor Knight's laborious researches have shown that efforts to rear lobsters 
through the young stages in hatching ponds have been hampered by several difficulties, 
one of tlic most serious being the diatom post. After hatching, larval lobsters crowd 
near the lighted surface layers of the water, until after four or five moults they seek 
shelter at the bottom. While under the influence of sunlight they become loaded with 
microscopic plants, the diatoms forming a feathery coat as it were, and so incom- 
mode the floating larval lobsters that they wore observed to sink to the bottom of the 
boxes used in the experiments at Long Beach, Nova Scotia. 

After a description of the structure of diatoms, and of the three or four species 
chiefly affecting young lobsters, the author dwells upon the two principal methods of 
combatting the pest, viz., by copper sulphate solution, which proved fatal when only 
li to 2 parts in tlu-ee million parts of water were tried; and a second method, i.e., the 
screening from direct sunlight of the rearing boxes. Under this latter method larval 
lobsters loaded witli diatoms soon lost a great many of them, and they moulted earlier, 
viz., in nine days, whereas the lobster fry not shaded from sunlight did not moult 
until the thirteenth day. Licmophora was the chief pest, but a list of nineteen species 
oi diatoms occurring in the boxes is given, and the relation of the plankton to the 
sessile diatom pest is interestingly explained. 



3. The Scales of the Sprixo SAL:\roN. — (Dr. C. McLean Fraser.) 

After reference to other work on fish scales, as affording information on the 
growth of fishes. Dr. Fraser states that the rings of growth in the Spring Salmon or 
Quinnat are much more regular in arrangement than those of the herring scale, and 
closely resemble the growth in a twig of wood (in cross section) ; the rings being 
closer and more comijact in winter (the "winter check")? whereas from late in April 
to late in November the rings are wider, like the looser texture of the summer growth 
in the twig. Dr. Fraser noticed between March 17th and April 22nd, and between 
November 27th and January 5th, there were in many specimens evidences of retard- 
ation of growth, as Einar Lea had also noticed in the Norwegian herring. Careful 
tests made by the author did not show any relation between the temperature of the 
water and the retardation or the acceleration of growth, and the '' graphs " given in 
the paper fully confirm this negative result. Nor does variation in food-supply appear 
to explain the phenomenon. An exhaustive study of the growth of the fish was made 
from the time when the fry (li inches long), not yet provided with scales, descend? 
to the sea. 

At the end of the year the fish are 10 inches long usually and weigh about half a 
pound. Not all the fry descend the first year; but some remain, and acquire their 
scaly covering in fresh water. The summer rings are close together, so slow is the 
growth of the fish in fresh water, and the two types of fish are remarkably contrasted 
even when both mingle in the same schools in the sea. Thus, the fish which reach the 
sea from March to April in their first year, may be 20i inches long and weigh 4 pounds 
or over; but the delayed fish are only 14 inches and of a weight of a pound. In the 
third year they are respectively 28^ inches and 14 pounds weight, and 23 inches and 
6 pounds weight; while, in the fourth' year, they are in length 33 inches and 30 inches, 
and in weight 22 pounds and 16 pounds respectively. The more rapid growth of the 
" sea type " indicates that the retention of the fry in ponds is a mistake, and based on 
lack of accurate knowledge of the peculiarities of the Pacific Quinnat Salmon. Four 
very graphic plates and two diagrams establish the important conclusions reached 
by Dr. Fraser. 



viii DKI'MiTMIS T (>F THE .V.IV.IL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
1. On Tin; Lii i;-llisTi)in ok tiii: (UnuK—i JJr. McLean Fraser.) 

The autliDr points out that tho incrtnising commercial value of the Colio <tr Silver 
Salmon (Oncorhi/nrlnis l-isiilr]t) in recent years justifies a thorough investigation of 
its life-history, rate of ;;i()\vth, ct'-. The si)a\vniny; j^rounds are usually a short distance 
from the sea, and not at tlie liead waters, as in the case of the Sockeye and the Spring 
Salmon. The eggs hatch in three months and the young fry wriggle up through the 
gravel early in April, and work down the rivers as the yolk is absorbed, and early in 
May many are near the mouth of their natal streams and creeks, but do not appear to 
migrate into the sea until the following March, or even later. The alevins measure 
i\ inches; but when they are about to enter salt water (nearly a year old), they 
measure 2 to 25 inches about; and eight or nine months later are 10 to 12 inches long 
and of a weight of 12 to 14 ounces. "When 2\ years old or thereabout, they may be 
3| to 16J pounds in weight, and from 18 to 31 inches long, so great is the variation 
in growth. They are now mature and make tlie short ascent to their spawning grounds. 

Dr. Fraser proves that the opinion, which has been frequently expressed, that coho 
live for two or three years in rivers feeding on trout is absurd, and the reverse is 
much nearer the truth, for trout gorge themselves with coho eggs and devour the fry 
mercilessly. The Dolly Varden trout (S. mahna) is the chief culprit. The mature 
coho feed actively until ready to ascend for spawning purposes; the shrimp-like 
Schizopods being their main food, but larval crabs, young herring, launce, and capelin, 
form also part of their diet. Dr. Fraser's investigations correct the conclusions of 
previous workers as to the migrations and development of the coho, and three points, 
with which his report concludes, are of the highest interest to practical fish-culturists, 
viz., that the hatching of coho in fish-culture establishments is most desirable to avoid 
the wastage due to trout-depredations; and, secondly, that the retention of coho fry 
in rearing ponds must bring the best results, as almost the whole of the fry hatched 
naturally remain for a year or more in fresh water before descending to the sea. 
Lastly, early coho fishing operations are a loss to the fishermen and the canners, as the 
coho vastly increases in weight during the summer of its third year. 

5. Investigation of Oyster Propagation in Eiciimond Bay^ P.E.T., during 1915. — 

(Dr. Julius Nelson.) 

The author, who was long prominent as a State Expert in New Jersey, U.S.A., 
agreed to carry on some special work in 1915 on the Richmond Bay Oyster Beds, 
P.E.I., and obtained some very remarkable results. These are difficult to epitomise 
owing to the very detailed nature of the investigation. The decline and extinction of 
certain areas are due not to the elevation of the beds, geologically, or by annual accu- 
mulations of debris, but to other causes. If the coast has been sinking, as seems prob- 
able, the intrusion of colder northern water may have lowered the temperature and 
the salinity may have been affected. Too much stress, says the author, has been prob- 
ably laid on salinity, for oysters can endure much variation in that respect; but 
temperature, oxygen, and currents, are of importance. 

Ice and snow also are unfavourable. Shallow water is favourable for propagation; 
but, in winter, results in oyster destruction; hence man can aid by oyster culture, 
especially by transplanting young oysters from shallow flats to deeper water, before 
winter comes. The main cause of destruction of beds has been improper fishing. 
Were private culture general each man would conserve the oysters, and fish them 
properly. 

Dr. Nelson calls attention to the fact that a large spawning oyster produces 
annually 00,000,000 eggs, and he estimates that an oyster bed readily produces ten to 
fifteen millions of young for each adult present. In five years a bed should be ten 
million times larger; yet beds are decreasing and decaying. 



PREFACE ix 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 



Unfavourable causes are noticed, viz. : — (1) Eggs must be fertilized within a 
quarter of an hour of ejection to undergo normal development; (2) Eggs may be pre- 
vented from settling by agitation in the water; (3) Floating enemies such as water- 
fleas, and the young of other shellfish, devour them; (4) Owing to the sweeping of the 
tide, twice daily, myriads of oyster fry are lost; (5) Slime, silt, etc., prevent the 
fixation of the spat to dead shells and other "cultch"; (0) Boring sea-snails, starfish, 
bottom fishes, etc., devour the oysters, and, lastly, man himself destroys them. 
Systematic plans of conserving oyster beds are then detailed, and the necessity of 
oyster leases urged. The methods adopted for testing the special areas examined in 
llichmond Bay are described, and the numbers of oyster larvae obtained in definite 
cubic quantities of water. The maximum found was two young oysters to one quart 
of water in Grand lliver. This small yield is contrasted with the i)rofusion of oysters 
on more southerly areas as in New Jersey, where several hundred young oysters per 
quart of water was very usual. Some oysters shed their eggs towards the end of July, 
but the date varied in different localities, fry ten days old being got on August 5th, 
but it continued until September, some oysters becoming fixed spat as late as Septem- 
ber 16th or 18th. 

To prevent the formation of bacterial slime, a number of shells were coated with 
coal tar, as a fine catch of spat had fastened on the tarred bottom of a boat the previous 
season. The result showed only two-fifths as many fixed young as on the uncoated 
clean oyster shell. The smooth and the rough side were equal in results, and the left 
valve attracted twice as many as the right valve, though in gaping empty oyster shells, 
l.ying naturally on the bottom, the right valve always secures more spat. Further 
experiments are desirable, especially with cultch coated with a cement composed of 
equal parts of lime, sand, and cement, as used on European oyster beds. Dr. Nelson's 
conclusion is that 8,000 acres might be made productive in Richmond Bay, which 
covers 32,000 acres, and that a million bushels per annum could be produced were 
rational scientific methods adopted. 

f. The Marine Algae of the Passamaquoddy Region, N.B. — (Mr. A. B. Klugh, M.A.) 

Mr. Klugh covers in his paper the area from St. Stephen, at the head of naviga- 
tion on the St. Croix River, to Grand Manan, and notes that the algal flora is boreal, 
but shows a marked " inside " or mainland shore division, and an " outside " division 
comprising the shores of what are called the West Isles, and due doubtless to the 
difference in salinity. The "outside" waters have a specific gravity of 1-0235 to 
1-0242, and salt content of 3-201 to 3-280, as compared with the "inside" waters 
where the figures are — specific gravity 1-0226 to 10235, and salts 2-99 to 3-202, as 
Mr. Copeland found. Of the Cyanophycese Mr. Klugh names twelve species; the 
Chlorophycese 24 species; the Phaeophycese 23 species; and the Rhodophyceae 26 
species. 

The features of the shores are shown in views on Plate viii, the gigantic Laminaria 
longicruris, the largest alga in this region, is well shown in a photo-figure, the specimen 
selected being five feet ten inches long, with a stipe 9 feet long. Dermocarpa prasina, 
and four other species of Cyanophyceae, are recorded by the author for the first time 
in Canada. The habitat, and other interesting notes are given. 

7. Serially Striped Haddock in New Brunswick. — (Professor Prince.) 

Specimens of haddock with four to six transverse black stripes are frequently 
l-rought to the Biological Station, and the author compares them with other species 
showing metameric bars, in post-larval or older stages, and he concludes that they are 
ancestral in significance, and not protective or illustrative of mimicry and the like. 

38a— B 



X DEFARTMEST OF Ttl t-' WWAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

8, Notes ox tiik Puyto-Pi.ankton of the Bay of Fundy and Passamaquoduy Bay. — 

(Professor Bailey.) 

Professor Bailey continues his laborious studies of the microscopic plant-life of 
our Atlantic waters. lie determines the species in gatherings made in successive 
months of the year, December excepted, and adds a list of diatoms secured in tow- 
nettings made by the Prince, the biological vessel belonging to the station at St. 
Andrews. He points out that non-plankton ic species are frequently met with amongst 
neritic species secured far from shore, and the distinction is often, therefore, ill-defined. 
The gatherings in various months differ greatly, for while in January under twenty 
species were determined in the gatherings from St. Andrews to St. John, in August 
nearly eighty species were found. The Prince collections are similarly detailed, and 
interesting notes added including reference to a species of Thalassiothrix which is 
probably new to science. 

9. The Geological Features of the St. Choix Eiver and Passamaquoddy Bay. — 

(Professor Bailey.) 

In response to a suggestion made to Professor Bailey, he has prepared a condensed 
account of the geology of the site of the St. Andrews station and its environment. 
The Upper Devonian rocks of red sandstones and conglomerates of the St. Andrews 
peninsula contrast with the granites of the Maine shore opposite and of Dochet island 
above the station, and the Silurian strata extending from lake Utopia and St. George to 
Oak bay, both sides of the entrance and both sides of Waweig inlet. The interesting 
features, largely Pre-Cambrian probably, of the Western Isles are also indicated in the 
paper. 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a A. 1917 



THE WINTER PLANKTON IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF ST. ANDREWS, 

1914-15. 

By Professor J. Playfair IMoMurkicii, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of Anatomy in the 

University of Toronto. 

With the object of determining the general character of the winter plankton in 
the vicinity of the Biological Station, St. Andrews, N.B., the caretaker of the station, 
A. B. Calder, was instructed to make collections of the plankton during the winter of 
1914-15, and to preserve the material collected in formalin. Collections were con- 
sequently made at frequent intervals from the latter part of September, 1914, until 
the end of May, 1915, and in what follows, the results of a qualitative 
study of the collections are given. Acknowledgment must be made of the conscientious 
manner in which Calder fulfilled the task with which he was entrusted, th* collec- 
tions having been made with sufficient frequency to give an excellent idea of the 
character of the winter plankton, and the material being well preserved. Two 
collections were taken at each station in the majority of cases, one at the surface 
and one at a depth of about 6 metres (3 fathoms), and at each station the tempera- 
ture of both the air and the surface-water was taken, and the condition of the tide 
noted. The only misfortune that occurred was the loss of the labels of some of the 
collections, chiefly of those made in the early autumn, so that these collections camiot 
be included in the table which forms an appendix to this report. Their omission, how- 
ever, does not modify the qualitative character of the plankton as shown by the remain- 
ing collections. 

In studying the collections, the volume of the material contained in each one was 
measured, and since nets of the same mesh were used throughout and the time of 
the towing was the same, i.e., twenty minutes for each collection, the amounts 
obtained indicate approximately the relative abundance of the plankton in the different 
gatherings of the series. Obviously, however, they furnish no indication of the 
absolute amount of material present in the water of Passamoquoddy bay, since no 
data were available as to the volume of water filtered through the nets during the 
towing. So many factors, uncontrollable in the series of collections under con- 
sideration, enter into the question of the determination of the absolute plankton 
volume, that it did not seem worth while to attempt an estimation of the volume of 
water filtered by the nets. The amounts obtained have, therefore, only a relative 
interest. One feature is, however, shown very clearly by the figures, namely, that with 
rare exceptions the collections from the 6-metre level were considerably larger than 
those from the surface. This may or may not have a bearing in the distribution of 
the plankton, since the conditions under which the collections at the two levels were 
made were not quite identical, the surface collections having been made with a net 
of finer mesh than that used at the 6-metre level. The greater fineness of the sur- 
face net may have caused so much diminution of flow through it, that much less 
water was actually filtered by it than by the 3-fathom net, in which case a less 
amount of plankton, even though its distribiTtion were uniform at both levels, would 
be expected in the surface collection. In future series the conditions for the gather- 
ings at the two levels will be made more uniform, and it is hoped that a definite 
result will be obtained as to this question of distribution. 

Samples were taken of each collection and, so far as possible, the various forms 
observed in each were identified and recorded, an attempt being made to indicate 

38a— 1 



2 DEI'AUTMEyT Ol' THE .V.IT/IL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

the relative abundance of each form by estimating the freciueney with which it 
occurred. Four classes of frequency were recognized and termed abundant, frequent, 
occasional, and rare, the last being employed when only one or two examples of a 
form were found in a sample, the other terms explaining themselves in a general 
way on this basis. In the table these terms have, for convenience, been indicated 
by the number? -4-1, 4 standing for abundant, H for fre(|uent, etc. Seasonal variations 
in the character of the iilankton arc revealed in this way, and a few remarks may be 
made upon these variations and on various forms occurring in the collection so far 
as they have been certainly identified. 

THE PIIYTOPLANKTOX. 

Less attention was given to the phyto- than to the zooplaiikton, partly on account 
of the inaccessibility of the literature necessary for the identification of the forms, 
and partly because the Diatoms which form a major portion of it have already been 
discussed by Bailey.* The form occurring with the greatest constancy is the diatom 
Coscinodiscus, which is absent from but a few of the collections througliout the 
entire period which they represent. With the onset of spring, however, it becomes 
somewhat more abundant than in the winter months, behaving in this respect like 
other members of the phyto-plankton. Four different forms of the genus have been 
recognized, which, with the aid of Rattray's Monograph^ and such other literature 
as was accessible, have been identified as C. radiatus Ehr., C. concinnus W. Sm., C. 
centralis Rattray, and C. fasciculatus O'Me. The first three species have already been 
recorded by Bailey, and may be distinguished from one another and from C. fascicu- 
latus by C. radiatus being the smallest, and having distinctly coarser markings and 
no central rosette or space; by C. centralis having a central rosette, but no signs of 
fasciculation of the markings at the periphery, near which are situated asymmetric- 
ally two apiculi; by C. concinnus having a central rosette, much finer markings than 
either of the others, these markings showing indications of fasciculation towards the 
periphery, and each fasciculating line terminating there in a minuie apiculus; and 
by C. fasciculatus having a central space, and the markings arranged in fasciculi, 
each of about nine radial rows, the central one of which alone reaches the central 
space, the others terminating at successively greater distances from it. 

Next in order of constancy to Coscinodiscus, though falling much behind it, 
was Biddulphia, the most frequently occurring species being B. aurita Lyngb., although 
a much larger form with small scattered chloroplasts, probably B. mohiliensis Grun, 
was also observed in several gatherings. From October, \mtil about the end of 
February, Biddulphia was rare or absent from the collections, but throughout starch 
and April it was of frequent occurrence, diminishing again rapidly in May. Its 
seasonable distribution was, therefore, similar to that of Coscinodiscus, except that 
the latter is more frequently present throughout the winter months, reaching a maxi- 
mum frequency in March and April, 

Examples of Vhaetoceras occurred at rare intervals throughout the winter, 
becoming more numerous and more constant in April, and, it may also be noted, 
occurring most frequently in the surface collections, only having been observed in 
two occasions in those of the 6-metre level. At least four or five different species 
were observed, all belonging to Gran's sub-genus Hyalocliaeta' 

1 L. W. Bailey. Some recent Diatoms, fresh-water and marine, from the vicinity of the 
Biological Station, .'•'t. Andrews, N.B., August 20-30, 1909. Contributions to Canadian Biology, 
1906-10. Ottawa, 1912. 

L. W. Bailey. The Plankton Diatoms of the Bay of Fundy. Contributions to C.-inadian 
Biology, 1911-14. Ottawa, 1915. 

-'J. Rattray. A Revision of the Genus Coscinodiscus and some Allied Gerera. Hioc. Roy. 
See Edinburgh, xvi, 1899. 

8 H. H. Gran. Protophyta in Norwegian North-Atlantic Expedition, vii. 1897. 



THE }Y INTER I'LAXKTON 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 



The most frequent form was what seemed to be C. laciniosum Schiitt with a single 
chromatophore, the foramina slightly constricted at the middle, and the terminal 
setaj marked by a delicate spiral line most easily seen in dried samples; spores were 
not observed. Somewhat less frequent was a spirally coiled form which seemed to 
be C. curvisetum Cleve, with a single chromatophore adjacent to the front of each 
frustule. C. decipiens Cleve was still rarer, but readily distinguished from the others 
by its coarser setae and the occurrence of four to six chromatophores, and a single 
example of a form with numerous scattered chromatophores, thus resembling C. teres 
Cleve, and another with two chromatophores adjacent to the ends of the frustule ((7> 
constnctum Gran.?) were also observed. 

An interesting seasonal distribution was shown by Thalassiosira N ordenslcjoldii 
Cleve. Throughout October, November, and the winter months this species did not 
pf^cur iTi lhp f'ollcr'tions, hut on March 13 it suddenly appeared in considerable quan- 
tities. It was again taken on March 25 and 26, though not in any great numbers, 
but on April 4 it formed by far the greater bulk of the plankton, which condition 
persisted until the collections ceased at the end of May. 

Another genus that showed a distinct maximum of occurrence at the end of 
March and the beginning of April was Rhizosolenia, so far at least as its most 
frequently occurring species, K. setigera Brightwell, was concerned. R. styliformis 
Brightwell was also observed, but only in one collection, and another form, which 
seems to be very similar to R. gracillima Cleve was also observed. This last form 
was observed on four occasions, October 16 and 20, February 26 and March 2, and 
on all occasions except the last it was found in collections made at the 6-metre level, 
while it was absent, or at all events rare, in the surface collections made on the same 
dates and at the same stations. Whenever found it was in great numbers. The 
frustules were long, filiform, without any sitrn? of markings except a slight depres- 
sion close to each extremity, and were filled with small, scattered oval or circular 
chromatophores. The longest individuals measured as much as 2-2 mm., with a 
diameter of 0-0075 mm., and the great majority exceeded 1-0 mm. in length. These 
measurements greatly exceed those given by Cleve^ in the description of the species, 
hut otherwise the agreement is close. A species of Schizonema, and one of Fragilaria 
were also somewhat more abundant in the early spring months, and examples of 
other genera were occasionally observed, but no attempt was made to determine their 
exact identity. Of the genera so represented, mention m«\y he made of Navicnla^ 
Rhahdonema, Gomphonemn. BacAlJaria, and Campidodi^rtis. 

Of occasional occurrence also were certain filamentous alg?e, the only one that 
was identified even as to the genuft, being a species of Cladophora, which, like many 
of the diatoms, showed a maximum of occurrence, its greatest frequency and con- 
stancy being in the early part of April, and being of only a few days' duration. 

DIXOFLAGELLATA. 

The most frequent representative of this group was the well-known Ceratium 
tripos (0. F. M.) Nitzsch, C. fusus (Ehr) Dujard. also occurring, though not quite 
so frequently, and C. furca (Ehr) Dujard. was recognized in two gatherings, but 
only in very small numbers. Of the genus Feridinium, P. divergens var. reniforme 
Ehr. (P. depressum Bailey) was found occasionally, and was the only member of the 
genus recognized. Dinophysis norvegica C. and L. was also observed, but only on one 
occasion. None of the Dinoflagellates occurred in such numbers as be important 
quantitative constituents of the plankton, G. tripos only on one occasion being in 
sufficient quantity to be regarded as frequent. 

1 P. T. Cleve. On some new and little-known diatoms. K. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl, xviiU 
No. 5, 1881. 

38a— 14 



4 iii:r\h'T]ii:\T of the vaval service 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

SIMCOFI.AfiKI.LATA. 

Of this group only one form was observod, Dislephanus speculum (Ehr) Stohr, 
and this only on three occasions. It was frequent in a gathering from the 6-metre 
level on March C, but on the other two occasions it was rare (October 20, 6-metres) or 
occasional (Afarch 2, surface"). 

RIIIZOPODA. 

No Radiolaria were observed. These forms being essentially pelagic, it seems 
probable that they would only rarely, if ever, be found in waters so remote from the 
open sea as those in the neighbourhood of St. Andrews. Foraniinifera, too, were 
absent, a single Rotalia being the only one observed, and that in a gathering which 
contained a good deal of sand, indicating that the net at the 6-metre level had come 
into contact with the bottom. 

CILIATA. 

In addition to a Vortieellid that was almost invariably found attached to the 
Copepod Acartia clausiij a number of ciliates belonging to the family Tintinnodeae 
were observed. The genus Tintinnopsis was represented by at least three species, the 
most frequent of which was T. campanula (Ehi") Daday. Examples of a form which 
is probably to be regarded as a variety of this were foaind on one occasion, 
their peculiarity being that they tapered aborally much more rapidly than the 
typical campanula, thus resembling closely the form figured by Brandt^ in his -fig. 8, 
pi, xxi. A single example was seen of T. ventricosa (C. and L.), characterized by its 
somewhat rotund " house," tapering aborally to a blunt point and with the mouth- 
opening greatly constricted by a circular prolongation, which, in the prefeerved 
example, was liorizontal in position. A third form, of which again but a single 
example was seen, was considerably larger than the others and had an almost cylin- 
drical form, enlarging only very slightly towards the mouth, and being rounded 
chorally ; the length was about twice the breadth. In its general form it resembled 
closely that described by von Daday- as T. heroidea, but Brandt does not consider 
this identical with the form originally so named by Stein. Among the si^ecies 
described by Brandt the greatest similarity of form is shown by T. sacculus, but, 
^jnfortunately, the notes and drawing made of the St. Andrews form are insufficiently 
detailed to make identification with this certain. 

Of occasional occurrence, and in one gathering (October 20) almost frequent, 
was a species of Cyttar-ocylis, whose specific identity is also uncertain. It refeembles 
C. Ehrenhergi (C. and L.) Fol. very closely in its general form and in the fact that 
the cavity of the " house " is not continued into the aboral prolongation This latter 
structure, however, is cylindrical in form, showing no traces of the three flange-like 
ridges which Brandt regards as characteristic of the tpecies, although these are not 
noted by other writers. The surface of the "house" presents a very fine reticula- 
tion and has a minutely and irregularly corrugated appearance, most pronounced in 
the aboral prolongation. Near the mouth there is a narrow circular enlargement 
upon which follows a thin ring, sometimes single, sometimes partly divided into two 
portions by a fine line, as if it were composed of a <-piral momhrane with one and a 
half turns. The free edge of the ring or spiral is practicnllv smooth, and the appear- 
ance presented is similar to that described and figured by Jorgensen* for his 

1 K, Brandt, Die Tlntinnodeen, Ergeb. Plankton Exped., Ill, L, a., 1907, 

2 E. von Daday. Monographie der Famllie der Tintlnnodeen. Mitth. Zool. Stat. NeapeL, 
Vil. 1887, 

3 E. Jorgensen. Ueber die Tintinnoden der Norwegisc'nen Wes tkHste. Bergena Mus. Aarbog., 
1899. 



Till-: Ml^'TER PLANKTON 5 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

C. Ehrenherqi, var. sxOmnnulaia, .Qyice\^i that the turns of the spiral are much fewer. 
The length of the "house" was 0-2G to 0-34 mm., with a diameter at the mouth of 

0.7 to O.S. 

PORIFERA AND COELENTERA. 

What were taken to be sponge spicules were observed in a number of gatherings, 
usually associated with annelid seta?. Their occurrence is sufficiently indicated in 
the table. Of Coelentera, the empty cups of Campanularian hydroids were oecasionnally 
observed associated with Crustacean exuviae, and on October 29 and in the last collec- 
tions that were made (May 29) a few examples of Anthomedusse were observed, but 
unfortunately in a condition very unfavourable for certain determination. 

ECHINODERMATA. 

Throughout the winter, no representatives of this group were taken, but at the 
end of April and beginning of May a few Plutei were obtained which could not be 
satisfactorily identified. On April 6, a considerable number of ova in various stages 
of segmentation up to the blastula stage were found. They were somewhat opaque, 
and inclosed within a thin structureless membrane. They were taken also on April 
10, and with them were then associated larvae which could be recognized as belonging 
to some species of Holothurian. The general appearance of the ova and younerer larvae 
make it exceedingly probable that they were younger stages in the development of the 
same form. The larvae continued to be taken through April and May, and were a 
quite characteristic feature of the plankton during these months. 

Two Holothurians occur at St. Andrews that may be the producers of these ova, 
Cucumaria frondosa Gunner, and Lophothuria fabricii (Dub and Kor). The former 
is the more common, but the fact that the ova and larvae have, when alive, the same 
brilliant scarlet colour that makes Lophothuria fahricii so conspicuous, suggests that 
they may be the product of that species. 

ANNELIDA, NEMATODES, ROTIFERS, AND CHAETOGNATHA. 

Examples of all these groups were observed, but never in such numbers that 
they could be regarded as important elements of the plankton. 

Setae of various forms which evidently were from Annelids were found in fair 
numbers in several gatherings taken after March 1, but of more importance was the 
occurrence of Annelid larvae during April and May, never in any great numbers in 
any gathering, but sometimes reaching the grade of frequency indicated in the table 
by the term " occasional." It was not possible to identify the form which produced 
the larvae, but from their general appearance it seems probable that they represent some 
Spionid form. 

Small Nematodes were occasionally observed in small numbers in the spring- 
gatherings, but no attempt was made to identify them. The same remark applies to 
the Rotifera, which were much rarer than might have been expected. Of the Chaetog- 
naths the only form identified was Sagitta elegans which was taken January 1, the 
identification of some smaller forms taken October 29 .remaining uncertain. 

MOLLUSCA. 

A few veligers were observed, but so rarely tliat they have not been included in 
the table. The peculiar egg-capsule, probably Molluscan, having the shape of a broad- 
rimmed hat, which Wright described from Canso, occurred at intervals throughout 
the season, and sometimes in considerable numbers. Most frequently only the brown 
empty cases were found, though occasionally those containing developing ova were 
obtained. 



6 iti:i'\i;rMi:\T or the y.\TM. fiERViCE 

7 GrCRGE V, A. 1917 
CRUSTACEA. 

The Crustacea are tlie most interestinf? pcroup represented in the zoo-plankton, 
both on account of the number of species represented, and for the fact that, in the 
majority of gatherings, they form the greater bulk of the material. It will be con- 
venient to consider the various forms observed under their proper orders 

Cladocera. 

Representatives of this order were found much lofes frequently than was expected, 
occurring in any considerable numbers in only one gathering, i.e., in that taken 
October IG, from the 6-metre level. All the forms observed in this gathering were 
representatives of the species Podon polyphemoides Leuckart. 

Copepoda. 

Forms belonging to this group were the most constant constituents of the 
plankton, being found in every gathering, with one exception, and usually in con- 
siderable numberfe. It is noteworthy, however, that in the spring months when 
Thalassiosira became a prominent constituent of the plankton, the Copepuda became 
very much reduced in numbers. At least tbis was the case so far as the surface 
■water down to the 6-metre level was concerned, the Thalassiosira extending to that 
depth, but it is quite likely that the Copepoda were present in undiminished numbers 
at levelfc beyond those occupied by the alga. The diminution of the Copepoda in the 
surface water coincidently with the appearance of Thalassiosira is clearly indicated 
in the table if one compares the frequency records for Acariia clausi and the diatom. 

Of the members of the family Ualanidce, special interest attaches to Galanus 
finmarchicus (Gunner) Boeck, on account of its forming so important a constituent 
of the plankton of northern waters. It occurred at intervals throughout the winter, 
but never in any great quantity, although in several gatherings it was present in 
Bufficient numbers to deserve the term " frequent." It is to be noted, however, tbat 
the plankton now under discussion was collected in the immediate vicinity of St. 
Andrews, and it is quite probable that G. finmarchicus may be much more abundant 
in more open water. Herdman in 1897^ found it very abundant in the gulf of St. 
Lawrence and in the Atlantic off the entrance to the straits of Belle Isle, and my 
colleague. Dr. A. G. Huntsman, obtained it in large numbers in rather deep water 
off Eastport, Me., and off Grand Manan in September, 1915. 

The nuich larger C. hyperboreits Kriiyer was observed in only one gathering, 
and then only as a single individual. The fact of its occurrence is, however, of 
interest as it has not previously been recorded from Canadian waters. 

A third Calanid, Pseudocalanus elongatus Boeck, easily recognized by tbe 
absence of the fifth pair of legs in the female, occurred in about the same degree of 
frequency as C. finmarchicus. 

Of the family Centropagida?, the genus Eurytemora furnished two representatives, 
E. hirundoides Nordquist and ii'. herdmani, Thompson and Scott. Neither was 
abundant in any gathering, but both occurred at intervals throughout the season 
represented by the collection, and were occasionally " frequent." Temora longi- 
cornis (Miill) Boeck also occurred at intervals in the autumn and winter until the 
end of January, after which it was not observed. On the last date on which it was 
found (January 27) it was the mofet abundant constituent of the plankton. 

It is the family Poutellidfe, however, that f\irnishes the most characteristic 
feature of the plankton now being discussed, the form concerned being Acartta 

IW. A. Herdman. On the plankton collected continuously during two traverses of the North 
Atlant/c in the summer of 1897. Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc, xil, 1898. 



THE WINTER PLANKTOX 7 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

clausi Giesbr. A glance at the table will show that this species occurred in nenrly 
every g-.ithering throughout the season, and that up to the early part of April it was 
almost always in abundance. Its reduction in numberfe after that date in association 
with the appearance of Thalassiosira has already been commented upon. Another 
Pontellid observed was the interesting Tortanus discaudatus (Thompson and Scott) 
Giesbr. It was taken in several gatherings made during the autumn and early 
winter, but after December it was not again noted until the end of ^lay. In con- 
nection with this form, it may be noted that Giesbrecht and RchmeiP quefetion the 
correctness of Thompson and Scott's original description of the endopodite of the 
first pair of legs being three-jointed. There is no doubt, however, that the original 
description is quite correct, discavdatus differing from other members of the genus 
in this respect. 

Of the Cyclopidfe, Oithona similis Claus wa6 the only form observed, and that 
in small numbers in but three gatherings. 

The Harpacticida; have hitherto received but scant consideration in plankton 
.'ists, partly, no doubt, to difficulties inherent in their identification. The excellent 
monograph of the family by Sars^ does away with some of these difiiculties and, 
with its aid, it has been possible to determine the occurrence in the collections of a 
number of forms hitherto unrecorded from Canadian waters. The most frequent 
species was undoubtedly Harfacticus uniremis Kroyer, which is readily distin- 
guishable from //. chelifer (Miillei-'), among other things by the first antennae being 
nine-jointed instead of eight-jointed, and by the inner expansion of the proximal 
joint of the fifth pair of legfe bearing four marginal setae instead of three. H. chelifer 
lias been recorded by Wright' as occurring at Canso and also by Williams* from 
Ehode Island waters, where H. uniremis was also found. It is possible H. 
chelifer also occurs at St. Andrews; indeed, certain forms were identified as belong- 
ing to that species when the fetudy of the collection was begun, but the identification 
was made with insufficient literature and before access was obtained to Sars' Mono- 
graph, and opportunity has not occurred for confirming the identification. It seems 
probable that it was erroneous in the majority of cases. 

A second (or third) species of Harpacticus was one which closely resembled 
that described by Sars as H. gracilis Claus, differing from H. uniremis by the greater 
relative shortness of the terminal portion of the first antenna? and by the two t rmin 1 
joints of the endopodite of the first pair of legs being confluent. 

Two species of Zaus were observed, distinguishable by the form of the fifth pair 
of legs. One was evidently Z. abhreviatus Sars. hitherto recorded only from the 
coast of Norway and from the islands north of Grinnell Land ; the other apparently 
Z. spinatus Goodsir, previously known from the eastern coast of the Atlantic and 
from the Arctic ocean. Idya furcata (Baird) was also occasionally found. It is a 
species of wide difetributinn, and has been recorded from Rhode Island by Williams. 

A few examples of Parathalestris JacJcsoni (Scott) Sars were also observed, a 
form not hitherto recorded from the Western Atlantic, a statement also true for 
Ilalithalesiris Croni (Kroyer) a single example of which was taken, unmistakeable 
from its exceedingly long and divergent furcal rami." 

Cirrhipedia. 
A few Cirrhipede larva? were observed in one of the October collections and 
again on February 20, February 26, and March 2. On March 6, they were present 

iW. Giesbrecht and O. Schmeil. Copepoda I. Gymnoplea. Das Tierrelch, Lief. 6, 1898. 

2 G. O. Sars. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. V. Bergen, 1911. 

3 R. R. Wright. The Plankton of Eastern Nova Scotia Waters. Contr. to Canadian Biol., 
1902-5. Ottawa, 1907. 

4 Li. W. Williams. Notes on the Marine Copepoda of Rhode Island. Amer Nat. xl, 1906. 
^ In the table all the Harpacticidse have been grouped together under a single heading, since 

with the exception of H. imire^nis they were of very occasional occurrence and then only in small 
numbers. 



8 DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

in confeiderable numbers in the surface plankton, and on March 20 they became very 
abundant, and continued to be so, with pomo occasional diminutions, until April 21. 
Tho ajjpoarance of thf.ao Balanxis larva* in lar^o numbers was, affordinjzly, coincident 
with the vernal increase of the phyto-plankton, corresponding? almost exactly with 
the increase of Biddulphia, Coscinofli'O iis mikI Frainhnui, and preceding slightly 
that of Thalassiosim. 

Malacostraca. 

Of the remaining groups of Cruf^tacea, relatively few representatives were 
observed, and only at rare intervals. Two examples of the Schizopod Thysano'essa 
inermis (Sars) Hansen were taken Janu-ary 1, both belonging to the variety Rhoda 
of Hansen, who finds intermediate stages between the forms described as Rhoda 
inermis and Thysano'essa neglecta and has united these into a single species with 
two varieties.^ 

Zoeas were also observed on Tarious occasions, but their numbers were few, and 
no attempts were made to determine the species represented by them. 

PROTOCHORDATA. 

Tunicate larvse and Appendicularians were observed, the former in considerable 
numbers, on Xovember 11, and in the early part of January, the latter only rarely in 
October. The Appendicularians were not in a f-atisfactory condition for exact deter- 
mination, but apparently both Fritillaria and Oikopleura were represented. 

PISCES. 

A few pelagic fish eggs were taken on two occasions, April 21 and May 13, but 
it was not possible to determine their source, since their preservation had rendered 
them almost opaque. A young fish, about 1 cm. in length was also taken on April 21 
at the 3-fathom level. It was a young example of Liparis liparis Linn, and had 
evidently been engaged in feeding upon plankton Copepods, one of which was 
ohserved within its jaws. 

This fish, with its suctorial disk, is essentially a bottom form, its suctorial disk 
being an adaptation to that mode of life, and its capture in a plankton-net is there- 
fore a matter of some interest. 

j^OTE. — A further study of the plankton in the neighbourhood of St. Andrews during the 
past summer has revealed errors in the identification of two of the forms mentioned above. 
That which was doubtfully regarded as Rhizosolenia gracillima proves to be Thalassiothrix 
longissiyna Cleve and Grunow, while the forms identified as Eurytemora hirundoides were pro- 
bably merely immature examples of E. herdmani. This latter correction is based upon obser- 
vations kindly communicated by my friend, Dr. Arthur Willey. 



1 See H. J. Hansen. The Crustacea Euphausiacea of the "United States National Museum. 
xlvlU, 1915. 



SESSIONAL. PAPER No. 38a 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 
DEPARTMRXr OF THE XAVAt. SERTICE 

ring the Winter of 1014-1 




7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a A. 1917 



DIATOMS AND LOBSTER REARING. 

By Prof. W. T. MacClement, M.A., D.Sc, Queen's University, Kingston. 

The entirely commendable desire to increase the annual crop of lobsters, and thus 
add to the income of the fishermen as well as to the supply of a delicious sea food, 
has prompted attempts at the semi-domestication of the lobster. A creature may be 
said to be domesticated when it will reach full size, will reproduce freely, and will live 
about the normal life-time of its kind, in the artificial conditions furnished by man. 
We are as yet far from reaching such a desirable state of affairs in our relations with 
the lobster. While mature female lobsters, captured in the sea, will extrude eggs 
freely in captivity, we have not yet, in the few experiments made, so closely approxi- 
mated to the conditions required for the health and growth of young lobsters, as to 
see before us in the near future the prospect of large and successful lobster gardens, 
maintained by the amphibious farmers of the Maritime Provinces. The account of 
the experiments inaugurated by the Biological Board of Canada will be found else- 
where.* With only one factor of the environment of the lobsters has the present 
writer had intimate relations, and it is with that this article deals, 

1. Actions of Lobster Larvae. 

For several days after they are hatched, young lobsters show a desire to occupy 
water that is well lighted. They crowd to the lighted side of a glass vessel, and within 
a few seconds will have deserted the shaded for the siinny portion of the water in 
which they are lying. Otherwise they show little recognition of direction in their 
movements, sinking quietly or jerking themselves apparently aimlessly up or do-\vn 
or laterally through the water, often with their backs or heads downward, and with 
their bristly outer leg-branches constantly vibrating. Their spasmodic movements 
are probably the result of various stimuli besides that of light, as is shown by the 
fact that they seize greedily any small object that seems likely to make them a satis- 
factory meal. When the minute lobsters are crowded together, this edible object is 
quite likely to be another lobster of the same brood. The stronger of the two 
immediately shows how fond he is of his relative by eating as much as possible of 
him or her. Cannibalism is one of the factors always to be kept in mind in connec- 
tion with artificial arrangements for rearing the lobster. 

Whether the lobster larvae normally seek the lighted surface layers of the sea in 
which they are hatched is unknown, as few of them have been captured in open 
waters, and very little is known of the details of their lives when free. Surface layers 
may or may not be their natural haunts, but all attempts at rearing the young lobsters 
have been made in well-lighted and somewhat shallow enclosures. The idea is 
accepted by the experimenters that the young lobsters are attracted to the bright 
surface waters, that there they are visible to the perpetually hungry larger denizens of 
the ocean, such as the schools of herring and mackerel, and that consequently myriads 
of the lobster larvae are devoured before they have learned even the alphabet of self- 
defence. After they have moulted a few times, four or five, they acquire the form and 
features, thoiigh minute, of the adult lobster, and show the adult habits of seeking 
concealment, and of using their claws as weapons of defence. Hence it is believed 

• See Professor Knight's Report on Lobster Sanctuaries and Hatching Ponds. Canadian 
Biology, 1914-1915. Supp. 5th Ann. Rep. Dep. of Naval Service, 1916, pp. 41-54. 

11 



12 DEPART}fE\T OF THE XAVAL RERYICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

desirable to protect the lobster larvsc against each other, against hungry alien enemies, 
and against starvation, until they show at least some signs of knowing how to care 
for themselves, 

2. Diatoms on Lobster Larv.i;. 

Well-lighted waters have many inhabitants, notably minute plants, and feome of 
these show a tendency to attach themselves to the lobsterlings. This is especially 
true of certain forms of diatoms which normally grow attached to each other and 
to larger submerged plants. Mature lobsters confined in ponds and cars become the 
carriers of various animal and plant forms, which are not parasites but symbionts 
in the simplest degree, merely borne by the animal. The extent of the plant growth 
will naturally depend on the sunlight received by the lobster, copious growths of 
alga; reaching to many inches in length developing on the antenna? and other appen- 
Hages, even on the eyes, when the animal has been confined for several months in 
shallow, muddy ponds. When such lobsters are removed to clean surroundings they 
gradually free themselves from all growths within their reach. Ordinarily the 
moulting process will completely remove all the effects of this symbiotic growth, but 
instances are known in which the rhizoids of the alga? have penetrated the covering* 
of the lobfeter's eyes, and moulting left the creature clean, but blind. 

The extent of the growth of diatoms on lobster larvae is dependent on certain 
factors of which the three most important seem to be: (1) The amount of sunlight 
received, (2) the extent of time between moults, and (3) the activity or inactivity 
of the lobsterlings. We have direct evidence of X\\e truth of the first two of these, 
and indirect evidence of the third. During the summers of 1914 and 1915 Dr. A. P. 
Knight, for the Biological Board of Canada, has carried on rearing experiments at 
Long Beach, Digby county, Nova Scotia, The complete description of these 
experimentft will be found in Dr. Knight's reports for those years. The opportunity 
given the writer to study this interesting relationship between lobsters and diatoms 
was due to the kind invitation of Dr. Knight, who most generously placed all the 
r'esources of the station at my service. 

In both summers the lobster larvae were loaded with a growth of diatoms which 
became feo great as to cause the larvae to sink to the bottom of the boxes in which 
they were confined. 

There they rolled about in the current caused by the movement of the stirring 
paddles, but were soon found to be dead. Their destruction was probably caused by 
exhaustion, and by starvation. The impeding ma.-ses of diatoms so clogged the 
mouth parts and the legs as to prevent the larvae from securing food. 

Similar difficulties were experienced by United States experimenters in lobster 
rearing at Wickford, Rhode Island, the diatom infesting the larvae there being Licmo- 
phora tincta Grun. During the summer of 1914 the lob.-ter larvae in Dr. Knight's 
care at Long Beach, Nova Scotia, were destroyed by Synedra invesfiens W. Sm., 
v.liic-li nornmlly grows on an alga, especially on Ectocarpus.. This formed almost 
the entire growth observable during that summer, the only other forms present 
being Cocconeis scutellum Ehr. and Lichmophora Lynghyei (Kutz) Grun., and these 
were not plentiful. In 1915, however, it was the last-named species which took 
possession of the larvae and reproduced themselves so rapidly as to prove destructive. 
The following record will indicate the rate at which they became troublesome to the 
young lobsters. The figures represent only approximations, ae in all probability 
some diatoms were in positions where they could not be seen. The lobster larvae 
were carefully scrutinized under a microscope, and care taken to make the counts as 
accurate as possible. 



DIATOMS AND LOBSTER REARING 13 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 



Augi 


St 


3. 
4. 
5. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
S 


Ijobster 


larvre 2 
24 
4S 
60 
70 
96 
" 120 
" 144 


hours 


old 


No diatoms. 










About 15 diatoms 






" 75 






" 150 






Over 350 " 






" 500 






Masses of diatoms 



3. Import.\nce of Diatoms to Fish. 

The complete dependence of animal life on plant life is recognized by all. 

Diatoms are probably the most important of tbofee very simple plants which take up 
inorganic substances from water and air, and transform these by the aid of sunlight 
into living organic matter. 

This organic matter then serves as the chief food of crustaceans and mollusks 
on which many fish live. The most careful study of aquatic life gives to diatoms 
the proud position of being a large part of the fundamental food on which the animal 
life of the water depends, and in this sense the expression is true that "All fish are 
diatoms." 

4. Structure of Diatoms. 

Diatoms are plants of the simplest kind, that is, each diatom consists of but 
one cell, and a cell is the simplest thing that can be recognized as alive. The greatest 
peculiarity of diatoms is the fact that each one has a skeleton of silica which 
is mostly outside the plant, and therefore might be called a shell or case. This shell 
is often very beautifully marked with lines of nodules or of depressions or of both, 
and these markings are so minute that they were long thought to be merely grooves 
and ridges. Diatoms may well be compared with bacteria, which are also minute 
plants. Diatoms differ from bacteria in being usually very much larger, in having 
the siliceous shell, and in having chlorophyll. This latter substance enablco them 
to use the sunlight in making their own food, while bacteria, lacking chlorophyll, 
have to absorb food made by other plants. Bacteria are therefore classed with that 
large group of dependent plants — the fungi, while diatoms rank with the independent 
plants. Diatoms reproduce in much the same way as do bacteria, that is, by each 
mature diatom splitting into two diatoms, after the two valves of the shell have been 
pushed apart by the growing protoplasm within. Two new valves or half-shells are 
then formed, and thus each new diatom has one old valve and one new one in its 
shell. This splitting process, as in bacteria, may go on very rapidly if food and 
terhperature be favourable, and it will result, at any point, in doubling the numbers 
of diatoms many times in a few dayt. 

In form, diatoms are exceedingly various, such as discoidal, cylindrical, spindle- 
shaped, and wedge-shaped. Some are made up of segments, which are smooth or 
spiny, and variously fastened together; some form long ribbons by adhering closely 
side by side; otherfe occurs in gelatinous tubes in which the individuals are closely 
packed. The majority of them are free and have some power of locomotion, but 
some grow attached to larger objects by gelatinous adhesions or even stalks. Of 
this latter sort are the kinds which have proven so prejudicial to the growth of the 
young lobsters. 



14 



r>i'r.\m \fi:\T or rin: \\\ \i. si.nvin: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Synedra investiens AV. Sm., is cipar-shaped or slightly spindle-i^haped when seen 
from the front, and narrowly rectangular in side view, and grows in clusters which are 
closely attached to the supporting object, and radiate from the point of attachment. 
It is marked by cross striations which number about nine in ten microns. 



1 


1 


Bt 




■ 


f 


^ 




^^v^B 


'"^^^1 


»f 


\« 


'. ^K^. :U . 


i- 


^•^9 



Fig. 1. 
Synedra investiens W. Sni. on leg of lobster larva. 




Fig. 2. 

Licnio[)hora Ljngbyei (Kutz.) (inm, on leg bristles of 
lobster larva. 

Licmophora Lynghyei (Kutz.) Grun. is wedge-shaped in the front or 
valve view, and club or paddle-shaped when seen in profile. The nucleus in 
Licmophora is usually visible near the centre of the cell, which is generally filled com- 
pletely with yellowish granules. The markings on the shell are delicate, and appear as 
transverse ridges along the edges of the valves, varying from twelve per ten microns 
near the base, to fifteen near the upper or broad end. The stalks on which the individ- 
uals grow are slender and colourless, and may be so short as to be indistinguishable, 
or may reach to four or more times the length of the valves. 



DIATOM fi AND LOBSTER REARING 



15 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

The usual habitat of Licmophora is the surface of submerf^ed seaweeds, especially 
Chorda filum, which is common in St. Marys bay along the shore near Lone Beach nond. 
The source of this diatom is therefore the ocean water entering the pond through a 
pipe at every high tide. It has also been found attached to Copepods. It is rather 




Fig. 3. 

Licmophora Lyngbyei (Kutz) Grun, drawn under high 
magniiication, showing the transparent gelatinous 
stalks. 

remarkable that during the summer of 1914 Licmophora formed probably less than 1 
per cent of the diatoms attached to the lobster larvae, while in 1915 it formed almost 
a pure culture, entirely replacing Synedra investiens of the preceding year. ISTo satis- 
factory reason can now be given for the difference. During the summer of 1914 the 
rearing boxes occupied a position about 200 yards from their location in 1915. The 
sea-water surrounding them there could not, as in 1915, enter freely through a pipe 
reaching to the sea, but filtered through a wide sea-wall of boulders. Until we know 
more of the factors affecting the growth of the various kinds of diatoms, we can 
merely state these facts without relating them to results. 



5. Prevention of the growth of diatoms. 

Two methods of discouraging or preventing the development of the diatoms on the 
lobster larvae were briefly tested. One was the use of copper as an algicide, and the 
other was the reduction of light for the lobster larvae. Both were very incomplete 
experiments, but the facts learned will be of service in future attempts at control. It 
has long been known that copper is an excellent fungicide, and its toxicity toward the 



16 



DEPARTMENT OF THE SATAL SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

higher plants siifh as dandelions and wild mustard, is of importance in agrifulturo. 
Dr. Oeortro T. Moore (V. S. A. Plant Industry Bulletin 76, issued 1905) has demon- 
strated the praetieal application of this to the purification of water supplier cuitaining 
objectionable alga*. The method of using the copper is to dissolve copner sulphnte in 
the water to the extent of one part to from five millions to twenty millions of water. 
This dilution served to kill such delicate forms as those producing the well known 
water hloom of August and September. For the more hardy organisms such as diatoms 
it was found that the amount of copper sulphate required was as high as one part or 
more per million parts of water. The results quoted above were accepted as correct, 
and the effect of such solutions of copper sulphate on lobster larvm was examined. 
Vigorous larvff. placed in fresh sea-water containing one part copper sulphate per rail- 
lion of water, all died within three and a half hours, although four-fifths of tl:em lived 
for more than two hours. Another lot of the same copper sulphate solution was diluted 
to contain one part of copper sulphate in two million parts water. In this the larvsB 
lived more than four hours, but all were dead within six hours. In another lot of the 
solution diluted until there was only one part copper sulphate in three millions of 
water, the larvaj lived but little longer. 




Fig. 4. 

Drawing of lobster larva two hourx after hatching. 
No diatoms could be found attached to it. 



Control exi)eriments, exactly similar in every respect, except that the water con- 
tained no copper sulphate, were made in each case, the lobster larvae remaining 



DIATOMS AND LOBSTER REAUISd 



17 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

healthy and active for several days. If, as stated, diatoms rccjuire for their destruc- 
tion one part of copper sulphate per million, it is clear that this algicide cannot be 
used in sea-water in the presence of lobster larva?. 




Fig. 5. 
Drawing d lobster larva, twelve days old, exposed 
to sunliglit every day. These larvae were all 
dead by the fourteenth day. The appendages 
are loaded with diatoms. 

The second plan of control gave more promising results. For a plant to make 
its own food, sunlight is necessary. Diatoms, being independent plants, must have 
sunlight in order to make satisfactory growth. Ten thousand larvae in one rearing- 
box were exposed to the light as usual, while a like number in a neighbouring box 
were kept shaded by a screen of canvas painted black, and placed horizontally over 
the box, within about 6 inches of the surface of the water. The larvae were already 
four days old when the shade was applied, and on an average they carried between 
350 and 500 diatoms each. They were examined after forty-eight hours of shading, 
and an improvement in their condition was apparent. Careful counts gave an average 
of 209 diatoms on each larva. Daily examination showed a satisfactory decrease in 
the number of diatoms. These shaded larvae began moulting at the end of nine days, 
while those unshaded did not moult until they were thirteen days old. At the end of 
twelve days the shaded larvae were active, and apparently suffering no inconvenience 
from the few diatoms that adhered to them. This was in striking contrast to the 
larvae which had not been shaded, and which were loaded with masses nf diatoms on 
every appendage, as indicated in the drawings. 



18 



TiKIWiri MKST OF THE .V.ir.U. SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 




Fiff. 6. 
Drawing of lobster larva, twelve days old, carefully 
shaded from the fourth to the twelfth day. 
These larvae moulted on the ninth day, and 
show the Kwimmerets and the serrations on the 
beak which are the marks of the second phase. 



6. Diatoms found in the Rearing Boxes. 

While Licmophora was by far the most plentiful diatom on the lobster larvaj 
in 1915, other kinds were present m the rearing boxes, and occasionally on the larvao. 
A few ribbons of Fragillarta, probably hyalina (Kutz) Grun., were found with the 
Licmophora, adhering to the bristly appendages of the larv.T. Others collected from 
the stirring paddle or from the bottom are named below, ]ilentiful in about the order 
of arrangement: — 

Amphora coffaeformis (Ag.) Kutz. 

Cocconeis scutellum Ehr. 

Paralia sulcata Ehr. 

Rhahdonema adriaticum Kutz. 

Nitzschia longissima (Breb.) Kalf. var. parva, Van H. 

Navicula (Stauroneis) apicula ITickie. 

Melosira nummuloidcs (Bory) Ag. 

Grammatophora marina (Lyng) Kutz. 



DIATOMS AND LOBSTER REARING 19 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

Nitzschia closterium W. Sm. 

Acnanthes suhsessilis Kutz. 

Fnigihirla fcrirstrata Gruii. 

Amphora qnadrata Breb. 

Synedra affinis Kutz. 

Coscinodiscus excentricus Ehr. 

Grammatopliora angulosa Gruii. 

Chaetoceras cinctum Grun. ( ?) 

Pleurosigma affine Grun. 

Nitzschia panduriformis var. minor Grun. 

Actinoptychus undulatus Ehr. 

There were also many individuals of the protozoan, Peridinium lenticulare Ehr. 

Scrapinfjs from the carapace of a mother lobster, from which larva? were hatched, 
gave a few diatoms, but the plant growth on the creature was almost entirely Ecto- 
carpus, the diatoms being merely entangled in this alga. 

Licmophora Lynghyel (Kutz) Grun. 
Cocconeis scutellum Ehr. 
Grammatophora marina Grun. 
Scoliopleura tumida Grun. 

While the above were sufficiently numerous to infect the larvae with diatoms, 
Licmophora in particular, the numbers which accumulated on the larvse could not be 
accounted for by drifting or swimming formfe: The almost pure growth of Licmo- 
phora, its firm attachment to the larvse, and the increase in diatoms day by day, 
when exposed to sunlight, all point to their rapid reproduction in sihi, as the cause 
of their great numbers. Another evidence was the fact that the plankton net, towed 
in the water about the raft which supported the rearing boxes, collected compara- 
tively few Licmophora, but many individuals of other species. The species named 
below were found to be plentiful in about the order they are named: — 

Chaetoceras decipiens Clave. 
Cocconeis scutellum Ehr. 
Pleurosigma elongatum. 
P. angulatum W. Sm. 
Paralia sulcata (Ehr.) Clave. 
Fragillaria hyalina (Kutz) Grun. 
Nitzschia longissima (Breb) Ealfs. 
Chaetoceras dichaeta. 
Actinoptychus undulatus Kutz. 
Licmophora Lynghyei (Kutz) Grun. 
Amphora quadi-ata Breb. 

Attached to the timbers of the rafts, and to thr ropes fiy whif'h the structure was 
anchored, was a thick growth of Homoecladia capitata H. L. Sm. Its brown masses 
showed a definite relationship to the aerated surface waters, being entirely lacking 
where the ropes reached down a few feet from the free atmosphere. The plankt-on 
net collected also many specimens of Peridinium lenticulare Ehr. and P. reniforme, 
while Geratium tripos ISTitsch, was not rare, and the Silico-flagellate, Bistephanua 
speculum (Epr.) Haeckel, was common. 

From the waters of St. Mary's bay, in front of the intake pine of Long Beach 
pond, the plankton-Tiet collected a few specimens of Licmophora Lynghyei (Kuntz) 
Grun, but the catch was very rich in the common Bay of Fundy forms: — 

3'8a— 2 



20 DEPARTMEXT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Chaetoceras decipiens Cleve. 
C. dirhnrtn. 
C. eriophylLum Cast. 
Rhizosolenia styliformis Bright. 
Coscinodiscus concinniis W. Sm. 
Cocconeis scutellum Ehr. 
Nitzschia longissima (Breb) Ralfs. 
Paralia sulcata (Ehr) Cleve. 

Along with these were the following named iiifufeorians and crustaceans: — 

Ceratium tripos Nitsch. 

AmphoreUa suhidata (Ehr) Dad. 

Distephanus speculum (Ehr) Haeckel. 

Ceratium fusus. 

Tintinnopsis campanula (Ehr) Dad. 

Ualanus finmarchicus Gunner. 

Podon intermedius Lill. 

For verification of the determinations of several species, and for the identifica- 
tion of others, the writer is under speeial obligation to Dr. Albert Mann, of the 
United States National Herbarium, and to Dr. A. H. MacKay, Superintendent of 
Education, Halifax. 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a A. 1917 



ON THE SCALES OF THE SPRING SALMON. 

By C. McLean Fraser, Ph.D.. Curator Pacific Coast Biological Station, Departure 

Bay, British Columbia. 

A paper on " Growth of the spring salmon " was read at the San Francisco meeting 
of the Pacific Fisheries Society, August 9-11, 1915, and appears in the proceedings 
of that meeting. A more detailed analysis of the data on which it was based and of 
data obtained from new material, is here presented. 

The spring salmon (Oncorhj/nchus tschawytscha) , otherwise known as the king", 
tyee, chinook, or quinnat, has been the most highly favoured for investigation of all 
the Pacific Coast species, and much good work has been done by Butter, Gilbert,. 
Chamberlain, and others, largely in connection with the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries. By means of long-continued observations, these men and their associates 
have been able to put on record many facts concerning the life-history of this valuable 
species. In this instance, some additions, obtained by the methods recently made use 
of in the North Sea investigations by Hjort, Dahl, and others, are offered. McMurrich 
and Gilbert have included the spring salmon in the species of which the age at 
maturity was discussed. Incidentally, that phase of the study of scales will be con- 
sidered in connection with an investigation into the rate of growth, and its bearing 
on the life-history of the species. 

The validity of the conclusions drawn from scale study depends largely on the 
Tuterpretation of the " annual rings " or " winter checks." The propriety of intro- 
ducing these terms has been, seriously questioned by many who have failed to see such 
a significance in the portions of the scale under discussion. It seemed useless to go- 
on with scale investigation unless some definite assurance could be obtained on- this 
point. Two species, the Pacific herring and the spring salmon, may be obtained 
throughout the year in the strait of Georgia, 'and hence these offered a basis for 
information. For reasons given later, the spring salmon was chosen and an investiga- 
tion that began with the idea of personally settling the " winter check '' question was 
enlarged to include other points in connection with the life-history. 

THE "winter check." 

There is no disputing the fact that in the scales of some species of fish there are 
areas arranged concentrically, having a different appearance to the remainder of the 
scale. As they are concentric they may be appropriately called " rings." Under 
normal conditions of growth is there one of these rings formed on each scale during 
each year? 

Einar Lea has investigated the matter in the case of the North Sea herring, and 
the argument he advances is a convincing one.^ By examining herring of the same 
year class, caught at short intervals over a considerable period, and from these getting 
measurements, he concluded that the somewhat transparent ring on the scale was 
formed during the period from December to March, the main growth of the scale or 
almost the entire growth, taking place during the other months. Though this ring is 
annual and is produced during the winter months, his evidence shows that the rate 
of growth is not primarily dependent on temperature. 

1 A study of the growth of herrings, Publ. de Circonstance, No. 61, Conseil Perm. Inter, pour 
J'Explor. de la Mer, 1911. 

38a— 2J 21 



22 DEPARTMFyr OF rilE ^AVAL f^ERYICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

In tho scale of the herrinp: the characteristic markings, the elevated lines, run 
transversely across the scale; the winter check, concentrically placed, consequently 
crosses the reprnlar lines at rip:ht anjrles laterally hut runs nearlj' parallel with them 
medially. Tlie rings are narrow and, since they are formed at the margin of the 
scale, it is impossible to tell when a ring begins or when it ends, with any degree of 
accuracy. Ilence T>ea had to resort to many measurements and calculations of growth. 
Because of this difficulty it is possible to get scales more satisfactory than the 
herring scales, and it is for this reason that the scales of the spring salmon have 
been taken in preference. 

The characteristic elevated lines on the salmon scales are quite different from 
those on the herring scales. The arrangement is concentric around a more or less nearlv 
circular nucleus, so that each of these lines form rings, or rather partial rings, as few 
of them are completed on the exposed portion of the scale. These rings are wide apart 
in certain areas, while in other areas at regular intervals they are quite close together. 
Corresponding to the transparent rings on the herring scale, therefore, there are narrow 
bands of closely applied rings. The term "annual rings" mu.st have a somewhat 
different significance in the two cases, although the cause may be similar, but it i- 
possible that " winter check " can be applied equally well to each. The close band is 
80 much wider than the ring in the herring scale that it is easily possible in the 
majority of cases to decide when it begins or ends. 

As previously stated, spring salmon are to be obtained in the strait of Georgia 
at all times of the year, and hence, in all probability, some of them at least remain in 
tho strait during the whole period of their existence in salt water. The fall, winter, 
and spring, 1914-15, were particularly favourable for getting material. As there was 
so little cold or stormy weather the handline fishermen were able to go out almost every 
day, seldom doing so without some return for their labours. A number of men 
from Departure Bay fished throughout the season, and it was a simple matter to obtain 
data at short intervals. The majority of the fish examined were caught by Mr. E. 
Webber, who made special effort to have the series as complete as possible. The 
temiierature data were obtained from daily surface readings at the station, and 
occasional readings at depth. 

The appearance of a year's growth on a salmon scale has a much closer approxi- 
mation to that of the groAvth dn a twig of wood than that of the herring scale. The 
area of distant rings corresponds to the loose texture of the spring and summer 
growth in the twig. The rings get closer during the fall until there is a compact band 
corresponding to the winter ring in the wood. It was to the time that the compact 
band made its appearance that special attention was paid. 

In the scales of fish caught in the summer time, with rare exceptions, there is 
always a wide area outside of any compact band, hence it was evident that this close 
band could not be formed at that time of the year. During the fall a certain amount 
of retardation was indicated since the lines near the margin were closer together. 
Later the beginning of the more compact band was evident in some scales, then in all, 
and still later the outer limit was reached and the distant lines appeared once more. 

In all scales of salmon caught from January 6 to March 17 there was indication 
of the check in growth at the margin. On the other hand, with but few exceptions, 
no scales obtained after April 22 and before November 27 had indication of retarda- 
tion at the margin. From March 17 to April 22 and from November 27 to January 5 
some show retardation at the margin while others do not, this being true even in 
specimens caught on the same day. The period of check here corresponds so exactly 
with that reported by Lea for the herring that it can scarcely be considered a mere 
coincidence. A? the time corresponds in general to the winter season, the term 
" winter check " is not inappropriate. 



SCALES OF THE SPRING SALMON 



23 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

In order to compare the temperatures of the water during the "winter check" 
period with those before and after, a table of surface temperatures to cover the months 
from October to May, inclusive, is given, as well as a table showing temperatures at 
depth, taken at intervals during that period. The surface temperatures were taken 
at the station landing float, and the deeper temperatures about four miles out, east 
of Five Finger island, that being the nearest point at which water over 100 fathoms 
could be reached. The surface readings were taken by a Negretti and Zambra deep- 
sea thermometer or one standardized against it and the deep-water temperatures with 
a Richter deep-sea thermometer in connection with a Pettcrsen-Nansen water-bottle. 

TABLE I. 



Day. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


April. 


May. 




o 


o 


o 











o 


o 


1 


11-8 
11-5 
IM 


10-5 
10-5 
10-4 


7-4 
8-6 
7-6 


7-9 
8-0 

8-7 


6-9 
7-9 
7-4 


8-4 
7-6 
7-6 


9-4 
9-8 
90 


10-7 


o 


110 


3 


11-5 


4 


11-5 


100 


8-.5 


7-3 


6-7 


7-5 


9-2 


11-6 


.5 


11-8 
11-7 
12-3 
12-3 
12-7 


9-9 
9-7 
8-7 
9-2 
9-7 


7-6 

7-5 
7-7 
6-7 
7-9 


6-4 
6-3 
6-7 

7-4 

7-7 


7-3 
7-2 
7-9 
8-6 

8-4 


7-7 
7-6 

8-2 
7-7 
7-9 


9-4 
10-3 
10-4 

90 

9-8 


13 -.3 


6 


J30 
13-9 


7 


8 


13-3 


9 


12-8 


10 


12-2 


9-1 


70 


7-0 


8-1 


8-1 


10-7 


12-2 


11 


11-6 


9-8 


6-3 


7-2 


7-3 


8-1 


9-9 


11-8 


12 


11-4 


9-0 


7-4 


8-2 


7-3 


8-2 


10-3 


11-6 


13 


10-8 


8-3 


7-0 


7-6 


7-7 


8--5 


10-3 


120 


14 


10'9 


8 -.5 


7-2 


7-7 


8-5 


8-7 


9-8 


121 


1.5 


11-6 
11-2 


7-4 
8-3 


7-4 
7-6 


7-3 
7-2 


6-6 
8-6 


8-5 
8-2 


10-9 
11-2 


12-6 


16 


13-1 


17 


10 -.5 


9-0 


6-3 


7-1 


8-5 


8-2 


11-7 


13-4 


18 


10-4 


8-2 


6-4 


7-2 


7-7 


80 


11-9 


13-7 


19 


100 


8-3 


6-7 


6-5 


7-4 


8-6 


11-7 


13-5 


20 


100 


8-9 


6-.5 


6-6 


6-7 


8-1 


10-5 


13-2 


21 


10-2 


9-2 


6-5 


5-7 


7-2 


9-0 


10-6 


12-2 


22 


10-3 


9-4 


6-3 


6-2 


70 


9-7 


111 


12& 


23 


10'8 


8-8 


71 


6-7 


7-4 


9-4 


10-8 


12-2 


24 


lOo 


8-9 


7-3 


5-6 


71 


9-7 


11-8 


12-1 


25 


10-3 


8-9 


7-0 


61 


71 


9-7 


11-3 


12-7 


26 


10-7 


91 


7-2 


6-2 


71 


9-2 


111 


121 


27 


110 


8-8 


6-9 


6-9 


7-6 


100 


110 


12-4 


28 


10-9 


8-8 


70 


6-6 


8-5 


101 


10-8 


9-0 


29 


10-8 


8-6 


6-5 


6-9 




10-3 


10-6 


12-4 


30 


110 


7-3 


6-6 


6-6 




9-7 


10-6 


13-5 


31 


10-9 




7-0 


6-9 




9-0 




13-8 




111 


9-0 


7-2 


7-0 


7-4 


8-6 


10-5 


12-5 


Maximum 


12-7 


10-5 


8-6 


8-7- 


8-6 


10-3 


11-9 


13-9 






Minimum 


100 


7-3 


6-3 


5-6 


6-5 


7-5 


90 


9-9 







TABLE II. 





lOOf. 


50f. 


20f. 


lOf. 


of. 


on 


Sept. 9, 1914 


8-7 
91 
90 
9-0 
8-5 
8-4 
8-6 


8-8 
91 
9-2 
8-7 
8-5 
8-2 
8-4 


9-9 
9-4 

8-8 
7-8 
8-4 
8-3 
8-9 


10-5 
9-7 
8-6 
7-0 
8-0 
8-4 
9-2 


10-6 
10-0 
8-4 
6-9 
7-9 
8-6 
10-2 


14-2 


October 21 

December 8 


10-7 
7-6 


January 18, 1915 


6-9 


February 26 


8-0 


April 9 


9-2 


May 17 


13-6 







The readings are all Centigrade readings. 



24 DKiwin \n:\T of tin: saval i^ertwe 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

It will be spcn from the tables that dnriiif? the three months, December. January 
and Febr\iary, the average temperatures differ little, but are lower than durinpr the 
other months, while the prreatcr portion of the retardation of prrowth takis place d irinjr 
January, February, and March. November, during which there was no evidouce of 
check except during the last few days, was colder, on the average, than Maroh, and 
had a lower minimum. October was almost as warm as April, and yet retardation is 
evident on occasion almost to the end of April. There are only 4-1 degrees of differ- 
ence between the average of October and January, and only 2 degrees between the 
average for November and January. There may be that much difference between the 
temperature at the surface and at a depth of 5 fathoms Tin table II there is a difference 
of 3-6 degrees show^i thus for September 9), and 5 fathoms would certainly not be too 
great depth for a salmon to reach. Doubtless there is a maximum, an optimum and a 
minimum temperature for growth, but it is scarcely probable that if the optimum is 
reached at 13 or 14 degrees, 7 degrees would be at or near the minimum, and if it wc'-e, 
8-6 degrees, the average for March, should be far enough away from that minimum to 
show a definite increase of growth instead of showing a continuation of the minimum. 

If the check is due to the lowering temperature, one would naturally expect that 
the change should take place in all of the fish of the same species in the same region at 
or near the same time, and yet some have close rings beginning on November 27, 
while others have little or no sign of them on January 5 ; some have got over the check 
on March 17, while others retain it on April 22. Between these dates in the two C;ise3 
there is a period of time equal to almost half of the time during which all show retarda- 
tion. Again, if the check is due to the lowering temperature, all in the same vicinity 
should have checks of nearly the same width, but instead there is a great variation from 
one ov two rings to six or seven. The variation occurs in the individuals in one year 
class as much as in any of the others, and after the first year is over the individuals 
that migrate as fry are affected in the same way as those that migrate as yearlings. 

Nothing shows better the entire lack of relation between rate of growth and tem- 
perature than the graphs for each for the entire year. In making a graph for the 
growth rate, the average percentage of the total growth for the year was taken for 
each half-month. As the new growth for the year starts about April 1, that is taken foi 
the basis of calculation. In the graph for water temperature (surface) the average 
for each half-month was taken also. The graph showing the percentage of the yenr's 
growth completed during each half -month is also given. 

The curves for growth rate and temperature are so unlike that they are scarcely 
comparable. The greatest growth rate is in May, the highest temperature in August, 
by which time the growth rate has become materially reduced. The growth curve has 
a sharp ascent from the first of April until the middle of May and a very gradual 
descent for the rest of the year ; the temperature curve has ■ a gradual ascent from 
January until August and a gradual descent for the rest of the year. Half of the 
total growth for the year takes place during April, May and June, before the tempera- 
ture has nearly reached its greatest height. During the next two and a half months 
another quarter is added, leaving but a quarter for the next six and a half months, but 
by the middle of September the temperature has decreased very little. 

It may be remarked here that there is no indication of a total cessation of growth 
during January, February, and March, such as Lea says occurs in the North Sea her- 
ring. The growth is very much retarded but does not cease entirely. The width of 
the winter bands shows this to be true. 

Taking all of these points into consideration, it can scarcely be maintained that 
temperature has any very definite primary effect on rate of gro^vth. 

Tables somewhat similar to those given for temperature could be given for den- 
sity or salinity during the same period, but as they cover ground so similar it does; not 
appear to be necessary. Suffice it to say that there seems to be just as little direct 
relation between salinity (as far as the limits in the waters of the strait of Georgia are 
concerned) and growth rate, as there is between temix^rature and growth rate. 



SCALES OF THE SPRING SALMON 25 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

With temperature and salinity eliminated as primary factors, the main emphasis 
must fall on the only other known variable that could have direct boarin;? on the 
growth of fish, viz., the food supply. That fish do not differ from other animals in- 
which growth is accelerated by regular, suitable feeding, is shown by the success that 
attends the feeding of fresh-water fish in ponds, lakes, and streams. On the other hand 
fish, like other animals, cannot maintain normal growth if food is lacking or is insuffi- 
cient in quantity to keep the various processes active. Existence may be continued 
for some time under such conditions, but it must be at the expen.se of the nourishment 
and energy stored up in the body. While that is being drawn upon, growth must be 
retarded or stopped altogether, and the weight may be considerably reduced. 

The scale, like any other organ of the body, must be afi'ected as the body as a who'e 
is affected, hence the variation in the food supply, even without any other important 
factors, could account for the difference in the rate of growth. 

In fishes like the salmon, where a portion of the life is spent in the fresh water 
and the remainder in salt water, there is a great disparity of growth during the two 
periods. The richness of the marine fauna as food supply, as compared with the 
fresh-water fauna, makes a decided difference in favour of the former. A difference 
in salinity, however, complicates matters as far as evidence goes in this case. A better 
illustration is afforded by the difference in the rate of growth of a trout, e.g., the 
cut-throat, in a small pond where food is scarce and in a lake where food is abundant 
or where there is a wider area over which to search for it. 

The variation in the food supply would seem to account appropriately for the 
variation in rate of growth but, unfortunately, in the case of the spring salmon, the 
application is not self-evident. In the spring and summer, minute Crustacea and a 
great variety of larvae are abundant, hence such fish as the herring that feed on this 
should thrive better at that time of the year. The spring salmon takes this food also, 
but evidently eats many fish as well. Here comes the difiiculty. To judge from the 
stomach contents, one might say that the salmon, by preference, feeds on the herring 
and the herring is abundant in the strait throiighout the year. They are much more 
in evidence during the winter months, as the schools can readily be located near 
shore. During February and March they remain for long periods in the same locality, 
in the spawning season. Some of the salmon follow the herring into shallow water 
since a few individuals are caught in the herring nets, and I have seen them swim- 
ming around in a school of herring not far from shore. It may be that these are 
stragglers while the larger numbers remain in the deeper water where the herring 
congregate in the summer time. 

An entirely different explanation is possible. The spring salmon may prefer 
crustaceans, as the sockeye and the coho seem to do, taking fish only when the crus- 
tacean supply runs short. Their presence with the herring schools may be due to the 
fact that they, like the herring, are feeding on copepods. There is some basis for 
such conclusion, for spring salmon caught in the neighbourhood of herring schools 
have been found to contain decapods, schizopods, amphipods, and copepods. At such 
time I have even found annelids of the Nereis type in their stomachs, the only evi- 
dence that I have seen that they are ever bottom-feeders after they leave the fresh 
v^ater. Fishermen with spoon bait often catch many salmon right in the herring 
schools, while herring bait at such a time is useless. If crustaceans make up the 
main part of the food supply, then they would fare better in spring and early summer 
when the pelagic Crustacea are so numerous. In the winter time they take to the 
herring in the extremity of hunger, as being the chief food available, enough to keep 
them alive but not enough for ample nourishment for growth equivalent to the 
summer growth. 

If retardation of growth in the scale is due to the lack of suitable food, an 
explanation is readily available for the extra checks that appear between the regular 
winter checks, or at the margin in fish caught during the summer. Ix)cal conditions 



26 DEPARTMEXT OF THE XAVAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

may become such, even in the summor, that a fisli oanr.ot get a good food supply for 
some time, and the growth is cheoked. That there are not more of these checks goes 
to show wliat an abundant and well-distributed fauna there must bo in the sea. Fish 
must be subject to periods of ill health, as all animals are, and during such times 
growth may be seriously retarded. This would account for the small amount of 
LTowtli S(inietim<'s foinid lietween two sueeessive winter elu-eks. 

Regenerated scales show that fish are subject to injury. As on the regenerated 
>cales, only those rings corresponding to those formed afterwards on the normal ^e;lll•> 
appear, leaving the central portion of the scale blank. The time of the injury is thus 
indicated. If the injury is a serious one the normal scales on the fish may show a 
check on account of the retardation of growth due to the drain on the system in 
recovering from the injury. These checks may or may not decrease the total amount 
of growth for the year. In some cases it does noticeably, but in others the later 
growth seems to have been accelerated so as to fully make up for the lost time. 

At first such extra checks may cause considerable confusion in scale reading, but 
after the normal scale becomes familiar, such checks, with rare exceptions, may 
readily be distinguished from the regular winter checks. 

RATE OF GHOWTH. 

Since data as to length and weight of the fish from which the scales for this 
investigation had been recorded, these scales became available for a study of rate of 
growth. Since that time other material has been added. Some of this additional 
material was obtained from the Departure Bay fishermen, and hence is comparable 
to the previous material; some was obtained from the cannery at Nanaimo, some 
from a cannery at New Westminster (these were caught in the Fraser river), some 
from the Vancouver fish companies (from the Skeena and Campbell rivers), some 
from the cannery at Ucliucklesit, Barkley sound, and a small but interesting collec- 
tion from Mr. R. B. Heacock, Seabright, California. To those in charge in all these 
cases my thanks are due. 

The lot is rather a composite one and, for some purposes, a large number from 
one locality taken at nearly the same time would give better results, but for other 
purposes, as this material contains data from specimens of all ages taken at all times 
of the year, from widely different localities, it is especially suitable. 

In studying the rate of growth of the spring salmon it must be recognized, in 
the first place, that there are two types to be considered. Most observers have realized 
that some salmon migrate from the fresh water to the sea as fry, when they are four 
or five months hatched, while others remain in the fresh water throughout the first 
year and go down early in the second year as yearlings or fingerlings. The whole 
seale theory must f<iil if there are not two tvnes of seales to eo'-re^'iond. but it d>'-- 
not. The most casual observer could not fail to notice that the central portion of 
the scale may differ materially from the corresponding portion of the scale of another 
individual. There is no doubt that Gilbert's interpretation of this central portion 
of the scale in the two types of this species is correct. 

The individual that migrates as fry has no scales when it reaches the salt water, 
and consequently there can be no record on the scale of life in fresh water. The scale 
starts to develop soon after migration, the growth is rapid, and although the late 
start is a big handicap, the growth in the remainder of the year is slightly greater, 
on the average, than that of the whole second year. There is this difference, how- 
ever, the fish in its first year does not seem to be able to stand adverse conditions as 
well as the older fish. They may not be able to partake of as great variety of food. 
In consequence, the distance between the rings on the scale at times start to narrow 
earlier so that the summer growth gradually passes into the winter growth without 
giving the appearance of a distinct winter check. The change from the winter 



SCALES OF THE SPRIXG SALMON 27 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

check to the next summer's growth is as abrupt as in older fish. The fry are about 
i-5 inch long when tliey migrate, and the average length at the end of the year is 
about 10 inches. (Here afe elsewhere in this paper the caudal fin rays are not 
included when the length is measured.) Some measurements, given in inclics, will 
give some indication of the rate of growth: August 18, 5.0 (2), 5.2, 5.5 (2), 6.0, 6.5, 
7.5; November 6, 10.0; December 4, 8.7; December 26, 9.7; January 28, 10.0; Febru- 
ary 11, 10.2; March 3, 10.7; March 6, 10.2; March 11, 8.8; Aprl 3, 8.8; April 6, 
11.4, 8.7; April 8, 11.6; April 13, 10.4; April 14, 10.2. After this date the rapid 
growth had started in all the specimens examined. At this time the fish is about a 
year old, or slightly more, and weighs about half a pound. In the measurements 
given later the first year is taken to be the period to the end of the first winter check. 

Concerning tlie later growth it is not necessary to say very much. Broad summer 
bands are followed in succession by narrow winter bands. In normal individuals 
the limit of variation is not so very great, but naturally it increases with the age of 
the fish. At the end of the second year the average length of the fish examined was 
20-5 inches, and the weight somewhat over 4 pounds. At the end of the third year 
the length was 28 5 inches, and the weight 14 pounds. At the end of the fourth year 
the length was about 33 inches, and the weight 22 pounds. No specimens obtained 
had completed the fifth year. 

The fry that remains in fresh water during the first year starts to develop the 
scale about the same time as the one that goes to sea, but as the fish in fresh water 
growfe very slowly, the scale grows slowly also, and the rings, even in the summer 
time, are quite close together. In the winter they come almost together and are 
cften incomplete or broken. The winter check can be distinguished more readily 
in the majority of specim.ens, by the narrow area of broken lines than by judging 
the distance between the lines. The fish is still under 4 inches in length, and hence 
does not compare at all favourably with the one that spent its first year in the sea. 
ITsually the migration to the sea is made early in the spring, so that the growth in 
salt water is indicated immediately following the winter check. In . some instances, 
though, there is indication of a small amount of fresh-water growth outside of the 
winter check before the growth in salt water commences, but it never reaches an 
extent similar to that sometimes found in the coho. About one-third of the specimens 
examined showed evidence of thife growth. It would seem then that a large majority 
— two-thirds of the whole number in this group — migrate early in the spring, in 
]\rarch or early in April, and the remainder follow not so very long after, so that by 
tue middle of May, or even earlier, the last stragglers must have disappeared from 
the fresh water. 

After the seaward migration the growth in this type is entirely comparable to 
that in the other. At the end of the second year the average length is nearly 14 
inches, and the weight slightly over a pound; at the end of the third year the length 
is over 23 inches and the weight 6 poundfe ; at the end of the fourth year the length 
is 30 inches and the weight 16 pounds. Sixth year specimens were lacking in this 
type also. 

In making a more detailed analysis and comparison, the following data were 
obtained. Of 306 fish over one year old examined, 199 or 65 per cent of the whole 
number had migrated as fry. Of these, 83 were in the second year, 43 in the third, 
59 in the fourth, and 14 in the fifth year. Of the 107 that stayed in the fresh water 
a year, 10 were in the second year, 18 in the third year, 44 in the fourth, and 35 in 
the fifth. The growth of each fish in each year has been calculated and the average 
for each year taken. The following table was made out for the purpose of comparison. 



28 



nFfARTMEXT OF THE y \V.\L SERTICF. 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



TABLE OF GROWTH. 

" Sea Type." 







Year Class. 


No. 




Growth 


During 






1st Year. 


2nd Year. 


3rd Year. 


4th Year. 


2nd. 






83 
43 
59 
14 


In. 

9-9 
100 
111 
10-3 


In. 


In. 


In. 


3rd 




9-8 
101 
9-7 






4th 




7-6 
7-6 




5th 


5-6 




Average. . 








10-3 


9-9 


7-6 


5-6 















Year Class. 


No. 


Length .kt End of 






1st Year. 


2nd Year. 


3rd Year. 


4th Year. 


2nd 


83 
43 
59 
14 


In. 

9-9 
100 
111 
10-3 


In. 


In. 


In. 


3rd 


19-8 
21-2 
20- 






4th 


28-7 
27-6 




5th.. 


33-1 




• 






10-3 


20-5 


28-5 


33-1 











'Stream Type." 





Year Class. 


No. 




Growth 


During 




1st Year. 


2nd Year. 


3rd Year. 


4th Year. 


2nd 


10 
18 
44 
35 


In. 

3-6 
3-8 
3-7 
3-7 


In. 


In. 


In. 


3rd 


10-4 

10-5 

9-6 






4th . 


9-5 
9-4 




5th 


7-2 




Average 






3-7 


10-2 


9-5 


7-2 











S^CALES OF THE SPRING SALMON 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

" Stream Type " — Concluded. 



29 







Year Class. 


No. 


Length at the End of 




1st Year. 


2nd Year. 


3rd Year. 


4th Year. 


2nd 


10 
18 
44 
35 


In. 

3-6 
3-8 
3-7 
3-7 


In. 


In. 


In. 


3rd 


14-1 
14-2 
13-4 






4th 


23-7 
22-8 




5th 


300 












3-7 


13-9 


23-3 


300 













Of the mature grilse only four were obtained, all of the " sea type," in their 
third year. The average for them was: Growth, first year, 11-1; Second year, 10-7; 
length at end of first year, 11-1; at end of the second year, 21-8; when caught in 
June, 26-0. 

In the previous paper on " Growth of spring salmon," 2 inches was taken as the 
average length when the scale starts to develop. It has been found that this was too 
high for the average, 1.5 inch being much nearer the length. In these calculations, 
therefore, 1-5 inch has been taken from the total length of the fish in each case and 
the reniirinder divided in the same proportion as a line drawn from the margin of 
the nucleus to the margin of the scale, would be by the outside limits of the various 
winter checks. To the first year value thus obtained, 1.5 inch is added to get the 
length of the fish at the end of the first year. In making the calculation in this way 
there io no " phenomenon of apparent change in growth-rate " such as is shown in the 
various herring investigation tables of Hiort, Dabl, and others, making the strained 
explanations by Rosa Lee (Publications de Circonstance, No. 63, Conseil Perm. Int. 
ppTir TExpl. de la Mer, 1912) and of Einar Lea (Ihid., No. 66, 1913) appear 
necessary. 

When the number examined was divided up between the two types and among 
the difl'erent classes, the number in any one group was not large enough to make it 
worth while making graphs, but some points concerning each might be mentioned. 

Taking the "sea type" first, the growth for the first year varies from 7-1 to 12-7 
inches, but very few are less than 8-7. The number 9-3 has the greatest number of 
individuals, but several others have nearly as great. In the second-year growth there 
are some cases abnormally small, 6.2, 6.4, 6.7, 7.2. The majority fall between 8.6 
and 12-2, with 10-0 and 11-1 the most numerous. The length at the end of the second 
year shows much the same variety as the second-year's growth. There are low ones, 
14-7, 15-8, 16-4, and 16-7, and high ones, 24-1, 24-2, and 24-5, but nearly all come 
between 17-5 and 23-5. The growth in the third year shows much variation between 
the extremes of 3-8 and 4-5 on the one hand, and 11-5 on the other, but the greater 
number come between 7-0 and 8-5. This makes a great variation in length at the 
end of the third year, all the way from 24-2 to 31-8, the majority falling between 
27-5 and 29-5. In the fourth-year growth there is less variation, 4-2 and 6-7 being the 
extremes, but at the end of the year the length varies from 29-9 to 37-9, with one 
abnormally low at 28-3. Those taken in the fifth year were taken at different times 
and a fair comparison can scarcely be made, but with the exception of the abnormal 
one just mentioned, which became only 30-5, there was a variation from 33 to 40-0, 
with an average of 35-8. 



30 Di:i'AiiTMi:\r or riir \\vAh service 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

In the fish of the " stronm type," since the prowth in the first year, after the 
alevin stape is passed, is small, there is little variation as given in inches, for thft 
lonfrth at the end of the first year. The extremes are 3-2 and 4 1, with the greatest 
inmiber at 3-6 and the next at 3-9. In the second-year growth there is a range from 
7-7 to 12-8, but nearly all are between 8-4 and 12-0. The length at the end of the 
second year varies from 11-4 to 16-5, but nearly all are between 12 1 and 15-9. In 
tlie third-year growth there are three exceptionally low, 5 1, 5-8, and 6-4, and apart 
from this there is a variation from 6-9 to 12-5, the majority being between 8-3 and 11-0. 
At the end of the third year, with the exception of six abnormal ones, one of which 
is only 16-9, the length varies from 21-1 to 26-9, and is fairly well distributed between 
these extremes. In the fourth year the increase is small in two cases, 5-0 and 5-3 and 
high in two others, 8-9 and 9-8. The remainder falls between 5-7 and 8-4, with the 
majority between 7-0 and 8-0. The length at the end of the fourth year varies from 
258 to 34-0, but nearly all fall between 29-5 and 31-5. Of those caught in the fifth 
year, all but three were obtained on June 22. The average length when caught was 
32-4, with a variation from 2i8-5 to 36-5. 

For material from such a variety of sources, the growth values for each year 
show very little difference in the different classes. The differences are greater in 
fishes of the "sea type," since, as the spring salmon do not all spawn at the same time 
of the year, some of the fry must be more or less than a year old at the end of the 
lirst winter check. With the fish of the " stream type " the growth of the first year 
is so small that all start on much the same basis at the beginning of the second 
spring. 

There is one point quite prominent in both types, and hence worth considering. 
'J'hose fish that have matured in their fourth year have higher average growths 
throughout than those that do not matvire until the fifth year. From this it would 
seem that the larger fish of a year-class spawn in the fourth year and the smaller 
ones of the class spawn in the fifth year. If this is true, we should expect that those 
that mature as grilse in the third year should be the largest of the year class. Too 
few were examined to justify any definite statement, but it may be said that these do 
not show that that might not be so. One would need to get several fish of the same 
year-class for three years in succession before the conclusion would be sufficiently 
definite. 

The comparison would be more complete if six-year or even seven-year fish 
(Gilbert records one fish in its seventh year) could have been included. Gilbert says 
very little about the six and seven-year fish that he has seen. The sixth-year scale 
Ihat he figures is of the " stream type " it would be interesting to know if all the 
others were, as well as the nature of the seventh-year fish. The data from such would 
have a decided bearing on the question here discussed, but in this region, at any 
rate, they would not appear to be sufficiently numerous to be a factor in the com- 
mercial phase of the question. 

As quite a complete series of fish up to 35 inches was obtained, and as the weight 
of these over 5 inches was recorded, it is possible to get a satisfactory graph to show 
the ratio of weight to length. The curve is as regular as one could expect from the 
degree of accuracy of weights and measurements. There were only ten fish in the 
collection over 35 inches, and these show much irregularity in weight. There were: 
Tour 35-5, varying from 21 to 28-5 pounds; one 36-0, weighing 28; one 36-5. 25; 
• me 37-5, 39; one 38, 28; one 39, 35-5; and one 40-0 weighing 36-5 pounds. 

The sex was not determined in the fish obtained from New Westminster and 
Vancouver, hence the data are not sufficient to say definitely if there was much differ- 
ence in weight between the males and the females of the same length, as this lot 
contained a large proportion of the mature specimens. In those where the sex was 
determined there was no material difference. 



SCALES OF Tin: sruixfi .SMM/O.V 31 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

In comparing the salmon of the " sea type " with those of the " stream type " 
throughout, the former shows to good advantage. At the end of the first year, it has 
u length 6-6 inches greater than the other, and a somewhat similar superiority is 
maintained throughout. At the end of the second year three is still 6-6 inches differ- 
ence and a difference of over 3 pounds in weight, as the small fish weighs very little 
over a pound while the larger weighs over 4. At the end of the third year the differ- 
ence in length is 5'-2 inches and the difference in weight, Y-5 pounds. At the end 
of the fourth year, the difference in length is 3-1 inches and the difference in weight, 
6-5 pounds. At the time they arc caught in June and July, if they are in the fourth 
year, the average length of the "sea type" is 31 -Y inches, and of the "stream type" 
'2Ct['> inches, a difference of 5-4 inches, and a corresponding difference in weight of 
7-5 pounds; if they are caught in their fifth year, there is an average difference in 
length of 3-4 inches, and in weight of 6-5 pounds. As in this collection 65 per cent 
are fish of the " sea typo," it would seem to be a good thing if the remainder should 
be encouraged to behave likewise. Hence, instead of keeping the fry of the spring 
salmon in retaining ponds for a year, and losing thereby many pounds of mature 
fish, it would be much better to give all of them every facility in getting down to the 
salt water and a better supply of food as soon as they can stand the change physio- 
logically. The only offset there is comes from the fact that a larger number of fish 
of the " sea type " than of the " stream type " are mature in the fourth year. The 
latter has one year longer to grow in such cases. As it is scarcely any larger in the 
6fth year than the former is in the fourth, there is no special advantage even here. 
If five years instead of four are taken to produce a certain size of fish, there must be 
ii loss of 25 per cent here as well. 

It must be distinctly understood that these remarks apply to the spring salmon 
only, and to the spring salmon as I have found it. It does not necessarily apply to 
any other species of Pacific salmon. That quite the opposite is true for the coho is 
shown in another paper being published, and it remains to be seen what is the nature 
of the application in other species. 

SUMMARY. 

The growth of the scale in the spring salmon is a good indication of the growth 
of the fish. Annual bands of growth appear on the scale, each consisting of a wide 
portion with the lines on it somewhat distant, and a narrow portion with the lines 
closer together. The narrow band may be called the " winter check " appropriately, 
because, although the retardation of growth is due to a lack of food rather than to a 
lowering of the temperature, it is produced in the winter months, January, February, 
find March, with indications of it in December and April. 

There are two types of scales, since some of the salmon migrate to the sea as 
fry and have no fresh-water record on their scales, while others migrate as yearlings 
or fingerlings after having a year of comparatively slow grovTth on the fresh water 
clearly indicated on the scales. 

The majority of both types mature in their fourth or fifth years; probably a 
greater percentage of the " sea type " than of the " stream type " mature in the fourth 
year, but a majority of the whole nvimber are of the " sea type." The fish that mature 
in the fourth year are, as a rule, among the larger of the year-class. Possibly if 
enough third-year grilse were examined there would be proof that they are among the 
largest of the year-class. 

The " sea type " fish has a decided advantage throughout life, both in length and 
in weight, so much so that an average fish of the "stream type", mature in the fifth 
year, is scarcely larger than a "sea type" fish mature in the fourth year. If they are 
both in the same year when mature, either the fourth or fifth, there is an average 
difference of 6 or 7 pounds. Unless there is some other preponderating reason for 



32 DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SEUVICi: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

keepinp: sprinp: salmon in rearing ponds for a year, it is decidedly unwise to do so, 
as, taking it either in size or in time, there must be a handicap of at least 20 or 25 
per cent in favour of the " sea-type " fish. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Scale of spring salmon in tlilrd year showing summer growth at the margin, caught 
June 6. 

" 2. Scale of spring salmon near the end of the third year showing winter check at margin, 
caught February 16. 

" 3. Scale of spring salmon in second year showing winter check starting at margin, caught 
November 27. 

" 4. Scale of spring salmon in second year with winter check just starting at margin, caught 
January 5. 

Plate II. 

" 5. Scale of spring salmon at the beginning of the fourth year with summer growth start- 
ing at the margin, caught March 17. 

" 6.' Scale of spring salmon at the beginning of the third year with summer growth well 
begun at the margin, caught April 5. 

" 7. Scale of spring salmon at the beginning of the third year with no summer growth show- 
ing at the margin, caught April 13. 

" 8. Scale of spring salmon at the beginning of the third year with no summer growth 
showing at the margin, caught April 22. 

" 9. Scale of spring salmon in the third year, regenerated in the fall of the second year and 
showing the second winter check. 

Plate III. 

" 10. Scale of spring salmon in third year with n check showing at the margin during sum- 
mer growth, caught July 26. 

" 11. Centre of scale of spring salmon of "stream type" in fourth year, in which migration 
took place immediately after winter check. 

Plate IV. 

" 12. Centre of scale of spring salmon of "stream type" in second year, showing fresh water 

growth after the first winter check. 
" 13. Centre of scale of spring salmon of "sea type" in second year. 

Graphs. 

"14. A curve to show percentage for each half month of the total growth for the year. A 
curve to show at the end of each half month, the percentage of the whole growth of 
the year attained. A curve (interrupted) showing the annual variation of the tem- 
perature of the surface water. 

"15. A curve showing ratio of weight to length. 



Plate i. 





■../L^:-^- 




■^': -^ 




Spring Salmon. 



Platk II. 




Spring Salmon. 



Platk III. 




10 




11 

Spring .Salmon. 



38a— 3 



Plate 





Spring Salmon. 



: 










Fi 


y. 14. 














- 


























-: 


















-^ 


^"^ 


















^ 


-^ 




















/ 


x"' 
















: 






/ 


/ 
























/ 














' 






- 






,,' 


----■■ 


















': 


























'\'"' 


























': / 


















--- 








'-/ 


: i: : 1 n i 


; i 1 1 ; M 1 1 


1 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! 


1 1 1 M 1 M 1 


1 n , 1 I M : 




1 ' 1 ; ' 1 I 






TI-I ! 1 n-rr 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


MM l-U-L 



Spring Sainton. 

A curve to show percentage for each half month of the total growih for the year. A curve to show at 
the end of each half month, the percentage of the whole growth of the year attained. A curve 
(interrupted) showing the annual variation of the temperature of the surface water. 



38a— 3i 















f 






-. „s.» 








^ 
































































































i 




































1 
































\ 
































\ 
































\ 


































\ 




























\ 




\ 


































\ 
































"" 


\^ 


































N,^^ 


\ 






















, • 












\ 




































































~^ 


-^ 








































































- 






























1 







7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a A. 19U 



ON THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE COHO. 

By C. McLean Fkaser, Ph.D. 

Curator, Pacific Coast Biological Station, Departure Bay, B.C. 

(With Plates V, VI, and VII (7 figures), and figures (Graphs) 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. 

The sockeye and the spring salmon, among the Pacific species, have received the 
monopoly of attention of investigators ever since the salmon trade became an important 
one on the Pacific coast, and naturally so, because these two species have been so 
important, commercially. In more recent years, on account of the scarcity of these 
at times, especially in certain localities, the other species have come more into 
prominence. The coho or silver salmon is now quite an important factor in the 
output of the canneries. In the cannery statements compiled for the Pacific Fisher- 
man Year Books it is shown that there has been a gradual though rapid increase m 
the coho pack in British Columbia until, for the year 1915, it amounted to 13 per 
cent of the whole output. It does not show as large a percentage for that year for 
the whole coast, but in 1912, when the sockeye pack was very low, it reached an 
amount over 10 per cent of the pack for the year. Besides those that are canned, 
an increasing number is being put in cold storage. As the importance of the coho 
is thus rapidly increasing it seemed worljh while to take advantage of a situation 
somewhat favourable for learning something of the life-history of the species. 

Some work has already been done on the coho. It has been considered, along 
with other species, in papers on the Pacific salmon, in several papers by McMurrich 
and one by Gilbert. These deal largely with the age at maturity of the species. 
Some of the points touched on in these papers will be considered in connection with 
others that heretofore have not received special attention. 

The favourable conditions referred to are these: Coho spawn in a small creek 
that fiows into the head of Departure bay, and in this creek, at all times of the year, 
the young coho may be seen. A locality for observation is thus very conveniently 
situated. After they have migrated, some of them must remain in the strait of 
Oeorgia throughout their lives in salt water, and possibly they all do, as they may 
be caught with hand lines throughout the greater part of the year. Various stages 
have been obtained from hand line fishermen in Departure bay. Through the kind- 
ness of Messrs. Broder, a large number of specimens of mature fish, a good repre- 
sentative lot for the strait, was examined at the cannery at Nanaimo. To compare 
with these, through the kindness of Manager Crawford, of the Neah Bay cannery, 
I was able to get a number from the open ocean. 

In the creek at Departure bay the mature coho appear about the middle of 
TvTovember. As the spawning beds are but a short distance up the stream, not more 
than a mile, they are soon reached, and the spawning is over by the end of the month. 
At the Cowichan Lake hatchery, where, until this season, the greatest number of 
oohos in the province were hatched, 'the first eggs were taken about November 10, 
but the spawning season lasts for a considerable time, as even after the first of 
February there are unspawned fish in the streams of the neighbourhood. 

The eggs hatch in three months, or slightly less, but the alevins remain buried 
in the coarse sand or fine gravel at somo distance below the surface for some time. 
On March 7 not one could be seen in the creek, although the last year's fry were 

39 



40 DEPART MEM' OF THE A'AFIL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

plentiful. On April 10 the alovins were plentiful, and by Ai)ril 11 a few of them 
had the yolk all absorbed. They gradually work down stream and even into the 
brackish water. By May 6 many of them were near the month of the stream, but 
I have never seen any of them out in the bay, or anything to indicate that they ever 
got out into the bay during the first year. Relatively, those in the creek at any one 
time vary much in length. On April 14 a catch of alevins and fry varied from 30 
to 39 mm. Of nineteen caught on June 29 there were the following lengths: 33, 36 
(2), 37, 39, 41, 42 (2), 43 (3), 44 (2), 54, 58, 60 (2). On November 19 there was 
variation from 49 to 61 ; on March 7, from 52 to 67, with a single very small one 
only 42 ram. Some of them migrate to the sea as early as March, at which time they 
are a year hatched, but others linger in the fresh water much longer. 1 have seen 
none later than June 29, but on that date two were caught, 76 and 60 mm., and 
others were seen in the creek. None of them, however, remain throughout the whole 
second year. Evidence that this is true elsewhere will be referred to later, when the 
oge question is considered more at length. 

During the first months after migration the yearlings are seldom observed; they 
are too small to be retained in the meshes of the gill-nets, seines, or traps, and too 
small also to be attracted by the spoon that is used in catching larger fish. They 
prow very rapidly, and in October an occasional one is caught with the hook and 
line. They are now 10 to 12 inches long, each weighing 12 to 14 ounces. They do 
not appear in sufficient numbers to attract attention until the spring, when they are 
just over two years old. In the latter half of April, the schizopods become so 
plentiful near the surface of the water at certain times of the day that large areas 
become noticeably pink. As the cohos have a decided preference for small crusta- 
ceans, they appear in great numbers to gorge themselves on these schizopods. The 
crustaceans are almost at the surface, and the young coho may be seen in all 
directions, jumping out of the water. They take the spoon readily at this time but, 
apparently, not because they are hungry, as they may be taken with their stomachs 
much distended with the pink food made up of thousands of these individuals. 
Locally, at this time, they are called " bluebacks," but this term is used in so. many 
different senses, as several common names are, that it is scarcely wise to mention 
the fact lest it give a wrong impression. At the same time, or somewhat later, the 
young herring are little larger than the schizopods, and they also provide excellent 
food material. Probably at no other time in the life of the coho is there such a 
superabundance of good food available, and in consequence the rate of growth is 
rather startling. Fish that weigh li to 2^ pounds at the middle of April, will weigh 
3 to 5 or even 5J pounds by the middle of June, i.e., doubling the weight in two 
months. The length, which was from 14 to 19 inches in April, now runs from 18 to 
23 inches. From this time on an occasional fish is caught in the vicinity of Nanaimo, 
but the real season for mature coho does not start until on in September. In other 
parts of the province it starts earlier than this. At several points from Alert bay to 
Prince Rupert a good catch was made last year before the end of August. These 
mature fish, now two years and seven or eight months old, vary much in length and 
weight. In the length, a variation from 18 to 31 inches has been observed, and in 
weight from 3| to 16j pounds. They are now on the way to the streams to spawn, 
and their life-cycle is soon completed. 

As to the food of the coho, from the time that the yolk is absorbed until maturity, 
there seems to be a decided preference for an insect and crustacean diet. When this 
is not available, reliance has to be placed on fish. In the nearby creek, as soon as the 
alevins w-ork their way out of the gravel of the spawning bed, they move away from it 
down stream. By the time the yolk is all absorbed they are well distributed throughout 
the length of the stream, and not too much crowded in any one place. In consequence 
there probably is a supply of insect larva? for all. Beside the coho, the only fish in 



LIFE-HISTORY OF THE COHO 41 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

the creek is the cut-throat trout, with an occasional small sculpin or fresh-water bull- 
head. The cut-throat of the same year is not hatched for some time after the coho 
appears, and those of the preceding year are large enough to look after themselves. 
The young fry, therefore, have no fish as small as themselves to attack, and hence 
insect larvfc, with a few fresh-water Crustacea must supply the demand. It is possible 
that those earlier hatched may attack those later hatched and that both may attack 
the cut-throat fry when they come out, but by this time they must have attained greater 
size. It is possible, too, that the yearling coho attack the firy, and the cut-throat a year 
or more old may do so also, as all the Salmonidte eat fish when other food is not avail- 
able, if not at other times. In this! creek the cohos and the trout seem to live in har- 
mony, as both are commonly found in the same small group. 

It is a fact that when large numbers of fry are put out in the creeks from the 
hatchery that the older ones may be seen devouring the younger ones, but in such cases 
thousands, sometimes hundreds of thousands, are put out in the one creek within com- 
paratively narrow limits so that before they become well distributed insect food must 
be at a premium. As the younger fry offer the only food for the older ones, very hun- 
gry by this time, they are devoured. If there are trout in the same stream they prob- 
ably assist in the operation. 

The statement that coho remain in the rivers for two or three years feeding on the 
trout is evidently absurd. In the first place, the coho does not live to be three years 
old, or at least there has been no evidence adduced that it does. In the second place, 
there is a similar lack of evidence that any of them remain in fresh water for two 
years. Furthermore, as the yearling coho is seldom more than 5 inches long when it 
migrates, and more often is considerably short of that, the injury done to the trout by 
it must be very much exaggerated. In reality the coho has a much stronger case against 
the trout, the steelhead, the cut-throat and dolly varden or char. These fish follow the 
coho to the spawning beds and devour so many of the eggs as soon as they are spawned 
that the possible number of coho fry is at once very much reduced. No matter how 
often the male coho turns to chase them, they follow him back, as soon as he turns, 
to gorge themselves once more. After the eggs are hatched the fry are attacked, and 
it is there that the dolly varden does the most damage. It is the general opinion of 
observers all the way from the Aleutian islands to California that the dolly varden 
does more harm to the salmon fry than any other agency, and many will go so far as 
to say that it does more harm than all the other agencies put together. Therefore, 
instead of protecting the dolly varden by a close season, it would be very much better 
for the salmon fisheries if everything possible were done to reduce their numbers. The 
case against the other trout is not so strong, but as they remain in the fresh water for 
a much greater portion of their lives than the coho, the balance of destruction is prob- 
ably in their favour. 

The food of the coho in the sea has been indicated. Pelagic Crustacea form the 
bulk of it. Schizopods predominate if the whole year is considered but, at certain 
times, larval barnacles and larval decapods form an important portion. Of the fish 
used, reference has been made to the small herring fry. The older fry and even the 
lierring a year or more old are eaten later in the season. Apparently thev have pre- 
ference over other fish. Salmon fry, sand launces and capelin are the only other fish 
that have to be observed. For a short period about October the 1st the capelin are taken 
in large numbers as they come inshore to spawn. 

The mature fish feed actively until they come to the mouth of the streams up 
which they go to spawn, or possibly until they enter these streams; Consequently, 
they must increase in weight almost until spawning time. 

The general rate of growth has been considered and some remarks made about the 
age of the coho. A more complete analysis of the relation of growth to age, depending 
on the examination of scales, will now follow. The method of growth determination 



42 DEI'ARTMEXT OF I'llE XATAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

used is the same as that used in a prior paper on the life history of the spring salmon. 
In general, the winter checks show up more plainly in this species than in the spring 
salmon, so that thcro is seldom any ditfioultv in making out their delimitation. 

The scale appears first as a small, flat, almost circular body, which becomes the 
nucleus of the growing sc.ile. At that stage of the appearance of this nucleus 
the fry is from 31 to 34 mm. long Cin all measurements in this paper the length 
does not include the caudal fin rays), with an average of 32-5 mm. It is this size 
about the end of IMay or early in June. The rings then begin to form. From 
ten to fourteen appear in the first set; these gradually get closer together, although 
they are not very far apart nt first. The last two or three may be dim, broken, and 
generally indistinct. They indicate the first winter check. At the time these are 
formed the food supply is at its lowest ebb, so that very little growth is taking place. 
In March or early in April the food supply becomes more abundant and the distance 
between the rings increases, showing more rapid growth, somewhat similar to that near 
the nucleus. At migration a decided increase takes place abruptly, due to the better 
supply of food in the salt water. It may be that the fresh water band for the beginning 
of the second year is entirely absent as some of the yearlings pass down to the sea too 
early to show spring growth in fresh water. More commonly the band is present, vary- 
ing in width with the length of time before migration takes place. 

Chamberlain^ has reported that, in Alaska, a greater number of coho pass to the 
sea as fry than as yearliner^;. The evidence available for this region indicates a con- 
dition far otherwise. Out of nearly 400 examined for the puri>ose of this research, 
only three showed indication of going to the sea as fry. These three were among those 
obtained at Neah bay on October 26. During the remainder of the summer the rings 
are formed as usual for salmon growth in the sea. The winter check follows and then 
the growth during the third summer, with the rings getting somewhat closer late in 
the fall when the fish goes up the stream to spawn. 

The scales of the three that went to the salt water as fry have the first-year growth 
in the nature of a broad band of distant rings next to the nucleus, followed by a 
winter check, the whole width of the band being similar to that of the second year. 
Since the first year shows no fresh-water growth, the second does not either, and the 
third year is similar to that in other scales. 

Even in the largest fish obtained there was no indication that the third year had 
been completed. As no one has recorded a fourth year specimen, if there are any 
such, they must be rare. 

The analysis of the results of examining the scales of nearly 400 fish, of which 
301 were in the third year, gives an admirable basis for comparing the rate of growth 
in the different years and in the different fish. As the fry is, on the average, 1-3 
inch long when the nucleus is developed, that amount has been taken from the total 
length in inches in each case and the remainder divided as the scale is divided by the 
winter checks. Then 1-3 inch is added to the first year value to obtain the length at 
the end of the first year. In these scales, the growth of the fresh-water portion of the 
second year was calculated also. 

In the whole number of fish in the third year, the least growth at the end of the 
first year was 2-4 inches and the greatest 4-1, with an average of 3^-3. (All of the 
yearlings caught in the stream in early spring came between these same extremes.) 
The frequency curve to represent this is a fairly regular one, showing the greatest 
number at a length of 3-2, although nearly as many at 3-4 and 3-6. The growth for 
the second year varies from 7-5 to 14-4, with an average of 111. The greatest number 
came at 10-7 and 11-6. Although the base of the curve is much more spread out 
than in the first-year curve, the regularity is much the same. The length at the end 

1 Chamberlain, F. M. Observations on salmon and trout in Alaska. Bureau of Fishories. 
Document No. 027, 1907, 



LIFE-HISTORY OF THE COHO 43 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

of the second year varies from 11-1 to 18-1, with an average of 14 H. The highest 
point of the curve is reached with 13-5, but there are several others nearly as high. 
That, in general, the yearlings that have the best start tend to keep it up, is shown 
by the fact that the average of the length at the end of the first year, added to the 
average growth in the second year, gives exactly the length at the end of the second 
year. For the growth in the third year, only those caught after September 15 are 
considered. Since there is such rapid growth during the third summer, a fair com- 
parison could not be made of all those caught during the year. Apart from an 
abnormally small growth, 4-0, and an abnormally large one, 14-2, the growth for the 
portion of the third year varies from 6-1 to 13-5 inches, with an average of 9-7; 10-0 
has the highest point on the curve, with 9'- 5 and 10-6 nearly approaching it. The 
total length at time of catching of these same third-year specimens varies from 18-0 
to 31-0 inches, with an average of 24-0. The highest point on the curve is taken by 
23-0, but 22-0 and 23-5 nearly equal it. As the frequency curve here is made from 
half-inch measurements while the others are in tenths, they are not exactly compar- 
able. Here again the average length is equal to the sum of the average growth in 
the three periods, 3-3 + ll'-O + 9-7 = 24-0, and the length at the end of the three years 
is 3-3, 14-3, and 24-0, respectively. 

The fish that went to sea as fry were not sufficiently numerous to serve as a basis 
for definite conclusions. The measurements were as follows: — 

1. At end of 1st year, 9'6 ; 2nd year, 16-4; 3rd year, 24-0 

2. " " 11-0 " 19-4 " 25-0 

3. " '• 11-4 " 21-5 " 28-0 
Average " " 10'7 " 19*1 " 25"7 

There is no very appreciable difference between the length of the males and the 
females. The averages are : — 

Males — At end of 1st year, 3*3 ; 2nd year, 14*5 ; 3rd year, 24'1 
Females — " " 3*3 " 14"2 " 24*0 

There is more difference between the average lengths of those caught at Xeah bay 
and those caught in the strait of Georgia. 

Strait of Georgia — At end of 1st year, 3*3 ; 2nd year, 14-1 ; 3rd year, 23*7 
Neah Bay — " " 3*6 " 15-5 " 25-6 

If the difference was in tlie third year only, it might be accounted for partly by 
the fact that those from Neah bay were caught a little later in the year than the 
majority of those taken in the strait of Georgia, but the difference is relatively as 
great at the end of the second year, and is noticeable even at the end of the first year. 
It might be that since all of the Neah Bay specimens were from the same lot, that 
was an early spawned lot and they were able to keep up the initial advantage. To 
keep up the advantage it would be necessary to have the proper supply of food in 
any case and probably the food supply is better at the entrance to the strait of 
Fuca or somewhere in that vicinity than it is in the strait of Georgia. This is borne 
out in the comparison of weights, a matter which is taken up later. 

The length at the time of migration varied from 2-8 to 6-6 inches, with an 
average of 4-5. Out of the whole number only eight were over 6-0 inches, and only 
twenty-two were over 5-5. The greatest number were at 4-6. Various calculations 
were made to see if the fish were ultimately smaller on account of the longer time 
spent in the fresh water at the beginning of the second year, but no constant differ- 
ence could be found even in the growth for the second year. The time of hatching, 
and consequently the length at the end of the first year, seems to have more to do 
with the total growth and the second year's growth than the length of time spent in 
the fresh water during the second year. Possibly if a greater number were examined, 
some difference might be shown. 



44 DKr.iRTMh'W OF THE SAVAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Going on the supposition that the fish that were first hatched during the season 
would, in general, have the greatest growth to the end of the first winter check, they 
were divided into three groups according to their lengths at that time. The first 
group included all those that were 30 inches or less at the end of the first winter 
check; the second included those that were over 30 inches and up to 3-5 inches; the 
third included those over 3-5 inches. The average growth in each case was as 
follows : — 

1st group — At end of 2nd year, 14*0 ; when caught, 23*6 
2nd " " " 14-1 •' 23-7 

3rd " •* " 14-9 " 25-0 

The diflFerence indicates that the fish that are the largest at the end of the first 
year, and hence probably those that were hatched out earliest, have an advantage 
that tends for greater growth throughout life. 

When the weight of the fish was compared with the length, it was found that 
there was a very definite ratio between length and weight. The youngest fish of 
which the weights were taken, or which enough weights were taken to make a com- 
parison possible, were those slightly over two years old, taken in April. From these 
the following table was obtained : — 

Length. Weight. 

Lb. Oz. 

14-75 1 8 

15- 1 11 

15-25 1 12 

15-5 1 14 

15-75 2 2 

16- 

16-25 : 2 

16-5 i 2 4 

16-75 2 6 

17-25 2 8 

18- 3 

18-5 3 4 

19- 3 8 

19-5 3 12 

In some cases there was but one specimen of the particular length, hence some 
irregularity is sho-wn. This would probably be eliminated if there were several of 
that length from which to take an average. 

In comparing the weights of the mature fish, the males and females were taken 
separately, and those from Neah bay were separated from the others. 

In the table which follows there is some irregularity, as in the preceding table, 
due to the small number of specimens for certain lengths, more particularly towards 
the extremes of length, but even with these figures it is possible to see the definite 
relation between lenerth and weight. There is verv little difference between the weight 
of the male and the female for the same length. What difference there is, is in favour 
of the female. In comparing the Nanaimo fish with those from Neah bay, the latter 
have what little advantage there is. In both Nanaimo and Neah bay material, the 
males are at the head of the list for size, taking the whole size of the individiial fish. 



LIFE-HISTORY OF THE COHO 



45 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 







Weight. 


Length. 


Nanaimo. 


Neah Bay. 




Male. 


Feniale. 


Male. 


Female. 


] 

18 


n. 

5 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 
3-75 


Lbs. 
3-75 


Lbs. 


19 




3-75 

4- 




19 


5 








?n 




4-25 






?n 


5 


4-75 

4-625 

4-875 

5-25 

5-5 

5-875 

6-375 

6-5 

6-625 

7- 

8- 

8-25 

9- 






''1 




4-75 

5- 

5-25 

5-75 

6- 

6-375 

6-75 

7- 

7-25 

8- 

8-375 

9-25 

9-5 
10- 
11-5 
12- 
12-75 
13- 


5-5 




''I 


5 




?? 








'>'> 


5 


6-5 


5-75 


9^ 




7-5 


?3 


5 




7-5 


?4 




7-25 
7-5 

8- 


8-5 


94 


5:::::::::::::::::;::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::; 


8- 


'>') 




8-25 


'>'=, 




10-25 


''fi 




9- 
9-5 


9-25 


''6 


5 


lo- 


97 




ll -25 


?7 


5 




11-5 

11-5 

12- 

15- 

13- 


11-5 


?8 




9-75 


11-75 


■JS 


5 




9q 








?9 


5 






SO 




13-75 

16-5 

13- 




■^n 


5 








31 





















SUMMARY. 

The coho, which is mature in its third year, spends the entire first year, with 
but very few exceptions, in the Vancouver Island region, in the fresh water. Some 
of them migrate about the time the first year is completed, but others remain later, 
even until well on in the summer. There is no indication that any remain in fresh 
water to complete the second year. The scale shows a distinct winter check in the 
fresh water growth and another in the sea growth. 

The average length is 3-3 inches at the end of the first year, 14-3 inches at the 
end of the second year, and 24-0 inches when caught in the fall of the third year. 

There is an indication that the fish that are largest at the end of the first year 
become the largest mature fish. Although some of the yearlings stay in the fresh 
water longer than others, it was not apparent that this made any special difference 
m the ultimate size of the fish. 

There is a definite ratio between length and weight. In the mature fish, the 
females weigh slightly more than the males of the same length. 

In connection with artificial propagation, as large a portion as possible for the 
season's hatching should be procured from the early spawning fish that the fry may 
be larger at the end of the first year and consequently larger as mature fish. 

No species of Pacific salmon should get more benefit from rearing ponds than 
the coho, as almost the whole of the fry remain in the fresh water for a year in any 
case, and very few naturally get the benefit of accelerated growth in the salt water 
in the first year. 

From the standpoint of economy, the waste caused by early fishing can readily 
be appreciated when the great percentage increase in weight during the summer 
months of the third year is taken into account. 



46 



DEPARTMENT OE THE All I/. sKUVH'E 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



EXPLANATTOX OF PLATES. 

I'LATE V. 

Fig. 1. Coho scales in early stage of development. 
" 2. Scale from a coho in the fall of the second year. 
3. Scale from a coho in the spring of the third year. 



Plate VI. 

Fig. 4. Scale of mature fiish in fall of third year. 

5. Centre of scale more highly magnified to show winter check in fresh water growth. 

Plate Vll. 

Fig. 6. Scale of coho that migrated as fry. 
" 7. Centre of previous scale more highly magnified. 



A 



Fig. 8. Frequency cur 
" 9. 
" 10. 
" 11. 
" 12. 
" 13. 



Graphs. 

ive for first-year growth. 

second-year growth. 

third-year growth. 

length at the end of the second year. 
" length of mature fish. 

amount of growth in fresh water. 



Plate v. 








^^1 






f -t. 



,1/ 






f> 





X 



Coho Salmon. 



PTATE VI. 





Plate vii. 




. ^ :■> "^ 




Coho Salmon. 



c 



40 



30 



20 



10 



- 












- 












- 












- 






\ 






- 






m 






- 






f\ 






- 




A 








- 




C\ 








- 






\ 






2 




,^l 




\ 




- 




1 









'20 



5 



4-0 



Len^tV> inlncKes 
Fig. 8. Coho. Frequency c urve for nrst-year growth. 




90 



110 120 

Length in incKes 
Fig. 9. Coho. Frequency curve for second-year gJowth. 




90 lOO 

l.«ngtK in Inches 

Fig. 10. Coho. frequency curve for third-year growth. 



ft. 10- 

I 



- Ti^ 





I I I I M I 



I I I I I I I M 



I M 



J 

I M I I I I I I 




I I I I f I I 1 



I N A 



l^ M I I I I I I 



no 



15.0 



leo 



170 



Length in Incfos 

Fig. 11. Coho. Frequency curve for length at the end of the second year 



leo 



38a— 4 




11 24 26 

Length in ir.cV,es 

Fig. 12. Coho. Frequency curve for length of mature fish. 



30 




40 50 

LcliqtI. 1)1 Iiuhis 



Fig. 13. Cohu. Frefjuency curve for amount o/" growth in fresh water. 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a A. 1917 



AN INTESTIGATION OF OYSTER PROPAGATION IN RICHMOND BAY, 

P.E.I., DURING 1915. 

BY JULIUS NELSON, PH.D., BIOLOGIST. 

New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station. 

At the ro ,uest of the Biological Board of Canada, the writer, during August, 1915, 
turned aside from his oyster studies in New Jersey waters to investigate the oyster 
situation in Richmond bay. Prince Edward Island. A study of a region so remote from 
a locality hitherto familiar, gave promise of furnishing data that would help in dis- 
tinguishing between local and " essential " influences in oyster propagation. 

The ultimate object of these studies is the promotion of the oyster industry, both 
as a fishery and as oyster culture. It is an effort to conserve and to increase food 
resources, creditable alike in those who investigate, those who direct, and all who in 
any way encourage such researches. 

PART L— GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF OYSTER CONSERVATION AS 
APPLICABLE TO CANADA. 

The oyster-bearing waters of Eastern Canada are practically confined to tho?e bays 
of the gulf of St. Lawrence that indent the coast of Prince Edward Island, and the 
adjacent shores to the south and west, viz.. Cape Breton and the province of New Bruns- 
wick. Farther south, the coast is now practically barren of living oyster beds for a 
thousand miles, i.e., along southwestern Nova Scotia, the bay of Fundy, and the gulf 
of Maine practically in its entire extent to Cape Cod. That this coast was once prolific 
in oysters, though more sporadically than further south, is shown by the existence of 
oyster reefs recently fossilized, of ancient shell-heaps and by the traditions of colonial 
and more recent history. It is of both practical and theoretical interest to ask, " What 
caused the extinction of these oyster beds ?" On the true answer to this question hangs 
our conclusion as to the fate of the Canadian oyster industry. 

One of the older^ answers to this question assigned the cause of extinction of 
oyster beds along these northern coasts, to the gradual rising (geologically) of the 
shores, thus finally bringing the oysters so near to the surface that they were killed 
by wintry frosts and ice. It may be surmised that, if this process continued, the utter 
extinction of the Canadian oyster beds might be the ultimate outcome. It appears, 
however, that the coast is actually sinking; but the oyster reefs have been growing 
upward somewhat faster having attained a thickness of over 20 feet and have reached 
as near to the surface as possible. If proximity to the surface limits the growth of an 
oyster bed, the sinking of the coast has tended to prolong the life of the bed. It is dif- 
ficult to see how either of these conditions can extinguish the life on an oyster bed, 
since a limit of height is ultimately attained, where there is a balance between recup- 
erative and destructive forces. Everywhere, the tendency of oyster beds is to grow as 
high as possible. In the south, the oyster reefs are exposed at low tide ; the oysters can- 
not feed while uncovered, yet the oysters are not starved out. But if the coast should 
rise, the living surface of such reefs would be killed, while the oysters at the edges would 
gradually spread into deeper water. On the other hand, the sinking of the bottom would 
be highly favourable to oyster growth, provided that temperature and salinity conditions 



1 Ingersoll's Report on the Oyster Industry, 1882, Tenth Census of U. S., p. HS. 
38 a— 4i ^^ 



54 nrr.iirrMi:\T or the .yiti/, skuvice 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

were not utterly tranpformed so as to pa?? heyond favrmraVile limits. Tf the nortliern 
coast has been sinking, it is possible that this has perm tted eold arctif enrrents to enter 
some of the hays, or to influence the adjacent water that enters on the tides, so that the 
temperature necessary for summer propagation (68° F.) is not attained. The extensive 
shallow flats of Richmond bay and other noted oyster-produeinp hays of the prulf of 
St. Lawrence offer the conditions favourable to the warniintr of the water to the point 
needed for projiapratifni. 

As refrards salinity, we know that f)ysters flourish best when situated where there 
is a tidal increase and decrease in the salinity of the water; but oysters do prrow in 
waters of very difl^erent de^rrees of saltness, and also in places where there is remark- 
able uniformity in density. While too much emphasis has been laid on this factor, yet 
it remains highly desirable that further study be made of the relation of salinity t" 
oyster feediufr; but temperature, oxygen, and currents are of m'ich greater s'gnificince 
in oyster growth and propagation. 

A study of the temperature of the waters where oysters are now extinct would dis- 
cover the cause of their extinction. From the tables of temperature^ determined by 
Professor Copeland for Passamaquoddy bay, it is evident that oysters cin not propa- 
gate in those waters; but there is less evidence that oysters flourished there in early 
times than for some of the bays of Maine. Even in Prince Edward Island there are 
fossil oyster beds in the vicinity of living beds; thus we conclude that there must be 
also other causes for the extinction of oyster life. 

In respect to frost, it is remarkable to what extent oysters survive exposure to 
freezing, when partially imbedded in mud and thawed out gradually. It is asserted 
that where the water is so shallow that the ice rests on the bottom, at low tide, the 
oysters are killed by the pressure, unless they lie on a soft bottom, where, however, 
they are in danger of being buried. On the other hand, a heavy fall of snow before ice 
forms, clogs up shallow waters and kills oysters and even clams, acording to tlie testi- 
mony of intelligent and experienced oyster planters. The effect of melting ice, and 
especially snow, upon animal life has yet to be studied in a scientific manner. 

We are confronted with two opposing influences. Shallow waters, especially 
when so free from grass as to be swept by currents, favour oyster propagation in the 
summer, but are most unfavourable to oyster life in winter. Just here is a situation 
that can be advantageously handled by the art of man. so as to greatly improve upon 
nature; for the young oysters produced on the flats can be moved to deeper water 
on the approach of winter. This is never done under the conditions of a free or 
public fishery. It is in the interest of conservation that oyster farming be introduced 
to supplement natural production. The foremost difficulty encountered in this con- 
nection is not our inexperience and our ignorance of the proper way to raise oysters, 
so much as the opposition of those who believe in harvesting what nature produces 
without contributing the labour of cultivation. It takes many years of education 
and the observation of the increased harvest resulting from oyster farming, as well 
as the annually decreasing product secured by free fishing, to teach the oyster 
fishermen that it is to their interest as well as that of the general public, to promote 
scientific oyster culture. 

Man has been the oyster's greatest enemy; although, if he will use remedial 
measures, he can more than counteract the destruction. It is supposed that the 
disappearance in recent historic times of some of the natural oyster beds is due in 
large degree to the increased amount of sediment carried into bays by rivers, on 
which saw-mills have been erected, or whose drainage areas have been cleared and 
ploughed. Sawdust and sand are the most injurious of the forms of silt; light mud 
is more readily handled by the ciliary feeding apparatus of the oyster; yet when silt 
is present as a nearly continuous suspension in the tidal currents, it» seriously 



1 Corilribu'ions to Canadian Biology 1906-10, p. 286. etc. 



OYSTER PROr.\(l.\Tf(>\ l\ P.E.I. 55 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

interferes with feeding, causing: ultimate starvation. Silt that settles may be abun- 
dant enough to bury oysters; but even an exceedingly thin layer deposited on the 
objects used as eultch by the spat, will prevent fixation and therefore to the same 
degree prevent propagation. Assuming the spat to have secured fixation, it takes 
proportionately less silt to smother these delicate tiny oysters, than will bury the 
adults. 

The main cause of the destruction of natural oyster beds in historic times has been 
improper and careless fishing. The history of the oyster industry everywhere has 
shown that when oyster fishing has been pursued under no other regulations than 
those born of the wishes of the fishermen themselves, the natural beds were rapidly 
depleted, and finally exterminated, unless remedial measures were undertaken. Accord- 
ingly there have arisen many laws regulating this fishery, that seem strange to those 
engaged in private farming. For example, oysters may not be taken from natural 
beds except during the "open season."' The "close season," during summer, varies 
greatly in its limits according to locality, but usually includes May, June, July, and 
August. Fishing must be confined to the hours between sunrise and sunset. Oysters 
may be taken with tongs but not with rakes; and dredges may not be used, nor may 
oysters be taken through the ice. Oysters may not be sold under three inches in 
length, and those smaller than this miist be returned to the beds, etc. These laws are 
enforced by police methods; and fines and penalties are imposed for a breach of their 
provisions. 

Under private culture each farmer tries to promote his own ultimate best 
interests, and thus also the public welfare; but those who share in a public fishery 
consider only their own immediate self-interest. They sacrifice their own future, as 
well as the public welfare. The oyster laws are a result of an honest and fairly intelli- 
gent endeavour to conserve the natural oyster resources, and they undoubtedly partly 
succeed in effecting their object. It will be instructive to consider for a while the 
question of the depletion of natural beds and their conservation. 

AGENCIES DESTRUCTIVE TO OYSTERS, 

It is a fundamental biological principle that the agencies that destroy the indi- 
viduals of any living species nearly balance the natural rate of increase; that after 
a species has established itself in any locality the number of its population remains 
nearly the same from year to year, though the balance between birth-rate and death- 
rate will fluctuate slightly up and down as one or the other set of factors increases 
or decreases. For instance, if food, becomes temporarily more abundant, there is an 
increase in population, while a decrease in food results in a reduction of individuals, 
through starvation. So likewise there will be fluctuation due to the prevalence of 
various enemies and epidemics. 

Under this law there must be as many deaths as births ; or, vice versa, the number 
of births must be sufficient to make good the loss by death. Therefore, we can judge 
of the extent of the destructive forces by simply noting the fecundity of a species. 
The oyster is one of the most prolific of all creatures. A single large '' spawner " 
has been estimated to produce annually sixty million eggs, but we must remember 
that half of the oysters are males, and that there are many small oysters. Neglect- 
ing the very small '" seed " oysters, we may conservatively say that an oyster bed 
produces from ten to fifteen million young for each adult present; so that, if all lived 
and there were no further propagation, an oyster bed would be ten million times larger 
in five years. In spite of this astounding conclusion, however, the oyster beds are 
being depleted simply from the annual removal of a few hundreds or thousands of 
barrels. This should be the most convincing proof that the natural foes of oysters 
are extraordinarily formidable. Then why may we not believe that the destruction 
caused by man is insignificant in comparison, and so need not be considered to have 



66 ni:r.\RrMi:\T of the naval service 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

any practical effect? JJe<\in9o " it is the last straw that breaks the camel's back," 
and because nil natural species, including oysters, exist under a balance. We have 
only to refer to the extinction of tlie American bison, which existed in such hupre 
herds on our plains; or still better, the extinction of the wild pigeon, whose flocks in 
migration used to darken the skies of nearly a continent for days. It is absurd to 
believe tliat this species was limited until tlie last pair was shot. The destruction by 
the hunter, great as it was in the case of the bison, or of the pigeon, was probably 
jlight in comparison with all the other natural enemies, but the latter, suddenly sup- 
plemented by man, finally turned the balance, and completed the work after the hunt- 
ing ceased. Let us consider some of the destructive agencies operating against 
oysters. 

THE MEANING OF FECUNDITY. 

When the oyster ejects its millions of eggs into the water, these at first tend to 
sink to the bottom, which they would reach in ten minutes in calm water. In order 
that the eggs may develop, they must be fertilized by the male spawn or sperms. The 
sperms must be sufficiently abundant to enable an average of three hundred to cling 
to each egg during the ten minutes the egg is afloat. They must have been recently 
ejected from the male oyster or they will have died. The male oyster must have been 
ready to spawn at nearly the same time as the female, and must have lain sufficiently 
near, so that the water flowing over him shall reach the female by the time she emits 
her spawn. This is favoured by the fact that the process of spawning usually takes 
several hours or even days. We need to ascertain a good deal more than we know 
now before we can make precise statements, but we know that even where water is 
in such favourable agitation that the eggs are prevented from sinking to the bottom, 
they must be fertilized within a quarter of an hour to undergo normal development. 
This is the first reason for the enormous production of eggs. In spite of losses, vast 
numbers of developing young are started. As many as ten thousand newly hatched 
oyster fry or larvse have been counted in a single bucketful of water dipped up over 
an oyster bed. But this signifies that there are other chances yet to be taken. 

COMPETITION WITH PLANKTON ENEMIES. 

After hatching, which occurs in from five to eight hours, the young oyster swims 
80 weakly that the'' feeblest current carries it hither and thither. Indeed, all it effects 
by swimming, is to reach the surface and then to dive again, and so keep going up and 
down requiring an hour to swim a distance of a few feet. But the oyster fry find the 
water is crowded with minute enemies, such as Copepods (water fleas), the " veligers " 
if the many snails that cover the bottom, and a vast number of the larvae of bivalves 
of various species, all capturing everything within reach small enough to enter their 
hungry maws. These enemies eat the young oysters, and the messmates consume 
their food. For several weeks the young oyster has to run this gauntlet and obtain 
sufficient food to effect an increase in volume of a hundredfold before it attains the 
spat stage in its development. Great as has been the ninefold decimation, yet so many 
survive that, if clean oyster shells be planted at the time of spatting, as many as a 
hundred or more spat may be caught upon a single shell almost anywhere upon or 
near an oyster bed. 

LOSS RY TIDES. 

This great survival is the more remarkable when we reflect that twice daily a vast 
body of water runs over the oyster bed out to sea, carrying myriads of larvae, and only 
a part of this water returns. The astonishing fecundity of the parent oysters suffi- 
ciently meets this loss also. But the struggle for life has not yet ended. 



0YSTI:R Pli'OI'AaATJON IN I'.E.I. 57 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

THE QUEST FOR CUI.TCH. 

Unless man has placed clean cultch in the water, nature provides only the old 
shells of dead oysters, mostly buried in mud, or the outsides of the living oysters. 
These and other exposed shells are more or less covered with slime, silt, and mossy 
growths of both animal and vegetable nature. Millions of other larvae also needing 
cultch, such as " deckers," " jingles," " barnacles," etc., have pre-empted the best 
places and are busy feeding on every living thing they can swallow. Worst of all, 
through the open valves of the older oysters and of mussels, clams, etc., currents of 
water flow, bearing all sorts of plankton, presumably also oyster fry, to be used as 
food. How small a chance these fry have of escaping and finding a foothold ! If 
they cannot fixate they are doomed to destruction. But vast numbers do find a 
foothold and do succeed in growing, and crowding ea.ch other, and competing with 
all the other oysters for food. In this struggle the survivors ultimately overgrow 
and smother the previous generations. Great as is the loss through crowding, it is 
exceeded by or anticipated by an earlier destruction, sometimes including all the spat 
on most of the shells. 

THE ENEMIES OF GROWIXG OYSTERS. 

The numerous little Nassa snails are constantly exploring the surfaces of shells 
and scraping off all the newly set spat. Those that escape may reach the size of a 
fingernail, and then, along comes a boring snail and drills a hole through them, or a 
crab nips them off, or mud stirred up by storm smothers billions in a day, or the frosts 
of winter kill them. Later come the starfishes opening the oysters by their patient 
[mil, or bottom fishes may crush them in their paved jaws and throats. Last of all, 
man comes with tongs, and rakes, and dredges, and takes the few survivors. Thus 
ends this eventful history. The fisherman then wonders why the Creator doesn't 
supply new oysters the next season to replace those taken: usually the best answer 
given to this question is to bow in meek submission to Providence. 

COXDITIONS FOR PROPAGATIOX. 

A little insight into oyster biology should enable any one to see that the production 
of oysters depends on the co-operation of four conditions, viz : (1) suitable cultch, 
(2) in waters stocked with a sufficient number of spawning oysters, (3) lying close 
enough to ensure fertilization of the eggs, (4) on a bed sufficiently extensive to fill 
the water, over a considerable area, with oyster plankton to such a degree as to over- 
balance the larval mortality. 

When the large oysters, which furnish the bulk of the spawn, are yearly removed, 
as well as the cultch to which they are attached (including the young oysters attached 
either to them or to the cultch), then the bed is robbed in three-fold degree, viz., the 
cultch is decreased, the large spawners become fewer, and the " rising generations " 
are many times decimated. If the production of spawn is reduced to half, and the 
available cultch to half, then the production is reduced to a quarter. 

When shells, hitherto buried, are uncovered by working on a bed, they become 
available as cultch, but this advantage is greatly reduced through the fact that much 
silt is scattered upon the shells by the very operation which exposed them. In oyster 
fishing, ultimately all the cultch utilized by spat will have been removed, and then we 
have remaining simply an oyster reef covered by a layer of mud, upon which not an 
oyster can be pi'oduced. even though a current rich in oyster plankton, derived else- 
where, should flow over it at a time when the fry are matured to the sessile stage. Clam 
production is much simpler, for no cultch is needed. 



58 DKI'MiTMKM' <iF THE YUM/. SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 
STEPS IX CONSERVATION. 

Olio (if till- oarliost stops takon in rnost inst:ino("i towards tlie ciMisorvatioii of 
natural oystor liods has boon the enactment of a " oull Uiw." This conijiels the fislier- 
man to sort his oatoh on the bod, tlirowing back the unmarketable material, consistiiifr 
of shells and small oysters. The main advantage secured is the conservation of a per- 
centage of the seed oysters. The spat attached to the l-arge oysters cannot be removed, 
while the shells which are returned are largely silted \\\) when spatting time comes. In 
fact, these shells, unless newly dug out of the mud. require to weather for weeks, 
exposed to rain, snow, sun. and air before they are suitable for spat collecting. 

It is evident that no fisherman would thus care for the shells, unless compelled by 
law; yet it seems to the writer that it would be a practically enforceable provision, were 
it embodied in the cull law, particularly if a market for these shells could be secured. 
Sometimes the State has purchased cultch and placed it on natural Vjeds; but this prac- 
tice was abandoned for two reasons: the cost of the work was greater than under 
private enterprise; and the Government felt it was making a gift to a special class. 
Where oyster farming prevails, the planters would buy this cultch, particularly in 
iliut^e regions, where shells are scarce because no shucking operations are carried on. 
Now that oyster culture is under way in Canada, the securing of cultch is a matter of 
great concern. It appears that the most available supply must come from a sorting of 
the so-called " mussel-mud " dug out of dead oyster reefs. The firmest of these shells, 
which are often of large size, when washed clean, are good collectors. But no cultch 
should be planted until spatting has just begun. Happily, scientific oyster research 
has in recent years enabled us to closely determine this date; but important matters 
are still to be cleared up. 

THE KATE OF PKODl'CTIOX OF A BED. 

The legal restrictions imposed on the fishermen have the object of conserving the 
natural oyster production. The cull law helps this in a measure. Another prominent 
legal provision is the " close season " during summer, when no oysters are permitted to 
be taken, because it is believed that the spawning oysters should not be disturbed, nor 
the cultch be littered with silt by fishing operations. This " close season " has been 
lengthened from time to time, at both ends, by shortening the " open season," in order 
to reduce the number of oysters taken, it being believed that the bed is unable to 
supply oysters in quantity equal to the demand. It is doubtful if this provision 
becomes effective unless made so drastic as to practically deprive the fisherman of his 
means of living. 

When these enactments fail, more drastic measures are advocated, such as the 
closing of the oyster beds for a number of years, until nature has had time to restore 
them. But such legislation is founded on a failure to grasp a fundamental principle, 
to wit, a depleted oyster bed will be restored at a rate dependent on the percentage 
of available cultch multiplied into the available spat. Assuming that there are still 
enough oysters remaining to produce a fair abundance of spat, and that there are 
l>lantings of cultch on the bed at the proper times, then it will take five years for the 
bed to reach its acme. Then if this bed were henceforth left undisturbed by man, 
the forces of destruction and of natural production would just balance. On the 
other hand, suppose there was no planting of cultch, then, under nature, a depleted 
bed would take an indefinitely longer time to reach its original condition. In any 
event, after such a bed has reached the point of highest production, a survey of its 
extent and examination of an average square yard or rod, will enable one to calculate 
just how many bushels of oysters are present. Knowing then the number of bushels 
that can be taken in the open season, it can easily be reckoned how many years will 
elapse before the bed again will be reduced to a point where the fishermen can not 
secure their average catch. It should be evident that under artificial culture the 



<)YsTi:i,' rii'or \(; \Ti(>\ /.v /'./;./. 59 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

rnnks of the oysters arc restored' by fresh cultch, under whatever rate the adults are 
removed, so long as the remaining oysters furnish sufficient spat. In case a 5 year- 
old oyster is marketed, then, without culture, if so large a proportion as a fifth of the; 
product on the bed be taken each year, nature would not be able to replace this com- 
pletely, for reasons already explained. Yet the demand on the restored bed might be, 
so great that half of the oysters would be removed one year, two-thirds of the 
remainder the next, plus any natural increase, and so on. Thus the old story of 
gradual depletion would be repeated. For the first two years after a bed is opened, 
the production would be double or treble what it was before the bed w^as closed, but 
it soon drops back to the small figures. Now, calculating that there is no harvesting 
for the five years during which the bed has been closed, and suppose that in five years it 
must be closed again, we see that in the course of ten years the average yearly pro- 
duct is equal to the minimum harvest. There is no gain in production, and the only 
advantage is the saving of the oyster bed — a bed greatly depleted and not yielding 
its full capacity. The fact is, that a natural bed yields the highest food production 
when all the oysters above a certain size are removed annually, and an equivalent ot 
cultch is added. But such a bed gives the highest possible yield of oysters if it is 
used solely as a propagating bed, the seed being sold to oyster planters to mature 
for market on ground that could not be used for propagation. This is an important 
matter, and we need to go into it from the point of view of scientific oyster culture. 

Efficiext Use of Ovster Ground. 

Suitable localities for propagation and growth may in general be occupied by 
(1) natural beds, (2) under artificial oyster culture a certain additional area used 
for propagation and growth, and (3) an additional area for growth only, and (4) in 
a still further area, oysters might live for a while without growth. Area Xo. 4 is 
useful for storage only ; Nos. 1 and 2 are so nearly alike, biologically, that fishermen 
have contended, sometimes successfully, that they are alike legally, so that farmers 
who had made such areas productive, were robbed of the fruits of their labour. When 
we realize that area No. 2 would be barren but for the labour of man, we must justly 
conclude that from a legal point of view they are radically different from natural 
beds, however much they may resemble them biologically. 

Assuming that a farmer owns only areas like No. 3, then he cannot produce his 
own oyster seed, and must secure it in various degrees of development, from either 
the fishermen who harvest No. 1 or from farmers who own areas No. 2. His problem 
becomes this: Which ventures bring the best returns, the purchase and cultivation of 
oyster seed requiring one, or two, or three, or four years, to mature for market? If 
there is a law preventing the fishermen from removing oysters under marketable size 
from natural beds, then the farmer of No. 3 is dependent on what he can secure from 
the cultivators of No. 2. 

Let us next consider the culture of ground No. 2. As this is suitable for propa- 
gation, the owner can catch his own seed and is thus independent of the public beds. 
His ground is also suitable for growth, and so his problem is to find out which pays 
better, either to keep the seed on the ground where caught, until it is marketable, 
or to sell it at the age of one, two, or three, or four years, to owners of No. 3. In 
the former case, his farm will resemble a public bed, biologically speaking, but he can 
handle the situation to his own best interests, with his best judgment, and not under 
the restrictions pertaining to public fishing. He will remove each year the right 
number of marketable oysters, replacing them at the proper time by fresh cultch. 
He may do better: he may divide his ground into five plots — a, h, c, d, e. Let a 
represent the plot that catches the best set of spat. Each year, for four years, he 
will remove all the spat from a and plant them successively upon /), c, d, e, respec- 
tively, reshelling a at the ])ro]x>r times. He gets no pecuniary returiis until tlie fifth 



60 DEPMiTMEST OF THE V.lV.l/. SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

year, when he markets the entire crop on h. In case there lias been annual spatting 
on this ground, he culls off the immature oysters and places tliem, not on c but on 
the plots where oysters of similar ages are found. Thus c is cleared to receive the 
next crop that is raised on a. 

From thence on, he has an annual income, harvesting one of his plots yearly and 
replanting from his seed-raising ground. 

We have gone into this detail with .a purpose. This method of farming is the 
highest form of specialization, and should give the highest possible returns. Now 
please note well : each year the farmer harvests only one-fifth of his farm, and one- 
fifth of his growing crops. If he kept the entire farm like a natural bed, taking off 
an annual crop from the whole area, it is evident he could not do so well because all 
the genv^rations would be intermixed and competing on those parts where there was 
most propagation, and on other parts less favourably situated, the propagation would 
not be at the maximum rate, but at a rate that would greatly reduce the annual pro- 
duct of marketable oysters. At the very best, he could not harvest as much as a fifth 
of his crop, and he would have to use better methods than those now in use on the 
natural beds, to keep his oyster bed from depletion. 

Oyster farming resembles truck gardening in some respects, but differs in need- 
ing several years to mature the crop. On a mixed bed, the best returns come from 
removing annually as many oysters as can be spared, and not by introducing a system 
of open and close seasons. It is evident that what is good treatment for a mixed bed 
under private ownership, will be best for a similar bed under public ownership. There 
can be but one conclusion here, viz., that if natural beds are to be conserved, they 
should be under the supervision of an expert, and should receive plantings of cultch 
.it the proper times. The expert must determine just how many oysters may be annu- 
ally removed. 

THE FATE OF DEPLETED BEDS. 

Under a system of private oyster culture, it is necessary for planters who have 
little or no propagating ground to obtain their seed from natural beds. This leads 
to an abrogation of the prohibitions against taking immature oysters. Then the 
fishermen will market their catch at home, for planting in waters more or less adja- 
cent to the public beds. The inevitable result will be to render the latter as barren 
as possible. When both cultch and oysters are gone, the bed is extinguished. But 
in this case, if cultch be placed on the bed it is as productive as ever, up to the limit 
of the supply of cultch. This is due to the fact that the oysters A'hich have been 
removed are still growing and spawning in neighbouring waters, so that a supply of 
spat is brought to the old grounds. The fishermen will harvest this v-rop of spat, and 
sell to the planter, or plant it themselves on their own farms; and history shows they 
will as zealously guard rights to such beds as they formerly did where they were con- 
fined to harvesting mature oysters only. As no one puts cultch on such beds, it is 
plain that however much spat may be present in the water derived from the private 
grounds, the beds will last only as long as the cultch naturally present will last, and 
that the production will be only as much as the available percentage of cultch present. 
Inevitably such beds become " barren " bottoms and open to leasing. There can be 
only one way of escape, and that is for the fishermen to form a co-operative society 
to work the public beds under a mutual agreement. 

But this, of course, cannot be done, because others of the public tlian the fisher- 
men, are also owners. Fishermen have been offered first chance in taking out leases 
of what they considered to be public ground, and have refused because they know that 
if once this right is granted, all or nearly all of the public grounds will ultimately 
come into the ownership of capitalists. So here we have a special phase of the old 
struggle between capital and labour. It is not our purpose to more than touch on the 
skirts of the matter that is political rather than biological, but still is vitally involved 
in any scheme of oyster conservation. 



OYSTER I'RorAGATWN IN P.E.I. 



61 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 



THE LEGAL SIDE. 



Experience has shown but one successful way of developing oyster resources, and 
that is the encouragement of oyster farming. The introduction of oyster culture has 
always met with opposition from the publi'c fishermen, and such opposition has had 
a degree of justification. Usually it has been so mingled with prejudice and short- 
sightedness, that the sympathy of the general public has been estranged. Theoretically, 
the best interests of the whole public require that the oyster industry should be 
conducted wholly by methods that have proved successful in private farming — letting 
private judgment manage business operations, rather than a code of regulations. 
Practically, however, the best course to follow is to recognize the existence of public 
beds, and public fishing rights. Such rights and beds should be carefully defined, 
and the boundaries of public beds marked in a clear and simple manner, even though 
soine barrc}! bottoms should be included. Only by extreme or radical measures can 
natural oyster beds be preserved. But where oyster culture is successful there is 
less necessity for conserving such beds. The public oystermen have endured a sur- 
prising amount of restrictive legislation, supposed to be as much for their interest as 
that of the public. Under our larger view of the oyster question, the fishermen might 
be given more freedom and influence in shaping the regulations for the use of the public 
beds. Restrictions should primarily have in view the protection and encouragement 
of oyster culture, in which the real public interests inheres. Efi^orts should be made 
to secure impartial justice for all. A mutual obligation rests on both fishermen and 
farmers, to respect each others' rights. Those who wish to frame the wisest laws, 
seeking for harmonious co-operation between these conflicting interests, are advised 
to study the history of oyster legislation in as many states and countries as possible. 
There will be found a variety in details, resting on local conditions, and a similarity 
in general principles, resting on biological grounds. 



THE DECLINE IN THE CAN.VDIAN OYSTER PRODUCTION. 

That oyster production in Canada, and particularly in Prince Edward Island, 
has steadily been decreasing is evident from statistics. See " Table showing the 
aggregate quantities of oysters caught in the Dominion since 1876, compiled from 
annual reports of the Department of Eisheries," given on page 47 in the report of the 
Dominion Shellfish Fishery Commission, 1912-13. In this table we note a curious 
back-and-forth fluctuation from year to year; but if the entire series of years be 
divided into five-year periods, and the annual product be averaged for each five-year 
period, or semidecade, the annual catch in barrels is as follows : — 



Periods. 



Years. 



New 
Brunswick. 



Nova 
Scotia. 



Prince 
Edward 
Island. 



Proportion 

for P.E.I. 

Per cent of 

whole. 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
■(4) 

(5) 
(6) 
(7) 



1876-1880 
1881-1885 
1886-1890 
1891-1895 
1896-1900 
1901-1905 
1906-1910 
1911-1912 



9,724 
12,765 
20,426 
17,434 
18,740 
12,854 
16,564 
15,436 



1,172 
1,652 
2,049 
3,327 
2,150 
1,517 
1,597 
2,090 



17,020 
34,644 
36,379 
30,622 
22,735 
19,860 
10,583' 
8,835 



60 
70 
60 
60 
50 
60 
30 
35 



• For 1907-8, the quantity credited to Prince Edward Island was only 1,672 barrels. 
Leaving that year out, the average for the remaining four years becomes 12,811 barrels, which 
is 40 per cent of the average total credited to. the Dominion for the same period. 



62 itKPMn \n:\T nr riii: \ \v\i. skrvick 

7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 

Tlio tliird period shows a maxiinum of oystor prodiictif^m in the Dominion, nnd also 
ill tlic two main oystor-prnduciufr prnvinf-es. The decliiio l)Of.Mii in tho middle of the 
fonrth period, mainly in Prinee Edward Island, which led in i>rodnetion up to 1906, 
when it sank to the level of Xew Brunswck. Thenceforth it fell hehind until its pro- 
duction reached only half of th(^ jirovince of New Bruns\sii-k. The decline in the latter 
province from the maximum has heen little more than 20 per cent with 80 per cent 
decline in the island province. This difference in the rate of depletion has been 
explained as due to two main influences: the greater demand for the island product 
and the diseoverj' of new beds in New Brunswick, when several of the older beds were 
fished out. 

It is interesting to read the summary of the reports of various inspectors and 
experts from 18G8 onward, given in Ernest Kemp's " The Oyster Fisheries of Canada," 
1899. These reports sound a uniform warning that the Canadian oy.-ter industry was 
in danger of complete destruction unless projter measures were taken to conserve it. 
The decline in the industry has not been so keenly realized by the fishermen, because 
the price of oysters has increased proportionately. This fact augurs seriously for this 
industry. Oysters, even when cheap, are considered somewhat of a luxury, and a rise 
in price must tend to exclude them more and more from the menus of the middle 
classes; while at the same time the importation of foreign oysters must increase. The 
Canadian fisherman has relied for the protection of his interests on the superior quality 
of his oysters; but this superiority is threatened in two ways: first, it has become neces- 
sary to market oysters from beds that do not produce them of the highest quality; and 
second, by the attempt of planters to grow imported seed in Canadian waters, in the 
hope that they will attain the citizenship at least, or, if possible, attain the quality of 
the home product. This " American " seed is sometimes of inferior quality and, 
although it certainly improves under cultivation in more southern waters, it lies dor- 
mant for a long time, without growth, when transplanted to the northern beds. Accord- 
ing to the claims of the fishermen, with whose product these oysters compete, when 
sold, it injures their market by giving the oysters from their locality a bad reputation. 

The cultivation of foreign oysters in Canadian waters is of considerable scientific 
as well as practical interest. From the slight evidence at hand, we conclude it will 
take more than a year to acclimate Connecticut seed in Canada, before growth begins. 
It will take a correspondingly longer time to impress the Canadian quality upon these 
oysters after growth begins. It will, therefore, be wise to import this seed as young as 
possible to secure the best results. It is still somewhat doubtful whether the Canadian 
oyster may not be a distinct variety, breeding true to its kind. The Canadian oyster 
spat, at the time of fixation to cultch, is a fourth larger than the spat in the corre- 
sponding stage of development in New Jersey waters. Whether this difl^erence is due 
to environment or is inherent, remains to be settled by experinieut;il observations. 
Oysters usually show improved quality in colder waters, due largely to the shortness of 
the spawning season. While it is interesting to note the outcome of attempts to cul- 
tivate " American " oysters in Canada, it will be wisest for the Canadian planter to do 
all he can to promote the production of the native seed. 

PART 1 1.— OYSTER PROPAGATION SURVEY OF RICHMOND BAY, P.E.I. 

In presenting the following synopsis of observations made in Richmond hay we 
wish to call attention to the fact that there are many points in the life and habits 
of oysters and their young that are yet unknown and which should be known in order 
to make the proper applications to economic problems. Aiming to make our investi- 
gations throw light upon these other matters, at the same time that we attempt to be 
as practical as possible, the work of surveying so extensive an area as that of Richmond 
bay by the methods developed by our previous experience, introduces much complexity. 
There were so many things that should receive simultaneous attention that much was 



OYFiTFR puor \<; \'n<)\ i\ I'.n.r. 63 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

crowded out or missed, wliidi dciiiiiiHls a more specialized investigation. Lackin.ir 
previous familiarity with this considerable expanse of water, it seemed best to get as 
broad a view as possible of the conditions, from wliieh departure could be made in any 
special direction, as the findings mii^ht suggest. 

DESCHIPTIOX OP METIIOPS. 

The most important procedure is the determination of the oyster "plankton," 
i.e., the young "fry" in the water, which furnishes the "setting" of "spat." This 
study was prosecuted by the use of a net made from the finest bolting silk. Counting 
out Sundays and stormy days, plankton studies were made on eighteen days, at aii 
average rate of fifteen per day and a maximum of more than twice that figure. The 
net gathers a vast number of many kinds of larva. — bivalves, univalves, water fleas, 
etc., and as it is necessary to sort the oyster larva* out from each sample, under a 
microscope, and count and measure them, the work is nervously strenuous and time- 
consuming. 

Our procedure consisted in straining api)roximately known quantities of water 
through the plankton net, and then to "wash" the "catches" into a series of wide- 
mouthed bottles containing sufficient formalin to kill the larvae, so that they would 
all settle to the bottom. After a number of such samples were _ collected, the boat 
was run into the nearest quiet harbour, where the sediment in the bottles was 
examined in partial lots, until the entire amount in each' bottle had been sorted 
by the methods developed in our previous researches. 

The samples were collected in the following ways : — 

(1) Dipping water in the net while the boat was under full headway, the 
average rate was two samples per mile, each of 20 quarts of v/ater. 

(2) Dragging the net back and forth by hand a definite distance and number of 
times while the boat was stopped. This is called " swinging " the net. 

(3) Towing a definite length of time, say a minute under reduced speed. 

(4) By means of a cylinder, devised with valves for this purpose, into which the 
net was fitted, we secured samples at definite depths, or determined the vertical 
distribution of the fry by lifting the net through a fixed distance, a definite number 
of times. 

We thus endeavoured to make our determinations quantitative as well as quali- 
tative in character. The point from which we set out each morning, and to which 
we returned each evening was Malpeque wharf. We were farthest from home each 
day at noon, and samples were taken as opportunity offered on the return route as 
well. We are desirous at this point of the narrative to express our thanks and hearty 
appreciation for the kindly courtesies extended by Prof. A. D. Robertson, the use of 
whose boats and other equipment we shared, doubtless at times at a sacrifice of his 
convenience, at least, he being engaged in studying oyster growth. 

LOCALITIES EXAMINED. 

For purposes of location and orientation, the following descripton of Richmond 
bay is given: This bay is a considerable southward indentation from the guK of 
St. Lawrence, of the north shore of Prince Edward Island. The coast at this point 
trends northwest, thus the western shore of the bay is one and a half times longer ihan 
its eastern." A sandbar 10 miles long separates the bay from the gulf, and limits its 
outlet to a channel a mile wide situated at the northern terminus (cape Aylesbury) 
of the eastern shore. Each shore has three considerable indentations. On the east, 
most northerly is Darnley basin, next comes Shipyard basin, and at the head of the 
bay is Chichester cove. On the west, situated correspondingly are Bidoford river. 
Grand river, and Bentinck cove. 



64 DErARTMFXT OF THE YHM/. SFRTICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Confininp: one's attention to the channel or deeper parts of the bny, the tide enter- 
inpr north of cape Aylesbury sends a small branch southward into Darnlcy basin. The 
main portion flows west at the southern end of the bar between Royalty point and 
" Fish " island. Three miles west from Aylesbury the tide strikes Horseshoe shoals 
and spreads thence in three directions: (1) northwestward for 4 miles to enter the 
mouth of Bideford river, between Hog island and Bird island on the east and Gilles 
point on the west; (2) the southwestward tide flows 2 miles to "Ram" island shoals 
where it bends south and southeast around Ram island on a 6 mile course into "March 
water," and eastward into Shipyard basin, to Malpeque wharf; (3) the central portion 
of the tide on Horseshoe shoals continues westward for 3^ miles to Nortli Bunbury 
shoals. Part of it continues on for 5 miles farther, passing north of Charles point to 
reach Grand river. The main portion of the tide, 3 miles wide, turns south between 
Charles point and Bunbury island. Four miles to the south it runs between B?ech 
point on the east and Bcntinck point on the west, and enters the head of the bay, 
where it ends in three divisions, viz., Bentinck cove on the west, Chichester cove on the 
east, and Webber cove, with Barbara Weit river on the south, 8 miles from North Bun- 
bury shoals. 

Apart from its estuaries, Richmond bay may be conveniently divided into: (1) an 
outer section or Lower bay, lying east of a line drawn from Ram island northward to 
Hog island, but this line should curve westward far enough at its middle, to include all 
of Horseshoe shoals; (2) an inner section or " Upper bay," lying south of a line drawn 
due west from Beech point to the cliflFs north of Bentinck point; (3) a middle section, 
between the other two, that we may designate as the " Central portion." The southern 
half of this section is split into two by Curtain Islands shoals, which extend nearly 4 
miles northwestward from Beech point. Bunbury island, situated near the northern 
extremity of these shoals, marks closely the geographical centre of the bay. We shall 
confine the term " Central bay " to the portion north of Bunbury. The part west of 
the shoals, from its shape may be called the " quadrangle," that to the east is " ^Vfarch 
water." The Upper bay empties mainly into the " quadrangle," but some water flows 
over the shoals into March water, which in turn also partly spills over Ram Island 
shoals into the Lower bay. The " Central bay " receives the Bideford from the north, 
Grand river from the west, the quadrangle from the south, and March water from the 
southeast, between Bunbury and Ram islands. We shall consider successively the data 
secured from a study of the different localities. Most attention was given Grand 
river and March water; the data from other localities are fragmentary. 

BIDEFORD RIVER. 

This river from the head of navigation to Gilles point is juilcs 1on.<r. Trout 
river enters it in the south, and a strait called the narrows, lying between Lennox island 
and the mainland, enters from the north. The lower part of the river is bounded on 
the northeast by Lennox and Bird islands, and it empties into the Central bay in con- 
junction with the waters of a large shallow lagoon that lies east of Lennox and Bird 
islands and west of the sandbar. The southern end of this lagoon is bounded by Hog 
island, near which are oyster beds that owe their existence to the influence of the 
adjacent flats, in warming the ebb tides. 

At the northern end of the widest part of the IN'arrows, on August 6, a few oyster 
fry were found in 20 quarts of water of 1.021 density, 70° F., the largest being 160 
microns^ in diameter. 

At head of navigation in Trout river, August 17, during rain, high water was 
1015 at 72° F. Vertical sampling of different parts of the river yielded oyster fry 
of 160 microns to 400 microns, at the rate of one per 15 to 60 feet. 

I Twenty-five thousand microns equal one inch. Oyster fry are first seen at 60 microns and 
"set" as spat when they are from 320 to 400 microns in diameter. 



OYSTER PROPAGATION IN P.E.I. 65 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

At the head of Upper Bideford, August G, low water was lOlO-o at 71:° F. Four 
samplings, each of 20 quarts, along its course to Trout river, yielded seven fry of 160 
microns, and a few at 100. 

Between Trout river and the Narrows, August 6, in water of 1019.5 at 72° F., large 
fry wore present at the rate of one per 30 quarts. August 17, fry were found of sizes 
120, 180 to 2G0, 300 to 380 microns, at the rate of one per 60 feet vertical, which means 
that in water 30 feet deep, ten hauls from bottom to top would yield five large fry. 

In the section off south end of Lennox island, August 6, water was 1020 at 70° F., 
and only one large fry and a few small ones appeared. On August 17, 1019 at 70° F., 
three samples gave twelve fry from 160 to 400 microns, most being 240 microns. 

In the section alonp; Bird island, August 6, only few fry present, and less than 
120 microns in size. On August 17, water sample 1020 at 70° F., gave one fry of 200 
microns. 

Central bay, adjacent to Bideford river, August 6, 1021 at 70° F., fry less than 
110 microns. August 17, near low point, one fry 180 microns, one 240 microns. 

GRAND RIVER. 

From the bridge to the ferry is a distance of 4 miles, and from the ferry to 
Charles point is 3 miles. The latter section, 2 miles wide, is more a cove than a river. 
From the bridge to Southwest creek is nearly a mile, thence to Cross creek nearly two, 
and thence to the ferry is a mile and a half. About half a mile below the ferry at 
Black point the river empties into its cove. 

Section below the bridge, August 6, flow, 1018 at 72 F.; August 14, ebb, 1018-5 
at 74° F. Vertical samples gave one fry per 20 feet, sizes 120, 160, 320, 360 microns 
nearly equally abundant. August 20, flow, successively 1018 at 66 F. and 6.^ F., 1017 
at 67 F., and farthest from bridge 1019 at 68 F.; very little but sand in four samples. 
Samples on higher water gave one per 40 feet vertical, one per 10 quarts, four per 
minute towing, 80 to 200 microns. August 25, strong ebb, one fry per 6 feet of 
towing, from 120 to 320 microns, majority 240 microns. Towing one minute with 
large No. 12 net, gave seventy fry, 160 to 340 microns, with maxima at 240 and 320 
microns; small fry escape through this net. 

Section below Southwest creek, August 14, 1019-5 at 71° F., fry one per 2 feet 
vertical; farther down, one per 6 feet, ranging from 200 microns to smaller, most are 
below 160 mu.i Half of oysters dredged are still filled with spawn. August 20, 1018.5 
at 68 F., early flood, few fry; but when near high, 1019-5 at 68 F., fry are abundant, 
one per 6 feet vertical, one per 5 quarts, thirty per minute towing, ranging from 70 
mu to 280 mu, mostly below 100 mu. Farther down, 1019-5 at 68 F., one fry per 6 
feet vertical, one per ten quarts, twelve per minute, 90 to 360 mu. August 21, twelve 
samples, 1018-5 at 70 F., near high, gave one to 40 quarts, up to nearly one per quart, 
from 9 to 166 per minute, from one in 4 feet vertical, up to one per foot. Sizes run 
from 80 to 320 mu with four-fifths of them below 110 mu, and some at 200, 240, and 
320 mu. August 25, half ebb, 1020 at 70 F., twenty quarts dipped, give from 9 to 33 
fry, also at low 1019 at 74 F., got one fry per 2 feet vertical, and 34 per 160 feet of 
towing; sizes, 80 to 320 mu, majority below 120 mu, several at 180, 240, and 280 mu. 
August 28, 1019-5 at 68 F. flow; one fry in 8 to 15 feet vertical, eleven in 1 minute's 
tow; sizes, 90 to 380 mu, with groups at 100, 150, 280, 320, 360 mu. 

Section above Cross creek, August 14, 1018-5 at 72 F. Oysters dredged here have 
all spawned, fry abundant, one per 2 feet vertical, ranging from 100 to 200 mu, and 
a few at 360 mu. Majority are 160 mu, perhaps ten days old. August 20, water low 
flow, 1018 at 68° F., few fry until near high, 1019 at 70° F. when fry are one per 40 
feet vertical, one per 5 quarts and fifteen per minute towing, and of sizes 80 to 280 

1 The name of the Greek symbol for "microns," is " mu." 



66 hF.Jwu T 1/ /; V '/• <> r T II i: \ w \j. s- k rtice 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

inu, with groups at 100, ISO, 24^1 mu. August 21, fry nearly fifty jht minute, ei?lit 
j>er 20 quarts, three per 10 feet vertieal; sizes 80 to 320 mu, most are below 100 mu. 
a grroup at ISO. a few at 240. August 25, low chb, nine- to sixty fr>' per minute towing, 
five samples, thirty to forty in 20 quarts; sizes SO to 380 mu, the majority are below 
120 mu; groups at 140. ISO. 200. 240, 2S0, and 320. August 2S, fry are one per 4.5 
feet vertical, of sizes 90 to 340 mu, majority at 140. 

Section below Cross creek, August fi. a few small fr.v present. August 14. 1020 at 
70° F.. largest fry 120 mu. August 20. high. 1010-5 at 67° F., fry SO mu to 320. TTalf 
ebb. 1020 at 70° F.. fry at rate of one per 4 feet vertical, one per 5 quarts, and two i er 
minute of towing; sizes are SO mu to 220. August 21, fry were found at rate of t'O to 
six per 20 quarts, below 200 mu in size. August 28. fry at rate of three to nine per 
minute and one to 25 feet vertical, sizes are below 260 mu, mostly below 160 mii. 

Section near ferry, August 14, 1020 at 69° F., fry at rate of one per 12 feet vertical, 
under 200 mu. August 20. 1019 at 66°- F., few fry: at lower tide. 1019-5 at 6S° F.. 
fr.v at rate of one per 4 foet vertical, and one per 7 quarts, grouped at 100 mu. 200, and 
230 to 280 mu. 

Grand River Cove: The roughness of water here prevented frequent observnt'on. 
August 20, 1019-5 at 67° F., in middle of cove, no fry. At cape Malpeque (Tharles 
point) 1020-5 at 67°-5F., fry at rate of one per 10 feet vertical, mostly small. o;>e 200 
mu. August 21. 1019-5 at 70° F., three fry per 20 quarts, largest 160 mu. 

UPPER BAY. 

With the upper bay, extending 7 miles southeast of Charles ijoint. or south from 
Bunbury island, we shall include: (1) the ''quadrangle" 4 miles north to south and 
3 miles east and west, whose corners are designated, respectively, by Charles point. Bun- 
bury island. Beech point, and Bentinck point; (2) a southern "head," 4 miles north 
and south, 5 miles east and west, which receives seven tributaries, that w-ill be reviewed 
in circuit beginning on the northeast. 

Oyster Creek: August 7, 1018-5 at 74° F. Thirty quarts inside the grass area at 
its mouth, yielded four large (160 mu) and many smaller fry. Outside the grass, the 
fry were few and small, and snail larvae numerous. August 13, 1020 at 72° F., vertical 
sampling yielded a few small and one " large " (unequal umbos) fry in three hauls of 
7 feet each. 

Chichester Cove and Indian Eiver: August 7, 1019 at 73° F., in cove, and 1016 
at "4° F., in the mouth of river. Snails numerous, oyster fry few and small, one 
" large "^ found. 

Barbara Weit River and Cove: August 7, 1018-5 at 72° F. Many snails, few 
oyster fry. August 13, 1018-5 at 74° F., samples yielded two large and a few small fry. 
Xearly all adult oysters have spawned, but some not. 

Webber Creek Cove, or Waites Cove : August 7, many snails, few fry. August 13. 
ten hauls in 9 feet of water yielded two large, four medium, several small fry. August 
24, twenty hauls of 5 feet each in 12 feet of water, yielded 33 fry, from 160 to 380 mu 
in diameter, at ratio of one per 3 feet vertical, and quite satisfactory. Shells were put 
out as cultch here. 

Plat River Cove: August 7, sample was poor in plankton. 1020 at 72° F., in grass 
near cliff west of Webber point. Oyster fry more abundant towards Bentinck cove. 
August 13, ten hauls vertical in 12 feet of water yielded five medium fry. 

Shemody Creek and Bentinck Cove: August 7, in creek. 1015 at 74° F.. few 
oyster fry here. In cove, 1020 at 72° F., oyster fry more abundant. August 13, in 
mouth of creek, 1020 at 70° F., sample shows but one large fry. In the cove, 1021 at 
69° -5 F., vertical sample in 5 feet of water yielded three large and three medium. 
Farther out, in 10 feet of water, vertical sampling yielded a larva of 240 mu. 



1 We use the general desisnation of "large" for fry with unequal umbos, "medium" for 
those with prominent equal umbos, and "small" for those less than 100 mu in length. 



OYSTKU l'l,'<H'\(!.\TION IN I'.E.I. 67 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

**IIo:ul" of Upper Bay: August 7, sample near liciitiiiek point was poor in fry. 
In the middle of the bay the water was 1020 at 74° F. Each of two samples contained 
a fry nearly ready to "set." Au«?ust 24, on high Avater, 1020 at 68° F., a long course, 
(lipping from Beech point towards Webbers point, yielded but few fry, the largest 
was 240 mu. 

The quadrangle west of Curtain Shoals: August 7, in its southern portion three 
samples showed many snails but no oyster fry. Farther north it was nindi tii(- saiiic 
story, only one large fry found in four samples, but many snails. 

Commentary on Upper Bay : The considerable distance of this part of Richmond 
bay from our base at Malpeque, combined with the roughness of the " quadrangle," 
prevented as full a study of this part as was desirable. Once we buffeted the waves 
• luite to Bentinck cove and were compelled to return to shelter east of Curtain shoals. 
This sort of work cannot be done on a boat pitching extremely. From the data 
secured, it is indicated that the oyster plankton of the open bay is sparse, and that 
it is only close to the broad flats that line the shores, where the oyster plaiiktf)n was 
fairly abundant. There seems to be some correspondence between water temperature 
and oyster plankton, more being found in the warmer waters than the colder ones. 
Another point to be noticed is that the water on the shore flats, probably never leaves 
the upper bay on the ebb tide, but retires temporarily to the edge of the flats to return 
on high water, and so the contained oyster plankton is not lost from this cause. This 
is on the supposition that the fry do not themselves have habits that would oppose 
their transport outwards on ebb tides. While this question is still under investigation 
there is strong evidence to show that fry are more abundant at the surface on flow 
than on ebb. 

Another interesting point concerns the snail larvae. These were extraordinarily 
abundant in the Upper bay. The flats of the Upper bay are extensively covered with 
grass. We found snails more abundant near grass plots in all parts of Richmond bay. 
We do not know whether the snails feed on the oyster fry, but have suspicions. This 
matter is worth investigating. We know that snails are enemies of the young spat. 
It is probable that these snails should be fought in the interest of oyster culture. 

MAliCH AVATER. 

This part of the bay is bounded on the southwest by Curtain islands and Beech 
point. Across the shoals between the point and the islands, there is current com- 
munication with the " quadrangle " and with the Upper bay. March Avater is bounded 
on the northeast by Prince point and "Ram" island. Across these shoals, iJi.erc is 
water communication with the LoAver bay. But the main outlet is to the northAvest, 
between Bunbury and Ram island, into the Central bay. The eastern juirt of the 
March Avater section is the Shipyard basin, at Avhose head is Malpeque w^harf. Ship- 
yard riA^er enters here from the south. Shipyard basin is separated from March water 
by a considerable grass flat. Extensive grass flats also cover the Curtain Island 
shoals. The oyster beds are mainly near Prince point, Ram island, north of Bunbury 
shoals, and the channel between Bunbury and Ram island. Owing to the fact that 
our home base was at Malpeque, and also that we had to traverse March water every 
:ime a visit Avas made to any other part of the bay, and that it Avas less disturbed by 
winds than other parts, this section received more continuous attention than the rest 
of the bay. It did not, however, offer so rich a plankton as did Grand river between 
Southwest creek and Cross creek. We shall consider our observation of it as a Avhole, 
chronologically. 

August 5, at low ebb, on " old dump " in northern part of Shipyard basin, 1020 
at 70^ F. A dipped sample yields many snails, Peridinias and Tintinnias, a fcAv large 
oyster fry, some medium, and scA-eral small ones. Similar results found after crossing 
the grass. On Princetown beds the snails AA'ere fewer, oysters more numerous, but still 

38a— 5 



68 DEPARTMEyr OF TIIK .V.IT.IL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

few as compared to the numbers familiar in our New Jersey studies. The mussel 
and clam larva; were more numerous, and of more kinds than in Barne{?at bay,- N.J. 

August 6: Three samples were dipped in the "basin," with results like those of 
yesterday. Samples taken after passing grass, between Ram and Curtain islands and 
at junction with the Contral bay show few ?mall or medium, oyster?*, none birgn. innny 
other bivalve larva? and snails. Samples were again taken on return from Bideford and 
Grand rivers in evening, biat labels were lost. 

August 7: Shipyard basin, before reaching the grass, one sample shows one large 
and one medium fry. and few small ones. After passing the grass, sample yielded five 
medium fry under 120 mu. Returning in the evening from trip to Upper bay, a sample 
taken between Ram and Bunbury islands, was nearly all snails; a sample near the 
grass had many snails, and a few oyster fry. In the Shipyard basin a sample yielded 
many small oyster fry. 

August 9: Rainy, tide high. In the channel opposite the break between Little 
and Big Curtain islands, compared vertical samples with dipping from the surface. 
The surface was 1021 at 67° F., and yielded one large and one medium, in 20 quarts, 
and a fair show of small fry. The bottom 1021 at 68° F., yielded three medium, and 
some small fry and lots of sand. Next the surface was sampled, using 20 quarts in 
alternation with vertical " hauling " in the three uppermost feet, nine samples. Thirty 
feet of vertical sampling nearly balanced 20 quarts of surface dipping. No fry larger 
than 120 mu were found, and never more than one or two; small fry were present in 
small numbers. 

August 10: Compared dipping with vertical sampling from bottom to top. In 
20 feet of water between Bunbury and Ram, and Prince to Beech points, hauled net, 
and dipped 30 quarts from sxirface, 14 samples. Obtained two fry of 200 and 260 rau. 
three to six medium, and several small ones. Found four species of three genera of 
Peridinidse, viz., Ceratium tripos, C. divergens, Dinophysis acuta, and Peridinia sp^ 
Also many Tintinnus siCbidatus. 

August 11 : High water, and strong northeast wind. An oyster secured by dredg- 
ing in channel is filled with immature spawn. Water 1021 at 66° F. Shells obtained 
by dredging hold no spat except " deckers " and barnacles. Samples of 30 quarts yield 
each two large fry and two medium ones. Vertical sampling secured one large fry per 
20 feet; also some medium. 

August 12, a sample dipped near Bunbury yielded one medium, and two smaller 
fry. Oysters from Ram Island point are nearly through spawning. Hung out shell 
cultch on buoy nearest wharf, and sampled water here, finding one large and two 
medium fry in 20 quarts. 

August 14, in channel between Ram island and Little Curtain island, water is 
1019-5 at 68° F., vertical sample gives one fry per 14 feet, the largest being 200 mu, 
but most are 120 mu. In Shipyard basin, at the buoy farthest from wharf, water is 
1019-5 at 70° F., and vertical sampling yields one fry per 12 feet; one is 360 mu, or 
nearly ready to set, one is 200 mu, seven are 120 rau. At buoy nearest wharf, vertical 
sample gives one per 30 feet, with largest larva IGO niu. 

August 16, rainy. Made a survey of March Water section, at same time compared 
methods of taking fry. Used vertical sampler for surface towing, as well as for deep 
sampling. Between Ram and Bunbury, secured fry of sizes 80, 100, 160, 200, 280 mu. 
In line of Beech point and Ram island, vertical sampling yielded one per 30 feet of 
sizes 80, 120, 160 mu. In line of Beech point and Prince point, vertical sampling gave 
one per 20 feet of sizes 160, 240, 340 mu. Towing towards Princetown beds yielded 
fry up to 180 mu. On Princetown beds, vertical sampling yielded one per 15 feet, of 
sizes 110 to 120 mu, 160, 240, 320, and 400 mu, which last is the largest seen, and also 
represents the largest after *' setting." A second sample towards Grog island gave 
similar results, both in ratios and sizes. A towing sample yielded six large fry per 
minute, the leading groups being at 160, 240, and 340 mu. Small fry being quite dif- 
ficult to separate from small larva; of other bivalves, were generally not counted fully. 



OYSTER I'lx'Ol'AdATfOX I V P.E.I . 69 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

Vertical sanijjliiif;- on tlic " (Uiinp " yielded one per 30 feet, the largest being 200 mu. 
Similarly. oflF Kanisey's, one per 25 feet gave sizes 160, 220, and 380 mu. Towing 
towards the buoys farthest from the wharf, gave fry 180 to 240 mu. At this buoy a 
string of shells was hung as cultch; vertical sample here yielded one per 50 feet, of 
sizes 280 aaid 320 mu. Another sample at the buoy nearest the wharf gave same ver- 
tical ratio, hut of size 160 niu only. Towing towards wharf also gave fry of this size. 
Towing towards Shipyard river yielded no fry. 

August 17, on way to Eideford, water on Little Curtain shoals was 1020 at 70° F. 
Towing at full speed between Bunbury and Earn island, yields no fry, and we suspected 
that all were pressed through net. A northeast storm broke at 11 a.m., and weather 
did not clear until afternoon of the 19th. Meanwhile, we coated oyster shells with 
coal tar varnish for use as cultch. 

August 20, compared 20 quarts dipped with one minute of towing. On "dump" 
no fry in either sample. On Princetown beds, fry were found only in towing sample, 
of size 140 to 200 mu. Further along channel no fry were found, nor all the way 
to Cross creek, in Grand river, a distance of 9 miles, and with one exception none were 
found in Grand river until the afternoon, when the flood tide came and there were 
plenty. This suggests that the fry had hidden in the bottom during the storm. 
On return, a pair of samples taken in March water between E.am and Bunbury 
islands, 1020 at 68° F., yielded no oyster fry, though plenty of mussel larvae were 
present. 

August 21, tide ebbing all forenoon. Tarred shells were planted on Curtaia 
Island shoals and Bam Island shoals. The afternoon was spent in Grand river. 

August 23, too rough for sampling, tarred shells placed on Eeilley's lot. 

August 24, visited McNeill's lots off Waites point. Oysters there had finished 
spawning, and shells one week planted bore spat a millimeter (1000 mu) in diameter. 
Tarred shells were hung out on these beds. A study of the spat on shells showed that 
the fry set between 320 mu and 400 mu. For future studies of the spat see later the 
special section on " spatting." 

August 26, cool and cloudy. Found water fresh and at 60° F. at head of Ship- 
yard river; near its mouth 1018-5 at 72° F., high water. Worked in shelter of 
Bunbury island ("Big Curtain" island). Made study of methods and comparison of 
nets Nos. 12 and 20, in the channel, and secured most variable results : out of thirteen 
samples, two yielded no fry, the others yielded fry groups at 100, 120, 200, 240, 280, 320, 
and 360 mu, at a rate of seven to twenty-four per minute, and one fry per 6 to 30 feet. 
Many spat show on shells on planted beds. Took up shells placed August 12 and 
August 16. No spat on latter; one-third of former bear spat. 

August 27, cold northwest wind. Water at wharf 1019-5 at 66° F. Took up tarred 
shells placed on Curtain and Ram Island shoals on the 21st, and also those planted 
August 23 on Eeilley's lot. From. Curtain shoals to Eeilley's, water was 1020 at 68° F. 
Secured nine samples en route, which were studied before being killed by formalin. 
We noticed action of the long proboscis-like foot of the mature fry. The larvae swims 
hinge down, with foot in front or dragging behind at will; used as a feeler to test 
surface for fixation. The fry secured, yielded sizes of 90 to 120, 160, 220 to 240, 280, 
320 to 380 mu. Fewest are near the Eeilley end of route. 

August 28, on. Eam Island shoals, 1021 at 62° F., a few fry below 160 mu secured 
at rate of one per 30 feet. Fifteen quarts dipped had none. 

CENTRAL BAY. 

We next consider the northern or main section of the Central bay as it receives 
the ebb from the southern sections (viz., the quadrangle and March water), as well 
as that from Bideford and Grand river. We have noticed a decided falling-oft' in the 
number of fry as this portion is approached, so that we do not expect much from its 
survey. It has a considerable number of more or less depleted beds in its southern 

38a— 5J 



70 i)i:i'\h"r\ii:.\T or riii: \\\ \i. skkmce 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

part, at tlic junctiun with the southern divisions, or in the neif?hhourlioo(l of North 
Buuhury shoals, hetween the northern parts of the (puulranf^le and Mareh Water 
section. 

August 0, three samples taken on the way to Bidoford river showed the presence 
of oyster fry, but none over 120 niu. South of Low point, 1021 at 70° F,, and on route 
to Grand river the same result was secured, and also from (Irand river to March wat»r. 

August 7, the story of yesterday was repeated, and again on the 8th, The catch 
between the " Klondike " bed and North Bunbury shoals was mostly composed of snails. 
On August 10, at the west end of Horseshoe shoals, and therefore on the line of junc- 
tion with the Lower bay, snails were few, but mussel and other bivalve larva; most abun- 
dant; few oyster fry were observed; but so much sand was present as to render tlie 
examination difficult. On August 17, towing north of Bunburj' en route to Bideford 
river yielded one fry Hid niu, on high water. Farther north. 1021 o at 70° F., a second 
fry of 160 mu turned up, and a few smaller fry near Low point. Fry grew more abun- 
dant near the mouth of Bideford river. August 20 cnrnute to Grand river, six samples 
were taken from Xorth Bunbury to half-way to cape ^lalpofme (Charles point) with 
water 1020 at 68° F., and no fry were found. Next day, between Ram and liimbury 
islands, at the entrance to March Water channel the iame story was repeate'l. We may 
conclude, therefore, that the main stretch of Richmond bay proper is well depleted of 
oysters, and that the mf)re abundant plankton of its estuaries and shores is not carried 
into it, to more than a slight extent. 

THE OUTER OR LOWER BAY. 

This division of Richmond bay is wide in the west, embracing the extensive Horse- 
shoe shoals; and is narrow in the east, where the deep channel of Malpeque harbour 
leads out between Bill Hook island and Royalty point to the inlet. Farther east, Darn- 
ley basin connects from the south, between Royalty point and eaiK' Aylesbury. Oy^t'^r 
beds are located north of the Horseshoe shoals, near Hog island, south, near Ram 
island, east, in the " harbour," and also at Montgomery point between Royalty point 
and Prince point. 

August 5, samples taken near the beds of Ram Island point, and at the harbour, 
were crowded with mussel and other bivalve larvae, among which was a small propor- 
tion of oyster larva;, the largest being 165 mu; water 1020 at 6S° F. In Darnley 
basin, 1021 at 70° F., low flow, no oyster larva' were found either near 
its outlet or near its head; but an enormous number of Peridinias were 
present. August 10, .strong east wind blowing a.L'-ain-;t a strong out-going 
tide, between TTorseshee shoals and Ram inland, one frv 12li mu. anneared. and 
several smaller ones in 30 quarts. Vertical sampling of a total of 30 feet, showed fewer 
fry, but more silt. In the harbour, a comparison by dipper sampling, with vertical 
sampling, showed so much sand that the determination of the fry w-as unsatisfactory; 
so far as the evidence went, it showed the presence of fewer fry than farther up the 
bay. North of the shoals, towards Hog island, the samples doubtfully contained oyster 
fry, but were crowded with Peridinias; west of the shoals, a few fry less than 120 mu 
were found. August 28, at Montgomery point, vertical sample showed a ratio of one 
fry per lt^ feet, mainly small, but sizes 320 and 360 mu were also present. 

Commentary: Our samples of this, and of the Central divisions of the bay. except 
March water, were not so numerous as they should have been to form definite con- 
clusions. These parts of the bay are specially difficult of study, except in calm weather, 
at which time conditions are also extra favourable for study of regions richer in fry. 
Enough has been learned to make it reasonably certain that oyster fry were abundant 
in proportion to the distance from the outlet, and we believe this is due to at least 
three causes: (1) loss by ebb tides; (2) coldness of water near the inlet; (3) fewer 
oysters. Even when the oyster beds nearest the central and lower divisions of the 
bay were in their origiiud full vigour, we believe that they were maintained with a nar- 
rower margin of survival than those farther away. Under the cireumstances. it has 
been easier to deplete them, and will be correspondingly more difficult to restore them. 



OTSTER l'lx'<>l'\n.\TrO\ I\ P.K.I. 



71 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

SUArMARY OF TIIK DTSTinnrTIOX OF OYSTER FRY. 

The yield from 20 quarts dipped was one to four fry in Bidelord river, one to forty 
fry in Grand river, one to three fry in Upper bay, two to five fry in March water. 
One minute's towing yielded 2 to lfi6 fry in Grand river, and seven to twenty-four 
fry in March water. Vertical sampling yielded one fry in 15 to 60 feet in Bideford 
river, one to 40 feet (with majority at two to 6 feet) in Grand river, one to 24 feeft 
(average at 10 feet) in "Upper bay, and six to 50 feet (average 25 feet) in March 
water. Grand river leads, with March water and Upper bay struggling for second 
place. Our highest record of two fry per quart sinks into insignificance, when 
compared with the several hundreds per quart with which we have been accustomed to 
deal in our New Jersey oyster investigations. 

Table summarizing the sizes, in microns, of oyster larvae, August 5-28. 



- 


Aug. 5 


6 


10 


13 


14 


16 


17 


20 


21 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


Stages .... 
I 


* 

* 


* 
* 


* 


* 


♦ 


80 


* 

* 


70 
80 


* 
80 


* * 
* 


* 
80 


* 
* 


* 
* 


* 


Trans 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


90 


* 


* 


* 


* 


90 


90 


II 


* 
110 


* 


* 
120 


* 


* 
120 


100 

no 

120 


120 


100 

* 
* 


100 

110 

* 


— 


* 
120 


100 
110 
120 


* 
* 
120 


100 

* 

* 


Trans 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


140 


* 


— 


140 


— 


— 


140 


Ill 


160 


— 


200 


— 


160 
200 


■ 160 
180 
200 


160 
180 
200 


* 

180 
200 


160 

180 
200 


160 

* 


160 
180 
200 


200 


160 


160 

* 

* 


Trans 


— 


— 


* 


— 


— 


220 


* 


220 


* 


* 


* 


— 


220 


* 


IV 


— 


— 


260 


240 


— • 


240 
280 


* 

260 

* 


240 

* 

280 


240 

* 
* 


240 

* 
* 


240 

* 

280 


240 
280 


240 
280 


260 
280 


Trans 


— 


— 


— 


— 


320 


320 


* 


320 


320 


320 


320 


320 


320 


320 


V 


- 


— 


— 


— 


360 


340 

380 
400 


360 
380 
400 


360 


— 


* 

380 
400 


340 
380 


360 


* 
* 
380 


* 




360 
380 



The preceding table of sizes must not be interpreted without a clear understand- 
ing that it represents a summary of the records, and only roughly a summary of the 
actual facts. The records, as compared with the facts, are incomplete, fragmentary, 
and approximate. They are incomplete in that a careful correlation of sizes and 
temperatures was not made, or where made, the data have not been worked into the 
table; also incomplete, because the relative proportions of fry at the different sizes, 
though secured in a large number of our observations, have not been incorporated. 
This because of the mi?leading conclusions that would be derived from such a colla- 
tion, in the absence of temperature relations, sufficiently complete to be of scientific 
value. The records are fragmentary, in that it was impossible to secure full data 
from all the areas, and we wished to cover all the area even though it had to be done 
at the sacrifice of completeness. The sizes are approximate, in that we purposely 
used a low-power microscope and a micrometer with coarse divisions, for the sake of 

*Sizes noticed but not counted. Stages are: I., straight hinge stage, or "small"; II., equal umbos, 
or "medium"; III. and IV., unequal umbos, or "large"; V., ready to set as spat. New Jersey oyster 
larvsf! set in stage IV., Canadian in Stage V. "Trans" means transition from one stage to next. 



72 Di: i:\RTMi: ST OF THE .Y.ir.lL HERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

wcpcdition. jud;;!ii}? by the p.ve of the fractions. No noeiiracv hoyoiid 10 micron? 
was possible, and wc rarely strove for an accuracy beyond 20 microns. Thus all our 
measurements fall into groups separated by 20 microns, which gives the false impres- 
sion that the fry were produced in corresponding broods. There is no doubt that 
broods do exist, but it is nec:essary that the entire attention be focused on this aspect 
of things, in order properly to establish the number and sizes of the respective broods. 
We had to choose between covering a small field of observation thoroughly and 
accurately, or the reverse; and we deliberately chose the latter alternative, as tlie 
logical thing to do, beginning with the general and specializing on such parts as the 
general survey showed to be worthy of additional work. Of course, a complete 
uncovering of oyster biology cannot be expected in one month or one season, hence 
the finer work remains yet to be done. 

But the table does indicate some things of practical value, and that is why it is 
introduced. It will be noticed that fry, ready to set, were not observed in fair abun- 
dance ixntil August 16. Indeed, the largest recorded for the 5th, 10th, 14th, and IGth, 
represents a regular advance in growth of 240 microns in twelve days, or 20 microns 
per day, which gives seventeen days as the minimum length of life of the fioating 
larva;. This length of life is quite to be expected under the influence of the higher 
range of temperature, 72 to 74 degrees, recorded. But a large proportion of the fry 
exist iia temperature averages of less than 70 degrees; and there is inde- 
pendent evidence^ showing that the period of free life of the fry in Richm ).id 
bay is over three weeks. It is not unreasonable to suppose that some of the fry may 
grow even slower than this rate. The rough survey marks out the boundaries of special 
problems that call for more accurate researches, on the rate of growth. Another feature 
indicated by the table, is the distribution of spawning. Spawning began late in July 
or early August, and was practically continuous throndinnt the greater nart of 
August, with a climax at the 20th. Not only does an individual oyster use a consider- 
able period for ejecting its spawn, but the individuals on a bed do not mature at the 
same time. Further, it is evident that as the oyster beds of the bay are subjected to 
different ranges of temperature, the different beds do not propagate simultaneously. It 
follows, therefore, that spatting is also a more or less drawn-out affair, although there 
are special favourite days for spatting as for spawning, dependent on weather, as 
shown by our New Jersey researches. These researches also have shown tliat 
not all the broods of fry that appear successively, roach the sontting stacre 
successfully. This is another problem demanding research. The practical aspect of 
this question lies in the fact that cultch, to be most useful, must be clean, and to be 
clean must be placed closest to spatting periods. It follows that cultch planting should 
be periodic, and that the periods should be regulated by the general weather and special 
plankton reports of the locality proposed to be shelled. For further discussion of 
spawning and spatting see those sections farther on. 

T1:M I'KltATl'HK SUMMARY. 

Temperature is a factor of supreme importance in oyster life. The warmth of the 
water depends on depth, character of bottom, distance from inlet, direction of winds, 
temperature of the air, and on the sunshine. The highest temperature was 76° F., 
observed once on the flats off Tilton creek; but 74° F., was found at the head of Bide- 
ford river, in Shemody creek, in Indian river, in the head of the bay, in Oyster creek, in 
Barbara Weit river, jjart of the time at Grand River bridge, and near Southwest Creek 
bridge. This is only 6 degrees above the minimum for oyster propagation, and the 
main areas of Ivichmond bay fail to reach this maximum. Tims, 72 degrees was 
recorded in the upper Grand river. Trout river, Bideford river, off Plat river, lower 
part of Shemody creek, and off Barbara "Weit river, Oyster creek, and the month of 

1 See Stafford. "The Canadian Oy-ster," 1913, pp. 83 and 84. This excellent memoir is a 
very full exposition of the biology of the oyster. 



OYSTER PROPAGATION IN P.E.I. 73 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

Shipyard river. Seventy degrees was recorded for Shipyard basin, Darnley basin, 
Narrows, Bideford river, Shemody creek, Grand river, March water. Curtain Ish\nd 
lints, etc. This fitruro un? recorded more often than any otlirr. hut Os^ F.. sti'nds next 
in frequency, being recorded not only for the deeper and lower parts of the bay, as at 
the inlet. March water, head of Grand River cove, etc., but also from upper Grand 
river and Bideford river, after the cold winds and nights of the latter half of the 
month. There were eight instances of 66 to 67 degrees in March water and Grand 
river, after cold weather. August 28 the water at Ram Island shoals was 62 degrees. 
At the head of Shipyard river, where the water was quite fresh, it was 60 degrees on 
the 25th. 

At best, the length of the season when the water in Richmond bay is warm 
enough for oyster propagation, is short, and when the warm weather of spring is 
delayed, as was the case in 1915, the spawning is shoved into August, and the spatting 
comes so late that the spat secure only slight growth before winter temperatures begin. 
The late spat of 1914 thus attained only a small size during the second summer of its 
existence. We found spat in August from Ram island, scarcely larger than one's 
little fingernail, that must have set the preceding fall. 

A question arises here, to what extent may the oncoming cold of autumn interfere 
with the spatting of the late broods of fry which were the principal ones this year? 
In more southern waters we frequently get a set of spat in September, and even 
in October, and these have some chance to grow before winter. But there is quite 
likely a temperature limit, to spatting itself, which it is important to determine. 
The shallowness of a large part of Richmond bay, favouring rapid heating of the 
water, is also favourable to its quick cooling. If, therefore, the largest brood of fry 
should be prevented from setting, there is an additional obstacle to the rapid 
regeneration of oyster beds in Canadian waters. This also has favoured rapid 
depletion. 

SUMMARY OF DENSITY OBSERVATIONS. 

A great deal too much emphasis has been laid on the question of the saltness 
or density of the water in which oysters may be expected to flourish. Doubtless, 
the admixture, more or less periodically, of fresh water with the salt water, at the 
mouths of rivers, has a beneficial effect, but the range of salinity in which oysters 
will grow is so great that the careful observation of one or two points difference in 
reading on the scale of the salinometer, is of little practical, or possibly even scientific, 
value. 

While salinity depends on distance from inlet, distance up rivers, the stage of 
tide, on wind strength and direction, and on rainfall, the variations and range of the 
readings of our salinometer were remarkably small. We found, in fact, almost the 
• same readings as obtained at our New elersey. Edge Cove, station. The highest record 
was 1021 found in Darnley basin, at half flood (August 6), in the Narrows at low, 
off Low point at half flood, in the channel of March water, both top and bottom, 
at high tide August 9 and 17, in Central bay, north of Bunbury, and in Ram Island 
shoals at high. 

A reading of 1020 was most frequent, as in Shipyard basin, August 5, in Malpeque 
harbour at low, off Lennox island, and in the Narrows, off the mouth of Plat river, 
in Shemody creek (August 7 and 13), off Tilton creek, and in the Upper bay, both 
at low (August 7) and high (August 24), in Oyster creek at half tide, at Grand River 
ferry on high, on Curtain Island shoals, and the mouth of Bideford river at high, 
i\ud in March water at low (August 20 and 27). 

Twenty observations gave 1019 and 1019-5 most frequently in the rivers or at the 
mouths of creeks, In Grand river, 1017, 1018 and 1018-5 were found not far distant 
from the bridge. This record was also given in Barbara Weit, Oyster creek, and 
Shipyard river. A reading of 1015-5 was observed well up Shemody creek at low 



74 nri'Ah'TM i: \ r or riii: \ . i r t /, n erti ce 

7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 

water, nnd lOlH in Tndiiiii river. The lowest. 1015, was recorded at the head of Trout 
river; the observation at the head of Shipyard river, which was the only river that was 
penetrated into the parts accessible only at hiph water, was exceptional. Here the 
salinonietcr read 1000 at G0° F. 

SPAWNING. 

It was easier to ascertain the progress of spawning from examination of the 
plankton, than by dredging for oysters and opening the same. Dredging on natural 
beds did not bring up many oysters, and we depended on oysters from planted beds 
secured under direction of those in charge. An oyster secured in March water on 
the 11th was filled with immature spawn, but next day samples at Ram island showed 
tliat their spawning was completed. On the 13th in Bentinck cave wo found 
that spawning was hardly half through, as half of the oysters had not bec;un, 
and the others were only partly spawned out. Near the Barbara Weit, on McNeill's 
beds, however, only a few oysters contained spawn. On the 14th, in Grand river, 
half-way between Southwest creek and Cross creek, we again noticed that half of the 
oysters were still in full spawn; but near Cross creek, all that we secured were empty. 
Dredging for oysters near the ferry failed to secure any samples. On the 2-lth, on 
McNeill's beds, there were still traces of spawn. On the 26th, oysters in March water 
were through spawning. Owing to the small number of samples opened, and few 
observations, only general conclusions can be drawn from these observations, viz., 
that before the 20th there was abundant spawn still present, and that after that date 
tl'.e oysters were nearly Init not entirely through spawning. 

Turning to the plankton record, we find that fry which were probably ton days old 
were present August 5, but oyster plankton was not abundant until August 14; and 
these fry were also about ten days old. On the ITth they were advanced to 200 microns, 
indicating an age of about two weeks. On the 20th, and especially on the 21st, small, 
lately hatched fry were most abundant. Here was a climax in the spawning, which 
probably occurred on the 20th, a fine day following stormy weather. On the 25th. fry 
under 100 mu were scarce, but very abundant at that size, and not yet a week old. This 
day was a banner day for showing fry; they were abundant up to 320 mu. On the 26th 
and 2Tth there was an increase in the fiy under 100 mu in size, but these had attained 
100 mu on the 28th. 

SPATTIXO. 

The study of spatting involves the determination of the. date of " setting " (fixa- 
tion of the fry to cultch as spat). Also a study of the rate of growth and of survival; 
also the determination of the most suitable cultch and localities and other conditions 
favourable to this process. 

The date of spatting can be fixed by two independent sets of evidence: (1) obser- 
vations on the presence and abundance of the largest fry " ready to set " in connection 
with the i)lankton data; (2) the "lifting" of the cultch, such as shells, from time to 
time, and giving them careful examination, after drying. Such shells should be spec- 
ially selected, the cleanest obtainable, and preferably have been experimentally placed 
at set date^ 

From the table given a few pages before, we learn that fry of spatting size (320 to 
400 mu) were present in relative abundance from August 14 to 17, and on the 24th 
and 2Tth. These fry were not nearly so abundant as the fry seen previously, of sizes 
260 to 320 mu. There was a reduction of at least (10 per cent. Part of this reduction 
may be explained as due to the prol)able presence of a certain number on the bottom 
seeking suitable cultch, so that the net necessarily failed to catch them. Part of the 
reduction was probably due to destruction. 

When fry of 260 to 320 mu are compared with earlier stages, we find also a reduc- 
tion nearly as great, and while it is possible that the fry will remain on the bottom 



I 



OTSTER PROPAOATTON IN P.E.I. 75 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

more frequently as their shell grows larpccr, yet we arc inclined to place the responsi- 
bility for the reduction upon destructive agencies. It must not be forgotten, however, 
that the number of fry secured from the water is not a true index of the number 
present, because a large proportion of every brood of fry will be found near the surface 
on fine days, and deeper down, or at the bottom in bad weather. Hence, the number is, 
to a good extent, an index of weather variations. 

Although the water may show fry of spatting age, it does not always follow that a 
" set " will occur; if it did, the task of foretelling the date for placing cultch would be 
relatively a simple matter; this act seems to require fine weather. Much work needs 
to be done in this connection before we shall learn all we ought to know, in order to be 
of the best practical use, although what is already known can now be applied to advant- 
age. From the table of fry sizes, it is evident that spatting was prophesied to occur 
from mid- August onward to the close of September, whenever conditions were favour- 
able. It remains to study the cultch to fix those dates. We are not, however, in a posi- 
tion to state the exact date of " setting " from a measurement of the spat until we 
know their rate of growth. This in turn cannot be learned except from a knowledge ol 
dates of setting, determined independently. As much, if not most, of the spatting 
occurred after we departed, our data will not be complete; but shell samples sent us 
later throw some light on this question. 

We have seen from the table that fry, ready to set, were not abundant until mid- 
August. Examination of cultch on the 11th and on the 13th, as well as other dates 
previous to mid-August, failed to reveal the presence of spat. Experimental cultch 
was suspended from a buoy near Malpeque wharf on the 12th, and on a buoy farthest 
from the wharf on the 16th, on Keilley's lots on the 23rd and on Curtain and Ram 
island shoals on the 21st. Part of the cultch consisted of plain, selected, liard shells. 
and partly of shells of a crumbly nature taken from weathered heaps of " mussel 
rn,iid." Each of the latter shells was coated for two-thirds of its area from tlif^ br(;ad 
end, with coaltar varnish. The object of the experiment, was to compare the relative 
efficiency of such, a surface with the plain part of the cultch. Coaltar varnish was 
chosen because this is used to cover the bottoms of boats, and a boat was shown on 
which a fine catch of spat had fastened the previous season, thus suggesting that 
this paint was attractive to spat. It is easily understood why this boat carried such 
a set of spat. A bacterial slime will not form on the tar because of its antiseptic 
qualities; and other vegetable growths will likewise be prevented. Many of the spat 
of other animals, such as barnacles, might reasonably be supposed to avoid that 
surface, the coating being applied to boat bottoms to keep clear of such things. 

There is, however, another factor to be considered as present in the case of the 
boat, which was not imitated with the tarred cultch. The bottom of the boat in the 
water is an " under " surface and not connected with the bottom. Being an under 
surface, no silt or sediment can settle upon it; and being unconnected to the bottom, 
the various crawling animals, snails, etc., would not be able to reach it and browse 
on its collection of spat. We note another fact of importance, viz., the paint was 
applied in the spring, several months before the spat set. Thus the tar had become 
thoroughly seasoned and hard, its soluble parts, creosotes, etc., that might be offensive 
to spat, had largely soaked out, when spatting began. In the case of our experimental 
cultch, only a few days' exposure to 'the water was admissible before the test occurred, 
and the tar was still soft where thickly applied. 

The earliest spat observed were on shells taken on the 21th on MclSI'eill's grounds, 
near Waites cove. Some of this cultch had been planted a week before, and some had 
lain a year on the beds. Several oysters were taken, and the outside of their shells 
was fairlj- well set with spat. The average spat was 1000 mu in diameter (which 
equals a millimeter or one twenty-fifth of an inch). These, like all young spat, 
showed the larval shell of the size it was when setting occurred, and also the later 
added spat-shell. The larval shell ranged from 320 to 400 mu, and the spat shell 



76 DKl'MiTMEyT OF TUE .VAFAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

made a rim of 75 mu around its edge. As most of the lai-vac> are 400 mu high, from 
tip of left umbo to edge of right valve, it follows that spat growth can best be 
indicated by omitting this " constant " from the total measurement, which will hence- 
forth be done. 

Aufjust 26, the experimental shells which were placed on the 12th and the 16th, 
were taken for examination. Xo spat were found on the shells placed August 16, but 
a third of the shells placed August 12, carry spat up to a diameter of one millimeter. 
As no spat were found on the shells placed on the 16th, the inference would be that the 
spatting occurred before the 16th, which, taken in conjunction with the fact that these 
spat were of nearly the same size as those seen August 24, on shells planted for a week, 
leads us t:> the conclusion that in both cases \vp have to do witli tlif ^^cttius; f>t' :-p:it tliat 
showed as " ready to set " in the plankton of August 14. It might, however, not be true 
that the shells placed August 16 failed to catch spat, because all had set that were ready. 
Possibly none were in the water at that point, and this supposition becomes probable 
when we study the shells taken from the McNutt bed, next to be considered. 

Assuming the 14th as the probable date of first spatting, we get the tentative result 
of about 100 mu growth of spat shell per day. 

On the 26th. we " lifted " several oysters and shells from the McNutt beds, and 
these showed spat very much like those in the McNeill samples. The most spat were 
found on the inside of oysters that had died and decomposed recently, leaving clean 
inside surfaces, well protected from entrance of both silt and the larger enemies, such 
as snails, because the valves of the oyster shell naturally separate only narrowly. A 
study of the distribution of these spat is instructive. The number of spat on the out- 
side was equal for both valves, but totalled only one-eighth of the number found inside. 
There were twice as many inside spat on the right valve as on the left or lowermost 
valve, even in the instance where both valves were absolutely clean. The number was 
in all cases proportional to the cleanness of the surfaces, ranging for the inside upper 
valve from 1 to 150 spat per shell. The highest number was on a small shell, and the 
spat were most beautiful, showing what nature can do even with limited resources, if 
given a fair chance. We should also note that the spat prefer to set on the under side of 
an object, even when the surface is no cleaner or otherwise better than in oilier positions. 
The European oyster farmer takes advantage of the fact in his method of tile culture. 
In short, the spat like a " roof over foot." This is the result of natural selection, as 
those fry that possess the instinct to set under a surface, are not so apt to be smothered 
by silt, and also they find less silt to scrape away to get a hold. 

The spat shells were measured in nearly fifty instances on the best set cultch 
sample and we found all stages present, from spat newly set, up to those having 1200 
mu of spat-shell. Sizes 150, 400, and 600 mu had the most numerous representation. 
Allowing 100 mu growth per day, we get twelve days as the aiie of tlie oldest, which 
brings the date of beginning of spatting to be the 14th. quite in harmony with the 
plankton evidence. The main spatting period was from August 20 to the 22nd. This 
is in harmony with the figures in the plankton table for this period, showing few fry 
in stage V, because they were exploring the bottom at the time. As the climax of the 
spatting occurred on the 20th, and no spat were found on the shells placed on the 16th 
(taken on the 26th), it is evident that no fry ready to set were present at that locality. 
Still farther from the wharf were the Reilley experimental shells; they were placed on 
the -Jovd and taken up on the 27th, and no spat were present on them. So here, too, 
was an area which was poor in spat, at those dates at least. Just how far fry may 
wander from their birthplace, during the weeks of their plankton life, is not known, 
but it is a possibility that they do not wander far. This is a subject of great import- 
ance, and deserves careful research. While they are in the plankton condition they 
are a part of the water, and they use their swimming powers to rise or to sink. By 
rising into the tide early in flow, and settling to the bottom before ebb begins, it is 
evident they can wander as far from home as the distance travelled by a tide in six or 
seven hours. This would not distribute them laterally, to the current, except when 



OYSTER PROPAGATION IN P.E.I. 77 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

strong winds blow crosswise and they are at the surface, which is not usually true in 
rough weather. Everything depends on the adjustment they make in reference to the 
tides. We have found most fry on the flood tide. This would prove that the tendency 
is to work away from the inlet, and up towards headwaters. 

On August 97. samples of tarred shell,?, placed on the 21 st on Curtain inland 
and Earn Island shoals were taken. Spat were found only on the Curtain island 
shells, on about six out of two dozen shells, and only from one to three spat per shell. 
The spat shell added, ranged in width from 160 mu to 600 mu during the six days' 
sojourn, thus corroborating our previous calculations. It is of course possible that 
the largest did not " set " at the earliest hour after planting, and so the growth might 
be greater than 100 mu per day. This would not be surprising, since the conditions 
for growth are very good on these current-washed shoals. If the rings of growth 
seen correspond to diurnal additions, then one spat grew at the rate of 180 mu per 
day. But it has yet to be proved, that the growth of the dissoconch or any other shell 
growth, is adjusted to diurnal rather than tidal variations, or something else. 

On September 3, Eobert McKenzie took samples of shells from the McNutt beds, 
which were forwarded to me. Three of the seven shells sent carried spat; two 
"rights" held twenty and fifteen spat, respectively, and one "left" held six spat. 
This distribution suggests that they came from intact shells, for if the valves had 
lain on the ground separately, the left valves would have carried the most spat. The 
appearance of the shells showed that they came from " cluckers " (i.e., oysters which, 
when tapped, sound empty). Two-thirds of the spat on these shells were newly set, 
and the oldest had a spat shell of 900 mu, which brings the date of their first setting 
not earlier than August 25. In harmony with this, our plankton table shows a con- 
siderable number of fry ready to set on the 24th, with subsequent relative absence of 
this size. On this latter date also there was a great increase in younger stages, which 
probably furnished the spat that set September 2 to 5. 

On September 18, Hubert P. McNeill took up and forwarded a string of tarred 
shells which we had placed on his beds on August 24, and also a large shell, which 
he wrote was planted August 30. These samples proved highly interesting. Consider- 
ing first the August 30 shell, this was a large left valve and remarkably clean after 
having been in the water for ''eighteen days." It carried a small shell on its back 
with its smooth or inside surface facing in the same direction as the outside of the 
main shell, and occupying a seventh of its surface. The smooth inside of the large 
shell carried thirty-four spat, the outside eighty-nine spat, and the small shell thirty- 
eight. Had the small shell been absent, there should have been a hundred spat, or three 
times as many as on the inside; but if the entire surface had been as good as that of 
the little shell, there would have been 266 spat, or nearly eight times as many as on the 
inside. To account for this, we believe the shell hung with the curved side down. 
Had it rested on the ground, the spat would have been excluded from the center part 
of the convex surface. The sizes of the spat shells, viz., 40 to 560 mu, show that 
spatting had occurred within five or six days, so that there is a question as to its 
having been exposed for a longer period than a week. Turning now to consider the 
sizes of the spat shell-growth on the shells placed August 24, we have ranges of to 
2600 mu. As these shells were exposed twenty-five days, we have another fine 
coincidence on the basis of 100 mu growth per day, assuming that setting began at 
once, which is probable, as the water at the place where the shells were hung had the 
finest show of fry, ready to set, seen in the entire bay. Granting this assumption, then 
there was spatting at this point on August 24, 28 and on Sepetmber 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 16, 
and 18, with climaxes on the 5th and 15th. The latter climax fits the facts of the 
large shell lifted September ]8, but leaves a mystery about the absence of fry on 
September 3 to 5, if it was placed August 30, for the tarred shells corroborate the 
evidence of the McNutt shells. It must be carefully noted, that in all this calculation 



78 / ) i: r \in \i i: \t or tin: \ i i i /. > /; i{\ i ce 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

the assumption is that the spat jjrow equally and siinilarlj- and uniformlj', certainly 
rather unlikely. We need to have i«orne careful research made on this problem. 

Ne.xt let us consider the value of tar as a coating for oyster shells; does it improve 
shells to varnish them with coal tar? Striving to not crowd these pages with detailed 
tables, we shall give only the results of counting the spat. The figures sliow that 
per unit area, tlie tarred surface captured only two-fifths as many spat as did the 
unvarnished shell; that the smooth side and rough side of the plain right valve were 
equal; that tarring reduced the number of outside spat to half, and those setting inside 
to a quarter as many as would have otherwise set. For the left valve, there was no 
difl"erence between the plain and tarred surfaces outside, but a reduction to a fifth 
for the inside. The left valves caught more than twice as many spat as did the right 
valves. This was true respectively both for the plain and the tarred surfaces. We 
had long ago established similar ratios for these valves; yet we showed above that in 
'* cluckers " lying in the normal position, it is the right valve that gathers most spat. 
The reason the left, free, valve and outside surface is superior to the right, is due 
to the fact that the silt fails to bury its edges as quickly as in the case of the flatter 
valve, when both are free. 

The outcome of these researches is to suggest further studies with cultch coated 
with the composition (equal parts of lime, sand, cement) used for tiles in Europe. 
This is useful in view of the scarcity of cultch in Prince Edward Island. 

October 4, Mr. McKenzie gathered samples from Ram island, placed there August 
21. These shells held only "deckers" (Crepidulas). October 5, Mr. McKenzie 
gathered samples of Curtain island shells left there August :^1, and tlierefrirc expt)se(l 
for forty-five days. Two of them were tarred shells, carrying Crepidulas both on the 
tarred and the plain areas. The plain shells have but one spat on one surface (rarely 
on both). They range from 4 to 10 millimeters in diameter. Fragments of a Mya 
shell carry four spat of 16 to 20 millimeters in diameter. On the supposition that 
the largest had " set " as early as mid-Augusl, they would be not more than fifty days 
old, and in the case of the largest spat, a growth of 400 mu per day must have been 
attained on an average. Of course the growth is absolutely more rapid the older 
the spat, though it may relatively be less so. It is desirable to have careful studies 
made on growth, and we await with interest the results of Professor Robertson's 
researches on this subject. 

CONCLUSION. 

We have found that oyster propagation in Richmond bay shows the effects of the 
very considerable depletion indicated by statistics; but there are still areas, where 
careful planting of cultch will capture a fair set of spat. We wish to emphasize the 
necessity of pushing the practice of raising oysters from the seed, by artificial culture, 
insistently, persistently, consistently, and intelligently and scientifically, as the only 
way to restore the bay t-o its original productiveness, or even to keep its beds from 
ultimate destruction. But if the practice of scientific oyster culture be encouraged 
and developed, there is no reason for doubting that the maximum production formerly 
exhibited by this bay, under nature, and by fishing methods, can be increased very 
much. We do not think that every one of the 32,000 acres in this domain, can be made 
productive, but there is a good possibility that a quarter of this acreage may be made 
productive, and when that time arrives the annual product should be nearly a million 
bushels. It is worth while to strive for that figure, even if it may take a long while 
to reach it; by thus striving, it is certain that the present i)roduction will be increased 
many fold, to say nothing of conserving the very life of the. oyster industry. If we 
go not forward we shall surely drift backward. 



MARINE ALG.T: OF Till-: I'.XfiSAMAQVOimY REGION 79 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF THE PASSAMAQUODDY REGION, NEW 

BRUNSWICK. 

By A. K Ki,r(;i[, M.A., 

Queen's University, Kingston, Ont. 

(Plate VIII.) 

The work which forms the basis of this report was done at the Marine Biological 
Station, St. Andrews, N.B., in April, May and June, 1912, and May, June, August and 
September, 1913. 

The region covered is from St. Stephen, at the head of navigation on the St. Croix 
river, to Grand Manan. 

The Algal flora of this region is distinctly boreal in character, as is shown by the 
luxuriant growth of Fuci and Laminariae, and by the occurrence in comparatively 
shallow water of Dictyosiphon hippuroides, Halosaccion ramentaceum, Saccorhiza 
dermaiodea, Agarum turnen and Monostroma fuscum hlyttii. 

There is a considerable difference in the Algal flora of what we may term "inside" 
and "outside" points. By "inside" we mean on the mainland side of Passamaquoddy 
bay, by "outside" the shores of the islands (Deer, Pendleton's and MacMaster's) which 
form the outer boundary of the bay, and all points beyond these islands. These 
differences in the Algal flora may be pretty definitely traced to differences in the 
salinity of the water "outside" and "inside." Inside the water has a specific gravity at 
the surface of from 1-0226 to 1-0235, and a percentage of total salts of from 2-99 to 
3-202, while outside waters have a specific gravity of from 1-0235 to 1-0242, and a total 
salt content of from 3-201 to 3-2S0 per cent. For these figures I am indebted to the 
work of Mr. Gr. G. Copeland in 1909, published in the report of the Biological Stations 
of Canada "Contributions to Canadian Biology, 1906-1910." 

The only paper dealing with the algfe of this region of which I have any know- 
ledge is Prof. D. C. Eaton's "List of Marine Algae collected near Eastport, Maine, in 
August and September, 1873, in connection with the work of the United States Fish 
Commission," and, where his records are for Canadian stations and for species which I 
have not collected, I quote them here. 

In many countries the marine algae are of great economic importance, as food, as 
the source of food products such as isinglass, in the production of a "size" for textile 
fabrics, in the clarifying of beer and wines, as the source of iodine and potassium, in 
the manufacture of a very strong adhesive known as seaweed glue, in the production 
of a demulcent for use in relieving coughs, and as a fertilizer. Except that some are 
put to the last-mentioned use along the coast, and small quantities of dulse (Bhody- 
menia palmata) are gathered and dried for eating, the marine algae are made no use 
of in Canada, and therefore represent one of our undeveloped resources. 

1. — CvANOPHYCEiE. 

Gomphospheiia aponina, Kuetzing. — In brackish pool off Kitty's cove, St. Andrews, 
September G, 1913. 

Fleurocapsa fuliglnosa, Hauck. — Common on sandstone conglomerate cliffs at 
high-tide mark in places moistened by dripping fresh water near the Biological Statiou. 
This species forms thin black coatings. This is the first Canadian record. 



80 DEPARTMEyr OF THE y.WAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Dermocarpa prasina, Bornct and Thuret. — On Prtrocdis rrucnta at Head harbour. 
Canipobcllo island, June 12, 1912. Not previously recorded from Canada. 

Hyella caespitosa, Bornet and Flahault. — Common in dead shells of Mya arenaria 
in the vicinity of St. Andrews. It imparts a yellowish-preen colour to the shells. 
This is one of the perforating alga?, and in studying it the calcareous matter of the 
shell must be dissolved out with Perenyi's fluid, which is made up as follows: 10 per 
cent nitric acid — 40 cc, ethyl alcohol — 30 cc, and i per cent aqueous solution of 
chromic acid — 30 cc. 

Oscillatoria laetevirens, Crouan. — On old wharf near St. Stephen, at about 3 flood- 
tide mark, May 13, 1913. 

Oscillatoria nigro-viridis, Thwaites. — In a brackish pool flooded only by the very 
highest tides, at Welchpool, Campobello island, June 17, 1912. This is the first record 
for this species in Canada. 

Spirulina suhsalsa. Oersted. — In brackish pool flooded only by highest tides at 
Welchpool, Campobello. On rocks near low tide mark, Leonardville, Deer island. On 
wharf at the Biological Station. These are the first Canadian records. 

Lynghya aestuarii, Liebman. — In a brackish pool at Welchpool. 

Nodularia harveyana, Thuret. — ^In lagoon in salt marsh, St. Andrews, June 6. 
1912. This is the first Canadian record. 

Anahaena variabilis, Kuetzing. — In brackish pool flooded only by highest tides, 
Welchpool, June 17, 1912. Not previously recorded from Canada. 

Calothrix confervicola, Agardh. — Common on Cladophora flavescens floating in 
Kitty's cove, St. Andrews, August 28, 191-3. 

RivvJaria atra, Roth. — Forming black gelatinous nodules on sandstone conglo- 
merate cliffs at high-water mark in places where the cliffs are moist with dripping fresh 
water, near the Biological Station. 

2. — Chlorophyce^. 

Ulothrix jiacca, Thuret. — Common on rocks, timbers and moorings and on Fucus 
vesciculosus throughout the region. 

Ulothrix implexq, Kuetzing. — Common on sandstone rocks at high-tide mark in 
places moistened by dripping fresh water, near the Biological Station. In estuary of a 
small stream flowing into Brandy cove. 

Enteromorpha percursa, J. G. Agardh. — In lagoon in salt marsh near St. Andrews, 
May 11, 1912. On dead twigs, etc., in estuary of a small stream into Brandy cove. 

Enteromorpha crinita^ J. G. Agardh. — In lagoon in salt marsh near St. Andrews. 
In estuary of a small stream into Brandy cove. Rolled up in long rope-like masses at 
the edge of Kitty's cove. Not previously recorded from Canada. 

Enteromorpha compressa subsimplex, J. G. Agardh. — In tide-pools at Adam 
island. In tide-pools on the Short Bar, St. Andrews. One of these tide-pools is shown 
in Fig. 1, Plate VIII. 

Enteromorpha minima, Naegeli. — On rock in tide-pool in Chamcook harbour. On 
sandstone rocks at high-tide mark in places where moistened by dripping fresh water, 
in Brandy cove and near Joe's point. 



MARINE ALOJE OF THE PASSAMAQDODDY REGION 81 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

E nteromorpha microcorra, Tvuetzinf?. — Common on sandstone cliffs where moisl 
with fresh water at hijrh-side mark near the Bioloprical Station. 

E nteromorpha intestinalis, Grcvillc. — Tn a tidal creek near St. Andrews. This 
habitat is shown in Tig. 2, Plate VIIT. Extremely abnndant in tidal creek at Grand 
Harbour, Grand Manan. An extremely small form, with the larpcest thalli only 3 mm. 
in diameter, was found in a pool in the cliffs of Swallow-tail. Grand Manan, about 
sixty feet above high-tide mark, and only reached by spray which, flies to a great height 
at this point. 

Enteromorpha Unza, J. G. Agardh. — Common on muddy gravel beach at half-tide 
mark on Adam island. On weir stakes at low-tide mark off Navy island. On weir 
stakes in Brandy cove. 

Ilea fulvescens, J. G. Agardh. — On rocks in stream in littoral zone, Brandy cove. 
In rock pool reached only by the very highest tides. Biological Station. 

Monosiroma fuscum hlyiUi, Collins. — Common in tide-pools at all outside points. 
In a stream of salt water flowing, at low tide, out of Kitty's cove. Some of this species 
was served on the table at the Biological Station, and it was found to resemble a very 
strongly flavoured and rather slippery spinach. 

TJlva lactuca rigida, Le Jolis. — Common from half -tide mark down on rocky beach 
at Welchpool, and at Grand harbour. Grand Manan. 

Chaeiomorpha melagomum, rupincola, Kjellman. — In a tide-pool near low-tide 
mark at Herring cove, Campobello. 

Chaetomorplia aerea linum, Collins. — In curled masses in pool off Kitty's cove, St. 
Andrews. 

Rhizoclonnim riparium polyrhizvm, Eosenvinge. — At base of sandstone cliffs near 
high-tide mark in Brandy cove. On dead twigs in estuary of a little stream into 
Brandy cove, exposed from one-quarter ebb tide.* In pool in cliffs of Swallow-tail, 
Grand Manan, about sixty feet above high-tide mark. 

Rhizoclonium tortuosum, Kuetzing. — -In tide-pools at Upper Green point. 

Cladopliora laetevirens, Harvey. — In sub-littoral zone on weir stakes in old weir 
off ISra\'y island, June 8, 1912. This is the first Canadian record. 

Cladophora rupestris, Kuetzing. — Common on rocks near low-tide mark at all 
outside points. 

Cladophora gracilis expansa, Farlow. — In shallow tide-pools on the Short Bar, 
St. Andrews. 

Cladophora flavescens, Kuetzing. — Floating in large yellowish masses in Kitty's 
cove, St. Andrews. 

Spongomorpha arcta, Kuetzing. — Common in spring in tide-pools throughout the 
region, occurring in rounded tufts. 

Spongomorpha spinescens, Kuetzing. — On Fucus evanescens in littoral zone at 
Head harbour, Campobello. This species has not been previously recorded from 
Canada. 

Hormiscia penicilliformis , Fries. — On Fucus evanescens, Little Letite. 

Gomontia polyrhiza, Bornet and Flahault. — Common on dead shells of Mya 
arenaria in shallow tide-pools. 

Vaucheria thuretii, Woronin. — On mud at high-tide mark, Harbour de Loutre, 
Campobello. On mud in salt marsh, Friar's bay, Campobello. On mud-flats at Grand 
harbour, Grand Manan. 



82 in.i'Mn MKsr or rin: y\v.\L si:uvice 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
3. — Pn.KoiMivcE^. 

Phyllitis fascia, Kuctzing. — Common in tide-pools throughout the region. 

Scyiosiphon lomeniarius, Agardh. — Common in a small form with few con- 
strictions in tide-pools at inside points. Common in a large form with many well- 
marked constrictions in tide-pools from half-tide mark down at outside points. A large 
form twisted into tight spirals occurs at Weldipool, Campobello. This spiral form 
is mentioned by Eaton as occurring at Eastport, Me. 

IJrsmarcstia aculeata, Lamx. — In upper sub-littoral zone at Welchpool. In tide- 
pools near low-tide mark at Herring cove, Campobello. 

De.smarestia viridis, Lamx. — Common in sub-littoral zone on Tongue .shoal, near 
St. Andrews. Off Navy island in sub-littoral zone on weir brush. In tide-pool at 
low-tide mark at Little Letite. 

Dictfjosiphon foeniculacens, Grey. — Common in tide-pools throughout the region. 

Dietyosiphon hippuroides, Aresch. — On rocky shore near low-tide mark at Welch- 
pool, Campobello. 

Ectocarpus confervoides, Le Jolis. — On Ascophyllum nodosum at the Biological 
Station. On weir brush in old weir off Xavy island, unilocular and pleurilocular 
sporangia present June 8. 

Ectocarpus littoraUs, Lyngbye. — Common on weir brush off Xavy island, at and 
below low-tide mark. On old weir stake in Warwig river. 

Leathesia diformis, Aresch. — On Cladophora gracilis expansa in tide-pools on 
Short Bar, St. Andrews. On rocks near low-tide mark, Spruce island. 

Elachistea fucicola, Eries. — On Fucus evanescens at Head harbour, Campobello. 
On AsjcpLiiRam nodosum in Brandy cove. On Fucus vesciculosus on Xa^-j* island. 
On Fucus furcatus on Bliss island. 

Chordaria ftagelliformis, Agardh. — Common in tide-pools. 

Ralfsia verrucosa, Aresch. — Common in tide-pools, forming black leathery ex- 
pansions on pebbles. 

Ralfsia deusta, J. Agardh. — On rocks in tide-pools on Short Bar, St. Andrews. 

Chorda filum,, Linn. — Attached to stones at low-tide mark at Biological Station. 
Common in sub-littoral zone off Head harbour, off Spruce island, and in the Narrows. 

Laminaria saccharina, Lamx. — Common at and below low-tide mark throughout 
the region. 

Laminaria longicruris, T)o La Pyl. — Common in sub-littoral zone off Head har- 
bour. Common in sub-littoral zone at Welchpool, off Kichardsonville, Deer island, off 
Herring cove, Campobello, and off Southern head, Grand Manan. This alga attains a 
larger size than any other in this region. The specimen shown in Eig. 3, Plate VIII, 
hanging on the wall of the residence at the Biological Station, had a blade five feet 
ten inches long and a stipe nine feet long. 

Laminaria digitata, Lamx. — In tide-pools near low-tide mark on Spruce island. 
In tide-pools near low-tide mark at Head harbour. 

Saccorhiza dermatodea, De La Pyl. — Common in upper sub-littoral zone at Welch- 
pool. 

Agarum turneri. Post, and liupr. — Fairly common in the lower littoral and upper 
sub-littoral zone thro\ighout th<' region. 



MARINE Ahd.K O/' TIH: I'AssAM \(^l OlHi) KlJUnS 83 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

Alaria csculcnfa laUfolia. Post and Tlupr. — Common at low-water mark at all 
outside points. Fig- 4, Plate VIII. sliows the lateral leaflets upon wliic-h the fruit is 
borne. 

Asrnphf/lliim nodosum, Le Jolis. — Abundant in the upper two-thirds of the littoral 
zone throughout the region. Fig 5, Plate VIII, shows the roeks near the Biologieal 
{-station eovered with this species and Fucus vesciculosus. 

Fhcus vesciritlosus, Linn. — Abinidant in the upper half of the littoral zone 
throughout the region. A form with very long vescieles and long receptacles occurs 
at the P)iological Station, and a form witli almost splicrieal nn-eptacles is common on 
Adam island. 

F^^c^ts evanescens, Agardh. — Common in the lower half of the littoral zone at all 
outside points. 

Fncus furcatus, Agardh. — Rare in a tide-pool near low-tide mark at Head har- 
l)our. Scarce in tide-pools at half-tide mark on Adam island. Common near low- 
tide mark on Bliss island. 

4. — Rhodophyce.'E. 

Porphi/ra umhilicalis, J. Agardh. — Common in the littoral zone. Occurs in two 
forms, the umbillicate form of a brownish colour at outside points, and the expanded, 
laciniate form of a red or pale pinkish-green colour at inside points. 

Petrocelis cruenta, J. Agardh. — On rocks at Head harbour and at Welchpool, in 
the littoral zone. 

HUdenhrantia rosea, Kuetzing. — Common on stones in the lower part of the lit- 
toral zone throughout the region. 

Callithamnion rothii, Lyngbye. — Reported from Grand Manan by Eaton. 

CaUithatnnion pylaisaei, Mont. — Common on weir brush in the sub-littoral zone 
off Navy island. Cystocarps present, May 22. 

Ftilota ehgans, Bonnem. — Reported by Eaton from tide-pools on Campobello, and 
from Little Green island near Grand Manan. 

Ptilota serrata, Kuetzing. — Dredged in 10 fathoms off Pendleton's island, in 27 
fathoms off Harwood island, in 30 fathoms off MacMaster's island, and in 12 fathoms 
off Three islands, Grand Manan. One specimen found growing in a tide-pool at low- 
tide mark on the Black Ledges. 

Ceramium rubrum, Agardh. — In tide-pools on Bliss island, and on Grand Manan. 

Halosaccion ramentaceum, Agardh. — Common in lower littoral zone at Welchpool 
and in littoral zone at Herring cove, Campobello, and Grand harbour. Grand Manan. 
This species varies greatly in amount of branching. 

IlaJosaccion ramentaceum gladiatum, Eaton. — Common at low-tide mark on 
Spruce island, mostly red and but little inflated. F'requent at low-tide mark in Little 
Letite, very large, brownish and much inflated. Scarce on the l^lack Ledges, rather 
small and but little inflated, red in young stages, brownish in older stage. Connnon 
on muddy gravel beach on Adam island. This variety was described by Eaton from 
Eastport material. Neither this form, nor the species are found at any inside point. 

Ahnfeltia plicata. Fries. — Reported from Grand Manan by Eaton, 
bsa — G 



84 DEPARTMKST OF THE y.\V.\L SHIiVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Ci/xfocloniuin purpvrasccns, Kuctzinp. — Rcportod from Grand Manan and Campo- 
bello by Eaton. 

Oigariina mamiUosa, Agardh. — Common on rofks at low-tide mark throughout th*^ 
region. 

Chrondrua crispns, Stack. — Freqnont in tido-pool.s in lowor half of littoral ::ono at 
the Biological Station. Common in lower littoral zone at Welchpool and at Herring 
Cove. 

Rhodomenia pahnata, Grcville. — Common near low-tide mark at all oiitside points. 
The only record for an insido point is one specimen found on weir bru.sh below low-tide 
mark off Navy island. 

lihodophyllis veprenila cirrhata, Harvey. — Reported from Campobello and Grand 
Manan (under the name CalUhlepharis ciliata) by Eaton. 

Polyides rotundus, Greville. — Scarce in the sub-littoral zone at Head harbour. 

Futhora rristaia, J. Agardh. — Reported by Eaton from Campobello and Grand 
Manan. 

Delesseria sinuosa, Lamx. — On Ptilofa serrata dredged in 27 fathoms off Harwood 
island. Common on the Tunicate, Caesira canadensis, on weir brush in sub-littoral 
zone off Navy island. Dredged in 12 fathoms off Three islands. Grand Manan. 

Bhodomela suhfusca, Agarth. — In tide-pools on Bliss island. 

Polysiphonia nrceolata formosa, Agarth. — Common on weir brush at and below 
low-tide mark off Xavy island. Scarce on rocks at low-tide mark at Head harbour. 

Polysiphonia fastigiata, Greville. — Common on Ascophyllum nodosum throughout 
the region. 

Corallina officinalis, Linn. — Common at low-tide mark on Spruce island, at Head 
harbour and on Grand Manan. Scarce on rocks in a tide-pool near low-tide mark on 
Short Bar near St. Andrews. 

Melohesiu lejolisii, Rosanoff. — Common on Zostera marina in Kitty's cove, St. 
Andrews. 

Lithothamnion polmorphum, Aresch. — Common in the sub-littoral zone throughout 
the region. 

Lithothamnion fasciculafum . Aresch. — Dredged in the Narrows off Campobello 
and off Grand Manan. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Pl.vte YIII. 

Fig. 1. Tide-pool on Short Bar, St. Andrews. 

" 2. Tidal creek, the habitat of Enteromorpha intestinalis. 
" 3. Specimen of Laminaria longicruris, Biological Station, St. Andrews. 
" 4. Si)ecimen of Alaria esculenta latifolia. 

" 5. Rocks, at about half -tide, St. Andrews, covered with Fv^us veslculosus and 
Ascophyllum nodosum. 



4 



I'LATK VIII. 




Fi'k5 LAM/NAff/A LOSG/CRURfS Fi^4ALAR/A ESCUIENTA LAT/FOUA 




F/^2 T/DAL CREEK-t^s h.ib,tst of F/A ^ .' 
-^ ENTEROMORPHA fNTEST/NAUS ' 'J ^ C 



.90 CHS 4BQUr MALF-nD£.5rANDR£W5. 
COVEff£D w/M FOCUS VESC/CULOSUS 
i.nd ASCOPHYLLUM NODOSUM 



38a— 6i 



86 iu:r\in \ii:\T or riii: vtrw. si:i:\iri-: 

7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 



ON SERIALLY STRIPED HADDOCK IN NEW BRUNSWICK. 

BY 

Professor EitWAiu) E. Piuxri;, LL.D., D.Sc. F.K.S.C, etc. 
Dominion ComniissioiK-r of Fisheries. Ottawa. 

(With one PhUe). 

Interestinji' striped specimens of the common haddock (Gadus aeglefinus) have 
been brought at times to the Athmtic Biolofrical Station, which are noteworthy on 
account of the contrast wliich they present to the usual type brought in by the fisher- 
men. They exhibit a series of broad bands and blotches of dark pigment on each side 
of the body, from the shoulder to the tail. The specimens do not seem to be by any 
means rare in Passamaquoddy bay, adjacent to St. Andrews, where the Biological 
Station is situated, and they are of some interest in themselves, and of wider interest 
in connection with the coloration of fishes, and of animals generally. 

The usual coloration of the haddock, to quote from Jordan and Evermann 
(1, page 2543) is "dark grey above, whitish below, lateral line black, a large blotch 
above the pectorals, dorsals and caudal dusky"; but the freshly-caught haddock 
exhibits other striking colour features. The dorsal surface is, indeed, usually of a 
metallic purplish hue, darkest in the upper portions, and becoming paler down the 
sides, where it merges in the pearly white colour of the throat and under-surface of 
the body. Immediately below the thin blackish lateral line a large sooty spot occurs, 
forming a prominent feature a little below the mid-portion of the high first dorsal fin 
(Plate IX., fig. 1). The bla<-k spot, variously called "Satan's thuinl)-mark." or "St. 
Peter's finger-mark," is about the size and shape of a large black thumb mark. In the 
drawings which illustrate this brief paper (Plate IX., figs. 2 and 3) it will be noticed 
that one specimen, fig. 2, shows no less than six "thumb marks," or dark blotchesy 
while the other (fig. 3) shows traces, more or less distinct, of four transverse stripes. 
The first specimen, measuring 11 in. (279 mm.) from snout to base of tail fin, i.e.. 
the tip of the caudal trunk; or 115 inches to the free hind-border of the tail fin, 
exhibited three very prominent ])igment patches, the most anterior being below the 
middle of the first dorsal fin. whose base measured l''ifi-inch, and this patch was 
9i(i-inch broad, and extended from the base of the fin above to the usual distance below 
the lateral line, terminating behind and above the pectoral fin. This i^atch appeared 
like the usual dark thumb-mark ; but a paler extension continued upward to the 
contour line of the dorsum. It was the most deeply tinted patch in the series, and 
especially dense below the lateral line. The next large patch occurred below the mid- 
portion of the second dorsal fin, more faintly coloured, and exactly ^ of an inch in 
breadth; the breadth of the fin above, along its base, being '2i inches. This second 
band passed down from the base of the fin to a considerable distance below the lateral 
line, indeed, down to a point within a quarter of an inch of the ventral contour line. 
The third large band, of a pale greyish tint, occurred between the mid-portion of the 
third dorsal fin (whose base is I'^ic-inch long) and extends to a little distance below the 
lateral line. It was 'Vic-inch in breadth. Between these three major transverse 
stripes or bands there appeared minor patches, the first being merely a rounded pale 
greyish sjwt, 'yid-inch a<'ross and occurring midway down the side of the body, a little 
distance below the curved lateral line, and above the position of the anus. The ne.xt 
miiKjr patch. a)so about ■''ii;-in<*li in dianu'tiT, occurred on the lateral line, partly above 



SERIALLY STKirED UADDOCK FN \E\V BRUNSWICK 87 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

and partly Ik'Iow, and midway botwoon tho dorsum and the anterior margin of tho 
second anal fin below. Some obscure pigment above the patch suggests that it was 
really an interrui)ted transverse band passing from the posterior eighth of the seconrl 
dorsal tin and extending, as just stated, to a point below the lateral line. Lastly, a 
third minor patch of blackish grey extending from the anterior margin of the uppKjr 
caudal fin lobe reached almost to the lateral line. It was a pale, irregular patch about 
:}-inch across. The three marked major stripes, and the three more obscure minor 
spots, formed a series of six dark patches from the shoulder to the tail. 

The second specimen (Fig. 3) was larger than the haddock just described, being 
If) in. long (406 mm.), inclusive of caudal fin. Exclusive of the tail-fin it measured 14 
in. (354 mm.), from tip of the snout to tip of caudal trunk. Along each side of 
the fish were four transverse bands or patches of dark pigment, the breadth of each 
being respectively, first stripe, ^^/'Ic-inch; second stripe, i-inch; third stripe, i-inch; and 
the fourth stripe or patch, jj-inch. The length of the ba.se of each of the three dorsal 
fins was, respectively, 2.}-inch, 2i-inch, and 2j-inch. The first dark patch extended 
from the middle of the base of the first dorsal fin to the lateral line, and spread down- 
wards to a point midway between the lateral line and the ventral contour of the fish. 
The second patch, extending from the middle of the base of the second dorsal fin almost 
to the anterior edge, vras very pale, and passed over the lateral line to a point midway 
between that line and the anus. Both these bands or patches were darker below the 
lateral line than above it, and the first band was very dark in its lower portion. The 
third band, extending over the anterior half of the base of the third dorsal fin, passed 
downward as a tongue-shaped patch to the lateral line, and just beyond it, while the 
fourth band appeared simply as a rounded indefinite blotch, in front of the dorsal 
portion of the caudal fin, and passing barely to the lateral line. In this haddock three 
of the four bands clearly correspond to the three major patches in the first specimen, 
and in position and shape each series closely resembled the other, while the last patch 
on the dorsal portion of the caudal trunk in each also showed close resemblance; but 
the two extra minor blotches in the first specimen did not seem to be represented in 
the second. It is interesting to recall the fact that a closely related species, the 
European bib or pout (Gadus luscus) frequently exhibits cross band's along the sides, 
in addition to " a black axillary spot behind the base of the pectoral fin," according to 
Dr. Gunther (2, p. 541). Dr. H. C. Williamson, in his masterly and thorough paper 
on the specific characters of G. luscus and other Gadoids (8, p. 137), states that tho 
axillary mark "is a large blue-black patch covering the sides of the axilla, and extend- 
ing out on the clavicle and over the base of the pectoral fin," and it is present in 
G. minutus and G. esmarhii, but is much more limited in area. 

Professor W. C. Mcintosh gave an interesting account, seven or eight years ago, 
of some young specimens of the European bib, Gadus luscus, showing bold transverse 
bars of pigment (3, pp. 153-154) ; but he pointed out that specimens captured in the 
nets of the shrimp-trawlers, at the mouth of the Thames, were not banded, and he 
referred to the view of Couch and Malm that the striped condition is an occasional 
occurrence only. Professor Mcintosh's small barred specimen was only about 2% 
inches (70 mm.) long, and was obtained on April 3, 1908, at St. Andrews, Scotland. 
The fish w^as of a reddish brown colour on the sides, variegated by four well-marked 
broad black bands (Plate IX., fig. 4). A broad stripe passed from the dorsum, between 
the first and second dorsal fin, down the side to the ventral border; while the second 
band, darker and more definite, extending from the last third of the second dorsal fin 
to tho base of the third dorsal fin, passed diagonally down to the posterior part of the 
base of the first anal fin. The last stripe covered the side of the caudal trunk from a 
line drawn to the hind margin of the second anal, from the hind margin of the third 
dorsal fin. On the top of the head occurred a large dark patch, and the dorsal and 
ventral edges of the body showed much black pigment ; and black spots occurred in the 
dorso-lateral region, and minute specks upon the fins. An upper opercular patch, and 



88 hi.i'Mn MKST or Tin: ^\ AVAL service 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

;i pntcli ;\f tin- l);is(^ of thi^ ]»<^cti>r;i] tin also wore fli scorn il)lo. Similarly four dark 
stripi-s wvTo ohsorvod in a larfror spocinion of Gadiis Iiiftcus (19;» mm.) 7§ inches long, 
doscribod by Professor ^[cTntosh. The first stripe occurred in the shoulder region, 
passing from the front of the first dorsal fin. and iiiclndiiifr its anterior third, and 
<^xtending to the pectoral fin. The .second stripe passed ventrally from a point anterior 
to the middle of the base of the second dorsal fin, while the third stripe, or belt, spread 
diagonally downward from the posterior third of the second dorsal fin to the ventral 
border of the turnk. Oidy traces were discernible of the fourth patch or stripe, on 
the surface of the caudal tnmk near the base of the tail. 

What is the meaning of this phenomenon? How can the occasional appearance of 
definite serial stripes or patches be accounted for, in species of fish and other animals 
in which normally they are absent? It would be interesting to trace out embryo- 
logically the development of a banded or barred arrangement in the external coloration 
of fishes, and to point out examples, discovered in recent years, of larval and post- 
larval arrangements of pigment in the integument; but in this paper the attempt will 
not be made, and a few salient points alone will be set forth. Most people familiar 
with our common food fishes have asked the question, "What is the explanation of the 
black thumb-mark on the shoulder of the haddock ?" Why do not closely related fishes 
such as the cod, pollock, and other species, exhibit similar dark patches or spots? The 
English whiting {Gadus merlangus) does show a patch of black at the base of tho 
pectoral fin or rather in the axil of the fin, and the post-larval stage li-inch (28 mm.) 
long, shows thirteen or more spots or partial stripes of black along the dorsum, as 
Professor Mcintosh has described and figured, 4, p. 17, vide Plate IX., fig. 5. Dr. 
Gimther pointed out (2, p. 540) that in Greenland, Iceland, and N^orthern Scandinavia, 
the common cod exhibits a large irregular blotch of black pigment on the side ; but the 
absence of striking dark patches in species closely related, as just stated, can only be 
explained on the grouiid that such stripes are of little utility, and that a barred 
coloration is not essential to the welfare of the fish. There are many living creatures 
to which a patched or banded condition appears to be of vital importance. Spots and 
stripes have been proved to be of value for protective purposes, especially for conceal- 
ment, but such purposes cannot be served by the presence of dark bands along the body 
in the haddock or bib, and any key to the origin and meaning of such coloration must 
be sought more remotely. There can be little doubt that the significance of these serial 
stripes is ancestral. Beddard called attention to the fact (6, p. 19) that among 
segmented creatures, like worms, caterpillars, etc., we filnd a pattern of coloration con- 
forming exactly to the segmentation of the body. Rings of colour correspond to the 
rings of the body. Now, in their earliest larval condition young fishes have a long 
cylindrical body, like a worm or eel, and it shows division into segments or serial body- 
rings, called metameres. May it not be the case that the bars or serial patches of 
colour primitively correspond to the muscle-segments, the myotomes or metameres?* 
If a segmented body be typical of the ancestral form of animals, there is strong pre- 
sumption that repeated spots and stripes along the surface of the body may be ancestral 
also. As I ventured to point out in a paper on this subject of "Animal Coloration" 
(7, pp. 154-155) : "In some flat fishes the bars along the sides of the body divide into 
spots or large patches, four rows of them, and still preserving their metameric or serial 
succession from the head to the tail. Thus from successive cross-stripes the spots 
arise, and these surface arrangements of colour continue long after the internal organs, 
the muscles, etc., have wholly altered their original anatomical arrangement. Further, 
the successive series of spots may unite later as longitudinal stripes, and such stripes 
we find in the post-larval ling (Molva)." We have thus a key to the arrangement of 



•The late Professor J. A. Ryder said (Embryography of Osseous Fishes, U.S. Fish Comm. 
Rep. 1882, Washingrton, 1884, p. 502) : "The pigment cells are stellate, and exhibit a slow 
amoeboid or migratory movement as development proceeds, becoming aggregated at a later 
period by this means into patches upon definite regions of the body." 



SERIALLY STRIPED HAD DOCK IN NEW BRUNSWICK 89 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

colour in a vast number of animals. Professor Mcintosh's description of the young 
cod is interesting: "The minute larval cod escapes from the egg," says that authority, 
"marked by a series of transverse bars, then the black pigment is re-arrangod longi- 
tudinally along the dorsum as it swims high in the water. To this is added, by and by, 
yellow pigment, causing (with the black) a greenish hue. When it seeks the rocky 

margins it becomes boldly tessellated the larval haddock has no transverse bars, 

though bred side by side with the cod; but the dorsal band of black ijigment ia 
developed in the next stage (post-larval). Instead of seeking the shore the little 
haddock keeps to deep water, and it soon develops the characteristic bold touches of 
black on the sides above the pectoral region." (5, p. 237.) 

But the presence of stripes or transverse bars of colour is not confined to pelagic 
larval fishes out in the open sea, like cod, etc., for even familiar shore fishes in their 
young stages often show this striking arrangement of pigment. Thus I find in the 
common cunner, or sea perch (Tautogolahrus adspersus) so abundant along our eastern 
shores, the young forms exhibit the transverse bars, eight or nine dark ochre bands 
richly spotted with black dots, extending from the head region to the base of the tail, 
when the fish is barely half-an-inch long (13.5 mm.). See Plate IX., fig. 8. The 
young salmon of the Pacific and Atlantic rivers, as is well known, show definite stripes. 
The young- sockeye or red salmon, Oncorliynchus nerka, seven months old, shows eleven 
to twelve bars, and the Atlantic salmon parr, Salmo solar, shows nine or ten such bars 
or stripes. (Plate IX., figs. 6 and 7). The pigment spots, of which these coloured 
bands and patches are composed, are rounded particles of naked protoplasm, packed 
with coloured granules and capable of contracting and expanding in stellate form. 
The centre or nucleus is often more deeply coloured than the rest of the corpuscle. A 
group of such pigment corpuscles or cells from the skin of a young fish J of an inch 
long (a larval Gastrosteus aculeahis 8-9 mm.) are shown on Plate IX., fig. 9. These 
coloured particles move with such facility under the influence of light or electrical, 
chemical and nervous stimuli, that the arrangements of colour may undergo very rapid 
changes. The tranformation of spots into bars, by serial aggregation, or the separation 
of transverse stripes into separate rounded patches, can be readily understood. But the 
most interesting point that arises in connection with these striped haddocks is this, 
that they demonstrate the resumption at times of an arrangement of colour, which 
must have ancestrally applied to the species as a whole; but now appears only errati- 
cally and locally. The causes of such ancestral reminiscence are obscure and little 
understood. Ancestral traits, long lost, even amongst human beings, occasionally 
reappear, and amongst such fishes as the haddock, an ancestral, long-lost arrangement 
of external coloration is revived at times, and may even become marked as a not 
infrequent local variation as in the striped Passamaquoddy haddocks. 

The black stripes have disappeared altogether in the adult cod; but a remnant 
persists in the ordinary haddock as a black blotch in the shoulder region, the dark 
"thumb-mark." Such blotches or thumb-marks, when repeated serially, must be 
regarded therefore as atavistic, a reappearance of an ancestral trait or feature, which 
in most specimens has practically disappeared. 



90 



in.i'Mn MUST OF Tin: ami/, skuvki-: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



LITKKATri;!-: IIKFERRED TO. 



Starr Jordan and Evcrmann — Fishes of Xortli and Middle Ani(ri<'a. Wasliiii^- 
ton. ISiM). 

A. (luntlier — Iiitrndnrtion to the Study of Fishes. 

W. ('arrniohael Mcintosh — Notes from (iatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, 
Scotland, No. xxxi. Ann. Mapr. of Nat. Hist., February, 1909. 

W. V. McTnto.>^h — 'Life Ili.storv of a Marine Food Fish. Royal InHtitntinn lec- 
ture. February 1, lss!>. Ixindon. 

W. C AIcLitosh — Coloration of Marine Animals. Introductory univcr-itv 
lecture. Ann. Xat. Hist., Vol. VI L, 1901. 

F. E. Beddard — Animal Coloration. Swan, Sonnenschein, London, 1892. 

Edward E. Prince — Colours of Animals (Toronto Univ. Lect.), Ottawa Xatur- 
alist. Vol. XX., 1906. 

H. C. Williamson — Specific Characters of Gadus luscus, etc. 24th Ann. Rep. 
Scott. Fish Board, 1905, Part III. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 



Pl.\te IX. 

Fijr. 1. Haddock, Gadus aeglefitxus, showing: usual "thumb-mark." 

2. Haddock, Gadus aeglefinus (n-j-inch lone), with six transverse bars or 
thumb-marks. 

3. Haddock, Gadus aeglefinus (l.j-inch long), with four transverse bars or 
thumb-marks. 

4. European Bib, Gadus luscus (2%-inch long), with four transverse bars, 
after W. C. Mcintosh. 

5. European Whiting, G. merlangus (1^-inch long), with tliirtee!i partial 
bars. 

6. Atlantic Salmon parr, Salmo salar, with nine lateral patches enlarged 
one-third. 

7. Pacific Sockeye salmon parr, Oncorhynchus nerka. eight months <h], witli 
12 or 14 lateral patches, somewhat enlarged. 

8. Gunner or Sea Perch, Tautogolahrus adspersus (4-inch long), with nine 
lateral bars. 

9. Black Chromatophores or pigment spots in the skin of the Stickleback 
(G. aculeatus).X 250. 



Platk IX. 










■ 4v 



PHYTO-PLANKTON OF BAY OF FUND7 93 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 



NOTES ON THE PHYTO-PLANKTON OF THE BAY OF FUNDY AND 
PASSAMAQUODDY BAY. 



By L. W. Bailky, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., F.K.S.C., Emeritus Professor of Natural 
History in the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B. 

In previous publications relating to the Diatoms of New Brunswick and Prince 
Edward Island, fairly complete lists of these, as found at a series of localities along 
the Atlantic coast, have been given, but no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between littoral or neritic and deeper water or planktonic forms, or to show the rela- 
tions of either of these to differences of season and environment. Yet it is obvious 
that, as with other plants, such varying relationships do exist, and as their varying 
abundance must directly affect the food supply of the different animals, such as young 
fishes, oysters, etc., which feed upon them, as complete a knowledge as possible upon 
these points is highly desirable. 

The present notes are intended mainly to apply to the Phyto-Plankton of the bay 
of Fundy and Passamaquoddy bay, though occasional references are made to points 
on the north shore of New Brunswick and to Prince Edward Island. Moreover, as 
the line between planktonic and non-planktonic forms is ill-defined, species ordinarily 
regarded as neritic are not unfrequently met with far from shore, and may even con- 
stitute a considerable part of any planktonic gathering. In the following pages, lists 
of such gatherings from numerous localities are given for the various months of the 
year, excepting December, for which latter month no data are yet available. 

I. SEASONAL AND DISTEIBUTIONAL VAKIATIONS IN THE 
PHYTO-PLANKTON. 

(a) January. 

The following records were made during this month: — 
Biological Station, January 1. 

Chrftuceras decipiens, Cleve. Abundant. 

Biddulphia aurita, Breb. 

C oscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 

A fine Radiolarian {Actinophrysl) . 

Chance Harbour, January 12. 

Diatoms few, mainly — 

C oscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 
Actinoptychus undulatus, Kutz. 
Chn'toceras decipiens (few). 
Biddulphia Mobilensis, Bailey. 

Bald Head, January 15. 

Biddulphia Mobilensis, B;\il.^=Z?. Baileyi, Sm. 

C oscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 

Chwioceras decipiens, Cleve. = Ch. sociale. Land. 

SJceletonema costatum, Grev. 

Fragillaria. 



94 Itl.I'MriMh.M or Tin: \\\m. sinniCE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Wilson's Beaeli. Jaimary Itl. 

Bifid 111 pliia Mohilensifi, Hail. 
Cosrinodisriis eccentt'irus, Ehr. ('oinnuiii. 
liliizosolenia setigera, Br. 

Friar's Ray, CampobcUo. .Iniiuary 20. 

Diatoms few. 

Ch(ptoceras decipiena, Cleve. 

Head Harbour, Campobello, January 27. 
Biddulphia Mohilensis, Bail. 
Coscinodiscn^ eccentricus, Ehr. 

" concinnus, W. Sm. 

Chcpioceras decipiens, Cleve. 

" horeale. Bail. Rare. 

Rhizosolenia setigera, Br. 

St. John Harbour, January 27. 
Diatoms few. 

Biddulphia Mohileiisis, Bail. 
Actinoptychus undulatus, Kutz. 
Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 
Paralia sulcata. 
Rhizosolenia setigera, Br. 

Seely's Cove, January 31. 

Biddulphia Mohilensis, Bail. 
Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Ehr. 

" concinnus, W.S. 

Choetoceras decipiens. Rare. 
Rhizosolenia setigera, Br. 

Friar's Bay, Campobello, January 30. 

Cocconeis scutellum, Ehr. In clusters on alga'. Abundant. 

!Letite. 

Thalassiosira sociale. One specimen only. 

Lepreau, January 29. Water temperature, 33° F. 
Biddulphia Mohilensis, Bail. 
, Pleurosigma formosum, W.S. 

ih) February. 

The Plankton during this month is much richer, both in number and variety, 
chan that of the preceding month. The following observations have been made: — 

St. Andrews Harbour, February 19. 
Choetoceras decipiens, Cleve. 

" sociale. 

Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 
" radiatus, Oruii. 

" asteromphalus, Ehr. 

■' concinnus, W.S. 

Biddulphia aurita, Breb. 
" pulchella, Gr. 



I'liyro-I'l. \\ KT(>\ OF lt.\Y OF Ft ShY 95 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

Mido.sira fnih/lexilis, Kutz. 
Pleurosigma decorum, Sm. 

'^ fonnosum, W.S. 

strigo.sum (?) W.S. 
Rhizosolenia setigera, Br. 
Paralia sulcata. 
Skeletonema costatum, Grcv. 
Thalassiosira Nordensl-ioldii, Cleve. 

Biological Station, St. Andrews, February 27. 
Biddulphia aurita, Breb. 
Actinoptychus undulatus, Elir. 
Ch'a'toceras sociale. Land. 

V decipiens, CI. 

Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 
Grammatopliora marina, Kutz. 
Pleurosigma fasciola, Sm. 

" decorum. 

Thalassiosira N ordenslnoldii, Cleve. 
Thalassiothrix. 
Rhizosolenia setigera, Br. 

Manawagonish, St. John County, N.B., February 5. 

Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 
Ditylum Briglitwellii, Grun. 
Rhizosolenia setigera, Br. 
Skeletonema costatum, Grev. 
Thalassiosira nitsch ioides. 

St. John, Reversing Falls. February 14. Temperature, 32° F. 
Actinoptychus undulatus, Ehr. 
Biddulphia Mohilensis, Bail. 
Coscinodiscus aster omphalus, Ehr. 
" eccentricus, Ehr. 

" radiatus, Ehr. 

Melosira suhflexilis, Kutz. 
Pleurosigma formosum. 

" fasciola. W.S. 



((■) March. 



St. Andrews, N.B., West Light, March 17. 

Chfrtoceras decipiens, Cleve. 

" sociale. 

Coscinodiscus concinnus, W.S., with chromatophores. 
Biddulphia aurita, Breb. 
Pleurosigma. 
Thalassiosira Xordofsl-ioldii. Cleve. 

Joe's Point. 

Biddulphia aurita, Breb. 

" pulchella. 

Cluvtoceras decipiens, Cleve. 



96 liKI'Ah'TMKM OF THE .V.tV.lL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Coscinodi.sriis astcromphnlus, Elir. 

" conclnvus, W.S. 

'' radiatus, Grun. 

Melosira suhflcxilis, Kutz. 
tiliizosolenia setigera,, Br. 

D..ucett's (Dochet) Island. :Marcli 27. 

Chcctoceras decipiens, CI. 

" sociale. 

Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Elir. 
Biddulphia pulchella. 

" aurita, Breb. 

Plenrosigma. 
Thalassiosira XordenskioJdii, CI. 

St. Croix Eiver, at mouth, ]\rarch 28. 
Diatoms abundant. 
Biddulphia aurita, Breb. Common. 

'"' pulchella, Gray. Common. 

Chcetoceras decipiens, CI. 
Coscinodiscus concinnus. W.S. Common. 

" aster omphalus, Ehr. Common. 

" radiatus, Grun. Rare. 

Fragillaria capucina, Desm. 
Melosira varians, Ag. 
Bhizosolenia setigera^ Br. 
Thalassiosira Nordenshioldii, CI. 

Doucett's (Dochet) Ishuid, :Mareh 27. 
Choetoceras decipiens, CI. 

sociale. 
Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 
Biddulphia pulchella, Gray. 

" aurita, Breb. 

Pleiirosigma. 
Thalassiosira Nordenshioldii, Clove. 

St. Andrews Harbour, March 4. 
Biddulphia aurita, Breb. 
Chcetoceras decipiens, CI. 
" sociale, Land. 

Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Ehr. 
Melosira Jerghensii, Ag. 
Pleurosigma. 

Letite, l^farch 28. 

Biddulphia aurita, Brcl). Common. 

" pulchella, Gray. Abundant. 

Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Ehr. Comniou. 

" concinnus, W.S. Common. 

Cho'toceras decipiens, CI. Common. 
" horeale. Bail. Bare. 



rilYTO-l'LANKTOX OF BAT OF FU\J)T 97 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

id) April. 

St. Andrews, April 19. 

Biddulphia aurita, Breb. 

'• pulchella. Gray. 

Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 

*' concinnus, W.S. 

Chcctoceras decipiens, CI. 

" sociale, Land. 

Fragillaria capucina. 
Thalassiosira Xordenshioldii, CI. 

St. Andrews, April 9. 

Actinoptychus undulatus, Ehr. 
Chcctoceras decipiens, CI. Few. 
Biddulphia awita, Breb. 
Coscinodiscus eccentricuSj Ehr. 
Ditylum Brighiwcllii, Grun. 
Nitschia sigmoidea, W.S. 

" closterium. 
Melosira Jerghensii, Kg. 
Pleurosigma fasciola, W.S. 

" intermedium, and others. 

St. Andrews Harbour, April 17. 

Biddulphia aurita, Breb. Abundant. 

Chcetoceras decipiens, Cleve. 

Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Ehr., with Chromatophores. 

TJmlassiosira N ordenskioldii. Two varieties. Very abundant. 

Similar forms are met with at Navy island. Little Douchet islands. Mill Cove, 
Eastport, Campobello, and other points. 

(e) May. 

Kobbinston, Me., in the waters opposite the Biological Station, St. Andrews. 
N.B., May 23 and 25. 

Biddulphia pulchella. Gray. 
Chcetoceras decipiens, CI. 
Coscinodiscus concinnus, Sm. 
Fragillaria capucina, Desm. 
Pleurosigma decorum. Rare. 

(dndt). 
Rhizosolenia setigera, Br. 
Thalassiosira N ordenslcioldii, CI. Common. 

\f) June. 

West Quoddy, June 17. 

Actinoptychus undulatus, Kutz. 
Coscinodiscus. Rare. 
Cocconeis scutellum, Ehr. 
Gomphonema marinum. 
Grammatophora serpentina, Ehr. 

" marina, Kutz. Common in chains. 

Navicula. 

Pleurosigma fasciola, W.S. 
JRliahdonema arcuatum, Kutz. 



98 



iu:i'Airr.Mi:\T or tin-: xaval service 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Biolofrical Station, Juno 2X. 

Aciinopti/rhus uudulaiu.s, Kut/. 
Bidduljtliia aurita, lireb. 
Coscinodiscus eccentrirus, Klir. 
^fclosil^a Jerghensii, Ag. 
Narirula dLitanft. 

viridis, ICutz. 
Pleurosigma llnllicHin . W.S. 

" fasriola, W.S. 

Tahellaria. 
Stephanopyxis. 
Nitschia closienum. W.S. 

" vermicular is, Grun. 
Rhahdonema arcuatum, Kutz. 

{g) July. 

St. Andrews, N.B., near Indian Point. July 7. 
Biddulphia aurita, Breb. 
Cha'toceras. 
Coscinodiscus. 
Navicula. 

Pleurosigma strigosum ( ?). 
Nitschia sigma, Sm. 
Ehahdonema arcuatum, Kutz. 
Synedra. 

Some Protozoans wore found and detorminod in tliis July oollcotion, viz. 
Tintinnopsis. Common. 
Amphorella suhulata. 
Rotalia. 
Discorhina. 
Spirillina (?). 
Distephanus speculum. 

Eastport, Me., July 29. 

Skeletonema costatum, Grev. 
Actinoptyclius undulatus, Ehr. 
Amphiprora alata, Kutz. 
TJialassiosira Xordenskioldii, Clevo. 
Cha'toceras decipiens, CI. 

" sociale. Land. 

Coscinodisus aster omphaliis, Ehr. 

" concinnus, S.M. 

" eccentricus, Ehr. 

(/() August. 

Friar's Bay, Campobello, August 1. 
Fragillaria capucina, De?m. 
Cha'toceras decipiens, CI. 

" crinituni. Sohutt. 

Nitschia seriata, CI. 
lihoicosph renin curvata. Grun. 
Khizosolenia setigera, Br. 
Sl-eletonema costatum, Grov. Bare. 



PHYTO-I'LAyKTOX OF HAY OF FUNDY 99 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 
Eastport, August. 

Coscinodiscus astcroinphalus, Elir. 

concinnus, W.S. : 

Isllomia nervosa. Kare. 
Grammatophora serpentina, Elir. 

West Quoddy. 

Actinoptychns iindidalus, Elir. 

Fragillaria. 

Cyclotella. 

Grammatophora marina, Kutz. 

" serpentina, Elir. 

Chamcook Harbour. 

Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Ehr. Conimou. 
'■ concinnus, W.S. Common. 

White Horse. 

Coscinodiscus ecccntricus, Ehr. Common. 

" asteromp/ialus, Ehr. Connnon. 

St. Martins, August, 1910. 
Amphora. 

Amphiprora alata, Kutz. 
Amphipleura sigmoidea, W.S. 
Actinoptychns undulatus, Kutz. 
Coscinodiscus ecccntricus, Ehr. 
Grammatophora marina, Kutz. 
Melosira nummuloides, Ag. 

" Jerghensii, Ag. 
Navicula Smithi, Breb. 

" didyma, Kutz. 

" rhyncocephala, Kutz. 

" distans. 
Nitscliia sigma, W.S. 

" sigmoidea, W.S. 

" dubia. 

" vermicidarls, llautz. 
Pleurosigma ohscurum, W.S. 
Plagiotropis vitrea, Grun. 
Rhahdonema arcuatum, K. 
Stauroneis salina, W.S. 
Surirella striata. 

" avails, Breb. 

" constricta. 

" Molleriana (?) Grun. 
Synedra gracilis. 

" radians, W.S. 
Triceratium alternans. Bail. 
Tryhlionella. 

L'Etang Harbour, August 10. 

Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Ehr. Very abundant. 

Biddulphia MoMlensis, Bailey. 

Cha;toceras. 

38a— T 



100 ni:f'AHT.Mt:\T or riii: \\val skrmce 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Cocconeis scutcllum , Klir. Iiiirr. 

" placentula, Khr. 

GramtHalophora serpentina, Klir. 
Paralia (Mrlosira) sulcata. 
Nitschia sir/ma, W,S. 
Rhizosolenia seiiffera. Br. 
Flexirosigma fascioJa, Sni. 

" form OS um, W.S. 

Sheletonema costatum, Grev. 
Thalassiosira N ordenslcioldii, Clovo. 

Deadman's Harbour, August 10. 
Cho'toceras. Common. 
Ditylum BriglitiveUii, Gruii. Common. 
Asterionella. Very rare. 
Rliizosolenm sctigera, Br. 
Sheletonema costata. Common. 
Thalassiosira XorclensLioldii, CI. 

Tynemouth Creek, 8t. John County, X.B., August. 

Cha'toceras. 

Biddulphia Mohilensis (= B. Baihiji), in great numbers, making up tht 

larger part of the planlvton. 
C oscinodiscus asteromphahis, Ehr. 

" radiatus, Ehr. 

Doryphora amphiceros, Kutz. (= Raphonei-s). 
Pleurosigma Balticum, Sm. 
Actinoptychus undulatus. 
Rhizosolenia setigera. 
Navicula didyma. 

Xarrows of St. John River, Xew Brunswick, August 10. 
Actinoptychus undulatus , Ehr. 
Asterionella. 

Amphiprora ornaia. Bail. 
Bacillaria paradora, Gmel. 
C oscinodiscus minor, Ehr. 
Doryphora Boeclii. W.S. 
(iomphonema. 

Campylodiscus crihrosus, W.S. 
Cocconeis scutellum, Ehr. 
Melosira nummulo ides. 

'' suhfle.rilis. 

Xavicula elliptica, K. 

" viridis. Kg. 

" oralis, W.S. 

Ph'U70sigma. 
Synedra salina, W.S. 
Surirella striatula. Tin')). 
Tahellaria jenestratn, Kutz. 
Tryhlionclla. 

Hhoirosphenia currata, CJnni. 
Homn'cladia sigmoidea, W.S. 
Zygoceros (Biddulphia) Mohilensis, Bail. 
Isihmia enervis, Ehr. 



J'llYTit-rL.WKTOX OF JiA) or I'USHY ^^^^ 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

St. Joliii ]rnrl)()ur and Docks, August. 
A ctinoptycJniN undulatus. 
AmpJtiprora (data. 
Acnanthvs lonyipes. 

suhsessilis, 
Bacillaria parado.ra. 
Biddidpliia aurita. Common. 
Cocconeis scutellum. 
pediculus. 
Coscinodiscus radmtus. 
minor, 
eccentricus. 
Cocconema cistula. 
Cyclotella striata. 
Gomphonema geminatum. 
Melosira nummuloides. 
Jerghensii. 
varians. 
Navicula didyma. 
maculata. 
" ovalis. 
" distans. 
Nitschia closterium. 
sigmoidea. 
vermicxdaris, Hantz. 
Orthosira marina. 
Pleurosigma fasciola. 
Bhahdonema arcnatum. 
minutum. 
SurireUa gemma. 
Tryhlionella gracilis. 
Triceratium aliernans. 
Baphoneis (Doryphora) BoecVii. 
amphiceros. 

(i) Srptemher. 

" PRINCE " COLLECTION. 

September S. Station IT, Yarmouth ITarbour: 7 fathoms. 
Diatoms almost wanting in the plankton. 

Sl-eletonema. Abundant. 

Mitschia seriata. "Rare. 

Coscinodiscus, with bright green chroma tophores. 

September 19. Station 20, Bay of Fundy, off St. John Harbour. 
Diatoms few. Copepods abundant. 

September 20. Station 21. Kennebccasis Bay, at east end of Long Island. 
Copepods only. 

.38a— 7i 



102 DEl'ARTMKyr OF THE SWAL >iERVlCE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

September 21. Station -li, St. .Inlm Kivrr. mar mouth of Kennebecasis River, 
Mclosira suhficxilis. 
Thalassionema. 

September 21. Station 20, IJay <>f I'uiidy. between St. Jolm and Digby, N.S. 
Melosira subflej-iha, in numerous chains and the only Diatom present 
excepting Bkldulphia Moliilrnsis. rare. Copepods abundant. 

September 22. Station 20, Annapoli- Ila-iii. alx.vc Annapolis. 
A few Coscinodisci occurred. 

September 23. Station 21, Bay of Fundy, between St. John and Digby. 
No diatoms. Copepods only. 

September 23. Station 25, Bay of Fundy, off Digby Gut. 
No diatoms. 

September 25. Station 26, Basin in river inside Annapolis Eoyal. 

Ehizosolenia setigera abundant in fine groups. Copepods abundant. 

September 26. Station 27, Annapolis River, near Goat Island. 

Rhizosolenia setigera abundant, but no other diatoms present. 

September 27. Station 28, lower end of Annapolis Basin. 
Coscinodiscv^. 
Rhizosolenia setigera, with spear-like terminal spine. 

(;') October. 

October 3. Station 4, Passamaquoddy Bay. 

Great quantities of Sy7iedra-\ike cylinders dotted on margins. Supposed 
to be a variety of Thalassionema. Other forms wanting. 

October 9. Station 6, St Croix River between the Biological Station and 
Robbinston, Me. 
Same as Station 4. 

October 16. Station 10, Eastern Entrance to St. Andrews Harbour. 
Ditylum. Abundant, with chromatophores. 
Chcctoceras decipiens. 
Coscinodiscus eccentricus. Rare. 
Rhizosolenia setigera. 

October 2. Station 6, St. Croix River. 
Coscinodiscus asteromphalus. 

" radiatus. 

Ditylum. Rare. 
Thalassionema (?). 

October 19. Station 19, St. John Harbour. 
'Biddulphia Mohilensis, in chains. 
C oscinodl<iCUS. Rare. 
Rh izosolenia setigera. 



PlirTO-l'I.WKTOX OF n.-W OF FVSDY -fOS 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

OotolxT ?,. Stntioii 0, OH' Ci-iiihI ^raIlan. 
Coscinodisrus errentrictifi. 
Cha'focerafi deciincna. Rare. 
Diiylvm. Common. 
Rhizosolenia seiigera. Common. 
Thalassionema (?). Very abundant. 
Copepods few. 

October 9. Station 10, St. Andrews Harbour. 

Principally Thalassionema. Abundant. 

Chwtoceras decipiens. 

Ditylum. With fringed extremities. Rare. 

Rhizosolenia seiigera. 

Copepods few. 

October 27. Station 25, Bay of Fundy. oif Digby Gut. 
Chcetoceras decipiens. 
Thalassionema. Abundant. 
Copepods, etc. Abundant. 



II. NOTES ox THE MORE CHAR.\CTERISTIC GENERA. 

Acnanthes. — Though the species of this genus are usually attached by a stipe, and 
therefore not strictly planktonic, they are still not unfrequently found as isolated 
frustules or small chains in planktonic gatherings. The most common species is 
A. suhsessilis, found along with A. longipes in St. John harbour in August, and near 
Grand Manan, also in Passamaquoddy bay and the St. Croix river. The genus is more 
common on the north shore of ^N'ew Brunswick. 

Actinoptychus. — Like most genera of circular form, this genus is free-floating, 
and though nowhere very abundant, is widely distributed. The only species is 
.4. undulatus. It was found in Chance harbour, in January; at the Biological Station, 
February 19, in the reversing Falls, St. John, February 14, near St. Andrews, April 9, 
West Quoddy, June 17, Biological Station, June 28, West Quoddy, August 1, St. 
Martin's bay, August, iSTarrows of St. John river, August 10, but was not observed in 
any of the samples of the " Prince " collection in September and October. No marked 
differences except as regards these latter months as to relative numbers have been 
observed, either as regards distribution or season. 

Amphiprora. — The members of this beautiful genus occur but sparingly in the 
plankton ; but owing to their delicacy and transparency, the result of imperfect silieiii- 
cation, are apt to be overlooked.. Amphiprora alata, the most common form, was 
found at Eastport, July 29, St. John harbour and St. Martins in August; but was rare 
at both. The very beautiful but rare Amp. ornata was obtained, but one specimen only, 
in the Narrows of the St. John river, August 10. 

Asterionella. — This is a tj^pically planktonic genus, common in the plankton of 
Europe, as well as America, but is very rare in that of New Brunswick. A species, 
doubtfully referred to As. Berkeleyi, has been found in considerable numbers at some 
stations in the Bay of Fundy. 

Biddulphia. — This is a very characteristic plankton genus, the attachment of the 
frustule to form chains of considerable length adapting its members readily to flotation. 



104 hHIWUTMl.M or TIIK SWAL SKKVICE 

7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 

Of its species the ino^t i.'oninKni is />'. niirita. found on almost all gatherings, and at 
almost every season. It oeeiirs in .Ianuar>- at the Biologi(;al Station; at St. Andrews, 
again in February; in March and April at various stations on the St. Croi.K river and 
Passamaquoddy bay, as also in June and July. It is common in the waters of St. 
John harbour in August, and probably occurs, though not yet recordecl, in the later 
months. No examples were noted in the " Prince " series. The much larger species 
B. Mohtlensis (=B. Baileyi) was found at Chance harbour, Bald Head, Campo Bello, 
St. John harbour, Seely's Cove, and Lepreau, at different dates in January (the water 
temperature being 33° F.). and on February 14 at the Reversing Falls, St. John. It 
was not observed during the summer months about Passamaquoddy bay. but at Tyne- 
mouth creek, in St. John county, in August, it was so abundant as to make up the bulk 
of the plankton, and on September 27, it was found but rarely in the Bay of Fundy 
between St. John and Digby Gut. It would appear to be more common in deep water, 
and is one of the species quoted as being characteristic of the European plankton. 

B. pulchella was found in St. Andrews harbour, February 19, and again March 17, and 
April 10, but it is very rare. 

Chaetoceras. — This is the most typical, as it is also the most common and wide- 
spread of all the genera which distinguish the Phyto-plankton. Of the several species 
represented, by far the most common, both as to numbers, time, and place, is 

C. decipiens usually easily recognized by the narrow slit-like form of the inter-cellular 
spaces. It was abundant on January 1, at the Biological Station, and throughout the 
month at other points about Passamaquoddy bay, accompanied, though much less 
abundantly, by the C. sociale. Both of these species, but with the same difference in 
relative numbers, were found through February in St. Andrews harbour, and again in 
March, extending up the St. Croix river to and above Doucett's island. Both species 
were similarly found all through April and May but became less common in June, and 
still less, in the latter months, though both were found at Eastport July 21), and Campo- 
belle August 1. No specimens were found in the August plankton of St. Martin's or 
St. John, though found during this month in collections from L'Etang and Ueadmau's 
harbour. In the " Prince " series the only records of this genus are Chaetoceras 
decipiens at the eastern entrance of St. Andrew's harbour October 16, and the same 
species at Grand Manan, but rarely, on October 3 and 27. 

Coscinodiscus. — This genus is almost invariably present in the marine plankton, 
and sometimes to the exclusion of almost everything else. The most common species 
is C. asterompJialus, Ehr., easily distinguished by the conspicuous central rosette of 
cells; and C. concinnus, remarkable for its large size, fine radial sculpture, and short 
marginal stria;. Both species were found at Campo Bello and Seely's Cove in 
January; but not commonly. Both again were obtained in St. Andrews harbour, 
February 19 and March 38, and were abundant at La Tete, March 28. They were 
common in April in St. Andrews, as also in succeeding months at many different 
stations both in Passamaquoddy bay and the bay of Fundy. In almost all instances 
they were accompanied by the much smaller species C. eccentricus and less frequently 
by C. radiatus. 

Ditylum. — This genus, though frequently, and sometimes abundantly represented 
in the plankton of the bay of Fundy and Passamaquoddy bay, is one as to w-hose 
relationships much doubt still exists. First named iind described by the flate 
Professor J. \V. Bailey of West Point, N.Y., it was subse<]uently referred, by 
West and others, to Triceratium, while this latter genus was itself later referred to 
Biddidphia. Except, however, in the outline of the valves, varying, as in Triceratium 
from triangular to quadrangular and pentagonal, it bears, as remarked by Mann in 
his report on the Diatoms of the Albatross Expediti<in. not the remotest ?-esemblance 
to the genus last named. 



PHYTO-I'LANKTO\ OF liAV Of' I'UXDY 105 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

As found ill New Brunswick waters the genus Ditylurn (din, two, and tyle, a 
swelling) is usually in the form of a lengthened quadrate cylinder, due to the great 
length of its zone or girdle, the terminal valves being somewhat puckered or con- 
stricted, with slight but conspicuous bristles at the angles bordering a circle or fringe 
of very delicate and short bristles, from the centre of which springs a single long 
and stout spine. The sculpture of the valve is radio-punctate, the rays being delicate 
and grouped around the base of the central spine. The arcolation, so marked in 
Tiiceratium, is entirely wanting. Though usually triangular, specimens have been 
observed in which triangular, quadrate, and pentagonal valves have been found, 
enclosed in the same connecting membrane, which is very imperfectly silicified. In 
the writers opinion the forms are much more nearly related to Rhizosolenia and 
Corethron, than to either Triceratium or Biddulphia. They are often found in groups, 
of which the individuals may be attached either laterally or by the ends, on the 
sagittal plane. As to distributional and seasonal variations, the representatives 
of the genus Ditylurn have been found in the bay of Fundy, near St. John, in 
February, and at St. Andrews in April, but only rarely. They were abundant in 
Deadman's harbour, August 10, and especially abundant in St. Andrews harbour, 
and oif Grand Manan, in October. They were also observed during this latter month 
at the mouth of the St. Croix river, but rarely. 

FragiUaiia. — This genus, though usually to be found in plankton collections 
elsewhere, is not common in the region under review. This species represented appears 
to be mainly Fr. capucina and Fi: pacifica (?). 

Grammataphoia. — The species Gr. marina and Gr. serpentina are both found in 
the bay of Fundy and Passamaquoddy bay, but not very generally. They were both 
found rather abundantly and forming long chains in the waters about West Quoddy 
Head on the 28th of June; at Eastport, August 1 and St. Martins, also at L'Etang 
harbour, August 10. None were observed in the ' 'Prince " collections, made in 
September and October. 

Hyalodiscus. — This genus, as represented by the species H. suhtilis, is occasion- 
ally met with in the plankton, but not in sufficient numbers to be made the basis of 
comparative statements. It is found but rarely in Passamaquoddy bay. 

Isthmia. — Only a few specimens of this genius, including both /. nervosa and /. 
enervis, have been observed in the summer plankton about Campo Bello; but not in 
Passamaquoddy bay. 

Melosira. — JNo genus is more widely or more abundantly met with than this, its 
rabit of forming long chains, some times including thirty or more frustules, making 
it quite conspicuous. The most common species is M. nummuloides, though M. 
varians and M. Borerii and M. Jerghensii are by no means rare. They have been 
found at various stations in the bay of Fundy and also about Passamaquoddy bay. 
M. suhflexilis was found at St. John and St. Andrews, in February and March, the 
others almost everywhere during the summer months. In the " Prince " collection 
M. suhflexilis was obtained between St. John and Digby on the 21st of September, 
and quite abundantly. 

Navicula. — Specimens of this genus, which includes a very Ittrge number of 
species, are found in nearly all collections, but the majority of the latter are littoral 
rather than pelagic or planktonic. Of those occurring in the plankton one of the 
most common and widely distributed is N. didymo, which has been found during the 
summer months at many points along the coasts between Grand Manan and St. 
^lartins. N. disians and N. Smithii (including Nelliptica) are also of common 
occurrence; but none have yet been recorded from winter collections. They are 
common in Passainaq noddy bay, in July and August. 



106 i>f:i'.nn.ui:\T of the ywwL skumce 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Xitschia. — Thoupli represented generally, and by a large number of species, few 
of these are found in the.- plankton. The most common are .V. sigmoidea and ^'. 
closterium, found near St. Andrews, April 19. .V. Sigma was observed at the same 
station July 7th, and X. scriaia in August. Besides the above N. duhin and .V. vormi- 
cularis were found at St. Martin-; in August; .V. closterium, N. sigmoidea and N. 
vermicidaris in St. John harbour during the same month. X. scriata was obtained 
from the " Prince " collection, at Station 3 (between Head harbour and the Wolves) 
September IS; but not from other points. None were observed in October gather- 
ings. 

Plcurosigma. — Though a littoral and brackish water genus, some of its species 
are also pelagic and planktonic. P. decorum and P. formosum were found in St. 
Andrews harbour February 19; P. fasciola and P. decorum at the Biological Station 
February 27; the same at the Reversing Falls. St. John, February 14; at Doucettes 
island in March; P. tntermedium and others in St. Andrews harbour, April 17; P. 
fasciola at West Quoddy June 17; P. BaUicum and P. fasciola at the Biological 
Station June 2€; and P. ohscurum at St. Martins in Augvist. P. fasciola and P. 
formosum were found in L'Etang harbour August 10, and P. BaUicum at Tyne- 
mouth creek August. No representatives of the genus were found in the " Prince '' 
collections of September or October. 

Rhaldonema. — Isolated frustule?, and more rarely short chains of E. arcuatuni 
are occasionally met with in the plankton, but are not common. 

Bhizosolenia. — This is one of the typically planktonic genera, and as represented 
by R. setigera, is often very abundant. It was obtained as early as January 1<5 at 
Wilson's beach, Campbello, and at Seeley's cove January 31 ; in St. Andrews 
harbour February 19, and the Biological Station February 27; at Joe's Point, St. 
Andrews, and the St. Croix river March 28; and at Robbinstown May 23: but 
appears to be absent in June and July. It was found at Campbello August 1, and 
L'Etang harbour August 10, also at Tynemouth creek the same month. In the 
" Prince " series it was September 27 at the lower end of Annapolis Basin (with 
spear-like enlargements of the terminal spines, not yet observed in the bay of Fundy), 
and on the Annapolis river, near Goat island. In the same series it occurs as found 
in St. Andrews harbour October 10, St. John harbour October 19 and Grand Manan 
(abundantly). 

Skeletonema. — This is another of the distinctly planktonic genera, its adaptation 
to a floating life being effected by the association of the frustules in long chains, some- 
times embracing forty or fifty individuals. It is, however, characterized by much 
diversity as regards size, distribution and seasonal variations. It was found at Bald 
Head January 15, St. Andrews harbour February 19 and Manawagonish, St. John 
county Febraury 5; but no occurrences have been recorded at any station for March, 
April, ^lay, or June. It was found at Eastport July 29, Campbello August 1 (rare). 
L'Etang harbour and Deadman's harbour August 10. From the " Prince " collections, 
in September and October, it appears to be wholly absent. 

Thalassiosira. — Another characteristic plankton genus, easily recognized by the 
interposition between the widely separated frustules of long filamentous threads (Slime 
threads of the Germans). Of its two species Th. Xordenslcioldii is the more common, 
but exhibits great seasonal differences. It was found in January and February at the 
Biological Station, again very abundantly about Joe's point. St. Andrews, on May 27, 
as also at La Tete, Campbello and Eastport; and at the latter station again on July 
29; Biological Station March 17, St. Croix river and La Tete March 28; Doucette's 
island March 27; Joe's point April 30, St. Andrews harbour April IS. very abundantly; 



pnYTori..\yKro\ of hay of fi ynr 107 

I SESSlO^ii^L PAPER No. 38a 

]\ul)l)in6towu May 23; Bio]o^i<;al Station May 21, very abundantly. It was found at 
Eastport in July, and in L'Etanp; harbour August 10; but was wanting in collections 
later than August both in Passamaquoddy bay and the Bay of Fundy. It would seem 
to attain its maximum in Ajiril and May. 

Thalassionema. — Forms believed to be referable to this genius have been found 
in several gatherings made by the " Prince " in Passamaquoddy bay. Some of these, 
collected in October, being composed of little else. The frustules bear considerable 
resemblance to those of Synedra, and again to some varieties of lihizosolenia, but differ 
greatly from both. The most remarkable feature, the specimens referred to is their 
enormous length, running from 300 to 800 mu, with a zonal breadth from 3^ to 8 mu. 
The sculpture along the edge is a very minute row of points, perhaps running about 
pO in 10 mu. The cells show variations in diameter, and are often curved or flexuose, 
but do not ta|>er at the ends or bear bristles, as in Rhizosolenia. . Perugallo following 
Van Hcurck places the genus Thalassionema between Synedra and Thalassiothrlc. 
Dr. McKay is disposed to regard the form here described as new. It may be a variety 
of Thalassiothrix nitschioides. 




Libehty Point 
Owen's Head 



^ODDY H'f 



Geolo ical Map of I'aspuniaqiioddy li:iy and yiirruuiulings, by T^ \V. Hailt^v 



GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HT. Ch'ofX h'lVI.K 109 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 



THE GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE ST. CROIX RIVER AND PASSAMA- 

QUODDY BAY. 



By L. \V. Bailev, LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.C., etc., Emeritus Frofessor of Natural History 
and Geology, University of New Brunswick. 

(With map.) 

Of those who visit the Biological Station at St. Andrews, whether as tourists 
or as members of the staff and participants in its work, there are many who, attracted 
by the unusual beauty of its surroundings, would like to know something of the causes 
to which that beauty is due. I have therefore been asked by members of the Biologi- 
cal Board to prepare a short sketch of the geological features of the region. These, 
of course, are fully detailed in the reports of the Canadian Geological Survey, but 
are contained in many different volumes, and are not always easily accessible and 
are so associated with the geology of wider areas as to make it somewhat diiEcult to 
obtain the desired facts. In this sketch only those are given which seem to be of 
general interest. 



The region under review is naturally divided into three sections. Of these, the 
first is the St. Croix river proper, a wholly fresh water stream having its sources in 
connection with considerable lakes north and west of Vanceboro, and thence flowing 
in a southerly direction to meet the second section at the falls in St. Stephen. The 
volume of water, though sufficient for lumbering and milling pui-poses, does not pro- 
duce any appreciable effect on the salinity or density of the water in this second 
section. 

The latter may be called the St. Croix estuary, and extends from the head of 
tide-water at the falls in St. Stephen to the vicinity of St. Andrews, where it gradu- 
ally widens out into Passamaquoddy bay. Through this and the preceding section, 
it constitutes a part of the international boundary. The third section is that of 
Passamaquoddy bay itself, an area about eleven miles wide by seven, and imperfectly 
separated by the chain of the Western Isles, from the waters of the Bay of Fundy. 

As regards the geological features of these several areas, the first needs but little 
consideration here. North of MacAdam Junction the rocks are mainly granite, 
boulders of which in great numbers, and often of very large size, thickly strew the 
tract surrounding and south of that railway centre. Further south the river traverses 
two wide belts of slates, of which the more northerly are pale of colour and carry 
obscure organic remains, appearing to indicate a Devonian age, while the more 
southerly are darker, and though yielding no fossils, are believed to be Cambro- 
Silurian. Through these, at many points, protrude small bosses of granite, which 
about St. Stephen become more considerable. Near the town last named they con- 
tain large bands of diorite and serpentinous rocks containing considerable bodies of 
pyrrhotites like those of Sudbury, Ont., which they closely resemble, and carry ores 
of nickel, though the percentage of the metal, so far as at present known, is too small 
to admit of profitable extraction. 



110 UEI'AR'rMKST OF THE SAXM i<i:i{MCE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
II. 

Below St. Stoi)lien, at which point we enter upon the second or estuarinc division 
of tlie St. Croix, the rocks on the west side of the stream are mainly granite all the 
way to the southern part of liobbinston, in the state of Maine, and are well seen in 
the Devil's Head and again in Doucette (Dochet) or St. Croix island, upon which 
Chaniplain and liis followers spent their first and most unfortunate winter in Canada. 

On the eastern side these granites reappear at Oak point, as also on the shores 
of Oak bay, either side of Waweig inlet, but in the upper part of this bay, upon both 
sides, the rocks are Silurian and yield characteristic fossils. Near the head of this 
bay, on the eastern side, are kitchen-middens or Indian shell heaps, marking one of 
the sites of early human prehistoric occupation. About two miles below the entrance 
of Oak bay, Silurian rocks again occupy the shore, being the western termination 
of a belt of such rocks extending eastward to and beyond Bocabec bay on the north 
side of the latter. At the mouth of Bocabec river, east side, are still other shell 
heaps of Indian origin, from which have been obtained a considerable number of 
aboriginal relics. A full account of this old encampment-ground and of the articles 
obtained from it, may be found in one of the bulletins of the New Brunswick Natural 
History Society. 

The same Silurian belt includes Chameook lake and Chamcook mountain. It 
is composed in part of massive sandstones, elsewhere fossiliferous, and in part of 
volcanics, partly interbedded with, but mainly resting on, the latter. Fine exposures 
of these volcanics may be seen along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which 
traverses the eastern side of the lake, and consist partly of black diorites and partly 
of chocolate-coloured, bright-red weathering felspar-porpliyries or rhyolites, the 
latter forming prominent hills. Chamcook mountain itself, and its associated ridges, 
are composed below of dark sandstones and above of diorite, the relation of the two 
being well seen on a bluff on the western side of the second Chamcook ridge, where, 
by the partial removal of the softer underlying strata, the comparatively hard diorites 
may be seen projecting many feet, like a shelf, over the former. That the agent pro- 
ducing this effect was ice, rather than water, is shown by the fact that the underside 
of the overhanging ledge is strewn with glacial stria^, having the same north-and- 
south direction as that of the St. Croix valley. As there is no corrasponding ridge 
for many miles to the westward of the St. Croix, by which the ice might have been 
confined and forced beneath the overhanging brow, it seems also probable that the ice 
was that of a continental rather than a local glacier. 

III. 

We come now to the consideration of Passamaquoddy bay proper. The northern 
Hide is everywhere occupied by the Silurian rocks already described, extending east- 
ward from Bocabec harbour and Digdequash inlet to and beyond lake Utopia. They 
include some prominent hills, such as mount Blair, and with a westward dip, form a 
series of ridges with parallel intervening valleys, the structure and arrangement 
suggesting a series of successive downthrows toward the centre of the bay. At the 
mouth of the ^fagaguadavic on the northern side, and again at Point Midjic, form- 
ing the southern boundary of the same inlet, they ox't overlaid by small oatliers of 
the Perry group to be presently noticed ; but south of this point they reappear on the 
^fascareen shore, bordering this to the Letite passage as well as forming the northern 
side of ]\rcMaster's and Pendleton's islands. At Clark's point on the Mascareen 
shore, and elsewhere, they hold characteristic Silurian fossils, w^hile on the islands 
named the felspar por[)hyries or rhyolites form somewhat prominent hills similar to 
those of Chamcook lake. aii<l by their colour (bright red M-hen weathered") form, as 



GEOLOGICAL FEATURE fi OF ST. CROIX RIVER 111 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38a 

socu from St. Andrews or Chamcook mountain, a con.-^iiicuous feature in the .scenery 
of Passamaquoddy bay. 

On its southern side, rassamaquoddy bay is separated from the liay of i'undy 
by the chain of the Western Isles, tlie largest of which is Deer island, while the 
-mailer, including Adams island, Simpson's island, Casco -Bay island, Indian island, 
and many smaller islands, lie along the southern side of the latter. In Deer island, 
and again in Campobello, a large island lying to the south and west of the latter, 
separated by the Eastern Passage, and opposite the town of Eastport, the rocks are 
much older than any found in this district. They consist largely of diorites and 
felsites, associated with chloritic and horn-blendic schists and are supposed to be of 
Pre-C'ambrian age; but among the smaller islands, some are Silurian and others of 
Devonian age. The rocks of Eastport island are of Silurian age, consisting largely of 
rhyolites resting upon fossiliferous slates similar to those of the Mascareen shore. 

The west side of Passamaquoddy bay north of Eastport is made up of red sand- 
stones and conglomerates similar to those of the St. Andrews peninsula and of Upper 
Devonian age. They extend through the township of Perry, where they contain 
Devonian plants, and form the shore northward to within a few miles of Robbinston, 
where they meet and overlie the granites already referred to. 

This sketch would be incomplete without some reference to the geology of Grand 
Manan, for though this island is outside the limits of the area under discussion, it is 
a place frequently visited by the members of the Biological Station staff, the sur- 
rounding waters being one of the most interesting fields on the Atlantic seaboard for 
marine scientific research. The island lies at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, and 
about twelve miles distant from the eastern shore of Campobello. It is about fifteen 
miles in length, while its breadth varies from two to seven miles. Both physio- 
graphically and geologically it embraces two tracts of which the one, the eastern, is 
low and bordered by numerous islands, while the other or western, is considerably 
higher, without islands, and fronting the waters of the bay in an almost unbroken 
line of precipitous bluffs from 300 to 400 feet in height. The rocks of the eastern 
shore, and of the adjacent islands, where are all the settlements, consist of a series of 
slates and schists, with some conglomerates, which are believed to be mainly of Pre- 
Cambrian age, though obscure fossils are said to have been found at one point, near 
the Swallow-tail light. 

The greater portion of the island, however, including all the uplands, and the 
western shore, which are uninhabited, is made up of rocks of much more recent origin, 
these being a series of trappean rocks, dolerites, basalts, and amj'gdaloids, of Triassic 
age, and similar to those which constitute cape Blomidon and the range of the Xorth 
mountains and Digby Neck, in Nova Scotia. At some points when the tide is low, 
they may, as in Nova Scotia, be seen to overlie red sandstones, which are also of 
Triassic age. The relations of the traps to the older rocks of the islands may be 
well seen at either the Northern or Southern Head. At both of these points and 
again at Dark Harbour, midway of the length of the island, the columnar traps con- 
stitute some very bold and picturesque scenery. 

Not only do the Perry rocks form the western side of Passamaquoddy Bay, but 
also the whole of the St. Andrews peninsula. As seen about the Biological Station, 
and elsewhere, they are noticeable for their brownish red colour, for their coarseness, 
and for the fact that they are made up mainly of metamorphic rocks, derived directly 
from the underlying formations, including especially granite and rhyolite. In these 
respects and in their stratigraphical relations they are markedly similar to what, in 
other parts of New Brunswick, have been referred to the Lower ("arbonifcrous period, 
and are so represented in the Geological Survey maps; but recent observations else- 
where have tended to confirm the opinion first advanced by the late Sir William 
Dawson, and based upon their plant remains, that they should more properly be 



112 iii:i'AJrrMi:\T or riii: \\\ \l si:h'\ H:t: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

n-lVriH-il to tile Ippcr Dcviminn. Fnuii lliP iu<'t that tlu-y arc aliii<»t (•(iiitiinmn.-ly 
fXpusc*! froin a pniiit imt tar aliuvc Jiraiidy cove t(i the lijil'tliouse in Passainaquoddy 
liay, ami arc tiltc<l at a c(iiisideral)le aiijrle. it is <-vi(lciit tliat they must possess eoii- 
f-iderahh- thickness, but tlu-y are undoubtedly faulted in plaees, and hence no definite 
or reliable estimate of tliat thieknoss can be made. At many points, especially towards 
their base, they an- jjcnetrated by intrusive volcanic rocks, dolerite, diabase and 
aniyfrdaloid, oecurrinK apparently both as dykes and sills. They are well exposed at 
the Biological Station, which is ])?,rtly built upon one of them, and another has no 
doubt determined the jiromontory of Joes point, as well as the " Bar,"" connectintr the 
mainland with .Ministers i<v \ an Iloriie".- inland. They are, of course, of later oriffin 
than the rocks which they i>enetrate. 

As regards the relation of the geology to the present tojxjgraphy of the region, it 
may, in conclusion be said, that the position and general outline of Pa-ssamquoddy 
bay were determiiu'd by disturliaixe and u]jheavals antedating the opening of the 
Cambrian era, fixing at least the northern, southern, and eastern sides of the basin 
by ridges, such as the Bocabec hills on the north of those of Deer island and Campo 
Bello on the south, bf)th converging eastwardly to and beyond St. George. 

Of the conditions characterizing the Cambrian era itself Ave know nothing. In 
the Silurian age the basin was evidently in existence and occupied by shallow waters 
in which accumulated sand and mud beds, now more or less filled with marine fossils, 
over which were spread the rhyolites, porphyries and ash beds, which now constitute 
such eminences as Chamcook mountain, Mt. Blair and Pendleton's island. In the 
3)evonian age were produced the gi'anitic extrusions which now form the western side 
of the basin from Devil's Head to the lower part of Robbinston; and somewhat later 
the coarse rocks of the Perry group, marking at this time considerable subsidences, and 
[he operation of powerful marine currents, as well as the extrusion of igneous masses. 
No rocks of later age are met with; but evidences of extensive glaciation during the 
Quaternary era abound. The estuarine portion of the St. Croix river and the channels 
nt either end of Deer isUmd were ])rohably fixnl at this tijne. 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c A. 1917 

SUPPLEMENT 

TO TlIK 

51st annual report OF THE FISHERIES BRANCH 
DEPARTMENT OF NAVAL SERVICE 

1916-17 



OFFICIAL REPORT 



UPON 



LOBSTER CONSERVATION IN CANADA 



A. P. KNIGHT, M.A., M.D., F.R.S.C., etc., 

Professor of Animal Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ont. Member of the 
Biological Board of Canada 



Being the results of Investigations carried on under the Biological Board, 

with the aid of Officers instructed by the Department of Naval 

Service during the season of 1916 






OTTAWA 

PRINTED BY J. im L TACHfi, 

PRINTER TO THH: KING'S MOST KXCEI.LENT MAJESTY 

1917 

[No. 3Sc— 1917.] 



Front i.yi/'i II . 




if some thousands of lol)ster tiai>s placed along the shore at the close of the tishing seaMHi. th 
projx'rty of Messrs. Burnliani and Morrill, lobster canners, Baj' View, N.S. 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c A. 1917 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

In carrying out his scheme of investigation, which is really a continuation and 
extension of the work commenced at Long Beach, St. Mary's Bay, N.S., in 1914, 
the author desires to warmly acknowledge the great interest taken by Mr. G. J. 
Desbarats, C.M.G., Deputy Minister of Naval Service, Ottawa, and the valuable 
assistance which he was the means of furnishing during the progress of the researches. 
The Superintendent and staff of the Bay View Hatchery, under instructions from 
the Deputy Minister, gave indispensable aid, especially in the construction of the 
lobster rearing apparatus, before the regular hatching operations were fully under 
way. This assistance they rendered without, I understand, any remuneration- except- 
ing their regular pay from the Department and it involved a considerable amount of 
manual labour. The Department placed at the service of the Biological Board the 
Hatchery Buildings, wharf, etc., and supplied without cost power for the apparatus 
used, and live steam for heating purposes. 

2. The Biological Board is under obligation to Professor W. T. MacClement, D.Sc, 
of Queen's University, for five weeks' exacting labour in supervising the construction 
of the rearing apparatus, and the retaining pounds under the wharf of the hatchery. 

3. Mr. A. B. Dawson, B.A., Acadia University, of Uig, P* E. Island, a ix)st- 
graduate student of Harvard University, and one of the biologists employed by the 
Board, assisted me in every way possible, especially in estimating the output of the 
living fry from the hatchery, and in operating the lobster-rearing apparatus. 



EECOMMENDATIONS. 

1. That the Biological Board, through its Executive Committee, should confer 
with the Deputy Minister of Naval Service upon a scheme for conducting an educa- 
tional campaign among lobster fishermen and canners with a view to securing their 
co-operation with the Department in conserving the lobster industry. 

2. That the proposal be considered favourably for utilizing the southwest end 
of the Long Beach pond or the Fourchu Lobster pond. Cape Breton, to enable experi- 
ments with lobsters to be made on a large scale. 

3. That the question be considered officially for establishing a uniform close season 
for lobsters including the months of June, July, August, and September, for every 
part of the coast of the Maritime Provinces. 

4. That if the step be adopted by the Department of closing the Bay View Lobster 
FTatchery for the season of 1917, the establishment be handed over to the Biological 
Board for the purpose of continuing the rearing experiments with lobster fry. 



38c— U 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c A. 1917 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



T. Lobster industry decHning 5 

Decrease in berried females 10 

J I. Rearing lobster fry 1.5 



III. Mating experiments 19 

Experiments at Long Beach, N.S 20 

St. Andrews, N.B 20 

Bay View, N.S 21 

Relative numbers of the sexes 21 

Number of berried females 23 

Biennial egg-laying tlitory 23 

IV. Lobster sanctuaries 25 



V. General Report upon output of Bay View Lobster Hatchery for 1916 28 

Causes of death 31 

Loss through mixing eggs 31 

" by careless handling 32 

" through dirt 3 2 

" in the hatchery jars 3 2 

" in the tanks -.' 

" in closing hatchery .'. . . 34 

Classification of eggs 34 

Estimate of dead eggs 35 

living fry 37 

Public Report 3S 

Two batches of eggs. . . 38 

Two policies 39 

Conservation in a hatchery 39 

Conservation by returning lobsters to the sea 4 

Further objections to hatcheries 4 

Appendix. Experimental catches in August and September, 1916, etc 42 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c A. 1917 



LOBSTER CONSERVATION IN CANADA. 



PART I. 



LOBSTER INDUSTRY DECLINING. 



It is iini)ossible to make reference to the numerous special returns and reports 
on the Canadian lobster fishery published from time to time, but it is quite clear from 
a perusal of these reports, and similar ones in the Unifed States that every local lobster 
fishery from Delaware to Grand Manan, and on to Labrador, is passing through, or 
has already passed through, one of the following stages : — 

1. A period of plenty with abundance of lobsters and comparatively few fisher- 
men using simple gear, and old-fashioned boats. 

2. A period of rapid extension beginning in Canada about ISTO and nmeh earlier 
than this in the older regions of New England. 

3. A period of real decline, though often interpreted as one of increase — a period 
in which there is a rapid extension of the areas fished, multiplication of traps and 
boats, a decrease in the size of lobsters caught, and consequently of those bearing 
eggs, and lastly a steady increase in price. 

4. A general decrease all along the line except, of course, in the price paid by 
the consumer. 

About 1870 the supply of lobsters along the Canadian coasts seemed inexhaustible. 
Thus a canuer writing in 1873 of the supply of lobsters for his factories says : " The 
heavy gale of last August drove more lobsters ashore within five miles of my packing 
houses than I could make use of during the whole summer. They formed a row of 
from one to five feet deep and I should estimate them at an average of one thousand 
to every two rods of shore." Another writer commenting upon the abundance of 
lobsters in those early days, remarks : " In spite of their increased commercial value 
it is nevertheless a fact that in some of the northern parts of the gulf of St. Law- 
rence good marketable lobsters are used to manure the field." 

But twenty years afterwards the tune had changed. People had begun to realize 
that the supplies of lobsters were not inexhaustible, and that if they wished to con- 
serve the continuance of the canning industry they must at least take some steps to 
replenish waters that at one time teemed with millions of large lobsters. And so it 
came about that the first lobster hatchery was erected at Bay View, near Pictou, in 
1891. What might be fairly described as a mania for the artificial hatching of com- 
mercial and game fish spread over the country, and found expression in demands 
upon the Government for the erection of various kinds of hatcheries. Accordingly 
we see to-day hatcheries for trout, salmon, whitefish, lobsters, shad, and pickerel. 
Whether these have all justified their existence remains to be seen ; but this at least 
may be said of the lobster hatcheries, that notwithstanding all the millions of fry 
which they are reported to have poured into our coastal waters for the past twenty- 
five years, the supply of lobsters is steadily on the decline. 

Nothing bears out this statement so well as 'Mr. Venniug's report summarizing 
the proceedings of the Marine and Fisheries Committee's report in the year IHdH, 
and including very full statistics from 1897 to 1908 regarding the lobster industry, 
which statistics I am able to present up to and including last season's returns, thanks 
to ofiicers of the department. 



6 .V.4V.4/> HEUMCi: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Now if we look at the annual ratdios nioasurcd in one-pound cans of canned 
lobster, or in pounds live-weipht, and divide by the total number of traps, we shall, 
of course, find the catch per trap, and tlic followinp: table demonstrates the results: — 



T.\BLE showing yearly pack, number of traps, catch per trap. etc. 



Year. 


1-Pounil Cans. 


Traps. 


Pound.s live 
lobsters. 


Catch per 
trap in 
1-lb. cans. 


Catch per 
trap live 
lobsters. 


Total 
ratch per 
trap. 


1.S97 

1900 

1901 r 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 .... 


11. 1-30,. 5.54 

10,. 548, 290 

10,0.56,604 

9,3.50,121 

10,604,218 

10,762,288 

10,497,624 

10,104,764 

10, 660,. 530 

10,911,498 

9,071,600 

8,788,-512 

10,007,1.36 

9, 005.. 568 

7,992,592 

7,723.296 

7,822,368 


1,156,3.52 
1,382,9.35 
1,. 363. 51 2 
1.221,236 
1,205,006 
1.288,997 
1.239.651 
■ 1,268,866 
1,. 340, 711 
1,477,623 
1,4.58,. 585 
1,. 504, 872 
1,469,192 
1,-590.966 
1,617,195 
1,. 596.. 538 
1,371,774 


25.183,100 
18,914.000 
16, 419,. 500 
14,203.400 
10,663,900 
11,104,800 
15,392,400 
10,137,000 

9,749,000 

9,837.300 
10,394,700 
11,001,200 
11,082,-300 

8,5-37,900 
10,089,700 

8,682,400 
11,932,900 


Lbs. 
9-6 
7-6 
7, 7 
7-6 
8-8 
8-3 
8-4 
7-9 
7-8 
7-3 
6-2 
5-8 
6-8 
5-6 
4-9 
4-8 
5-7 


Lbs. per trap. 
220 
14-0 
120 
110 

8-8 

8-6 
120 

7-9 

70 

6-6 

71 

7-3 

7-5 

5-3 

6-2 

50 

8-7 


31-6 
21-6 
19-3 
18-6 
17-6 
16-9 
20-4 
15-8 


1907 

1908 


14-8 
13-9 


1909-10 


13-3 


1910-11 . 


13 1 


1911-12 

1912-13 

1913-14 

1914-15 

1915-10 


14-3 

• 10-9 

111 

9-8 

14-4 







1. One conclusion to be drawn from these figures and one which must be level 
to the comprehension of even the dullest of men is that an industry in which the 
catch per trap falls from 31.6 pounds to 14.4 pounds, less than one half of what it 
was nineteen years before, is certainly a failing industry. 

2. Another conclusion, so clear that he who runs may read, is that the yearly 
sea crop of lobsters varies in much the same way as our land crop of wheat does. 
Mother ocean and mother earth never produce the same yield for two years in succes- 
sion. An abundant harvest from the land or an abundant harvest from the sea in 
any one year does not necessarily mean an abundant harvest the next. There are 
ups and downs in both. I have often been asked why the catch of lobsters was 
greater in 1915-6 than in 1914. As well ask me why the harvest this year was less 
than last. Man may modify the conditions which give him his annual yield of grain 
by cultivating the soil, but the harvest as a whole will depend up.)n cold and warmth 
and rainfall, none of which man can control. In any year, let there come a few 
degrees of frost, a scanty fall of rain, or the blight of rust, and our wheat fields are 
ruined. This is common knowledge to every farmer; but every fisherman seems to 
think it wonderful that the lobster crop should vary from year to year. Run your 
eye down column 7 in the above table. You see the annual catch per trap varies 
from year to year just as the yields of bushels of wheat per acre do. One variation 
is no more wonderful than the other. The sea-harvest is less under man's control 
than the land-harvest; but we may be quite sure that the varying temperature of 
sea water, and the varying food supply for the fry are as potent in the production of 
a variable crop of lobsters as temperature and rainfall are for a variable crop of 
wheat. We can easily conceive how an unusually severe winter, with the increased 
production of ice floes, the lowered temperature of sea water continued late into 
.spring, would tend to kill not alone the live adult lobsters but also the eggs and fry, 
so that a few years afterwards when we might naturally expect the normnl yiold of 
adults, it would be found that a small catch would be reported. 



LOBSTER CONSERVATION IN CANADA 7 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

Again reverting: to the f?ale in 1873 which threw up a windrow of millions of 
dead lobsters for five miles along the New Brunswick coast,* who can fail to see that 
six years later the usual crop of half grown lobsters would be lacking, just because 
the mothers had been killed in vast numbers six years before. Similarly, who has not 
heard or read of partridges dying by hundreds as the result of a great snow-thaw, 
followed by severe frost, so that it was impossible for the birds to obtain their usual 
shelter under the frozen snow. Thus we see how Nature sometimes limits the harvest 
from the sea as well as the harvest on land. 

'j. A third proof that the supply of lobsters is declining is furnished by the 
following statistics from the last report of the Fisheries Branch of the Department 
of Naval Service: — 



Areas in which Canneries are operated. 



No. 

operated 

in 191.5 

and 1916. 




St. John, Annapolis, Kings 

Digby, Charlotte 

Lunenburg. (Jueens, Shelburne, Yarmouth 

Halifax, Guysborough, Richmond 

Cape Breton, Victoria 

Cumberland, Colchester, Pictou, Antigonish, Inverness 

Restigouche, Gloucester, Northumberland, Kent, Westmorland 

Kings, Queens, Prince, P.E.I 

Magdalen Islands, Quebec 

Total operated 



That 296 canneries have ceased operations since 1900 is a very significant fact. 
No one will believe that they would have been closed, or converted to other uses if 
the supply of lobsters had been plentiful. It is quite true that some canneries ceased 
operations as a result of their owners combining with other owners. By reducing 
the number of canneries the operators reduced their running expenses. Then again 
the live lobster trade has tended to reduce the number of canneries especially in south- 
western Nova Scotia; but after making every allowance for these two circumstances, 
the fact remains that the chief reason for closing these 296 canneries lay in the 
declining lobster supply — a decline that to all appearances is bound to go on until 
the lobster industry ceases to be pjofitable. 

4. A fourth set of facts which point clearly to the decline in the lobster industry 
is the diminishing size of the adult lobsters, especially in Northumberland straits. 
Many years ago the adult lobsters were all large. They are still large in Passama- 
quoddy bay, but around all sides of Nova Scotia full grown ones are comparatively 
rare. This is amply proved by Mr. Halkett's " Tabulations of Lobster Measure- 
ments " during the past summer. Look, for example, . at the three following tables 
which are based upon these measurements. Off Shag Harbour, Shelburne County, 
the total lengths of 200 lobsters were 1,937 inches, or an average of 9-68 inches each. 
At Shemogue, New Brunswick, 204 lobsters measured 1,609 inches, or an average of 
7-8 inches, and at Pictou, Nova Scotia, the average was 7-7 inches. The average in 
Passamaquoddy bay, judging from those obtained for the mating experiments, at 
St. Andrews, N.B., last summer, must have been nearly 14 inches. 

Now experience shows that the first effects of overfishing is a reduction in the 
size. This is true of the halibut grounds in the Pacific. The older grounds there 
now yield only relatively small fish. The trawls of traps in Northumberland straits, 



*See " Notes on the Natural History of the Lobster," by Professor Prince, p. 1, Suppt 
No. 1, 29th Ann. Rep. Dept. Marine. Fisheries Branch, 1896. 



yAVAL SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 19l7 



operating in .hallow water have enabled the fishermen there to catch all the large 
liter so that if fishing goes on at its present ratj we may confidently expec 
dim n shing size of lobsters with a corresponding decrease in the percentage of 
berried females. Wo cannot exterminate any sea-fish but we may overfish easjy 
enough/ca'turing at first the largest size, then the medium-s.zed ones unt.l finally 
the o^dy remaining ones are those so small that it wdl not pay to fish for them. So 
will it be with lobsters. 



LOBSTER CONSERVATIOX I\ CAXADA 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

TABLES OF LOBSTER MEASUREMENTS, 1916. 
Tablk 1— Off Shiiff TTarbour, Sholburne, N.S. 



J 




z 




w 
H 


6i 


X 


2 


=r 


13 


63 


X 


2 


— 


13J 


7 


X 


1 


— 


7 


7i 


X 


4 


=z 


29 


7* 


X 


9 


= 


67J 


75 


X 


9 


^ 


693 


8 


X 


11 


— 


88 


H 


X 


11 


=^ 


903 


n 


X 


12 


r= 


102 


83 


X 


11 


= 


96J 


9 


X 


12 


=r 


108 


9J 


X 


15 


= 


1383 


9J 


X 


9 


= 


851 


93 


X 


12 


r= 


117 


10 


X 


10 


=: 


100 


lOJ 


X 


4 


= 


41 


101 


X 


14 


=; 


147 


lOa 


X 


6 


r^ 


145 


11 


X 


8 


— 


88 



c 




c 




cc 


a) 




3 




O 


J 




z 




H 


Hi 


X 


4 


rz 


45 


in 


X 


8 


rr 


92 


113 


X 


2 


r: 


23i 


12 


X 


5 


r;: 


60 


12i 


X 


3 


rr 


363 


12J 


X 


4 


= 


50 


123 


X 


2 


= 


25i 


13 


X 


3 


= 


39 


m 


X 


2 


— 


261 


Uh 


X 


1 


= 


16i 


14 


X 


1 


:= 


14 


14J 


X 


1 


= 


14i 


14i 


X 


1 


= 


14J 


Uh 


X 


1 


= 


15i 



Total, lobsters.. 200 Total. 1,927 
Average length, 1 lobster = 9*68 inches. 



Table 2 — Shemogue, "Westmorland Co., N.B. 



- 




X; 




H 


6 


X 


4 


— 


24 


61 


X 


5 


= 


31J 


6* 


X 


9 


= 


58* 


63 


X 


13 


z= 


873 


7 


X 


21 


^: 


147 


7J 


X 


15 


= 


1083 


7J 


X 


19 


z^ 


142J 


73 


X 


15 


= 


1161 


8 


X 


29 


= 


232 


8J 


X 


13 


= 


107J 


8i 


X 


16 


=: 


136 


S3 


X 


9 


— 


783 


9 


X 


9 


— 


81 



*^ 




y, 




c-i 


9i 


X 


10 


= 


921 


9* 


X 


8 


= 


76 


ya 


X 


2 


zr 


191 


10 


X 




=: 


10 


lOi 


X' 




rz 


20i 


11 


X 




:= 


11 


Hi 


X 




=: 


lU 


113 


X 




= 


113 


12 


X 




m 


12 



Total, lobsters.. 92 Total. 1,609 
Average length, in inches, 7'8. 
Table 3— Off Skinner's Reef, Pictou, N.S. 



6i 


X 


3 


— 


183 


6J 


X 


2 


= 


13 


63 


X 


11 


rr 


74i 


7 


X 


14 


r= 


98 


7i 


X 


11 


= 


793 


7* 


X 


9 


= 


67i 


73 


X 


12 


= 


93 


8 


X 


9 


— 


72 


8i 


X 


3 


=: 


243 


8i 


X 


.') 


:= 


42.1 


S3 


X 


1 


= 


S3 



^ 




3 




o 


95 


X 


2 


= 


ISi 


9i 


X 


1 


z:z 


9i 


10 


X 


3 


= 


30 


lOJ 


X 


2 


— 


201 


11 


X 


1 


— 


11 


115 


X 


1 


— 


Hi 


113 


X 


2 


= 


23J 


lobsters. . 


92 


Total . 


716J 


?e length, 


in i 


nche.s, 


7-7. 



10 NAVAL SKIiVlCt: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
Tvm.K 4 — Long Beach Pond. Digby Co., N.S. 

^fr. A. B. ^NroKay. M.A., who was in charge of Long Beach Pond last summer, 
measured all the lobsters that were received there during the season. The following 
measurements, made during the first three wcelvs of May, are typical of those made 
thrnngliout the open season: — 



May n. 
'• 10. 


12 
9 

as 

33 
35 
57 

174 


lobsters, 


total lengths 


Ifi3 inches. 

122J 


" 13. 


• • .. 


37 U 


" 17. 


>. 


447i 


'• 20. 


.. 


460^ 


" 22. 


•< 


768 










2,233i " 



Consequently the average length of one lobster is ISA inches nearly, showing 
clearly enough that greater depth of water and greater difficulty of fishing has rendered 
it impossible to overfish the outer waters of the Bay of Fundy and St. Mary's Bay to 
the same extent as Northumberland Straits. 

Xor do we get any comfort from the report of the Shell Fi.sh Commission of 
1913. Writing of the present condition of the lobster industry the Commissioners 
say : " The wonderful productiveness of the Canadian shores is such that the lobster 
industry is still carried on on a vast scale, and the total money value of this fishery 
is greater than ever, but in the opinion of the best informed persons the resources are 
being so seriously trenched upon that unless eflfective measures for restoring the 
lobster supply are taken without delay the industry must ere long cease to be profitable. 
The annual returns, though showing a very large increase in the money value, are 
really misleading, because while the supply of lobsters is declining the price has so 
materially advanced that the total value is greater to-day than at any previous period " 
— $4,571,014 for the year 1911-12. Enough probably has been said to show that in 
the lobster fishery we have passed the period of plenty, passed the period of rapid 
extension, and are now in the period of real decline, with increasing prices. In illus- 
tration of this latter point, it is worth noting that in 1859, two cents was the price of 
a five pound to a twenty-pound lobster, whereas during the past summer (1915) three- 
pound lobsters were retailed in New Brunswick at $1 each 

DECREASE IX BERRIED FEMALES. 

It is not merely the decrease in the annual pack that causes most concern to the 
friends of conservation. It is the decrease in the relative numbers of females which 
carry eggs. How radically this percentage has changed in recent years may be seen 
from the following report which has been kindly furnished me by Dr. Hugh ^f. Smith, 
the United States Commissioner of Fisheries at Washington, D.C. : — 



LOBSTER CONSERVATIOX l\ CAXADA 



11 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 



Lobsters taken in IMassacliusetts. 



Year. 


Nunibor of 

lobsters 

above 10^ 

inches. 


Total 
Females, 


Kng-bearing 
lobsters. 


Percentages. 


1888 


1,740,850 

1,359,645 

1,612,129 

1,292,791 

1,107,764 

1,149,732 

1,096,834 

956,365 

995, 396 

896,273 

720,413 

644,633 

646,499 

578,383 

670,245 

665, 466 

552, 290 

426,471 

1,039,886a 

1,035,123a 

1, 326,219a 

935,365a 


Assuming that 
that half of 

the total are 
females. 






1889 


679,842 


61,832 
70,909 
49,973 
37, 230 
32, 741 
34,897 
34,343 
30,470 
23,719 
19,931 
16,470 
15,638 
16,353 


90 


1890 




1891 






1892 . . 






1893 






1894 






1895 






1896 


497, 698 


60 


1897 




1898 . . 






1899 






1900 






1901 

1902 


289, 196 


50 


1903 








1904 




13,950 
9,865 

10,348 
9,081 

11,656 
7,857 




1905 


213,235 
519,943 


4-6 


1907 


2-0 


1908 




1909 






1910 




1-6 









a Number of lobsters above 9 inches. 

Dr. Smith is careful to state, in a communication which accompanied these sta- 
tistics, that in all probability the number of berried females was greater than given 
in the report, for the reason that some fishermen were careless in reporting accurately 
their full catches. For purposes of comparing the proportion of berried females in 
United States waters with that in Canadian waters, the Biological Board asked the 
Department of Naval Service to collect similar statistics to those obtained from Dr. 
Smith, and an official of the department was detailed to do this work, Mr. Halkett, 
of the Fisheries Branch. He carefully prepared the statistics, which undoubtedly 
represent the facts, and these facts are not reassuring. The tables setting forth these 
results give the places visited, the dates, the number of males and females observed, 
and the number of berried females. As far as Canadian waters are concerned, in 
1916 the berried females are seen to stand just about where the Massachusetts waters 
did in 1906. Unless stringent conservation measures are adopted, therefore, we may 
look forward ten years and see our lobster industry as depleted as the American one 
was in 1906. 

OUTSTANDING FEATURES. 

1. The outstanding feature in Dr. Smith's statement is the steady decline in the 
number of lobsters caught from 1888 to 1905. In 1907 there is a sudden rise because 
the legal length was reduced from lOi inches to 9; but thereafter just as surely as 
in previous yeai's, the catch again begins to fall. 

2. But perhaps the most disturbing feature is the steady reduction in the number 
of berried females, showing that the supply of lobsters is being cut oflf at its very 
source. In last year's report I quoted a statement of Vinal Edwards' to the effect 
that about 1890 he had found 63-7 per cent of the females off No Man's Land, U.S„ 
carrying eggs. When we read a report, therefore, like Dr. Smith's showing a reduc- 
tion in percentage to 1-6 per cent we may well be alarmed. 



12 



A.i 11/. si:inicF: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
Tahi.k bliowin^' XuiiiIht of Ixlistors Exjuiiincil. April-Aii^^ii.st, VJVj* 



I)at< 



N'rirnc of I'liit-c 



Mav 



1916. 

April 24 fh 

'• 2.")tli 

■• 2.S(h 

2n<l 

.{nl 

.ith 

I.itli 

17th 

20th 

22nd 

23 n I 

2-ltli 

26th 

;joth 

2nd. 

6th. 
10th. 
I2f.h. 
loth 
16th. 



June 



Tommy's lioach, N'.S 
Tommy's IJc'Hch. N.S 

Little Kivor, X.S 

Whulo Cove 

White Cove 

Tiverton 

Lunenburg 

I Port Mouton 

jShag Harbour 
jShag Harbour. . 
|Shag Harbour 
Shag Harbour 

[Capo Sable Island 

|lx)bster Bay, W. Pubnico. 
Cape St. Mary's 
Mink Cove. . 
Little Kivcr 

Little River 

Ostrea Lake 

Jeddore 



" 20th. 

" 24th. 

" 28th. 

" 29th. 

•July 10th. 

" 13th. 

" 17th. 



Pope's Harbour. 

Pugwash 

Skinner's Roef. 
Pictou Island. . . 



Xorthport. 



Shemogue, X.B. 
Dupuis Cornf'r 



19th iCormierville 



Aug. 



20th. 
1st.. 
2nd. 



Chockfish River 

Cape Traver.se, P.E.I. 
Cape Travor.se, P.E.I. 



41 li Brae Harbour. 



.5th. 

7th. 

9th. 

10th. 



Rocky Point. 
Brae Harbour. 

West Point 

Brae Harbour. 



Totals. 



males. females. 



.56 
26 
2.3 
25 
26 
9 
36 
50 
46 
88 
39 
171 
68 
82 
66 

24 

14 

16 

169 



6 

366 

.■6 

24 

111 



58 
27 
17 
28 
19 
20 
35 
39 
54 

112 
69 

158 
98 
73 
86 
25 
28 
10 
14 

191* 



6 

352 

36 

39 

110 



lOS 


96 


.50 


27 


1.33 


105 


139 


119 


157 


158 


134 


112 


164 


108 


135 


85 


207 


118 


325 


274 


156 


106 



3,333 



3,013 



Berried 
females. 





50 

1 

1 

10 



100 



Remarks by 
A. P. Knight. 



Eggs of 1915. 

Eggs of 1915. 
Eggs of 1915. 



Eggs of 1915. 



Egg.s of 1915. 



Eggs of 191.-. 
First eggs of 
sea.son oV)- 
served bj' Mr. 
Halkett to be 
hatching out. 



Eggs (1915.) 
Eggs certainly 

new. 
1 new, 9 old 

1915. 
Eggs (1915.) 
1 old. 

New. 

New. 

Last eggs seen 

hatching 1 old 

1 now. 
New eggs. 
New eggs. 
New eggs. 
New eggs. 
New eggs. 



3-2% 



♦ From Mr. Halketfs report to the Department. 

*• The larger number of these 191 females had all hatched off their eggs according to Mr. 
Halkett. Their swimmerets showed traces of the adhesive secretion left after the eggs have 
hatched out. The appearance of the swimmerets showed a gradation from the normal in some 
females to the partially hatched in others. 

Some interesting points in the report above referred to are: — 
(1) The percentage of berried females south of Nova vScotia 1-2 per cent, is less 
than that of Massac-hu.^etts in 1010. namely IG per cent. North of Nova Scotia includ- 
ing the Straits of Northumberland, our percentage is only 4-2; but even this is suffic- 
iently high to attract the .south shore fishermen to fish in the richer waters of Northum- 
berland Straits year after year. 

It will be noted that our average for tlie whole coast is only 3-2 per cent; but what 
would a farmer think of a Hock of 100 hens only 3.2 per cent of which lay eggs? Or of a 
herd of 100 cows only 3-2 per cent of which bore calves. It is not likely that there 



LOnsTER COX.SVv/iT 17/0\ /\ r I \ 1 /M 13 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

can be any lengtliencd future for the Canndiim lul)ster industry when only 3-2 per cent 
of the mothers extnide ef?gs each year. 

(2) The first hatching eggs were found on June 10, but ^Mr. lEalkett could not say 
whether there might not have been females that had hatched off all their eggs previously 
to this date. It would be impossible for any man to be certain that among all the 
females caught during April, May and the first half of June, there were none which 
had borne and hatched out their eggs, because as soon as females have cleaned their 
abdomen after hatching, they resemble commercial lobsters and in fact become com- 
mercial lobsters. The change at this season from a berried to a commercial female 
may take place in a week or ten days. 

(3) The catch of 50 berried females at Pugwash, June 24, calls for special notice. 
Here the percentage of berried females rose to 14, a most unusual thing. How is it 
that such a large number suddenly made their appearance? On questioning fishermen 
and canners I found that they generally gave one of two explanations, — (a) Either the 
locality is a favourite spawning ground to which the females resort, or, (h) else it is 
the habit of females for three or four days towards the end of June to come out from 
their burrows in unusually large numbers to hatch their eggs. 

At such times they are trapped in large numbers. The latter explanation seems 
to be the better one, as it is unlikely that during a whole summer's fishing only one 
spawning area should have been by chance found, if such special spawning areas exist. 
All the canners whom I consulted upon the subject were perfectly familiar, it is inter- 
esting to observe, with the fact of a large catch of " Eggy school lobsters," as they 
called them. The catch occurs about the end of Jmie every year. It occurs in like 
manner off the Massachusetts coast. 

That this " eggy school " makes its appearance about the same date each year 
requires explanation, and the explanation would seem to be that the female lobster 
knows when her eggs are ripe for hatching, and then leaves her burrow. How does she 
know that her eggs are ripe? We know that hairs on the human body are organs of 
touch. Any one can convince himself of this fact, who will simply take a pencil and 
touch the hairs, not the skin, on the back of the hand. Similarly in many other anim.als 
the hairs are sensitive to touch. One can readily understand, therefore, how the soften- 
ing of the tenacious secretion which fixes the eggs to the hairs on her swimmerets may 
give the first intimation to the mother lobster that her eggs are ready to hatch. As the 
majority of mothers lay their eggs about the same time in August, so a majority of 
mothers will hatch their eggs 10| months later, and thus we come to see that an 
" eggy school " of lobsters merely means that an unusual number of berried females 
leave their burrows to hatch their eggs at the same time of the year and get caught in 
the fishermen's traps. 

4. Another set of facts which will be referred to later is, that after August 1, the 
proportion of males to females varies in a marked degree. Up to this date the ratio 
was found to be 100 males to 105 females, but after this date the ratio changed to 100 
males to about 70 females. Where had the other 30 per cent of the females disap- 
peared to? Were they moulting and hiding? 

5. The fifth circumstance which calls for notice in the statistics given above is 
that all the eggs found by Mr. Halkett in August were new eggs, or eggs of 1916, 
whereas most of the eggs observed in May and June were old eggs or those of IQlo! 
It looks therefore as if the open seasons along our coast had been fixed without having 
regard to the spawning, shelling and hatching habits of the lobster. One is accus" 
tomed to think of fishing laws and regulations being framed for the purpose of con- 
serving our fisheries more especially during the breeding season; but it is manifest 
that the open and close seasons for lobster fishing in Canada have been framed for 
other purposes altogether. The Shell Fish Commission of 1913 realized clearly 
enough the desirability of a universal and simultaneous close season applicable to 
all the waters of the Atlantic shores of Canada, and also the desirability of one 
universal fishing season, for they mention both such seasons on page 33 of their report. 



14 \ t r I/. N/.7.'i ici: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
A Xati itAi. ("i.osK Skason. 

The rcscarclies carried on uiuler the Biological Board during the summers of 
1914, 1915, and 1916 point clearly to the necessity of a close season extending at least 
from June 1 to September 30, if the lobster areas are not to be depleted and the 
industry rendered unprofitable within the next few years. As pointed out elsewhere 
in this report, hatching begins probably early in June and lasts until the middle of 
August. In many lobsters, hatching is followed by shelling. What percentage of 
females cast their shells following hatching we do not know; but it is known that 
for six or eight weeks afterwards they are quite defenceless and unfit for human 
food. Also it is known that from the end of June until well into September, egg- 
laying is going on. Should not the laws and regulations, therefore, which are intended 
to protect the lobster in its hatching, its moulting, and its egg-laying habits cover the 
period from June 1 to September oO 'i Let the other eight months of the year con- 
stitute the open season, and during that open season let there be such strict enforcement 
of the law that no fisherman shall have seed lobsters in his possession. If this is 
done, a great advance shall have been made in conserving the lobster industry in 
Canada. 

The objection to trapping during June is easily understood. Everyone who 
has seen a fisherman hauling his traps in this month must have noticed thousands 
of eggs dropping off the abdomen of those females which w^ere carrying ripe eggs, 
sometimea even before they are touched by the fisherman, always, when they are being 
removed from the traps. The bottoms of fishermen's boats carrying lobsters to the 
canneries are frequently covered with thousands of ripe eggs. The loss of fry in 
this way is very great, and the loss would all be saved if the month of June were 
included in the close season. 



J 



l.nlisri:/,' fONN/./.T 1770.V /.V CAXADA 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 



15 



PART II. 



REARING LOBSTEU FRY, 



At the end of last season the Biolog^Ical Board decided to abandon further 
experiments at Lon^- Beach pond, and to remove such parts of the apparatus as were 
still serviceable to Bay View, five miles from the town of Pictou, Nova Scotia. 
This location was chosen because of the higher temperature of the water, and because 
it was here that the first lobster hatchery in Canada was located in 1891. It was 




Fig. No._ 1. — Bay View Lobstti Jl;t'.' htry from the east. Along.side the luaiii building are the 
rearing boxe« crmstructed and operated under the Biological Board of Canada. The shafting, 
paddles, etc., supported by the superstructure, are driven by a small steam engine located 
within the hatchery. 

naturally thought that the two operations of lobster hatching and lobster rearing 
might be mutually helpful, and so indeed they proved to be. The Department of 
Naval Service furnished the Board gratis with motive power, live steam, and fresh 
sea-water, and the Board's staff of biologists were at hand to aid the hatchery stafl 
with any advice which they might need in carrying on the work of the hatchery. 

It was pretty certain that one cause of the failure to rear fry to the crawling 
stage in 1914, and again in 1915, was the cold water of St. Mary's bay. The low 
temperature (average 59° F.) delayed development and allowed ample time for the 
rapid multiplication of diatoms upon the fry, with the result that they died in large 
numbers. Under the circumstances Professor Macallum, F.R.S., Secretary-Treasurer 
of the Board, suggested that warm water should be used in 1916. As a result of the 
adoption of this suggestion this year, not more than 100 diatom? were observed upon 



16 x.-ir.i/, sKinici: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

any one larva ecdysis, and tliese diatoms never interfered with i-itlicr their swimming 
or feeding. 

This then was the chief departure in our operations in lOlG from those of the 
two previous years. The chanpre, liowever, necessitated others. In the first place, 
we could no loiiper have our rearing boxes immersed in the sea-water. If we did, 
there would be an immense loss of heat from the warmed water of our boxes to the 
surrounding water of the sea. The boxes, therefore, had to be placed upon land, and 
close to the hatchery, so as to be convenient to steam power and to the fresh running 
sea-water. 

In the second place, we had to reduce the depth of water in our boxes. The 
weight of water in boxes 10 feet by 10 feet, by 3 feet 9 inches deep would be so great 
that no ordinary deal boards would stand the strain. Accordingly the depth of water 
was reduced to about 2 feet 4 inches. Even with this reduction the pressure caused 
bulging of the sides and bottom, with the result that in place of each box being water- 
tight in relation to the other, the joints opened sufficiently to allow our fry to pass 
from one box to another. 

A third change in our apparatus was in the water supply. Whereas in the two 
previous years, fresh sea-water was drawn in through large openings in the bottom 
of our boxes and forced out through equally large openings in the sides, this season 
we were compelled to supply water to our four boxes through iron pipes which con- 
veyed the water from the hatchery tank. It is true that we had a small tank of our 
own between the big tank and our boxes, but it was for the purpose of warming the 
cold sea-water up to any desired temperature. The warming was done by passing 
live steam through a coil of pipes which were placed in the bottom of the small tank. 
The average temperature maindained was about 68 F. The revolving paddles in each 
box were continued in use this season, but not for the purpose of supplying a current 
of fresh sea-water to the fry. The object was rather to keep the fry in motion so' 
as to prevent cannibalism, and to aerate the water by exposing a fresh surface to 
the oxygen of the air. The only change in paddle movement was a reduction in. 
speed from about nine revolutions per minute to about six. It had seemed to m© 
in our two years' previous experience that nine revolutions produced a current which 
tumbled the fry about to an unnecessary extent, and without any corresponding 
advantage. Last year the refuse food, the fry casts, dead fry, algae, and other 
material entering our boxes, were all passed out through the side windows with the 
water which left our boxes. This year a different arrangement had to be made. A 
faucet was placed in the bottom of the boxes about the centre. Each could be opened 
at pleasure, and the refuse passed out as soon as it appeared to have accumulated 
beyond a point that might prove poisonous to the fry. The flow of water to the fry 
under this new plan was a subject about which we had no information. 

We started operations by supplying each box with a stream of water which 
allowed about nineteen pints of sea-water to enter and leave every minute. Towards 
the end of the season Mr. A. B. Dawson carried out an experiment on this subject 
and made the following report : — 

"At Bay View the question was raised: were the larval lobsters receiving sufficient 
fresh water or was the high death-rate partially due to a deficiency in the supply? 
The question was a vital one, but work on it was neglected till late in the season 
and only one experiment was attempted. One specimen of a fourth-stage larva 
was placed in a hatching jar containing a pint of water. Due to the large size of 
the jar, which was seven inches in diameter, the surface of the water exposed to the 
air was great in comparison with the volume. The jar was kept at the ordinary) 
room temperature of the hatchery, which varied according to the changes in the 
weather. No attempt was made to replace the water lost by evaporation. Eood, con- 
sisting of cooked egg, was added every two or three days and the uneaten fragments 
were allowed to accumulate at the bottom of the jar. Under these conditions the 



LOBSTER CONSERVATIOy fX C.WADA 17 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

lobstor lived four hours loss than three weeks. That is, the animal survived for 300 
hours ill a \nnt of water, which was necessarily considerably reduced by evaporation 
and had become more or less foul by decaying particles of food. 

According to careful measurements the four rearing boxes, which at first con- 
tained 20,000 first-stage larvse, received on an average 77 pints of water a minute, 
or 1,386,000 pints in 300 hours; 70 pints for a single individual. This experiment 
would indicate therefore that the water supply to our boxes was ample, since death 
came to the subject of the experiment supplied with one pint, only after a period 
of 300 hours. 

Other and more accurate experiments along these lines suggested themselves, 
but on account of the lack of the necessary time had to be postponed." — (Sgd.) 
A. B. Daavson. 

Mr. Dawson's conclusion is corroborated by the observations of all who have 
worked on lobster's eggs and on newly hatched larva?. I have frequently seen a dozen 
or more fry live for a week or longer in less than a half-pint of water, and without 
the water being changed. 

On the 9th of July into two of our boxes, fry were transferred from the fry 
tanks of the hatchery. Two days later 10,000 more fry were placed in the other two 
boxes, making 20,000 in all; that is, 5,000 in each box. The second 10,000 were fry 
from our own stock of mother lobsters, of which we had 61 in a compartment nnder 
the hatchery wharf. Whatever the reason may have been, these latter fry appeared 
stronger and more vigourous than those from the hatchery jars. At any rate, more 
of them survived to the fourth stage. All received the same quality of food, and 
all were kept at the same temperature, and the only apparent reason for the differences? 
in vitality was that the aeration of the water iti our boxes was better than in the 
hatchery jars. As soon as our first batch of fry was seeded into our boxes, routine 
work was established and went on as in previous years. The kind of food (scrambled 
eggs), quantity fed, and times of feeding, were all the same. The fry passed through 
their first moult in about seven days, their second in about four days, and their third 
in about four days ; and on July 22 we counted out 800 fourth-stage fry, or about 
4 per cent of the 20,000 with which we started operations. 

This is rather a poor showing as compared with the 40 per cent output reported 
at Wickford. It is, however, equal to that at Port Erin, Isle of Man, where the 
manipulation is largely by hand, and where the output has ranged around an average 
of 4 per cent for the years 1911-1915. 

It happened that Professor Macallum visited our plant the day we distributed our 
first batch of fourth-stage fry in the sea. In thinking over the heavy mortality which 
our fry suffered not only at Bay View, but at Long Beach pond in the two previous 
years, he suggested that perhaps the next advance in lobster rearing lay in the direction 
of better feeding. He thought that a possible cause of the great mortality lay in the 
fact that the fry were fed exclusively on cooked food. It is quite true that 
some of the fry might get some vitamines from the plankton of the sea water, 
or from eating their fellow fry, but if not, then the absence of the growth-promoting 
substances to be found only in raw food would in time prove fatal. By the addition 
of minced crab, or clam, to the food. Dr. Macallum thought better results might be 
achieved. We shall test this matter next season. 



SECOND BATCH. 

A second batch of 5,000 fry was placed in box 4 on July 24, and a second batch of 
5,000 in box 3 on July 26. On the 28th, it was observed that some first stage fry were 
in boxes 2 and 1, indicating that on account of the continued weight of water, the 
partitions between the boxes had given way and allowed some of the fry to escape from 

3Sc— 2 



18 



A III/. snmicK 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

the boxes, 3 and 4 into boxes 1 and 2 in wliich some 3rd and 4th stage fry of our first 
batr-h were confined. 

It is well known that cannibalism increases with the age of the fry and accordingly 
it was no surprise to find the younger fry growing fewer in boxes 3 and 4, because 
just as the>- migrated to boxes 1 and 2, they were devoured by the older fry or so-called 
" Sharks," inhabiting these boxes. 

On the 29th. 4 per cent of the first batch were transferred to the sea. The few 
remaining of the second batch of fry in box 4 had all moulted by the 30th, taking 5 
and 7 days to do so. On the 31st about 1.500 fry were placed in box 1. By August 
2nd a few of the second batch in box 4 were in the 3rd stage. From this date onward to 
the 14th when the machinery was stopped, there was nothing to report except steadily 
diminishing numbers from causes which we could not understand. 

Xo doubt cannibalism played some part in their disappearance; but it is likely 
that the kind of food, or possibly the absence of the natural kind of food, was a factor 
in their rapid disappearance. Plankton feeding has been tried at the Port Erin labora- 
tory. Isle of Man, but apparently without mucli success, because as already stated, only 
an average of 4 per cent of their fry has hitherto been reared to the crawling stage. 

Our second batch ended with IT fry in the 4th stage and 135 in the 3rd. This 
out of some 11,000 or 12,000 larvae. 



LOBSTER COXSEh'VATlOX f\ r 1 V 1 /).-1 19 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

PAKT III. 

IMATING EXPERIMENTS. 

As 191G is the third season during which mating experiments have been carried 
on, it seems proper to review the results before planning for a continuation of these 
experiments. 

About the 10th of June, 1914, there were placed in a small pound off St. Mary's 
bay, N.S., 47 females and 15 males all known as " commercial lobsters," because the 
females when caught in fishermen's traps have no berries upon them. The pound was 
made of wooden slats about 4 feet long by 3 inches wide and 1 inch thick, placed 
about one inch apart. The area enclosed was 20 feet by 10 feet; the bottom was) 
muddy; and the animals were fed regularly. 

On the 12th of August they were dipped up to" see what condition they were in. 
To our surprise it was found that 36 per cent of the females had extruded eggs. By 
the end of September the percentage had risen to 64 per cent. On the 7th of April the 
following spring, thirty females, representing the 64 per cent, were all found alive 
in the latticed compartment with a full complement of eggs upon them. While Dr. 
Herrick (quoting from Vinal Edwards' " American Lobster," 1895) reports 12 per cent 
as the percentage of berried females caught in fishermen's traps along the Massa- 
chusetts coast, in Canada careful inquiries among both canners and fishermen of the 
bay of Fundy area elicited the information that only about 1 per cent of the female 
lobsters carry eggs. It was clear, therefore, that as a mere matter of accident 
we had increased the percentage from 1 per cent to 64 per cent. Two questions 
accordingly presented themselves for investigation: (1) How is it that 99 per cent of 
our female lobsters in the open sea carry no eggs, and (2) how is it that when males 
and females are brought together in a small pen, as high a percentage as 64 per cent 
are found to carry eggs? 

Reverting to the thirty females which wintered in our pound, it may be noted in 
passing that they all hatched their eggs normally during the last week of June and 
the early part of July, and that nine of the thirty again extruded eggs in July- 
August, 1915. 

As to the mating experiments of the season of 1915, it may be remarked that 
they were not so successful as were those of 1914. Only 40 per cent extruded eggs 
and over half of these were unfertilized. 

One reason for this was undoubtedly the lack of males. During the early part 
of the summer we had only one male to serve fiifty-one females. Later on. we were 
fortunate in securing twenty-five more males, but half of them died by accidental 
poisoning with the '" Indian Red " paint on the inside of their i)en. Moreover, many 
of the remaining ones were undersized — 9 to 9^ inches in length. But perhaps the 
main cause of the poor results lay in the fact that the large majority of the females 
had been retained in the pound over winter and had suffered much in general health. 
Few of them had moulted and their " shells " were covered with a dark brown algal 
growth that I have always seen upon lobsters in lengthened confinement in a muddy 
pound, but never upon lobsters that are taken directly from the open sea. 

In 1916 the Board authorized an extension of the experiments to two additional 
areas on the maritime coast, namely, St. Andrews, X.B.. and Pictou. N.S.. on the 
Northumberland straits. The extrusion of eggs at the three localities was 26 out 
of 105 females at St. Mary's bay; 8 out of 22 females at St. Andrews, and 14 out' 
of 21 at Pictou, or, roughly speaking, 25 per cent, 36 per cent, and 66 per cent 
respectively. 

38c— 2i 



20 A'.lV.4/v fiERVlCE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

How do tlicsc porcentages compare with tli(> pc-roentages on females caught in 
lol>st<T trails in these same areas? Fortunately we were able to make some approxi- 
mation to an answer to these questions thronj^h some investigations which, under 
instrui'tions from the Department of Naval Service, ^Ir. llalkett. an officer of the 
Fisheries Branch, was detailed to carry out. Tie spent the summer of 1010 going 
out with the fishermen at various points along the coast and compiling statistics as 
to the total males, total females, and percentage of berried females caught in tho 
lobster traps. He carried on the work during the open seasons in the different dis- 
tricts in Nova Scotia and in the straits of Northumberland, and his results may be 
• •onsidered to be fairly typical of the conditions prevailing in the open sea, so far a? 
-uch conditions can be gauged from the catches in the traps of the fishermen. 

From the returns thus secured, and printed elsewhere in this report, it is clear 
that the percentage of female lobsters carrying eggs, taken in traps, varies from less 
than 1 per cent in the baj' of Fundy area (which may be said to include St. Andrews 
and St. Mary's bay) to 4-2 per cent in Northumberland straits; whereas mating 
lobsters in artificial compounds in these same areas shows an increase over these 
tigures of 2,500 per cent at St. Mary's bay, 3,600 per cent at St. Andrews, and 1.600 
per cent at Pictou. 

Till-: KXPKIilMKXTS AT LO\G BF.ACII, X.S. 

The Biological Board is indebted to Mr. D. A. !Mackay, M.A., for furnishing the 
'Ictails of the breeding experiments at Long Beach. During ]\ray and June, Mr. 
Mackay supervised the reception, detention, feeding, and distribution of 745 berried 
lobsters that had been purchased from fishermen and confined in the retaining pounds 
at Long Beach pond until the end of the " open " season, June 16. During July and 
August he super^'ised our mating experiments and sent on to me at Pictou from 
week to week samples of the eggs which were extruded. 

The lobsters were confined in five different pens or compartments, four of them 
being rearing boxes exactly like the rearing boxes of the "Wickford plant, only that 
the sides consisted of lattice work. The fifth pen was latticed also, but it rested 
upon the bottom of the pond with about 3i feet depth of water at low tide. The 
boxes were numbered for convenience in keeping our records. In box 1 were placed 
twenty females and ten males; in box 2, twenty-four females and twenty-four males; 
in box 3, twenty-four females and eighteen males; in box 4, twenty-two females and 
males aud in box 5, the one which rested on the bottom, 20 females with no males. 

On the 25th of August, when Mr. Mackay ceased making observations, the 
berried females obtained from each box stood as follows: Box 1, four females; box 2, 
four females; box 3, six females; box 4, five females, and box 5, seven females, or 26 
in all out of 105 (5 having died in confinement) or about 25 per cent. It will be 
noted that the pen with no males in it gave the largest number of berried females. 
Only one of the seven females in it carried unfertilized eggs. It is clear that no 
conclusion can be drawn from these meagre experiments as to the proportion of 
n.ales and females that should be placed in any pen so as to secure the maximum 
of berried females. As six out of the seven females in box 5 bore fertilized eggs, it 
is evident that the sperm cells for the fertilization of the eggs must have been 
deposited in the receptaculum seminis of the females before they were caught. It 
may be, of course, that the sperm cells which fertilized the eggs of the 19 in the 
other boxes were also deposited in the receptacula of the females when they were in 
the open sea, and that no copulation at all took place in the pens. 

EXPERIMENTS AT ST. ANDREW's. 

The mating experiments at St. Andrew's were supervised by Dr. A. G. Huntsman, 
the Curator of the Biological Laboratory there. 



LOBSTER CONSERVATION IN CANADA 21 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

The car in which the lobsters were confined was a floating one similar to those 
n?ed by fishermen. It was 16 feet long by 10 feet wide, and 3^ feet deep, and sub- 
divided into S compartments each 5 feet by 4 feet by 2^ feet, inside measurements. 

On June IS, 24 females and eight males were placed in the car — 3 females and 
1 male in each compartment. They were all commercial lobsters. Dr. Huntsman 
examined the car on August 8 and found that two of the females had " disappeared." 
Of the remaining 22, seven had extruded eggs. On the 23rd of August they were 
again examined when it was found that 1 more had extruded eggs, making 8 out of 
22, or nearly 36 per cent. 

The females were all large, those which spawned ranging from 14 to 16 inches 
ill length; those which did not spawn measured from 13 to 15 inches. These measure- 
ments are in sharp contrast with those at Pictou where the lobsters are all com- 
paratively small, averaging only 7-7 inches, due no doubt to excessive fishing with 
bull trawls. 

As to spawning by compartments, it was found that there was a single female 
with eggs in each of five compartments on August 8, and in one compartment there were 
two with eggs; from one of the five compartments, the berried female was removed 
and an unberried female put in; one of the females in this compartment had extruded 
eggs by August 23. All the eggs were fertilized. 

THE BAY VIEW EXPERIMENTS. 

The mating experiments at Bay View were under my supervision. Twenty-five 
males and twenty-five females were put into a compartment measuring about 10 feet 
by 18, the depth of water ranging from four to eight feet with the rise and fall of 
the tide. The bottom was made of boards but it was partly covered with sand and 
stones. Whether the character of the bottom had anything to do with promoting 
mating and egg-laying is difficult to say. Further experiments are necessary to 
decide this point. At Long Beach this season the pen in whicJi the largest number 
of females extruded eggs had a stony bottom and in 1914 the pen in which our first 
mating experiments took place had a muddy bottom. It looks, therefore, as if the 
natural sea bottom, whether stony or muddy, promoted egg-laying as indeed one 
might expect. The other four compartments at Long Beach as well as the 8 pens at St. 
Andrew's had board bottoms. 

At Bay View, two of the original 25 females " disappeared " from the pen, and 2 
died. Fourteen of the remaining 21 extruded eggs, making the percentage of females 
carrying eggs in this pen 66 per cent. All the eggs but two were fertilized. The per- 
centage of females carrying eggs in the open sea as determined by fishermen's traps 
during the month of June was 4-2 per cent. During the last 10 days in August the 
percentage was only 2J per cent; and during the last four days in September the per- 
centage had risen to 5-6 per cent. 

RELATIVE NUMBERS OF THE SEXES. 

Any attempt to estimate the value of lobster mating or lobster breeding in pens 
inevitably brings up the question of the relative numbers of females which naturally 
carry eggs on the sea bottom. We have unfortunately no direct knowledge of the rela- 
tive numbers of males and females in the open sea. When lobsters were abimdant as in 
the sixties and seventies, it would have been possible to determine more accurately 
than now the proportion of males to females, as well as the percentage of berried ones ; 
but to-day with greatly reduced numbers scattered over wide areas the determination 
is more difficult. We are dependent upon the lobster trap for our inferences, and the 
lobster trap gives widely varying numbers in dift'erent areas as may be seen by refer- 
ence to the following table of catches : — 



22 



NAVAL HERVIVK 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Place !in<l Dato. 



Males. 



rpmalea. 



Of 

which 

were 

berried. 



Ilulio f)f males 

to 

feiiiaicM. 



l-'ereentage 
of berried 
feniale.s. 



Unnamed place, June 1st to 30th, 200 

vards from shore 

Hay View, June 2:Jrd, 24th and 27th, In- 

.side fishing 

Kay \'i( w June 23rd, 24th, 27th, Outside 

fishing 

Unnamed place, August 1st to 30th, 200 

yards from shore 

I-ast 10 days August, Bay View, Inside 

fishing 

Last 10 days August, Hay View, Outside 

fishing 

Hay View. Sept. 27th to 30th inclusive, 

Inside fishing 

Bay View. Sept. 27th to 30th inclusive. 

Outside fishing 

•(1) Mr. Halkett's catches 

(2) Mr. Edwards' catches 



84 

1,764 

1,112 

110 

1,279 

460 

181 

350 

3,333 
1,313 



98 

1,052 

1,148 

42 

817 

319 

104 

233 

3,013 
1,344 



3 
45 
48 

3 
14 
14 

9 

10 

100 
168 



100 II G 

100 GO 

100 103 

100 38 



100 
100 
100 



63 
G9 
60 



100 66 



100 93 
100 103 



3 

4-2 

41 

71 

1-7 

4-4 

80 

4-3 

3 06 
120. 



*Mr. Vinal Edwards' Woods Hole catches and Mr. Halkett's are included for the sake of comparison 
but in these there is no distinction between "outside" and "inside" fishing. 

Fishermen at Bay View designate three miles off shoi-e as " outside." and anything 
inside the three miles as " inside " or " in.=!hore " fishing. Also, anything deeper than 
five fathoms is always designated outside as a rule; less than five fathoms is inshore, 
but there is no hard and fast rule as to depth in distinguishing inside from outside. 

Are we to accept these figures as representing api)r<)ximately the true proportion 
of males to females upon the sea bottom? If we are. then one inference is that there 
are more males than females, close along the shore as compared with the numbers out 
at sea. If on the average, males and females are equal in number, then it would be 
interesting to discover how it is that " inshore" there are only ahout 60 or 70 females 
to 100 males. Where are the other 30 per cent or 40 per cent of females? If present 
on the bottom with males, why did they not enter the traps? Were they hiding in 
their burrows? Had they cast their shells, and were they soft-shelled and afraid to 
venture out? The.se questions all await answers in the future. 

Referring again to Mr. Halkett's figures for August 1 to August 10 along the 
south shore of Prince Edward Island, it will be observed that the males numbered 
1,115 to 789 females or a ratio of 100 males to 70 females. The statistics, therefore, for 
" inside " fishing the end of June, at the end of August, and at the end of September 
at Bay View, all corroborate those obtained at Prince Edward Island, namely, that 
within 3 miles or less from shore and in shallow water the males outnumber the females 
in the ratio of 100 to between 03 or 70 ; whereas offshore in deeper water the ratio 
stands about 100 males to 100 females. What these variations in numbers mean it is 
difficult to say, but one thing is quite clear, the females do not migrate " inshore " to 
the same extent as the males. This general migration towards shore in the summer 
and offshore in autumn has of cour.se been long known ; but why should not the sexes 
remain equal? 

Perhaps the most interesting result in the September fishing tests was the dis- 
I'overy that of HO males and 50 females placed in two mating pens the 30th August, 
13i per cent of the females had extruded eggs by 30th September; whereas in the open 
•sea the percentage on August 30 was only 2i per cent and at tlie end of September 
5-6 per cent, and this too notwithstanding the fact that one of our pens gave way at 



LOliRTER CO^HEltVATlOS f\ f'WAfU 23 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

one corner and allowed .sonic of our inatiii.u' aiiiiiial> tn csfapo. 'I'Ik- ctlicacy of 
mating: in tlii.s instance is clear enouuli. 

NUMBER OF BKRRIED FEMALES. 

Undoubtedly the percentage of females carrying eggs varies greatly along both 
the Canadian and the American shores, and this is a very important matter when we 
come to estimate the value of mating. If the lobster traps give us a true idea of 
the lobster population on the bottom of the sea, then the efficacy of mating is beyond 
all dispute; but if there are in the open sea many more berried lobsters than are 
revealed by traps, then there may be little or no efficacy at all in mating in pens. 
Manifestly, therefore, it is of the highest importance to gather as much information 
as possible regarding the lobster population on the ocean bottom. 

BIENNIAL EGG-LAYING. 

It cannot be admitted that the theory of biennial egg-laying with moulting in 
the alternate years can have any reasonable bearing upon our mating experiments. 
Because, in the first place the theory has never been shown to be founded upon facts. 
On the contrary, we have had females in confinement both in 1915 and in 1916 which 
did extrude eggs for two years in succession. Moreover, Mr. T. Anderton, the super- 
intendent of the Marine Fish-hatchery, Portobello, New Zealand, reports annual 
spawning by 11 out of 15 lobsters in 1911, nineteen out of 21 in 1910, and twenty- 
three out of 23 in 1909. In addition to contradictory facts like these, the theory is 
faced with the further difficulty of explaining how it happens that 50 per cent of 
the females are not carrying eggs if they spawn every second year. Of course, those 
who believe in annual spawning have the greater difiiculty still of explaining how 
it happens that 100 per cent of the females are not carrying eggs. A believer in 
biennial spawning who criticizes our mating experiments by saying that the 26 
females out of the 105 at Long Beach would have spawned anyway whether in pens 
or in the open sea, would be bound to explain why there were not 52 of them with 
eggs in place of 26. Similarly, he would have to explain how it was that only 8 
extruded eggs at St. Andrew's in place of 10. At Bay View he would be met with 
the greater difficulty still of explaining how it came about that 14 spawned out of 
21, when according to his own theory only half of the 21 should have done so. The 
fact is that the theory breaks down completely upon even a superficial examination, 
and it is high time that it were discarded altogether. 



A SIMPLE EXPLANATION. 

A comparison of the decreasing numbers of any of our wild land animals with 
the decreasing numbers of lobsters will show that over-shooting on land produces 
similar results to over-fishing in the sea. In both, man is the destructive agent. He 
clears the land and shoots the game. The numbers of the adult animals dwindle, 
and of course, the numbers of young also. As the animals decrease, the survivors 
become more and more widely scattered, and mating less frequent whether the animals 
be deer, partridge, or ducks. So it is with lobsters. The statistics kindly furnished 
me by United States Uish Commissioner Dr. Hugh M. Smith, shows this beyond all 
question, and for our Canadian waters, Mr. Ilalkett's figures do the same. As the 
lobsters become more widely separated, mating becomes less frequent with the result 
that there are fewer females carrying fertilizd eggs. Moreover, if the eggs which are 
extruded are not fertilized, they will " go bad " and drop off sooner or later, thus 
greatly reducing the percentage of berried females. 



24 .V.ir.-l/, SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



On the assumption that the catch of berried females in lobster traps represents 
approximately the proportion of berried females on the sea bottom the efficacy of 
nlating in pens as a means of conserving the lobster industry may be fairly claimed to 
liave been demonstrated by our three seasons of experimentation, lo say the least, 
the results thus far amply justify further experiments on a larger scale, and if the 
results prove as satisfactory as those already achieved mating will far surpass either 
lobster hatching or lobster rearing as a means of conserving the lobster industry. 



LOBSTER (<>\si:/f\ \ri<>\ /.V CANADA 25 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

PAllT IV. 



LOBSTER SANCTUARIES. 

What can we do to stay the decline of our annual lobster harvest? The initiative 
has been taken by the Government, and it is too late now to talk about leaving the 
problem to either the lobster fishermen or the canners. The former do not yet realize 
that their industry is declining, and that it can only be saved from becoming un- 
profitable by united action on their part; while most of the latter know perfectly well 
that the industry is waning, but before their profits reach the vanishing point they 
may be trusted to either close up their factories altogether, or sell them to less 
experienced operators. The fact that 296 canneries have ceased operation since 1900 
tells its own tale. 

What is to be done? It is useless to look to the hatcheries as a means of 
replenishing our depleted waters. Rather are they agencies of destruction than of 
conservation, if the Bay View hatchery is to be considered a fair type of the work 
they do. We must therefore look elsewhere for succour — but where? If fishermen 
would voluntarily agree to return all berried females to the sea, a great deal might 
be accomplished towards postponing the evil day; but the greedy and the lawless 
would render this method of conservation of no avail, by not obeying the law, just 
as they have not obeyed it in the past. 

Nor can it be said that lobster rearing plants are likely to be more effective 
than hatcheries. At the end of three years' experimentation, the best results are 4 per 
cent out of our first batch of 20,000, and 13 per cent out of our second batch of 
11,500. Even if we had succeeded in rearing 40 per cent of our fry, which is the 
percentage reported from Wickford, Rhode Island, the success of a rearing plant 
is not by any means demonstrated. For, just as we know nothing about the number 
of fry that will grow to maturity from the operation of a hatchery, so we are equally 
ignorant of the numbers which will grow to maturity from the operations of a rearing 
plant. The best that can be said in favour of lobster rearing is that more of the 
fry are lihely to become adults than are the fry of a hatchery. But that is not saying 
much. How many will actually grow into adults no man knows, and consequently 
we shall always be in the dark as to whether the rearing plant gives any adequate 
return for the expense of building and operating it. 

The lobster industry is a huge one, the annual catch in Canada being estimated 
at from 70,000,000 to 90,000,000, according to an authority quoted by the Canadian 
Shellfish Commission in their report of 1912-13. Assuming Professor Herrick's esti- 
mate to be correct, that one adult lobster only grows to maturity from 15,000 eggs, 
it follows that by either natural or artificial means of conservation no fewer than 
about 1,200,000,000,000 of eggs would be required each year to make good tlie annual 
loss of adults. Where are so many eggs to come from? Certainly not from our four- 
teen Canadian hatcheries, because they furnish according to Government returns 
only about 760,000,000, not the one-thousandth part of what would be required to 
replenish the annual destruction. Let it be remembered too that this estimate of 760,- 
000,000 fry as the output of all our hatcheries is far higher than it should be. Prob- 
ably 100,000,000 is nearer the mark and if so, they do not furnish the ten-thousandth 
part of the fry that are required to keep the industry where it is today. 

These figures are referred to not because they are considered important and con- 
vincing but because they serve to emphasize the huge scale upon which conservation 
must be planned if conservation is to avail anything. As well attempt to stay a city's 



26 .\.n .1/, si:i{\ ici: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

coiiriagratioii with a s(|iiirt as try to conserve tVie lobster industry with the petty outjiut 
of either hatcheries »>r rearing ])lants. 

The destruction is on a huge scale, restoration must be equally huge. The 
problem is not impossible of solution? In stemming the tide of destruction we must 
aim at doing big things and the two biggest things are (1) to increase the production 
of eggs, and (2) to care for the berried mothers. We may well emphasize the protec- 
tion of berried lobsters because canners and fishermen alike affirmed tliis summer that 
they had never seen spawn-bearing lobsters so scarce. If so, we may look for a small 
pack of lobsters six years from now. 

Coming back to our problem, the question is how can we increase the production 
of eggs, and how can we protect the berried females on a scale big enough to cope with 
the annual destruction by canners and fishermen. Certainly not by mating on the 
]>etty scale on which our experiments have been carried on during the past three sum- 
mers. Little enclosures 10 feet by 20 feet with a couple of dozen females impounded in 
them are well enough for demonstration purposes, but cannot achieve anything as 
(Conservation agencies. But prohibited and protected bays of several square miles of 
area — lobster sanctuaries — in short, well stocked with thousands of full-grown lobsters 
would in a few years make a great difference in the annual catch. It cannot be too 
clearly understood that by sanctuaries I do not mean lobster pounds of small areas 
enclosed by costly walls. I mean large natural bays or harbours if possible with nar- 
row entrances which are to be set apart by Government s])ecially for lobster culture.* 
lake for example the area from which- the Bay View hatchery is supposed to draw its 
-upply of eggs. Elsewhere in this report will be found the data upon which it has 
been estimated that about 30,000 spawn lobsters should have reached the seven can- 
neries in the Bay View area during last spring. Whether this number actually did 
reach the canneries is not at present under discussion. The important point is that 
there were 30,000 berried lobsters whose eggs should have been carefully conserved by 
l)oth canners and fishermen. If we accept the estimate that every berried female 10 
inches long carries at least 10,000 eggs, we see that the 30,000 mothers should have 
furnished 300,000,000 eggs for the Bay View hatchery. How is it that only 71,000,000 
reached the hatchery? Can it be that three quarters of the eggs were either " brushed " 
into the sea or put into the boiling pots of the factories? It would be interesting to 
see this mystery cleared up. But aside from that, the big question is what should be 
done with these 30,000 females. Some of the fishermen realizing the serious condition 
of the industry have petitioned the Government to close the hatchery, and propose to 
return all berried lobsters to the sea. Returning the spawn lobsters to the sea just 
where and as they were caught would not be a wise move, because the same mothers 
would be caught over and over again, and this would entail serious labour and loss of 
time upon the fishermen. It would, I think, be wiser for the hatcherj^ launch to gather 
up all these mothers and place them in Bay View harbour as a sanctuary and protect 
tliem from all poachers. The mothers would hatch out 300,000,000 fry, a decided gain 
over the 15.000,000 fry turned out by the hatchery last summer. 

Naturally enough, the fishermen who would surrender the 30,000 mothers would 
like to be paid commercial prices for them, say 30 cents each, but no Government could 
aiford to pay out $9,000 per annum for spawn lobsters in one small area. A conserva- 
tion policy must be a general policy, applicable alike to every accessible area of the 
Canadian coast, and it would cost the enormous sum of about $400,000 annually to 
purchase all the berried females that are caught along our Canadian coast. If these 
berried lobsters are to be returned to the sea when and as they are caught the fishermen 
must be willing to donate the berried lobsters to the Government as their contribution 
towards conserving the future of their industry. The Government, on its part, should 
l)atrol the prohibited bays and protect the lobsters until the eggs have hatched out. 

* It is interesting to note that the Canadian I^obster Commissioners favoured spawningr 
lobster reserves (lagoons, coves, etc.) in their report in 1898, p. 33. 



l.aiisTEli cossEiiVM i()\ IS ri\.i/M 27 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

Tliat would be conservation on a big soale, but even this would not be big enough to 
make good the estimated catch of 1,470,000 lobsters in the Bay View area. 

Lobster mating is another agency that promises well and that can easily be 
operated on a vast scale, if found efficacious. I am not, however, prepared to advocate 
lobster mating on any large scale at present. Experiments have not been carried on 
long enough or on a sufficiently large scale. Considering the necessarily small way in 
which they liave been carried on during the past three years, the results show an 
increase of eggs ranging from 1,600 per cent to 3,000 per cent. The efficacy of mating 
in small pens 10 feet by 20 feet has been clearly demonstrated by the Biological 
Board. What is needed now is demonstration on a larger scale. Two or three large 
areas like the southwest end of Long B-each Pond, N.S., should be used next summer. 
If 1,000 males and 1,000 females were placed in such a sanctuary for July, August 
and September we should know whether mating is likely to be a success or not when 
tried on a larger scale. If the Baker pond, Cape Breton, is suitable (it may easily 
equal Long Beach) then it, too, should be pressed into service as a mating sanctuary 
for next summer. With the results of mating 4,000 or 5,000 lobsters before us next 
year, we should be in a position to know more definitely whether we may look with 
confidence to mating on a large scale as a conservation agency for the future. 

But let us proceed slowly. As pointed out in my report of last year, there is great 
danger of excessive mortality if sanctuaries are too small in proportion to the numbers 
of lobsters which are confined in them. Confinement and restraint of movement press 
heavily upon nearly all wild animals. Thus the death rate among lobsters long con- 
fined in Long Beach pond was high. The U. S. has had a similar experience. In the 
Fisheries Service Bulletin, issued at Washington for June, 1916, page 4, under the 
heading " Lobster Culture in Maine," we are told that of 17,808 berried lobsters placed 
in Pemaquid pound, Maine (area % acre), in the summer of 1915, only 12,910 were 
alive in April of 1916. The editor adds, " this heavy loss, amounting to nearly 29 per 
cent, and the comparatively poor results in egg collections, can only be accounted for 
by the severe weather conditions to which the stock was subjected during the early 
part of the winter." In my judgment, a portion at any rate of this serious loss may 
fairly be credited, not to the severe winter, but to the close confinement of a large 
number of animals in an area much too small for their comfort and health. That this 
conclusion is a fair one is evident from the fact that the annual loss in the Pemaquid 
pond varies from 15 per cent to 30 per cent. These facts show that owe lobster 
sanctuaries must be carefully selected — neither too small nor too large. They should 
be sufficiently large to accommodate a large number of mating stock, and should be 
chosen only after careful examination by an expert biologist. If too small, the stock 
will suffer, if too large the expense of looking after them and especially of capturing 
and examining them at the end of the season would be very great. 

The duty which lies nearest to our hand now is to bridge the gulf that exists 
between mating in a pen 10 feet by 20 feet and mating in a bay as large as Bay View 
harbour — 6 miles long by 1 mile wide. If it were proved by experiment during the 
next two seasons that commercial lobsters enclosed in an area of one or two acres, 
extruded from 16 to 30 times as many eggs as are found in the open sea, then the 
Government might safely set apart a number of large bays as lobster sanctuaries, 
stock them with the largest males and females that can be found, and reasonably 
expect in a few years to stem the tide of destruction. The cost of one such experiment 
would range from $1,600 to $1,800. But the cost must be met and the experiment 
must be tried before it would be safe to conclude that a large bay or sanctuary for 
mating lobsters would necessarily be successful. The principle of a Xational Park on 
land for the conservation of our forests and wild game is clearly the principle upon 
which we must try to conserve our lobster industry. 



28 



\ M I/, >/7/l K i: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



I'AKT V. 



f;KNKH.\I- liKfoirr l PON TIIK OITPI T ok RAV VIKW LOBSTKU lIATf iriCKV FOR 1010. 

I made a detailed examination into the numbers and condition of the eggs and fry 
in the Bay View Hatchery during the season of 1916, with the co-operation of the 
Department of Naval Service ^Fisheries branch). 

From the point of view of the conservation of the lobster industry the output of 
living fry from the hatchery is far from satisfactory. Tho superintendent tells me that 




Fig. Nn. 2. —Bay View Lobster Hatchery from the west. In front of the building is seen tlie white 
boat-honse. To the h'ft is the wharf and the buildings in the distance are Burnham and Mor- 
rill's lobster canning f.actory. 

he took in this season, 288 quarts of spawn; that this spawn was put into 214 hiitcliing 
jars representing a possible 71,000,000 of fry, if all the fry hatched out. 

Basing my estimate upon facts and considerations to be submitted later on, T 
judge that not more than 15,000,000 fry were returned alive to the sea. A much smaller 
estimate could easily be defended when all the circumstances are considered in connec- 
tion with the age of the spawn; its removal from the mother at the canneries; its 
transportation to the hatchery; its treatment in the hatching jars, and the distribution 
of the fry in the sea. 

PLRPOSE OF THE IIATC'IIERV. 



The Bay View Hatchery is intended to conserve the eggs of the berried lobsters 
which are received at seven lobster canneries within a radius of some seven or eight 



i.oiisri'.it CO \ si:in \i i<i\ i \ <■ \\ \h \ 



29 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

miles from the hatchery. Each fisherman using as many "traps" as he can manage, 
(fig. 3) brings his catch to the canning factory each forenoon. The females whifli 
carry eggs, (about 4-2 per cent in this area) are sorted out from the rest; the eggs are 
removed from the body and the lobsters then transferred to tlie boiling pot and 
canned. The Fisheries Department pays the canner for the eggs, and the canner pays 
the fishermen for the mother lobster. A fisherman, therefore, who is within the bounds 
of a cannery suffers no pecuniary loss, whereas his brother who fishes outside the 
bounds of a cannery docs suffer loss, because he is roqnircd by law to return his ber- 
ried lobsters to the sea without being paid for them. 

Eaeh forenoon two employees of the hatchery, in a gasolene launch, transport the 
eggs from the seven canneries (in shallow trays contained in a box) to the hatchery, 
some of them a distance of about twenty miles. The eggs are deposited in the launch 
between 12 and 1 p.m., and are landed at the hatchery between 5 and 6 p.m. 




Fig. .3. - Pill lour LobstiT Trap. Note the two "ring" entrances to the vestibule, one at the end, 
the other at the side. Another ring oi>ening leads from the ve.stibule to the "parlor" from 
which the escape of lobsters is iini)ossit'le, unless a slat comes off or the netting gives way. 



C3:i arrival at the hatchery, they are transferred to hatching jars, similar to those 
shown in tigure 4. The hatchery superintendent is authorized under printed instruc- 
tions to ]»ut '"from two to three quarts of eggs" into each jar, and sea-water is kept 
running into and out of the jars, as long as fry continue to hatch out. Employees 
are instructed to keep stirring the eggs with a wooden spoon, night and day, so as to 
prevent them from becoming massed together and suffocating each other — an opera- 
tion rendered necessary partly by the fact that too many eggs are placed in each jar. 

At the end of several days or weeks, depending upon the age of the eggs and the 
temperature of the water, the fry hatch out and pass from the jars along small sluice- 
ways into large tanks (figure 5) in which they remain usually not longer than twenty- 
four hours. From the tanks they are siphoned into pails and then transferred to the 
gasolene Inunch in barrels. The launch transports them to different areas in Northum- 
berland straits, where they are siphoned into the sea. 




frv. 




middle of the hatchery. 



i.onsTFR co\S!:i,'\ \ri(>\ i\ t;\\M).\ 



31 



SESSIONAL PAPER Nq. 38c 



CAUSr.S OF r)K\TII. 



Ilore then are some seven or cif?lit operations and conditions that inevitably 
determine the number of living fry which can be distributed from a hatchery: — 

1. Mixing new eggs, that is, eggs of 191G with old eggs, or those laid in 1915. 

2. The care given to the mother lobsters by the fishermen, followed by the care 
with which the eggs are scraped from the mother. 

3. The storage of the eggs^ in fresh or in stale sea-water from the time they are 
removed from the mother vnitil the launch comes for them. 

4. The care exercised in their transportation in trays and boxes while on the way 
to the hatchery. 

5. The care and attention bestowed upon the eggs, while they arc in the hatching 
jars. 

6. The quality of the water which is pumped to the hatchery jars from the sea. 

v. The number of eggs placed in each jar in proportion to the volume and flow of 
T/ater. 

8. The length of time the fry remain in the tanks, and the manner in which they 
are cared for, also their transportation out to sea, and their distribution therein. 

Let us consider these various operations in some detail and in the order indicated 
above. 

1. Loss through mixing eggs. — That the fishermen would bring to the canneries 
some lobsters bearing eggs, of 1915-16, and other lobsters bearing eggs of 1916-17, is 
exactly what any one would expect, who has even an elementary knowledge of the 
natural history of the lobster. By all odds the majority of females " lay eggs," or more 
correctly speaking, extrude eggs, between the 15th of July and the 20th of August, in 
our climate. But while this is true of the majority, it is also true that quite a num- 
ber extrude eggs during the latter part of June and probably a larger minority still 
extrude their eggs during the latter part of August, and well into September. In other 
words, the total egg-laying season extends from about June 15, till probably September 
15.* Diagrammatically, it may be represented as follows: — 



AUG. 1 5 




THEHEIGHT 

OF 

EGG -LAYING 




SEPT. 15 



FIG. 6 

Now, it is the early eggs of June, possibly of May, that are brought to the hatch- 
ery and are mixed with those which will soon hatch out, and which of course were laid 
the previous year. The spring eggs will not hatch out at all this season and represent 
a dead loss. 

Evidence that old eggs (1915) were mixed with new eggs (1916) at the Bay View 
Hatchery was first noted by Professor MacClement about the middle of June, and the 
fact was pointed out to the men on the hatchery launch. Furthermore, ^Ir. A. B. 
Dawson examined on three different days (June 23, 2-1, and 27), 5.076 lobsters brought 
to Burnham and Morrill's canning factory by twenty-three fishermen. Of the total 
females, 2,10.7, only 93 carried eggs, or 4-2 per cent, and among these 93, there were 
15 which bore newly extruded eggs. These eggs went into Bay View Hatchery and 
helped to swell the volume of unhatchcd and dead eggs. 

The evidence of the hatchery jars themselves corroborated the evidence of the two 
observers referred to. On my arrival at the hatchery on July 7, the superintendent 



* See Appendix, in which evidence is submitted to show that more lobsters extrude eggs in 
September than in either July or August. 



32 yiVAL HERVICi: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



brouprlit me samples of tlie last ejjrfrs delivered at the hatchery, viz., those of June 28 
or 30. Epffs of this date were selected for examination, because 1 am informed that 
the general experience at the hatcheries is that the latest eggs to be received are those 
from which fewest fry hatch out. 

Examination of these eggs under the microscope showed that between 10 per cent 
and 15 per cent of them were eggs extruded this spring (1916) and were really eggs of 
this season, whereas the eggs collected earlier this season were those which had been 
extruded in 1915. Here then lay the first cause for the failure of the hatcheries to turn 
out a full percentage of living fry. Of course no one who recognizes the difference 
between the ages of the eggs would expect the two kinds to hatch at the same time, any 
more than he would expect egg? under a hen for two weeks to hatch at the same time 
as eggs under her for two days. 

If the hatching is to be successful then the two kinds of eggs must be kept 
-eparate. In fact lobsters carrying newly extruded eggs should not be taken to the 
canneries at all, and of course, the eggs should not be removed. Placing them in the 
hatching jars along with the eggs of 1915-16 merely helps to kill the good eggs of 
1915-16. and increases the destruction of the eggs which normally will not hatch out 
until 1917. 

LOSS BY CARELESS HANDLING. 

2. In the removal of the eggs from the mother lobster, three points should be 
emphasized. First, the mother lobster should either be towed to the cannery in a 
specially constructed car through which fresh sea water passes so that her eggs are 
always in sea water, or she should be kept under sea-weed and shaded from the sun's 
rays. 

Eggs are delicate structures. A warm wind will dry and kill them, while rough 
handling will injure the baby lobster inside. Hence, the second point is that the eggs 
should be gently and carefully handled, when being scraped from the abdomen of the 
mother. 

Thirdly, there must be absolute cleanliness of the scraper (spoon), the hands of 
tlie operator, the vessel into which the eggs are scraped, and the seawater contained 
in the vessel, otherwise the spores of fungi will get among the eggs and cause loss after 
they reach the hatching jars. 

Lastly, plenty of fresh seawater should be supplied to the eggs every half hour, 
until they are transferred to the hatchery launch. 

LOSS THROUGH DIRT. 

3. The trays and boxes in which the eggs are kept on their way to the hatchery 
cannot be kept too clean. After transferring the spawn to the hatching jars, the trays 
and boxes should be thoroughly scrubbed with clean soap and water, and rinsed in 
boiling hot water so as to remove all traces of eggs, that may have been dirty or may 
liave died. Drying the trays afterwards in the sun is a good way of insuring cleanli- 
ness. 

On the journey to the hatchery, fresh seawater should be gently poured over the 
trays every half hour, and the boxes should be shaded from the direct rays of the sun. 
It would be a simple matter by means of a pump driven from the launch engine, to 
liave a gentle stream of fresh sea water play over the eggs in the trays during the whole 
journey. 

LOSS IN THE HATCHERY JARS. 

4. The care of the eggs while in the hatchery jars must be unremitting, both night 
and day, if success is to be achieved. In the first place, little more than a pint of eggs 
.should be put into a jar. If more than a quart is used, the mere weight of the eggs 



LOBSTER COy'SERrATlOX I.\ CANADA 33 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

at the top of the mass tends to smother the ones lower down. Besides, too many eggs 
act as a filter and make the sediment which is pumped in through the water pipes 
accumulate at the bottom of the jars. Any day during the latter part of the hatchery 
season, one could see a quarter of an inch or more of red mud, sand and organic matter 
lying below the eggs. So discoloured and murky was the water at times that it was 
impossible to see the bottom of our rearing boxes, only two feet deep, or to see the 
adult lobsters in our compartments, only three to four feet deep under the wharf. 

While better results could probably be attained by purer water, it must not be 
inferred that this was the chief cause of the high death rate among the eggs. It was 
not. A much more important cause as already pointed out was the excessive number 
of eggs placed in the hatching jars. This very excess retained minute animals and 
plants below and throughout the close mass of eggs. Ultimately these organisms played 
havoc with the spawn. Towards the middle of July, dozens and dozens of minute 
" animalcules " could be seen with the naked eye at the bottom of all the hatching jars, 
and at the end of the season the sense of smell proved that each jar contained a 
putrefying mass of dead eggs. 

The variety and number of these organisms are surprising and may be judged from 
the following list of diatoms and other forms found in tow netting from one tap of 
Bay View Hatchery for 12 hours. The determination of genera and species was made 
by Miss Fritz, under the supervision of Professor Willey, of McGill University. 

Name. No. % 

Pleurosigma affine 78 26 

" angulatum 30 Id 

" balticuni 2 s 

" fasciola 5 ja 

Skeletonema costatum S7 29^ 

Nitsschia sigma '_ .... 12 4 

" sigmoidia 9 2 

" longissima g 2 

" closteriuni 2 "2 

Coscinodiscus radiatus g 2 

Actinopty chus undulatus 2 s 

Rhizosolenia hebetata 3 2 

Rhabdonema arcuatum 9 s 

Chaetoceras decipiens 1 i 

Melosira (?) 3,) ]^q 

Lionophora 1 1 

Navicula (?) 10 3i 

(?) '...'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 6 2 

Peridinium- w 32 

Ceratium 2 ^ 

CyttarocyUs 2 | 

300 
LOSSES IN THE TANKS. 

6. Attention must also be given to the fry after they have left the jars and are 
being collected in the retaining tanks. Whenever a sufficient number has collected 
they should be distributed. There are serious objections to allowing fry to remain 
even a few days in the tanks. There is death through cannibalism, death through 
lack of food and death through muddy water. In our rearing boxes, which are at 
least three times the size of the hatchery tanks, the death-rate during the first week is 
very high, even although we feed them every two hours. The death-rate in the 
hatchery tanks must be equally high, hence the necessity for distributing the fry two 
or three times a day, whether many or few are hatching out. 

LOSSES IN DISTRIBUTION. 

7. Lastly as regards distribution, it is doubtful whether there is not considerable loss 
of life during the transportation of the fry from the hatchery to where they are planted, 

38c— 3 



34 



.\A\AL SKliVirE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

especially if the journey is far. The barrels used at Bay View for this purpose are the 
ordinary 31 J gallon ones. As many as 5,000,000 fry are reported as being carried in 
one of these barrels at one time. — a number which would certainly cause suflFocation 
and death among the fry, especially if the stale water was not removed and fresh sea- 
water supplied during the journey. It would be a very simple matter to work a small 
pump from the engine and thus furnish a continuous stream of fresh water to the 
barrel. The same pump could be used for supplying fresh seawater to the eggs on their 
way to the hatchery. 



LOSS IX CLOSING HATCHERY. 

To understand how a loss may occur in closing, one must remember that the egg- 
hatching season extends, at Bay View, from about June 15 to August 15, The earliest 
hatching at Jeddore, X.S., was found to be June 16, and we had females hatching in 
our compartments at Pictou as late as August 17. There are, no doubt, females which 
hatch their eggs outside of these dates, but they are few in number. We may there- 
fore represent the egg-hatching season by a diagram similar to the egg-laying one, 
figure 6, but occurring a month or six weeks earlier. 



jUt^ 



30 



JUNE I 



INCREASE 



HEIGHT 

OF DECLINE 

EGG-HATCHING 



)^G, 



AUG.I5 



FIG. 7 



The beginning of hatching, the rate of increase, its maximum, its decline will 
depend upon the egg-laying period of the previous year, and to a considerable extent 
upon the temperature of the water. In a cold spring, when the ice remains long in the 
straits, the egg-hatching will begin later and end later. To make the matter clearer, 
let us try to follow the history of eggs that are spawned late in any season, say Sep- 
tember 30. They are carried by the mother over the winter for 10^ months, or if the 
water remains cold, for 11 months. A cow, a ewe, or a mare carries a single egg which 
develops into a calf or a lamb or a colt, inside of the animal's body for a fixed number 
of weeks or days. Somewhat similarly a mother lobster carries her thousands of eggs 
on the outside of her body, and hatches them out in due time also. If they are 
extruded late in any season, they are due to hatch out late the next season, August 1, 
or it may be August 15. Consequently if the hatcheries are ordered closed at the 
same date every year, it will happen that in a late season many unhatched eggs will 
have to be destroyed. At Bay View this year the order to close did not affect the out- 
put of fry at all, for the simple reason that the last 42 jars of eggs had all rotted in 
the hatchery jars and were all emptied out on July 17, whereas the order to close did 
not come into effect until July 20. 



CLASSIFICATION OF EGGS. 

The length of the egg-hatching season, about June 1 to August 15, may have 
a direct bearing upon the loss of eggs, though I had no opportunity of testing the 
matter. For, during this period of eight or ten weeks, there are eggs of different ages 
hatching out on different days throughout the period, simply because they were laid 
at different dates 10* or 11 months before. ,In the hatchery the early hatching fry 
leave behind in the jar, the egg-capsule, and along with it the epidermis of their first 



LOBSTER COySERVAriO^ l\ CANADA 35 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

moult. I do not fori--et that a portion of this matter passes away in the running 
water. Enough of it remains in the jars to assist in causing trouble. Decomposition 
of both membranes takes place with resulting chemical compounds, which must be 
poisonous for eggs which hatch later in the same jar. The bad effects are aggravated 
by additional organic matter, which enters with the water. 

To prevent the ill effects of mixing eggs of different ages they should be classified 
on the basis of age, as was recommended, it is interesting to observe, in a bulletin 
issued by the department twenty-five years ago (1892). Into one set of jars should be 
placed all eggs that would hatch early, into another sea of jars should be placed all eggs 
that would hatch later, and so on, until there were at least three sets of jars, each set 
with eggs of about the same age. In this way all eggs of the same age would 
hatch about the same time and consequently there would be few late hatching 
eggs in jars that were poisoned by the decomposing membranes of the early hatching 
ones. As well might a farmer sow a field with wheat, some of it May 1, some of it 
June 1, and some July 1, and expect it all to ripen at the same time, as to expect all 
eggs taken at random from different females to hatch out about the same time. 

ESTIMATE OF DEAD EGGS. 

As already stated, an estimate of 15,000,000 of living fry would be an outside one 
for the output of the hatchery this season. A more conservative estimate based upon 
actual count of living fry in the hatching jars, as compared with the dead ones, and 
based also upon an inspection of the number of fry swimming in the tanks on different 
days, might easily reduce the output to 10,000,000 or 12,000,000. 

It might be of interest to give some of the details of the microscope examinations 
made by Mr. Dawson and myself, the second week of July, on eggs received at the 
hatchery at different dates. 

In contrast with the deplorable condition of the eggs of June 28 and 30, already 
referred to, those of May 21 and 22 were fairly satisfactory. Sample jars of these 
collections were also furnished me by the Superintendent. About a dozen different 
egg-masses from different lobsters were removed from a jar and separated into 
individual eggs, or into small masses, by tearing them apart with dissecting needles. 
They were then stirred about thoroughly in a wash basin, so as to give a fairly uniform 
collection from different mother lobsters. The eggs were then divided into four equal 
portions — all four as alike as possible. One of these four portions was selected as 
typical of the whole collection, and every egg in this quarter portion was counted. 
Then every dead egg in this same portion was counted, and the percentage of dead 
eggs determined. 

The following counts were typical of others : — 

Sample 1. 17 eggs bad ones. 

" 2. 77 eggs, of which 7 were bad. 



" 14 " " 
u 10 " 

Total. ... 843 " " 66 '' " 

The percentage of bad eggs here, about 8 per cent, would represent not recently 
extruded eggs, because there would be few, and, perhaps, none of these on May 21. 
Eather would it represent mature eggs which had died through carelessness in the 
canneries, or in transportation, or in the hatchery. 

38c— 3i 



3. 


50 


4. 


100 


5. 


125 


6. 


143 


7. 


196 


8. 


135 



36 



.v.ir.i/. SEitvic/: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

^fr. Dawson's cxayninatioiis, made subsequently to my earlier ones, show a pro- 
gressive increase in the number of dead eggs. For example: — 

Sample 1. 397 eggs, of which 01 contained dead fry. 
'< 2 111 t< " 41 " « " 

a 3 QQ a u J7 « « u 

.5. 260 " " CO " " 

G. 70 " " 115 

An average of about 30 per cent of dead eggs. 

On July 12 another examination of the hatchery eggs was made. On this occasion 
the superintendent was left free to select eggs from any of the 145 jars remaining in 
the hatchery. Counted samples of the eggs which he brought me showed that 30 per 



\ 




Fig. No. S. — Four of the tanks into which newly hatched fry pass. All were disconnected fron) the 
water-supply at the end of the season. On the left one tank is seen placed uix)n another. 
While the fry are swimniinpr in these tanks a close estimate can be easily made of the 
numbers which hatch out from day to day. 

cent of the eggs were dead, whilst another sample of eggs, which I chose at random 
for myself, showed a loss of 23 per cent in dead eggs. 

Four days later the hatchery was again visited. As it was getting near the end 
of the hatching season there were only forty-two jars in operation. A careful examina- 
tion of samples from a number of these jars, in fact, a selection of the best egg- 
clusters that could be found, showed that at the most only 20 per cent of the eggs 
contained living fry. Unfortunately, it was not possible to save this remnant. They 
were so completely tied up, the living with the dead, that there was no possibility of 
saving any of them. Only two jars showed living fry swimming in the water above 
the eggs. 

Fungus growths were visible on the surface of the eggs and showed more 
abundantly under the microscope. Immense numbers of " animalcules " — (Protozoa, 



LOBSTER ro\Si:/{] .\TI(>\ IN CANADA 37 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

Cyclops and .sand-Heas) were attached to or were moving about freely among the living 
and the dead eggs. Young barnacles and mussels were found attached to the inside 
of the jars and glass tubes, of such a size that no one would credit their dimensions if 
he had not actually seen the animals. 

If the whole 42 jars of July 16 could have been examined under a microscope — 
hand-picked, as it were — so as to separate the living from the dead, possibly a million 
fry might have been saved, but as matters stood at that date, no power on earth could 
have saved this remnant out of the possible 7,000,000 fry represented in the eggs of 
these 42 jars. 

ESTIMATE OF LIVIXG FRY. 

To estimate the number of living eggs in a jar is a difficult matter, and reriuires 
considerable training in the use of the microscope. To estimate the fry swimming in 
a hatchery tank is much simpler, and can be learnt by any intelligent person who 
has had a season's instruction and practical experience in a hatchery. 

One method of estimating the number of fry in the tanks is based upon our 
experience in counting living fry at Long Beach pond, in 1914 and 1915. In our 
operations there it was necessary to actually count with the assistance of an automatic 
counter every one of the fry which we put into our large rearing boxes (10 feet by 10 
feet by 4 feet deep) filled with water to within three inches of the top. In counting 
5,000, 6,000, 8,000, 10,000 into such boxes, the eye soon came to form a standard of 
comparison, by which a very close estimate of the number of fry in a box could be 
made without counting. Moreover, at Long Beach, we had the experience of watching 
daily the diminishing number of fry in our boxes, and at the end of the rearing period 
■ — 17 days — we again counted with the aid of the automatic counter our remaining 
living fry. 

With such experience as this to guide us, a mere glance at the hatchery tanks 
from day to day convinced us beyond any reasonable doubt that there were not more 
than from 10 to 12 millions of fry hatched out at Bay View this season. 

PUBLIC REPOKT. 

But a superintendent must not depend upon an inspection of his tanks for his 
estimate when he has to make a public report upon the number of fry which he plants 
in the sea. He must base it upon an actual count. By stirring the water so as to dis- 
tribute the fry uniformly throughout the tank, and placing a cheose-cloth parti tioji 
across the middle, then a second partition across the middle of one half, and if the fry 
are very abundant, a third partition across the quarter, the actual number of fry, in 
one-quarter, or one-eighth of the tank, can be counted and the number thus obtained 
can be used as a basis for estimating the number of fry in the whole tank. 

Furthermore, the estimate made in this way may be checked by measuring the 
dead eggs remaining in the hatchery jars when all hatching has ceased, and then con- 
verting the measured volume into numbers, in exactly the same way as quarts of incom- 
ing spawn are converted into numbers of eggs, only, of course, the units will differ. 

An effective check upon the accuracy of the estimates that may be based upon the 
two foregoing methods is furnished by the daily use of the microscope. As already 
pointed out, when I first visited the hatchery, the number of dead eggs varied in dif- 
ferent samples between 8 per cent and 15 per cent. As time went on, however, the 
percentage gradually increased until within a few more days it reached 30 per cent. 
Then as the poison (bacteria, fungus, and "animalcules") spread still more widely 
among the eggs, the percentage of dead eggs increased, until on July 16 there remained 
alive less than 20 per cent and these contained in only 42 jars. These three methods 
carefully and consistently applied will give a very close estimate of the output of liv- 
ing fry from any hatchery. 



38 



.Y.ir.l/> SERVICE 



TWO BATCHES OF EGGS. 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



There is yet a fourth way in which the output of Bay View hatchery may be 
gauged. A fislierman. whom we shall call 'Sir. " A," sold a lot of Gl berried females to 
the Biological Board for experimental purposes. About the same time he sold another 
lot of berried females to the Logan and ^furdock cannery. Let me narrate very briefly 
the fate of the eggs of these two lots of lobsters. The spawn on the females that went 
to the canning factory was scraped off in the usual way, was transferred to the launch 
and conveyed to the jars in the hatchery. The spawn on the females which Mr. "A" 
sold to the Biological Board ("approximately 600,000 eggs) was not removed at all, the 
mothers being simply confined in a wooden pen under the hatchery wharf. 






l- 



Fig. No. '.». — .Sid'- \'it\v of the end of the Hatchery \\'liarf showing the hitticed pens for mating 
and berried lobsters and admitting a tidal flow of water. Near the end of the wharf :nay b»€ 
seen the intake pijje which supplies sea-water to the hatchery jars and rearing bo.\es. 

Here then were two sets of spawn, both sets obtained from lobsters that were 
caught by the same fisherman, and on the same fishing grounds. So far as known, the 
fisherman took equally good care of both sets of lobsters while they were in his posses- 
sion. The outer end of the intake pipe which supplies water to the hatchery eggs was 
not more than twenty-five feet away from where the Board's berried lobsters lay under 
the wharf. [See fig. 9.] The water, therefore, supplied to both sets of eggs was exactly 
alike in quality. The quantity was abundant for both and the temperature alike for 
both. The hot weather, that is, the temperature of the air, had nothing whatever to do 
with the different fate of the two sets. How was it then that on the iTth of July every 
egg in the hatchery set was dead and hatching operations closed, while in the other set 
the 240,000 eggs remaining, on 40 per cent of the females under the wharf, were all 
alive and healthy? These mother lobsters continued to hatch out fry and distribute 
them in the sea for more than a month after the hatchery set were dead. And this 
brings up the qucftion of the value of a hatchery as a conservation agency compared 



LOBSTER CONSERVATION IN CANADA 39 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

with the simple method of requiring fishermen to put all berried lobsters back into the 
sea. 

TWO POLICIES. 

Conservation by requiring- fishermen to return all berried females to the sea 
dates back to 18Y3. Conservation through the agency of hatcheries dates only from 
1891, when the first building for this purpose was erected at Bay View. No attempt 
has yet been made so far as I know to estimate the relative efficacy of the two methods. 
I may be permitted therefore, to break ground on the subject, it being understood, of 
course, that my comparison is based solely upon facts which came to my knowledge 
during this summer. 

To make the comparison clear, it will be necessary to calculate the number of 
berried females that are delivered at the seven canneries. The data for this come 
partly from the returns to the Government and partly from the canners themselves. 
According to Government returns the catch of lobsters canned in each of the seven 
establishments from which Bay View draws its supply of eggs is as follows: — 

McLeod and Stewart 634 cases. 

Fred Magee, West End, Pictou Island 1,497 " 

East End, " 844 " 

Burnham and Morrill 437 

Logan and Murdoch 740 " 

Geo. W. Atkins 559 " 

W. Smith & Co 313 " 

Total 5,024 cases weighing 

48 pounds each, or a total of 241,152 pounds of meat. 

Now, in two canneries it is known that the average weight of green lobsters 
required to make 1 pound of meat varies from 3-9 to 4-1; it follows, therefore, that it 
would require 940,493 pounds of newly caught or green lobsters to make the 241,152 
pounds of meat. 

The next step in the calculation is to ascertain the average weight of a single 
green lobster. This was done by Mr. A. B. Dawson. He examined 2,269 fresh male 
and female lobsters on the 24th June, and found that they weighed 1,446 pounds, so 
that the average weight per lobster was -64 pounds. Mr. Halkett found (see appendix) 
that 860 lobsters weighed 600 pounds or 0-7 pound each lobster. 

The third step in the calculation was to find the total number of lobsters that 
reached all the factories, and this of course was found by dividing the total weight 
of green lobsters 940,493 by 0-64 giving 1,470,000 lobsters; or using 0-7 as the weight of 
a single lobster 1,343,000. 

Now assuming — an assumption backed up by all the statistics that have been col- 
lected in Canada — that half of the 1,470,000 lobsters are females and that only 4-2 per 
cent of these females carried eggs, we reach the conclusion that between 28,000 and 
30,000 berried females reached the canneries of the Bay View area in 1916. (That is 
females 735,000, of which take 4-2 per cent, approximately 30,000.) 

Outside of the bounds of a hatchery, the law is that these 30,000 females must be 
returned to the sea. Inside of the bounds of a hatchery, the law requires the canner, 
and the canner requires the fisherman, to scrape the eggs off and pass them over to 
the hatchery officials. The question then which the scientist has to answer is: which 
of these two methods of conserving the lobster industry is the better one? To my mind 
the comparison stands thus: — 

(a) Conservation in a Hatchery. 

1. The eggs are scraped off and sent to a hatchery and the 30,000 mothers are 
boiled and canned, so that we have 30,000 dead mothers. 



40 .V.4r.-1/. SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

2. These 30,000 dead mothers will lay no more eggs of course. 

3. Of the 71.000,000 egg>! sent to the hatchery, about S.5 per cent died, so that we 
must face a further loss of 00,000,000 dead fry or eggs. 

4. It costs $2,500 annually to run the hatchery, so that here is a further serious 
pecuniary loss. 

(b) Conservation hy Returning Berried Lobsters to the Sea. 

1. AVe have a straight gain of 30,000 living mothers. 

2. These 30,000 living mothers will, many of them, produce more eggs in future 
years. 

3. The 30,000 whether confined in pens as the Board confined theirs, or liberated 
in the open sea, would in accordance with our observations, both at Long Beach and 
at Bay View, hatch out almost every egg, so that we must credit this method of con- 
servation with 71,000,000 living fry. 

4. The 30,000 living mothers and the 71,000,000 living fry do not cost the country 
one cent. 

Perhaps it should be again stated that this comparison is limited to the Bay View 
hatchery for the summer of 1916. Xo criticism is here made of other hatcheries. 
It is quite possible too that others achieve better results if the staffs are more int^elli- 
gent and better qualified men. 

FURTHER OBJECTIONS TO HATCHERIES. 

A very old criticism and one directed against the hatchery service almost from 
their inception was that many of the fry when deposited in the sea were soon devoured 
by fish. As already explained the fry are taken out in a launch some distance from 
shore and siphoned into the sea. As the internal diameter of the hose (used as a 
siphon) is about an inch, the fry are forced into the sea in such numbers that they 
give a cloudy appearance to the water. That this appearance attracts the attention 
of fish (like cunner) is undoubted, because they have been seen devouring the fry. 
No doubt some of the fry escape, but the loss must nevertheless be considerable. This 
objection to the hatchery method of conservation is specially serious inasmuch as it 
comes at the very end of a lengthy and expensive process. It need scarcely be stated 
that no hatchery stafit can be held responsible for this loss. It is simply one that must 
be reckoned with in weighing the value of this method of conservation. 

In this connection we must also take into serious consideration the conclusion 
reached by Professor Herrick as to the number of fry that grow into adults in the sea. 
His reasoned conclusion is that only one fry out of 15,000 or possibly 5,000 ever 
reaches maturity. If we apply this conclusion to my estimate of the output of Bay 
V^iew hatchery this year, say 15,000,000, we can expect only 15,000,000, or 1,000 adult 

15,000 
lobsters from this season's operations. As the expense of running the hatchery is 
about $2,500 per annum, not including either interest on capital or any allowance for 
depreciation in building or equipment, it follows that each nmturo lobster, grown from 
hatchery fry, costs the country $2,500, or $2.50. 

1,000 

Professor Herrick's estimate may be right or wrong; no man knows; but we do 
know that the number of adult lobsters that grow from hatchery fry is an utterly 
unknown quantity. Althougli this is undoubtedly true, still no one would be foolish 
enough to say that the hatcheries are valueless. They do contribute an indefinite 
something towards the conservation of the industry, but the question is " How much 
do they contribute, and do they contribute enough to make it worth while for the 



LOBSTER CONSERYATION IN CANADA 



41 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

country to run them?" How long would any business man continue to run a factory 
whose output he did not know and could not check? 

No doubt the hatcheries could be made to do more effective work if the employees 
are given some elementary scientific training; but T do not see how the output in fry 
can ever equal the simple plan of returning the berried lobsters to the sea and allowing 
them to hatch their eggs in a natural way. 




42 



MVAL SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



APPENDIX. 

RECORDS OF LOBSTER FISHING DURING THE LAST TEX DAYS OF AUGUST, 1916, FOLLOWED BY A 
SIMILAR RECORD FOR FISHING DURING THE LAST FOUR DAYS OF SEPTEMBER, 1916. 

Carried on by A. P. Knight under a permit issued by the Hon. J. D, Ilazen. 
Minister of Naval Affairs, for the purpose of determining the lobster population on 
the bottom of the south shore of Northumberland straits, near Pictou, N.S. 

Map from an Admiralty chart modified by A. B. Dawson, B.A. 

The records for August were made by Andrew Halkett, Esq., and A. B. Dawson, 
B.A. The records for September, by Andrew Halkett, Esq. 

All the lobsters in the August fishing were returned to the sea, excepting 50 males 
and 50 females, which were retained in our pens for mating purposes during Septem- 
ber. At the end of September all of these which remained in the pens were liberated 
excepting 5 berried females; and all of those caught in the September fishing were 
returned to the sea, excepting 18 berried females. The 23 berried females are confined 
in the pens under the wharf to see whether they will live and carry their eggs through 
the winter. 




8 traps, Aug. 21 . 
6 traps, Aug. 21 . 



8 traps, Aug. 21. 

6 traps, Aug. 21. 
8 traps, Aug. 22. 



*7 traps, Aug. 22. 



6 traps, Aug. 22. 
8 traps, Aug 22.. 



9 traps, Aug. 22. 



10 traps, Aug. 22. 



10 traps, Aug 2.3. 



9 traps, Aug. 23. 



8 traps, Aug. 23. 
7 traps, Aug. 23. 

6 traps, Aug. 23 



3 miles off Munroe's shore. 
2 miles off Munroe's shore. 



f mile NE. of McDonald's reef 
buoy 

Off Mac Kay's house boat | mile. 

3 miles off Munroe's, on rock 
bottom 



2 miles off Munroe's, on rock 
bottom 

Off Graham's reef ^ mile 

Off Graham's reef Ij miles. 

Rock bottom 

McDonald's reef J mile NE. 

Rock bottom 



Sandy cove J mile off. Rock 
bottom 



■^andy cove J mile off, on mud. 



McDonald's reef buoy | mile 

'NE., rock bottom 

Off Graham's reef on sand 

Logan's house over Factory Pt. 

Rock bottom 

Off Graham's reef J mile. Rock 
bottom 



s 

o 
1 


Total 
No. 
males 


8 

7 


31 
14 


6^ 
3 


19 
21 


8h 


33 


51 


32 


2\ 


13 


^ 


25 


5 


21 


5 


60 


5 


64 


5 
4§ 


24 
33 


5J 


38 


2§ 


18 



29 



24 



1 Caprella. 
1 crab in trap. The 
berried female had 
a new shell. 

4 crabs in traps. 
4 crabs. 

Few crabs. Berried 
female had an old 
shell. 

Brown Algse, B ry- 
ozoa. Gunner. 
1 Gammarus. 



Isopods. Few crabs. 
Female recently 
hatched. 

Crabs. 1 male with 

dense algse growth 

on carapace. 
Berried female with 

old shell. Few 

crabs. 

Limpet. 
Caprelln. 



♦The sea water temperature off Munroe's on this occasion was 64° F. 



LOBSTER CONSERVATION IN CANADA 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 



43 



Date. 
Bull Trawl. 



Location. 



m 

s 

o 


Total 


Total 




No. 


No. 


".^ 


.c 


males 


fe- 


•P 


^ 




males 


S3 


51 


72 


64 





5^ 


35 


23 





• 7 


39 


22 





7 


27 


10 


2 


6J- 


35 


24 





5 


15 


9 


1 


5h 


59 


30 





5k 


63 


61 





n 


27 


17 


1 


n 


32 


19 





75 


28 


28 


1 


6i 


33 


23 





5§ 


72 


43 


1 


8^ 


11 


6 





5i 


54 


39 


1 


8 


22 


13 





8 


28 


17 


1 


8 


13 


14 





6.1 


19 


20 


2 


5i 


64 


46 





51 


77 


44 


1 


5^ 


54 


24 





n 


17 


8 


2 


8 


11 


11 





51 


4 


2 


1 


5^ 


48 


29 





6 


55 


36 





7h 


10 


11 





8 


11 


10 





7§ 


19 


9 


1 


6^ 


11 


6 





6^ 


23 


13 





n 


4 


6 


1 


8 


14 


7 





71 


22 


11 


1 


6 


17 


7 






Remarks on 
Ecology, etc. 



10 traps, Aug. 24. 
6 traps, Aug. 24. . 



8 traps, Aug. 24 . 
8 traps, Aug. 24. 



7 traps, Aug. 24. 

8 traps, Aug. 24. 



10 traps, Aug. 24. 

10 traps, Aug. 25. 
7 traps, Aug. 25. . 



8 traps, Aug. 25. 
8 traps, Aug. 25. 



7 trawls, Aug. 25. 
10 traps, Aug. 25. 



9 traps, Aug. 26. . . 
tlO traps, Aug. 26. 



7 traps, Aug. 26. . . 
tt8 traps, Aug. 26. 



8 traps, Aug. 26. 
7 traps, Aug. 26. 



11 traps, Aug. 26. 

10 traps, Aug. 28. 

11 traps, Aug. 28. 
7 traps, Aug. 28. . 



8 traps, Aug. 28. 

9 traps, Aug. 29. 



9 traps, Aug. 29. . 
11 traps, Aug. 29. 

7 traps, Aug. 29. . 

8 traps, Aug. 29.. 
8 traps, Aug. 29.. 



8 traps, Aug. 29. 

7 traps, Aug. 30. 

8 traps, Aug. 30. 

7 traps, Aug. 30. 
7 traps, Aug. 30. 



Sandy Cove 1 mile of hard, mud 
2 mile E. of McDonald's reef, 

soft mud 

Outside, rock bottom 

Outside, rock bottom 



Logan's house over P'actory Pt., 
rock 

J mile NE. of McDonald's reef, 
rock 



Skinner's reef. 



Skinner's reef 

"Outside", rock bottom. 



Outside, rock bottom. 
Outside, rock bottom. 



Logan's house, over Factory Pt., 

rock 

1 mile off Sandy Cove, hard mud 

\ mile outside Skinner's reef, rock 
I mile S. Skinner's reef, rock. . . . 



"Outside", rock bottom. 
Outside, rock 



Outside, rock 

Inside, Logan's house over Fac- 
tory Pt., rock 

1 mile NE. off Sandy Cove, hard 

mud 

1 mile off Sandy Cove 



Skinner's reef, S. 5 mile. 
Outside 



Outside 

Skinner's reef. 

Skinner's reef. 
Skinner's reef. 

Outside 

Outside 

Outside 



Logan's house, over Factory Pt. 
Logan's house, over Factory Pt. 
Outside 



Outside. 
Outside. 



9 traps, Aug. 30 Skinner's reef 



1 Mysis, 1 Caprella. 



Caprella. Neither 
female had moult- 
ed recently, shown 
by shell. 



1 Asterias. The ber- 
ried female had a 
new shell. 

Laminaria, Fucus, 
Dulse on traps. 

9 crabs in 1 trap. 

Female had old 
shell. 

Berried female had 
an old shell. 



Female with old 
shell. 

Sculpin. 

Gunner. Berried fe- 
male with new 
shell. 

Berried female with 
old shell. Crepi- 
dula on rostrum. 

1 Nassa. 

1 scallop, 1 berried 
had new shell. 



Female (berried) 
had a new shell. 

Sponge. 

Both berried fe- 
males had old 
shells. 

1 sculpin. 

Berried female had 
old shell. 

Rock eel. Sea urchin 

1 sculpin. 

30 cunners. 

Berried female with 
old shell. 



Berried female with 
old shell. 

42 cunners. 

Berried female with 
old shell. Growing 
in around were bar- 
nacles, mussel and 
hvdrozoa. 



tThe sea water temperature was 64° F. 
ttThe sen water temperature was 64° F. 



44 



NAVAL SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



Date. 

Bull Trawl. 



9 traps, Aug. 30. . 
11 traps, Aug. 30. 

6 traps, Aug. 31.. 

7 traps. Aug. 31.. 

7 traps, Aug. 31. . 

8 traps, Aug. 31. . 



Location. 



Skinner's reef 

Skinner's reef near buoy 

Outside 

Outside 

Outside 

Outside 



as 

B 

o 




Total 




Total 


No. 


"S 


1 


No. 
males 


fe- 
males 


pa 


5i 


39 


32 





6} 


37 


36 


1 


7I> 


13 


7 





7h 


24 


9 





7i 


16 


17 


1 


8 


19 


18 


2 


1.739 


1,136 


28 


1,738 


1.130 


28 



Remarks on 
Ecology, etc. 



Berried female had 
old shell. 

20 cunners. 
Berried female had 
old shell. 

Both berried fe- 
males had old 
shells. 
According to Mr. 
Dawson's observar 
tions. 
According to Mr. 
Halkett's observa- 
tions. 



Eesults of re-setting of lobster traps at Bay View, N.S., during the last four days in 
September. (Tables compiled by Mr. A. Halkett). 

27th— AFTERNOON. 





Traps. 


Males. 


Females. 


Remarks. 


Bull trawl 1. — About IJ miles 


1 


4 


4 




off Caribou Island. 4 J 


2 


3 


2 




fathoms when sounded. . . . 


3 


4 


1 






4 


6 


4 






5 


3 


2 






6 


3 


3 






7 


1 


3 


One a seed lobster. 




8 


4 

—28 


3 

— 22 




Bull trawl 2.— .A.bout 1 mile off 


9 


3 





One a seed lobster. 


Caribou Island. 31 fathoms 


10 


4 


1 




when sounded . 


11 


5 


2 






12 








Broken lathe. A crab (included below) 
and a cunner. 




13 


2 









14 


4 


1 


Trap with 2J in. dia. entrances. A crab 
(included laelow) and some 9 cunners. 




15 


3 


3 




• 


16 


4 









17 


4 


1 






18 


3 
—32 


1 
—13 


A crab (included below) and a flatfish. 

There were in all in the traps some 43 
crabs (Cancer) including the few 






60 


35 










mentioned above. 






= 


95 



LOBSTER coy SERV AT/ON IN CANADA 



45 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

RESULTS of re-setting of lobster traps at Bay View, N.S., during the last four days 
in September. (Tables compiled by Mr. A. Halkett) — Con. 

28th.— MORNING. 





Traps. 


Males. 


Females. 


Remarks. 


Bull trawl 1.— 4§ fathoms when 


1 


4 


4 




sounded. 


2 


4 


2 


One a seed lobster. 




3 








Door of trap open. 




4 


3 


1 






5 


2 


1 






6 


3 


3 


One a seed lobster 




7 








Door of trap open. 




8 


4 
—20 


1 
—12 




Bull trawl 2.— 1 fathoms when 


9 


1 


4 




sounded. 


10 


1 


3 






11 


3 


2 


One of the males with barnacles on had 
not moulted. 




12 








Broken lathe. 




13 


5 


2 






14 


1 


1 


Trap with 2^ in. dia. entrances. Some 8 




15 


5 


1 


cunners. 




16 


4 


3 


One a seed lobster 




17 


3 


1 






18 


5 

—28 


1 

—18 


A seed lobster. 


Bull trawl 3.-5 fathoms when 


19 


3 


2 




sounded. 


20 


3 


4 






21 


7 


5 






22 


4 


4 






23 


3 


2 






24 


5 


2 






25 


1 
-26 


2 
—21 


There were in all the traps some 4? crabs 












74 


51 


(Cancer). 




= 


125 





28th.— AFTERNOON, 



Bull trawl 1 —About 1 mile 
NW. off Skinner's Reef 
Light Buoy. (The traps 
had been shifted.) 5 
fathoms when .sounded. 



Bull trawl 2. — 3j fathoms when 
sounded. 



Bull trawl 3.- 
sounded. 



-4 fathoms when 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



7 


4 


3 





1 


2 


4 


3 


4 


1 


5 





3 


3 


4 


2 


—31 


—15 


8 


3 


4 


1 


3 


2 


2 


5 


6 


3 


3 





3 


5 


4 


2 


2 


1 


6 





—41 


—22 


6 


2 


7 


4 


4 


3 


4 


3 


5 


3 


5 


1 


3 


2 


2 


2 


—32 


—17 


104 


54 


= 


158 



One a seed lobster. 



One a seed lobster. 

Trap with 2^ in. dia. entrance. 



One a seed lobster. 



One a seed lobster. 



There were in ail in the traps some 25 
crabs (Cancer). 



46 



TiAYAL SERVICE 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

Kksl'LTs of ro-pctting of lobster traps at Bay View. N.S., during the last four days 
in September. (Tables compiled by !^^r. A. Ilalkett) — Con. 

29tu.— MORNING. 





Traps. 


Males. 


Females. 


Remarks. 


Bull trawl 1.— 5 fathoms when 


1 


3 


3 




sounded. 


2 


2 


1 


Dogfish, female. 




3 


2 


1 






4 


2 


3 






5 


2 


1 






6 


2 


1 


A seed lobster. 




7 


X 


X 


Trap lost. 




8 


3 

—16 


2 
—12 


One a seed lobster. 


Bull trawl 2. — 5 fathoms when 


9 


3 







sounded. 


10 


6 


2 






11 


3 


6 






12 


8 


3 






13 


2 


4 


Trap with 2^ in. dia. entrances Two 




14 


9 


1 


crabs. 




15 


9 


1 






16 


4 


2 






17 


4 


3 






18 


4 





One of those males had not moulted very 






-52 


—22 


long. Eel pout. 


Bull trawl 3. — 5 fathoms when 


19 


6 


7 




sounded. 


20 


6 


6 






21 


5 


2 






22 


4 


7 






23 





2 


One a seed lobster. 




24 


6 


3 






25 


3 
—30 


3 
—30 


There were in the traps in all some 30 












98 


64 


crabs (Cancer) including the 2 men- 
tioned above. 












= 


162 





29th.— AFTERNOON. 



Bull trawl 1 


1 


4 


1 






2 


4 


2 






3 


5 


3 






4 


2 


1 






5 


4 


1 






6 


2 


4 






7 


X 


X 


Indicating the trap which was lost. 




8 



—21 



—12 


Door of trap open. 


Bull trawl 2 


9 


4 


1 


A seed lobster. 




10 


5 


6 


One a seed lobster. 




11 


9 


1 






12 


5 


1 






13 


2 





Trap with 2] in. dia. entrances. Four 




14 


6 


1 


cunners. 




15 


5 


2 






16 


4 


1 






17 


1 


2 






18 


2 
— i3 


2 
—17 




Bull trawl 3. 


19 


4 


2 






20 


4 


6 






21 


4 


2 






22 


5 


.3 






23 


4 


1 






24 


5 


5 


One a seed lobster. 




25 


3 
—29 


3 
22 


One a seed lobster. 




+ 
+ 


1 




There were in all in the traps some 18 














94 


51 


crabs (Cancer). 




= 1 


145 





LOBSTER CONSERVATIOX I\ CANADA A7 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 38c 

Results of re-setting of lobster traps at Bay View, N.S., during the last four days 
in September. (Tables compiled by Mr, A. Halkett) — Con. 

30th.— MORNING. 





Traps. 


Males. 


Females. 


Remarks. 


Buli trawl 1 


1 


6 


2 






2 


X 


X 


Indicating the trap which was lost. 




3 


2 


3 






4 


/ 


9 






.■j 


4 


2 






6 


4 


.3 






/ 





1 


Door of trap open. 




8 


2 
—25 


3 
—16 




Bull trawl 2. — 6 fathoms when 


9 


1 


2 




sounded. 


10 


/ 


9 






11 


1 


/ 


One a seed lobster. 




12 


3 


9 






13 


3 


3 


Trap with 2j in. dia. entrances. 




14 


8 









15 


/ 


1 






16 


6 


3 






17 


2 


3 






18 


3 
—41 


1 
—29 




Bull trawl 3 


19 


6 


5 






20 


5 


5 


One a seed lobster. 




21 


6 


3 


One of the males had not moulted long. 




22 


4 


6 




Traps lifted and taken in. 


23 


1 


1 


Door of trap open. 




24 


4 


6 






25 


3 
—29 


2 

—28 


There were in the traps in all some 21 














95 


73 


crabs (Lancer). 




= 


168 





30th. — Relifted and Taken in by Noon. 



Bull trawl 1 


1 

2 




X 




X 










3 


1 


1 






4 


1 


1 






5 












6 





1 






7 












8 


4 

— 4 


3 
— 3 




Bull trawl 2 


9 
10 




1 


1 

1 










11 


1 









12 





2 






13 





1 


2 cunners. 2? in. dia. entrance traps. 




14 








Door of trap open. 




15 





1 






16 


1 









17 


X 


X 


Another trap lost. 




18 








Door of trap open. 






— 3 


— 6 


Crabs, if any, included in above. 






7 


9 






■ = 


10 





48 



NAVAL SERVICE 



RECAPITULATION. 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 





Males. 


Females. 


(Seed.) 


Total. 


Sept. 27th. 
" 28th. 


Afternoon . . . 


60 
74 
104 
98 
94 
95 
7 


35 
51 
54 
64 
51 
73 
9 


[2] 
[4J 
141 
13] 
141 
[21 


95 
125 


" 28th. 


Afternoon 


158 


" 29th. 




162 


" ''9th 




145 


" 30th. 




168 


" 30th 




16 












532 


337 


[19] 


869 



1916— 

September 27, afternoon. 
" 28, forenoon. 



Pounds. Lobsters. 



September 28, forenoon. . 
" 28, afternoon. 



September 28, afternoon. 
" 29, forenoon 



September 29, forenoon . 
" 29, afternoon. 



September 29, afternoon. 
" 30, forenoon 



G8 
32 



93 
45 



100 


138 


57 
43 


76 
56 


100 


132 


73 

27 


98 
39 


100 


137 


80 
20 


120 
30 


100 


150 


79 
21 


110 
25 


100 


135 



September 30, forenoon 



100 



158* 



Average nuomber of lobsters per 100 pounds in above 600 pounds — 14I3, thus: — 
100 pounds. 138 lobsters. 



100 


132 


100 


137 


100 


150 


100 


135 


100 


158 



600 



850 



Average weight "7 pounds for each lobster. 



•Includng one seed lobster to make the full weglit. 



7 GEORGE V 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 



A. 1917 



FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



FISHERIES BRANCH 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVAL SERVICE 



1915-16 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF PARLIAMENT 




OTTAWA 

PRINTED BY J. de L. TACHE, 
PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 

1916 



[No. 39-1917] 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 , A 1917 



To Field Marshal His Royal Highness Prince Arthur William Patrick Albert, Duke 
of Connaught and of Stratlioarn, K.G., K.T., K.P., etc., etc., etc.. Governor General 
and Commander in Chief of the Dominion of Canada. 

May it please Your Royal Highness: 

1 have the honour to submit herewith, for the information of Your Royal Highness 
and the Parliament of Canada, the forty-ninth Annual Report of the Fisheries Branch 
of the Department of the Naval Service. 

I have the honour to be. 

Your Royal Highness's most obedient servant, 

J. D. HAZEN, 
Minister of the Naval Service. 

Dei'aktmext of the Naval Service, 
Ottawa^ September, 1916. 



30— A J 



ERRATA. 

Papre 3G2— Fishing Bounty, expenditure column— $158,678.85 should read $158,741.05. 

Piifi^c 309 — Fishing Bounty, 1915-16, expenditure column — $158,078.85 should read 
$158,741.05. 

Page 438. — Officer Fred. Kennedy's district should read: "The County of Bonaven- 
ture and Gaspe county, from Bonaventure county line to Fame Point. 

Page 439. — Officer T. ^iigneault's district should read: *' From Quebec to the Sagile- 
nay river on the nortii shore and from Quebec to Fame Point on the south shore 
of the St. Lawrence river. 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 A. 1917 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Paok. 

Deputy Minister's Keport xiii 

Stihjects Treated Therein. 

Transj)ortatioii of Fresh and Mildly Cured Fish xiii 

Fisheries Exhibit at Canadian National Exhibition xvii 

Daily Bait Reports xvii 

Fish Inspection Act. . . xviii 

Inspection of Fish Canneries xix 

Marine Biological Stations xix 

General Review xx 

Value of the Fisheries xxi 

Persons Employed and Capital Invested xxix 

Review of the Fisheries of each Province xxx 

Review of Fisheries Expenditure and Revenue, Bounty, etc., etc., etc liv 

Appendices. 

New Brunswick Fisheries 1 

Prince Edward Island Fisheries -4-1 

Nova Scotia Fisheries fi-i 

Quebec Fisheries 182 

Ontario Fisheries 209 

Manitoba Fisheries 214 

Saskatchewan and Alberta Fisheries 224 

Yukon Fisheries '■ . . 239 

British Columbia Fisheries 243 

Oyster Culture 300 

Fishing Bounty • ■ • • 305 

Canadian Fisheries Museum 336 

United States Fishing Vessel Entries 337 

Fisheries Patrol Service 348 

Fisheries Exiienditure and Revenue 302 

Fish Breeding 370 

Imports and Exports of Fish 403 

Inspection of Pickled Fish and Fish Canneries 408 

Report on the Work of the Biological Board -H5 

Special Lobster Fishery Statistics -418 

The Outside Fisheries Staff 431 



7 GEORGE V SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 A. 1917 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



TO Til 10 



FISHERIES REPORT 

1915-1916 



A 

Pagi:. 

Alberta, Resume of fisheries of xxxviii 

lleport of Inspector 220 

Statistics of Fisheries " 235 

Recapitulation of Fish and fishing material 238 

Albert county, N.B., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 1!' 

fish 22 

Annapolis county, N.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc liO 

fish 170 

Antigonish county, N.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 102 

fish lie 

Areas, Extent of fisheries and coast line xx 

B 

Bait Reports, Daily xvii 

Biological marine work. Reference to xix 

Biological Report '. -115 

Bonaventure county, P.Q., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 18-4 

fish 188 

Bounties, Fishing, Regulations 305 

Statement of claims received and paid, 1915 308 

General statistics 311 

Statement of claims received and paid since 1882 312 

Names of all vessels receiving bounties, 1915-16 317 

British Columbia, Resume of fisheries of xxxix 

Reports of inspectors 243 

Statistics of fisheries. Southern district 280 

Northern district 282 

Vancouver island 290 

Recapitulation of yield and value of fish 298 

Recapitulation of fishing material • 299 

Report on Exploration work 2i2 



viii ]n:i'Mn\ii:\T or rin: \.\\ \l sKitvicn 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

c 

Pack. 

('haliti)ur. .1., Acting' lnsp«'<-ti>r. Report 182 

( "uiiiiiiif^haiii, F. II.. Chief Iiis))(>fl(»r, B.C\, Report 243 

( 'aider, J. F., Inspector, N.B., Ho]K)rt 1 

('aj)e Breton county, X.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc T^'i. 

fish .sr, 

Charlotte county. X.B., Returns of vessels, hoats. etc 10 

fish 12 

Capital invested, Summary of xxix 

Colchester county, N.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc !(»(» 

fish 112 

Culture of fish {see "F"). 

Cumberland county, N.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc H)0 

fish 100 

Crichton, Capt. J. F., Report by 272 

Carleton county, N.B., Return of boats, pear, etc 3G 

fish 38 



D 

Davidson, G. S., Chief Inspector Saskatchewan and Alberta, Report 224 

Deputy Minister's Report xiii 

Desbarats, G. J., Deputy Minister's Report. .' xiii 

Digby county, Returns of vessels, boats, etc 144 

fish Ififi 



E 

Eastern Townships, Return of vessels, boats, etc 200 

fish 201 

Expenditure on fishery services 362 

Salaries and disbursements of fishery ofiicers 363 

Fish Breeding 364 

Fisheries patrol service 366 

Comparative Statement 368 

Exports of fish 404 

Exhibit, Toronto Exhibition xvii 

Exploration work. General Report on 272 



F 

Fish Inspection Act xviii 

Fisher, "Ward, Inspector, N.S., Report 70 

Fish breeding, Report by J. A. Rodd 370 

Expenditure 364 

Fishing bounties (see letter "B"). 

Fishery officers (outside staff) 431 

Fisheries patrol service, Reports on 348 



INDEX ix 
SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

G 

I'a(.i:. 

Gaspe county. Quo., Returns of vessels, etc 1^4 

fish . . . . ISft 

General Statement re fisheries xx 

Gloucester county, N.B., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 18 

fish 22 

Guysboro county, N.S.. Returns of vessels, boats etc 104 

fish 120 

H 

Halifax county, N.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc IOC 

fish 124 

Halkett, Andrew, Curator of the Ottawa Museum, Report .'i3fi 

Halladay, A. P., Assistant Inspector, B.C., Report 251 

Hants county, N^S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 108 

fish 132 

Harrison, H. E., Inspector, N.B., Report C 

Hatcheries, List of 386 

Detailed distribution of fry from 384 

Officers in charge of 442 

Hoad, N. J., Fishery Officer, Alta., Report 239 

Hockin, Robert, Inspector, N.S., Report 06 

Howell, J. A., Inspector, Manitoba, Report 214 

I 

Inspectors of Fisheries, Names and districts 431 

Reports from (see each Province). 

Inverness county, N.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 80 

fish 94 

Imports of fish 403 

Inspection of Canneries xix 

Inspection of Pickled Fish, by J. J. Cowie 408 

K 

Kemp, E., Report on oyster culture 300 

Kent county, N.B., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 19 

fish 22 

Kings county, N.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 148 

fish 1T4 

Kings county, P.E.T.. Returns of ves.sels, boats, etc 46 

fish 52 

Kings county, N.B., Return of boats, gear, etc 36 

fish 38 

L 

Lunenburg countv. Returns of vessels, boats, etc 136 

fish 150 



X hKi' \irr\ii:\r or tin: \ iit/, sehvice 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

H 

Pace. 

Morrison, D., Inspector. N.B., Report :; 

Mnnitohti, Resume of fisheries of xxxvii 

Reports of inspectors 214 

Statistics of fisheries. Eastern district 210 

Western district 221 

RecapituUitions of fish and fishinj? material 223 

Marine l)iolop:ical stations. Report on 4ir> 

Matlieson, J. A., Inspector, P.E.I., Report 44 

Museum, Canadian Fisheries, Report on 03»> 

^rndawaska county, N.B., Returns of boats, jrear, etc 37 

fish 30 



Mc 

McDonald, G. C, Inspector, Sask., Report 22:''> 

McHugh, J., Engineer, Report 263 

McLeod, A. G., Inspector, i^.S., Report 63 

N 

Natural History Report, by Andrew Halkett 336 

New Brunswick, Resume of fisheries of . . . . xxx 

Reports of inspectors 1 

Statistics of fisheries 10 

Inland counties. Returns for 36 

Recapitulation of yield and value of fish 41 

Recapitulation of fishing material 43 

List of vessels receiving bounties 32S 

Northumberland county, N.B., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 18 

fish 22 

Nova Scotia, Resume of fisheries of xxxii 

Reports of inspectors 63 

Statistics of fisheries 74 

Recapitulation of yield and value of fish 179 

Recapitulation of fishing material 181 

List of vessels receiving bounties 317 

4 



Officers in charge of patrol boats 443 

Ontario, Resume of fisheries of xxxvi 

Returns of vessels, boats, etc 210 

fish 212 

Recapitulation of yield and value of fish 213 

Recajjitulation of fishing material 213 

Oyster culture report, by Ernest Kemp 300 

Outside Fisheries staff 431 



IXDEX x'l 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

P 

Pa(;i;. 

Patrol Boat Eeports 34S 

Payson, C. C, Inspoctor, Yukon, Report 239 

Persons employed, Summary of xxix 

Pictou eounty, N.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 102 

fish 114 

Prince county. P.E.T., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 50 

fish 59 

Prince Edward Island, Resume of fisheries of xxxii 

Report of inspector 44 

Statistics of fisheries 46 

Recapitulation of yield and value of fish 61 

Recapitulation of fishing material 62 

List of vessels receiving bounties 335 

a 

Quebec, Resume of fisheries of xxxv 

Report of inspector 182 

Statistics of fisheries for Gulf division 184 

Statistics of fisheries for Inland division 198 

Recapitulation of yield and value of fish 206 

Recapitulation of fishing material 208 

List of vessels receiving bounties 335 

Queens county, I>^.S.. Returns of vessels, boats, etc 138 

fish 154 

Queens county, P.E.I., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 48 

fish 56 

Queens county, N.B., Retxirns of boats, gear, etc 36 

fish 38 

R 

Recapitulation of yield and value of fish for whole of Canada xxiv 

Recapitulation of fishing material for whole of Canada xxix 

Reid, D. F., Inspector, Manitoba, Report 215 

Reports of inspectors (see under each province). 

Restigouche countv, N^.B., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 18 

fish 22 

Resume of fisheries of each province xxx 

Revenue, Statement of 365 

Comparative Statement of 368 

Richmond countv, X.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 74 

fish 82 

Rimouski countv, Que.. Returns of vessels, boats, etc 185 

fish 189 

S 

Saguenay county, Que., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 185 

fish 189 

St. John county, IST.B., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 10 

fish 12 



xii nil' \irrui:\r or riii: \ n i/, sehvick 

7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 

s 

Pa(;k. 

Saskatcliowau. K('suim' of tishorios of xxxviii 

Kej>orts of ins{M'ftors 2l'4 

Statistics of fisheries 2.'!1 

lireapitulation of fish and fishiiiff material •l'-\A 

Shelhunic (■•unity. X.S.. llotiinis of vessels, boats, ete 14<l 

fish l.'iS 

Staff, outsi(l«' officers 4:'.l 

Statt'inent. Keeapituhitiiijr the value of fish since 1870 1 

tisliiiifi: {rear, etc., since 1880 lii 

number of fishermen, etc., since 1895 iiii 

Statistics of fisheries {see under each ])rovinc<')- 

Special Lobster Fishery statistics 418 

T 

Taylor, E. G., Inspector, B.C., Report 20O 

Transportation of fresh fish xiii 

Thompson. S. H., Actinj; Inspector. Keitort 220 

TJ 

United States fishing vessel entries. Atlantic ports 337 

Pacific ports 344 

United States fishing vessels holding modus vivendi licenses 340 

V 

Value of fisheries -(see also each i)roviuceJ xxi 

Victoria count.v, X.S.. Returns of vessels, boats, etc 78 

fish !••» 

Victoria countv. X.B.. Returns of boats, gear, etc 37 

fish 3J» 

W 

Westmorland county. X.B., Returns of vessels, boats, etc - 10 

fish 22 

Williams, J. T., Inspector, I3.C.. Report -•">4 

Y 

Yarmouth county, N.S., Returns of vessels, boats, etc 142 

fish 162 

Yukon Territory, Resume of fisheries xxxviii 

Reijort of inspector 231> 

Statistics of fisheries -4<* 

York county, X.B., Returns of boats, gear, etc 3(5 

fish -^ 



7 GEORGE V , SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 A. 1917 



DEPUTY MINISTER'S REPORT. 

To till' Ifonourable J. 1). IIazex, 

Minister of tho Naval Sorvioe. 

Sir, — 1 have the honour to submit the forty-ninth annual report of the Fisheries 
Branch of the Department of the Naval Service, which is for the fiscal year ended 
March 31, 191G. 

The following twenty-one appendices are included : — 
No. 1. — New Brunswick Fisheries. 

" 2. — Prince Edward Island Fisheries. 

" 3. — Nova Scotia Fisheries. 

" 4. — Quebec Fisheries. 

" 5. — Ontario Fisheries. 

" 6. — Manitoba Fisheries. 

" 7. — Saskatchewan and Alberta Fisheries. 

" 8. — Yukon Territory Fisheries. 

" 9. — British Columbia Fisheries. 

" 10.— Oyster Culture. 

" 11. — Fishing Bounty. 

" 12. — Canadian Fisheries Museum. , 

" 13. — United States Fishing Vessel Entries. 

" 1-1. — Fisheries Patrol Service. 

" 15. — Fisheries Expenditure and Revenue. 

" 16.— Fish Breeding. 

" 17.— Imports and Exports of Fish. 

" 18. — Inspection of Pickled Fish and Fish Canneries. 

" 19. — Report on the work of the Biological Board. 

" 20. — Special Lobster Fishery Statistics. 

" 21.— The Outside Fisheries Staff. 

Transportation of Fresh and Mildly Cm-ed Fish. 

The assistance given in this service in past years has been : — 

1. A fast freight refrigerator-car service one day each week from Mulgrave 
and Halifax, to Montreal, the earnings on the car, on each trip west, being 
guaranteed up to those on a carload of 20,000 pounds plus the cost of icing car. 
This service was started in 1907 and is still in operation, three cars being run 
each week. 

2. Payment of one-third of the expres?; charges on less-than-carload Int^ 
from the Atlantic coast to points in Quebec and Ontario, and from the Pacific 
coast to points as far east as the eastern boundarj' of ^lanitoba. This assist- 
ance was started in 1908, and is still eflFective. 

3. An express refrigerator-car service one day each week from ^[ulgrave 
and Halifax to Montreal, the earnings on the car. on each tri]» we-:t. leini 
guaranteed up to those on 10,000 pounds plus the cost of icing the car. The 
one-third rebate of the express rate was also allowed on shipments by this car. 



xiv Ur.l'.XUTMEST OF THE SAY Ah SERVICE 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
This service was started in 1913, and was continued in 1014, but was then discon- 
tinued. It did not prove as beneficial as was anticipated. Indeed, it was not availed 
of, in 1914, to nearly the extent that it had been during the previous year. Moreover, 
the railway was adverse to haulinjj this car. Its two tlirouph express trains — Ocean 
Limited and Maritime Express — are heavily loaded throughout the season, and the 
(•arrying of an extra car involves the danger of failure to keep up to schedule time. 
Also, the available refrigerator cars did not seem to be properly constructed for run- 
ning on express trains, as on more than one occasion they left the track to the danger 
of the whole train. 

On the other hand, the weekly refrigerator fast freight service from Mulgrave, 
X.S., to Montreal, was proving eminently satisfactory, and was being more and more 
used. Indeed, shipments for the Friday markets are now forwarded practically alto- 
gether by fast freight. The following statement gives the quantities of fish shipped 
by fast freight from Mulgrave, N.S., since the Government has been assisting in the 
service : — 

Tons. 

1907 2,086 

1908 2,274 

1909 1,966 

1910 2,484 

1911 2,732 

1912 2.372 

1913 2,793 

1914 2,800 

1915 2,930 

As the gross transi)ortation charges bj' fast freight are less than one-third those 
by express, it is in the public interest that the fast freight service should be availed 
of, by the shippers, to as large an extent as feasible, as, obviously, fish forwarded by 
fast freight can be sold more cheaply than if shipped by express, and so far as the 
department is aware, there is no reason why, if this service is sufficiently used, it could 
not be developed into a practical express service. The main objection to the more 
general use of fast freight appears to be that the w^holesalers are now unable to pro- 
cure their orders in sufficient time in advance of when they are needed to CHable them 
to have them fil'ed by fast freight. This difficulty has been overcome so far as the 
Friday market is concerned, which is the heaviest one in the week, and there, there- 
fore, seems no reason why the wholesalers, by keeping before their clients the advant- 
ages of the fast-freight service cannot induce them to forward their orders for other 
days earlier. 

It was consequently felt that it would be beneficial to have an extension of the 
fast freight refrigerator-car service to more than one day per week. The matter was 
taken up with the Canadian government railways, which agreed to the extension of 
three days per week on the following conditions, providing the refrigerator-express 
service was discontinued : — 

1. A n>frigorator car for the transjmrtation of fresh mid inildly-.-ured fish to 
leave MulKTave, for :Montrcal, by fast freight on :Nronday, Thursday an<l Saturday 
of each week, shipments from Halifax to be consolidat<-d in this car at Truro. 



' REPORT OF TlIK DEPUTY MINISTER xv 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

2. Shippers by this ear to be charged the regular less-than-carload-lot rate when 
their shipments were in less-than-carload lots, but shippers forwarding 20,000 pounds 
or more in one shipment, to be cliarged the regular carload-lot rate, plus $2.50 i^er 
ton for- the ice used in the car bunkers. 

3. Should one shipper have a carload and other. shipments offer in smaller quan- 
tities, a second refrigerator car would be placed at the disposal of the shippers of 
smaller lots, who would pay the less-than-carload rate. 

4. The department to guarantee the earnings on each car, on each trip west, when 
the shipments were in less-than-carload lots up to $35, plus the cost of icing the 
car; but this guarantee not to apply to the Saturday car, which had previously bet-n 
in operation. 

It was alst) considered that if a fast freight service were placed at the disposal of 
shippers from St. John, N.B., to Montreal, it would be beneficial. The matter was 
consequently taken up with the Canadian Pacific Kailway, and in the month of 
August an arrangement was made by which a refrigerator car, to be hauled by fast 
freight, would be placed at the disposal of the shippers one day each week, should 
there be five thousand pounds of fish or more offering for shipment. 

This extended service has not been taken advantage of to anything like the 
extent hoped for.^ Shipments from Mulgrave or Halifax were forwarded by it on only 
eight occasions, between June 1 and January 15. The fact that it was not being 
much used was brought to the attention of the shippers by the department, but it 
transpired that the service had become somewhat unreliable, owing, it appears, to the 
movement of troops and military equipment, so that the dealers preferred to use the 
more expensive express service than to take the risk of not having their shipments 
arrive on time. 

The service from St. John was not used at all, throughout the season. 

Fish is a home product. It costs nothing to cultivate, and the capital invested 
in the fisheries in comparison with the yield, is smaller than in any other food-pro- 
ducing industry. Fish should, consequently, be a cheap food in all parts of the coun- 
try, but to make it so, adequate transportation facilities at moderate prices, must be 
available. 

An cxi)ress refrigerator-car service would best meet requirements, but at the pre- 
sent time it is expensive. A reasonable rate is made available by the Government 
paying one-third of the express charges on shipments in less-than-carload lots, but il 
cannot be expected that this course can be long continued. The object of this assist- 
ance was to ascertain whether, if reasonable charges were made available to the ship- 
pers, the business could not be developed into one of large proportions, making it 
desirable for the transportation companies in their own, as well as in the public 
interest, to reduce their rates and give proper facilities. This has already been practi- 
cally done. An extensive and rapidly growing industiy has been built up. and the 
time when the business will be developed to one large enough to take care of itself is, 
obviously, approaching rapidly. The following statement will afford an understanding 
of the development of the less-than-carload-lot express shipments. It shows th" 
amounts paid by the Government, as one-third express charges, under the arrangement 
above explained: — 



xvi ni:/'\h'T\ii:\r or riii: \ n i/. siinicr: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

t>ii Shipments from On Shipments from 

Year. Kast CouKt. West Coast. 

lynjt-lO $15,162 20 $13,541 76 

1910-11 16.S98 13 21.S96 73 

1911-12 19.620 62 35,315 10 

1912-13 29,969 4S 39,277 13 

1913-14 :'.7,818 S.'. 44,114 47 

1914-15 26.6f.7 33 34,528 60 

1915-16 27,122 69 34,872 56 

It must not be overlooked that this statement imlieates but a small part of the totnl 
busine.-ss done. In addition to the less-than-carload-lot shipments by express, several 
carloads of halibut and salmon, per week, are forwardixl by express from the Paciti<- 
coa.st to Winnipeg, Toronto, and Montreal, as well as the amounts shipped in carload 
and less-than-earload lots by fast and other freight from Mulgrave and the variou- 
points along the coast. It will be remembered that during the winter season fresh 
frozen fish are usually shipi)ed from either coast in ordinary freight cars. 

The guarantee for the fast freight service amounted to only $373.3.'>. of which 
*l"52.<5.'j were paid as icing charges. 

I'p to the mnnicut. the express companies have shown no indit-ation of any inten- 
tion to reduce their rates. They maintain that their charges are already low and 
could not reasonably be reduced, and that their present rate from the Atlantic coast 
is even as low as a carload-lot rate should be, and, consequently, it is not feasible tn 
give a carload-lot rate there cheaper than the existing less-than-carload-lot rate. 

It is, however, difficult to reconcile the rate from the Pacific coast to New York or 
Boston, of $3 per 100 pounds, with that from the Atlantic coast to Montreal or 
Toronto — $1.50 and $1.75 per 100 pounds, respectively — or with the rate from the 
Pacific coast to such points as Calgary and Winnipeg, $2.50 per 100 pounds — keeping 
in view the relative distances. Moreover, the fact that there is no carload express rate 
from the Atlantic coast leaves no inducement for the dealers to ship in large (juan- 
titics. 

While it is frequently impossible for the dealers in Winnipeg to make up a carlo.id 
lot for that place at one time, and it is usually so at such i)laces as Calgary and llegina, 
if these places were allowed to combine they could mostly make up carload orders. On 
Tiiited States transcontinental roads, such a practice, commonly known as "opening 
in transit ", has been in operation for several years, and has proved eminently bene- 
ficial in building up the industry. The car is allowed to be opened at two places in 
transit, at a charge of $5 for each opening, and the carload-lot rate to the farthest jjojut 
is charged. The assistance that such an arrangement would be will be readily appre- 
ciated from the following : — 

The carload-lot rate from Vancouver to Calgary is $2.50 per 100 pnunds, and tlic 
less-than-carload-lot rate $3.50 per 100 pounds. To Regina it is $2.50 and $4.50 per 
100 pounds respectively, and to Winnipeg $2.50 iuid $4.50 per 1(>0 ])oun(ls. If these 
three places were allowed to eonscdidate their shii)nuiits in mu- <';>r at tb(> carload-lot 
rate to Wiiuiipeg. they would each get a rate of $2.5(», ])lus $5 fnr opening tlie car 
at Calgary and again at Kegiiia. 

The express companies liave so far refused to introduce such ;!n .-irranLteinent in 
Canada. 



in:i'()RT OF Tin: nnri rr minister .wii 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

Experience is iiidicating- tiiat if the last frei^rht service is made absolutely reliable 
as to time, so that delivery ot" C(Misigiiraeiits when expected may be depended on, it can 
be used to the practical exclusion (if express for through shipnieiits. It is, therefore, 
of eminent importance that everythinfi- possible should lie doii(> to develop and inii)r<ive 
this service. 

The question of the sprciid in ])rice of Hsh betwec^i the jioints of production and 
consumption, has been referred by the House of t.'ommons to the Select Standing- ( 'om- 
mittee on JMarine and Fisheries for invcstip:ation during the present session of Par- 
liament. The whole (luestion of transportation will necessarily be involved in this 
inquiry, and the department feels asurcd that much public benefit will result. The 
findings of the committee will be awaited with interest. 

Fisherips Ex/iiJiif al the Canadian National Exhihitioii. Toronto. 

The fisheries exhibit at the above exhibition which was started two years ago, 
was repeated this year with splendid success. It was larger and better than either 
of the previous ones and was unquestionably one of the features of the fair. It wa.* 
again awarded a gold medal. 

So impressed' were the directors of the fair with the two previous exhibits, that 
this year, Friday, September .3, was set apart by thena as "Fisheries Day" at the 
exhibition. 

As was intimated in my last report, it was felt that if a first-class fisheries 
restain-ant were operated on the ground as an adjunct to the exhibit, it would clinch 
its effectiveness. This year, an arrangement was entered into with Messrs. Xasmiths, 
Limited, of Toronto, to operate such restaurant. The east wing of the grand stand 
building, which will seat about six hundred people at one time, was obtained for the 
purpose. An excellent fish dinner coiisisting of a full portion of a choice of different 
kinds of fish, as well as of potatoes, pie and tea, coffee or milk, was served for 26 cents. 
An attractive menu card, calling attention to the desirability of using- fish as food 
in the homes of the country, was jirepared in sufficient numbers to enable patrons to 
take copies with them should they so desire. The success of the restaurant was even 
greater than was anticipated. During the course of the exhibition 25,328 meals were 
served. 

It is contended by all those engaged in the industry, that the exhibit has done 
much to expand the demand for fish throughout the interior portion of the country, 
and it seems in the public interest that at least for some years? to come the exhibit 
and restaurant should be continued. 

I wish to again express the appreciation of the department of the co-operation 
aflforded. it by the Maritime Fish Corporation. Limited, Montreal, and the F. T. James 
Fish Company, Limited, of Toronto, in making the exhibit the splendid success it was. 

Daily Bait Reports. 

During the fishing season of 1915 the department continued the .system of 
collecting information, through its local fishery officers, concerning the location of 
supplies of bait on the Atlantic coast, and despatching it daily by telegram to certain 
seaports, where it was posted up. The telegrams were also published in the llalitai 
daily papers by courtesy of the editors. 

39— B 



xviii m:r\in\n:\r or riir: \ ii i/. si:i:\i(f: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

In the spring season 134 telegrams wore sent from tlie Magdalen islands, Souris, 
P.E.I., and Queensiwrt, N.S., ,to Canso, Halifax, Lunenburg? and Rivcrport, N.S. 
These contained information concerning the ice condition, in addition to information 
as to bait supplies. 

In July and August 310 tolcprnms were sent from Little Bras d'Or, L'Ardoise, 
("anso. Wine Harbour, Tangrier, and Muwiuodoboit Harbour, N.S., to North Sydney. 
Canso, Halifax, Lunenburg, Riverport, and Shelbume, N.S. ; also from Lockeport. 
X.8., to Canso and Halifax, N.S.; from Shag Harbour, Middle West Pubnico, and 
Digby, N.S., to Halifax, Shelbume and Lockeport, X.S. 

From September to the middle of December eighty telegrams were sent from 
CanipobfUo. X.B., covering infonnation from the counties of Charlotte and St. John, 
to Digby, Yarmouth, Pubnico, and Clark's Harbour, N.S. 

This service continues to be of much benefit not only to masters of fishing vessels 
■ii-eking bait, but to net fishermen who have supplies of bait to sell. 

Fish Inspection Act. 

This Act, which provides for the inspection of pickled fish, came into effect on 
May 1, 1915. In the preceding fall and winter the general inspector held a scries of 
meetings of an educational nature, in the Maritime Provinces, at which the objects 
and requirements of the Act were explained to those concerned. Over 100 meetings 
were held, in addition to personal interviews with fishermen, coopers, and packers. 

Inspection is not compulsory, and as it was quite unknown what number of packers 
would voluntarily submit their fish for inspection, at the beginning, the smallest 
inspection staff ix)ssible for carrying on the work on the Atlantic coast was appointed. 

During the first season, in which the Act was in operation, 1,328 barrels of pickled 
fish were presented for inspection. Of these 1,211 were branded and 117 rejected. In 
addition to this several thousands of barrels of mackerel were packed at the Magdalen 
islands, under our insi)ecting officer's guidance, but were sold and shipped off before 
the inspector could return to inspect and brand them. 

The total number of barrels branded may seem small, but it must not be forgotten 
that packing for the brand is a purely voluntary matter, and that we have to rely 
entirely upon educational and persuasive work to introduce it. Further, it has not yet 
had time to become sufficiently well known in the United States to cause an appre- 
ciable difference between the demand for branded and that for unbranded fish. 

The result of our educational work should be more apparent during the next 
season. 

Owing to the war conditions in the North sea, Tuited Stato-; buvers wer^^ una'' b- to 
secure their usual large supplies of pickled herring from Great Britain, Ho'land, and 
Norway, during the season of 1915, 

When this became apparent, the department urged Canadian packers to endeavour 
X'l supply the deficiency by curing their herring in what is known as the Scotch mctho 1. 
which is described in the regulations to our Fish Inspection Act. 

A few fish merchants were induced to enter this business, and got much higher 
prices for their product than they ever got before. 

Preparations are going on in Nova Scotia, especially, for engaging in this business 
on an enlarged scale during the season of lOlH. 



REPORT OF Ti'E DEPUTY MINISTER xix 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

It must be kept in minfl, however, that unless the greatest care is taken to see 
that the tish are packed in barrels of the i)r()i)er type, and cured exactly as thi> very 
fastidious trade wants them, we will lose our hold on the market when normal condi- 
tions afrain exist in Europe. 

The Fish Inspection Act has, therefore, come into existence at an opportune time, 
and the department has taken steps not only to guide and instruct those who engage 
in this business, but to inspect and brand the cured product thus ensuring the quality 
of the pack. A trained cooper is engaged visiting cooper shops, where barrels are 
l)eing made i'vr this trade, spending a day or two in cacli and niakiuii' sample narn-'K 
in the presence of the coopers. 

An inspector has not yet been appointed for British Columbia. Conditions there 
are different from those on the Atlantic. Neither mackerel nor alewives are found in 
Pacific waters, and those desiring to engage in Scotch herring curing can get trained 
assistance in the province from the many Scotch coopers and curers who reside there. 
Fish cured under these conditions are not usually considered to be in need of inspec- 
tion and branding. 

Instruction and advice were given to packers through the means of pamphlets, 
etc., and approximately 5,000 barrels of herring were cured in the Scotch style, during 
1915, on the Pacific. 

If the need for inspection and branding in the Pacific province arises next season 
it will be duly met. 

Inspection of Canneries. 

As in the preceding year a regular inspection of all fish canneries on both the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts was carried on during the season of 1915, to ensure the 
preparation and canning of fish and shell-fish, under proper sanitary conditions. 

There were 636 canneries in operation during the season all of which were visited 
and regularly reported on. 

The inspections were carried on under authoritj^ of the Meat and Canned Foods 
Act, but as the provisions of this Act are not considered entirely suitable for the fish 
canning business, new legislation will be sought for to deal more effectively with it. 

Reports on the inspection of pickled fish and fish canneries, by the general inspec- 
tor, form Appendix 18 of this report. 

Biological Board. 

A report upon the work of the biological stations appears as Appendix 19 to this ' 
report ; but the following points may be briefly set forth here. 

The Atlantic station at St. Andrews, N.B., had a full staff of scientific workers 
and splendid results were accomplished. Professors A. B. Macallum and J. Playfair 
McMurrich, successively, took charge of the work and directed the Station during- the 
season. 

Experiments in the curing of fish, especially finnan haddie, were carried on by 
Principal F. C. Harrison, MacDonald College; Dr. Olive Patterson and Dr. Clara C. 
Benson; including studies on the autolysis of fish tissues, and putrefactive changes due 
to bacteria. Cured fish of very superior quality was produced under conditions devised 
by the specialist who took up this branch of research. 

39-4 



XX iu:i' \i:r\ii:\r or riir \ \\ \i. si:i,'\irf-: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

I'tmI". Cox. I'liiversity of Frederirtoii : Mr. W. II. (Iimso, A(;adia College, N.S.; Mr. 
K. Jl(»nn> C'raigit', Toronto T'^nivcrsity. and otlicrs conductod important fi.-<licry invc'^ti- 
jrations. with the aid of tlio station's Jauneiu's, Prince and Safjifln. 

Tho nundxT (tf worki-r.^ taxed tlic limited accommodation at the station, and an 
»'Xtt'!ision of till' Iniildinfrs lia.'^ proved al^.'^olntely neees.-^ary. This extension must he 
<Mrriod out in IDK!. 

JiiV(\sti{rations upon hihste.r-rearinjr, oy.ster-eulturi'. ete.. were carried on. the former 
nt l>in{f Beach iK)nd, N.S.. hy Professors Knight and AlaeC'h nient, and a staff, while 
the oyster work was conducted upon Trince Edward Island hy Prof. A. D. Kohertson, 
Western University, London, Ont.. and Dr. Julius Xelson, Xew Jersey. 

Dr. Johan Hjort's extensive* studies on the herrini;;- and other lishes in the gulf of 
St. Lawrence, commencetl in 15)14, were continuiMJ during the season of lOL"), several of 
the hiological staff assisting on hoard th(^ ('.(l.S. Princess, C.Gr.S. Acadia and jjatrol 
steamer No. S3. 

The B.C. biological station, near Xanainio, had a good season, reports on the life- 
history of the spring salmon, sockeye, coho and other species, l)eing completed, the egg< 
and fr,v of the rock cod and Pacific herring studied; and the sea-lion question was 
investigated by Dr. C. McLean Fraser, Dr. Newcombe and ^Ir. Hamar Greenwood, 
who formed a special committee for this purpose. 

The large series of reports, now in course of publication, as supplements to this 
report, will form a substantial addition to our knowledge of the fisheries of the 
Dominion. 

GENERAL REVIEW. 
Extent of Fisheries. 

It is not an exaggeration to say that Canada possesses the most extensive fisheries 
in the world; moreover, it is safe to add that the waters in and around Canada contain 
the i>rincipal commercial food fishes in greater abundance that the waters of , any 
other part of the world. The extraordinary fertility of what may be called our own 
waters is abundantly proved by the fact that, apart from salmon, all the lobsters, 
herring, mackerel and sai-dines, nearly all the haddock, and many of the cod, hake, 
and pollock landed in Canada are taken from within our territorial waters. 

The coast line of the Atlantic provinces, from the bay of Fundy to the strait of 
Belle Isle, without taking into account the lesser baj's and indentations, measures 
over 5,000 miles; and along this great stretch are to be found innumerable natural 
harbours and coves, in many of wliich valuable fish are taken in eon,-;iderahle quan- 
tities with little effort. 

On the Pacific coast, the province of British Columbia, owing to its innnens(> 
number of islands, bays and fiords, wliich form safe and aecessilile harbours, has a 
sea -washed shore of 7,000 miles. 

Along this shore and within the limits of the territorial waters, there are fisli and 
mammals in greater abundance, probably, than anywhere else in the whole world. 

In addition to this immense salt-water fishing area, we have in our numerous 
lakes no less than 220,000 square miles of fresh water, abundantly stocked with many 
species of excellent food fishes. In this connection it.nniy be pointed out that the 
area of the distinctly Canadian waters of what are known as the great lakes— 
Sui.erior, Huron, Erie and Ontario— forms only ..ne-fiftl. part of the total ami of the 
hu-iier fresh-water lakes of Canada. 



REl'ORT o/' 77/ a; IH:IH TV MINISTER xxi 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

The fisheries of the Atlantic coast may \>v <li\ i.lcd int.. two distinct classes: the 
deei>sea and the inshore or coastal fisheries. 

The deep-^ea fishery is pursued in vessels of from 4(1 to 100 tons, carrying crews 
of from 12 to 20 men. The fishing' grounds worked on are the several banks which 
lie from 20 to 90 miles off the Caiuidian coast. Tlie style is that of "trawling" by 
hook and line. The bait used is chiefly herring, squid and capelin; and tlie fish taken 
are principally cod, haddock, hake, pollock and halibut. 

The iushore or coastal fishery is carried on in small boats with crews of from two 
to three men; also in a class of small vessels with crews of from four to seven men. 
The means of capture employed by boat fishermen area gill-nets, hooks and lines, both 
hand-line and trawl; and from the shore are operated trap-nets, haul seines, and weirs. 
The commercial food fishes taken inshore are the cod, hake, haddock, pollock, halibut. 
heiTin^a\ mackerel, alewife, shad, smelt, flounder and sardine. The most extensive 
lobster fishery known is carried on along the whole of the eastern shore of Canada, 
whilst excellent oyster beds exist in many parts of the gulf of St. Lawrence, notably 
on the north coast of Prince Edward Island, and in the Northumberland strait. 

The salmon fishery is, of course, the predominant one on the Pacific coast, but 
a very extensive halibut fishery is carried on in the northern waters of British 
Columbia, in large, well-equipi>ed steamers and vessels. The method of capture is hy 
trawling, dories being used for setting and hauling the lines, as in the Atlantic deep- 
sea fishery. Herring are in very great abundance on the Pacific coast, and provide a 
p'entiful suijply of bait for the halibut fishery. 

In the inland lake fisheries, the various means of capture in use are gill-nets, 
pound-nets, seines and hook-and-line to a great extent. The principal commercial 
fishes caught are whitefish, trout, pickerel, pike, sturgeon and fresh-water herring — 
the latter in the lakes of Ontario only. 

Value of the FisJierics. 

The total marketed value of all kinds of fish, fish products, and marine animals, 
taken by Canadian fishermen from the sea and inland lakes and rivers, during the fiscal 
year ended March 31, 1916, amounted to $35,860,708, which gives an increase of 
$4,596,077 over the total for the preceding year. 

The greater part of the large increase is attributable to British Columbia, which 
alone gives an increase of $3,023,234 over last year. 

The Rivers inlet, Skeena river and Naas river districts, in tlie northern part of 
the province, contributed over $2,000,000 of the increase, due to an increased pack of 
salmon, and to higher prices for all species of these fish. 

Wliile the value of halibut landed in British Columbia is greater, the quantity i;* 
"^ 19.000 hundredweights less than that of last year, which, in turn, was 9,000 hundred- 
weights less than the quantity landed in the year 1913-14. lu this connection the chief 
inspector for the ])rovince remarks in the course of his report that: "There is no 
question but that this most valuable fishery is gradually declining year by year, and 
unless an interiuitional close .'^eason can be arranged, of siifficient l(>ncth to be of benefit 
to this fishery, its ccmnnercial life as a part of the fishing industry must necessarily 
be short.'' 

A very substantial increase, amounting to $1, 436, 660 in tlic value of the Xova 
Scotia fisheries, is recorded. All three districts of the province have contributed t> 



xxii in:i'\inMi:\r or rni: vtr.4/> service 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

ilui iiiereasi'. but the hulk ui it has to he credited to the western part of the province, 
and is h\r^oly due to an incrt-aseil catch hy Xhv Luncnhurg hank ilwt, and an increase*! 
catch of lobsters at higher prices. 

Xew Brunswick, which ixave an increase of over $000,000 in the previous year, 
shows a decrease of $202,038 in the year nnder review. The north shore of the 
province is alono responsible for the decrease where a lack of salt for curing cause<l 
a drop of $94,000 in the value of the herring catch, while mild weather during the 
wint«?r caused a decrease of over $120,000 in the value of the smelt catch. 

The counties of St. John and Charlotte, on the other hand, show an increase of 
$62 54:8 over the previous year, notwithstanding the fact that the previous year was 
one of the very best in the history of the Bay of Fundy fisheries, and it is a satisfactory 
feature of the increase that all branches of the industry shared in it. 

Prince Edward Island records a decrease of over $300,000, which was caused by a 
poor smelt fishery, due to the mildness of the winter weather, and to the late opening 
of the lobster fishery, on the north side of the island, owing to the presence of ice on 

the shore. 

The value of the Quebec fisheries has increased by $152,421, due chiefly to an 
increased catch of codfish and high prices, especially on the coast of Gaspe and in 
Chaleur bay. The closing of several sawmills, the increased use of motor-boats and 
better facilities for selling their fish caused a greater number of young men to turn 
their attention to fishing in the Gas^je district, with the result that all did well. 

Manitoba shows a decrease of $106,497, due to the large number of fishermen who 
ci. listed for overseas service, and the severity of the weather during the winter fishing 
season. 

The value of the fisheries in the Yukon territory shows a slight decrease. 

The fisheries of Ontario, the figures for which are supplied to this department, 
l>y the provincial game and fisheries department, show an increase of over half a 
million dollars. Trout, whitefish, herring and pickerel, each gave substantial increases, 
wliile both the catch and value of pike were less. ' 

To the total value of the fisheries of Canada the sea fisheries contributeil ti>31.241.- 
502. and the inland fisheries $4,619,206. 

The following table shows the value produced from the fisheries of each province 
in the respective order of rank, with the increase or decrease as compared with the 
vcar 1914-15. 



Province. 


Value 
Produced. 


Increase. 

,^ 
3.023,234 
1,436,660 

""585,891' 
152,421 

33,871 

7,414 


Decrea.se. 


Hi itJHli Columbia 


>!; 

14,538,320 

9,16fi,851 

4,737,145 

3,341,182 

2,076,851 

93;?. 682 

742,925 

16.-),888 

94,1H4 

(>3,730 

.'?."), 8GU, 708 


S 


Nova Scotia 




New Brunswick 


202,938 


Ontario 








Triiice Edward Itiland 


327,984 


Manitoba 


106,497 


•Saskatchewan 




AHjerta 

^'^kl 111 


5,995 








5,239,491 


643,414 






Net Increase 




4,596,077 











Tx'EI'ORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER xxiii 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

The foUowinj^ table show.s tlio quantity of the chief kinds landed in the whole 
of Canada during 1915-16, and during the four preceding years : — 



Kinds of Fish. 



Salmon 

*ljob.ster8 

Cod 

Haddock 

Hake and disk. . . 

Pollock 

Halibut 

Herring 

Mackerel 

Sardines 

Alewives 

Smelts 

VVhitefish 

Trout 

Pickerel 

Pike 

Sturgeon 

Oysters ... (Brl.) 

Clams Quahaugs and Scallops 
(Brl.) 



(Brl) 



191f,-16. 



cwt. 

1,410.769 

445,277 

2,152,756 

582,522 

379,959 

138,801 

226,151 

1,894,774 

180,990 

33(!,794 

97,032 

67,607 

153,529 

11.5,999 

55,722 

69,229 

4,363 

21,386 

73,713 



1914-15. 



cwt. 

1,409.828 

408,816 

1,820,025 

566,002 

262,897 

159,788 

239,920 

2,118,291 

143,712 

298.885 

90,935 

93,771 

159,894 

«7,89G 

97,555 

97,724 

4,871 

26,545 

87,972 



1913-14. 

cwt. 

1,551,411 

514,646 

1,664,599 

405,6.33 

353,598 

1.50,094 

256,096 

2,484,219 

215,442 

141,384 

61,768 

88,728 

137,887 

73,164 

61,603 

64,925 

4,811 

29,828 

121,335 



1912-13. 



cwt. 

1,2.53,997 

.5,55,138 

1,729,070 

503,822 

349,395 

14.3,324 

282,658 

2,484,673 

107,964 

281,548 

117,614 

102,360 

140,404 

73,664 

64,839 

62,492 

10,(135 

23,377 

105,303 



1911-12. 



cwt. 

1,136,7.32 

589,141 

2,097,260 

530,221 

275,755 

2.50,881 

245,609 

2,2.51,278 

90,141 

404,383 

7.5,567 

81,748 

131,515 

80,638 

79,610 

80,328 

9,145 

31,746 

103,34 - 



* Previous to the year 1914-15, 250 lbs. of fresh lobsters were allowed to a case. Since then 
200 lbs. fresh lobsters to a case. 

The following table shows the relative value of the chief commercial fishes return- 
ing $100,000 and upwards, in their order of rank, for the year under review, with the 
amount of increase or decrease, when compared with the values for the year 1914-15. 



Kinds of Fish. 


Value. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Salmon 


11,262,.381 

4,.506,155 

4,489,496 

2,906,887 

2,261,776 

1,232,022 

1,229,096 

1,048,641 

990,329 

901,183 

870,209 

632,733 

520,051 

347,3.55 

240,611 

193,788 

16P,569 

147,628 

120.126 

106,090 

104,237 


$ 
2,701.995 
166,226 
603,362 
171,630 
468,493 


S 


Lobsters 

Cod. 

Herring 

Halibut 

Haddock 


12,818 
120,519 

204,949 


Sardines , 


Whitefish 

Mackerel 

Pickerel (including blue pickerel) 

Trout 

Smelts 


72,956 
163,483 
243,400 
246,705 

206,136"" 


Hake and Cusk 


Pike 

Clams, Quahaugs and Scallops 


122,564 
42 265 


Pollock 




20,407 


Tullibee 


9,040 

13,220 " 

81,310 

28. .3.59 




Oysters 

Alewives 

Swordfish 

Eels 


30,351 



In the table which follows, the total results of the sea and inland fisheries are 
given separately. In the first two columns are shown the catch of aU kinds of sea 
fish, and its value as realized at the vessel's or boat's side; while in the third and 
fourth columns are shown the various modes in which the catch was marketed, and 
the market value of each kind of fish. In the fifth and sixth columns are shown the 
quantity and value of all kinds of fresh-water fish caught and marketed. Such fish 
being practically all marketed by the fishermen in its fresh state, no distinction is 
made between the value of the catch as landed, and its marketed value. In the 
outer columns are shown the total marketed quantities of the various kinds of both 
sea and fresh-water fish and the market values of the same. 



i>i:i'\}ir\n:\'r or riii: vin/. snifiirn 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 




uKi'ojrr or riii: nnrcTY mimstkr 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

i-H CO t- c: 05 -.i 

1-00 CO CM CO n 

o t^ CO e«5 -H ^ 

/ 5> CO fS o" i-T s' 

« 05 O Oi •■£ "TX 



's '.i X i; h- M n -f I - <o c C". 
z: t^ -r ::& CO CO X -f ^ -.r $ I - 
O t- X X .-. I- ^. -^ i -.O C X 



r; -^ T_i cc X "-r I 
i-^x ?ix'cft- ■ 

IM 1— ^ X iC CO I 
— i-H CO CO * CO 



c^oo 



5 w 



© lO ;d -T lO 
to I— I » f T 



to O f 
.-1 o -r 

CR IM Tf 



(M r-l -T CO in -r OS 

X o o<M :o o -»< 

so" rH CO' ■<J<~ (N h-T ,— ' 
X (M X CQ i-i Oi lO 






IMiO 

x'oT 



§?1 

CO t- 

o'im' 

(M — 
1-CO 



^ CO -o X i~ ; 



; i^r-i t^t- 



iot-t^cooiMfco.-iMC-. 
i-Ht^iMi~c£r-i-iinT-(»o-r 

:r CO tiTi-Ht-l co' x' x'eo 



e<i X o -T f- 

X CD CO ■»■ (M 
-l* Tl< ;0 CM >0 

t- :o"coio" 



r~ O (M (M IM O -"r 



w CO (M — I cn t^ -r 

© >-■ .-I X i-H 00 1^ 

O rH ^5 CO' 5£> M 



O CO o 
IC'CO r-T 



© o: 



w X ;c 1-- y: c^i rr I 



--t~-<M«OC5W-Hl-,-'a5iO 



O (M C-l CI 1^ 



t^ -J5 o CO \a 



© i-H -^ O •— I *r 0» 



© T-H TO CO X I^ r-l 
X IM X fM © ~ 1-"^ 






CO t^ 
©"54" 



T-(CO«>Xt:^O5C0t^i-il^l~- 
lOt>.|>.CO'tiI<l'*'CO--l(MO; 
i-< t^ (TJl^ <M t^ .— iC -1 iO ■^ 



1 : 

CO . 




CD 
X 

CO 




id" 








'. X 




X 




X . 


© 




1,195,552 

14,449 

12,975 

1,814 

390,446 

68,101 

407 
27,670 

730 
81,550 
32,797 


i: 

© : 




oc 

1-^ 










• © 

: § 

©■ 

. X 
l-H 








2 : 

2 : 






r-" CO © X t^ O CO t^ — t- t^ 

iO l^t^CO-fNTTCOi-KM© 

y^^ ■ (^ w t^ iM t^ -J in i-H »a -r 

©* 'dSr^t^n x" x"co 









a^s 



d'cs. 



* 3^ g 2-2 

CD t. £ s t. 

3 6c « m-O 



C-c 



•V.'^iV.V. 



cS ^ 3; cj cS 



'g_o ^ 






o 



K 3: S=. t: x C ^ r- C X < 



xxvi 



i)i:i'MnMi:\r of iiii: \ ii i/, seuvici: 






o 

o G 

"5^ 



w CO 

c3 CO 

u CO 

s o 

^-^ o 



'-'-' CO 

fl - 
o .^ 

o . 

OS'S 
fl « 

o " 
C3 ^ 






^ CO 

• — t-. 

'^ d 
Ot3 



^-^ 



03 



rt 



^ 72 ^ 

c» o ^ 

c: en o 

O C3 C5 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



5J = 

h12 



3^ 




• O "^ 
•coo 



O* 



?l IS 1-1 



— ~. t-- 

« r- -< 

-r o*?r 



^ "*" 



u 



> 






O 1-1 

wo 



M cv t» 



I 



t- ?: c: « 1— CI M Ti -1 5) 00 o :* o 'X I- TC • 

•o ~. M © I.- ir; X 1- M c-i t-- m © o ■-" :s X < 




■>s — lO -o *) CI cj c<i M X c ■>: o X t~ i~ 
M us ri in la X I - 1~ (M I- CO © s ^ o « 






70 -r T ■■£ : 



SVJ lO © O 1— I 

ts f •v X c; 

— l^ b- X •V 



OXIM C^f 



o- 



t^y. Ci ■V 



© s; 1^ o 00 c-i t-- 'I' 

Ml~XC<5 •Mi-t-.O 
«Ci-lf-lX -SOXt^Cl 



t— O ?1 o 



-~© 

Mr-.* 



o 



OM 



. =3 i 



-; C ^ 



O 



U 



CO 



93 .— 



.5 o- 

1^ : ^ ?C 



ta.?- 



3^— -rr^.SJE 



m^ 



s c ,'- •" ^ r^ >■ ~ ■„-" ^ \F .- •-< ,^ ,; ,^ — — . 



UKI'OUT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER 



SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 



lO o c-i O C-1 o 

l-CO «£ CO T-l f- 

•* C<5 05 M t-<_ i-H 

in 00 o" S co' 



c: -^ X .-I 5 
tr i.T o in o 
t-- r— -r -r c 

o; o CM 

f-ilM 



I 2 



•V Cv» a o 
00 ' 



00 c^ 1^ f CO 1^ p 

00 "Mt- (M -^ O © 

i-H (M ^ 010 05 



^'i-T 



128 






■* CO t^O 



-;2;o;2; OHo CjocdehS^ - 



CO * 



S " <« "3 

«^ c j; - 



Ji 



f^: =^ .1-^11 'Ell:! 



c . « • - 

X O - Jac 



►3 « -5 :S^ 



>>; 



, ii X :^ i; :i; 



xxviii ni !• \in\n:\ I or riii: \.\\ \i. siiuxni: 

7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 
Xiimhrr tif //cr.vo/f.v rmfilnjicd , niul fiinoiint af ('<i])it(il inrcslid. 

Tlu' tot^il iiiiiiiIm r uf imtsoiis cii^'aficd iii the various Itniiiclu'S of the tishiup 
industry, (luriu^r tin- yrar uiuk-r review, was 102,182, whieli is the larpest nuinln'r 
siiiee 1!KK». when there were 99,2()fl ix'rsons employed. During 1914-15, there were 
'.•4.r>l.'j iK-rsoiis. eiiffajriHi in the work r»t' the fislieries, so that the nunilter fur the year 
under review is {rreater hy ".OCiK than in the imn-edin}; year. 

Of the total number, .S6,7«!(; were eiurafjed in the sea, and l."),+l<! in the inland 
fisheries. There were 9,541' on vessels, tugs and smaeks, 05,321 on boats, and 27,320 
on shore, in eanneries, freezers and smoke-houses, etc%, eleaninpr and jjreparin^-^ the 
fish for market. 

The amount of eapital invested in ve^sels^ boats, fishing grear, canneries, etc., 
was $2.'>.S55,575, an increase of $1,122413 from the year preceding. Canneries and 
other fixtures on shore, were valued to $ll,0n(>,319, while the remainder, amounting to 
$14,795,256, represents the value of vessels, boats and gear. 

In the sea fisheries $23,200,450 was the amount invested, while that invested in 
the inland fisheries was $2,595,119; both fisheries thus show an increase. 

There were 1,984 vessels, tugs, and carrying smacks in u-se, as against 1,892 in 
the previous year. Of the 38,536 boats 11,097 were gasoline motor-boats, or 1,795 
more than in the preceding year. Five years ago. only 4,588 gasoline boats were in 
use in the fisheries. 

The following table shows the details of the number and value of vessels, boats 
and gear, etc., and the number of persons employed in the fisheries throughout the 
whole of Canada : — 



HKi'om OF Tin: ifErrrv ]fi\T!^rEff xxix 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

RECAPITULATION 

Of the Number of Fishermen, etc., and of the Number and Value of Fishing 
Vessels, Boats, Nets, Traps, etc., used in the Sea and Inland Fisheries in 
the Whole of Canada, for the Year 1915-16. 



Steam Fishing Vessels (tonnage 7,190)., 

.Sailing and Gasoline vessels 

Boats (sail and row) 

11 (gasoline) ,. 

Carrying smacks 

Gill nets, seines, trap and smelt nets, etc- 

Weirs 

Trawls 

Spears 

Skates of gear 

Hand lines 

Eel traps 

Crab traps 

Lobster trails 

11 canneries 

Salmon n 

Clam 11 

Sa'dine n 

Salmon traps 

Freezers and ice houses 

Smoke and fish houses 

Fishing piers and wharves 

Whaling stations . 

Oil factories 

Fishing huts and cottages, etc. .... . . 

Scows, pile drivers, etc 



Totals. 



Sea Fisheries. 



Number. 



57 

1,294 

23,551 

10, 262 

491 

157,824 

794 

21,101 



1,950 
67,076 



75 

1,371,774 

623 

S6 

19 

5 

2 

796 

8,812 

2,643 

4 

1 



576 



Value. 



§ 

826, 

2,812, 

1,052, 

2,864, 

282, 

2,587, 

534, 

225, 



69: 
000 
754 
068 
711 
000 
890 
833 



1,355 

631 

3,071 

28 

349 

6 

2,558 

1,527 

2,207 

IS-O 

40 



750 
851 
035 
698 
200 
000 
000 
090 
162 
538 
855 
00(1 



35,460 



23,260,456 



Inland Fisheries. 



Number. 



142 



3,888 
^35 



184 
419 



109,525 
170 



866 
197 
230 



55 



Value. 



S 
673,100 



Total, Both Fisheries. 



Number. 



134,007' 
295,125: 



957,087 
67,200 



1,0>7 

35,892 
340 



289,978 
14,740 
66,563; 



60,000 



2,595,119 



199 

1.294 

27,439 

11,09' 

491 



978 

21,101 

419 

1,950 

176,601 

170 

75 

1,371,774 

623 

86 

19 

5 

2 

1,662 

9,009 

2,873 

4 

1 

55 

576 



Value. 



1,499,793 

2,812,000 

1.186.761 

3,159,193 

282,711 

3,544,087 

602,090 

225,833 

1,087 

28,500 

'M, 260 

340 

750 

1.355,851 

681,0.S5 

3,071,698 

28,200 

349,000 

6,0u0 

2.848,068 

1,. ".41, 902 

2,274,101 

180,855 

40,000 

60.000 

35,460 



25,855.5(5 



•PERSONS EMPLOYED. 





Sea Fisheries. 


Inland Fisheries. 


Total, Both Fisheries 




Number of men employed on Vessels .... 

11 M M Boats. . . 

" 11 11 carry smacks. . 

1. Per.-4ons Employed in Fish houses, 

Freezers, Canneries, etc 


8,001 
52,4.52 

783 

25,530 


757 
12,869 

1,790 


8,758 

65,321 

783 

27.320 


Totals 


86, 766 


15,416 


IC 18"' 







i)i:r\h"r\ii:\T or run ami/, srniici-: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 
REVIEW OF TIIK IISHERIES OK EACH PKOVINCE. 

NEW BRUNSWICK. 

The total marketed value of the fisheries of this province, for the year 1915-lG, 
was $4,737,145. The decrease of $202,938, from the total for the preceding year, is 
duo to the falling-off in the smelt and herring fisheries, caused hy weather conditions 
jind lack of salt for curing. 

The amount of capital invested in vessels, boats, fishing gear and fixtures throiigh- 
out the province, was $3,958,714, as compared with $3,765,020 in the preceding year. 
There were 23,373 persons engaged in the work of the fisheries, of which number 1,697 
were employed on vessels and carrying smacks, 15,005 on boats, and 6,671 in canneries, 
smoke-houses, etc., on shore. In the year preceding the number of i>ersons employed 
was 22,034. 

District No. 1. 

This district comprises the counties of Charlotte and St. John. The value of the 
fisheries in this district reached the highest figure in many years, amounting to 
$2,111,870. Although the price of sardines, which had been very high in 1914-15, was 
again normal, a very large increase in the quantity of smoked herring put up, and a 
catch of hake over double that of last year, have contributed to the increase over last 
year, when the total marketed value was $2,049,322. However, all kinds of fishing 
brought good returns, and the season was a highly prosperous one. 

The following table shows the quantities of the chief kinds landed during the 
year under review, and the four preceding years : — 



Kinds of Fish. 


1915-16. 


1914-15. 


1913-14. 


1912-1.3. 


1911-12. 


Lobsters 

Herring 

Sardines vbrl) 


cwt 

9,2.32 

I69.4(;f» 

336.29(1 

38. 165 

123.102 

2. 156 

20. 978 


cwt. 

9,337 

92.72'; 

298,585 

53,8('5 

61,370 

3,724 
23.300 


cwt. 

11,751 
197,297 
141,:i84 

70,862 

65,180 
3,998 

18.832 


cwt. 

12,410 
189,200 
280,282 

47,951 

97,524 
3,295 

25,253 


cwt. 

8,539 
li<0,660 
403,103 


Pollock 

Hake. 

Salmon 


5S,210 

79,412 

3, .353 


Cod 


18,160 



There was also an increase in the amount of capital invested, from $2,065,896 to 
$2,140,247, and in the number of persons employed from 3,493 to 3,965. Of the per- 
sons employed, 425 were on vessels and carrying smacks, 2,436 on boats, and 1.10 1 in 
fish-houses, etc., on shore. 

District No. 2. 

The total marketed value of the fisheries of tliis district, which comprises the 
counties of Albert, Westmorland, Kent, Northumberland, Gloucester, and Restigouche. 
amounted to $2,589,153, which constitutes a decrease of $260,667 from the total for 
the preceding year. Almost half of this decrease may be attributed to the drop in the 
• •atch nf smelts, which resulted from the lack of ice on the rivers, during the early part 



REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER xxxi 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

of tho winter. By the tiiiio the ice had formed, and the fishermen were ab^e to set their 
nets, these fisli liad gone out to sea. A considerable fall-olf also ooeurrod in the herring 
fishery, owing to a dearth of salt for curing purposes. 

Tho quantities of the chief kinds landed during the year under review, and the 
four i)roceding years, are shown in the following table: — 



Kinds of Fish. 



Salmon 

Lobsters . . . 

Cod 

Herrinp 

Mackerel 

Smelts 

Clams and quahaugs (hrl 



1915-16. 



Cwt. 

15,004 
(12,919 
229,935 
512,730 
19,748 
52,900 
13,836 



1914-15. 



Cwt. 

12,497 
59,719 
229, 338 
546, 096 
29, 857 
65, 105 
15, 130 



1913 14. 



Cwt. 

13,090 
66,426 
221,603 
670,829 
16,831 
60,059 
29,214 



1912-13. 



Cwt. 

10,004 

71,768 

218,683 

565,482 

6,010 

79,854 

22,416 



1911-12. 



Cwt. 



9,144 

83,343 

180,400 

552,729 

5,671 

64,179 

33,674 



It will be observed that salmon, lobsters and cod, all show an increase over the 
landings for 1914-15. 

The value of fishing material amounted to $1,712,597, an increase of $122,672, 
when compared with the preceding year. The number of men on vessels was 1,258, 
on boats 11,284, and on carrying smacks 14, while on shore 5,567 persons were employed 
in canneries, etc., making a total of 18,12:3 engaged in the work of the fisheries, as 
against 17,253 in the year preceding. 

District No. 3 (Inland). 

In the comities of Kings, Queens, Sunbury, York, Carleton, Victoria, and 
Madawaska, which comprise the inland district of New Brunswick, the total marketed 
value of the fisheries amounted to $36,122, which is $4,819 less than the total for the 
preceding year. Pickerel were scarce and of small size, while a reduced salmon catch 
is due to heavy rainstorms in the height of the season. 

The following table shows the catches of the chief kinds landed during the year 
under review, and the four preceding years : — 



Kinds of Fish. 


1915-16. 

Cwt. 

707 
710 
255 

2,842 
1,422 


1914-15. 

Cwt. 

8:i5 

651 

480 

4,. 374 

967 


1913-14. 


1912-13 

Cwt. 

578 
.574 
897 
4,288 
821 


1911-12. 


Salmon 

Trout 


Cwt. 

897 
728 
528 
3,810 
839 


Cwt. 

520 
579 


Pickerel 

Alewives 


658 
3,760 


Shad 


709 







The shad fishery in this district, where the department operates a shad hatchery, 
is showing considerable improvement, both as to quantity and size of fish. 

The amount of capital invested in fishing boats, gear, and club-houses, amounted 
to $105,870, as compared with $109,199 in the previous year. 



xxxii 



Di:/' \trr]ih:\r or tin: vii »/, si:h'\i<F. 



7 GEORGE V. A. 1917 
The iiumluT of men em ployed in Iwuit-* wan l.^H"). 

ill ApiMiiilix 1 tlicre will lie f(niml fuller detiiils «if tlie tishcries of New 
liruii'^wiek. 

I'KINCK KnWAHIt Isl.WK. 

The total marketed value c»f the fi.sheries of this i»rovinee ainouiit<'d to $1>33,682, 
showiny: a decrease of $327,1>S4, when eoin])are<l with the value for 1914-15. This is 
ueeounted for by the drop in the eateh of smelts and of lobsters. The ieo formod too 
lat«' and was not heavy enough to prevent the smelts from spreading on the flats, 
where bag-nets could not be used, instead of following the channel as usual. The 
loli-ter fishery was impaired by ice remaining late on the northern part of the island, 
as well as by scarcity of bait. 

Cod and hake showed satisfactory increases. 

The following table shows the quantities of the chief kinds landed during the 
year under review and the four preceding years: — 



Kind- of Fish. 



Lobsters 

Cod 

Hake 

Herring 

Mackerel 

Oysters Brl 

Smelts 

Clams and quahaugs Brl 



1015-16. 



Cwt. 

84,894 
57,208 
21,282 
20,360 
5,640 

c,,2m 

4,412 
2,027 



1914-15. 



Cwt. 

88,341 

29,542 

22, 500 

55,032 

9, 215 

7,823 

19,. 326 

2,748 



1913-14. 



Cwt. 

92,898 
.59, 022 
25,191 
85, 295 
11, 496 
12,951 
9,777 
18,966 



1912-13. 



Cwt. 

136,9<t2 

49. 876 

38,751 

83,391 

5,448 

8,631 

10, 545 

4,985 



1911-12. 



Cwt. 

118, ((90 

49,653 

16,600 

79.178 

5,005 

8,835 

5.688 

8,083 



The amount of capital invested' was $1,024,268, which is less, by $6,196, than in 
the preceding year, while 5,043 persons were engaged in the various branches of tlie 
fishing industry, as against 5,832 in the year preceding. Of the total number, 3,004 
were employed on boats, and 89 on vessels and .smacks; the remaining 2,550 were in 
fish-houses, canneries, etc., on shore. 

In Appendix 2 will be found fuller details of the fisheries of Prince Edwanl 
Island. 



NOV.\ SCOTIA. 

During the .vear under review, the total marketed value of fish and fish products 
of this province amounted to $9,160,851, as compared with $7,730,191 in 1914-15. This 
ver>' considerable increase, of nearly one and a half million dollars, is attributable to 
the increased catch by the Lunenburg bank fleet, as w<'ll as the higher prices obtained 
for lobsters, together with an increase of over 36.(MK> lumdretlweights in the quantity 
taken. 

The cainied lobster trade recovered, to a gratifying extent, from tlie serious con- 
ditions caused by the war, in the previous season; while a continued run of large 
lobsters caused an incre^ise of neiirly 30,00<J hundredweights in the quantity shipi>ed 
in the shell. 



REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER xxxiii 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

Tho amount of capital invested in vessels, boats, gear and fixtures on shore, is 
placed at $7,899,112 for the year 1915-10; tliis shows an advance of $330,291 since the 
preceding year. 

Twenty-nine thousand and sixty-two persons were engaged in the work of the 
fisheries in the province, which is 302 less than the total for the year preceding. The 
number of men employed on vessels and smacks was 5,445 ; on boats, 17,320 ; while in 
fish-houses, freezers, smoke-houses, etc., on shore, there were 6,297 persons employed. 

District No. 1. 

The total marketed value for this district, which comprises the whole of the island 
of Cape Breton, amounted to $1,289,826, constituting an increase of $260,176 over 
last year's total. Tho catch of haddock was nearly double that of 1914-15; and better 
prices were paid for nearly all kinds of fish. Herring were unusually plentiful and 
the catch would probably have been 100 per cent greater had salt been available; as 
it is the quantity taken was much larger than in the previous year. 

The quantities of the chief kinds landed during the year under review and the 
four preceding years were as follows: — 



Kinds of Fish. 


1915-16. 


1914-15. 


1913 14. 


1912-13. 

Cwt. 

1,903 

53,221 

101,696 

70,220 

6,541 

7,141 

47,886 

19.882 


1911-12. 


Salmon 


Cwt. 

3,645 

39,949 

130,505 

183.752 

7,761 

7,757 

55,231 

26,792 


Cwt. 

4,169 

32, 843 

159, 666 

94,510 

5, 224 
16, 103 
47.931 
25,437 


Cwt. 

2,406 

51,426 

114,043 

64,949 

7,338 

5,245 

54,947 

36,772 


Cwt. 
2,690 


Lobsters 

Cod 

Haddock 

Hake 

Pollock 

Herring 

Mackerel 


49,250 

146,440 

95,708 

6,.384 
10,244 
33.621 

8;883 



The amount of capital invested in fishing material and fixtures on shore increased 
by $56,632 ; last year's figure being $1,213,686, while that for the year under review 
was $1,270,318. 

There were 567 men engaged in the work of the fisheries on vessels, 5,001 on 
boats, 134 on carrying smacks, and 1,772 persons in fish and smoke-houses on shore; 
the whole making a grand total of 7,474, or 122 more than in the year preceding. 

District No. 2. 



This district comprises the counties of Cumberland, Colchester, Pictou, Autigo- 
nish, Guysboro, Halifax, and Hants. The total marketed value of the fish and fish 
products of the district amounted, during the year under review, to $2,173,057, and 
shows an advance of $227,666 from the total for the preceding year. Increased catches 
of nearly all kinds of fish contributed to this satisfactory increase of value. 
39— c 



xxxiv i)i:r\in.\n:\T or riii: \aval .^kuvici-: 

7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

The fulluwiiitr Uilile shows the iiiuiutitics of tho clih-f kinds landed during tho 
year under review and the four preceding years: — 



Ki.ul.s of Fisli. 


19!5 16. 


1914-15. 


1913-14. 


1912 1.3. 


1911-12. 


Lobsters 

Mackerel 

Cod 


Owt. 

81,737 

37,.59(i 

149,202 

15,968 

124,741 

148,059 


Cwt. 

75,073 

.34,657 

139,208 

13,199 

135,368 

136,()59 


Cwt. 

93,258 

.59,225 

147,694 

21,962 

101,375 

111,165 


Cwt. 

101,075 
19,441 

137,.314 
13,992 

162,172 

111), 156 


Cwt. 

97,682 

48,970 

181,4.39 


Halibut.. 

Haddock 

Herring 


17,794 
192,774 
161,698 



Salmon, shad, and alewives were taken in larger quantities than for many years 
previous. Tlie amount of capital invested in vessels, boats, gear, and fixtures on shore, 
is placed at $1,998,876 for the year 1915-16, which sum is somewhat greater than that 
shown in the preceding year. 

Of 7,393 persons who were engaged in the work of the fisheries during the year, 
the number on boats was 4,664, and on vessels and/ smacks there were 793, while in 
fish and smoke-houses on shore, 1,936 persons were employed. During the preceding 
year the total number of persons engaged in the work of the fisheries was 7,700. 

District No. 3. 

The total marketed value of the fisheries of this district, which comprises the 
counties of Lunenburg, Queens, Shelburne, Yarmouth, Digby, Annapolis, and Kings, 
amounted to $5,703,968 for the year under review; this constitutes an increase of 
$948,908, or nearly a million dollars. 

The lobster fishery alone contributed $494,410 of the increase. Xot only was the 
catch much larger than in 1914-15 but prices were extremely high. Duriixg January 
and February, $70 per crate was not an unusual price for lobsters in the shell. 

The remainder of the increase is derived chiefly from the cod, hake, and mackerel 
fisheries. The Lunenburg fleet enjoyed a very successful season, while increased catches 
in nearly all the shore fisheries are recorded. 

The following table shows the quantities of the chief kinds landed during the 
year under review and the four preceding years: — 



Kinds of Fi.<h. 


1915-16. 


1914-15. 


191.3-14. 


1912- 13. 


1911-12. 


Lob.sters 

Cod 

Haddock 

H like and Cusk 


Cwt. 

142,958 
796.577 
24.5,-5.53 
182,623 
2(i4,4(l9 
49,128 


Cwt. 

120,693 
621,146 
314,233 
147,010 
228.285 
23,544 


Cwt. 

157,577 
709,133 
221,062 
203,838 
220,361 
66,610 


Cwt. 

129,222 
689,095 
239,880 
1(;7,998 
218,10,") 
45,263 


Cwt. 

17.5,316 
1,021,493 
217.876 
1.35,218 
180.033 


M.sckenl 


8,89!! 


> 





REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MWIFiTER xxxv 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

The amount of capital invested in vessels, boats, gear, and fixtures on shore in this 
district in the year now being- reviewed was $4,620,918, whicli makes an increase of 
$239,412 since the preceding year. 

There were 3,800 men enj^aued in t.be work of the fisheries on vessels, 7,655 on 
boats, 145 on carrying smacks, and 2,589 persons employed in fish and smoke-houses,, 
etc., on shore, making a grand total of 14,196. This total is less than that for the 
preceding year by 117. There were again fewer men on vessels, while the number of 
men on boats has again increased, owing to the increasing success of the gasoline 
boats in the prosecution of the shore, fisheries. 

Gasoline boats are supplanting sail-boats in this district, as there are now more 
of the former in use than there are of the latter. There are 2,811 motor-boats, but 
only 2,489 sail-boats. 

In Appendix 3 will be fouiul fuller details of the fisheries of ISTova Scotia. 

QUEBEC. 

The total marketed value of the fisheries of this province for the year under review, 
amounted to $2,076,851, as compared with $1,924,430 for the preceding year. Notwith- 
standing the drop in the catch of herring, and the fact that the general price of canned 
lobsters was much lower than in the previous year, there is an increase of $152,421. 
The cod fishery was very successful, and these fish were not only taken in large quan- 
tities, but were of excellent quality, and brought good prices. 

The total amount of capital invested in vessels, boats, gear and fixtures on shore, 
in the province, amounted to $1,464,373, an advance of $72,334 from the amount for 
the year previous. 

There were 373 men engaged in the work of the fisheries in vessels, 8,409 in boats, 
09 in carrying smacks and 4,946 persons employed in the fish and smoke-houses, etc., 
on shore, mals;ing a grand total of 13,797, and an increase of 2,785 over the total for 
the preceding year. Better facilities for disposing of fish, and the closing of several 
sawmills, as well as the increased use of motor-boats, are among the reasons which 
induced so many young men to take up fishing in this province. 

Gulf Division (Sea Fisheries.) 

The total marketed value of the fisheries of this division, which comprises the 
counties of Bonaventure, Gaspe, (including the Magdalen islands) Rimouski and 
Saguenay, amounted to $1,901,626, an increase of $109,454 over the total for the 
year before. 

There were 84 whales landed during the year. Although this is almost as many 
as last year, the quantity of oil obtained was much less. 



39-ci 



i>i:!'\h"r\ii:\T or riii: swal service 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 

The following table shows the quantities of the chief kinds landed during the 
year tinder review and the four preceding years: — 



Kimls of Fi.sli. 


1915-16. 


1914-15. 


1913-14. 


1912-13. 


1911-12. 


Salinon 


cwt. 

11,726 

23,588 

732,481 

139,703 

42,086 

2,571 


cwt. 

11,310 

22,810 

567,664 

355,849 

21,102 

1,245 


cwt. 

12,676 
44,310 
365,052 
363,649 
23,598 
12,146 


cwt. 

8,946 

50,450 

478,573 

358,709 

11,786 

4,019 


cwt. 

8,278 

56,927 

474.610 

'.i'Xi '.iR'' 


Ix)l)aterB 

Cod -. 




Mackerel 

Smt'lts 


12J13 
3,540 



Tlie amount of capital invested was $1,342,.017, and the nunil)er of person.^ 
engaged in the work of the fisheries was 12,154. m 

Inland Fisheries. 

The inland fisheries of Quebec are now administered by the provincial Govern- -m 
ment, and it is to the provincial department of Colonization, Mines and Fisheries 
that this department is indebted for the figures contained in this rei)ort concerning 
the inland fisheries of the province. 

The total marketed value for the year which is being reviewed was $175,225, which 
exceeds the total for the preceding year by $42,967. The amount of capital invested 
was $122,056, and the total number of persons employed was 1,644. 

The following table shows the quantities of the chief kinds landed during the 
year under review and the four preceding years: — 



Kinds of Fish. 


1915-16. 


1914-15. 


1913-14. 


1912-13. 


1911-12. 




cwt. 

927 

85 

7,311 

757 
1,960 
3.173 


cwt. 

1,289 
356 

4,871 

1,075 
871 

1,954 


cwt. 

1,229 
967 

2,496 
977 
935 

1,823 


cwt. 

1,423 
1,240 
3,167 
1,742 

855 
1,722 


cwt. 
1,175 


Trout 

Eels 


1,000 
4,428 


Sturgeon 

Pike 


2,095 
914 


Perch 


1.726 







In Appendix 4 will be found fidler details of the fisheries of the province. 

ONTARIO. 

The fisheries of this province are also administered by the provincial Govern- 
ment and this department is, therefore, indebted to the provincial deputy minister 
of game and fisheries for the figures contained in this report. 

The total value of the fisheries for the year under review was $3,341^82, which 
sum is $585,891 greater than for the year before. 

An increase of over SO per cent in the catch of trout is recorded, as well as 
increased catches of whitefish, pickerel, and several other varieties. 



IfEPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINIfiTER xxxvu 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

The following table shows the quantities of the chief kinds landed during the 
year 1915-16 and the four preceding years: — 



Kinds of Fi.sli. 


1915-16. 


1914-15. 


1913 14. 


1912-W. 


1911-12. 


Trout 

Wliitefisli 

Herring 

*Pickerel 

Pike 

Perch 


cwt. 

106,503 
67,100 

115,715 
75,541 
2.5,844 
14,904 


cwt. 

57,609 
57,964 
91,474 
39,173 
44,258 
19,536 


cwt. 

62,204 
52,263 
130,718 
26,564 
34,547 
12,427 


cwt. 

63,707 
5^,897 
170.677 
26,056 
24,732 
13,931 


cwt. 

65,120 

44, .540 

131,020 

20,225 

^ 20,985 

9,572 





* Tr.cluding blue pickerel. 



The amount of capital invested in fishing boats, gear and fixtures on shore in 
the year under review amounted to $1,860,732. This is an increase of $108,393 over 
the total for the year before. During the year that is being reviewed there were 
4,114 men eingaged in the work of the fisheries throughout the province. This 
nimiber is 38 greater than than for the year preceding. 

In Appendix 5 will be found fuller details of the fisheries of the province. 



MANITOBA. 

The total value of the fisheries of this province, for the year 1915-16, amounted to 
$742,925. This is $106,497 less than the total for 1914-15. The severity of the winter, 
which was cold, with very deep snow, made both fishing and transportation of the fish 
to the railroads difiicult; while the large number of fishermen who enlisted for over- 
seas service during the year brought down the number of persons engaged in the 
industry, from 1,864 in the previous year, to 1,469, or 415 less than in the year under 
review. 

The following' table shows the quantifies of the chief kind.s taken during the year 
under review, and the four preceding years: — 



Kinds of Fish. 


1915-16. 


1914-15. 


1913-14. 


1912-13. 


1911-12. 


^yhitefi,sh 

Pickerel 

Pike 


Cwt. 

44,360 
23, 134 
30,2J8 
47,562 


Cwt. 

47,649 
53,868 ' 
37,043 
39,987 


Cwt. 

38,243 
31,024 
18,756 
13,844 


Cwt. 

48,439 

33,044 

29,770 

8,470 


Cwt. 

51,844 
54,274 
32,890 


Tullibee 


7,129 



The amount of capital invested in the industry in this province, during the year 
that is being reviewed, was $399,119. This is an increase of $80,836 over the total in 
the year before. 

In Appendix 6 will be found fuller details of the fisheries of this province. 



ni:r.\irr\ii:\T or riii: .viri/. seuvici: 



7 GEORGE V, A. 1917 



S.\SKATCHK\VAN\ 



The total value of the fisheries of this province, for the year 1915-1 ti, amounted to 
$165,888. This total exceeds that for the preceding year by $33,871. 

As in ^lanit^jba, the severe weather of the winter, and the low water in lakes and 
rivers during the summer, resulted in smaller catches of the various kinds of fish than 
in the year preceding. But the market was good during the winter season, and the 
buyers were compelled to pay higher prices to secure enough fish to fill their contracts : 
the fishermen were, therefore, better off than in the previous year. 

The following table shows the quantities of the chief kinds landed during the 
year and the four preceding years: — 



Kinds of Fish. 


1015-16. 


1914-15. 


1913-14. 


1912-13. 


1911-12. 


Whitefish 

Pike 

Pickerel 


Cwt. 

23. 9.36 
7.5.35 
3.140 
4.824 


Cwt. 

35,443 

10,913 

1,951 

7,752 


Cwt. 

30,993 
7,9.36 
1,710 
4,984 


Cwt. 

23,120 
5,197 
2,193 
2,915 


Cwt. 

30,8.56 
5,975 
2,6.56 


Mixed Fish 


3,195 







The amount of capital invested in the industry in this province, in 1915-16, was 
$50,089. This is an increase of $5,782 over that in the preceding year. There were 
927 men engaged, as against 813 in the year before. 

In Appendix 7 will be found fuller details of the fisheries of this province. 

ALBERTA. 

The total value of the fisheries of this province amounted to $94,13-4 for 1915-16, 
which is an increase of $7,414 over the total for the preceding year, which in turn 
gave an increase of $6,401 over the total for the year 1913-14. 

There was a falling off in the quantities of all kinds of fish taken except pickerel, 
the catch of which was double that of the year before, but the fishermen obtained good 
prices throughout the winter months, when the demand, which had been steadily 
increasing since July, greatly exceeded the supply; especially after the curtailing of 
fishing operations by the extreme cold. 

There has been a great improvement in the method of handling Alberta fish dur- 
ing the past year. They are now being well put up in boxes, and reach the market in 
first-class condition, which will, no doubt, result in a greater demand. 

The amount of capital invested in the industry, in 1915-16, was $44,726, which 
makes an increase of $24,492 over the total in the preceding year. There were 5,727 
men engaged in the fisheries in the province during the year under review. 

In Appendix 7 fuller details of the fisheries of the province will be found. 



YUKON" TERRITORY. 



The total value of the fisheries in the Yukon Territory, in 1915-16, amoimted to 
$63,730. This is less than the total in the preceding year, by $5,995, 



REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER xxxix 

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 39 

The run of salmon in the Yukon Tfiver was very light. It is to be deplored that 
many fish wheels arc in operation on the lower Yukon, all the way to the Canadian 
boundary line. 

The decrease in the catch of whitefish is not due to any depletion of the lakes, 
but to the enlistment for overseas service of many experienced lake fi.shermen. 

Freezers were erected during the year at Albert lake, which lake was fished for 
the first time by white fishermen. 

The amount of capital invested in boat^ and fishing gear, in the year being 
reviewed, was $12,527, against $11,915 in the year before. There were 250 men engag- 
ed in fishing during 1915-16, as against .243 in the preceding year. 

In Appendix 8 will be found fuller details of the fisheries of this territory. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

The total marketed value of the fisheries of this province, for the year 1915-16, 
exclusive of home consumption and landings by United States fishing vessels, for 
shipment through to points in the United States, amounted to $14,538,320, which 
constitutes an increase of $3,023,234 over 1914-15. 

Almost all of this increase is derived from the salmon industry, the returns from 
which were $2,714,213 greater than in the preceding year. 

The value of canned salmon exceeded that of the previous year by $2,259,517, 
though the number of cases canned was about the same, on account of the fact that 
better prices were obtained for canned salmon of all varieties. The failure of the 
salmon trap-nets in Puget Sound also enabled our fishermen to sell a large quantity 
of fresh salmon to American packers at a very remunerative price. 

The halibut fishery is steadily declining from year to year, although the better 
prices received in the year being reviewed make the total value greater than in the 
year preceding. This is largely due to the privilege granted to American fishermen 
in March, 1915, of shipping their fish in bond over Canadian Railways, from ports in 
British Columbia, which has had the effect of attracting more buyers to the coast and 
thus increasing competition and providing the fishermen with a ready market for the 
product of their labou