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'X T OT the least difficult matter in connection 
I ^Vl ^^^^ ^^^^ present work has been the choice 
JL 1 of a title. The one finally determined 
ipon is far from satisfactory, because it scarcely 
suggests the scope of the subject treated. True 
enough, the single word Nomenclature offered 
itself as a suitable title ; but this is really a 
French word, derived, of course, from the Latin, and 
although it has been admitted into our vocabulary 
simply owing to the lack of an English equivalent, 
its use is properly restricted to the classification of 
technical terms in relation to a particular branch 
of science. In a scientific sense, then, the word 
Nomenclature finds a ready acceptance ; but for the 
classification of the names of persons, of places, and 
of things, it is altogether too pedantic. A young 
friend of the author the other day, on being in- 
formed, in answer to his inquirj^, that this work 
would probably be entitled " The Curiosities of 
Nomenclature," promptly asked whether it might 
not be as well to explain, first of all, what the word 
Nomenclature meant. Now, the author does not 
believe for one moment that any intelligent person 

6 Introduction. 

who took up this volume would be at a loss to judge 
of its contents from the title, that is, supposing the 
word Nomenclature appeared on the page ; never- 
theless, his young friend's suggestion reminded him^ 
that a book intended not for the scientific and 
learned, but for general reference, should bear a. 
title easily comprehended by all classes of the com- 
munity. The title originally chosen has, therefore, 
been rejected in favour of one less pretentious and 
more matter-of-fact : if it is not sufficiently expres- 
sive, the fault must be attributed to the poverty of 
the English language. 

Of all the " Ologies," Philology, or the science of 
language, is the most seductive ; and that branch of 
it known as Etymology, which traces the derivation 
and combination of the words of a language from' 
its primary roots, possesses an interest — one might 
almost say a fascination — for all, when once the 
attention has been arrested by it. This fact is 
proved by the popularity of Archbishop Trench's 
published lectures on " The Study of Words," which 
have now reached a nineteenth edition. But it is- 
not to an examination of the dictionary words of the 
English language that the present volume is devoted. 
Bearing in mind that several excellent works already 
exist on this subject, the author has occupied 
himself in the following pages exclusively with the 
etymology, and significance of Names — of personal 
names, comprising Surnames, Sobriquets, Pseu- 
donyms, Nicknames, Class Names, and Professional 
Designations; of names of places, including the 

Introduction. 7 

Countries of the World, with the principal 
Seas, Islands, Gulfs, Straits, &c., the United 
States of North America, the Counties of England 
and Wales, and particularly the Districts, Streets, 
Squares, Churches, and Public Buildings of London ; 
of the names of Religious Sects and Political Fac- 
tions ; of the names of Inns and Taverns ; in addition 
to the names of an infinite number of objects with 
which everyone is familiar, but whose actual signifi- 
cance is comprehended only by a few. 

As to the utility of such a work, a brief glance into 
these pages may convince the reader that the subject 
of Names is fraught with much popular interest. 
Take the names of London streets. How many 
among the thousands who follow their daily occupa- 
tions within sight of the gilt cross of St. Paul's, 
ever reflect that the name of each street they fre- 
quent and pass by the way, points to the origin of 
the street itself; and that, were they to cultivate a 
practical acquaintance with those names, their know- 
ledge of English History and Sociology might be 
considerably enlarged, with a result that they would 
be brought to ask themselves at length how they 
could have been possessed of *' souls so dead " as 
never to have entered upon such a profitable field 
of inquiry before ? Whitefriars, Blackfriars, and 
Austin Friars, carry us back in imagination to the 
days of yore ; the friars have long returned to the 
dust, but the localities they inhabited are still iden- 
tified with their existence by the names they bear. 
Yet these are possibly the only thoroughfares in the 

8 Introduction. 

City — with the exception of such as have derived 
their names from a neighbouring church, public 
building, or private mansion — concerning which the 
average Londoner can express himself with any 
degree of certainty : if he venture a guess at the 
rest, it is safe to assert that he will be open to 
correction. The like observation applies to public 

If the question were asked, for example, why 
the well-known Ships' Registry Offices over the 
Royal Exchange are universally referred to as 
" Lloyd's," ninety-nine out of every hundred City 
men would avail themselves of the very plausible 
suggestion that the system of Marine Insurance was 
first established, either there or elsewhere, by some 
person named Lloyd. True, a certain Edward Lloyd 
had a remote connection with the enterprise ; but he 
was a coffee-house keeper, who probably knew no 
more about ships and their tonnage than " Jona- 
than," another noted London coffee-house keeper, 
after whom the Stock Exchange was formerly desig- 
nated, knew about ** bulls" and " bears." Again, it 
is not every one who could account, off hand, for 
such familiar names as Scotland Yard, Bedlam, 
Doctors' Commons, the Charterhouse, the churches 
of St. Mary-Axe, St. Clement-Danes, St. Hallow's- 
Barking, or St. Catherine Cree. A few barristers 
would, doubtless, be in a position to inform us 
wherefore our seminaries for the study of the law 
were originally styled " Inns of Court " ; but the 
ordinary inquirer, left to his own resources, might 

Introduction. g 

find the problem somewhat difficult to solve. Surely 
they were not at one time inns ? and if so, whence 
came the designation Inns of Court ? Did the Court 
liunkeys patronize them, perhaps? Or, more likely, 
did the sovereign, attended by the Court, take a fancy 
to sleeping beneath the roof of each for once in a way, 
after the manner of Queen Elizabeth ? And, speak- 
ing about inns, every Londoner is, of course, aware 
of the one-time existence of " La Belle Sauvage " on 
the north side of Ludgate Hill, albeit the origin of 
this sign has generally been ascribed to Pocahontas, 
of Virginia, who accompanied her husband, John 
Rolfe, back to England in the year 1616, and, as 
tradition has it, put up at this famous old coaching- 
house. Moreover, Messrs. Cassell and Co., whose pre- 
mises occupy the site, and are approached from La 
Belle Sauvage Yard, have profited by the popular 
misconception to the extent of adopting the figure of 
a female partly clad in skins as their trade-mark. 
Then, again, who has not heard of "The Tabard"? 
and whence did that derive its sign? Among other 
celebrated inns still preserved to us, we have 
"Jack Straw's Castle" on Hampstead Heath. But 
who was Jack Straw ? and had he ever a castle 
thereabouts ? As will be shown in these pages, the 
answer to these questions is associated with a very 
stirring moment in English History. 

A great deal of the early history of England can 
be gleaned from the names of the counties into 
which this country is divided. The terms Shire 
and County are so far sjmonymous in that they 

10 Introduction. 

indicate a portion of land distinguished by a par- 
ticular name ; yet, etymologically considered, they 
are widely different. Although every shire is a 
county, it is not every county to whose individual 
name the word *' shire" may be added. The latter is 
essentially Anglo-Saxon, denoting a division of land 
possessed by an earl, and wherever it occurs it points 
conclusively to the Saxon occupation of England. 
Certainly, we do not speak of Essex-shire, Middle- 
sex-shire, or Sussex-shire, because the Saxon terri- 
tories referred to, as well as their relative positions, 
are fully indicated in the names themselves. Neither 
are we accustomed to allude to Surrey-shire, for the 
reason that the word Surrey expressed the Anglo- 
Saxon for the land south of the rey, or river, 
comprising, as it did, that large tract of land de- 
scribed as Wessex, or the land of the West Saxons, 
now divided into six southern shires. The fact is, 
Wessex was the great kingdom of the Saxons in this 
country, whereas Essex, Middlesex, and Sussex were 
but petty kingdoms. Consequently, in the kingdom 
of Wessex it was that earldoms were first created, 
and lands appertaining thereto were literally scired, 
or sheared off. On the other hand, it would be 
ridiculous in the extreme, quite apart from the 
unfamiliarity of such an expression, to speak of 
Kent-shire, because there is nothing in the name 
that invests it with a Saxon interest. The same re- 
mark is applicable to Cornwall. It is only from habit, 
too, or because the name lends itself to the euphony, 
that Devon is denominated a shire ; for not only 

Introduction. rr 

is this a Celtic name, but the Saxons scarcely 
penetrated into, and certainly never occupied any 
considerable portion of, the county. The England 
of the Saxons, therefore, is to be distinguished 
wherever the word " shire " appears as part of the 
name of a county. 

If the foregoing paragraph be deemed interesting 
to the general inquirer, a careful digest of the 
chapter on " The Countries of the World " should 
prove most instructive. With a few exceptions only^ 
the names of the different countries of the Old World 
afford us an indication of their original inhabitants, 
or the rude tribes that overran them. In regard to 
the New World, such names of countries as are not 
of native origin invariably point to the nationality 
of the navigators who discovered them or of the 
adventurers who explored and colonized them. 
The maritime enterprise of the Spanish and Portu- 
guese is in nothing so evident as in the territories^ 
named in accordance with their respective languages 
in South and Central America, to say nothing of 
the islands discovered by them in the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans. And, as a set-off against the 
shameful treatment by the Spaniards of Christopher 
Columbus, it must not be forgotten that the whole 
of the North American territory now embraced in the 
United States was originally designated Columbia in 
his honour, which name has been preserved in the 
Western portion of the continent known as British 
Columbia. A few Spanish names still linger 
in North America, notably California, Labrador,. 

12 Introctudion, 

Florida, Nevada, Oregon, and Colorado. But the 
Spaniards were rovers rather than settlers ; where- 
fore they contented themselves with maintaining 
their national reputation as successful navigators by 
giving names to the countries they discovered, and 
establishing a lucrative trading monopoly in that 
portion of the Caribbean Sea which formerly bore 
the name of the Spanish Main. 

On the contrary, the English and French have 
distinguished themselves always, and all the world 
over, as colonists ; so that, saving those States of 
North America which have received the native 
names of the great lakes and rivers, we can discover 
exactly which were colonized by the one nation and 
which by the other. Moreover, the English and 
French have generally exercised the common trait of 
honouring the mother country by naming a new 
colony or a newly-discovered island after the 
reigning monarch or a distinguished countryman. 
A similar trait in the Dutch character presents 
itself in the repetition of the names of the native 
places of their navigators and colonists; while the 
Spaniards and Portuguese have displayed a tendency 
for naming an island discovered or a river explored 
by them in a manner commemorative of the day 
that witnessed the event. At the same time, it 
would not be wise to conjecture, merely from the 
name, that Columbus discovered the island of 
Trinidad on the Feast of the Holy Trinity, because 
he did nothing of the kind. Therefore, it behoves the 
curious inquirer to make himself acquainted with 

Introduciion. 13 

the circumstances under which our geographical 
names have arisen, so as to avoid falHng into error. 
As well might he maintain, without the requisite 
knowledge, that the Canary Islands owed their 
designation to the birds that have so long been 
exported thence; for although such a conclusion were 
extremely plausible, he would still be at a loss to- 
know how the canaries came by their name in the 
first place. 

A like difficulty is liable to be encountered relative 
to the Sandwich Islands. A particularly smart boy 
might, indeed, be expected to inform us, as the 
outcome of a hastily-formed opinion, that the Sand- 
wich Islands were so called because a shipwrecked 
crew who once found a refuge thereon continued ta 
support themselves until such time as they were 
rescued by a passing vessel upon sandwiches. The 
bare idea may be laughed at ; but it is no more 
preposterous than that the Canary Islands received 
their name from the birds that are found there ia 
such plenty. The question at issue furnishes an 
example as to how a name may be perpetuated in 
different ways. Thus, Captain Cook named the 
Sandwich Islands in compliment to John Montague, 
fourth Earl of Sandwich and First Lord of the 
Admiralty, who took his title from Sandwich, or, as 
the etymology of this place implies, the " sand 
town," one of the ancient Cinque Ports in Kent.. 
An inveterate gamester was this Lord Sandwich ; so- 
much so that he would sit at the gaming-table for 
thirty hours and more at a stretch, never desisting; 

14 Introduction. 

from the game to partake of a meal, but from time 
to time ordering the waiter to bring him some slices 
of meat placed between two slices of thin bread, 
from which circumstance this convenient form of 
refreshment received the name of Sandwiches. 

Mention of sandwiches reminds us that very few 
tradesmen possess the remotest idea of the signifi- 
cance of the names of the various commodities in 
which they deal. Ask a purveyor of ham and beef 
to explain the origin ot the word Sandwich, and he 
will be quite unable to furnish an answer. Put a 
similar question to a Tobacconist, and it will be 
found that he has never interested himself to the 
extent of inquiring what the word Tobacco means, not 
to speak of the names of the different kinds of to- 
bacco. A Haberdasher, again, would be sorely 
perplexed to account for his individual trade-name ; 
so would a Milliner, so would a Grocer, so would a 
Tailor ; and so would almost every one who passes 
for an intelligent citizen, yet whose reflections have 
never been directed toward those trifling concerns 
which, as one might be led to suppose, are most 
immediately interesting to him. And so we might 
:go on multiplying examples until this Introduction 
reached an altogether inordinate length, with no 
other object than to arouse the reader's interest in 
the pages that follow. But the necessity for a more 
extended Introduction does not arise. The scope 
■oi this work will be sufliciently indicated by the 
Analytical Table of Contents ; but even there a very 
large number of names incidentally referred to in 

Introduction. 15 

the text have not been included. The Index may be 
somewhat more to the purpose, inasmuch as every 
item set forth therein will be found not merely 
alluded to but discussed in the book; and to the 
book itself the reader is now referred. 

L. W. 




Asia, Africa, Europe, America ; Palestine, Asia Minor ; 
Persia, Arabia, India, Hindustan, Turkestan, Af- 
ghanistan, Beloochistan, Kurdestan ; China, Siberia, 
Russia, Circassia, Crimea, Finland, Sweden, Norway ; 
Britain, England, Scotland, Caledonia, Ireland, The 
Emerald Isle, Cambria, Wales ; Saxony, Gaul, France, 
Normandy, Brittany ; Germany, Holland, Belgium, 
Denmark, Jutland, Prussia, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, 
Servia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Moldavia, Moravia, Bul- 
garia, Roumania, Turkey, Ottoman Empire, Greece ; 
Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal; Algiers, 
Morocco, Barbary, Sahara, Soudan, Egypt, Sene- 
gambia, Gold Coast, Guinea, Zanzibar, Zululand, Trans- 
vaal, Natal, Orange Free States, Cape Colony, Cape of 
Good Hope ; Cape Plorn, Patagonia, Chili, Argentine 
Republic, Brazil, Bolivia, Uraguay, Paraguay, Peru, 
Pernambuco, Ecuador, Columbia, Venezuela ; Panama, 
Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mosquito Coast, 
Yutacan, Guatemala, Mexico, California, British 
Columbia ; Canada, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, 
Labrador, Greenland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
Florida ; Virginia, Maryland, Baltimore, Pennsyl- 
vania, Georgia, Carolina, Louisiana, Maine, New 
Orleans, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, 
Michigan, Indiana, Alabama, Nebraska, Ohio, Massa- 




chusetts, Wisconsin, Kansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, 
Mississippi, Missouri, Minnesota, Arkansas, Illinois, 
Oregon, Texas, Vermont, Colorado, Nevada, Con- 
necticut, Iowa, Astoria, Delaware ; Lake Superior, 
Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario, Niagara, Lake 
Michigan, Lake Winnipeg, Great Bear Lake, Great 
Salt Lake ; The Arctic Ocean, Antarctic Ocean, 
Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Medi- 
terranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea; German 
Ocean, Indian Ocean, Irish Sea; White Sea, Black 
Sea, Red Sea, Green Sea, Yellow Sea, Dead Sea, 
Caspian Sea, Sea of Marmora ; The Gulf Stream, The 
Horse Latitudes, The Spanish Main; Hudson's Bay, 
James' Bay, Barrow's Strait, All Saints' Bay, Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, Gulf of Carpentaria, Torres Strait, 
Botany Bay; St. George's Channel, The Skagerrack, 
Zuyder Zee ; Bay of Biscay ; Strait of Gibraltar, The 
Bosphorus, The Dardanelles ; Australia, New Holland, 
New Zealand, Tasmania, Van Dieman's Land, Society 
xslands, Friendly Islands, Christmas Island, Sandwich 
Islands, Philippine Islands, Caroline Islands ; Papua, 
Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Japan, Formosa, Ceylon, 
Mauritius, Isle of Bourbon, Madagascar ; Tierra del 
Fuego, Island of Desolation, Hanover Island, Ade- 
laide Island, Juan Fernandez, Ladrone Islands, Pit- 
cairn's Island, Easter Island, Vancouver Island, 
Queen Charlotte Island, Prince of Wales Island,' 
Aleutian Islands; Barrow Island, Baring Island, 
Parry Island, Baffin Land, Banks Land, Newfoundland, 
Rhode Island, Long Island, Bermuda Islands, San 
Salvador, Jamaica, Cuba, Hayti, Barbadoes, Dominica, 
Porto Rico, Trinidad, Tobago Island, St. Kitt's Is- 
land; Ascension Island, St, Helena, Tristan d'Acunha, 
Madeira, Majorca, Minorca, Balearic Islands, Corsica, 
Sardinia, Capri, Sicily, Malta, Candia, Cyprus, Rhodes; 
Belleisle, Jersey, Isle of Wight, Gothland, Heligoland,' 
Anglesea, Isle of Man, Hebrides, Orkney Isles, Shet- 
land Isles, Iceland, Spitzbcrgen, Nova Zembia . . 35 

Contents. 19 



January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, 
September, October, November, December ; Sunday, 
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, 
Saturday . . ... 59 


Theism, Deism, Atheism, Pantheism, Agnosticism, Secu- 
larism, Utilitarianism, Materialism, Rationalism ; 
Monotheism, Mosaism, Judaism, Paganism, Poly- 
theism ; Zoroastrians, Brahmins, Buddhists, Mahom- 
medans, Mussulmans, Islam ; Christians, Pharisees, 
Nazarenes, Gnostics, Aquarians, Arians, Luciferians, 
Donatists, Macedonians, Apollinarians ; Catholics ; 
Greek Church, Roman Catholic Church, Church of 
England, Gallican Church, LutheranChurch ; Protes- 
tants, Calvinists, Huguenots, Wycliffites, Gospellers, 
Lollards, Albigenses, Waldenses, Camisards, Hussites, 
Bedlamites, Moravians ; Adamites, Libertines, Jan- 
senists, Jesuists, Gabrielites, Labadists, Socinians, 
Arminians, New Christians, Old Catholics ; Scotists, 
Thomists, Sabbatarians, Fifth Monarchy Men, 
Muggletonians ; Seekers, Quakers, Shakers, Mormons, 
Peculiar People, Faith Healers, Irvingites, Humani- 
tarians, Sacramentarians, Plymouth Brethren, Per- 
fectionists, Hopkinsians ; Scottish Covenanters, 
Presbyterians, Cameronians, Macmillanites, Mori- 
sonians. Free Church of Scotland ; Puritans, Non- 
conformists, Conformists, Dissenters, Sectarians, 
Independents, Congregationalists, Unitarians, Trini- 
tarians, Baptists, Anabaptists, Methodists, VVesleyan 
Methodists, Primitive Methodists ; High Church, Low 
Church, Broad Church, Latitudinarism, Ritualists, 
Puseyites, Tractarians . . • , 61 



The Green Man, The Green Man and Still, The Red 
Lion, The Bear and Ragged Staff, The Boar's Head, 
The Black Bull, The Talbot, The Chequers ; The 
White Rose, The Red Rose, The Star ; The White 
Swan, The White Swan and Antelope, The White 
Hart, The Sun, The Three Suns, The White Lion, 
The Eagle, The Blue Boar, The Red Dragon, The 
Greyhound, The Rose, The Thistle, The Shamrock ; 
The Crown, The Rose and Crown, The Crown and 
Sceptre, The Crown and Anchor ; The Earl of March ; 
The Hare and Hounds, The Tally Ho ! The Fox in 
the Hole ; The Angel, The Salutation, The Three 
Kings, The Cross Keys, The Mitre ; The Turk's Head, 
The Saracen's Head, The Golden Cross, The Half 
Moon ; The Swan, The Pheasant, The Peacock ; The 
St. George, The George and Dragon, The Green 
Dragon, The George, The King's Arms, The Queen's 
Arms, The Freemasons' Arms, The Coachmakers' 
Arms, The Saddlers' Arms, The Carpenters' Arms ; 
The Garter, The Star and Garter ; The Leg and 
Star, The Cat and Fiddle, The Bag o' Nails, 
The Goat and Compass, The Iron Devil, The Bull 
and Mouth, The Bull and Gate, The Lion and Key, 
The Catherine Wheel, The Plume and Feathers, 
The Bully Ruffian, The Blue Pig, The Pig 
and Whistle ; The Coach and Horses, The Pack 
Horse ; The Bear, The Dog and Duck, The Bowling 
Green ; The Grapes, The Castle, The Globe, The 
Spread Eagle, The Yorkshire Stingo ; The Bell, The 
Barley-mow, The Old Hat, The Ram and Teazle, 
The Bricklayers' Arms, The Cricketers' Arms, The 
Black Jack ; The Royal Oak, The Boscobel, The 
Palmerston, The Marquis of Granby, The Portobello 
Arms, The Nelson, The Wellington, The Trafalgar, 
The Waterloo, The Ship, The King's Head, The 
Queen's Head, The Victoria, The Prince Albert, The 
Prince of Wales' Feathers 77 

Contents. 2i 


Alfred the Great, Edward the Martyr, Ethelred the Un- 
ready, Edmund Ironsides, Edgar Atheling, Harold 
Harefoot, Edward the Confessor; William the Con- 
queror, William Rufus, Henry Beauclerc, Richard 
Coeur de Lion, William the Lion, John Lackland, 
Edward Longshanks, Edward the Black Prince, John 
of Gaunt, Henry Bolingbroke ; Bluff King Hal, 
Defender of the Faith, The White Queen, Bloody 
Mary, Good Queen Bess ; The Lord Protector, The 
Merry Monarch, The Sailor King ; Plantagenet, 
Tudor, Stuart ; Charlemagne, The She-Wolf of France, 
Pedro the Cruel, Ivan the Terrible, Frederick Barba- 
rossa, Ferdinand Bomba, Egalite Philippe . . ,87 


Brother Jonathan, Uncle Sam, Yankee ; John Bull, Mrs. 
Grundy, The British Matron ; Tommy Atkins ; Pat, 
Sandie, Taffy ; John Chinaman, Pigtails, Pale Faces, 
Redskins ; Nigger, Sambo, Mulatto . . 93 


Cuckoo, Pewit, Curlew, Chickadee, Whip-poor-will ; 
Trumpeter, Nightingale, Night-jar, Mocking-bird, 
Humming - bird. Greenfinch, Goldfinch, Greenlet, 
Jay, Bluebird, Blackbird, Starling, Flamingo, Oriole, 
Lyre-bird ; Red-poll, Secretary-bird ; Birds of Para- 
dise, Love-birds ; Kingfisher ; Lapwing ; Wagtail, 
Scissors-bird, Hang-bird, Weaver-bird, Tailor-bird ; 
Widow-bird, Martin, Muscovy Duck ; Swift, Pas- 
senger-pigeon ; Skylark, Chaffinch, Diver, Sandpiper, 
Chimney-swallow ; Horn-bill, Boat-bill, Spoon-loill, 
Duck-bill, Cross-bill ; Pouter-pigeon, Ring-dove, 
Wryneck, Woodcock, Woodpecker; Guinea-fowl, 
Brahma-fowl, Bantam, Barb, Turkey, Baltimore- 
bird, Canary, Petrel 96 

22 Contents. 



Monastery, Convent, Abbey, Priory ; Monk, Nun, Friar ; 
Dominicans or Black Friars, Franciscans or Grey 
Friars ; Carmelites or White Friars, Augustines or 
Austin Friars, Trinitarians or Crutched Friars ; 
Observant Friars, Conventional Friars ; Capuchin 
Friars, Cordeliers ; Benedictines, Carthusians, Cis- 
tercians, Cluniacs, Bernardines, Basilians, Trappists ; 
Jesuists, Servites, Passionists, Redemptorists - . loo 


Paper, Parchment; Hand-paper, Pot-paper, Post-paper, 
Crown-paper, Foolscap ; Nepaul-paper, India-paper, 
Cap-paper, Elephant, Cartridge-paper, Bristol-board ; 
Folio, Quarto, Octavo, Duodecimo ; Printer's Devil ; 
Hansard, Blue Book, Yellow Book ; Book, Leaf, 
Volume, Library ; Pamphlet, Brochure, Chart, Map, 
Atlas, Cartoon, Broadside, Poster, Stationery . .104 


Whigs, Tories, Liberals, Conservatives, Radicals 
Socialists, Levellers, Democrats ; Royalists, Parlia- 
mentarians, Cavaliers, Roundheads; Orangemen 
Jacobites, Peep-o'-day Boys, White Boys, Fenians. 
Irish Invincibles, Ribbonmen, Emergency Men 
Separists, Nationalists, Parnellites, Boycotters; Sans 
culottes. Red Republicans, The Mountain, The Plain 
Girondists; The Hats, The Caps, Nihilists, Carbo 
nari. Black Cloaks, Lazzari, Guelphs, Ghibellines 
Federals, Republicans, Democrats, Confedei'ates, Corn 
feds, Yanks or Yankees, Copperheads, Know-nothings. 
Tammany Ring, Mugwumps; Chartists, Jingoes, Pro 
tectionists 109 

Contents. 23 


Forget-me-not, Mignonette, Carnation, Geranium, Crane's- *'*^^ 
bill ; Pansy, Camellia, Dahlia, Fuchsia, Victoria 
Regia, Adonis, Hyacinth, Aspasia, Orchid, Sweet- 
brier, Lilac, Lavender ; Dog^-rose, Damask-rose, 
Cabbage-rose, Christmas-rose, Primrose ; Mayflower, 
Hawthorn, Gilly-flower, Tiger-flower, Daffodil, Holly- 
hock, Noon-tide, Noon-flower, Convolvulus, Daisy, 
Buttercup, Cowslip; Sun-flower, Heliotrope, Goldy- 
locks, Marigold, Chrysanthemum, Rhododendron ; 
Passion-flower, Stock 117 


Bible, Scriptures; Septuagint, Latin Vulgate, Douay Bible, 
Rheims Bible ; King James's Bible, The Bishops' Bible, 
Cranmer's Bible, The Great Bible, Mazarin Bible, 
Pearl Bible, Geneva Bible, Breeches Bible, Vinegar 
Bible, Beer Bible, Treacle Bible, Whig Bible, Wicked 
Bible, Bug Bible ; "He" Bible, "She" Bible; Virginia 
Bible ; Pentateuch ; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Num- 
bers, Deuteronomy ; Apocrypha, Apocalypse . . 122 


Burgundy, Champagne, Pontac, Moselle, Johannisberg, 
Florence, Falernian, Montepulciano, Malaga, Sherry, 
Port, Cyprus, Malmsey, Madeira, Canary ; Tokay, 
Claret, Tent Wine ; Sillery, Pommery, Moet and 
Chandon ; Hippocras, Badminton, Negus, Sack; Dry 
Wine, Crusted Port, Three-Men Wine . . .127 


Gildas the Wise, Venerable Bede, Century White, Monk 
Lewis, Rainy-Day Smith ; Silver-Tongued Sylvester, 
The Water Poet, The Ettrick Shepherd, The Bideford 
Postman, The Mad Poet, The Quaker Poet, The 
Banker Poet, Anacreon Moore, Orion Home, The 

24 Contents. 

Farthing Poet ; The Wizard of the North, The 
Addison of the North, The Minstrel of the Border, 
The Corn Law Rhymer 


Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Durham, 
York ; Lancashire, Cheshire, Leicestershire, Worces- 
tershire, Gloucestershire ; Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, 
Essex, Sussex, Middlesex ; Surrey, Kent, Hampshire, 
Dorset, Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, Wiltshire, Berk- 
shire, Buckingham ; Oxford, Hertford, Hereford, 
Stafford, Bedford, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Northamp- 
ton, Rutland, Warwick, Nottingham, Derby, Shrop- 
shire, Monmouth ; Anglesea, Glamorgan, Brecknock, 
Radnor, Montgomery, Denbigh, Flint, Carnarvon, 
Carmarthen, Merioneth, Cardigan, Pembroke . .133 


Phaeton, Victoria, Clarence, Brougham, Stanhope, Sociable, 
Landau, Tilbury ; Dog-Cart, Buggy, Gig, Sulky, 
Noddy, Jaunting Car, Break ; Stage-Coach, Omnibus; 
Hackney-Coach, Coach, Cab, Cabriolet, Hansom Cab ; 
Hearse, Pantechnico>n 138 


Terpsichorean Art ; Morris Dance, Saraband, Gavotte, 
Quadrille, Lancers, Polka, Schottische, Mazourka, 
Redovva, Waltz ; Country Dance, Roger de Coverley, 
Minuet, Tarantella; Cinderella Dance, Bali, Ballet, 
Coryphee, Phyrric Dance ; Hornpipe, Reel, Jig, 
Breakdown . . .142 


Umber, Sienna, Gamboge, Krems White, Prussian Blue, 
Saunders Blue, Chinese Yellow, Frankfort Black, 

Contents. 25 


Hamburg Lake ; Ultramarine ; Mazarine, Pompa- 
dour, Cardinal, Carnation, Carmine, Pink, Purple, 
Scarlet, Crimson ; Cassius, Magenta, Vandyke Brown, 
Sepia, Sap Green, Emerald Green, Lamp Black, 
Ivory Black, Isabel 146 


London, Thames ; Westminster, Belgravia, Pimlico, 
Knightsbridge, Mayfair, Soho, Bloomsbury, Smith- 
field, Clerkenwell, Spa Fields, Bunhill Fields, Moor- 
fields, Finsbury; Shoreditch, Whitechapel, Goodman's 
Fields, Shadwell, RatclifFe Highway, Stepney, Spital- 
fields, Bethnal Green, Hoxton, De Beauvoir Town, 
Copenhagen Fields, Haggerstone, Hackney, Dalston, 
Stoke Newington, Southgate, Kingsland, Abney Park, 
Green Lanes, Edmonton, Ball's Pond, Mildmay Park, 
Muswell Hill, Wood Green, Hornsey, Canonbury, 
Highbury, HoUoway, Barnsbury, Islington ; King's 
Cross, St. Pancras, Agar Town, Somers Town, 
Camden Town, Kentish Town, Primrose Hill, High- 
gate, Hampstead, Frognal, Bishop's Wood, Hendon ; 
Gospel Oak, Chalk Farm, St. John's Wood, Kilburn, 
Maida Vale, Marylebone, Tyburn ; Bayswater, Pad- 
dington, Westbourne Park, Notting Hill, Shepherd's 
Bush ; Acton, Gunnersbury, Kew, Brentford, Isle- 
worth, Staines, Kingston, Shepperton, Twickenham, 
Richmond, Sheen ; Chiswick, Hammersmith, Ken- 
sington, Brompton, Chelsea, Battersea, Walham 
Green, Parsons Green, Fulham, Putney, Wimbledon ; 
Wandsworth, Lambeth, Vauxhall ; Southwark, Ber- 
mondsey, Horsleydown, Walworth, The Borough ; 
Rotherhithe, Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich, Isle 
of Dogs, New Cross ; Lewisham, Blackheath, Eltham; 
Catford, Beckenham, Sydenham, Forest Hill, Nor- 
wood, Dulwich, Honor Oak, Nunhead, Peckham, 
Brixton, Camberwell, Stockwell, Kennington, Newing- 
ton, St. George's Fields 149 

26 Contents. 


The Tearless Victory, The Thundering Legion, The 
Hallelujah Victory ; The Battle of the Standard, The 
Battle of the Herrings ; The Battle of Spurs ; The 
Battle of the Spurs of Gold ; The Battle of the 
Giants, The Battle of All the Nations . . . .163 


New Year's Day ; Whitsuntide, Lammastide, Martinmas, 
Candlemas Day ; Lady Day, Midsummer, Michaelmas, 
Christmas Day ; Innocents' Day, Epiphany, Twelfth 
Night, Distaff's Day, Rock Day, Plough Monday, 
Handsel Monday, Boxing Day ; Lent, Shrove Tues- 
day, Ash Wednesday, Passion Sunday, Passion Week, 
Palm Sunday, Maunday-Thursday, Good Friday, 
Long Friday, Holy Saturday ; Easter, Passover, Low 
Sunday, Sexagesima Sunday, Quinquagesima Sunday, 
Quadragesima Sunday ; Pentecost, Trinity Sunday, 
Corpus Christi, Rogation Sunday, Rogation Days, 
Ember Days ; Ascension Day, The Assumption, Holy 
Cross Day, All Saints' Day, All Souls' Day, AUhal- 
lowes' Day ; Allhallowe'en, Cracknut Night ; St. 
Valentine's Day, St. Swithin's Day, St. David's Day, 
Comb's Mass ; Primrose Day, Royal Oak Day, Guy 
Fawkes' Day ; Arbor Day ; Forefathers' Day, Inde- 
pendence Day, Evacuation Day ; Mothering Sunday ; 
Grouse Day, Partridge Day, Sprat Day ; Red Letter 
Day, Holiday 165 


Damask, Muslin, Nankeen, Calico, Cashmere, Dimity, 
Valance, Holland, Cambric, Shalloon, Tarlatan, 
Worsted, Cobourg, Angola, Frieze ; Cotton, Silk, Bro- 
cade, Damassin, Sarsanet, Mohair, Moire-Antique, 
Chintz, Taffety, Linen, Lawn, Pompadour ; Swans- 
down, Moleskin, Merino, Alpaca ; Kersey, Ging- 

Contents. 27 


ham, Blankets ; Plush, Velvet, Velveteen, Fustian, 
Grogram, Corduroy ; Pina-cloth, Grass-cloth, T-cloth, 
Broadcloth, Twill, Tweed, Plaid, Check ; Embroidery, 
Tapestry, Bayeaux Tapestry, Gobelin Tapestry, Arras ; 
Lace, Valenciennes, Colbertine, Point-lace, Pillow- 
lace ; Tulle 176 


Voltaire, Barry Cornwall, Yendys, Nimrod, Zadkiel ; 
Knickerbocker, Elia, Boz, Ouida, George Sand ; 
Artemus Ward, Mark Twain ; F. M. Allen . . 181 


Portrait, Photograph, Miniature, Profile, Silhouette; 
Talbotype, Daguerreotype, Ferriertype ; Carte-de- 
Visite, Vignette, Cabinet, Kit-Kat, Kit-Kat Canvas . 184 


The Tabard Inn, " La Belle Sauvage," The Swan with 
Two Necks, The Elephant and Castle, The Horse 
Shoe, The Blue Posts, The Black Posts, The Three 
Chairmen, The Running Footman ; The Mother 
Red Cap, The Mother Shipton, The Adelaide, The 
York and Anlaby, Jack Straw's Castle, The Spaniards, 
The Whittington Stone, The Thirteen Cantons, The 
North Pole, The South Australian, The World's End, 
The Fulham Bridge, The Devil, The Three Nuns, The 
White Conduit Tavern, The Belvedere, The Clown 
Tavern, Hummuns's ; Sadler's Wells, Highbury Barn, 
Vauxhall Gardens, Ranelagh Gardens, Cremorne 
Gardens « 187 


The Mother of Believers, Fair Helen, Fair Rosamond, The 
Fair Maid of Kent, The Holy Maid of Kent; Black 

28 Contents. 


Agnes, Fair Maiden Lilliard, The Maid of Orleans, 
The Maid of Saragossa ; The Lady Freemason, The 
The Swedish Nightingale, The Jersey Lily ; The 
Weeping Philosopher, The Laughing Philosopher, 
The Subtle Doctor, The Angelic Doctor, St. Paul of 
the Cross ; Robin Hood, Little John, Will Scarlet, 
Friar Tuck ; Sixteen-string Jack, Spring-heel Jack ; 
Gentleman Jack, Gentleman Smith, Admirable Cfich- 
ton, Fighting Fitzgerald, Romeo Coates, Beau Field- 
ing, Beau Brummell, Beau Nash, The King of Bath ; 
The Factory King, The Railway King, The Paper 
King, The Nitrate King ; The Man of Ross, The 
People's Friend, The Musical Small-Coal Man, Tom 
Folio ; The Infant Roscius ; Single-Speech Hamilton, 
Starvation Dundas, Orange Peel, The Heaven-Sent 
Minister, Finality John; Dizzy, The Grand Old Man, 
Bookstall Smith; The Dancing Chancellor, Praise- 
God Barebones ; Sinner-Saved Huntingdon, Orator 
Henley ; Memory Woodfall, Memory-Corner Thomp- 
son ; Dirty Dick ; Capability Brown, George Ranger, 
The Jubilee Plunger ; Long Peter, Magdalen Smith, 
Claude Lorraine, Tintoretto, II Furioso; The Scottish 
Hogarth, The Liverpool Landseer ; The Liberator ; 
The Pathfinder ; Yankee Jonathan . . . .194 

Lincoln's Inn, Gray's Inn, Furnival's Inn, Clifford's Inn ; 
Serjeants' Inn ; Barnard's Inn, Staple Inn, Clement's 
Inn, Dane's Inn, New Inn, Thavie's Inn ; Benchers . 208 


Goodwood, Ascot, Epsom, Derby, Oaks, Doncaster St. 

Leger ; Hurdle Race, Steeplechase ; Sweepstake . 210 

Westminster Abbey, The Temple, Savoy Chapel, St. 
Clement-Danes, St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Mary-Axe, St. 

Contents. 29 


Catherine Cree, St. Catherine Coleman, St. Margaret 
Pattens, St. Sepulchre, St. Bride's, St. Andrew Under- 
shaft, Allhallowes, Barking; St. Olave's, The White 
Tower, Bloody Tower, Beauchamp Tower, Traitors' 
Gate ; Newgate, St. John's Gate, Temple Bar, London 
Bridge, Billingsgate, The Mint, The Trinity House ; 
Crosby Hall, Memorial Hall, The Guildhall, Doctors' 
Commons, St. Martin's-le-Grand ; The Charter- 
house, Christ's Hospital, Bartholomew's Hospital, 
Guy's Hospital, Bedlam, The Magdalen Hospital ; 
St. James's Palace, Buckingham Palace, Marlborough 
House, Somerset Plouse, Whitehall, The Horse 
Guards, Dover House, York House ; Devonshire 
House, Apsley House, Chandos House, The Albany, 
Burlington House, Soane Museum ; Painted Hall, 
Vanburgh Castle, Rye House ; Bruce Castle, 
Lincoln House, Sandford House, Cromwell House, 
Ireton House, Lauderdale House, The Clock 
House, Rosslyn House, Erskine House ; Strawberry 
Hill ; Orleans House, Essex House, Bristol House, 
Craven Cottage, Munster House, Peterborough House, 
Holland House; The Albert Hall, Crystal Palace, Alex- 
andra Palace, Olympia, Egyptian Hall, St. George's 
Hall, St. James's Hall, Willis's Rooms, Almack's 
Assembly Rooms, Exeter Hall, Madame Tussaud's ; 
Scotland Yard, Lord's Cricket Ground, Tattersall's ; 
Lloyd's Rooms ; Capel Court, The Royal Exchange, 
The Stock Exchange, Bankers' Clearing House, Rail- 
way Clearing House 212 


Spinster, Widow, Grass Widow, Chaperon, Duenna, 
Dowager ; Blue Stocking, Abigail, Grisette, Colleen ; 
Milliner, Haberdasher, Grocer, Greengrocer, Boniface, 
Ostler; Cordwainer, Tailor, Tallyman, Uncle, Barber, 
Barber-Surgeon; Arcadian, Mentor, Usher, Bachelor; 
Beefeaters, Police, Bobbies, Peelers, Bow Street 

30 Contents. 


Runners ; Mohawks, Scourers ; Garrotters, Sandbag- 
gers ; Fop, Dandy, Macaroni, Masher ; Gipsies, Bohe- 
mians ; Teetotalers, Rechabites, Good Templars ; Jack 
Tar, Longshoreman, Navvy, Jehu, Jerrybuilder, 
Journeyman ; Dun, Man of Straw, Costermonger, 
Pedlar, Hawker, Cheap Jack, Quack, Merry Andrew, 
Juggler, Stump Orator; Blackguard, Scullion, Scullery 
Maid; Blackleg ; Plunger, Bookmaker, Welsher; 
Burglar, Jack Ketch ; Cockney ; Greenhorn, Nincom- 
poop, Lunatic, Dutchman, Humbug .... 228 


Ale, Beer, Small Beer ; Twopenny, Half-and-Half, Entire, 
Porter, Stout, Yorkshire Stingo, X Ale ; Mum, Lager- 
bier, Bock-bier 241 


Diamond ; The Kohinoor, Mattan, Orloff, Shah, Star of 
the South, Sauci, Regent, Pitt, Pigott, Dudley, Twin 
Diamonds ; Turquoise, Topaz, Agate, Amethyst, Opal, 
Emerald, Garnet, Ruby, Pearl ; Carat . . . 244 


Manlius-Torquatus, Charles Martel, Robert the Devil, 
The Hammer and Scourge of England ; Black 
Douglas, Bell the Cat, The King Maker, Hotspur, 
The Mad Cavalier ; Ironsides, The Almighty Nose ; 
The Bloody Butcher, Corporal John, The Little 
Corporal ; The Iron Duke, Marshal Forward, The 
Iron Chancellor, Helmuth the Taciturn; Stonewall 
Jackson, Old Hickory ; Foul-Weather Jack, Old Grog, 
The Silver Captain 246 


Money, Sterling Money; Guinea, Sovereign, Crown, Florin, 
Shilling, Penny, Halfpenny, Farthing ; Ducat, Noble, 

Contents. 31 


Rose-Noble, George-Noble ; Angel, Thistle-Crown, 
Jacobus, Carollus, Dolphin, Louis d'or, Napoleon ; 
Franc, Dollar, Joachims-Thaler, Thaler, Kreuzer; 
Wood's Halfpence, Greenbacks, Bluebacks, Abraham 
Newlands ; Bullion, Stock, Tally, Consols, Sinking 
Fund, Tontine ; Budget 252 


Rum, Whisky, Brandy, Gin ; Hollands, Cognac, Nantes, 
Old Tom ; Punch, Toddy, Grog ; Mountain Dew, 
Glenlivet, LL Whisky . . . , . 257 


Fleet Street, Salisbury Court, Whitefriars Street, Black- 
friars Road, Ludgate Hill, Old Bailey, Friar Street, 
Sermon Lane, Paul's Chain, Old Change, Paternoster 
Row, Ave Maria Lane, Creed Lane, Amen Corner, 
Warwick Lane, Ivy Lane ; Cheapside, Bread 
Street, Friday Street, Milk Street; Gutter Lane, 
Foster i.ane, Ironmonger Lane, Wood Street, Law- 
rence Lane, Gresham Street, Lad Lane, Aldermanbury, 
King Street, Basinghall Street, Coleman Street, Old 
Jewry, Poultry, Bucklersbury, King William Street, 
Queen Victoria Street ; Cannon Street, Budge Row, 
Watling Street, Walbrook, College Hill, Oueenhithe, 
Dowgate, Steelyard ; Gracechurch Street, Fenchurch 
Street, Eastcheap, Mincing Lane, Mark Lane, Rood 
Lane, Seething Lane, Billiter Street, Minories, Crutched 
Friars, Aldgate; Leadenhall Street, St. Mary-Axe, 
Throgmorton Street, Nicholas Lane, Lolhbury, Thread- 
needle Street, Cornhill, Birchin Lane, Change Alley ; 
Lombard Street ; Austin Friars, Old Broad Street, 
Bishopsgate Street, St. Helen's, Devonshire Square, 
Artillery Lane, Houndsditch, Bevis Marks, Petticoat 
Lane, Wormwood Street, Camomile Street, London 
Wall, Barbican, Beech Lane, Great Winchester Street, 
Moorgate Street, Cripplegate, Whitecross Street, Red- 

32 Contents. 

cross Street, Playhouse Yard, Jewin Street, Aldersgate 
Street, Bridgewater Square, Bartholomew Close, Cloth 
Fair, Little Britain, Duke Street, Newgate Street, 
Bath Street, King Edward Street, Giltspur Street, 
Knightrider Street, Pie Corner, Farringdon Road, 
Saffron Hill, Ely Place, Hatton Garden, Holborn, 
Holborn Bars, Leather Lane, Fetter Lane, Brooke 
Street, Greville Street, Gray's Inn Road, Furnival 
Street, Dyer's Buildings, Cursitor Street, Chancery 
Lane ; Southampton Buildings, Verulam Buildings ; 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, Great Queen Street, Long 
Acre; Drury Lane, Denzil Street, Holies Street, 
Clare Market, White Hart Street, Catherine Street, 
Portugal Street, Serle Street, Wych Street, Holywell 
Street, Strand ; Essex Street, Milford Lane, Arundel 
Street, Norfolk Street, Surrey Street, Howard Street, 
Savoy Street, Wellington Street, Bow Street, Covent 
Garden, York Street, King Street, Henrietta Street, 
Tavistock Street, Bedford Street, Southampton Street, 
Bedfordbury, Maiden Lane, Chandos Street, Exeter 
Street, Burleigh Street, Cecil Street, Salisbury Street, 
Adelphi Terrace, Adam Street, John Street, Robert 
street, James Street ; George Street, Duke Street, 
Buckingham Street, Villiers Street ; Charing Cross, 
Craven Street, Northumberland Avenue; Trafalgar 
Square, St. Martin's Lane, King William Street, 
Seven Dials, Cranbourne Street, Leicester Square, 
Coventry Street, Windmill Street, Haymarket, Jermyn 
Street, Arundel Street, Orange Street, Panton Street, 
Suffolk Street ; Spring Gardens, Pall Mall, King 
Street, St. James's Square, Bury Street ; Green Park, 
Hyde Park, Rotten Row, Albert Gate, Marble Arch, 
Rutland Gate, Cumberland Gate, Grosvenor Gate, 
Stanhope Gate, Park Lane, Portugal Street, Chape! 
Street, Chesterfield Street, Grosvenor Square, Hamil- 
ton Place ; Piccadilly ; Curzon Street, Charles Street, 
Queen Street, Shepherd's Market, Play Hill, Farm 
Street, Berkeley Square, Stratton Street, Bruton Street, 

Contents. 33 

Mount Street, Clarges Street, Half Moon Street, 
Arlington Street, Bennett Street, Dover Street, Albe- 
marle Street, Bond Street, Clifford Street, Burlington 
Street, Cork Street, Savile Row, Vigo Street, Sackville 
Street, Ayr Street, Swallow Street, Vine Street; 
Regent Street; Conduit Street, Maddox Street, 
Brook Street, Mill Street, George Street, Hanover 
Square, Davies Street ; Argyll Street, Great Marl- 
borough Street, Blenheim Street, Wardour Street, 
Nassau Street, Golden Square, Shaftesbury Avenue ; 
Old Compton Street, New Compton Street, Dean 
Street, Gerrard Street, Macclesfield Street, Greek 
Street, Carlisle Street ; Hanway Street, Rathbone 
Place, Newman Street, Goodge Street, Castle Street, 
Wells Street, Berners Street, Foley Street, Charlotte 
Street, Great Titchfield Street, Grafton Street, Fitzroy 
Square, Euston Square, Southampton Street, Tot- 
tenham Court Road ; Oxford Street, Harley Street, 
Wigmore Street, Cavendish Square, Holies Street, 
Henrietta Street, Bentinck Street, Margaret Street, 
Duchess Street, Portland Place, Welbeck Street, 
Wimpole Street, Stratford Place, Langham Place, 
Mansfield Street, Vere Street, Manchester Square, 
Spanish Place, Chandos Street, Hinde Street, Audley 
Street, Old Quebec Street, Seymour Street, Montague 
Square, Berkeley Square, Portman Square, Biyan- 
stone Square, Blandford Square, Dorset Square, Baker 
Street, Harewood Square, Lisson Grove, Ossulton 
Square ; Regent's Park, Albany Street, Osnaburg 
Street, Munster Square, Park Street, Brecknock Road, 
Great College Street, Oakley Square, Ampthill Square, 
Harrington Square, Mornington Crescent, Granby 
Street, Skinner Street ; Pancras Road, Battle Bridge 
Road, York Road, Caledonian Road, Liverpool Street, 
Sidmouth Street, Burton Crescent, Judd Street, Great 
Coram Street, Lamb's Conduit Street, Harpur Street, 
Bedford Row, Southampton Row, Russell Square, 
Tavistock Square, Gordon Square, Torrington Square, 

34 Contents. 


Montague Street, Brunswick Square, Mecklenburgh 
Square ;Thurlow Place, Great Ormond Street, Blooms- 
bury Square ; Queen's Square, Red Lion Square, 
Kingsgate Street, Theobald's Road ; Coldbath Square, 
Ray Street, Rosoman Street, Berkeley Street, 
Hockley-in-the-Hole ; Myddleton Square, Penton- 
ville Road; St. John Street Road, City Road, Shep- 
herdess Walk, Curtain Road, Holywell Lane ; Nichols 
Square, Sutton Place, Queen Elizabeth's Walk, Fleet- 
wood Road; Seven Sisters Road, Archway Road, 
Flask Walk ; Judges' Walk; Fleet Road, Dale Road, 
Barrow Hill Place, Abbey Road ; Desborough Place, 
Church Street, Nottingham Place, Paddington Street; 
Craven Hill Gardens ; Southwick Crescent, Orme 
Square, Ladbroke Grove, Norland Square, Kensington 
Gore, Ennismore Place, Cromwell Road, Gloucester 
Road ; Campden Hill, Warwick Road, Holland Road, 
Earl's Court Road, Addison Road ; Cromwell Place, 
King's Road, Cheyne Walk, Justice Walk, Marl- 
borough Road, Keppel Street, Cadogan Square, 
Sloane Street, Hans Place, Danvers Street ; Grosvenor 
Place, Eccleston Square, Belgrave Square, Ebury 
Square, Chester Square, Eaton Square, Lupus Street, 
St. George's Square, Lowndes Square, Chesham Street ; 
Vauxhall Bridge Road, Victoria Street ; Birdcage 
Walk, Storey's Gate, Queen Anne's Gate, Delahay 
Street, Rochester Row, Bridge Street, Cannon Street, 
King Street, Princes Street, Parker Street, Great 
George Street, Abingdon Street, Holywell Street, 
Barton Street, Cowley Street, Marsham Street, Earl 
Street, Romney Street, Pye Street, Great Peter Street, 
Vine Street, Orchard Street, Tothill Street, Horse- 
ferry Road ; Newington Butts, Great Suffolk Street, 
Mint Street, Old Kent Road, Grange Road, Spa Road, 
Russell Street, Tooley Street, Jamaica Road, Cherry 
Gardens Pier, Evelyn Street 259 



THE oldest of the four great divisions of the 
world received its modern designation Asia 
from the Sanskrit t/s/ms, signifying "land 
of the dawn." Africa traces its origin to the 
Phoenician afer, a black man, and the Sanskrit aCy the 
earth, a country. Europe owes its name to the 
Greek euvm^ broad, and op, to see, or ops^ the face, in 
allusion to " the broad face of the earth." America 
honours the memory of Amerigo Vespucci, the 
Florentine navigator, who landed on the New Conti- 
nent south of the Equator, the year after Columbus 
discovered the northern mainland in 1498. The 
name of America first appeared in a work published 
by Waldsemuller at St. Die, in Lorraine, in the year 
1507. It is worthy of note that when Columbus 
landed in America he imagined he had set foot on 
part of that vast territory east of the Ganges 
vaguely known as India; therefore he gave the 
name of Indians to the aborigines. This also 
accounts for the islands in the Caribbean Sea 
being styled the West Indies. 

The cradle of the human race bears the name of 
Palestine, or in Hebrew Palestma, meaning " the 
land of strangers," agreeably to the native word 

36 Names : and their Meaning. 

palash, to wander. Palestine is usually denominated 
the Holy Land, because it was the scene of the 
birth, life, and death of the Redeemer. Asia 
Minor is, of course, Lesser Asia. 

For the title of Persia we are indebted to the 
Greeks, who gave the name of Persis to the region 
(of which the capital was Persipolis) originally over- 
run by a wild branch of the Ayrian race called the 
Parsa, meaning, in the native tongue, " the Tigers " 
[see Parsees]. The suffix ia, wherever it occurs in 
a geographical sense, expresses the Celtic for land 
or territory. Hence, Persia signifies the territory of 
the Parsa or Parsees ; Arabia, the country of the 
Arabs, " men of the desert " ; Abyssinia, that of the 
Abassins, or '* mixed races " ; Kaffraria, that of the 
Kaffirs, or "unbelievers"; and Ethiopia, the "land 
of the blacks," according to the two Greek words 
aithein, to burn, and ops, the face. India denotes 
the country traversed by the Indus, or rather the 
Hindu, which name is a Persicized form of the 
Sanskrit Sindhn, " a great river," rendered Hindus in 
the Greek. Synonymous with the Celtic suffix just 
discussed is the Persian stan : consequently Hindu- 
stan signifies the territory traversed by the river 
Hindu, and peopled by the Hindoos ; Turkestan, 
the country of the Turks; Afghanistan, that of 
the Afghans ; Beloochistan, that of the Belooches ; 
and Kurdestan, properly Koordistan, that of the 
Koords. The term China is a western corruption 
of Tsina, so called in honour of Tsin, the founder 
of the great dynasty which commenced in the third 

Th& Countries of the World. ^y 

century B.C., when a knowledge of this country was 
first conveyed to the Western nations. It was this 
Tsin who built the Great Wall of China (or Tsin) to 
keep out the Barbarians. The Chinese Empire bears 
the description of the Celestial Empire because its 
early rulers were all celestial deities. Siberia is a 
term indicative of Siber, the residence of Kutsheen 
Khan, the celebrated Tartar prince, recognized as 
the ancient capital of the Tartars, the ruins of 
which may still be seen. Here again the Celtic 
suffix ia has reference to the surrounding territory. 

Russia constituted the country of the Russ, a 
tribe who overran it at a very early period. The 
Russian Empire was founded by Ruric, or Rourik, a 
Scandinavian chief whose death took place in the 
year a.d., 879. Circassia denotes the country of the 
Tcherkes, a Tartar tribe who settled in the neigh- 
bourhood of the river Terek. The Crimea received 
its name from a small town established in the penin- 
sula by the Kimri, or Cymri, and known to the Greeks 
as Kimmerikon. Finland is properly Fenland, " the 
land of marshes." Sweden is a modern term made 
up of the Latin Siiedia, signifying the land of the 
Suevi, a warlike tribe of the Goths, and the Anglo- 
Saxon den, testifying to its occupation by the Danes. 
Norway shows the result of a gradual modification 
of the Anglo-Saxon Norea, and the original Nordoe, 
being the Scandinavian for " north island." It is 
easy to understand in this connection how the old 
Norsemen, deterred by the intense cold of the Arctic 
Sea, took it for granted that the great northern 

38 Names : and their Meaning. 

peninsula was surrounded by water, without actually 
determining the fact. The native name of this 
country in modern times is Nordrike, i.e., the north 

Britain was known to the Phoenicians as Barat- 
Anac, or ** the land of tin," as far back as the year 
1037 B.C. Some five hundred years afterwards the 
Island was alluded to by the Romans under the 
name of Britannia, which subsequently became 
shortened into Britain. England was originally 
Engaland, the land of the Engles, or Angles, who 
came over from Sleswick, a province of Jutland. 
Prior to the year 258, which witnessed its invasion 
by the Scoti, a tribe who inhabited the northern 
portions of the country now known as Ireland, 
Scotland bore the name of Caledonia, literally the 
hilly country of the Gaels, or Gaels. The word Gael, 
or Gael, is a corruption of Gadhel, signifying in the 
native tongue *' a hidden rover " ; while Scot, derived 
from the native scuite, means practically the same 
thing, i.e., a wanderer. The Galedonians were the 
inhabitants of the Highlands, the termination dun 
expressing the Geltic for a hill, fort, stronghold ; the 
Scots were the invaders from Scotia, who appro- 
priated the Hebrides and the Western Islands ; 
whereas the Lowlanders were the Picts, so called 
from their description by the Roma.ns, pi cii, painted 
men. These Picts were eventually subdued by the 
Galedonians and Britons from their respective sides. 
The Gaelic designation of what is now Ireland was 
lerne, indicative of the " western isle." Ireland is 

The Countries of the World. 39 

commonly styled The Emerald Isle owing to its 
fresh verdure. 

Wales was originally Cambria, so called on ac- 
count of the Cymri, or Kimri, who peopled it. The 
modern title of "Wales was given to this province 
by the Anglo-Saxons, because they regarded it, in 
common with Cornwall, as the land of foreigners. 
Traces of the Wahl or Welsh still present them- 
selves in such names as Wallachia, Walcheren, 
Walloon, Wallingford, Welshpool, &c. Thus we see 
that the prenomen Wahl, subject to slight modifi- 
cations in the spelling, denotes any foreign settle- 
ment from the Saxon point of view. The Saxons, 
by the way, whose original settlement is determined 
by the little kingdom of Saxony, derived their name 
from the seax, or short crooked knife with which they 
armed themselves. 

France was known to the Greeks as Gallatia, and 
to the Romans as Gallia, afterwards modified into 
Gaul, because it was the territory of the Celtiae, or 
Celts. The modern settlers of the country were the 
Franks, so called from the franca, a kind of javelin 
which they carried, who in the fifth century in- 
habited the German province of Franconia, and, 
travelling westwards, gradually accomplished the 
conquest of Gaul. France, therefore, signifies the 
country of the Franks, or, as the Germans call it, 
Frankreich, i.e., the Kingdom of the Franks. All 
the western nations were styled Franks by the 
Turks and Orientals, and anything brought to them 
from the west invariably merited a prenomen de- 

40 Names : and their Meaning. 

scriptive of its origin, as, for example, frankincense, 
by which was meant incense brought from the 
country of the Franks. Normandy indicates the 
coast settlement of the Northmen, or Danes ; while 
Brittany comprised the land appropriated by the 
kings of Britain. 

Germany was in ancient times known asTronges, 
or the country of the Tungri, a Latin word signi- 
fying *' speakers " ; but the Romans afterwards gave 
it the name of Germanus, which was a Latinized 
Celtic term meaning " neighbours," originally 
bestowed by the Gauls upon the warlike people 
beyond the Rhine. Holland is the modern accepta- 
tion of Ollanf, the Danish for ** marshy ground " ; 
whereas Belgium denotes the land of the Belgise. 
The fact that the term Netherlands is expressive of 
the low countries need scarcely detain us. Denmark 
is properly Denmark, i.e., the territory comprised 
within the marc, or boundary established by Dan, the 
Scandinavian chieftain. Jutland means the land 
of the Jutes, a family of the Goths who settled in 
this portion of Denmark. Prussia is a corruption 
of Borussia, the country of the Borussi ; and 
Bohemia, the country of the Boii, just as Hungary 
was originally inhabited by the Huns, a warlike 
Asiatic family, who expelled the Goths from this 
territory in the )'ear 376. These Huns were first 
heard of in China in the third century B.C. under the 
name of Hiong-nu, meaning " giants." Poland 
is an inversion of Land-Pole, the Slavonic for "men 
of the plains," who first overran this territory. 

The Countries of the World. 41 

Servia was styled by the Romans Suedia, the 
district peopled by the Suevi before they were driven 
northwards to their final settlement in the territory 
now called Sweden. Montenegro literally indicates 
"black mountain." Bosnia is the country traversed 
by the river Bosna; Moldavia, that traversed by 
the Moldau ; and Moravia, that traversed by the 
Morava. Bulgaria is a modern corruption of Vol- 
garia, meaning the country peopled by the Volsci ; 
while Roumania was anciently a Roman province. 
Turkey is more correctly written Turkia, the country 
of the Turks. This country also bears the style of 
the Ottoman Empire, in honour of Othman I., 
who assumed the government of the empire about 
the year 1300. Greece is the modern form of the 
Latin Grcccia, from the Greek Graikoi, a name 
originally bestowed upon the inhabitants of Hellas. 

Austria is our mode of describing the Oesterreich, 
literally the Eastern Empire, in contradistinction 
to the Western Empire founded by Charlemagne. 
Italy was so called after Italus, one of the early 
kings of that country. Switzerland is an Anglicized 
form of the native Schweitz, the name of the three 
forest cantons whose people asserted their inde- 
pendence of Austria, afterwards applied to the whole 
country. Spain expresses the English of Hispania, a 
designation founded upon the Punic span, a rabbit, 
owing to the number of wild rabbits found in this 
peninsula by the Carthaginians. The ancient name 
of the country was Iberia, so styled from the Iberi, 
a tribe who settled in the vicinity of the river Ebro 

43 Names : and their Meaning. 

Portugal was the Porttis Cale, literally " the port 
Cale " of the Romans, the ancient name of the city 
of Oporto. 

Algiers is a modified spelling of the Arabic 
Al JezaiVy meaning "the peninsula." Tunis was 
anciently known as Tunentum, the land of the 
Tunes ; Morocco signifies the territory of the 
Moors; and Barbary; that of the Berbers. The 
term Sahara is Arabic for "desert"; while the 
Soudan denotes, according to the Arabic Belad-ez- 
Suden, the " district of the blacks." Egypt ex- 
presses the Hebrew for ** the land of oppression," 
alluding to the bondage of the Israelites. Sene- 
gambia was originally so named owing to its 
situation between the Senegal and Gambia rivers. 
The Gold Coast is that portion of Guinea on the 
West Coast of Africa where gold is found. Guinea 
is a native West African term meaning " abounding 
in gold." In Zanzibar, properly written Zanguebar, 
we have an inversion of the Arabic Ber-ez-Zing, the 
** coast of the negroes." Zululand is the country 
of the Zulus. By the Transvaal is meant the 
territory beyond the river Vaal ; just as in Europe 
the Hungarians call a portion of their country 
Transylvania, from its situation " beyond the 
wood." Natal received its name from Vasco di 
Gama because he discovered it on the Feast of the 
Nativity. The settlements of the Dutch Boers in 
South Africa are designated the Orange Free 
States from the circumstance that their original 
settlers were emigrants from the Principality of 

The Countries of the World. 43 

Orange, in Holland. Cape Colony is the British 
colony in South Africa, so called after the Dutch 
settlement at Cape Town, which dates from the year 
1652. The Cape of Good Hope, discovered by 
Bartholomew de Diaz in 1487, was so named {Caho 
de Bon Esperance) by John II., King of Portugal, 
who, finding that Diaz had reached the extremity of 
Africa, regarded it as a favourable augury for future 
maritime enterprises. 

The most southern point of South America was 
called Cape Hoorn (or, according to the English, 
Cape Horn) by Schonten, who first rounded it in 
1616, after Hoorn, his native place in North Holland. 
Patagonia was so styled by Magellan in accordance 
with the Spanish word patagon, meaning a large, 
clumsy foot. It was from the fact of seeing the 
impressions of the large shoes (not, as he imagined, 
the feet) of the aborigines that he at once concluded 
the country must be inhabited by giants. Chili 
is a Peruvian word denoting the " land of snow." 
Argentina, now the Argentine Republic, owes 
its name to the silvery reflection of its rivers. 
Brazil is a Portuguese term derived from braza, " a 
live coal," relative to the red dye-wood with which 
the country abounds. Bolivia perpetuates the 
memory of General Simon Bolivar, "the Liberator 
of Peru." Uraguay and Paraguay are both names 
of rivers ; the former meaning " the golden water," 
and the latter " the river of waters," referring to its 
numerous tributaries. Peru likewise received its 
name from its principal river, the Rio Paro, upon 

44 Names : and their Meaning. 

which stands the ancient city of Paruru. The Bra- 
zilian term Para, however modified, is at all times 
suggestive of a river. Pernambuco means " the 
mouth of hell," in allusion to the violent surf 
always distinguished at the mouth of its chief river. 
Ecuador is Spanish for Equator, so called by virtue 
of its geographical position. Columbia was named 
in honour of Christopher Columbus. Venezuela 
expresses the Spanish for " Little Venice," which 
designation was given to this country owing to the 
discovery of some Indian villages built upon piles 
after the manner of the *' Silent City " on the Adriatic 

The term Panama is Caribbean, indicative of the 
mud fish that abound in the waters on both sides of 
the isthmus. Costa Rica is literal Spanish for 
" rich coast " ; while Honduras signifies, in the same 
tongue, " deep water." The name of Nicaragua 
was first given by Gil Gonzales de Arila in 1521 to 
the great lake situated in the region now called 
after it, in consequence of his friendly reception 
by the Cacique, a Haytian term for a chief, whose 
own name was Nicaro, of a tribe of West Indians, 
with whom he fell in on the borders of the lake 
referred to. The Mosquito Coast owes its name to 
the troublesome insects (Spanish mosca, from the 
Latin miisca, a fly) which infest this neighbourhood. 
Yutacan is a compound Indian word meaning 
"What do you say?" which was the only answer 
the Spaniards could obtain from the natives to their 
inquiries concerning a description of the country. 

The Countries of the World. 45 

Guatemala is a European rendering of the Mexican 
quahtemali, signifying "a decayed log of wood"; so 
called by the Mexican Indians who accompanied 
Alvarado into this region, because they found an old 
worm-eaten tree near the ancient palace of the 
Kings, or Kachiquel, which was thought to be the 
centre of the country. 

Mexico denotes the place or seat of Mexitli, the 
Aztec God of War. The name of California, 
derived from the two Spanish words, Caliente For- 
nalla, i.e., "hot furnace," was given by Cortez in 
the year 1535 to the peninsula now known as Old or 
Lower California, of which he was the discoverer, on 
account of its hot climate. British Columbia is 
the only portion of North America that retains the 
name of the discoverer of the New World; but 
originally the whole of the territory now comprised 
in the United States bore the designation of Co- 
lumbia in honour of Christopher Columbus. The 
term Canada is Indian, indicative of a " collection 
of huts"; Manitoba traces its origin from Manitou, 
the Indian appellation of " The Great Spirit." 
Ontario comes from the native Onontac, " the 
village on the mountain," and chief seat of the 
Onondagas ; while Gtuebec is an Algonquin term 
signifying *' take care of the rock." Labrador was 
originally denominated Tierra Labrador, the Spanish 
for " cultivated land," as distinguished from the 
non-fertile though moss-covered Greenland. New 
Brunswick, colonized in 1785, received its name in 
compliment to the House of Brunswick. Nova 

46 Names : and their Meaning. 

Scotia, otherwise New Scotland, was so called by 
Sir William Alexander, a Scotsman who obtained a 
grant of this colony from James I. in 1621. Florida 
was named by Ponce de Leon in accordance with 
the day of its discovery, to wit, Easter Sunday, 
which in the Spanish language is styled Pascua 

The first British settlement in North America was 
claimed by Sir Walter Raleigh on the 13th of July, 
1584, in the name of Queen Elizabeth, and called 
Virginia in her honour. Maryland was so de- 
nominated by Lord Baltimore (who gave the name 
of Baltimore to a neighbouring State), in honour of 
Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles L Pennsylvania 
denotes the colony founded " in the wood " by William 
Penn, the son of Admiral Penn, in 168 1. This is 
usually alluded to as the Keystone State, from its 
relative position to the other States. Georgia was 
named after George II., in whose reign this state 
was colonized ; and Carolina (North and South) 
after Carolus II., the Latanized style of Charles II., 
by whom this state was granted to eight of his 
favourites. Louisiana was so called by M. de la 
Sale in the year 1682, in honour of Louis XIV. of 
France ; while Maine and New Orleans received 
the names of existing French provinces. The title 
of New Hampshire was given to the state granted 
to him in 1629 by John Mason, in compliment to his 
native county in England ; New Jersey compli- 
mented the scene of action whereon Sir George 
Carterat distinguished himself in the defence of 

The Countries of the World. 47 

Jersey Island against the Parliamentary forces in 
1664 ; and New York (State) was denominated in 
honour of James, Duke of York, afterwards James 
II. [For Michigan see the great lake of the same 
name.] Indiana derived its name from the great 
number of Indians found here. Alabama in the 
native tongue, signifies " Here we rest" ; Nebraska 
means "water valley"; Ohio is "beautiful"; 
Massachusetts, "about the great hills"; Wis- 
consin, "wild rushing channel"; Kansas, "smoky 
water"; Tennessee, "river of the great bend"; 
Kentucky, " at the head of a river" ; Mississippi, 
" great and long river " ; Missouri, " muddy river " ; 
and Minnesota, " white water." Arkansas conveys 
the same meaning as Kansas, with the addition of the 
French prefix arc, a bow. Illinois is a compound of 
the Indian ilium, men, and the French suffix oix, a 
tribe. Oregon received its name from the Spanish 
oregano, wild majoram, which grows in abundance 
on this portion of the Pacific shore. Texas means 
" the place of protection," in reference to the fact 
that a colony of French refugees were afforded 
protection here by General Lallemont in 1817; 
Vermont is, more correctly, Verd Mont, so called 
in testimony to the verdure-clad mountains which 
traverse this state ; Colorado expresses the Spanish 
for " coloured, " alluding to its coloured ranges ; 
while Nevada is Spanish for " snowy," indica- 
tive of the character of its mountain ridges, the 
Sierra Nevada. Connecticut presents itself in 
the native Indian form Quinnitukut, meaning "the 

48 Names : and their Meaning. 

country of the long river " ; Iowa is a French 
corruption of a Sioux term, signifying " drowsy," or 
" the sleepy ones," applied to the Pahoja, or Gray- 
snow tribe ; Astoria was founded by John Jacob 
Astor, of New York, as a fur-trading station in the 
year 181 1 ; and Delaware received its name from 
Thomas West, Lord de La Warre, Governor of 
Virginia, who visited the bay in 1610, and died on 
board his vessel at its mouth. 

Lake Superior denotes the uppermost and chief 
of the five great lakes of North America. Lake 
Erie is the Lake of the " Wild Cat," the name given 
to a fierce tribe of Indians exterminated by the 
Iroquois. Lake Huron owes its name to the 
French word hire, a head of hair; in reference to 
the Wyandots, whom the French settlers designated 
Hurons owing to their profusion of hair. Lake 
Ontario bears the denomination of the Canadian 
territory already discussed. Niagara, or rather, to 
give it its full name, Oni-azv-garah, expresses the 
West Indian for ** the thunder of waters." Lake 
Michigan signifies in the native tongue " a weir for 
fish"; and Lake Winnipeg, "lake of the turbid 
water." The Great Bear Lake is indebted for its 
name to its northern situation [see Arctic Ocean] ; 
and the Great Salt Lake, to the saline character 
of its waters. 

Having disposed of the different countries, let us 
now consider the nomenclature of the principal seas 
and islands. 

The Arctic Ocean received its name pursuant to 

Th& Countries of the Wor^d. 49 

the Greek arktos, a bear, on account of the northern 
constellations of the Great and Little Bear. The 
Antarctic Ocean denotes the ocean anti, against, 
or opposite to, the Arctic Ocean. The Atlantic 
Ocean, known to the Greeks by the name of Allan- 
iikos pelagos, was originally so called from the Isle of 
Atlantes, which both Plato and Homer imagined to 
be situated beyond the Straits of Gibraltar. The 
Pacific Ocean was so named by Magellan, owing to 
its calm and pacific character, in striking contrast to 
his tempestuous passage through the Straits of Magel- 
lan, from which he emerged November 27, 1520. The 
Caribbean Sea washes the territory of the Caribbs, 
whose name means ** cruel men." The Mediter- 
ranean Sea expresses the Latin (medius, middle, 
and terra, earth) for the sea between two continents, 
viz., Europe and Africa. The Adriatic Sea indicates 
the Sea of Adrian or Hadrian. The Baltic Sea 
denotes, in accordance with the Swedish ball, a strait, 
a sea full of belts, or straits. The North Sea, the 
German Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Irish 
Sea, are names indicative of the positions of these 
respective seas. The White Sea is so called from 
its proximity to sterile regions of snow and ice ; the 
Black Sea, because it abounds with black rocks ; 
the Red Sea, on account of the red soil which 
forms its bottom ; the Green Sea, owing to a 
strip of green always discernible along the Arabian 
shore ; the Yellow Sea, from the immense quan- 
tity of alluvial soil continually poured into it 
by the Yang-tse-Kiang river; and the Dead Sea, 


because no fish of any kind has ever been found in 
its waters. The Caspian Sea preserves the name of 
the Caspii, a tribe who originally formed a settlement 
on its shores. The Sea of Marmora owes its designa- 
tion to a small island at its western extremity which 
has long been famous for its marble (Latin marmor) 
quarries. The Gulf Stream is a warm current of 
water that issues from the mouth of the Amazon, 
immediately under the Equator, and after traversing 
the coast of South America, the Caribbean Sea, the 
Gulf of Mexico, and the coast of the United States, 
makes its way across the Atlantic directly for the 
British Isles, raising the temperature of the water 
through which it passes. The Horse Latitudes, 
situated between the trade winds and the westerly 
winds of higher latitudes, and distinguished for 
tedious calms, received this name because it was in 
this portion of the Atlantic the old navigators often 
threw overboard the horses which they had under- 
taken to transport to the West Indies. The southern 
banks of the West India Islands, and the water ex- 
tending for some distance into the Caribbean Sea, 
were formerly known as the Spanish Main, from 
the fact that the Spaniards confined their buccaneer- 
ing enterprises to this locality. 

Hudson's Bay and Hudson's Strait were named 
aftertheirre-discoveryby Captain Henry Hudson while 
searching for the north-west passage in 1610. Prior 
to this date the Bay and the Strait had not been 
navigated since their original discovery by Cabot in 
1512. James' Bay honours the memory of James 

The Countries of the World. 51 

I., in whose reign it was completely explored. Quite 
a number of straits, gulfs, and bays bear the names 
of their respective navigators ; therefore these need 
not detain us here. An exception exists in the case 
of Barrow's Strait, which was so called by Captain 
Penny in compliment to John Barrow, the son of 
Sir John Barrow the traveller and statesman, in 
1850. All Saints' Bay was discovered by Vespucci 
on the Feast of All Saints in the year 1503. The 
Gulf of St. Lawrence was first explored, and the 
navigation of the long river of the same name com- 
menced, on the Feast of St. Lawrence, 1500. The 
Gulf of Carpentaria preserves the memory of a 
Dutch captain named Carpenter who discovered it 
in 1606. Torres Strait received the name of the 
Spanish navigator, L. V. de Torres, to whom its dis- 
covery was due, in the year 1606. Botany Bay was 
so called by Captain Cook from the great variety of 
plants which he found growing on its shores when 
exploring it in the year 1770. The St. George's 
Channel was named after the patron saint of Eng- 
land. The Skagerrack denotes the "crooked 
strait between the Skagen" (so called from the Gothic 
skaga, a promontory), which forms the northern ex- 
tremity of Jutland and Norway. Zuyder Zee 
expresses the Dutch for the " south sea," in relation 
to the North Sea or German Ocean. The Bay of 
Biscay takes its name from the Basque or Basquan, 
i.e., mountainous provinces, whose shores are 
washed by its waters. The Strait of Gibraltar 
honours the reputation of Ben Zeyad Tarik, a Moor- 

52 Names : and tJieir Meaning. 

ish general who effected the invasion of Spain in the 
year 712 by obtaining possession of the apparently 
impregnable rock which has ever since borne the 
name, in consequence, oijebel al tarik, the Mountain 
of Tarik. The Bosphorus is a Greek term com- 
posed of bous, an ox, and poms, a ford, alluding to the 
legend that when lo was transformed into a cow 
she forded this strait. The Dardanelles derive 
their name from the ancient city of Dardanus, 
founded by Dardanus, the ancestor of Priam, where 
the castle now stands on the Asiatic side. 

By the term Australia is meant "the South," 
and by Australasia " Southern Asia," agreeably to 
the Latin australis, southern. Previous to its settle- 
ment by the British, Australia was known as New 
Holland owing to its discovery by the Dutch in the 
year 1606. The existing name of New Zealand 
likewise bears testimony to the deep-rooted affection 
of the Dutch navigators, and indeed of the Dutch 
people generally, for their native countr}' — the word 
Zeeland, denoting sea-land, being significant of the 
low countries. Tasmania was originally known as 
Van Dieman's Land, the name bestowed upon it 
by Abel Jansen Tasman, who discovered it in 1642, 
in compliment to the daughter of the Dutch governor 
of Batavia. The change of title was effected in 1853. 
The Society Islands received their name from 
Captain Cook in honour of the Royal Society ; the 
Friendly Islands, on account of the friendly dis- 
position of the natives ; and Christmas Island, 
because he set foot upon it on Christmas Day, 1777. 

The Countries of the World. 53 

The naming of the Sandwich Islands by Cook 
conveyed a graceful compliment to Lord Sandwich, 
First Lord of the Admiralty. The Philippine 
Islands, discovered by Magellan in 1521, were 
named after Philip IL of Spain ; and the Caroline 
Islands discovered by Lopez de Villalobos in 1543, 
after Charles V., Emperor of Germany and first King 
of Spain. 

Papua is a Portuguese term for "frizzled," in 
allusion to the enormous frizzled heads of hair worn 
by the natives ; Java is a native Malay word signi- 
fying " the land of nutmegs ; " Sumatra, a corrup- 
tion of Trimatara, means " the happy land " ; while 
Borneo comes from the Sanskrit bhurni, "land." 
Japan is a European modification, brought about 
through the Portuguese Gepuen, of the native Niphon, 
confounded of ni, sun, fire, and pojt, land, literally 
sun-land, or '* land of the rising sun," and signifying 
** the fountain of light." Formosa is Portuguese 
for ''beautiful"; whereas Ceylon, rendered in the 
Portuguese tongue Selen, is but part of the original 
Sanskrit Sinhala-dwipa, "the Island of Lions." The 
Mauritius, when colonized by the Dutch, received 
the name of Maurice, Prince of Orange ; and the 
Isle of Bourbon, when settled by the French, that 
of the Bourbon family. Madagascar is properly 
Malagasy, the Island of the Malagese, because the 
natives belong to the Malay race. 

Tierra del FuegO expresses the Spanish for ''land 
of fire." The Island of Desolation was so desig- 
nated by Captain Cook owing to the absence of all 

54 Names : and their Meaning. 

signs of life. Hanover Island honours the House 
of Hanover; and Adelaide Island, the queen of 
William IV. ; while Juan Fernandez (also known 
as Selkirk's Island, after Alexander Selkirk, its 
solitary inhabitant from September, 1704, to Feb- 
ruary, 1707), perpetuates the name of its discoverer 
in the year 1567. The Ladrone Islands merited 
this designation from the circumstance that when 
Magellan touched upon one of the lesser isles of the 
group in 1520 the natives stole some of his goods ; 
whereupon he called the Islands the Ladrones, which 
is the Spanish for thieves. Pitcairn's Island was 
discovered by Pitcairn in 1768. Easter Island was 
so denominated by Jacob Roggevin in consequence 
of his visit to its fertile shores on Easter Sunday, 
1722 ; the island having previously been discovered 
by Captain Davis in 1686. Vancouver Island 
preserves the memory of Captain Vancouver, a mid- 
shipman under Captain Cook, who discovered it in 
1792, while cruising about in search of a river on the 
west coast of North America. The Aleutian Islands 
expresses the Russian for " bald rocks." Q,ueen 
Charlotte Island was named in compliment to the 
queen of George HI.; and Prince ofWales Island, 
after the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV. 
Barrow Island, discovered by Captain Penny in 
1850, received the name of John Barrow, son of Sir 
John Barrow, the eminent statesman ; while Baring 
Island, also discovered by Penny in the course of 
the same voyage, received the name of Sir Francis 
Baring, First Lord of the Admiralty. The Parry 

The Countries of the World. 55 

Islands and Baffin Land indicate the names of 
the famous Arctic navigators to whom their discovery 
v^^as due. Banks Land was so called in compliment 
to Sir Joseph Banks, the eminent naturalist and 
President of the Royal Society. 

Newfoundland is the only territory discovered 
by Cabot which has been allowed to retain its 
original name. Bhode Island, a corruption of the 
Danish rood, red, signifies Red Island, in allusion to 
its reddish appearance ; whereas Long Island has 
reference to its long and narrow conformation. The 
Bermuda Islands were discovered by Juan Ber- 
mudez in 1522. San Salvador means " Holy 
Saviour." This was the first land sighted by 
Columbus (October 11, 1492) ; he therefore gave it 
this name, as a token of thanksgiving. Jamaica is 
a corruption of Xaymaco, a native West Indian name 
signifying "the country abounding in springs." Cuba 
and Hayti are also native names, the latter meaning 
*' mountainous country." The Island of Barbadoes 
derived its name from the Latin barba, a beard, in 
allusion to the beard-like streamers of moss always 
hanging from the branches of the trees. Dominica 
is indicative of the day of its discovery by Columbus, 
namely, Sunday, November 2, 1493 ; and Porto 
Rico is likewise Spanish for " rich port." When 
Columbus first sighted the Isle of Trinidad he 
discerned three mountain peaks rising from the sea, 
thus conveying the impression of three distinct 
islands ; but on approaching nearer he discovered 
that they formed one piece of land only ; wherefore 

56 Names : and their Meaning. 

he gave the island the name of the Trinity, of which 
it was so eminently an emblem. But perhaps the 
most interesting of the West Indies in connection 
with the subject we are now discussing is Tobago 
Island, so called by Columbus from its fancied re- 
semblance to the Tobaco, or inhaling tube of the 
aborigines, whence the word Tobacco has been 
derived. St. Kitt's Island is an abbreviation of 
St. Christopher's Island, so called by Columbus in 
1493 after his patron saint. 

Ascension Island was discovered by the Portu- 
guese on Ascension Day, 1501 ; and the Isle 
of St. Helena on the Feast of St. Helena, 1502. 
Tristan d'Acunha received the name of the Portu- 
guese navigator who discovered it in 165 1. The 
Canary Islands were originally so called on ac- 
count of the numerous dogs, as well as of their un- 
usual size(Latin canis, a dog), bred here. Madeira 
is a Portuguese term signifying timber ; the in- 
ference being that this island was formerly covered 
by an immense forest. Majorca and Minorca, 
literally in accordance with the Latin major and 
minor, the Greater and Lesser Island, are de- 
nominated also the Balearic Islands from the 
Greek ballein, to throw, because their inhabitants 
were anciently noted slingers. Corsica is a Phoeni- 
cian word denoting " the wooded island " ; Sardinia 
expresses the "land of the Sardonion," a Greek 
term for a plant indigenous to this island; Capri 
signifies the " island of goats," agreeably to the 
Latin caper, a he-goat ; Sicily received its name from 

The Countries of the World. 57 

the Siciili, a tribe who settled upon it in early times ; 
Malta was anciently Melita, " the place of refuge " ; 
Candia comes from the Arabic KhandcB, " the island 
of trenches " ; and Cyprus from the Greek Kupros, 
the name of a herb with which the island abounded ; 
while Rhodes indicates an " island of roses," in 
conformity with the Greek rhodon, a rose. 

Belleisle is French for " beautiful island " ; 
Jersey was originally Czar's-ey, meaning ** Caesar's 
Island," so called by the Romans in honour of 
Julius Csesar; the Isle of Wight denoted in the 
long, long ago the Island of the Wyts, or Jutes; just 
as Gothland indicated a settlement of the Goths. 
Heligoland expresses the Danish for " holy island 
settlement." Anglesea is really a corruption of 
Anglesey, signifying, in accordance with the suffix ey, 
the Isle of the Angles [see Chelsea]. The Isle of 
Man is the modern designation of Mona Island, 
by which was meant, agreeably to the Celtic mcen, 
a stone "rocky island." The Hebrides were 
anciently referred to by Ptolemy as the Ebudce, and 
by Pliny as the Hebudes, denoting the " Western 
Isles " ; the Orkney Isles expresses the Gaelic for 
the ** Isles of Whales," alluding to their situation; 
and the Shetland Isles, the Norse for the " Viking 
Island," conformably with their native prenomen 
Hyalti, a Viking. The term Viking, by the way, 
meaning a pirate, was derived from the Vik, or creek, 
in which he lay concealed. The name of Iceland 
needs no comment, further than that, perhaps, the 
north and west coasts of the island are frequently 

58 Names : and their Meaning. 

blockaded with ice, which has drifted before the wind 
from Greenland. Spitzbergen is literal Dutch for 
" sharp-pointed mountains," referring to the granite 
peaks of the mountains, which are so characteristic 
of this group of islands; while Nova Zembla pre- 
sents a strange mixture of the Latin and Slavonic, 
literally ** new land." 


THE titles of the months are modernized forms 
of those in use among the Romans, namely : — 
January, in honour of Janus, a deity who 
presided over the beginning of everything; February, 
from the Latin word fehni, to purify, because the 
purification of women took place in this month ; 
March, after Mars, the God of War; April, from 
aperio, to open, this being the month in which the 
buds shoot forth ; May, after Maia, the mother of 
Mercury, to whom sacrifices were offered on the first 
day of this month ; June, from Juno, the queen 
goddess ; July, the name given to this month by 
Marc Antony in honour of Julius Cassar, who was 
born in it ; August, named by Augustus Csesar after 
himself, because in this month he celebrated three 
distinct triumphs, reduced Egypt to subjection, and 
put an end to the civil wars; while September, 
October, November, and December literally ex- 
press the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth months of 
the old Roman Calendar, counted from March, which 
commenced the year previous to the addition of 
January and February by Numa in the year 713 B.C. 
The Egyptian astronomers were the first to dis- 

6o Nantes : and their Meaning. 

tinguish the days by names, when, as might have 
been expected, they called them after the Sun, the 
Moon, and the five planets, viz., Mars, Mercury, 
Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn. Of these the two first 
and the last survive, but for the rest the names of as 
many gods of the Scandinavian mythology have been 
substituted. Nowadays, then, we have the following: 
— Sunday, originally signifying the day upon which 
the sun was worshipped ; Monday, the day of the 
moon ; Tuesday, devoted to Tiw, the God of War ; 
Wednesday, set apart for the worship of Odin, or 
Wodin, the God of Magic and the Inventor of the 
Arts ; Thursday, the day of Thor, the son of Odin 
(or Wodin), and the God of Thunder; Friday, allotted 
to Frigga, the wife of Odin, and the Goddess of 
Marriage ; and Saturday, the day of Saturn, one of 
the planets of the solar system. 


THEISM and Deism both express a belief in 
God ; the former term being derived from 
the Greek Theos, God, and the latter from 
the Latin, Dens, God. The Theist, however, 
admits the Theocracy or Government of God 
(Greek Theos, God, and kratcin, to govern) ; the 
Deist, on the contrary, maintains that God in the 
beginning implanted in all His works certain im- 
mutable laws, comprehended by mankind under the 
name of the " Laws of Nature," which act of them- 
selves, and are no longer subject to the supervision 
of the Creator. Pantheism (from the Greek ^^w, 
all, everything, and Theos, God) is the religion which 
rejects a belief in a personal God, but recognizes Him 
in all the processes, and works, and glories, and 
beauties of Nature, and animated creation. Briefly, 
the Pantheist holds the doctrine that " God is 
everything, and everything is God." The word 
Atheism comes from the Greek Theos, God, and the 
prefix a, without. An Atheist, therefore, practically 
answers to the description given by David in the 
opening line of Psalm xiv., " The fool hath said in his 
heart, There is no God." Agnosticism is also 

62 Names : and their Meaning. 

Greek, in accordance with the prefix a, without, 
and gnouii, to know. An Agnostic is one whose belief 
is confined to that which he knows and sees, and 
who rejects everything at all beyond his under- 
standing. Secularism, derived from the Latin 
seculum, an age, a generation, is the term given to 
the principles advocated by Messrs. Holyoake in 
1846, which professed an entire independence of 
religion, except so far as it pertains to this life. The 
Secularist aims at promoting the happiness of the 
community during the present life. His religion is 
that of this world, without troubling himself about 
possibilities concerning a life hereafter. Such views 
are closely allied to those set forth by John Stuart 
Mill (born 1806, died 1873) under the name of 
Utilitarianism, by which was meant, " the happi- 
ness of the greatest number." This term was based 
upon the Latin utilitas, usefulness. Spiritualism 
expresses a belief in the soul's immortality, as 
opposed to the doctrine of Materialism, which con- 
tends that the soul, or thinking part of man, is the 
result of some peculiar organization of matter in 
the body, with which it must necessarily die. 
Rationalism constitutes the doctrine which accepts 
the test of Reason and Experience in the pursuit of 
knowledge, particularly in regard to religious truth, 
rejecting the gift of Faith, Revelation, and every- 
thing connected with the supernatural or miraculous. 
This was the religion (!) of the French Revolu- 
tionists, who set up an actress to be publicly 
honoured as the " Goddess of Reason " in the 

Creeds, Sects, and Denominations. 63 

Cathedral of Notre Dame on the loth of November, 


The earliest form of religion on the face of the earth 
was Monotheism, so called from the Greek monos, 
alone, only, and Theos, God; therefore signifying 
a belief in, and the worship of, one Only God. The 
word Religion is derived from the Latin relignrc, 
to bind. Hence, Religion implies obedience, sub- 
mission, and an acknowledgment of certain orthodox 
doctrines regarding our duty to a Supreme Power. 
Mosaism, otherwise Judaism, denotes the religion 
of the Jews as enjoined in the laws of Moses. But 
even during that favoured period when God mani- 
fested Himself in various ways to the children of 
Israel, Idolatry prevailed. Let us consider what 
this word Idolatry really means. Idol is a con- 
traction of the Greek eidolon, the diminutive of eidos, 
a figure, an image, or that which is seen, derived from 
the verb eidein, to see ; while Idolater is made up of 
the two Greek words, eidolon, and latres, one who 
pays homage, a worshipper. An Idolater, therefore, 
is a worshipper of images, or that which he sees. 
The Israelites, who prostrated themselves before the 
Golden Calf, were strictly Idolaters ; so were the 
Egyptians, who worshipped the sun, the moon, the ox, 
the dog, the cat, the ibis, and the ichneumon ; but the 
Greeks and Romans were scarcely Idolaters, because 
the mythological deities they worshipped were 
unseen — as unseen as is the True God Himself. 
Neither were they Pagans, which term, from the 
hsiiin pagamis, a countr;yman, a peasant, based upon 

64 Names : and their Meaning. 

pagtis, a country, a district, has nothing whatever to 
do with religion. The Greeks and Romans were, 
in fact, Polytheists, and their religion was Poly- 
theism, signifying, in accordance with the Greek 
polus, many, and Theos, God, a belief in more gods 
than one. The more general description of the 
religion of the ancients is comprised in the term 
Mythology, written in the Greek miitJwIogia, from 
muthos, a fable, and logos, a discourse. 

Alluding to the Fire Worshippers of the East, 
who fall prostrate in adoration of the sun, it should 
be noted that these do not actually worship the sun, 
but God, whom they believe to reside in it. This 
Sun or Fire Worship, the religion of the Parsees, 
otherwise denominated Zoroastrianism, was in- 
troduced into Persia by Zoroaster about five hun- 
dred years before the Christian era. In short, 
the Parsees are the descendants of those who, in 
Persia, adhered to the Zoroastrian religion after 
the Moslem or Mahommedan conquest of their 
country, whence they were at length driven by 
Moslem persecution to migrate to India. The 
Brahmins are the priests or higher caste of the 
Hindoos, who, like the Burmese, the inhabitants 
of the adjacent country, Burmah, claim to be 
descended from Brahma, the supreme deity of the 
Hindoo religion. The Buddhists are the followers 
of Buddha, a Hindoo sage who founded the doctrine 
of Buddhism in the sixth century B.C. Mahom- 
medanism is the religion founded by Mahom- 
med, or Mahomet (born 571, died 632). The term 

Creeds, Sects, and Denominations. 65 

Koran, or more properly^/ Koran, "The Koran," 
which constitutes the Bible of the Mahommedans, 
is Arabic for a " Reading," a " thing to be read." 
The native name of the Mahommedan religion is 
Islam, resignation and obedience to God, founded 
upon the verb aslama, to bend, to submit, to sur- 
render. The Mahommedans of Turkey and Persia 
usually bear the style of Mussulmans, a corruption 
and the plural of the Arabic muslim, rendered into 
English as Moslem, and meaning a true believer, or 
one who holds the faith of Islam. 

Our reference to Mahommedanism having carried 
us some six hundred years beyond the foundation of 
Christianity by Christ, we must of necessity 
retrace our steps. Reverting to the Jewish people 
contemporary with Jesus Christ and His disciples, 
a certain portion of these styled themselves 
Pharisees because they affected a greater degree 
of holiness than their neighbours. The name was 
derived from the Hebrew word pharash, separated. 
The Nazarenes, so called after "Jesus of Nazareth," 
were a sect of semi-converted Jews, who, while 
believing Christ to be the long-promised Messiah, 
and that His nature was Divine as well as human, 
nevertheless continued the rites and ceremonies 
peculiar to Judaism. The Gnostics, otherwise 
the ** Knowers," pursuant to the Greek gnomi, to 
know, were those who tried to accommodate the 
Scriptures to the speculations of Plato, Pythagoras, 
and other ancient philosophers ; having done which 
to their own satisfaction they refused all further 


66 Names: and their Meaning. 

knowledge on the subject. The Aquarians (Latin 
aqua, water) insisted upon the use of water in the 
place of wine in the Communion. The AriailS 
were the followers of Arius, a presbyter in the 
Church of Alexandria, universally regarded as the 
first heretic. Soon after his death (in 336), which 
was ignominious in the extreme, the Arians re- 
nounced their errors, and were readmitted into the 
Church ; but this gave offence to another section of 
the Christians under Lucifer, Bishop of Cagliari, 
styling themselves the Luciferians, who refused 
all communication with the reconverted heretics. 
The Donatists were the followers of Donatus, 
Bishop of Numidia; the Macedonians, of Mace- 
donius. Patriarch of Constantinople; the ApoUi- 
narians, of Apollinarius, Bishop of Laodicea and 
Greek Christian philosopher. These various sects 
arose in the fourth century of the Church. 

The term Catholic, derived from the Greek 
Katholos, compounded out of Kata, throughout, and 
olos, whole, signifies One, Universal. During the 
first nine centuries of Christianity the Catholic 
Church was indeed universal ; but at that epoch 
it became necessary to distinguish between the 
Eastern or Greek Church, and the Western or 
Church of Rome, by adding the word " Roman " 
to the original Church founded by St. Peter and 
perpetuated by his successors the Popes. The 
Greek Church, which constitutes the orthodox 
religion of Greece, Moldavia, and Russia, differs 
principally from the Roman Catholic in regard to 

Creeds, Sects, and Denominations. 6y 

the Papal supremacy, and the doctrine of Holy 
Ghost proceeding from the Father and the Son. 
The employment of the full title of Roman 
Catholic Church is at all times necessary in 
England when alluding to Christian doctrine in 
order to avoid probable confusion with the Estab- 
lished Church of this country which retains in its 
Creed the designation of " The Holy Catholic 
Church." This is because at the Reformation the 
Church of England, then styled the Anglican 
Church, professed to be the Catholic Church 
governed by the reigning monarch instead of the 
Pope of Rome. 

The Galilean Church is the so-called Church of 
France or Gaul, the ancient name of the country. 
Pere Hyacinth, its founder, whose church was 
opened in Paris February 7, 1870, originally sepa- 
rated from the Church of Rome owing to his dis- 
approval of the enforced celibacy of the clergy. The 
Lutheran Church of Germany took its name from 
Martin Luther (born 1483, died 1546), the monk 
who became the pioneer of Protestantism. In the 
year 1529 the Emperor Charles V. summoned a 
Diet at Spiers for the avowed object of enlisting the 
aid of the German Princes against the Turks, but 
really to devise some means of tranquillizing the 
disturbances which had grown out of Luther's 
opposition to the Church of Rome, and restoring 
the national religion. Against a decree drawn up 
at this Diet six princes and the deputies of thirteen 
imperial towns offered a vehement protest, and ever 

68 Names : and their Meaning. 

afterwards the Lutherans were in consequence 
styled Protestants. The first Standard of Faith, 
according to the doctrines of Luther, is known as 
The Augsburg Confession, because it was pre- 
sented by Luther and Melancthon to Charles V., 
during the sitting of the Imperial Diet at Augsburg 
in the year 1530. 

The Calvinists were the followers of John Calvin 
(born 1509, died 1604), the zealous reformer of 
Switzerland. In due time these also styled them- 
selves Protestants. From Switzerland Protestantism 
spread into France through the energy of a Genevese 
Calvinist named Hugh or Hugue, after whom the 
French Protestants adopted the name of Hugue- 

But Luther and Calvin were by no means the 
earliest of the reformers. 

In England the Wycliffites, or followers of John 
Wycliffe (born 1324, died 1387), became known as 
Gospellers, after their leader had completed the 
translation of the Bible in 1377. Eventually they 
adopted the title of Lollards, in imitation of a sect 
of German reformers headed by Walter Lollard, 
a dissolute priest, who turned theologian and was 
publicly burned for heresy at Cologne in 1322. In 
France the precursors of the Huguenots were the 
Albigenses of Languedoc, so called because their 
capital was Albi, and its people were called the 
Albigeois, early in the twelfth century; and in 1170, 
the Waldenses, inhabiting the wooded districts of 
Valdois and Piedmont. The latter received their 

Creeds, Sects, and Denominations. 69 

designation in accordance with the German walden, 
forests. The Camisards, or wearers of the Camise, 
a peasant's smock, to conceal their armour, com- 
prised a body of Protestant insurgents who took 
up arms in the district of the Cevennes after the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV., 
October 22, 1685. As these always conducted their 
attacks upon the soldiery under cover of the dark- 
ness the term " Camisard " in military parlance 
soon came to imply a night attack. The Protestants 
of Bohemia were styled Hussites, after John Huss 
(born 1373, burned 1415) ; they were also known as 
Bethlemites from the Church of Bethlehem in 
Prague, in which Huss used to hurl forth his 
denunciations against the Church of Rome. The 
Moravians, otherwise The United Brethren, 
who were driven by persecutions from Moravia and 
Bohemia in the last century, claimed to be descen- 
dants of the original Hussites. 

Having now traced the rise of Protestantism 
generally, let us at once dispose of the various sects 
and denominations before confining ourselves to the 
Established Church and its offshoots. 

The Adamites were the fanatical followers of one 
Picard, in Bohemia, self-styled " Adam, Son of God," 
who, about the year 1400, proposed to reduce man- 
kind to a state of primitive innocence and enjoyment. 
No clothes were worn, wives were held in common, 
and many other violations of Nature were committed 
ere they finally disappeared from the face of the earth. 
A similar sect were the Libertines, in Holland, 

70 Names: and their Meaning. 

These contended that nothing could be regarded as 
sinful in a community where each was at full liberty 
to act up to his natural dictates and passions. The 
Jansenists favoured the doctrines of Jansenius, 
Bishop of Ypres, in France (born 1585, died 1638). 
For a long period these maintained an open warfare 
with the Jesuists, properly, soldiers of the " Society 
of Jesus "[s55 Religious Orders], until they were 
finally put down by Pope Clement in 1705. The 
Gabrielites were a sect of Anabaptists of Germany 
in the sixteenth century, named after Gabriel 
Scherling, their founder. The Labadists were a 
sect of Protestant ascetics of the seventeenth 
century who conformed to the rules laid down by 
Jean Labadie, of Bourg, in Germany. The So- 
cinians, a sect corresponding to the modern 
Unitarians, owed their existence to Laelius Socinus, 
an Italian theologian in 1546. The anti-Calvinists 
of Holland were styled Arminians, after the 
Latinized name (Jacobus Arminius) of their leader, 
James Harmensen (born 1560, died 1609). The 
New Christians comprised a number of Portuguese 
Jews in the fifteenth century, who, although they 
consented to be baptized under compulsion, still 
practised the Mosaic rites and ceremonies in secret. 
The Old Catholics of Germany are the followers of 
the late Dr. Bollinger, of Munich (born 1799, died 
1890), who refused to accept the dogma of the 
infallability of the Pope promulgated July 18, 1870. 

In our own country the Scotists were those who 
adopted the opinions of John Duns Scotus (born 

Creeds, Sects, and Denominations. 71 

1272, died 1308), concerning the doctrines of the Im- 
maculate Conception, in opposition to the Thomists, 
or followers of St. Thomas Aquinas (born 1227, ^i^^ 
1274), who denied that the Virgin was conceived 
without sin. The Sabbatarians, known also as the 
Seventh Day Baptists, founded by Brabourne, a 
clergyman who, about the year 1628, maintained that 
the seventh day was the real Sabbath as ordained 
at the beginning. The Fifth Monarchy Men, 
who came into existence during the reign of Charles 
I., believed in the early coming of Jesus Christ to 
re-establish the four great monarchies of the ancient 
world, viz., the Assyrian, Persian, Macedonian, and 
Roman, contemporaneously with the fifth, the Mil- 
lennium. The Muggletonians were the followers 
of one Ludovic Muggleton, a journeyman tailor, who 
set himself up as a prophet in 1651. The Society 
of Friends originally styled themselves Seekers, 
because they sought the truth after the manner 
of Nicodemus, the Jewish ruler, as narrated in St. 
John iii. 1-21. They were first designated Q,uakers 
by Justice Bennet of Derby, in 1650, in consequence 
of George Fox, the founder, having admonished him 
and all present to quake on hearing the Word of 
the Lord. The Seekers came into existence in 1646. 
The White Quakers, who seceded from the 
main body about 1840, are distinguished by their 
white clothing. The original sect of the Shakers, 
first heard of in the time of Charles I., received its 
name from the convulsive movements indulged in 
by its members as part of their peculiar forra of 

72 Names : and their Meaning, 

worship. The modern sect sprang from a body of 
expelled Quakers, headed by James Wardley, in 
1747. They emigrated to America in May, 1772, 
and formed a permanent settlement near Albany, 
New York, two years afterwards. The Mormons 
derived their designation from " The Book of 
Mormon," claimed to be a lost portion of the Bible 
written by the angel Mormon, the last of the Hebrew 
line of prophets, and found inscribed in Egyptian 
characters upon plates of gold by Joseph Smith, the 
founder of the sect, in the year 1827. This work 
was really written by the Rev. Solomon Spalding, 
who died in 1816. Joseph Smith died in 1844. The 
Peculiar People are so styled because they believe 
in the efficacy of prayer on the part of their elders, 
and the anointing with oil in the name of the Lord 
for the cure of sickness as set forth in James v. 14. 
This sect was first heard of in London in 1838. 
The Faith Healers, or those who uphold the 
doctrine of Healing by Faith, lately sprung up in 
our midst, may be regarded as an offshoot of the 
Peculiar People. The Irvingites are the followers 
of Edward Irving, a Scottish divine (born 1792, died 
1834), who maintained that Christ was liable to 
commit sin in common with the rest of mankind. 
The Humanitarians incline to the same belief. 
The Sacramentarians are those who deny the 
Real Presence in the Holy Eucharist: the Calvinists 
were originally known by this title. The Plymouth 
Brethren first appeared at Plymouth about the 
year 1830 ; they so style themselves because they 

Creeds, Sects, and Denominations. 73 

confess Christ as a fraternal community and do not 
recognize any order of priesthood. The Perfec- 
tionists of North America are so called owing to 
their rejection of civil laws, on the plea that the 
guidance of the Holy Spirit suffices for all earthly 
as well as spiritual affairs. Another body of co- 
religionists peculiar to North America are the 
Hopkinsians, named after Samuel Hopkins, of 
Connecticut, their founder. The doctrines which 
they hold are mainly Calvinistic. 

The Scottish Covenanters were those who 
subscribed to a solemn league or covenant to stand 
by each other in opposition to the religious and 
political measures of Charles I. This occurred in 
1638. In less than ten years afterwards the 
Covenanters, having increased in numbers and power, 
assumed the entire direction of their own ecclesias- 
tical affairs and styled themselves Presbyterians, 
a term derived from the Greek presbuteros, an elder, 
because they contended that the government of the 
Church as set forth in the New Testament was by 
presbyters, equal in office, power, and order. The 
national Church of Scotland, therefore, when at 
length it was recognized by the English Parliament, 
bore the title of the Scottish Presbyterian 
Church. It was, however, not long before dis- 
sensions became rife. The strictest body of the 
Presbyterians adopted the style of Cameronians, 
after the name of their leader, Archibald Cameron, 
who was executed in 1688 on account of his 
religious opinions ; while an equally numerous 

74 Names : and their Meanin 


body, headed by John Macmillan, became known as 
Macmillanites, and also as The Reformed 

Presbytery. A much later sect was that founded 
in 1841 by James Morison, under the designation 
of the Morisonians. But the most alarming split 
in the Presbyterian Church took place May 18, 1843, 
when Dr. Chalmers, with a large following, estab- 
lished a separate community, entitled The Free 
Church of Scotland. 

The Puritans of England were to the Established 
Church what the Pharisees were to the Jews. And 
not only did these Puritans profess a greater purity 
of doctrine, of morals, and of living, than their 
neighbours, but they embraced the earliest oppor- 
tunity of separating themselves from the Church of 
England altogether. They were, in fact, the first of 
the Dissenters. On August 24, 1662, which date 
witnessed the secession of nearly two thousand 
ministers from the Church of England through their 
non-compliance with the " Act of Uniformity," the 
Puritans joined forces with the latter, and the 
combined body assumed the name of Noncon- 
formists. The Protestants were, consequently, 
divided into two great parties — the Conformists, or 
those who conformed to the requirements laid down 
in the "Act of Conformity," and the Nonconfor- 
mists. The latter have in more recent times borne 
the name of Dissenters, because they dissent from 
the Established Church. The Sectarians are 
Dissenters who attach themselves to one or other of 
the numerous sects and denominations which exist 

Creeds, Sects, and Denominations. 75 

outside the Church of England. The Congrega- 
tionalists and the Independents are one and the 
same. They maintain that each congregation is an 
independent religious community entitled to exercise 
the right of appointing its own ministers and 
managing its own affairs. These tenets were first 
publicly advanced by Robert Brown, a violent op- 
ponent of the Established Church, in Rutlandshire, 
as early as the year 1585. The Unitarians are the 
modern Socinians already alluded to. They are 
opposed to the doctrine of the Trinity ; and, conse- 
quently, to the Trinitarians. The Baptists not 
only reject infant baptism, but hold that the adult 
subject should be baptized after the manner in which 
Christ was baptized by St. John. On this account 
the original Baptists, who arose about 1521, received 
the name of Anabaptists, because, having been 
already baptized during infancy, they of necessity 
went through the ceremony a second time on 
arriving at full age. The prefix ana is Greek, 
signifying twice. The followers of John Wesley (born 
1703, died 1791) and his brother, Charles Wesley 
(born 1708, died 1788), were styled Methodists, 
owing to the methodical strictness of their lives and 
religious exercises. They were also denominated 
Wesleyans, or Wesleyan Methodists, in contra- 
distinction to the Primitive Methodists, or 
Ranters, who separated from the original sect 
under Hugh Bourne, in 1810, and retained the style 
of open-air preaching peculiar to John Wesley in 
his early itinerant days. 

76 Names : and their Meaning. 

The terms " High Church" and " Low Church" 
first came into prominence during the reign of 
Queen Anne. Nowadays, as then, that section is 
styled High Church which regards the Church of 
England as the only ark of salvation, while the 
less apprehensive and more moderate section is 
called Low Church. Those who take a still more 
liberal and comprehensive view of orthodox doc- 
trine belong to what is known as the Broad 
Church, which is but another name for Latitu- 
dinarianism, as originally professed by a number 
of divines opposed alike to the Puritans and the 
High Church party in the time of Charles I. On 
the other hand, the Ritualists comprise the extreme 
High Church party who are anxious to return to 
the ritual of public worship in vogue during the 
reign of Edward VI. Prior to 1866, in which year 
the term arose, these High Churchmen bore the 
name of Puseyites, because they agreed with the 
views set forth by Dr. Pusey in his celebrated 
** Tracts for the Times," published at Oxford 
between 1833 and 1841. Those scholars who 
assisted Dr. Pusey in the composition of these 
Oxford Tracts, as they were called, as well as the 
public at large who believed in their teaching, were 
styled Tractarians; while the great Roman Catholic 
revival that took place in the Church of England at 
this period universally bore, and still bears, the name 
of the Oxford Movement. 


HOTEL is a French term, derived from hostil, 
a lordly house, a palace. The designation 
Public House, signifying a house of public 
resort for refreshment and conviviality, is a modern 
substitute for Tavern, derived from the Latin 
taberna, a hut, a wooden booth ; frequently also for 
Inn, or rather, as originally written, Inne, which 
expressed the Anglo-Saxon for a mansion. And 
here we may at once observe that by far the 
majority of our mediaeval inns and Hostelries 
[see Hotel] grew out of the mansions of the 
nobility during the prolonged absence of their 
owners. At such times the privilege of utilizing 
the mansion for his own profit naturally fell to the 
family's jnost trustworthy dependent, viz., the head 
gamekeeper, whose green costume gave existence to 
the sign of The Green Man, when, after quitting 
the family's service, he set up an inn on his own 
account either in connection with his own cottage or 
abutting on the public highway. Nevertheless, this 
sign had nothing in common with that of the The 
Green Man and Still, expressive of a herbalist 
bringing his herbs to a distillery, and which was 
doubtless the sign of a herbalist turned innkeeper. 

yS Names : and their Meaning. 

As the family arms always occupied a prominent 
position on the front of the mansion these soon 
became known far and wide, though scarcely in 
accordance with their full heraldic significance. 
Briefly, the most conspicuous object in them sufBced 
to impress itself upon the minds of travellers as the 
distinguishing sign of the establishment ; so that, 
instead of speaking of lions gules and lions azure, &c., 
they simplified matters by referring to red and blue 
lions, &c. Such was the origin, then, of The Red 
Lion, The Blue Lion, and many another familiar 
sign of this character. Moreover, as a variation of 
the same device entered into the arms of different 
families, it happened that the most conspicuous 
object in them became popular in different parts of 
the country at the same time. Another fruitful 
source of the rapid multiplication of a particular 
sign throughout the same county, and even upon the 
same estate, was the fact that as often as a retired 
dependent of a nobleman's family turned innkeeper, 
he was pretty certain to name his establishment in 
accordance with the popular description of the 
original inn or mansion. If it chanced, however, 
that that sign had already been appropriated by 
another innkeeper in the immediate vicinity, the 
full cognizance of the ground landlord was adopted. 
Thus, in the Midland Counties there is no sign so 
common as The Bear and Bagged Staff, which 
was the cognizance of the Earl of Warwick, the 
King Maker. Similarly, The Boar's Head was 
the cognizance of the Gordons ; The Black Bull, 

Tavern Signs. 79 

that of the House of Clare ; and The Talbot, that 
of the House of Shrewsbury. Another oft-to-be-met- 
with sign is The Chequers, which comprised the 
arms of the Earls of Fitzwarren who, in the time of 
the Plantagenets, held the right of granting the 
vintners their licences. Later in our history the 
same cognizance was adopted by the Stuarts. As 
every one is aware, The Red Rose was the recog- 
nized badge of the Lancastrians, and The White 
Hose that of the Yorkists. It may be assumed 
that these two signs were naturally more popular 
throughout the country at large during the Wars 
of the Roses than at any subsequent period. 
During that turbulent period of English history, 
too, the devices of the several adherents of the rival 
houses were not unfrequently chosen in commemo- 
ration of a particular event ; as, for example, after 
the Battle of Barnet, when The Star, the badge of 
the Earl of Oxford who decided the fate of that day, 
sprang up as an inn-sign in all directions, except, of 
course, upon Yorkist ground. 

Where the innkeeper was not bound by any ties 
of gratitude or regard to the ground landlord he 
evinced his loyalty to the reigning monarch by 
adopting a portion of the royal arms. As examples 
of this class : — The White Swan was the badge of 
Edward HL and of Henry IV. ; The White Swan 
and Antelope, of Henry V. ; The White Hart, 
and The Sun, both of Richard II. ; The White 
Lion, of Edward IV. as Earl of March, and The 
Three Suns, of Edward IV. as King of England ; 

8o Names : and their Meaning. 

The Eagle, of Queen Mary ; The Blue Boar, of 
Richard III.; The Red Dragon, that of Henry 
VII., chosen for his standard after the Battle of 
Bosworth Field, and The Greyhound, his original 
badge as King. The Rose is the symbol of England, 
just as The Thistle stands for Scotland, The 
Shamrock for Ireland, and The Leek for Wales. 
A very general expression of loyalty, again, was 
conveyed in the sign of The Crown, which, by the 
way, was shrewdly complimentary to the reigning 
house without offering offence to the partisans of a 
rival claimant to the throne. The Rose and 
Crown had reference originally to the union of the 
red and white roses in the House of Tudor by the 
marriage of Henry VII. with Elizabeth, the daughter 
of Edward IV., in the year i486 ; The Crown and 
Sceptre must have originated in the mind of one 
who had been witness to the elaborate ceremonial 
peculiar to a coronation ; while the The Crown 
and Anchor signified the reliance which was placed 
in the exalted person that wore the crown. 

If, on the other hand, our mediaeval innkeeper 
chose to flatter the ground landlord without actually 
adopting his cognizance, he invariably named his 
establishment after his lordship's family title, e.g., 
The Earl of March, in compliment to the Duke 
of Richmond, or else set up some such sign as The 
Hare and Hounds, The Tally Ho! The Fox 
in the Hole, &c., in allusion to the sporting tastes 
of his patron. At times he even went so far as to 
enter into the religious enthusiasm of the latter by 

Tavern Signs. 8i 

exhibiting a preference for The Angel or The 
Salutation, both referring to the Annunciation of 
the Virgin ; The Three Kings, meaning the Magi 
who presented themselves to the Infant at Beth- 
lehem ; or The Cross Keys, the symbol of St. 
Peter, and the badge of the Archbishop of York. 
The sign of The Mitre was generally adopted by 
an innkeeper whose establishment stood in the 
vicinity of a cathedral ; consequently, this particular 
sign abounds in cities, but is rarely to be met with 
in the rural districts. 

During the period of the Holy Wars, if the 
innkeeper did not content himself with the sign of 
The Turk's Head or The Saracen's Head, that 
of The Golden Gross, which was the ensign carried 
by the Crusaders, was usually chosen. The modern 
sign of The Half-Moon originated in the crescent, 
the ensign of the Infidel. The signs of The Swan, 
The Pheasant, and The Peacock arose in the 
days of knight-errantry, when every knight selected 
one of these birds as an emblem of chivalry, and 
exerted a pride in the association. For example, 
one of the principal characters in the " Niebelungen 
Lied " is called " The Knight of the Swan." Then, 
again, many innkeepers assumed a sign in honour of 
the patron saint of England, or in commemoration 
of his combat with the dragon, viz., The St. George, 
The St. George and Dragon, The George and 
Dragon, The Green Dragon, &c. The George, 
a common sign enough in our own day — it would be 
difficult to name a town that has not its "George" 

82 Names : and their Meaning. 

in the High Street — was originally connected with 
the dragon too ; but at the commencement of the 
Hanoverian succession the heraldic device was 
painted out altogether, and the words The George 
were put up in its place. The like observation 
applies to all such signs as The King's Arms, 
The dueen's Arms, The Freemasons' Arms, 
The Coachmakers' Arms, The Saddlers' Arms, 
The Carpenters' Arms, &c., nowadays identified 
by name only, instead of their distinctive badge or 
crest. We must not omit to mention also that, 
since the especial function of tavern and other signs 
was to call attention to the character of an estab- 
lishment in days when the people were unable 
to read, and when, therefore, the display of the 
owner's name or of the name of the house 
would have been useless, the misapprehension 
of the painted device was of common occurrence. 
Hence the corruption of many signs from their 
original meaning". 

Perhaps the most glaring instance of this kind 
originated in the sign of The Garter, or the insignia 
of the Order of the Garter represented in its proper 
position on a leg (whence we have the intelligible 
sign of The Star and Garter) ; yet the vulgar 
mind quite failed to grasp the idea, with a result 
that a house exhibiting this sign was invariably 
referred to as The Leg and Star. Corruptions 
of a different character are of later date, when the 
name of the house instead of the device began to 
make its appearance on an innkeeper's signboard. 

Tavern Signs. 83 

Chief among these are :— The Cat and Fiddle, a 

perversion of " Caton le Fidele," in honour of Caton, 
the faithful Governor of Calais ; The Bag o' Nails, 
of " The Bacchanals," in reference to Pan and the 
Satyrs ; The Goat and Compasses, of the Puritan 
motto "God encompass us"; The Iron Devil, of 
"The Hirondelle," or swallow; The Bull and 
Mouth, and The Bull and Gate, of "The 
Boulogne Mouth" and "The Boulogne Gate," in 
compliment to Henry VIII., who effected the siege 
of Boulogne and its harbour in 1544 ; The Lion and 
Key, of " The Lion on the Quay," meaning a house 
bearing the sign of The Lion, and situated by the 
water-side, in order to distinguish it from other 
Lions in the same port ; The Cat and Wheel, of 
" The Catherine Wheel," the instrument of St. 
Catherine's martyrdom ; The Plume and Feathers, 
of "The Plume of Feathers," in allusion to the 
Prince of Wales; The Bully Ruffian, of "The 
Bellerophon," the vessel on board of which Napoleon 
surrendered his sword to Captain Maitland after his 
defeat at Waterloo; and The Blue Pig, a mere 
modification of "The Blue Boar." The Pig and 
Whistle is a very old sign, the term whistle being a 
corruption of " wassail," and pig, the Old English for 
a bowl or cup. Surely there could be no more 
fitting sign for a tavern than that which suggested 
the drinking of healths ! 

The original character of many of our country 
inns is at once indicated by their signs. Thus, 
The Coach and Horses was clearly, before the 

84 Names : and their Meaning. 

introduction ol railways, a coaching establishment ; 
while The Pack Horse announced the fact that 
pack-horses were let out on hire. Again, The Bear 
— subject to sundry modifications, such as The 
Brown Bear, The Black Bear, The Grizzly- 
Bear — informed the frequenters of such resorts that 
bear-baiting might be witnessed on the premises ; 
exactly as, nearer to our own day, The Dog and 
Duck called attention to the popular diversion of 
duck-hunting by spaniels in a pond. The Skittles 
and The Bowling Green indicated a more rational 
kind of sport. Once more, The Grapes conveyed 
the intelligence that a vinery existed in connection 
with the establishment; whereas The Castle, which 
constitutes the arms of Spain, The Globe, the arms 
of the King of Portugal, and The Spread Eagle, 
the arms of Germany, told that the wines of those 
respective countries were to be had there. In the 
north of England the sign of The Yorkshire Stingo 
is very common, the allusion being to an old beer 
of particular strength and sharpness for which the 
county of York has won considerable celebrity. 

Among other familiar country inn and tavern signs 
may be mentioned The Bell, referring to the silver 
bell that formed the prize at races previous to the 
Restoration ; The Barley Mow, denoting the 
premises where the barley was housed, moioe being 
the Saxon term for " a heap " ; and The Old Hat, 
which in the olden time may have been the shop of 
a hatter rejoicing in the sign of " The Hat," and sub- 
sequently converted into a place of refreshment. 

Tavern Signs. 85 

Another distinctly tradesmanlike sign is The Ram 
and Teazle, which was originally chosen in com- 
pliment to the Clothiers' Company ; the lamb with 
the golden fleece being emblematical of wool, and 
the teazle, a tool used for raising the nap of the 
wool when woven into cloth. The Bricklayers' 
Arms merely indicate a house of call for brick- 
layers; while The Cricketers' Arms derives its 
title from a neighbouring cricket-ground. The sig- 
nificance of The Tankard, The Bottle, and similar 
signs, need not detain us. We may, however, state 
that The Black Jack refers to a leathern pitcher 
for holding beer, which took its name from the 
defensive breastplate of strong leather formerly 
worn by horsemen, and known as a Jacque, whence 
the term Jacket has been derived. 

Signs that betray a political bias, such as The 
Royal Oak, The Boscohel, The Jacobite, The 
Hanover, &c., are altogether too numerous to 
mention. In the early part of the present century, 
too, the names of political leaders were largely drawn 
upon as an attraction for tavern signs, as were those 
also of distinguished naval and military com- 
manders, and of the battles won by them. The 
Canning, The Palmerston, The Nelson, The 
Wellington, The Marquis of Granby, The 
Portobello Arms, The Trafalgar, The Water- 
loo, and a host of others of the like character, are 
everywhere to be encountered ; while the old sign 
of The Ship carries us back to the days of Elizabeth, 
when the circumnavigation of the globe by Sir 

86 Names: and their Meaning, 

Francis Drake was regarded as an exploit that 
could scarcely be too highly honoured. 

Before concluding, let us add a few words of com- 
ment upon the signal loyalty of the English people 
in the times we live in ; for whereas our forefathers 
were for the most part content to express their 
loyalty to the throne by the choice of such vague 
tavern signs as The King's Head, or The Queen's 
Head, we of the nineteenth century are not nearly 
so half-hearted. Not only are The Victoria, The 
Prince Albert, The Prince of Wales, and The 
Prince of Wales' Feathers honoured on every 
hand in the course of a day's perambulation, but 
The Duke of Edinburgh, The Duke of Cam- 
bridge, The Duke of Connaught, and other 
members of the Royal Family, are similarly memo- 
rialized. Perhaps in the future, when the Prince 
of Wales shall occupy the British Throne, his 
descendants may also in their turn form the subject 
of many a tavern sign in our midst. 


ALFRED THE GREAT (reigned 871 to 901) 
fully merited his surname because he ex- 
pelled the Danes, established a navy, founded 
schools, and effected the restoration of law and 
order during one of the most critical periods of 
early British history. Taking the remainder of 
the Saxon monarchs in chronological order, we 
have : — Edward the Martyr (975 to 978), 
treacherously murdered at Corfe Castle ; Ethelred 
the Unready (978 to 1016), who, lacking rede, or 
council, fled to Normandy to escape the conse- 
quences of a threatened invasion by the Danes ; 
Edmund Ironsides (reigned 1016), whose habitual 
precaution of wearing a complete suit of mail 
availed him nothing against the fatality of assassi- 
nation ; Edgar Atheling (born 1017, died 1120), 
otherwise "Edgar of Royal Descent"; Harold 
Harefoot (1035 to 1039), swift of foot as a hare ; 
and Edward the Confessor (1042 to 1066), so 
called on account of his holy life. The distinction 
between a Confessor and a Martyr in the early 
days of Christianity was simply this : both made an 
open confession of their faith, and expressed their 
readiness to die for it ; the former, however, was 

88 Names : and their Meaning. 

never called upon to do so, whereas the latter 
actually suffered martyrdom. 

William I. (reigned 1066 to 1087), was styled 
The Conqueror because he defeated the Saxons at 
the Battle of Hastings, and founded the Norman 
Dynasty in England. William II. (1087 to iioo), 
received the name of E-ufus from his florid com- 
plexion; ruftcs being Latin for ruddy. Henry I. 
(iioo to 1135), was surnamed Beauclerc, or good 
clerk, in recognition of his scholarly attainments. 
Richard I. (1189 to 1199), styled Coeur de Leon, 
otherwise " The Lion Hearted," is traditionally said 
to have torn the living heart out of the mouth of a 
lion to whose fury he was exposed by the Duke of 
Austria for having killed his son in battle. This 
extraordinary exploit surpasses the bounds of reason; 
still there is no doubt that he performed prodigies of 
valour during the Wars of the Crusades. Another 
British monarch who rejoiced in a surname of the 
leonine order was William the Lion, King of the 
Scots (1165 to 1214), so called because he chose a 
red lion rampant for his crest. It is from this king 
that the lions distinguished in the Royal Arms of 
Scotland trace their origin. 

King John (reigned 1199 to 1216) received the 
surname of Lackland on account of his improvi- 
dence, which at the time of the death of his father 
(Henry II.) left him entirely without provision. 
Edward I. (1272 to 1307) was styled Longshanks 
from his spindle legs. The eldest son of Edward 
III., known as The Black Prince (born 1330, died 

Royal Surnames. 89 

1376), was not exclusively addicted to the wearing 
of black armour, as he is usually represented in 
waxwork shows and picture toy-books ; consequently 
he did not derive his surname from such an associa- 
tion ; but, as the historian Froissart informs us, " he 
received his name by terror of his arms." Seeing 
that at the age of sixteen he won his knightly spurs 
at Crecy, and ten years later took the French king 
prisoner at Poictiers and brought him in triumph to 
London, the military renown of this young warrior 
must have been sufficient to command respect from 
his enemies. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 
(born 1340, died 1399), took his title from the town 
of Ghent, in Flanders, where he was born. In like 
manner his son, Henry IV. (1399 to 1413), was styled 
Bolingbroke, after his native place. 

Henry VIII, (reigned 1509 to 1547) was surnamed 
Bluff King Hal on account of his bluff manners ; 
he also received the title of Defender of the Faith 
from Pope Leo X., in recognition of the tract he 
published against the heresy of Martin Luther. Mary, 
Queen of Scots (born 1542, died 1587), was known 
as The White Q,ueen because she adopted white 
mourning for her husband. Lord Darnley. Our own 
Queen Mary (1547 to 1558) has been handed down 
to posterity under the opprobrious title of Bloody 
Mary, in consequence of the wholesale burnings of 
the Protestants under her reign. The religious perse- 
cutions of her time admit of no denial, yet they were 
fully equalled by those brought to light during the 
reign of her successor, Elizabeth, while they fell 

go Names : and their Meanuig. 

infinitely short of those characterized by the reign 
of Henry VIII. In one sense Elizabeth (155S to 
1603) was appropriately styled Good Queen Bess, 
inasmuch as she exercised due regard to the interests 
of the realm and the welfare of her people. Her 
enemies she speedily removed, but she was just as 
ready to bestow honours and rewards upon her 
nation's worthies. Oliver Cromwell was called The 
Lord Protector (bom 1599, died 1658) because he 
protected the interests of the Commonwealth. The 
reason why Charles II. (1660 to 1685) was dubbed 
The Merry Monarch must be sought in the licen- 
tiousness of the times in which he lived. Much 
nearer to our own day, William IV. (1830 to 1837) 
was distinguished by the title of The Sailor King, 
from the circumstance of his having entered the navy 
as a midshipman and worked his way upwards until 
he attained the rank of Lord High Admiral. 

The family name of Plantagenet, derived from 
the Latin planta, a plant, and genista, broom, was 
originally assumed by Fulke Martel, Earl of Anjou, 
the great grandfather of Henry II., in commemora- 
tion of the incident, while on his pilgrimage to the 
Holy Sepulchre, of having offered himself to be 
scourged with the stems of the broom plant by his 
two attendants as an atonement for the murder of 
the Earl of Brittany. The Tudor Dynasty was 
founded by Owen Tudor, a Welsh soldier stationed 
at Windsor, who contracted a secret marriage with 
Catherine, the widowed queen of Henry V. The 
first of the long line of the Stuart sovereigns 

Royal Surnames. 91 

(Scottish and English) was Walter, the Lord High 
Steward of Scotland, whose wife was the daughter 
of King Robert the Bruce. As this Walter was the 
sixth member of his family that had held the post of 
Lord High Steward, he was popularly said to belong 
to the Stewards, until in course of time this word 
became corrupted into Stuarts, and was adopted as a 
family name. 

Charles L, Emperor of Germany (born 742, died 
814), was surnamed Charlemagne, otherwise 
Charles the Great. The She-Wolf of France 
was Isabella (born 1290, died 1357), daughter of 
Philip IV. of France, and queen of Edward II. of 
England, whom she, in concert with the Earl of 
Mortimer, her paramour, murdered by thrusting a 
red-hot iron into his bowels. Pedro the Cruel, 
King of Castille and Leon in 1350, merited his sur- 
name owing to his cruel treatment of his two 
brothers, whom he murdered, and his queen, whom 
he poisoned. Ivan II., Czar of Russia (reigned 
1533 to 1584), was styled The Terrible on account 
of the cruelties he inflicted upon all who offended his 
autocracy. Frederick L, of Germany (reigned 1152 
to 1190), was surnamed Barbarossa from his red 
beard, barba being Latin for beard; while for his 
bombardment of Messina in 1848 Ferdinand, King 
of Naples, was nicknamed Bomba. Philippe, Due 
d'Orleans, the father of Louis Philippe, King of 
France, assumed the name of Egalit6 when he 
joined the Republican party in 1789. Of a truth, 
if " Equality " was what this not unworthy 

92 Names ; and their Meaning. 

Prince aspired to, he enjoyed it to the full, for 
he lost his head under the guillotine in common 
with more than twenty thousand of his fellow- 


BROTHER JONATHAN, the popular nick- 
name of the United States, arose out of the 
person of Jonathan Trumbull, the Governor 
of Connecticut, whom General Washington never 
failed to consult in cases of emergency. " We must 
refer the matter to Brother Jonathan ! " he was 
wont to exclaim when no other officer could offer 
any practical suggestion to aid him out of a diffi- 
culty ; and true enough, " Brother Jonathan" proved 
himself in every instance equal to the confidence 
reposed in him. Another stock nickname for the 
United States is Uncle Sam. This originated from 
a vulgar misconception of the initial letters '* U. S." 
(United States) for those of the well-known sobri- 
quet of an official whose business it was to mark 
them on all Government property. The numerous 
acquaintances of this person understood that the 
goods so marked had passed through the hands of 
" Uncle Sam," and the joke becoming public it spread 
far and wide, until in the end it was considered far 
too good to be allowed to drop. The term Yankee 
finds its origin in the native attempt to pronounce 
the word " English," but approaching no nearer 
to the sound than Yengees, the name bestowed upon 


Names : and their Meanmg. 

the English colonists by the Indians of Massachu- 
setts, and afterwards given to the New Englanders 
by the British soldiers during the American War. 

The nickname of the typical Englishman, John 
Bull, was derived from Dr. Arbuthnot's satire of 
this title published in 1721. There was also a real 
person of the name of John Bull, well known as the 
composer of " God Save the King " ; but he died 
just a hundred years before Dr. Arbuthnot's per- 
formance was heard of. Of a still later date is the 
national English nickname, Mrs. Grundy, which 
arose out of the passage, " What will Mrs. Grundy 
say ? " from Thomas Morton's drama, " Speed the 
Plough," produced in 1798. The proverbial prudish- 
ness of the English people in matters affecting art, 
could scarcely be better expressed than under the 
style of The British Matron. The British soldier 
is popularly referred to under the general designa- 
tion of Tommy Atkins, because " Thomas Atkins" 
was a fictitious name that figured in the soldiers' 
monthly statement of accounts. 

The Irish as a nation are invariably alluded to as 
Pat or Paddy, being short for Patrick, their most 
common Christian name, selected in honour of St. 
Padhrig, or Patrick (born 373, died 466) ; the Scots 
as Sandie or Sawney, a contraction of Alexander, 
their most popular Christian name ; and the Welsh 
as Taffy, a corruption of Davy, and short for David, 
the name of their Archbishop and Saint (born 490, 
died 554). 

The national nickname of the Chinese is John 

National Nicknames. 95 

Chinaman, in imitation ot our own characteristic 
" John Bull." Even now a Chinaman addresses 
every Englishman he meets as " John," which is his 
idea of our most popular name. Hence, British 
sailors in the Chinese waters from the iirst returned 
the compliment, so to speak, by alluding to each 
Celestial with whom they came in contact as "John 

The Chinese are also called Pigtails, on account 
of their Tartar tonsure and braided queue. By the 
Indians of North America Europeans are styled 
Pale Faces ; while the Europeans designate the 
Indians Red Skins, both terms having reference to 
the complexion. The word Nigger is a corruption 
of Negro, derived from nigcr, the Latin for black. 
The reason why a negro generally bears the name of 
Sambo is because Zanibo is the native term used to 
designate the offspring of a black person and a 
mulatto. The word Mulatto is Spanish, derived 
from the Latin miilus, a mule, and signifying a mixed 
breed, A Mulatto may be either the offspring of a 
negress by a white man, or of a white woman by a 


THE following owe their names to their charac- 
teristic note :— the Cuck-00, the Pee-wit, 
the Cur-lew, the Chick-a-dee, and the 
Whip-poor-will. The Trumpeter of South 
America is so called on account of its loud, clear, 
and trumpet-like cry. The word Nightingale is a 
modern form of the Anglo-Saxon nihtegale, indica- 
tive of a bird that sings by night, agreeably to its 
component parts, niht, night, and gale, a songster. 
The Night- Jar bears its name because the sound it 
emits resembles the whirring of a spinning-wheel. 
The Mocking-bird possesses the power of imitating 
the notes of other birds ; while the Humming-bird 
is remarkable for the humming sound that proceeds 
from its wings as it speeds through the air. 

Several birds are named after the colour or some 
other characteristic of their plumage. Among these 
we have the Greenfinch and the Goldfinch, the 
term Finch from the Anglo-Saxon fine, denoting 
a small singing bird ; the Greenlet expressing 
a tiny green bird peculiar to South America ; 
the Jay, a corruption of gai, its French name, 
alluding to its gay or showy appearance ; the 
Blue-bird, common in the United States, the 



upper half of which is bkie ; the Blackbird, so 
called from its sable aspect ; the Starling, owing to 
the specks at the extremities of its feathers ; the 
Flamingo, of South America and Africa, from its 
flaming colour ; the Oriole, an Australian bird of 
golden-yellow plumage, agreeably to the Latin 
aureolus, golden ; and the Lyre-bird, also a native 
of Australia, so denominated on account of the six- 
teen feathers of the tail which when folded form in 
appearance a perfect lyre. The British song-bird 
known as the Red-poll receives its name from the 
tuft of red feathers upon its head; whereas the South 
African Secretary-bird is so called because a tuft 
of feathers on each side of its head are supposed to 
resemble quill pens stuck behind the ear. The South 
American Birds of Paradise are indeed a beautiful 
species, all the colours of the rainbow being repre- 
sented in their plumage ; and the same may be said 
of the Love-birds, so designated from the extra- 
ordinary affection which they exhibit towards one 
another. The Kingfisher is regarded as the king 
of fisher-birds, or those that dive for fish as their 
prey, by reason of his gay plumage. 

The Lapwing derives its name from the loud 
flapping noise made by its wings during flight ; the 
Wagtail, from the incessant wagging of its tail ; and 
the Scissors-tail— found only in South America — 
from the peculiar nature of its tail, which, like a pair 
of scissors, opens and shuts in the course of its rapid 
passage through the air and so entraps the flies upon 
which it preys. The Hangbird is so called from its 

g8 Names: and their Meaning. 

habit of suspending its nest from the limb of a tree ; 
the Weaver-bird, from the wonderful intertwining 
of twigs and grass displayed in the construction of 
its nest ; and the Tailor-bird, from the skill it dis- 
plays in constructing its nest by stitching together 
the leaves of plants. 

Among corruptions of the names of birds it will be 
sufficient to mention the Widow-bird, properly the 
Whydaw-hird, after the territory in Africa of which 
it is a native ; the Martin, from the Latin mtmis- 
ienco, or wall-swallow, shortened into murten, and 
mispronounced marten; and the MuscOVy Duck, 
which, so far from claiming a Muscovite origin, is 
merely a musk duck, a species somewhat larger than 
our common duck. 

The Swift derives its name from its rapid flight ; 
the Passenger-pigeon, from its migratory habits ; 
the Skylark, from mounting to the sky and singing 
as it flies; and the Chaffinch, from its preference for 
chaff above every other kind of food. The Diver is 
remarkable for its habit of diving ; the Sandpiper 
inhabits the sea-beach ; and the Chimney- swallow 
builds his nest in an ordinary house chimney. The 
Horn bill, the Boat-bill, the Spoon-bill, and the 
Duck-bill are respectively so named on account of 
the resemblance of their bills to the articles, and in 
the last-mentioned case to the bird, indicated ; while 
the Cross-bill has its mandibles crossed in opposite 
directions. The Pouter-pigeon is so called from 
the pouting, or bulging out, of its breast ; the Ring- 
dove, from the white ring around its neck ; and the 

Birds. 99 

Wryneck, from the curious manner in which it 
turns its neck over its shoulder when surprised. 
The Woodcock is found in the underwood of a 
forest, while the Woodpecker pecks holes in the 
bark of trees in search for insects. 

Chief among the birds which derive their names 
from the countries to which they originally belonged 
are the Guinea-fowl, brought from Guinea, West 
Africa; the Brahma -fowl, from the neighbourhood 
of the Brahmapootra River in India ; the Bantam, 
from Bantam in Java ; the Barb, from Barbary, and 
the Turkey, which, although an American bird, was 
long believed to have been imported from European 
Turkey, Another native of North America received 
its name of the Baltimore -bird from the fact that 
its colours corresponded with those which occurred 
in the arms of Lord Baltimore, the Governor of 
Maryland, in which State it principally abounds. 
The Canary was first brought from the Canary 
Islands in 1500. The Petrel, a sea-bird usually 
associated with storms, expresses the Anglicized 
form of the Italian petrillo, a diminitive of Peter, in 
allusion to St. Peter walking on the sea, and the 
frequent appearance of this bird standing as it were 
on the surface of the water. 


STRICTLY speaking, the members of the various 
Religious Orders, in this country at least, are 
not Monks, but Friars. Only those who live 
completely isolated from the rest of mankind, as 
did St. Anthony, are entitled to the former desig- 
nation, which, in common with the term Monastery, 
comes from the Greek inonos, alone. Consequently, 
a Religious House is incorrectly described as a 
Monastery unless each individual within its walls 
occupies a separate cell, both by night and by day, 
and never suffers himself to have the least commu- 
nion with his neighbour. Failing compliance with 
such a rule, the term Convent, derived from the 
Latin con, together, and venire, to come, is more 
fittingly applicable. This designation, however, is 
now borne by an institution reserved for a commu- 
nity of Nuns, so called from the Italian nonna, a 
grandmother, because they originally comprised only 
very aged women ; albeit it was formerly the custom 
to speak of Monasteries and Convents without dis- 
crimination. An Abbey always indicated a Religious 
House in connection with a Church, as, for example, 
Westminster Abbey, the abode of the community 
attached to the West Minster, presided over by 

Religious Of den. loi 

an Abbot, so styled in accordance with the Syriac 
and Latin abba, a father, or, in the case of a female 
community, by an Abbess ; whereas a Priory 
denoted a lesser or branch establishment placed at 
some distance from the Abbey, and controlled by a 
Prior (or Prioress), signifying one who had a prior 
claim over the rest to the office of Abbot (or Abbess) 
in the original community. 

A Friar, on the other hand, is — conformably to 
the Latin fratre and the French frere, a brother — 
what the term implies, viz., one of a brotherhood. 
In olden times there existed four distinct and power- 
ful Orders of Friars. These were the Dominicans, 
founded by St. Dominic to preach away the Albi- 
gensian heresies, also known as the Black Friars, 
on account of their black habits, and in France as 
the Jacobins, because their first convent was 
situated in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris; the Fran- 
ciscans, or Grey Friars, named after St. Francis 
d'Assissi; the Carmelites, or White Friars of 
Mount Carmel ; and the Augustines, or Austin 
Friars, whose origin is ascribed to St. Augustin 
or Austin, the first Archbishop of Canterbury, who 
died in 605. Eventually a fifth Order, styled the 
Trinitarians, or Friars of the Holy Trinity, other- 
wise the Crutched Friars, so called from the cross 
(Latin cruciati, crossed) embroidered on their habit, 
came into existence. 

Referring to the Franciscans, those who con- 
formed to the austere rules laid down by their 
founder were denominated Observant Friars, while 

102 Names : and their Meaning. 

those who, as time wore on, began to live in convents 
and coveted lands, chapels, and books, received the 
name of Conventional Friars. Out of the Fran- 
ciscans there have sprung two lesser Orders, so to 
speak, chiefly distinguished by a slight change in 
the details appertaining to the habit worn by them. 
These are the Capuchins, so called from the capnce, 
or pointed cowl, that they wear, and the Cordeliers, 
from the knotted cord which encircles their waist in 
place of a girdle. In effect, however, these two 
offshoots of the Franciscans are the same, and 
subject to the like rules, as the parent institution. 
Having disposed of the Friars, let us now turn to 
the Monks properly so called. Originally the sole 
existing order of monks was that of the Bene- 
dictines as established by St. Benedict, who intro- 
duced the monastic system into Western Europe in 
the year 529. No less than twelve large Monas- 
teries were raised by him before he died ; but not- 
withstanding the austere rules which obtained among 
the Benedictines, these were yet considered too lax 
by some individual members of the Order, with the 
result that first one and then another " Reformed 
Order" sprang into existence, the latest being in 
each case distinguished for a still more rigorous 
rule than that of its immediate predecessor. Thus, 
we now have the Carthusians, our English desig- 
nation for the monks of La Chartreuse near Gre- 
noble, by whom the celebrated liqueur known as 
Chartreuse is prepared ; the Cistercians, or monks 
of Citeau ; and the Cluniacs, or monks of Cluny, 

Religious Orders. 103 

respectively named after the vicinity of their original 
monastery in France ; while the Bernardines re- 
ceived their title from St. Bernard, who founded the 
famous Hospice of Mont St. Bernand in the year 
962. From the Carthusians, also, there have sprung 
the Basilians founded by St. Basil, and from the 
Cistercians, the Trappists, or monks of La Trappe, 
originally established in the French district so deno- 

Foremost among the Religious Orders not com- 
prised in any of the brotherhoods cited above are 
the Jesuists, properly styled **The Society of Jesus," 
an organization founded upon a military basis by St. 
Ignatius Loyola in 1534, which extends its influence 
all over the globe. Next in point of importance 
come the Servites, otherwise " The Religious Ser- 
vants of the Holy Virgin," established by seven 
Florentine merchants in 1283 ; the Passionists, a 
community of priests solemnly agreed to preach 
"Jesus Christ and Him crucified," founded by Paul 
Francis, better known as St. Paul of the Cross, in 
1737 ; and the Redemptorists, or preachers of the 
Redemption, also styled the Liguorians, after St. 
Francis Liguori, who originated this Order in 1732. 
Each of these, except, of course, the lay members 
of the Jesuists, are professedly Monks ; and yet these 
are not really Monks, but Friars, because they live 
in community, and at times mingle freely with the 
people. In short, they are Missionary Friars. 


THE word Paper comes from the Latin papy- 
rus, and Greek papyros, the designation of an 
Egyptian plant from whose reeds the earliest 
kind of writing material was obtained. Parchment 
is an Anglicized form of the French parchemin, 
from the Greek pergamenos, named after the ancient 
city of Pergamos, in Asia Minor, where the skins of 
goats were first prepared for writing upon at a time 
when Ptolemy prohibited the exportation of the 
papyrus from Egypt. 

Hand-paper was originally so called from its 
watermark, which was that of a hand ; Pot-Paper, 
of a pot ; Post-paper, of a post-horn ; Crown-paper, 
of a crown ; and Foolscap, of a fool's head with the 
cap and bells. India-paper formerly came from 
the Far East, whereas Nepaul-paper is made in 
the district of Nepaul, Northern India. Cap-paper 
is so designated because, prior to being used by 
grocers for wrapping up sugar and other commo- 
dities sold by weight, it is folded into a cap-like 
form. Among papers of a sliffer kind, that are 
chiefly intended for drawing upon, we have Ele- 
phant, so called from its large size (28 inches by 
23), Cartridge-paper, originally manufactured for 

Paper and Printing. 105 

soldiers' cartridges, and Bristol-board, formerly 
made only at Bristol. 

By the term Folio, derived from the hdiim folium, 
a leaf, is meant a sheet of paper folded but once, 
thus making two leaves or four pages ; a Quarto 
(written 4to), is a sheet folded into quarters or four 
leaves, making eight pages ; an Octavo (8vo), so 
styled in accordance with the Latin oda, eight, one 
folded into eight leaves or sixteen pages ; a Duo- 
decimo (i2mo), the Latin for "two and ten," one 
making twelve leaves or twenty-four pages, and so 

When Caxton set up the first printing press in 
this country, in the year 1476, there were many 
among the vulgar who regarded it as an invention 
of the devil ; and the clergy, no doubt, fostered this 
idea, foreseeing that in the event of the Bible being 
distributed to the masses by this means, the way 
would be thrown open to the production of spurious 
editions of Sacred Writ, and the perversion of reli- 
gious doctrine, which up to that period had been free 
to all who chose to attend daily instruction in the 
monasteries. Hence, printing was popularly de- 
scribed as " The Black Art," while the boys who 
took the sheets off the press, from the fact of gene- 
rally smearing their faces with ink, came to be 
known as Imps or Devils. This will explain why a 
printer's errand-boy still bears the nickname of a 
Printer's Devil. 

Our Parliamentary Records, Debates, Reports of 
Meetings, and Accounts, have received the name of 

1 06 Names : and their Meaning. 

Hansards because they are printed by the large 
printing firm estabhshed by Luke Hansard in 1752 ; 
whereas a Blue Book is so called on account of 
its stiff cover of blue paper. The French Govern- 
ment reports are styled Yellow Books for a similar 
reason. The term Book comes from the Danish 
bog, a beech-tree, which abounds in Denmark and 
whose wood is much used for engraving-blocks. 
The Leaf of a book is in allusion to the ancient 
custom of writing on the bark of trees ; while 
Volume is derived from the Latin volvo, I roll, 
relative to the Egyption papyri, each one of which 
when rolled up formed a document or volume com- 
plete in itself. A storehouse for books is styled a 
Library, in accordance with the Latin librariuni, a 
book-case, derived in the first instance from liber, a 

A Pamphlet owes its description to Pamphila, a 
Greek lady who left behind her a kind of common- 
place book containing notes, epitomes, and anec- 
dotes. The French equivalent for a pamphlet is a 
Brochure, so called from the verb brocher, to stitch, 
because such a book consists only of a few pages 
stitched together. The word Chart comes from the 
Latin charta, a leaf of paper ; a chart, therefore, is 
not printed on canvas like a map, but on a single 
sheet of paper. Map traces its origin from mappa, 
a Punic word which signified a signal-cloth, also a 
napkin, because in ancient times military and other 
landmarks were sketched upon a cloth in the absence 
of parchment and paper. Nowadays, a book of maps 

Paper and Printing. 107 

designed for school use is called an Atlas, after 
the fabled King of Mauritania of this name, 
who was believed by the ancients to support the 
world on his shoulders. The figure of Atlas with 
the globe first appeared as a frontispiece to 
" Mercator's Projections," published about the year 

A Cartoon, as we understand the term, is a repre- 
sentation of political significance, usually coloured 
and printed on stiff paper. To some extent this 
kind of publication owes its origin to the celebrated 
' Cartoons " of Raffaelle, now in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, so called because they were drawn 
upon cartone, the Italian for pasteboard. A Broad- 
side consists of a large sheet of paper having the 
matter printed straight across, instead of in columns, 
so as to admit of being read at one broad view. The 
reverse side of the sheet is left blank. A Poster 
bears its name from the fact that formerly the side- 
walks of London streets, instead of being paved as 
as now, were distinguished from the centre, or sedan- 
chair and riding way, by a series of posts ; and upon 
these theatrical and other announcements were 
posted. In France, the theatre bills are exhibited 
upon the lamp-posts on the Boulevards in a similar 
manner. In conclusion, the distinction between Book- 
sellers and Stationers was originally this : the 
former were itinerant sellers of books, like hawkers, 
and pedlars, whereas the latter had stalls at the 
corners of streets or in open market ; and as the 
stationarii, or stationary booksellers, were enabled to 

io8 Names : and their Meaning. 

display a more varied stock than the itinerants who 
carried books only, such articles as writing-paper, 
pens, ink, and other materials in course of time re- 
ceived the name of Stationery. 


THE utmost difficulty exists in reconciling the 
various opinions expressed by different authors 
concerning the origin of the terms Whig and 
Tory. And yet, if we but consider the reasons why 
these nicknames were first bestowed upon the two 
great political factions of this country during the 
reign of Charles II., we may possibly attain a 
much-desired end. In the year 1648 {temp Charles 
I.) there occurred a rising, or sally, of the peasantry 
inhabiting the south-western districts of Scotland 
against the Royalists. This was known as the 
Whigamore Raid, the term whigamore being 
applied to the teamsters and ploughmen of those 
parts because they used the twin-syllabic cry of 
" Whi-gam ! " to drive their horses. When, 
therefore, in the early days of the Restoration, the 
ultra-Protestant party opposed certain measures of 
the Government, the Catholics reproached them 
with favouring the fanatical opinions of the Scottish 
Covenanters and Whigamores, and styled them 
Whigs. In return the Protestants bestowed upon 
their opponents the nickname of Tories, the 
familiar designation of a band of Irish out- 
laws who sought refuge in the bog districts of 

no Names 

Ireland. The word Tory, or rather Toree, is Irish, 
signifying a robber. From that time down to the 
present Toryism has been considered to denote a 
steadfast adherence to constitutional principles and 
the maintenance of royalty and the peerage, as 
opposed to the progressive and more liberal views 
appertaining to "Whiggism, which advocates con- 
stitutional reform and a moderate extension of 
democratical powers. The word Liberal was first 
employed by Lord Byron and his friends as the 
title of a periodical intended to set forth the political 
aims of the advanced Whig party in 1828. The 
term Conservative (derived from the Latin con, 
together, and scrvare, to keep, to preserve) first 
appeared in an article in The Quarterly Review, 
January, 1830, and was permanently adopted by 
the Tory party on the passing of the Reform Bill 
two years afterwards. The still more advanced 
section of the Whig party which came into pro- 
minence in 18 16 were styled Radicals, or Kadieal 
Reformers, from their desire to institute a thorough 
reformation in the national policy. In our own day 
the Radicals and the Democrats may be set down 
as one and the same party ; while the Socialists 
eminently carry out the principles of the primitive 
Radicals of the time of Charles I., who styled 
themselves Levellers because they strove to reduce 
society to a common level The word Democrat is 
derived from the Greek demos, people, and kratein, to 
govern ; therefore denoting one who upholds the 
principle of government b}' the people themselves, 

Political Nicknames. iii 

and diametrically opposed to an Aristocracy (Greek, 
aristos, best, and kratein, to govern), or government 
by the bravest and best. These terms w^ere first 
brought into notice by the French Revolutionists 
of 1790. 

Adverting to the protracted struggle between the 
Royalists under Charles I. and the Parliamen- 
tarians under the Cromwellian Parliament, no two 
nicknames could have been more suggestive of their 
origin than those respectively of the Cavaliers and 
the Roundheads. The latter arose out of the 
Puritan fashion of cropping the hair close round 
the head, the former from the cavalier manner in 
which a number of gentlemen offered themselves as 
a permanent escort to the King after he had been 
subjected to insult in December, 1641. The word 
Cavalier is synonymous with the French chevalier, 
a mounted knight, from cheval, a horse, derived from 
the Latin caballns, and the Greek kaballes, an inferior 

The Protestants in Ireland received the name of 
Orangemen owing to their adherence to William 
III., Prince of Orange, while the Roman Catholics 
were styled Jacobites from their adhesion to James 
II., Jacobus being the Latin form of the King's 
name. The Peep o' Day Boys were so called 
because they broke into the houses of the people at 
dawn of day in quest of arms ; and the White Boys, 
from the white smocks they wore over their clothing. 
The depredations of both these insurgents were 
finally put an end to by the Insurrection Acts, passed 

112 Names: and their Meaning. 

in 1786-7. The secret brotherhood of the Fenians, 
organized for the overthrow of the English rule in 
Ireland, derived its name from Fiona Mac Cumhal, 
better known as Fingal, after whom Fingal's Cave 
is designated. The correct interpretation of the 
Gaelic word Fenian is " a hunter." Another secret 
society of quite recent origin is that of the Irish 
Invincibles, established, as was publicly stated by 
Carey the Informer, for the " making of history by 
killing tyrants." Their title is due to the boast 
that they defy extermination. The Ribbonmen 
take their name from the distinctive badge which 
they wear. Emergency Men are the more active 
members of the Irish Defence Association. The Sepa- 
rists and the Parnellites are one and the same, 
sworn to support the measures of Mr. Parnell and 
the Irish National Party in promoting Home Rule 
for Ireland. The now familiar word Boycotting, 
in connection with Irish affairs, arose out of the 
troubles experienced by Captain Boycott, of Lough 
Mask Farm, near Ballinrobe, County Mayo, the 
land agent of Lord Erne. His house was besieged, 
his labourers were threatened, his crops remained 
ungathered, and tradesmen refused to supply him 
with goods. This occurred on the nth and 12th 
of November, 1880, after which the military was 
despatched to his aid, and a ** Boycott Fund " 
subscribed for his benefit. The expression "to 
boycott " a man practically means to place him 
beyond the pale of civilization. 
The lowest order of the French Revolutionists 

Political Nicknames. 113 

were denominated Sansculottes, literally, " without 
breeches," because they rejected those very service- 
able articles of attire as being emblematical of the 
aristocracy. The same term was also applied to the 
Republican leaders as a reproach for the negligence 
of their dress ; but after a time they themselves 
adopted the title with pride. The Red Republicans 
were so called for a two-fold reason. In the first 
place, they did not hesitate to steep their hands in 
human blood to accomplish their political aims ; 
and, secondly, they wore the red cap, symbolical of 
Liberty from the days of the Romans downwards. 
The two antagonistic parties of the Revolution were 
styled The Mountain and The Plain for the 
reason that the former sat upon the most elevated 
benches in the Hall of Assembly, while the latter 
occupied the ground floor. The Plain was for the 
most part composed of the Girondists, or deputies 
from the Department of the Gironde. 

The Hats and the Caps were the two great 
pohtical factions in Sweden, so called on account 
of the French chapeaux worn by the partisans of the 
French interest on the one side, and the Russian 
caps worn by the partisans of the Russian interest 
on the other. Apropos of Russia, the word Nihilist 
(derived from the Latin nihil, nothing), originally 
denoted a social rather than a political party 
opposed to the tyranny of custom. Its significance 
is well expressed by Turgeneff, who first introduced 
it in his novel " Fathers and Sons," published in 
1862 : — " A Nihilist is a man who bows before no 

114 Names : and their Meaning. 

authority, who accepts no principle without examina- 
tion, no matter what credit the principle has." At 
the present day a Nihilist is a revolutionary Socialist 
of the most pronounced degree. 

The Italian Carbonari, being the plural of 
carbonaro, a coal-man, a charcoal-burner, who first 
came into notice in 1820, assumed their designation 
from the fact of their meetings being originally held in 
the huts of the charcoal-burners, and because they 
held charcoal to be the symbol of purification. The 
Black Cloaks were the upper classes of Naples, 
distinguished by the colour and quality of their 
cloaks from the Lazzari, or beggars. Regarded as 
a political party, the Neapolitan Black Cloaks no 
longer exist ; but the Lazzaroni, so called from the 
Hospital of St. Lazarus, which serves for their 
refuge, are still to be met with in all quarters of the 
city. Then, again, we must not omit mention of 
the Guelphs and the Ghibelliiies, names of two 
powerful families whose rival partisanship of the 
Papal and the Imperial supremacy in Italy threat- 
ened the peace of Europe during the long period 
embraced between the years 1250 and 1500. 

The word Federal comes from the Latin fcediis, a 
league or compact. A federal form of government 
is one under which a number of States, while retain- 
ing their individual institutions and autonomy, unite 
together for purposes of defence and for a larger 
national existence, delegating to a representative 
national government certain specified powers. The 
most noteworthy examples in history of this form 

Political Nicknames. 115 

of government are the Achaean League, the Swiss 
Republic, and the United States of America. In the 
early history of the United States the term "Federal" 
was applied to that one of the two great political 
parties which was supposed to be more particularly 
in sympathy with English standards and to favour 
an English alliance, and which desired a strong 
central government. Their opponents, who pre- 
ferred a French alliance, and who opposed a strong 
central government, were then termed " Repub- 

About 1830 the *' Federals " became Whigs, and 
in 1856 they assumed the name of Republicans 
(from res piiblica, the State), the States-rights party 
having in the meantime taken the name of " Demo- 
crats " (from demos, the people). During the civil 
war of 1861-1865 the Northerners were all termed 
" FederaFs " (or by their opponents *' Yankees " or 
" Yanks "), while the Southerners had taken the 
name of Confederates, because their Constitution 
instituted a weaker central government and favoured 
the independent action of the several States. 

The Southerners were also given the nickname of 
" Corn-feds," in allusion to the chief article of their 
diet. The term Yankee above alluded to dates 
back to the seventeenth century, and is a modifica- 
tion of the name " Yengees," an attempt by the 
Massachusetts Indians to pronounce the name 
" English." 

By the residents of the Northern States, the term 
is limited to the inhabitants of the six States of New 

ii6 Names: and their Meaning. 

England. During the civil war of 1861-1865, the 
members of a political faction in the North received 
the name of Copperheads, because they were re- 
garded as secret foes to the national cause. The 
allusion was to the poisonous copperhead serpent, 
which gives no warning of its approach. The 
Know-nothings were a secret political party in 
the United States (1848-1860), whose chief aim was 
the checking of foreign immigration and the political 
influence of foreigners by the repeal of the Naturaliza- 
tion Laws, and the reserving of public appointments 
for native-born Americans. The answer given by 
its members to all questions about the party organi- 
zation was, *' I don't know." 

The Tammany "Ring was the name used to 
designate an organization among certain officials 
and their backers in the city of New York in 1870- 
1871, who succeeded for a time in enriching them- 
selves at the expense of the city. The ring was 
overthrown in 1871, and its leaders imprisoned or 
banished. The name of the ring arose from Tam- 
many Hall, the headquarters of a society originally 
founded (in 1805) for benevolent purposes, but which 
had become a political power, and which is again 
(1892) controlling the government of New York. 

The term Mugwump first came into political use 
in 1884. It was then applied to voters who had 
been " Republicans," but who, on various grounds, 
preferred the Democratic candidate Cleveland to the 
Republican Blaine, and who succeeded in electing 
the former. It has since been given generally to 

Political Nicknames. 1^7 

citizens, who, while actively interested in politics, 
refuse to be bound closely by party ties, cons.;^dering 
causes such a>s free trade, civil service reform, h onest 
money, &c., as more important than party labei'l:^ ^^ 
party success. The name " Mugwump " is said to bt.' 
derived from an Indian word signifying " wise chief." 
The Chartists constituted an enormous body of 
the people of this country who, soon after the 
passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, loudly clamoured 
for " The People's Charter," of which the six 
principal points were these : — Universal Suffrage, 
Vote by Ballot, Annual Parliaments, Payment of 
the Members, Abolition of the Property Qualification, 
and the Equalization of Electorial Rights. William 
Lovett, the author of this document, died in August, 
1877. The English war party, who sided with the 
Turks in the Russo-Turkish struggle of 1878 received 
the nickname of Jingoes, or The Jingo Party, 
from the chorus of Macdermott's famous music-hall 
song, commencing — 

"We don't want to fight, but, by Jingo^ if we do !" 

" Jingo " is a corruption of Jainko, the Basque term 
for God. Hence the expression, " By Jingo ! " is 
properly a direct appeal to the Deity. A Pro- 
tectionist is one who advocates the protection of 
home-produce and manufactures against foreign 
competition by the imposition of import duties. 


The name ot Forget-me-not originated in the 
following legend : — A German knight and his lady 
were walking on the bank of the Danube, when 
the fair one saw a beautiful tuft of Myosotis palustris 
growing in the water, and expressed a wish to have 
it. With chivalrous alacrity the knight at once 
plunged into the river and gathered his prize ; but 
before he could regain the steep and slippery bank, 
encumbered as he was by his heav}^ armour, he 
was drawn by the treacherous eddy into a deep pool. 
Finding he could not save himself, he threw the 
flowers ashore to his mistress as he sank, and 
uttered with his last breath the words " Vergess 
mein nicht! " ("Forget-me-not ! ") Hence this flower 
has come to be universally regarded as the emblem 
of fidelity. 

Mignonette, the diminutive oiMignon,i\\Q French 
for " darling," is so called on account of its delicate 
fragrance. The Carnation owes its name to the 
Latin caro, flesh, in relation to its colour. Gera- 
nium comes from the Greek and Latin geranos, a 
crane; this genus of plants having a beak-like torus, 
or receptacle. It is also known as Crane's-bill for 
the same reason. Pansy is an Anglicized form of 

Flowers. 119 

the French pensee, *' thoughts," this being the senti- 
ment expressed by the flower. 

The Camellia was named after G. J. Camelli, 
the German botanist and missionary (died 1690), by 
whom it was introduced into Europe from the East ; 
the Dahlia, after Andrew Dahl, the Swedish botanist, 
who discovered it in Mexico in 1784; and the Fuchsia, 
after Leonard Fuchs, who brought it from Mexico 
about the year 1542. The Victoria Regia was so 
called because it was introduced into this country 
from British Guiana soon after the accession of 
Queen Victoria. The Adonis is said to have 
sprung out of the blood of Adonis, the beautiful 
youth who was gored to death by a boar ; and the 
Hyacinth is supposed to have originated in a 
similar manner after Hyacinth had fallen a victim 
to the jealousy of Zephyr. The Aspasia bears the 
name of Aspasia of Miletus, the mistress of Pericles. 
The term Orchid comes from the Greek orchis, a 
testicle, all plants of this family being distinguished 
by double testicles. The Sweetbriar is literally a 
*' fragrant thorn " ; the Lilac betrays its Eastern 
origin in the Turkish leilak, and Persian lilaj ; while 
the term Lavender is derived from the Latin lavere, 
to wash, because the essential oil obtained from this 
shrub enters into the composition of a favourite 

The Dog-rose was so called by the Greeks from 
the belief that the root of this particular rose-tree 
was efficacious in curing the bite of a mad dog. 
The Damask-rose was brought to England from 

120 Names : and their Meaning. 

Damascus by Dr. Linacre in 1540. The Cabbage- 
rose is thick and compact like a cabbage. The 
Christmas -rose makes its appearance about Christ- 
mas-time. The word Primrose, agreeably to the 
Latin prima rosa, signifies the first rose, or flower, of 

The Mayflower, otherwise the Hawthorn, the 
Anglo-Saxon for " hedge-thorn," appears in flower 
in the month of May, while Gilly-flower is merely 
a corruption of "July flower." The Tiger-flower 
is streaked like a tiger. Daffodil is a corruption of 
" d'Asphodele," the French name of this flower. 
Hollyhock is not " Holy Oak," but the Anglo- 
Saxon Jwli-hoc, or marsh mallow. The Noontide, 
or Noon-flower, closes its petals at noon ; the 
Convolvulus, so called from the Latin con, together, 
and volvere, to roll, does the like at sunset, in common 
with the ordinary field Daisy, which owes its name, 
a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon doeges-eaye, literally 
" the day's eye," to this circumstance. The Butter- 
cup was originally so designated in accordance with 
an old-established idea that the yellow hue of butter 
was attributable to the fact of these flowers being 
eaten by cattle. However, as the buttercups are 
invariably avoided by the cattle, the proverbial 
wisdom of our forefathers must for once in a way 
be discredited. Cowslip is a corruption of " cows' 

The very common supposition that the Sunflower 
inclines towards the sun is entirely erroneous, as has 
been proved by observation. This flower merely 

Flowers. 121 

takes its name from its form and colour. On the 
other hand, if its etymology be correct, the Helio- 
trope does actually turn towards the sun, the word 
helios being Greek for sun, and tropos, to turn. The 
Goldylocks is so called on account of its tufts of 
yellow flowers ; whereas the Marigold, which bears 
yellow flowers, was named in honour of Queen 
Mary. Both these, with the Sunflower, belong to 
the Chrysanthemum (Greek chmsos, gold, and 
anthemos, flower) family. The word Rhododen- 
dron, we may add, comes from the Greek rJwdon, 
rose, and dendron, tree. 

The Passion-flower symbolizes in its tints 
and several parts the various attributes of Christ's 
Passion, as follows : — The white tint, purity ; the 
blue tint, heaven ; the leaf, the spear ; the five 
anthers, the five wounds ; the tendrils, the whips 
and cords ; the column of the ovary, the pillar of the 
cross ; the stamens, the hammers ; the three styles, 
the nails ; the fleshy thorns within the flowers, the 
crown of thorns ; the calyx, the nimbus, or glory. 
In addition to the foregoing the passion-flower 
remains open for three days, and this is supposed 
to correspond with the three years' ministry of the 

Lastly, the flower known as the Stock received 
its name from the fact that it was principally sold 
in the old Stocks Market displaced by the building 
of the present Mansion House in the year 1737 ; the 
market itself having derived its title from a pair of 
stocks that stood there. 


IN the estimation of many millions of human 
beings the Bible is very properly regarded as 
the "Book of Books." And a Book of Books 
it truly is ; not only The Book above all others, but 
comprising a number of distinct works from the 
pens of various Inspired Writers according to the 
Old Law and the New. For this reason precisely 
the earliest Saxon version of the Sacred Volume was 
called the Bible in accordance with the Greek and 
Latin word biblia, the plural of biblion, a book, 
derived from biblos, the inner bark of the papyrus, 
which was the first kind of writing material known. 
" Bible," therefore, is a collective term for the Scrip- 
tures, which designation comes from the Latin 
scriptura, a writing, based upon the verb scribere, 
to write. Here, again, note the correct use of the 

The original translation of the Hebrew Testament 
into Greek, about the year 260 B.C., bore the title of 
the Septuagint because it employed the labours of 
seventy, or rather of seventy-two, translators. More 
than six hundred years afterwards, viz., in the Year 
of Our Lord 405, when St. Jerome (born 346, died 
420) rendered the whole of the Scriptures — to be 

The Bible. 123 

sure the New Testament had not an existence 
at the time of the Greek translation — into the Latin 
tongue, his performance was styled the Vtdgatus, 
or Vulgate, from vulgare, to make known to 
the vitlgus, the multitude. This Latin Vulgate 
constitues the Bible of the Roman Catholics 
as authorized by the Council of Trent in the 
year 1546. It was first printed for the use 
of the Christian world generally in 1462. The 
English translation of the Old Testament portion 
of the Vulgate bears the title of the Douay Bible 
because it was first printed and published at the 
English College at Douay, in France, in 1609. The 
New Testament portion, known as the Rheims 
Bible, was issued at Rheims twenty-seven years 
earlier, viz., in 1582. 

The Authorized Version of the Bible appointed 
to be read in the Church of England is called King 
James's Bible, after James I., who ordered it to 
be prepared, and in whose reign (in the year 1611) 
it was first given to the people. The Bishops' 
Bible, published in parts between 1568 and 1572, 
derived its name from the seven bishops that 
assisted Archbishop Parker with his revision of 
Cranmer's Bible, otherwise The Great Bible, so 
called because Archbishop Cranmer's version of the 
text, published in 1539, was of large size, specially 
printed for the purpose of being displayed and read 
by the people in the churches. To the 1540 edition 
of this version Cranmer prefixed a lengthy Intro- 
duction. One of the earliest Latin Bibles, printed 

124 Names: and their Meaning. 

by Gutenberg between the years 1450 and 1455, 
and, indeed, one of the earliest perfect printed 
books from separate types, is known as the Mazarin 
Bible, from a copy being discovered in Cardinal 
Mazarin's library. The Pearl Bible was so called 
because it was printed in pearl type by Field in 
1653. The Geneva Bible, printed at Geneva in 
1560, also bears the singular title of the Breeches 
Bible, owing to the substitution of the word 
"breeches" for "aprons" in Genesis iii. 7. Simi- 
larly, the Vinegar Bible is indebted for its title 
to the misprinting of the word "vineyard" in the 
running headline to Liike xx. at the Clarendon Press 
in 1717 ; the Beer Bible, to the substitution of the 
words "the beer" for "strong drink" in the 
twenty -fourth chapter of Isaiah, ninth verse; the 
Treacle Bible, to the rendering of the passage, 
"Is there no balm in Gilead ? " into "There is no 
more triacle at Gilaad" {Jeremiah viii. 22); the Whig 
Bible, to the misprinting of the word " peace- 
makers," so that the sentence reads, " Blessed are 
the placemakers " ; the Wicked Bible, from the 
omission of a word in Exodus xx. 14, which caused 
the verse to read, "Thou shalt commit adultery"; 
and the Bug Bible, printed by John Daye in 155 1, 
from the peculiar rendering of the fifth verse in 
Psalm xci., which reads, " So thou shalt not need 
to be afraid for any bugs by night, nor for the arrow 
that flieth by day." The first edition of the Author- 
ized Version is called the " He " Bible, because it 
contains a misprint in Ruth iii. 15, the passage read- 

The Bible. 125 

ing, "And he went into the city." A subsequent 
issue published in the same year, in which the 
mistake is rectified, is known as the " She" Bible. 
The Virginia Bible is a rare version of the Scrip- 
tures translated into the native language of the 
North American Indians of Virginia. The first 
edition of this Bible was printed in 1661-3, copies 
of which are said to be worth ;^200. 

The first five books of the Old Testament written 
by Moses bear the collective title of the Pentateuch 
on account of the two Greek words penta, five, and 
teuchos, an implement, a tool, alluding to the Books 
being the direct instrument of communication be- 
tween God and His people. The titles ot these five 
Books themselves are as follows : — Genesis, which 
expresses the Greek for origin or production, describes 
the history of the world from its beginning ; Exodus, 
derived from ex, out, and odus, a way, narrates the 
departure of the Israelites out of Egypt ; Leviticus 
sets forth the regulations affecting the priests and 
Levites; Numbers contains the census of the 
Israelites; and Deuteronomy, from the Greek 
deutcros, second, and nomos, law, comprises the 
second giving of the Law by Moses. 

The designation Apocrypha, signifying hidden or 
spurious, is applied to those Books whose authenticity 
as Inspired Writings is not admitted ; in other 
words, to those portions of the Scriptures which, 
inasmuch as they do not establish any doctrine, are 
not held to be canonical, yet are such as, in the 
words of the Prayer Book, "the Church doth read 

126 Names : and their Meaning. 

for example of life and instruction of manners." On 
the other hand, the Apocalypse, signifying disclo- 
sure, is synonymous with the " Book of Revelation," 
and specifically applies to the concluding Book of 
the Bible. 


WITH one or two exceptions only, the 
different kinds of wines owe their names 
to the places where they are produced. 
Thus, Burgundy and Champagne respectively 
come from the French provinces, Pontac from the 
town, and Moselle from the vineyards extensively 
cultivated on the banks of the river, so designated. 
Rhenish wines are popular all over Europe; yet 
none are probably more celebrated than the Jo- 
hannisberg, produced at the Castle of Johannisberg 
(literally, John's Rock), near Wiesbaden, and Hock, 
produced at Hockheim. Among Italian wines, 
Florence comes from the historic " City of 
Flowers," whereas Falernian, celebrated by Mar- 
tial, Horace, and other Latin authors, was made from 
grapes grown in the district around the ancient city 
of Falernum. A justly celebrated Tuscan wine is the 
Montepulciano, produced at the old city so denomi- 
nated. As its name implies, Malaga is imported 
from Malaga, in Spain; Sherry is our English 
rendering of the place-name Xeres, near Cadiz ; 
while Port constitutes the native wine of Oporto, 
the capital of Portugal. Of Mediterranean wines, 
Cyprus, brought from the now British island of 

128 Names : and their Meaning. 

that name, and Malmsey, an English corruption of 
Malvasia, so termed after the district in the island 
of Candia, where it is produced, are the chief. 
Madeira and Canary are imported from the islands 
so called, situated on the great ocean highway to the 
Cape of Good Hope. An excellent wine greatly 
sought after on the Continent, though somewhat 
unknown in this country, is Tokay, produced from 
white grapes cultivated in the district of Tokay, 
Upper Hungary. Claret owes its designation to 
the French clair, clear, because it is a clarified wine; 
whereas Tent "Wine is a mere corruption of the 
Spanish vino Unto, signifying a white wine coloured. 
The sparkling champagne known as Sillery popu- 
larizes the name of the Marquis de Sillery, the 
proprietor of the vineyards where this particular 
species is produced; just as Pommery is destined 
to perpetuate the memory of Madame Pommery, 
mother to the Duchess de Polignac, and sole 
proprietress of the vineyards and subterranean 
Pommery vaults near Rheims. Moet and Chandon 
similarly denotes the champagne brewed by the 
well-known French firm trading under the style of 
" Moet et Chandon." 

Among concoctions of the vinous order we have 
Hippocras, so called because it is said to have 
been first made according to the recipe of Hippo- 
crates, the Father of Medicine ; Badminton, 
originally prepared at Badminton, the seat of the 
Duke of Beaufort ; and Negus, named after Colonel 
Francis Negus, who invented it. Formerly, our 

Wines. - 129 

countrymen set great store by Sack, which was 
simply the designation of a dry wine, derived from 
the French word sec, dry. Wine is said to be a Dry 
Wine when it is neither sweet nor sparkling. It 
cannot be sweet because, the fermentation being 
complete, the sugar contained in it is fully decom- 
posed ; moreover, it is dry because the carbonic acid 
has escaped. For the like reason, a certain evidence 
that port wine has completed the process of fermen- 
tation is the collection of tartar in the interior of the 
bottle, forming a crust ; hence the term Crusted 
Port. A very bad wine of whatever kind usually 
bears the name of Three Men Wine, owing to 
the idea that it requires one man to hold the drinker, 
and another to pour it down his throat, while the 
third is the unfortunate individual himself. The 
derivation of the term Wine is the Anglo-Saxon vin 
from the Latin vinuni, allied to vinea, a vine. 


GILDAS, the earliest chronicler of British 
history (born 511, died 570), was surnamed 
The Wise on account of his learning, 
which must have excited the wonder of the semi- 
barbarian inhabitants of these islands in the sixth 
century. Later, the Saxon historian Beda, incorrectly 
called Bede (born 673, died 735), was surnamed The 
Venerable because he was also an ecclesiastic. Ap- 
proaching more modern times, we meet with John 
White, a Nonconformist lawyer, who, in consequence 
of being the author of a work entitled " The First 
Century of Scandalous, Malignant Priests, made and 
admitted into Benefices by the Prelates, &c.," merited 
the popular description of Century White. Still 
nearer our own day, Matthew Gregory Lewis (born 
1775, died 1818) became the recipient of the name of 
Monk Lewis, after the publication of his famous 
novel, " The Monk " ; just as John Thomas Smith, 
the antiquary (born 1766, died 1833), was indebted 
to his chatty, albeit valuable work, " A Book for 
a Rainy Day," for his sobriquet of Rainy-Day 

Turning to the poets, John Sylvester, the trans- 
lator of Du Barta's " Divine Weeks and Works " 

Literary Sobriquets, 131 

(born 1563, died 1613), is popularly referred to as 
Silver-tongued Sylvester on account of the 
sweet melody of his verse. John Taylor, the 
Water Poet (born 1580, died 1654), was a Thames 
waterman; James Hogg, The Ettrick Shepherd 
(born 1772, died 1835), followed the employment of 
a shepherd in the forest of Ettrick, Selkirkshire ; and 
Edward Capern, The Bideford Postman (born 
1819), was for several years a letter-carrier in the 
little town of Bideford, Devonshire. Nathaniel Lee 
(born 1655, died i6gi) received the name of The 
Mad Poet from the fact of his four years' confine- 
ment in a mad-house. The Quaker Poet was 
Bernard Barton, the friend of Charles Lamb (born 
1784, died 1849) } while Samuel Rogers, The 
Banker Poet (born 1763, died 1855), divided his 
time pleasantly between the counting-house and 
the study. Thomas Moore (born 1779, died 1852) 
merited the style of Anacreon Moore by his 
translations from the Greek poet Anacreon, and the 
circumstance that his own original verses were con- 
structed upon the same classic model. Richard 
Home, the poet and critic (born 1802, died 1884), 
was known as Orion Horne, and also as The 
Farthing Poet, on account of his principal work 
" Orion," published at one farthing, as a satire on 
the poverty of the book-buying public. 

Sir Walter Scott (born 1771, died 1832) was 
surnamed The Wizard of the North owing to 
the magic influence which he exerted over all 
classes of the people, and the widespread fascination 

132 Names: and their Meaning. 

of his novels ; while Henry Mackenzie, the author 
of "The Man of Feeling" (born 1745, died 1831), 
enjoyed the signal honour of being designated 
The Addison of the North, owing to the purity 
and excellence of his style. No more flattering 
recognition of the genius of William Wordsworth 
(born 1770, died 1850) could ever have been desired 
than the title of The Minstrel of the Border, 
bestowed upon him by Sir Walter Scott. The Corn 
Law Rhymer was Ebenezer Elliott (born 1781, 
died 1849) who, by the dedication of his numerous 
versified philippics to the opponents of Free Trade, 
indirectly, if not directly, prepared the way for the 
repeal of the obnoxious Corn Laws in the year 1846. 
Reference to the word " Philippics " carries us back 
in imagination to Demosthenes, who directed one of 
his most famous orations against Philip, King of 
Macedon ; hence, any indignant invective or vehe- 
ment denunciation is characteristically styled a 


NORTHUMBERLAND originally denoted 
the land north of the Humber; Cumber- 
land, the land occupied by the Cymri ; and 
Westmoreland, the land of the Westmorings, or 
people of the Western moors. Durham is a 
corruption of Dunholm, signifying a hill-fort on an 
island in the river ; dim being Celtic for a hill, or fort 
on a hill, and holm the Scandinavian for an island. 
The Shire, or County, of York, in common with the 
majority of the Midland and Welsh counties, is 
named after its chief town ; or rather, in this case, 
the ancient city described in documents as Eurewic, 
but pronounced Yorric, from its position on the river 
Eure, now known as the Ouse. 

Lancashire indicates the Shire of Lancaster, 
the caester, or camp-town, on the Lune. This 
Anglo-Saxon word Caester, derived from the Latin 
castra, a camp, fortress, appears also in the names 
of Cheshire, a contraction of Caestcrshire, the Shire 
of Chester, the town built on the site of the old 
Roman castra, or camp; in Leicestershire, the 
Shire of the camp-town on the river Leire, now 
called the Soar ; in Worcestershire, the Shire of 

134 Names : and their Meaning. 

Hwic-ware-shire, or fortress-town, of the Huiccii ; 
and in Gloucestershire, the Shire of the camp- 
town in which Gloi, a son of the Emperor Claudius, 
was born during the Roman occupation of Britain. 

Lincoln is a contraction of the Latin Lindttm- 
colonia, signifying the colony formed by the Romans 
on the Llyn-dun, literally " the fortified hill by the 
pool," originally occupied and so called " by the 
ancient Britons [see London]. The names Norfolk 
and Suffolk respectively indicate those portions of 
the eastern coast settled by the Angles, who sepa- 
rated into two distinct tribes, viz., the north folk and 
the south folk. Essex is a contraction of East- 
seaxe, denoting the territory occupied by the East 
Saxons ; Sussex, of Suth-seaxe, or South Saxons ; 
and Middlesex, of Middle-seaxe, or the inhabitants 
of the district between Essex and Wessex, the 
land of the West Saxons, which, under the Hep- 
tarchy, extended to the westward as far as 
Devon. Surrey is a modification of the Anglo- 
Saxon Snth-rey, south of the river, i.e., the 
Thames. Kent was formerly Cantium, indicating 
the land bestowed upon Canute, one of the com- 
panions of Brute, an early King of Britain, who, 
according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, settled in 
England and eventually founded the Danish 

Hampshire, also written Hants, expresses the 
Shire of Hantone, or HavAunc, now known as 
Southampton, the south town on the river Ant, 
or Southampton Water. Dorset was originally 

The Counties of England and Wales. 135 

Dwrset, a compound of the Celtic dwr, water, and 
the Anglo-Saxon set, a settlement, alluding to the 
early settlement of this district by a tribe of Britons 
who styled themselves Die^r-^n^s, or "water-dwellers." 
Somerset is a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon Suth- 
morset, literally "the south-moor-settlement." Devon 
is a modified form of Dwfnient, the Celtic for " the 
deep valleys." An earlier name for this portion of 
Britain was Damnonia, the territory of the Dam- 
nonii, a Celtic tribe. Cornwall denotes the territory 
of the "foreigners in the horn," agreeably to the Latin 
cornu, a horn, referring to its numerous promontories, 
and its inhabitants the Wahl, the Saxon term for 
" foreigners." Like Wales, this portion of our island 
was never invaded by the Anglo-Saxons ; consequently 
its people, the Cymri, a branch of the Celts, were 
left in undisturbed possession [see Wales]. The 
Duchy of Cornwall is still included in the Principality 
of Wales. Wiltshire only partly expresses the 
Shire of Wilton, a contraction of Willy-town, or 
the town on the river Willy. Berkshire is a 
modern spelling of the Anglo-Saxon Bearoc-scire, 
" forest shire," in allusion to the forest districts of 
Bagshot and Windsor; while Buckingham was 
originally described as Boccenhani, the Anglo-Saxon 
for " beech-tree-home," this county being especially 
noted for its beeches. 

Oxford derived its name from the Ox-ford over the 
Isis; Hertford, from the ford crossed by harts; 
Hereford, from the army ford ; and Stafford, from 
the ford crossed by means of staves or stilts. 

136 Names : and their Meaning. 

Bedford is a contraction of Bedican ford, the 
Anglo-Saxon for " the protected ford." Cambridge 
owes its name to the University town by the bridge 
over the Cam, or crooked river [see Camberwell]. 
Huntingdon was anciently a great deer forest, and 
therefore much resorted to for hunting. North- 
ampton is a corruption of North-avon-town, alluding 
to its position north of the river Neu, in olden times 
known as the Avon. Rutland expresses the Anglo- 
Saxon for " red land/' referring to the colour of its 
soil. Warwick is the modern description of the 
Anglo-Saxon Waer-wic, signifying the garrison, or 
war town. Nottingham is a corruption of Snot- 
ingaham, " the place of caves," so called on account 
of the soft sandstone which so greatly facilitated the 
formation of caverns during the early history of our 
country ; as e.g., " Mortimer's hole," and the subter- 
ranean passage that led thereto from Nottingham 
Castle in the reign of Edward III. Derby is a 
contraction of the Saxon Deer-by, or ** wild-beast 
village," doubtless so designated from its frequent 
invasion by strange animals from the mountainous 
district of "The Peak" in search of prey. Shrop- 
shire denotes the Shire of Scrobbesburgh, the Anglo- 
Saxon for " shrub-town," modified by the Normans 
into Sloppesbnrie (from which the present town of 
Salop derived its name), and corrupted in modern 
times into Shrewsbury. Monmouth indicates 
the county that includes the mouth of the Mon, 
originally described as the Mynwy, " the border 

The Counties of England and Wales. 137 

Anglesea, properly Anglesey [see Chelsea, &c.], 
is one of the three counties of Wales whose names 
are not essentially Welsh. Thus, Glamorgan 
signifies the Gwlad-M organ, or territory of Morgan, 
a chieftain who lived in the tenth century ; 
Brecknock is the hill of Brecon, or Brychan, a 
Welsh prince ; Radnor is a modern spelling of 
Rhiadnwr-Gwy, meaning " the Cataract of the 
Wye " ; Montgomery refers to the fortress built 
on the inont, or height, by Roger de Montgomerie, 
in 1093 ; Denbigh was originally Dinbach, the Celtic 
and Cymric for " a little fort " ; Flint was so called 
from the quantity of quartz found in this county ; 
Carnarvon owes its origin to Ccer-yu-ar-Fonj the 
ccBVy or fortress, on the arfon, or water; Carmarthen 
denotes the fortress erected by Merlin ; Merioneth 
was named after Merion, an early British saint ; 
Cardigan indicates the territory of Ceredig, a Welsh 
chieftain ; while Pembroke signifies the pen, or 
head of the broc, the Celtic and Cymric for a district, 
so called because this promontory was virtually the 
Land's End. 


THE Phaeton owes its designation to the 
mythological personage of that name who 
received permission to drive the sun-car of 
Helios, his father, for one day, with the result that, 
being overthrown, he nearly set the world on fire. 
The Victoria was introduced in the year that 
witnessed the coronation of Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria. The Clarence was the favourite con- 
veyance of the Duke of Clarence, afterwards William 
IV. The Brougham, invented in 1839, received its 
name from Lord Brougham, who was the first to 
permanently adopt it ; and the same may be said of 
the Stanhope, so called in compliment to Lord 
Stanhope. The Sociable is an appropriate name 
enough for an open carriage of which the facing 
seats afford opportunity for pleasant conversation. 
The Landau was first made at Landau in Germany; 
whereas the Tilbury perpetuates the name of a 
celebrated London sportsman who introduced this 
particular species of carriage during the early part 
of the present century. 

The small, light, one-horse vehicle known as a 
Dog-cart is so called because such a one was 
originally constructed for sportsmen to drive their 

Carriages. 139 

pointers and setters (which they kept in a box under 
the seat) to the scene of the sport. The term Buggy 
is a corruption of Bourgeois, a French name indicating 
a vehicle intended for the middle classes so denomi- 
nated ; while Gig is a contraction of the Italian giga, 
a romp, and the French gigite, a lively dance, a jig, 
in allusion to its jumping and rocking motion. The 
like derivation applies to the long, light ship's wherry 
which passes under the same name. The term 
Sulky, as applied to a light two-wheeled convey- 
ance, owed its origin to the fact that, when it 
was introduced, people hazarded the opinion that 
none but sulky, morose, and selfish people would ride 
in such a carriage, because it had only accommodation 
for one person. The Noddy, peculiar to Dublin, 
derives its title from the jolting motion which keeps 
its riders continually nodding; and the Jaunting 
Car, from the jaunts and country outings for which, 
on the other side of the Irish Sea, these vehicles are 
largely employed. The English Break bears its 
name because it partakes of the character of the 
four-wheel vehicle used by horse-breakers; indeed, 
it differs from the latter only in the addition of the 
upper portion containing the seats. 

Stage-coaches were originally so called on account 
of the different stages at which they stopped to 
change horses and refresh the passengers. 'Bus is 
short for Omnibus, a Latin word signifying " for 
all." The step at the back of an omnibus is 
facetiously styled the Monkey-board, in conse- 
quence of the capers usually executed thereon by 

140 Names : and their Meaning. 

the conductor. The board on either side of the 
roof of the vehicle, upon which theatrical and other 
advertisements are exhibited is known as the Knife- 
board, from its fancied resemblance to that article 
of domestic utility. So far from having derived its 
name from one of the northern suburbs of London, a 
Hackney-coach is simply an English rendering of 
coche-a-haquence, the literal French for a coach drawn 
by a hired horse. The word Coach (French, coche, 
the diminutive of the Italian concJmla, a shell) really 
means a shell-like contrivance upon wheels. Cab is a 
contraction of the Cabriolet, from cabriole, a goat's 
leap, in allusion to its lightness and springiness, first 
introduced in Paris, This vehicle, after undergoing 
sundry changes and improvements, was patented in 
the year 1883 as the "Safety Cab" by Joseph 
Aloysius Hansom, from which circumstance it has 
in more recent times come to be generally designated 
the Hansom Cab. 

The term Hearse traces its origin through the 
German hirsch from the Gothic hersa, a sepulchral 
mound. At a later date it implied a temporary 
monument, but nowadays it denotes the funeral car. 
The word Funeral, by the way, is a contraction of 
the La.tin ftmeralis, signifying a torchlight procession, 
from funis, a torch, because interments among the 
Romans always took place by night. Pantech- 
nicon is a Greek word, composed of pan, all, 
and techne, art, indicative of the place where every 
kind of industrial art was exhibited or exposed for 
sale. In modern days the term has come to be 

Carriages. 141 

exclusively applied to a vehicle constructed for the 
removal of household furniture. Lastly, the cloth 
that covers the box-seat of a carriage of any kind 
is called the Hammer-cloth, because in the old 
coaching days it concealed the box which contained 
a hammer, nails, and other implements useful for 
repairs in the event of a breakdown on the journey. 


DANCING is styled the Terpsichorean Art 
in honour of Terpsichore, the daughter of 
Jupiter and Mnemosyne, whom the ancients 
regarded as its inventress. The Morris Dance, from 
which our "Jack in the Green" and his fellow May- 
day revellers trace their origin, was the military 
dance of the Moors, or Moriscoes, introduced into 
this country by John of Gaunt on his return from 
Spain in the reign of Edward III. Five men and a 
boy took part in it, and from the fact of the boy 
wearing an ill-fitting helmet called a morione, he 
received the name of " Mad Morion," which was 
subsequently corrupted into Maid Marian. The 
Saraband was invented by Zarabanda, a famous 
dancer of Seville in the sixteenth century. The 
Gavotte arose among the Gavots, a people who 
inhabited the department of the Upper Alps and the 
province of Dauphiny, in France. Quadrille is the 
literal French for ** a little square," so called from 
the position taken up by the dancers; while the 
Lancers derived their name from a company of 
Lancers who originally improvised this variation of 
the Quadrille for their own amusement while seated 
in their saddles. The Polka, of Polish origin, is so 



designated on account of the Bohemian word pidka, 
a half, in allusion to the half step occurring in it ; 
the Schottische is a variation of the Polka; the 
Mazourka is the national dance of Poland — all of 
which, with the addition of the Redowa, are native 
terms. The Waltz is a contraction of the German 
Waltzer, derived from the verb waltzen, to roll, to 
revolve, alluding to the revolutions made by the 
pairs of dancers placed vis-a-vis. The Country 
Dance, so far from being a peasants' dance, is 
nothing more than a corruption of the French 
contre-danse, signifying that the parties place them- 
selves opposite to each other during the dance. 
Strictly speaking, the Contre-danse and the Quad- 
rille are one and the same. The Roger de 
Coverley derived its name from the great-grand- 
father of Roger de Coverley, or rather, to be 
precise, of Roger of Cowley, near Oxford, who 
invented it. The Minuet (Latin mimitus, small) 
is so called wholly on account of the short steps 
peculiar to this dance. The Tarantella was in- 
vented in Italy out of the supposition that the pro- 
fuse perspiration which it induced was a certain cure 
for the poisonous bite of the Tarantula Spider, 
named after the city of Taranto, where its baneful 
presence was first manifested. Cinderella Dances 
are those which terminate before midnight, in allu- 
sion to Cinderella of nursery renown. 

The origin of the word Ball, in its application to 
a dancing-party, is somewhat singular. Centuries 
ago there was in vogue on the Continent a three. 

144 Names : and their Meaning. 

fold game, in which the players danced to the sound 
of their own voices while they threw to one another 
a ball. In all probability this arose out of the 
curious ** Ball-Play in Church" by the Neapolitans 
during the Saturnalia, or " Feast of Fools," corres- 
ponding to our Easter-tide. There is even now a 
statute in existence which regulated the size and 
character of the ball to be used on such occasions. 
In opening the ceremony, the Dean took the ball in 
his left hand, and commenced an antiphon, which 
the organ took up ; whereupon he tossed the ball to 
first one and then another of the choir-boys, as they 
joined hands, sang, and danced around him. When, 
therefore, the three-fold game alluded to above 
divided and its three sets of dancers became 
independent of each other, the dance itself took 
the name of the article that was, as if by common 
consent, discarded — to wit, the ball; and the song 
was styled the Ballafa, or, according to the modern 
English, a Ballad indicative of a dancing-song; 
while the verb ballare, to dance, gave existence to 
the French Ballet, signifying a dance tune. Apropos 
of the Ballet, the term Coryphee, as applied to a 
ballet-dancer, traces its origin from the Greek 
coryphceus, the designation of one who danced to 
the lute in the theatres of the ancients. En passant, 
the famous war dance of the Greeks, executed in 
very quick. time and known as the Phyrric Dance, 
was so denominated after Pyrrichos, a celebrated 
Dorian flautist. 
The Hornpipe is an inversion of pib-gorn, the 

Dances. 145 

name of the old Welsh instrument consisting of a 
pib, or pipe, with a gorn, or horn, at each end, to 
which this dance was originally stepped ; the Reel 
has reference to the whirling evolutions performed 
by the dancer, as of winding cotton on a reel ; 
whereas the Jig comes from the French gigue, a 
lively dance, and gige, a stringed instrument, the 
usual accompaniment to this rough and-ready style 
of pedal exhilaration. The term Breakdown is an 
Americanism, denoting the last boisterous dance 
before the breaking tip of a dancing-party towards 
early morning. Appropriately enough, such a dance 
invariably constitutes the final item of a negro- 
minstrel entertainment. 



THE word Pigment is a contraction of the 
Latin pigmentum, based upon the verb pin- 
gere, to paint. Dye traces its origin to the 
Anglo-Saxon deag, a colour, remotely derived from 
the Latin tingere, to stain. Several of the pigments 
most generally used owe their names to the places 
whence they are, or were originally, brought. As 
examples : Umber was first obtained in the district 
of Umbria, in Italy, and Sienna, properly called 
Terra di Sienna, or Sienna Earth, from Sienna ; 
Gamboge comes from Cambodia, formerly known 
as Gambogia, in Siam ; Indigo, from Indicus, the 
ancient description of India; and Krems White, 
from the city of Krems, in Austria, where it is 
exclusively manufactured. Prussian Red, Bruns- 
wick Green, Brunswick Black, Frankfort 
Black, Hamburg Lake, Venetian Red, and 
Chinese Yellow, speak for themselves. Prussian 
Blue, also called Berlin Blue, was first made by 
a native colourman of Berlin in the year 1710; 
whereas Saunders Blue is merely a corruption 
of cendres-bleus, the French for blue ashes, this 
pigment being obtained from calcined bluestone. 
Another name for the latter is Ultramarine, 

Pigments and Dyes. 147 

because it was originally brought from ultra, beyond, 
and marinus, the sea. 

The deep blue known as Mazarine was named 
after Cardinal Mazarin, the Prime Minister of France 
(born 1602, died 1661), in whose time it was first pre- 
pared; while the puce colour known as Pompadour 
received its designation from Madame le Pompadour, 
the mistress of Louis XV. (born 1721, died 1764), who 
popularized it. Cardinal is so called because it 
expresses the exact shade of the red habit worn by 
the cardinals of the Church ; the term Carmine 
owes its origin to the Italian carminio, purple ; while 
Carnation denotes a flesh tint, in accordance with 
the Latin caro, flesh. The colour which results 
from the combination of a vivid red with more or 
less white is styled Pink, owing to its resemblance 
to the flower so designated. 

The origin of the word Purple must be sought in 
connection with the circumstance in which this dye, 
or colour, was discovered. It appears that one day 
a favourite dog belonging to Hercules of Tyre 
chanced to eat a species of fish known to the 
ancients as the purpura ; and upon returning to his 
master, the latter found the lips of the animal tinged 
with the colour that was shortly afterwards imitated 
and denominated purple. The term Scarlet is a 
modification of sakarlaf, the Persian description of a 
bright red colour; while Crimson traces its exist- 
ence through the Old English crimosyn to garmaz, 
the Arabic term for the cochineal insect, from whose 
dried body, found upon a species of cactus, this vivicj 

148 Names : and their Meaning. 

dye-stuff is obtained. The beautiful purple obtained 
from chloride of gold bears the name of Cassius 
after its inventor. 

Magenta was named in commemoration of the 
Battle of Magenta, fought in 1859 ; and Vandyke 
Brown, from its having been so frequently used by 
Vandyk (born 1599, died 1641) that it forms a 
characteristic colour in all his portraits. Sepia is 
the Greek designation of the cuttle-fish, and the 
pigment so called is obtained from the dark juice 
secreted by the glands of the Indian species of this 
fish. Sap-Green is prepared from the juice of the 
ripe berries of the buckthorn ; whereas Emerald 
Green denotes the particular shade of green that 
characterizes the emerald. Lamp Black is so 
called because it was originally obtained from the 
burning of resinous matter over a lamp. Ivory 
Black is a pigment formerly obtained from charred 
ivory, but nowadays from bones. The origin of 
Isabel, a dull brownish-yellow, with a mixture of 
red and grey, is as follows : — When the Duke of 
Austria was besieging Ostend in 1601, Isabella, his 
wife, the daughter of Philip 11. of Spain, vowed that 
she would not change her linen until the town had 
been taken. Unfortunately for her personal comfort, 
the town held out for two years, at the end of which 
period her linen assumed the characteristic hue that 
was afterwards imitated by the ingenious colour- 
man who sought to honour her by perpetuating the 


AT that remote period when the first rude huts 
were established on the banks of the Thames, 
the surrounding scene could have presented 
nothing more inviting to the eye than an extensive 
marsh or morass. That such was undoubtedly the 
case the existing names of Fenchurch Street and 
FiNSBURY, furnish ample evidence. The former 
marks the site of an ancient church situated among 
the fens, while the latter is an easy corruption of 
Fensbury, the Anglo-Saxon designation for " a town 
among the fens." Therefore it was not surprising that 
the barbaric Britons, who founded what we now call 
London, should have given the name of Llyn-dun 
[see Lincoln] to their colony beside the Thames. 
Apropos of the Thames, the name of our noble river 
is merely a slight contraction of the Latin Thamesis, 
signifying ** the broad Isis." Isis is the Celtic for 

Westminster was denominated after the Abbey 
[see Westminster Abbey]. Belgravia is the name 
given to the fashionable district of which Belgrave 
Square is the common centre. Pimlico owed its 
designation to an attempt on the part of the tavern- 

150 Names: and their Meaning. 

keepers of this neighbourhood to rival the celebrated 
nut-brown ales of one Ben Pimlico, who kept a 
pleasure-garden near Hoxton, the road to which 
was known as Pimlico Walk (still in existence), 
and the garden itself, first as " Pimlico's," and sub- 
sequently as " Pimlico." The name of Knights- 
bridge carries us back to the time when two knights, 
on their way to receive a blessing from the Bishop 
of London at Fulham, engaged in a deadly combat 
on the bridge that spanned the Westbourne, exactly 
on the spot where Albert Gate now stands. Prior 
to this incident the bridge had borne the name of 
Fulham Bridge. Mayfair occupies the site of an 
annual six days' fair held in May, originally at the 
instance of Edward I., for the benefit of the leper 
hospital of St. James the Less, Bishop of Jerusalem, 
now St, James's Palace. The district of Soho was 
known by its present name as long ago as the six- 
teenth century; ''So ho T^ being the cry of the 
huntsmen when calling off their harriers in the days 
when the whole of London west of Drury Lane 
was open country. Bloomsbury is a corruption of 
" Lomesbury Village," of which the Manor House 
stood on the site of Bloomsbury Square. Smith- 
field is a modern perversion of " Smoothfield," an 
extensive tract of meadow land where horses were 
sold and tournaments were held as far back as the 
twelfth century. The first recorded English horse- 
race was witnessed in Smoothfield in the year 1154. 
Clerkenwell derived its name from an ancient well 
(now marked by an iron pump let into the wall at 

London Districts and Suburbs. 151 

the south-east end of Ray Street) beside which 
the parish clerks performed their Miracle Plays. 
Spa Fields, now built over, owed their designation 
to a medicinal well, or Spa, discovered in 1206, and 
subsequently known as " The London Spa." The 
proper description of BunhiU Fields is Bonhill, i.e., 
" good hill " Fields, so styled because the victims of 
the Great Plague were buried here in 1665. Moor- 
fields was formerly a bleak moor skirting the 
northern portion of the marshy land known as 
Fensbury, now Finsbury, already referred to. 

Shoreditch did not receive its name from Jane 
Shore, neither is the word a corruption of " Sewer 
Ditch," as some writers have suggested. This dis- 
trict really comprised the manor of Sir John Soerditch, 
a wealthy London citizen and a valiant knight who 
fought by the side of Edward the Black Prince at 
Crecy and Poictiers. Whitechapel was designated 
after the While Chapel of St. Mary, built in 1673. 
Goodman's Fields perpetuated the name of the 
owner of the land now known as the Minories, upon 
which a Priory of the Nuns of St. Clare was after- 
wards built. Shadwell is a corruption of St. Chad's 
Well, discovered in this neighbourhood in ancient 
times. The once-notorious Ratcliflfe Highway 
derived its name from the Manor of Ratcliffe, be- 
longing to the adjoining parish of Stepney. The 
title has now been changed to St. George's Street. 
Stepney was anciently described as Stebenhithe, 
signifying that it contained a wharf or haven belong- 
ing to one Steben or Steven. Spitalfields marks 

1^2 Names: and their Meanings. 

the site of the ancient Priory of St. Mary of the 
Spittle, dissolved in 1534. The French refugees 
established the silk manufacture here in 1685. 
Bethnal Green recalls the existence of the old 
family of the Bathons, whose history is first recorded 
in connection with their property situated in this 
neighbourhood during the reign of Edward I. 
Hoxton is a corruption of Hogsdon, meaning hog's 
town. In proof of this statement we may add that 
Hog Lane still exists in the vicinity. De Beauvoir 
Town preserves the family name of the De Beau- 
voirs, whose original ancestor, Richard de Beauvoir, 
of Guernsey, resided here in princely style. Copen- 
hagen Fields were so called after a tea-house 
opened by a Dane, about the time when the King of 
Denmark paid a visit to James I. Haggerstone is 
a corruption of " Hergotestan," the literal Saxon 
for " Our God's Town." Hackney was originally 
described as Hackoneye, signifying an ey, or portion 
of well-watered pasture land, appropriated by a 
Danish chief named Hacon [see Chelsea, &c.]. 

Dalston is properly Dalcston, or Vale-town. 
This was a quiet suburban village situated in a 
valley during the days when the northern districts 
of the Metropolis were more or less wooded — as 
witness Stoke Newington, or the new town in the 
meadow by the wood. The word Stoke comes from 
the Anglo-Saxon stoc, a wood or stockade ; ton is the 
Old English for town, and ing the Anglo-Saxon 
for a meadow, also a family settlement. Southgate 
is expressive of the southern entrance to the en- 

London Districts and Suburbs. 153 

closure, anciently known as Enfield Chase ; and 
Kingsland the royal domain adjacent to it. 
Abney Park owes its name to Abney House, 
recently converted into a Conservative Club, but 
originally the residence of Sir Thomas Abney 
(born 1639, died 1722), Lord Mayor and a dis- 
tinguished Nonconformist, knighted by William III. 
Dr. Isaac Watts died at Abney House in 1748. 
Green Lanes indicates the rural character of this 
neighbourhood in bygone times. Edmonton is 
properly Eduwnd's-town. The name of Ball's Pond 
is all that remains to remind us of the one-time 
existence of " The Salutation " house of call which 
had a pond for dog and duck sports, kept by John 
Ball. Mildmay Park is so called after Mildmay 
House, the family seat of Sir Henry Mildmay, who 
came into possession of the estate by his marriage 
with the daughter of William Halliday, an Alderman 
of the City in the time of Charles I. Muswell 
Hill is a slight corruption of Miistwell Hill, derived 
from the Latin miistiis, new, fresh ; because on 
this hill there was anciently discovered a well of 
clear, fresh water by the friars of St. John's Priory, 
Clerkenwell, who had a dairy hereabouts. That 
portion of the hill which has been cut through for the 
construction of the line of railway to Enfield, Barnet, 
and the north, bears the name of The Hog's Back, 
in allusion to its shape. The name of Wood Green 
is self-explanatory. Hornsey is a corruption of 
" Harringe," or meadow of hares. Canonbury 
received its title from the residence of the Prior of 

154 Names : and their Meaning. 

the Canons of St. Bartholomew, built in this neigh- 
bourhood soon after the Conquest. Bury is Saxon 
for a town or enclosed habitation, equivalent to the 
Celtic don, and Old English ton. In days of old, 
Highbury contained a Priory of the Knights of St. 
John of Jerusalem, built in 1271. The establishment 
was called Higli-bnry, because it stood upon higher 
ground than their previous residence which had borne 
the name of Tolentone, or lower town. HoUoway 
reminds us that this was once a miry hollow between 
Highgate and Islington. Barnsbury is a corruption 
of Berners-b7iry, originally a manor belonging to Lady 
Juliana Berners, Abbess of St. Albans. Islington 
has always been a favourite suburb in modern 
times, and even our mediaeval ancestors must have 
been delighted with its situation, lying high and 
dry beyond the fens and the sloughy neighbourhood 
of the "old bourne." Its name signifies "the 
settlement of the Islings." 

King's Cross derived its name from a wretched 
statue of George IV., set up in honour of his 
accession in 1820, and demolished to make way for 
the London terminus of the Great Northern Rail- 
way in 1842. The parish of St. Pancras is so 
called after the church dedicated to the boy-saint 
who was martyred by Diocletian in the early days 
of Christianity. Agar Town, now entirely swept 
away by modern improvements, was designated after 
William Agar, a miserly lawyer who acquired the 
lease of the land for building purposes in 1840. 
Somers Town is the property of Lord Somers, and 

London Districts and Suhnrhs, 155 

Camden Town, of the Earl of Camden. Kentish 
Town was formerly written " Kestestown " ; but 
even that was a corruption of " Kantelowes Town," 
erected upon the Manor of Kantelowes. The modern 
spelling of this family name is Cantlowes. Primrose 
Hill is still a pleasant eminence whereon primroses 
grow, despite the encroachments of bricks and 
mortar all around. Highgate is a title expressive 
of the elevated situation of the village that sprang 
up around the toll-gate established on the common 
highway from Barnet to Gray's Inn Road about 
the year 1400. Holly Village, Highgate, was so 
called by its foundress, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts- 
Bartlett, after her residence, Holly Lodge, hard by. 
Hampstead signifies a farmhouse or homestead. 
The word is Saxon : ham, a home, and stede, a place. 
In its wider sense, ham denotes a town. The 
western slope of Hampstead bears the name of 
Frognal, after Frognal Priory, an ambitious edifice 
built here by Memory-Corner Thompson (born 1757, 
died 1843), in imitation of Horace Walpole's toy 
village on Strawberry Hill. Bishop's "Wood, 
Hampstead, comprised the private estate of the 
Bishop of London, at the time when that ecclesias- 
tic resided at Highgate. Gospel Oak received 
its designation from the oak that marked the 
boundaries of Hampstead and St. Pancras, and 
under which, in accordance with an ancient custom, 
the Gospel was read once a year. John Whitfield 
is said to have preached under this oak. Chalk 
Farm is a corruption of " Chalcot Farm," a 

156 Names : and their Meaning. 

picturesque farmhouse in whose vicinity duels were 
usually fought during the century gone by. St. 
John's Wood was anciently a thickly wooded 
district sheltering an " Abbey of the Holy Virgins 
of St. John the Baptist." Kilburn owes its name 
to the Kil, the Celtic word for a cell, occupied by 
** one Godwyne, a holy hermit," beside the bourne, or 
brook. Maida Vale was so called in commemora- 
tion of the Battle of Maida, in which the English 
defeated the .French, July 4, 1806. Marylebone 
does not signify *' Mary the Good," as the majority of 
Londoners imagine, but " St. Mary of the Bourne," 
alluding to the church of St. Mary within sight of 
the bourne that ran from the hermit's cell at Kil- 
bonrne down to Tyburn, or rather Twa-burne ; so 
called because two different bournes, or streams, 
met in the neighbourhood where the Marble Arch 
now stands. 

The name of Bayswater has undergone consider- 
able change from the original. Not so very long 
ago the whole of this district was known as Bays- 
water Fields ; during the last century it bore the 
name of " Bear's Watering," and previously that of 
Baynard's Watering. By the last was meant the 
land dotted with pools held from the Manor of 
Westminster, by Ralph Baynard, the favourite of 
William the Conqueror, who resided at Baynard's 
Castle, at Blackfriars, on the north bank of the 
Thames. These pools, together with the Tyburn 
were converted into what is now styled the Ser- 
pentine, owing to its form, in 1733. Paddington, 

London Districts and Suburbs. 157 

originally written Padynton, was the settlement or 
town of the Psedings, a branch of the family who 
originally established themselves at, and gave their 
name to, Padcndene, in Surrey. Westbourne Park 
derived its name from the west bourne, or stream, 
that wended its way from the hermit's cell at 
" Kilbourne," in the direction of the " Baynard's 
Watering," and thence, after passing under Fulham 
(or Knights') Bridge, emptied itself into the Thames. 
Netting Hill is a corruption of Knolton Barn {Hill), 
a manor held by the De Veres, and subsequently by 
Robert Fenroper, an Alderman of the City, in the 
reign of Henry VIII. The name of Shepherd's 
Bush once more puts us in mind of the pastoral 
character of the environs of London in the days gone 
by. Acton is an Anglo-Saxon name for " Oak 
town," signifying the town built in the vicinity of the 
large Oak Forest. Gunnersbury denotes the town, 
or enclosed habitation, named after Gunylda, the 
niece of King Canute, who resided here during the 
Danish occupation of England. Kew was anciently 
described in documents as Kay-hoo, meaning a quay 
situated on a hoo, or hoe, the Scandinavian for a spit 
of land. Brentford signifies the ford over the 
Brent, a tributary of the Thames that takes its rise 
near Hendon. Isleworth means a manor beside 
the water. The first portion of the word comes from 
the Celtic, Isis, water ; the second is Anglo-Saxon 
for a manor. Staines owes its name to the boundary 
stone (Saxon stane, a stone) by the river, which dis- 
plays the words " God preserve the City of London." 

158 Names : and their Meaning. 

The date of this stone is 1280. Kingston was 
designated after the King's stone, now preserved 
within railings near the Town Hall, upon which the 
Saxon monarchs sat to be anointed. Shepperton 
is Old English for Shepherd's Town, or the abode of 
shepherds. The name of Twickenham denotes a 
hamlet situated between two tributaries of the 
Thames. Richmond was anciently known as 
Sheen, a Saxon term for " resplendent," in allusion 
to the palace erected by Edward I. When Henry 
Vn. rebuilt the palace, after its destruction by fire 
in 1479, he changed the name of the village to 
Richmond, in perpetuation of his title of Earl of 
Richmond prior to ascending the throne. This 
king died here in 1509. 

Chiswick is a corruption of " Cheoselwick," 
derived from the Anglo-Saxon ceosel, sand, gravel, 
and the Teutonic wick, a reach, from the root 
waes, a moist meadow. Hammersmith was ori- 
ginally Ha^nmersnieide, a Saxon village distinguished 
for the number of its smithies. The forename, 
Hammer, is Scandinavian for a village or small town. 
Kensington derived its name, or rather that of 
Kynsington, the Saxon for King's meadow, with the 
Old English suffix ton, a town, from a royal residence 
erected here in very early times. Brompton was 
so called from the broom-trees that grew in the 
neighbourhood of this healthy ton or town. Chelsea 
is described in old documents as " Chevelsey,' 
meaning shingle island. The first portion of the 
word claims the same etymology as Chiswick, viz., 

London Districts and Suburbs. 159 

ceosel, sand, gravel ; while the suffix ey, or ea, is also 
Anglo-Saxon, derived from oe, the Scandinavian for 
running water. These terminals always indicate 
water, and not unfrequently an island, properly so 
called ; as, for exam.ple, Anglesey, the Isle of the 
Angles. In the case of Hackney the terminal is 
expressive of a well-watered pasture, as has already 
been seen ; whereas in the cases of Chelsea and 
Battersea the allusion is not merely to their 
proximity to the Thames, but to their partial isola- 
tion in ancient times from the adjacent land on 
account of the creeks and inlets of the river. 
Battersea, we may here remark, is described in 
Domesday Book as " the Manor of Patricesy " ; but 
even this early name was a corruption of Petersey, 
or St. Peter's-ey, because it had belonged to the 
Abbey of St. Peter's, Westminster, from time out of 
mind. To return : Walham Green denotes a 
settlement of foreigners ; wal, being a modification of 
wahl, the Celtic for foreign, and ham, the Old English 
for a home. Fulham was formerly written " Fullen- 
hame," the Anglo-Saxon for a habitation of water- 
fowl. Parson's Green received its name from the 
parsonage in connection with Fulham Church that 
stood here previous to 1740. Percy Cross, Fulham, 
is a corruption of " Parson's Cross," referring to a 
cross on the roof of the parsonage on Parson's 
Green. Putney was originally " Puttaney," the 
Saxon for Putta's Isle ; whereas Wimbledon was 
Wibbandun, a Celtic term signifying the dun, or 
hill-fort, belonging to one Wibba. The name of 

i6o Names: and their Meaning. 

Wandsworth denotes a manor watered by the 
Wandle. Lambeth is a corruption of "Loamhithe," 
the Anglo-Saxon for haven of the loamy soil. 
Vauxhall is described in a document dated 1283 
as the Manor of Faukeshall. As, however, this 
manor was originally held by Fulke de Breante soon 
after the Conquest, it is highly probable that the 
designation was more correctly Fulke's Hall, after- 
wards corrupted into Faukeshall. The present 
spelling of the name may be traced back to the year 
1615, when the Hall, or Manor House, was occupied 
by Jane Vaux. 

Southwark is a modification of the Anglo-Saxon 
" Suthwerk," and the Danish Sydrike, literally the 
south fortification. During the Danish occupation 
of England this was a very strong position. 
Bermondsey was anciently written Beorimmdsey, 
signifying that the ey, or strip of land intersected by 
creeks [see Chelsea, &c.], belonged to Beormund, 
a prominent Anglo-Saxon lord. Horselydown is 
properly Horsadown, so called because this district 
was originally a down used for grazing horses. 
Walworth was named in honour of Sir William 
Walworth, Lord Mayor in 1380, who resided here. 
The Borough recalls the fact that the inhabitants 
of London south of the Thames were Burghers, and, 
therefore, entitled to the rights and privileges of 

Rotherhithe is Saxon for red haven, alluding to 
the colour of the soil. The name of Deptford 
indicates the deep ford over the Ravensbourne, 

London Districts and Suburbs, i6i 

which is now spanned by a bridge. Greenwich 
means the green town, or, more precisely, the 
verdant settlement beside the wick, or reach of the 
river [see Chiswick] ; whereas Woolwich was 
originally Hylwich, i.e., hill town. The Isle of 
Dogs is a corruption of " Isle of Ducks," so described 
in ancient documents on account of the number of 
wild-fowl always to be found there. New Cross 
derived its name from " The Golden Cross," a 
famous old coaching-house, rebuilt and renamed 
** The New Cross." Lewisham is properly Leawre- 
ham, or meadow-home. Blackheath is a corruption 
of Bleakheath. Eltham was formerly written ** Eald- 
ham," the Anglo-Saxon for the old home or dwelling, 
referring to the palace occupied by the English 
kings down to the time of James I. Catford is a 
contraction of Cattleford, signifying a shallow portion 
of the Ravensbourne easily forded by cattle. [The 
University town on the Isis received its present 
name of Oxford for a similar reason.] Beckenham 
denotes a home beside the beck or brook. Here 
again the Ravensbourne comes into notice. Syden- 
ham means the home or habitation in the south, 
The names of Forest Hill, Norwood, a contraction 
of Northwood, and Westwood remind us that the 
whole of this district was formerly a large tract of 
wooded land. Dulwich is a corruption of Dale- 
wich, the town in the dale. Honor Oak owes its 
designation to the boundary oak, under whose 
umbrageous shade Queen Elizabeth is said to have 
dined. Nunhead derived its name from "The 

i62 Names: and their Meaning, 

Nuns' Head," a place of holiday resort for 
Londoners, dating back more than two hundred 
years. Peckham was originally Beckham, a 
home distinguished for its becks or brooks. 
Brixton is a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon 
"Brigestan," the bridge of stone. Cambei'well 
derived its name from a miraculous well discovered 
close by the parish church dedicated to St. Giles, 
the patron of cripples. Cam is Celtic for crooked. 
In this instance the word applies to the cripples, 
or rather to their patron saint. [On the other hand, 
the University town of Cambridge was so called 
from the bridge over the Cam, a river distinguished 
for its winding course.] Stockwell is in allusion to 
the well found in the stoc, or wooded place, in Anglo- 
Saxon times. Kennington means a settlement in 
the King's meadow. One of the palaces of Henry 
Vni. stood here. Newington denotes the new 
town in the meadow. Finally, the name of St. 
George's Fields was derived from the neighbouring 
church of St. George the Martyr. 


THE Tearless Victory was the name given 
by Plutarch to the victory won by Archi- 
madus, King of Sparta, over the Argives and 
Arcadians in the year 367 B.C. without the loss of a 
single Spartan soldier. The Thundering Legion 
is the historical designation given to the Roman 
legion that overthrew the Alemanni in the year 
179 A.D., during a thunderstorm, which was supposed 
to have been sent in answer to the prayers offered up 
by the Christians. Not only did the storm strike 
terror into the minds of their enemies, but it also 
enabled the Romans to relieve their long-protracted 
thirst. The Hallelujah Victory received its name 
from the battle-cry of the newly-baptized Bretons, 
who were led to the attack by Germanus, Bishop of 
Auxerre, in the year 429. 

The Battle of the Standard, fought between the 
English and the Scots at Northallerton, August 29, 
1138, was so called because the standard of the former 
consisted of a tall crucifix borne upon a wagon. From 
the crucifix itself there was suspended the Consecrated 
Host enclosed in a pyx, while floating beneath were 
the bannerets of SS. Peter, Wilfrid, and John of 
Beverley. The Battle of the Herrings (Feb- 

164 Names: and their Meaning. 

ruary 12, 1429) obtained its title from the defeat 
suffered by the Due de Bourbon when attempting to 
intercept a convoy of salted herrings on their way 
to the English besieging Orleans. The Battle of 
Spurs is the more familiar designation of the Battle 
of Guinnegate, in which Henry VIII. defeated the 
Due de Longueville (August 16, 1513), because the 
French were said to have used their spurs more 
than their swords. This event, however, must not 
be confounded with The Battle of the Spurs of 
Gold, which took place between the French and 
the Flemish at Courtray, in Belgium, July 11, 1302. 
In this engagement the French were completely 
routed, and the spurs of upwards of eight thousand 
of the vanquished knights were left upon the field. 
These were collected and preserved as trophies of 
war in the Church of Notre Dame de Courtray. 

The Battle of Marignano (September 13, 1515) 
also bears the name of The Battle of the Giants, 
owing to the defeat by Francis I., King of France, of 
1,200 Swiss Guards, the allies of the Milanese. The 
Battle of Leipsic (October 16-18, 18 13) is known 
as The Battle of All the Nations, because, in 
addition to signalizing the overthrow of Napoleon 
and the deliverance of Germany, it was the champion 
battle of the nations of Europe. 


THAT New Year's Day is the first day of 
the recurring year goes without saying. 
Previous to 1752, when the year commenced 
on the 25th of March, its four recognized quarters 
were Whitsuntide, Lammastide, Martinmastide, and 
Candlemastide ; at the present time they are Lady 
Day, Midsummer, Michaelmas, and Christmas. Let 
us at once consider the meaning of these terms. 

Whitsuntide is the season ushered in by Whit 
Sunday, a corruption of White Sunday, because, 
during the primitive ages of the Church, all newly- 
baptized persons were required to attend Mass in 
white garments on this day. As every one knows, 
Whit Sunday commemorates the descent of the Holy 
Spirit upon the Apostles in the form of fiery tongues. 
It is highly probable, therefore, that the true mean- 
ing of Whit, or White, Sunday remains to be sought 
in connection with the wisdom symbolized by these 
fiery tongues. After all, the original spelling of this 
festival-name may have been Witan Sunday, the 
Anglo-Saxon for Wisdom Sunday ; just as the earliest 
English parliaments were styled Witanagemotes, 
or " meetings of the wise men." But to proceed. 
Iiamm^StidQ literally signified the season of First 

i66 Names: and their Meaning. 

Fruits ; since on Lammas Day, a term compounded 
out of the Anglo-Saxon hiaf, a loaf, and mcesse, a 
feast, (Aug. ist), it was formerly the custom to offer 
' bread made of new wheat in the churches. Martin- 
mas Day (Nov. 4th), latterly corrupted into Martle- 
mas Day, denotes the Feast of St. Martin, Bishop 
of Tours in the fourth century. Candlemas Day, 
or the Feast of the Purification (Feb. 2nd), 
which commemorates the presentation of the Infant 
in the Temple in accordance with the Jewish Law 
instituted 1490 B.C., because the early Christians 
walked in procession to Mass with lighted candles in 
their hands on this day. This religious observance 
was introduced by Pope Gelasius in the fifth century, 
as a literal bearing out of the words spoken by Holy 
Simeon when he took the child Jesus in his arms : 
' Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, 
according to Thy word ; For mine eyes have seen Thy 
salvation, which Thou hast prepared before the face 
of all people : A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the 
glory of Thy people Israel " {Luke ii. 29-32). It is 
still the practice in the Roman Catholic Church to 
make offerings of candles for the use of the altar on 
this day. Lady Day (Mar. 25th) is but another 
name for the Feast of the Annunciation, or the 
day upon which "the angel of the Lord appeared unto 
Mary," and announced that she was to become the 
Mother of the Son of God. Midsummer Day (June 
24th) expresses the midday of the year; while Michael- 
mas Day (Sept. 2gth) is the Feast of St. Michael, 
the patron saint of the Roman Catholic Church. As 

Notable Days and Festivals. 167 

the latter feast falls upon the first day of autumn, 
the hiring of labourers and domestics in the rural 
districts takes place at this time. Christmas 
Day is, to put it literally, the Feast Day of Christ, 
being the anniversary of the Nativity of the Blessed 

Innocents' Day, formerly known as Childermas 
Day (Dec. 28th), commemorates the Massacre of 
the Innocents by Herod. Twelfth Day (Jan. 6th), 
signifying the twelfth day after Christmas Day, bears 
the ecclesiastical name of the Epiphany, from the 
Greek Epiphaneia, a showing or appearance, because 
on this day the Infant manifested Himself to the 
Three Wise Men from the East who came to adore 
Him. In olden times the Feast of the Epiphany 
was kept with great solemnity in the churches during 
the day, followed by a festival of a more social 
character in the evening, thus accounting for the 
old-fashioned appellation of Twelfth Night. The 
7th of January was formerly called Distaff's Day, 
because the Christmas festivities having come 
to an end with Twelfth Night, the women were 
expected to return to their distaffs and other regular 
occupations on this day. Another name for the 
same occasion was Rock Day, rock being the Anglo- 
Saxon term for a distaff. Similarly, the first Monday 
after the Epiphany bore the designation of Plough 
Monday, on account of the men returning to the 
plough and the ordinary labours of the field on this 
day. Handsel Monday, the first Monday in the 
New Year, was so called by the Anglo-Saxong 

1 68 Names : and their Meaning. 

because then it was that handsels, or presents, were 
bestowed upon domestics and children. To the 
best of our knowledge the custom no longer 
exists in any portion of this country; or perhaps 
it may be more correct to say that its obser- 
vance has been universally transferred to Boxing 
Day (Dec. 26th), originally so styled from the 
opening of the various alms-boxes in the churches, 
and the distribution of their contents, which bore 
the name of a Christmas Dole, to the poor by the 
clergy on this day. Moreover, since heads of families 
usually gave their children and domestics small sums 
of money to drop into the boxes for the latter purpose 
on Christmas morning, we here trace the origin of 
the term Christmas Box, which nowadays applies 
to a present received by servants and others during 
the Christmas season. 

The word Lent is a contraction of the Old English 
lenten, and the Anglo-Saxon lencten, the spring, both 
derived from lencgan, to lengthen, because the long 
fast of the Christian Church occurs when the days 
begin to lengthen. Shrove Tuesday, also known 
as Pancake Tuesday, derived its name from the 
shriving or confessing imposed upon the faithful on 
this day. The custom of eating pancakes originated 
from the fact that this species of food afforded a stay 
to the appetite during the long hours of waiting in 
church to be shrived. The distribution of ashes on 
Ash Wednesday commemorates the passage in 
the third chapter of Genesis, where the Lord curses 
Adam in these words : " In the sweat of thy face 

Notable Days and Festivals. i6g 

thou shalt eat bread till thou return to the ground ; 
for dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return." 
Passion Sunday, which precedes Palm Sunday, is 
devoted to a general commemoration of the subject 
of Christ's Passion. Palm Sunday owes its name 
to the distribution of palms in the Roman Catholic 
Church, in allusion to the palms borne by the 
populace who accompanied the Redeemer into 
Jerusalem shortly before His betrayal by Judas. The 
week following Palm Sunday is called Passion 
Week, and also Holy "Week, because it contains 
the days upon which the incidents of Christ's Passion 
are particularly commemorated. Maunday Thurs- 
day is the first, not at all on account of the maimd, 
the Saxon term for an alms-basket, formerly pre- 
sented to the poor by the Lord (or rather by the 
Lady, "the loaf-giver") of the Manor, but from the 
ancient ceremony of washing the feet of poor persons, 
in imitation of Christ at the Last Supper, when He 
said, "Mandatum novum do vobis," &c., the French 
for Mandatum being MaiuidS. The ecclesiastical de- 
signation of this day is Holy Thursday, in com- 
memoration of the Agony and Bloody Sweat of the 
Saviour in the Garden of Gethsemane. Good Friday, 
the anniversary of the Crucifixion, was originally 
known as "God's Friday." The Anglo-Saxons usually 
called this day Long Friday, in consequence of the 
length of the Church service. Holy Saturday is 
the day upon which the Church commemorates the 
Burial of Christ. 

The word Easter bears in itself no Christian 
significance whatever, having been derived frpm 

170 Names : and their Meaning. 

Eoster, the goddess of light, or spring, in whose 
honour a festival was anciently held in the month 
of April. The Jewish festival corresponding to our 
Easter is called the Passover, in commemoration 
of the Destroying Angel having passed over the 
houses of the Israelites whose door-posts were 
marked with the blood of a lamb killed the previous 
night in accordance with the Divine command, when 
He smote the firstborn of the Egyptians in the year 
1491 B.C. Returning to the Christian Church, the 
Sunday after Easter is called Low Sunday, because 
it stands at the bottom of the Lenten Calendar; 
being the last day upon which Roman Catholics may 
fulfil their Easter obligation of receiving the Holy 
Communion. Sexagesima Sunday, Q,uinqua- 
gesima Sunday, and Q,uadragesima Sunday 
are situated in the Calendar respectively sixty, fifty, 
and forty days before Easter ; the terms expressing 
the Latin for those round numbers. 

The Feast of Whitsuntide, which we have already 
discussed, also bears the name of Pentecost, from 
the Greek pentckoste, the fiftieth day, in commemora- 
tion of the gift of the Law to the Israelites fifty days 
after their deliverance out of Egypt. Trinity 
Sunday, so called from the Latin trinitas, three, 
is the Festival of the Holy Trinity, i.e., the unity 
of the three persons, the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost, under one Godhead. Corpus Christl 
expresses the Latin for the Body of Christ, especially 
alluding to the Last Supper. As the Church con- 
sidered it out of keeping with the solemnity peculiar 

Notable Days and Festivals. 171 

to Holy Week, the celebration of this High Festival 
has been transferred to the Thursday after Trinity 
Sunday. The Sunday preceding Ascension Day is 
called Rogation Sunday because it ushers in the 
three Rogation Days, or days of preparation, con- 
formably to the Latin rogare, to beseech, for the 
Feast of the Ascension. We may conveniently add 
here that Ember Bays are those days of especial 
fasting and prayers that occur in each of the four 
seasons of the year, viz., the Wednesday, Thursday, 
and Saturday after the first Sunday in Lent, and the 
corresponding three days after the Feast of Whit- 
suntide, the 14th of September, and the 13th of 
December. The weeks in which these days occur 
are styled Ember Weeks ; the allusion to embers 
(Anglo-Saxon, cimyrie, hot ashes) being commemora- 
tive of the ancient custom of doing penance by the 
wearing of sackcloth and ashes. 

On Ascension Day the Church celebrates the 
Ascension of our Saviour ; while the Feast of the 
Assumption similarly reminds Roman Catholics of 
the consummation of the Virgin's mission upon earth 
by being assumed into Heaven. Holy Cross Day, 
Holy Rood Day, and the Feast of the Exalta- 
tion of the Cross are one and the same, the term 
Rood being Old English, derived from the Anglo- 
Saxon rod, for cross. This festival, which occurs on 
the 14th of September, celebrates the restoration of 
the Holy Cross of Calvary to Jerusalem in the year 
628. All Saints' Day (Nov. ist), is the day dedi- 
C9.ted to those whose sanctification during life merited 

172 Names : and their Meaning. 

their canonization by the Church after death ; while 
All Souls' Day (Nov. 2nd) is the day set apart for 
special prayers, having for their object the liberation 
of the suffering souls in Purgatory. The older desig- 
nation of the first-named was AUhallowes Day, in 
accordance with the Anglo-Saxon word haligan, holy. 
Allhallowe'en denoted the evening before, generally 
attended with sundry amusements in the social circle ; 
conspicuous among which was the cracking of nuts 
in large quantities in the fire, whence it received the 
name of pracknut Night. 

St. Valentine's Day (Feb. 14th) is sacred to the 
memory of Bishop Valentine, a Christian martyr 
beheaded at Rome on this day in the year 278. The 
custom among young people of sending poetical 
souvenirs to their sweethearts on the birthday of St. 
Valentine originated from the old notion that birds 
commenced to couple on this day : hence, a sweet- 
heart chosen on the 14th of February anciently bore 
the name of a Valentine. Nowadays, alas! the 
paper Valentines are all that remain to remind us 
of the fact. St. Swithin's Day (July 15th) per- 
petuates the memory of St. Swithin, the preceptor of 
King Ethelwulf and Bishop of Winchester, who 
died July 2, 862. The vulgar belief that if it rains 
on this day it will continue to rain for forty successive 
days is attributed to the tradition that when, despite 
the saint's dying request to be buried in the church- 
yard, the clergy took steps to disinter his body in 
order to remove it within the cathedral, a heavy 
downpour of rain necessitated a postponement of 

Notable Days and Festivals. 173 

their efforts on thirty-nine successive days, where- 
upon, after the fortieth attempt, they determined to 
allow the saint to remain where he lay. St. David's 
Day (Mar. ist) commemorates the victory won by 
the Welsh over the Saxons on the birthday of their 
Archbishop (born 490, died 554), in the year 540. It 
was in consequence of the Archbishop having ordered 
them on this occasion to place a leek in their caps, so 
as to distinguish one another from the invaders, that 
the Welsh afterwards adopted the leek as their 
national emblem in his honour. Comb's Mass, 
which in the north of Scotland, and Caithness more 
particularly, takes the place of our Whitsuntide, is 
the colloquial term for the Feast of St. Columba, 
Abbot of lona (born 521, died 597). 

Primrose Day (April 19th) is the anniversary of 
the death of Lord Beaconsfield (born 1804, died 1881). 
The abundant display of primroses on this day, par- 
ticularly on the part of the members of the Primrose 
League, established in 1884 in his honour, originated 
in the Queen's primrose wreath sent to the funeral of 
the great statesman, thus inscribed — ** His favourite 
flower." The custom of displaying a sprig of oak on 
Koyal Oak Day (May 29th) perpetuates the manner 
in which the Royalists welcomed the return to Eng- 
land of Charles IL on his birthday, May 29, 1651, 
in allusion to his concealment in the oak at Boscobel, 
after the Battle of Worcester, on the 3rd of Septem- 
ber previous. Guy Fawkes' Day keeps alive the 
incident of the Gunpowder Plot, by the timely dis- 
covery of which, November 5, 1605, the wholesale 

174 Names : and their Meaning. 

destruction of King James's Parliament was averted. 
The name of the chief conspirator was not Guy, but 
Guido Fawkes; his execution took place January 13, 

Arbor Day is an expression scarcely understood 
in this country, except, perhaps, at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, where the Transatlantic ceremony of planting 
trees, shrubs, and flowers within the school precincts, 
was publicly performed for the first time by the Mayor, 
June II, 1888. This annual observance prevails not 
only throughout the United States and Canada, but 
also in certain portions of British Columbia, where 
the trees have to be coaxed into growing. Fore- 
fathers' Day (Dec. 20th) is kept as a high holiday 
in New England, commemorative of the landing of 
the Pilgrim Fathers at New Plymouth in the year 
1620. Independence Day (July 4th), perpetuates 
the memory of the American Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, 1776; and Evacuation Day (Nov. 25th), 
the date of the evacuation of New York City by the 
British army, at the conclusion of the American 
War of Independence, 1783. 

The Sunday in Mid-Lent when the Pope blesses 
the Golden Rose, and children and domestics out at 
service visit their mothers to feast upon Mothering 
Cakes, really owes its name of Mothering Sunday 
to the ancient custom of making offerings to " Mother 
Church " on the afternoon of this day. St. Grouse's 
Day is a popular nickname given to the 12th of 
August (Grouse Day), when grouse shooting 
commences ; and St. Partridge's Day, to the 

Notable Days and Festivals. 175 

ist of September (Partridge Day), which 
opens the season for partridge shooting; while 
Sprat Day (Nov. 9th) is the first day for selhng 
sprats in London. The expression Red Letter 
Day, signifying a past event generally referred to 
with pleasure, found its origin in the old almanacks, 
where the Festivals and Saints' Days were printed 
in red ink and the rest in black. This arrangement 
still obtains in Roman Catholic countries. 

Holiday is a corruption of Holy Day, or a day 
originally set apart by the Roman Catholic Church 
for the celebration of some feast in commemoration 
of an important event, or in honour of a par- 
ticular saint. The word Almanac, also written 
Almanack, is derived from the Arabic al manah, 
to count ; whereas Calendar is a contraction of the 
Latin calendarium, an account-book. 



SEVERAL of our textile fabrics are indebted for 
their names to the places where they were 
first manufactured. As examples: Damask 
Linens and Silks originally came from Damascus ; 
Muslin from Moosul, in Mesopotamia ; Nankeen 
from Nankin, in China ; Calico from Calicut, on 
the Malabar Coast; Cashmere from the valley of 
Cashmere, in India ; Dimity from Damietta, in 
Egypt ; Valence from Valencia, in Spain ; and 
Holland from the Netherlands. Cambric was 
first made at Cambray; Shalloon at Chalons; and 
Tarlatan at Tarare : each of these towns being 
situated in France. Worsted formerly comprised 
the staple industry of a town of that name in 
Norfolk ; Cobourg is brought from Cobourg, in 
Germany ; while Angola comes from the Por- 
tuguese territory so called on the West Coast of 
Africa. The coarse woollen cloth known as Frieze 
was originally imported from Friesland. 

The name of Cotton is a modification of the 
Arabic qoion ; Silk is derived from the Latin 
sericus, soft; and Satin from the Italian seta, a 
species of silk distinguished for its gloss and close 

Textiles, Embroideries, and Lace, 177 

texture. Variegated silk or other stuff bears the 
name of Brocade in accordance with the Italian 
verb broccare, to prick, to stitch, to figure ; Damas- 
sin is a damask cloth interwoven with flowers, or 
silver, or gold ; Sarsanet is a fine silk, originally 
made by the Saracens ; Mohair is properly Moor- 
hair, or the hair of the Angola goat introduced into 
Spain by the Moors ; whereas Moire Antique is 
the French description of a watered silk worked up 
in the manner of that worn in the olden time. 
Chintz is a Persian word signifying spotted or 
stained ; TaflFety, or TaflFeta, is a modification of 
the Persian tdftah, derived from taftan, to spin; Linen 
is an Anglo-Saxon rendering of the Latin linum, 
flax ; and Lawn is simply fine linen bleached upon 
a lawn instead of the customary drying-ground. 
Pompadour received its name from Madame le 
Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV. of France 
(born 1721, died 1764), who was the first to introduce 

Swansdown is, of course, made from the down 
of swans ; Moleskin is not the skin of the mole, 
but a strong cotton fabric or fustain having a smooth 
surface like the mole-skin ; Merino is manufactured 
from the wool of the Merino sheep ; and Alpaca 
from that of the alpaca, a species of llama found in 
Peru. Kersey is a corruption of Jersey, indicative 
of the place where this favourite woollen material 
was first produced. The dyed cotton stuff known 
as Gingham, out of which umbrellas were formerly 
made — hence the slang term for those articles— is 


178 Names : and their Meaning. 

so called after the native Javanese name pronounced 
ginggang. We may also conveniently add here that 
Blankets received their designation from Thomas 
Blanket, who first made them at Bristol as long ago 
as the year 1340. 

The name of Velvet traces its origin from the 
Latin villus, shaggy hair ; and Plush from pilus, a 
hair. Velveteen is a cotton velvet or a cloth in 
imitation of velvet. Fustian, derived from the 
Spanish fiistan, is a generic term for the twilled 
cotton stuffs of which velvet, corduroy, &c., are the 
chief. Grogram is a corruption of the French 
gros-grain, meaning coarse-grained ; whereas Cordu- 
roy is properly Cord du roy, King's Cord, so called 
because, owing to its ribbed or corded surface, it 
was at one time considered superior to any other 
kind of cloth intended for masculine wear. Pina- 
cloth, a material much used for ladies' dresses, 
is manufactured from the fibres of the pine-apple 
leaf; just as Grass-cloth is extensively worked up 
into light jackets for Indian wear from the Grass 
Cloth plant which abounds in China, Assam, and 
Sumatra. T-cloth comprises a special kind of 
cloth expressly manufactured in this country for 
exportation to India, and distinguished by a T 
marked upon it ; while Broadcloth simply bears 
its name on account of its unusual width. The 
name of Twill is a modification of the German 
Zwillich, signifying trellis-work, and founded upon 
iwillen, to separate in two, since this cloth presents 
the appearance of diagonal lines or ribs upon its 

Textiles, Embroideries, and Lace. 179 

surface. Tweed is a cloth made in the neighbour- 
hood of the river Tweed ; but it did not always bear 
this name. The cloth is really twill, and the altered 
designation arose out of the word being blotted in an 
invoice sent to James Locke, of London, who, con- 
ceiving it to look like " Tweed," suggested that it 
might as well stand for the name of the cloth as 
any other. Plaid owes its name to the Gaelic 
peallaid, a sheepskin out of which the over- 
garments of the Highlanders were originally made. 
Check is but another name for Plaid, meaning 
checkered, i.e., marked with variegated or crossed 
lines ; as, for example, a draught-board, of which the 
counters are, on account of their cross movements, 
called Checkers or Chequers. 

The word Embroidery is a modern substantive 
evolved out of the old verb " Embordering," by 
which was meant the adornment of any material 
with a border. Tapestry is derived, through the 
French tapisserie, from the Latin tapes, a carpet. 
The celebrated Bayeaux Tapestry, supposed to 
have been the work of Matilda, queen of William 
the Conqueror, and her maidens, took its name from 
the Norman town where it was discovered in 1728. 
Gobelin Tapestry preserves the memory of the 
Brothers Gobelin, the great French dyers (flourished 
1470) whose house in Paris was acquired in 1662 
by Louis XIV. for the production of tapestry and 
other works of ornamental design suitable for the 
adornment of palaces under the direction of M. 
Colbert. The more ancient name for Tapestry was 

i8o Names : and their Meaning. 

that of Arras, in allusion to the town situated in 
the French Netherlands whence it chiefly came. 

Having regard to Lace, it will suffice to observe 
that Lisle, Chantilly, Brussells, Honiton, &c., 
severally identify the Lace with the local centres 
where its manufacture is principally carried on ; 
that Valenciennes is made at Valenciennes, in 
France ; and that Colbertine derives its name from 
M. Colbert, the superintendent of the French Royal 
Lace Factories established by Louis XIV. in the 
seventeenth century. Lace is styled Point-lace 
^'hen it is worked with the point of a needle ; and 
Pillow-lace when produced by twisted threads 
around a series of pins arranged on a cushion. 
The latter, which has so greatly superseded the 
more costly point-lace, is said to have been the 
invention of Barbara Uttmann, of St. Annaberg, in 
the year 1561. The word Lace itself comes from 
the Latin laques, a noose or snare. Tulle, a species 
of network or lace, is indebted for its designation 
to the French town of that name where it was first 


SO far from being chosen at random these are 
frequently the result of much premeditation. 
Voltaire (born 1694, died 1778), whose proper 
name was Arovet, composed out of this and the 
initials L. I. {l& jeune) the anagram by which all his 
writings are identified. Again, Barry Cornwall is 
an imperfect anagram founded upon Bryan Waller 
Procter (born 1790, died 1874), the poet's real 
name; whereas Yendys, the signature of Sydney 
Dobell (born 1824, died 1874), was merely the 
Christian name reversed. To cite an instance of 
another class : Charles James Apperley, of Denbigh- 
shire, author of " The Chase, the Turf, and the 
Road," and a regular contributor to The Quarterly 
Review could scarcely have hit upon a more fitting 
pseudonym than that of Nimrod, who "was a 
mighty hunter before the Lord," alluded to in 
Genesis x. 9. Such a choice will be the better 
understood, perhaps, when it is mentioned that out 
of regard for the sporting tastes of his esteemed 
contributor, Mr. Pittman, the proprietor of the 
Quarterly kept a stud of hunters for his especial 
use. Equally appropriate was the pseudonym 
Zadkiel, denoting the angel of the planet Jupiter, 

i82 Names : and their Meaning. 

adopted by Lieutenant Richard James Morrison, 
author of "The Prophetic Almanack," which still 
survives as an annual publication. 

Washington Irving selected the noni de plume of 
Knickerbocker for his " History of New York," in 
allusion to the wide breeches worn by the original 
settlers of that city. The true account of how 
Charles Lamb (born 1775, died 1834) adopted the 
name of Elia for his "Essays" is as follows: — 
His first contribution to the " London Magazine " 
being a description of the Old South Sea House, in 
which he had spent several months of his noviciate 
as a clerk, he at the very moment of appending his 
signature, bethought himself of a gay, light-hearted 
foreigner who used to flutter about there ; and, as a 
mere matter of whim, he wrote down the name of 
that individual instead of his own. Boz, the early 
nom, de plume of Charles Dickens (born 1812, died 
1870), arose out of the nickname of Moses conferred 
by him upon a younger pet brother in honour of 
Moses Primrose in the " Vicar of Wakefield." The 
other children of the family, however, found it 
impossible to utter a nearer pronunciation to the 
name than ** Bozes," which presently became 
shortened in ** Boz " ; and the latter hit the fancy 
of our young author sufficiently to lead him to its 
adoption at that period of his literary career when 
he lacked the confidence to appear before the world 
under his own name. Out of an analogous incident 
sprang Ouida, the pseudonym of one of the most 
widely-read lady novelists of the present day. Her 

Literary Pseudonyms. 183 

actual name is Louise de la Ramee (bom in 1840) ; 
but remarking the infantile conversion of Louise 
into ** Ouida," she was struck by the novelty of such 
a nom de plume, and immediately adopted it. 
Another lady novelist of probably higher attain- 
ments assumed the name of George Sand (born 
1804, died 1876) as the outcome of her attachment 
to a young student named Jules Sand, or rather 
Sandeau, with whom she collaborated in the pro- 
duction of ** Rose et Blanche," her first novel. The 
real name of this lady was Mdlle. Dupin, afterwards 
changed by marriage to Madame Dudevant. 

It may be deemed interesting to learn also that 
Artemus Ward was an actual name borne by an 
eccentric showman with whom Charles Farrar 
Browne, the American humorist (born 1834, died 
1867) often came into personal contact ; and, 
further, that Samuel Langhorne Clemens (born in 
1835) owes his singular pseudonym to the fact of 
having been employed in early life as a pilot on one 
of the Mississippi River steamboats. The nautical 
phrase for taking soundings, Mark Twain, or, in 
other words, *' mark two fathoms," suggested the 
name under which the works of the latter have 
become widely popular on both sides of the Atlantic. 

Finally, not every one is aware that F. M. Allen, 
the pseudonym of Mr. Edmund Downey, author of 
"The Voyage of the Ark," "Through Green Glasses," 
and some other books of Irish humour, was his wife's 
maiden name. 


A PORTRAIT, so called from the Latin pvo- 
trahere, to draw forth, is produced by the 
individual skill of an artist; whereas a 
Photograph, conformably to the two Greek words 
photos, light, and graphcin, to write, is obtained by 
the action of sunlight upon a chemically prepared 
surface, such as silver, zinc, copper, glass, or paper. 
The earliest examples of portraiture were styled 
Miniatures because they originated from the head 
of the Virgin or of some well-known saint in- 
troduced into the initial letters of illuminated rubies 
by the Miniatori, a number of monks noted for 
their skill in painting with minium, or red lead. 
The reason why the portraits of monarchs are 
represented on coins and medals in Profile dates 
back to Antigonus, one of the generals of Alexander 
the Great, who, having lost one eye, ordered his 
likeness to be drawn from a side view. This 
occurred in the year 330 B.C. The term is a 
corruption, by way of the French profil, of the 
Latin perfiluui, compounded out of per, through, b}', 
and jiluni, a line, a thread. A profile cut out of 

Counterfeit Presentments. 185 

black paper bears the name of a Silhouette in 
honour of Etienne de Silhouette, the French Comp- 
troller of Finance under Louis XV. (born 1709, 
died 1767), who was the first to have his features 
outlined in this manner. 

The earlier descriptions of photographs were 
respectively styled Talbotypes, Daguerreotypes, 
and Ferriertypes, after the names of their in- 
ventors. The smaller-sized photographs at present 
in use were originally described as Cartes-de-Visite 
from the practice of the Due de Parma, who, while 
staying at Nice in the year 1857, had his photograph 
produced on the back of his visiting cards. The 
designation Vignette, which expresses the French 
diminutive of vine or tendril, owes its origin to the 
vine-leaves or branches that properly surround the 
photographs produced in this style. A photograph of 
the larger size is called a Cabinet because it forms 
a picture suited to the walls of a cabinet or very 
small room. A three-quarter-length photograph or 
portrait is styled among artists a Kit-Kat, in 
allusion to the portraits of the original members 
of the " Kit-Kat Club," which were painted by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller for Jacob Tonson, the secretary, to 
suit the dimensions of the room in which the Club 
was latterly held at his villa at Barn Elms. 
Similarly, a canvas measuring 28 inches by 36 
inches is styled a Kit-Kat Canvas because this 
was the uniform size of the famous ** Kit-Kat Club 
portraits." We may as well add here that the 
Kit-Kat Club derived its name from Christopher 

1 86 Names: and their Meaning. 

Kat, a pastrycook of King Street, Westminster, in 
whose house the thirty noblemen and gentlemen 
who formed themselves into a Club for the purpose 
of promoting the Protestant Succession in the year 
1703 held their first meetings. 


IN our article on Tavern Signs we confined our- 
selves to a general survey of the subject ; we 
now purpose to consider the significance of a 
few Inn Signs that are, or were once, peculiar to 
London. Commencing with the celebrated Tabard, 
in Southwark, so dear to the memory of Chaucer 
and his Canterbury Pilgrims, that sign was derived 
from the rich tunic or mantle of the same name 
worn by military nobles over their armour and 
emblazoned with heraldic devices. The Tabard 
still forms part of the costume of the heralds. La 
Belle Sauvage, on Ludgate Hill, was, as is evident 
from a legal document dated the thirty-first year of 
the reign of Henry VI., known both as "Savage's 
Inn" and "The Bell and the Hoop." The latter 
was the actual sign, representing a bell within a 
hoop, of the Inn which was kept by Isabelle 
Savage ; and the combination of these two names 
resulted in the punning title of "La Belle Sauvage.'' 
The Swan with Two Necks, in Lad Lane, was 
a corruption of " The Swan with Two Nicks." As 
most Londoners are aware, it has long been the 
custom of the Vintners' Company, in their annual 
" swan-upping" expeditions on the Thames, to mark 

1 88 Names: and their Meaning. 

their swans with a couple of nicks or notches in the 
bill, so as to distinguish them from the royal swans, 
whose nicks are five in number, viz., two lengthways 
and three across on the bill. That this character- 
istic mark of the Vintners' Company should have 
been chosen for a London Inn Sign is scarcely 

The sign of The Elephant and Castle, on the 
south side of the river, was adopted from the crest 
of the Cutlers' Company, into whose trade ivory, 
and consequently elephants' tusks, enters very con- 
siderably. With regard to the " Castle," this was 
in mediaeval times inseparable from the idea of an 
elephant, owing to the part which these huge 
animals anciently took in the Punic wars. Another 
" Elephant and Castle " exists in the parish of 
St. Pancras, near King's Cross; but this sign 
originated from the discovery, in 1714, of the 
skeleton of an elephant in the neighbourhood of 
Battle Bridge. A flint-headed spear lay beside the 
remains, and from this it is reasonable to conjecture 
that the animal must have been killed by the Britons 
who were led by Queen Boadicea against the Romans 
in the year 61 a.d. 

The Horse Shoe, Tottenham Court Road, came 
into existence as a sign from the large horse-shoes 
nailed up at the entrance of Messrs. Meux's brewery 
adjoining. The shoes are also conspicuous on the 
trappings of the dray-horses belonging to that 
establishment ; in short, they comprise the trade- 
mark of the firm. The Blue Posts, at the corner 

London Inns and Gardens. 189 

of Hanway Street, nearly opposite the " Horse 
Shoe," arose out of the fancy of an old innkeeper 
to distinguish his hostelry from all others by causing 
the chain-posts abutting on the road to be painted 
blue instead of white, which eccentricity fully served 
the purpose of a sign. There is another " Blue 
Posts " in Cork Street, Piccadilly, and yet another 
in Southampton Buildings, Holborn ; but the first- 
named is the oldest of the three, and therefore the 
original. The Black Posts, Bond Street, may 
also be regarded as a modified imitation of the 
example set by the original " Blue Posts." The 
Three Chairmen, at the foot of Hay Hill, Berkeley 
Square, and The Running Footman, in Hayes' 
Mews, close by, were so denominated from being 
the resort of gentlemen's servants in the days when 
Sedan Chairs (these chairs were first made at 
Sedan, in France, which accounts for their name, 
exactly as Bath Chairs were originally introduced 
at Bath during the last century, when fashionable 
invalids flocked to the West of England to drink the 
Bath and Cheltenham waters) and Running Foot- 
men preceded the use of private carriages by the 

The Mother Red Cap, Camden Town, per- 
petuates the memory of a notorious poisoner known 
as " Mother Damnable, the Consort of the Devil," 
who lived at Hungerford Stairs during the period of 
the Commonwealth. The Mother Shipton, Haver- 
stock Hill, was built at the time when the prophecies 
of Mrs. Evan Preece, of Glamorganshire, South 

I go Names : and their Meaning. 

Wales, were in everybody's mouth. This old woman 
was said to have had a son by the devil, whereupon, 
in return for the sacrifice of her honour, she was 
accorded the gift of prophecy. When we state that 
she correctly predicted the deaths of Lord Percy, 
Wolsey, and other historical personages, the ex- 
istence of Mother Shipton in this country must be 
regarded as a time-honoured if not exactly as a 
well-founded institution. The Adelaide, Haver- 
stock Hill, was named in honour of the consort of 
William IV., and The York and Albany after the 
title of Frederick, the second son of George III. 

Jack Straw's Castle, Highbury, as also the 
celebrated hostelry of the same name on Hampstead 
Heath, was so called after Jack Straw, one of the 
leaders in Wat Tyler's insurrection, who pulled 
down the Priory of the Knights of St. John of 
Jerusalem at the former place, and whose habi- 
tation was a hole formed out of the hill-side on the 
site of the present Inn at the latter place. The 
Spaniards, Highgate, was originally the private 
residence of the Spanish Ambassador to James I. 
The Whittington Stone, Highgate Hill, took its 
sign from the stone upon which the world-famous 
Dick Whittington sat down to rest the while he 
listened to the bells of Bow Church pleasantly 
chiming across the open fields. The stone is still 
to be seen on the edge of the pavement exactly 
opposite the public-house. 

The sign of The Thirteen Cantons, King Street, 
Golden Square, was adopted in compliment to the 

London Inns and Gardens. 191 

thirteen Protestant cantons of Switzerland, and to 
the numerous natives of that country who at one 
time took up their residence in the parish of Soho. 
During the last decade or two the Swiss population 
has given way in a large degree to French immi- 
grants. The North Pole, Wardour Street, dates 
back to the time when our national interest in Arctic 
discovery was at its height ; exactly in the same 
manner as The South Australian, Hans Place, 
Chelsea, was established in the year that first wit- 
nessed the colonization of Southern Australia. 

The World's End, in the King's Road, Chelsea, 
a favourite house of entertainment during the Resto- 
ration period, received its name on account of its 
distance from town. The Fulham Bridge, at 
Knightsbridge, recalls the original name of the 
structure which crossed the Westbourne in this 
neighbourhood {See Knightsbridge). The Devil, 
Fleet Street, received its name from its situation, 
nearly opposite the Church of St. Dunstan, and 
the traditional account of that saint having seized 
the Evil One by the nose with a pair of hot 
pincers. The Three Nuns, Aldgate, well serves 
the purpose of reminding us of the existence 
of an ancient priory inhabited by the nuns of 
St. Clare in this neighbourhood (see Minories). 
The White Conduit Tavern, Islington, occupies 
the site of the famous old White Conduit House, 
a popular place of resort previous to its demolition in 
1849. This was the Conduit which had served the 
Carthusian Friars with water from ancient times. 

192 Names : and their Meaning. 

The prenomen " white " applied to the house and was 
derived from the appearance of its exterior. The 
Belvedere, Pentonville Hill, originally contained a 
small structure on the roof known by this name for 
sitting under and enjoying the prospect across the 
fields. The term Belvidere is Italian, signifying 
" a fine prospect," and is equally applicable to a 
summer arbour and the flat roof of a house. The 
Clown Tavern, St. John Street Road, Clerkenwell, 
owes its sign to the fact that it was formerly kept by 
a clown engaged at Sadler's Wells Theatre, in its 
immediate vicinity. The well-known Hmnmuns's 
Hotel, generally alluded to as Hunununs's, Covent 
Garden, derived this title from its erection on the 
site of a Humnmns, the Arabic name for a sweating 
bath, kept by a Mr. Small some time during the 
seventeenth century. 

Reference to the above Inns and Taverns peculiar 
to London compels us almost to say a few words 
concerning those popular places of outdoor resort 
of which we have all read and heard so much. 
Sadler's Wells marks the position of an ancient 
holy well whose waters were famous for working 
extraordinary cures. In the year 1683, after having 
been stopped up since the Reformation, a Mr. Sadler, 
while digging for gravel in his garden, discovered 
this well, and thereafter it bore his name. In order 
to profit by the re-established fame of this well, 
Sadler converted his residence into a house of enter- 
tainment under the title of " Sadler's Musick 
House." Here were provided tight-rope dancing. 

London Inns and Gay dens. 193 

conjuring, tumbling, and a variety of other diver- 
sions, always accompanied by music. Sixty years 
later, probably after the death of Mr. Sadler, the 
property passed into the hands of Mr. Rosoman, 
who turned it into a theatre, but retained the name 
of the old proprietor. The present theatre was 
built by Mrs. Bateman in 1879. Highbury Barn, 
first a small ale and cake house, and afterwards a 
place of public entertainment, including a theatre, 
was so called from its occupying the site of a barn- 
like structure originally belonging to the ancient 
Priory of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
and left standing after the incursion of Jack Straw 
and his rebellious companions [see ante, Jack 
Straw's Castle]. Vauxhall Gardens derived 
their title from the Hall, or Manor-house, of Jane 
Vaux, which they displaced [see Vauxhall] ; 
Ranelagh Gardens occupied the site of Ranela^h 
House, the seat of an Irish nobleman of that title; 
while Cremorne Gardens were named after Thomas 
Dawson, Lord Cremorne, whose town house and 
grounds they covered. Whatever may have been 
the moral character of these places, their removal 
has had the effect of effacing one phase of Metro- 
politan amusement entirely ; but it has also been 
instrumental in introducing another — namely, the 
Music-Halls. The first London music-hall was 
" The Canterbury," Westminster Bridge Road, 
which grew out of The Canterbury Arms, 
displaying the arms of the city of Canterbury in 
the year 1848. 

^3 . 


THE list of historical personages whose sobri- 
quets and nicknames are even better known 
than their proper names is very large ; we 
must, therefore, content ourselves with a random 
selection of the principal. 

Commencing with the ladies : Ayesha (born 6io, 
died 677), the second and favourite wife of Mahomet, 
was called The Mother of Believers because the 
prophet styled himself ** The Father of Believers." 
Fair Helen was the wife of Menelaos, King of 
Sparta, by whose guest, Paris, the Trojan prince, 
she was carried off. This incident was the imme- 
diate cause of the famous siege of Troy which 
lasted ten years. Fair Rosamond (died 1154) 
was the mistress of Henry II., who kept her in a 
secluded bower that could be approached only by a 
labyrinth or maze in the neighbourhood of the royal 
palace at Woodstock. One day, however, the queen 
artfully discovered her way thereto by means of a 
silken thread attached to the garment of the faith- 
less husband, after which she soon procured the 
removal of her rival by poison. Joan, the wife of 
Edward the Black Prince, was styled The Fair 
Maid of Kent (died 1385) on account of her beauty 

Sobriquets and Nicknames. 195 

and being the only daughter of the Earl of Kent. 
The Holy Maid of Kent was Elizabeth Barton, a 
religious enthusiast, hanged at Tyburn in 1534. A 
brave, if not a beautiful, woman of historic renown 
was the Countess of Dunbar and March, who, in 
the year 1337, completely defied the attempt of the 
Earl of Salisbury to capture Dunbar Castle during 
a siege of nineteen weeks, at the end of which the 
latter was forced to retire with ignominy. This 
warlike heroine is generally alluded to under the 
name of Black Agnes, in consequence of her 
swarthy complexion. A less fortunate Scottish 
heroine who fell at the Battle of Ancrum Moor 
beside her English adversary, General Evers, whom 
she had killed, was Fair Maiden Lilliard. She 
was buried on the site of the conflict ; and her 
epitaph, as follows, is known to every man, woman, 
and child in that part of the country : — 

*' Fair Maiden Lilliard lies under this stene, 
Little was her stature, but great was her fame ; 
Upon the English loons she laid many thumps, 
And when her legs were cutted off, she fought upon her 

The spot where she fell still bears the name of 
" Lilliard's Edge." Then, of course, we have the 
celebrated Joan of Arc, The Maid of Orleans 
(born 1412, burnt at the stake 1431), who placed 
herself at the head of the attacking party and 
effected the capture of the city of Orleans from the 
English. Neither must we omit a passing allusion 

ig6 Names : and their Meaning. 

to Augustine Zaragossa, better known as The Maid 
of SaragOSSa, owing to the signal heroism which 
she displayed during the siege of her native city in 
1808-9. The Honourable Elizabeth St. Leger, the 
niece of Colonel Anthony St. Leger, who founded 
the Stakes named after him in connection with Don- 
caster races, is known to posterity as The Lady 
Freemason, because on one occasion she over- 
heard the proceedings of an assembly of Freemasons, 
and, being discovered, was, as the only way of 
meeting an unprecedented difficulty, duly elected a 
member of the craft and initiated into its peculiar 
rites and ceremonies. Madame Jenny Lind Gold- 
schmidt (born 1821, died 1887) was styled The 
Swedish Nightingale on account of her vocal 
genius and her birth in the city of Stockholm. The 
now popular society actress, Mrs. Langtry, bears the 
somewhat punning though highly complimentary 
sobriquet of The Jersey Lily, because she was 
born in Jersey and her Christian name is Lillie. 

Heraclitus of Ephesus (flourished 500 B.C.) was 
known as The Weeping Philosopher, because he 
spent the latter years of his life in grieving over the 
folly of men ; on the other hand, Democritus of 
Abdera (born 460 B.C., died 357 B.C.) merited the 
surname of The Laughing Philosopher, because 
he jeered at the feeble powers of man, whose every act 
was in the hands of fate. Duns Scotus, the Scottish 
schoolman (born 1272, died 1308), was styled The 
Subtle Doctor by reason of his learning; while 
St. Thomas Aquinas (born 1227, died 1274) was 

Sobriquets and Nicknames. 197 

denominated The Angelic Doctor because he be- 
longed to the priesthood. St. Paul of the Cross 

is the name by which Paul Francis (born 1694, died 
1775), founder of the religious Order of the Pas- 
sionists, is best known. 

The famous English outlaw who flourished be- 
tween the years 1180 and 1247, and whose real name 
was Robert Fitz-ooth, Earl of Huntingdon, adopted 
the style of Robin Hood, in deference to the 
example set by the people of Nottinghamshire, who, 
while dropping the Fitz, corrupted the Robert into 
Robin and the 00th into Hood. Little John was 
properly called John Little, but being a great, stal- 
wart fellow, the outlaw chief took a fancy to invert 
his name for the sake of the contrast. We can 
quite understand " the merry men of Sherwood 
Forest " cultivating an objection to hard-sounding 
words ; therefore it could not have been long before 
William Scathelocke, another prominent member of 
Robin Hood's band, found his name reduced to the 
more euphonious form of Will Scarlet. Friar 
Tuck was so called because his habit was tucked in 
around the waist by a girdle. 

Sixteen-string Jack was the name popularly 
bestowed upon Jack Rann, a notorious highwayman 
hanged in 1791, owing to the sixteen tags he wore on 
his breeches, eight at each knee. Another notorious 
representative of the great family of Jacks, good, 
bad, and otherwise, was the Marquis of Waterford, 
commonly known as Spring-heel Jack, from his 
habit of frightening people by springing upon them 

igS Names : and their Meaning. 

out of obscure corners after nightfall during the 
early part of the present century. Gentleman 
Jack and Gentleman Smith were the titles re- 
spectively borne by John Bannister and William 
Smith, both actors of the century gone by. The 
former was noted for his straightforward dealings 
with his fellow-men in private life, the latter for his 
gentlemanly deportment on the stage. 

Who has not heard of Admirable Crichton? 
This extraordinary Scottish prodigy, James Crichton 
(born 1560, died 1583), is said to have given such 
early proofs of his learning that the degree of Master 
of Arts was conferred upon him at the age of four- 
teen. In addition to his classical knowledge, he was 
a poet, a musician, a sculptor, an artist, an actor, a 
brilliant conversationalist, a good horseman, and an 
excellent fencer. Surely the possessor of such 
varied accomplishments deserved a better fate than 
that which befell him in the very prime of his life ! 
He was stabbed by a band of masked desperadoes led 
by his own pupil, Vincenzo Gonzaga, the son of the 
Duke of Mantua. A genius of a totally different stamp 
was George Robert Fitzgerald, better known, owing 
to his duelling proclivities, as Fighting Fitzgerald. 
This individual was one of the most infamous 
characters of the last century. No enemy ever 
escaped him with life ; being a sure shot and an 
expert swordsman, his intense love of gambling and 
duelling, united to a haughty and overbearing dis- 
position, habitually prompted him to shed the blood 
of his fellow-men without the least compunction. 

Sobriquets and Nicknames. igg 

A celebrated leader of fashion during the early 
part of this century was Robert Coates, popularly 
styled Romeo Coates in consequence of his fond- 
ness for playing the part of Romeo at amateur 
theatricals. Among other past notabilities of fashion 
we may mention Beau Fielding, Beau Brummell, 
and Beau Nash, severally so styled from the 
foppishness of their attire. The last-named (born 
1674, died 1761) was a notorious diner-out, and for 
some time Master of the Ceremonies at the fashion- 
able Assembly Rooms at Bath, where he provided a 
series of entertainments the like of which had never 
been known. On this account he was surnamed 
King of Bath. Alas ! though literally the "monarch 
of all he surveyed " during the brief period of his 
popularity, when at length Death claimed him for 
his own he was as poor as the meanest of King 
George's subjects. 

But Richard "Beau" Nash was not the only British 
subject who has rejoiced in the erstwhile title of King. 
As examples : Richard Oastler, of Bradford (born 
1789, died 1861), merited the style of The Factory 
King, in recognition of his success in promoting the 
" Ten Hours' Bill " ; George Hudson, of Yorkshire 
(born 1800, died 1871), chairman of the Midland 
Railway Company, was denominated The Railway 
King, because in one day he cleared the large sum 
of £100,000 by fortunate railway speculations ; John 
Law, the projector of the Mississippi Scheme (born 
1671, died 1729), bore the name of The Paper 
King, than which, by the way, nothing could have 

200 Names: and their Meaning. 

been more appropriate. The huge fortunes antici- 
pated by the subscribers to this wholesale fraud 
appeared promising enough upon paper, or, to put it 
more precisely, in the prospectus ; but hard cash 
there was none, saving such as passed into the pockets 
of the wily promoter. In our own decade we have 
The Nitrate King, the sobriquet of Colonel J. T. 
North, of Eltham, consequent upon his successful 
speculations in the commodity with which his name 
has become associated. 

John Kyrle, of Ross, Herefordshire (born 1637, 
died 1754), well known for his artistic tastes and acts 
of benevolence, was styled by Pope The Man of 
Ross, because he was constantly effecting improve- 
ments for the public good in the neighbourhood of 
his estate. Another local philanthropist was Dr. 
William Gordon, of Hull (born 1801, died 1849), 
whose surname, The People's Friend, so well 
merited during life, literally followed him to the 
grave, where it appears chiselled on his tombstone. 
Perhaps the greatest benefactor of the human race 
with whom we have become practically acquainted 
in modern times, was Father Mathew (born 1790, 
died 1856), universally styled The Apostle of 
Temperance, beside whom, judging from results, 
all our latter-day temperance advocates sink into 
insignificance. He was also made the recipient of 
the sobriquet The Sinner's Friend, on account of 
the special interest he took in the fallen and the 
outcast ; even the most degraded always met with a 
welcome at his hands. 

Sobriquets and Nicknames. 201 

The Musical Small-coal Man was the popular 
designation of Thomas Britton (born 1650, died 
1714), a vendor of small coals, which he carried in a 
sack over his shoulder and cried in the streets, who 
on Thursday evenings gave a series of high-class 
instrumental concerts in the room over his shed in 
Clerkenwell, assisted by the best talent he could 
procure, that attracted all fashionable London. This 
gifted person was actually frightened to death by the 
freak of a ventriloquist. Thomas Rawlinson, the 
bibliopolist (born 1681, died 1725), was appro- 
priately enough styled Tom Folio. The Infant 
Koscius (born 1791, died 1874) was William Henry 
Betty, a histrionic prodigy named after the greatest 
actor of antiquity. His debut took place at Belfast, 
August 19, 1803; and three months later he appeared 
at Covent Garden (then under the management of 
the elder Macready) for twelve nights at a salary of 
fifty guineas a night and a clear benefit. During 
this brief season the public excitement was so great 
that the military had to be called out every night to 
preserve order. His last appearance as a boy-actor 
occurred at Bath in the year 1808. 

William Gerard Hamilton, the Irish Chancellor 
of the Exchequer (born 1729, died 1756), has been 
handed down to posterity under the name of 
Single-speech Hamilton, because he delivered but 
one speech in the House, and that was such a mar- 
vellous outburst of rhetoric that it electrified all who 
heard it. This memorable incident took place 
November 13, 1755. Henry Dundas, afterwards 

2oa Names : and their Meaning. 

Lord Melville (born 1740, died 1811), merited the 
sobriquet of Starvation Dundas in consequence of 
his repeated use of the word "starvation" in the 
course of a debate on American affairs in the year 
1775. Sir Robert Peel (born 1750, died 1830), 
during the time he was Chief Secretary for Ireland 
(1812 to 1816), was popularly denominated Orange 
Peel, on account of his strong anti-Catholic spirit 
[see Orangemen]. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham 
(born 1708, died 1778), was styled The Heaven- 
sent Minister because the most splendid triumphs 
of British arms were achieved during his administra- 
tion. John Russell, afterwards created Earl Russell 
(born 1792, died 1878), received the nickname of 
Finality John from the fact of his maintaining that 
the Reform Bill of 1832 was a finality. The late 
Earl of Beaconsfield (born 1804, died 1881) owed 
his popular name of Dizzy to his own habit of 
setting forth his early novels during the lifetime of 
his father under the authorship of " D'Israeli the 
Younger." In course of time this became shortened 
into " Dizzy," and it clung to him ever afterwards. .; 
Mr. W. E. Gladstone (born 1809) first received 
the nickname of The Grand Old Man on the 
occasion of the unseating in the House of Commons 
of Mr. Charles Bradlaugh (June 1880), through his 
refusal to take the oath after his election as member 
for Northampton. At this time Mr. Bradlaugh 
found a strong champion in Mr. Labouchere ; and 
the nickname arose out of the latter's conversation 
in the tea-room of the House "I told some friends," 

Sobriquets and Nicknames. 203 

said Mr. Labouchere, referring to the incident of 
Mr. Bradlaugh's expulsion, ** that before I left Mr. 
Gladstone came to me, and that grand old man, 
with tears in his eyes, took me by the hands and 
said, ' Mr. Labouchere, bring me Mr. Bradlaugh 
back again.' " 

Mr. William Henry Smith, M.P., the present 
First Lord of the Treasury (born 1825), is popularly 
known by the name of Bookstall Smith because 
he originated the idea of railway bookstalls, and 
founded the now widely-popular firm of " W. H. 
Smith and Sons." 

Sir Christopher Hatton (born 1540, died 1591) 
was styled The Dancing Chancellor because he 
first attracted the notice of Queen Elizabeth by his 
graceful dancing at one of the Court masques. In 
recognition of this accomplishment he was created a 
Knight of the Garter and subsequently made Chan- 
cellor of England. Praise-God Barebones, or, 
rather, Barebon, who died in 1680, was a leather-seller 
and the leader of the celebrated " Barebones Parlia- 
ment." It was a common custom among the Puritans 
to nickname people in accordance with their habits 
and peculiarities ; consequently this individual must 
have been addicted to praising God in the hearing 
of his neighbours. William Huntingdon, the preacher 
and theologian (born 1744, died 1813), called himself 
Sinner-saved Huntingdon for reasons doubtless 
best known to himself. Orator Henley, otherwise 
John Henley (born 1692, died 1756), was an English 
divine who in 1726 delivered a course of lectures on 

204 Names : and their Meaning. 

theological subjects on Sundays, and on secular 
subjects on Wednesdays, in a kind of " oratory " or 
chapel in Newport Market, which attracted large 

Memory Woodfall was the sobriquet of William 
Woodfall (born 1745, died 1803), brother to the 
reputed author of the famous " Letters of Junius." 
This person's memory was so perfect that he was 
able, after listening to a Parliamentary debate, to 
report it the next morning word for word without the 
assistance of any notes whatever. Of another kind 
was the memory possessed by John Thompson, the 
son of a greengrocer in the parish of St. Giles, 
popularly known as Memory-corner Thompson 
(born 1757, died 1843) on account of his astounding 
local knowledge. Within twenty-four hours, and at 
two sittings, he drew entirely from memory a correct 
plan of the parish of St. James's. This plan con- 
tained all the squares, streets, lanes, courts, passages, 
markets, churches, chapels, houses, stables, and 
angles of houses, in addition to a number of minor 
objects, such as walls, trees, &c., and including an 
exact plan of Carlton House and St. James's Palace. 
He also, on another occasion, made a correct plan of 
St. Andrew's parish, and offered to do the same with 
the parishes of St. Giles, St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 
and St. Clement-Danes. If a particular house in 
any given street were named, he would tell at once 
what trade was carried on in it, the appearance 
and position of the shop, and its contents. In 
going through a large hotel completely furnished, 

Sobriquets and Nicknames. 205 

he was able to retain a recollection of everything he 
saw, and afterwards make an inventory of the whole. 
But, perhaps more wonderful than all, he could, 
after having read a newspaper overnight, repeat any 
desired portion of its contents verbatim the next 
morning. Nowadays such a one would be exhibited 
at the Royal Aquarium as a natural curiosity. 

Another well-known London character was Dirty 
Dick, otherwise Nathaniel Bentley, the miser, who 
never washed himself. This extraordinary individual 
died in the odour of dirt in the year 1809, leaving an 
ample fortune to console his heirs for his loss (?). 
The house which he inhabited in Bishopsgate Street 
Without has now been converted into a modern wine 
and spirit establishment, under the style of The 
D.D. Cellars. Laurence Brown, the English land- 
scape gardener (born I7i5,died 1783) was nicknamed 
Capability Brown owing to his habitual use of 
the word capability. At the present day the Duke 
of Cambridge (born 1819) is usually denominated 
George Ranger in allusion to his appointment as 
Ranger of the Royal Parks. Ernest Benzon, author 
of " How I Lost ;^250,ooo in Two Years," rejoiced 
in the title of The Jubilee Plunger because he 
entered upon his gambling career in 1887, the Jubilee 
year of Queen Victoria [see Plunger]. 

A few of the more celebrated painters may now 
detain us. Peter Aartsen, the Flemish painter (born 
1507, died 1573), bore the name of Long Peter on 
account of his extraordinary height ; while Gaspar 
Smitz, the Dutch portrait painter (died 1689), was 

2o6 Names : and their Meaning. 

styled Magdalen Smith because his pictures com- 
prised mostly ** Magdalens." The real name of the 
French landscape painter, Claude Lorraine (born 
1600, died 1682), was Claude Gelee of Lorraine; 
that of Paolo Veronese, or Paul Veronese (born 
1528, died 1588), was Paolo Cagliari, his birth having 
taken place in Verona ; and that of Jacopa da 
Bassano, called II Bassano (born 1510, died 1592), 
was Jacopa da Ponte, whose native place was 
Bassano, in the Venetian State. Pietro Vanucci 
(born 1446, died 1524), though recognizing Citta 
della Pieve as his birthplace, was all his life esta- 
blished in the neighbouring city of Perugia, where he 
claimed the right of citizenship ; hence the origin of 
his more common name II Perugino. Francesco 
Rossi (born 1510, died 1563), adopted the name of 
Del Salviati, in honour of his patron, Cardinal 
Salviati, who was his own age exactly, and, strangely 
enough, died in the same year as himself. Giuseppe 
Ribera (born 1588, died 1656), was popularly sur- 
named Lo Spagnoletto ("the Little Spaniard"), from 
the shortness of his stature and his birth at Xativa, 
in Spain ; while Tommaso Guidi (born 1402, died 
1428), merited his better-known name of Masaccio, 
owing to the slovenliness of his habits, the direct con- 
sequence of an all-absorbing attention to his studies. 
Jacopo Robusti (born 1512, died 1594) received his 
now far more popular name of Tintoretto because 
his father followed the occupation of a tintore, or dyer. 
During his lifetime, this celebrated Italian painter 
merited the additional sobriquet of II Furioso owing 

Sobriquets and Nicknames. 207 

to the rapidity with which he produced his work. 
Quintin Matsys (born 1466, died 1530), whose 
masterpiece, " The Taking Down from the Cross," 
has achieved a world-wide reputation, is equally 
known to fame by the name of The Smith of Ant- 
werp, owing to the circumstance of having followed 
for a time, and with great distinction, his father's 
occupation of a blacksmith. His attachment to the 
pretty daughter of a painter, however, caused him 
eventually to forsake the anvil for the palette. 
Nearer home the historical portrait painter, David 
Allan (born 1744, died 1796) was surnamed The 
Scottish Hogarth in compliment to his excellence ; 
and William Huggins (born 182 1, died 1884), The 
Liverpool Landseer, in favourable comparison with 
the celebrated English animal painter of that name. 
Simon Bolivar, the South American hero (born 
1783, died 1830), justly merited the dignified title of 
The Liberator; while General John Charles Fre- 
mont (born 1813, died 1890) won the surname of 
The Pathfinder after his fourth successful exploring 
expedition across the Rocky Mountains in 1842. 
Lastly, Jonathan Hastings, a farmer of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, U.S., was styled Yankee Jonathan 
in consequence of his addiction to the word Yankee 
in the place of " excellent." Thus he would say, 
" A Yankee good horse," '* A Yankee good cider," 
&c. This individual, however, must not be con- 
founded with " Brother Jonathan," the nickname of 
the typical American, to which reference is made 
in another portion of this work. 


AS by reference to our article on Tavern Signs 
it will be seen how the word Inn originally 
denoted a private mansion, it will sufBce to 
state here that the various colleges of the law 
students in London are styled Inns because the 
chief of them were at one time the residences of the 
nobility whose family names they still bear. Thus, 
Lincoln's Inn was the town mansion of the Earls 
of Lincoln, Gray's Inn, of the Earls Gray, Furni- 
val's Inn, of the Lords Furnival, and Clifford's 
Inn, of the Lords Clifford. The two first-named, 
together with the Inner and Middle Temple, are the 
principal Inns of Court, so called because the 
earliest seminaries for the study of the law were 
established in one of the courts of the King's palace. 
The Inns of lesser import are : — Serjeants' Inn, 
originally the establishment of the "Freres Serjens," 
or Serving Brothers to the Knights Templars who 
occupied The Temple close by ; Barnard's Inn- 
sold and abolished in 1881 — named after its ancient 
owner ; Staple Inn, formerly the Hall of the 
Merchants of the Staple, ix., wool; Clement's Inn 
and Dane's Inn, so designated from their proximity 
to the Church of St. Clement-Danes ; and New 

The Inns of Court. 2og 

Inn, the latest of all the Inns erected in the early 
part of the last century. Thavie's Inn no longer 
exists, but the title still adheres to a range of 
modern buildings erected upon its site. No person 
of the name of Thavie ever owned or occupied the 
original premises ; nevertheless, when the Inn was 
established as an appendage to Lincoln's Inn, about 
the middle of the fourteenth century, the Benchers 
unanimously agreed to perpetuate the memory of 
one John Thavie, an armourer who, dying in the 
year 1348, bequeathed a number of houses in 
Holborn, representing considerable rentals, to the 
neighbouring church of St. Andrew, and named it 
" Thavie's Inn " accordingly. 

The senior members of the Inns of Court are 
styled Benchers by reason of the benches on which 
they formerly sat. 



GOODWOOD RACES are held once a year in 
Goodwood Park, the property of the Duke 
of Richmond; Ascot Races, on Ascot 
Heath, in Berkshire, and Epsom Races, on Epsom 
Downs, near London. The Derby Stakes, at 
Epsom, were named after Edward Smith Stanley, 
twelfth Earl of Derby, who founded them in 1780, the 
year after he established the Oaks Stakes ; so called 
from an inn known as ** Lamberts' Oaks," originally 
erected by the Hunters' Club and rented by a 
family named Lambert upon land which subsequently 
passed into the possession of the Derby family. The 
St. Leger Stakes, otherwise the Doncaster St. 
Leger, annually run for at Doncaster, were esta- 
blished by Colonel Anthony St. Leger in 1776. 

A Hurdle Race is one in which hurdles are 
placed at different points along the course. A 
Steeplechase is confined to thoroughbred hunters 
whose riders are bound to make for the winning-post 
straight across the country, guided by flags displayed 
on the highest points along the line, and to clear 
whatever ditches, fences, walls, or other obstacles 
that may lie in their course. The term originated 
from the incident of an unsuccessful hunting-party 

Races. ^il 

agreeing to race to the village church, of which the 
steeple was just in sight ; and he who touched the 
building first with his whip was to be declared the 
winner. A Scratched Horse is one whose name 
has been struck out of the final list of runners in a 
particular race. A Sweepstake is a term used to 
denote the whole amount staked by different persons 
upon one race, and cleared literally " at one sweep " 
by the fortunate individual who has backed the 


IN all probability the name of Westminster 
Abbey would never have come into existence 
had it not been necessary to distinguish the 
Abbey Church lying to the west of St. Paul's (founded 
by Ethelbert in 6io) from another Abbey Church 
that stood upon the rising ground now known as 
Tower Hill. Consequently, the one was described 
as the West Minster, the other the East Minster ; and 
when, in course of time, the latter was swept away, 
the western edifice not only retained the description 
of *' The West Minster," but gave its name also to 
the district around. The earliest mention of West 
Minster occurs in a Saxon charter dated 785. 

The Temple comprised the chief seat in this 
country of the Knights Templars after their return 
from the Holy Land. The Savoy Chapel is a 
modern edifice built by the Queen to replace the 
original, destroyed by fire July, 7, 1864, which 
formed the only remaining portion of the old Savoy 
Palace erected by Peter of Savoy, the uncle of 
Eleanor, queen of Henry III., in 1249, on land 
granted to him by that monarch. 

The Church of St. Clement-Danes owes its 

London Churches and Buildings. 213 

compound title to the fact of being dedicated to St. 
Clement, and of Harold, a Danish king, together 
with several other Danes lying buried within its 
walls. The Church of St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheap- 
side, otherwise Bow Church, was so denominated 
because it was the first church ever built upon bows 
or arches. The Church of St. Mary Woolnoth, 
at the corner of Lombard Street and King William 
Street, is supposed to be a corruption of St. Mary 
Woolnough, so called by way of distinction from a 
neighbouring church of " St. Mary of the Wool," 
that stood beside the beam or wool-staple. The 
Church of St. Mary-Axe, now vanished, received 
this name from its situation opposite to a shop 
that displayed an axe for its sign. The Church of 
St. Catherine Cree, Leadenhall Street, is properly 
St. Catherine and Trinity, being originally a chapel 
dedicated to St. Catherine in the churchyard of the 
priory church of Holy Trinity, afterwards merged into 
the parishes of Christ Church, St. Mary Magdalen, 
and St. Michael. The Church of St. Catherine 
Coleman, Fenchurch Street, dedicated to St. 
Catherine, is so designated because it was built in 
a large garden belonging to a person named Cole- 
man. The Church of St. Margaret Pattens, 
Rood Lane, did not receive its denomination 
from the patten-makers who congregated in this 
neighbourhood, but because its roof was formerly 
decorated with gilt spots or patines ; a patine being 
the name of a small circular dish of gold used to 
CQver the chalice at the altar. Lovers of Shake- 

214 Names : and their Meaning. 

speare may recollect the passage in the Merchant of 
Venice where Lorenzo, referring to the stars, says : — 

" Sit, Jessica : Look how the floor of heaven 
Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold ; 
There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st, 
But in his motion like an angel sings, 
Still quiring to the young-ey'd cherubins ; 
Such harmony is in immortal souls, 
But whilst this muddy vesture of decay 
Doth grossly close it in, we cannot hear it." 

The original Church of St. Sepulchre, founded 
during the time of the Crusades, was so denominated 
in honour of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. The 
name of St. Bride's Church, Fleet Street, is a con- 
traction of St. Bridget's Church. The Church of St. 
Andrew Undershaft, Leadenhall Street, dedicated 
to St. Andrew, was originally so called because its 
steeple was of lesser altitude than the tall shaft 
or maypole which stood opposite the south door. 
Hence, the church was literally " under the shaft." 
The parish of St. Mary-Axe is now united to that 
of St. Andrew Undershaft. The Church of St. 
Helen's, Bishopsgate, was built and dedicated to 
St. Helena, the mother of Constantine, in 1180, just 
thirty years before William Fitzwilliam, a rich gold- 
smith, founded in connection therewith a priory of 
Benedictine nuns, dedicated to the Holy Cross and 
St. Helena. The neighbouring Church of St, 
Ethelburga was so named in honour of the 
daughter of King Ethelbert. The Church of All- 

London Churches and Buildings. 215 

hallowes Barking, at the bottom of Mark Lane, 
derived the second portion of its title from the fact 
that it belonged to the ancient abbey and convent 
at Barking, in Essex. St. Olave's Church, Tooley 
Street, is properly described as St. Olaf S Church, 
being dedicated to Olaf, a Norwegian prince of great 
renown, who came over to this country at the 
invitation of the King Ethelred, and rendered good 
service in expelling the Danes. 

The central portion of the Tower of London, sup- 
posed to have been built by Julius Csesar, is known 
as the White Tower on account of the white 
stone employed in its construction. In the Bloody 
Tower the Infant Princes were murdered by order 
of their uncle, Richard III.; and in the Beauchamp 
Tower, Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, 
was imprisoned by Richard II. for leading the con- 
spiracy of the Barons for the removal of Sir Simon 
de Barley, the young King's favourite. At the ac- 
cession of Henry IV. the Earl obtained his liberty. 
Traitors' Gate denotes the river gate by which all 
State prisoners convicted of high treason were 
admitted into the Tower. Newgate Prison de- 
rived its name from its original situation next to the 
newest of the five principal gates of the City. The 
prison is first mentioned in history under date 1207. 
The present gloomy edifice was built in 1782. The 
open space betvv'een the prison and the Old Bailey 
was formerly known as the Press Yard, because 
here it was that prisoners who refused to plead upon 
trial were barbarously pressed to death. The Old 

2i6 Names: and their Meaning. 

Bailey Sessions House received its name from the 
street in which it stands [see Old Bailey in the 
article "London Streets and Squares."] The 
old Marshalsea Prison, Southwark, abolished and 
pulled down in 1842, was so called because it con- 
tained the Court of the Knight-Marshal, whose duty it 
was to settle disputes occurring between the members 
of the Royal Household. This office now belongs to 
the Steward of the Royal Household. Bridewell was 
a corruption of " St. Bridget's Well," discovered in 
the grounds attached to an ancient hospital, after- 
wards converted into a house of correction for 
females. An iron pump let into the wall of the 
churchyard at the upper end of Bride Lane indicates 
the exact spot where the dames of old were wont to 
drink the virtuous waters. The Fleet Prison took 
its name from the river, now a com.mon sewer, near 
which it stood. The northern boundary of the prison 
is now defined by Fleet Lane, which runs from 
Farringdon Street to the Old Bailey. 

St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, is the sole remain- 
ing portion of the priory of St. John of Jerusalem, 
the seat in this country of the Knights Hospitallers, 
instituted by Godfrey de Boulogne. The Gate now 
forms the headquarters of the St. John's Ambulance 
Association. Temple Bar was not one of the City 
fortifications, but the ordinary gateway of the Temple. 
It was popularly known as The City Golgotha, 
owing to the spiked heads of traitors exposed thereon 
■ — Golgotha being Hebrew for " the place of skulls." 
The Bar was taken down in 1878. London Bridge 

London Churches and Bnildings. 217 

— that is to say, the original structure — was the first 
bridge over the Thames. The present structure was 
thrown open August i, 1831. Billingsgate traces its 
origin to Belin, one of the early kings of Britain, who 
built a gate on the site of the present market and gave 
it his name. St. Katherine's Docks received their 
title from an ancient hospital dedicated to St. 
Katherine, swept away by their construction in the 
year 1828. The Mint is so called in accordance 
with the Anglo-Saxon mynef, coin [see Money]. 
The Trinity House, the seat of the Trinity Cor- 
poration, which controls the pilotage of the Thames 
and the various lighthouses, buoys, harbour-dues, 
&c., around our coast, owed its foundation to Sir 
Thomas Spert, Comptroller of the Navy of Henry 
VIII., and commander of the Harry Grace de Dieu, 
originally situated at Deptford ; it was incorporated 
in 1529 under the style of " The Master-Wardens 
and Assistants of the Guild, or Fraternity, or 
Brotherhood, of the most glorious and undivisible 
Trinity, and St. Clement, in the parish of Deptford, 
Stroud, in the County of Kent." The present 
edifice was built in 1795. Crosby Hall, Bishops- 
gate, at one time a palace, but now converted into 
a restaurant, was built by Sir John Crosby about 
the middle of the fifteenth century. The Con- 
gregational Memorial Hall, Farringdon Road, 
which occupies part of the site of the old Fleet 
Prison, was built in 1872 to memorate the ejection 
of more than two thousand Church of England 
ministers from their charges, August 2-j., 1662, 

2i8 Names : and their Meaning. 

consequent upon their refusal to subscribe to the 
'* Act of Uniformity " [see Nonconformists]. 
The Guildhall is the hall of the City guilds; 
the word Guild being derived from the Anglo- 
Saxon gildan, to pay, alluding to the fee paid for 
membership. Doctors' Commons, originally esta- 
blished as a college for the Professors of Canon 
and Civil Law, received its name from the rule 
which required the Doctors to dine at a common 
table. That sombre-looking structure, the College 
of Arms, otherwise Heralds' College, is the office 
where the records of the genealogical descent of all 
our noble families are preserved, and where searches 
for coats-of-arms may be instituted. The Cor- 
poration of the College dates back to the year 
1484. The General Post Office is officially de- 
nominated St. Martin's-le-Grand because it oc- 
cupies the site of a collegiate church and sanctuar}^ 
of that name founded by Within, King of Kent in 
750, and chartered by William the Conqueror in 

The Charterhouse, originally a monastery of the 
Carthusians, is a corruption of La Chartreuse, the 
name of the district in France where this religious 
Order first came into existence. Christ's Hospital, 
also known as the Blue Coat School, from the 
colour of the coats worn by the boys, retains the 
ancient designation of a church and school belonging 
to the Grey Friars. It is only in modern times, by 
the way, that the term Hospital has come to be ex- 
clusively applied in this country to a refuge for the 

London Churdics and Buildings. 219 

sick. Properly understood, a hospital denotes a 
house intended for the reception and accommodation 
of travellers ; the source of the word being the Latin 
hospitalis, pertaining to a guest, based upon hospes, a 
stranger, a guest, and from which we derive the 
word Hospitality. The great Bernardine monas- 
tery on the summit of the Alps, devoted to the good 
work of rescuing snow-bound travellers, is appro- 
priately denominated a Hospice, which answers to 
our Hospital. St. Bartholomew's Hospital was 
founded by Rahare, a monk attached to the neigh- 
bouring Priory of St. Bartholomew in 1123 ; whereas 
Guy's Hospital arose out of the bequest of 
5^238,292, by the will of Thomas Guy, a benevolent 
bookseller of Lombard Street, who died in 1722. 
Bedlam is a contraction of Bethlehem Hospital, a 
lazar-house named after the Hospital of St. Mary at 
Bethlehem, and converted into a lunatic asylum in 
1815. This was the common designation in ancient 
times for a refuge for the poor, the word Bethlehem 
expressing the Hebrew for *' a house of bread " ; but 
in more modern times the synonym Lazar-house 
was substituted in allusion to Lazarus, who picked 
up the crumbs under the table of Dives. A refuge 
for fallen women has always borne the name of a 
Magdalen Hospital in honour of Mary Magdalen. 
St. James's Palace marks the site of an ancient 
leper hospital dedicated to St. James the Less, 
Bishop of Jerusalem. The present edifice was built 
by Henry VI IL in 1530. Buckingham Palace 
displaced old Buckingham House, the town mansion 

220 Names : and their Meaning. 

of John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, in the year 
1825. The total cost to the nation of this " desirable 
residence " was ^1,000,000. Marlborough House 
was originally the town residence of John, Duke of 
Marlborough, erected by Sir Christopher Wren in 
1709. Somerset House reverted to the Crown by 
the attainder of its owner, Edward Seymour, Duke 
of Somerset, the Lord Protector of Edward VI., 
executed January 22, 1552. Whitehall received 
its name from the fresh appearance of its exterior as 
contrasted with the ancient buildings on the opposite 
side of the way. The present fabric, viz.. The 
Banquetting Hall, is merely a vestige of the 
palace originally set apart by Cardinal Wolsey for 
the London See of York : whence he gave it the name 
of " York House." The Horse Guards is so called 
because a troop of Horse Guards are regularly 
quartered here. Dover House was named after its 
owner, the Hon. George Agar Ellis, afterwards 
created Lord Dover ; and York House, after the 
Duke of York and Albany who bought it in 1789. 
Devonshire House, Piccadilly, is the town residence 
of the Duke of Devonshire. Apsley House, Hyde 
Park Corner, well known as the residence of the Duke 
of Wellington, received its name from Henry Apsley, 
Lord Chancellor, afterwards created Lord Bathurst, 
who built it in 1784. Chandos House, Cavendish 
Square, was the residence of James Brydges, " the 
Princely Duke of Chandos." The Albany, Picca- 
dilly, perpetuates the memory of the Duke of York 
and Albany, who acquired it from Lord Melbourne 

London Churches mid Buildings. 221 

in exchange for his older residence, York House, in 
Whitehall. Burlington House, the home of the 
Royal Academy of Arts and quite a number of 
learned societies, was built by Sir John Denham, the 
poet and judge, in 1718, and refronted by the 
celebrated amateur architect, Richard Boyle, Earl of 
Burlington and Cork, in 1731. This palatial edifice 
was purchased by the State in 1854. The Soane 
Museum, Lincoln's Inn Fields, was the private 
collection of Sir John Soane, the architect and 
antiquary, who died in 1837. The Rolls Chapel, 
Chancery Lane, bears this name because it was 
annexed by patent to the office of the Master of the 
Rolls of Chancery after the banishment of the Jews 
from England in the year 1290. The history of 
the chapel dates from 1283, when Henry IIL 
founded it for the reception of the Jewish rabbis 
converted to Christianity. 

The Painted Hall, Greenwich Hospital, owes its 
name to its magnificently decorated ceiling. Van- 
burgh Castle, Blackheath, was built in the cas- 
tellated style by Sir John Vanburgh, in 1717. Rye 
House, famous for being the scene of the conspiracy 
to assassinate Charles II., which was discovered 
June 12, 1683, is so called from the rye on which 
it stands ; Rye being an Old English term for a 
common, derived from ree, a watercourse : hence 
Peckham Rye. 

Bruce Castle, Tottenham, has a history all its 
own. The present structure dates back to the latter 
part of the seventeenth century; but the original 

222 Names : and their Meaning. 

building was erected by Earl Waltheof, whose 
marriage with Judith, the niece of William the 
Conqueror, brought him portions of the earldoms 
of Northumberland and Huntingdon. Their only 
daughter, Maud, on becoming the wife of David I., 
King of Scotland, placed him in possession of the 
Huntingdon estates, and, as appended to that 
property, the manor of Tottenham, in Middlesex. 
Ultimately these possessions descended to Robert 
Bruce, the brother of William HI., King of Scot- 
land. The contention between Robert Bruce and 
John Baliol for the Scottish throne being decided 
in favour of the latter, the former retired to Eng- 
land, and settling on his grandfather's estate 
at Tottenham, repaired the castle to which he 
gave the name of " The Castle Bruce." Lincoln 
House, Enfield, was the residence of the second and 
third Earls of Lincoln in the seventeenth century. 
Sandford House, Stoke Newington, is interesting 
as having been the residence of Thomas Day, the 
author of " Sandford and Merton " (born 1748, died 
1789). Cromwell House, Highgate, now a Con- 
valescent Hospital for sick children, was occupied 
for some time by Oliver Cromwell, who built Ireton 
House, close by, for Henry Ireton, his son-in-law, 
in 1630 ; while Lauderdale House, lately a Con- 
valescent Home in connection with St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, was the residence of the Earls 
of Lauderdale during the seventeenth century. 
Waterlow Park, in this neighbourhood — in fact, 
comprising among other valuable property the 

London Churches and Buildings. :223 

grounds appertaining to Lauderdale House — was 
generously presented to the London public by Sir 
Sydney Waterlow, in November, 1890. The 
Clock House, Hampstead, originally displayed a 
clock in place of the present sun-dial. Rosslyn 
House, Hampstead, which gives the name to 
Rosslyn Hill Park, was erected by Alexander 
Wedderburn, first Earl of Rosslyn and Lord 
Chancellor of England, in 1795. Erskine House, 
Hampstead, adjoining " The Spaniards," was the 
residence of Lord Erskine, Lord Chancellor of 
England, who died here in 1823. 

Strawberry Hill, the celebrated palace of curiosi- 
ties built by Horace Walpole in 1750, received its 
name from the rising ground upon which it stood. 
The building was sold by public auction, and pur- 
chased by Baron H. de Stein, in July, 1883. 
Orleans House, Twickenham, now a club, was 
named after Louis Philippe of France, who resided 
in it when he was simply Due d'Orleans. Essex 
House, Putney, was one of the many residences of 
Robert Devereaux, Earl of Essex, the favourite of 
Queen Elizabeth. Bristol House, Putney, was, 
until recently, the property of the Bristol family. 
Craven Cottage, Fulham, was built by the Countess 
of Craven, afterwards created Margravine of Anspach. 
Munster House, Fulham, derived its title from its 
one-time resident, Melesina Schulenberg, created 
Duchess of Munster in 1716. Peterborough 
House, Parson's Green, was formerly the mansion 
of the Mordaunts, Earls of Peterborough. Sussex 

224 Names : and their Meaning. 

House, Hammersmith, was the favourite residence 
of the late Duke of Sussex. Holland House, 
Kensington, owes its name to Henry Rich, Earl of 
Holland, by whose father-in-law, Sir William Cope, 
it was built in 1607. Here Charles James Fox, the 
eminent orator and statesman (born 1749, died 1806), 
passed many of his earlier years ; here also Joseph 
Addison, the poet and essayist, died in the year 1719. 
The Albert Hall, Albert Memorial, Albert 
Bridge, and Albert Palace, each preserve the 
memory of the Prince Consort, whose death took 
place in 1861. The Crystal Palace, opened by the 
Queen, June 10, 1854, derived its title from its glass 
structure, which, when the sun shines upon it, 
glistens like crystal. The Alexandra Palace was 
named after the Princess of Wales, who was to have 
opened the original building, May 24, 1873 ; but, for 
some unexplained reason, she did not perform that 
ceremony. Olympia, opened December, 1886, is 
an appropriate designation for a huge edifice emi- 
nently adapted for every variety of popular amuse- 
ment. The allusion is to Olympia, in Greece, where 
the celebrated " Olympian Games " were anciently 
held every fourth year. The Polytechnic Insti- 
tution, Regent Street (now the Y. M. C. A.), was 
designated in strict conformity with its set purpose 
as an educational establishment, viz., from the two 
Greek words polus, many, and techne, an art. St. 
George's Hall was originally, when opened in 
1867, St. George's Opera House, so styled because 
situated in the fashionable parish of St. George's, 

London Churches and Buildings. 225 

Hanover Square. The Egyptian Hall, built in 
1812, is a particularly well - chosen title ; at 
least, it appears so at the present day, since the 
regular performances of those modern magicians, 
Messrs. Maskelyne and Cooke, have long ago 
become one of the institutions, if not actually one 
of the sights, of the Metropolis. St. James's 
Hall was named after the parish church just 
opposite. Willis's Rooms, so called after their late 
proprietor, were originally opened by a Scotsman 
named Almack, under the style of Almack's As- 
sembly Rooms, February 12, 1765. Exeter Hall 
was built in the year 1830 in the grounds of Exeter 
House, which also gave the name to Exeter 
'Change, erected in 1680 and pulled down in 1829 
[see Exeter Street] . The world-famous waxworks 
exhibition known as Madame Tussaud's retains 
the name of its foundress (born 1760, died 1850) who 
first set up her figures at the old Lyceum Theatre 
in 1802, and after undergoing a variety of mis- 
fortunes settled down permanently in Baker Street 
in the year 1833. 

Scotland Yard, the headquarters of the Metro- 
politan Police, received its name from an ancient 
palace erected on this spot for the accommodation 
of the Scottish kings in the days when they were 
annually required to pay homage to the Crown of 
England at Westminster. The first monarch so ac- 
commodated was Kenneth H. (died 854) ; the last 
was Margaret, Queen of Scots, the sister of Henry 
yni. Lord's Cricket Ground, familiarly styled 

226 Names : and their Meaning. 

Lord's, owes its existence to Thomas Lord, who 
established, upon land of his own, first on the site of 
Dorset Square in 1780, and subsequently on its 
present site, the only cricketing ground where 
genteel players could meet to enjoy this game with- 
out fear of rubbing shoulders with the City ap- 
prentices. Previous to his enterprise the formation 
of a private Cricket Club had never been thought of. 
Tattersall's, the well-known rendezvous for the sale 
of horses, was opened by Richard Tattersall near 
Hyde Park Corner in 1766, and removed to Knights- 
bridge April 10, 1865. 

Lloyd's Rooms, better known as Lloyd's, de- 
rived this title from Edward Lloyd, a coffee-house 
keeper in Abchurch Lane, whose premises became 
the regular resort of merchants and others interested 
in shipping. The original location of a s;^ecial office 
for the transaction of mercantile business over the 
Royal Exchange took place in 1775 ; but the name 
of the genial coffee-house keeper was by common 
consent transferred with it. On the destruction by 
fire of the first Royal Exchange, in 1838, " Lloyd's " 
was temporarily removed until the completion of 
the present building in 1844. 

The entrance to the privileged precincts of the 
Stock Exchange is called Capel Court, because it 
marks the residence of Sir William Capel, Lord 
Mayor of London in the year 1504. The term Ex- 
change owes its origin to the French echanger, to 
trade, to barter. The object of the original Royal 
Exchange, founded by Sir Thomas Gresharn in 

London Churches and Buildings. 227 

1506 and opened by Queen Elizabeth amid sundry 
public rejoicings over the event (which accounts for 
the prenomen " Royal "), January 31, 1571, was to 
provide a convenient place where the merchants, 
bankers, and brokers of the City could meet through- 
out the day for the transaction of business. The 
Stock Exchange is the great money mart of the 
world [see Stock in the article " Money "]. 

The Bankers' Clearing House, in Lombard 
Street, is the establishment where all cheques, 
drafts, and bills drawn upon the various bankers 
are sorted, distributed, and balanced up. The 
Railway Clearing House, adjoining Euston 
Railway Station, is a similar establishment devoted 
to the adjustment of the value represented by the 
tickets issued by the different Railway Companies. 
In conclusion, the title of Mansion House, though 
somewhat suggestive of tautology, may be accepted 
as denoting the house of all other houses, since it is 
the official residence of the Lord Mayor. 


AN unmarried female originally received the 
designation of Spinster from her employ- 
ment at the distaff or spindle. According to 
the practical notions of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers, 
a female was not considered fit to enter the married 
state until she had made for herself a complete set of 
body, bed, and table-linen. Hence the significance of 
the term Wife, derived from the Anglo-Saxon wif, by 
virtue of the verb wyfan, to weave. The designation 
Widow is an Indo-European importation, derived 
from the Sanskrit vid-hava, without husband. Grass 
Widow, denoting a woman temporarily separated 
from her husband, is a corruption of " Grace Widow " 
— in other words, a widow by grace, or courtesy. The 
word Chaperon is French, derived from the chapeau, 
or cap, worn by the duennas of Spain. Buenna, 
signifying a guardian, is Spanish, founded upon the 
Latin domina, a mistress. The title of Dowager, 
which distinguishes a widow left with a jointure from 
the wife of her late husband's heir, comes from the 
French douairiere, built upon the verb douaire, to 

Class Names and Nicknames. 229 

dower. The name of Blue Stocking arose from 
the colour of the stockings worn by the members of 
the lady clubs in England during the days of Bos- 
well. Gentlemen were not excluded from these 
assemblies, but the wearing of blue stockings was a 
si7ie qua non of admittance. The last surviving member 
of the original Blue Stocking Club, founded by Mrs. 
Montague in 1780, died in 1840. The earliest Blue 
Stocking assembly came into existence at Venice, 
under the title of Delia Calza in the year 1400. A 
lady's-maid is familiarly styled an Abigail, in allu- 
sion to the handmaid who introduced herself to 
David (i Samuel xxv. 23). This class-name came 
into particular prominence during the early part of the 
eighteenth century, in compliment to Abigail Hill, the 
maiden name of Mrs. Mashem, the waiting-woman 
of Queen Anne. A Parisian shop or work-girl is 
known as a Grisette on account of the grey cloth 
of which her dress is made. In olden times all 
inferior classes in France were expected to be clad 
in gris, i.e., grey. CoUeen is the native Irish for 
girl ; and CoUeen Bawn for a blonde girl. How 
little the latter expression is understood by actresses 
is shown by the way in which some of them essay to 
impersonate (?) the heroine of Dion Boucicault's 
well-known drama whilst wearing their own dark 
hair or a dark wig. Truly, a little knowledge is a 
useful thing ! 

As nowadays comprehended, a Milliner is one who 
retails hats, feathers, bonnets, ribbons, and similar 
appurtenances to female costume. The name is really 

230 Names : and their Meaning. 

a corruption of Milaner, alluding to the city of Milan, 
which at one time set the fashion to the north of 
Europe in all matters of taste and elegance. 
Haberdasher is a modern form of the Old English 
word Hapertaser, or a retailer of hapertas cloth, the 
width of which was settled by Magna Charta. 
Grocer is a contraction and modified spelling of 
Engrosser, the denomination of a tradesman who, 
in the Middle Ages, claimed a monopoly for the 
supply of provisions. A vendor of vegetables is ap- 
propriately called a Greengrocer. An innkeeper 
is facetiously styled a Boniface in honour of a 
devout and hospitable man whom St. Augustine 
caused to be canonized, and who subsequently 
became the patron saint of Germany. Shakespeare, 
Dante, Bacon, and Lamb never tired of referring to 
Boniface. Ostler is a corruption of the French 
hostelier, an innkeeper; hence we sometimes speak 
of an inn as a Hostelry. The term Carpenter, 
from the Latin carpentum, a. waggon, originally 
denoted a mechanic who constructed the wooden 
body of a vehicle of any kind, as distinguished from 
the Wheelwright ; but in process of time the same 
term came to be applied to artificers in timber 
generally. The provincial name for such a one is 
a Joiner, literally a joiner of wooden building 
materials. In some districts of England a shoe- 
maker still bears the name of Cordwainer. 
Formerly all shoemakers were styled Cordwainers, 
because they were workers in Cordwain, a corrup- 
tion of Cordovan, which was the name of a 

Class Names and Nicknames. 231 

particular kind of leather brought from Cordova. 
The designation Tailor is an Anglicized form of 
the French Tailleur, derived from the verb tailler, 
to cut. [For Tallyman see Tally, in the article 
" Money."] A Pawnbroker is familiarly called 
Uncle, in perpetuation of an ancient pun on the 
Latin word uncus, a hook. For, whereas in modern 
times the spout is employed as a means of commu- 
nication between the pawnshop and the store-rooms 
overhead, the Roman pawnbrokers used a large 
hook ; and accordingly, the expression " Gone to 
the uncus,'' was equivalent to our slang phrase ** Up 
the spout." A Barber derives his class-title from 
the Latin barba, a beard. Rude and semi-civilized 
tribes were anciently called Barbarians, because 
they belonged to no order of society. Between the 
fourteenth and sixteenth centuries the hairdressers 
of this country combined the practice of surgery, 
and were accordingly styled Barber-Surgeons. 
The surviving '* Barber's Pole " attests this fact. 
The separation of the two professions took place 
in 1540. 

A shepherd or an ideal farmer bears the poetical 
description of an Arcadian, in allusion to the 
Arcadians, who were a pastoral people. A friendly 
adviser is designated a Mentor, in memory of the 
wise and faithful counsellor of Telemachus so named. 
The word Usher signifies a doorkeeper, agreeably 
to the Old French huisher, a door. Bachelor comes 
from the Welsh bach, small, young. This name 
originally meant one inexperienced in anything. 

232 Names : and their Meaning. 

The title of Bachelor of Arts denotes a degree 
next below that of Master of Arts. 

Beefeaters is a vulgar perversion of Buffetiers, as 
the Yeoman of the Guard were styled during the 
reign of Henry VIII., on account of their attendance 
upon the King's Buffet, or side-table. The word 
Buffet is French, derived from the Spanish hifia, a 
wineskin. The civic guardians of law and order are 
denominated Police in accordance with the Greek 
polis, the city. For many years after the establish- 
ment of the Police through the measures of Sir 
Robert Peel (in Ireland, as the national constabulary 
in 1814; in London as a regular force in 1829), all 
Policemen were nicknamed Bobbies and Peelers, 
in allusion to their founder. Bow Street Runners 
were the original London detective force ; so called 
because their headquarters was Bow Street, whence 
they were despatched to any part of the country in 
quest of the perpetrator of a particular crime. The 
predecessors of the Police were a set of decrepit old 
watchmen whose regular habit was to fall asleep in 
their boxes with their lanthorns beside them. These 
were derisively nicknamed Old Charlies ; while 
their natural enemies, who loved nothing so much as 
to turn their boxes upon them, to molest defenceless 
females, mutilate males, and in many other ways to 
terrorize the peaceable inhabitants of the Metropolis, 
styled themselves first of all Scourers, and at a 
later date Mohocks, after the North American 
Indian tribe of that name. During the years 1859 

Class Names and Nicknames. :233 

streets of London in the persons of The Garrotters, 
so called from the Garrotte, the instrument with 
which condemned malefactors are strangled in Spain. 
The punishment of the " cat o' nine tails " for 
" Garrotting," which came into operation July 13, 
1861, gradually put an end to the practice. The 
latest terror of the streets which, unhappily, abounds 
in American cities, are the Sandbaggers, so called 
because they stun their victims with an ordinary 
sand-bag, such as is used to keep the draught from 
penetrating between a pair of window-sashes ; after 
which robbery becomes an easy matter. 

Pleasanter it is to turn from the birds of night to 
the fops and dandies by day. The word Fop comes 
from the German foppen, to make a fool of ; and 
Dandy from the French dandiuy a ninny. Between 
these two poor specimens of humanity there is no 
perceptible difference. The Macaronies of the last 
century derived their designation from the fashionable 
" Macaroni Clubs " to which they belonged. The 
modern class-title of Masher finds its origin in the 
Romany or gipsy word mdsha, signifying " to fasci- 
nate the eye." En passant, the term Gipsy is a 
corruption of Egyptian, so called because the 
original family or tribe of low caste Hindoos ex- 
pelled by Timour about the year 1399 eventually 
travelled into Europe by way of Egypt. The Gipsies 
were also in former times known as Bohemians, 
from the district in which they first attracted popular 
attention before they scattered themselves over 
Western Europe. Hence, any individual whose 

234 Names 

habits are unconventual, and to a certain extent 
nomadic, is staled a Bohemian. The name of 
The Upper Ten applied to the aristocracy, is 
short for "The Upper Ten Thousand," a term ori- 
ginally applied by N. P. Willis, the American poet 
(born 1807, died 1867), to the fashionables of New 
York who, at the time he introduced it, numbered 
about ten thousand. A distinctly latter-day expres- 
sion conveying much the same signification is The 
Four Hundred, by which we are left to conclude 
that the " select " society of New York must have 
undergone a considerable weeding-out during the 
last twenty years. 

The temperance terms Teetotal and Teetotaler 
originated in the stuttering exhortation of one 
Richard Turner, an artizan of Preston, who, while 
addressing a meeting of abstainers in September, 
1833, observed that " Nothing but t-t-t-total absti- 
nence will do ! " Several bodies of total abstainers 
from alcoholic beverages in England and America 
style themselves Rechabites, after the descendants 
of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, who lived in tents and 
foreswore wine. Others rejoice in the name of 
Good Templars, after the Templars of old. The 
Good Templar Movement cannot be accurately 
described as a crusade against drink ; but the 
League of the Cross, established by the Roman 
Catholics for the total suppression of drunkenness, 
is, in title and in fact, one of the most powerful 
crusades ever distinguished in modern times. 

A sailor is called a Jack Tar because he puts on 

Class Names and Nicknames. 235 

tarpaulin "overalls" in "dirty weather," Long- 
shoreman is a corruption of alongsJiorenian, i.e., a 
wharfinger, &c. Navvy is a contraction of Navi- 
gator, which name was first given to the labourers 
employed in the construction of canals for inland 
navigation. A cabman is popularly styled a Jehu 
in allusion to one of the kings of Israel noted for 
his furious driving. A Jerry Builder is so called 
after one Jeremiah, a London builder who amassed 
a fortune by putting up houses with inferior materials 
in order to sell them at a large profit. A Journey- 
man is properly one who hires himself out to work 
by the day, agreeably to the first portion of the word 
Jour, the French for day. A debt-collector is known 
as a Dun, and his persistence is styled " Dunning," 
in memory of Joe Dun, a famous bailiff of Lincoln, 
who was so successful in the discharge of his duties 
that it became quite customary when an individual 
refused to pay his debts to exclaim, " Why don't you 
Dvm him for it ? " which was tantamount to saying, 
" Why don't you send Dim to arrest him ? " Whilst 
on the subject of law, we may here add that the ex- 
pression A Man of Straw, employed to denote a 
person without capital or means, originated in the 
days when a certain class of men, chiefly ruined 
tradesmen, found it a profitable occupation to hire 
themselves out as witnesses in the law courts. The 
recognized mark of these persons was a wisp of straw 
protruding from their shoes ; and as often as a lawyer 
stood in need of a convenient witness to prove his case, 
he knew by the presence of " a pair of straw shoes " 

236 Names: and their Meaning. 

in court that the owner of the said shoes would 
recollect and swear to any incident in consideration 
of a fee. 

Costermonger is a corruption of Costardmonger, 
a seller of the famous costard apple introduced into 
this country by the Dutch in 1736. Both these terms 
are used by Shakespeare ; nevertheless, they bore a 
totally different signification in his time. The word 
Monger comes from the Anglo-Saxon inongere, one 
who trades. An itinerant salesman in the olden 
time was styled a Pedlar, in accordance with the 
Latin pedes, the feet, because he travelled on foot ; 
whereas Hawker comes from the German hoken, to 
carry on the back, to retail. Hawkers and Pedlars 
were first licensed in England in 1698. An itinerant 
salesman of another kind is known as a Cheap Jack 
on account of the word " cheap " which is Saxon for 
market, derived from ceapan, to buy. A travelling 
medicine-vendor originally received the nickname of 
duack-doctor, or Q,uack, from Quacksalber, the 
German term for quicksilver, because, differing from 
the regular practitioners, he resorted to mercury and 
other dangerous ingredients. At times a Quack, or 
any other individual gifted with humorous colloquial 
powers, is dubbed a Merry Andrew, in allusion to 
Andrew Borde, a physician of the time of Henry 
Vni., noted for his facetious manners and sayings. 
Juggler is a corruption of jongleur, the French 
designation of one of the companions of the trouba- 
dours, whose business it was to supplement the 
lyrical accomplishments of the latter with feats of 

Class Names and Nicknames. 237 

sleight-of-hand and other tricks for the amusement 
of the company. A Stump Orator is properly one 
who delivers a speech from the stump of a tree ,* the 
literal meaning of a Stump Speech being thus 

The now approbrious name of Blackguard was 
formerly given to the scullions or dirty dependants of 
the English Court who washed out the saucepans, 
carried coals up to the kitchens, and performed other 
menial duties. As the ** Guards of Honour" in the 
Royal Household were distinguished by their fine 
appearance, so these kitchen-men were equally dis- 
tinguished by their grimy appearance ; consequently 
the latter were styled " Black Guards." The origin 
of the word ScuUion was the Norman-French 
escnlle, a porringer or dish. The place where the 
dishes are cleansed is still called a Scullery, while 
the domestic who performs such work bears the 
name of Scullery Maid. A rascal or sharper is 
designated a Blackleg", because such a one was 
generally to be found among the lower orders of 
turf and sporting men at the time these were espe- 
cially characterized by the wearing of black top- 
boots. A Plunger is one who bets heavily either on 
the turf or at the gaming-table, without considera- 
tion for the risks he incurs. A Bookmaker is so 
called because he arranges his book, i.e., his bets, in 
such a manner that his losses and gains upon each 
day's racing must balance themselves. The Book- 
maker who absconds after a race in order to avoid 
paying those who have entered bets with him and 

238 Names : and their Meaning. 

won is styled a Welsher, in allusion to the thieving 
propensities of a certain race of people, as set forth 
in the old song, which begins, " Taffy was a Welsh- 
man, Taffy was a thief," &c. The word Burglar 
is made up of the Old English burgh, a borough, 
derived from the German burg, a fortified place, and 
the French lair, a thief; the allusion being that such 
a one breaks into a private dwelling for purposes of 
theft. Down to a comparatively recent date the 
common hangman in this country bore the nick- 
name of Jack Ketch, really a corruption of Richard 
Jacquett, to whom the manor of Tyburn, where our 
malefactors were executed prior to the year 1783, 

A native of London is popularly styled a 
Cockney, pursuant to the Old English cockeney, 
an effeminate person, or rather one who has been 
rendered effeminate by the luxuries of the table ; 
this term tracing its origin directly from the Latin 
verb coquere, to cook, whence we have the Italian 
cuchina, the French cuisine, the German kilche, and 
the English kitchen. A popular satiric poem of 
the thirteenth century, entitled " The Land of 
Cockaygne," — i.e., Kitchen Land, draws a picture 
of an imaginary Fool's Paradise, where there is 
nothing but eating and drinking, where care, trouble, 
and toil find no place — a desirable country for those 
monks of the Church who delight in the pleasures 
of the table rather than the observance of their 
spiritual exercises. After this performance the term 
Cockaigne or Cockaygne gradually came to be 

Class Names and Nicknames. 239 

applied to our capital city, where cockenies, or kitchen- 
servants, abounded, and where the luxury of good 
living was supposed to attain its highest development. 
A raw youth, or a countryman new to the ways 
of the world, is dubbed a Greenhorn, in reference 
to the undeveloped horns of a young ox ; the word 
"Green" being derived from the Anglo-Saxon grene, 
that which is in process of growing. Nincompoop 
is a corruption of the Latin phrase non compos 
[mentis] , not in sound mind. A person of defective 
mind is called a Lunatic, from the Latin huia, the 
moon, in accordance with the Roman idea that the 
mind was affected by the changes of the moon. A 
person addicted to making foolish mistakes is styled 
a Dutchman, in allusion to the dull comprehensions 
supposed to be possessed by the inhabitants of the 
Low Countries. The term first came into use as an 
epithet of derision during the wars with Holland. 
A Humbug is one whose representations, though 
sounding plausible enough, are not to be relied 
upon. The origin of this word is as follows : In 
olden times there resided in the neighbourhood of 
the Mearns, in Scotland, a gentleman of landed 
property whose name was Hume, and whose estate 
was known as " The Bogue." Owing to the great 
falsehoods which this "Hume of the Bogne" was 
in the habit of relating about himself, his family, 
and everything connected with his affairs, it became 
customary, as often as the people of that district 
heard anything at all remarkable or absurd to ex- 
claim, "That is a Hume of the Bogue." The word 

240 Names : and their Meaning. 

spelt in its present form first appeared on the title- 
page of "The Universal Jester: a choice collection 
of bonmots and humbugs," published by Fernando 
Killigrew about the year 1736. The assurance that 
Humbug is of such old date can scarcely tend to our 


AT the present day the terms Ale and Beer 
are used somewhat confusedly. The former, 
derived from the Gaelic and Irish 61, drink, 
is the real name of our national beverage, which, to 
judge from its intoxicating effects, must, in the days 
of our forefathers, have been a very strong drink 
indeed. The latter, on the other hand, is essentially 
a Saxon word, from the same root as harm, signify- 
ing "fermented drink," and used to denominate the 
lighter kinds of fermented liquors generally, as well 
as other drinks obtained from the roots or leaves of 
plants, such as Ginger-beer, Spruce-beer, &c. We 
still speak of Old Ales; whereas Small Beer 
indicates a liquor of very poor quality. 

In former times the only varieties of malt liquor 
in this country were Ale and Beer, the one strong, 
the other comparatively weak. To these a third, 
popularly described as Twopenny, was eventually 
added. However, it was rare that any one of these 
three was demanded singly; it being the custom, 
particularly in London, for the working-classes to 
call either for Half-and-Half or Three Thirds, 
meaning a tankard filled with equal portions of ale 

242 Names: and their Meaning, 

and beer, or of ale, beer, and twopenny. This 
custom remained in vogue until the year 1730, 
when it occurred to Mr, Harwood, a brewer of East 
London, to prepare a liquor analogous to the mix- 
ture of ale, beer, and twopenny ; and thus save the 
time of the tavern-keepers, who were compelled to 
serve each customer from three different casks. 
Almost immediately, therefore, he introduced the 
malt liquor known as Entire, because it was drawn 
entire from one cask. It was first retailed at the 
sign of ** The Blue Last," in Curtain Road, Shore- 
ditch, where it soon came to be in active demand 
by the City porters, who made this house their 
regular resort, whereupon the enterprising publican 
adroitly called it Porter. The word ** Entire " still 
appears upon the facia-boards of numerous taverns 
throughout the Metropolis; but who thinks of call- 
ing for Entire at the present day ? By the term 
Stout is implied a malt liquor of the stoutest 
quality, i.e., having the most body in it. 

Stingo expresses an old beer of particular sharp- 
ness, in allusion to its stinging properties ; while 
Yorkshire Stingo is, of course, peculiar to the 
county of York. Originally the single X displayed 
on beer-barrels denoted that the liquor had paid a 
ten shillings' duty. The additional X's are merely 
brewers' trade-marks, indicating various degrees of 
strength over and above that of the single X ale. 

Concerning German beers, we need only allude to 
Mum, or Mumm, which is peculiar to Brunswick, 
and named after Christoph Mumme, who first 

Malt Liquors. 243 

brewed it in 1492 ; Lager-Bier, so called because it 
is kept in a lager or cellar ; and Bock-bier, a liquor 
which causes the inconsiderate tippler to caper about 
like a bock, or goat. 


THE word Diamond is a corruption of, and 
synonymous with, Adamant, derived from 
the Greek adamas, untamable, infrangible, 
not to be subdued, in accordance with the prefix a, 
without, and damns, to tame, to subdue. As every 
one must be aware, the diamond is capable of resist- 
ing fire. 

The great diamonds of the world are the following : — 
The Kohinoor, or " Mountain of Light," weighing 
io6 carats, came into the possession of Queen 
Victoria on the annexation of the Punjaub in 1849 ; 
the Mattan (367 carats) belongs to the Rajah of 
Mattan ; the Orloff (194 carats) preserves the family 
name of Catherine II. of Russia, who purchased it 
in 1775 ; the Shah (86 carats), presented by Chosroes 
I., Shah of Persia, who died in the year 579, to the 
Czar of Russia ; the Star of the South (254 carats), 
discovered in Brazil by a poor negress in 1853 ; the 
Sauci (106 carats), originally the property of a 
French gentleman of this name, and bought by the 
Russian Czar for half a million roubles in 1835 '> the 
Regent, also known as the Pitt (137 carats), first 

Diamonds and Precious Stones. 245 

acquired by Mr. Pitt, the grandfather of the Earl 
of Chatham, and subsequently sold to the Due 
d'Orleans, Regent of France, for £"135,000 ; the 
Pigott (82^ carats), brought from India by Lord 
Figott sometime previous to 1818, when it came into 
the possession of Messrs. Rundell and Bridge ; the 
Dudley (442- carats), found at the Cape by a black 
shepherd in 1868, and, after various changes of 
ovi^nership, bought by the Earl of Dudley for 
;^3o,ooo ; and the Twin Diamonds, both found in 
the bed of the river Vaal at the Cape in 1872. 

With regard to precious stones : — the Turquois 
derived its name from Turkey, where it was first 
found ; the Topaz, from Topazos, an island in the 
Red Sea; and the Agate, from the Greek Achates, a 
river in Sicily, in the bed of which it was anciently 
discovered. The term Amethyst comes from the 
Greek amethustos, a precious stone, and Opal, through 
the Latin opalus, from the Sanskrit opula, a precious 
stone. Emerald traces its origin through the 
French emera^ide to the Latin and Greek omaragdus ; 
Garnet, through the French grenat, from the Latin 
granatus ; and Ruby, from the Latin ruber, red. 
Pearl is an Anglo-Saxon word derived from the 
Latin pirula, a diminutive of pear. 

We may conveniently add that the weight of 
precious stones, as well as that of gold, is regulated 
by Carats, because formerly carat seeds, or the seed 
of the Abyssinian coral flower were employed for 
this purpose. 


THE Roman Manlius (appointed Consul in the 
year 224 B.C.) received the name of Tor- 
quatus from the incident of having torn the 
golden torque or collar from the neck of his adversary 
in the field. Charles, the son of Pepin d'Heristal, 
was surnamed Martel in recognition of his victory 
over the Saracens, who attempted the invasion of 
France in the year 732. According to the chronicler, 
" he knocked down the foe and crushed them between 
his axe, as a martel or hammer crushes what it 
strikes." Robert, Duke of Normandy, the father of 
William the Conqueror (died 1035), bore the name 
of Robert le Diable, or Robert the Devil, on 
account of his courageous cruelty in war. The 
Scottish outlaw. Sir William Wallace (born 1270, be- 
headed 1305), was styled The Hammer and Scourge 
of England by reason of his patriotism. William 
Douglas, Lord of Nithsdale (died 1390), was known 
as Black Douglas because his frame was tall, 
strong, and well-built, while his hair was dark and 
his complexion swarthy. Archibald Douglas, Earl 
of Angus (died 15 14), merited the sobriquet of Bell 

Naval and Military Sobriquets. 247 

the Cat for having put to death the upstart favourites 
of James III., and so prevented the creation of 
nobles out of architects and masons whom the king 
particularly patronized. At a meeting convened in 
the Church of Lauder by the Scottish nobles for the 
purpose of taking measures to obtain the removal 
of these persons, Lord Gray had put the question, 
"But who will bell the cat?" "That will I!" 
answered Douglas on the instant ; and he kept his 
word, for in the very presence of the king he slew 
the obnoxious minions with his own hand. 

Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick (born 1420, died 
1471), was surnamed The King Maker for the 
reason that while he espoused the cause of the 
Yorkists, Edward IV. succeeded in his efforts to gain 
the English Crown ; and when, subsequently, he 
transferred his influence to the Lancastrians, Henry 
VI. was restored and the usurper deposed, Harry 
Percy (born 1364, died 1403) was styled Hotspur, 
and Prince Rupert (born i6ig, died 1682) The Mad 
Cavalier because they found it impossible to 
restrain their rash courage in time of war. The 
soldiers of Cromwell, after the Battle of Marston 
Moor, received the popular name of Ironsides on 
account of their armour and their iron resolution. 
The sobriquet of The Almighty Nose was bestowed 
upon Oliver Cromwell (born 1599, died 1658), in 
allusion to his nasal enormity. Strange, indeed, 
that he who had attained to the highest position in 
the land by the sheer force of arms should have been 
so continually taunted with the length and colour of 

248 Names : and their Meaning. 

his nose ! Yet so it was. Nevertheless, there have 
been others whose peace of mind was daily threatened 
by popular malice in this selfsame respect. Even 
the great Roman poet Ovid suffered a lifelong 
martyrdom, and became the recipient of the sobriquet 
of Naso, owing to the possession of an unusually 
large nose ; just as in modern times Wilson, the 
painter, and Cervetto, the violincellist of Drury Lane 
Theatre, never succeeded in putting their heads out 
of their own doors without being greeted with shouts 
of " Nosey! " from the mob. 

The Duke of Cumberland (born 1721, died 1765) 
rightly deserved the opprobrious surname of The 
Bloody Butcher on account of his merciless 
slaughter of the vanquished adherents of the Young 
Pretender after the Battle of Culloden. The soldiers 
of the Duke of Marlborough (born 1650, died 1722) 
familiarly styled their leader Corporal John because 
he had risen from the rank of Corporal ; while 
General Bonaparte, afterwards Emperor of the 
French (born 1769, died 1821), bore the name of 
The Little Corporal, in allusion to his original 
rank, his low stature, youthful appearance, and 
extraordinary courage. As most readers are aware, 
Wellington (born 1769, died 1852) earned the name 
of The Iron Duke by his iron will and resolution ; 
and Blucher (born 1742, died 1819) that of Marshal 
Forward, by his dash and readiness to attack the 
enemy in the campaign which terminated in the 
Battle of Waterloo. Prince Bismarck, the late 
Chancellor of the German Empire (born 1815) owed 

Naval and Military Sobriquets. 249 

his surname of The Iron Chancellor to his extra- 
ordinary vigour and indomitable will. Helmuth, 
Count von Moltke, Field-Marshal of the German 
armies (born 1800, died 1891), was popularly surnamed 
Helmuth the Taciturn, because though a master 
of half a dozen languages, he was never known to 
betray himself in one of them. The sobriquet 
of Stonewall Jackson, possessed by Thomas 
Jonathan Jackson, the Confederate General in the 
American War of 1861 to 1865, originated with 
General Lee, who, after rallying his troops at the 
Battle of Bull Run, exclaimed, " There is Jackson, 
standing like a stone wall ! " A less complimentary 
sobriquet bestowed upon General Andrew Jackson, 
President of the United States (born 1767, died 
1845), by his own soldiers, was that of Old 
Hickory, in allusion to his tough, unyielding dis- 
position. The circumstance is thus commented 
upon by Parton, the author of Jackson's Life, : — 
" The name of Old Hickory was not an instantaneous 
inspiration, but a growth. First of all, the remark 
was made by some soldier, who was struck with his 
commander's pedestrian powers, that the General 
was tough. Next, it was observed that he was as 
tough as hickory. Then he was called Hickory. 
Lastly, the affectionate adjective * old ' was pre- 
fixed, and the General thenceforth rejoiced in the 
completed nickname, usually the first-won honour 
of a great commander." 

Of naval sobriquets we shall mention only three. 
Commodore John Byron, the circumnavigator (born 

250 Names: and their Meaning. 

1723, died 1786), was popularly known as Foul 
Weather Jack because, it was said, he never 
enjoyed a fine passage throughout the whole of his 
experience. Admiral Edward Vernon (born 1684, 
died 1757), to whom reference is made in our article 
on "Spirits," was called Old Grog, because he wore 
a "Grogram" coat in "dirty weather" [see Grogram]. 
Admiral Sir Henry Digby received his well-known 
sobriquet of The Silver Captain under the follow- 
ing interesting circumstances : — On the October 14, 
1799, when commanding the frigate Alcmene, on a 
cruise off the Spanish coast, he shaped his course 
for Cape St. Vincent, and was running to the south- 
ward, in the latitude of Cape Finisterre. Twice 
during the night he rang his bell to summon the 
officer on the watch, and asked him if any person 
had been in the cabin. " No, sir ; nobody," was the 
answer. ** Very odd," rejoined Sir Henry. "Every 
time I dropped asleep I heard somebody shouting in 
my ear, * Digby ! Digby ! go to the northward ; 
Digby! Digby! go to the northward! ' I shall cer- 
tainly do so. Take another reef in your topsails, 
haul your wind, tack every hour till daybreak, and 
then call me." These orders were strictly carried 
out, and the frigate was tacked at four, at five, at six, 
and at seven o'clock. She had just come round for 
the last time when the man at the masthead called 
out, " Large ship on the weather-bow, sir ! " On 
nearing her a musket was discharged to bring her to. 
She was quickly boarded, when she proved to be a 
Spanish vessel laden with dollars, in addition to a 

Naval and Military Sobriquets. 251 

large cargo of cochineal and spices. By this 
capture therefore, the fortunate dreamer secured, as 
his (Captain's) share of the prize-money, the sum of 
^£"40,730 i8s. ; the lieutenants each £5,091 7s. 3d. ; 
the warrant officers each £2,468 los. g|^d. ; the mid- 
shipmen each £791 17s. o^d. ; and the seamen and 
marines each £182 14s. gl^d. The captured treasure 
was said to have been so weighty that sixty-three 
artillery tumbrils had to be requisitioned for the pur- 
pose of transporting it from the vessel to Plymouth 


THE word Money owes its existence to 
Moneta, one of the surnames of Juno, in 
who se temple the first coinage of the Romans 
took place. Mint claims the same etymology, being 
a contraction of the Latin moneta, brought about 
through the Anglo-Saxon mynet. By Sterling 
Money is meant the standard coin of Great Britain, 
and for this reason : — During the reign of King John 
the merchants of the Hansa Towns, of which the 
inhabitants were commonly described as Esterlings, 
because they resided in the eastern portions of 
Germany, having long been noted for the purity of 
their coinage, the king invited a number of them 
over to this country for the purpose of reforming 
and perfecting our coinage. The invitation was 
accepted ; and ever afterwards good English money 
received the name of Esterling or sterling money. 

A Guinea was an English gold piece first struck 
in 1663 out of gold brought from the coast of Guinea, 
West Africa. Its value has been subject to fluctua- 
tions at different periods. Thus, in 1663 it was 
worth 20s. ; in 1695, 30s.; in 1717, 21s.; in 1810, 
22s. 6d. ; and in 1816, 26s. The coinage of guineas 

Money. 253 

was discontinued July i, 18 17. A Sovereign is so 
called because when originally coined, during the 
reign of Henry VI 1 1., it bore a representation of 
that sovereign in his royal robes. A Crown-piece 
when first introduced displayed a crown on its reverse 
side. The Florin took its name from Florence, in 
which city it was struck as long ago as the thirteenth 
century. Its reverse side has always borne a repre- 
sentation of a lily, emblematical of "The City of 
Flowers." The term Shilling traces its origin in the 
Anglo-Saxon sailing, the Icelandic skillinge, and the 
Gothic skilliggs, in each case denoting the twentieth 
part of a pound, as at present. A Penny, so called 
from the Anglo-Saxon penig, and Danish pennig 
(whence the modern German Pfennig has been 
derived), originally denoted a copper coin of full 
value ; a Halfpenny, the half of a penny ; and a 
Farthing, a corruption of the Old English fourthling^ 
denotes a penny divided into four parts. We must 
not omit to mention that in olden times only penny- 
pieces were struck ; and these were deeply indented 
in the form of a cross — exactly, in fact, after the 
manner of our Good Friday buns ; so that when half- 
pennies or farthings were required the pennies could 
be broken into two or four portions without 

Among coins other than those now current in this 
country we may mention the Ducat, or Duke's 
Money, specially struck for circulation in the Duchy 
of Apulia in the year 1140, and which bore this 
beautiful inscription : " Sit tibi Christi, datus, quern 

254 Names : and their Meaning. 

tu regis, iste ducatus " (" May this duchy which 
You rule be devoted to You, O Christ ") ; and the 
Noble, so called on account of the superiority of its 
gold. During the reign of Henry III. this gold piece 
found its way into England under the name of Rose- 
Noble, owing to the impression of a rose on its 
reverse side ; but in the reign of Henry VIH., 
simultaneous with the substitution of the figure of 
St. George, it was designated a George-Noble. 
The value of this coin at both periods was six-and- 
eightpence. The current value of an Angel, so 
styled from the angel on its reverse side, was, when 
introduced in the reign of Henry VI., six-and-eight- 
pence ; but at the accession of Elizabeth it had 
increased to ten shillings. 

The Thistle-crown of James VI. of Scotland 
(James I. of England), value four shillings, was so 
called because it had a rose on one side and a thistle 
on the other; both surmounted by a crown. The 
Scottish sovereign of this period was styled a 
Jacobus, the Latinized form of the King's name. 
After the union of the two countries it became, of 
course, current in England also ; but in the two suc- 
ceeding reigns it was denominated a Carolus, the 
Latin for the name of Charles. A French gold 
coin long current in Scotland was the Dolphin, 
which derived its name from the fact of its intro- 
duction by Charles V., who was also Dauphin of 
Vienne. The French Louis d'or (a louis of gold) 
was first struck in the reign of Louis XIII. ; 
this was superseded by the Napoleon, during the 

Money. 255 

consulate of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Franc 
originally denoted the silver coin of the Franks. 
The term Dollar is a British modification of the 
German Thaler, an abbreviation of Joachim's- 
Thaler ; by which was implied a piece of money 
struck out of the silver discovered in the Thai, or 
Valley, of St. Joachim, France, about the year 1518. 
The silver drawn from this valley being of superior 
quality, it was coined into ounce pieces, which 
received the name of Joachims-Thalers ; but all 
other ounce pieces subsequently struck from silver 
obtained elsewhere were simply called Thalers. 
The Kreuzer, now superseded, owed its name to the 
cross on its reverse side. 

Wood's Halfpence was the designation of an 
inferior copper coinage circulated in Ireland by a 
certain William Wood, under a patent granted to 
him by George I. The withdrawal of the patent 
was eventually procured owing to the denunciations 
of Dean Swift in the mysterious "Drapier's Letters." 
The legal tender notes of the United States are 
commonly styled Greenbacks, from the colour of 
the device imprinted on the back of them. Bank of 
England notes formerly bore the name of Abraham 
Newlands from the signature of the chief cashier. 

By the term Bullion, remotely derived from the 
Low Latin bulla, a seal, and, more directly, from the 
Old French bullione, the Mint, is meant the stock of 
the precious metals formed into bars and stored in the 
strong rooms of the Bank of England in readiness for 
coinage. Money vested in Government securities is 

256 Names : and their Meaning. 

known as Stock, or Government Stock, in allusion 
to the origin of the term, viz., the Anglo-Saxon 
stocc, a trunk, a stick ; because prior to the year 1782, 
when the practice was abolished, the official acknow- 
ledgment of money received on behalf of the Govern- 
ment was written on both sides of a broad piece of 
wood, which was then cut in two ; and the one por- 
tion, called the Stock, was delivered to the person 
lending the money, the Counterstock being retained 
at the Tally Office. The instrument of reckoning 
in this manner was styled the Tally, in accordance 
with the French verb tailler, to cut ; while the cor- 
respondence of the Stock and Counterstock, or, in 
other words, the two portions of the Tally, furnished 
the origin of the modern phrase ** to tally," as well 
as the designation Tallyman, or a trader who lets 
out goods, principally clothing, on the system of pay- 
ment by weekly instalments. The word Consols is 
a contraction of " Consolidated Annuities," or the 
funded portion of the National Debt. The fund 
which provides for the annual reduction of the latter 
is styled the Sinking Fund. The French State 
Loans known as Tontines perpetuate the name of 
Lawrence Tonti, a Neapolitan protege of Cardinal 
Mazarine, who projected the scheme in 1653. The 
annual statement by the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
of the finances of this country is called the Budget, 
agreeably to the French hoiigetta, a little bag ; because 
formerly the various documents were presented to 
Parliament in a leathern bag. 


RUM is a native West Indian term for a spirit 
distilled from cane-juice ; Whisky is an 
English rendering of the Irish TJisque- 
baugh, derived from the two Gaelic words iiisge, 
water, and beatha, life ; Brandy is a corruption of 
the Old English brandwine, literally burnt wine; 
while Gin is short for Geneva, where this spirit was 
first distilled. Hollands is the popular English 
name for Dutch gin. Cognac, a French brandy of 
the best quality, owes its designation to the town 
of which it forms the staple industry ; and Nantes 
to the port where it is shipped. Old Tom was 
named after Tom Chamberlain, the senior partner 
in Messrs. Hodges' well-known distillery. 

The term Punch traces its origin to the Hindoo 
pautsch, signifying five, because this favourite con- 
coction originally consisted of five ingredients, viz., 
arrack, sugar, tea, lemons, and water; whereas 
Toddy is a western corruption of taudi, the native 
Hindoo name for palm-juice. The word Grog 
perpetuates the memory of " Old Grog," the nick- 
name of Admiral Edward Vernon, who first ordered 
his sailors to dilute their rum with water [see Old 


258 Na]iies : and their Meaning. 

Scotch whisky is usually styled Mountain Dew, 
from the fact that in former times it was often dis- 
tilled in the mountains in order to escape the watch- 
fulness of the excise officers. The superior Scotch 
whisky known as Glenlivet derives its name from 
the district in which it is distilled. The popular 
LL Whisky originated under the following cir- 
cumstances : When the Duke of Richmond was 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, he one day, in the year 
1807, sent to various Dublin distilleries for samples 
of their best whisky ; and preferring that furnished 
by Messrs. Kinahan, his Grace ordered a large vat 
in which this particular quality of the spirit was 
kept to be reserved for his own use. Accordingly, the 
letters " LL," signifying Lord Lieutenant, were 
painted on the vat ; and ever since Messrs. Kina- 
han's whisky of the same quality has borne the 
name of " LL Whisky." 


FLEET STREET received its name from the 
Fleet, once a swift-flowing stream, now 
converted into a sewer. Mitre Court, 
Falcon Court, and Red Lion Court were desig- 
nated after old taverns respectively bearing these 
signs. Bolt Court was so called from the " Bolt- 
in-Tun," an ancient coaching-house, transformed 
into a railway goods receiving office standing on the 
opposite side of the way. Johnson's Court did 
not receive its title from Dr. Johnson, who lived in 
it for some time, but from the owner of the property. 
Wine Office Court originally contained an office 
where wine licences were issued. Shoe Lane re- 
ceived this designation from the traditional account 
that when the Devil ran away with Lady Hatton 
[see, Hatton Garden] he dropped one of her shoes 
in Shoe Lane and her cloak in Cloak Lane, 
near Cannon Street. St. Bride Street and Bride 
Lane owe their names to the Church of St. 
Bride close by. Salisbury Court occupies the 
site of an ancient palace of the Bishops of Salis- 
bury. Dorset Street and Dorset Buildings 
carry us back in fancy to the Dorset Gardens 

26o Names : and their Meaning. 

Theatre, erected in the grounds attached to the 
residence of the Earl of Dorset in the early days of 
the Restoration. Whitefriars Street marks the 
western boundary of the monastery of the Car- 
melites, or White Friars, built in 1245. The whole 
district of Whitefriars formerly comprised a Sanc- 
tuary infested by debtors and lawbreakers ; on which 
account it bore the name of Alsatia, in allusion to 
the French province of Alsace, long notorious for its 
intestine strife and political disaffection. Bridge 
Street is a modem thoroughfare leading to Black- 
friars Bridge and Blackfriars Road, so called 
from the monastery of the Dominicans or Black 
Friars established on the site of Printing House 
Square and the Times office, about the year 1276. 
Water Lane was originally a narrow lane winding 
down to the Thames. 

Ludgate Hill derived its name from the old 
Lud Gate, built by King Lud in the year 66 B.C. on 
the spot where the London, Chatham, and Dover 
Railway now crosses this busy thoroughfare. The 
gate was removed in 1760. La Belle Sauvage 
Yard was formerly the coachyard of the celebrated 
Inn of this name. The Old Bailey is a corruption 
of Bail Hill, which contained the residence and court 
of the Bail, or Bailiff, from very early times. The 
Broadway was doubtless considered a fine thorough- 
fare in the days when London streets generally 
were so narrow that opposite neighbours could shake 
hands out of their top-story windows. Friar 
Street was designated after the Black Friars' 

London Streets and Squares, 261 

Monastery. Sermon Lane is a corruption of 
" Shere-moniers' Lane," in which stood the ofBce of 
the money-shearers or clippers at the time when 
the Mint was in this neighbourhood. Paul's 
Chain owed its name to a chain formerly drawn 
across its northern extremity the while service was 
held in St. Paul's. Old Change was originally 
known as " The King's Exchange" on account of the 
building where the bullion was stored convenient to 
the Money-shearers' Office and the Mint. Pater- 
noster Row received its name from the stationers 
who sold religious texts, prayer-books, and rosary 
beads, formerly called Paternosters in this street. 
Ave Maria Lane, Creed Lane, and Amen Corner, 
being of later date, their designation to complete 
the religious metaphor was perhaps natural. War- 
wick Lane stands on the site of a magnificent 
palace owned by the Beauchamps, Earls of War- 
wick. Ivy Lane contained the ivy-clad houses of 
the prebendaries attached to St. Paul's Cathedral. 
In Panyer Alley may be seen a curious stone let 
into the wall of the middle house on the east side, 
upon which are chiselled the rude figure of a boy 
seated on a pannier or basket, and a distich remind- 
ing the pedestrian that this is the highest ground in 
the City. The alley was a standing-place for bakers 
with their panniers at the time when a corn market 
was held at the western extremity of Cheapside. 

Cheapside properly denotes that side of the Cheap 
where the rich goldsmiths had their shops. The 
term cheap is Saxon for a market, derived from ceapan. 

262 Names : and their Meaning. 

to buy. The Old English spelling of the name of 
this locality was Chepe. Ironmonger Lane was 
the regular habitation of the artificers in iron in the 
reign of Edward I. ; Bread Street of the bakers ; 
and Friday Street of the fishmongers who supplied 
the fast-day markets. Milk Street was the ancient 
milk market. Gutter Lane is a corruption of 
" Guthurun Lane," so called after a wealthy Danish 
burgher. Foster Lane contains the Church of St. 
Vedast (otherwise St. Foster), Bishop of Arras in 
the French province of Artois, in the time of Clovis. 
Wood Street was anciently inhabited by turners 
and makers of wooden cups and dishes and mea- 
sures. Lawrence Lane received its name from 
the Church of St. Lawrence in Gresham Street, 
which perpetuates the memory of Sir Thomas 
Gresham, merchant and founder of the Royal 
Exchange (born 15 19, died 1579), because Gresham 
College, established by him in his own mansion, 
on the site of the present Gresham House, Old 
Broad Street, was removed here in 1843. Lad Lane, 
now absorbed in Gresham Street, was a corrup- 
tion of " Our Lady Lane," so called from a 
statue of the Virgin. Aldermanbury was so 
called from the original Guildhall that stood on its 
east side. The approach to the present Guildhall 
received the name of King Street in honour of 
Henry IV., in whose reign the edifice was opened. 
In Basinghall Street stood the mansion of 
Solomon Basing, Lord Mayor in 12 16. Coleman 
Street preserves the memory of the first builder 

London Streets and Squares. 263 

upon the land. The Old Jewry was the privileged 
quarter of the Jews, whose first synagogue was 
erected here in 1262. The Poultry comprised the 
shops of the scorchers and stuffers, who afterwards 
settled down in the Stocks Market (so called from 
the old stocks for public offenders that stood there), 
displaced by the building of the Mansion House in 
1739. Bucklersbury was originally the property 
of a wealthy grocer named Buckle who owned 
a manor-house here ; the Anglo-Saxon word bury 
being applicable either to a town or to an inhabited 
enclosure. King William Street was named soon 
after William IV. opened the present London 
Bridge, on August i, 1831. Queen Victoria 
Street was cut through in the reign of her present 

Cannon Street is a corruption of Candlewick 
Street, colloquially styled " Can'lwick Street," from 
the candlemakers who congregated in it. Budge 
Row received its name from the sellers of budge, 
or lambskin-fur, which at one time was greatly used 
as an ornamentation to their attire by scholars and 
civic dignitaries. London Stone marked the centre 
of the City during its occupation by the Romans in 
the year 15 B.C. "Watling Street is a mispronuncia- 
tion of "Vitellina strata," meaning the street of 
Vitellius, who at the time it was constructed occupied 
the Imperial throne. This was the great highway of 
the Romans, running from Dover, through Canterbury 
and London, direct to Cardigan in Wales. Walbrook, 
formerly written ** Wall-brook," reminds us of the 

264 Names : and their Meaning. 

pleasant stream of clear water that once ran along 
the west side of this street and emptied itself into 
the Thames. Crooked Lane was so called from its 
winding character. Swan Alley, in Upper Thames 
Street, derived its title from an ancient mansion of 
the Beauchamps whose crest was a swan. Boss 
Alley calls attention to the fact that the executors 
of Sir Richard Whittington erected a boss, or con- 
duit, hereabouts in the long, long ago. College 
Hill is all that remains to remind us of the College 
of St. Spirit and St. Mary founded on its site by the 
same generous Lord Ma3'or and benefactor of the 
public. Fye Foot Lane is properly "five-foot 
lane," the actual width of this thoroughfare at one 
end ; while Duck's Foot Lane is a corruption of 
"Duke's Foot Lane," signifying the private path 
leading from the manor-house of the Dukes of 
Suffolk in what is now Suffolk Lane down to the 
water-side. Q,ueenhitlie was so called because the 
tolls collected at this hithe, or wharf, were claimed 
as pin-money by Eleanor, queen of Henry II. 
Dowgate is a modern spelling of " Dwrgate " {dwr 
being Celtic for water), where, in the absence of 
bridges, the Romans had a ferry across the river 
to the continuation of Watling Street towards 
Dover. The Steelyard was the place where the 
King's beam, or Steel yard, for weighing merchandise 
was set up. Foreigners who landed goods here 
were, between the thirteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies, known as The Steelyard Merchants. 
Gracechurch Street, formerly corrupted into 

London Streets and Squares. 265 

*' Gracious Street," received its name from an old 
church standing in a grass marlvet hereabouts. 
Fenchurch Street recalls the church in the fens, 
or marshy land, on the north bank of the Thames. 
Eastcheap was the eastern cheap or market, as dis- 
tinguished from Chepe or Cheapside. Mincing Lane 
is a corruption of " Mynchen Lane," denoting the 
tenements held by the minichery, a Saxon name for 
a nunnery, of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate Street. 
Mark Lane was originally styled " Mart Lane," 
from a fair held here from the earliest times. 
Blind Chapel Court, situated at the north-east 
corner of Mark Lane, carries the imagination 
back to " Blanch Appleton," the documentary 
description of a white stone manor belonging to a 
knight named Appleton, in the reign of Richard II. 
In Hood Lane stood an ancient rood, or cross, 
representing the dying Saviour. Seething Lane 
is a corruption of Sidon Lane ; and Billiter Street 
of Belzetti Street, commemorating the names of 
the original owners of, and builders upon, the land. 
The Minories marks the site of the Priory of the 
MiNORESSES, or Nuns of St. Clare (the Order 
founded in Italy by St. Clare in 1212) ; corresponding 
to the Minims, or Lesser Friars, founded by St. 
Francis de Paula in 1453. Crutched Friars was 
the Priory of the Crutched, or Crossed, Friars of 
the Holy Trinity [see Religious Orders]. Aldgate 
received its name from the Aid Gate, the oldest of 
the City gates, taken down in 1760. Aldgate Pump, 
which stood beside the gate, still remains. George 

266 Names : and their Meaning. 

Yard was formerly the inn yard of " The George." 
Duke's Place preserves the memory of Thomas 
Howard, Duke of Norfolk, beheaded in 1572, who 
had inherited the property of the Crutched Friars 
by marriage. 

Leadenhall Street derived its title from the 
Leadenhall Market, a corruption of " Leather 
Hall," the leather-sellers' market of olden times. St. 
Mary-Axe owes its name to the Church of St. Mary- 
Axe which stood in it [see the article " London 
Churches and Buildings "]• Throgmorton 
Street and Nicholas Lane were both named after 
Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, a wealthy London 
banker, and the head of an ancient Warwick- 
shire family, said to have been poisoned by Robert 
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, in 1571. Thread- 
needle Street is a corruption of " Three-Needle- 
Street," so called from the arms of the Needle 
Makers' Company. Bartholomew Lane was de- 
signated after the Church of St. Bartholomew, at 
the back of the Royal Exchange. Lothbury 
was originally " Lattenbury," inhabited by the 
workers in latten, a fine kind of brass or bronze, which 
formed an important industry in the Middle Ages. 
Cornhill was the ancient corn market. St. 
Michael's Alley, where the first English coffee- 
house was opened, took its name from the neigh- 
bouring church. Finch Lane is properly ** Finke 
Lane," in honour of Sir Robert Finke, who built the 
Church of St. Bennet Finke, pulled down to enlarge 
Gresham's Royal Exchange. Change Alley, a 

London Streets and Squares. 267 

contraction of *' Exchange Alley," was in the year 
1720 the busy centre of the South Sea Bubble. 
Birchin Lane is a corruption of " Birchover Lane," 
named after the builder. 

Lombard Stireet constituted the colony of the 
Jews of Lombardy sent over to England by Pope 
Gregory IX. for the purpose of advancing money 
to those who were unable to pay the taxes so 
rigorously demanded throughout the country in 
1229. Austin Friars contained the Priory of the 
Austin, or Augustin Friars. Bishopsgate Street 
was designated after the strong gate built by the 
good Bishop Erkenwald, son of Offa, King of the 
Saxons ; and repaired by Bishop William in the 
reign of William I. Great St. Helen's comprises 
the ground anciently held by the Nuns of the Order 
of St. Helen. Devonshire Square, in this neigh- 
bourhood, marks the situation of the mansion of 
William Cavendish, second Earl of Devonshire, who 
died under its roof in 1628. Artillery Lane stands 
upon the old practising ground of the Tower 
Gunners prior to the seventeenth century. Hounds- 
ditch was the old ditch beyond the city wall, 
anciently considered by the inhabitants to be the 
proper depository for dead dogs. Bevis Marks is 
a corruption of " Bury's Marks," where stood the 
mansion and grounds of the Abbots of Bury. 
Petticoat Lane, also known as Rag Fair, is the 
central old clothes mart of the Jewish inhabitants of 
the metropolis. Wormwood Street and Camo- 
mile Street were so called on account of the herbs 

268 Names : and their Meaning. 

found growing among the Roman stones. London 
Wall defines the ancient boundary of Roman 
London. Barbican, a continuation of the old 
Roman Wall, is an English form of the Saxon 
burgh kennin, or postern tower. Here it was that 
the Romans placed sentinels by night and day to 
give notice of conflagrations in the City or of dangers 
from outside quarters. In Great Winchester Street 
stood the original Winchester House, built by 
the first Marquis of Winchester. Old Broad Street 
was in Elizabeth's reign the most fashionable 
thoroughfare in London, containing the mansions of 
the wealthiest city merchants. Moorgate Street 
was so called from the gate that divided the City from 
the moor, comprising the borough of Finsbury. 
Beech Lane was designated after Nicholas de la 
Beech, Lieutenant of the Tower during the reign 
of Edward III. Cripplegate is the narrow 
thoroughfare anciently graced (or disgraced) by a 
stone gate which received its name from the beggars 
and cripples who congregated around it. This 
affection for the old gate on the part of the cripples 
may be explained by the circumstance that the 
neighbouring church was dedicated to St. Giles, the 
patron of cripples. Whitecross Street and Red 
Cross Street were respectively denominated from a 
white and a red cross of stone, which defined the 
boundaries of the land belonging to the Knights 
Templars and the Knights Hospitallers. Play- 
house Yard reminds us that the old " Fortune 
Theatre " stood here. Jewin Street was for 

London Streets and Squares. 269 

centuries the only burying-ground permitted to the 
Jews of London. Aldersgate Street took its name 
from the old City gate, distinguished for several 
alder-trees that grew beside it. In Bridgewater 
Square stood the mansion, destroyed by fire in 
1687, of the Egertons, Earls of Bridgewater. Bar- 
tholomew Close marks the situation of the cloisters 
of St. Bartholomew's Priory, of which the church 
still remains. Cloth Fair comprised the ancient 
rendezvous of the Flemish and Italian merchants 
for the annual sale of cloths. This was the real 
Fair, to which " Bartholomew Fair " was merely an 
adjunct designed for the amusement of the populace 
who came from all accessible parts of the country. 
Duke Street and Little Britain were so called 
because in olden times the Dukes of Brittany 
resided here. Newgate Street received its name 
from the latest of the City gates, which also lent its 
title to the gloomy prison hard by. Bath Street 
contained one of the Turkish Bagnios, or Baths, 
introduced in London as early as the year 1679. 
King Edward Street serves to remind us that the 
neighbouring Grammar School known as Christ's 
Hospital was established by Edward VI. Giltspur 
Street, formerly styled Knightrider Street, was 
so called from the Knights, distinguished by their 
gilt spurs, who passed through it on their way to 
the tournaments in Smithfield. Pie Corner, where 
the great Fire of London ceased its ravages in 1666, 
derived its name from an eating-house that rejoiced 
in the sign of " The Magpie." Farringdon Street 

270 Names : and their Meaning. 

and Farringdon Boad perpetuate the memory of 
William Farrindon, citizen and goldsmith, who pur- 
chased the Aldermanry of the Ward still known by 
his name for twenty marks in 1279, ^.nd became 
Sheriff two years later. Saffron HiU owes its 
designation to the rich crops of saffron that grew on 
its site at the time when it formed the eastern por- 
tion of the grounds attached to Ely House, the 
London residence of the Bishops of Ely, which 
stood on the spot now marked by Ely Place, and 
bounded on the west by Hatton Garden ; so called 
because, when the property became demised to the 
Crown, it was presented by Queen Elizabeth to Sir 
Christopher Hatton, who literally danced himself 
into Her Majesty's favour. Snow Hill was formerly 
described as ** Snore Hill," from the fact that the 
stage-coach passengers intended for " The Saracen's 
Head " were generally fast asleep when they arrived 
at their destination. 

Holborn is a contraction of " The Hollow Bourne," 
indicative of a stream in a hollow. In Domesday 
Book the name appears as " Holebourne." Hol- 
born Bars marks the City boundary on its western 
side. Leather Lane was the recognized colony of 
the leather-sellers. Fetter Lane is a perversion of 
" Fewtor's Lane " — in other words, a lane infested 
by vagabonds in the days when it led to some pleasure 
gardens. The term was derived from the Norman- 
French faitour, signifying an evil-doer. Brooke 
Street (in which Chatterton, the boy-poet, ended his 
life by poison), and Greville Street preserve the 

London Streets and Squares. 271 

name of Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, Councillor to 
James I., whose house stood in the latter thorough- 
fare. Gray's Inn Road forms the eastern boundary 
of Gray's Inn. Verulam Buildings, Gray's Inn, 
facing Gray's Inn Road, received this title in honour 
of Lord Bacon, who was created Baron Verulam and 
Viscount St. Albans. Furnival Street, on the east 
side of Holborn Bars, owes its name to Furnival's 
Inn, which it faces. Until quite recently this street 
was de-signated Castle Street, from the old " Castle 
Inn," whose site it covers. The name of Dyers' 
Buildings memorializes the one-time existence of 
some almshouse erected hereabouts by the Dyers' 
Company. Cursitor Street received its title from 
the Cursitors' Office founded in this vicinity by the 
father of the great Lord Bacon. The Cursitors were 
those who issued writs in the name of the Court of 
Chancery. The word cursitor is a corruption of 
chorister. Anciently all the officers of the Court of 
Chancery were divines ; and the Lord High Chan- 
cellor himself was the Ecclesiastical Keeper of the 
King's Conscience. Chancery Lane is a corruption 
of " Chancellor's Lane," originally containing the 
court and official residence of the Lord High Chan- 
cellor. Southampton Buildings occupy the site 
of Southampton House, which witnessed the death 
of Thomas, the last Earl of Southampton, Lord 
Treasurer of Charles II. Those sorry tenements, 
Chichester Rents supply the place of the old town 
mansion of the Bishops of Chichester. Lincoln's 
Inn Fields are situated on the east side of the Inn, 

272 Names : and their Meaning. 

or mansion, of Henry de Lacey, Earl of Lincoln, in 
the fourteenth century [see Inns of Court]. Sar- 
dinia Street takes its name from the Sardinian 
Chapel, the oldest Roman Catholic chapel in 
London, dating back to the year 1648, and originally 
the residence of the Sardinian ambassador. Great 
Turnstile and Little Turnstile are pleasant- 
sounding names, eminently suggestive of the rural 
character of this neighbourhood in bygone days. 
The turnstiles were set up to prevent sheep and 
cattle from straying out of Lincoln's Inn Fields into 
the public highway. Great Queen Street was so 
called in compliment to Queen Elizabeth, in whose 
reign it was first formed into a footway for pedes- 
trians plodding westwards from Lincoln's Inn to- 
wards the narrow path, anciently designated, as the 
modern street still is, Long Acre. The word Acre, 
derived from the Greek agros, Latin ager, and Anglo- 
Saxon acer, means a ploughed or sown field. 
Drury Lane derived its name from Drury House, 
the town residence of Sir William Drury, K.G., one 
of our most able commanders in quelling the wars 
with Ireland. The house was situated where the 
Olympic Theatre now stands. Denzil Street and 
Holies Street were so designated by Gilbert, Earl 
of Clare, whose house occupied the site of Clare 
Market, in memory of his uncle Denzil, Lord 
Holies, one of the five members of the House of 
Commons whose persons Charles I. made an in- 
effectual attempt to seize. Hart Street and White 
Hart Street both owe their titles to " The White 

London Streets and Squares. 273 

Hart " Inn, demolished in the time of George I. 
Catherine Street, Strand, and Portugal Street, 

Lincoln's Inn Fields, were designated in honour of 
Catherine of Braganza, queen of Charles II. Serle 
Street received its name from Henry Serle, a 
bencher of Lincoln's Inn, who left considerable 
property in the parish of St. Clement-Danes when 
he died in 1690. Wych Street was known in early 
times as Aldwyche, denoting the road leading directly 
from the Strand and the church just mentioned to 
the " Old town," now known as Broad Street, St. 
Giles's parish. Holywell Street took its title from 
the Holy Well discovered on the eastern side of St. 

The Strand literally means the strand of the 
Thames. At one time Somerset House and a few 
other princely mansions only occupied its southern 
side. Thanet Place, a secluded ctd de sac com- 
prising ten houses, opposite the Law Courts, was 
named after the Earl of Thanet, to whom, previous 
to 1780, the property belonged. Palsgrave Place 
was so called in compliment to the Palsgrave 
Frederick, King of Bohemia, who married the 
Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I., in 1612. 
Devereaux Court received its title from Essex 
House, which also gave its name to Essex Street, 
the residence of Robert Devereaux, Earl of Essex, 
the Parliamentary General. Milford Lane was in 
olden times characterized by a rustic mill ; and the 
lane itself led down to a ford across the river. 
Arundel Street, Norfolk Street, Surrey Street, 

274 Names : and their Meaning. 

and Howard Street, stand upon the site of the 
town house and grounds of the Howards, Dukes of 
Norfolk, and Earls of Arundel and Surrey. Savoy 
Street leads to the Chapel Royal, the only remain- 
ing portion of the ancient Savoy Palace [see Savoy 
Chapel]. Wellington Street, constructed in 
1829-30, was named to complete the compliment 
partially bestowed upon the Duke of Wellington by 
the designation of Waterloo Bridge, opened June 
18, 1817, or two years after the famous victory. 
Bow Street was so called on account of its bent 
shape when it was first laid out to connect the 
Strand with Oxford Street in 1637. Covent Gar- 
den is a corruption of Convent Garden, or the 
garden belonging to St. Paul's Convent. York 
Street and James Street were both named in 
honour of the Duke of York, afterwards James II. 
King Street, constructed in his reign, was desig- 
nated after Charles I., and Henrietta Street after 
his queen, Henrietta Maria. In Tavistock Street, 
Russell Street, Bedford Street, and Southamp- 
ton Street, we trace some of the family titles of one 
of the ancestors of the present ground landlord, 
viz., Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, 
Marquis of Tavistock, Duke of Bedford, whose 
daughter is known in history as the celebrated 
Rachel, the wife of Lord William Russell, the 
patriot, beheaded in 1683. Southampton House, in 
which Lady Russell was born, stood in the street 
named after it. Bedfordbury originally denoted 
the enclosed property of the Bedford family. 

London Streets and Squares. 275 

Maiden Lane was so styled on account of a statue 
of the Virgin that stood at the corner of this 
thoroughfare at the time when it skirted the south 
wall of the Convent Garden. Chandos Street 
received its name from James Bridges, Lord 
Chandos, the ancestor of the " Princely Duke of 
Chandos." Exeter Street marks the situation of 
Exeter House and its grounds, the property of a 
lineal descendant of the great Lord Burleigh, after 
whom Burleigh Street was designated. Cecil 
Street and Salisbury Street, on the opposite side 
of the Strand, remind us that here stood Salisbury 
House, the residence of Robert Cecil, first Earl of 
Salisbury, one of the sons of Lord Burleigh just 
alluded to. 

Adelphi is the Greek word for brothers; This 
collective title was chosen for the pleasantly situated 
little district which comprises Adelphi Terrace, 
Adam Street, John Street, Robert Street, and 
James Street, the work of the brothers Adam, 
after whose Christian names three of the streets were 
designated. Similarly, George Street, ViUiers 
Street, Duke Street, and Buckingham Street 
preserve the memory of George Villiers, second 
Duke of Buckingham, of whose mansion the old 
gate built by Inigo Jones may still be seen. 
Charing Cross is a perversion of *' Chere Reine 
Cross," so named from the memorial cross erected 
upon the spot where the body of Eleanor, the dear 
queen of Edward I., was last set down while on its 
way to Westminster Abbey. The present cross is 

276 Names: and their Meaning. 

merely a model of the original demolished by the 
Puritans in 1647. Craven Street is the property 
of Lord Craven. Northumberland Street and 
Northumberland Avenue owe their names to 
Northumberland House, the town mansion of the 
Dukes of Northumberland, taken down in 1874. 

Trafalgar Square received its title from the 
Nelson Column, set up in 1843, two years before the 
Square itself was completed. St. Martin's Lane 
was named after the parish church of St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields. King "William Street was built 
upon in the reign of William IV. The name of 
Seven Dials arose from a column set up at the 
diverging point of seven streets, and displaying as 
many clock faces. Its object was to mark the limits 
of St. Giles's and St. Martin's parishes. Cran- 
bourne Street marks the course of a long, narrow 
bourne, or stream, that formerly ran from Tyburn 
by way of Brook Street, Grosvenor Square, and 
across Leicester Fields into Long Acre, and thence 
emptied itself into the Thames at the bottom of 
Milford Lane. The first portion of the name was in 
allusion to the long, slender neck and legs of the 
crane. Leicester Square (formerly demomin- 
ated Leicester Fields) derived its name from 
Leicester House, the noble mansion built on its 
east side by Robert Sidney, Earl of Leicester, in 
1636. On the site of Coventry Street stood the 
mansion of Henry Coventr}', Secretary of State in 
the reign of Charles II. Great Windmill Street 
reminds us of the old windmill that stood hereabouts 

London Streets and Squares. 277 

a couple of centuries ago. It was not until January, 
1831, that the hay market, properly so called, was 
removed from the spacious thoroughfare still known 
as the Haymarket. Jermyn Street was named 
after Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, whose resi- 
dence, St. Alban's House, stood on its north side. 
In Arundel Street we have one of the family 
titles of the ground landlord. Lord Arundel of 
Wardour. Orange Street was designated in 
honour of the Prince of Orange, afterwards William 
III. Panton Street perpetuates the memory of 
Colonel Thomas Panton, a notorious gamester, 
whose daughter married into the Arundel family. 
Suffolk Street marks the situation of the old town 
mansion of the Earl of Suffolk. 

Spring Gardens, during the days of the Stuarts, 
contained an ingenious contrivance by which any 
person stepping upon a hidden spring was suddenly 
immersed in a shower of water. Pall Mall is a 
modern spelling of paille inaille, the title of a French 
game at ball, somewhat similar to our croquet, first 
played in this thoroughfare — then open to St. 
James's Park — about the year 1621. Carlton 
House Terrace stands on the site of Carlton 
House, the palace of Frederick, Prince of Wales, 
the father of George III. King Street, St. 
James's Street, and St. James's Square were 
designated in honour of James I. Bury Street is 
properly "Berry Street," after the name of its builder. 

The Green Park deserves its title on account of 
its verdure, so refreshing to the eye. Hyde Park 

278 Names: and their Meaning. 

anciently comprised the manor of Hyde held by the 
Abbots of St. Peter's, Westminster, but claimed by the 
Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries. Hyde 
Park Corner defines the position of the old toll- 
gate at the western extremity of London. Rotten 
Row is a corruption of route du roi, the French for 
" route of the King," to the historic royal residence 
at Kensington. Albert Gate, Queen's Gate, and 
Prince's Gate are of modern date, named in honour 
of the royal personages indicated. The Marble 
Arch is an imposing structure of white marble 
originally erected in front of Buckingham Palace in 
1830, and removed to its present position in 1851. 
Rutland Gate was designated after the mansion of 
the Dukes of Rutland hard by. Cumberland Gate 
and Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, were both 
named after the Duke of Cumberland, brother to 
George III. Grosvenor Gate, Grosvenor Street, 
and Grosvenor Square preserve the memory of Sir 
Richard Grosvenor, Grand Cup-bearer to George II., 
who died in 1732. The ancestral line of the Gros- 
venors may be traced back to Le Gros Veneur, " the 
chief hunter," to the Dukes of Normandy prior to 
the Conquest. Stanhope Gate, Great Stanhope 
Street, and Chesterfield Street received their 
names from Chesterfield House, the residence oi 
Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, of epistolary 
fame. Park Lane was formerly a narrow lane 
skirting the east side of the Park. Portugal 
Street was named in honour of the queen of 
Charles II. Chapel Street owes its designation to 

London Streets and Squares. 279 

its proximity to Grosvenor Chapel. Hamilton 
Place perpetuates the name of Colonel James 
Hamilton, Ranger of Hyde Park, and boon com- 
panion of Charles H. 

That fine thoroughfare known as Piccadilly was 
designated after " Piccadilla Hall," its most westerly 
building during the reign of Elizabeth, and utilized 
as a depot for the sale of the then fashionable Picca- 
dilly Lace, so called on account of its little spear- 
like points, Piccadilly being the diminutive of pica, a 
pike, a spear. In the succeeding reign of James I., 
the high ruff worn by males was styled a piccadilly, 
though the lace had disappeared from its edge. 
Curzon Street was named after George Augustus 
Curzon, third Viscount Howe, the ground landlord. 
Charles Street and Clueen Street were first built 
upon in the reign of Charles XL, in honour of whom 
and his queen they were designated. Shepherd 
Street, Shepherd's Market, and Market Street 
faithfully preserve the memory of the owner of the 
land upon which the ancient " May Fair" was held. 
Hay Hill, Hill Street, and Farm Street mark 
the situation of an old farm that stood upon the 
lands of John, Lord Berkeley of Stratton, an able 
officer in the army of Charles I., whose titles are 
perpetuated in John Street, Berkeley Square, 
Berkeley Street, and Stratton Street; while 
Bruton Street refers to the family seat of the 
Berkeleys, situated at Bruton, Somersetshire. 
Mount Street marks the site of one of the western 
forts or bastions hastily formed by the Parlia- 

■zSo Names : and their Meaning. 

mentarians in 1643 to resist an expected attack 
upon the Metropolis from this side by the Royalists. 
Clarges Street derived its name from the residence 
of Sir Walter Clarges built in 1717, and afterwards 
occupied by the Venetian Ambassador. In Half- 
Moon Street stood an old tavern bearing the sign 
of "The Half- Moon." Arlington Street and 
Bennett Street were named after Henry Bennett, 
Earl of Arlington, whose town house was situated 
on the site of the former thoroughfare. Dover 
Street was so called in memory of Henry Jermyn, 
Lord Dover, who died in it in 1782. Albemarle 
Street contained the residence of Christopher Monk, 
second Duke of Albemarle, acquired from the Earls 
of Clarendon. Old Bond Street, of which New 
Bond street is a modern continuation, received its 
name from the Bond family, now extinct. The land 
upon which it stands was the property of Sir Thomas 
Bond, Comptroller of the Household of Henrietta 
Maria, queen of Charles I. Clifford Street pre- 
serves the memory of Elizabeth Clifford, who 
became the wife of Richard Boyle, Earl of Burling- 
ton (died 1753), after whom Old Burlington Street, 
and subsequently, New Burlington Street were de- 
signated. In Cork Street resided Lord Cork, one 
of the four brothers of the Boyle family advanced to 
the peerage at the same time. Savile Row was 
named after Dorothy Savile, who became Countess 
of Burlington and Cork, and inherited the property. 
Vigo Street commemorates the capture of Vigo, in 
Spain, by the British on several occasions in the 

London Streets and Squares. 281 

course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
The street dates back to the year 1720. SackviUe 
Street, built in 1679, serves its purpose as per- 
petuating the memory of the witty Charles Sack- 
viUe, Earl of Dorset, whose friends were unwilling 
that his fame should be allowed to die. Air Street, 
Piccadilly Circus, was at the time of its erection 
in the year 1659 one of the most westerly, and 
consequently, open streets of the town. Swallow 
Street is a corruption of " Slough Street," at one 
time a miry thoroughfare much infested by footpads. 
Vine Street recalls the ancient vineyard belonging 
to the Abbey at Westminster, situated here. 

Regent Street was named by John Nash, the 
architect, after his royal patron, the Prince Regent. 
It was commenced in 1813. Conduit Street re- 
ceived its name from the conduit or spring-head set 
up in the meadow formerly known as " Conduit 
Mead," now swallowed up by Old Bond Street. 
Maddox Street was built by one Maddox in 1720. 
Brook Street reminds us of the pleasant stream 
that wound its way from Tyburn down to Leicester 
Fields, where it was designated the Cranbourne, and 
ultimately spent itself in the Thames. Mill Street 
affords us an additional memory of the rurality of 
London in bygone times, George Street (also 
St. George*s Church), Hanover Street, and 
Hanover Square were designations in honour of 
the Hanoverian succession in the person of George 
I. Davies Street, connecting Berkeley Square 
with Oxford Street, received its name in compliment 

283 Names : and their Meaning. 

to Miss Mary Davies, the heiress of Ebury Manor, 
Belgravia, who carried that estate by her marriage 
into the possession of the Grosvenors. 

Crossing Regent Street, Argyll Street marks the 
situation of the old town mansion of the Dukes 
of Argyll. Marlborough Street, Great Marl- 
borough Street, and Blenheim Street were so 
called in honour of the Duke of Marlborough, the 
victor of Blenheim. Wardour Street is in allusion 
to the family seat of the ground landlord, Lord 
Arundel of Wardour. Uassau Street was named 
in compliment to the royal House of Nassau, from 
which the Prince of Orange claimed his descent. 
Golden Square is a corruption of Gelding Square, 
derived from an adjacent inn sign, " The Gelding." 
Shaftesbury Avenue is a modern thoroughfare 
named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh Earl of 
Shaftesbury, who performed the opening ceremony 
but a short time before his death, which occurred in 
1885. Windmill Street furnishes another plea- 
sant reminder of green pastures and rural delights. 
Old Compton Street was built in the reign of 
Charles II. by Sir Francis Compton. New Comp- 
ton Street and Dean Street derived their names 
from Bishop Compton, Dean of the Chapel Royal, 
Savoy, who originally possessed the living of St. 
Anne's, Soho. Gerrard Street and Macclesfield 
Street perpetuate the memory of Gerard, Earl of 
Macclesfield, the owner of the site at the time when 
buildings were first put up hereabouts in 1697. 
Greek Street was so called from the Greek mer- 

London Streets and Squares. 283 

chants who colonized this neighbourhood, and for 
vdiose spiritual benefit a Greek church was erected 
hard by. Carlisle Street was designated after the 
Howards, Earls of Carlisle, a branch of the ducal 
house of Norfolk, whose family mansion stood on 
the east side of what is now Soho Square about the 
middle of the last century. 

Hanway Street, situated on the north side of 
Oxford Street, received its name from Jonas Hanway, 
who was the first to carry an umbrella through the 
London streets. This occurred in the year 1750. 
Rathbone Place, a somewhat exclusive thorough- 
fare, supporting its own police, was built by a Cap- 
tain Rathbone in 1718. Newman Street and 
Goodge Street retain the names of their speculative 
builders. Castle Street took its title from an inn 
sign at the corner of Oxford Market. Wells Street 
is properly " Well Street," so called after Well in 
Yorkshire, the seat of the Strangeways family, from 
whom Lady Berners, the original ground landlady 
of Berners Street, descended. In Foley Street 
stood Foley House, the town- mansion of Lord Foley. 
Charlotte Street received its name in honour of 
the queen of George IH. Eolsover Street, Great 
Titchfield Street, Titchfield Street, Grafton 
Street, Cleveland Street, Fitzroy Square, 
Euston Square, Euston Road, and Southamp- 
ton Street, are all designated after family names of 
the Fitzroys, Dukes of Grafton, Earls and Lords of 
Southampton, the ground landlords. Euston is the 
seat of the Earl of Euston, son of the Duke of 

284 Nantes: and their Meaning. 

Grafton and Marquis of Titchfield, situated at 
Thetford, in the county of Norfolk; while Bolsover 
is the Derbyshire seat of the Graftons. Tottenham 
Court Road anciently comprised the manor of 
Totten, or Totham, held by William de Tottenhall 
in the reign of Henry III. In Elizabeth's time the 
manor was described as "Tottenham Court." The 
lease fell into the possession of Charles Fitzroy, 
second Duke of Grafton, by right of his mother, 
Lady Isabella Bennett, who inherited it. 

Oxford Street, formerly styled Oxford Road, 
Oxford Market, Mortimer Street, Harley Street, 
Edward Street, and "Wigmore Street, derived 
their names from Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford 
and Mortimer, created Baron Harley of Wigmore 
Castle in Herefordshire in 1717, the owner of the 
estate. Cavendish Square, Old Cavendish 
Street, New Cavendish Street, Holies Street, 
and Henrietta Street, preserve the memory of 
Henrietta Cavendish, wife of the second Lord 
Harley, and only daughter and heiress of John 
Holies, the last Duke of Newcastle, who by her 
marriage carried all this property into the family of 
the Harleys. Her daughter, Lady Margaret Caven- 
dish, became in her turn the wife of William Ben- 
tinck, second Duke of Portland ; in honour of which 
connection there have been designated the various 
thoroughfares known as Bentinck Street, Mar- 
garet street, Duke Street, Duchess Street, 
Portland Place, and Great Portland Street. 
Welbeck Street was nrmed after Welbeck Abbey, 

London Streets and Squares. 285 

in Northamptonshire, the seat of the Portland 
family; while Clipstone Street and Carburton 
Street were respectively designated after villages, 
the one in Nottinghamshire, the other in Northamp- 
tonshire, included in the ducal estate. Wimpole 
Street repeats the name of the seat of the Harleys 
situated on the borders of Herefordshire and Cam- 
bridgeshire, and purchased by Lord Chancellor 
Hardwicke in the last century. Stratford Place 
was built in 1775 by Edward Stratford, second Lord 
Aldborough, on ground leased from the Corporation 
of London for the purpose. The erection of Q,ueen 
Anne Street dates from the reign indicated by its 
name. Mansfield Street is all that is left to 
remind us of the town residence of the Earl of 
Mansfield. Langham Place and Langham Street 
were named after Sir James Langham, whose 
mansion and grounds occupied the site of the latter. 
Vere Street recalls the existence of the De Veres, 
who for centuries held the Earldom of Oxford pre- 
vious to the Harleys. Duke Street, Manchester 
Street, and Manchester Square, comprise the 
property of the Duke of Manchester. Spanish 
Place was originally so called from the residence of 
the Spanish Ambassador during the last century. 
Chandos Street derived its name from the mansion 
built by James Bridges, Duke of Chandos. Hinde 
Street perpetuates the memory of James Hinde, 
a speculative builder and one of the lessees of 
Marylebone Park more than a hundred years ago. 
North Audley Street and South Audley Street 

286 Names : and their Meaning. 

point to the existence of Hugh Audley, a barrister 
of the Middle Temple and owner of a landed estate 
hereabouts worth a million of money ; which, at his 
death, in 1662, fell to Sir William Davies, Lord Mayor 
of London, the father of Miss Mary Davies already 
alluded to in connection with Davies Street and 
Ebury Manor, Belgravia. 

Old Q,uebec Street commemorates the capture 
of Quebec by General Wolfe in 1759, about which 
period this street was first built upon. Seymour 
Place and Upper Seymour Street were designated 
after the Seymours, from whom the Portmans are 
descended. Montague Street and Montague 
Square were so called in compliment to Mrs. 
Montague of Blue Stocking fame, who, on becoming 
a widow, took up her residence in Portman Square 
close by. Orchard Street was designated in allu- 
sion to Orchard-Portman, one of the seats of the 
Portmans, in Somersetshire. Portman Square, 
Portman Street, Berkeley Place, Upper 
Berkeley Street, Lower Berkeley Street, 
Bryanstone Square, Bryanstone Street, Wynd- 
ham Place, Wyndham Street, Blandford 
Square, Blandford Street, Dorset Square, and 
Dorset Street, all have reference to the titles and 
estate of the sole landlord of this neighbourhood, 
viz., Edward Berkeley Portman, Viscount Portman 
of Bryanstone, near Blandford, Dorsetshire, many 
years M.P. for Dorset, and some time M.P. for 
Marylebone. Baker Street received its name in 
compliment to Sir Edward Baker of Ranston, a 

London Streets and Squares. 287 

valued neighbour of the Portmans in Dorsetshire. 
Harewood Square and Harewood Street mark 
the position of the town mansion of the Earls of 
Harewood. Lisson Grove stands on part of the 
land formerly known as Lideston Green, reall}^ a cor- 
ruption of Ossidton Green. Ossulton is the name of a 
Hundred mentioned in Domesday Book, and pre- 
served in Ossulton Square, close at hand, and also 
in Ossulton Street, Euston Road. 

Regent's Park was named in honour of the 
Prince Regent, for whom it was originally intended 
to build a palace on the ground now utilized as the 
Botanic Gardens. Albany Street and Osnaburgh 
Street perpetuate the memory of Frederick, second 
son of George HI., nominally styled Prince-Bishop 
of Osnaburgh in Hanover, and created Duke of 
York and Albany, and Earl of Ulster. Cumber- 
land Market, whither the hay-market was removed 
from what still bears the description of the Hay- 
market in 1831, received its name in honour of 
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, one of the 
sons of George HI., who subsequently became King 
of Hanover. Munster Square was so called in 
compliment to the eldest son of William IV., created 
Earl of Munster. Park Street is the direct approach 
from High Street, Camden Town, to the Regent's 
Park. Brecknock Road, Brecknock Crescent, 
Bayham Street, Pratt Street, Jeffreys Street, 
Henry Street, Charles Street, Frederick Street, 
Edward Street, William Street, and Robert 
Street, repeat the titles, family and christian names 

2S8 Names : and their Meaning. 

occurring in the family of the Earl of Brecknock, 
Marquis of Camden, the owner of the estate, who died 
in 1840. Great College Street, College Place, 
and College street, are situated within a stone's 
throw of the Royal Veterinary College. Oakley 
Square owes its title to Oakley House, near Bed- 
ford ; and Ampthill Square to Ampthill Park, in 
Bedfordshire, the names of two seats of the Bed- 
fords ; while Harrington Square was denominated 
after the Earl of Harrington, one of whose daughters 
became the wife of the seventh Duke of Bedford. 
Mornington Crescent and Mornington Place 
were named in honour of the Earl of Mornington, 
Governor-General of India, the brother of the Duke 
of Wellington ; and Granby Street after John 
Manners, the popular Marquis of Granby. Eden 
Street covers the site of the old " Adam and Eve " 
Tea Gardens. Skinner Street, Somers Town, was 
built, and is still owned by, the Skinners' Company. 
Pancras Road received its name from the parish 
church of St. Pancras. Battle Bridge Eoad marks 
the spot where the Romans defeated the Iceni, 
under Queen Boadicea, in the year 61. York 
B>oad owes its designation to the fact that the Great 
Northern Railway was originally styled " The 
London and York Railway." Caledonian E.oad, 
which extends northwards to Caledonian Market, 
was so called after the Royal Caledonian Asylum, 
founded for Scottish orphans in 1831. Liverpool 
Street and Sidmouth Street recall the names of 
two popular Lords of the Ministry, at the accession 

London Streets and Squares. 289 

of George IV. Burton Crescent memorializes its 
builder. Judd Street comprises the property be- 
queathed by Sir Andrew Judd, Lord Mayor in 1551, 
to the endowment of a school at Tunbridge, Kent, 
his native place. Great Coram Street affords us a 
pleasant reminder that the Foundling Hospital owes 
its existence to the benevolence of Captain Thomas 
Coram in the year 1739. Lamb's Conduit Street 
preserves the name of William Lamb, a clothworker 
to whose enterprise " a faire conduit and standard," 
constructed in 1577, was due. Harpur Street 
received its title in honour of Sir William Harpur, 
Lord Mayor in 1562, whose property hereabouts, 
together with that now known as Bedford Row, 
High Holborn, was devoted at his death to the 
foundation of a school and other charitable purposes 
at Bedford, his native place. 

Southampton Row and Southampton Street, 
Great Russell Street, Russell Square, Bedford 
Square, Tavistock Square, and Tavistock Place, 
were named after Thomas Wriothlesley, Earl of 
Southampton, Marquis of Tavistock, and Duke of 
Bedford, father of Rachel, who became the wife of 
Lord William Russell, the patriot, already alluded to 
in connection with Southampton Street, Strand. 
Gordon Square perpetuates the memory of Lady 
Georgina Gordon, daughter of Alexander, fourth 
Duke of Gordon, and wife of John, sixth Duke of 
Bedford, who had had for his first wife a daughter 
of the noble house of Torrington, memorialized by 
Torrington Square. Montague Street and Mon- 

290 Names : and their Meaning. 

tague Place occupy two sides of the site of Old 
Montague House, the nucleus of the British 
Museum. Brunswick Square and Mecklen- 
burgh Square were built and designated at the 
time when it was considered the correct thing to 
honour the Hanoverian succession in every possible 
way. Thurlow Place was named in compliment 
to Lord Chancellor Thurlow, whose house was 
situated in Great Ormond Street, so called after 
the British general and duke of that title. Powis 
Place covers the ground formerly occupied by Powis 
House, the town mansion of William Herbert, 
Marquis of Powis, whose father was outlawed by 
James I. Bloomsbury Square is properly '* Lomes- 
bury Square," marking the site of the manor-house 
described in olden times as " Lomesbury Village." 
Hart Street received its name from " The White 
Hart " Inn ; and Red Lion Square and Red Lion 
Street, from "The Red Lion," both hostelries of 
some importance in the coaching days. Q,ueen's 
Square was designated in honour of Queen Anne, in 
whose reign it was laid out. Kingsgate Street 
was so styled because the King used it on his way 
to Newmarket ; while Theobalds Road led to 
Theobalds, in Herefordshire, the favourite hunting 
seat of James I. 

Coldbath Square, Clerkenwell, marks the situa- 
tion of the celebrated Cold Bath, fed by a spring dis- 
covered by Mr. Baynes in 1697. The surrounding 
district before it was built over formerly bore the 
name of Coldbath Fields. Vinegar Yard is a 

London Streets and Squares. 2gi 

corruption of the vineyard anciently belonging to 
the Priory of the Knights of St. John. Ray Street 
preserves the memory of Miss Ray, the mistress of 
Lord Sandwich, shot by her lover Hackman. Boso- 
man Street was designated after the enterprising 
Mr. Rosoman, who converted Sadler's Musick House 
into a theatre in 1765. Aylesbury Street in olden 
times skirted the wall of the garden attached to the 
town mansion of the Earls of Aylesbury. Berkeley 
Street derived its name from Berkeley House, the 
residence of Sir Maurice Berkeley, standard-bearer 
to Henry VHL, Edward VI., and Elizabeth. Albe- 
marle Street was built during the period that wit- 
nessed the popularity of General Monk, Duke of 
Albemarle. In bygone times the whole of Clerken- 
well received the opprobrious title of Hockley-in- 
the-Hole, the name of a place in Bedfordshire 
noted far and wide for its impassable and sloughy 
character. Hockley is an Anglo-Saxon term, de- 
noting a muddy field. Myddleton Square and 
Myddleton Street perpetuate the memory of Sir 
Hugh Myddleton, the founder of the New River 
Waterworks, opened September 16, 1613. Penton- 
ville Bead owes its title to the ville, or rural man- 
sion, occupied by Henry Penton, Esq., Lord of the 
Admiralty and M.P. for Winchester, on the spot 
where Penton Street now stands. Mr. Penton died 
in 1812. St. John Street Boad took its name from 
the Priory of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
of which St. John's Gate is an interesting relic. 
Windmill Street marks the site of three large 

^92 Names : and their Meaning. 

windmills erected in Finsbury Fields, on the mound 
formed by a thousand cartloads of human bones 
deposited there from the Charnel House, St. Paul's, 
by order of the Lord Protector Somerset, in 1549. 
City Koad was the regular highway from the City 
to the " Angel " at Islington, and thence to the north 
of England, via Highbury and Highgate. Shep- 
herdess Walk was originally a pleasant path 
leading through the open fields direct from Finsbury 
to St. Mary's parish church, Islington. Golden 
Lane, St. Luke's, received its name from the num- 
ber of goldsmiths who formerly made this neighbour- 
hood their residence. In Curtain Koad, Shore- 
ditch, stood the Curtain Theatre, opened in 1571, 
so called because it was the first playhouse to make 
use of a drop-curtain. Ben Jonson's " Every Man 
in his Humour" was produced here in 1596. By 
Norton Folgate is meant " the northern Falgate," 
the latter word being the old English description of 
a four-barred gate. The Falgate is a common 
inn sign in the rural districts. Holywell Lane, 
near Shoreditch Church, was so called on account 
of a miraculous well discovered here in ancient times. 
In Nichols Square, Haggerstone, lived John 
Nichols, the antiquary ; and in Sutton Place, 
Hackney, Thomas Sutton, the founder of the 
Charterhouse. Queen Elizabeth's "Walk, Stoke 
Newington, marks the position of a house and 
grounds occupied by the Earl of Leicester, and often 
visited by Her Majesty. Fleetwood Road covers 
the site of Fleetwood House, the residence of Charles 

London Streets and Squares. 293 

Fleetwood, the Parliamentary general, and Deputy- 
Governor of Ireland. 

Seven Sisters' Road, Holloway, received its 
name from seven trees, said to have been planted 
by seven sisters, near Tottenham, six of which grew 
erect ; but the seventh presented a deformed appear- 
ance, because the sister who had planted it was a 
cripple. Archway Road, Highgate, is spanned by 
the wonderful high arch completed in 1813. Flask 
Walk, Hampstead, derived its name from " The 
Flask," a picturesque old inn close by. Judges' 
Walk, known also as King's Bench Avenue, 
was originally so called from a colony of judges and 
gownsmen of the City, who sought refuge here in 
tents during the Great Plague in 1665. Fleet 
Road, Haverstock Hill, affords us a pleasing re- 
membrance of that little river, the Fleet, meandering 
through the fields in this neighbourhood, and even- 
tually behind the older houses, on its way towards 
Battle Bridge, the City, and the Thames. Dale 
Road preserves the memory of Canon Dale, poet, 
and vicar of St. Pancras. Barrow Road and 
Barrow Hill Place commemorate the site of a 
battle between the Britons and Romans, and the 
sepulchre of the slain. The spot was formerly de- 
fined by a farmhouse that stood upon the actual 
barrow known as " Barrow Hill." Abbey Road, St. 
John's Wood, points to the existence of the ancient 
Abbey of the Holy Virgins of St. John the Baptist 
[see St. John's Wood). Desborough Place, 
Harrow Road, received its name from Desborough 


Names: and their Meaning 

House, the site of which it adjoins, and where lived 
John Dessborough (or Desbrowe), the brother-in-law 
of Oliver Cromwell. Church Street, Paddington, 
was so called from the parish church of St. Mary, 
situated on the open space still known as Padding- 
ton Green. Nottingham Place was designated 
after the county in which the chief landed estates of 
the Duke of Portland are situated; and Weymouth 
Street, in compliment to Lord Weymouth, son-in- 
law of the same nobleman. Paddington Street 
was formerly a narrow lane leading northwards into 
Paddington Fields. 

Craven Hill Gardens and Craven Road, Bays- 
water, occupy the site of the mansion and grounds 
of the Lords Craven previous to the year 1700, when 
they migrated to Craven House, Drury Lane. 
Southwick Crescent and Southwick Place 
received their names from Southwick Park, the seat 
of the Thistlewayte family, formerly the joint lessees 
of Paddington Manor. Orme Square perpetuates 
the memory of Mr. Orme, a print-seller, of Bond 
Street, who bought the ground and commenced the 
building of the Square in question. Ladbroke 
Grove and Ladbroke Square likewise bear the 
name of the Ladbroke family, who built upon the 
land leased to them for the purpose. Norland 
Square, Notting Hill, covers the site of Norland 
House, a small, wooded estate, owned by one of the 
Drummonds, the bankers, of Charing Cross, in the 
reign of William IV. Kensington Gore took its 
name from Gore House, the residence of the 

London Streets and Squares. 295 

Countess of Blessington, long the central literary 
and social attraction in the Metropolis. In Ennis- 
more Place, the second title of the Earl of Lis- 
towel, the ground landlord, is repeated. On part of 
the site of Cromwell Road stood the house and 
grounds owned by Richard Cromwell, the son of 
Oliver Cromwell. Gloucester Road derived its 
title from Oxford Lodge, the residence of the late 
Duchess of Gloucester, in the immediate vicinity. 
Campden Hill defines the estate belonging to 
Campden House, still standing in Campden Square, 
and originally occupied by Sir Baptist Hicks, who 
built Hicks' Hall, Clerkenwell, in 161 2, afterwards 
created Viscount Campden. "Warwick Road, 
Warwick Gardens, Holland Road, and Earl's 
Court Road are spacious modern thoroughfares, 
designated after the Earls of Warwick, the original 
owners of the estate known as Earl's Court, now in 
the possession of the Holland family. Addison Road 
reminds us that Joseph Addison, the poet, essayist, 
and dramatist, married the Dowager Countess of 
Warwick, and died in Holland House. 

Cromwell Place, Putney, stands upon the site 
of Mr. Champion's house, the lodging of General 
Ireton, Oliver Cromwell's son-in-law, in 1646. 
King's Road, Chelsea, was named in honour of 
Charles II., who caused it to be made passable, 
chiefly for the benefit of the frequenters of " The 
World's End," then a popular house of entertain- 
ment. Cheyne Row and Cheyne Walk per- 
petuate the memory of Lord Cheyne, who held th^ 

296 Names : and their Meaning. 

Manor of Chelsea inthe seventeenth century. Justice 
Walk formerly contained the residence of a magis- 
trate. Marlborough Square and Marlborough 
E>oad derived their names from a neighbouring 
tavern displaying the sign of " The Duke of Marl- 
borough " ; and Keppel Street, from " The Admiral 
Keppel," situated at the corner of Fulham Road. 
Cadogan Street and Cadogan Square remind us 
that the manor of Chelsea came into the possession 
of the first Earl of Cadogan by right of his marriage 
with the heiress of Sir Hans Sloane, after whom 
Sloane Square, Sloane Street, and Hans Place 
were named. Danvers Street was so called after 
Sir John Danvers, who introduced the Italian style of 
horticulture into England during the reign of Eliza- 
beth. The street covers the site of Danvers House 
in which he lived. 

Grosvenor Place and Grosvenor Street re- 
ceived their names from Sir Thomas Grosvenor, the 
ancestor of the Duke of Westminster, the ground 
landlord of the district collectively known as Bel- 
gravia ; Eccleston Street and Eccleston Square 
from Eccleston, in Cheshire, the county in which 
the landed property of the Grosvenors chiefly lies ; 
and Belgrave Square and Belgrave Street from 
the Viscountcy of Belgravia, the second title of the 
Duke of Westminster before he was raised to his 
superior titles. Ebury Street and Ebury Square 
mark the site of Ebury or Eabury Farm, an ancient 
manor inherited by Miss Mary Davies, already 
referred to when speaking of Davies Street, Oxfor4 

London Streets and Squares. 297 

Street, and carried into the family of the Grosvenors 
by her marriage. Chester Square reproduces the 
name of the city near which Eaton Hall, which 
gives its title to Eaton Square, the principal seat 
of the Duke of Westminster, is situated. Lupus 
Street perpetuates a favourite christian name in 
the Grosvenor family, retained in honour of Henry 
Lupus, created Earl of Chester soon after the Con- 
quest. St. George's Square was designated after 
the adjacent church dedicated to St. George. 
Lowndes Street, Lowndes Square, and Chesham 
Street, Pimlico, are indebted for their title to 
Lowndes of the Bury, near Chesham, Buckingham- 
shire, the ground landlord, a descendant of William 
Lowndes, secretary to the Treasury during the reign 
of Queen Anne. 

Vauxhall Bridge Eoad forms a connecting link 
between Vauxhall Bridge and Victoria Street, a 
gloomy modern thoroughfare named in honour of 
our present sovereign. Birdcage Walk comprised 
the place where the aviary of Charles H. was per- 
manently located, under the superintendence of 
Master Edward Storey, the royal keeper, whose 
house covered the spot now styled Storey's Gate 
in his memory. Q,ueen Anne's Gate derived its 
name from Queen Anne's Square, in whose reign 
this characteristic enclosure was built. York 
Street was designated in honour of Frederick, Duke 
of York, son of George HL, who lived in it for a 
short time. Delahay Street compliments a family 
of this name long resident in St. Margaret's parish. 

298 Names : and their Meaning. 

Rochester Row was denominated after the 
Bishopric of Rochester, anciently combined with 
the Deanery of Westminster, but separated in the 
reign of George III. New Bridge Street leads to 
the handsome bridge over the Thames, opened May 
24, 1862. Cannon Row is properly " Canon Row," 
formerly the residence of the Canons of St. Stephen's 
Chapel. King Street received its title because it 
was the direct road between the Court and the 
Abbey. Princes Street, a modern thoroughfare, 
occupying the site of Old Westminster Mews, was 
so called on account of its proximity to King Street. 
Parker Street perpetuates the memory of Arch- 
bishop Parker, one of the principal benefactors of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. This street 
was formerly known as Bennet Street, the old name 
of the College. Great George Street covers the 
ground originally occupied by the stable-yard of 
" The George and the Dragon," a well-known 
coaching house in bygone days. The name of Broad 
Sanctuary, Westminster, reminds us of the protec- 
tion which in olden times was afforded to criminals 
of all degrees so long as they remained beneath the 
shadow of a monastery or cathedral. Abingdon 
Street contained the mansion of the Earls of Abing- 
don. Holywell Street owes its title to the name of 
an estate of the Grosvenors in Flintshire, whose town 
residence was displaced by the formation of this 
street. Barton Street and Cowley Street were 
both built by Barton Booth, the actor; to the former 
he gave his christian name, to the latter the name 

London Streets and Squares. 299 

of his favourite poet. Marsham Street, Earl 
Street, and Romney Street comprise the property 
of Charles Marsham, Earl of Romney; while Old 
Pye Street and New Pye Street commemorate 
the existence of Sir Robert Pye, who lived in the 
more modern portion of this neighbourhood known 
as The New "Way. Great Peter Street recalls 
the fact that the Abbey of Westminster was dedi- 
cated to St. Peter. Vine Street marks the situation 
of the vineyard, and Orchard Street the orchard, 
anciently possessed by the Abbots. Tothill Street 
received its name from Tothill Fields, comprising 
the old manor of Tothill, a corruption of Toothill, 
or beacon hill ; toot being derived from the Welsh 
imt, a rising. Horseferry Road needs no comment. 
Millbank derived its name from an old mansion 
belonging to the Grosvenor family, that stood on the 
site of an old mill which alone graced this portion of 
the Thames bank. 

On the site of Carlisle Lane, Lambeth, stood 
Carlisle House, the residence of the Bishops of 
Rochester from the thirteenth century downwards. 
Marlborough Road, Peckham, covers the ground 
plot of a Marlborough House, the residence of John 
Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. Hanover Street 
was named in compliment to the accession of George 
I. Basing Yard, at the rear of Hanover Street, 
occupies the site of Basing House, well known 
during the Restoration. Rye Lane leads to the 
Rye, or Common. Friern Place and Friern Road 
define the locality of Friern Manor ; while Lordship 

300 Names : and their Meaning. 

Lane owes its designation to the lordship of the 
manor. Effra E>oad, Camberwell, marks the course 
of the little river Effra, now hidden, like the Fleet, 
from public view. Newington Butts denotes the 
archery grounds, formerly situated in the new town 
in the meadow. Holland Street, Southwark, pre- 
serves the name, at least in part, of an old manor, 
described as " Holland's Leaguer." Great Suflfolk 
Street recalls the existence of Suffolk House, the 
residence of George Brandon, Duke of Suffolk ; 
Winchester Yard, of Winchester House, the habi- 
tation of the Bishops of Winchester ; and Sumner 
Street, of Dr. Sumner, Bishop of Winchester, one 
of the last occupants of the house just referred to. 
Mill Lane reminds us of an old windmill that stood 
here in less prosaic times ; and Mint Street, of the 
Mint established by Henry VIII. in Suffolk House, 
when that property became demised to the Crown. 
Stony Street and Stones End received their 
names from the stony nature of the ground ; the 
former having been the Roman continuation of 
Watling Street, south of the Thames, in a direct 
line to Dover. Bear Garden, situated at the 
corner of Sumner Street, marks the exact position 
of the old Paris Garden, a bear-baiting establish- 
ment, opened by Robert de Paris in the time of 
Richard I. Bankside, or the south strand of the 
Thames, is historically interesting on account of its 
theatrical associations. 

Old Kent Road, which branches off at " The 
Bricklayers' Arms" into Great Dover Street and 
Kent Street, forms the great Kentish highway into 

London Streets and Squares. 301 

London. Thomas Street perpetuates the christian 
name of the philanthropic founder of Guy's Hospital 
hard by. Grange Road and Grange Walk occupy 
the site of an old mansion known as " The Grange." 
Spa Road derived its name from a spa, or mineral 
well, discovered here in the long, long ago. Russell 
Street preserves the memory of Richard Russell, 
who, dying here in 1784, left the whole of his 
estate to neighbouring charities. In Tooley Street 
lived the three tailors who, according to tradition, 
presented a petition to the House of Commons that 
began with the words, " We, the people of England, 
&c." During the Commonwealth this street 
figured in documents as St. Tulie Street, but it is 
properly designated St. Olaff Street, after the neigh- 
bouring church dedicated to St. Olaff or Olave, the 
Scandinavian hero-prince. Blue Anchor Road 
and Blue Anchor Lane received their names from 
"The Blue Anchor," an old tavern that stood in the 
latter thoroughfare ; while Jamaica Road recalls 
a similar establishment, formerly situated on the 
site of Cherry Gardens, a popular place of resort 
in bygone times, known as " The Jamaica," after 
the West Indian Island whence rum was shipped 
and disembarked on the exact spot where the penny 
steamboats now land and take up their passengers at 
Cherry Gardens Pier. Lastly, Evelyn Street, 
Deptford, was designated in honour of the present 
head of the Evelyn family, descendants of John 
Evelyn, the diarist, viz., William J. Evelyn, of 
Wotton, who built the adjacent Church of St. Luke, 
in the year 1872. 


Abbess, loi 

Abbey, loo 

Abbey Road, N.W., 293 

Abbot, loi 

Abigail, 229 

Abingdon Street, S.W., 298 

Abney House, 153 

Abney Park, 153 

Abraham Newlands, 255 

Abyssinia, 36 

Acre, 272 

Acton, 157 

Adamant, 244 

Adamites, 69 

Adam Street, W.C, 275 

Addison of the North, The, 132 

Addison Road, W., 295 

Adelaide, The, 190 

Adelaide Island, 54 

Adelphi, 275 

Adelphi Terrace, W.C, 275 

Admirable Crichton, 198 

Adonis, 119 

Afghanistan, 36 

Africa, 35 

Agar Town, 154 

Agate, 245 

Agnostic, 62 

Air Street, W., 281 

Alabama, 47 

Albany, The, 220 

Albany Street, N.W., 2S7 

Albemarle Street, W., 280 

Albemarle Street, E.G., 291 

Albert Bridge, 224 

Albert Gate, S.W., 278 

Albert Hall, 224 

Albert Memorial, 224 

Albert Palace, 224 

Albigenses, 68 

Aldermanbury, E.G., 262 

Aldersgate Street, E.G., 269 

Aldgate, E., 265 

Ale, 241 

Aleutian Islands, 54 

Alexandra Palace, 224 

Alfred the Great, 87 

Algiers, 42 

Allhallows Barking, Church of, 

Allhallowes Day, 172 
Alihallowe'en, 172 
All Saints' Bay, 51 
All Saints' Day, 171 
All Souls' Day, 172 
All the Nations, Battle of, 164 
Almanac, 175 

Almack's Assembly Rooms, 225 
Almighty Nose, The, 247 
Alpaca, 177 
Alsatia, 260 

Amen Gorner, E.G., 261 
America, 35 
American Indians, 35 
Amethyst, 245 
Ampthill Square, N.W., 2S8 
Anabaptist, 75 
Anacreon Moore, 131 
Angel, 254 
Angel, The, 81 
Angelic Doctor, The, 197 
Anglesea, 57, 137 
Anglican Ghurch, 67 
Angola, 176 
Annunciation, Feast of the, 166 



Antarctic Ocean, 49 

Apocalypse, 126 

Apocrypha, 125 

Apollinarians, 66 

Apostle of Temperance, The, 200 

April, 59 

Apsley House, 220 

Aquarians, 66 

Arabia, 36 

Arbor Day, 174 

Arcadian, 231 

Archway Road, N., 293 

Arctic Ocean, 48 

Argentina, 43 

Argyll Street, W., 2S2 

Arians, 66 

Aristocracy, iii 

Arkansas, 47 

Arlington Street, Vv'., 280 

Arminians, 70 

Arras, 180 

Artemus Ward, 183 

Artillery Lane, E.G., 267 

Arundel Street, W.C, 273 

Arundel Street, S.W., 277 

Ascension Day, 171 

Ascension Island, 56 

Ascot Races, 210 

Ash Wednesday, 168 

Asia, 35 

Asia Minor, 36 

Assumption, Feast of the, 171 

Aspasia, 119 

Astoria, 48 

Atheist, 61 

Atlantic Ocean, 49 

Atlas, 107 

Audley Street, North, W., 285 

Audley Street, South, W., 285 

Augsburg Confession, The, 68 

August, 57 

Augustin Friars, loi 

Austin Friars, E.G., 267 

Australasia, 52 

Australia, 52 

Austria, 41 

Authorized Version, The, 123 

Ave Maria Lane, E.G., 261 

Aylesbury Street, E.G., 291 


Bacchanals, The, 8;^ 

Bachelor, 231 

Bachelor of Arts, 232 

Badminton, 128 

Baffin Land, 55 

Bag o' Nails, The, 83 

Baker Street, W. , 2S6 

Balearic Islands, 56 

Ball, 143 

Ballad, 144 

Ballet, 144 

Hall's Pond, 153 

Baltic Sea, 49 

Baltimore, 46 

Baltimore-bird, 99 

Banker Poet, The, 131 

Bankers' Clearing House, 227 

Bankside, S.E., 300 

Banks Land, 55 

Banquetting Hall, Whitehall, 220 

Bantam, 99 

Baptists, 75 

Barb, 99 

Barbadoes, 55 

Barbarians, 231 

Barbarossa, 9 1 

Barbaiy, 42 

Barber, 231 

Barber-Surgeons, 231 

Barbican, E.G., 268 

Baring Island, 54 

Barley Mow, The, 84 

Barnard's Inn, 20S 

Barnsbury, 154 

Barrow Hill Place, N.W., 293 

Barrow Island, 54 

Barrow Road, N.W., 293 

Barrow's Strait, 51 

Bartholomew Glose, E.G., 269 

Bartholomew Fair, 269 

Bartholomew Lane, E.G., 266 

Barry Cornwall, 181 

Barton Street, S.W., 298 

Basilians, 103 

Basinghall Street, E.G., 262 

Basing Yard, S.E., 299 

Bassano, II, 206 



Bath chair, 189 

Bath Street, E.G., 269 

Battle Bridge Road, N.W., 2S8 

Battle of all the Nations, 164 

Battle of Spurs, 164 

Battle of the Giants, 164 

Battle of the Herrings, 163 

Battle of the Spurs of Gold, 164 

Battle of the Standard, 163 

Battersea, 159 

Bayeaux Tai^estry, 179 

Bayham Street, N.W., 2S7 

Baynard's Castle, 156 

Bay of Biscay, 51 

Bayswater, 156 

Bayswater Fields, 156 

Bear, The, 84 

Bear and Ragged Staff, The, 78 

Bear Garden, S.E., 300 

Beau Brummell, 199 

Beauchamp Tower, 215 

Beauclerc, 88 

Beau Fielding, 199 

Beau Nash, 199 

Beckenham, 161 

Bedfordbury, W.C., 274 

Bedford Row, W.C., 2S9 

Bedfordshire, 136 

Bedford Square, W.C., 2S9 

Bedford Street, W.C., 274 

Bedlam, 219 

Beech Lane, E.G., 268 

Beefeaters, 232 

Beer, 241 

Beer Bible, 124 

Belgium, 40 

Belgrave Square, S.W., 296 

Belgrave Street, S.W., 296 

Belgravia, 149 

Bell, The, 84 

Belleisle, 57 

Bell the Cat, 246 

Beloochistan, 36 

Belvedere, The, 193 

Benchers, 209 

Benedictines, 102 

Bennett Street, W., 280 

Bentinck Street, W., 284 

Berkeley Place, W., 286 

Berkeley Square, W., 279 

Berkeley Street, W., 279 

Berkeley Street, E.G., 291 

Berkshire, 135 

Berlin Blue, 146 

Bermondsey, 160 

Bermuda Islands, 55 

Bernardines, 103 

Berners Street, W., 2S3 

Bethlehem, 219 

Bethlehem Hospital, 219 

Bethlemites, 69 

Bethnal Green, 152 

Bcvis Marks, E.G., 267 

Bible, 122 

Bideford Postman, The, 131 

Billingsgate, 217 

Billiter Street, E.G., 265 

Birchin Lane, E.G., 267 

Birdcage Walk, S.W., 297 

Birds of Paradise, 97 

Bishops' Bible, 123 

Bishopsgate Street, E.G., 267 

Bishop's Wood, 155 

Black Agnes, 195 

Black Bear, The, 84 

Blackbird, 97 

Black Bull, The, 78 

Black Cloaks, 114 

Black Douglas, 246 

Black Friars, loi 

Blackfriars Bridge, 260 

Blackfriars Road, S.E., 260 

Blackguard, 237 

Blackheath, 161 

Black Jack, The, 85 

Blackleg, 237 

Black Posts, The, 189 

Black Prince, Edward the, 88 

Black Sea, 49 

Blandford Square, N.W., 2S6 

Blandford Street, N.W., 286 

Blankets, 178 

Blenheim Street, W. , 282 

Blind Chapel Court, E.G., 265 

Bloody Butcher, The, 248 

Bloody Mary, 89 

Bloody Tower, 215 

Bloomsbury, 150 



Bloomsljury Square, W.C, ago 

Blue Anchor Lane, S. E., 301 

Blue Anchor Road, S.E., 301 

Blue-bird, 96 

Blue Boar, The, 80 

Blue Book, 106 

Blue Coat School, 218 

Blue Lion, The, 78 

Blue Pig, The, 83 

Blue Posts, The, 189 

Blue Stocking, 229 

Blue Stocking Club, 229 

Bluff King Hal, 89 

Boar's Head, The, 78 

Boat-bill, 98 

Bobbies, 232 

Bock-bier, 243 

Bohemia, 40 

Bohemians, 233 

Bolingbroke, 89 

Bolivia, 43 

Bolsover Street, W., 283 

Bolt Court, E.C., 259 

Bomba, 91 

Bond Street, W., 280 

Boniface, 230 

Book, 106 

Bookmaker, 237 

Book of Deuteronomy, 125 

Book of Exodus, 125 

Book of Genesis, 125 

Book of Leviticus, 125 

Book of Numbers, 125 

Bookseller, 107 

Bookstall Smith, 203 

Borneo, 53 

Borough, 160 

Boscobel, The, 85 

Bosnia, 41 

Bosphorus, 52 

Boss Alley, E.C., 264 

Botany Bay, 51 

Bottle, The, 85 

Bourbon Island, 53 

Bow Church, 213 

Bowling Green, The, 84 

Bow Street, W.C, 274 

Bow Street Runners, 232 

Boxing Day, 168 

Boycotters, 112 

Boz, 182 

Brahma-fowl, 99 

Brahmins, 64 

Brandy, 257 

I'razil, 43 

Bread Street, E.G., 262 

Break, 139 

Breakdown, 145 

Brecknock, 137 

Brecknock Crescent, N.W., 287 

Brecknock Road, N.W., 287 

Breeches Bible, 124 

Brentford, 157 

Bricklayers' Arms, The, 85 

Bride Lane, E.G., 259 

Bridewell, 216 

Bridge Street, E.G., 260 

Bridge Street, S.W., 29S 

Bridgewater Square, E.G., 269 

Bristol-board, 105 

Bristol House, 223 

Britain, 38 

Britannia, 38 

British Columbia, 45 

l>ritish Matron, The, 94 

Brittany, 40 

Brixton, 162 

Broad Church, 76 

Broadcloth, 178 

Broad Sanctuary, S.W., 298 

Broadside, 107 

Broad Street, E.G., 268 

Broadway, E.G., 260 

Brocade^ 177 

Brocliure, 106 

Brook Street, W., 281 

Brooke Street, W.C, 270 

Brother Jonathan, 93 

Brougham, 138 

Bruce Castle,' 221 

Brunswick Black, 146 

Brunswick Green, 146 

Brunswick Square, W.C, 290 

Brussels Lace, 180 

Bruton Street, W. , 279 

Bryanstone Square, W., 2S6 



Bryanstone Street, W. , 286 

Buckingham Palace, 219 

Buckinghamshire, 135 

Buckingham Street, W.C., 275 

Bucklersbury, E.G., 263 

Budge Row, E.G., 263 

Budget, 256 

Buddhists, 64 

Buffet, 232 

Bug Bible, 124 

Buggy, 139 

Bulgaria, 41 

Bull and Gate, The, 85 

Bull and Mouth, The, "83 

Bullion, 255 

Bully Ruffian, The, S3 

Bunhill Fields, 151 

Burglar, 238 

Burgundy, 127 

Burleigh Street, W.G., 275 

Burlington House, 221 

Burlington Street, W., 280 

Burmah, 64 

Burton Grescent, W.G., 2S9 

Bury Street, S.W., 277 

Buttercup, 120 

" By Jingo ! " ri6 


Cab, 140 

Gabbage-rose, 120 
Cabinet Portrait, 185 
Cabriolet, 140 
Cadogan Square, S.W., 296 
Cadogan, Street, S.W., 296 
Gaels, 38 
Caledonia, 38 
Caledonian Market, 288 
Caledonian Road, N., 288 
Calendar, 175 
Calico, 176 
California, 45 
Calvinists, 68 
Gam, 136, 162 
Camberwell, 162 
Cambria, 39 
Cambric, 176 
Cambridge, 162 
Cambridgeshire, 136 

Camden Town, 155 

Camellia, 119 

Cameronians, 73 

Camisards, 69 

Camomile Street, E.G., 267 

Campden Hill, W., 295 

Campden Square, W., 295 

Canada, 45 

Canary, 99 

Canary Islands, 56 

Canary Wine, 128 

Candia, 57 

Candlemas Day, 166 

Candlewick Street, E.G., 263 

Canning, The, 85 

Gannon Row, S.W., 298 

Gannon Street, E.G., 263 

Ganonbury, 153 

Canterbury Arms, The, 193 

Canterbury Music Hall, 193 

Capability Brown, 205 

Gape Colony, 43 

Gape Horn, 43 

Gapel Court, 226 

Cape of Good Hope, 43 

Cap-paper, 104 

Capri, 56 

Gaps, The, 113 

Capuchin Friars, 102 

Carat, 245 

Carbonari, 1 14 

Carburton Street, W., 2S5 

Cardigan, 137 

Cardinal, 147 

Caribbean Sea, 49 

Carlisle Lane, S.E., 298 

Carlisle Street, W., 283 

Carlton House Terrace, S.W., 277 

Carmarthen, 137 

Carmelites, loi 

Carmine, 147 

Carnarvon, 137 

Carnation, 118, 147 

Carolina, 46 

Caroline Islands, 53 

Carolus, 254 

Carpentaria, Gitlf of, 51 

Carpenter, 230 

Carpenters' Arms, The, 82 



Carte-de-Visite, 185 
Carthusians, 102 
Cartoon, 107 
Cartridge-paper, 104 
Cashmere, 176 
Caspian Sea, 50 
Cassius, 148 
Castle, The, 84 
Castle Street, W., 283 
Castle Street, W.C, 271 
Cat and Fiddle, The, 83 
Cat and Wheel, The, 83 
Cat ford, 161 

Catherine Street, W.C, 273 
Catherine Wheel, The, 83 
Catholics, 66 
Cavaliers, III 
Cavendish Square, W., 284 
Cavendish Street, W., 284 
Cecil Street, W.C, 275 
Celestial Empire, 37 
Century White, 130 
Ceylon, 53 
Chaffinch, 98 
Chalk Farm, 155 
Champagne, 127 
Chancery Lane, E.G., 271 
Chandos House, 220 
Chandos Street, W., 285 
Chandos Street, W.C, 275 
Change Alley, EC, 266 
Chantilly Lace, 180 
Chapel Street, W., 278 
Chaperon, 228 
Charing Cross, 275 
Charlemagne, 91 
Charles Martel, 246 
Charles Street, W., 279 
Charles Street, N.W., 2S7 
Charlotte Street, W., 2S3 
Chart, 106 
Charterhouse, 218 
Chartists, 117 
Chartreuse, 102 
Cheap Jack, 236 
Cheapside, 261 
Check, 179 
Checkers, 179 
Chelsea, 158 

Chepe, 262 
Chequers, The, 179 
Cherry Gardens, S.E., 301 
Cherry Gardens Pier, 301 
Chesham Street, S.W., 297 
Cheshire, 133 
Chester, 133 
Chesterfield House, 278 
Chesterfield Street, W., 278 
Chester Square, S.W., 297 
Chevalier, in 
Cheyne Row, S.W., 295 
Cheyne Walk, S.W^, 295 
Chicadee, 96 
Chichester Rents, 271 
Childermas Day, 167 
Chili, 43 

Chimney-swallow, 98 
China, 36 

Chinese Yellow, 146 
Chintz, 177 
C his wick, 158 
Christians, 65 
Christmas Box, 168 
Christmas Day, 167 
Christmas Dole, 168 
Christmas Island, 52 
Christmas-rose, 120 
Christ's Hospital, 21S 
Chrysanthemum, 121 
Church of England, 67 
Church Street, N.W., 294 
Cinderella Dance, 143 
Circassia, 37 
Cistercians, 102 
City Golgotha, The, 216 
City Road, N., 292 
Clare Market, W.C, 272 
Clarence, 138 
Claret, 128 

Clarges Street, W., 280 
Claude Lorraine, 206 
Clearing House, 227 
Clement's Inn, 208 
Clerkenwell, 150 
Cleveland Street, W., 2S3 
Clifford's Inn, 208 
Clifford Street, W., 2S0 
Clipstone Street, W., 285 



Cloak Lane, E.G., 259 

Clock House, The, 223 

Cloth Fair, E.C., 269 

Clown Tavern, The, 192 

Cluniacs, 102 

Coach, 140 

Coach and Horses, The, 83 

Coachmakers' Arms, The, 82 

Cobourg, 176 

Cockney, 238 

Cceur de Leon, 88 

Cognac, 257 

Colbertine, 180 

Coldbath Fields, 290 

Coldbath Square, E.C., 290 

Coleman Street, E.C., 262 

Colleen, 229 

Colleen Bawn, 229 

College Hill, E.G., 264 

College of Arms, 218 

College Place, N.W., 288 

College Street, N.W., 288 

Colony, Cape, 43 

Colorado, 47 

Columbia, 44, 45 

Comb's Mass, 173 

Compton Street, W., 282 

Conduit Street, W., 281 

Confederalists, 114 

Confessor, 87 

Conformists, 74 

Congregationalists, 75 

Congregational Memorial Hall, 217 

Connecticut, 47 

Consols, 256 

Conqueror, The, 88 

Conservative, no 

Convent, 100 

Conventional Friars, 102 

Convolvulus, 120 

Copenhagen Fields, 152 

Copperheads, 1 16 

Cordeliers, 102 

Corduroy, 178 

Cordovan, 230 

Cord wain, 230 

Cordwainer, 230 

Cork Street, W., 2S0 

Cornhill, 266 
Corn -feds, 115 
Corn Law Rhymer, The, 132 
Cornwall, 135 
Corporal John, 248 
Corpus Christi, Feast of, 170 
Corsica, 56 
Coryphee, 144 
Costa Rica, 44 
Costermonger, 236 
Country Dance, 143 
Covenanters, Scottish, 73 
Covent Garden, 274 
Coventry Street, W., 276 
Cowley Street, S.W., 298 
Cowslip, 120 
Cracknut Night, 172 
Granbourne Street, W., 276 
Crane's-bill, 118 
Cranmer's Bible, 123 
Craven Cottage, 223 
Craven Hill Gardens, W., 295 
Craven Road, W., 295 
Craven Street, W.C, 276 
Creed Lane, E.G., 261 
Gremorne Gardens, 193 
Cricketers' Arms, The, 85 
Crimea, 37 
Crimson, 147 
Cripplegate, E.G., 268 
Cromwell House, 222 
Cromwell Place, S.W., 295 
Cromwell Road, W., 295 
Crooked Lane, E.G., 264 
Crosby Hall, 217 
Gross-bill, 98 
Gross Keys, The, 81 
Crown, The, 80 
Crown and Anchor, The, 80 
Grown and Sceptre, The, 80 
Crown-paper, I04 
Crown-piece, 253 
Gruel, The, 91 
Crusted Port, 129 
Grutched Friars, loi 
Grutched Friars, E.G.; 265 
Crystal Palace, 224 
Cuba, 55 



Cuckoo, 96 
Cumberland, 133 
Cumberland Gate, W., 278 
Cumberland Market, N.W., 287 
Curlew, 96 
Cursitor, 271 

Cursitor Street, E.C., 271 
Curtain Road, E.C., 292 
Curzon Street, W., 279 
Cyprus, 57, 127 

Daffodil, 120 

Daguerreotype, 185 

Dahlia, 119 

Daisy, 1 20 

Dale Road, N.W., 293 

Dalston, 152 

Damask, 176 

Damask-rose, 119 

Damassin, 177 

Dancing Chancellor, The, 203 

Dandy, 233 

Dane's Inn, 208 

Danvers Street, S.W., 296 

Dardanelles, 52 

Davies Street, W., 281 

"D.D. Cellars," Tiie, 205 

Dead Sea, 49 

Dean Street, W., 282 

De Beauvoir Town, 152 

December, 59 

Defender of the Faith, 89 

Deist, 61 

Delahay Street, S.W., 297 

Delaware, 48 

Del Salviati, 206 

Democrats, no 

Denbigh, 137 

Denmark, 40 

Denzil Street, W.C, 272 

Deptford, 160 

Derby Races, 210 

Derbyshire, 1 36 

Desborough Place, W., 293 

Desolation Island, 53 

Deuteronomy, Book of, 125 

Devereaux Court, W.C, 273 

Devil, The, 191 

Devonshire, 135 

Devonshire House, 220 

Devonshire Square, E.C., 267 

Diamond, 244 

Dimity, 176 

Dirty Dick, 205 

Dissenters, 74 

Distaff's Day, 167 

Diver, 98 

Dizzy, 202 

Doctors' Commons, 218 

Dog and Duck, The, 84 

Dog-cart, 138 

Dog-rose, 119 

Dollar, 255 

Dolphin, 254 

Dominica Island, 55 

Dominicans, loi 

Donatists, 66 

Doncaster St. Leger, 210 

Dorset Buildings, E.C., 259 

Dorset Gardens Theatre, 259 

Dorsetshire, 134 

Dorset Square, N.W., 286 

Dorset Street, E.C., 259 

Dorset Street, N.W., 286 

Douay Bible, 123 

Douglas, Bell the Cat, 246 

Dover House, 220 

Dover Street, \V., 280 

Dowager, 228 

Dowgate, E.C., 264 

Drury Lane, W.C, 272 

Dry Wine, 129 

Ducat, 253 

Duchess Street, W., 284 

Duck-bill, oS 

Duck's Foot Lane, E.C., 264 

Dudley Diamond, 245 

Duenna, 228 

Duke of Cambridge, The, 86 

Duke of Connaught, The, 86 

Duke of Edinburgh, The, 86 

Duke's Place, E.G., 266 

Duke Street, W., 278, 284, 285 

Duke Street, E.G., 269 

Duke Street, W.C., 275 

Dulwich, 161 

Dun, 235 



Duodecimo, 1 10 

Durham, 133 

Dutchman, 239 

Dye, 146 

Dyers' Buildings, E.G., 271 

Eagle, The, 80 
Earl of March, The, 80 
Earl Street, S.W., 299 
Earls' Court Road, W., 295 
Earls' Court, 295 
Eastcheap, E.G., 265 
Easter, 169 
Easter Island, 54 
Eaton Square, S.W., 297 
Ebury Square, S.W., 296 
Ebury Street, S.W., 296 
Eccleston Square, S.W., 296 
Eccleston Street, S.W., 296 
Ecuador, 44 
Eden Street, N.W., 288 
Edgar Atheling, 87 
Edmonton, 153 
Edmund Ironsides, 87 
Edward Longshanks, 88 
Edward Street, W., 284 
Edward Street, N.W., 287 
Edward the Black Prince, 88 
Edward the Confessor, 87 
Edward the Martyr, 87 
Effra Road, S.E., 300 
Egalite Philippe, 91 
Egypt, 42 
Egyptian Hall, 225 
Elephant-paper, 104 
Elephant and Castle, The, 188 
Elia, 182 
Eltham, 161 
Ely Place, E.G., 270 
Ember Days, 171 
Ember Weeks, 171 
Embroidery, 179 
Emerald, 245 
Emerald Green, 148 
Emerald Isle, The, 39 
Emergency Men, 112 
England, 38 
Engrosser, 230 

Entire, 242 

Ennismore Place, S.W., 295 

Epiphany, Feast of the, 167 

Epsom Races, 210 

Erie, Lake, 48 

Erskine House, 223 

Essex, 134 

Essex House, 223 

Essex Street, W.C., 273 

Ethelred the Unready, 87 

Ethiopia, 36 

Ettrick Shepherd, The, 131 

Europe, 35 

Euston Road, N.W., 283 

Euston Square, W.G., 283 

Evacuation Day, 174 

Evelyn Street, S.E., 301 

Exaltation of the Cross, Feast of, 

Exchange, 226 
Exeter 'Change, 225 
Exeter Hall, 225 
Exeter Street, W.C, 275 
Exodus, Book of, 125 


Factory King, The, 199 

Faith Healers, 72 

Fair Helen, 194 

Fair Maiden Lilliard, 195 

Fair Maid of Kent, 194 

Fair Rosamond, 194 

Falcon Court, E.G., 259 

Falernian Wine, 127 

F'algate, The, 292 

Farm Street, W., 279 

I'arringdon Road, E.G., 270 

F'arringdon Street, E.G., 269 

Farthing, 253 

I'\irthing Poet, The, 131 

Father of Believers, The, 194 

February, 59 

Federals, 114 

Fenchurch Street, E.G., 149, 265 

Fenians, 1 12 

Ferdinand Bomba, 91 

Ferriertype, 185 



Fetter Lane, E.G., 270 

Fifth Monarchy Men, 71 

Fighting Fitzgerald, 198 

Finality John, 202 

Finch, 96 

Finch Lane, E.G., 266 

Fingal's Gave, 112 

Finland, 37 

Finsbury, 149 

Fire Worshippers, 64 

Fitzroy Square, W. , 2S3 

Flamingo, 97 

Flask Walk, N.W., 293 

Fleet Laiiie, E.G., 216 

Fleet Prison, 216 

Fleet River, 259 

Fleet Road, N.W., 293 

Fleet Street, E.G., 259 

Fleetwood Road, N., 292 

Flint, 137 

Florence, 253 

Florence Wine, 127 

Florida, 46 

Florin, 253 

F. M. Allen, 182 

Foley Street, W.,283 

Folio, 105 

Foolscap, 104 

Fop, 233 

Forest Hill, 161 

Forefathers' Day, 174 

Forget-me-not, 118 

Formosa, 53 

Foster Lane, E.G., 262 

Foul-Weather Jack, 250 

Four Hundred, The, 2^a 

Fox in the Hole, The.'So 

Franc, 255 

France, 39 

Franciscans, loi 

Franconia, 39 

Frankfort Black, 146 

Frankincense, 40 

Franks, 39 

Frederick Barbarossa, 91 

Frederick Street, N.W., 2S7 

Free Ghurch of Scotland, 74 

Freemasons' Arms, The, 82 

Friar, loi 

Friar Street, E.G., 260 

Friar Tuck, 197 

Friday, 60 

Friday Street, E.G., 262 

Friendly Islands, 52 

Friern Place, S.E., 299 

Friern Road, S.E., 299 

Frieze, 176 

Frognal, 155 

Fuchsia, 119 

Fulham, 159 

Fulham Bridge, The, 191 

Funeral, 140 

Furnival's Inn, 208 

Furnival Street, E.G., 271 

Fustian, 178 

Fye Foot Lane, E. G., 264 

Gabrielites, 70 

Gaels, 38 

Gallican Ghurch, 67 

Gamboge, 146 

Garnet, 245 

Garrotters, 233 

Garter, The, 82 

Gaul, 39 

Gavotte, 142 

Geneva Bible, 124 

Genesis, Book of, 125 

Gentleman Jack, 198 

Gentleman Smith, 198 

George, The, 81 

George and Dragon, The, 81 

George-Noble, 254 

George Ranger, 205 

George Sand, 183 

George Street, W. , 281 

George Street, W.G., 275 

George Yard, E.G., 265 

Georgia, 46 

Geranium, 118 

German Ocean, 49 

Germany, 40 

Gerrard Street, W., 2S2 

Ghiliellines, 114 

Giants, Battle of the, 164 

Gibraltar, Straits of, 51 



Gig, 139 

Gildas the Wise, 130 

Gillyflower, 120 

Giltspur Street, E.G., 269 

Gin, 257 

Gingham, 177 

Gipsies, 233 

Girondists, 113 

Glamorgan, 137 

Glenlivet Whisky, 258 

Gloucester Road, W., 295 

Gloucestershire, 134 

Globe, The, 84 

Gnostics, 65 

Goat and Compasses, The, 83 

Gobelin Tapestry, 179 

Gold Coast, 42 

Golden Cross, The, Si 

Golden Lane, E.G., 292 

Golden Square, W., 282 

Goldfinch, 96 

Goldy locks, 121 

Golgotha, 216 

Good Friday, 169 

Goodge Street, W., 2S3 

Good Hope, Cape of, 43 

Goodman's Fields, 151 

Good Queen Bess, 90 

Good Templars, 234 

Goodwood Races, 210 

Gordon Square, W.C, 2S9 

Gospellers, 68 

Gospel Oak, 155 

Gothland, 57 

Government Stock, 256 

Gracechurch Street, E.G., 264 

Grafton Street, W. , 283 

Granby Street, N.W\, 288 

Grand Old Man, The, 202 

Grange Road, S.E., 301 

Grange Walk, S.E., 301 

Grapes, The, 84 

Grass-cloth, 178 

Grass Widow, 228 

Gray's Inn, 208 

Gray's Inn Road, W.C, 271 

Great Bear Lake, 48 

Great Bible, 123 

Great College Street, N.W., 28S 

Great Coram Street, W.C, 2S9 

Great Dover Street, S.E., 300 

Great George Street, S.W., 298 

Great Marlborough Street, W., 282 

Great Ormond Street, W.C, 290 

Great Peter Street, S.W., 299 

Great Portland Street, W., 284 

Great Queen Street, W.C, 272 

Great Russell Street, W.C, 289 

Great St. Helen's, E.G., 267 

Great Salt Lake, 48 

Great Stanhope Street, W,, 278 

Great Suffolk Street, S.E., 300 

Great Titchfield Street, W., 283 

Great Turnstile, W.C, 272 

Great Winchester Street, E.G., 269 

Great Windmill Street, W., 276 

Greece, 41 

Greek Church, 66 

Greek Street, W., 282 

Green, 239 

Greenbacks, 255 

Green Dragon, The, 81 

Greenfinch, 96 

Greengrocer, 230 

Cheennorn, 239 

Greenland, 45 

Green Lanes, 153 

Greenlet, 96 

Green Man, The, 77 

Green Man and Still, The, 77 

Green Park, 277 

Green Sea, 49 

Greenwich, 161 

Gresham College, 262 

Gresham House, 262 

Gresham Street, E.G., 262 

Greville Street, E.G., 270 

Grey Friars, loi 

Greyhound, The, 80 

Grisette, 229 

Grizzly Bear, The, 84 

Grocer, 230 

Grog, 257 

Grogram, 178 

Grosvenor Gate, W., 278 

Grosvenor Place, S.W., 296 

Grosvenor Square, W., 278 

Grosvenor Street, W., 27S 

314 Index. 

Grosvenor Street, S.W., 296 
Grouse Day, 174 
Guild, 218 
Guildhall, 218 
Guelphs, 114 
Guinea, 42 
Guinea-fowl, 99 
Guinea-piece, 252 
Gulf of Carpentaria, 51 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, 51 
Gulf Stream, 50 
Gunnersbury, 157 
Gutter Lane, E.G., 262 
Guy Fawkes Day, 173 
Guy's Hospital, 219 


Haberdasher, 230 

Hackney, 152 

Hackney-coach, 140 

Haggerstone, 152 

Half-and-Half, 241 

Half-Moon, The, 81 

Half-Moon Street, W., 280 

Halfpenny, 253 

Hallelujah Victory, The, 163 

Hamburg Lake, 146 

Hamilton Place, W., 279 

Hammer and Scourge of England, 

Hammer-cloth, 141 
Hammersmith, 158 
Hampshire, 134 
Hampstead, 155 
Hand-paper, 104 
Handsel Monday, 167 
Hangbird, 97 
Hanover, The, 85 
Hanover Island, 54 
Hanover Square, W., 281 
Hanover Street, W., 281 
Hanover Street, S.E., 299 
Hansards, 106 
Hansom Cab, 140 
Hans Place, S.W., 296 
Hants, 134 

Hanway Street, W. , 2S3 
Hare and Hounds, The, So 

Harefoot, 87 

Harewood Square, N.W., 287 

Harewood Street, N.W., 287 

Harley Street, W., 284 

Harold Harefoot, 87 

Harpur Street, W.C, 289 

Harrington Square, N.W., 288 

Hart Street, W.C, 272, 290 

Hats, The, 113 

Hatton Garden, W.C, 270 

Hawker, 236 

Hawthorn, 120 

Hay Hill, W., 279 

Haymarket, S.W., 277 

Hayti, 55 

Hearse, 140 

Heaven-sent Minister, The, 20a 

"He" Bible, 124 

Hebrides, 57 

Heligoland, 57 

Heliotrope, 121 

lielmuth the Taciturn, 249 

Henrietta Street, W., 284 

Henrietta Street, W.C, 274 

Henry Beauclerc, 88 

Henry Bolingbroke, 89 

Henry Street, N.W., 287 

Heralds' College, 218 

Hereford, 135 

Herrings, Battle of the, 163 

Hertfordshire, 135 

Hickory, 249 

Hicks' Hall, 295 

Highbury, 154 

Highbury Barn, 193 

High Church, 76 

Ilighgate, 155 

Hill Street, W., 279 

Hinde Street, W., 285 

Hindustan, 36 

Hippocras, 128 

Hispania, 41 

Hock, 127 

Hockley, 291 

Hockley-in-the-Hole, 291 

Hog Lane, N., 152 

Hog's-back, N., 153 

Holborn, 270 

Holborn Bars, 270 



Holiday, 175 
Holland, 40 
Holland-cloth, 176 
Holland House, 224 
Holland Road, W., 295 
Holland Street, S.E., 300 
Hollands, 257 
Holies Street. W., 284 
Holies Street, W.C, 272 
Hollo way, 154 
Hollyhock, 120 
Holly Village, 155 
Holy Cross Day, 171 
Holy Land, 36 
Holy Maid of Kent, 195 
Holy Rood Day, 171 
Holy Saturday, 169 
Holy Thursday, 169 
Holy Week, 169 
Holywell Lane, E.C., 292 
Holywell Street, S.W., 298 
Holywell Street, W.C, 273 
Honduras, 44 
Honiton Lace, 180 
Honor Oak, 161 
Hopkinsians, 73 
Horn, Cape, 43 
Horn-bill, 98 
Hornpipe, 144 
Horseferry Road, S.W., 299 
Hornsey, 153 
Horse Guards, 220 
Horse Latitudes, 50 
Horse Shoe, The, 188 
Horselydown, 160 
Hospice, 219 
Hospital, 218 
Hospitality, 219 
Hostelry, 77, 230 
Hotel, 77 
Hotspur, 247 
Houndsditch, E.C., 267 
Howard Street, W.C, 274 
Hoxton, 152 
Hudson's Bay, 50 
Hudson's Strait, 50 
Huguenots, 68 
Humanitarians, 72 
Humbug, 239 

Humming-bird, 96 
Hummuns' Hotel, 192 
Hungary, 40 
Huns, 40 

Huntingdonshire, 136 
liurdle Race, 210 
Huron, Lake, 48 
Hurons, 48 
Hussites, 69 
Hyacinth, 119 
Hyde Park, 277 
Hyde Park Corner, 278 

Iberia, 41 

Iceland, 57 

Idol, 63 

Idolater, 63 

II Bassano, 206 

II Furioso, 206 

Illinois, 47 

H Perugino, 206 

Independence Day, 174 

Independents, 75 

India, 36 

Indiana, 47 

Indian Ocean, 49 

Indians, American, 35 

India-paper, 104 

Indigo, 146 

Indus, 36 

Infant Roscius, The, 201 

Inn, 77, 208 

Innocents' Day, 167 

Inns of Court, 208 

Iowa, 48 

Ireland, 38 

Ireton House, 222 

Irish Invincibles, 1 12 

Irish Sea, 49 

Iron Chancellor, The, 249 

Iron Devil, The, 83 

Iron Duke, The, 248 

Ironmonger Lane, E.G., 262 

Ironsides, 247 

Irvingites, 72 

Isabel, 148 

Isis, 149 



Islam, 65 

Island of Desolation, 53 

Isle of Bourbon, 53 

Isle of Dogs, 161 

Isle of Man, 57 

Isle of St. Helena, 56 

Isle of Trinidad, 55 

Isle of Wight, 57 

Isleworth, 157 

Islington, 154 

Italy, 41 

Ivan the Terrible, 91 

Ivory Black, 148 

Ivy Lane, E.G., 261 

Jacket, 85 
Jack Ketch, 238 
Jack Straw's Castle, 190 
Jack Tar, 234 
Jacobins, loi 
Jacobite, The, 85 
Jacobites, ill 
Jacobus, 254 
"Jamaica, 55 

Jamaica Road, S.E., 301 
James' Bay, 50 

James' Street, W.C, 274, 275 
Jansenists, 70 
January, 59 
lapan, 53 
Jaunting Car, 138 
Java, 53 
Jay, 96 

Jeffreys Street, N.W., 2S7 

jehu, 235 

Jermyn Street, W., 277 

Jerry Builder, 235 

Jersey, 257 

Jersey Lily, The, 196 

Jesuits, 70, 103 

Tewin Street, E.C., 286 

jig, 145 
Jingo, 117 
Jingoes, 1 17 
Jingo Party, 1 17 
Joachim's Thaler, 255 
Johannisberg, 127 

John Bull, 94 

John Chinaman, 94 

John Lackland, 88 

John of Gaunt, 89 

Johnson's Court, E.G., 259 

John Street, W., 279 

John Street, W.C., 275 

Joiner, 230 

Journeyman, 235 

Juan Fernandez, 54 

Jubilee Plunger, The, 205 

Judaism, 63 

Judd Street, W.C., 289 

Judges' Walk, N.W., 293 

Juggler, 237 

June, 59 

July, 59 

Justice Walk, S.W., 296 

Jutland, 40 


Kaffraria, 36 

Kansas, 47 

Kennington, 162 

Kensington, 158 

Kensington Gore, S.W., 294 

Kent, 134 

Kentish Town, 155 

Kent Street, S.E., 300 

Kentucky, 47 

Keppell Street, S.W., 296 

Kersey, 177 

Kew, 157 

Keystone State, The, 46 

Kilburn, 156 

King Edward Street, E.G., 269 

Kingfisher, 97 

King James's Bible, 123 

King Maker, The, 247 

King of Bath, The, 199 

King's Arms, The, 82 

King's Bench Avenue, N.W., 293 

Kmg's Cross, 154 

Kingsgate Street, W.C., 290 

King's Head, The, 86 

Kingsland, 153 

King's Road, S.W., 295 

Kingston, 158 

King Street, S.W., 277, 298 



King Street, W.C., 274 

King Street, E.G., 262 

King William Street, W.C, 276 

King William Street, E.G., 263 

Kit-Kat Ganvas, 185 

Kit-Kat Club, 185 

Kit-Kat Portrait, 185 

Knickerbocker, 182 

Knife-board, 140 

Knight of the Swan, The, 81 

Knightrider Street, E.G., 269 

Knightsbridge, 150 

Know-Nothings, 116 

Kohinoor Diamond, 244 

Koordistan, 36 

Koran, 65 

Krems White, 146 

Kreutzcr, 255 

Kurdestan, 36 

Labadists, 70 

La Belle Sauvage Inn, 187 

La Belle Sauvage Yard, E.G., 260 

Labrador, 45 

Lace, 180 

Lackland, 88 

Ladbroke Grove, W., 294 

Ladbroke Square, W., 294 

Lad Lane, E.G., 262 

Ladrone Islands, 54 

Lady Day, 166 

Lady Freemason, The, 196 

Lager-bier, 243 

Lake Erie, 48 

Lake Huron, 48 

Lake Michigan, 48 

Lake Ontario, 48 

Lake Superior, 48 

Lake Winnipeg, 48 

Lambeth, 160 

Lamb's Gonduit Street, W.G., 289 

Lammas Day, 166 

Lammastide, 165 

Lamp Black, 14S 

Lancashire, 133 

Lancaster, 133 

Lancers, 142 

Landau, 138 

Langham Place, W., 285 

Langham Street, W., 285 

Lapwing, 97 

Latin Vulgate, 123 

Latitudinarianism, 76 

Lauderdale House, 222 

Laughing Philosopher, The, 196 

Lavender, 119 

Lawn, 177 

Lawrence Lane, E.G., 262 

Lazar-house, 219 

Lazzari, 114 

Lazzaroni, 1 14 

Leadenhall Market, 266 

Leadenhall Street, E.G., 266 

Leaf, 106 

League of the Gross, 234 

Leather Lane, E.G., 270 

Leek, The, 80 

Leg and Star, The, 82 

Leicester Fields, 276 

Leicestershire, 133 

Leicester Square, W., 276 

Lent, 168 

Levellers, no 

Leviticus, Book of, 125 

Lewisham, i6l 

Liberal, no 

Liberator, The, 207 

Libertines, 69 

Library, 106 

Liguorians, 103 

Lilac, 119 

Lilliard's Edge, 195 

Lincoln, 134 

Lincoln House, 222 

Lincoln's Inn, 208 

Lincoln's Inn P'ields, 271 

Linen, 177 

Lion, The, 78 

Lion and Key, The, 83 

Lisle Lace, iSo 

Lisson Grove, N.W., 287 

Little Britain, E.G., 269 

Little Gorporal, The, 248 

Little John, 197 

Little Turnstile, W.G., 272 

Liverpool Landseer, The, 207 

Liverpool Street, W.G., 288 


Lloyd's Rooms, 226 

LL. Whisky, 258 

Lollards, 68 

Lombard Street, E.G., 267 

London, 149 

London Bridge, 216 

London Stone, 263 

London Wall, E.G., 268 

Long Acre, W.G., 272 

Long Friday, 169 

Long Island, 55 

Long Peter, 205 

Longshanks, 88 

Longshoreman, 235 

Lord Protector, The, 90 

Lord's Cricket Ground, 225 

Lordship Lane, S.E., 299 

Lo Spagnoletto, 206 

Lothbury, E.G., 267 

Louis d'or, 254 

Louisiana, 46 

Love Birds, 97 

Low Ghurch, 76 

Lower Berkeley Street, W., 286 

Lowndes Square, S.W., 297 

Lowndes Street, S.W., 297 

Low Sunday, 170 

Luciferians, 66 

Ludgate Hill, E.G., 260 

Lunatic, 239 

Lupus Street, S.W., 297 

Lutheran Ghurch, 67 

Lutherans, 68 

Lyre-bird, 97 


Macaronies, 233 
Macedonians, 66 
Macclesfield Street, W., 282 
Macmillanites, 74 
Madagascar, 53 
Madame Tussaud's, 225 
Mad Gavalier, The, 247 
Madeira, 56 
Madeira Wine, 128 
Maddox Street, W., 281 
Mad Poet, The, 131 
Magdalen Hospital, 219 
Magdalen Smith, 206 


Magenta, 148 

Mahommedans, 64 

Maida Vale, 156 

Maiden Lane, W.G., 275 

Maid Marian, 142 

Maid of Orleans, 195 

Maid of Saragossa, 196 

Maine, 46 

Majorca, 56 

Malaga, 127 

Malmsey, 128 

Malta, 57 

Malvasia, 128 

Manchester Square, W., 285 

Manchester Street, W., 285 

Manitoba, 45 

Manlius Torquatus, 246 

Man of Ross, The, 200 

Man of Straw, 235 

Manstield Street, W., 285 

Mansion House, The, 227 

Map, 106 

Marble Arch, 278 

March, 59 

Margaret Street, W., 284 

Marigold, 121 

Market Street, W., 279 

Mark Lane, E.G., 265 

Mark Twain, 183 

Marlborough House, 220 

Marlborough Road, S.W., 296 

Marlborough Road, S.E., 299 

Marlborough Square, S.W., 296 

Marlborough Street, W., 282 

Marmora, Sea of, 50 

Marquis of Granby, The, 85 

Marshal Forward, 248 

Marshalsea Prison, 216 

Marsham Street, S.W., 299 

Martel, 246 

Martin, 98 

Martinmas Day, 166 

Martlemas Day, 166 

Martyr, 87 

Maryland, 47 

Marylebone, 156 

Masaccio, 206 

Masher, 233 

Massachusetts, 47 



Master of Arts, 232 

Materialism, 62 

Mattan Diamond, 244 

Maunday Thursday, 169 

Mauritius, 53 

May 59 

Mayfair, 150 

Mayflower, 120 

Mazarin Bible, 124 

Mazarine, 147 

Maz.ourka, 143 

Mecklenburg Square, W.C., 290 

Mediterranean Sea, 49 

Memorial Hall, Congregational, 217 

Memory-Corner Thompson, 204 

Memory Wood fall, 204 

Mentor, 231 

Merino, 177 

Merioneth, 137 

Merry Andrew, 236 

Merry Monarch, The, 90 

Methodists, 75 

Mexico, 45 

Michaelmas Day, 166 

Michigan, 47 

Michigan, Lake, 48 

Middlesex, 134 

Midsummer Day, 166 

Mignonette, 118 

Mildmay House, 153 

Mildmay Park, 153 

MilfordLane, W.C, 273 

Milk Street, E.G., 262 

Millbank, 299 

Milliner, 229 

Mill Lane, S.E., 300 

Mill Street, W., 281 

Mincing Lane, E.C., 265 

Minims, 265 

Miniatori, 184 

Miniature, 184 

Minnesota, 47 

Minorca, 56 

Minoresses, 265 

Minories, 265 

Minstrel of the Border, The, 132 

Mint, The, 217, 252 

Mint Street, S.E., 300 

Minuet, 143 

Missionary Friars, 103 

Mississippi, 47 

Missouri, 47 

Mitre, The, 81 

Mitre Court, E.G., 259 

Mocking-bird, 96 

Moet and Chandon, 128 

Mohair, 177 

Mohocks, 232 

Moire Antique, 177 

Moldavia, 41 

Moleskin, 177 

Mona Island, 57 

Monastery, 100 

Monday, 60 

Money, 252 

Monger, 236 

Monk, 100 

Monkey-board, 139 

Monk Lewis, 130 

Monmouthshire, 136 

Monotheism, 63 

Montague Place, W.C, 289 

Montague Square, W., 2S6 

Montague Street, \\\, 286 

Montague Street, W.C, 289 

Montelpulciano, 127 

Montenegro, 41 

Montgomery, 137 

Moorfields, 151 

Moorgate Street, E.G., 268 

Moravia, 41 

Moravians, 69 

Morisonians, 74 

Mormons, 72 

Mornington Crescent, N.W., 288 

Mornington Place, N.W.,288 

Morocco, 42 

Morris Dance, 142 

Mortimer Street, W., 284 

Mosaism, 62 

Moselle, 127 

Moslem, 65 

Mosquito, 44 

Mosquito Coast, 44 

Mothering Cakes, 174 

Mothering Sunday, 174 

Mother of Believers, The, 194 

Mother Red Cap, The, 189 



Mother Shipton, The, 189 

Mountain, The, 113 

Mountain Dew, 258 

Mount Street, W., 279 

Mrs. Grundy, 94 

Muggletonians, 71 

Mugwump 116 

Mulatto, 95 

Mumm, 242 

Munster House, 223 

Munster Square, N.W., 2S7 

Muscovy Duck, 98 

Musical Small-coal Man, The, zi 

Muslin, 176 

Mussulmans, 65 

Muswell Hill, 153 

Myddleton Square, E.G., 291 

Myddleton Street, E.G., 291 

Mythologists, 64 

Mytholog)', 64 ^ 

Nankeen, 176 

Nantes, 257 

Napoleon, 254 

Naso, 248 

Nassau Street, W., 282 

Natal, 42 

Navvy, 235 

Nazarenes, 65 

Nebraska, 47 

Negro, 95 

Negus, 128 

Nelson, The, 85 

Nepaul-paper, 104 

Netherlands, 40 

Nevada, 47 

New Bond Street, W., 280 

New Bridge Street, E.G., 260 

New Bridge Street, S.W., 298 

New Brunswick, 45 

New Burlington Street, W., 280 

New Gavendish Street, W., 284 

New Ghristians, 70 

New Gompton Street, W., 282 

New Gross, 161 

Newfoundland, 55 

Newgate Prison, 215 

Newgate Street, E.G., 269 

New Hampshire, 46 

New Holland, 52 

Newington, 162 

Newington Butts, S.E., 300 

New Inn, 208 

New Jersey, 46 

Newman Street,. W., 283 

New Orleans, 46 

New Pye Street, S.W., 299 

New Way, S.W., 299 

New Year's Day, 165 

New York, 47 

New Zealand, 52 

Niagara, 48 

Nicaragua, 44 

Nicholas Lane, E.G., 266 

Nichols Square, N., 292 

Nigger, 95 

Nightingale, 96 

Night-jar, 96 

Nihilists, 1 13 

Nimrod, 181 

Nincompoop, 239 

Niphon, 53 

Nitrate King, The, 200 

Noble, 254 

Noddy, 139 

Nonconformists, 74 

Noon-flower, 120 

Noon-tide, 120 

Norfolk, 134 

Norfolk Street, W.G., 273 

Norland Square, W., 294 

Normandy, 40 

Northamptonshire, 136 

North Audley Street, W., 285 

North Pole, The, 191 

Northumberland, 133 

Northumberland Avenue, W.G., 276 

Northumberland Street, W.G., 276 

North Sea, 49 

Norton Folgate, 292 

Norway, 37 

Norwood, 161 

Nosey, 248 

Nottingliamshire, 136 

Nottingham Place, W., 294 

Netting Hill, 157 

Nova Scotia, 45 

Nova Zembla, 58 



November, 59 
Numbers, Book of, 125 
Nun, 100 
Nunhead, 161 
Nuns of St. Clare, 265 

Oakley Square, N.W., 288 
Oaks Races, 210 
Observant Friars, loi 
Octavo, 105 
October, 59 
Ohio, 47 
Old Ale, 241 
Old Bailey, The, 215 
Old Bailey, E.G., 260 
Old Bond Street, W., 280 
Old Broad Street, E.G., 268 
Old Burlington Street, W., 280 
Old Catholics, 70 
Old Cavendish Street, W., 284 
Old Change, E.G., 261 
Old Charlies, 232 
Old Compton Street, W., 282 
Old Grog, 250 
Old Hat, The, 84 
Old Hickory, 249 
Old Jewry, E.G., 263 
Old Kent Road, S.E., 300 
Old Marshalsea Prison, 216 
Old Pye Street, S.W., 299 
Old Quebec Street, W., 286 
Old Tom, 257 
Olympia, 224 
Omnibus, 139 
Ontario, 45 
Ontario, Lake, 48 
Opal, 245 

Orange Free States, 42 
Orangemen, in 
Orange Peel, 202 
Orange Street, W,, 277 
Orator Henley, 203 
Orchard Street, W., 286 
Orchard Street, S.W., 299 
Orchid, 119 
Oregon, 47 
Oriole, 97 
Orion House, 131 

Orleans House, 223 
Orkney Islands, 57 
Orloff Diamond, 244 
Orme Square, W,, 294 
Osnaburg Street, N.W., 287 
Ossulton Square, N.W., 287 
Ossulton Street, N.W., 287 
Ostler, 230 
Ottoman Empire, 41 
Ouida, 182 
Ovidius Naso, 248 
Oxford, 161 

Oxford Market, W., 284 
Oxford Movement, 76 
Oxfordshire, 135 
Oxford Street, W., 284 
Oxford Tracts, 76 

Pacific Ocean, 49 

Pack Horse, The, 84 

Paddy, 94 

Paddington, 156 

Paddington Green, W., 294 

Paddington Street, W., 294 

Pagan, 63 

Painted Hall, Greenwich, 221 

Pale Faces, 95 

Palestine, 35 

Pall Mall, S.W., 277 

Palmerston, The, 85 

Palm Sunday, 169 

Palsgrave Place, W.G., 273 

Pamphlet, 106 

Panama, 44 

Pancake Tuesday. 168 

Pancras Road, N.W., 288 

Pansy, 118 

Pantechnicon, 140 

Pantheist, 61 

Panton Street, W., 277 

Panyer Alley, E.G. 261 

Paper, 104 

Paper King, The, 199 

Papua, 53 

Para, 44 

Paraguay, 43 

Parchment, 104 

Paris Garden, S.E., 300 




Parker Street, S.W., 298 

Parnellites, 112 

Park Lane, W., 278 

Park Street, N.W., 287 

Parry Islands, 54 

Parliamentarians, ill 

Parsees, 64 

Parson's Green, 159 

Partridge Day, 175 

Passenger-pigeon, 98 

Passion-flower, 121 

Passionists, 103 

Passion Sunday, 169 

Passion Week, 169 

Passover, 170 

Pat, 94 

Patagonia, 43 

Paternoster Row, E.G., 261 

Pathfinder, The, 207 

Paul's Chain, E.G., 261 

Paul Veronese, 206 

Peacock, The, 81 

Pearl, 245 

Pearl Bible, 124 

Peckham, 162 

Peckham Rye, 221 

Pecuhar People, 72 

Pedlar, 236 

Pedro the Gruel, 91 

Peelers, 232 

Peep o' Day Boys, ill 

Peewit, 96 

Pembroke, 137 

Pennsylvania, 46 

Penny, 253 

Pentateuch, 125 

Pentecost, 170 

Penton Street, W.C., 291 

Pentonville Road, N., 291 

People's Friend, The, 200 

Percy Gross, 159 

Perfectionists, 73 

Pernambuco, 44 

Persia, 36 

Peru, 43 

Perugino, II, 206 

Peterborough House, 223 

Peter Street, Great, S.W., 299 

Petrel, 99 

Petticoat Lane, E.G., 267 

Phaeton, 138 

Pharisees, 65 

Pheasant, The, 81 

Pfennig, 253 

Philippic, 132 

Philippe Egalite, 91 

Philippine Islands, 53 

Photograph, 184 

Phyrric Dance, 144 

Piccadilly, W., 279 

Piccadilly Lace, 279 

Picts, 38 

Pie Gorner, E.G., 269 

Pig and Whistle, The, 83 

Pigment, 146 

Pigott Diamond, 245 

Pigtails, 95 

Pillow Lace, 180 

Pimlico, 149 

Pimlico Walk, N., 149 

Pina-cloth, 178 

Pink, 147 

Pitcairn's Island, 54 

Pitt Diamond, 244 

Plaid, 179 

Plain, The, 113 

Plantagenet, 90 

Playhouse Yard, E.G., 268 

Plough Monday, 167 

Plume and Feathers, The, 85 

Plunger, 237 

Plush, 178 

Plymouth Brethren, 72 

Point Lace, 180 

Poland, 40 

Police, 232 

Polka, 142 

Polytechnic Institution, 224 

Polytheists, 64 

Pommery, 128 

Pompadour, 147, 177 

Pontac, 127 

Port, 127 

Porter, 242 

Portland Place, W., 284 

Portland Street, Great, W., 284 

Portman Square, W., 2S6 

Portman Street, W., 2S6 



Portobello Arms, The, 85 

Porto Rico, 55 

Portrait, 1S4 

Portugal, 42 

Portugal Street, W., 278 

Portugal Street, W.C, 273 

Poster, 106 

Post-paper, 104 

Pot-paper, 104 

Poultry, E.G., 263 

Pouter-pigeon, 98 

Powis Place, W.C, 290 

Praise-God Barbones, 203 

Pratt Street, N.W., 287 

Presbyterians, 73 

Press Yard, Newgate, 215 

Primitive Methodists, 75 

Primrose, 120 

Primrose Day, 173 

Primrose Hill, 155 

Prince Albert, The, 86 

Prince of Wales, The, 86 

Prince of Wales' Feathers, The, 86 

Prince of Wales' Island, 54 

Prince's Gate, S.W., 278 

Princes Street, S.W,, 298 

Printer's Devil, 105 

Printing House Square, E.G., 260 

Prior, loi 

Prioress, loi 

Priory, loi 

Profile, 184 

Protectionist, 117 

Protestantism, 67 

Protestants, 68 

Prussian Blue, 146 

Prussian Red, 146 

Public-house, 76 

Punch, 257 

Purification, Feast of the, 166 

Puritans, 74 

Puseyites, 76 

Putney, 159 

Pye Street, S.W., 299 

Quack, 236 
Quack Doctor, 236 
Quadragesima Sunday, 170 

Quadrille 142 

Quaker Poet, The, 131 

Quakers, 71 

Quarto, 105 

Quatemala, 45 

Quebec, 45 

Quebec Street, Old, W., 286 

Queen Anne's Gate, S.W., 297 

Queen Anne's Square, S.W., 297 

Queen Anne Street, W., 285 

Queen Charlotte Island, 54 

Queen Elizabeth's Walk, N., 292 

Queenhithe, E.G., 264 

Queen's Arms, The, 82 

Queen's Head, The, 86 

Queen's Gate, S.W., 278 

Queen's Square, W.G., 290 

Queen Street, W., 279 

Queen Victoria Street, E.G., 263 

Quinquagesima Sunday, 170 

Radical Reformers, 1 10 

Radicals, iio 

Radnor, 137 

Rag Fair, 267 

Railway Clearing House, 227 

Railway King, The, 199 

Rainy-Day Smith, 130 

Ram and Teazle, The, 85 

Ranelagh Gardens, 193 

Ranters, 75 

Ratclifte Highway, 151 

Rathbone Place, W., 283 

Rationalism, 62 

Ray Street, E.G., 291 

Rechabites, 234 

Red Cross Street, E.G., 268 

Red Dragon, The, 80 

Redemptorists, 103 

Red Letter Day, 175 

Red Lion, The, 78 

Red Lion Court, E.G., 259 

Red Lion Square, W.C, 290 

Red Lion Street, W.C, 290 

Redowa, 143 

Red-poll, 97 

Red Repulilicans, 113 ,115 

Red Rose, The, 79 



Red Sea, 49 
Red Skins, 95 
Reel, 14s 

Reformed Presbytery, 74 
Regent Diamond, 244 
Regent's Park, 287 
Regent Street, W., 281 
Religion, 63 
Rheims Bible, 123 
Rhode Island, 55 
Rhodes, 57 
Rhododendron, 121 
Ribbonmen, 112 
Richard Coeur de Leon, 88 
Richmond, 158 
Ring-dove, 98 
Ritualists, 76 
Robert le Diable, 246 
Robert Street, N.W.^zS; 
Robert Street, W.C, 275 
Robert the Devil, 246 
Robin Hood, 197 
Rock Day, 167 
Rochester Row, S.W., 298 
Rogation Days, 171 
Rogation Sunday, 171 
Roger de Coverley, 143 
Rolls Chapel, 221 
Roman Catholic Church, 67 
Romeo Coates, 199 
Romney Street, S.W., 299 
Rood Lane, E.G., 265 
Rose, The, 80 
Rose and Crown, The, 80 
Rose-Noble, 254 
Rosoman Street, E.C., 291 
Rosslyn Hill Park, 223 
Rosslyn House, 223 
Rotherhithe, 160 
Rotten Row, 278 
Roumania, 41 
Roundheads, ill 
Royal Exchange, 226 
Royalists, III 
Royal Oak, The, 85 
Royal Oak Day, 173 
Ruby, 245 
Rufus, 88 
Rum, 257 

Running Footman, The, 189 

Russell Square, W.C, 289 

Russell Street, W.C, 274 

Russell Street, S.E., 301 

Russia, 37 

Rutland, 136 

Rutland Gate, W.,278 

Rye, 221 

Rye House, 221 

Rye Lane, S.E., 299 

Sabbatarians, 71 

Sack, 129 

Sackville Street, W., 281 

Sacramentarians, 72 

Saddlers" Arms, The, 82 

Sadler's Wells, 192 

Saffron Hill, E.G., 270 

Sahara, 42 

Sailor King, The, 90 

St. Andrew Undershaft, Church of, 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 219 
St. Bride's Church, 214 
St. Bride Street, E.G., 259 
St. Catherine Coleman, Church of, 

St. Catherine Cree, Church of, 213 
St. Clement-Danes, Church of, 212 
St. David's Day, 173 
St. Ethelburga's Church, 214 
St. George, The, 81 
St. George and Dragon, The, 81 
St. George's Channel, 51 
St. George's Church, W., 281 
St. George's Fields, S.E., 162 
St. George's Hall, 224 
St. George's Square, S.W., 297 
St. Grouse's Day, 174 
St. Helena, Isle of, 56 
St. Helen's, Great, E.G., 267 
St. Helen's Church, 214 
St. James's Hall, 224 
St. James's Palace, 219 
St. James's Square, S.W., 277 
St. James's Street, S.W., 277 
St. John's Gate, 216, 291 
St. John Street Road, E.G., 291 



St. John's Wood, 156 

St. Katherine's Docks, 217 

St. Kitt's Island, 56 

St. Lawrence, Gulf of, 51 

St. Lawrence, River, 51 

St. Leger Stakes, 210 

St. Margaret Pattens, Church of, 213 

St. Martin's Lane, W.C, 276 

St. Martin's-le-Grand, 218 

St. Mary-Axe, E.G., 266 

St. Mary- Axe, Ghurch of, 213 

St. Mary-le-Bow, Church of, 213 

St. Mary Woolnoth, Ghurch of, 213 

St. Michael's Alley, E.G., 266 

St. Olave's Church, 215 

St. Pancras, 154 

St. Partridge's Day, 174 

St. Paul of the Cross, 197 

St. Sepulchre's Church, 214 

St. Swithin's Day, 172 

St. Valentine's Day, 172 

Sahsbury Court, E.G., 259 

Salisbury Street, W.G., 275 

Salop, 136 

Salt Lake, Great, 48 

Salutation, The, 81 

Salviati, Del, 206 

Sambo, 95 

Sandbaggers, 233 

Sandford House, 222 

Sandpiper, 98 

Sandwich, 13 

Sandwiches, 14 

Sandwich Islands, 53 

San Salvador, 55 

Sandy, 94 

Sansculottes, 113 

Sap Green, 148 

Saraband, 142 

Saracen's Head, The, 81 

Sardinia, 56 

Sardinia Street, W.G., 272 

Sardinian Chapel, 272 

Sarsanet, 177 

Satin, 176 

Saturday, 60 

Sauci Diamond, 244 

Saunders Blue, 146 

Savile Row, W. , 280 

Savoy Chapel, 212 
Savoy Palace, 212 
Savoy Street, W.C., 274 
Sawney, 94 
Saxons, 39 
Saxony, 39 
Scarlet, 147 
Schottische, 143 
Scissors-tail, 97 
Scotia, 38 
Scotists, 70 
Scotland, 38 
Scotland Yard, 225 
[ Scots, 38 
Scottish Covenanters, 73 
Scottish Hogarth, The, 207 
Scottish Presbyterians, 73 
Scratched Horse, 2H 
Scourers, 232 
Scriptures, 122 
Scullery, 237 
Scullery Maid, 237 
Scullion, 237 
Sea of Marmora, 50 
Secretary-bird, 97 
Sectarians, 74 
Secularist, 62 
Sedan chair, 1 89 
Seekers, 71 

Seething Lane, E.G., 265 
Selkirk's Island, 54 
Senegambia, 42 
Separists, 112 
Sepia, 148 
September, 59 
Septuagint, 122 
Serjeant's Inn, 208 
Serle Street, W.C, 273 
Sermon Lane, E.G., 261 
Serpentine, 156 
Servia, 40 
Servites, 103 
Seven Dials, 276 
Seven Sisters' Road, N. , 293 
Seventh-Day Baptists, 71 
Sexagesima Sunday, 170 
Seymour Place, W., 286 
Shad well, 151 
Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C, 2S3 



Shah Diamond, 244 
Shakers, 71 
Shalloon, 176 
Shamrock, The, 80 
" She" Bible, 125 
Sheen, 158 

Shepherdess Walk, N., 292 
Shepherd's Bush, 157 
Shepherd's Market, W., 279 
Shepherd Street, W., 279 
Shepperton, 158 
Sherry, 127 
Shetland Isles, 57 
She-Wolf of France, The, 91 
Shilling, 253 
Ship, The, 85 
Shire, 10 

Shoe Lane, E.G., 259 
Shoreditch, 151 
•Shrove Tuesday, 168 
Shropshire, 136 
Shrewsbury, 136 
Siberia, 37 
Sicily, 56 

Sidmouth Street, W.C, 288 
Sienna, 146 
Silhouette, 185 
Silk, 176 
Sillery, 128 

Silver Captain, The, 250 
Silver-tongued Sylvester, 131 
Sinking Fund, 256 
Sinner-saved Huntingdon, 203 
Sinner's Friend, The, 200 
Single-Speech Hamilton, 201 
Sixteen-string Jack, 197 
Skagerrack, 51 
Skinner Street, N.W., 288 
Skittles, The, 84 
Skylark, 98 

Sloane Square, S.W., 296 
Sloane Street, S.W., 296 
Small Beer, 241 
Smithfield, 150 
Smith of Antwerp, The, 207 
Snow Hill, E.G., 270 
Soane Museum, 221 
Sociable, 138 

Socialists, lio 

Society Islands, 52 

Society of Friends, 71 

Society of Jesus, 70 

Socinians, 70, 75 

Soho, 150 

Somersetshire, 135 

Somerset House, 220 

Somers Town, 1 54 

Soudan, 42 

Southampton, 134 

Southampton Buildings, W.C., 271 

Southampton Row, W.C., 289 

Southampton Street, W.G., 274, 

Southampton Street, W., 283 
South Audley Street, W., 285 
South Australian, The, 191 
Southgate, 152 
Southwark, 160 
Southwick Grescent, W., 294 
Southwick Place, W., 294 
Sovereign, 253 
Spain, 41 
Spa Fields, 151 
Spagnoletto, Lo, 206 
Spaniards, The, 190 
Spanish Main, 50 
Spanish Place, W., 285 
Spa Road, S.E., 301 
Spinster, 228 
Spiritualism, 62 
Spitalfields, 151 
Spitzbergen, 58 
Spoon-bill, 98 
Sprat Day, 175 
Spread Eagle, The, 84 
Spring Gardens, S.W., 277 
Spring-Heel Jack, 197 
Spurs, Battle of, 164 
Spurs of Gold, Battle of, 164 
Staffordshire, 135 
Stage-coach, 139 
Staines, 157 

Standard, Battle of the, 163 
Stanhope, 138 
Stanhope Gate, W., 278 
Staple Inn, 208 



Star, The, 79 

Star and Garter, The, 82 

Starling, 97 

Star of the South Diamond, 244 

Starvation Dundas, 202 

Stationer, 107 

Stationery, 108 

Steeplechase, 210 

Steelyard, 264 

Steelyard Mercliants, 264 

Stepney, 151 

Sterling Money, 252 

Stingo, 242 

Stock, 121 

Stock, Government, 256 

Stock Exchange, 227 

Stocks Market, 121, 263 

Stockwell, 162 

Stoke Newington, 152 

Stones End, S.E., 300 

Stonewall Jackson, 249 

Stony Street, S.E., 300 

Storey's Gate, S.W., 297 

Stout, 242 

Strait of Gibraltar, 51 

Strand, W.C., 273 

Stratford Place, W., 285 

Stratton Street, W., 279 

Strawberry Hill, 223 

Stuart, 90 

Stump Orator, 237 

Stump Speech, 237 

Subtle Doctor, The, 196 

Suffolk, 134 

Suffolk Lane, E.G., 264 

Suffolk Street, S.W., 277 

Sulky, 139 

Sumatra, 53 

Sumner Street, S.E., 300 

Sun, The, 79 

Sunday, 60 

Sunflower, 120 

Superior, Lake, 48 

Sussex, 134 

Sussex House, 223 

Surrey, 10, 134 

Surrey Street, W.C., 273 

Sutton Place, N., 292 

Swallow Street, W., 281 

Swan Alley, E.G., 264 

Swan, The, 81 

Swan with Two Necks, The, 1S7 

Swedish Nightingale, 196 

Sweepstake, 211, 

Sweetbriar, liS 

Switzerland, 41 

Sydenham, 161 


Tabard, The, 187 
Taffeta, 177 
Taffety, 177 
Taffy, 94 
Tailor, 231 
Tailor-bird, 98 
Talbot, The, 79 
Talbotype, 185 ■' 
Tally, 256 
Tally Ho ! The, 80 
Tallyman, 256 
Tammany Ring, 116 
Tankard, The, 85 
Tapestry, 179 
Tarantella, 143 
Tarantula Spider, 143 
Tarlatan, 176 
Tasmania, 52 
Tattersall's, 226 
Tavern, 76 

Tavistock Place, W.C., 289 

Tavistock Square, W.C., 289 

Tavistock Street, W.C., 274 

Taylor, the Water Poet, 131 

T-cloth, 178 

Tearless Victory, The, 163 

Teetotaler, 234 

Temple, The, 208, 212 

Temple Bar, 216 

Tennessee, 47 

Tent Wine, 128 

Terpsichorean Art, 142 

Texas, 47 

Thaler, 255 

Thanet Place, W.C., 273 

Thames, i. 9 

Thavie's Inn, 209 

Theist, 61 

Theobald's Road, W.C., 290 



Theocracy, 6 1 

Thomas Street, S.E., 301 

Thomists, 71 

Thirteen Cantons, The, 190 

Thistle, The, 80 

Thistle-crown, 254 

Threadneedle Street, E.G., 266 

Three Chairmen, The, 189 

Three Kings, The, 81 

Three Men Wine, 129 

Three Nuns, The, 191 

Three Suns, The, 79 

Three-thirds, 241 

Throgmorton Street, E.G., 266 

Thundering Legion, The, 163 

Thurlow Place, W.C, 290 

Thursday, 60 

Tierra del Fuego, 53 

Tiger-flower, 120 

Tilbury, 1 38 

Tintoretto, 206 

Titchfield Street, W., 283 

Titchfield Street, Great, W., 283 

Tobacco, 56 

Tobago Island, 56 

Toddy, 257 

Tokay, 128 

Tom Folio, 201 

Tommy Atkins, 94 

Tontine, 256 

Tooley Street, S.E., 301 

Topaz, 24s 

Torquatus Manlius, 246 

Torres Strait, 51 

Torrington Square, W.C, 289 

Tory, 109 

Tothill Fields, 299 

Tolhill Street, S.W., 299 

Tottenham Court Road, W.C, 2S4 

Tractarians, 76 

Trafalgar, The, 85 

Trafalgar Square, W.Cr 276 

Traitors' Gate, 215 

Transvaal, 42 

Transylvania, 42 

Trappists, 103 

Treacle Bible, 126 

Trinidad Island, 55 

Trinitarians, 75, loi 

Trinity House, 216 
Trinity Sunday, 170 
Tristan d'Acunha, 56 
Trumpeter-bird, 96 
Tudor, 90 
Tuesday, 60 
Tulle, 180 
Tunis, 42 
Turkey, 41, 99 
Turkestan, 36 
Turquois, 245 
Tweed, 179 
Twelfth Day, 167 
Twelfth Night, 167 
Twickenham, 158 
Twill, 178 

Twin Diamonds, 245 
Twopenny, 241 
Tyburn, 156 


Uisquebaugh, 257 

Ultramarine, 146 

Umber, I46 

" Uncle," 231 

Uncle Sam, 93 

Unitarians, 70, 75 

United Brethren, 69 

Unready, The, 87 

Upper Berkeley Street, W., 286 

Upper Seymour Street, W., 286 

Upper Ten, The, 234 

Uraguay, 43 

Usher, 231 

Utilitarianism, 62 

Valence, 1 76 

Valenciennes, 1 80 

Valentine, 172 

Valentine's Day, 172 

Vanburgh Castle, 22I 

Vancouver Island, 54 

Van Dieman's Land, 52 

Vandyke Brown, 148 

Vauxhall, 160 

Vauxhall Bridge Road, S.W., 297 

Vauxhall Gardens, 193 



Velvet, 178 
Velveteen, 178 
Venerable Bede, 130 
Venetian Red, 146 
Venezuela, 44 
Vere Street, W., 285 
Vermont, 47 
Verulam Buildings, 271 
Victoria, 138 
Victoria, The, 86 
Victoria Regia, 119 
Victoria Street, S.W., 297 
Vignette, 185 
Vigo Street, W., 281 
Viking, 57 

Villiers Street, W.C, 275 
Vinegar Bible, 124 
Vinegar Yard, E.G., 290 
Vine Street, W., 281 
Vine Street, S.W., 299 
Virginia, 46 
Virginia Bible, 12$ 
Voltaire, 18 1 
Volume, 106 


Wagtail, 97 

Walbrook, E.G., 263 

Walcheren, 39 

Waldenses, 68 

Wales, 39 

Walham Green, 159 

Wallachia, 39 

Walloon, 39 

Waltz, 143 

Walworth, 160 

Wandsworth, 160 

Wardour Street, W., 282 

Wars of the Roses, 79 

Warwick, 136 

Warwick Gardens, W., 295 

Warwick Lane, E.G., 261 

Warwick Road, W., 295 

Warwick, the King Maker, 247 

Water Lane, E.G., 260 

Waterloo, The, 85 

Waterloo Bridge, 274 

Waterlow Park, 222 

Water Poet, The, 131 

Watling Street, E.G., 263 

Weaver-bird, 98 

Wednesday, 60 

Weeping Philosopher, The, 196 

Welbeck Street, W., 284 

Wellington, The, 85 

Wellington Street, W.G., 274 

Wells Street, W., 283 

Welsher, 238 

Wesleyan Methodists, 75 

Wcsleyans, 75 

Wessex, 10, 134 

Westbourne Park, 157 

West Indies, 35 

Westminster, 192, 212 

Westminster Abbey, loi, 212 
I Westmoreland, 133 

West wood, 161 

Weymouth Street, W., 294 

Wheelwright, 230 

Whig, 109 

Whigamore Raid, 109 

Whig Bible, 124 

Whip.poor-Will, 96 

Whisky, 257 

White Boys, 1 1 1 

Whitechapel, 151 

White Gonduit House, 191 

\\'hite Gonduit Tavern, 192 

Whitecross Street, E.G., 268 

White Friars, loi 

Whitefriars Street, E.G., 260 

Whitehall, 220 

White Hart, The, 79 

White Hart Street, W.G., 272 

White Lion, The, 79 

White Quakers, 71 

White Queen, The, 89 

White Sea, 49 

White Sunday, 165 

White Swan, The, 79 

White Swan and Antelope, The, 9 

White Tower, 215 

Whit Sunday, 165 

Whitsuntide, 165 

Whittington Stone, The, 190 

Wicked Bible, 124 

Widow, 228 



Widow-bird, 98 

Wife, 228 

Wigmore Street, W., 284 

William Rufus, 88 

William Street, N.W., 287 

William the Conqueror, 88 

William the Lion, 88 

Willis's Rooms, 225 

Will Scarlet, 197 

Wilton, 135 

Wiltshire, 135 

Wimbledon, 159 

Wimpole Street, W., 285 

Winchester House, 268 

Winchester Yard, S.E., 300 

Windmill Street, W., 282 

Windmill Street, E.G., 291 

Wine, 129 

Wine Office Court, E.G., 259 

Winnipeg, Lake, 48 

Wisconsin, 47 

Witanagemotes, 165 

Wizard of the North, The, 13 1 

Woodcock, 99 

Wood Green, 153 

Woodpecker, 99 

Wood's Halfpence, 255 

Wood Street, E.G., 262 

Woolwich, 161 

Worcestershire, 133 

World's End, The, 191 

Wormwood Street, E.G., 267 

Worsted, 176 

Wryneck, 99 

Wych Street, W.G., 273 
Wyndham Place, W., 286 
Wyndham Street, W., 286 

X Ale, 242 
XX Ale, 242 


Yank, 115 
Yankee, 93, 115 
Yankee Jonathan, 207 
Yellow Book, 106 
Yellow Sea, 49 
Yendys, 181 
York, 133 

York and Albany, Thi. 
York House, 220 
York Road, N., 288 
Yorkshire, 133 
Yorkshire Stingo, 242 
Yorkshire Stingo, The, 84 
York Street, S.W., 297 
York Street, W.G., 274 
Yutacan, 44 


Zadkiel, 181 
Zanzibar, 42 
Zealand, New, 52 
Zceland, 52 
Zoroastrianism, 64 
Zululand, 42 
Zuyder Zee, 51 



Catalogue of Select Books in Belles Lettres^ 
History^ Biography^ Theology^ Travel^ 
Miscellaneous^ and Books for Children. 


ablo de Se'govie. ^L^r/-^^-,g=s°; 

by Daniel Vierge. With an Introduction on Vierge and 
his Art by Joseph Pennell, and a Critical Essay on Quevedo 
and his Writings by W. E. Watts. Limited Edition only. 
Three Guineas nett. [1892. 

A French Ambassador at the Court of 

Charles II. (Le Comte de Cominges, 1662- 1665). With 
many Portraits. By J. J. Jusserand. Demy 8vo., cloth gilt. 


Jules Bastien Lepage and his Art. by^ANoi^' 

Theuriet. With which is included Bastien Lepage as 
Artist, by George Clausen, A.R.W.S. ; An Essay on Modern 
Realism in Painting, by Walter Sickert, N.E.A.C. ; and 
a Study of Marie BashkirtsefF, by Mathilde Blind. 
Illustrated by Reproductions of Bastien Lepage's Works. 
Royal 8vo., cloth, gilt tops, lOs. 6d. 

The Women of the French Salons. 

A Series of Articles on the French Salons of the Seventeenth 

and Eighteenth Centuries. By Amelia G. Mason. 

Profusely Illus-trated. Foolscap folio, cloth, 25s. 

These papers treat of the literary, political, and social influence of the women in 

France, during the two centuries following the foundation of the salons ; including 

pen-portraits of many noted leaders of famous coteries, and giving numerous 

glimpses of the Society of this brilUant period. 

Tlip Rpcil Tciniin Studies of Contemporary Japanese 

XllC rs^Cdl Jctpdll. Manners^ Morals, Administrations, 

and Politics. By Henry Norman. Illustrated with about 50 

Photographs taken by the Author. Crown 8vo., cloth, los. 6d. 

Extract from Preface. — These essays constitute an altempt, /au/e de mieux, 

to place before the readers of the countries whence Japan is deriving her incentives 

and her ideas, an account of some of the chief aspects and institutions of Japanese 

life as it really is to-day. 

The Stream of Pleasure, a Narrative of a journey 

on the Thames from 

Oxford to London. By Joseph and Elizabeth Robins 

Pennell. Profusely Illustrated by Joseph Pennell. Small 

Crown 4to., cloth, 7s. 6d. 

"Mrs. Pennell is bright and amusing. Mr. Pennell's sketches of river-side bits 

and nooks are charming ; and a useful practical chapter has been written by Mr. 

J. G. Legge. The book is an artistic treat." — Scotsman. 

Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune Telling. 

Illustrated by numerous Incantations, Specimens of Medical 
Magic, Anecdotes and Tales, by Charles Godfrey Leland 
(" Hans Breitmann "). Illustrations by the Author. Small 
4to., cloth, 1 6s. Limited Edition of 150 Copies, price 
j^i us. 6d. nett. 
" The student of folk-lore will welcome it as one of the most valuable additions 
recently made to the literature of popular beliefs. " — Scotsman, 

Esther Pentreath, the Miller's Daughter; 

A Cornish Romance. By J. H. Pearcb, Author of 

"Bernice," &c. 6s. 
Mr. Leonard Courtney, M.P., in the Nineteenth Century for May, says it is 
" an idyll that captivates us by its tenderness, its grace, and its beauty. ... In 
truth, the special distinction of ' Esther Pentreath ' may be said to lie in the poetic 
gift of its author." 

Main - travelled Roads. ?^^ . Mississippi -Vaiiey 

Stones. By Hamlin 
Garland. Crown 8vo., cloth, 3s. 6d. 
" Main-travelled Roads " depicts the hard life of the average American Farmer 
and the farm hands. The author has lived the life he tells of, and he may be called 
a true realist in his art. 

The English Novel in the Time of 

Shakespeare. By J. J. Jusserand, Author of "English 
Wayfaring Life." Translated by Elizabeth Lee, Revised and 
Enlarged by the Author. Illustrated. Demy 8 vo., cloth, 21 ». 
•*M. Jusserand's fascinating volume." — Quarterly Review. 

English Wayfaring Life in the Middle 

Ages (XlVth Century). By J. J. Jusserand. Translated 
from the French by Lucy A. Toulmin Smith. Illustrated. 
Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. 
" This is an extremely fascinating book, and it is surprising that several years 

should have elapsed before it was brought out in an English dress. However, we 

have lost nothing by waiting." — Times. 

OrpJimQ ^y Olive Schreiner, Author of "The Story of 
iyiCdillb. an African Farm." With Portrait. Third Edition. 
Fcap. 8vo., buckram, gilt, 6s. 

•' They can be compared only with the painted allegories of Mr. Watts .... 
The book is like nothing else in English. Probably it will have no successors as it 
has had no forerunners." — Athenceum, 

Gottfried Keller: t^f^""'"^! °^ m '^'^"\ '^T" 

lated, with a Memoir, by Kate 
Freiligrath Kroeker, Translator of " Brentano's Fairy 
Tales." With Portrait. Crown 8vo., cloth, 6s. 
"The English reader could not have a more representative collection of Keller's 
admirable stories." — Saturday Review. 

The Trials of a Country Parson : ^^^^^^ 

Papers by Rev. A. Jessopp, D.D., Author of "Arcady," 
"The Coming of the Friars," &c. Crown 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. 
"Sparkles with fresh and unforced humour, and abounds in genial common- 
sense." — Scotsman. 

The Cominp; of the Friars, ^f other Medieval 

O ' Sketches. By the Rev. 

Augustus Jessopp, D.D,, Author of " Arcady : For Better, 
For Worse," &c. Third Edition. Crown 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. 
" Always interesting and frequently fascinating." — St. James's Gazette. 

ArraHv • For Better, For Worse. By Augustus Jessopp, D.D., 
r\.lUcluy . Amhor of " One Generation of a Norfolk House." 
Portrait. Popular Edition. Crown 8vo., cloth, 3s. 6d. 
" A volume which is, to our minds, one of the most delightful ever published in 
English. ' ' — Spectator. 

Robert Browning : Personal Notes. 

Frontispiece. Small crown 8vo., parchment, 4s. 6d. 
" Every lover of Browning will wish to possess this exquisitely-printed and as 
exquisitely-bound little volume." — Yorkshire Daily Post. 

CWA r^Vif^l^PH ^ Summer-Day's Stroll. By Dr. Benjamin 

WIU V^llCl&Cd. g^^j^ Martin. Illustrated by Joseph 

Pennell. Third and Cheaper Edition. Square imperial 

i6mo., cloth, 3s. 6d. 

"Dr. Martin has produced an interesting account of old Chelsea, and he has 

been well seconded by his coadjutor." — AthencEum. 

Plinlinrion • S^u^^'^^ of the Antique and the Mediaeval in the 
1 * Renaissance. By Vernon Lee. Cheap Edition, 

in one volume. Demy 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. 
" It is the fruit, as every page testifies, of singularly wide reading and indepen- 
dent thought, and the style combines with much picturesqueness a certain largeness 
of volume, that reminds us more of our earher writers than those of our own time." 

Contemporary Review, 

Studies of the Eighteenth Century in 

Italy. By Vernon Lee. Demy 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. 
"These studies show a wide range of knowledge of the subject, precise investi- 
gation, abundant power of illustration, and hearty enthusiasm. . . . The style 
of writing is cultivated, neatly adjusted, and markedly clever." — Saturday Review, 

Relraro • Being Essays on Sundry ^sthetical Questions. By 
. Ygg^fjoi^ Lee_ Crown 8vo., cloth, 5s. 

TnVPnilijl • ^ Second Series of Essays on Sundry ./Esthetical 
jUVCllllld.. Questions. By Vernon Lee. Two vols. Small 
crown 8vo., cloth, 12s. 

" To discuss it properly would require more space than a single number of 'The 
Academy' could afford." — Academy. • ^''^^°g"^^ on views and Aspirations. By Vernon 
Lee. Demy 8vo., cloth, 12s. 

" The dialogues are written with ... an intellectual courage which shrinks 
from no logical conclusion." — Scotsman. 

Ottilie * "^^ Eighteenth Century Idyl. By Vernon Lee. 
• Square 8vo., cloth extra, 3s. 6d. 
•'A graceful little sketch. , . . Drawn with full insight into the period 
described." — Spectator. 

Introductory Studies in Greek Art. 

Delivered in the British Museum by Jane E. Harrison. 
With Illustrations. Second Edition. Square imperial 
i6mo., 7s. 6d. 
"The best work of its kind in English."— Oxford MagaztKe. 

npUg "Flpef • ^^® River, Prison, and Marriages. By John 

AsHTON, Author of " Social Life in chc Reign 

of Queen Anne," &c. With 70 Drawings by the Author 

from Original Pictures. Second and Cheaper Edition, 

cloth, 7s. 6d. 

Romances of Chivalry : J"^'^. ^.f, i""^"^^^^ »" 

J Fac-simile by John isHTON. 
Forty-six Illustrations. New and Cheaper Edition. Crown 
8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. 

"The result (of the reproduction of the wood blocks) is as creditable to his 
artistic, as the text is to his Uterary, ahiVny."— Guardian. 

The Dawn of the Nineteenth Century in 

England : A Social Sketch of the Times. By John Ashton. 
Cheaper Edition, in one vol. Illustrated. Large crown 
8vo., IDS. 6d. 

"The book is one continued source of pleasure and interest, and opens up a 
wide field for speculation and comment, and many of us will look upon it as an 
important contribution to contemporary history, not easily available to others than 
close students." — Antiquary. 

npUp nTpmnle • ^^'^''^'^ Poems and Private Ejaculations. 
1 * By Mr. George Herbert. New and 
Fourth Edition, with Introductory Essay by J. Henry 
Shorthouse. Small crown, sheep, 5s. 
»4 fac-simile reprint of the Original Edition o/" 1633. 

" This charming reprint has a fresh value added to it by the Introductory Essay 
of the Author of 'John Inglesant.' " — Academy. 

Songs, Ballads, and A Garden Play. 

By A. Mary F. Robinson, Author of" An Italian Garden." 
With Frontispiece of Diirer's " Melancholia." Small crown 
8vo., half bound, vellum, 5s. 

" The romantic ballads have grace, movement, passion and strength. "—Spectator. 

"Marked by sweetness of melody and truth of colour." — Academy. 

The Lazy Mm,xx± \\2:^-^^^\^:X^, 

Popular Edition, Frontispiece by E. A. Abbey. Fcap. 
8vo., cloth, 2s. 6d. 
" One of the lightest and brightest writers of vers de soc[6\.6."—St.7ames'sGazeite,