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O-n- -3/S^.3/.C 




FROM THE FUND BEQUEATHED BYl 
ARCHIBALD GARY COOUDGE " 
AS 1887 PROFESSOR OF HISTORY 
1908-1928 DIRECTOR OF THE 
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 1910-1928 




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NARRATIVE 



A JOURNEY ACROSS 
THE BALCAN, 

ETC. 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 
VOL. n. 



^Map of North-western part of Asia Minor to face titU. 

Ground Plan of a Theatre at A^ani 211 

Ground Plan of the Temple of Jupiter 218 

Tablet Stones of the Temple of Jupiter 219 

Coins of Azani 233 

Woodcut of a Cameo 345 

Bas-Relief 349 

Ditto 351 

Ditto 352 



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NARRATIVE 



OP 



A^^OURNEY ACROSS 
THE BALCAN^ 



TWO PASSES OF SELIMNO AND PRAVADI; 



A VISIT TO AZANI, 

AXD OTHER 

NEWLY DISCOVERED RUINS IN ASIA MINOR, 

IN THE YEARS 1829-30. 



MAJOR, THE HON»" GEORGE KEPPEL, F.S.A. 



IN TWO VOLUME^. 
VOL. II. 



LONDON : 
HENRY COLBURN AND RICHARD BENTLEY, 

NEW BURLINOTON STREET. 
\I83I. ' 

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NARRATIVE, 



ETC. ETC. 



CHAPTER I. 



Departure from Shumla — Unpromising Prospects— Change 
our Route — Appearance of the Country — Pravadi Pass 
of the Balcan — Chalcovatch — Wretched Accommoda- 
tion — A Tribe of Tartars on a March — Intense Frost — 
A Kiahya Bey — The Delli Kamchick — Danger of the 
Passage — The Passage of the Balcan considered — The 
Sultan*s Claims to Military Reputation — Undefended 
State of the Mountain Passes — General Ignorance of 
their Weakness — Practicable for Artillery — Communica- 
tion between the Passes — Selimno and Pravadi Defiles 
— Chipkieu Defile — Aidos Defile. 

November 14. Bidding farewell to our friendly 
host^ Mr. Haggermann^ whom we had the sa- 
tisfaction to see in a state of convalescence^ 
we left Shumla for Constantinople. 

VOL. II. B 



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2 UNPROMISING PRCM3PECTS. 

Our intended march was by Pravadi and 
Aidos^ in order to follow the footsteps of the 
Russian army, in its passage across the Balcan. 
From this plan we had been strongly dissuaded 
by the Archbishop of Shumla. He represented 
to us, that almost every village on the road had 
been either burned or razed to the ground ; 
and further, that the plague was raging in the 
few habitable dwellings. To these dishearten- 
ing representations was added the gloomy 
state of the weather. It had been for a week 
very unsettled, and the night before our de- 
parture it had snowed incessantly: but we sal- 
lied forth, with a determination that no com- 
mon obstacles should deter us from our plan. 

We had scarcely passed the gates of the 
town, when, in addition to the snow, a fog 
came on, so very dense, that we could not 
distinguish any object at five yards' distance. 
The Pravadi road was scarcely visible, from 
the heavy fall of snow. Nature seemed to 
have thrown a veil over the features of the 
country which we were desirous of seeing, 



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APPEARANCE OF THE COUNTRY. 3 

consequently our principal object would not be 
attainable. We began to reflect on the diffi* 
culty we should have in finding our way ; and 
on the slight probability of shelter at this 
inclement seasop. Moreover, Lord Dunlo was 
extremely unwell, and suffering alike from ex- 
ternal and internal cold. The prospect of death 
from frost and hunger stared us in the face. 
These considerations were stronger than our 
curiosity. We reluctantly gave up all thoughts 
of following the Russian line of march; and 
turned our horses' heads towards Garnabat, 
which lies about twenty miles W.S.W. of the 
town of Aidos. 

The soil of the country appears in general 
very rich ; but for want of cultivation is mostly 
covered with brambles. Its features are very 
beautiful. The chain of the Balcan was before 
us; and on both sides the Shumla moun- 
tains, presenting abrupt cliffs, rising in exact 
level with each other. To our left appeared 
the thickly wooded hills under which the first 
rencontre of the Russians and Turks on the 



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4 PRAYADI PASS OF THE BALCAN. 

day of Koulefcheh took place. From a kind 
of table-land we descended into a low plain : 
here we forded the river Pravadi — broad, but 
not deep. 

Three hours from Shumla, is the ruined 
village of Dragoi, a monument of the devas- 
tation which this part of Turkey experienced 
about forty years ago. 

It was destroyed in the last century, by 
Giaour Imaum, a celebrated mountain robber 
and outlaw, whose predatory deeds are often 
the theme of an Osmanli's conversation. Of 
his talents for destruction, we saw many proofs 
in our journey through this province. 

We kept for some miles along the base 
of the Balcan, and then ascended through a 
forest of well-grown trees. At a narrow part 
of the pass, a few deserted temporary huts, 
and some palisades, bespoke an attempt at 
defence. In speaking of the narrowness of 
this pass, I do not mean any peculiar defile 
in the mountain; but that the trees, which 
would have been the principal obstacle to an 



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CHALCOVATCH. 5 

assailing army, were not much cleared away. 
At the summit of this hill, a breast-work had 
been thrown up, which was pierced for five 
guns, forming all the defence we could per* 
ceive of this pass of the Balcan. Hence we 
descended gradually, till we came to a broad 
open valley, which separates the hill we had 
just quitted, from one somewhat higher. 

The snow of the morning had changed 
into a hard frost. The sun was just setting: 
we had not met a human being : all was silent 
and desolate around us. We strained our eyes 
in vain for the appearance of a village; and 
we looked forward to nothing better than a 
bivouac in the Balcan, at this most inclement 
season. At length we arrived at the village 
of Chalcovatch, and had the mortification to 
find it had been entirely deserted. From this 
village, as from most others in Bulgaria, the 
ravages of war had compelled its peaceable in- 
habitants to fly with their movable property. 
The shells of houses alone remained ; and 
nearly all of these had been pulled down, to 



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6 WRETCHED ACCOMMODATION. 

furnish fuel for such travellers as had pre- 
ceded us on the road. To one house, which 
did not appear in so bad a state as the others, 
we bent our steps: it was full of Turkish 
women ; part of a caravan crossing the Balcan. 
To have entered this habitation, would have 
ensured us a worse fate than a bivouac in 
the mountains — so we resumed our search; and 
at last fixed on a hovel, wretched enough to 
be sure, but pre-eminent over its neighbours, 
by being furnished with a door. The neces- 
sity for exertion alleviated our cheerless pro- 
spect. We all set to work to collect wood 
for fire, and returned laden with pieces of the 
hedges which surrounded the neighbouring 
huts. We were all too fatigued to go in 
search of water, and were content to boil 
our coffee in snow, which, to add to our mis- 
fortunes, spoiled our coffee-pot in the melting. 
Our chamber, which was about twelve feet 
square and six high, was formed by planks, 
so rudely nailed together that we had a dis- 
tinct view of the frosty moon and snowy 



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A TRIBE OF TARTARS ON A MARCH. 7 

mountains through the crannies which ad- 
mitted the bleak wind to our aching bones. 
The fire-place, which occupied one-eighth of 
the room, oppressed us almost as much by 
the cold draught of air that came down its 
chimney, as it warmed us by the fire in its 
hearth, blowing, like the man in the fable, 
hot and cold with the same breath. 

November 16. As we had no warm bed to 
render our rising an effort, we were on our 
journey again by day-light, and urging our 
poor beasts (who like ourselves had fared but 
badly) to re-commence their labours. 

The valley in which Chalcovatch is situated 
is two or three miles broad, and seems to run 
east and west, dividing the Balcan into two 
ranges. 

On arriving at the base, we met a string of 
covered waggons, which continued the whole 
length of our day's march. We saw, in the 
course of the morning, at least five thousand 
of these conveyances, each of them containing 
a family. Their inmates were natives of Ibrail 



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8 INTENSE FROST, 

and its neighbourhood. They had fled at the 
approach of the Russian army, and were now 
returning homewards, on receiving intimation 
of the peace* They had retired in the inter- 
val to Babadaghy where they had fallen in 
with some of their own tribes. The greater 
portion of these people had the regular Turkish 
features; but there were some who did not 
speak Turkish, and whose thick lips, bridge- 
less noses, and little eyes, plainly shewed that 
they belonged to that hideous tribe of Tartars 
which inhabits the Crimea. 

It was not without reason that we had com- 
plained of cold in the night. The frost was the 
hardest 1 ever remember. On nearly every 
mountain stream that we crossed, the ice was 
strong enough to bear our horses' weight: in 
many places, it remained unbroken by the 
wheels of the peasants' waggons. The road 
was so slippery that we were obliged to dis- 
mount. In the course of the descent, our- 
selves and horses fell several times. 

We m^t on the road a kiahya bey, or 



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THE DELLI KAMCHICK. 9 

deputy governor of some pasbalik. He was 
attended by a numerous and well-armed reti- 
nue. The rear of his equipage was brought 
up by a Turkish gilded carriage, with trelliced 
windows, drawn by four horses. In this ve- 
hicle was a lady, escorted by a black eunuch. 

In a small valley, in the mountains, we 
crossed the Delli Kamchick, at this time an 
inconsiderable stream, but often, in the winter 
months, a dangerous torrent. Mustapha told 
us, that some time ago he was crossing the 
Kamchick at this place, in the train of some 
ambassador, when one of the party, a Frank 
servant, was drowned. 

On the north bank are two or three vil- 
lages, at present deserted. When the stream 
became much swollen, it was customary for the 
inhabitants to furnish rafts, placed on a plat- 
form, which was mounted on four very high 
wheels; upon this, travellers' baggage was 
transported across, while the beasts were made 
to swim over. 

Half an hour after crossing the Kamchick, 



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10 sultan's claim to bolitart reputation. 

we came upon a plain, occasionally interrapted 
by rising grounds, which forms the southern 
boundary of the Prayadi pass. 

Here, then, we have completed a journey 
across two passes of a chain of mountains 
which the Turks had considered as impreg- 
nable barriers to an invading army; and the 
only attempts at defence are the paltry field- 
works which I have described. Yet Mahmoud, 
whose military talents are, by some, held in 
such high estimation, has been upwards of 
twenty years on the Ottoman throne, during 
which time^ his country has been involved in two 
wars by the same enemy, who had advanced 
to the base of the Balcan in four separate 
campaigns. The Selimno and Pravadi passes 
are two of the principal thoroughfares of his 
dominions, yet they are not fortified. Did his 
sublime highness imagine, that the roads over 
which the merchant carts pass every day, would 
(unassisted by artificial obstacles) be inaccessible 
to the battering train of a foreign foe ? His pa- 
negyrists, perhaps, will answer the question. 



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WEAKNESS OF MOUNTAIN PASSES. 1 1 

But there is another point to be considered, 
with regard to the military character of the 
sultan; and that is, his utter ignorance of the 
weakness of this chain of mountains. 

There is, I believe, a very prevalent impres- 
sion, that an invading army would have to 
encounter great difficulties in crossing the 
Balcan, if the natural advantages of its position 
had been properly improved. It is with some 
deference I offer my reasons for differing from 
the general opinion. If they produce the con- 
viction upon the mind of the reader that they 
do upon my own, he will have a very mean 
opinion of the sultan's military talents, and 
will not be inclined to grant the high credit 
the Russians assume to themselves for the 
passage of the Balcan ; but rather feel surprised 
that they did not accomplish this feat in the 
war which lasted from 1809 to 1812, or in the 
late campaign of 1828. 

The first military questions of importance 
are, the nature of the roads, and their general 
practicability for artillery and other wheeled 



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12 PRACTICABLE FOR ARTILLERY. 

carriages. The observations relative to the 
Selimno pass are equally applicable to that of 
Pravadi. The soil is admirably adapted for 
the formation of roads, and trees would form 
nearly the only obstacles to an invading army. 
With respect to the general practicability of 
the road, it would seem as though the five 
thousand clumsy waggons of the Tartars, and 
the light four-in-hand vehicle of the Turk, 
which we met this morning, had arrived ex- 
pressly to shew how trifling, even at this season 
of the year, is the achievement so loudly 
boasted of by the Russians. 

Another and an important facility in the 
passage of the Balcan, is the ease with which 
a communication could be carried on between 
the several passes, the whole country being 
traversed by roads in every direction. 

The advantage that would arise from this, 
to an invading army, is obvious. It would 
enable it to vary its attack, thereby to divide 
the attention, and consequently to weaken 
the force, of the defending army, who would 



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SELIMNO, AND PRAVADI DEFILES. 13 

be obliged to be on the alert in so many 
places at once. 

As to the other difficulties^ such as, the 
narrowness of the defiles, or the ruggedness 
of the ascents, if I were to compare them 
with what I have myself seen, I should say, 
that in my journey from India, in 1824, from 
the period I commenced the ascent of the Ha- 
merine mountains, which bound the Pashalik 
of Bagdad, to the time of my arriving at Bakoo, 
on the shores of the Caspian sea, there was 
scarcely a day's march that would not have 
presented greater obstructions to an army than 
either Selimno or the Pravadi passes* This 
observation is equally applicable to the journey 
in Asia Minor, the account of which terminates 
the present work. 

With regard to the other passes of the 
Balcan, they are, as far as I could learn, of 
the same general character as those that I 
visited. 

The highest and most difficult of access 
to artillery, is that from Adrianople to Rout- 



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14 eHIPKIEU AND AID08 DEFILES. 

chouk, by Temova^ commonly called the Chip- 
kieu Balcan. It is by this route, that General 
Valentini considered a corps of the Russian 
army ought to be sent, while the main body 
should advance on Shumla. The only diffi* 
culty here would arise from the steepness 
of the ascent ; but this might be easily re- 
medied, as there is no part of Chipkieu pass, 
over which guns and ammunition - waggons 
could not be conveyed, with the assistance of 
draft bufBsiloes, — animals so easily to be pro- 
cured throughout these countries. 

With regard to the Aidos defile, which was 
adopted by the Russians in the late campaign, 
I am informed by Mustapha, who has fre- 
quently crossed every pass of the Balcan, and 
who is a shrewd and compietent observer, that 
there were greater facilities in that passage than 
in any of the others to which I have alluded. 



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VILLAGE OF DOBRAL, 15 



CHAPTER II. 

Village of Dobral — Breakfast — Turkish Depredations — 
The Country — Bulgarians' Heads uncovered — A Russian 
Commandant — Camabat — Russian Roguery — The 
Commandant's Incivility — Depopulated Country — Ca- 
rapounhar — Mustapha and a Russian Soldier — Unpopu- 
larity of the Russians — Fakih — A Bulgarian Hostess — 
Kibillerah — Sleep in a Bam. 

On quitting the Balcan, we came to the 
Bulgarian village of Dobral, formerly a station 
for post-horses. Roofless cottages were the 
first objects that met our anxious eyes; but 
our alarm at this unwelcome sight was dissi- 
pated by the smoke of a chimney, which we 
hailed as the happy omen of an inhabited 
dwelling, the first we had seen since leaving 
Shumla. 

Last night's short commons, and this morn- 
ing's firosty march over the mountains, had 



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16 THE COUNTRY. 

whetted our appetites to such a degree, that 
we did ample justice to the fried eggs and 
onions, and to the sour wine, which were placed 
before us. So attentive were we to the calls 
of hunger, that we had scarcely a glance to 
bestow on the very pretty faces of the female 
inmates of the cottage. 

The peasants here complained, not of the 
depredations of the Russians, but of those of 
the Turkish foragers. 

From Dobral to Carnabat, the road led 
through an open fertile plain, though but little 
cultivated, except in vineyards, with which, 
in general, the slopes of the mountains towards 
the south are clothed. 

In the middle of this plain is a road in a 
north-westerly direction, leading to Cazan. 
Several villages are also observable. 

The last six miles before you come to 
Carnabat, are over a dead flat, rich in pasture, 
and apparently subject to overflow from a small 
river which runs through it. To the east the 
plain is bounded by the horizon ; to the west 



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BULGARIANS' HEADS UNCOVERED. 17 

the sea is visible at the distance of nine miles; 
and a rising ground, on the slope of which the 
minarets of Carnabat are seen, bounds the plain 
to the south. 

Immediately under Carnabat, were some 
temporary huts, occupied by a party of 
Cossacks. 

At the entrance of the town, the carcasses 
of numerous dogs which had been frozen to 
death, bespoke the severity of the preceding 
night's frost. Those which remained alive 
upon the dung-heaps at the entrance of the 
town, were too torpid with cold to give the 
usual warning of a stranger's arrival. 

The town was occupied by a large body 
of Cossacks. We were conducted by one of 
the men to the commandant. We found him 
in the court-yard of his house, giving orders 
to a host of Bulgarian inhabitants, who had 
adopted the Russian ceremony of keeping the 
head uncovered in the presence of a superior ; 
a courtesy for which their shorn poles seemed 
ill adapted on a frosty eve, though it might 

VOL. II. c 



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18 A RUSSIAN COMMANDANT. 

suit well enough their Muscovite brethren^ 
whose shaggy locks^ well defended by dirt, 
seemed insensible to the attack of the external 
air. 

The commandant was either exceedingly 
uncivil, stupid, or tipsy. He appeared to have 
all the three failings combined; for he con- 
tinued for half an hour to peruse our Russian 
passports, with a vacancy of countenance that 
would have been amusing enough, if we had 
not been all the while shivering in the cold, 
awaiting his sapient fiat. His appearance 
in this occupation reminded me of Listen in 
the character of Van Bet, attempting to read 
his despatches. Like him, he seemed to think 
'* 'twould puzzle a conjurer" to decipher 
them. There is no knowing how long we 
should have been kept in our freezing atti- 
tude, if it had not been for the timely arrival 
of a Polish officer, whose acquaintance we had 
made at Adrianople. He immediately sent a 
Cossack with us to assign us quarters; and 
thereby saved the commandant, as well as 



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RUSSIAN ROGUERY. 19 

ourselves, from a continuance of a very dis- 
agreeable interview. 

Every comfort is relative; the damp floor 
of our night's lodging was a paradise, when 
compared with the wretchedness of our last 
resting-place. 

Carnabat contains about six hundred 
houses: the population, previous to the war, 
consisted of four thousand souls, nearly an 
equal proportion of Turks and Bulgarians; 
but the Mahometans had all fled, and their 
shops were occupied by Russian sutlers and 
camp-followers. Lord Dunlo and myself were 
induced by hunger to enter one of the Russian 
shops, where we ate a few musty rusks, and 
paid for them with a piece of gold ; but when 
we asked for our change, we heard, very much 
to our discomfort and surprise, that we had 
eaten the value of our money. The piece we 
had given would almost have purchased the 
contents of the shop ; but it was useless to ex- 
postulate, and we were too much ashamed to 
make a complaint to our Polish acquaintance ; 



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20 THE commandant's incjvility. 

so we were fain to digest our spleen and rusks 
together. For my fellow-traveller there was 
some excuse for being so imposed upon ; but 
for myself there was none ; because, having 
travelled through Russia, I should have known 
the quantum of reliance that ought to be 
placed on Russian honesty. 

November 16. A long march before us, and 
the uncertainty of accommodation, made us 
wish to start early in the morning; but though 
we sent several times for our passports, we 
could not get them from the commandant. 
Tired at the delay, I put on my uniform, went 
myself to the commandant's, and forcing my 
way through a levy of Bulgarian suitors, I 
adapted my manners to my company, and seat*^ 
ing myself on a chair which he had not the 
civility to offer me, begged that I might have 
my passport immediately. Experience had 
taught me that blustering would have its effect 
with this people. It did so on this occasion ; 
and in a short time we were again in the 
saddle. 



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DEPOPULATED COUNTRY. 21 

In passing through the town, we were 
regaled with the novel sight of a leg of mutton, 
which Mustapha took the precaution to pur- 
chase; and lucky for us was it that he did 
so, as we should have fared but poorly without 
this assistance. 

The rising ground by which we quitted 
Carnabat is a bare, chalky soil. 

As the minarets of the town disappeared 
from our view under the brow of the hill, we 
lost sight of every vestige of an inhabited 
country, until, in two hours and a half, we 
came to the village of Beglerbanee. Here 
the houses were all unroofed, no smoke issued 
from the chimneys, nor was there any sign of 
population. The country is a succession of 
slopes, with vineyards and corn-fields occasion- 
ally visible, and for the most part abounding in 
dwarf oak. In three hours and a half we came 
to Beg Mahale, containing about two hundred 
houses, and exhibiting a well-cultivated neigh- 
bourhood : an hour further, the Bulgarian 
village of Jumalli, and then Granalli, none 



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22 CARAPOUNHAR. 

of which places are dowa on any map; as 
Mustapha, with his usual obstinacy, had taken 
us out of the direct road, in the futile hope 
of making a short cut. 

By sheer accident we stumbled, towards 
evening, on the town of Carapounhar, our 
destination for the night ; passing on our way 
through a rich pasture land, thickly wooded 
mountains, and well-watered valleys. 

Carapounhar is situated in a valley watered 
by the Granack : its rich pastures probably 
recommended it to Count Diebitsch for a large 
portion of cavalry. Some heavy battering guns 
were here, and Cossacks and other cavalry, 
to the number of four thousand. 

This military force was a bad omen of a 
night's lodging. 

We were for two hours after dark wan- 
dering in search of shelter from the bitter cold- 
ness of the night, and occupied in the interval 
with reflections of no very agreeable nature. 
Setting aside the immediate personal inconve- 
nience to ourselves, we could not help feeling 



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MUSTAPUA AND A RUSSIAN SOLDIER. 23 

that our unfortunate beasts could not carry 
us much further without food; and we knew 
we had no assistance to expect from the Phi- 
listines by whom we were surrounded. Our 
good fortune, which had never entirely de- 
serted us, however much it had occasion- 
ally threatened to do so, at length conducted 
us to a cottage, where, by dint of promises 
of reward, and by assurances that we were 
not Russians, we succeeded in sharing the 
apartment of a Bulgarian family, and of 
procuring some Indian com for our cattle, 
which, in the morning, we found they had 
not touched. 

At midnight we were disturbed by a knock* 
ing at the door; we opened it, and found 
a poor Russian soldier, who said that he 
was starving, and begged we would give him 
a morsel of bread. Mustapha cut off a large 
slice from our loaf; but before he gave it to 
him, he made him bless the Turks and their 
prophet for the donation, — a ceremony which 
the hungry applicant performed with divers 



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24 FAKIH. 

solemn crossiDgs, and with much apparent 
fervour. 

If we might consider the feeling of our cot- 
tagers as a sample of that which actuated the 
other inhabitants of the village, the Russians 
had become too well known here to be very 
popular : their Bulgarian brethren appeared to 
feel, that the future prospect of the benefit by 
their visit was not sufficiently clear, to oblite- 
rate from their minds the present conviction 
of inconvenience, arising from the system of 
free quarters which the necessities of the army 
obliged them to adopt. 

We heard at this place, as elsewhere, bitter 
complaints against the Russian commissariat 
department. 

November 17. The morning presented a 
change of weather, threatening snow, which 
soon afterwards commenced, and then turned 
to rain. The day's stage was from Cara- 
pounhar to Kibillerah ; the road a continuous 
forest mountain for sixteen miles. Emerging 
from this, we descended a hill, and entered 



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KIB1LLERAH> 25 

the village of Fakih, once a post station ; but, 
since the advance of the Russians, the house 
attached to it had been rased to the ground. 
We halted to breakfast at a Bulgarian cottage. 
The attractions were, a beautiful young hostess, 
with a Magdalen cast of features ; and, what 
I much fear we admired more at the time, an 
excellent breakfast, consisting of a stew mixed 
with fine herbs, that would have done honour 
to the artiste of any country, and a plentiful 
supply of fried eggs, butter-milk, cheese, and 
wine. 

It would have been gratifying to have let 
the reader suppose that our hostess was as 
good as' she was pretty ; but candour compels 
me to say, that a. certain little mercenary pro- 
pensity very much destroyed the illusion which 
her beauty had excited. 

From Fakih to Kibillerah, we passed 
through a well-watered, wooded, and produc- 
tive country, the smiling appearance of which 
was at variance with the numerous carcasses 
of horses, bullocks, and camels, and the occa- 



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26 SLEEP IN A BARN. 

sional graves of men, which lined each side of 
the road. 

From the time of setting out, the rain had 
continued almost without intermission; so that 
when we arrived at Kibillerah we were tho- 
roughly drenched. The village was but small ; 
and Russian troops were pouring in on all 
sides : every house was as full of soldiers as it 
could hold. After some trouble, we obtained 
shelter in a temporary bam ; but the building 
was formed of rafters covered with thatch, 
and so full of chopped straw that we did 
not dare to light a fire. Our dinner was a 
small slice of mutton a-piece, (the last meat 
we were to taste for some days to come,) 
and a hunch of black bread. 

We admitted as fellow-lodgers for the 
night two Bulgarian peasants. They had 
come from Rodosto with some skins of raki for 
sale; but, fearful of being plundered by the 
Cossacks, they had determined to return home 
in the morning. 

As we were afraid to keep our light, we 



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I 

SLEEP IN A BARN. 27 

threw ourselves, in our wet clothes, on the 
straw, and slept soundly till the morning, in 
spite of the manifold attempts of the Russians 
to dislodge us. 



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28 THEFT. 



CHAPTER III. 

Theft — Troops on a March — Mustapha's short Cut — 
Cossack Marauders — Eski Pylos — Petra — King Con- 
stantine — Cossacks — Lose our Way — Tekeh Assulb^li 
— Dangerous Adventure — Homely Fare. 

November 18. In the morning we missed a 
pipe and part of our saddlery. This was being 
let off very cheap, considering the neighbour- 
hood in which we had been. 

We arose in almost utter hopelessness of 
finding a place to lay our heads in at night. 
The dreariness of such a prospect was not 
enlivened by the appearance of the weather: 
it was one of November's worst days — a cold 
drizzling mist, which, when it did partially 
dissipate, by no means cleared away our 
uncomfortable forebodings, as it revealed to 
us a large party of Russians. They were 
accompanied by a number of baggage and 



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TROOPS ON A MARCH. 29 

ammunition waggons, drawn by bullocks, buf- 
faloes, and horses, which were struggling 
through a deep mud, urged on by the inces- 
sant lasti of the Russian drivers. 

The cattle were nearly starved, it having 
been Count Diebitsch's policy to exhaust the 
pasture of the country, while his magazines 
in Bourgaz were overflowing with forage; in 
order, as it was said, that his retreat might 
not be harassed by the army of the Pasha 
of Scutari. 

We learned from the Russians that there 
were many more behind. The first part of 
our march lay along a stony valley, forihing 
the bed of a mountain torrent, which we con- 
tinued to cross at intervals. 

The country was an open plain, bounded 
by well-wooded hills. Numerous villages were 
visible, and there was a greater appearance 
of cultivation than is generally to be seen in 
this province. 

After two hours' uncomfortable ride, we 
came to a Bulgarian village, where we break- 



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30 MUSTAPHA's fflORT CUT. 

fasted, and where our breakfast was as un- 
palatable as our reception was ungracious. 

Mustapha went to a house to purchase 
com, but was stopped by a Cossack officer. 
I galloped up to the rescue. The appearance 
of my epaulettes induced the fellow to loose 
his hold, and to treat us with a little more 
respect. 

Our meal over, we resumed our march. 
Shower succeeded shower; at length, a pelt- 
ing storm gave us a complete ducking. My 
horse, and one of those carrying baggage, had 
cast their shoes, and went limping along in a 
most pitiable manner: and, to complete our 
misfortunes, Mustapha, whose intimate know- 
ledge of the country had more than once 
misled us, took us this day into a labyrinth 
of mountains, where our wanderings twice 
brought us to the same spot, and might have 
cost us a night's bivouac in the hills, had we 
not fortunately fallen in with a party of Turks, 
who were driving a few head of cattle before 
them. We understood from them that they 



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ESKI PYLOS. 31 

were natives of some village in the neighbour- 
hood of Kirk Ecclesia, which they had quitted 
on the advance of the Russians. They were 
now returning honie^ on hearing that the infi- 
dels were about to evacuate their country; 
and had taken this circuitous route, to avoid 
the marauding parties of Cossacks, who, they 
told us, had carried off great quantities of 
cattle from their countrymen. 

After various windings, we arrived at the 
base of a cankal-ahaped mountain, which is 
crowned by the highly picturesque ruin of an 
ancient castle. On the side of the same hill 
is a pretty Greek village, which the inhabit- 
ants call Eski TlvXog, or ancient Pylos. The 
castle on the top we understood to have been 
the work of one of the early Byzantine kings. 
We had some thoughts of halting here for 
the night ; but the appearance of a party of 
Cossacks altered our determination. 

In an hour^s march from Eski Pylos, over 
a rocky country, we arrived at the village of 
Petra, so called from the abundance of stone 



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32 COSSACKS. 

in its neighbourhood. We overtook, on the 
road, a Bulgarian peasant, returning home with 
his cattle, which had been employed in con- 
veying some baggage of the Russians, who 
were now going towards the Balcan to take 
up their winter quarters. The fellow was in 
high spirits, which appeared to have derived 
some elevation from those he had drank. He 
was very conversible ; and repeatedly asked me 
when King Gonstantine, meaning the Russian 
Archduke, intended to take possession of his 
new dominions. 

We were lodged for the night at a Greek cot- 
tage, and slept, as usual, on the bare ground. 

Our supper this evening was a greasy pilau 
of rice, and a cup of cold water. 

November 19. A day of thunder, lightning, 
and rain -^ one continued storm: such weather 
I never remember to have experienced in any 
of the numerous countries I have visited. 
Our abba cloaks, which would have defied 
all ordinary attacks of the elements, were 
at length fain to yield, and the water had 



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COSSACKS. 33 

so completely soaked into them, that their 
weight caused a painful aching to our shoulders, 
and added greatly to the fatigue and discom- 
forts of this miserable day's march. 

Not far from the village of Petra we met 
a party of Cossacks, driving before them a 
great number of bullocks and horses. In reply 
to our inquiries respecting these cattle, the 
peasants told us that the Cossacks had stolen 
them. 

In three hours we came in sight of Kirk 
Klesia (Exzhiffsa), which we left a mile to our 
right ; the green ammunition waggons of the 
Russians, on the outskirts of the town, being 
a sufficient hint for us not to think of seeking 
shelter there. 

The country around was completely flooded ; 
the roads were one mass of tenacious mud ; and 
it was with the greatest difficulty that our lame 
and jaded beasts could be propelled forward. 

By gaining the high road of Kirk Klesia, 
we might have gone on direct enough; but 
Mustapha's usual obstinacy led us by a path 

VOL. II. D 



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34 DANGEROUS ADVENTURE. 

which, as heretofore, was not the right one. 
It brought ns, in the course of time, to a 
village called Tekeh Assulbegli, in which was 
a Turkish monastery. The word tekeh signi- 
fies a place of repose ; but alas 1 it was not so 
to us ; for we went from house to house, and 
were refused admittance at all. We sat drip- 
ping and shivering on our horses, vainly im- 
ploring shelter from a party of Turks, who 
were coolly smoking their pipes, and listening 
to our petition Mrith truly national apathy and 
silence. 

An hour further on was the village of 
Lehfejee: it was almost entirely in ruins, 
and without inhabitants. After a long search, 
we found a wretched untenanted hovel, with 
a fire-place, but without windows. We then 
impressed a Bulgarian into our service ; but 
had scarcely made a fire, when a Cossack 
entered the room, and desired us to let him 
share our quarters. This was quite out of 
the question ; for, independently of the into- 
lerable stench we should have. had to endure 



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PANOEROUS ADVEHTURE. 35 

from his neighbourhood, our apartment was 
so small that there was not room for another 
person to lie down. We therefore declined 
the pleasure of his society ; upon which he 
went out, and soon returned with several 
others, who rushed in and threatened us with 
ejectment. The spokesman of this gang, who 
told us he was the officer of the party, grasped 
both his pistols, half drew them from his girdle, 
and returning them again, struck their butts 
violently together. He then half drew his 
sword, apd replaced it in the scabbard in the 
same emphatic manner. Unluckily, or per- 
haps luckily, as blood would probably have 
been spilt, our pi9tols were in a vialise. We 
had nothing to do but to appear unmoved at 
the fu^an's attempt at intimidation. I had 
put on my uniform during the absence of the 
first visiter, and I now pointed to my epau- 
lettes, and repeated the word mdior (major) 
several times in fs^, threatening tone. This, 
and the production of a Russian passport, 
appeared to have more effect than any other 



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36 DANGEROUS ADVENTURE. 

remonstrance that we could have used. To 
have robbed or murdered a traveller, would 
have been merely following their calling; 
but to have offered violence to an officer, was 
an offence that, with their military notions, 
they hardly dared to commit. The latter part 
of this interview was marked by the half-bully- 
ing and half-respectful manner of the ring- 
leader, who sneaked out; and the rest of 
the gang soon after followed their brother 
rascal, relieving us from an extremely dis- 
agreeable adventure, as also from an intoler- 
able effluvia, a national peculiarity of this nasty 
race. 

It is the unanimous opinion of our party, 
that it was the intention of these men to rob, 
and perhaps to murder us, to avoid detection; 
but if they had intended merely to dispossess 
us of our quarters, our condition would have 
been bad enough, as we should have been 
turned out of doors in our soaked clothes, 
and exposed to the extreme severity of the 
weather ; for the rainy day was succeeded by 



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HOBfELY FARE. 37 

a very severe frost at night, which would, in 
all probability, have lulled us to a sleep, from 
which we should have awoke no more. 

Rice stewed in grease was our food, and 
the not quite pure element our beverage, — 
sorry diet for men in hard exercise and ro- 
bust health. 

The fare was not such as to induce us to 
loiter over our meal; so, after making some 
preparations to dry our clothes, we lay down 
and tried to sleep. 

Towards midnight we were disturbed by a 
violent knocking for admission. Fearing that 
our frail door would give way to the forcible 
attacks made upon it, I opened it, and received 
the intruder with a drawn sword, which I held 
to his breast. The savage was not so entirely 
taken with the appearance of our quarters as 
to try to force his way through such a barrier, 
and he therefore very prudently thought proper 
to decamp. 



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38 CONTINUED DIFTICULTIES. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Continued Difficulties — Ford a dangerous Torrent — Koom- 
barlari — An Impassable Torrent — Greek Villagers — 
Gaudy Dress of the Women — Contrast between Greeks 
and Bulgarians ^ Lodging — Dinner ^— Rest— We croa 
the Torrent — Character of Roumelian Torrents — Iwalleb 
— Louleh Bourgaz, deserted by its Inhabitants — Conse- 
quences of the War — ^Turkish Troops — Arrival of Ibrahim 
Pasha — Difficulties — Meat not purchasable — Horses not 
procurable — State of our Surijee atad Cattle — Russian 
Deserten^ Anecdote of the late Capitan Pasha. 

November 28. Our difficulties were not yet 
at an end^ as half an hour's march brought us 
to the brink of a mountain torrent. The road 
to the ford by which it was usually passed lay 
through a thick wood» but the whole valley 
was overflowed; before we could reach the 
natural channel, the water was over the flaps 
of our saddles. We went both up and down 



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CONTINUED DIFFICULTIES. 39 

the stream, in the hope of finding a fordable 
place, but each was more formidable than the 
first we had attempted. While we were thus 
employed, a clump of spears revealed to us 
a party of Cossacks, who immediately made 
towards us. Availing themselves of the occa- 
oonal situation of the road, they so placed 
themselves as to divide our party, (me being 
between each of us, with one in the front, 
another in our rear, and the rest of the party 
on each side. The whole arrangement was 
performed with the most robber-like dexte* 
rity. Mustapha was closely questioned as 
to my really being a military man; and his 
answer that I was a mdiar, seemed to have 
sufficient weight with them, as they did not 
attempt to molest us. Their intention, as well 
as ours, was to cross the stream; and we 
all rode to the water side to make another 
attempt. Several Cossacks went, one after the 
other, into the water, trying to sound the pas* 
sage with their spears. After making many 
fruitless essays, they abandoned their pro- 



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40 FORD A DANGEROUS TORRENT. 

ject, and turned off in a contrary direction; 
while we proceeded onwards, determined to 
run any risk in crossing the water, rather than 
again trust ourselves in the hands of these 
barbarous marauders. 

At last we saw a village on the opposite 
side : a little lower down was a waterfall, and 
near it a mill. The rush of waters was tre- 
mendous; but inhospitality, desolation, want, 
and a band of ruffians, in our rear, made us 
determine to advance at all hazards. The 
villagers on the opposite side encouraged us 
to proceed. Minas, our surijee, in general a 
lazy, disobedient, and impertinent rascal, had 
had enough of his last night's quarters not to 
wish to return to them ; he therefore prepared 
to obey our command to cross. He missed the 
channel in the first attempt, and was nearly 
carried away. Our horses were weak, lame, 
and tired ; but there was no time for delibera- 
tion — the stream was increasing every moment. 
Again Minas led the van, with our party in 
file bringing up the rear, the villagers directing 



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AN IMPASSABLE TORRENT. 41 

US by signs rather than by words, as, from the 
noise of the torrent, they could not be heard. 
We were directed to keep close to our saddles, 
as the least unsteadiness would precipitate us 
into the yawning gulf; and at length, to our 
unspeakable joy, we found ourselves on the 
opposite bank, wilh no other inconvenience 
than a thorough soaking to ourselves and 
baggage. 

At this village, which is called Koombarlari, 
and is inhabited by Greeks, we sat down to a 
breakfast of plain bread, cheese, and water — 
the foragers had carried off all the wine: as 
to milk, neither here, nor in any other place 
in the whole course of our tour, could we pro- 
cure any. 

The difficulty we had just surmounted, only 
led to a greater ; there was another and larger 
stream yet to cross : we procured a guide to 
shew the way, but the bridge by which it 
was to be passed was three feet under water. 
We remained the whole day on the brink of 
the stream; but Mustapha would not let us 



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42 OAUDT DRBS8 OF THE WOMEN. 

attempt the passage, and we were obliged to 
return to the house where we had breakfasted. 

Eski Pylos, Petra, and Koombarlari, be- 
long to a cluster of Ghreek villages, the first 
we had seen since our departure from Adrian- 
ople ; the inhabitants we met with having been 
always either Turks or Bulgarians. 

The dress of the women here is exceedingly 
striking and varied. They generally wear blue 
gowns, yellow petticoats, green bodies, and 
striped aprons ; their hair is twisted or plaited, 
and surmounted by the small scarlet skull- 
cap ; on the head, neck, and arms, are several 
gold or silver ornaments. 

This variety of colours is highly at variance 
with the homely uniform dark gown worn by 
the Bulgarian females. 

Indeed, in many other respects, there is 
a great contrast between the Greek and Bul- 
garian; and this is the more remarkable, seeing 
that they inhabit the same country, and profess 
the same religion. 

They speak different languages, and do not 



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CONTRAST BBTWEBN GREEKS AND BULGARIANS. 43 

intennarry with one another. The Qreek is 
vain^ noisy, food of innovation, and anxious for 
improvement : the Bulgarian is modest, quiet, 
devotedly attached to his national habits, and 
content to live in the bliss of ignorance. '' Let 
us see other countries, and improve our man^ 
ners," say the Greeks^ ''It is against our 
custom," is the constant reply of the Bulgarian 
to any proposal of change. The Greek has 
the gaiety of a Frenchman ; the Bulgarian the 
phlegm of a German. 

Of these opposite humours of two nations 
of the same church, we witnessed numerous 
examples during our residence at Adrianople : 
nothing could shew the extremes more strongly 
than their demeanour on any feast-day, which 
was, of course, common to both people. In the 
house of the Greek, songs, music, and the busy 
hum of voices, were to be heard : in the dwel- 
ling of his less volatile neighbour, a mournful 
silence reigned. 

Our lodging was neither comfortable nor 
elegant : it was a kind of loft made of wood. 



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44 REST. 

and used at once as a dwelling, a store for 
com, and a place for drying and curing sheep- 
skins. It was without a window, the inlets 
of light and air were the door and chimney, 
and innumerable apertures in the roof and 
walls, not to mention several large holes in the 
floor, which looked into a pig-sty, and served 
the family for a drain. This plentiful venti- 
lation was insufficient to dissipate the stench 
of the half-dried skins, or of the grunting 
occupants of the ground floor. 

The lodging, such as it was, was freely 
and kindly offered by its poor occupants, and 
seemed preferable to the earthen apartment, 
next door to the pigs, in which this squalid 
and unhealthy-looking family were quartered. 

We made a good dinner of rice and baur- 
reeky a slim cake, a yard in diameter, almost 
floating in grease, and sweetened with treacle 
— by no means an unpalatable dish to hun- 
gry men. 

Wrapping ourselves in our cloaks and 
blankets, we then prepared for the night. 



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ROUMELIAN TORRENTS. 45 

which was setting in with an intense frosts 
We all slept soundly; once only was I dis- 
turbed, and that was by a certain little name- 
less animal, no uncommon inmate of a Greek 
house. 

November 21. Refreshed by our night's 
rest, by coflfee, and another bourreck, upon 
which we breakfasted, we proceeded on our 
journey. 

The torrent, which yesterday was impass- 
able, had, during the night, subsided into its 
own channel, and when we crossed it was 
scarcely up to our horses' knees ; but the ap- 
pearance of the country which had been over- 
flowed, proved to us that, had we attempted 
the passage, we must inevitably have been 
lost, as we should have sunk into a deep sand ; 
and the labyrinth of trees that encompassed 
the stream was so thick as to prevent all pos- 
sibility of escape. 

The difficulties that obstructed our passage 
yesterday, and the ease with which we crossed 
the stream this morning, are characteristic of 



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46 LOULBH BOUA0AZ, 

the Roumeliaii torrents— ^one day an impassable 
river, the next an inconsiderable stream. 

On emerging from the valley, we entered 
an open plain, where a few sickly, stunted oaks 
were the only marks of vegetation. It was 
nearly destitute of inhabitants. The weather 
was as dreary as the prospect. The ground 
was covered with snow, and the wind blew 
painfully cold. 

At a village called Iwalleh, we fell in with 
a blacksmith, the first we had met with since 
we left Shumla. We stood very much in 
need of his assistance, as none of our hcnrses 
had a complete set of shoes, and they were 
all lame for the want of them* The black- 
smith, however, proved of no use, as there 
was not a piece of iron procurable in the whole 
village. 

In a march of five hours, we came to the 
vineyards which mark the entrance to Louleh 
Bourgaz. We entered the town over a hand- 
some bridge ; and passing under an arch sur- 
mounted by a dome, came to a spacious and 



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DESERTED BT ITS INHABITANTS. 47 

well-cgnstructed bazaar, all of which are the 
works of the grand vizier Kieuperli, the oe^ 
lebrated minister of Mahomet the Fourth. 

The town contains about a thousand houses, 
but, with the exception of a few tobacconists' 
shops, they were all closed, padlocked, and 
deserted by their inhabitants. 

When the Turks fled from the town, at the 
approach of the Russians, the houses were 
despoiled, and the inhabitants pillaged, lest 
their property should fall into the hands of the 
invaders. Any thing that remained was, in like 
manner, carried off by the Russians, when they 
evacuated the place. Such is the history of 
nearly every town in which a change of 
masters has taken place owing to the war; the 
inhabitants scarcely knowing which to fear 
mo*st, and finding an enemy in either party. 
In lanboli, Selimuo, and Carnabat, all the 
Turks had fled, and rayahs al<me remained 
where the towns had fallen into the bands of 
the Russians; whereas, in Osman Bazaar, 
Derbent, and Juma, towns in poasession of the 



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48 ARRIVAL OF IBRAHIM PASHA. 

Turks, the rayahs had been expelled by main 
force. 

Here, at Bourgaz, the Turks had quitted 
their homes, in the first instance, from the 
Russians, and now, nearly all the rayahs were 
escaping from the dreaded vengeance of the 
Turks, The few that remained were in too 
much doubt and anxiety about their own fate, 
to afibrd us either information or assistance. 

Turkish troops were pouring in every 
minute, and were hastening to occupy the 
quarters of the Russians, whose names still 
remained chalked on the doors. 

Soldiers were the only passengers in the 
streets ; every thing was in bustle, turmoil, and 
confusion. 

We came just in time to witness the arrival 
of Ibrahim Pasha, our Rodosto friend. He 
was attended by a party of high - capped 
dellis, and a numerous retinue of kavasses, 
with ferocious mustachios, and having arms 
stuck in their girdles so as to form a crescent 
of embossed pistol-butts and dagger-hilts. 



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MEAT NOT PURCHASABLE. 49 

In a Turkish town, the burden of one 
pasha's visit is considered a sufficient calamity ; 
but in this instance, two other pashas, Halish, 
and another of two tails, were to follow on 
the heels of him whose entrance we had 
witnessed. 

We had looked forward to our arrival at 
Bourgaz as the happy termination of all our 
difficulties ; but it proved not so. The khans 
were as full of soldiers as the streets. It 
was with great difficulty that we at last suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a wretched room, eight 
feet by ten, and scarcely six high ; having no 
fire-place, and with a sheet of paper for a 
window ; a roof full of holes for our shelter 
above, and the cold ground for our lodging 
below. 

We sent Mustapha out to purchase food : 
he saw six sheep slaughtered, and offered one 
hundred paras a pound for that meat which 
would commonly cost ten. It was for the 
pasha and his attendants, and the butcher 
would not let him have it at any price^ nor 

VOL. II. E 



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50 wenmAn deserters. 

wodM he sell him even a small piece of fat, 
to mix with our rice. Our quarters were so 
wretched, that we made every attempt to 
proceed to Chorli, the next stage. No fresh 
horses were procurable; and our surijee was 
suffering from a severe intermittent fever, under 
which he had more than once appeared to sink, 
from the combined effects of wet, cold, and want 
of food. It was, therefore, utterly impossible 
for him to fulfil his stipulated contract, to take 
us on to Constantinople. As for our. poor 
beasts, they were all nearly dead with the 
hardships they had undergone. We had no 
chance but to submit patiently to the intense 
cold, which, both externally and internally, 
produced considerable pain. 

In the same khan with ourselves were 
three Russian deserters. Two of them were 
employed as menials in the service of the 
pasha; the third was yet free. He appeared 
to have been an officer, and was in possession 
of a handsome - looking horse : he had no 
money, and we "heard that, as soon as he 



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RUSSIAN DESERTERS. 51 

bad expended the value of his charger, he 
would be trusted no longer, and would, in 
all probability, be obliged to sell himself as a 
slave, to procure future subsistence. All the 
three deserters wore the jackets and red caps 
of the Turkish army, while they retained the 
boots and other articles of their national uni- 
form. 

It speaks but little for the comforts of a 
Russian camp, that there should be found men 
who would quit their own army to join such 
troops as the Turks. I am given to understand 
that desertion has been very common in this 
campaign. When I passed through Persia, in 
1824, there were numbers of Russian soldiers, 
particularly in the frontier towns, who were 
occupied in teaching the Persian army the 
European tactics, which they were tempted to 
do by the comparatively superior pay granted 
them by the enemies of their creed and 
country. 

But the Russians have not the same in- 
ducements to abandon their colours, and to 



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52 AN>BCDOTB 

place themselves under the Turkish, as they 
had under the Persian banners ; the religious 
scruples of the Osmanli at employing infidel 
aid being greater than those of his brother 
Mahometan, of a less rigid sect. 

During the period of office of the late 
capitan pasha/ there were forty Russians em- 
ployed in the dock-yards. These men called 
themselves Mahometans, and their fellow- 
labourers were for some time not very scrupu- 
lous about inquiring into the orthodoxy of their 
faith. At length it was observed, that these 
new professors of Mahometanism, though they 
were very attentive to their worship on Friday^ 
the Mussulman sabbath, would never work 
on a Sunday; and information of their neglect 
was given to the capitan pasha. He sum- 
moned them before him. " You are infidels, 
and no true believers," said he; "so I shall 
send you back to your own country; but I 
shall not be unmindful of the hospitality of a 
good Mussulman ; I therefore shall take care 
that you be supplied with clothes, money. 



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OF THE LATE CAPITAN PA6HA. 53 

and provisions/' The Russians were, for a 
moment, mute; when one of them exclaimed, 
" But we shall be flogged to death, if we 
return." " That's your affair, not mine," was 
the reply of the sedate Mussulman, as he coolly 
consigned them to the fate which probably 
awaited them on reaching their native land. 



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54 TAKE LEAVE OF OUR SURUEE. 



CHAPTER V. 

Breakfast — Take leave of our Surijee — We leave Louleh 
Bourgaz — Desolate Appearance of the Country — Spot 
where Mf. Wood was murdered — Dangers.of the Journey 
from Bourgaz to Chorli — Gensaikies — We are nearly 
frozen to Death — Six Turks die of Cold — A Rayah 
Prisoner — Chorli — Surijee in Fear of the Bastinado — 
Sufferings from Cold — Breakfast on Flour and Tallow — 
Detention — A miserable Object — Mustapha's Want of 
Humanity — Anecdote of his Cruelty — Observation — 
Anecdote of Navarin — Numerous Delays in this Journey 
— Arrival at Constantinople — Happy Meeting with our 
Friends. 

November 22. Our last night's dinner was a 
pilau and a few white beans, of which we 
were obliged to eat but sparingly, in order 
to have sufficient for this morning's breakfast; 
and after we had dined, we subscribed the 



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DESOLATE APPEARANCE OF THE COUNTRY. 56 

scrapings of our plates together, and boiling 
them up again this morning, made a meal 
on the richauffL 

We here took leave of our surijee, who 
had accompanied us from Adrianople. We 
had several times expected that he would 
have died on the road; and it was almost a 
comfort to us that we left the poor fellow 
only with an intermittent fever, from which, 
by former observation, we felt assured that 
rest and food would restore him. 

By a well-timed bribe, we induced one of 
the surijees who was returning to Chorli with 
horses that had conveyed part of the pasha's 
equipage yesterday, to let us have five beasts 
to carry ourselves and baggage. We started 
at nine o'clock; and being soon after joined 
by several other men, bound in the same 
direction, we all proceeded at a brisk trot; 
an exceedingly necessary pace, for it was the 
most intensely cold day that I ever remember 
in my life. 

Hitherto we had passed through countries 



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56 JOURNEY FROM BOURGAZ TO CHORLI. 

laid waste by man's abuse of nature's gifts * 
we had now to witness the desolation of nature 
herself. A more wretched -looking country 
could scarcely present itself^ than the barren 
plain which lies between Bourgaz and Gborli. 
Here and there was to be seen a tree; but 
this scanty specimen of vegetation served only 
to render the landscape more dreary ; and the 
reflection was heightened by the circumstance 
of one of these trees having been the spot 
where a barbarous murder was some years 
ago committed on the person of Mr. Wood, 
an English traveller, and his Tartar, who 
lie buried together at a short distance from 
the place where they met their fate. 

According to Mustapba's statement, num- 
bers of persons perish annually on this plain. 
He says that in the winter months the traveller 
is frequently overtaken by a violent storm of 
hail, which no animal can be made to face; 
the consequence is, that the rider is obliged 
to go in the direction he is taken ; and there 
being no landmark to guide him, he loses his 



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SIX TURKS DIE OF COLD. 67 

way, and in the night £al1s a victim to the 
inclemency of the season. 

Two hours from Bourgaz, we came to Gen- 
saikies, a chiflik, or Turkish country-house, 
with a small dependent village attached. Flow^ 
ing past this place is a small river, which we 
crossed. Some time ago, a French anibas* 
sador and several of his suite were nearly lost, 
and one of his servants was actually drowned, 
in this stream. 

As long as we could keep at a trot, the 
sensation of cold, though painfully acute, was 
not attended with any danger; but towards 
the latter end of our journey, we were obliged 
to make frequent halts for the rest of our party: 
thus, our blood became so stagnant, that it was 
with great difficulty we could shake off that 
drowsiness which is, I believe, the forerunner 
of death from cold. We heard afterwards that 
a Tartar and five Turkish soldiers had that 
evening been frozen to death on this same 
road. 

At the outskirts of Chorli we met a Frank 



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58 CHORLI. 

courier travelling with a Tartar, and a pri- 
soner who was escorted by two Turks. He 
was fastened to the saddle by means of fetters, 
which were attached to each of his ancles, and 
passed under the belly of the horse. This mode 
of binding the prisoner shewed him to be a 
rayah, as a Mahometan has always a chain 
fastened to his neck. To these chains there 
is a padlock, the key of which is kept by the 
person in charge of the culprit, who can miti- 
gate or increase the irksomeness of his situation. 
This circumstance of course paves the way to 
bribery, and induces the guard to sell his 
forbearance according to the means of the 
person in custody. 

We could not learn the destination of the 
prisoner. Our party thought it probable that 
he was going to Demotika, the usual place 
for defaulters. 

At sunset we reached Chorli, a small town 
built principally of stone: it stands upon an 
eminence. Preparations seem to have been 
made to place it in a state of defence, as some 



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NO MEAT PROCURABLE. 59 

unfinished works were observable on the brow 
of the hill. From its elevated position^ it might 
have withstood the Russians; but, like other 
Turkish towns, it became a bloodless .conquest 
to the invaders. The Christian troops remained 
here fifty days. 

Chorli contains eight hundred houses; the 
sea is visible from the town, bounded by the 
heights of the island of Marmora, and the 
Tekirdagh, " round mountain," under which 
Rodosto lies. 

We went in the first instance to the prin- 
cipal khan : it was entirely deserted, and re- 
mained the mere shell of a hoiise. We went 
to another : it was full of troops. At last we 
took up our quarters in a smaller one, where 
a wretched hovel, the only one unoccupied, 
was assigned to us. 

We could procure no bread ; and sent 
round to all the cooks' shops for some meat. 
We eventually succeeded in procuring a small 
piece, the refuse of a sheep, containing two 
mouthsful a-piece. It was very acceptable 



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60 6UFFERIN0S FROM COLD. 

however^ and we devoured it greedily, as it 
was the first animal food we had tasted for 
five days. 

In the evening, the surijee who had con- 
ducted us hither came to Mustapha, to beg 
his assistance, and that he would support him 
in the fabrication of a lie for the post-master, 
relative to having allowed us to use post-horses. 
He had, it appears, no right to have taken us 
at all. He said that had he confessed to 
having done so, and even paid the money to 
his master, as on a former occasion, it was 
against order, and the bastinado would be 
now, as it had been then, his certain recom^^ 
pense. He argued, therefore, that it would 
be better to keep the money for the hire of 
the horses to himself. Mustapha was to tell 
some plausible story in support of his asser- 
tion. As it would save the soles of the poor 
fellow's feet, we partly connived at the fraud, 
sheltering ourselves under our ignorance of the 
Turkish language. 

It will be long before I forget the dis- 



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A DETENTION. 61 

comfort of this wretched night. Our mud 
chamber was quite riddled through with holes. 
ThiB wretched shutters to the windows did not 
meet within two inches : we tried to stop 
the interstice with a new sheep-skin, which 
performed its office so ineffectually, that die 
snow found its way through the window into 
eur blankets. 

November 23. Our breakfast this morning 
was a cake, called bourreck, the component 
parts^ of which were flour and tallow. Hungry 
as we were, the di^ was most nauseous ; and, 
remembering that this was the best meal money 
could procure in a town which was the greatest 
thoroughfare of European Turkey, we agreed 
with Mustapha's remark, in German English, 
that " dis contry go fast to teyful.'' 

We had to experience a worse disappoint* 
ment than this sorry fare, — a detention for 
want of horses. There was a Selivri surijee 
here ; but his fear of the bastinado overba- 
lanced the temptation of the bribe we offered 
to let us use his cattle, his feet being still 



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62 A MISERABLE OBJECT. 

sore from the last punishment he had under- 



As die troops who had occupied the other 
rooms of the kima were obliged to march this 
morning, we succeeded to an apartment a 
shade better than that of the night before. 

In the passage leading out of our room 
was a miserable wretch, with scarcely rags 
enough to cover him, huddled over a pan of 
charcoal, and groaning piteously from the 
intensity of the cold. He was an Arnaout 
Christian, and had accompanied a Mahometan 
soldier, a native of the same country, in the 
capacity of servant, to Chorli. He was by 
trade a brazier ; and being desired by his 
master to mend his coffee-pot, he stated that 
he had no materials, and consequently that he 
was unable to comply. The refusal irritated 
his lord: the poor fellow perceived it, and 
attempted to escape ; but the other pursuing 
him, exclaimed, '' It is you cursed Christians 
who are the cause of all our troubles;" and, as 
he spoke, he hurled a javelin at him, which 



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ANECDOTE OF MUSTAPHA's CRUELTY. 63^ 

entered by his neck and came out at the lower 
part of his ribs. The Turk left the wounded 
man the next day, without troubling himself 
further about his fate. The Greek church of 
Chorli have since supplied him with a small 
pittance, on which, together with such dona- 
tions as he occasionally receives from the pass- 
ing visiters of the khan, he contrives to drag on 
a wretched existence. 

The sufferings of this poor Arnaout moved 
our compassion : we wished to relieve him, 
but were violently opposed by Mustapha^ who, 
in the despotic country he had adopted^ 
had lost all the feelings of humanity which 
he might have been supposed to derive from 
the land of his birth. 

An instance of this is shewn in an anecdote 
which he told of himself to my friend. Captain 
Mangles, R.N., and to the Honourable Captain 
Irby, who travelled together to the shores of 
the Dead Sea, and in whose service this man 
was at the, time. 

At the battle of the Pyramids, Mustapha, 



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64 OBSERVATIONS. 

in ao encounter with a Frenchman, cut off 
his hand. The poor disabled man fell on his 
knees, and holding up his bleeding stump, 
implored hard for his life. According to the 
brutal custom of the Turks, the price given 
for an enemy's head was twelve dollars. With 
mercy in one scale, and gratification of avarice 
in the other, what renegade would demur which 
of the two to choose ? Mustapha did not ; but 
letting fall his uplifted yatagan, he struck off 
bis victim's head, and carried it to his chief for 
the promised reward. 

Mustapha's conduct shews one of the con- 
sequences of the system that used to degrade 
Turkish warfare: I am not aware that heads 
are bought by the government as formerly. A 
Russian general told me that the Cossacks 
thought it a very good old custom, and that 
their oflBcers had occasionally some difficulty in 
restraining them from the habits they used to 
practise when allies of the Porte. The great 
Prince de Ligne was wont to observe, that this 
decapitation did no harm to the dead, was often 



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ANECDOTE OF NAVARIN. 66 

a benefit to the wounded, and always useful in 
reducing the coward to the necessity of self- 
defence. 

The veteran's remark was philosophical 
enough, and proper language to be held to an 
army in the field ; but it does not detract from 
the barbarism of the custom. 

Another remark is suggested by the same 
anecdote; namely, that cruelty in the gover- 
nor produces a correspondent feeling in the 
governed. The man who knows that his own 
existence is regarded as a thing of nought, 
will be very indifferent to that of his fellow- 
creatures. 

This anecdote reminds me of an observa- 
tion I heard bearing upon the subject: After 
the action of Navarin, our sailors were exerting 
themselves to the utmost to save the lives of 
those, Mahometans as well as Christians, whose 
ships had been destroyed. ** Let them alone," 
said a Turk to an English officer, " they will 
soon be drowned." '* But we are anxious to 
save their lives." '* Nonsense!" was the re- 

VOL. II. F 



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66 DEPARTURE FROM CHORLI. 

joinder : " you come into our harbour, blow 
our ships and crews into the air, and then talk 
of wanting to save lives : the thing is im- 
possible !" 

In our walk this morning, we saw a Turkish 
soldier with his toes frozen off. He told us 
that many of his comrades were in the same 
state. 

At the outskirts of the town we fell in 
with an old Bulgarian peasant; he com- 
plained bitterly of the Turkish yoke, spoke of 
the numerous ex!ecutions which had been per*" 
petrated t^i his people, and appeared to look 
forward with most anxious anticipation to the 
advance of the Russians on Constantinople. 

November 24, We were on the road to 
Selivri at an early hour. About three miles 
from Chorli, we entered the gardais and vine- 
yards which supply its inaTket. The sea of 
Marmora was on our right, visible at the dis- 
tance of about five miles. We passed throligh 
a country more thickly peopled as we ap- 
proached the sea : villages were seen on either 



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SELlVftl REDOUBTS. 67 

Side, but the only one which lay in our road 
was Kunigli ; shortly after leaving which, we 
proceeded along the sea-shore for several miles, 
until arrested by a high promontory, which it 
was necessary to surmount before we entered 
Selivri. This town, situated partly upon the 
rapid slope of a hill, and partly upon low 
ground, occupies the left bank of the Serai 
river, over which it is entered by a long bridge. 

The Turks had lately thrown up three 
redoubts, wbidi command the bridge, the bay, 
and the mountain road, by which the town 
is usually approached. 

Since leaving Shumla, Selivjri was the first 
town that we saw uninjured by the war. The 
Russians had never reached it; and a spur 
had beedi given to trade by the large force 
under Halish Pasha, by which it had been 
lately occupied. 

We were again detained by want of horses ; 
and passed the interval at a Greek's house, 
where we enjoyed the unusual treat of a good 
dinner. We rested till midnight, and then 



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68 CONTINUAL DETENTIONS. 

resumed our march. It was pitch dark, and 
the road was wretched ; but we accomplished 
the journey without an adventure, and at dawn 
of day reached Buyuk Chekmedjee, where we 
had once more to wait for a relay of horses. 

Bourgaz, Chorli, Selivri, and Chekmedjee, 
are all post stations leading to every part of 
civilised Europe; yet, at the first of these 
towns we were detained eighteen hours, at 
the second thirty-seven, at the third twelve, 
and at this last four; making a delay of seventy 
hours in a distance of about a hundred and 
twenty miles from the Turkish capital. 

A partial thaw, after a considerable degree 
of snow and frost, had rendered the roads so 
deep, that we could scarcely make our lame 
and sorry steeds wade through the tenacious 
mud. This badness of the paved road, added 
to the steepness of the hills, renders the country 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the capital 
more difficult of access than any other part 
over which we passed, not excepting the 
Balcan. 



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ARRIVAL AT CONSTANTINOPLE. 69 



» 



We overtook a regiment of regular troops 
proceeding to Constantinople. They preserved 
no order in their march, the front and rear 
of the column being at least half a mile 
asunder. 

In a march of four miles, we passed through 
Anbaili : five miles further on, we arrived at 
Kutchutk Chekmedjee, situated on the east side 
of the gut by which another small arm of the 
sea is entered. Here the passports of travellers 
are examined. It is considered as a position 
for the defence of the capital, and several bat- 
teries commanding the bridge are in conse- 
quence thrown up. 

It seemed as if difficulties were inclined 
to dispute with us every inch of the road to 
Constantinople. We, however, gained the 
victory at last, and reached the ambassador's 
palace in safety at four in the afternoon. 

The pleasures of good cheer, which almost 
every one feels, and which few like to confess, 
could hardly be better appreciated than by 
Lord Dunlo and myself on this occasion. Our 



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70 HAPPY MEETING WITH OUR FRIENDS. 

privations had increased instead of diminished 
the stock of health with which we commenced 
our journey. Hunger was our only complaint^ 
and the remedy was before us in the well- 
stored table of Sir Robert Grordon. 

Though not the first mentioned, not the 
least agreeable of this day's occurrences, was 
the manner in which our return was welcomed 
by the ambassador, and our other friends, who 
had scarcely expected to see us iaigain. 



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FETE ON BOARD THE BLONDE. 71 



CHAPTER VL 

F6te given to the Turks, on board His Majesty's Ship Blonde 

— Observations — Remark of Montesquieu — Concert at 
the British Palace — Dandies of Pera — Corps of Dra- 
gomans ; their Pride and Intrigue — A Perote Proverb — 
Greek Beauties — Mrs. M e — The Seradcier in Love 

— English Actresses — Abortive Theatricals. 

The conversation at dinner turned upon the 
f&te given^ during our absence^ on board the 
Blonde, to the Turkish authorities. Instead of 
the desultory account of table - talk, I insert 
the description of a young friend of mine, 
who was an eye-witness of the scenes he de- 
scribes. 

*' Whilst the population of Stamboul, ex- 
hausted by heavy contributions, and suffering 



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72 FETE GIVEN TO THE TURKS, 

every privation from the calamities of a disas- 
trous war, hailed the peace of Adrianople as a 
respite from their sufferings, the spirits of the 
Turks were revived by a splendid f6te given to 
them, in celebration of the peace, by the British 
ambassador, on board the Blonde frigate, which 
was moored for the occasion in the harbour of 
Constantinople. Captain Lyons had already, 
during the course of the summer, by the excel- 
lent discipline of his ship, and by the occasional 
compliments paid to the sultan, with no less 
taste than discrimination, produced a most fa- 
vourable impression on his highness's mind ; 
and his boat seldom descended the Bosphorus, 
without purposely approaching the frigate, near 
enough to examine the beauty of her attire, 
and listen to his favourite march. 

" A participation in the festivities of the 
Giaours would have been considered, three 
years ago, as little less than profanation, even 
by the most liberal of the Turks ; and never 
before, except in cases of individual curiosity, 
and those very rare ones, had the turbans of 



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ON BOARD H.M.S. BLONDE. 73 

the Moslems been seen to grace the saloons 
of Pera. 

'* A formal invitation to the ball was sent, 
on the present occasion, by the ambassador, 
to all the chief dignitaries of the Porte ; and 
whether it was that they were influenced by 
the high personal character of Sir Robert Gor- 
don, and that veneration for the name of 
England which has, on many occasions, shone 
forth amidst their jealousy and mistrust of 
other powers ; or whether they merely com- 
plied with the express desire of the sultan, 
the invitation was accepted by all the mem- 
bers of the divan. 

** It rarely happens, at balls given on board 
ship, that more than one half of the deck is 
appropriated for the reception of company ; but 
on this occasion, the whole length of the 
frigate, from stem to stern, presented one 
beautiful saloon^ partially divided off* by the 
masts into four partitions. The lofty ceiling 
was formed of the flags of all nations, and 
illuminated by rows of variegated lamps, which 



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74 FETE GIVEN TO THE TURKS, 

wound round the masts in alternate ornaments of 
the crown and the sultan's cipher. In the bows 
of the vessel, rows of orange-trees presented the 
appearance of an enchanted grove, before which 
were spread narrow tables with refreshments, 
and between these and the foremast was 
chalked out the ball-room. A numerous and 
excellent band played from a semicircular 
orchestra round the mast, whilst immediately 
below them^ and round the whole length of the 
ship, sofas, andrich ottomans, in every varied po^ 
sition, contributed to the splendour of the scene. 
The part, however, which attracted universal 
admiration^ was the stern of the frigate ; for 
here, where the deck rose gradually to an 
elevation higher than that of every other part, 
the narrowing form of the frigate presented to 
the enraptured sight a highly -finished open 
tent, illuminated by chandeliers. Down each 
side of it, and along the back, were rich divans 
of crimson satin, edged with gold. The floor 
was covered with an eastern carpet, and the 
sides were formed of gauze, in wide stripes of 



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ON BOARD H. M. S. BLONDE. 75 

alternate white and pink» the latter in puckers, 
and producing a singularly soft and elegant 
effect. The upper part was ornamented with 
festoons of pink. The back part of the tent^ 
which was of white satin, reflected two gilded 
ornaments of the crown of England and the 
sultan's cipher, embroidered in gold, on two 
blue velvet tiaras, and surmounted by miniature 
silk flags. Two small figures of angels, with 
wax-lights, threw a dazzling splendour over 
the beauties of this enchanting scene, which 
resembled the mystic bower of some fairy god- 
dess, and terminated the long vista of the 
saloon. The frigate had been newly painted ; 
and along the whole length of the upper edge 
of the bulwarks were alternate rows of red 
and white roses, whilst the ports were occupied 
by chaste transparencies of different emblems 
of peace. 

" The general effect of this splendid scene 
must have been very striking, as an aide-de- 
camp of the Emperor of Russia told me that 
he had never seen any thing to surpass it, even 



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76 FETE GIVEN TO THE TURKS. 

in the splendour of the imperial fttes at Pfeters- 
burgh. Indeed, the magnificence of the frigate, 
embellished by every ornament which the 
palace of the embassy could supply, vied with 
a royal palace. All the minutiae of the detail 
seem to have been calculated with the same 
care; and the ladies of Pera still talk with 
rapture of an aquatic omnibus, in which they 
were conveyed from the shore to the ball, in a 
floating drawing-room, beautifully lighted up, 
and supplied with cushions and mirrors. 

'' The company, consisting of all the foreign 
ambassadors at Constantinople, in their full 
uniforms ; several Russian officers of Marshal 
Diebitsch Zabalkansky's staff, from Adrianople ; 
and the whole Frank society of Pera, were 
assembled on board before nine o'clock: and 
my Russian friend represented the inner tent to 
me as presenting one beautiful flower-bed of 
ladies, decked out in all the loveliness of 
Cachemere, and ornamented with that profusion 
of jewellery which characterises the ladies of 
the Levant. 



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DRESS OF THE MUSSULMANS. 77 

'* It was about nine o'clock when His Ma- 
jesty's ship Rifleman^ which was stationed at a 
short distance off the harbour, gave the signal 
for the approach of the Turks. No sooner had 
the seraskier, followed by all the ministers, 
set foot on deck, than the band, which had 
hitherto remained mute, struck up the sultan's 
favourite march. The Mussulmans were all 
dressed alike, in long mantles of dark cloth, 
reaching below the knee, and displaying, as 
they sometimes opened in front, the diamond 
aigrette which distinguished their respective 
ranks. The head-dress was the simple red 
fez, an unbecoming close cap, with a blue 
tassel, which dangles down the side. They 
were all in the highest spirits, and viewed 
with ecstasy the festive scene ; spending the 
early part of the evening in alternately playing 
by themselves at cards, retiring on the otto- 
mans to smoke the long chibouk, or admiring 
the beauty of the dancers. 

*' The difficulties of etiquette, which very 
naturally arose^ both with regard to the rank 



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78 TURKS DANCB LA POLONAISE. 

of Turks towards each other, and towards 
the representatives of the £3reign powers, was 
overcome by Sir Robert Gordon in a very 
simple and judicious manner. Each foreign . 
minister successively selected, according to her 
rank, the lady he was to take down to supper ; 
and each lady then gave her other arm to a 
Turk, according to his rank. They thus de- 
scended by threes, instead of by pairs« 

" The main deck exhibited a splendid 
supper-table, at which two hundred guests sat 
down to a very singular ceremony, for the 
Turks conformed in every thing to the European 
manners ; eating with knives and forks, joining, 
in bumpers of champagne, in the toasts to the 
different sovereigns of Europe ; and appearing 
to enjoy, as if in a dream, every thing that 
the most princely hospitality and judicious 
taste could supply, as a specimen of the man- 
ners of the West. 

•* After supper was over, and the dance 
recommenced, they were even persuaded to 
share in the promenades of the Polonaise; 



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CURIOUS MEDLEY. 79 

and^ grinning through their beards^ gave their 
arms to the Houris with infinite zest. They 
staid later than their early hours sanctioned ; 
and deep in the night were seen^ alternately 
mingling in happy converse^ or quaffing cups 
of European refreshment, Austrian hussars, 
Turkish ulemas, English midshipmen^ and 
every varied character which the oriental me- 
tropolis can assemble. The sun had already 
illuminated the golden gate of the Seraglio, and 
the muezzin called the Moslems to their first 
prayer> when the retiring guests, in arabas and 
on foot, regained, through the solemn ceme- 
teries, their homes. 

** Every body at Pera, whom I saw, spoke 
with rapture of this f6te, which had outshone 
every thing of the kind ever given at Stamboul, 
and reflected the highest credit on the em- 
bassy, and the judicious arrangements of Cap- 
tain Lyon and his distinguished officers.'' 

It is possible, that had I been present at 
this entertainment, which does so much credit 



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80 OBSERVATIONS. 

to the good taste and hospitality of the am- 
baspador^ I also might have now been in 
raptures with the delights it presented ; but, 
as I happened to be very diflFerently employed 
at the time, and had no champagne to exalt 
my ideas of its brilliancy, I must be allowed to 
take a very different view of the subject. 

It was now nearly two months since I had 
quitted the Turkish capital on a visit to its 
provinces. During my progress through a 
country, more favoured perhaps by nature than 
any in the world, I found it, from one end to 
the other, depopulated and laid waste by the 
vicious folly of its governors. I traced, step by 
step, desolation and ruin to the very gates of 
the city. I enter them, and find that the great 
promoters of these disasters have, in the mean- 
while, been carousing at European banquets, 
drinking champagne, and dancing la Polonaise. 

Had this conformity to European manners 
followed, instead of preceded, any great efforts 
for the amelioration of the condition of the 
people, such an open violation of their prophet's 



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OBSERVATIONS. 81 

laws^ such a violence to their religious pre- 
judices^ might have met among them with an 
indulgent apology, founded on the good the 
government had performed ; but as the reverse 
has been the case, they must be considered as 
having insulted, as v^ell as injured, a fanatical 
people, for the mere indulgence of their own 
sensual gratification ; or, as a very pretty young 
French lady said at the time ; '' Ces Messieurs 
Turques ont commence oii ils auraient dH 
finir." 

It is possible that the Turkish authorities, 
in thus exposing themselves to the contempt 
and hatred of the Mahometans, may have 
merely complied with the commands of Mah- 
moud. If so, what can be said of the en- 
lightened character of the sovereign, who thus 
wantonly loosens almost the only remaining 
tie that binds his subjects in obedience to his 
despotic will? 

Whenever the durability of the Ottoman 
government is considered, its connexion with 
the Mahometan religion must always be borne 

VOL. II. o 



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82 REMARK OF MONTESQUIEU. 

in mind. The allegiance of the Osmanli to the 
sultan is not so much to bis temporal authority 
of emperor, as to his spiritual capacity of first 
imaum. Hence, whatever militates against his 
reputation as an orthodox Mussulman, will 
prove highly dangerous to his power as a 
monarch. 

" In Mahometan countries," says Mon- 
tesquieu, "it is partly from their religion 
that the people derive the surprising venera- 
tion they have for their prince." In another 
place, the same author observes, " It is religion 
that amends in some measure the Turkish con- 
stitution. The subjects, who have no attach- 
ment to the glory and grandeur of the state, 
are attached to it by the force and principle 
of religion."* 

Three nights before our return, there had 
also been a/<?/e given to the Turks at Count 
Guillemenot's, the French ambassador. It was 
less splendid than Sir Robert Gordon's. At 

♦ Spirit of Laws, book v. chap. 14. 



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CONCERT AT THE BRITISH PALACE. 8i3 

this entertainment, the ladies had been se- 
parated from the gentlemen at the supper- 
table. 

The Capitan Pasha was to have given a 
grand ball in return, at which the sultan was 
to have been present incog., but from some cause 
it never took place. At this assembly, nearly 
all the ladies, fond as they were of gaiety, had 
determined not to be present. It was pro- 
bably abandoned on that account. 

The party at the palace had much dimi- 
nished while we had been absent. Lord Yar- 
mouth, Mr. Grosvenor, Colonel Vernon, and 
Mr. Edward Villiers, had left Constantinople 
on a journey to Egypt. Captain Lyons had 
gone on a cruise into the Black Sea. Only 
Mr. Parish and Mr. Mellish remained; and 
the latter of these gentlemen was about to 
proceed, through European Turkey and Ger- 
many, to England. 

In the evening there was a concert at the 
British palace. The company consisted of the 
foreign ambassadors and suites, dragomans. 



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84 DANDIES OF t>ERA. 

British merchants and families, and some of 
the principal Greeks. This was a novel sight 
to us, — a society (many of the members of 
which had not been beyond the walls of Con- 
stantinople) dressed and conducted according 
to the rules of an European assembly. The 
only Asiatic-looking persons present were the 
dragomans of the embassy, who glided about 
the rooms in loose flowing silk robes, the pri- 
vileged yellow slippers, and balloon -shaped 
black caps. 

As for the rest of the men, they behaved 
with considerable ease, and seemed perfectly 
well satisfied with themselves. Pera can boast 
her dandies as well as London. Nojeune de 
langue* with any pretensions to fashion, will 
wear a coat that has not merged from the 
shop of a Paris tailor. Some of them sur- 
reptitiously wear the envied frosted button of 
the attachSs, whose manners and appearance 
they endeavour to ape. In the important 

* A candidate for the office of dragoman. 



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THEIR PRIDE AND INTRIGUE. 85 

business of neckcloth tying, there are not a 
few who would rival my countrymen in the 
art. 

It was amusing to see these aspiring young 
gentlemen forming themselves upon their Eng- 
lish models^ and adopting a mode of address 
which long intimacy, or schoolfellowship, could 
alone authorise. Thus, whenever they men- 
tioned the names of our countrymen, they 
would either drop the prefix, or add the fami- 
liar appellation, and, in a lisping accent, make 
kind inquiries after their friends '^ Yarmouth, 
Dunlo, or Bob Grosvenor." 

The number of these interpreters is a remark- 
able circumstance in the diplomatic establish- 
ments of Constantinople. I have not ascertained 
the exact number attached to the other em- 
bassies ; but if they bear any proportion to our 
own, they must be endless. We have Mons. 
Chabert, of French extraction, with a salary 

of 1 100/. ; Messrs. Wood, Fred. Pisani, Pi- 

sani, Calamo, about 500/. ; Alexander Pisani, 
Chabert jun., Wood jun., another Pisani, and 



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86 CORPS DRAOOMANIQUE. 

another Wood, Jeunes de langue, who also re- 
ceive some stipend. 

The corps dragomanique style themselves 
'* la noblesse de Pera.'' They are descended 
from colonial Genoese families^ who settled here 
after, the destruction of their republic in the 
Black Sea and the Levant, and from French 
families who have emigrated from different 
causes. A more intriguing set of people never 
existed ; and so touchy are they, so fearful 
lest the noble blood which flows in their veins 
should be alloyed by contact with the meaner 
sort, that they consider their houses degraded 
by an alliance w^ith the wealthiest and most 
respectable merchants of the place. One of 
the wives of these interpreters has never for- 
given her own daughter the above-mentioned 
offence: when pressed by her confessor, she 
agreed to see her once, but it was only to 
tell her never to shew her face again. This 
amphibious class, half European, half Asiatic, 
are alike the dread of Turk and Frank ; and 
it is notorious, that out of all the dragomans. 



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THE SERASKIER IN LOVE- 87 

there is only one that our ambassador can 
trust. In short, they are considered a scourge 
by all classes, as is illustrated by a proverb, 
the original of which may, I rather believe, 
be found in the Turkish language: 

'* In Pera sono tre msJanni, 
Peste, fuoco, dragomanni/' 

Of the fairer portion of the party I can 
speak more favourably; indeed, the hearts of 
us trans-Balcanians were hardly proof against 
the beauty and fascination of some Greek ladies 
whom we met this evening. Most conspicuous 

among them is the lovely Mrs. M e, the 

wife of an English resident at Pera. Her 
attractions had acquired additional fame from 
the conquest she had made at the memorable 
fitt on board the Blonde. The heart she there 
gained, once belonged to no less a person than 
the Seraskier Pasha; but it is his no longer. 
This old Mahometan, who, only a few weeks 
before, had consigned some thousand male and 
female '' children of the faithful" to indiscri- 



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88 ENGLISH ACTRESSES. 

mioate slaughter, was subdued by the reprov- 
ing frown of a pretty infidel. I understand 
that nothing could be more ludicrous than the 
demonstration of his passion. One time he 
detained her unwilling hand, and as he pressed 
it to his lips, exclaimed, " Once more, or I 
die." On another occasion he was about to 
express, in the Turkish fashion, his admiration 
of her charms, by throwing a bag of sequins 
into her lap ; hoping, like another Jupiter, to 
visit his Danae in a shower of gold. 

We heard some very respectable amateur 
singing: the professional performers were an 
English actress and her daughter, a pretty 
girl of sixteen, also of the same profession. 
They had originally assisted at the private 
theatricals at Malta, and had lately arrived 
from Alexandria, where I understood they had 
been performing to crowded houses. With 
such valuable assistance at hand, there were 
eerious thoughts of getting up some private 
theatricals ; and I, as a '' brother of the sock 
and buskin," was to have taken a part. It 



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THEATRICALS. 89 

would have formed an agreeable episode in 
my travels; but my short stay in the capital 
prevented me from performing my share of 
the engagement^ and the scheme subsequently 
fell to the ground. I mention this trifling 
anecdote, to shew how the thoughts of Eng- 
lish travellers were employed, while the ima- 
ginations of their friends at home were full of 
the dangers they were in, of being assassinated 
by a Mahometan mob. 



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90 RETURN OF CAPTAIN LYONS. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Return of Captain Lyons from the Black Sea — Visit the 
Capitan Pasha — Ball at the French Ambassador's — Pera 
Etiquette — A Son of Kotzebue— *The French Ambassador 

— La Comtesse de Guillemenot -^ Heroine Ambassadress 
— Visit the Greek Patriarch — Remarks on the Plague — 
Privileges of the Patriarch and the Greek Clergy in general 

— Revenues of the Patriarch — Military Authors — Con- 
cert at the Internuncio's — Diplomatic want of Gallantry — 
The Necessity of the Sultan's public Attendance at the 
Mosque — Greek Vessels under the Russian Flag admitted 
by the Porte — Turkey recognises Greek Independence — 
The Sultan's Promises during the Absence of the Ambas- 
sadors — His Conduct on their Return — Remarks of the 
Pasha of Egypt — Law — Sultan's Infraction of this I-aw 

— The probable Consequences. 

November 28. This evening Captain Lyons 
arrived from a cruise in the Black Sea; his 
frigate having been the first English man-of-war 
that had been through the straits of the Bos- 
phorus. He had made a very interesting trip, 



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THE CAPITAN PASHA. 91 

and had paid a visit to Varna, Sevastopol, and 
other sea-ports, to the disagreeable surprise of 
the Russian authorities. 

November 29. Went with Lord Dunlo and 
Captain Lyons to visit the Capitan Pasha; he 
was ill in bed;* but from his friendly feeling 
towards Captain Lyons, he admitted him to 
an interview. Lord Dunlo and myself availed 
ourselves of the interval of the visit to go over 
his residence. It is situated on a kind of 
terrace immediately above the arsenal. It is 
of great size, and the design is on a grand 
scale; like every thing Turkish, it has been 
allowed to go to decay, and is dilapidated both 
within and without. It is ill-adapted for a 
winter residence, being made of wood, and built 
without chimneys. The rooms are warmed with 
the mungulSy pans of charcoal ; the air is con- 
sequently rendered unwholesome before any 
warmth is felt. Upon leaving his house, we 
met his dinner arriving through the open air 

* Achmet Paepooshjee is since dead. 



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92 PERA ETIQUETTE. 

from the kitchen, situated more than a hundred 
yards from the house. It consisted of up- 
wards of sixty dishes, by no means too many, 
considering the numerous mouths he has to 
feed. 

I accompanied Sir Robert Gordon to a ball 
at the French palace. The British ambassador 
was preceded by two Turkish kavasses bear- 
ing torches. His excellency's approach to the 
French ambassador's was announced by three 
deep blows on the gong, which might be heard 
all over the town: this is the established 
etiquette of Pera. Three coups de cloche for an 
ambassador, two for a minister, and one for 
a secretary: all other persons come and go 
in solemn silence. 

The ball-room was full of waltzing Rus- 
sians: it seemed as though the Turkish pro- 
phecy had been fulfilled, and that the '' sons 
of yellowness" were in occupation of the 
capital. Amongst other officers present, was 
a son of Kotzebue, the celebrated German 
dramatist. 



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HEROINE AMBASSADRESS. 93 

I here made my bow to the French am- 
bassador^ Count de Guillemenot. I also had 
the honour of being presented to the ambas- 
sadress, and to Mademoiselle de Guillemenot; 
agreeable acquaintances, which my short stay 
prevented me from improving as I should have 
wished. 

Monsieur le G6n6ral Comte de Guilleme- 
not commanded a division of Napoleon's army 
in 1815, and bore a distinguished part in the 
battle of Waterloo. He is one of those military 
men whom his government are in the habit of 
sending to places where they consider a soldier's 
information may be made available. 

In this instance, the choice of the French 
minister may be considered doubly fortunate, 
inasmuch as Madame la Comtesse is a military 
woman in every sense of the word. Herself 
and her sister, the Demoiselles Fering, animated 
with the glorious desire of serving their country 
in arms, enlisted as privates in Dumouriez' 
army. They bore a distinguished part in the 
very first engagement, where they fought 



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94 THE GREEK PATRIARCH. 

amongst the bravest : shortly after which they 
rose from the ranks and obtained commissions. 
The sister of the ambassadress was killed at 
the battle of Valmy. One of the two, I know 
not which, received a sword of honour for her 
chivalrous conduct. In the feminine manners 
of her excellency, it is difficult to trace the 
gallant hussar of the early times of the French 
revolution. 

November 30. The Archbishop of Adrianople 
had given us a letter to the patriarch, which 
lie begged us to deliver. We went to him this 
morning, and were joined by Captain Lyons, 
his sons (two intelligent little midshipmen), 
and Count Alexander Pisani, one of the British 
jeunes de langue. The palace of the Greek 
primate is a large, dirty, straggling building, 
and contains an immense establishment of 
churchmen. 

The patriarch was very civil, though he 
seemed surprised at our visit. He spoke French 
fluently, and appeared to be an intelligent man. 
Every allusion to political events was cau- 



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KHATTY SCHERIF OF MAHOMET THE SECOND. 95 

tiously avoided; even the all-eDgrossing subject 
of the peace was passed over in silence. Our 
only topic of conversation was the plague. 
In 1812, twelve hundred souls, on an average, 
perished daily; and during three days, up- 
wards of two thousand five hundred each day. 
Three classes of persons are generally consi- 
dered exempt from this scourge, namely, oil- 
men, drunkards, and dragomans. 

'* It is rather odd," said a stranger who 
was present, '' that the dragoman should 
escape; because, from his office, he is more 
in contact with infected persons than any 
other class of the community. The only satis- 
factory way to account for it is, that the drago- 
man is under the protection of the evil genius 
of Constantinople, who preserves his life, as 
an instrument of ill to others." 

In a former part of this work* allusion is 
made to the khatty scherif of Mahomet the 
Second, by which considerable privileges were 

♦ Vol. I. p. 256. 



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96 PRIVILEOES OF THE GREEK PATRIARCH. 

granted to the Greek priesthood. This will be 
a proper place to state in what those privileges 
consist. 

In the middle of the fifteenth century, 
Mahomet the Second established, by this edict, 
the Patriarch of Constantinople chief of the 
Greek nation, president of the S3mod, and 
supreme judge of all affairs, civil and religious. 
He exempted him from the khavatch, as he did 
all the other members of the synod, which, 
composed of twelve metropolitans, was destined 
to form the great council of the nation. 

All the cadis, and military Turkish gover- 
nors, had orders to carry into execution the 
judicial sentences of the patriarch, relative to 
the Christians of the Greek church ; of those of 
the bishops, with regard to their parishioners ; 
and to assist the clergy in the recovery of their 
rights and revenues. The Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, and all the other metropolitans, 
were authorised to demand an annual tribute 
of twelve aspers from each family, and a se- 
quin from each of the priests of the diocese. 



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PRIVILEGES OF THE GREEK PATRIARCH. 97 

All pious legacies were declared legitimate, 
and the Ottomans were commanded to consider 
the churches as sacred and inviolable. It was 
also declared that no Greek should be obliged 
to abjure the faith of his ancestors, in order 
to embrace that of the conqueror.* 

It is to be observed, that in all this 
there is no mention whatever of any privileges 
belonging to the Greek people. Nevertheless, 
Mahomet the Second, wishing to flatter the 
Greek nation^ declared, by his khatty sherif, 
that the election of the Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, or of the supreme chief of the 
oecumenic church, should be made by the re- 
presentatives of the clergy and of the nation ; 
and that he could not be deposed except by 
the consent and request of the body which 
had elected him. This consideration, (as was 
formerly the case with the Hospodars of Wal- 
lachia and Moldavia,) which seemed so favour- 
able, has become a subject of continual dis- 

* Jucherau, tome i. pp. 145, 146. 
VOL. II. . H 



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98 REVENUES OF THE PATRIARCH. 

sension among the Greeks^ and a source from 
which the government and its ministers draw 
abundant supplies to their avarice. 

" The first patriarchs received the hazeran, 
or staff of command, in presence of the mo- 
narch, who used to make them a present of a 
thousand sequins. This prerogative was con- 
tinued until the time of the patriarch Parthe- 
nius, who, led away by ambition and fanati- 
cism, became perjured towards the Porte. 

" Since that time, the patriarch receives 
the hazeran in the presence of the vizier ; and, 
instead of obtaining any present, pays a hun- 
dred purses for his installation. 

" The administration of justice forms one 
of the revenues of the patriarch, and of the 
metropolitans. They each exact a right of ten 
per cent on the value of the object contested, 
for every cause. The profits of the primate 
must be considerable, since he is obliged to 
pay seventy purses into the treasury for this 
single source of revenue. 

" But besides the products of the permanent 



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REVENUES OF THE PATRIARCH. 99 

revenues, authorised by the khatty sherif of 
Mahomet the Second, and the great profits 
which arise from the administration of justice, 
the primate is in the habit of demanding 
twenty purses from the metropolitans for the 
fees of installation : he also sells to the sub- 
ordinate priests the right of exercising their 
functions. 

" To draw money from a people already 
overburdened with the weight of the national 
yoke, and to keep them in a belief which is 
the sole cause of their servitude, it was neces- 
sary to enslave them by governing their minds 
also. The priests required not the practical 
virtues of a good man ; they wanted the blind 
faith of an enthusiast."* 

It is from this abject state of mind that 
the Greeks have been roused, by the means I 
have stated in the preceding volume. 

Like all greatness in Turkey, the patri- 
archate is an exceedingly dangerous acqui- 

♦ Jucberau, tome i, pp. 147, 148, 151. 



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100 THE PATRIARCHATE. 

sition. This functionary is deeply responsible ; 
his conduct is closely watched ; and the slightest 
suspicion of his loyalty is followed by banish- 
ment or death. The fate of one of his predeces- 
sors in office is an example of this: ''On the 22d 
of April, 1821, being Easter day, the greatest 
of the Greek festivals, Gregorios, Patriarch of 
Constantinople, the head of the Greek church, 
acknowledged and appointed by the Porte, 
and who had recently issued his anathema 
against the insurgents, was seized and hanged 
before the patriarchal church in which he had 
been officiating; and, as a consummation of 
ignominy in the eyes of the Greeks, his body 
was delivered to the Jews, to be dragged 
through the streets."* This act of violence 
on the part of Mahmoud, confirmed the waver- 
ing minds of the insurgents, and laid the basis 
of that revolution which has already deprived 
him of some of his finest provinces, and which 

* Leake's Historical Outline of the Greek Revolution, 
page 47. 



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EGYPTIAN MAN-OF-WAR. 101 

bids fair to prove the death-blow to his sove- 
reign power. 

So precarious is the tenure of the patri- 
archate, that it is said never to have remained 
eight years in the same hands. To avoid sus- 
picion^ the Patriarch of Constantinople does 
not pretend to the supremacy of the Greek 
church in emancipated Greece, although the 
Ionian Islands are still under his jurisdiction. 
It is a mutual accommodation between the 
primate and his former flock, the Moreote 
Greeks and the Russians, that they appoint 
their own priests, and that he is released from 
the suspicion which would fall upon him if 
he communicated with them as their chief. 

Returning from Gralata, we boarded an 
Egyptian brig of war, which appeared remark- 
ably clean. The officers were dressed in hussar- 
shaped scarlet jackets, richly embroidered with 
gold. Two-thirds of the crew had sore eyes. 

December 2. I had the pleasure of making 
the acquaintance of Captain Trant, aide-de- 
camp to Sir Frederick Adam. This gentleman. 



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102 MILITARY AUTHORS. 

a few years ago, published a very interesting 
anonymous work, entitled, " Two Years in 
Ava." He has now appeared a second time 
before the public, as the author of " A 
Journey through Greece." His last work, and 
Captain Alexander's '* Travels to the Seat of 
War," are the only publications that have 
hitherto treated of the subjects connected with 
the state of Turkey in 1829. I am in hopes 
that mine will comprise the third: thus, all 
the information of this period will have been 
contributed by three young military men. My 
own conscience acquits me of vanity in men- 
tioning the circumstance, and I trust that a 
better feeling will be imputed to me. My 
object is to induce some of my brother soldiers 
(of whom so many are unemployed), to follow 
our example; viz. to travel in a distant country, 
with a view of letting the world know the result 
of their remarks. The soldier so situated, 
would find, that, with ordinary powers of ob- 
servation, and a little of that enterprise which 
should form so principal an ingredient in his 



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DIPLOMATIC WANT OP GALLANTRY. 103 

character, he might make an important codtri* 
bution to the literature of his country. Even 
if his success should not equal his expectations, 
the habit he would have acquired, of examining _ 
the features of a country, its productions and 
resources, and of inquiring into its political 
state, could not but be highly serviceable to 
him in the higher walks of his profession. At 
least he would have a pleasing gratification in 
the retrospect of his adventures, which would 
last him his life. 

" Hoc est 
" Vivere bis, viti posse priore frui." 

December 3. A concert at the internuncio's 
(the Austrian ambassador). The music was 
conducted by amateur composers as well as 
performers. The orchestra was at the upper 
end of the room; ladies lined the walls on 
three sides ; the middle of the room con- 
tained rows of chairs, in the first of which 
were most ungallantly seated the ambassadors 
and ministers, while ladies occupied the seats 



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104 BAZAARS. 

behind them. This may do very well in Turkey, 
or in the wilds of Hungary ; but hardly any 
where else in Europe would such a solecism 
in good breeding be warranted. 

When the programme was over, dancing 
was proposed: at the profane word, all the 
Greek ladies suddenly disappeared, quite hor- 
ror-struck at the idea of dancing in the middle 
of one of their long fasts. 

December 5. Count OrloflF, the Russian 
minister, had his audience of the sultan this 
morning at Ramas Chiflik. 

I went shopping in the bazaars with English 
Mustapha, preparatory to another journey. 

Among those who derive advantage from 
the extinction of the janizaries, are Frank tra- 
vellers. Instead of being pushed into the gutter 
by an armed ruffian, you may wander through 
the streets without arms or attendants. In place 
of the offensive epithet of " Giaour," you are 
saluted by the Turkish shopkeeper with the 
respectful one of *' effendy,'* or ** capitan." 

Where every man, of whatever religion, is 



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BAZAARS. 105 

a smoker, one would naturally expect to find 
the manufacture of amber mouth-pieces a con- 
siderable article of trade ; but it appears to be 
quite the contrary. There are few pretty ones 
to be seen in the common shops, nor do I 
know where the more beautiful mouth-pieces, 
ornamented with enamel and diamonds, are 
made; but they are easily to be found, though 
difficult to pay for. Lord Yarmouth, when he 
was here, bought some very magnificent ones 
to send to Paris. 

The Egyptian bazaar, containing drugs, 
dyes, spices, and perfumed woods, is re- 
markably clean; the colours are singular and 
various ; and the wares are laid out and 
arranged with remarkable taste and neatness. 
In this bazaar there is an entire absence of 
the odour of the otto of roses, which, more or 
less, pervades all the others ; but it has in ex- 
change a scent of its own, which is peculiarly 
agreeable. 

The bazaar of slippers, white, red, and 
embroidered, is also very pretty ; as is that for 



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106 DEFICIENCY OF POPULATION. 

embroidered musliDS. There are others, for 
arms, saddlery, cutlery, — in short, for wares 
of every description. 

From the busiest district of this crowded 
mart, by taking one of the numerous alleys 
that lead into it from the rest of the town, 
you find yourself at once almost in solitude. 
Since 1826, upwards of one hundred thousand 
souls, in and about Constantinople, have been 
disposed of, contrary to the common course 
of nature. If to this number be added those 
who have been killed in the war, or who have 
died there from sickness, and those who still 
form part of the army, it will amount to a 
total, the abstraction of which cannot fail to 
make a very sensible diminution in the popu- 
lation of Constantinople. Those who knew 
the city formerly, and have returned to it 
again, state the difference to be so remark- 
able, that, even with all these causes, they 
cannot account for the deficiency. There was 
a tremendous fire in 1827, beginning at the 
post between the Seraglio and the bazaars. 



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USUAL CONDUCT OF THE JANIZARIES. 107 

the effects of which are still visible. It con- 
sumed the whole of the vast range of buildings 
— containing the council chambers and oflSces 
of all the ministers of state — opposite the prin- 
cipal entrance of the Seraglio, known by the 
name of the Sublime Porte ; and did not cease 
until its progress was arrested by the sea of 
Marmora. 

This was one of the last attempts of the 
janizaries. It was by similar means that, in 
former times, this licentious band had fre* 
quently rendered their power so terrible and 
so supreme. Whenever their petitions were 
slighted by the sultan or his ministers, they 
would always set fire to some portion of the 
town, and allow it to burn for a longer or 
shorter time, according to the resistance offered 
to their wishes. In extreme cases, they would 
destroy the pumps, to prevent the possibility of 
extinguishing the flames. The terrified owners 
of the neighbouring houses were forced to join 
the janizary party : their petitions were in con- 
sequence complied with, however extravagant 



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108 USUAL CONDUCT OF THE JANIZARIES. 

they might be, and the obnoxious ministers 
delivered over to their fury. 

They also used this terrible arm as a 
mode of extorting money from rich proprietors, 
threatening that, if the sum they demanded 
were not immediately paid, the neighbouring 
houses should be set on fire, and no engines 
be allowed to approach the spot. They 
usually made bargains of this sort whenever 
they resorted to that plan of overawing the 
sultan* The result was, that the fires invariably 
broke out in the obscurer parts of the city, 
where the wretched inhabitants were not rich 
enough to buy off the impending ruin. 

But most of the causers of these calamities 
have now been swept from the face of the 
earth; and the name of janizary is forbidden to 
be pronounced : though there is every reason to 
believe that the spirit of the body still exists, 
notwithstanding the terrible examples that have 
been made. 

Weeds and long grass are growing luxuri- 
antly, where the residence of the mighty tyrants 



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THE sultan's attendance AT THE MOSQUE. 109 

of sovereign and people once stood. From the 
Seraskier's Tower, two large green spaces may 
be seen in the town. If you ask the guard 
the reason, you are answered in a tremulous 
whisper, that it is the " desecrated ground." 

December 6. A ball at the French am- 
bassador's. 

I am one of the few English travellers who 
have quitted Constantinople without seeing the 
sultan:* the only two attempts I made were 
unsuccessful. Still, I have little excuse to 
plead, since he goes publicly to the mosque 
every Friday. This is not his voluntary act, 
but is strictly enjoined by the institutions of 
the empire; proving what I have before stated, 
viz. the connexion of the sultan's power with 
the Mahometan religion. The attendance is a 
duty which was practised by the prophet him* 

* For a description of an interview with Uie sultan, the 
reader is referred to the " Extracts from the Journal of 
the Hon. Robert Grosvenor," which will be found m the 
Appendix to this volume. 



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110 THE sultan's attendance AT THE MOSQUE. 

self, and by the caliphs his successors; and 
no sultan must omit it unless he be at the 
point of death, or in any very extraordinary 
circumstances. Political reasons, as well as the 
imperative commands of the law, enjoin it; for 
his presence in public is necessary to the con- 
servation of good order. Sovereigns have been 
frequently obliged to quit the bed of sickness 
to superintend the duties of public worship. As 
the grand signior can only appear on horseback, 
his illness, on these occasions, is constantly aggra- 
vated, either by the burning heats of summer, 
or the piercing cold of winter. In this manner, 
Mahmoud the First fell a victim to the super- 
stitious observances of his country: overcome 
by the violence of his disorder, he was unable 
to return, but expired between the two gates 
of the Seraglio.* Thus also perished the 
sultan Abdul Hamid. Worn down by disease, 
he absented himself one Friday from public 
worship, and the people rose in rebellion : the 

♦ D'Ohsson, Code Religieux, tome ii. p. 202. 



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GREEK VESSELS ADMITTED BY THE PORTE. Ill 

next Sabbath he was carried on his horse to 
the mosque, returned home, and died.* 

In a despotic country, the sovereign is 
not a free agent. 

While at Constantinople, I saw numbers 
of Greek vessels pass through the Dardanelles 
under the Russian flag. This permission has 
been granted by the Porte, which agrees to 
admit merchant ships of that nation without 
the Turkish flag, and exempts the persons of 
such Greeks, belonging to those parts not 
under their control, whom commerce may bring 
to the capital, or elsewhere in these dominions, 
from paying the kharatch, or capitation tax; 
while the afiairs of Greece remain unsettled 
by the congress at London. The passports 
also of the Greek government were recognised 
by the Porte. 

The Greek question was conceded by the 
Turks on the 5th of August, 1829. 

This recognition of Greece as an inde- 

* De Tott's Memoirs : I quote from memory. 



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1 12 THE sultan's promises. 

pendent power, by the Ottoman government, 
however extorted from it by the stern law of 
necessity, is one of those causes that must 
hasten the downM of this tottering empire. 

As soon as the French and English ambas- 
sadors had left Constantinople in 1828, their 
absence excited very uneasy feelings, not only 
in the sultan and his ministers, but among 
every class in the capital; and the desire to have 
them back again was very great. His high- 
ness gave a French agent to understand, that 
on their return, no obstacle should arise on his 
part to the settlement of the Greek question. 
But those acquainted with the obstinacy of 
his character, were well aware, that whatever 
hopes he might hold out of acceding to the 
conditions of the treaty of the 6th of July, 
he would be far from fulfilling them, when 
he had once obtained the return of the ambas- 
sadors, and relieved his mind from the uneasi- 
ness occasioned by their absence. They well 
knew, that the only way of obtaining his con- 
sent was by working upon his fears. There 



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HIS CONDUCT ON THEIR RETURN. 1 13 

can be no doubt but that this was detailed to 
government, by those whose experience fully 
entitled them to ensure attention to their re- 
presentations, when the ambassadors were sent 
back. They, however, did return ; and the event 
proved the correctness of the persons who were 
able to form a just opinion of the effect that 
would result. The English and French ambas- 
sadors had at first only one audience of the 
Reis Effendy, which took place in a kiosk on 
the Bosphorus, and is said to have lasted only 
twenty minutes or half an hour, and to have 
been broken off" abruptly by the Turkish mi- 
nister declaring, in no very measured language, 
the determination of his master to resist the 
terms of the treaty of the 6th of July as long 
as possible. Fortunately for the allied govern- 
ments, the advance of the Russian army on 
Adrianople decided what diplomacy appeared to 
have little chance of effecting ; and the British 
minister was spared the mortification of seeing 
realised the predictions he had not chosen to 
listen to, by the departure of his ambassador 

VOL. II. I 



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114 REMARKS OF THE PASHA OF EGYPT. 

without his having accomplished a single object 
for which he had been sent. The frigate that 
conveyed him up the Dardanelles, remained 
at anchor off Tophana and Therapia, with 
every prospect of soon having the honour of 
taking him back to Naples or Corfu. 

When Ibrahim, the son of the pasha of Egypt, 
heard that the ambassadors were returning to 
Constantinople, in expectation of terminating 
the affairs of Greece by negotiation, he burst 
into a loud fit of laughter at the idea of the 
sultan acknowledging the independence of 
Greece, and said that it was impossible for 
him to do it ; that if he had the wish, he had 
not the power. He also said, that the sultan 
would feel very much obliged to the allied 
powers if they would land their armies, and 
drive the Turks out of the countries they 
wished the Greeks to possess. But the idea of 
their being given up by negotiation appeared so 
ludicrous, that it nearly choked the pasha with 
its absurdity. The following observations from 
d'Ohsson shew that the Viceroy of Egypt 



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TURKISH LAW. 115 

fully understands the theory of Mahometan 
government, although most likely he is totally 
Ignorant of the title of the excellent work 
from which this extract is given. For further 
information on the subject than the following 
remarks, I must refer to the book itself, which 
enters upon the subject more in detail.* 

By the thirty-third article of the religious 
code, it is ordained '' that Mussulmans must 
be governed by an imaum, and that he shall 
attend the mosque on Fridays," &c. Then 
follows an enumeration of his powers; and 
the article ends with observing that he shall 
proceed to the division of all legal spoil. 

The Mahometan commentator on this article 
observes, that this imaum should be one and 
alone; that his authority should be absolute; 
that every one ought to submit to and re- 
spect it ; that no town, no country, can recog- 
nise any other, because the result would be at- 

• Tableau General de I'Empire Othoman, par M. d'Ohsson. 
toiii. i. pp. 258-266. 



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116 TURKISH LAW. 

tended with troubles which would compromise 
religion and the state; and that when evjen 
such a compromise by this independent and 
particular ijuthority should be to the temporal 
advantage of such town or country^ it would 
i)ot b^ the less illegitimate, and contrary to the 
spirit and welfare of religion, which is the mpst 
essential and mpst imports^nt part of the public 
and general administration of an imaum, &c. 

** It follows," says d'Ohsson, "from these 
principles, that sovereigns ought to forbid all 
division, of. authority, all separation qf posses- 
sipua, €jvery kind of dismemberment ; so is it 
without exs^pfiple in the annals of Mahomet- 
anism, that a, cs^liph is ev^r allowed to divide 
his power, or his don^fnions, even in favour of 
his childrj&nf 

The ancient imaums have always agreed 
in their commentaries to, maintain, without 
altepration, this, grand point of Mussulmanism. 
Some declare, that whilst the caliphate and the 
indivisibility of the supreme power exist, all 
Mahometan states should form but one power. 



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TURKISH LAW. 117 

« 

one only po^litical body ; and that if violence 
should occasion the division of any part of the 
monarchy, the new states, thus SeparSited by 
usurpation and force of arms, ought to recog- 
nise in the sovereign imaum tlie unity of h?s 
absolute command, by rendering homage Ho his 
spiritual supremacy. Others maintain, thitt thfs 
is not sufficient, but that the temporal autho- 
rity of the imaum ought to be recognised, iand 
quote the Koran in support, Xvhich says, 
'* Submit yourselves to God, submit to hife 
prophet^ and to him amongst yOu who has the 
supreme command." The most rigid deny the 
viailidity of a new state, unless separated from 
the caliphate either by the seas or by the 
domains of a foreign nation. 

Such is the general point of view in which 
Islamism has ever considet-ed the sacerdotal 
dignity, whether as regitrds itself, or in its 
relations with other Mahometan states. The 
temporal power of Mahomet having only been 
founded on the pretended mission which he 
had received from heaven, to recall men to 



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118 THE sultan's infraction OF THIS LAW. 

the worship of the ancient patriarchs, and to 
the unity of the Deity, it is natural that the 
political should be subordinate to the religious 
constitution, amongst people who are governed 
by the laws of Islamism. 

It was this point of doctrine, rather than 
any political considerations, that, in the war 
between Russia and the Porte, which termi- 
nated in 1744, occasioned such violent opposi- 
tion on the part of the Turks to the dismember- 
ment of the Crimea, and to the independence 
of its chief. The Ottoman monarch, driven by 
necessity to submit, would not consent to re- 
cognise Prince Shahhin Guiriah as sovereign 
of Little Tartary, and to disengage him from 
the rights of temporal submission to the Otto- 
man sultans, except on the express condition 
that this khan should always do spiritual 
homage to him and to his successors for 



* This is provided for in the third article of the Treaty 
of Kainarjee : " Quant aux ceremonies de religion, comme 
les Tartares professent le m^me culte que les Mussulmans, ils 



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THE PROBABLE CONSEQUENCES. 119 

From the foregoing observations it is evi- 
dent, that Mahmoud, in recognising the inde- 
pendence of Greece, has violated one of the 
fundamental laws on which his empire is 
founded, and has thereby given additional 
plausibility to the previous representations of 
the priesthood, that he was unworthy to reign 
over the chosen of the prophet. 

Is it to be supposed that the ulemas, whose 
authority must cease if M ahmoud's plans suc- 
ceed, will fail to improve the advantage over 
him, which has been given them by necessity's 
stem law ? or rather, will they not endeavour 
to exasperate the people against him, and to 
confirm their suspicions of his infidelity, which 
his own shortsighted policy has induced them 
to entertain? 

86 regleront k Tegard de sa hautesse, comme grand calife du 
Mahometanisme, selon lea pr^ceptes que leur present leur loi, 
Bans aucun prejudice n^anmoins de la confirmation de leur 
liberty politique et civile." 



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120 TURKISH ACADEMY. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Turkish Academy— The Mint— The Sultan's Steam-boat— 
Dine with the Consul-General — Dr. Millingen — Pro- 
jected Journey — Some Account of the Zebeks, a band 
of rebd Mountaineers near Smyrna — My servant Carle 
Michel — My Tartar — Travellers recommended to travd 
alone — Mustapha. 

Thesle is a Turkish academy in the arsenal, 
where languages and s^amanship are taught 
The superintendent is a young English neoe- 
gade> who came to Constantinople about four 
years ago, being then twenty years of age. 
He turned Mahometan immediately, without 
waiting to learn the language, which, how- 
ever, he has since acquired. I did not meet 
him myself: he is an acquaintance of Lord 
Dunlo's. 

A short time after I left Constantinople, 



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THE MINT. lai 

a firman had appeared for the ^ucation of 
young Turks at different |>la)ces in England 
and France. Fifteen of the £nglishman^« 
acholars volunteered to be sent out. The next 
tday, however, the firman was (as I Jbelieve) 
revxy^ed. In all probmbility, the influence of 
Ihe ulemas prevented this preset from being 
put into execution. 

Allurion has been made, in the first volume 
of this woai:, (p^g^ ^^) to ^^ mint. It is 
binder the Dominal superintaideoce of a Tui^ 
and is called the zarp-kAana dminL He lets it 
out to the AnDencans, who, for the precarious 
directioii of it, pay at die rate of sixty thou- 
sand piastres a day to the Turkish govern- 
ment. ^Nevertheless, they contrive to amass 
ii^ealth, which enables tbem, besides buildii^ 
houses, and keeping up Ae most splendid 
establishments, to make presents, from time to 
time, to soch men in power as mig&t otherwise 
have them removed, influenced by the bribes 
of others of their own <;ountrymen^ who would 
wish to supersede them. The sultan himself 



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122 THE sultan's steam- boat. 

is sometimes propitiated by a gift offerings 
and was, not long since, presented with an 
English steam-boat, that cost ten thousand 
pounds : it has since been fitted up for his 
highness's own use. No wonder that the 
coin is debased, or the revenues exhausted, 
^hile the sultan conspires with his subjects 
to defraud himself. 

The steam-boat of which I have spoken is 
called the Hylton JoUiffe. It once plied be- 
tween London and Edinburgh ; but the force 
of competition driving it from the home market, 
it was brought here. It passed through the 
Russian blockading squadrons, by hoisting the 
British ensign, and making the Russians sup- 
pose that our ambassador was on board. Their 
indignation at being thus outwitted was 
extreme. The vessel is now commanded by 
Captain Kelly, himself the engineer, a hand- 
some, good-natured looking man, who wears 
the Turkish uniform. The accommodations 
are good, but not very extraordinary. Young 
Turks have been sent on board at different 



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DINE WITH THE CONSUL-GENERAL. 123 

times, to learn the managemeDt of the machi- 
nery J but, whether through laziness, or a 
fear of the responsibility that would devolve 
upon them should an engine be confided to 
their care, not one of them has availed him- 
self of Captain Kelly's instructions, nor of the 
opportunity of seeing the engine at work. 

December 6. Dined with my friend Mr. 
Cartwright, the consul-general. I met at din- 
ner Dr. Millingen, who had attended Lord 
Byron for six months, and was with him 
during his last illness. It is to this gentleman 
that I am indebted for my route in Asia Minor, 
about which it is now necessary to say a few 
words. 

A fortnight's good living had obliterated all 
unpleasing remembrances of the privations I 
had undergone. I became tired of inglorious 
ease, and was desirous once more to sally out 
in quest of adventure. 

The journey through Roumelia and Bul- 
garia had given me some insight into the 
state of the European provinces of Turkey. I 



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124 TifE iSEBEKS. 

was anxious to know, whether, in Asia Minor, 
** the |)ennanient seat of Islamism/' the country 
was ifiore flourishing, or the people less dis- 
arffeoteA. 

Accounts at this time were i^eived in Con- 
stantmc^le of a rebellion having broken out near 
Smyn^, atnoiig the Zebeks. As the opera- 
tions of these people are iamong the important 
events of Turkey in iS2% I here give suc^ 
information as I was able to collect respecting 
them. 

The Zebeks, like the Swiss, are a band 
of mercKenary mountaineei«» employed, as were 
the Albanians, in the capacity of body-guards 
to the pashas. They formed also a kind of 
guard in the coffee-houses, and had a right to 
levy a tax upon the traveller, for the protection 
they afforded him on the road. This sum, 
though triflings was sufficient for their subsist- 
ence, and was willingly given by those from 
whom it was demanded. About the time of 
the extinction of the janizaries, the government 
forbade their attendance on the cofiee-bouses ; 



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XHB ZSBEKS. 125 

by which act a large body of armed men were 
turned loose upon the community. The object 
of the grand signior in the prohibition, i& sup<- 
posed to have bee^n to induce them to enlist 
in the regular army; but the goyemment reck- 
oned' without its host — ^they retired into their 
mountains, whither (as was formerly the case> 
in. the pursuit of the Greek mountaineers) the 
Turks were afraid to follow. 

During a war against infidd[s> the> grand 
signior; ha* a right to levy a particular con* 
tribution, under the title of W^niM, on all his 
subjects, Mahom^tms a&: well aa ray ahs. The 
necessiities^ of the country induced his highness * 
to continue this levy after the peace had been 
ratified. The Zebeks resolutely refused to 
pay it, and were soon completely organised 
under the direction of their chiefs who has the 
title of Kelmemeti They proceeded in a sys- 
tematic, but at tbe same time orderly manner, 
contenting themselves by no other overt act 
th^n refusoig to pay the taxes^ or the usual 
arbitrary contributions levied on them by the 



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126 THE ZEBEKS. 

officers of the Porte, and protecting all who 
refused to do so. The kelmemet, whose name 
is Kootchook Mehmed Aga-hajee, or '' Little 
Mehmed Aga the pilgrim/' appears to be 
a most extraordinary fellow. His followers, 
in the first instance, did not amount to 
sixty, but they rapidly increased to above 
four thousand: in fact, there is no know- 
ing their exact numbers. From refusing, in 
the first instance, to pay the war tax, they 
declined all contributions that did not go di- 
rectly into the coffers of the grand signior. 
The first essay of the kelmemet was on a village 
where the waiwoda was a notorious tyrant, 
who had lately levied, for his own use, several 
very grievous taxes. The chief said to the 
people of this village, ** A certain sum is due 
to the grand signior; you had better pay it to 
me, and I will remit it to the Porte." The 
sum demanded, was scarcely a tenth of what 
had been previously levied. The waiwoda was 
dismissed, and a follower of the kelmemet was 
placed in his stead. The consequence was. 



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THE ZEBBKS. 127 

that this village prospered ; and the others in 
the neighbourhood, seeing that the chief was a 
just, though severe man, also sought his pro- 
tection. In this manner he soon acquired the 
dominion of a very large territory. When he 
entered a village, he left in office all persons 
against whom no complaint had been lodged, 
but was particularly observant that they did 
not exceed the bounds of their duty. It wa& 
generally supposed that the roads would have 
been unsafe: this was not the case; and 
during the whole of my journey in the dis- 
turbed district, I did not hear a single com- 
plaint. The Zebeks now began to call out 
for free trade, protectioii to agriculture, better 
laws, and more equal taxes. 

The idea of Turks discoursing about these 
things, of which they could scarcely know the 
meaning, seemed to me so curious, that I had 
a great desire to visit the rebels, and felt per- 
fectly confident that my person and property 
would have been respected by them. 

I was debating upon the exact route I 



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128 DR. MILLINGBN. 

should adopt, when Dr. Millingen opportunely 
stepped in, and settled the question for me. 
He told me, that if I would follow the high 
road leading from Constantinople to Egypt, as 
far as Keutya, the capital of Anatolia, and 
would then proceed in a south-westerly direc- 
tion towards Smyrna, I should find the ruins of 
several ancient towns, and some very beautiful 
specimens of antiquity, that had never been 
mentioned by any modern traveller. He also, 
with the greatest kindness, allowed me the 
free use of his notes, which proved to be of 
the greatest assistance. Just as I had deter- 
mined on this project, I heard that the Zebeks 
were in possession of the town through which 
my route lay. The information, instead of 
altering, rather confirmed my determina- 
tion, as it opened to me the prospect of 
accomplishing three objects : first, an inquiry 
into the condition of Asia Minor ; secondly, an 
examination of ancient ruins ; thirdly, a visit to 
the rebel camp. 

In the room of ** English Mustapha," whose 



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MY TARTAR. 129 

services could no longer be spared, I engaged 
a man of his recommendation. His name is 
Carle Michel. He is one of those travelling 
servants who speak five or six languages, and 
of which numbers are to be found in Constan- 
tinople. He is a native of the place, and a 
Roman Catholic. His father, a Frenchman, 
had been in the service of the French embassy, 
which entitled his son to Frank protection. 
His mother is an Armenian ; and was at Paris 
during the French Revolution, where she 
was employed by the government as a public 
courier. Hence we may presume that Carle 
inherited his love of travelling by the ma- 
ternal side. 

My agreement with him was for a dollar 
a-day, the usual price given to one of his occu- 
pation. The objection to this arrangement of 
daily pay is, that it gives your servant an in- 
terest in detaining you on the road. 

I was advised by my friends to engage 
one of the Tartars of the Porte; and I have to 
regret that I followed their advice. His name 

VOL. II. K 



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130 TRAVELLERS RECOMMENDED 

18 Mustapha : he has been accustomed to travel 
with Europeans^ and is reckoned one of the 
best-behaved men of his corps. He wras to 
be entirely under my orders for two months, 
and was to receive 1600 piastres for his ser- 
vices. I found him of no use whatever, but 
proud, idle, and insolent. 

I was furnished with a post order, and 
the best travelling firman that could be 
granted to a private person. I made such 
additions to my wardrobe and equipments as 
the experience of my late journey had sug- 
gested as necessary ; and I had acquired suffi- 
cient knowledge of Turkish to be a check 
upon my interpreter. 

In this expedition I travelled without a com- 
panion ; and I recommend every one, whose 
object is information, to do the same, unless 
he be so fortunate as to find a fellow-traveller 
who combines science with all the other indis- 
pensable qualifications of a good travelling com- 
panion. Here I must anticipate an impression 
that might naturally be produced, namely, that 



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TO TRAVEL ALONE. 131 

this remark originated in something which 
occurred between Lord Dunio and myself in 
the late journey. So far was this from being 
the case, that it was quite impossible for 
more perfect harmony to have subsisted be- 
tween two individuals. Both nearly of an age, 
interested in the same objects of curiosity, 
each possessing a full command of temper, 
endowed with the same power of bearing pri- 
vation and fatigue, we went through this 
somewhat arduous journey without a single 
dispute, — a matter of rare occurrence, if all 
travellers would confess the truth. 

Yet, notwithstanding these advantages, we 
unavoidably interfered with each other's plans ; 
for example, my illness at Adrianople had 
caused three weeks' detention to Lord Dunlo ; 
and his being obliged to return to his duties as 
an attach^ at Constantinople, prevented me 
from visiting Silistria, and other fortresses on 
the banks of the Danube. In short, from some 
experience in these matters, I pronounce a 
fellow-traveller, in most cases, to be a great 



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132 MUSTAPHA. 

obstacle to advantageous research. To him 
only who makes a journey for information do 
I address myself. The society of a companion 
is certainly more pleasant; but if pleasure be 
the only attraction, the tourist had better con- 
fine his wanderings to civilised Europe. 

December 7. Mustapha, my Tartar, came 
this morning for orders. He was a fine, hand- 
some-looking fellow, and equipped in the highly 
picturesque dress of his avocation : a cylindrical 
black cap two feet high, surmounted by a 
cushion of green cloth ; several scarlet, green, 
and chocolate-coloured coats, one over the other, 
some of them braided, others embroidered in 
gold; pink pantaloons, large unwieldy boots, 
and a brace of pistols, a dagger, a pipe, and a 
whip, stuck in his girdle. 

I had intended to have gone the first stage 
this evening, but was persuaded by my friends 
to delay my journey till the following morning, 
and take a farewell dinner with them. 

In the evening there was a ball at the 
French palace. Carle Michel had been in the 



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ENGLISH TRAVELLING. 133 

morning to the ambassador of France for his 
passport. ** With whom are you going ?" said 
his excellency. '* With an Englishman." 
'' Ah I I thought so ; no one but an Englishman 
would be mad enough to travel for pleasure at 
this terrible season of the year." 



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134 TAKE LEAVE OF MY FRIENDS. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Take leave of my Friends — Lord Dunlo — Wretched Weather — 
Scutari — Cartal — Mustapha's Laziness — My Attend- 
ants quarrel — Advice to Travellers respecting Tartars — 
The Turkish Dress recommended — Pendic — Ghebseh — 
Complaints against the Government — Damleh — Cross 
the Gulf of Nicomedia — Dil — Hersek — Pernicious Effects 
of the Mungul — Anecdote of Mustapha — Catholic Arme- 
nians returning from Banishment— Cause of their Exile — 
Origin of their Dissent from the Armenian Church — 
Religious Feuds — Dusoglu, Master of the Mint — Trea- 
chery of Cazas Artin — ^Ten Thousand Catholics banished 
to Asia Minor — Persecution of Armenian Women — The 
Catholics' Property sold for a Tenth of its Value — Turks 
the only Purchasers — Example of Persecution set by the 
Sultan — His Folly — He displeases both Christians and 
Turks. 

December 8. Constantinople to Cartal, four 
hours.* — I SET out this morning on the fourth 

* The hour may be generally considered as a distance of 
three miles. 



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WRETCHED WEATHER. 136 

stage of my journey, having first taken leave 
of Sir Robert Gordon, Mr. Mellish, Mr. Parish, 
Captain Lyons, and Lord Dunlo. With my 
late fellow-traveller I had passed many agree- 
able days, and had shared various difficulties, 
both of which circumstances were calculated 
to keep alive friendly recollections. It was, 
therefore, with more than ordinary feelings of 
regret that I separated from one in whose 
company I had been for some time, with 
scarcely half an hour*s intermission. Should 
no other advantage attend the accomplishment 
of this journey, the friendship it has procured 
me with Lord Dunlo will always console me with 
the reflection that I have not travelled in vain. 

During the preceding week, it had been one 
continued storm. The rain poured incessantly, 
and the black threatening clouds gave a pro- 
mise of more. Had I been superstitious, the 
lowering aspect of the heavens would have 
deterred me from undertaking a journey over 
an unbeaten track, at a time when the elements 
themselves seemed combined to oppose me: 



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136 SCUTARI. 

but I had no such feelings; the bright prospect 
of novelty, adventure, and successful research, 
were more than a match for the gloominess 
of the weather. 

Captain Lyons, with his usual kindness, 
had ordered his barge to be in readiness to 
convey me across the Bosphorus to the Asiatic 
side, and had even intended to have accom- 
panied me thus far on my journey; but the 
storm had so increased, that it was impossible 
to think of availing myself of his kindness: so, 
accompanied by Carle and M ustapha, I stepped 
into a thr^e-oared caique, which, in a short 
time, landed us at the town of Scutari, the 
Scutarium of the ancients:* here I went di- 
rectly to the post-house, engaged four horses, 
and in half an hour we had mounted, and 
were passing, pipe in hand, through the mag- 
nificent forest of cypress, which forms the 
boundary of the town. 

€*•" HK^t^^^ htfAtitjntct. — Cantacuz. lib. iv. cap. 4. 



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MY ATTENDANTS QUARREL. 137 

Four hours' journey brought us to Cartal, 
which is a small town on the sea-shore^ 
bounded towards the land by an amphitheatre 
of mountains. 

The khan was hardly a shade better than 
those on the European side : here I dined on 
some fish and rice ; a bad exchange for the 
entries at the ambassador's table. 

Dec. 9. Cartal to Hersek, ten hours. — 
I had signified to Mustapha, whom I con- 
sidered my master of the horse, my wish to 
start before daylight, but I could not persuade 
him to stir : Carle did all his business for him, 
and abused him in return. Mustapha's pride 
was ofiended at being disrespectfully treated 
by a Giaour native of Constantinople: high 
words ensued, which laid the foundation of a 
quarrel between the Mahometan and Christian, 
that continued the whole journey. This was 
the first, but not the last, occasion I had to 
lament having engaged a Tartar in my service. 
The use of such a person depends very much 



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138 THE TURKISH DRESS RECOMMENDED. 

upon the object of the traveller. There can be 
no doubt that he is treated with more respect 
when so attended ; but, except as an article of 
parade, he is of no use whatever, besides being 
a considerable expense. An intelligent inter- 
preter, a post firman, and a good travelling 
firman, are all that are requisite for comfort 
or safety. Here I would ofier a few remarks 
upon another subject connected with the tra- 
veller's convenience, namely, his dress. 

I have now travelled several thousand miles 
through Mahometan countries. I have been 
dressed sometimes as a European, and at others 
as a native of the country ; and I am convinced 
that, as far as Turkey is concerned, the Turkish 
dress is preferable. It is by no means neces- 
sary that the European should speak the lan- 
guage, or assume the manners, of the country. 
I have made several inquiries on the subject, 
and am informed that the Turk esteems it as a 
compliment for a Frank to conform to the na- 
tional costume, rather than wear habits which 
he considers both ungraceful and indecent. 



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PENDIC. 139 

Besides^ European instructors of drill are so 
common in Turkey, that a traveller might often 
be mistaken for one; a circumstance which 
would always command attention, from the fears 
of the inhabitants. To the searcher for anti- 
quities, the Turkish dress is very requisite, as 
he will otherwise suffer constant interruptions 
from the importunity and idle curiosity of the 
villagers. 

This remark applies only to the provinces : 
a Frank habited as a Turk would excite as 
much attention in Constantinople as in the 
streets of London. 

Leaving Cartal two hours after daylight, 
we continued marching along or near the 
sea-shore: the country on the land side is 
an open plain, bounded by a range of high 
hills. An hour's march brought us to a fish- 
ing village, which retains its ancient name 
of Pantichium,* in the corrupted form of 

* Pantichium is mentioned in the Antonine and Jerusalem 
Itineraries. 



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140 COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT. 

Pendic. In many other towns through which 
I afterwards passed, the appellations of anti- 
quity were easily recognisable in those given 
them by the modem inhabitants. Six hours 
further on, we stopped to change horses at 
Ghebseh. 

This town is by some supposed to be 
a corruption of Libyssa, celebrated as the 
burying place of Hannibal ; but Colonel 
Leake very fairly assumes it to be Aocxi^vZix, 
which, by taking away the first syllable, leaves 
K/6v^«, or Giviza, as it would be pronounced 
by the modern Greek;* Dacibiza is mentioned 
by several historians of the Lower Empire. It 
was here that the Arian emperor Valens 
ordered eighty priests of the opposite sect to 
be burned, together with the ship in which 
they were embarked.f 

The town contains a mixed population of 

* The initials K, P,T, in names of places, have, generally, 
among the modern Greeks, the sound of G, B, D. — Leake's 
Asia Minor, p. 4. 

t Ibid. p. 9. 



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COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT. 141 

Turks and Greeks. The inhabitants here, as 
well as at Cartal, were full of complaints 
against the government, and the heavy tax- 
ation. The kharatch had been lately doubled, 
and they seemed to despair of being able to 
meet the demand. All parties appeared to wish 
for the return of the old janizary system, so 
discontented were they with their present con- 
dition. The Greeks say, that in former times, 
though they were beaten always, and plundered 
occasionally, they were never in such want of 
food as at present. On the other hand, the 
Turks complain, that, independently of losing 
their privileges as the faithful and chosen of 
God, and paying a tax from which they were 
formerly exempt, all their children capable of 
work have been impressed into the army ; that 
there was no one left to till the land ; and that 
t|;e demands of government have risen in the 
same proportion as the means of meeting them 
have been taken away. The murmurings of the 
inhabitants at these two places were but the echo 
of every town or village through which I passed 



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142 DAMLEH. 

in Asia Minor ; one spirit of disaffection against 
the present government seemed to pervade every 
cl^ss of the community; Christian, Hebrew, and 
Turk, were all agreed upon this point; nor were 
they sparing in their abuse of the grand signior 
himself. I heard the name of Mahmoud con- 
stantly coupled with the epithets of Delli, 
Djezzar, and Giaour, — madman, butcher, and 
infidel. 

Leaving Ghebseh, we entered upon a hilly 
country abounding in evergreens. Amongst 
these» the most abundant is the small oak, 
called Valania, the cup of whose acorn is used 
in dyeing : it is very abundant in Asia Minor, 
and forms an article of trade, the poorer classes 
going out into the woods to gather it; but so 
great at present is the rage for taxation, that 
the Turkish government has laid a heavy impost 
upon it, and the people have in consequence 
ceased to collect it. 

Five miles from Ghebseh we saw, to our 
right, the highly picturesque village of Damleh, 
situate on the summit of an isolated and thickly 



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HERSEK. 143 

wooded mountain. A mile further on, we de- 
scended to the shore of the beautiful gulf of 
Ismid, or Nicomedia, and arrived at the small 
village of Malsum. 

Here we embarked in an open, roomy 
sailing -boat, and landed on the opposite side 
on a slip of low land, projecting from a range 
of precipitous mountains. This place is called 
Dil, which, in Turkish, signifies tongue, and 
sufficiently characterises the form of the ground. 
From this side of the gulf we could see the 
minarets of Constantinople, presenting the ap- 
pearance of a fleet of ships hull down. 

Instead of Ghebseh, Colonel Leake assumes 
Malsum to be Libyssa, where Hannibal is sup- 
posed to be buried. He grounds his belief on 
the remark of Plutarch,* who describes a place 
corresponding with the Dil, or tongue of land 
we had just crossed. 

A mile and a half from Dil is the Turkish 



xMfAnrtf 6v fAtydXn AXvrrtc xaXurtct. — Plutarch in Flam, 



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144 PERNICIOUS EFFECTS OF THE MUNGUL. 

village of Hersek, a post station, where we 
slept. Hersek is supposed to be Helenopolis, 
a small town built by Constantine in honour of 
his mother. Helenopolis was situated on the 
sea-shore, near the place where the river Draco 
disembogues into the sea. The Draco corre- 
sponds with the river which we crossed the fol- 
lowing day ; and it is evident that the Dil has 
been formed by the alluvial deposit of that 
river.* 

The only coffee-house in the village was 
occupied by about twenty Turks, every six of 
whom were seated round a mungul of charcoal. 
From the general room, was partitioned off a 
small elevated chamber : into this den we crept 
for the night, and were nearly suffocated with 
the fumes of charcoal. 

The universal use of the mungul in Turkey, 
is one of the principal causes of disease amongst 
the people. I was informed by an English 
medical man, that of his Ottoman patients, six 

* Leake, p. 10. 



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ANECDOTE OF MUSTAPHA. 145 

out of eight cases were those of sufferers from 
this deleterious practice. I have also heard, that 
Turks are constantly found dead round their 
favourite pans of charcoal. Mustapha wished 
very much to have a mungul in our little 
chamber; but I positively forbade it, telling 
him at the time, that the change from the 
close heated coflTee-house to the cold external 
air, would most likely produce a very bad cold. 
He paid no attention to my warning, huddled 
with some of his fellow -Turks round one of 
their pans, and the next day his violent cough- 
ing convinced me that I had proved a true 
prophet. 

Meat was not procurable here, it being 
a luxury to which the poor inhabitants are 
utter strangers. I was therefore constrained to 
appease the cravings of hunger by a tasteless 
pilau, and to keep up my spirits with a cheering 
glass of gin and water. 

Mustapha, who had a truly Mahometan love 
of the forbidden juice, asked me to give him a 
little. I poured him out a bumper, which he 

VOL. II. L 



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146 KARA M0U8ALL. 

drank unadulterated with water. The word 
gin signifies devil in most Oriental languages* 
The burning draught which Mustapha had just 
swallowed, elicited from him the remark, that 
my gin (devil) was playing the devil with his 
stomach ! 

December 10, Hersek to Kizdervent. — Our 
destination for the night was Kizdervent, to 
which place there is a direct road ; but by 
some mistake my Tartar took me first to Kara 
Mousall : it is situated on the border of the 
gulf, contains about three hundred houses, and, 
at the time we entered, had a greater appear- 
ance of the bustle of population than is ordi- 
narily to be met with in Turkish towns. We 
here procured the quarter of a sheep that 
had just been killed, part of which we took 
into a cook's shop, and put it into the oven : 
when it was baked, we ate it in the presence 
of a host of dirty and gaping townspeople, who 
had assembled in and about the house to wit- 
ness our repast. 



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MOUHTAIK SCENERY. 147 

Leaving Kara MousalU we commenced the 
ascent of a rugged mountain : the road had been 
paved, but was in wretched repair ; so that the 
crossing of this mountain offered greater ob- 
staicles than any part of the Roumelian Balcan. 
In compensation^ the scene before us was per- 
haps unequalled in any part of the world. The 
side of the hill was completely clothed with 
evergreens, and so grouped that no art of man 
could have produced the beautiful appearance 
which the hand of nature had effected. Here 
was every shade of green> from the dark cypress 
to the pale olive ; the ilex, arbutus, holly, ivy, 
and oak, with several other trees, the names 
of which were unknown to me. Some were 
covered with abundance of white or scarlet 
berries. This description of scenery predo- 
minates over every other, all the way to 
Smyrna. The verdant aspect of the country 
might have almost persuaded us it was sum- 
mer, had not a cold north-eastwr told a con- 
trary tale. 

We met, on this and the two following 



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148 ORIGIN OF THEIR DISSENT 

days, large parties of Armenian Catholics, who 
were returning, by virtue of a firman, to Con- 
stantinople, whence they had been so cruelly 
banished two years ago. They were all in the 
highest spirits ; and attributed their restora- 
tion to the influence of the French and English 
authorities. This permission related to a cer- 
tain number of Armenians. It was expected 
that it would eventually be extended to all who 
had been banished for the same cause ; how- 
ever, up to the period of my leaving Turkey, 
nearly two months afterwards, no such leave 
had been granted. 

Of all the unwise acts of this wretched 
government, few can vie in folly with the 
banishment of the Catholic Armenians ; a mea- 
sure equally cruel, impolitic, and unjust. 

The Armenian nation was formerly of one 
sect, which bore, in its observances, a great 
aflSnity to the Gre6k church. In process of 
time, several Armenians were converted to the 
Catholic persuasion. These conversions were 
first begun through the agency of a Dominican 



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FROM THE ARMENIAN CHURCH. 149 

friar named Bartholomew, as far back as the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. Since 
that period they have been continually on the 
increase, partly by the exertions of the mis- 
sionaries, and partly by the marriages of Frank 
Catholics with Armenian women, who have 
adopted the faith of their husbands, and 
brought up their children in the same be- 
lief. Hence sprung up a sect of dissenters 
from the established church, which rose, by 
degrees, to equal in riches and respectability 
any class of Turkish subjects. 

This difference in religion created numerous 
quarrels, till at length it was decided by the 
court of Rome, that the priests of the schis- 
matic sect (as they are falsely called, seeing 
that they profess the religion of their fore- 
fathers) should have the exclusive right of 
administering the sacrament, of marrying, of 
baptising, of burying, and of appropriating to 
themselves all the profits arising from these 
functions ; and that the priests of the Catholic 
Armenians should be entitled only to the emo- 



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150 ORIGIN OF THBIR DI^BNT 

lun^nt to be drawn from hearing confeesions, 
performing divine service, from repeating masses 
for the souls of the dead, and from the chance 
charity of their flock. 

With such limited privileges, it could have 
hardly been thought that the schismatic church 
would have considered it wortli its W;hile to 
interfere: still less was it to be expected that 
the sultan, the commander of the faithful, 
should take a part in the religious differences, 
of his infidel subjects : the result proved the 
contrary. A khatty sherif was issued by the 
sultan, by which the whole tribe of Catholic 
Armenians were ordered to attend the schis- 
matic church, and to renounce the pope. This 
they declined to do; and the patriarch, in 
consequence, refused them the protection of 
the church. 

To understand rightly the effect of withhold- 
ing such protection, it is necessary to say a 
fpw words on the manner in which the business 
of religious sects is conducted in the Turkish 
government. 



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FROM THE ARMENIAN CHURCH. 151 

Amongst the Turks, it is the custom of 
every parish, that six respectable old men, who 
have been brought up in the place, should 
answer for the conduct of the imaum, and 
the imaum again is responsible for the rest of 
his parish. If one of his parishioners mis- 
behave, the protection of the church is with- 
held from him, and he becomes subject to the 
extreme penalty of the civil law. 

In like manner, the Christians have a body 
of old men, who are answerable for their chief 
priest, with this difference, that they have 
twelve, instead of six, persons as security. The 
Christian priest has, like the imaum, the pri- 
vilege of protecting his flock; and the with- 
holding such protection entails upon the person 
so dismissed from the pale of the church, the 
same consequences as on the rejected follower 
of Mahomet. 

But to return to my story. The Armenians 
thus excommunicated, were in the habit of 
performing their devotions with the Frank Ca- 
tholics, but their church could not grant them 



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152 RELIGIOUS FEUDS. 

protection, as the clergyman was a Frank; and 
none but a rayah, or native priest, could have 
this privilege. 

A deadly feud broke out between the two 
sects, each party endeavouring, by calumny, 
and gifts to the divan, to obtain immunities and 
advantages over their brethren. 

When the war between Russia and Persia 
broke out, the Catholic Armenians in the latter 
country assisted Russia. Of this, the schis- 
matic Armenians did not fail to avail them- 
selves. It was represented to the sultan, that 
the Catholics would act in the same manner 
in his own dominions, now that the Russians 
were invading his territories. They also sug- 
gested, that the Catholics, by going to the 
Frank churches, had imbibed the feelings of 
Europeans, and had become their spies and 
emissaries; and that, unless banished, they 
would succeed in their alleged conspiracy 
against his highness's life and empire. 

Prior to the intrigue which procured the 
banishment of the Catholic Armenians, they 



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TREACHERY OF CAZAS ARTIN. 163 

were most regarded by the sultan, and were 
employed as serafs, or bankers, to his highness. 
Dusoglu, a wealthy Catholic Armenian, was at 
this time in high favour with Mahmoud, who 
appointed him to the lucrative office of master 
of the mint. In the service of Dusoglu was 
a schismatic Armenian, of the name pf Cazas 
Artin, who is said to have been under great 
obligations to his master, and (according to 
the best information . I could procure) to have 
repaid these obligations by procuring the death 
of his benefactor. 

This Cazas Artin, though he can neither 
read nor write, is ari excellent arithmetician, 
and a man of considerable talent. He is re- 
ported td have been the organ of the misre- 
presentation against the Catholic Armenians. 
Whether or not this statement of the cause 
of the Catholics' misfortune be true, I cannot 
say; but the effect is known. Dusoglu was de- 
capitated; and the servant, whom he had loaded 
with favours, succeeded him in his office. A 
second khatty sherif was now issued, com- 



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154 TEN THOUSAND CATHOLICS BANISHED, 

manding all Catholic Armenians to quit Con- 
stantinople, for Anatolia, on pain of death. 
Ten days only were allowed them for their 
preparations. It was the depth of winter 
when this cruel order was given. Ten thou- 
sand souls, comprising the old, the maimed, 
the sick, women far gone with child, were 
thus forced from their homes, without being 
able to furnish themselves with provisions, or 
other necessaries, for such a journey. Many 
perished with cold ; numbers were drowned 
in crossing the streams; and twelve families 
were lost, nearly at the same time, in the 
Sakariah Sou (river). Those Armenians who 
were able to carry their families with them, 
were allowed to do so ; but some were obliged 
to leave their wives and children behind. 
Whenever a woman so left was known to 
have had parents of the old schismatic church, 
she was invited again to enter it; but on her 
refusal, she had an iron chain fixed round 
her neck, by which she was dragged to the 
patriarch khana, and there condemned to hard 



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AND THEIR PROPEROy SOLD. 156 

labour. Numbers of them have had the reso- 
lution to prefer this drudgery to a second 
recantation. 

These people, at thq time of their banish- 
ment, comprised nearly the richest portion of 
the Turkish subjects. They were allowed to 
take with them their movable property; but 
were obliged to sell their houses to the highest 
bidders ; and on the plea that the land, on 
which these: houses were built, belonged to 
the crown, the suUaA assumed to himself 
the right of selecting the purchasers, none 
but the faithful being admitted to this privi- 
lege. The consequence was, that the Turks 
having but little money, and there being no 
competitor, the houses sometimes sold for 
one-tenth of their value, the purchase-money 
being paid into the hands of government. The 
poorer class were obliged to submit to these 
bard conditions; but those who could afford 
it, left the purphase-money in the treasury, in 
the hope of being eventually restored tp their 



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156 EXAMPLE SET BY THE SULTAN. 

former possessions. Nearly all the best houses 
of Pera, as well as those on the banks of 
the Bosphorus, were the property of Catholic 
Armenians : one of these, which stands at a 
short distance from our ambassador's country 
house at. Thferapia, belonged to Tingeroglu, 
one of the principal Armenians in Turkey. 
The grand signer offered to purchase it, at 
the same ratio of price as that at which the 
residences of other Christians were sold ; but 
the Armenian declined the money, saying, 
** My life and all my possessions are yours, 
dispose of it and them as you please." The 
grand signer did as he pleased: he banished 
the landlord, and constituted himself his 
tenant ; thus taking advantage of his own 
decree against the Catholics, and setting an 
example to his courtiers, which they did not 
fell to emulate. 

The trifling popularity the sultan might 
have gained by confining the sale of the 
Christians' houses to Mahometan purchasers. 



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HE DISPLEASES BOTH CHRISTIANS AND TURKS. 167 

was more than counterbalanced by the dis- 
tress which this persecution brought upon 
many of the Turks themselves. This people, 
holding commerce, as well as most useful 
arts, in contempt, were in the habit of putting 
their money out to interest. By the Ottoman 
law, they are allowed to place it in the 
bezestan, from which they receive so small a 
return, that very few have been induced to 
avail themselves of this privilege, but have 
preferred lending it to the Armenian, who gave 
them double the interest they could obtain 
from the government bank. 

Before the departure of the Armenians, the 
Turks who had banked with them came for 
their money ; but the Armenians replied, that 
they had left behind them their houses and 
property, which must answer all demands. 
For each sum so lodged, the Armenian mer- 
chant had given to the lender a written re- 
ceipt. With this document the Turk goes to 
the treasury, and asks for his dividend of the 



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158 HB DISPLEASES BOTH CHRISTIANS AND TURKS. 

sale of kis banker*s house : but the only answer 
he receives is, " You have k)st your money ; 
and it serves you right, for having any dealings 
with Cbrifttian dogs." 



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THE RIVER DRACO. 169 



CHAPTER X. 

The River Draco — Kizderbent — Bulgarian Landlady — 
Impolitic Abuse of the Tarkiah Ooyemment -r- Cooteet 
of Wolves — Kirk Biirdevend —-Lake Ascanius — Isftik, 
the ancient Niceea — A Greek Inscription — River GalloB 
— Lefkehy the ancient Leucce — Inscriptions — Greek 
Bishop — Turkish Conscripts — Vizier Khan — Ancient 
Agrilium — Mount Olympus — A Tartar with Specie — 
Town of Shughut*— The Birth-place of Ali Osman, the 
Founder of ^ Torkish Dynasty. 

It is now high time to be again on the road. 
We crossed several hills. Looking towards 
the north-west, we saw a large plain, watered 
by the river Draco, which, after many wind- 
ings, falls into the sea near Hersek. It was 
in this direction that we ought to have gone, 
instead of making the circuit by Kara Mousall* 
This stream is so tortuous, that Colonel Leake 
crossed it nearly twenty times. Procopius 
makes the same remark. 



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160 KIZDERBENT. 

After descending the other side of the 
evergreen mountain, we came to an Arme- 
nian village, containing seventy houses. It 
was surrounded by mulberry-trees, which are 
here cultivated for the breed of silk-worms 
that supply the populous town of Brusa with 
the silk for the stuffs for which it is so famed. 
We here crossed and recrossed the Draco 
several times, and then traversed a succes- 
sion of gradual slopes in a south-easterly 
direction, leaving the main road to our left, 
as it was too heavy for our horses. 

In another hour we arrived at the village 
of Kizderbent, where we were accommodated 
with a comfortable lodging at the house of a 
Bulgarian. Our hostess, though advanced in 
years, still shewed considerable marks of 
beauty. She was a very merry old lady, and 
submitted to the broad practical jokes of my 
handsome Tartar with much complacency. 

Kizderbent, or Virgin Pass, derives its 
name from the gorge of the mountains in 
which it is situated. It contains about one 



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IMPOLITIC ABUSE. 161 

hundred houses, and the inhabitants are all 
Bulgarians. The manner in which it is dis- 
posed of, will exemplify one of the numerous 
impolitic abuses which exist in this country; 
and describe a fate common to many towns 
in Asiatic Turkey. 

It is one of twelve villages, which have 
been granted by the grand signior to a 
lady of the Seraglio. This lady sells them 
by wholesale to her Armenian banker, and 
he again retails them to the Turks. The 
new purchasers come down, take a tithe of 
the silk, the principal article here, and of every 
other commodity. They, besides, live entirely 
on the property of their purchased tenantry, 
by which means the produce of the land is 
taxed for the emolument of three descriptions 
of persons, who have no other interest in the 
soil than the gains that can be wrung from 
the labours of the unfortunate cultivator ; 
who has, besides these burdens, to meet the 
heavy impost laid on him by the Porte, which 

VOL. II. M 



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162 GABfRLS. 

in this village amounts to e^ht thousand 
piastres. 

The other nine villages are Kara Mousall, 
Cbiflik, Toushanli, Akher, Lelehderesee, Kele- 
kieu^ Kara Sepehkieu, and two others near 
Chinisli. 

Round the house we occupied, which was 
jat ihe outskirts of the town, a large party of 
wolves assembled^ and amused themselves by 
serenading us with a howling chorus through- 
out the night. 

December 10. Kizderbent to Lefkeh. — ^This 
day's march was twelve hours. 

We quitted the village, to enter upon the 
pass. It lay between two mountains, running 
parallel to each other, north and south. The 
mouth of the gorge was covered with ever* 
greens; but as we proceeded, we saw only 
stunted oaks. We overtook on our way several 
hundred camels, each preceded, according to 
invariable custom, by a small ass. In the 



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THE LAKE ASCANIUS. 163 

muddy parts of tfaye plain, the huge, dbh-shaped 
feet of these useful beasts had much injured 
the road, the print of each step leaving, a 
hole the depth of a horse-pail: but their 
maich in the mountains was rather advantage- 
ous than otherwise to us travellers on horse- 
back, as their progress was marked by a suc- 
cession of steps as regular as if formed by 
art. We felt the benefit of these in the de- 
scent into the plains, which is almost perpen- 
dicular. It is possibly from this cause that the 
pass is here called Kirk Mirdevend, or " the 
forty ladders." 

. From the summit of the Kirk Mirdevend 
we had a fine view of the Lake Ascanius 
and the beautiful plain by which it is bounded. 
At the base of the hill we came to ^ circular 
patch of flat land, which has this peculiarity, 
that it is overflowed and forms a small lake 
in the summer, but is quite dry* during the 
winter. 

We marched for several miles, hovering 



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164 THE ANCIBNT NICiEA. 

about the shores of the Ascanius, and passing 
in our way through an immense forest of olives. 
The vineyards here were very extensive; the 
fruit had not yet been gathered in. A vil- 
lager plucked some grapes for us, which were 
•quite delicious. 

To the north-east we saw the picturesque 
villages of Omar and Ali Bey. We then crossed 
•a handsome but ruined bridge over a rivulet 
called the Kara Sou, or " black water," which 
disembogues into the lake a short distance 
below. 

At some distance to our left we saw an 
obelisk that had been raised in honour of 
C. Gassius Philiseus. The inscription upon it 
is to be found in Pococke. A little further 
on, we passed through the deserted village of 
Moafa; and in half an hour more came to 
the beautiful and ivy -mantled walls which 
enclose all that bow remains of the ancient 
Nicsea, the walls of which, in high preserva- 
tion, are washed by the lake. . It was once 



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THE ANCIENT NICJEA. 166 

the proud metropolis of Bithynia,* and the 
seat of this country^s former sovereigns. 

Under its present name of Isnik, it still 
contains a small population ; but '* lessened 
has been that small," in the late disastrous 
struggle against the Russians; nearly all the 
inhabitants having been sent to fill the ranks 
which death has so thinned. 

We continued for some time passing through 
tenantless streets, and at length arrived at the 
post-house. This portion of the town can boast 
a small population ; but nearly all the shops 
were closed, and for one inhabitant I saw at 
least five soldiers. With such an appearance of 
desolation, it was much above my expectation 
that I succeeded in purchasing a quarter of 
scraggy mutton. 

♦ Ni«»<i» i fcnr^9ir6Xti w Bt6vf/ctt M 17 'AvmvU x/fcffi. — 
(Strabo, lib. xii. p. 565.^ Deinde Nicaa, in ultimo Ascanio 
sinu.— (Pliny.) See also Ptolemy, Stephanus, and Memnon, 
in voce N^w». The last-named author has given a detailed, 
description of the amours of Bacchus and the nymph Niccea, 
from whom this town was said to derive its name. 



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166 A (mBEK INSCRIPTION. 

Wfe Btarted again ^th a fresh set of horses, 
and quitted Isnik by an old Ghreek arched gate- 
Wy : oTer it is an inscription ^hich has also 
been copied by Pococfce. 

We continued a south-^east course^ through 
a plain twelve miles long and three broad, 
bounded to our ri^t and left by a ridge of 
hills running east and w6st. The slopes were 
completely covered with evergreens, and several 
small villages w^re observable on both sides of 
us, on the face of the mountains. 

In three hotirs and a half, or in about eleven 
miles' journey, we diverged to our right ; and 
instead of gradually sldping hills, we passed 
along the narrow ridge of a mountidn of abrupt 
masses of rock, with a precipice above and 
below us. At a sudden turn of the road I 
observed what appeared to me a Greek inscrip- 
tion ; but the day was far advanced, and the 
light was unfavourable for a more minute 
observation. 

From this sculpture we came in sight of 
another spacious plain, surrounded on all sides 



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RIVBa GALLUS. 167 

by detached hills of different sizes, of a sugar- 
loaf shape. Through this plain flows the river 
Sakaria, the corrupted form of the ancient 
name Sangarius; though, as Colonel Leake 
observes, this is not the main stream of the 
Sangarius, i but that branch of it formerly called 
Gallus** Strabo enumerates the Sangarius as 
pne of the rivers which flow between Chal- 
cedon and Heraclea. The greater stream he 
describes as running through Phrygia Epic- 
tetus, and states a branch of it to pass through 
Bithynia, three hundred stadia from Nicomedia, 
in which place it is joined by the river Gallus.f 
Now, as the situation of Nicomedia is iden- 
tified with th^e Iznimid of the Turks, a few 
hours' journey to the northward, it satisfacto- 
rily shews that the Gallus is the stream we 
crossed. 

We passed the Sakariah by a handsome 

* Leake's Asia Minor, p. 12. 
fi4i etvTM r«AA««. — (Strabo, lib. xii. p. 543.) 



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168 LEFKEH. 

stone bridge of five archea. Here we over- 
took a caravan of Armenians, having several 
mules laden with Turkish goods, and some 
few bales of European manufacture. 

Three miles from the bridge we entered 
the town of Lef keh, where we halted for the 
night. 

The town of Lef keh, which has rather a 
neat appearance, contains about four hundred 
houses; but, like its neighbours, it has been 
robbed of nearly one-third of its inhabitants 
to supply the exigencies of the late war. The 
name of Lef keh, or, as the modern Greek would 
write it hwKou,* remains unaltered from that 
by which it is mentioned in Anna Comnena's 
account of the expedition of her father, the em- 
peror Alexius Comnenas, against the Turks, in 
the crusade of 1096. 

I did not hear of any Greek inscriptions ; 
but my friend Dr. Hall, who was here a few 

* The letters %v have the sound of ef in the Romaic 
language. 



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GREEK INSCRIPTIONS. 



169 



years ago, found two, of which the following 
are copies: — 



No.1. 


lfo.3. 


ASAHinO 


AFAeHTXHAIIA 


KATAEniTA 


rAein..Az..n 


rHNO 


KAIPOT^EINAPHT 


AA 


02KAI..AZI..O2AN 


OAA 


EeHKANlTEIEAT 


TTlie 


THNKAnnNIAin 


TOTKAI 


IIAN ETXH2XAPIN 


AIHN 





Both inscriptions are in the corrupt cha- 
racter of the Lower Empire. Number 1 . is a 
votive offering to ^sculapius, and has on it 
his emblem, the figure of a serpent. Number 2. 
is sacred to Jupiter. 

We were disturbed in the night by the 
arrival of a Greek bishop at the post-house. 
He was returning to Constantinople, whence 
he had been banished a few years ago. He 
seemed very anxious to shorten the period of 
his exile, as he only stopped to change horses. 



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170 TI7&K18H CONSCRIPTS. 

December. II. Lefkeh to Inoghi^ eighteen 
hours. — Our route lay between south and 
south-west. Two hours after leaving Lefkeh, 
we came to the narrow gorge of a mountain 
called Vizier Khan Boghazeh, or '' throat of 
the Vizier Khan," which derives its name from 
a village at which we stopped to breakfast. 

The valley which comprises this pass is 
well watered, and highly cultivated throughout. 
There is abundance of corn and rice grown 
here, but the mulberry for the silk-worm occu- 
pies the greater space, and much care seems 
to have been taken in its cultivation. The 
scenery is very grand; huge perpendicular 
masses of rock rearing their rugged heads on 
all sides of us. 

Half way through this pass we were wit- 
nesses to what, it is to be feared, is a common 
sight to the inhabitants, but quite new to 
myself, — a party of soldiers were in charge 
of thirty -two Turkish prisoners, the whole 
of whom were lads; the youngest about thir- 
teen years old, and the age of the eldest could 



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TURSIdfl CONISOB^PTS. 171 

&ot exceed twenty. I inquired their stotjrdf the 
guard : it is one to which a parsUlel might be 
fbrnished by almost every village in Asia Mmor. 
They were all going, against their will, to fill 
up the vacancies in thfe TurWsh army. So 
averse had they and their families been to the 
new system of raising troops, that when the 
government authorities made their appearance, 
they, in common with every person liable to be 
called upon to bear arms, fled into the moun- 
tains, with a small bag 6f bread a-piece, and 
remained there, even during this inclement 
season, in the patient endurance of every hard* 
ship, rather than adopt a military system which 
their priests had denounced as an impioins in- 
vention. Troops were despatched in search 
of the fugitives • Many still remained concealed ; 
but the poor wretches we met had been lately 
caught. They had already suffered the bas- 
tinado: it was conjectured, that they would 
make their escape the first opportunity. 

I should mention, that besides the pri- 
soners chained by the neck, there were five 



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172 VIZIER KHAN. 

young men at liberty, who were going of their 
own free will, — if free will it can be called, 
where the option lies between being driven 
or dragged. 

Carle told me, that the day before we left 
Constantinople, he had seen fifty youths en- 
listed into the service, not one of whom entered 
of his own accord, but that they all burst into 
tears, and bitterly lamented their hard fate. 

With the knowledge of such a fact, who 
can feel surprise at the Russians' success ? 

Four hours' ride brought us to Vizier Khan, 
or the Vizier's Inn, whence the village derives 
its name. This building is the most commo- 
dious of any khan I saw in Turkey. It forms 
the side of a street, and is approached at each 
extremity by gates, which, I was told, are 
closed at night. 

The building is attributed to the vizier 
Oglou Kieuperli, son of the celebrated Mehmet 
Kieuperli, the grand vizier to Mahomet the 
Fourth. At his father's death, he succeeded 
him in his high office, and contributed equally 



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ANCIENT AGRILIUM, 173 

with his sire to raise the glory of the Ottoman 
empire. The name of Kieuperli is one on which 
the Turk dwells with pride. I have heard it 
as often mentioned in Turkey, as I did that 
of Giafar, the vizier of Haroun Alraschid, at 
Bagdad. 

Colonel Leake considers Vizier Khan to be 
the ancient Agrilium. Dr. Hall was told that 
at this place there was a sarcophagus with an 
inscription on it. I did not see any myself. 

We halted here for an hour to breakfast, 
and after satisfying our thirst, gave the rest 
of our wooden bottle of wine, containing nearly 
a quart, to the surijee, who drank it off at a 
draught. The potation, thin as it was, had a 
wonderful effect on his unpractised head; he 
jumped into the saddle, and made our poor 
beasts continue to gallop over hill and dale, 
in spite of the rocks and mud through which 
the road lay. 

The ascent here leads across a range of the 
Bithynian Olympus. We saw, on the summit 
of these hills, numerous fragments of white 



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174 A TARTAR WITH SPBCIE. 

marble columns, and observed sereral others 
scattered about the place. It is probable that 
here formerly stood some temple. The country 
was rocky and uscultivated, and there was 
an unusual deficiency of trees for this region, 
where they are generally so abundant. We 
saw but few villages ; those tJiat were visible 
produced abundance of fruit : one of them, 
called Teereh, is celebrated for its quinces. 
On leaving the mountains, we entered upon 
a fine open country* 

We met, in the course of the day, a Tartar 
in charge of specie, the tribute of the island of 
Cyprus (the Kybris of the Turks). . By the 
Turkish regulations, a Tartar having . treasure 
consigned to his care may only travel by day. 

At four in the afternoon we entered the 
town of Shughut, built on the side of a moun- 
tain, on the ridge of a rocky precipice, which 
looks down on a beautiful rivulet, that may 
be seen pursuing its course along the valley 
below. 

Our dinner here consisted of a Turkish 



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SHU6HUT. 175 

cubaub^ or skewer of roasted meat^ pipnig bot 
from the cook's shop. The dish was very 
palatable ; . though fastidious persons would 
have objected to the cleanliness of the cooking 
process, which was performed in a dirty open 
shop> by a Turk who seemed a stranger td 
those ablutions enjoined by his creed. 

Our meal being despatched, we took a rapid 
stroll over the town. It was market-day ; and 
the inhabitants of the neighbcHiring villages 
had come to lay in their week's supply. Out 
Frank dresses excited some curiosity and much 
laughter from a group of noisy bcgrs, who kept 
close at our heels wherever we went. It was 
evident that they had never before seen Euro- 
peans in the national dress ; the few that had 
taken this comparatively unbeaten track, prin- 
cipally pretenders to medicine, always wearing 
the costume of the country. 

Among the European articles exposed for 
sale, we saw abundance of coarse English 
stuffs, a few bales of German cloth, and some 
small articles of Italian cutlery. 



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176 SHUOHUT. 

Shughut IS held in high veneration by the 
Osmanlis, as containing the tomb of AliOsman> 
the founder of the Turkish dynasty. 

Colonel Leake was at Shughut in the year 
1800. It could then boast nine hundred habita- 
tions. Seven hundred are still standing, but 
of these, one-third are unoccupied ; they re- 
main mere shells of houses, and appeared to 
be fast tumbling into ruins. This scene of 
desolation has been produced by the Russian 
war. The former residents have been forci- 
bly dragged from their homes, to recruit the 
losses of the Turkish army in the last cam- 
paign. 



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A NIGHT MARCH. 177 



CHAPTER XL 

A Night March— Inoghi — Ancient Greek Fragments-* 
Cross the Thymbres, and arrive at Kutaya — Bologlou^ 
an Armenian — Hummaum — The Turks an ill-made 
Race — Visit the Mooselim — Ck)nyersation on the Battle 
of Navarin — Search for Antiquities — Prison — Ac- 
count of a late Mutiny -^Catholic Armenians — A hearty 
old Woman — Disaffection of the Armenian Catholics 
towards the Go^emmeot — Sultan's want of Policy — 
Historical Notices on Cotyasum — Modern Kutaya— Its 
Trade — Rapid Depopulation. 

At a quarter before five we were again in 
the saddle ; night shortly after coming on, left 
us, in utter darkness, to grope our way along 
the brink of precipices : our horses, however, 
seemed used to the business, for they followed 
close upon each other's heels, and kept their 
files well locked. 

VOL. ir. N 



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178 , INOGHI. 

An hour from Shughut, we began ascending 
a forest mountain ; here our ears were nearly 
stunned with the noise of rushing waters below 
us. As we proceeded, we passed through 
several clouds, and then traversed a region of 
snow, which we did not quit till after having 
for some time continued to descend. As the 
moon rose, it presented to us some well-grown 
trees. Though we had been enveloped in 
clouds during our ascent, we had to endure 
the piercing cold of a frost as soon as we 
quitted the mountains. 

The plain we now entered is six miles broad 
and twelve long: we crossed it, and at its 
opposite boundary arrived at the village of 
Inoghi, having completed a march nominally 
of eighteen hours' distance. 

The only lodging procurable was a small 
wretched coffee-house, where we had to en- 
dure the horrors of being nearly stifled from 
the combined effects of bad ventilation^ char- 
coal fires, and the company of about twenty 
snoring Turks. 



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ANCIENT GREEK FRAGMENTS. 179 

Inoghi is situated at the base of a bluff per- 
pendicular range of rocky mountains : it con- 
tains four hundred houses, the inhabitants of 
which are all Turks. The only persons I saw 
were children, or men with long beards; all 
the lads of the town having been sent to the 
army. 

December 12. Inoghi to Kutaya. — Before 
I quitted Inoghi, I went in search of anti- 
quities. I could find no inscriptions, though 
there were the fragments of several Grecian 
pillars in the Turkish burying-ground. In the 
rocky side of the mountain, were some natural 
caverns, and some also that were evidently 
artificial excavations. The inhabitants told 
me, that half way up the mountain there was 
a Hissar, or castle, in which was a long in- 
scription. I very much wished to have visited 
it, but was informed, that in consequence of 
the frost, the side of the rock was so slippery 
as to render the ascent impossible. 

The only European traveller besides myself. 



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160 CROSS THE THTMBRBS. 

tbat I am aware of, who has been at Inoghi, is 
the late General Koehler, who left Constant!^ 
nople with Colonel Leake in the year 1800. 
He, as well as myself, was unable to visit this 
castle, which I consider to foe the same as die 
cavern which was shut up in front by a wall 
with battlement and towers, as mentioned by 
Leake in his description of the general's journey. 
It is to be hoped, that as the facilities of tra- 
velling in Asia Minor are now so much in« 
creased, some traveller will visit Inoghi in the 
summer months, and bring home a copy of the 
inscription. 

After ascending the first mountain, upon 
the top of which the snow lay very thick, we 
continued for some time to pass over a suc- 
cession of ridges, with broad open plains in- 
tervening: we then came on a large grass 
valley adorned with evergreens, and watered 
by the Thymbres, or the Pursek, as it is called 
by the Turks. We then passed over several 
hills, and entered upon a vast plain, through 
which the Thymbres runs. We crossed this 



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HUMMAUM. 181 

Stream several times, and arrived in the after- 
noon at the town of Kutaya, a distance of 
twelve hours from the last stage. 

By the kindness of Dr. Millingen, I had been 
provided with a letter for Bologlou, one of the 
principal Armenians of the town. The moment 
he received it, he paid me a visit at the khan, 
and on my declining his kind offer of a room 
in his house, he sent me a mattress and quilted 
coverlet, two articles of luxury to which I 
bad long been a stranger ; besides this civility, 
be presented me with some wine and vegetables 
for my dinner. Speaking of the vegetables of 
Kutaya, all of which are excellent, I must not 
forget the cabbages, which I suppose to be 
the largest in the world ; so large, indeed, that 
I dare not risk my reputation for truth in 
stating their exact dimensions, knowing that 
many Englishmen are incredulous as to the 
size even of the turnips of my native country 
of Norfolk. 

December 13. One day's halt at Kutaya. — 



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182 THE TURKS AN ILL-MADE RACE. 

My first visit this morning was to the Hum- 
m^um (public bath), whither I went with 
Mustapha. I had always imagined this Tartar 
to be a stout, muscular young man, of about 
thirty ; but I was not a little surprised to see 
him, now that he was divested of his numer- 
ous cloaks and furs, dwindled into a meagre 
fellow of nearly sixty years of age. His mus- 
taches were always of the brightest black, their 
natural colour, as he told me ; but the covering 
of the lip did not match at all with that of the 
head, for, when he took off his high cap, he dis- 
covered to me a week's growth of silver hair. 

The impression, and I believe it is a 
general one, that the Turks are stoutly built, 
has evidently arisen from the appearance they 
formerly presented in their loose flowing robes; 
but whoever has seen their army in their tight 
uniforms, will alter this opinion, and will be 
convinced, as I was by seeing Mustapha this 
morning, that the Osmanlis are a narrow-shoul- 
dered and spindle-legged race, and very inferior 
in physical force to any European nation. 



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VISIT THE MOOSELIM. 183 

After my bath I smoked a pipe, and 
drank coffee with the mooselim, or governor 
of the town. He asked me if Turkey was 
still at war with Kussia ; and received the in- 
telligence of the ratification of peace^ as if 
he now heard it for the first time, l found 
all the Turks in Asia Minor^ whether in or 
out of office^ in a similar state of ignorance. 
The reverse was the case with regard to the 
Greeks, who seemed acquainted with every 
article of the treaty, and always expressed 
regret that no mention had been made of 
them. 

The governor spoke of England as the esfci 
dost (the old friend) of Turkey. Alluding to 
the battle of Navarin, he said, *' Our two 
countries have occasionally had some trifling 
points of difference ; but the best friends will 
sometimes quarrel, and such disputes only 
bind us more closely to one another." 

When the mooselim spoke of the destruc- 
tion of the Turkish fleet ad a trifling point 
of difference, whatever meaning he wished to 



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184 SEARCH FOR ANTIQUITIES. 

convey, be certainly literally expressed the 
sentiments of his countrymen in general ; for, 
from all that I coold learn, the feeling of the 
Turks was not anger at the defeat of Navarin, 
but chagrin that the blow was not followed 
up, and the business brought to a conclusion^ 
by the only means that could effect it, namely, 
force. 

It is said, that previous to that action, 
whenever the ambassadors had any conference 
with the reis effendy, the Turkish minister 
availed himself very skilfully of the difficul- 
ties that arose from our interposing in favour 
of the Greeks, by requesting explanation of 
the principles on which the allied governments 
interfered between the Porte and its subjects. 

The mooselim sent two kavasses with me, 
to accompany me in my search after antiqui- 
ties. I looked in vain for Greek inscriptions. 
Dr. Hall tells me that he was equally unsuc* 
cessfuL I observed within the town several 
portions of ancient Greek masonry, particu-* 
larly in some of the khans. This was easily 



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PRISON. 185 

distinguishable by the contrast in solidity, 
offered to the rickety buildings of Turkish con- 
struction. My search was not satisfactory, nor 
was it likely to be so ; for I was surrounded 
by a crowd of children, whom curiosity had 
brought at my heels, and whose importunities 
were highly unfavourable to antiquarian re- 
search. A Turkish dress would h^ve exempted 
me from this annoyance. 

At a point of the hill, immediately over- 
hanging the town, is a Greek castle in high 
preservation. I saw at the gate a handsome 
statue of a lion, in white marble. It was 
broken in two, but the pieces were only at 
a snkall distance from each other. In the in- 
terior of the castle I was shewn a prison, 
which my gnides affirmed to be ancient. There 
was a large wooden machine in the middle of 
the room, evidently of a more modem date. 
It was for securing prisoners' legs, on the prin- 
ciple of our stocks. This place had not been 
used as a prison within the memory of any 
Tmk, until a short time before my arrival. 



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186 CATHOLIC ARMENIANS. 

It appears that there had been a mutiny 
amongst some troops who were passing through 
Kutaya^ on their way to Constantinople, the men 
having refused to obey their officers. The ring- 
leaders were secured, and put into this prison. 
One of them was sentenced to be strangled, 
and a kavass who attended me was, as is a 
part of his duty, the person deputed to carry 
the sentence into effect. This man told me 
that he kept the rope round the culprit's neck 
for half an hour, waiting the order to finish the 
sentence ; but that the order was not given, 
and the mutineer was pardoned. Such lenity, 
in a government not very remarkable for this 
quality, tells its own story. The authorities 
were too much aware of the general spirit of 
disaffection in the troops, to venture to punish 
this act of insubordination. 

In the evening I returned to Bologlou's, 
where I found a large party of Catholics 
assembled, who had been invited to meet me 
at dinner. Many of them were on their re- 
turn to Constantinople, from banishment, and 



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A HEARTY OLD WOMAN. 1 87 

were in a state of glee very much at variance 
with the usually steady demeanour of this 
people. One of the guests was a young man 
who was on his return with his grandmother, 
a woman upwards of eighty. When the order 
for banishment arrived, not knowing what to 
do with her/ he put her into a pannier slung 
across a horse, and in this manner she had 
travelled upwards of a hundred miles in the 
most inclement weather. The good grandson 
had often given up his aged relative for lost; 
but she weathered all the storms, and was 
now travelling homewards, not a jot the worse 
for her country jaunt. 

Hearing one of the men speak Romaic, I 
asked him whether he was a Greek or an Ar- 
menian. " I am neither," was his reply ; ** I have 
nothing to do with those heretics! I am a Latin." 
As the wine, or rather the raki, circulated, the 
guests became very loquacious, and were not 
sparing in their abuse of the sultan, attribut- 
ing their recall to the interference of the Euro- 
pean authorities, rather than to any measure 



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188 HISTORICAL NOTICES ON COTYiEUM. 

resulting from the grand signior's free will. From 
the obserrations I heard this evening, as well as 
from the subsequent discourses I held with the 
Armenian Catholics, I am convinced that the 
foolish conduct of the grand signicMr, in banish- 
ing this people, will prodoce the very evil it 
was intended to prevent. It will convert into 
a discontented and dangerous class, men whose 
habits of passive obedience and non-resistance 
had induced the Turks to compare them to 
that most mild, patient, and useful of eastern 
animals, — the camel. 

Strabo,* PKny,-)- and Stephanus, ;{; mention 
Cotyseum as one of the cities of Phrygia Epic- 
tetus; Ptolemy§ classes it amongst the great 
towns of Phrygia. According to Suidas, || it 

* Tii( y Ewmlir$v ^fvyU^^ A^ui n M, tcmi N«»«AfMiy mm 

Kiti$vi fmiy riK Mvr^K <^t9. — Strabo, lib. xii. p. 576. 
t Plin. lib. V. cap. 32. 

I Stepban. Byzant. in voce K*rt;«f<«y. 
§ Ptol. Gcog. lib. V. cap. 2, p. 120. 

II Vide Suidas m voce Ktvd%ff. 



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MODERN KUTAYA. 189 

was the birth-place of Msop, the celebrated 
author of the fables. In the Alexandrian 
Chronicles there is an account of a Saint 
Menas, who, in the year 267, testiOed, at 
Cotuayio in Phrygia, the ascent of our Saviour.* 
The town is also mentioned by Socrates and 
Eustathius. 

*' The only point in General Koehler's 
route which can be considered absolutely cer- 
tain is Cotyeeum. The position of that city 
in Phrygia Epictetus, not fiu* from Nacoleia 
and Dorylseum, agrees perfectly with that of 
Kutdya, the resemblance of which name to 
the Greek Korvau^v is still more striking, 
when we observe the identity of accent/'f 

The modem town has eight thousand 
houses, and comprises a population of Arme- 
nians, Greeks, and Turks. The Armenian 

—Alex, Chron, p. 642. 

t Leake's Asia Minor, p. 145. 



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190 COMMERCE. 

houses amount to four hundred and ten, of 
which three hundred belong to Catholics, and 
two hundred and eighty to those who are 
called the Schismatics. The Greeks have 
four hundred houses, and the remainder are 
occupied by Turks. 

The town is in the jurisdiction of a mooselim, 
or governor, who is delegated by the Pasha of 
Aleppo, in whose sandjak, or district, it is, and 
tributary to it are thirty-two villages. It car- 
ries on a considerable trade with Constanti- 
nople, Brusa, Smyrna, and Cyprus, as also 
with Aleppo, and all the principal towns lying 
between it and Bagdad. It is evidently owing 
to its central situation, so advantageous for 
commerce, that it continues populous; while 
other towns mentioned by Strabo, and evi- 
dently of more importance in former times, 
have dwindled into insignificant villages. 

The principal imports are French and En- 
glish cottons ; and the exports, wool, the goat's 
hair, of which shawls are made, hare skins, 
and a considerable quantity of opium ; of this 



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RAPID DEPOPULATION. 191 

last article^ three thousand ochs were exported 
this year. 

The depopulating system of levying troops 
has not been less felt here than in other parts 
of the Turkish empire. Since the commence- 
ment of the war, twenty-five thousand men 
have been impressed into the service. At 
the beginning of the levies, it was signified 
to the inhabitants that young men only were 
required ; consequently, no persons with beards 
were liable to be called upon. This intima- 
tion produced an immediate cultivation of hair 
on the chin; but the exterminating disasters 
of the war having completely expended the 
supply of youthful recruits, the government 
authorities were obliged to enlist persons of a 
more advanced age ; but to keep their promise 
inviolate, of not impressing bearded men, they 
shaved them first, and then sent them to fill 
up the deficiencies in the ranks of the faithful. 
The number sent to the army last year amounted 
to four hundred, not one of whom, as I under- 
stand, but marched to head-quarters with his 



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192 RAPID DEPOPULATION. 

arms pinioned, and a chain round his neck. 
The levies of the year (1829) had only just 
begun ; sixty had been already taken by force, 
but there had not been a single volunteer; 
such antipathy have they to the service, that 
those whose employment it was to cut wood, 
have ceased to work, lest they should be taken. 
The consequences of such a system need hardly 
be mentioned. A great portion of the Turkish 
houses are empty, the inhabitants having been 
torn from them for military employments. 
None but old men remain to cultivate the land ; 
and all the trades or handicrafts in which 
the Turks usually employ themselves are at 
a stand. As an example of this last circum- 
stance, I sent to-day for some wooden pipe- 
bowls, inlaid with brass, for which Kutaya is 
remarkable. My servant returned without 
them, telling me that the bowl-makers were 
all soldiers, that but one man remained, and 
that he had only two bowls at his disposal. 



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PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 193 



CHAPTER XII. 

Preliminary Remarks — Geographical Accuracy of Colonel 
Leake — Free Quarters — Consequences of the Recruiting 
System — Beards — Supper — Soosooskieu — Chaji-Kieu 
— Tjavdere Hissar^the Ancient Azani — General Appear- 
ance of the Ruins — Bridges — Theatre — Remarks of 
Colonel Leake on the Forms of Asiatic Theatres — Hip- 
podrome T— Temple of Jupiter — Inscriptions — Coins — 
Historical Notices on Azani — Dinner — Extreme Cold. 

December 14. Kutaya to Tatar Bazarjik. — From 
Constantinople to Kutaya, my journey had been 
along the high road to Egypt, in a south-east- 
erly direction; but from Kutaya to Smyrna, 
it led to the southward and westward, through 
the ancient Phrygia and Lydia. 

Colonel Leake, speaking of the line of march 
which I pursued, observes : *' It is in the unex- 
plored part of Phrygia Epictetus, lying between 
the Thymbres and the branches of the Rhyn- 

VOL, II. o 



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194 ACCURACY OF COLONEL LEAKE. 

dacus, on the southern side of the Olympene 
mountains, that the future traveller will seek 
for the Phrygian cities of Cadi, Azani, and 
Synaus. 

" The Azanitis, or district of Azani, con- 
tained the sources of the river Rhyndacus."* 

I went in the direction pointed out by 
Colonel Leake, and came upon two of the 
cities, Cadi and Azani, which he suggested 
the future traveller ought to find; a circum- 
stance which must be highly gratifying to that 
most accurate geographer. 

I left Kutaya at eleven in the morning. 
The first part of the march was occupied in 
the ascent of that mountain, at the base of 
which the town is situated. At nearly the 
summit, the surijee pointed to a place which 
he called the source of the Pursek ; over it 
is a kiosk, built by some pasha, whose name 
I could not learn. At the bottom of the moun- 
tain I crossed a small bridge : I was told that 

* Leake's Asia Minor, p. 168. 



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ANCIENT CASTLE AT KEEISLAR. 195 

there was a stone here with a long inscription ; 
I looked for it» but was not successful in my 
search. 

The road for four hours and a half was 
either over hills or through valleys : the country 
was, generally speaking, depopulated, though 
here and there we passed some small Turkish 
villages, but those in ruins were more numer- 
ous than those inhabited. They were all built 
of stone, and afford presumptive evidence of 
ancient buildings ; for, as I have had occasion 
to remark in numerous instances, a Turkish 
peasant will not take the trouble to employ 
stones for building unless he find them ready 
prepared to hand. 

I was informed by Dr. Millingen, that at 
four hours' distance from Kutaya, in the same 
direction as that in which I was travelling, there 
was an ancient castle, at a place called Kerislar. 
For this edifice I made the most diligent search, 
but without success^ from which, it is to be 
presumed, I did not pursue exactly the same 
route. 



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196 TATAR BAZARJIK. 

In a ride of five hours and a half we entered 
upon a spacious plain : here, as we were stop- 
ping to let our horses drink at a fountain, my 
attention was attracted by some Greek letters. 
After considerable trouble in removingthe stones, 
I discovered a small portion of the inscription. 
It was on a sepulchral tomb-stone, of which 
I afterwards saw many similar in the plain. 

.. 2KAHniA2KAI0..0AMCI 
AAH2XAPIN. 

From the letters which remain, the inscrip. 
tion evidently refers to iEsculapius. 

I arrived in the afternoon at a Turkish 
village called Tatar Bazarjik: it contains a 
few wretched hovels built of stone. I had 
intended to have gone to a village further on 
in the plain, but was arrested by a Greek-in- 
scribed column, which I stopped to copy ; and 
darkness coming on, I was obliged to halt here 
for the night. This stone, which was the upper 
part of the shaft, had only recently been dis- 
covered by the old men while digging for stones 



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GREEK INSCRIPTION 197 

to build their houses. This relic of the an- 
cient Giaours had been applied to a curious 
purpose by the true believers. At the feast 
of the Ramazan, the old inhabitants hire a 
priest, whom they perch upon it, and thence 
make him call the hour of prayer. It now 
stands about three feet out of the ground ; 
sculptured on it is a wreath of ivy, and above 
it the words as here given : — 

TPT^ftNMENI2K0TAII 
KAIT0I2BENNEITAI2. 

* Tryphon, son of Meniskus, 
To Jupiter and the Benneitee. 

' This I take to have been the site of a town 
named Benna, the natives of which were called 
Bmetroci, to distinguish them from the Bspvouoi, 
of Benna, in Thrace.' — (See Stephanus in 

Bma.)* 

* This, and all future sentences in this work enclosed in 
single inverted commas, are the remarks of Colonel Leake, to 



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198 UNSUCCESSFUL SEARCH FOK INSCRIPTIONS. 

Not far from this pillar was a stone, upon 
which the villagers told me there was a long 
inscription » in the same character as that I had 
copied. I set the whole population to work ; 
but it was amidst the ruins of a house that 
had fallen in, and the frost was so very sharp, 
that it was impossible to detach it from the 
other fragments of masonry to which it adhered. 
Besides this stone, several broken pillars and 
fragments of ornamental architecture were ob- 
servable. 

Our lodging for the night was a small 
chamber partitioned off from the bullock-shed ; 
the neighbourhood of the animals was far 
from being unpleasant, as they contributed to 
warmth, of which we stood so much in need. 

We were no sooner seated, than Mustapha 
set all the villagers to woric to bring us the best 
dinner they could procure; adding, with em- 



whom I submitted my inscriptions, and to whose kindness I 
am indebted for observations that will throw great light on 
tliis hitherto unknown region. 



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FREE QUARTERS. 199 

phasis, " You may give us any thing you have, 
for I am not now on public business, and I 
intend to pay for what is consumed." 

The novel circumstance of a Tartar paying 
for what he ate and drank, produced a propor- 
tionable alacrity on the part of our hosts, who 
served us up a repast in their best style. The 
dinner consisted of some soup made of flour, 
some boiled wheat mixed with eggs, and some 
cabbage steeped in salt and water; no very 
palatable fare, but appetites like ours would 
have relished more humble viands. 

Among the numerous inflictions to which 
this ill-fated peasantry are subject, not the 
least is, that of being obliged to maintain, free 
of expense, all travellers in any way connected 
with the government. Thus, had Mustapha 
been alone, or though with me, had I not given 
orders to the contrary, men and horses would 
have been maintained at the wretched peasants' 
charge, and blows at parting would probably 
have been, as it but too often is, the only re- 
compense for their cheer. 



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200 BEARDS. 

Five old peasants, with their wives, and 
the son of one of the five, comprise the whole 
population of Tatar Bazaijik. Before the 
Russian war, this village was sufficiently well 
peopled to be enabled to hold an annual fair; 
but impressment and grievous taxation have 
left only these, who were too old to move. 
The son was an exception; he was about twenty- 
five years of age, and had as yet eluded the 
fangs of Turkish recruiting parties. Hoping 
to escape by the assumption of a more ve- 
nerable appearance, he had shut himself up 
for six weeks in order to enable his beard to 
grow. 

By the Turks of Europe the beard is consi- 
dered to denote the married man, the bachelor 
wearing only mustaches. The shaved chin is 
one of the fashions about which the sultan 
is very solicitous. He would wish to extend 
this fashion to his Asiatic subjects ; but they 
are at present too bigotted to ancient usage 
for him to venture on so dangerous an inno- 
vation. 



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SOOSOOSKIEU. 201 

Our supper this evening was acid soup 
made of flour, boiled wheat mixed with eggs, 
and raw cabbage in salt and water. 

This miserable little village pays a very 
heavy tax to the government. The chief con- 
tributes six hundred piastres a year, a sum 
equivalent to sixty per cent of his hard-earned 
gains. 

December 15. Tatar Bazarjik to Tjavdere 
Hissar. — We started from Tatar Bazarjik at 
daybreak ; it was a fine frosty morning : though 
the road was one sheet of ice, we kept can- 
tering at the usual Tartar pace. We had not 
proceeded more than a mile when the baggage 
horse fell and cut his head and both knees : 
the cords which held the baggage together 
broke, and sent my wardrobe flying in all 
directions. The surijee and Tartar seemed used 
to these accidents, and five minutes set the 
matter to rights. 

In an hour's ride we reached Soosooskieu, 
or the '* Waterless Village." The place was 



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202 CHAJI KIEU. 

Strewed with numerons fragments of Grecian 
architecture : the houses, about ten in number, 
were built of stone. Dr. Millingen found two 
inscribed slabs, on one of which were the 
letters — 

NANAlANTEnANAH 
MNHMH2XAPIN 
NANA2H. .ATTHSnSA 
KAI*P0N0T2A 

The other, containing several lines, begins 
with — 

0EATA2 
TH2KAITH20TrATPO2 

Three miles to the southward of Soosoos- 
kieu is the village of Chaji Kieu. Here I 
found the same indications of antiquity as at 
the last village, and discovered a few inscrip- 
tions. 

The two following are in the court-yard of 
the mosque. The first on a small altar, orna- 
mented with sculptured wreaths: the second 



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CHA/I KIEV. 



203 



on a broken stone, forming a part of the pave- 
ment leading to the interior. 



No. I. 

N2I..ANAN 
OHNEHNI 

NOMHNO 

NAOTMN 

HMH2XA 
PIN 



No. 2. 

nnr 
a:ia2Kaiai 
nKOPn..TnN 

SBA2TnN2MT 
NiriNnOAEIS 
. . ONAOTKIOT 
. . KAATAIOT 
.... EINOT 



Number 3. is part of a fountain ; a hole 
has been made in the centre of the inscription 
to admit the spout. 

No. 3. 

ETEIMH2ENeE0AnP02AI0KAHe2 
AMIONTHNP 0TrTNAIBA<l»IA02 

TOPriA2KAI H2£NSeEN 

OrrATEPA IMENOTMENE 

MAXOT..E 



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204 GENERAL APPEARANCE OF THE RUINS. 

Number 4. is in the burying-grouncL 



No. 4. 

AHMH 

IPP02KAI 

AIOT..HNIN 

A A2 

MI 



Number 6. on a sepulchral monument. 



No. 5. 
ANTIOXnnATPI 
MNHMH2XAPIN 



From Chaji Kieu, we went W. S.W. for an 
hour, which brought us to Tjavdere Hissar, a 
village built entirely of the splendid ruins of 
the ancient Azani. The beautiful temple had 
been visible at six miles' distance : our nearer 
approach to it was marked by lanes formed by 
a prodigious quantity of prostrate shafts of 
columns plain and fluted, highly ornamented 
capitals, and superbly wrought entablatures ; 
rows of erect columns are still standing in 



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BRIDGES. 206 

several parts of the village. The burying- 
grounds are full of architectural fragments, 
and Greek inscriptions meet the eye at every 
turn. 

These ruins occupy the banks of a river, 
which, on my return to Constantinople, I as- 
certained to ba the Rhyndacus. Over this 
stream are two ancient bridges, raised on ellip- 
tical arches, and once surmounted by balus- 
trades, as is evident from the remains of metal 
which formerly retained them in their places : 
a superb quay connects these bridges together. 
On the right bank of the river is the temple, 
from which a communication can be traced to 
the water's edge. Facing its north front, at 
about a quarter of a mile distant, is the theatre ; 
and a little to its north-west angle are the 
remains of a building constructed of huge 
blocks, standing on a low hill. Thus much for 
the description of the general appearance of 
the ruins ; but the theatre and temple merit 
a more particular notice. 

Both buildings stand on the right bank 



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206 THEATRE. 

of the Rhyndacus ; the northernmost is the 
theatre. It is built on the slope of a low 
hill, so that in coming from the north yon enter 
from the level of the ground to the back 
rows of the cavea^ a series of stone benches 
appointed for the spectators. According to 
my measurement, the exterior of the diameter 
of the theatre is 232 feet, and the interior 124. 
The cayea is bounded on each extremity by 
a stone wall, which slopes towards the or- 
chestra, parallel with the rows of benches. 
Near the top on each side is an openmg for 
a window. I endeavoured to ascertain the 
angle which the extremities of the cavea make 
to the scene ; but the wall on each side is so 
much out of the perpendicular, that I could 
not come to any exact conclusion : however, it 
certainly gives much more than a semicircle 
to the cavea. Since my return I have con- 
sulted Dr. Hall (who has also visited these 
ruins), on the form of the extremities of the 
cavea; and his remarks exactly coincide with 
my own. 



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COLONEL LEAKE ON ASIATIC THEATRES. 207 

In the European theatres the ends of the 
cavea are parallel to the scene ; but in all the 
Asiatic theatres hitherto kn6wn, they form an 
oblique angle to it. The theatre of Azani is 
an additional example of this distinction. Co* 
k>nel Leake's remarks on this difference be* 
tween the form of the theatres of Europe and 
Asia are so illustrative that I cannot refrain 
from extracting one or two passages. 

** The advantage of the Asiatic over the 
European construction in Greek theatres, con- 
sisted only in the increase of capacity derived 
from the obliquity of the two ends of the cavea. 
As the spectators in the upper seats of the two 
extremities must have had a very imperfect 
view of the scene, the Asiatic construction may 
perhaps have been adopted to provide the ac« 
commodation for the classes who cared less for 
the drama than for the dancing and dumb- 
show of the orchestra ; and these classes may 
perhaps have been more numerous in the 
Asiatic than in the European cities of Greece. 

** In Asia Minor, the lower part of the 



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208 COLONEL LEAKE ON ASIATIC THEATRES. 

cavea was generally excavated in a hill, and 
the upper part was built of masonry raised 
upon arches ; so that there was a direct access 
from the level of the ground, at the back of the 
theatre, into the middle diazoma, either at the 
two ends 'of the diazoma, or by arched vomi- 
tories in the intermediate parts of the curve 
under the upper division of the cavea."* 

Each cuneous or wedge-shaped division 
comprises sixteen rows of benches, and is sepa- 
rated from its neighbour by thirty-two scalae, 
or steps, which lead into the orchestra. The 
extremities of the benches on both sides of 
the scalse stand upon carved lions' feet. 

Nine yards from the outer circle of the 
cavea are several large marble slabs, each sup- 
ported by three others, vertically placed, with 
their edges facing the scene. Fourteen are 
standing, but there appear to have been origi- 
nally sixteen. I would venture to suggest, 
that they may have been those small porticoes 

* Leake's Asia Minor, pp. 326, 327. 



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THEATRE. 209 

which used to serve the audience as places of 
shelter in wet weather. 

The proscenium appears to form a tangent 
to the circle comprising the orchestra. Be- 
hind it is the scene : in the centre is a large 
doorway of highly polished dressings :^ on each 
of the sides are two smaller ones, and on the 
extremities two still less, which last were evi- 
dently not seen by the spectators ; they lead to 
two towers built of huge masses of stone, and 
still in good preservation. The tower on what 
we should call the prompter's side, apparently 
formed a chamber; but the other is made 
circular inside, for which purpose the stone 
blocks are all curved. 

The orchestra is half-full of the fragments 
of the proscenium, the character of which can 
easily be imagined from what remains. On 
each side of the proscenium, are two beautifully 
fluted shafts lying close to their pedestals ; 
and amongst the heap of ruins are wreaths of 
flowers, highly wrought friezes, and some'su* 
perb Corinthian capitals. Th6 columns appear 

VOL. II. p 



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210 HIPPODROME. 

to bare supported a large entablature, which, 
from the curve observable in the fragments, 
seems to have described the segment of a 
circle. On this, which is of white marble, are 
sculptured figures in high and low relief, de- 
scribing either actions of contest or the chase. 
Amongst them, I observed the figures of men 
fighting with animals, a flight of bulls, another 
of stags, a lion and a tiger contending, and 
a lion in pursuit of prey. 

Behind the scene of the theatre, that is, to 
the southward of it, is an enclosed space of 
two hundred and fifty yards in length (evi- 
dently a hippodrome). It is equal in breadth 
to the scene. The sides of this enclosure are 
bounded for one hundred and ninety yards by 
stone benches, apparently corresponding with 
those in the interior of the theatre, the space 
in the centre being equal to the diameter of 
the orchestra. Half way down this enclosure, 
on the east .side, is a building raised upon 
arches at a decline of the hill; and nearly 
c^posite is another, which is similar to it in 



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DR. HALL S PLAN OF THE THEATRE. 



211 



general character. Both structures are formed 
of those massive uncemented blocks which 
characterise all the buildings of this city. 

The accompanying sketch of the theatre 
and hippodrome of Azani was kindly furnished 
me by Dr. Hall. 




C( £ C 






1 


c 



A A. Camei of the cavea, or 
ranges of seats, and the scahe 
leading to them. 

B. Diazoma, or standing jriboe 
for spectators. 

C. Polpitum of the prosce- 
nium. 

D. Orchestra or area. 
£. Proscenium. 

F. SemicircuUr niche in the 
centre of the scene and the prin- 
cipal door. 

G. Scene. 



j 



y 



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212 COLONEL LEAKE ON ASIATIC THEATRES. 

I shall close my remarks on the theatre of 
Azani with one more extract from Colonel 
Leake, whose opinions accord exactly with 
my own. 

" I may here take the opportunity of ob- 
serving, that there are no remains of Greek 
architecture more illustrative of the ancient 
state of society in Greece than the theatres. 
Comparing them with modern works of the 
same kind, we are astonished at the opulence 
required to collect the materials of those im- 
mense edifices, ai^d afterwards to construct 
them ; as well as at the effect of those customs 
and institutions which, in filling the theatre, 
could inspire such a multitude of citizens with 
a single sentiment of curiosity, amusement, 
or political feeling. It may be said, that the 
theatres of Greece are an existing proof of the 
populousness of the states of that country, 
much more convincing than the arguments of 
those who have endeavoured to confute the 
received opinions on this subject. No Grecian 
community was complete without a theatre. 



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TEMPLE OP JUPITER. 213 

In the principal cities they were from 360 to 
500 feet in diameter, and capable of containing 
from eight or ten, to twenty thousand specta- 
tors. I have already, ih another work,* shewn 
some reasons for believing that the Greeks 
were indebted for the invention of these build- 
ings to the same city to which they owed so 
large a share of their civilisation. The Di- 
onysiac theatre at Athens, as it *was con- 
structed at the time when iEschylus brought 
the drama to perfection, seems to have been 
the original model which, with some slight 
variations, was adopted throughout the Grecian 
states both of Europe and Asia."t 

Proceeding southwards, you arrive at the 
temple, which I shall assume was sacred to 
Jupiter. It is situated on the summit of a 
small isolated eminence, with that attention 
to effect, from an elevated situation, which the 
Grecian architects knew so well how to produce. 
The whole hill has been enclosed, so as to 

♦ Topography of AtheDS, sec. 4. 
t Leake's Asia Minor, pp. 327, 328. 



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214 TEMPLE OF iUPITER. 

form a square of one hundred and eighty yards : 
each face of this enclosure is marked by pros- 
trate fluted shafts of pillars at regular inter- 
vals, as well as by a wall of large blocks, which 
can be occasionally traced on the north, west, 
and south sides. At the north-west angle the 
wall is twelve or fourteen feet high, and] is 
formed by blocks five feet long, three thick, 
and from three to four feet broad. Towards 
the east side, which faces the river, the ascent 
is more steep, and the deficiency is supplied by 
a succession of beautifully constructed arches. 
The temple itself stands on a continued 
plinth, rising five feet and a half from the 
ground : the elegance and beauty of the archi- 
tecture are equal to the best specimens of 
Greek taste now extant. Out of fifteen pillars, 
which formerly stood on the north side, thirteen 
remain ; and of the eight which decorated the 
western front, five are still in the highest pre- 
servation; and those that are down lie half 
buried in the ground at a short distance from 
where they fell. These pillars are fluted, and 



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TEMPLE OF JUPITER. 215 

are of the most beautiful Ionic order. One of 
them is so much corroded by exposure at the 
base, that nothing but the most perfect equili- 
brium could have supported it: the shaft of 
each column is formed of a single block. The 
columns towards the east and south are all 
overthrown, but are close to their original po- 
sition. The same observation is applicable to 
the walls of the temple which stand towards 
the north and west, but have fallen towards 
the south and west. From the manner in 
which these pillars have fallen, it has been 
suggested to me that they have been thrown 
down by one of the earthquakes which so fre- 
quently visit this region. 

Close to the wall on the western side, are 
two beautiful Corinthian pillars ; on each side 
of them is a door leading to the interior of the 
temple, and between them is a stone slab, 
artfully contrived to conceal a secret passage 
leading to a vaulted chamber underneath the 
pavement of the temple. Here, probably, the 
neophytes were initiated into the mysteries of 



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216 TEMPLE OF JUPITER. 

the deity to be worshipped. This chamber 
corresponds in width and length to the body 
of the temple. The arched roof of this vault 
is formed by highly polished square stones, 
so accurately joined together, that the hand of 
time has not in the least injured it. There 
are three outlets from the vault to the north 
front, and a corresponding number to the south. 
The secret passage to the west, to which I 
have before alluded, doubtless served to fa- 
cilitate the execution of those numerous per- 
formances, by which the priests of former days 
were wont to practise on the credulity and 
blind superstition of the people. Of the beams 
which cross the portico, eight yet remain. 
The length of the temple is one hundred and 
sixteen feet, the breadth is sixty-eight feet, 
and the shafts of the pillars are twenty-eight 
feet long; the beam of the portico to the 
pavement, measures forty feet exclusive; and 
six feet allowed for the plinth of the edifice. 

The following is Dr. Hall's measurement of 
the temple. It is given in French feet. 



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TEMPLE OP JUPITER. 217 

Length of the temple, on the upper step of the stylobate of 
the peristyle, 111 feet. 

Breadth of the temple, 64^ feet. 

Space between the columns of the peristyle and the walls 
of the celia (on the sides), 10 feet 7^ inches. 

Between the columns of the portico (on the west front) 
and the walls of the cella, 4 feet. 

Between the portico columns and those of the peristyle, 
12 feet. 

The intercolumniations on the flanks are 5 feet. 

On the west front they are unequal. 

Length of the cella, 73^ feet. 

Breadth of ditto, 35| feet. 

Thickness of the walls 33 inches. 

Projection, or prolongation of the north and south side* 
walls beyond the west outside wall, 7 feet. 

Breadth of space between the double walls of west front, 
44 inches. 

Height of the stylobate, or platform on which the peristyle 
is raised, 5 feet 3 inches. 

Breadth of doorways, 5 feet 9 inches. 

Height of columns, including base and chapiter, 31 feet 
10 inches. 

Diameter of shaft of column near the base, 36f inches. 

At the top, 31^. 

The columns have 24 flutings, 4 inches in breadth, and 2 
in depth. 



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218 



TEMPLE OF JUPITBIU 



The accompanying wood-cut describes the 
ground plan of the Temple of Jupiter, as fur- 
nished me by the kindness of Dr. Hall. 



A 
• # # 



A 

c 






o # 



A 

# • 



e 



I 






O O G> o 
K 






L 



G 

I ® 

j • 

I ® 



OGQOOOGOO O 

K O O 



A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

U 

I 

K 

L 

M 

N 

O 

X 



Colonnade of fifteen columns, north side. 

IMtto of eight oolunuu, west front. 

Space between colonnade and walls of the t^nple. 

Columns of portico on west front, with composite chapUars. 

Space between inner and outer walls of west front. 

Doorways. 

Area of the cella. 

North side-wall of temple. 

Projection of norUi-side wall of the cella. 

South side colonnade. 

Opening into chamber beneath. 

Basement line of south walL 

Ap«rture to li^ht the space E. 

Point of junction of a transverse waU, of later oonstructioa. 

Extreme point of original wall of temple, north side. 



— marks the line of the walls of the temple now standing. 

marks the line of the walls of the tem|»le now destroyed. 

# marks the columns now erect. 
marks those which have fallen. 



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INSIDE OF NORTH WALL. 



219 



On the outside of the north \rall of the 
temple there are three Greek inscriptions : 
in the inside there are two in the Greek and 
three in the Latin language. Below is a 
sketch, shewing the tablet stones on the inside. 




Those on the outside are about twelve feet 
from the ground. I took copies of them by- 
means of a ladder. There are, besides, several 
long Greek inscriptions in the inside, towards 
the eastern corner, but they were out of the 
reach of my ladder ; and after several un- 
successful contrivances to reach them, I was 



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220 REMARKS ON INSCRIPTIONS. 

obliged to abandon my scheme of obtaining 
a copy. The future visiter to these ruins 
might buy or borrow a ladder from one of 
the neighbouring villages, and by fastening it 
to that which will be furnished him on the 
spot, he will be enabled to ascend high enough 
to decipher the other inscriptions. 

On my return to England I forwarded my 
inscriptions to Colonel Leake. Dr. Hall,* who 
had likewise taken copies, was so obliging as 
to allow me the use of them. I sent them 
also to Colonel Leake. He compared the two 
copies together, and has succeeded in giving 
the following explanation of them. I would 
here observe, that no one should be deterred 
from copying an inscription, by knowing that 
it has been examined by a preceding traveller. 
Neither Dr. Hall's nor my own copy would 
have been complete without the assistance of 
each other. 

* Dr. Hall, whose name occurs in the mention of these 
ruins, is a Radclifie travelling Fellow of the University of 
Oxford. 



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INSCRIPTIONS. 221 

Respecting these inscriptions, Colonel 
Leake observes, — * Nos. I., II., III., IV., 
in the Greek character, are in honour of a 
citizen of Azani, living in the reign of Ha- 
drian, and named Marcus Ulpius Apuleius 
Eurycles ; — the remaining four relate to a 
dispute among thQ Azanitse concerning the 
sacred land of Jupiter, which was referred to 
the reigning emperor (his name does not ap- 
pear), by the Roman governor, Aulus Ovi- 
dius Quietus. No. V. is a letter in Greek 
addressed by Ovidius to the Azanitee, in 
which he refers to a copy of the emperor's 
letter to himself, which he had sent to the 
Azanitae, and to another letter which he 
(Ovidius) had written to Hesperus, the em- 
peror's procurator, requiring him to cause the 
lands of Jupiter to be measured ; and in other 
respects to conform to the emperor's direc- 
tions. No. VI. is the letter of the emperor to 
Quietus; No. VII. is the letter of Quietus to 
Hesperus ; No. VIII. is the reply of Hesperus 
to Quietus. The Latin inscriptions are so 



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222 INSCRIPTIONS. 

imperfect, that I am not able to discover the 
exact mode in which the Roman officers pro- 
ceeded in executing the emperor's orders, nor 
indeed what those orders exactly were: nor 
have I at present the means of referring to any 
similar documents which might assist in sup- 
plying some of the lost words.' 

No. I. 
' Is an epistle addressed to the archons, 
council, and people of the ^zanitae, by the 
council of the Areiopagus at Athens, and 
Numenius Menis(cus) its herald, who was 
also superintendent of the Agonistic contests, 
called those of the empress. — '* Your excel- 
lent citizen having passed the whole of this 
year in our city, in a manner worthy of his 
own dignity and your city, having lived in 
Athens as if it were his native place, attentive 
to discipline, and indicating every kind of 
virtuous inclination, by the pursuit of the best 
and most important objects; for this reason 
we have conferred upon him the honours due 



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INSCRIPTIONS. 223 

to him, by the erection of a statue and por- 
trait in whatever part of our city Athens he 
may think proper, as well as in your city: 
and all these things we have thought it just to 
testify to you in favour of the man, for the 
sake of his probity and his emulation in his 
studies." ' 

No. II. 

* Is a letter from Titus archon of the 

Panellenes, priest of the god Hadrian, and 
superintendent of the games called the Great 
Panellenia, and from the Panellenes to the 
council, people, and archons of the ^zanitae. 
After stating the propriety of making publicly 
known the honours conferred upon good 
men, and after congratulating the iEzanitse on 
possessing such citizens, the writers proceed 
to state that Ulpius Eurycles had conducted 
himself with moderation during the year in 
which he had had a ^eat in the Panellenium, 
had received every one with kindness, and in 
the community had made himself conspicuous 
in regard to discipline as well as equity and 



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224, INSCRIPTIONS. 

other virtues. Hence they, (Titus and the 
Panellenes,) thought it right to give their tes- 
timony to, and to congratulate the Mza.nil8d 
concerning the man, in order to manifest their 
regard to the community of the Panellenium, 
and especially to its most admirable archon 
Flavins Cyllas, who had shewn an honour- 
able feeling, which had not only adorned 
Eurycles, but also the most illustrious city 
of the iEzanitae, — things worthy of which, 
and of his race, and of the virtue derived 
from his ancestors, he (the archon) had per- 
formed both by word and deed during the 
whole year; for which reason they (Titus and 
the Panellenes) had written an epistle to the 
nation concerning him, and another to the 
most divine emperor, having considered him 
worthy of such a testimony.' 

No. III. 

* Is an epistle addressed to the Greeks of Asia, 
by another archon of the Panellenium and 
priest of Hadrian, named Claudius Jason, and 



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INSCRIPTIONS. 225 

written also, like the former, in the name of 
the Panellenes. 

' *' Having already shev^n that we consi- 
dered Marcus Alpius Apuleius Eurycles worthy 
of our testimony, by letters addressed to your- 
selves, and to his native city, and to the great 
emperor, we have also thought it just, on the 
accession of the most potent Claudius Jason 
to the archonship, again to bear witness, that 
he (Eurycles) has conducted himself with pru- 
dence and great moderation in his transactions 
with the political union of the Panellenes, and 
has improved on the worthy character which 
he derives from the gods and from his ances- 
tors, in every thing which he has accomplished, 
in word or deed during the time that he held a 
seat (in the Panellenium). Farewell." ' 

No. IV. 

' Is a letter to the Panellenium, bearing a 
date corresponding with the 30th November, 
A.D. 140, in the second year of the autocrasy 

VOL. II. Q 



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226 INSCRIPTIONS. 

of Antoninus Pius. It merely acknowledges 
that the emperor bad received advice of Eurycles 
being admitted into the Panellenuim, from the 
former members of that body.' 

No. V. 

* Aulus Ovidius Quietus to the archons, 
council, and people of the iEzanitae, health. 
The controversy concerning the sacred land, 
anciently dedicated to Jupiter, having been 
agitated for many years, has been brought to 
an end by the providence of the greatest 
emperor ; in consequence of my being sent to 
explain to him the whole affair and to inquire 
of him what it was necessary to do, there being 
two things which chiefly moved you to dissen- 
sion, and which created a difl5culty in effecting 
the object and in finding the means. By uniting 
justice with humanity, and by thence proceed- 
ing to direct his attention to the judgment, he 
has dissolved the enmity and suspicion which 
had continued for so many years among you, 
as you will learn from the letter which he sent 



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INSCRIPTIONS. 227 

to me, and a copy of which I have forwarded 
to you. I have given directions to Hesperus, 
the intendant of the Augustus, to choose geo- 
metricians, and to employ them in the measure- 
ment of the land/ * ♦ ♦ 
* m 



No. I. 

mq rSf Tif( 2^fl(0Tii( i^mm N«v^pi«$ Mifyitf-* • 

iiftmotf If ifiSf rf irixu frtirrl r«vrf rS j^ifm Hini rdv n 
ttvfy HmfiutTti luti rni vfAtn^a^ iriXwiy #$ If irar^iit 

xSf iuti fruouv ly«^«p ir^tit^wtf ifrtiuttfVfAtf^q 

itti TiK ^i r«i xaXXtara tutl rtftfirur* rsrdvSiff* ii^ retvra k'ifii((rmfMf) 

h Ttrti ifuri^ ^ixu rtuf 'Ainrmf If m &9 idiXnrt^ '!'•«'«, xm} 
(i wcUitimf ^iX^TifnUi. 



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228 INSCRIPTIONS. 



No. II. 

luti My0f$inii rmf fityeixttv TlMHXXnf^f TTr^f 

luti 44 TltiuXXnns Al^anirttv C«vAtj', Koi rS (inf*f j^i^ufy ruq «^«v0-i) 

attffj Mci?i6v$»f ififdXMfilidv^trH ^ IffTiv tZxf i M. OvXxi«$ Ev^vjcXjk «vy> 

TdV( n KM$* icamf vi^wifen ^tXU %eu h rS jmifm M ircuiuti n luti 
rjT «AAi| tf^trf tai iJFtuxtm iiainXh idvrh ^mrHntcWy tvX&ydf iyn- 
0-tifct§ti fiia^^natit avrm wa^ vfMv xeti iv0^«v«i vfiZty hiiul^afiiyt 
%f ^^If tiMf tvfuif f;^0^f'> 9r^«$ Tf TO jM<My r«i; II«rfAA49/*v iM(i /}<« 
x(i$ rh ^atvfAeurUtrtwf ifiSv ti^j^drrtt ^X^iff KvXXw i^tX&rtfcui »i;^- 
fcif9 x»0ffif07i •UK tivrh filfw r\f 'Rv^wcXm lkxx» »mi riif imr^fM- 
rdrnf vfiif wlXn $$ «(<« xmI rdv yifwq lutl ng fit «'^oy^F«F ifi^Myu^ta^t 
luU Afyifi' iM(i ^^mrrmf wei^§^ mrra rh x^iff imrrriXjtKtr tmrntXa 
ii luti r«^^$ rl t$ff inri^ »vvv xai ^^«( rh 0nir»T69 avr^tc^tir^^A luti •m- 
Xtxavrnf fM^v^Ui «(<«9 «vt«f v^oA«tC«rrK. "'B.fftivh, 



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INSCRIPTIONS. 229 



No. HI. 

*0 «^«F rSf TletfiX?Jifit9 xai ti^un w 0$4v 'Ai^tecuv IletftXXnfUv 

ILtrfAAtiyK r^Tf he) riif 'Artttg *'EAAii«, xi**'i**** 

M. OvAxiov 'A^0vA«i0i> £v^v»Af« Al^ccfttrnf .... f«iy ii^ x^i 9/ 

tc^tir^^tf imeit^f il iyno'dfofitt xai r«v »(«r/(rr«v KA. 'I«0i»m$ 9r«t^A«C«y- 
r«$ rifv ti^X^fy fM^v^nnci etvrS r$^ nvrk luntucUtt rt xai »iio7 ^dayi 

Aiywy xt^ w^mrrttf ^MtnrtAiiM ^vii^i^ Trdvrtt rlf t>fs 0t;yf}^i/«K 

No. IV. 

0MV Nc^« ucyo9»fy TtTf A7Ai«$ 
'Ay}(M»yof 'Ayr«yf<y«$ SfC^rrif^ 
'^CX^C*^ MiyioT©^, Aii^i«^X'*»»^ 

liaenXXnflm x^^n. ("Ot<) 

•/ flr^i v^y HetfiXKum (M.) 0»A»-i#f 

Ev^twAftf iirci^ttrr^ in hrttlxn 

tfiui^f ix r«y ixtrreiXfUfm. *Evrvxun. 

9r^0 ««A«iv}«y Ai«V^(/«y h 'P«^. 



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230 INSCRIPTIONS. 



No. V. 



r9$ii^g vAXeu rf Asf, r^tZofAiVfj roXXwv iruv, rp x^voicf rov 

didf o^a¥ bfi^ xtvovvra xai rh d{fift^tg xa^ dutff^^irov rov 

ir^dy/iMTog *fra^iy(6fL%Ht: fjJ^ag rf ftXav^^oiXtft rh dixasov^ dxoXou- 

^ug rfi Tf^/ rdg x^ttftti srtfAtXiitf, rh¥ ^o>.ux^6¥Ufv bfLw liidyri^ xai iKR»{//- 

av ^^hg dW^Xovi iXu^tv, xa^ojg in riig i^KTroXfji $y mfi0-^i¥ r^hg ^ 

fia&^^f<f6§ ijg rh &¥Tiy^fo¥ v/iS^ ^i^ofifa. {M^)iiXa ds 'Etnrs^fft rf ivf 

r^6^(ft rov 2f Catf^oD Scrug yiufi,ir^ag iiri rrig (^sr^tfUM^ X)i^d/j,i¥i>g sxiivotg 

v^oeyj^^nrou ri)y ;^cG^ai' hiafMr^w xax ¥ bfiT^ yttv^^rai 

xai 8X rt!i¥ U^w roD Ka/Va^o^ y^afi/idr dniXu xai Uri dtT n- 

XiTV vr^^ ixd^ou xXij^ou xard n)y patfi • • • • t}(rav 4« 

fi>i§ag XdQfin r^¥ ir/tfroX^v ixdtSr /f^o • • • • ^a^ 

X<^^OLg nXi^ti l¥a fiij xdXtv r» vtg « • • • • • • 

C^adf/ov dxo\av(fa/ rijv *ir6'Kt¥ •• g 

yivmrat a^* • f . • yd^ ahroTg rh fJ^'^y^t • • . • 

fa hi xai rtjg ^^hg "Etfin^ov tTidro *• 

IM iy^apiv, *Eppui<f6ai bfj^g su;^(o^&a/) • 



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INSCRIPTIONS. 231 

No. VI. 

Exemplar Epistul<B (Imperatjoris scripttB ad 
Quietum. 

Si in quantas particulas, quOs cleros appellant, ager ^zanen- 
si Jovi dicatus a regibus, di(Wsus sit) non apparet, optimum est, 
sicut tu quoque existimas, eum, qui in vicinis civitatibus 
clerorum nee maximus (nee mi)nimus est, observari, et si cum 

Melius Modestus ut vectigal PROIS* pendere- 

tur constitit (^zanit)ici agri, eequum est ex 

tempore vectigal pendi constitit jam ex hoc tem- 
pore vectigal pendend(um) ^ 

No. VII. 

Exemplar Epistulce Quieii scriptcB 
ad Hesperum. 

Cum variam esse clerorum mensuram 
cognoverim et sacratissimus Imperator con- 
• stitutionis suee causa neque maximi neque 
(min)imi mensuram iniri jusserit in ea re- 
(gione q) us Jovi JEzanitico dicata dicitur 

Hespere carissime exploresque 

ri mensura quee minimi 

ipsa ilia regione sit et id 

(n)otum mihi facias. 

• Procoratoris ? 



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232 COINS. 



No. VIII. 

Exemplar Epistulm scriptcB Quie- 
to ab Hetpero, 

Queedam negotia, domine, non ali- 
ter ad consummationem perduci 

possunt quam usu sunt 

eorum 

xisset ut tibi enuntiarem quee 
mensura esset clerorum circa re- 
gionem ^zaniticam misi in rem 
praesentem ep (istulam). 



Abundance of coins were brought in the 
course of the day. I bought several: some 
were of silver, but the greater portion Vere 
of copper. They were Greek and Latin, and 
several were of the Lower Empire. Two of the 
coins relate to Azani. One of them, which 
I have mislaid, bore the figure of Jupiter. 
The drawing of the other is here given. 
It represents Antoninus Pius: on the reverse 



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COINS. 



233 



side is Fortune, bearing a cornucopia and a 
rudder. 




The other drawing is of a coin given me by 
Dr. Millingen. It represents Faustina, with 
iBsculapius on the reverse, having the usual 
emblem of a serpent twisted round a rod. 




Round each of the coins is the word Aiza- 

NEITON. 

It will be seen that one of. these coins, 
namely, that of Antoninus Pius, is coeval 
with the fourth Greek inscription on the 
temple. Faustina was probably the daughter 
of Antoninus. 



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234 HISTORICAL NOTICES ON AZANI. 

In the passage of Strabo already quoted,* 
Azani appears first on the list of the citieg 
of Phrygia Epictetus. The same author also 
mentions, that the river Rhyndacus takes its 
rise in Azanitis.f That the stream which flows 
through Tjavdere Hissar, is the Rhyndacus, 
may be very fairly assumed, as I continued 
on or near its banks as far as Taushanlu : 
at no great distance is the lake Abulionte, 
whence its course is known until it disem- 
bogues into the sea.;|; 

* Page 188. 

Strab. lib. xii. p. 576. 

Pliny observes : '* Amnes Horisius et Rhyndacus ant^ 
Lycus Tocatus. Oritur in stagno Artynia juxta Miletopolin 
recipit Maciston et plenosque alios, Asiam Bithyniamque 
disterminans.'' Vide also Ptol. lib. v. cap. i. p. 116. 

I << We ascended the banks of this river (of Azani) for 
about two miles^beyond the town, having been told that 
we should come to its source ; instead of which we found 
a strong massive bridge, of Roman construction, crossing 
a narrow gorge, whence the river probably derives its origin. 
There was no inscription on the bridge, nor any remains 



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HISTORICAL NOTICES ON AZANI. 236 

Ptolemy spells this name Ai^amq. It fol- 
lows KoTvduoy, which agrees with the locality 
of these two places.* Herodianus writes the 
word Al^dpot, deriving the name from iEzen, 
the son of Tantalus, one of the kings of 
Phrygia.f This city is also mentioned by 
Hierocles.J 

I have assumed the temple to be sacred 
to Jupiter, because allusion is made in both 
the Greek and Latin inscriptions on the wall 
to that deity, and because several of the coins 
prove that his worship prevailed in Azani. 

Of the coins of Azani now extant there is 
one of Commodus, which represents the figure 
of a goat giving suck to the Amalthaean Jupiter: 



of other ancient buildings in the neighbourhood." — Extract 
of a Letter from Dr. Hall to the Author. 
* Ptol. lib. V. cap. ii. p. 120. 

^i». — Steph. in voce 'AZANOI. 
t Hiero. p. 668. 



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236 HISTORICAL liOTICES ON A2ANI. 

pound it are the letters AIZANEITHN. Ano- 
ther is of the Emperor Hadrian: on it is a 
woman, with a horn in her right hand. This 
is conjectured to relate to her who nourished 
Jupiter. The word AIZANETrUN is also 
inscribed. A third is of Caius Caesar, repre- 
senting Jupiter with an eagle on his right 
hand^ and a spear in his left. On it are 
the letters of AIZANIXaN. EHL POT<I>OT. 
KAA22IKOT;* and there are several others. 

I continued copying inscriptions and ex- 
amining ruins till dark, when I took posses- 
sion of the hut assigned to me, and sat down 
to a dinner of fish from the Rhyndacus, and 
some dishes of vegetables : amongst others^ 
was a very palatable pudding, made of flour, 
honey, and opium oil. 

The curiosity of the villagers made my 

little hovel the general rendezvous for all the 

« 
idlers: at last they became so intrusive, that 

I allowed no one to enter without bringing 

* Stephan. Co/nment. in roce A/{«mi. 



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EXTREME COLD. 237 

a log of wood with him, as the price of ad- 
mission. 

The heavy burdens of taxation formed, 
as usual, the sole subject of conversation. 
Tjavdere Hissar contains sixty houses, and 
pays, on an average, three hundred piastres 
a house. 

December 16. I resumed my task this 
morning of copying inscriptions, and suffered 
much from cold in the process. The frost 
was very sharp ; and I was obliged constantly 
to quit my ladder, my bands being so numbed 
as to be unable to hold my pencil. 



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238 LEAVE AZANI. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Leave Azani — A consular Bust — Use of burning Brushwood 
— Scamn^ony — Trade — GMu6diz-T-|Oreek Inscription — 
Colonel Leake's Translation and Remarks — Historical 
Notices on Cadi< — The Journey in Asia Minor recom- 
mended. 

December 17. Tjavdere Hissar to Ghi6diz. — 
In half an hour's inarch we quitted the plain 
of Azani, and, going in a westerly direction, 
ascended a hill which brought us to an 
open country: thence, we passed through a 
valley formed by two mountains parallel to 
each other; where we came on the traces of the 
old Roman road. In the middle of this valley, 
are two votive altars, partly out of the ground ; 
on one of them, is the vestige of a Latin inscrip- 
tion. We then descended a hill, and at the 
bottom of it, on the left hand, saw an ancient 
fountain ; close to it is a marble bust, but the 
face has been so ill treated as to render the 



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USE OF BURNING BRUSHWOOD. 239 

features undistinguishable ; the dress bespeaks 
it to be that of a consul. 

We now passed through a forest of pines, 
and arrived at a fountain famous for the ex- 
cellence of its waters. This brought us to the 
ascent of a high mountain ; the brushwood 
with which it was covered had been set on 
fire in many places. It had been burned by 
the camel -drivers, in order to enable their 
animals to feed on the rich and nutritious 
herbs that are to be found amongst the roots 
of the trees. In the neighbourhood of Constan- 
tinople the practice of burning is prohibited, 
because the shade of the leaves is favourable 
to humidity, which serves to supply the mine- 
ral waters abundant in the neighbourhood of 
the 6ity. 

The descent of this mountain brought us to 
Ghi6diz, the Cadi of the ancients : we entered 
the town over a platform bridge, supported by 
stone buttresses, and took Up our quarters at 
the post-house. 

Ghi6diz, of which no account has been given 



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240 SCAMMONY. 

by any European traveller, occupies the slop^ 
and base of two mountains. It contains eight 
hundred houses. The whole population con- 
sists entirely of Turks. Nearly all the houses 
here have flat roofs; the first I saw on this 
side of Asiatic Turkey. In and about Bagdad 
all houses are so constnibted. The toWn is 
celebrated for its scammony, which is abundant. 
It is but within a few years that the nuxle of 
gathering this gum, which formerly came from 
Aleppo, has been known to the inhabitants. 
They repair to the spot where it grows, slightly 
clear the ground round the root of the plant, 
and as soon as it has attained its growth, which 
is towards the end of June, they cut it <K)m- 
pletely across the stem; a white fluid ex- 
udes from the incision, which, after remaining 
exposed to the air, thickens, and on drying 
assumes a greyish black. The article is seldom 
brought pure to the market: it is sometimes 
mixed up with resin, starch, and black earth, 
and is further adulterated by the Jews of 
Smyrna, who manufacture it for the English 



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TRADE. 241 

market, having found that the buyers accus* 
tomed to the false, will not purchase the true 
drug. 

Wool, turpentine, gall-nuts, velanea, timber; 
wax, honey, and opium, are the principal arti- 
cles of export in this district. There are several 
vineyards in the neighbourhood, but the fruit 
is unfit for the confection of wine: it is dried' 
in the sun, and serves to make vinegar, and a 
sort of treacle called pitmis. 

This toyen is very unhealthy in the summer 
months. It is watered by a river called the 
Gedis-chaee, which name it retains until it dis- 
embogues into the Archipelago, a little above 
Smyrna : this stream I have ascertained to be the 
Hermus of ancient history, having travelled along 
its banks from the source to the whole extent 
of its course. The appearance of the stream is 
very picturesque : it enters the town from the 
north-west, and after winding through it with 
impetuosity, caused by the steepness of the 
mountain, passes out through a chasm of a 
high abrupt rock, which appears to have been 

VOL. II. R 



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242 GREBK INSCRIPTIONS. 

cleft in twain from top to bottom to receive its 
course. 

The moment I dismounted, I sallied forth 
on my antiquarian pursuit. This place can- 
not boast of the same splendid specimens of 
antiquity as Azani; still there are sufficient 
remains to identify it as the site of an an- 
cient town; I found in several places the 
capitals of pillars of the Coi inthian and other 
orders of architecture. Of this, the post-house 
itself is an example, where these capitals form 
the basies of rude wooden pillars which have 
been found useful in supporting the Ul-con- 
structed building. On a fountain in the bazaar 
is a votive altar sacred to ^scula{]iius. It re- 
presents two birds, each sitting, on a nest, and 
above it these words :— 

A2KAHniAilHKAni<l>ION 

MBNeNiipnKAn<i>mro 

KETEINMNHMH2XA 
PIN. 

In another part of the town, is the figure of 



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GREEK INSCRIPTIONS. 243 

a child in black marble; below is the following 
inscription, sculptured in a very inferior style 
to that in the bazaar : — 

TOrC.NHMHNOC 
rOPniAIOTHK 
AKINATNOCKAI 
EOECIAAKIKN 
N..TET. 

The principal Turkish mosque is built of 
large Hellenic blocks, about which it is impos- 
sible to be deceived, as no such blocks have 
ever been employed by the Turks: hence it 
may be fairly inferred, that it was formerly an 
ancient temple. 

On the balustrade of a bridge of Turkish 
structure, is an inscribed stone, which has been 
placed there not with reference to the cha- 
racters on it, but as its size accidentally suited 
the purpose of the builder. 

Near the arch of the same bridge, is a com- 
plete illustration of the Turks' thorough indiffer- 
ence to the fine arts. Laid in with the other 



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244 COLONEL leake's translation. 

stones of which the bridge is built, are the 
fragments of two very fine white marble statues 
of a male and female. The first of these re-* 
presents a man wanting the head and legs, in 
Grecian or Roman armour. The other the 
body of a woman from the hips downwards, in 
loose flowing drapery. 

There are plenty of coins to be purchased 
at Ghi^diz: nearly all that I saw were of the 
Lower Empire. 

The following is a legible copy of the in- 
scription on the bridge :—. 

* The community of the Abbaeitee of Mysia have honoured 
their ancestor Chromius/ 

' This inscription may be thought perhaps 
to invalidate the presumption deriyed firom the 
similarity of name that Ghi^diz is the site of 
Cadi. But the Abbaeitee, although they coined 
money inscribed with the same words, Mt;<r£i/ 
'A66a/TOv, which are found in the inscription of 



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COLONEL LEAKe's TRANSLATION. 245 

Ghi^diz, appear to have been not the inhabit- 
ants of a city of that name, but a portion of 
the Mysians ; for Strabo describes Abasitis 
(Abbaeitis) as a district containing the town 
Ancyra, which could not have been at Ghi^diz, 
because Strabo expressly states that Ancyra 
stood at the sources of the Mecistus, which 
was a branch of the Rhyndacus, whereas 
Ghi^iz is near the sources of the Hermus, 
upon which river the coins of Cadi prove that 
city to have stood.* The position of Ghi^iz, 
moreover, agrees exactly with that of Cadi, as 
may be inferred from Strabo, who, having 
described Mysia Olympene and Phrygia 
Epictetus as occupying all the country on the 
southern side of Olympus, adds, that Cadi, 

* On one of the coins of Cadi is a reclining figure, bear- 
ing an urn, from which water is flowing. This is evidently 
the river god Hermus. Round it are the letters, EPM02. 
Em KAEOnATOPOS. APXnN. A. KAAOHNHN. A coin 
of Claudius Csesar represents a man with a fish in his right 
hand. The letters on it are— £niM£AinN02* A2KAHm- 
AAOT* KAAOHNHN. 



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246 HISTORICAL MOTBfl ON CADI. 

although generally considered with Azani and 
Cotyaeium, to have been a city of Phrygia 
Epictetus, was by some ascribed to Mysia;^ 
which agrees with Ptolemy, who excludes 
Cadi from Phrygia, but places it on the bor- 
ders of that province, t It is easy to conceive 
that Cadi thus placed may, on somh unknown 
occasion, have become a part of the commu- 
nity of the Mysi Abbaeit®, whence probably 
the remark of Strabo, that Cadi was sometimes 
ascribed to Mysia.'l 

Stephanus calls Cadi a city of Mysia.§ It 
is also mentioned by Hierocles.jl Propertius 
also alludes to it in one of his elegies: 

Spargite me lymphis, carmenque recentibus aris, 
I^bia Mygdoniis libet eburaa Cadis.V 

K«}«/* T«v; it Ka(3«v$ fr<«f rni Mvricti (fttia-if. — StRaBO; p. 576. 

t Ptolem. lib. v. c. 2. 

t Colonel Leake*s observations on the author's notes. 

§ Stephanus Byzant. in voce Ka3«/. 

II Hiero. p. 668. 

ir Propert. lib. v. el. 6. vcr. 7. 



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HISTORICAL NOTES ON CADI. 247 

There can be as little question of the iden^ 
tity of Cadi with Ghi6diz, as there is of Azani 
with Tjavdere Hissar. It is not only proved 
by its relation to other cities, and by its po«> 
sition on the banks of the Hermus, but also 
by the affinity of name, Ghi^diz being evi- 
dently the ** same place as Kcc^oi, the name of 
which the Turks received from the Greeks, 
in the usual Romaic form of the accusative 

Thus, of the three Phrygian cities of Cadi, 
Azani, and Synaus, indicated by Colonel Leake 
as likely to be found between the branches of 
the Thymbres and the Rhyndacus, the sites 
of two of them have been satisfactorily esta- 
blished ; a circumstance that is highly creditable 
to the accuracy and research of this intelligent 
geographer. 

It is to be hoped, that the little difficulty 
with which these points have been ascertained, 
the abundant indications of antiquity throughout 

* Leake's Asia Minor, p. 169. 



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248 JOURNEY IN ASIA MINOR RECOMMENDED. 

the country, and the increased facilities of 
travelling, will induce others of our country- 
men to ^isit this beautiful and most interesting 
region. 



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PRBTTY TURKISH GIRL. 249 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Pretty Turkish Girl — Dine with the Waiwoda — A young 
Georgian — Conscripts — Intelligence of the Zebeks — 
Mustapha misleads me — Error of Pliny respecting the 
Source of the Hermus — Mount Olympus — The Sultan'iB 
Signature— An accomplished Secretary — Jeni Kieu — 
Inscription — Forest of Firs — Unveiled Turkish Women— 
We come to a River, Conjectures on the Direction of its 
Course — ^The Hyllus, or Macbtus — Simaul, or Ismael — 
The probable Site of Blaundus, or Blandus — Abundance 
of Game — Zebeks on my intended line of March — Civility 
of the Waiwoda —We hear of the Zebeks — Depopulating 
System of Impressment — Opium — Average Production 
of this Drug in Turkey — Change in the Scenery — A 
River, probably the Hyllus — Mysterious Personage — 
Mustapha's Adventure. 

Tu£ visit to the antiquities was not effected 
without attracting the curiosity of the inhabit- 
ants, especially of the female portion. One 
of them, a beautiful girl, apparently about 
seventeen, followed me at some little distance. 



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250 DINB WITH THE. WAIWOIU. 

On my turning round, I saw her with her veil 
in her hand. The moment our eyes met, she 
threw it over her face with well-acted confu- 
sion, her object being evidently, as much to be 
seen as to see. It is the f^hion for travellers 
in Turkey to speak of the horror the women 
have of being unveiled before men, and espe- 
cially before Christians. My own observation 
leads to tke opposite conclusion : I consider it 
as a general rule, that no Turkish lady, having 
a convenient opportunity, objects to shew her 
face, always provided that she considers her 
£Etce worth shewing. 

As soon as I had finished my excursion, 
I went with Mustapha to the waiwoda of the 
town, who invited me to dinner: he was a 
well-bred and agreeable man, and spoke Per- 
sian with much fluency; a fortunate circum- 
stance for me, as I was able to converse with 
him without the aid of an interpreter. Our 
repast was excellent, consisting of an alternate 
succession of m^ats and sweetmeats. Amongst 
other good things was some khelwar, a com- 



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DINB WITH THB WAIWOPA* 251 

position of flour, butter, and koney • After T had 
done ample justice to all the savoury dtdies, a 
miserable chicken, boiled to rags, was bnnight 
to table, and having been torn limb from lindb^ 
by my host, was put on my plate^ with the 
intimation that I must eat it all, as it was no^ 
torious that no Englishman considered himself 
to have dined without first demolishing a boiled^ 
fowl. This was a draw-back on the feast, but 
there was no help for it; so patiently resigning 
myself to the anticipated horrors of indigestion, 
I was fain to swallow this unpalatable com- 
pliment. To make amends for my host's mis- 
information on the score of English eating-, he 
made a better guess of what we liked to drink. 
He placed before me a French tea-pot full of 
wine, of which, like the plate of chidken, I was 
doomed to swallow the whole contents; as, 
though he was in the habit of drinking all kinds 
of spirituous liquors, it was necessary, while 
he was in office, to set an example of sobriety 
to his followers; drunkenness and tasting wine 
being, with Turks, almost synonymous terms. 



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252 CONSCRIPTS. 

The only persons at dinner besides the 
waiwoda^ myaelf, and Carle, who was allowed 
a place as interpreter, was a very handsome 
Georgian boy, who is said to have great influ- 
ence over the aga, and to dispose of the limited 
patronage of the town as best suits his own 
caprice. Even on the question of inviting me to 
dinner, it seemed as if a previous consultation 
had been held between the waiwoda and his 
favourite. 

We were in the middle of our meal, when 
two unhappy-looking wretches were brought 
before us by a party of armed cavasses.. These 
men had both refused to enter the service : 
one of them had a long beard, and was, in all 
probability, the father of a family. The busi- 
ness was soon settled ; the waiwoda nodded his 
head, and the poor fellows were sent to be 
enrolled under the holy banner. 

At the time I was here, the recruiting system 
had not regularly reached the town. Only fifty 
recruits had as yet been raised : formerly it viras 
the custom to send money instead of men. 



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INTELLIGENCE OF THE ZEBEKS. 253. 

On my return to the khan, I found Mus- 
tapha in great alarm, in consequence of intelli- 
gence he had received from a Nizam officer, 
that the Zebeks were in possession of nearly 
all the towns through which I had proposed to 
pass between Ghi^iz and Smyrna. Now it 
was a secret that J had kept from Mustapha, 
and, indeed, almost from myself, that one of the 
objects of this journey had been to fall in with 
these Zebeks. I endeavoured to shame Mus* 
tapha out of his fears, by laughing at him; but 
they were too firmly tooted to be affected by 
ridicule. I was resolved to put my plan into 
execiltion, and he was equally determined I 
should not : it is hardly Accessary to add, that 
he carried his point. 

On reflection, it is satisfactory to me that 
I did not succeed ; for though I think my 
personal safety would not have been endan- 
gered, I know not what treatment Mustapha, 
a servant of the sultan's, was likely to receive 
from rebels in arms against his highness. 



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254 MUSTAPHA MISLEADS ME. 

December 18. Ghi6diz to leni Kiea.— The 
direct road to Smyrna, and that which was 
occupied by the Zebeks, lay in a westerly 
direction, through a small town called lent 
Kieu.* To leni Kieu, therefore, I signified 
to Mustapha my intention of proceeding, and 
was not a little surprised when he assented. 
A little time solved the mystery : I had been 
trayelliog for two hours with my compass in 
my hand, when I found that it continued to 
point always to the north, which I kn^w could 
not be my course* I halted sereral times, and 
placed the compass on the ground; but still the 
direction was the same. In about six hours 
we came in sight of the snow-capped Olympus, 

* The following was ihe route furnished me by Dr. Mil- 
liDgen ;— 

leni Kieu 4 hours. 

Derbent 3 

leni Shehr 4 

9irghi6 5 

This last-named town I yirited on my return to Con- 
stantinople. 



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6HIEDIZ. 255 

which shewed me that my Tartar had been 
misleading me. I immediately told him that 
by the little talisman I held in my hand, I 
discovered he had deceived me. It is curious, 
that although a native of Constantinople, and 
accustomed to Frank society, he was utterly 
ignorant of the- properties of the compass; and 
at the end of almost every day's march, he 
would describe to each new company the magic 
charm by which I could discover truth from 
falsehood. 

After this digression, it is necessary to re- 
trace our steps to Ghi^iz. 

As soon as we had quitted the town, we 
kept along the right bank of the Hermus, and 
proceeded in a northerly direction. We tra- 
versed for several miles a fruitful valley : the 
good cultivation observable here, was a prac- 
tical proof that the levies of troops had not 
yet reached this peaceful vale. Six miles from 
6hi6diz we saw, on the western side of the 
road, the small town of Aktavar, containing 
four hundred houses; the inhabitants are all 



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256 CROSS THB usaiffus. 

cotton manufacturers* The hills around are 
called Morad-daghi by. the inhabitants, and 
comprise, according to Colonel's Leake's map, 
the Mount Dindymene of Strabo. 

The country here is very beautiful : a rich 
plain is bounded by abrupt mountains, which 
are thickly clothed with every species of ever- 
green. 

In three hours' march, we crossed a bridge 
over, the Hermus, and at some distance from 
the road saw a village called Devlis-sandik. 
We then lost sight of the river for a short time, 
but soon after fell in with a fine limpid stream 
running in a southerly direction : its course lay 
between two perpendicular banks of black rock, 
about twenty feet high, and abundantly covered 
with evergreen shrubs. Three hours from 
Ghi6diz we came to the source of this stream. 
It issued from a circular aperture, about twelve 
feet in diameter, in the mountain, a little below 
the road on which we were travelling. This 
is, doubtless^ the source of the Hermus, a river 
honoured by the notice of Homer. It corre- 



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ERROR OF PLINY. 257 

sponds exactly with the account given by Strabo 
of that river, which he states to extend as far 
as Mysia, to rise in the sacred mountain Din- 
dymene (Murad - daghi), to flow through the 
Catacaumene into the district of Sardes, and 
thence through the plains into the sea.* 

Pliny places the source of the Hermus near 
Dorylaeum of Phrygia.t Colonel Leake has 
satisfactorily shewn' that the site of Dorylseuin 
is either at or near the modern town of Eski 
Shehr. Now, from the position of Dorylaeum, 
any river near it niust have flowed in an op- 
posite direction to that of the Hermus. In all 
other circumstances respecting the course of the 
river, the Latin and Greek geographers agree. 

XU4 i$m Ttif Ketrttxuvfiivns f/$ riff ^Stt^^tdmv ^i^fr«< xttrtt r§i avn^n 
wiiuh ^ i2^iir«f« f*'^Xi^ '^^9 ^»XurriK, — Steab. lib. xii. p. 626. 
t Hermus .... oritur juxta Dorilceum, Phrygiee ciyitatem, 
multosque colligit fluvios, inter quos Phrygem, qui nomine 
genti date, k Cari^ earn disterminat ; Hyllum et Cryon, et 
ipsos Plirygiee, Mysise, Lydiee amnibus repletos. — Plik. 
Hist. Not. lib. V. cap. 29. 

VOL. II. S 



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268 THE sultan's signature. 

la all probability the sources of the Ilhyn-» 
dacus and Hermus are a very few miles 
asunder. 

Soon after passing the source of the stream, 
we ascended a mountain, when Olympus, with 
its cap of eternal snow, presented itself to our 
view. The descent led us into a valley : here 
we came to a stream, which we crossed several 
times in the course of the day. It was running 
in a north-easterly direction. 

After passing through the villages of Hu- 
maum, Kieu, and Hazarjik, we arrived at 
leni Kieu. We were accommodated for the 
night in the house of the waiwoda. On pro- 
ducing our firman, it was read by the cadir, 
or secretary, who kissed the sultan's signature, 
and placed the imperial mandate on his fore- 
head, in token that his head was answerable 
for his obedience to its contents. 

We had the good fortune to arrive just as 
they were serving dinner, to which our frosty 
ride enabled us to pay all due honour. 

The cadir spoke a little Persian; rather an 



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lENI KIBU. 259 

uncommon accomplishment for a Turk. It is 
customsgry for persons conversing in this lan- 
guage to interlard every sentence with cita- 
tions from the poets. He attacked me with 
Hafiz^ and I returned his fire with Saadi^ till 
we had both exhausted our limited stock of 
quotationary ammunition. 

Mustapba was again very anxious about 
the state of the road. The waiwoda told us 
that it vras safe as far as Simaul^ where I 
should find another waiwoda, and he would 
provide for future emergencies. 

leni Kieu (the new village) has been re- 
cently built. It is subject to Kutaya, and 
carries on a trade in opium. It contains but 
one hundred and eighty houses, yet ten or 
twelve officers of government dined at our 
table ; and as many more replaced us, when 
we rose to take our pipes and coffee. No 
wonder the peasants are badly off*, when, as 
Zekeil Homespun says of the churchwardens, 
'' so many dine together for the good of the 
poor." 



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260 UNVEILED TURKISH WOMEN. 

On the bottom step leading to the wai- 
woda's house, is an inscribed stone, which 
had been taken from Tjavdere Hissar : 

OTNOMAMOIM..Z 

NE.. A02TAPA..M 

EN0AAEKEITAI-i^rXH 

AAOANATHNAieEPA. . 

..NEIA2I.. .. 

December 19. leni Kieu to Simaul, a 
journey of seven hours, over a range of moun- 
tains forming one continued forest of magni- 
ficent fir. The wood here is so full of turpen- 
tine, that the inhabitants of the district use 
it for torches and candles, for both of which 
it forms no bad substitute. 

We passed on the road several Turkish 
women, always a proof of poverty in this 
country. They had thrown aside their veils 
for the convenience of walking. There was 
among them one, whose dress and face be- 
spoke poverty and beauty — two strong claims 
on a soldier's charity. I made her a small 



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THE HYLLUS OR MACISTUS. 26 1 

present, and she in return prayed that my 
/' road might be strewed with milk and 
honey !" 

The descent from the mountain range 
brought us to a fine, open, and well-watered 
plain. My note-book does not mention the 
direction of the stream which runs through 
this valley. Should chance lead another tra- 
veller over my road, he will perhaps supply 
the omission. If the river flows towards the 
north, it is probably the Macistus, which joins 
the Rhyndacus not far from the sea of Mar- 
mora. If towards the south-west, as I have 
assumed in the map, it should be the Hyllus, 
a stream tributary to the Hermus. 

Strabo says that Ancyra, a Phrygian town, 
is situated near the Blaudus, in Lydia.* This 
last place. Colonel Leake informs me, appears 
from its coins to have occupied the bank of a 
river called the Hippurius; but it is doubtful 

jri^i BXmvi^f ifXt^nl ^^vytxxf, — Strabo, lib, xii. p. 567. . 



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262 SIMAUL, OR ISMAIL. 

whether this be a tributary of the Macistus 
or Hyllus. In either case the site of Blaudus 
cannot be far distant from the stream in ques- 
tion, and might be found at a more favourable 
season of the year. The search would doubt- 
less enable the traveller to ascertain the po- 
sition of several other ancient cities yet un- 
known. 

At the opposite- boundary of the plain is 
the town of Simaul, in which corrupted form 
the reader will scarcely recognise its true 
name of Ismail. We had again the good luck 
to arrive at our destination in time for the wai- 
woda's dinner. Eight excellent dishes graced 
the hospitable board. 

Simaul lies at the base of a high range of 
mountains. It has eight himdred houses : four 
hundred troops are quartered in the town. The 
levies are prosecuted with much rigour. The 
waiwoda told me he would have given me a 
room in the house, but that it was quite full 
of government officers, who had come for re- 
cruits. 



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Z£B£KS ON MY INTENDED MARCH. 263 

Qame is very abundant in the adjoining 
plain. It consists principally of water fowl» 
of which there are plenty of every gradation, 
from the swan to the teal. The waiwoda 
pressed me very much to stay a week or ten 
days for the shooting. He told me that four 
lonians, the only English subjects he had ever 
seen, came here a few years ago, and killed 
vast quantities. 

It was my wish to have gone from here 
to Kula, in search of antiquities; but I was 
told that the town was in the possession of the 
Zebeks ; and that as the waiwoda was respon- 
sible for my safety, he could not permit me. To 
convince me that the journey was not feasible, 
he sent several persons into the town to make 
inquiries, who, when they came, confirmed 
the statement of the waiwoda. I heard fur- 
ther, that a Tartar, whose road lay in that 
direction, had been obliged to make a cir- 
cuitous route through Simaul, in consequence 
of the disturbed state of the country. Under 
these circumstances, I was obliged to defer my 



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264 CIVILITY OF THE WAIWODA. 

visit until my return from Smyrna, and to adopt 
the route pointed out to me by the waiwoda. 

We were consigned for the night to the 
care of a merry old grey-beard, who paid every 
attention to our comfort and convenience that 
his house afforded. 

December 20. Simaul to Demirji, eight 
hours. — Before we started we partook of a 
plentiful breakfast of milk and honey, part of 
the fulfilment of my Turkish beauty's prayer. 
We continued for three hours and a half in a 
westerly direction, keeping about two miles on 
our right hand a large piece of water, which 
may be either a lake or a river overflowed. 
By the road side, at three hours' distance, I 
observed the following fragment of an inscrip- 
tion: 

e£NI2H4»AI. .STinNI. . 
XAPIN. 

Leaving the plain, we ascended another 
range of mountains, covered with noble firs. 



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WE HEAR OF THE ZEBEK8. 265 

and the country presenting the same general 
appearance as that of the preceding day's 
march. 

On our arrival at Demirji, we went direct to 
the waiwoda's house^ and asked for horses to 
continue our route. On the reading of the 
firman, he sent one messenger after another 
to impress into my service a guide and the 
requisite number of horses. I was to have 
halted for the night at one of his chifliks, or 
country seats, a few hours' distance from the 
town, and he had ordered the necessary pro- 
vision to be prepared for me; but in the 
meanwhile the day was fast advancing, and 
I was obliged to yield to his pressing invi- 
tations to stay at his house, I being, as he 
said, the first Frank that had ever visited 
Demirji. 

We heard here that several actions had 
taken place between the Zebeks and the re- 
gular troops, in which some of the rebels had 
been taken prisoners, and sent to Constanti- 



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266 OPIUM* 

nople. Our informants told us that the 
*' Giaours," as they called the Zebeks, were 
three thousand strong. 

The town was, a short time ago, thriving 
and populous. It has a thousand houses ; but 
nearly five hundred are empty, from the effects 
of military impressment. 

Opium forms the principal article of trade 
at Pemirji, as well as throughout the district. 
The English are supposed by the inhabitants 
to be the sole purchasers; and they think, in 
consequence, that we are as fond of the per- 
nicious drug as they are themselves. The 
waiwoda said he understood that we mixed 
it with our bread. 

The average annual production of Turkey 
opium is about three thousand cases, (each 
case containing about one hundred and forty 
English pounds) ; but of this a very small 
quantity is consumed in Europe: the remainder 
is exported from Turkey by the newly-estab- 
lished East India Company, and by the Ame- 



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A RIVER, PROBABLY THE HYLLUS. 267 

ricans, who send it to China. This valuable 
trade is lost to England by the monopoly of 
our own East India Company. 

December 21. Demirji to Ghiurdiz — eight 
hours. Course south-west. 

We left Demirji at seven in the morning. 
The scene of beautiful evergreens which had 
hitherto regaled our sight, was now changed 
to a scanty allowance of leafless trees. The 
mountains presented huge masses of rock of 
indeterminate forms, rent, as it were, into 
large chasms, caused by the rush of moun- 
tain torrents. These waters contribute to a 
rapid stream, which runs through the valley 
below, towards the south-east. 

The stream which flows near Demirji may 
be either the Macistus or Hyllus ; but I con- 
ceive that there is little doubt of the latter 
being the same as that which we now saw. 
The course of the Hyllus has been satisfac- 
torily ascertained as far as Ak-hissar, the 
ancient Thyateira, our halting-place the fol- 



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268 MYSTERIOUS PERSONAGE. 

lowing day. A few hours' march to the 
westward of Ak-hissar, the stream falls into 
the Hermus^ confirming the observations of 
Homer and Strabo respecting its course.* 

We had been about three hours on our 
journey, and were halting to rest our horses^ 
when three horsemen approached us at full 
gallop, stopped opposite to us, and dismounted 
the spot where we were seated. 

The principal person of the party was a 
cunning -looking young man, with a black 
beard : he wore a turban of such large dimen- 
sions as in Constantinople would have tinged 
him with the suspicion of disloyalty. His dress 
was a neat suit of scarlet, embroidered with 
black silk; and he appeared, both in costume 
and manner, to be very much of a coxcomb. 
One of his two attendants was the surijee of 
the post-house, ^nd the other, a person who 

* Td/ rtf^tfc^ xetr^iii'i0f Wif 

"TAAf tTT lxi6vWTi, KaV'-E.^fim >«fiiiiTi.— Hom. II. T. 392. 
'O n«xTivA(!( i/f T«»"E^|it«» %U *iy M4 ©"TAAd^ f«5«^AAw.— Strab. 
lib. in. p. 626. 



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MYSTERIOUS PERSONAGE. 269. 

officiated as his servant. His manner was 
very polite, and he was marked in his atten- 
tions to myself, presenting me first with his 
pipe, and afterwards laying before me his 
whole store of provisions, which consisted of 
a plentiful supply of bread, sweetmeats, and 
dried fruits : eatables, indeed, comprised all 
his baggage. When I remounted, he did the 
same, and continued for two hours riding 
by my side, speaking in very complimentary 
terms of myself and my country. In the 
midst of our conversation, he abruptly bade 
me good bye ; and saying we might possibly 
meet again, he struck his shovel stirrups into 
his horse's flanks, and set ofi* at full gallop, 
followed by his attendants. In one moment 
the whole party was out of sight. 

While he was with us. Carle had tried to 
find out firom him the object of his journey ; 
but the only answer he could extract was, 
that he came from Constantinople, and was 
travelling for pleasure ; but, as Carle ob- 
served,. "That, effendy, cannot be true; for 



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27Q MUSTAFHA's ADVENTtrUE; 

who but an Englishman would think of tra- 
velling for pleasure at such a season? and of 
all people, the Turks are the last who would 
follow such an example." The stranger^s 
appearance and conduct were alike mysterious. 
I asked my Tartar what he thought of him, 
and he replied, without hesitation, that he was 
a government spy. 

*' Some time ago," said Mustapha, '' I was 
joined on the road by a person travelling in 
the same manner as the person who has just 
quitted us, only that he was more meanly 
dressed. We continued our journey together 
for some days, my new friend paying all the 
expenses. After some time we separated, but 
continually passed and repassed each other on 
the road. 

** A month after my return to Constanti- 
nople, I saw Sultan Mahmoud pass in state to 
the mosque. Amongst the principal persons 
in the suite was my former fellow-traveller: 
he was now superbly dressed, and adorned 
with diamonds. I waited for a nod of recog- 



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mustapha's adventure. 271 

nition, but in vain. I afterwards ascertained 
that he was a secret emissary of government/' 
As such, also, we were induced to set down 
our new acquaintance with the black beard. 



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272 KOOZOOS KIEU. 



CHAPTER XV. 

K00ZOO8 Kieu — Ghiurdiz, the Jnlio-Gordits of the Ancients 
— The Mysterious Personage again — Constitutes himself 
my Guest -^ His Politeness — A Debtor and Creditor — 
My Visiter's Speech — Our Dinner — Our Guest is a 
Government Spy -^Ruined state of Ghiurdiz — Beautiful 
Scenery — A Victim of the Spy's Correction — Ak-Hissar, 
the ancient Thyateira — Exports of Cotton — Usual De- 
crease of Population — Historical Notice on Thyateira. 

In five hours from our last stage we quitted 
the plain, to ascend a steep and rugged moun- 
tain, on the side of which we saw some Spanish 
chestnut, and several other kinds of well-grown 
trees. At this place stands Koozoos Kieu, or 
'* Lamb Village,!' where, at one of the cottage 
windows, I saw the gentleman with the black 
beard. He smiled upon me, and made me a 
gracious salute as I passed. 

On the opposite side of the mountain we 



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GHIURDIZ, THE ANCIENT JULIO-GORDUS. 273 

came to a rocky valley, into which several 
mountain torrents contributed their waters to 
a rapid stream, which appears to be the same 
we saw in the morning. We crossed it at seven 
hours and a half from Demirji^ our last stage. 
It was running in a westerly direction. We 
could observe it winding along the valley to 
a (considerable distance. We forded it again; 
to arrive at the t6wn of Ghiurdiz, which occu- 
pies its opposite bank. 

Respecting this place, to which I am the 
only English traveller^ Colonel Leake maked 
the fbllowmg conjecture: 

* The name of Ghiurdiz would seem td 
mark the site of Gordus, or Julio-Gordus, or 
the city rm 'lovhujv To^fSv, as the people 
are denominated on their coins; for Ptolemy 
names Julio-Grordus among the cities of Lydia 
and Mseonia, in conjunction with Magnesia^ 
Jbyateifa, and Sairdes, . which accords with 
the situation of Ghiurdiz. A similar reference 
to the position of Gordus may b6 drawn fforrt 
Hierocles, in his enumeration of the cities of 

VOL. II. T 



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274 THE MYSTERIOUS PERSONAGE AGAIN. 

the consular province of Lydia, as well as 
from Socrates (lib. vii. cap. 36), and the Nor 
titise Episcopatuum.' 

The identity of the name, as well as the 
locality of Ghiurdiz, with Julio-Gordus, is a 
strong confirmation of Colonel Leake's theory. 

We had scarcely taken possession of our 
room at the khan, when who should make his 
appearance but the black -bearded traveller. 
Although there were several rooms unoccu- 
pied, he came up to my apartment, and begged 
to be allowed to occupy it for a couple of 
hours. Without waiting for a reply, he seated 
himself in the second* best place, rather to 
my amusement and satisfaction, as it had 
been previously taken possession of by my 
haughty and selfish Tartar. 

Carle, in the meanwhile, had been in 
the bazaar to purchase something for dinner; 
but in consequence of the lateness of the hour, 
he had been unable to procure any mutton, and 
had returned with only a couple of wretched 
fowls. 



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HIS POLITENESS. 275 

Wishing to do the honours in the best 
manner to my uninvited, but by no means 
unwelcome, guest, I begged he would par- 
take of my humble fare« To this he readily 
assented. His servant, in presenting me his 
pipe, held the charcoal to light the tobacco 
with a handsome silver pair of tongs. These 
I happened inadvertently to praise. They 
were immediately offered to my acceptance, 
and it was with great difficulty I could evade 
the present. 

We ha^ not made a bad estimate of our 
visitor's importance, his arrival having struck 
universal terror throughout the town. Carle 
helBird there, that the moment he arrived, he 
went to the waiwoda, aga, and moolah^ and 
left with them letters from the sultan, the 
purport of which was not to be made known 
till the following morning; and also that he 
was travelling with the same sort of firman 
as myself. 

He was not unaware of the alarm his pre- 
sence had created, and appeared anxious to 



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276 A DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 

keep up this feeling. There was a Turkish 
shopkeeper in the town, who owed eighty 
piastres to the old surijee who had accom- 
panied him. The shopkeeper was sent for> 
and entered the room the picture of terror. 
My visitor put forth all his eloquence on the 
occasion ; spoke of the respect due to a white 
beard ; and begged as a favour that the ac>- 
count might be settled without delay. ^ It is 
almost needless to add, that the request was 
immediately complied with; and the debtor 
satisfied his creditor with greater joy than 
usually accompanies this sort of transaction. 

This affair dismissed, the menzil-jee (post* 
master) and surijees were suniunoned to his 
presence, when another long oration ensued; 
In the speech, in which considerable eloquence 
was displayed^ I could detect an evident at- 
tempt to produce a favourable opinion upon 
me, of his oratorical powers. 

The substance of his harangue was some- 
thing to this effect: •* Our gracious sovereign 
has, for the transmisision of his (^ommanda 



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MY visitor's speech. 277 

through his vast empire, allowed postmasters 
to let out horses tt> the public at a very low 
rate; but I regret to observe, that this 
privilege has been very much abused, and 
that persons so acting have shewed them* 
selves enemies to the sultan, by causing delay 
to public business, and by bringing discredit 
on the country, of which the great Mahmoud 
is lord. For instance,'' said he, turning round 
suddenly to me, ** 1 observed that this gen- 
tleman, who is travelling with the sultan's 
firman, was scarcely able to proceed on his 
journey from the wretchedness of his horses. 
Now, let his and my horses be good, or, depend 
upon it, all your bones shall answer for it." 
Then, addressing himself particularly to the 
menzil-jee, or master of the post, he said: 
^* The last post proprietor was such a peza- 
vink, that I was obliged to flog him with the 
scabbard till I broke his ribs; he is not ex- 
pected to live, as you know." Here he turned 
to his surijee, who respectfully bowed assents 
** But," continued he, ** I am sure you are 



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278 MY visitor's speech. 

too honest a fellow to render it necessary for 
me to resort to this unpleasant mode of en- 
forcing your duty; and so otoor dost-um, (sit 
down, my friend,) and let us have a cup of 
coffee together." 

This speech, which occupied some time in 
the delivery, was spoken in so mild a tone, 
that it would have been difficult to imagine 
that it contained a threat of flogging to death 
the person to whom it was addressed. 

As this was the first town since leaving 
Kutaya in which there were Christian inha- 
bitants, I desired the inn-keeper to fetch some 
wine. The man, who was a Mahometan, was 
just beginning to assume a puritanical horror 
at bringing in the forbidden grape, when he 
was interrupted by my visitor, who significantly 
advised him to pay the same attention to my 
commands as he would to his own. 

When dinner was brought in, instead of the 
tasteless pilau for which I had been prepared, 
I was agreeably surprised in seeing an excellent 
mutton stew, and two or three good Turkish 



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OUR DINNER. 279 

dishes, placed before us, and all by the invisible 
agency of the great unknown. 

The doors and windows of our room duly 
secured, and all but our own attendants dis«- 
missed, my visitor shewed nle that he was 
neither a stranger nor an enemy to a drop of 
wine, and, under the shadow of my infidelity, 
played a very effective part with the liquor 
before us. A few potations redoubled his po- 
liteness ; and it was quite flattering to see him, 
as soon as he had drank off the contents of our 
joint tea-cup, replenish it for me, and hold it 
to my lips, while I was, in my turn, emptying 
the friendly bowL Nor did his attentions stop 
here; he selected with his own hands the 
choicest and fattest morsels of the stew, and 
transferred them to my mouth, in a manner to 
which we English are unused from the time we 
quit our nurse's arms. 

The fumes of the wine soon sent Mustapha 
snoring to his mat, leaving me with Carle and 
my visitor, whose singular conduct and manners 
were highly entertaining. Whether from the 



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280 OUR GUE8T IS A GOVERNMENT SPY. 

effect of what he had drank, or from the con- 
fidence he placed in a Frank's secrecy, or that* 
in fact, he told us only what he had a right to 
communicate, I pretend not to say; but the 
moment Mustapha was asleep, he began talking 
a mixture of Greek and Turkish, in which he told 
^s at once that he was a government spy, and 
that I must not be surprised or offended at hii; 
leaving us in the night. ** I say this in per- 
fect confidence to you,'' said he, *' because you 
were both well known to me before I encoun- 
tered you this morning ; but I wQuld as soon 
trust one of these beasts of Asia as. I would 
your fool of a Tartar. I know the Frank cha- 
racter well enough to feel assured that they 
would not take the life of a person who had 
not injured them ; but one of these beasts would 
lose me my head in his wish to do me a kind- 
ness." The dark complexion and the black 
beard of my visitor had several times attracted 
my attention, as neither the one nor the other 
assimilated with his general style of features or 
his youth ; but he explained the circumstance 



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RUINED 8TATB OF OHIURDIZ, 281 

by shewing us that both were false, which he 
did by baring his arm and bringing to view a 
fair skin, and by taking off his turban and 
discovering his crop of hair, which, instead of 
being black, was of a dark brown. 

I have been minute in the details of my 
interview with this curious personage, because 
it was by men of this description that the 
grand signior has become acquainted with that 
janizary feeling which pervades all classes of 
Turks, and it was the agency of such persons 
that produced the massacre which took place 
just before my arrival at Constantinople. 

The presence of the spy prevented me from 
making the usual inquiries; but from the 
examination -I gave to the place, I observed 
Qearly one third of the houses in ruins. 

Decemba^ 22. Ghiurdiz to Ak-hissar, an 
uncomfortable march of twelve hours in inces- 
sant rain. Our general direction was nearly 
due west, though the road led us a winding 
journey through plains and valleys, and over 



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282 A VICTIM OF THE SPY's CORRECTION. 

mouDtaiiis. The country here was highly beau- 
tiftil and diversified, and looked so in spite of 
the frowning aspect of the weather. To our 
right we alternately saw forests of evergreens 
and vineyards covering for miles the whole face 
of the hills. To our left we saw huge isolated 
mountains of rock, amidst which were occa^ 
sionally thick forestd of trees, that appeared as 
if they had forcibly fixed themselves to the 
rugged sides of the hills. 

At four hours' distance from our last stage, 
we heard the moaning of some person in pain. 
I halted to see who was the sufferer, and dis- 
covered one of the surijees of the last post- 
house. He had accompanied my fellow-lodger 
the spy thus far on the road, but, being fat 
and unwieldy, his rate of going did not satisfy 
this government emissary, who dragged him 
from his horse, and gave him the bastinado on 
his feet until he was unable to walk, and left 
him, at this wretched season, to bivouac by the 
road-side. 

The poor fellow's misfortune was not with- 



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AK-uissAa. 283 

out its beneficial results, at least as far as I 
was concerned. The surijee who accompanied 
me had seen the friendly manner in which I 
was treated by the emissary, and was almost 
convinced that there was some secret under- 
standing between us ; an impression my servant 
endeavoured to strengthen. The result was, 
that a journey of twelve hours was performed 
in eight, and we reached Ak-hissar at three in 
the afternoon. 

At every place that I stopped at, constant 
and anxious inquiries were made after the 
Fezlee, or bearer of the fez or cap which 
distinguishes persons in the service of the 
Porte. 

From the same circumstance, I gained a 
temporary power over Mustapha, who had 
lately become idle and impertinent. When- 
ever he was either, it was only necessary to 
threaten him with the Fezlee, to bring him to 
a due sense of his situation. 

The accommodation of the post-house was 
so bad, that we sent to the governor of the 



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284 DECREASE OF POPULATION* 

town for a quarter. He assigned us a small 
bouse which was tolerably weather tight. 

We heard here that the Tartar Agassi had 
arrived with six guns, with which he was on 
his march against the Zebeks. 

The principal export of this town is cotton, 
which grows in great abundance throughout 
this district. The town contains one thousand 
houses, of which three hundred are uninhabited : 
this is partly owing to the impressment^ whicli 
has taken away five hundred young men,, and 
partly to a great sickness which has been 
raging here. 

Ak-hissar is the first town in my journey 
from Kutaya, of which mention is made by any 
modem traveller. It is satisfactorily shewn by 
Colonel Leake to be the Thyateira of the 
ancients. . It is mentioned by Strabo as a Ma- 
<;edonian colony not far distant from Sardes^* 

* • • . . fsTi 2ic^iut9, iriXtf irrif It v^tm^i ^vtiru^Oj KMV$iKM 
Maxii«fttf, rm M(/0'«fv irj^/ctrSr rim ^mvif, — STRABOylib. xiii. 
p. 625. 



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Odious march. 285 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Tedious March — Meet Soldiers returning from the Zebek 
Expedition — Alertness of the Rebels — Women riding 
astride — A Greek wounded by Robbers — Account of one 
murdered — Instances of Turkish Honesty — Remarks on 
. Trayellmg by Night in Turkey — A Batch of Slaves on a 
March — Present State of Manisa, the Magnesia ad Sipy- 
lum of Strabo — ^The Cara Osman Oglu Family — Contrast 
between Hereditary and Temporary Governors — Pro- 
sperous State of Manisa during the Government of the 
Cara Osman Oglu — The Effects of their Overthrow — Ar- 
rive at Smyrna — My Appearance— ^ A substantial Break- 
fast -r- Dine on Board the Wellesley — Christmas Eve. 

December 23. Ak-jiissar to Manisa, another 
twelve bonrs' jonrney.— The course south-west 
across an immense plain. Whoever has made 
this march will, I am sure, remember it as one 
of the mbst tedious of his whole journey. Very 
shortly after leaving Ak-hissar you come in 



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286 WOM£N RIDING ASTRIDE. 

. sight of your destination ; it seems as though 
you would be there immediately; hour suc- 
ceeds hour, and you do not appear a jot the 
nearer, till at last you may almost imagine it 
the delusion of the mirage. 

At a small wretched shed, assuming to be a 
coffee-house, we stopped to eat our breakfast, a 
piece of black bread and a water melon. Here 
we fell in with several of the irregular troops who 
bad lately been employed against the Zebeks« 

They stated the rebels to be so expert, from 
their mountain habits, in eluding pursuit, that 
frequently on entering a village full of these 
people, the pursuers would enter at one door, 
while the pursued would, at the same moment, 
effect his escape out of the other and completely 
disappear. 

As we approached Manisa we saw num^ 
bers of women, Turkish as well as Ghreek, 
riding on horseback astride in the common 
saddle of the country. 

At the entrance of the town we met a party 
of Greeks, one of whom had his throat bound 



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A GREEK WOUNDED. 287 

with a handkerchief; on arriving at the khan 
I learned his stoiy. 

He was a Greek merchant, a native of 
Manisa. A short time ago, he and two othei* 
Greeks purchased some sheep in this neigh- 
bourhood, and disposed of them at Smyrna. 
Four days ago (the 18th instant), they were 
each returning home singly with the produce 
of the sale. At three hours' distance from 
Manisa (on the road which we traversed the 
next day), they were attacked by banditti « 
The man who was foremqst.of the three was 
murdered, and his body was afterwards found 
stark naked « The second of the party (the 
same that we met with the handkerchief round 
his throat,) was fired at by the assassins, when 
the bullet passed right through his throaty 
which, however, did him no further injury than 
to detain him three days at Manisa. The third 
person was more fortunate than either of the 
others, and escaped unhurt. 

This occurrence is an additional illustration 
of the present disturbed and wretched state of 



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288 TURKISH HONESTV. 

the country. At any other time, dlar^ party 
would have been despatched in pursuit of thd 
murderers; but now every person capable of 
bearing arms, and not impressed ihto the re- 
gular army, is employed against the Zebeks, 
who have given this government so much to 
do, that it has no leisure to attend to the safety 
of the road. 

In a former part of the Journal I have had 
Ocdasion to remark, that murder for the purpose 
of plunder is a circumstance of uncommon 
occurrence among the Turks, who, fix>m all I 
have seen or heard of them, are unequalled in 
honesty by any people in the world. It is 
not yet known by whom this atrocious act was 
perpetrated, though it is generally attributed 
t6 some of the More-ler, the name given fo 
these Turkish soldiers who have recently come 
6ver from the Morea, on the cession of that 
country to the Greeks. But even if this con- 
jecture be right, the case admits of some paU 
Hation. On the evacuation of the Greek for- 
tresses, the Tutks who composed the garrisons 



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TURKISH HONB8TY. 289 

were sent to Smyrna and disbanded. Thus, 
several hundred men have been thrown upon 
society without any means of subsistence. 

This is not the only occurrenqe of the kind. 
A short time ago, the country-house of a lady 
was plundered, and this lady no less a p6r^ 
sonage than Madame St. Elme, the authoress 
of a well-known work of autobiography, en- 
titled 'VM^moires d'une Contemporaine." 

While on the subject of Turkish honesty, 
I purpose to make a few remarks, and at the 
same time to select one or two instances. It 
would be easy to fill a volume with parallel 
examples. I would instance the Tartars, by 
whonpi the conveyance of specie is solely in- 
trusted, not one of whom has ever been known 
to be robbed ; and though I have made frequent 
inquiries, I have never heard of any man so 
employed that betrayed his trust. 

The following anecdote relates to the Turk 
or Tartar in charge of the post: it should 
'first be premised, that all commercial trans- 
actions between Turks and English are carried 

VOL. II. u 



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290 INSTANCE OP TURKISH HONESTY. 

on without <any written documents ; a proof of 
the mutual confidence they repose in each 
others honour, more especially when it is to 
be considered, that experience has taught both 
these nations to have no dealings with Grreeks, 
without receiving all the security that writing 
can give. 

In the winter of 1828, the Turkish postman 
was sent to some distant part wiUi a conw- 
derable quantity of specie. The money is 
carried in bags, which the merchafists call 
groupes. They are given to the postman, and, 
as I have just mentioned, without receiving 
any written document as proof of the receipt. 
This man, on returning from his journey, was 
applied to by a French house for fifteen thou- 
sand piastres, (a sum at that time equal to 
two hundred and fifty pounds). He made no 
attempt at evading the demand, but imme- 
diately said, ** I have doubtless lost the 
groupe, and must therefore pay you as soon 
as I can raise the money." After maturely 
thinking of the loss, he returned by the same 



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INSTANCE OF TURKISH HONESTY. 291 

road, quite confident that if any Mussulman 
should find the money, it would be returned 
to him. He had travelled nearly the whole 
distance, when he arrived, in a very melan^- 
choly mood, at a small, miserable coffee- 
house, where he remembered to have stopped 
a few moments on his road. He was accosted 
at the door by the cafe-jee, a Zebek, who 
called out to him, /^ Hallo, sherif! when you 
were last here, you left a bag, which I sup- 
pose to contain gold; you will find it just 
where you placed it.*' The postman entered, 
and discovered the identical groupe, evidently 
untouched, although it must have been lefl 
exposed to the grasp of the numerous chance 
customers of a Turkish caf^. 

Mr. Charles Whittall, the gentleman with 
whom I resided while at Smyrna, told me, 
that, a short time before, he had engaged a 
poor Turk to carry specie, amounting to five 
hundred pounds. The man, on his return, 
said, *' I have delivered the money ; but the 



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292 INSTANCE OF TURKISH HONESTY. 

correspondent says» that as he had written so 
lately^ he did not think it necessary to write 
by me." A short time after, Mn Whittall re- 
ceived a letter to say that the money had 
not reached its destination. Suspicion fell on 
the Turk, who was found, and informed of 
the circumstance : he asked leave to go in 
search of the money, begging only that he 
might be paid equivalent to the day's work 
^some few piastres) he should lose in the 
journey. On inquiry, he discovered that a 
Greek had appropriated the money to himself, 
having been in immediate want of it. Th^ 
moment he called upon this person, he was 
paid back the five hundred pounds, and was 
given two thousand piastres, which he ac- 
cepted, but instead of appropriating it to him- 
self, paid it, as a matter of course, together 
with the original sum, into the hands of Mr. 
Whittall's broker, and it was with difficulty he 
could be persuaded to retain the Greek's fee. 
We heard here that the kelmemet, or Zebek 



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TRAVELLING BY NIGHT IN TURKEY. 293^ 

chieftain, had with him three mule -loads of 
ducats. 

A Tartar, sent by our ambassador from 
Constantinople to Smyrna, arrived soon after 
us. He stopped to change horses, and imme- 
diately proceeded on his journey. He told 
us that he had been a considerable time on 
the road, that it had rained incessantly, and 
that the roads had been almost impassable. 
It is remarkable, that while he was thus 
assailed by wet, we should have had nothing 
but frost, with the exception of the first two 
days. 

The Tartar did his duty properly in tra- 
velling the night through ; but it is a question, 
whether those who make the journey on their 
own account would gain much by so doing 
in the winter months ; as, besides the common 
casualties of dark nights, muddy roads, and 
steep intricate mountains, they would have to 
run the risk of losing their way, and would 
always find it difficult to know the exact 
place to ford the numerous mountain torrents 



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294 SLAVES ON A BIARCH. 

they would have to encounter on their route. 
It was thus yesterday with the Smyrna post ; 
it left Ak-bissar last night as we entered 
it, but did not arrive at Manisa more than 
two hours before us ; while we, in the mean- 
while, managed to find time for dinner and 
a good night's rest. 

Before dark, a large batch of lately- 
imported black slaves passed us on their road 
to Constantinople. They were of both sexes, 
and of all ages. Their clothing was in a 
wretched plight, and some had scarcely rags 
to their backs. They were mounted on horses 
or mules ; in some instances two, and in others 
three slaves being placed on one beast. 

On the following morning, these poor 
wretches were to proceed on their journey to 
Constantinople, where they were to be dispo- 
sed of by public auction. 

Manisa contains three thousand houses, 
comprising a mixed population of Turks, 
Greeks, and Armenians. Eight hundred of 
the Turkish inhabitants have been forced into 



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MANISA^ THB ANCIBNT MAGRBSIA AD 8IPYLUM. 293 

the anny« The levies of the season have not 
yet comoifenoed^ the persons required for this 
service having been empkxjred against the 
Zebeks. 

Manisa stands on the site of Magnesia 
ad Sipylum,^ so called to distinguish it from 
the Magnesia on the banks of the Meander* 
It is mentioned by Strabo as being a free 
town under the Romans, and subject to earth- 
quakes. It was one of the twelve cities of 
Asia that were thrown down by earthquakes 
in the reign of Tiberius. 

The modem town has been visited by many 
travelers. Its present impoverished and al- 
most desolate condition forms a melancholy 
contrast with the thriving and populous state 
which it exhibited when the capital of the 
chieftain of the Cara Osman Oglou family. 

I have before stated it to be a principle 

* Mecymntc irrif n «9r^ 2i;rvX« iAfu^^« 9roA<$ v^ro 

— Strab. lib. xm. p. 621. 



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296 CA&A OSMAN OGLOU FAMILY. 

of Turkish policy, to establish political equality 
amidst all classes of Turks, and to destroy 
even the resemblance of succession: hence 
no son can inherit his father's property, nor 
can even assume a family name« 

Among the exceptions to this general rule 
against hereditary succession, was the family 
of the Gara Osman Oglou, the chief of which, 
residing at Manisa, ruled the rich territory 
lying between the Meander and the Propontis, 
comprising the greater portion of £olis, Ionia, 
and Lydia. 

This family was composed of a number of 
beys, or hereditary chieftains, who all, sprung 
from the same origin, submitted, from motives 
of interest, custom, or affection, to the dereh 
bey, the title given to the hereditary chieftain 
of the house. 

The advantages of this patriarchal form of 
government over that of the usual mode, of 
vesting the power in the hands of a pasha, or 
temporary ruler, may be shewn in a few words. 

The pasha buys the revenues of his govern- 



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PASHAS, OR TEMPORARY GOVERNORS. 297 

ment at public auction; it consequently be- 
comes his interest to persecute the cultivators 
of the land, of whom he ought to be the 
protector. 

In perpetual danger from the priesthood 
of his own court, as well as from the ministers 
in the capital, he is obliged to resort to bribery, 
as the only means of conciliation. 

Deriving profits from all abuses, he is their 
chief promoter. 

Hated by the people over whom he rules, 
on account of his numerous exactions, he is 
obliged, by high rewards, to retain in his ser- 
vice a band of mercenary strangers to defend 
his person. 

Uncertain when be may be summoned to 
resign his precarious power, he endeavours 
to amass wealth in the shortest possible 
time. 

The expenses attendant upon this ruinous 
system of government must be drawn from 
the produce of the soil. 

On the other hand, a dereh bey, or he- 



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298 DEREH BBTS^ OR HKReMTART OOTBmilORS. 

reditary governor^ from the hope of bequeath- 
ing his property to his children, would feel a 
common interest with those under his autho- 
rity in the prosperity of the country. The 
dependence of the dereh bey on the nume- 
rous chieftains of his house, for their co-opera- 
tion, and their dependence again on their own 
immediate retainers, would produce a spirit 
of conciliation, and a consequent prosperity in 
every class. 

That this is not a mere theoretical deduc- 
tion, we have only to contrast the state of 
Manisa and its dependent country while go- 
verned by the dereh bey, with its present 
wretched condition. 

During the government of the Gara Osman 
Ogloju fahuly, respect was paid to property; 
justice was equally administered; encourage- 
ment was given to agriculture ; and protection 
was afforded to trade. 

Such a mitigation of despotism soon at* 
tracted numbers of people, happy to find a 
refuge from the tyranny of their oppressors. 



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PROSPERITr OF MANISA UNDER THEM. 290 

Greeks from the Peloponnesus fled in nam- 
bers from the exactions of the temporary lords 
of the soil, and grs^tefully accepting the prof- 
fered protection of the chief of the Cara Osman 
Oglou, placed themselves under his patriarchal 
sway. Colonisation rapidly increased, land be- 
came tilled, commerce flourished. The whole 
country was populous and wealthy. 

This prosperity in a dependent state was 
incompatible with a government which seems 
as though its own ruin, and the misery of those 
under its authority, were the sole objects of 
its administraticm. 

; The thriving state of that part of Anatolia 
over which the Cara Osman Ogloa ruled, 
alarmed the jealous fears, and wounded the 
besotted pride, of Sultan Mahmoud. 

One of the first impolitic schemes of his 
ill-fated reign was to destroy the power of' 
the great hereditary chieftains : where he suc- 
ceeded, the natural consequences ensued. It 
is now fifteen years since the family of the 



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300 EFFECTS OF THEIR OVERTHROW. 

Gara Osman Oglou have ceased to rule, and 
that a pasha has supplied their place. In 
the interval, a complete ruin has been effected ; 
the land lies fallow ; commerce has declined ; 
population has rapidly decreased. Some of 
the former inhabitants entirely disappeared. 
The Greeks returned to their native land, 
and joined . their countrymen in arms, who 
have since succeeded in throwing off the 
authority of the Porte. Many of the Turks 
may be found in the rebel ranks of the 
Zebeks; and the few wretched peasants who 
remain, have become disaffected towards a 
government that has changed the willing alle- 
giance of children to a father's rule, into the 
forced submission of slaves to a tyrant's yoke. 

We reposed for a few hours in the public 
c6ffee*house of the post-house, in company with 
some twenty Turks. The conversation I heard 
there convinced me, that though some of the 
late reforms of the grand signior had been 
directed against the prevailing vices of this 



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SPOT OF THE GREEK MERCHANT'S MURDER. 301 

people, it is in appearance only that they have 
been abandoned. 

December 24. Manisa to Smyrna, six hours* 
—We started at three hours before day-break, 
and continued the whole way over a range of 
mountains. At dawn, we arrived at the spot 
where the murder of the Greek merchant had 
been perpetrated five days before. It was at 
the rugged rocky ascent of a hill, and appeared 
to be a place well selected for the purposie; 
the dense evergreens which grew here afford- 
ing a thick ambush for the assassins. At a 
house where we stopped, a little further on, we 
heard that the pistol-holsters of one of the gang 
had been found, that they were to be cried in 
the bazaar, and that there was every chance 
of finding out the guilty persons. Should they 
be discovered, the dreadful ordeal of impale- 
ment will be their inevitable doom. 

The descent from the . mountains l^d into 
an extensive valley, covered with evergreens, 
abounding in gardens, and decked throughout 



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302 ARRIVE AT SMYRNA. 

with beautiful riUas and picturesque villages. 
Bounding the plain to the south-west was the 
'* Giaour Izmir," or Infidel Smyrna, universally 
so called by the Turks, to distinguish it from 
another city of the same name ; over the house* 
tops of which were to be seen the ensigns and 
pennants of the men-of-war of all the great 
powers, whose interests have been concerned 
in the late struggle for mastery. 

After making my way through groves of 
olives, oranges, and cypress trees, I reached 
my destination at an early hour, delighted once 
again to find myself amongst my brother in- 
fidels. 

With my Tartar leading the van, and myself 
bringing up the rear, we threaded the narrow 
and ill-paved streets at full gallop, and did 
not relax from the pace for a moment, until we 
arrived at the " Locanda di Nuova Europa,'* 
a fashionable hotel at the top of '' Bond- 
street." 

The first persons that presented themselves 
to view were two British captains in the navy. 



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MY APPEAEANCB. 303 

Their neat uniforms^ welUshaved ekios, and 
that cleanliness for which Englishmen are so 
proverbially r^sarkable, would have easily pro- 
claimed the country to which they belonged. 
The same remark would have hardly applied 
to myself. I wore on my head the red cap 
of the Turkish troops ; my coat was the un- 
dress blue uniform of the British army ; my 
lower extremities were encased in the most 
capacious of Ottoman trousers ; my legs were 
covered with boots like those worn by fisher- 
men^ and over the tops of them was the huge 
embroidered stocking common to the Tartars. 
I grasped in my hand the unwieldy riding-whip 
of the country ; and, to complete my heteroge- 
neous appearance, my beard was three weeks', 
and my mustaches of three months' growth, 
and my person had, of necessity, been a 
stranger to ablution a much longer time than 
I choose to confess. 

The operations of dress, bath, and barber, 
soon effected a complete metamorphosis, and 



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304 SUBSTANTIAL BREAKTAST. 

in two hours I was able to make my appear- 
ance in the uniform of the profession to which 
I have the honour to belong. 

A long ride and short commons had so 
increased a naturally good appetite, that, 
forgetting I had entered a land of plenty, I 
desired to be furnished for breakfast with 
whatever the house could produce. I was 
taken at my word, and I sat down in soli- 
tude to mutton-chops, pigeon-pie, fried fish, 
omelette, eggs, buttered toast, and a long et 
cetera of good things, that made me feel dis- 
tressed at the opinion the waiters must have 
forined of my gastronomic powers : but they 
had a juster estimate of them than myself; for, 
by the time the cravings of hunger were ap- 
peased, it was with shame I reviewed the scanty 
remnants of the former plenteous board « I had 
no sooner despatched this meal, than, to com- 
plete my discomfiture, my friends, Captaia 
Maitland and Captain Bouverie, of His Ma- 
jesty's ships Wellesley and Windsor Castle, 



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DINE ON BOARD THE WELLESLEY. 305 

paid me a visit, and complimented me on the 
certain indications of my not having suffered 
in appetite from previous privation. 

In the course of the morning I paid my 
respects to Mrs. and Miss Boiiverie, on board 
the Windsor Castle, as also to the lady of my 
friend Captain Lyons, who yras proceeding to 
join her husband at Constantinople. 

In the afternoon I dined virith Captain 
Maitland* on board the Wellesley, where I 
had again the pleasure of meeting the ladies. 

From the time I left Constantinople to my 
arrival at Smyrna, I had not seen a Frank, nor 
had I either heard or spoken my native lan- 
guage. The interval had been passed in a 
journey of hardships and discomforts, amidst 
a barbarous people, vnth whom I could have 
no feeling in common. There had been no 
previous link to connect me with civilised life. 
To find myself, therefore, thus suddenly seated 
at dinner in the society of my countrymen, 

* Now Rear-Admiral Sir Frederick Maitland, K.C.B. 
VOL. II. X 



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306 CHRISTMAS EVE. 

and, what is still more, of my countrywomen, 
waited upon by English servants, and par- 
taking of. English fare, seemed to be like a 
fairy tale. I was almost wild with animal 
spirits ; and I shall ever remember the Christ- 
mas Eve passed on board the Wellesley, as 
of the merriest I ever spent in my life. 



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CHRISTMAS EVE. 307 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Theatricals afloat and ashore — New Year's-day Visits — 
Beauty of the Smymiote Ladies — Archbishop of Smyrna 
— Smyrna Gaieties — Appearance of the Town — Leave 
Smyrna — Regrets at Parting — Wretched Weather — 
Detention at the Custom-house — Mustapha's ill temper — 
Nimphio— Eeke Capi — " Teeth Hire," a Turkish Tax- 
Oppressive Imposts — Enter Lydia — Mount Sypylus — 
The Zebeks — Casab^ — Productions — Decrease of Popu- 
lation since the Government of Cara Osman Oglou. 

I RETURNED OD shore to sleep. I had no 
sooner landed^ than my ears were saluted 
with *' most unoriental roars of laughter." 
They proceeded from numerous jolly parties 
who were celebrating Christmas Eve, from all 
parts of the world — Greek, Maltese, French, 
Italian, Dutch, German, and English. With 
that happy quality which my naval fellow- 



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308 DINE ON BOARD THE WELLESLEY. 

countrymen have of making themselves at 
home wherever they may be, a large body of 
our midshipmen hired all the musicians they 
could collect, and, taking them all through 
Smyrna, to the great amusement of the inha- 
bitants, entertained them with a serenade. 

Before I reached my hotel, mind and body 
had been, for twenty-four hours, in an unin- 
terrupted state of activity ; it was, therefore, 
with much gratification that I looked forward 
to repose; but I was scarcely in bed, when 
I was disturbed by a most vociferous " three 
times three." The cheers proceeded from some 
officers of the squadron, who were keeping up 
the festivities of the season in the next room. 
To attempt to sleep was impossible ; I joined 
the songsters, who, in the oft-repeated chorus, 
•'did not go home till mornings till daylight 
did appear." 

December 26. Ate my. Christmas dinner 
on board the Wellesley. This evening another 
batch of jovial choristers were my next-door 



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SHOCK OF AN EARTHQUAKE. 309 

neighbours; but exhausted nature bade defi- 
ance to their melody. 

December 26. The consul-general at Con- 
stantinople, Mr. Cartwright, had given me a 
letter of introduction to Mr. Charles Whittall, 
one of the principal merchants of Smyrna. I 
found at his house a large party of ladies seated 
round a tandour. This article of Levantine 
furniture has been often described — a circular 
table, with a pan of charcoal below, and a silk 
counterpane above. On my entrance, I was 
desired to occupy a vacant place. I obeyed 
the summons, took my share of the counter- 
pane and conversation, made myself perfectly 
at home, and thus instinctively formed a radius 
of a very pleasant circle. 

Mr. Whittall hearing where I resided, in- 
sisted upon my removing to his residence, 
where a room, with every English comfort, 
was assigned me. 

December 27. This morning I felt a severe 
shock of an earthquake. 



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310 THEATRICALS. 

December 30. Private theatricals on board 
the Wellesley. From six to seven hundred 
persons were present; amongst whom were 
the captains of our own squadron, as well as 
those of the French, Dutch, and American 
men-of-war in the harbour. The following 
was the bill of fare: 

LOVE A LA MODE. 

^r Theodore Mr. Johnstone. 

Sir Callaghan G'BralUigan Lieut. Mac Ilvaine. 

Sir Archy Macsarcasm Ma. Taylor. 

Squire Oroom Hon. Lieut. Plantaganet Gary. 

Mordecai Lieut. Bates. 

Charlotte Mr. Cartwright. 

RAISING THE WIND. 

Plainway Mr. Johnstone. 

Fainwood Lieut. Sir P. Parker, Bart. 

Jeremy Diddler Lieut. Mac Ilvaine. 

Sam Lieut. Fraser. 

Richard Mr. Hogg. 

John Mr. Leddicott. 

P^ggy Mr. Le Mesurier. 

Miss Lucretia Durable 



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SMYRNA THEATRICALS. 311 

The performance was exceedingly well 
acted throughout. Mr. Mac Ilvaine> the re- 
presentative of Sir Callaghan and Jeremy 
Diddler, has long enjoyed a deservedly high 
reputation in naval theatres. The last time I 
had seen him in a dramatic capacity was seven 
years ago, when we trod the boards together 
of the Bombay theatre. Of the other actors, 
the one that performed with most spirit, and 
had the most reason to do so, was Mr. Gary, 
(a brother of Lord Falkland,) the Squire Groom 
of the evening, who went through his bustling 
character with the greater animation, from hav- 
ing received intelligence of his promotion to a 
lieutenancy just before he appeared on the stage. 

December 31. I dined with the British 
consul. After dinner went to some Smyrna 
private theatricals. 

The play selected was II Bugiardo, of 
Goldoni. Many of the actors played remark- 
ably well ; one in particular, the son of an 
Armenian broker, who performed the part of 



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312 NEW ybarVday visits. 

a waiting maid, would have done honour to 
any stage. 

When it is remembered, that the actors 
had never quitted their homes, that they had 
never seen a play acted by professional per- 
sons, and that the dialogue was conducted in a 
language not in common use in the country, 
the greatest credit is due to their performances, 
and speaks much for that society from which 
alone their picture of manners can be drawn ; 
indeed, the recollections of this night's amuse- 
ments, and of the agreeable holydays I passed 
here, are such as to convey very favourable 
impressions of the state of society of Smyrna, 
and to make me consider this city of infidels 
as an oasis of civilisation, amidst a vast desert 
of oriental barbarism. 

New Vear's'day, 1830. This, and the two 
following days, were passed in paying and 
receiving visits, according to the established 
customs of the country. As my host's brother, 
as weli^as himself, are married to natives of 



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BEAUTY OF THE SMYRNIOTE WOMEN. 313 

Smyrna, they are, in some way, connected with 
all the principal families of the town. I ac- 
companied them wherever they went, saw the 
whole society of Smyrna, and returned quite 
in raptures with the display of beauty I had 
witnessed in my round. Among the married 
ladies is a Greek, a near relation of my host's, 
of the name of Marigo, almost a rival in ap- 
pearance to her pretty namesake on the oppo- 
site side of the Bosphorus, whose story forms 
an episode in the first volume of my narrative. 
This lady had the usual characteristic features 
of her nation ; hazle eyes, dark eye-lashes and 
eyebrows, and the most beautiful dark auburn 
hair. 

At every house we were presented with 
coffee and sweatmeats, which, agreeably to the 
Levantine fashion, were handed round by the 
young ladies of the family. There was some- 
thing very pleasant in being thus waited upon 
by pretty girls, many of whose faces shewed 
that beautiful Greek profile so observable in 
ancient statues. 



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314 SMYRNA GAIETIES. 

Before we returned home, we called upon 
the archbishop of Smyrna. He was in a bad 
state of health ; some wretch having, a short 
time before, mixed poison with the wine which 
the primate drank during the ceremony of 
administering the sacrament, and he was now 
but slowly recovering from its deleterious 
effects. 

We had a large family party in the evening. 
The elder branches played at cards, and sate 
round the tandour. I found '' mettle more 
attractive" in the comer of the room, where a 
group of young ladies were engaged in a noisy 
game of forfeits. 

January 3. An evening party at M. Van 
Lennep's, the Dutch consul. Here I was pre- 
sented to Monsieur de Ribaupierre, the Rus- 
sian ambassador. His excellency was on his 
way to Constantinople. 

The ladies, generally speaking, were dressed 
in the Parisian mode; some, however, wore 
the costume of the Levant — an embroidered 



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APPEARANCE OF THE TOWN. 316 

handkerchief interwoven with the hair^ and a 
small open jacket richly worked in gold. 

Smyrna, viewed from the sea, from its 
amphitheatrical form, its minarets, mosques, 
and cypresses, makes a promise of splendour 
which, as in all Turkish towns, is broken at 
a nearer approach. The houses, especially the 
Turkish, are low and small. Those of the 
Franks, such as that of my friend Mr. Whittall, 
are an exception to this remark. The mansion 
of my host, which is close to the French consul, 
may be taken as a specimen of the better sort. 
The rooms, which are spacious and well fur- 
nished, lead to a long terrace that terminates 
in a summer-house, where a large telescope 
points to the shipping in the harbour. This 
terrace I found a delightful promenade during 
the bad weather. I praised the comfort of it 
to my host. " Yes," was his reply, " we find 
it very convenient during the plague." 

Below the terrace are extensive warehouses, 
which, in some houses, reach to the water's 
edge, but are more generally (as at Mr. Whitt- 



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316 SMYRNA BAZAAR. 

airs) intercepted by a vile, dirty little street, 
containing the scum of the population of Greece, 
Italy, and Malta. Close to the pasha's house, 
which is also a good-sized building, are the 
new barracks, capable of containing two thou- 
sand men. 

Tljere is the same absence of fresh air in the 
Smyrna bazaar, as there is in every other of 
the Ottoman empire which I have visited. The 
shopkeepers sit cross-legged upon the 6oors, 
or rather shop-boards, for they serve both pur- 
poses. These are raised about two feet from 
the ground; so that if any article is wanting, the 
sellers can reach it without stirring; a saving 
of trouble peculiarly suited to their idle habits. 

During my stay at Smyrna I could hear 
but little of the Zebeks. The general impres- 
sion amongst the Turks was, that their chief, 
the Kelmehmet, was employed by the Porte as 
a reformer of abuses. They would have thought 
differently, had they known the number of sacks 
of Zebeks' heads that were daily rolled into the 
imperial presence. 



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POLITICAL PEELINO. 317 

The state of political feeling among the 
Turks of Smynia is said always to take its 
tone from their brethren in Constantinople. 

There was a curious illustration of this 
sympathy of opinion during the late com- 
motions. 

On the enrolment of a janizary into the 
corps^ it was customary to fix on his arms 
the nishaun, or mark of the oda (regiment) to 
which he belonged. This was pricked in with 
gunpowder, in the same manner as is occa- 
sionally practised by our sailors. 

When intelligence was received at Smyrna 
of the late attempt at Constantinople to re- 
establish the order of janizaries, the former 
meinbers of the corps assembled in a body, 
paraded the streets, and baring their arms to 
the shoulder, exhibited the emblems of their 
former privileges ; but no sooner were they in- 
formed of the suppression of the conspiracy, than 
they carefully buttoned their sleeves to the 
wrists, and tried every means to eradicate the 
nishauns. Many, in their eagerness to get rid 



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318 REGRETS AT PARTING. 

of them, used a violent chemical preparation, 
which, producing mortification, cost them their 
lives. 

January 5. Smyrna to Casab^. — I had 
now passed twelve days in Smyrna, idly, it is 
true, but so pileasantly, that it required great 
mental resolution to tear myself away from its 
agreeable inhabitants. Here I would warn the 
traveller to beware of the ladies' fascinations as 
he enters ** the land of the cypress and myrtle ;" 
for whether he approach by sea or land, he 
has, in all probability, become more than 
usually susceptible, by previous seclusion from 
female society ; and bright eyes are there both 
capable and willing to inflict wounds, against 
which the most indifferent only can be proof. 
For my own part, I quitted Smyrna, once more 
to encounter the vicissitudes of a wanderer, 
with a heavier heart than on any previous 
departure. 

There, was nothing in the appearance of the 
weather to lessen the feeling of regret with 



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DETENTION AT THE CUSTOM-HOUSE. 319 

which I bade adieu to my kind and hospitable 
friend. It had been showery for several days 
past, and, as at almost each preceding depar- 
ture from civilised society^ my setting out this 
morning was marked by torrents of rain, which 
did not cease until within an hour's distance 
of my night's halting-place: 

Outside the town is a Turkish custom- 
house. Whether it was that we had omitted 
to give any customary fee, I know not; but 
here we underwent a rigorous and vexatious 
search : we were obliged to unload and to 
open all our baggage, the packing of which 
had previously detained us two hours ; and all 
this annoying scrutiny was made by the road- 
side, the rain continuing meanwhile without 
the slightest intermission. 

This combination of grievances was more 
than the naturally bad temper of my Tartar 
could bear, so he vented his spleen on the 
surijee, who was stupidly drunk, and fairly 
flogged him into sobriety. 

Our day's route was east : quitting the 



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320 EEKE CAPI. 

evergreen plain of Smyrna, and leaving to our 
left the road of Manisa, we began to ascend 
the pass of Gavakli, which seems in ancient 
times to have been of some importance ; as 
vestiges of fortification, built for its defence, 
may be seen to this day on the conical hill, 
rising about the centre of the pass. 

To the right appears the large village of 
Nimphio; and above it, on the almost pre- 
cipitous side of the hills, are yet visible the 
ancient walls of Nimpheeum. Near the modern 
village are mines of gold, producing, however, 
at present, but a small quantity of that metal. 

We crossed, and recrossed, a small but 
limpid stream, and then arrived at the ruined 
village of Eeke Capi : three houses only 
remain, and even these three are in the most 
lamentable state. The others were aban- 
doned a few years ago by the inhabitants, to 
withdraw themselves from the insolence and 
predatory habits of the Dellis. It was the 
custom of this licentious soldiery to quarter 
themselves on the unfortunate peasants; and. 



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OPPRESSIVE IMPOSTS. 321 

after first eating their food, of imposing a cruel 
but ludicrous tax for the use of their jaws in 
devouring it. This tax was called dishin kirassi, 
which means literally ** teeth hire." The 
power of the dellis has now ceased with that 
of the janisaries, by the exterminating mea- 
sures of the grand signior. The nation as 
yet, however, owes their monarch but little 
gratitude for this favour; for though he has 
exempted them from the arbitrary contribu- 
tions to which they were formerly subject, he 
has, for the first time since the existence of 
the Turkish empire, imposed taxes on pro- 
perty, as well as on every article of im- 
portation and exportation, — the latter being 
more heavily taxed than the former. Thus, 
as I have remarked in my notes on Adri- 
anople, an article sent from one town to 
another pays at each place the same impost 
that was laid upon it at the first. The ob- 
jects taxed are home manufactures, and all 
those articles most essential to life, extending 
even to fire-wood. The burden has become 

VOL. II. Y 



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322 THE ZEBEKS. 

the more insupportable, as the weight falls 
almost solely on the poorer classes. In pro- 
portion as these imposts have paralysed the 
little industry existing in this kingdom, the 
Sultan Mahmoud has, in order to meet the 
expenses of the regular troops, and of the 
present war, laden every spot with extra con- 
tributions, which cannot but reduce his people 
to misery and desperation ; his demands on his 
subjects increasing in the ratio of their inability 
to satisfy them. 

Leaving Eeke Capi, we ascended a small hill, 
which brought us into Lydia. We saw to our 
left the craggy mount Sipylus, at the foot of 
which, on its west side, is the town of Manisa. 
Two hours further on is Gasaba, which we 
reached at dusk. 

We heard here, that a few weeks ago the 
head quarters of the Zebeks had been stationed 
at Aidin, and that the Kelmehmet had sent a 
detachment to garrison Gasaba. Since that 
time, Gara Osman Oglou had been in pursuit, 
and had overtaken eighteen of the rebels : he 



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DECREASE OF POPULATION. 323 

hanged six of them, and had cut off the heads 
of the remaining twelve. Thirty others were 
taken at a short distance from Gasaba, and 
sent prisoners to Constantinople. 

Previous to the war with Russia, Casaba 
contained about two thousand houses, but it 
has now only fifteen hundred. The population 
is a tolerably equal proportion of Turks, Arme- 
nians, Greeks, and Jews. It is the thorough- 
fare of all the caravans which convey to Smyrna 
the products of the East. Its cottons and me- 
lons are much celebrated. These last are said 
to be delicious. 

Several thousand natives of the Morea 
were settled here under the mild government 
of Gara Osman Oglou ; but the greater portion 
of them fled on the breaking out of the Greek 
revolution. Smyrna also, and its surround- 
ing villages, were almost entirely peopled by 
Greeks from the opposite coast; a mark of 
the high esteem in which Cara Osman Oglou 
was held. The circumstance of this region 
being so colonised in modem days is worthy 



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324 EMPLOYMENTS OP THE TURKS, 

of remark; as in ancient times, the same 
country, under the name of Ionia, was peopled 
by the Spartans and other natives of Pelo- 
ponnesus. 

The land throughout this country is almost 
entirely cultivated by Turks, who also occupy 
themselves in several small branches of handi- 
craft: here the rayah is the merchant. On 
the opposite coast the case is reversed: the 
Turk devotes himself to trade, the rayah is 
the agriculturist, and the Mahometan is his 
labourer. 



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RUINS OF SARDES. 325 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Ruins of Sardes — Intelligence of the Zebeks — Sarikhli — 
A Tribe of Gipsies — A Fellow-countryman — Industry 
punishable in Turkey — Adala, the Ancient Attalia — Negro 
Language — Anecdote of the Eelmehmet — Modesty of 
Mustapha — Appearance of the Country about Kula — 
Its Identity with Oatacaumene — Correct Description of 
Strabo — Town of Kula — Its Produce — Disaffection of 
the Inhabitants — Ludicrous Adventure — Dress of the 
Zebeks — Mahometan Prejudice against Christian Cos- 
tume — TonbaiU — Military Conscription — Interest taken 
by the Greeks of Kula in the Affairs of the Morea. 

January 6. Casaba to Adala. — I started at 
daylight, in order to be in time to visit the 
ruins of Sardes. 

On regaining the road, I observed in se- 
veral places along this plain tumuli, evidently 
formed by men's hands : two, and even three, 
are to be seen together. 

At an hour's distance we saw to our right 



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326 RUINS OF SARDES. 

the village of Dervent, containing two hundred 
houses, the inhabitants of which subsist on the 
produce of the cultivation of opium. 

We continued to traverse the plain for two 
hours, along and near the base of the magni- 
ficent Mount Tmolus, of ancient history, and 
then arrived at a village called Organli, where 
we breakfasted. If I am not misinformed, 
there is another village of the same name a 
little further on. 

After crossing two streams issuing from the 
mountains, the branches of the Pactolus of the 
ancients, we reached the ruins of Sardes. 

The remains of stupendous buildings, occa- 
sionally of stone, but more commonly of brick, 
broken columns, highly-wrought friezes, and 
architraves, are among the vestiges of the 
splendour of this far-famed city. The tents 
of the Yerook now cover the site of the 
palace of Croesus, and his flocks are to be 
seen grazing in the temples of the Lydian 
gods. 

Having a dangerous river to cross before 



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RUINS OF SARDES. 327 

dark, and being doubtful of nearer accommoda- 
tion than the village on the opposite bank, I 
took but a hasty view of Sardes. The following 
observations were made by my friend Dr. Hall. 

** The remains of the Lydian capital, al- 
though not considerable, are still very inter- 
esting to the traveller ; enough of the ancient 
walls may be traced to shew that the city 
was of a triangular form, the base running in 
a straight line east and west. The Acropolis 
is situated at the opposite angle, on the summit 
of a projecting root of the Tmolus range, which 
bounds the city and plain of Sardes to the 
south. Within the ancient circuit there are 
various massive substructions of public build- 
ings, and architectural fragments are scattered 
every where. 

** There is a theatre, the cavea of which is 
imbedded in the slope of a hill on the south- 
east side of the city ; attached to which is a 
stadium, its length running parallel with the 
scene. Thus the stadium crosses the front of 
the theatre. 



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328 RUINS OF SARDES. 

" At the north-west of the city, and without 
the walls, on a gentle elevation, sloping to the 
banks of the Pactolus, was situated the temple 
of Cybebe or Cybele. (Was this temple dedi- 
cated to the goddess of the earth, as the mother 
of metals, the most precious of which the ad- 
jacent stream supplied?) Only two columns 
of this temple were standing when I visited 
the spot. Truncated portions of others, and 
many fragments of different parts of the build- 
ing were prostrate in heaps around. From the 
great accumulation of soil about the columns 
and parts of the temple, which are now above 
the surface, it is evident that by excavation 
the plan of the whole building might be en- 
tirely traced. The columns are Ionic, and are 
most perfect and beautiful specimens of that 
order: but Mr. Cockerell, whose judgment is 
of much greater value, has expressed the same 
opinion. That gentleman's observations con- 
cerning the temple generally, are to be found 
in a note inserted at the end of Col. Leake's 
* Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor.' 



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RUINS OF SARDES. 329 

*' The remains^ supposed to be those of the 
church of Sardis, one of the seven of Asia 
Minor^ is situated towards the north-west angle 
of the ruins : they consist of massive walls, 
forming a parallelogram ; the interior area of 
which was filled with the ruins of the other 
parts of the building. I could trace no sub- 
structions of tribune, or other divisions, to 
mark satisfactorily the ground-plan of an an- 
cient Christian church. 

" The Acropolis is surmounted by the ruins 
of a fortress. The work of the middle age 
based upon more ancient foundations ; but the 
slashed, broken, and crumbling summit of the 
hill, shews that it has suffered much from 
earthquakes, and apparently at no very distant 
period. 

** The view from this height, looking to the 
north, is very fine; immediately beneath are 
the massive and mouldering ruins of the 
ancient city. Beyond, a partially cultivated 
country inclines gently to the shores of the 
Hermus, which flows east and west, at the 



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330 SARIKHLI. 

distance of three miles from the northern wall. 
On the other side of the river a spacious plain 
extends to a range ef mountains,* whose un- 
even summits present a beautiful and varied 
outline. The Lake of Gyges appears in the 
distance, like a silver band, stretched at the 
base of the mountains, between which and the 
Hermus those extraordinary tumuli or barrows, 
called the tombs of the Lydian king, are dis*- 
cernible. One, of greater magnitude than the 
rest, is recorded by Herodotus to have been 
raised over the grave of Alyattes, with the 
money which the women of- Lydia obtained 
by prostitution.'' 

From Sardes, or Sart, as it is now called, 
we proceeded along the plain, and passed 
through the village of Sarikhli. Here, a short 
time ago, an action was fought between the 
Zebeks and the troops of the grand signior* 
The rebels lost eleven men, and the sultan's 

* These mountains running east and west, inclining to 
the east. 



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GREEKS OF SARIKHLI. 331 

force two. The Kelmehmet deposed the aga 
of this village, and (Substituted a follower of 
his own in his place. The new deputy did 
not enjoy his precarious honour long. He 
had scarcely taken possession when he lost 
his head. 

There are several other villages on this 
plain. Cotton forms the principal article of 
cultivation. Abundance of manna is also 
grown here. The villages are chiefly inha- 
bited by Greeks, who speak Turkish, and are 
ignorant of their own language. Their prayers 
are recited in an odd medley of both languages. 
I believe the Lord's Prayer to run thus: Ilarsf 
bizim S b roTg ovguvoTg, &c. The same remark ap- 
plies also to Kula and the intervening country. 
Their churches are similar to those in the 
times of Christian persecution, being con- 
structed in private houses. Their habitations 
are generally built up of mud and chopped 
straw : it was of this material that the poorer 
kind of houses were formed in ancient days. 

We crossed and recrossed the Hermus, over 



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332 A TRIBE OF GIPSIES. 

two wooden bridges of very fragile structure. 
The river here is a hundred yards broad. 

On the left-hand side of the road we saw 
twenty black tents pitched in a straight line, 
with two flags, one white and the other red, 
fixed at the right flank. These formed an en- 
campment of gipsies, which had stationed itself 
there to welcome, with a band of music, a bride 
who was to pass in that direction on her way 
to her future husband, an inhabitant of the 
neighbouring village. I was not so fortunate 
as to see the procession. The tents of the 
wanderers closely resemble those of the lUy- 
auts, which I saw in the Arabian desert. 

Gipsies are to be seen in every part of 
Turkey. I constantly fell in with them in 
the course of my journey. The largest en- 
campment that I saw was at Shumla, where 
they were assembled to the number of some 
thousands. The appearance of their women 
is always most striking in a Mahometan coun- 
try, where such rigid notions are entertained 
of female decorum. Nothing can be more 



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GIPSIES IN TURKEY. 333 

strongly contrasted than the uncovered face, the 
upright carriage, the fearless, and almost fierce 
demeanour of a well -formed gipsy girl, with 
the veiled features, shuffling walk, and timid, 
downcast look, of a round -looking female of 
the Turkish race. 

The gipsies conform to the prevailing reli- 
gion of the country in which they may chiance 
to be. Thus, they are Christians in Wallachia 
and Moldavia, and, generally speaking, Mus- 
sulmans to the southward of the Balcan. 

Their creed, however, sits loosely upon 
them, as they follow it no further than it 
accords with the habits of their tribe ; conse- 
quently, those who profess the Mahometan 
faith are not acknowledged by the more rigid 
Osmanli, who hates them as infidels, and 
dreads them as magicians. All the expert 
executioners of Constantinople are supposed 
to be of gipsy origin. " There are, in the 
world," say the Turks, ** seventy-two religions 
and a half:" the fractional part of this number 
they assign to the Tchinganee. 



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334 A FELLOW-COUNTRYMAN. 

I was overtaken in my ride by a Greek, 
who asked Carle of what nation I was. He 
had no sooner heard that I was an English- 
man, than he called out, ** EcceUenza! caro 
tnio compatriotto." My countryman proved to 
be a Cephaloniote. He had x^ome to a neigh- 
bouring village on a visit to his brother, who, 
dying shortly after, he succeeded him in his 
property. The experience in husbandry which 
he had acquired under our government, enabled 
him soon to scrape tc^ether some little wealth; 
but the acquisition taught him an axiom of 
Turkish policy, that industry is a punishable 
offence ; for, not only has he had to pay double 
in proportion to the other villagers, but the 
aga will not allow him to return to his native 
country. 

The poor fellow was very civil ; and when 
I arrived at the end of my day's march, brought 
me a bottle of very tolerable wine. 

We here quitted the vast plain, which, with 
the exception of the pass of Cavakli, is undi- 
vided from Smyrna to this place, and may be 



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NEGRO LANGUAGE. 335 

seen extending towards the east^ until it is 
terminated in appearance by a range of distant 
mountains. 

We now again came to the banks of the 
Hermus^ flowing at the base of a rocky moun- 
tain, through a chasm of which it disappears. 
At the opposite bank is the village of Adala, 
the ancient Attalia. The passage here is ra- 
ther dangerous, and we were obliged to hail 
the villagers to guide us over. Three of 
them came, and we crossed without an ad- 
venture. 

The direct road from Gasaba to Adala is 
twelve hours; but we made the distance four- 
teen, by the circuit necessary to visit the ruins 
of Sardes. 

Of our guides across the river, two were 
negroes, or Arabs, as they are called by the 
Turks. I had heard this people in different 
parts of the world speak French, English, Ar- 
menian, Persian, and Arabic. I now heard 
them speak Turkish. In all these languages 
they converse with that peculiar lisping idiom 



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336 ANECDOTE OF KELMEHMET. 

which is a paraphrase to the jargon spoken 
by the slaves in our colonies, — a coincidence 
which is left to philologers to determine. 

One of our party here had been employed 
against the Zebeks. He told us that a short 
time ago, a horseman staid to breakfast at a 
neighbouring village, and consigned his steed 
in the meanwhile to the charge of one of the 
villagers. On re-mounting, the stranger asked 
him what he should give him for holding his 
horse. 

*' Oh !*' said the fellow, " I would not have 
charged you any thing, but I am a poor man, 
and am obliged to leave my fields uncultivated, 
to go in pursuit of that scoundrel of a Kel- 
mehmet." 

'* But what harm has he done you ?" 

" The trouble he gives me is quite harm 
enough; and if I catch him, I promise you I'll 
kill him." 

** Don't believe he'll be such a fool as to 
allow himself to be caught," said the stranger, 
as he pressed his horse's sides, and set off at 



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MODESTY OF MUSTAPHA. 337 

full gallop. He was scarcely out of sight, 
when a crowd entered the village, in pursuit 
of the Kelmehmet. By the description of the 
person, it was discovered that the Zebek chief- 
tain was the identical horseman who had just 
quitted the town on the opposite side. 

The people here confirmed in part what I 
heard at Smyrna and elsewhere, namely, that 
the depredations of the Zebeks were princi- 
pally committed on the rich. 

We shared the chamber in our hut with 
an old gray-bearded Tartar and another per- 
son, in government employ. I made Mus- 
tapha very angry, by offering him wine in 
presence of these men ; and he complained 
bitterly to Carle of the insult I had put upon 
him. As he had never before been so scru- 
pulous, I begged he would make me some 
private signal when he was next attacked by 
a fit of modesty. 

January 7. Adala to Kula, eight hours. 
Course east. — On re-crossing the stream, Mus- 

VOL. II. z 



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338 LUDICROUS ADVENTURE. 

tapha's horse sunk in the mud, and seated 
himself quietly on his rump. I have seldom 
seen fear so strongly depicted as on the coun- 
tenance of my Tartar. It was impossible to 
resist the ludicrousness of the scene. The 
usually proud, but now humble Mahometan, 
was imploring help of his Christian fellow- 
servant, who, instead of helping him, only 
laughed at his distress, and reproached him 
for his cowardice. The danger, after all, was 
not very great ; in fact, I, if any one, ran the 
greatest risk, for so ridiculous was the appear- 
ance of the two, that laughter prevented me 
from paying the necessary attention to the 
guidance of my horse. 

After heavy rains it is necessary to make a 
circuitous route of three hours to arrive at a 
bridge, which, to return, make six additional 
hours* march. The surijee who conducted us 
was obliged, when he went back, to make 
this circuit. 

Our surijee, and several men that we over- 
took this morning, wore the dress of the 



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PREJUDICE AGAINST CHRISTIAN COSTUME. 339 

Zebeks. Instead of the round turban in use 
amongst the Turks, these mountaineers wear 
a high sugar-loaf red cap, round which is bound 
one or more handkerchiefis. The Turks gene- 
rally prefer loose flowing robes, but the Zebek's 
dress sits close to the limbs, in a manner 
offensive to Turkish notions of propriety; the 
breeches, especially, fit as tight as European 
drawers. The engraving of the Zebek in the 
frontispiece, is from an original portrait of one 
of these mercenary soldiers in the service of 
the pasha of Smyrna. 

My description of costume has led to the 
mention of a part of the dress which, as Miss 
Oidbuck says, '* It doesna become a lady to 
particularise." This fastidiousness of the Anti- 
quary's maiden sister was (formerly) surpassed ' 
in nearly every Mahometan counbry. Our old 
military uniform of short jackets, tight pan- 
taloons, and Hessian boots, gave great offence 
to the eye of the followers of the Arabian pro- 
phet In Persia, I believe, it is still advisable 
for Europeans to adopt a costume suited to the 



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340 APPEARANCE OF THE COUNTRY. 

prejudices of the people; but in Turkey there 
is no occasion ; ** on a changi tout cela r s^d 
the metamorphosis is one of the great com- 
plaints against the present sultan. 

Three miles from Adala we saw, on our 
left hand, Tonbaili, a village inhabited by 
Turcomans. In a ravine in the mountains was 
a small encampment of these wanderers. Their 
tents differed in nothing from the gipsies or 
lUyauts. 

We still continued to march in an easterly 
direction, and traversed a range of mountains of 
white and coloured marble. As we approached 
Kula, the road was entirely black, and strewed 
with cinder-looking substances. Wherever the 
rock was broken, it exhibited the same black 
appearance. The people here call this moun- 
tain kara dewit, or " black inkstand." On 
the opposite side of ^ the hill the face of the 
country undergoes a complete change. Instead 
of a continued chain of mountains, like those 
we had quitted, was a succession of detached 
hills, of a conical shape, and covered, for the 



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CORRECT DESCRIPTION OF STRABO. 341 

most part, with vines. In the midst of these 
eminences, at the further extremity of a cir- 
cular plain, is the highly picturesque town 
of Kula, situate amidst huge black vitrified 
masses, in the bed of an extinct volcano. 

This country was anciently called Catace- 
caumene, or **the burned up," as is abundantly 
proved not only by its position, but by its 
particular appearance. 

Strabo*s description of Catacecaumene, which 
is very minute, will be found to agree with my 
observations on the neighbourhood of Kula, 
which are given exactly as I made them on 
the spot.* 

Kula, which is built entirely of lava, con- 
tains eleven mosques, and fifteen hundred 

* Mtrtk it rtwr iorlf i KtirMcvuivfiifn Xvyfiifn Xi'^^t, f*nfcf 

i^tifntud mr^miniy fiiXxna, itfttfii iwucMtfo^i, — Strab. lib. xiii. 
p. 628. 



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342 DISAFFECTION OP THE INHABITANTS. 

houses ; of this number one hundred and fifty 
are Greek. The town is subject to the go- 
vernor of Kutaya, The trade consists in car- 
pets or rugs, on which the Turks recite dieir 
prayers : the average price of these articles is 
from forty to a hundred and seventy piasters. 
The town is celebrated for a red dye, and 
supplies Alexandria with red slippers. It pro- 
duces also a considerable quantity of opium. 

One spirit of discontent, I may say of dis- 
affection, pervades every class of the inhabit^ 
ants of this town, as well as of the surrounding 
villages. The Turks are dissatisfied because 
they are impressed into the service, and the 
Greeks because they are forced to pay the ex- 
penses. The levies of troops have been very 
extensive here, and of the numbers so enlisted, 
every one has, almost without exception, been 
dragged from his home with arms pinioned, 
and with a chain round his neck, as I men- 
tioned in a former part of the Journal. When- 
ever the conscripts, for the greater convenience 
of conveying them, have been unbound, they 



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AFFAIRS OF THE MOREA. 843 

have made use of the indulgence by returning 
home. The deserters remain the first on the 
list for a new conscription : when caught, they 
receive the bastinado, are again carried towards 
Constantinople as soon as they are able to 
walk, and many of them act in the same man- 
ner as before, 

I was surprised to find that the Greeks 
of this remote and inland town take a lively 
interest in the affairs of their brethren on the 
opposite coast. In my antiquarian researches 
on this and the following day, aumerous were 
the inquiries relative to the new Greek con- 
stitution, in the advantages of which these 
people seemed fully to expect a participation. 
This circumstance confirms an opinion I had 
formed in consequence of conversations with 
the Greeks in other parts of Turkey, namely, 
that a general understanding exists between 
those who are enfranchised, and those who still 
continue under the dominion of the Ottoman 
crown. 



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344 ANTIQUARIAN EXCURSION. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Antiquarian Excursion — Inscriptions at Kula — Bas-reliefs 
— Kula near the ancient Meeonia — Beauty of the Kula 
Women — Kula Wine, Illustration of Strabo — Leave 
Kula — Mustapha's Prudence — Village of Ghieuldiz — 
Ancient Remains — Inscriptions at Ghieuldiz — Colonel 
Leake's Remarks. 

January 8. I devoted the whole of the morn- 
ing to the search for Greek inscriptions. I 
did not call upon the aga, but he heard of 
my arrival, and sent the principal Greek of 
the town to accompany me in my expedition. 
L went into forty or fifty houses, and found in- 
scriptions in them all : they are principally 
sepulchral. There are several fragments of in- 
scriptions also in the corn-market. The other 
indications of antiquity are occasional capitals, 
and broken shafts of columns ; abundance 
of coins are also to be found here. I bought 



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INSCRIPTIONS AT KULA. 345 

several Greek and Roman, but the principal 
portion of them were of the Lower Empire. 

The following woodcut represents a cameo, 
which. I brought from the ruins. The original 
is in the possession of Colonel Leake. 




The inscriptions are, as usual, in Greek 
capitals; but as they are all of the time of 
the Roman empire, and there is nothing re- 
markable in the characters, I have thought 
it sufficient to give them in the cursive; for 
which text, as well as for the translations and 
notes accompanying it, I am indebted to the 
kindness of Colonel Leake. 



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346 INSCRIPTIONS AT KULA. 

No. I. is on a sepulchral slab. Above the 
inscriptioQ is a crescent, the symbol (A the god 
Lunu8« 



Mjyw ' A^iOfT^i'y.* 'Etii *EgfJuoyiinK r>Jfxaf¥0^ teas NiTMug 

*Eg[Jitoyiwi¥ xui tsKounTo rw 6iov zai kxo ¥v¥ iv^al^, 

* To Lunus Aziottenus. Hermogenes, son 
of Glycon and Nitonis, son (or daughter) of 
Philoxenus, having calumniated Artemidorus 
concerning Mrine, Artemidorus presented a pic- 
ture (to the god). The god took Hermogenes 
in hand, Hermogenes appeased the god, and 
from this time glorifies him.'^ 

* ^ Lunus hcMi many epithets. Men Arcenus and Men 
Campreites app^ on coins of Sardes and Njsa. Strabo 
makes mention of Men Arcseus, Men Phamacus, and Men 
Carus (pp. 657, 577, 579). The epithet Aziottenus is found 
on the coins of the Saitteni." 

t < The Catacecaumene, in the midst of which Kula is 
situated, was noted for its wine. — Strabo, pp. 628, 637. 
ViTRUv. lib. viii. c. 3.* 



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INSCRIPTIONS AT KULA. 347 

Above No. II. is a bas-relief representing 
two figures clasping each other's hands : one 
is in a short dress, the other in a long gown. 

11. 

"^roug rxd, fJMj¥og Ztocviixou. . . . fMg xou 'louTJa to 
To(jkii)oif rixvov Tg6(pi(jji^i) (^ff)(raifra' irtj »y xa). . . ,^ 
a^^og xai A o vrargvsog (kitoi, t£. . . . f^Hiccg 

' In the month Zandicus of the year 329, 
Trophimus and Julia honoured their beloved 
son Trophimus, who had lived twenty-three 
years. His brother .... and his father-in-law 

D together with . . ... . also honoured 

him.' 

No. III. is surmounted by a wreath. 
III. 

' ApoUophanes, son of Philip and his wife 



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348 BAS-RELIEFS. 

Hermione, daughter of Hermollus, have ho- 
noured their son Philip.' 

Below No. IV. two hearts are sculptured. 

IV. 

"Erot/f ^v, ijiajpog Ztocviixov TsgrvKhj Mnvoiorou 2ro- 

' In the month Zandicus of the year 258, 
Tertylle Stomiane, daughter of Menodotus, 
erected this honorary monument in memory 
of her husband Anicetus.' 

The three following inscriptions are to be 
found on separate slabs in the court-yard of 
one of the principal Greek houses in the 
town. 

Above No. V. is a bas-relief representing 
two persons, one the Phrygian Apollo, wearing 
a chlamys, and treading upon the head of a 
bull ; the other Jupiter, having an eagle on his 
right arm. 



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BAS-RELIEFS. 



349 




V. 

'I^ (rvfL^ioHTig xcci uiet^riga kut iTsrocy^p rov xvgiov rvgdvvov 
Aiig MourfaXocrfiyov xcci Mfivindfitov suxfjv. *lov7javog 
Msvvcgdrov, Msvexgdrrjg Asoiofgov^ Asowfftog UocTTiOVy *^(m>- 
ysvfig 'EgiJbiTTOUj Aovxiog ' Ovritrlfi^ov^ A/oygwyj Y>J}KCJVog^ 
Asoyivfig Mcc^i[Ji*0Vj Tgo^ifjuog "E^ju^iWot;, AroKkunog S, 
Q%SUt^g S, Ma^xiavo^ S, "Mkvavh^ ^Egfitoyivouj '^(i»o- 
yivrig Tar/avoy, MirfoJd/^f EicXTiWov, * AtrKhjTidifig 
Mocgxiavov, AirxkfjTiding Asovvtrtov, 'Y^fMyivrig Tgop^fi^ov, 
"RaSfiKog 'EffifOyrnVj WifLihitrafiimv 'lovTjavov xou 
*Yqyboyivov. irovg trvtr (Jbfjvog Avtrrgov. 



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360 INSCRIPTIONS. 

* The sacred college of the young men 
erects this votive monument, by order of the 
lord sovereign Jupiter Masphalatenus and 
Menttiamus. . (Subscribed by) Julianus, son of 
Menecrates ; Menecrates, son of Diodonis ; 
Dionysius, son of Pappias; Hermogenes, son 
of Hermippus ; Lucius, son of Onesimus ; 
Diogenes, son of Glycon; Diogenes, son of 
Maximus ; Trophimus, son of Hermippus ; 
ApoUonius, the second time; Theodorus, the 
second time ; Marcianus, the second time ; 
Menandrus, son of Hermogenes ; Hermogenes, 
son of Tatianus; Metrodorus, son of Euel- 
pistus; Asclepiades, son of Marcianus; Ascle- 
piades, son of Dionysius; Hermogenes, son 
of Trophimus; Babelus, son of Hermogenes. 
Julianus and Hermogenes had charge of the 
execution of the work. In the month Dystrus, 
of the year 256.' 

No. VI. is a bas-relief, representing the 
heads of two persons. The head of the one 
is surrounded by a radiated crown; and from 



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INSCRIPTIONS. 361 

between the shoulders of the other is a half 



moon. 



■^^ 




VI. 

K«ra T^¥ rSv 6iSv mray^yf isgog iov(Jid>i* &J%nv 
Ait M.ourfakurfiucf ku) MfiutridfJbef zoci M^jvirvgawtf "f 
Ixikivtnv TfigutrScci avrSv aTuSfjg ocvayv&HTBrui 
roig ivmiJbug rov A/o^ imfi*thi(fafiAvov Aiouvtriov 

fJttfjvig Avtrrgou. 

* * iififf. This was probably the senior college of priests, 
the preceding inscription having been by the junior college. 

t ' Menotyrannus is found as an epithet of the Phrygian 
deity Attis, daughter of Cybele, in some Latin inscriptions. 
See the collection of Orellius, published in 1628, Nos. 1900, 
1901,2264,2353.* 



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352 



INSCRIPTIONa. 



* By command of the gods, the sacred 
college has ordered the worship of Jupiter 
Masphalatenus and Menitiamus, and of Me- 
nityrannus, to be observed. The unbeliever 
shall acknowledge the power of Jupiter. Dio- 
nysius, son of Diodorus, and Hermogenes, son 
of Valerius, had charge of the execution. In 
the month of Dystrus of the year 256.' 

No. VII. is engraved on red limestone. 
The bas-relief represents the figure of a 
woman, holding a nosegay in her right hand. 
She is placed in a niche between two columns. 




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INSCRIPTIONS. 353 

Beneath the figure are the following hexameter 
verses : 

VII. 

yiaigoig at {rofoi/ro, rifufii uffdxovffov 1(1*640. 

OvPOfLa ^ TyjfxtrKP^ itrogSig ^ [Ji*i vot^Okvof ovtrar 

T^ ^a/ ifkfiv PiOfjjra Toer^g Tluiiigeifg iif&yga'^pePf 

Kai iJi*n^§ Tkuzlo^ Koi TifLoyiyfjg 6 cchekpogf 

f/lffiopig* Magxog tcui Nuxvg^ ouh$ ts iJbd[M*[jMzt'\' 

T^ififOymg xas '^uy/i rtjv iyyovov iriiAfjffccif ifuv ?v otJrorg fjKTtaa rifhifl. 

"Erwf tT^0 fitfivog AiW. 

*Hail! traveller, and learn the honour I have received. 

You behold me a virgin of the name of Glycia. 

My father Paederos has recorded my youth ; 

And my mother Glycia, and my brother Timogenes, 

And the Maeonians Marcus and Neicys, and my two 
grandmothers 

Timogenis and Psyche^ have all honoured me, — an 
honour which I never hoped for. 

In the month Dius, of the year 299.' 

• * Probably her lovers, natives of the city of Mmonia, of 
which this inscription seems, therefore, to indicate the site.' 

t ' The original is EAETEM AMME : but i and «<, • and h, 
I and K, are continually confounded in these inscriptions.^ 
VOL. II. A A 



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364 BEAUTY OP THE KULA WOMEN. 

In the fifth line, it will be observed that 
mention is made of two Maeonians, Marcus and 
Neicys. Colonel Leake, supposing the inscrip- 
tions belonged to Kula, considered that this 
allusion identified the town with the ancient 
city of M aeonia ; but on referring to my notes, 
I discovered that the last three inscriptions 
(Nos. V. VI. and VII.) were brought by my 
host from a vineyard, near a village two 
leagues distant, actually bearing the name of 
Megna,* which closely resembles Meaonia. 
My host further informed me, that several 
other monuments were to be seen there, as 
also at Arablides, Durasali, and, indeed, in 
all the villages of this neighbourhood. 

During my antiquarian search, I saw nearly 
the whole Greek population. I was particu- 
larly struck with the appearance of the women. 
I understand their beauty is celebrated through- 
out Asia Minor. Their holyday head-dress is 

* The letters gn in Megna had the sound which the same 
letters have in the Italian words degnoy legno. 



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KtJLA WINE, ILLUSTRATION OP STRABO. 365 

quite classical, bearing a strong resemblance to 
the Phrygian cap. 

The same remark applies to the Greeks of 
Kula as to those of the country we had quitted, 
namely, that Turkish is their colloquial lan- 
guage. 

My host gave me some wine, brought from 
bis vineyard at Meeonia. It was the best I had 
tasted in the course of my journey. Strabo, 
alluding to the excellence of the wine of the 
Catacaumene, (the bumed-up country), says, 
hence Bacchus is said to be bom of fire.* 

Kula to Ohieuldiz, one hour. Course 
north-west. — By four o'clock in the after- 
noon I had finished my examination ; I there- 
fore ordered the horses, and we dined in 
the meanwhile. Mustapha refiised to drink 
wine, firom a recollection of his adventure at 
Adala, saying, " We have a river to cross, 

Ub. xiii. p. 628. 



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356 VILLAGE OF OHIEULDIZ. 

and I had rather go to Paradise than to the 
devil." 

We set out an hour before dusk, and pro- 
ceeding north-west for three miles, arrived at 
the village of Ghieuldiz, where the aga con- 
signed us to the principal Greek house. 

This village is built entirely of stone. It 
contains, one hundred houses, of which seventy 
are Greek, and thirty Turkish. The priests 
say that it formerly contained one hundred 
and sixty houses. It produces nothing; the 
inhabitSints going elsewhere for work, and 
eating the fruits of their labour at home. Ne- 
vertheless, it pays a tax of thirty thousand 
piasters to government, nearly the whole of 
which is defrayed by the Greek population. 

January 9. I commenced my examination 
at daylight. Not only in the village itself, 
but at a considerable distance around it, may 
be traced foundations of houses and small 
temples. In the walls of the villages are nu- 
merous fragments of fine marble ; bas-reliefs 
abound every where, and many have been 



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INSCRIPTIONS AT OHIEULDIZ. 357 

employed by the villagers for the structure of 
their houses, and are placed sideways, or 
upside down, as the shape best suited the 
builder. In all directions I saw Corinthian 
capitals, fragments of pillars, small broken 
statues, and a variety of sculptures. On these 
last the sacrifice of the bull is frequently ob- 
servable. The greater part of them are, how- 
ever, either votive altars or sepulchral monu- 
ments. 

Amongst several inscriptions that I copied 
are the following : — 

No. I. is surmounted by the crescent, the 
symbol of Lunus, to whom it will be seen the 
stone is dedicated. 

I. 

"Erovg <r^ (Lfjvog Xavhixov xar Wirayfjv Mnuog, ' A^ior- 

rfivov * AgTSfi^iiojgog Osgiov lDjtv6iov ^iKoxoKov 

lovKog vmg iccvrov xm r£v rvcmv aviOfixBV. 

' In the month Zandicus of the year 207. 
By command of Lunus Aziottenus, Artemidorus 



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358 INSCRIPTIONS AT GHIBULDIZ. 

slave of Claudius Philocalus, has raised 

this monument for himself and children/ 

No. II. 

' In the month Zandicus, of the year 200, 
Tatias, son of Glycon/ 

No. III. is on a votive altar; around it 
are numerous indications of an ancient temple. 

III. 

iOOf ' ATToT^viog ' ATToTJ^mu xou 'At^/o^ vt^ 
r^g iccurSv (rofTfigiag xa) rSv rixvofv. 

* To Jupiter the Thunderer and immortal, 
the two slaves having so desired it, ApoUonius 
son of ApoUonius, and Apphias, raise this 
monument for the welfare of themselves and 
children.' 

For the better comprehension of the fol- 
lowing remarks of Colonel Leake, it will be 



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COLONEL LEAKE's REMARKS. 359 

advisable to refer to the inscriptions at Kula, 
marked Nos. V. VI. VII. 

' I have adverted in one of the preceding 
notes to the word 'Mjfioifsg, in the epitaph on 
Glycia, as aflfording a presumption that it in- 
dicates the site of Maonia, which we know to 
have been a city as well as a province, from 
Pliny, Hierocles, the list of Greek bishopricks, 
and many existing imperial coins of Mseonia, 
from Nero to Decius. On these coins are 
found the words Masopctfv, i^iJbo^ Mocsomuj Itgoi 
(TvyKhrrog^ Z$dg 'OTJ^fi/afio^, OB well as the names 
of several magistriates, both civil and sacred. 
The iigoi (TvyxTjjTog of the coins accords with the 
kgci (TVfjis&iAHrtg of one of the inscriptions of Kula ; 
and the Z^v^ 'OTjjfMm with the worship of Ju- 
piter, which is also apparent from them. 

' As to Men, or Lunus, otherwise Attis or 
Adonis, he was a favourite deity in almost 
every city of the western part of Asia Minor. 

' Pliny is supposed to have stated, that 
Maeonia stood on the roots of Mount Tmolus, 
on the river Cogamus ; which does not very 



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360 coLc»)EL leake's remarks. 

accurately agree with the fiituation of Kula ; 
but I couceive that he inteoded this descrip- 
tion not for Meeonia but Philadelphia. On the 
other hand, his remark^ that Maeonia was one 
of the cities of the Sardian jurisdiction,* 
accords with Kula ; and equally so the po* 
sition of the name of Mseonia in the enume- 
ration of the cities of the consular province 
of Lydia by Hierocles. But there is a still 
stronger presumption derived from an obser- 
vation of Vitruvius,'f who remarks that Meeonia 
was not less famed for its wine, Catacecau- 
menitis, than Lydia was for its Tmolitis, or 
wine of Tmolus; for we are sure, from the 
descriptions both of Mr. Arundell and Major 
Keppel, that the country around Kula was 
the Catacecaumene ; and it has been seen 
that one of the inscriptions of Kula has a 
reference to wine. Ghieuldiz appears to be 
the site of one of the towns on the populous 
banks of the Hermus ; but I cannot offer any 
conjecture as to its ancient name. 

• Lib. iv. c. 29. f Lib. viii. c. 3. 



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COLONEL LEAKE's REMARKS. 361 

* The epoch employed, both here and in the 
inscriptions of Kula, is probably that of the 
battle of Actium, which was in general use 
under the Roman emperors; in which case 
the inscriptions are respectively of the reigns 
of Marcus Aurelius, Aurelius and Verus, 
Alexander Severus, Claudius II., and Dio- 
cletian; dates which agree with the tenor, 
style, and form of written character, in the 
documents. That of the reign of Alexander 
Severus, in which the Itgig iovfjbo'g is mentioned, 
would seem to shew that the worship of Ju- 
piter was then declining, caused undoubtedly 
by the increase of Christianity. It is cer- 
tainly possible that Maeonia may have had a 
particular epoch, derived from some favour 
received from the emperor, such as the 17th 
of the Christian era, when Philadelphia, and 
some other cities in this volcanic vicinity, 
were destroyed by an earthquake, and were, 
in coQsequence, much indebted to the com- 
passion of Tiberius ; for it was from a 
similar cause that Cibyra founded an epoch. 



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362 coioNBL lbake's remarks. 

which began a.d. 23.* There exists no evi- 
denoe, however, on the coins or inscriptions 
of the towns destroyed in the year 17, that 
the erent became an epoch among any of 
them; nor does the name of Maeonia occur 
in Tacitus^t or among the eight cities which 
are personified and named on the base of a 
colossal statue of Tiberius, which was found 
at Puteoli^ The battle of Actium, there- 
fore, was probably the commencement of the 
sra in all the inscriptions/ 

♦ Tacit. Anna!, lib. iv. c. 12. f Ibid. lib. ii. c. 47. 

: V. Gronov. Thes. vol. 7. 



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eB06S'.THE:ISB&in;S. 863 



CHAPTER XX. 

Cross the Hennus — Ancient Sculpture — Hot Sptiog — Cul- 
tivation — Rocky Scenery — Sirghi6 — Ancient Inscription 
— The Site of Bags — A Journey in Asia Minor recom- 
mended — Remarks of Colonel Leake — The old Roman 
Road — Wretched Cattle — Selendi-— Mustapha's Arro- 
gance. 

Ghjeulbiz to.Sirghi6 four hours — in a straight 
line, but we struck out of the road ta visit 
a sculpture in the mountains. We went ifor 
five miles in an easterly direction, through a 
country of volcanic mountains, which brought 
us to the banks of the Hermus: we crossed 
the river by a well-built stone bridge. It is 
here very muddy, and mshes forward with great 
impetuosity through a bed of huge masses of 
rock. Its appearance reminded' me of the 
Rhone near its source. 

We marched for a mile to the northward. 



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364 ANCIENT SCULPTURE. 

along the base of a rocky mountain, and then 
turned abruptly to the east, along the bed 
of a mountain torrent tributary to the Hermus, 
which in two miles' march brought us to the 
object of our search. 

Here the rock is cut out in the form of 
a semicircular arch, nearly three feet deep, 
four broad, and eight high. On the borders 
of the arch are sculptured wreaths of flowers. 
Within is a human statue, excavated out 
of the rock. The robes extend to the knee ; 
the left hand grasps a bow, and the right 
appears to have formerly held an arrow. The 
figure is attended by a dog. It is about four 
feet high, and is in fine proportion : I consider 
it to represent Diana ; but the head and breasts 
are considerably damaged, and it is possible 
that it may be Apollo instead of Diana ; and 
what appears to be the crescent of the god- 
dess, may be the remains of the Phrygian cap 
of the male deity. 

On the right hand of this statue, and 
almost at right angles with it, is a smaller 



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HOT SPRING. 365 

sculpture ; it represents a leafless tree, beside 
which is a man in a falling posture. Facing 
this sculpture, and immediately on the left of 
the supposed Diana, is a bas-relief, representing 
three human figures, in different attitudes, at- 
tending the couch of a fourth, which is lying 
in a recumbent position, apparently dead. 
One person is supporting the head of the 
corpse, another stands at the feet, and a third 
is in the middle, in a melancholy posture. 

A hundred yards to the east of these sculp- 
tures is a hot spring, which issues out of the 
rock through several small apertures. It has 
a very strong, sulphureous smell : the heat is 
one hundred and thirty degrees of Fahrenheit. 
A little below is a small Turkish hot bath, 
fourteen feet square. There is a small village 
a little farther on, which is called Hummaum, 
from this spring. 

We retraced our steps as far as the bridge, 
and again crossing it, continued some little 
time along its bank. We then proceeded 
south, going occasionally a little to the east- 



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366 ROCET SCBNIRT. 

ward, and always keeping the Heitnna on our 
left hand. Sometimes we travelled along 
its banks: at others we passed through the 
country in its neighboorbeod. 

The plains here have been newly cutti- 
yated, in consequence of an imperial firman, 
which promises certain privileges to the culti- 
vator. This is done in consequence of the 
extreme dearth of com in the capital, and 
indeed throughout the empire. 

The last two hours of the march were after 
dark, and almost entirely along the banks of 
the river. The road led over huge perpendi- 
cular masses: of rock. The scenery here was 
exceedingly wild, particularly as seen by the 
light of the moon, which, as I scrambled from 
rock to rock, revealed to me the 3rawning gulf 
below, into which it appeared a false step of 
the horse would have inevitably plunged me. 

We reached Sirghi6 at eight in thfe evening, 
and established ourselves in the house of the 
aga, who was absent from home. 

Sirghi6 is a post station. It is situated on 



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ANCIENT INSCMPTION. 367 

the banks of the Hermus: the inhabitants are 
manufacturers of carpets^ There are but fifteen 
houses; yet the aga's house is spacious, and 
his attendants appear to be numerous. When 
it is remembered, that all these people are 
fed by the villagers, who have the cost of 
their subsistence to add to the burthens of 
the government taxes, can it be wondered at, 
that the Turkish peasant is poor ? 

In the aga's stable-yard is the following 
inscription : — 

xa) AvTOKgdrogi Katffttgt Magxcf OvuTsj^ief Ma|- 
tfjbtavS Kd) ^\(x,ovicf OifOikBgtcjf' ILsjvcfroi^vrlcf 
Kui Ovakegt^ Ma^ifMaifCf roTg i^-i^anararotg 

((p)a((r)g/. 

* To our sovereign lords Caius Valerius 
Diocletianus and the emperor Caesar Marcus 
Valerius Maximianus, and to the most illus- 
trious Caesars Flavins Valerius Constantius and 



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368 THE SITE OF BAGiE. 

Valerius Maximianus, by a decree of the re- 
nowned city of the Bageni.' 

This pillar was transported from the oppo- 
site side of the river, on which there are some 
vestiges of ruins. 

Bagse is mentioned by Hierocles, as one of the 
towns in a province of Asia. On the coins ex- 
tant of this city, is the inscription BATHNQN, 
together with the figure and name of the river 
god *EPM02, which coincides perfectly with 
the position of Sirghi^ on the banks of that 
stream. 

Thus, without any previous preparation, 
for accident alone induced me to visit Asia 
Minor, I have been the means of making 
known the sites of six ancient cities ; namely, 
Azani, Cadi, Julio-Gordus, Attalia, Maeonia, 
and Bagse. I have, besides, traced the Hermus 
to its source, and have thrown a considerable 
light on the course of the Rhyndacus. The 
object of alluding to these discoveries, is to 



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JOURNEY IN ASIA MINOft RECOMMENDED. 369 

shew the antiquarian traveller the prospect he 
has of a successful search^ and to induce him 
to visit this classical and interesting region, 
which has hitherto remained a blank in all 
modem maps. 

At a more favourable season of the year 
than that in which I travelled, this journey 
might be performed with perfect ease and 
safety. 

Much useless labour might be saved by 
a previous study of the geography of the 
country. For this purpose, the traveller would 
be benefited by the perusal of such parts of 
the twelfth and thirteenth books of Strabo as 
relate to Phrygia, Lydia, Ionia, and Mysia. 

He would also derive assistance by applying 
to the Royal Geographical Society of London, 
of which I have the honour to be a member 
of council ; one of the objects of this society 
being to facilitate the researches of travellers. 
He is further recommended to have, as a con- 
stant book of reference, the " Journal of a 
Tour in Asia Minor," by Colonel Leake, to 

VOL. II. B B 



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370 BBMABXM or COLONIL LBAKS. 

whom I oace more beg to acknowledge my 
high sense of the oblig^g assistance I have 
received from him. 

The following obserFations of that Intel- 
ligent geographer, elicited by a perusal of my 
notes, may be of service to the future visitor 
of the north- western part of Asia Minor : 

* There can be little doubt that a more 
accurate examination than has yet been made 
of the banks of the Hermus, from its junction 
with the sea to its sources near Cadi, would 
lead to the discovery of several ancient »tes ; 
since we may be assured, that the banks of this 
great river were not less thickly inhabited 
than those of the Cayster and Mseander. 
Among the cities near the Hermus, were 
Bagae, Tabala, and the Saetteni, as appears 
from some of their coins, which, like some of 
those of Cadi, are inscribed with the name 
'Egfbog^ generally accompanied with the figure 
of a river god. 

* When I published the '* Journal of a Tour 
in Asia Minor," I hazarded the opinion, that 



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REMARKS OF COLONEL LEAKE. 371 

the name Clannuda, occurring in no autho- 
rity but the Tabular Itinerary, was a cor- 
ruption. I have lately learnt, however, that 
a coin exists in the possession of a gentleman 
at Smyrna, bearing the inscription KXaptf^vUMf. 
The Aludda of the Table, which is probably 
a corruption of Attuda, or the city rS^'ArrtwiiafP, 
as the name of the people is inscribed on their 
coins, seems to have been, like Clannuda, near 
the left bank of the Hermus, and not far 
from where the road quitted the river, and 
proceeded in a direct course to Cotyaeium. 
If remains of Attuda should be found by the 
future traveller, in the situation indicated by 
the distances, he would also probably succeed 
in discovering Acmonia, at about five-twelfths 
of the interval between the site of Attuda and 
Kutaya. 

' The site of Bagae (called Bagis in Hiero- 
cles) is shewn from an inscription copied by 
Major Keppel at Sirghi^, to have been nearly 
opposite to that village, near the right bank of 



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372 REMARKS OF COLONEL LEAKE. 

the Hermus. The city of the Saetteni would 
seem to have been near the junction of the 
Hyllus and Hermus, as both these rivers are 
named on the coins of that people. Accord- 
ing to the course of the Hermus above Baged, 
as now ascertained from the itineraries of 
Major Keppel and Mr. Arundell, the Roman 
road from Philadelphia to Dorylseum ap* 
preached the left bank of the river near Ye- 
nish6hr, the distance of which place from 
AUash^hr according with that of Ciannuda 
from Philadelphia, in the Tabular Itinerary, 
shews that Ciannuda was situated near Ye- 
nish^hr ; and some remains of the ancient city 
might be sought at or near that place, with 
the greater confidence, as the sum of the dis- 
tances on the entire road in the Table, agrees 
with the reality.' 

From Sirghi^ Dr. Millingen went to leni 
Kieu. His route wfts four hours to leni 
Shehr, three to Dervent, and two to leni 
Kieu. At the latter place he saw a few 



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THE OLD ROMAN ROAD. 373 

fragments of wrought marble and broken 
columns^ and heard from some of the older 
inhabitants, that a large slab, with a long in- 
scription, had been removed from that place 
to Ghi^diz, for the pavement of a bath. 

From leni Kieu he proceeded to Ghi6diz, 
a journey of six hours. A quarter of an hour 
before reaching Ghi6diz, he saw considerable 
remains of broken columns, and other indica- 
tions of antiquity, lying on the ground. From 
the general appearance of the road betweeh 
Ghi6d]z and leni Kieu, he is of opinion that 
here formerly was the Roman road. 

My route to Ghi6diz was not the same as 
Dr. Millingen's; for, not having my own horses, 
I was obliged to go in the direction where I 
could obtain those of the post. 

The beasts at Sirghi6 were so wretchedly 
bad, that they were not strong enough to carry 
us across the river, and we were obliged to 
hire camels for this purpose. 

Our road was north, over a succession of 
hills. At three hours' distance we re-crossed 



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374 mustapha's a&rooanoe. 

the river, to change horsea at a post station 
called Selendi, a village of thirty *three houses. 

Mustapha went with the finnan to the aga ; 
and, as was usual with this impertinent fellow, 
assumed the seat of honour, smoked the first 
pipe, and drank the first cup of cofiee — all 
breaches of Turkish etiquette; these distinc-* 
tions belonging properly to me. I seated 
myself in the middle of the ottoman, — was 
scarcely honoured with a nod by the aga, — 
and was pushed and elbowed by each suc- 
ceeding new-comer, till I found myself close to 
the door. 

In the meanwhile the firman was to be 
perused. Reading was not one of the aga's 
accomplishments ; and the wise men of the 
village were sent for. Two of them tried their 
hands at it, but in vain; at length a third 
came ; and, by dint of manifold spellings, the 
document was deciphered. The imperial sig- 
nature was kissed, and placed submissively 
on the head. The contents being known, 
Mustapha was ousted out of his snug corner. 



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bcustafha's arrogance. 376 

and I was placed there in his stead. The 
longest pipe, with the finest mouth-piece, was 
presented to me; and before I could look 
around me, a very comfortable little dinner 
was spread before me. 



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976 DIFHCULTT IN PROCU1UNO HORSES. 



CHAPTER XXL 

Difficulty in procuriDg Horsey — Kieurkji — Summary Pif- 
nishment — Travelling Disasters — Detention at Ghi^iz — 
Ooranjik — A living Skeleton — Remarks on the Depo- 
pulation of Asia Minor — Montesquieu quoted — Carle's 
Fears — The Land well cultivated — Afutleh — Course of 
the River Rhyndacus — Conversation with Greeks — 
Toushanlu, its Trade in Skins — Maimoon — Eelut — 
Ascent of Mount Olympus — Print of Wild Boars — 
Ainegheul — My Host, Tinghiroglou — Conversation with 
an Armenian Exile. 

W£ found great difficulty in procuring horses, 
but succeeded at last, the aga lending me his 
own charger. We then re-crossed the Hermus, 
and proceeding east for three hours and a half, 
arrived at Kieurkji, a Turkish village contain- 
ing eleven wretched hovels : here we halted for 
the night. 

Our horses were incapable of proceeding 
further, so that it was necessary to send back 
to Selendi for others. A villager who had 



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SUMMARY PUNISHMBNT. 377 

just returned home from plough was ordered 
on this service. The poor fellow not liking 
a walk of twenty miles after a hard day's 
work, naturally enough expostulated. A person 
in the employ of the aga happened to be seated 
before one of the houses, sedately smoking his 
pipe: he no sooner heard the man demur, than 
he broke the pipe-stick over the unfortunate 
recusant's head, and seizing a stake from the 
hedge, so belaboured him that he^was obliged 
to submit. I had been witness to the fracas, 
but was kept ignorant of the cause till the 
man was fairly on his road. I told the person 
in authority that I was sorry the poor peasant 
had suffered on my account. ** You don't 
know these fellows," was the reply ; " they 
are all the better for a good thrashing." This 
modern Phrygian probably was not aware of the 
proverb that applied to the former inhabitants 
of this country : ** Phryx verberatus melior.*' 

January 11. Kieurchee to Ghi^iz, twelve 
hours; course, north one hour; and east the 



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378 TRAVELLING DISASTERS. 

pest of the march. The country immntainoas, 
and abounding in firs and stunted oak. 

The beatai man returned with fresh horses 
an hour after midnight; we resumed our 
journey at about eight, and a wretched day 
we had of it. We gained but little by the 
aga's relay of horses. That on which the 
surijee rode fell twice in crossing bridges. 
The second time was in going orer some 
wooden pladks placed across a deep ravine. 
The horse stag^pered and fell near the brink, 
the surijee under him : in his effort to recover 
his legs, the poor beast dropped into the chasm, 
a depth of twenty feet : I thought the YxmeB of 
the animal must have been completely smashed ; 
luckily the ground was soft, and he sustained 
but little damage. Carle's horse lay down with 
him twice ; and the animal I rode, after totter- 
ing and stumbling for ten hours, at length fairly 
gave in, and refused to proceed with me on 
his back for either whip or spur. The surijee 
gave me up his horse, and walked himself the 
rest of the march. To complete our misfor- 



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DETENTION AT OHIEDIZ. 3^79 

tunes, night came on, and with it a violent 
shower of rain. It was altogether a day of 
disappointment ; for I had fully looked forward 
to a good dinner with my friend the aga of 
GhiMiz ; but he had retired to his haram long 
before we arrived. 

January 12. We were detained the whole 
of this day for want of horses. The aga sent 
several persons into the dependent villages, 
and put in prison three men who would not 
let us hire theirs. They would have granted 
, them to Kutaya, the regular post ; but it was 
so much out of my route, that I declined. 

Three Tartars arrived here in the course 
of the day with firmans for various districts, 
commanding persons in authority to send every 
one in pursuit of the Zebeks. 

January 13. GhiMiz to Tjavd6r^ Hissar. — 
By dint of threats, and holding the disobedience 
of the firman in terrorem, we induced the post- 
master to give us horses to go in the direction 



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380 OORANJIK. 

we desired. I availed myself of this permis- 
sion to pay another visit to the ruins of 
Azani. 

Jcmuary 14. Tjavd^r6 Hissar to Afutleh, 
three hours and a half, course north. — We 
kept along the extensive plain of Tjavd6r6 
Hissar for an hour and a half. This brought 
us to Ooranjik. We passed several Turkish 
burying-grounds full of the finest specimens of 
Grecian architecture, and saw two large marble 
pillars, which appear to have formerly been 
used for gates. We repeatedly crossed the 
Tjavd6r6 stream, which changes its name to 
Ooranjik, according to the village through 
which it passes. 

We presented our firman to the waiwoda 
of Ooranjik, who immediately gave orders to 
procure us horses from among the villagers, 
there being no regular post at this place. 

Ooranjik is in the government of Kutaya, 
and contains one hundred houses. Its inha- 
bitants are wholly occupied in agriculture;' 



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DEPOPULATION OF ASIA MINOR. 381 

wheat and barley are the principal articles of 
cultivation. 

The same sad tale of the inhabitants is told 
here as elsewhere: all the youths have been 
made conscripts; there remain only beardless 
boys and grey-bearded men. 

I cannot quit this subject without offering 
a few observations on this evil. 

In the space of little more than two years^ 
has nearly the whole effective population of 
this fertile region been dragged from home, 
to recruit an army of which scarcely a vestige 
now exists; for, with the exception of a mere 
handful of men at Shumla, nothing remains 
of the Ottoman force. To borrow a Turkish 
phrase, " It has been removed from the surface 
of the earth." 

What will the regenerating system of Mah- 
moud avail in such a case ? Is there any hope 
that a peasantry so destroyed will be again 
supplied ? 

It would require no great foresight to prog* 
nosticate, that as long as the Turkish govern- 



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382 MONTESQUIEU QUOTED. 

meat shall last, ao long must th^ populatioii 
continue rather to diminish than increase : but 
remembering that there are still to be found 
those who believe in the improvement of this 
empire, I shall cite a much better authority than 
my own, that of Montesquieu : — 

'' Lorsqu'un ^tat se trouve d^peupl^ par des 
accidens partkuliers, des guerres, des pestes, 
des fiaonines, il y a des ressources. Les hommes 
qui restent peuvent conserver Tesprit de travail 
et d'industrie; ils peuvent chercher k r6parer 
kurs malheurs, et devenir plus industrieux par 
leur calamity m£me. Le mal presque incurable 
est k>rsque la depopulation vient de longue 
main, par un vice int6rieur et un mauvais gou* 
vemement. Les hommes y ont p6ri par une 
maladie insensible et habituelle : n^ dans la 
langueur et dans la mis^re, dans la violence ou 
les pr6jug6s du gouvemement, ils se sont vu 
d^truire, souvent sans sentir les causes de leur 
destruction. Les pays d6sol^ par le despo- 
tisme, ou par les avantages excessife du clerg6 



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A UYING ^XUETON. 383 

sur les laiques^ en sent deax grands ex* 
emples. 

" Pour r^tablir im ^tat amsi d6peupl6, on 
attendrcnt en vain des seconrs des enfans, qui 
pourroit naitre« II n'est i^ns temps; des 
hommes, dans leurs d^erts^ scmt sans courage^ 
et sans Industrie. Avec des terres pour nourrir 
un peuple, on a ^ peine de quoi nourrir une 
famille. Le has peuple> dans ces pays, n'a 
pas rn^me de part k leur mis^, c'est^^-dire 
aux friches, dont ils sent remplis. Le c1erg6, 
le prince, les villes, les grands, quelques citoy* 
ens principaux, sont devenus insensiblement 
propri6taires de toute la contr6e ; elle est in- 
culte ; mais les femiUes d^truites leur en out 
laiss6 les pdtures, et riiomme de travail rien."— 
MoNTESQ. Esprit des Loiv, lib. xxiii. chap. 28. 

The master of the house to which we were 
consigned during our short stay, was a most 
wretched-looking object, being almost as much 
a skeleton as the Anatomic Vivante shewn in 
London. In some respects he was in a worse 



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384 carle's fears. 

condition^ for he had no toes, and nearly all 
his limbs were paralysed. 

He had been travelling, in company with 
another Turk, from this his native village to 
the town of Brusa, in the month of January ; 
on ascending Mount Olympus they had en- 
countered a snow storm, had lost their way, 
and had fallen into the snow. This man's com- 
panion was frozen to death; but he has himself 
now survived the accident eleven years. 

The coincidence of Brusa being our present 
destination, and the month being the same as 
that on which the accident happened, acted 
very strongly on the superstitious fear of my 
servant, who constantly reverted to the sub- 
ject, until we were safely housed on the oppo- 
site base of Mount Olympus. 

We had hitherto experienced so much delay, 
from the difficulty of procuring horses, that we 
engaged to take all we required from this place 
to Brusa; circumstances, however, obliged us 
to abandon this plan before we reached that 
town. 



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THE LAND WELL CULTIVATED* 385 

We ascended mountains covered with pine 
and juniper, and entered a country highly 
cultivated throughout. That this was a new 
process, was evident from the heaps of stones 
which had lately been piled, in order to clear 
the land for the plough. So novel an appear^ 
ance of industry naturally induced inquiry. 
The answers illustrated the capability of this 
country and people. The peasants in the 
neighbourhood had not been impressed into 
the army ; and a promise of protecting the 
fruits of their labour had been made to them. 

The policy of this measure, which, how- 
ever, is adopted only to meet the exigency of 
the moment, is so obvious, that it is to be 
hoped the sultan may see the benefit of pro^ 
tecting agriculture, — of increasing his own, 
while he adds to the wealth of his sub- 
jects ; but there is no part of his conduct 
hitherto to justify the entertainment of this 
opinion. 

Afutleh is a small village^ which supplies 
Constantinople with flints, — an article for 

VOL. II. c c 



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386 C0UB6E OF T^ RIVER RHYNDACUS. 

which there is a great demand, where fire- 
arms are so general, and where every one 
requires fire for his pipe. 

January 15. Afutleh to Eelut, seven hours, 
course north one hour, and then gradually 
round to the north-west. — We crossed a 
mountain, and then entered an extensive and 
populous plain, saw several villages, and passed 
through one called Kroo-chace. 

We again fell in vnth the Tjavdere stream, 
and hovered about its banks nearly the whole 
day's march. It is increased in size, and is 
here called Taushanlu, from the principal 
town in the plain. This river is the Rhyn- 
dacus, respecting which Colonel Leake obr 
serves: 

' The most remarkable correction in the 
geography of the part of Asia Minor traversed 
by Major Keppel, and which is derived from 
his observations, is in the course of the Rhyn? 
dacus. This river is found to rise in the 
Azanitis, as Strabo has remarked ; but Azani 



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COURSE OF THE RIVER RHYNDACUS. 387 

being much farther to the south-east than I 
had supposed, the river is proportionally length- 
ened. Major Keppel followed it to Taushanlu, 
about twenty-five miles below the position of 
Azani, beyond which, according to Strabo, 
it should receive many streams firom Mysia 
Abrettene,* a part of the country which is 
yet to be explored, as well as the course 
of the Mac^stus, or great western branch of 
the Rhyndacus, which joins that river between 
Mikalltza and the sea. At the sources of the 
Macistus, as I before remarked, stood Ancyra 
of Phrygia, the discovery of which would pro- 
bably lead to that of Synaus smd of Blaundus. 
This last place, which Strabo describes to have 
been near Ancyra, appears, from its coins, to 
have been situated on a river called the Hip-^ 
purius. Whether this be a tributary of the 



iuuf nir»v. — St&ab. lib. xii. p. 576. 



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388 TAUSHANLU. 

Macistus, or Hyllus, remains to be deter- 
mined.' 

At Taushanlu we stopped an hour, for the 
entertainment of man and beast. We there 
fell in with four or five Greeks, whose heads 
were full of undefined notions of liberty, and 
of the new Greek constitution, about which 
they talked with all the eagerness and enthu- 
siasm for which this most sanguine people are 
so remarkable. 

Taushanlu has five hundred houses, which, 
with the exception of twenty Armenian fami- 
lies, are occupied by Turks. The word Tau- 
shan signifies ** hare ;" and the town derives 
its name from this animal, the skins of which, 
from the excellence of the fur, form a con- 
siderable article of commerce. Great quanti- 
ties of opium are also grown in this plain. 

The conscription has not yet visited this 
place. Carle tried to persuade the inhabitants 
that I was one of the European instructors of 
drill, and was come here to assist in raising 
troops. My military Turkish cap, and my 



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ASCENT OF MOUNT OLYMPUS. 389 

Tartar attendant, favoured the report, and 
kept several young men, who had been very 
intrusive, at a more respectful distance. 

The keeper of the khan told me that I was 
the first person he had ever seen in a Euro- 
pean dress. . 

An hour from Taushanlu is a village called 
Maimoon : some distance further on, is a vast 
fragment of a rock, detached from the moun- 
tain, the effects of an avalanche which took 
place five years ago. 

In the course of the afternoon we arrived 
at Eelut, a small village of eight miser- 
able hovels, not one of which was weather 
tight. 

January 16. Eelut to Goorchabelli, six hours; 
a winding course between north-east and north- 
west, over mountains and valleys. This day's 
march was across a second range of Mount 
Olympus. Halted at a small village, in the 
neighbourhood of which there have evidently 



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390 PRINT OF WILD BOARS. 

been two temples. I purchased two coins of 
the Lower Empire. 

January 17. Goorchabelli to Ainegheul, 
nine hours, five of which were occupied in the 
ascent of another ridge of Olympus. The road 
was for the most part over beaten snow« We 
saw numerous prints of wild boars in the snow, 
and traced the blood of a wounded animal for 
sevdral miles. We saw also the foot-marks of 
abundance of hares. The south side of the 
mountain is covered with firs, oaks, and beach; 
the wood here is used for ship building. The 
whole ground is covered with an underwood 
of strawberries. Our march was, properly 
speaking, nine hours; but it was ten by the 
bad pace of the mules. 

At five in the afternoon we arrived at 
Ainegheul, and were assigned a quarter by 
the aga. We here dismissed Ali, the man 
who had accompanied us from Ooranjik. He 
was the owner of two mules, and bad cer^ 



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AINEGHEUL. 391 

tainly made us pay a very good price for very 
bad cattle. Carle revenged himself on him, 
by urging the mule on which he was seated, 
which so bumped him, that he was as willing 
to part with us as we were with him. 

The inhabitants are all Turks. Ainegheul 
has three hundred houses. Mustapha was last 
year charged with the firman of impressment to 
this place. He at that time took away a hun- 
dred men; this year only thirty have hitherto 
been impressed. 

January 18. Ainegheul to Brusa, eight 
hours. Course three hours north, and then 
gradually round to the west. 

Our road lay at the foot of Mount Ol3rmpus, 
which we kept close at our left hand. In three 
hours and a half we passed through Acson; and 
after traversing a country as much favoured by 
the bounties of nature as it is cursed by the 
oppression of man, we arrived, early in the 
day, at Brusa, the former seat of the Ottoman 
empire. 



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392 MY HOST, TINGHIROGLOU. 

I had been furnished with a letter, by 
Mr. Whittall's Armenian broker, to one of the 
Tinghiroglou family, one of the most affluent 
and respected of the Armenian Catholics. As 
soon as I had taken -my bath, I called on this 
gentleman. He received me in the most re- 
spectful manner, paid me every possible atten- 
tion, and insisted upon my occupying the best 
room in his house. His wife and daughters, 
dressed out in jewels and brocades, each in 
turn knelt, as they almost forcibly kissed my 
hand ; and were always before me, with either 
coffee, sweetmeats, or pipes. 

January 19. Rode with Tinghiroglou through 
the beautiful suburbs of Brusa ; swam in the 
natural hot springs ; and afterwards purchased 
in the bazaar some Brusa silks. I paid for 
them with one of Herries and Farquhar's 
transferable bills of exchange, which, by the 
way, are very convenient for travellers whose 
movements may be so undecided as were my 
own. 



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CONVERSATION WITH AN ARMENIAN EXILE. 393 

Amongst our dishes at dinner was some 
capital wild venison. I made acquaintance in 
the evening with Menas/a banished Catholic 
Armenian, an exceedingly intelligent and well- 
informed man. He spoke excellent French 
and Italian ; and shewed me some sketches 
of his daughter's — very fair specimens of pro- 
ficiency in the art of drawing. We had a 
long conversation on the subject of his brethren 
in exile. "Education," said he, *Ms making 
rapid progress amongst us. Deprived of our 
business, we have little else to do. This dif- 
fusion of knowledge is producing the natural 
consequences, — a hatred of the Turkish go- 
vernment, and a conviction of its desperate 
condition. Before this cruel khatty sherif was 
issued against us, there was no class of sub- 
jects better disposed than ourselves towards the 
Ottoman rule. No charge could be more false 
than that we intended to conspire against the 
sultan. We had previously been the most 
favoured of his subjects : we must have lost 
by any change. The absurdity of such an 



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394 CONTERf ATION WITH AN ARMENIAN BXILE. 

accusation may be shewn by the conduct of 
the Catholics in several of the Archipelago 
islands, who, though repeatedly urged, would 
take no part whatever in the Greek revolu- 
tion; and for a very simple reason, namely, 
that they did not feel themselves aggrieved. 
But,*' added he, " the case is very different 
now ; and if we should hereafter prove to 
be the dangerous subjects the sultan has con- 
sidered us to be, he should bear in mind, that 
we have been indebted to his highness him- 
self for the suggestion/' 



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INJUDICIOUS IMPOSTS. 396 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Injudicious Imposts on the Trade of Brusa — Moudania — 
A Greek Seaport — My Host's Daughter — Leave Mou- 
dania in a Caique — Land at the Fishing Village of Caperli 
— Embark in a Sailing Vessel — Anchor ofFSt. Stephano — 
A Fire in Constantinople — Turkish want of Precaution, 
founded on the Dogma of Fatalism — D'Ohsson's Re^ 
marks on this Creed — Land at Pera — Ball at the Palace 
— A Turkish Colonel and his Russian Friends — The Sul- 
tan's Sister and Daughter in Frank Street — Depression 
of Commerce and Agriculture — Departure from Con- 
stantinople — Reflections on quitting Turkey— Desperate 
State of the Ottoman Empire — Inefficiency of the Army 
— State of Turkish Affairs, in Europe, Africa, and Asia 
— Character of the Sultan — His Addiction to Drinking 
^Fickleness — His Copduct on the Extinction of the Ja- 
nisaries — Mahmoud the Second, and Peter the Great — 
Arrive at Malta — Meet Lord Dunlo — Embark on board 
His Majesty's Ship Spartiate — Arrive in England. 

Brusa having formerly been the seat of govern- 
ment, has a separate administration g( its re- 
venues, and is subject to a less oppressive 



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396 ON THE TRADE OF BEUSA. 

system of taxation than the neighbouring pro- 
vinces. Stilly it has not been exempt from 
the evils which are rapidly hurrying Turkey 
to its downfal. The grievances under which 
this once flourishing province is labouring, 
arise partly from the general distresses of the 
empire, and partly from the sultan's own op- 
pressive and short-sighted policy. The levies 
of troops have been carried on here, though 
not quite in proportion to other places. This 
is one cause of decline; another is, an im- 
politic act of Mahmoud, in laying an export 
duty on Brusa silks, equal to the import duty 
that was taken off in England. The pretence 
was, the fear that all would be exported, and 
that none would be left for home consumption. 
This imposition raised the price at Constan- 
tinople so much, that no English merchant 
would purchase ; the growers, therefore, to get 
rid of the article at any price, were obliged to 
sell it at a great loss, to their own ruin. Ever 
since, this fertile and delightful province is 
beginning to exhibit the same symptoms of 



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MOUDANIA. 397 

decay that pervade every part of this ill-fated 
empire. 

January 20. Brusa to Moudania. — Started 
at four in the morning. The road in many 
places was impassable, and we were obliged 
to make our way through vineyards, the horses 
knee-deep in mud. After six hours' floundering 
in this way, we arrived at the sea-port town 
of Moudania, and went direct to the waiwoda, 
to beg that we might be provided with a boat 
to Constantinople. The inhabitants are all 
Greeks, and are at once cultivators and 
boatmen. No caique was procurable, the 
whole population being absent trimming the 
vines. We were assigned a quarter in a 
Greek's house, where we passed the remain- 
der of the day. 

Our boatmen came in from work in the 
afternoon, and declared themselves ready to 
embatk, after stopping a few hours for refresh- 
ment and rest. . 

A young man, one of the crew, was be- 



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398 EMBARK IN A SAILING VESSEL. 

trothed to the host's daughter. She was a 
pretty little girl, and I exhausted my limited 
stock of Romaic in telling her so. She took 
all I said in good part, as did her future 
husband, who seemed not to have a spark of 
jealousy in his composition : in fact, as they 
had never exchanged a look of recognition, 
I was not aware of their being acquamted; 
nor was it till afterwards that I knew the re- 
lation in which they stood towards each other. 

January 21. We embarked in an eight* 
oared caique at three in the morning. Our 
boatmen continued to row for seven hours^ 
without intermission, against a heavy swell and 
a strong head wind. At half-past ten we ar*^ 
rived at the small Greek fishing village of 
Gaperli, where we suffered another day's de- 
tention. 

January 22. The wind and swell con- 
tinuing, it was impossible for the slender caique 
to live in such a sea ; at the same time, it was 



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A FIRE IN CONSTANTIKOPLC. 399 

taDtalisiDg to see the domes and mmarets of 
GoDstantinople, and to be half starved in a 
wretched village. With some difficulty I in- 
duced a sailing vessel to convey us acrcxss the 
Propontis. We had to beat up the whole day, 
and at dusk anchored off Gape St« Stepbano, 
being unable to make way against the wind. 

We had not been long at anchor, when, 
from the red tinge of the sky in the direction 
of Constantinople, we perceived that there was 
a fire. It was soon extinguished. Thq cause 
of its being so speedily put out was explained 
to me the next morning. Some Turks of rank 
were dining with the officers on board the 
Blonde, when they heard the cry oiyangun war 
(fite). The whole crew of the frigate was im- 
mediately sent ashore, and, under the judicious 
guidance of their officers, our sailors s<K>n ex- 
tinguished a fire which, had it been left to the 
Turks, promised to equal in extent that which 
had broken out in the month, of July. 

The few precautions taken by the sultan 
against fire and plague, may be cited as omis-- 



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400 d'ohsson's remarks on fatalism. 

sions from which the prototype of Peter th6 
Great should have been free. 

This Degligence in matters of such import- 
ance is attributable to the Turkish dogma of 
predestination ; and the apologists of the sultan 
contend^ that to guard against the two dreadful 
scourges of Constantinople, would shock the 
religious prejudices of the Turks, as questioning 
the unerring decrees of fate. 

When his own humours have been con- 
cerned, his sublime highness has not been 
so considerate of the prejudices of his people : 
but let us consider how far this apology can 
avail. 

The 22d article of Turkish faith, which 
asserts the doctrine of predestination, admits, 
at the same time, the principle of free agency. 

In D'Ohsson's remarks upon this article, he 
says that Muphtys declare, " whoever denies 
free will, ikhtiyar d*jwz'y, in attributing human 
actions to the will of the Deity, sins against 
religion, and if he persist in his error, he is 
a wicked infidel, worthy of death." 



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DOCTRINE OF PREDESTINATION. 401 

The same author observfes, that the influ- 
ence of this disastrous system upon the state 
in general is more or less powerful according 
to the genius and intelligence of the monarch 
and ministers who have the administration of 
affairs; and cites two sovereigns as having risen 
above the national prejudice. The first of these 
was Omer, who was marching against Syria, 
but hearing that the plague was raging on his 
line of march, retired to Medina. One of his 
friends expressed his surprise at his having 
acted contrary to the dogma of predestination. 
" You are mistaken," said Omer ; ** our holy 
prophet has declared, that he who finds him- 
self in the fire ought to be resigned to the 
Divine will ; but whoever is out of the fire 
ought to keep out." 

D*Ohsson then mentions Bajazet the Se- 
cond as another instance of the triumph over 
bigotry, and goes on to observe : — 

'* These examples, supported on the true 
principles of law, would be a powerful weapon 
which an enterprisiqg and enlightened monarch 

VOL. II. D D 



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402 DOCTRINE OF PREDESTINATION. 

might wield a^inst false opinions, from which 
BO many physical and political evils spring, and 
which lay waste and desolate the Ottoman 
empire. If the Ottomans do not take the pre- 
cautions of establishing lazarettos at Constan- 
tinople, and in other great towns ; if they do 
not construct houses of stone instead of wood, 
to guarantee themselves from the frequency of 
conflagration; if, in short, they do not adopt 
the wise regulations of Europe in the civil and 
political administration of affiurs, they have 
neither religion nor law to plead as obstacles, 
but rather those disastrous prejudices which 
might the more easily be overcome^ because 
they might be combated with the Koran in 
hand."* 

January 23. We got under weigh again 
in the moriding, and, passing the far-famed 
Seven Towers, we were moored oflFthe suburbs 



• Vide D'Ohsson, tome i. pp. 164 — 177, where he has 
treated this suhjeet more at length. 



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BALL AT THE PALACE. 403 

of Constantinople. Here I quitted the sailing 
vessel^ and stepped into a caique, which landed 
me at Pera. 

Sir Robert Gordon and all my English 
friends were absent on a shooting excursion, as 
was also, for the same purpose, the sultan. 
Dunlo had left Turkey for England. The 
Hon. W. White, of the Royal Yacht Club, had 
quitted the ch^nel cruisers, and had dropped 
his anchor under the walls of the Seraglio ; one 
object being to take home my quondam fellow- 
traveller. 

January 24. The ambassador and party 
returned this morning; they had killed some 
wild boars. Captain Lyons was, I believe, the 
most successful of the party. 

January 26. A ball at the British palace ; 
but the weather so intensely cold, that 
many ladies were prevented . from coming. 
Abidy Bey, colonel of the sultan's hussars, was 
present, as were also several Russians, who 



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404 THE sultan's sister and daughter. 

all seemed to have taken a violent fancy to 
the Turkish officer, and evinced their par- 
tialities in their national manner, by pinching 
him in the ribs, and throwing their arms round 
his neck and waist. 

January 27. Walking down " Frank 
Street, " I met a clumsy car, drawn by two 
bullocks; the vehicle, as well as the animals, 
was covered over with tinsel. The equipage 
contained two Turkish females, one about 
forty years of age, the other apparently ten. 
They were without veils. Both seemed to be 
highly rouged. The younger lady was dressed 
in the Parisian fashion; her eyebrows were 
painted so as to form two arches, which met 
on the nose. The street was full of Franks 
at the time : we were all told that the ladies 
were the sultan's sister and daughter. 

January 28. I received letters from Eng- 
land urging the necessity of my immediate 
return. I obeyed the summons, not sorry to 



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REFLECTIONS ON QUITTING TURKEY. 405 

excuse myself from a projected journey in 
Moldavia, Wallachia, and Albania. I had seen 
enough of the effects of despotism, and I longed 
to breathe a freer air. 

I embarked on board the " Smyrna packet," 
as she was making her last tack out of the 
harbour. She had been detained twelve days 
for her firman. This was constantly the man- 
ner in which ships belonging to England, Tur- 
key's " ancient ally," were treated ; as for the 
vessels of her newer friend, Russia, they suf- 
fered no detention. 

How diflFerent were my impressions at the 
close of this journey from what they had been 
at its commencement ! 

I had expected to find a people grateful to 
their sovereign for having raised them from that 
abject state into which they had previously 
sunk, and for having relieved them from the 
persecution of an unlicensed soldiery; I had 
thought to see the place of that soldiery sup- 
plied by an eflFective force, trained to European 
tactics, whose high national courage, now that 



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406 DE8PERATB STATE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. 

it was combined with discipline and skill, would 
enable them to resist the encroachments of 
their inveterate foe ; I had pictured to myself 
an Alpine barrier in the Balcan mountains ; I 
had expected to see the passes well secured,, 
and the Osmanli maintaining this last bulwark 
of his country with that desperate valour whkh 
has always characterised him in the defence of 
fortified works. 

I had hoped to find the evils of a despotic 
government mitigated by the judicious forbear- 
ance of the sultan, and to trace its effects in 
the growing prosperity of commerce and agri- 
culture. 

My conjectures had no foundation in fact. 

On my arrival in the Turkish capital, the 
streets were yet reeking with the blood of three 
thousand of her citizens, who, insulted in their 
religious prejudices, and oppressed by additional 
burdens, had been put to death (oi expressing 
their dissatisfaction against the sultan and the 
existing order of things. 

The first I saw of the Turkish army was in 



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INBPFICIBNCY OP THE ARMY. 407 

a disordered retreat from a victorious enemy, 
to whom they had abandoned, almost without 
firing a shot, their mountain p&sses and the 
former capital of their empire. 

This remnant of the army consisted of a 
few boys, too young to bear the fatigues of a 
campaign, to which, rather than to the sword 
of the enemy, so many thousands of their com- 
rades had fallen a sacrifice, their former na^ 
tional spirit completely broken, smd their feel- 
ings in favour of the conquerors. The officers, 
raised from the lowest situations, ignorant, in- 
efficient, and, by the proscribing laws against 
the admission of Europeans into their ranks, 
debarred the means of obtaining improvement. 
Without a staff, without a commissariat, and 
without the necessary equipment of an army 
in the field. The Balcan untenable even in 
the hands of a European army ; and the few 
barriers which the nature of the ground pre- 
sented not made available. 

Commerce, instead of prospering, weighed 
down by the insecurity of life and property ; by 



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408 DEPRESSION OF COMMERCE AND AGRICULTURE. 

the banishment of one of the wealthiest, and 
nearly the only people well aflTected towards 
the government ; by the neglect of those advan- 
tages of position which this country possesses ; 
by the unnatural fluctuations of the exchange ; 
by the debasement of the coin; by unjust pro- 
secutions ; by ruinous and grievous monopolies, 
of which the sultan himself is the great pro- 
moter. 

The same evils pressing equally heavily on 
agriculture, besides one yet more ruinous than 
them all. On the European side of the Bos- 
phorus, the greater portion of the inhabitants 
swept away by the calamities of war, those 
that remain, with arms in their hands, ready 
to act with the invaders. On the Asiatic side, 
nearly a whole population forcibly dragged 
from their homes to recruit an army which 
has ceased to exist; the remainder either in 
open rebellion, or only waiting for the oppor- 
tunity to be so. 

These circumstances came within my per- 
sonal observation ; but if we look beyond my 



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TURKISH AFFAIRS IN AFRICA. 409 

track, the prospect of Turkish affairs will be 
scarcely less gloomy. 

To begin with Europe. The Pasha of Scu- 
tari, whose movements when I was at Adrian- 
ople excited so much suspicion, shortly after 
removed all doubts of his intention, by hoisting 
the standard of rebellion. 

The Servians and Bosniacks are, as well 
as the Bulgarians and Roumeliots, ripe for 
revolt. The two fertile provinces of Wallachia 
and Moldavia, from which the sultan derived 
his ships and his treasure, are in the hands of 
the Russians. The Greeks are in the posses- 
sion of a great portion of Greece, and their 
independence is acknowledged by the sultan ; 
an act which, for reasons before assigned, will 
very probably hurl him from his throne. 

In Africa, we find that the tributary king- 
dom of Algiers has ceased to form a part of the 
Turkish dominions ; and that Egypt is worse 
than lost, the breach between Ali the Pasha 
and Mahmoud the sultan being farther widen- 
ed by the unsuccessful attempt of the power- 



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410 TURKISH AFFAIRS IN ASIA. 

less monarch to possess himself of the head 
of his mighty subject. 

In Asia the affairs of 3fahmoud are in no 
better condition. 

While Count Diebitsch was niarching one 
Russian army through the European provinces 
of Turkey, having hardly any obstacles but 
those of climate to encounter. Count Paskeyitch 
was conducting another through the Asiatic 
dominions of the sultan. Instead of being 
opposed as an invader, he was hailed as a 
deliverer. I was informed, on very credible 
authority, that the conquest of Armenia was 
achieved at the loss of ten men killed and 
forty wounded. As the Russian general ad- 
vanced, the pashas vied with each other 
in tendering their submission. The Pasha of 
Bagdad begged for Russian troops to garrison 
his town ; and the Pasha of Erzeroom has ac- 
cepted oflSce under the enemy of his country. 

From the foregoing remarks, it will be 
perceived that the difficulties of Mahmood 
are tenfold greater than those against which 



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CHARACTER OP THE gULTAN. 411 

Peter had to contend* Let us now condder 
whether there is a proportionate superiority 
of intellect in the Turkish sovereign to meet 
these diflSculties. 

It is not my intention to recapitulate the 
instances of Mahmoud's incapacity which are 
scattered over this work. I shall add a few 
more observations, to justify the assumption 
that the character of the present sultan is very 
far from coming up to the exaggerated notions 
that have been formed and promulgated re- 
specting it. 

It is currently asserted that Mahmoud is 
very much addicted to strong drink. This 
accomplishment he is said to have learned 
from his barber. His favourite beverage con- 
sists of strong liqueurs. The orders for many 
of his most violent acts are supposed to have 
been given while under the influence of spirits. 
His preference to liqueurs is because they 
contain the greatest quantity of excitement in 
the smallest space. 

Fickleness is a point in his character that 



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412 HIS FICKLENESS. 

may be very fairly assumed. When his cavalry 
regiment was first established, he was in the 
habit of superintending its manoeuvres for 
several hours every day : at the period of my 
departure from Constantinople, eleven months 
had elapsed since he had seen the regiment 
under arms. This propensity is also shewn in 
the building of palaces, and deserting them 
as soon as finished. Numerous examples of 
this expensive folly now line each shore of the 
Bosphorus. The same feeling is indicated by 
the constant changing of his own and his troops' 
dress. It is this latter attempt at conform- 
ing to European customs that appears to have 
misled so many Englishmen into the belief of 
his beneficial reform. The European costume 
of the soldier is the first thing that strikes the 
eye of the new-comer. He perceives that it is 
an innovation, and assumes it to be an improve- 
ment; and hence he is disposed to give the 
sultan credit for conduct which is not war- 
ranted by his acts. Indeed, this innovation was 
the last that ought to have been attempted : it 



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PETER THE GREAT AND MAHMOUD II. 413 

was an invasion of his people's prejudices, the 
infliction of a deep wound on their pride, and 
was one that could lead to no good result. 
It was, moreover, singularly ill-timed, being at 
a moment when every exertion was requisite 
to meet the crisis of an approaching war. . 

The great measure that distinguishes this 
reign is the extinction of the janisaries ; but 
I am informed, by those who had a good op- 
portunity of judging, that this was principally 
effected by the chief of the Topijees (gunners), 
between which corps and the janisaries there 
had long existed a mortal feud. I hear that it 
was with the greatest diflSculty Mahmoud could 
be persuaded to allow them to attempt what 
he had so much at heart to effect. 

A few lines more to redeem a pledge of 
considering the parallel between the characters 
of Peter the Great and Mahmoud the Second. 

The perfection to which agriculture was 
brought by Peter produced a sensible increase 
of the population, and added very much to 
the prosperity of the country. 



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414 ARRIVE AT SMYRNA. 

The protection granted to foreign and do- 
mestic commerce rapidly produced industry, 
and its attendant, wealth. The enlightened 
czar connected the Wolga with the N^va by 
canals; he established ports at Asoff and 
St. Petersburgh; he had not a ship when 
he came to the throne, but in a very short 
period his navy beat the squadrons of Charles 
XII. The defeat of the Russian army at 
Nerva, and the victory they gained at Pul- 
towa, shewed the rapid improvement of his 
troops in the art of war. 

He added Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, and a 
part of Finland, to the Russian dominions. 

Has Mahmoud done any thing like this? 

The reader is left to draw his own con- 
clusions. 

February 1. Arrived at Smyrna. 

February 2. Left Smyrna in his Majesty's 
brig Ferret, Captain Hastings; arrived at 
Voorla in the evening. 



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MEET LORD DUNLO. 415 

February 3. Left Voorla in the Orestes 
transport. 

February 6. Anchored in Port Nausa, in 
the island of Paros. Dined on board the 
flag-ship with Sir Pulteney Malcolm. 

February 6. Resumed my voyage. 

February 13. Arrived at Malta^ and an- 
chored in the quarantine harbour, alongside of 
a cutter, which proved to be Mr. White's 
yacht, the Ondine. Here I had the gratifi- 
cation to find Lord Dunlo, who introduced me 
to Mr. White and their messmate Mr. Fresh- 
field. 

I passed three very pleasant days in com- 
pany with my fellow-prisoners. His Majesty's 
ship Spartiate, 76, was under orders for Eng- 
land : her commander, Captain (now Rear- 
Admiral) Frederick Warren, was so kind as to 
offer me a berth in his cabin and a seat at 
his table. I gratefully accepted both; went 



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416 ARRIVE IN ENGLAND. 

on board on the 16th; and> after experiencing 
the greatest hospitality from my kind and 
considerate host, and every friendly attention 
from his officers, I arrived in England in the 
month of March, after a somewhat eventful 
absence of nine months. 



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APPENDIX. 



VOL. II. B E 



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APPENDIX. 419 



APPENDIX. 



No. I. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE PRIVATE JOURNAL OF THE 
RIGHT HON. ROBERT GROSVENOR, M.P. 

Presentation of the British Ambassador to the Sultan. 

On Monday, the 13th of July, our ambassador's audi- 
ence with the grand signior took place at the camp at 
Buyukd6r6. Three tents were pitched for the cere- 
mony. The first in front for the sultan, the other two 
a little in the rear on either side; one of these was 
for the caimacan and ministers, the other for the am- 
bassador and suite. Behind, were encamped a regi- 
ment of cavalry, a company of light artillery, four re- 
giments of infantry, and several companies of artillery. 
These were dotted about in different places amongst the 
trees and coppice which adorn the varied ground be- 
tween the sultan's house and the place of our reception. 
The Blonde and Rifleman had sailed up the Bos- 



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420 APPENDIX. 

phorus a few d^js before, and had been moored astern 
of the line of the Turkish fleet just opposite. 

At nine o'clock our own and the Turkish ships were 
dressed out in flags. 

The shore was lined with troops, and crowded with 
people thronging to see the novel sight. The Bos- 
phorus was covered with <;aiques. 

At ten o'clock, the ambassador, the Right Hon. Sir 
Robert Gordon, embarked in the state caique, accom* 
panied by Mr. Parish; bearing the king's letter creden- 
tial, M. Chabert, the principal dragoman, and Cap- 
tain Lyons's two little sons, standard-bearers of the 
union jack, each holding a small silk flag. The marines 
were already landed ; the whole party came €ishore,in 
the ship's boats. The procession then formed in the 
following order : — ^Twenty-four servants in state live- 
ries ; the interpreters ; the niarines in three ranks ; the 
ambassador on horseback ; three cavasses on each side; 
the attaches and " illustrious travelers ;" the officers of 
our two ships: the rear was brought up by another 
party of marines. In this order we marched between 
two lines of Turkish troops to the tent of the caimacan. 
Oh a long dtt6man sat the caimacan, the seraskier 
pasha, the <^adi les mers ^chancellors of Europe and 
Asia), the defterd€Lr, and two or three others. They 
rose upon the entrance of the ambassador, and he was 



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APPENDIX. 421 

allowed to take his seat upon the divan on the right of 
the caimacan, an honour that former ambassadors were 
not granted. 

We remained standing at a little distance, and M. 
Chabert knelt before the ambassador and caimacan to 
interpret. A few compliments passed between them. 
The attendants now brought fire things like casks, 
upon which silver trays were placed ; each of these was 
furnished with a cloth and a few tortoise-shell spoony; 
chairs were placed, and dinner was served. The cai- 
macan and ambassador, with M. Chabert as inter- 
preter, occupied the first table. The seraskier, Lord 
Yarmouth, Captain Lyons, Mr. Parish, and Mr. Wood, 
interpreter, the second. The two cadi les mers the 
third. The defterdar. Lord Dunlb, Captain Mitchell, 
Mr. Mellish, and myself, with M. Pisani, interpreter, 
the fourth. Mr. Edward Villiers, Colonel Vernon, and 
the rest of the party, the fiilth. 

The dinner was a most curious composition : the 
dishes, to the number of twenty-five, were placed sepa- 
rately on the table, and each of them was tasted, the 
fluids with the spoon, the solids with the fingers. The 
disheis were served in violation of all our rules of eating; 
soup after entries, fish after jelly, the r6t% preceded by 
ice, the piice de resistance by an omelette aiAx confitures* 
The Turks are very fond of sugar in almost all their 



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422 APPENDIX. 

ragofits : the most curious dish of all was a transparent 
jelly placed on a glass dish containing water and little 
fishes, so that it conveyed the idea of fishes swimming 
in a lemon jelly. 

When the last dish was removed, the attendants 
brought round a basin and some rose-water, with which 
we washed our hands, and tables and train disappeared 
in a twinkling. 

From the caimacan's we went to a small tent to 
robe. A cloak with a diamond clasp was placed on the 
shoulders of the ambassador ; yellow ones, with diamond 
clasps, were given the attaches and principal drago- 
mans ; pink and brown ones to the rest of the party. 

The cannon from a small battery near the sultan's 
house announced that his sublime highness had em- 
barked; and the roar of the salutes from the whole 
Turkish fleet, which enveloped the camp with a dusky 
cloud, proclaimed his approach to the place of de- 
barkation. 

The captain of one of the Turkish corvettes had 
not withdrawn the cartridges with which his guns 
had been charged, and saluted his lord and master 
with ball: one struck the water, near the spot over 
which the sultan passed a few minutes after ; a second 
skimmed along the water in the midst of the caiques 
full*of parties of pleasure ; a third went in the fort, but. 



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APPENDIX. 423 

almost by a miracle, no one was killed.. The sultan 
ordered the captain to be immediately put in irons. 

Three of the Blonde's boats formed part of the 
grand signior's cortige for the last quarter of a mile, 
and gave him nine cheers. The sultan came in a boat 
something like the large Indian canoe^ high fore and 
aft, rowed by fourteen men, two upon each bench: 
the craft is black outside, and has no other ornament 
than two small gilt eagles, one perched upon the top 
of the rudder, the other upon a small gilt staff near 
the prow. 

The boatmen wore a small red ca;p just covering the 
sacred lock on the top of the head ; the shirt had no 
collar, but immense gigot sleeves, made of a sort of 
elastic gauze of the finest texture^ a red silk sash, and 
white muslin trousers of most capacious dimensions, 
confined at the knee by a string ; the feet were bar^. 
The simplicity of the boat and the boatmen's dresses 
contrasted forcibly, and gave a wonderful relief to 
the figure of the sultan himself, reclining upon silks 
and cashmeres, blazing with the most magnificent 
brilliants. His highness was accompanied by Mus- 
tapha, the favourite and secretary ; Achmet Bey, his 
colonel of hussars; and one or two others, in their gala 
apparel. 

A salute of twenty-one guns was fired the moment the 



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424 APPENDIX. 

sultan landed. He now mounted a beantiAil Arabian ; 
the housings, bridle, bit, frontlet, breast-plate, and 
crupper, were covered with diamonds. The animal 
was painted a great variety of colours ; two of his legs 
were white, the others streaked, his chest was spotted, 
as was also his nose; but he was beautiful, and the 
effect was decidedly good. The roar of cannon, and the 
clang of martial music, had excited all his warlike 
feelings; he pawed the ground, snorted, and threw the 
foam from his bit, and chafed as if he would dash from 
the hands that held him : but the moment the sultan 
was on his back he became tranquil, and bore his courtly 
honours as proudly as the favourite Mustapha, who 
marched by his side. 

The sultan was attended by his band of gentlemen 
pensioners: they were dressed in jacket and trousers 
of red cloth, with a good deal of gold embroidery : each 
of these carried a silver battle-axe. 

As the sultan approached, there was a simultaneous 
cry of ^* Long live the invincible Mahmoud !" 

On dismounting, the sultan went to his tent, where 
he robed himself for the ceremony. He here found 
the present from our King, worth about two thousand 
pounds, consisting of a magnificent aigrette. He was 
anxious to wear it on the occasion, but he broke the 
clasp in trying to put it on. 



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APPENDIX. 425 

After some time spent in adorning his imperial per- 
son, he came to the grand tent and mounted his throne, 
which was an enormous mass of ciolid silver, with arms 
and back something like a raised sofa; upon it was 
a cushion so completely covered with pearls, that it 
was not till by a subsequent inspection, I discovered 
its material to be red velvet. 

The acclamations were again repeated; and ten 
imaums, who stood in front of the tent, prostrated them- 
selves before the successor of Mahomet. The cai- 
macan, seraskier, and reis effendy, were then granted 
an audience. After that, we were desired to advance, 
and had the honour of being the first embassy that had 
been allowed to approach the imperial presence with 
swords on. 

Some Turkish officers entered with us : this is the 
remnant of an ancient, barbarous usage, to prevent the 
ambassador or suite from attempting any thing against 
the sacred person. Formerly it was customary to hold 
the arms of the party ; but this part of the ceremony 
was dispensed with. 

The body-guard were drawn up on each side of the 
throne; they looked like so many statues, perfectly 
erect, not moving a muscle, their faces averted from 
the sultan, who sat glittering upon his gorgeous 
throne. 



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426 APPENDIX. 

Oa his right hand stood the caimacan, on his left 
Mostapha the favourite, and another. The sultan 
wore on his head a fez cap, surrounded by a train of 
diamonds, with an aigrette in the centre, surmounted 
by a most beautiful esprit feather. A large cashmere 
violet cloak enveloped nearly the r^t of his person, 
except where it was opened to display a magnificent 
star of brilliants : one could also perceive that he wore 
an ample pair of Cossack trousers, WeUington boots, 
and heeled spurs. The present Sir Robert Gordon 
had brought him, lay in an open case by his side. 

The sultan is about forty-five years of age. He 
has a handsome black beard, trimmed rather short, 
according to the fashion of the day, arched eyebrows, 
very fine eyes, and a full round face; his profile is 
very distinguished and handsome. He rides remark- 
ably well, and it is on horseback that he looks best, as 
his greatest deficiency in figure, which is want of leg, 
is thereby concealed : his chest is very broad, and his 
whole bust gives a promise of great strength. He 
prides himself upon being able to shoot an arrow far- 
ther than any of his subjects. It is to be presumed 
that he has not many competitors. 

As we entered, he rather inclined forward, resting 
one hand on the cushion of his throne, thereby dis- 
playing a part of his person of which he is exceed- 



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APPENDIX. 427 

ingly proud, with sundry rings of untold value deco- 
rating the fingers thereof. 

When the ambassador arrived within eight or nine 
paces of his imperial presence, he stopped. The sultan 
then beckoned to him very graciously, and he ap- 
proached about half the distance of separation. Sir 
Robert now made his speech, which was translated 
by the principal dragoman of the Porte. 

The caimacan not repeating it fast enough, or to 
the satisfaction of the sultan, it was taken up by his 
highness, who finished the sentence himself. This is 
esteemed a very great compliment, as usually. the sultan 
is not supposed to vouchsafe even a look towards a 
Giaour. 

Without appearing to do so, he took a comprehen- 
sive view of us all : not seeing Captain Lyons, he in- 
quired for him. Observing M. Chabert, who is an 
oldish man, and whom he knew very well by sight, he 
said, '' I perceive Chabert dyes his mustaches; but he 
must put on a greater quantity before he can make 
himself look young again." 

When the sultan had finished his speech, we with- 
drew, and he retired to a small tent immediately behind 
the large one, whence, after taking ofi* his heavier 
ornaments, he mounted his horse, and returned to his 
boat, in the same state as he came. 



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428 APPENDIX. 



No. 11. 

Remarks an the Affairs of Turkey in 1829. 

From the jnomeni of their arriyal at Constantinople, 
the English and French ambassadors had laboured, in 
every conference with the reis effendi, to iippress upon 
his mind the great advantages that would accrue to the 
sultan, if he availed himself of present circumstances 
to conclude an advantageous peace. 

They represented to him that much had been done 
for the glory of the Ottoman arms. That many of their 
frontier fortresses still held out ; and that those which 
had fallen had been defended with skill and bravery, 
and had been captured with heavy loss to the victors. 

That the Russians, although harassed by constant 
sorties, and wasted by sickness, shewed no symptoms 
of relaxation in their hostile preparations ; fresh troops 
were constantly pouring from the north, and they had 
obtained a dangerous location at Sizeboli, on this 
side the Balcan, from which the Turks, after two 
attempts made by the gallant Hussein, had found it 
impossible to drive them. That the whole of the 
Ottoman reserve had been sent to Shumla, leaving 



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APPENDIX. 429 

scarcely sufficient troops to repress the general discon- 
tent prevailing from the increased taxation and the 
deamess of provisions, which had risen more than one 
hundred per cent, owing to the supplies from Odessa, 
being cut off. 

That the two high contracting powers, parties with 
Russia to the treaty of 6th of July, were, of course, 
deeply interested in wishing that his highness should 
make an advantageous peace, as they must always view 
with jealousy any aggrandisement of the already colos- 
sal empire of Russia. 

That the state of the Russian army, and the diffi- 
culties they must encounter ere they could cross the 
Balcan, must naturally modify the demands of Russia; 
and that the most favourable terms ought to be ex- 
pected, if the Porte would at once determine to allow 
the erection of Greece, the Morea, and Cyclades, (all 
which at that time were demanded,) into an independ- 
ent but tributary province. 

That this act, so far from being in any way disad- 
vantageous to the Porte, would at once terminate a 
burdensome, sanguinary, and most doubtful contest; 
and, above all, that most weakening of all state dis- 
orders, the constant risings of a disturbed and revolted 
province. 

That should the chances of war once lead the Russians 
over the Balcan, and their communications be kept open 



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430 APPENDIX. 

by means of Sizeboli, Constmntiiiople was defenceless ; 
and that the tenns of peace would then be dictated by 
them as conquerors, not agreed to as by a contracting 
party. 

That France and England, always happy to mediate 
in behalf of their ancient ally, had suffered so deeply 
in their trade by the disturbed state of Greece, that they 
could not use their good offices effectually without the 
conditions regarding that country being first complied 
with. 

It may naturally enough be supposed, that a con- 
siderable difficulty arose as to the manner in which a 
question, iuTolving a direct interference in the internal 
concerns of an empire, could be propounded at all to 
the plenipotentiaries of that country in whose internal 
affairs it was proposed so to intermeddle. 

Owing to an anxiety to avoid the recognition of 
so unheard-of a principle, the language of the treaty 
itself is altogether incomprehensible.* Sir Stratford 
Canning was obliged to have recourse to every artifice 
diplomatic ingenuity could devise, to open a discussion 
upon this subject.f After unremitting attacks upon 

* Vide treaty of 6th July. 

t There is a passage in Gibbon relative to the difficulties under 
which the fathers of the church laboured in endeavouring to explain 
the incomparable mysteries of our faith, which, with very slight alter- 
ation, describes the situation of the diplomatists who penned the 



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APPENDIX. 431 

every member of the divan, and some curiously-laid 
plans to engage the attention of the grand signior 
himself, he was unable to succeed. Perleb Effendi, 
the reis effendi, rejected the consideration of the sub- 
ject in limine ; and the conferences, some of which are 
already made public, will, I think, shew that Perleb 
was fully aware of his own advantages. His answers 
are highly characteristic and entertaining. 

The offers of mediation made by Sir Robert Gordon 
and Comte de Guilleminot, upon their arrival in June 
1829, on the part of their respective sovereigns, coupled 
as they were with the condition of the independence 
of Greece, met with little better success than the 
negotiatibns which Sir Stratford Canning, Comte de 
Guilleminot, and M. de Bibeaupierre, had made pre- 
vious to the commencement of the Russian war. 

On Monday, the 13th of July, Sir Robert Gordon 
and his suite were presented in due form at the camp 
at Buyukd^re. In several instances, the women, of 
whom multitudes were assembled upon that occasion, 
made bold to speak to the English Giaours, and 
begged them to make peace, and restore to them their 

treaty. <' To purge themselves from the reproach or guilt of such an 
error (interference), they disavowed their consequences, explained 
their principles, excused their indiscretions, and unanimously pro- 
nounced the sounds of peace and concord/' — Sequel, Navarino, 



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432 APPENDIX. 

husbands and rdations, who were perishing with sick- 
ness and the sword, and also to bring plenty again into 
their houses. We were told that murmurs of discoor 
tent were hazarded in very audible whispers upon the 
departure of the sultan from his camp upon this occa- 
sion. The fatal battle of Koulouchka had then been 
fought. 

Silistria also had fallen, after fifty-two days of open 
trenches. Previous to that battle, the principal part of 
Count Diebitsch's army lay encamped near Silistria. 
General Roth, who commanded a corps of observation, 
pushed on beyond Pravadi, which lies between Ba- 
zarjik and Shumla. Disease was making such ravages 
amongst the Russian troops at Varna, that all commu- 
nications between them and Count Diebitsch's army 
were interrupted. 

Things were in this state about the beginning of 
June, when Redschid Pasha, grand vizier command- 
ing at Shumla, received an urgent despatch from the 
seraskier of Silistria, stating, that unless the grand 
vizier could make a successful attempt to relieve 
that fortress, it could only hold a short time longer. 
The grand vizier had for some time meditated a diver- 
sion for the relief of Silistria ; and was only waiting for 
accounts that Hussein was on his march from Ruz- 
chuck, to form a junction with him, at the moment 



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APPENDIX. 433 

thift despatch arrived. This junction of the Turkish 
forces was not, however, destined to take place ; for the 
grand vizier*s messenger had been intercepted by part 
of Qeismar's or Rudiger's corps; reinforcements were 
despatched to prevent the junction, and the brave 
Hussein, ex-vizier, remained in ignorance and inaction 
behind the defences of Rudzchuk. 

Redschid is a young and not very experienced 
commander, and, as sometimes happens in those cases, 
endowed with more spiiit than discretion. Of the 
first quaUty he availed himself, and made such a 
vigorous and unexpected attack upon General Roth, 
that he surprised his corps, consisting, I believe, of 
about 3,000 men, and routed it with considerable loss. 
This success, and the want of the second necessary 
quality of a general, destroyed him. Redschid had 
under his command at Shumla, it is supposed, about 
36,000 men, of which half were infantry, drilled in the 
European manner; the rest wild Asiatics, armed with 
cimeter and yataghan, and long-barrelled guns, with 
short crooked stocks grotesquely carved. What the 
number of horses was that he had with him, I never 
heard estimated ; but, from the nature of the ground 
upon which the battle of Koiiloutchka was fought, they 
could not have been much available during the action 
to either party. 

VOL. II. F F 



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434 APPENDIX. 

Bedschid's letter to his son, Veli Pasha, upon the 
occasion of his first success, is extremely curious. It 
seems that he had been expecting him at Shumla; 
and the letter expresses, by turns, anger at his non- 
arrival, and regret that he should not have partici- 
pated in the victory ; with a predominant and enthu- 
siastic feeling of delight scattered over the whole 
composition, that the enemies of the true faith were 
p«t to flight. 

Had the grand rixier been satisfied with these 
laurels, and retomed to his fortifications, or taken up 
. a strong position, till he heard something of Hussein, 
diere is no saying what advantages might have been 
reaped from this affair. But the vizier seemed at 
once to lose sight of that prudence which directed the 
«f>erations of the Turkish generals during the first 
campaign, — fighting behind their ramparts, and never 
letting the Russians have an opportunity of engaging 
them in the open field, where the superiority of military 
tactics must have given to their enemies a fearful 
advantage. Whether he imagined he should surprise 
the general-in-chief of the Russians ; or whether his 
computations did not point out to him, that although 
he had dispersed 3,000 hostile troops with his over- 
whelming force, still that the success of an attack upon 
30,000 might not be so certain, I know not ; but, flushed 



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APPENDIX. 435 

wMi his netorj in open field, he plunged c»to tl»e 
defiles fomed by the roote of this ndge of the Htttnus, 
attd advanced to the relief of Silietria. 

His skilfiil opp one n t, Count Diebitsch, no sooner 
heard of <3eiieral Roth's <lefeat« than, foreseeing the 
result it would, in all probability, ha?e upon the ulte- 
rior operations of the yizier's army, and hftving no 
fears of an attack from Rudzchuk, from circumstances 
already detailed, he detached a strong division of his 
army to place themselTes, by forced munches, between 
the Turkish army and Shumla, whilst he Mmself ad- 
vanced towards Pravadi to meet it in front, and thus 
force the grand vizier to battle, in whatever circum- 
stances he might be found. 

It was not till the passes were occupied l^ Russian 
troops between his army and their place of refuge, that 
tiie tmibrtonate vizier saw the Ml extent of his mistake ; 
and he immediately oommenced a retreat, endeavouring 
to out-manoBUvre the Russians, who cut him off from 
Shumla, and to get past tlien before any more shouM 
advance from Silistxia to take him in rear. This, 
however, he was unable to do, and he was forced to 
give battle in the defiles of Kouloutchka. 

These is no such thing as a Turkish bulletin ; the 
Russian details are well known; diey attacked the 
Turks on die early part of the first day, before a suffi- 



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436 APPENDIX. 

cient reinforcement came up» and suffered sererely; 
rictory was doubtful during that day ; but on the fol- 
lowing morning the action was renewed with more 
troops on the side of the Russians, and the Turks 
greatly disheartened by the blowing up of a large am- 
munition waggon, which they looked upon as a fatal 
omen. The Turkish army wi^ completely routed, and 
the campaign was» in point of fact, terminated. The 
Russians say the Tmrks fought extremely steadily the 
first day, and shewed a skill in the management of 
their guns they Uttle expected to find. 

When the news of this battle was certified to the 
Seraskier of Silistria, he surrendered at once. No 
sooner had the pursuit ceased, than the Russian 
general sent a flag of truce to the grand vizier, .and 
renewed proposals of a cessation of hostilities. The 
answer could not by any means be considered satisr 
factory, nor such as to warrant even an armistice, 
which, I think, was proposed by the vizier. Shumla 
was considered impregnable; the Balcan impassable ; 
and the last offer of salvation rather haughtily rejected. 
Novelties are always disdained by a Turk ; the old way 
of doing a thing is, with them, not only the best way, 
but the only way. It, therefore, never occurred to 
them, that the Russians, now for some time in posses- 
sion of Varna, might have made inquiries which they 



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APPENDIX. 437 

never thought of making themselves, namely, whether 
there was not some way of crossing the mountains near 
the sea-shore, where difficultie9 might be less; they 
might perhaps have explored it. No! Shumla had 
always been considered the key to the pass of the 
Balcan ; the Russians had run their heads agi^nst it in 
former wars ; they would doubtless do so again. 

Besides, if you were to inform a Turk that some 
dreadful calamity was impending over him, the pro- 
bability is; that, instead of the natural question, ** How 
can I avert it?" he would take his pipe half a minute 
from his mouth, and say, ** Baccaloom; Inshallah — 
We shall see ; God willing.'' 

Count Diebitsch could not have been aware at that 
time of the destitute state of the Turkish resources. 
But the passage of the moimtains was reported practi- 
cable by a place called Aidos, not far from the shores 
of the Euxine; and he determined, leaving a strong 
corps of observation upon Shumla, to take advantage 
of the panic caused by the battle he had won, and, 
with whatever troops he could collect, to attempt the 
pass of Aides, and by these means to make a j miction 
with the troops assembled in the fortress at Sizeboli. 

Whether the extent of the discomfiture at Kou- 
loutchka had been purposely concealed from the sultan 
and the divan, or whether they studiously concealed it 



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438 An»ENDix« 

ffrom the Fmnks, I canttot determhie; but dthongh we 
had had wukt nunoBTs of disaster fh>m our consnl at 
Adrianople, the Turkish court wore any thing but an 
appearance of dejection at the time of our presentation 
on the 1 3th of July, nor were there any indications of 
that sort of moirenient consequent upon the arriral of 
very bad iotellfgence. Yet it is most extraordinary, 
considering the date of the battle, that nothing should 
hare transpired to give us a clue to the reality. 

It appeared to me, that the Turkish government 
treasured up the king's celebrated speech, in which 
the words *' untoward event** are to be found, as a 
reference to themselves, in time of need, — a sort of 
assurance that they might, sooner or later, expect 
our powerful assistance. When they saw an immense 
fleet sail from England to the Mediterranean; still 
more, when they found that it had anchored alongside 
of the Russian blockading squadron at Tenedos, they, 
it is my firm belief, thought their expectations on 
the eve of realisation, and in consequence did not 
conceal the advantages the Russians had gained over 
them, or their ovm inability to continue the contest 
much kmger, in order that we might not delay the 
assistance they expected, to give a timely check to the 
Russians, by attacking their fleet in the Black Sea. 
This belief induces me to lean to the first opinion; 



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APPENDIX. 439 

namely, — that they did not know the extent of their 
misfortune. The only way of accounting for the second 
is, that they imagined the English and French ambas* 
sadors would transmit an account of what was passing 
in Constantinople to the Russians, and that by pre- 
serving a bold front, they might lead them to suppose 
that they had still great resources; and thus induce 
the Russians, suffering dreadfully from sickness, and 
the inefficiency of their commissariat, to conclude a 
peace, without annexing to it the condition of inde* 
pendent Greece. Be this as it may, the Turkish court 
wore a very different aspect on Mooday the 20th, 
when Mr. Hubech, the Danish minister, presented 
his credentials at the camp of Buyukd6r6, with pretty 
nearly the same ceremonial. Care sat lowering upon 
the imperial brow, — the ceremonies of the day were 
brought rapidly to a conclusion. It was quite evident 
that some very bad news had arrived. They knew 
fit that time that the charm was broken ; that the 
Balcan had been surmounted ; and that the juncture 
with the garrison of Sizeboli had been effected. 

No sooner had Count Diebitsch directed a suffi- 
cient force to keep the grand vixier occupied at 
Shumla, than he collected together the rest of hie 
amy, and leaving Pravadi on his right, marched 
towards Aides, in which direction the passage of the 



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440 APPENDIX. 

forU of the mountains near the sea was reported 
practicable. I never could ascertain with any degree 
of accuracy the number of troops he had with him 
upon this occasion ; but I believe it to have been a 
mere handful of men, compared with the hazardous 
nature of the enterprise. The grand vizier sent out a 
detachment to watch his motions; but I fSemcy his 
army was so generally convinced of the advantage of 
fighting behind walls, that they dared not venture 
far from their fold. They did, however, fall in with 
the extreme right of the Russians, and they made 
some ineffectual opposition to their crossing a small 
river at a place called Camabat; after which it is 
supposed they returned to Shumla; for, except a 
slight skirmish at Camabat, on the other side the 
pass, the Russian officers who came subsequently to 
Constantinople assured me that it was the last gun 
fired '' pour I'honneur de la patrie," and that they met 
with no further obstruction whatever. Independent 
of the absence of opposing force, which must have 
been a matter of no small surprise to the Rossiansi 
they were still more astonished at encountering so few 
natural obstacles : they found a road already ** pra- 
tiqu6e/' which could not even then have been very bad ; 
for in a short time afterwards, carts of all descriptions, 
and delicate four-wheeled carriages, for the general 



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APPENDIX. 441 

loid his staff, passed over towards Adrianople, without 
danger or difficulty. 

The field-marshal quietly coatinued his inarch to 
Aides, formed his junction with the garrison of Size- 
boii, and then dividing bis army into two columns, ad- 
vanced with one upon Adrianopley by laaboli, and 
sent the other towards Kirklessia, to take the sea road 
by Carapounhar. The question then naturally arises, 
why the Turks did not defend the pass of Aidos. It 
is a difficult question to answer. We have no Turkish 
bulletins: we neither know what forces they had at 
the commencement of the war^ nor what numbers 
might have been swept away by the sword or by pes- 
tilence during the first, and^ Turkic^^ very successful 
campaign; so that one can neither estimate what 
means they had of putting it in a state of defence 
at first, jior what resources were left them after the 
taking of Varna and Sizeboli, which must or ought to 
have drawn their attention very strongly to that point. 
They seemed to be folly aware of the advantage the 
Russians had gained by the occupation of Sizeboli, 
by the des^terate efforts they made to retake it. One 
can only attribute the extraordinary circumstance of 
their neglecting this pass altogether, to their inve- 
terate habits, and prejudices, and supineness, and to 
their rooted idea that, as they never attempted any 



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442 APPENDIX. 

thing new in wax, lo neidia* wmld the Rv 
innoyate; that the Roasians had never, iip<m fenner 
occaatons, attempted to paaa fortresaea without sitting 
down, beai^ing, and taking them ; that they had always 
oon^idered Shumla the key to the passes of the Bal- 
kan, and that therefore they would do the same upon 
this occasion; least of all did they contemplate tiie 
possibility of ils entering into the imagination, even 
of a J>elhi, lo think of passing the Bakan brfoie the 
citadel of Shumla was rased to the ground. 

However extraordinary was the conduct of Ae 
Turks in the hour of dang^, tlieir supineness in time 
of peace is not less reaaariiable. Of all the fortified 
towns, respecting the sieges and defences of which we 
have heard so much^ there is not one deserving that 
name, except Widdin. This place was fortified, accord- 
ing to the rules of art, by the Austrians. The Turks 
bad sixteen years of pecM^e, durimg which time their 
thoughts were very miteh directed to military tactics. 
Yet although they had this very* good model before 
thdr eyes, thety made no attempts to improve their line 
of fortification upon the Danube, or elsewhere; but 
allowed them to remain with all thdr ancient defences, 
each capable only of being defended by an army, (or 
which th^ would have formed a breast-work. 



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AFPBNPIX. 443 

It is not here intended to consider the di£Sculties 
with which the Russians had to contend ; bat merely 
to shew the baneful inactivity of the Turkish autho- 
rities, which would paralyse the bravest attempts of its 
soldiery to wage successful war against the enemies 
of their faith and country. 



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444 APPENDIX. 



No. III. 
Notes on the Ruins of Axani, by Dr. Hall. 

When at Kutaya, having heard, in reply to our usual 
inquiries concerning ancient ruins^ that at a village 
called Tjavd^r^^ situated in a plain eight hours south- 
west of Kutaya, there were the remains of a large 
city, we determined^ although not in the line of our 
intended route^ to make a journey to the spot. Ac- 
cordingly M. de Laborde, Count Beker, and myself, 
having procured some extra horses and a guide, we 
set off at day-break, full of hope that we were about 
to make some interesting discovery, not having found 
Tjavad^r6, or ruins in that situation, marked in any 
map of the country. 

On leaving the town of Kutaya, we entered a nar- 
row valley of soft limestone rock, whence we ascended 
by a steep path, crossed at intervals by a torrent. In 
an hour and a half we arrived on the summit of an 
elevated region, and continued riding through a hilly 
country, in a direction south-west, for five hours. 



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APPENDIX. 44 S 

without observing a single habitation. We then gn^ 
dually descended into a spacious plain/ running north 
and south in its greatest length. In an hour we passed 
a large village called Oran-Kieu,. the. houses of which 
were of the meanest description, and scattered about 
without any order. We saw another village to the 
right, called Hadgi-Kieu, which we .were told was 
equally destitute, and without a tree to give it shade, 
or a stream to cool it. The soil of the plain appeared 
generally poor, and was only partially cultivated in the 
rudest manner. 

After a fatiguing ride of more than eight hours, 
we began to approach the object of our research, situ^ 
ated towards the south-west extremity of the plain, at 
the foot of a gentle declivity. For some time before 
our arrival, we had observed a mass of columns on an 
elevation rising behind the village of Tjavd6r^, which 
intervened : after passing a small river, on a bridge of 
stone, we traversed the village, and found ourselves 
in the centre of an ancient city, as. yet unnoticed by 
any traveller. A magnificent temple, insulated co- 
lumns, a theatre, and a hippodrome, were the chief 
objects to which our attention was first directed. A 
profusion of prostrate pillars, and architectural firag 
ments of great beauty and variety, encumbered our 
path in every direction ; sometimes in scattered por- 



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446 APPBNDDU 

tioBs, %md somfttines m disthiet maum$, •hewing Ae 
sites of aDcient stroctares. 

HaTkg takm a geneiml yieW of these mterastisg 
ffemaim, we partook of a hasty meal, composed of 
honeiy and cakes of bad bread, the onlj provisions we 
ooold obtain, and then commenced our obserratioiis 
more in detail. The temple is Ionic ; and is an ex- 
ample of the enstylus, with fifteen oolmmis on tJM 
flanks, and eight in the fronts; with two oeimnns 
between the ant»^ at the entrance of the ^kt on the 
west front. The peristyle is raised on a massive fimA 
of marbie ; the columns am of Ae same materiab,each 
of a single stone, and fluted. The wall of the cella is 
composed of large stones, nicdy fitted, without cement, 
their outside edges being delicately cut ; a groove is 
left between each. The tows of stones difloiiiish in 
inBk as they ascend; thus the waR rises aftet the 
manner of a graduated pymmid : a band, with a pedi- 
ment, runs along the wall at six feet ten inches from 
the podium. Immediately above this there was a 
mnge of tablet stones, three of which remain -on the 
inside of the east end of the north wall, and are 
covered with Greek and Latin inscriptions. 

On the west front tikt walls were double. The 
outer one is pierced by two doorways ; but whether 
either of them ever conducted into the interior of ilie 



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AFPENDDL 447 

tenple is doubtfid; one certainly did not, — because u 
portion of the inner wall which remains has no corre- 
sponding door in it, but there is a passage leading from 
the intermural chamber to a spacious vault, which 
runs beneath the temple. 

The part of the inner wall which faced the other 
door is entirely destroyed; but some faint traces of 
substructions inclined me to think there might have 
be^i a door of communication with the temple 
here; if not, there must have been either another 
entrance to the temple at the east end, with columns 
between the antee, as in the west front; or there was 
a centre doorway in the inner wall of the west front, 
communicating with one or both of the doors of the 
outer wall, by means of the intermediate space. The 
alterations of a later date» to which the temple has 
been subjected to convert it apparently into a Chris- 
tian church, have caused the destruction of the east 
front, which in my opinion corresponded originally 
with the west; but in this soppositioa my companions 
did not coincide with me. 

The vault under the temple, to which there is, and 
ftfobably always was, a communication with the pas- 
sage between the double walls of the west front, is a 
spacious chamber, roofed by a single arch, constructed 
with vast blocks of stone, extremely well cut and 



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448 APPENDIX. 

fitted ; it has six spiracles or openings, (two on each 
of the sides, and one at the ends) sloping upwards, and 
issuing at the base of the peristyle to admit light and 
air. I am inclined to beHeye that the temple was 
erected on an arched substruction, as being more 
easy to construct, — more secure from the e£Fects of 
damp, — and more stable than a solid foundation arti- 
ficially raised ; at least, I obsenred nothing in the ar^ 
rangement of the vault beneath to lead me to an opinion 
that it was intended for the performance of the myste- 
ries of heathen priestcraft : but secret passages, sub- 
terranedtis chambers^ and intermural spaces, are, it 
must be confessed, portentous adjuncts to an ancient 
temple ; at least one of my compsmions could perceive 
in such an apparatus nothing less than the evidences 
of human sacrifices — spectral voices — and oracular 
responses. 

The parts of the temple in preservation when I 
visited the spot, were — almost the whole of the plinth 
of the peristyle on every side. 

Twelve of the fifteen columns* on the north flank, 
and five of the eight .with the two columns between 
the ant8B on the west front, all erect, with their en- 
tablatures. 

* My own notes mention sixteen columns. 



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APPENDIX. 449 

The roof of the peristyle. 

The whole of the north wall. 

The outer west wall of the cella, with a small por- 
tion of the inner west wall. 

The whole structure is of coarse blue marble, with 
white veins; but time has given its own colour and 
softness to the surfaces. The decorations are well 
executed, but the ornaments are too profuse. 

The exact measurements of the different parts will 
decide its architectural merits. 

The temple is situated on a quadrangular elevation 
of great extent, which seems to have been faced on all 
sides with masonry, and probably was approached 
by steps: some arches which supported this terrace 
are still observable at the south-east angle. 

On this platform, opposite the east front of the 
temple, I observed the substructions of a square build- 
ing, which might have been an altar, or a place for 
the priests to perform their ablutions before entering 
the temple. There was also, not far off, the shaft of 
an ancient well, nearly choked up. 

The theatre is situated about a quarter of a mile 
to the north of the temple, with a stadium attached, 
which runs from the theatre at right angles to, and 
not parallel with it, the scene, as at Sardis. 

VOL. II. G o 



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450 APPENmz. 

The theatre ib excarated in the side of a hill ; it is 
somewhat more than a semicircle, whose external dia- 
meter is aboat 190 feet : there are seventeen rows of 
seats still discernible; those remaining are in too 
ruinous a state to be counted. 

The cavea being excavated in a hill, there are no 
arched passages, or vomitories conducting to the seats. 
The proscenium appears to have been elevated above 
the orchestra about five feet. 

There are two large windows or openings in the 
walls, which terminate the seats, probably for the 
spectators in the theatre to view the hippodrome. I 
should think much labour had been bestowed on the 
decorations of the proscenium, judging from the frag- 
ments of columns, and other highly*wrought portions 
of architectural ornaments scattered around. The 
centre of the scene has a semicircular niche receding 
from the proscenium, in which is the principal door- 
way opening to the stadium ; the scene has also two 
other doors, and two windows ; and at each extremity 
a small tower or lodge projecting towards the stadium. 

There were seats on both sides of the hippodrome, 
raised artificially : on the west side there are still some 
of the arches on which these seats were elevated, ex- 
tending about two-thirds of the apparent length of the 



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APPENDIX. 451 

stadium (its exact boundary is not evident), and ter- 
minated by small towers or lodges^ 

In the centre of the arena I observed some sub- 
structions, which appeared to mark the line of the 
spina. 

We saw no statues, or detached portions of good 
sculpture. 

I believe a few copper coins found here are in the 
possession of M. de Laborde. 

The tombstones of the modem cemetery are all com- 
posed of fragments of the ancient city. Many have 
Greek inscriptions, of which we found a profusion 
every where ; from them we learn that Tjavd^r^ occu- 
pies the site of the ancient Azani, in Phrygia. 

Over the stream which we crossed on entering 
Azani are two small bridges, of Roman structure, the 
arches of which are elliptical : they are in excellent 
preservation^ wanting only the parapet, which they 
evidently once possessed. 

We ascended the banks of this stream for two 
miles, having been told that we should there find its 
source ; instead of which we came to a massive bridge, 
of one small arch, which crossed a narrow gorge be- 
tween some low hills. 

Much of the common stone, of which the city of 



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452 APPENDIX. 

Azani is built, was obtained from this neighbourbood ; 
but the marble was probably brought from the hills 
whieh bound the plain to the west, where we were 
told there were great excavations. 

The ancient city does not seem to hare been 
bounded by walls, at least we could find no traces to 
lead us to a contrary opinion. 



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INDEX. 



Abdul Hamid, Sultan, his death, ii. 
110. 

Abidy Bey, a young Tuik of distinc- 
tion, i. 173 ; his dress described, 
174 ; alluded to, 194. 403. 

Academy, Turkish, ii. 120. 

Actium, battle of, i. 361, 362. 

Actresses, English, ii. 88. 

Adair, Mr. his policy, i. 261. 

Adala, i. 337. 340. 

Adam, Sir Frederick, Lord Commis- 
sioner of the Ionian islands, i. 4. 7. 
390. 

Admiral, Turkish, i.l08. 

Admirals, Russian, i. 45. 

Adrian, temple of, at Athens, i. 19; 
mutilator of his statue, 173, 174. 

Adrianople, arrangements for a jour- 
ney to, i. 117; first view of the 
city, 144 ; head-quarters of Count 
Diebitsch, 158; the old seraglio, 
159 ; dirty state of the town, 164 ; 
kiosk of Sultan Selim, 160 ; dress 
of the ladies, 166 ; mosque of Ooch 
Sheriiler, 170 ; conduct of the Rus- 
sians at, 171. 218; Yeni Maret, 
172; Greeks of, 220; feelings of 
the ladies at, 227 ; scandal at, 230 ; 
state of, on the entry of Count 
Diebitsdi, 237; its situation, 250; 
population, 251 ; well adapted for 
commerce, 252 ; roads, ib. ; trade 
of, 254 ; activity of the Greeks of, 
257; imports, 259; wool of, 260; 
trade in cotton, 262 ; productions 
of, 263 ; currency, 264 ; taxes of, 
273 ; loes of the Russians at, 245; 
peace of, ii. 72. 

archbishop of, i. 213. 313 ; 

his person, 214; his office, ib. ; 
awkward situation of, 215; his 
house, 216. 



iEsculapius, inscription alluding to, 

ii. 196. 
Africa, Turkish af&irs in, ii. 409. 
Afutleh, village of, ii. 385. 
Aidos, town of, ii. 3 ; defile of, 14. 
Ainegheul, ii. 390, 391. 
Air of the Bosphorus, i. 117. 
Airey, Captain, aid-de-camp to Sir 

Frederick Adam, i. 73 ; leaves Con- 
stantinople, 107. 
Ak-hissar, state of, ii. 284. 
Aktavar, a small Turkish town, ii. 

255. 
Albanians, taken prisoners by the 

Russians, i. 190. 
Aleppo, Pasha of, ii. 190. 
Alexander, Capt., meets with Major 

Keppel, i. 175 ; quits Adrianople, 

196 ; publication of his travels, 

ii. 102; opinion of, 358. 

Emperor, i. 206. 208. 

Ali Osman, tomb of, ii. 176. 
Ali Pasha of lanina, i. 193. 
American Philhellenic association, 

i. 12. 
Amurath I., his establishment of the 

Janisaries, i* 365. 
Anastasius alluded to, i. 209. 
Ancyra, position of the town of, ii. 

245. 261. 
Antari, or female dress, i. 166. 
Appleduck, village of, i. 58. 
Arabahs, a kind of cart, i. 252. 296. 

302. 
Architecture, Greek, remains of, ii. 

212. 
Arda river, i. 252. 
Argos, Greek legislative assembly at, 

i. 23 ; held at the ancient theatre, 

24. 
Armenian Catholics, banishment of, 

ii. 148. 154 ; their property sold. 



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454 



INDEX. 



155 ; return of, to Coostantinople, 
186. 

Annenian rogue, i. 69. 

Armenians understand the art of 
making money, i. 183. 

Army, Russian, advance of, i. 83; 
outposts of, 137; advanced guard 
of, 1 4 1 ; head-quarters of, at Ad rian- 
ople, 158 ; Uhlan's corps of cavalry, 
163; barbarism in, 172 ; condition 
of, 176; effective strength of, 179 ; 
action with the trooDs of the 
Pasha of Scutari, 190; aescription 
of Count Diebitsdi, 205 ; conduct 
of, at Adrianople,219 ; welcomed 
by the inhabitants, 221 ; invasion 
agreeable to the Turks, 223 ; nick- 
names given to, 226 ; esteemed by 
the ladies, 227 ; feelings of, on the 
subject of the peace, 232 ; progress 
of, after the passage of U^ Balcan, 
236 ; strength o^ 239 ; unhealthy 
state of, 240 ; adoption of the 
lance, 241 ; filthy state of, 242 ; 
mortality in, 243 ; medical and 
commissariat departments of, 244; 
pay and rations, 247; foreigners 
in, 248; its attack ou Selimno, 
298 ; operations of, in 1829 ; de- 
serters rrom, ii. 50. 

• Turkish, desertions from, i. 62. 

84 ; conspiracy in, ib. ; remodelling 
of, 101 ; extreme youth of the sol- 
diers in, 339 ; dress and arms of, 
342 ; its defective state, 362 ; origin 
of the Janisaries, 365; successes 
of, 368 ; establishment of the new 
troops, 375; apathy of the regular 
troops in tlie late war, 376 ; sys- 
tem of levying troops, ii. 170. 190; 
its inefficiency, 407. 

Amaout, sufferings of one, ii. 62. 

Amaouts, creed of, i. 194. 

Arundell, Mr., i. 372. 

Ascanius* Lake, ii. 163. 

Asia, Turkish afiaizs in„iV410. 

Asia Minor) journey in, recommend- 
ed, ii. 369 ; depopulation of, 381 . 

Asiatic Society of London, i. 347. 

Aukvar, village of, i. 284. 

Austrian Ambassador, concert given 
by, ii. 103. 

navy, espionage of, i. 42. 



Avania, cruelty of the, i. 267. 

Azani, city of, ii. 194 ; general ^h 
pearance of the ruins, 204 ;.b'ndge3, 
205 ; theatre, 206 ; temple of Ju- 
piter, 213; Greek inscriptions at, 
22 1 ; coins, 232 ; historical notices 
on, 234. 443. 

Bagie, site of, ii, 368. 371. 

Bagnio prison, at Constantinople, 
i. 80. 

Baillie, Admiral, i. 46. ' • ' \ 

Bajazet II., ii.'401. 

Balcan, passage of, i. 236 ; its ap- 
pearance, 296 ; ascent of, 300 ; soil 
of, 301 ; various roads over, 302 : 
Pravadi, pass of, ii. 4 ; its defences, 
1 ; their weakness, 1 1 ; Selimno, 
pass of, 12. 

Ball on ship board, ii. 73. 

at Constantinople, ii. 92 ; 

Band, Turkish, i. 341. 

Bartholomew, a Dominican friar, ii. 
149. 

Bas-reliefs, ii. 348. 

Batli, a salt-water one, i. 123. 

Batteries, Turkirfi, i, 51. 

Bazaar at Smyrna, ii. 316. 

Bazaars at Constantinople, ii. 104. 

Beards, custom of wearing, ii. 200. 

Beglerbanee, village of, ii. 21. 

Belgrade, fortress of, i. 461. 

Benna, site of, ii, 197, 

Bentham, Captain, i. 14. 36. 

Black Sea, dangerous navigation .in, 
i. 271. 

Blaudus, situation of, ii. 261. 

Blonde, f^te given on board of, to 
the Turks, ii. 71.399. 

Boileau, Captain, of the Rifle Bri- 
gade, i. 5. 

Bologlou, the Armenian, ii. 181. 

Boorek,akind of cake, i. 128; ii. 61. 

fiooyoodery, xnrtue of, i. 60. 

Bosphorus, sailing match on, i. 108. 

Bourgaz, town of, i. 58 ; route from 
to Chorli, ii. 56. 

Bouverie, Hon. D. P. i. 40. 

Mrs. ii. 305. 

Bridge, remarkable, i. 14^ 

Bridgeman, Hon. Charles, i. 7. 388. 

British palace at Constantinople, ii. 
83. 



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INDEX; 



455 



Brown, Admiral, i. 46. 

Brusa, town o^ i. 384. 391. 395. 

Brushwood, burning, use of, ii. 239. 

Bulgarian funeral, i. 197. 

peasantry, i. 304 ; their con- 
dition, 309 ; their dress, 31 1 . 

Bulgarians welcome the Russians, i. 
221 ; marriages of, 312 ; divorces, 
313. 

contrasted with the Grebes, 

ii. 43. 

Buyuk Derbait, village of, i. 287. 
. camp of, ii. 419. 



Buyukdere, 



If of, i. 109. 



- gulf of, 
I, Nasir of. 



executed, i. 85. 



Cabbages, gigantic, ii. 181. 

Cadi, city of, ii. 194 ; coins of, 245 ; 
historical notices on, 246. 

Calomel, improper use of, i. 106. 

Camels, hera or, ii. 162. 

Campbell, Commodore, i. 401. 405. 
406. 425. 

General, his direction-post, 

i. 6. 

Candia, question regarding, i. 30; 
insurrection in, 31 ; barixuities of 
the Greeks in, 32. 

Canning, Sir Stratford, ii. 430, 431 . 

Caperli, village of, ii. 398. 

Capitan Paslu^ visit to him, i. 109 ; 
his origin, 110; his residence, ii. 
9.11. 

Capo d'Istrias, Count, conduct of, i. 
12; his person described, 26; his 
discourse on the afiairs of Greece, 
27 ; his designing policy, 28 ; his 
character, 33; his disposition to- 
wards England, 34 ; particulars re- 
laUve to, 381. 427. 

Cara Osman Oglou, family of, ii. 296. 
323. 

Carapounhar, situation of, ii. 22. 

Camabat, road fi?om Dobral to, ii. 
16 ; population of, 19. 

Cartal, a smallsea-port town,.ii. 137. 

Cartwrigfat, Mr., the consul-general, 
i. 73. 122, 123; ii. 123.309. 

Cary, Mr., a brother of Lord Falk- 
land, ii. 311. 

Casalxi, deciease in the population 
of, ii. 323. 

Cavalry, Turkish appearance of, i. 
136; mode of riding, 13^. 



Casaa, town o^ i. 305. 

Cazas Artin, his treacheiy* ii. 153. 

Chabert, M., ii. 420. 

Chaji Kieu, Greek inscriptions at, ii. 
202. 

Chalcovatch, desertion of, ii. 5. 

Chamber, an inhospitable one, ii. 6. 

Chandler, Admiral, i. 46. 

Che^emetofi; General, i. 142. 176. 

Chieghton, Sir William, the physician, 
i. 46. 

Chipkieu, defile of, ii. 14. 

Chokcheh Kieu ; or, " dirty village," 
i. 139. 

Chorli, route ficom Bourgaz to, ii. 55 ; 
account of the town, ^ ; its neigh- 
bourhood, 66. 

Chunghiul Fort, at Shumla, i. 352. 

Church, Armenian, dissenters firom, 
ii. 149. 

Chutakh, village of, i. 309. 

Clancarty, Lord, i. 208. 

^^^^EYi mischievous influence of, L 
104. 

Cobley, Admiral, i. 46. 

Cockerell, Mr., ii. 328. 

Coffee-house, Turkish, i. 124. 

Coins, Greek and Latin, i. 232. 
245. 

Colocotroni, change in his sentiments, 
i.26. 

Conspiracy discovered, i. 84. 

Constantinople, city of, i. 72; The- 
rapia,73; Turkish mad-house, 75 ; 
Sultan Selim, 76 ; proofs of depo- 
pulation, 77 ; curious tombstones, 
78 ; slave market, 79 ; the Bagnio 
Prison, 80 ; recent fire, 81 ; walls, 
82 ; conspiracy discovered, 84 ; 
executions, 85 ; mode of exposing 
the bodies of Turks, 88; translar 
tion of a yafUi, ib. ; the Seraskier's 
Tower, 105 ; journey from to Sem* 
lin, 430; difficulties on the road 
to, ii. 69; concert at the British 
Palace, 83 ; dandies of, 84 ; fire at, 
399 ; corps dragomanique, 86 ; 
etiquette, 92 ; bazaars, 104 ; Egyp- 
tian bazaar, 105 ; decrease of po- 
Sulation, 106; fire at, 106. 349; 
eparture of the French and £ng« 
lish ambassadors firom, in 1828, 
112; conduct of the Sultan on thmr 
return, 113; academy at, 120; 



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mint at, 121 ; Catholic Aimemans 
banished from, 154. 

Commandant, Rusfian,ii. 18; his in- 
civility, 20. 

Concert at the Biitiah Palace at Con- 
stantinople, ii. 83. 

CoQ8cnpts,Turkish, ii. 170. 191 . 252. 

Cooljee, or tax-gatherer, i. 276. 

Corfu, steam-jmcket to, i. 4. • 

Corindi, description of, i. 10 ; Doric 
columns discovered, 11 ; garrison, 
ib. 

Com of Roumelia, i. 268. 

Corps draffomanique, ii. 86. 

Cossack, threats of one, ii. 34. 

Cossacks, party of, ii. 33. 38. 

Cossova, tattle of, i. 366. 

Cottage, Bulgarian, ii. 25. 

Cotton, commerce in, i. 262. 

Cotyseum, historical notices on, ii. 
188. 

Crimea, independence of, ii. 373. 

Crimes in Turkey, i. 328. 

Crown, Admiral, i. 46. 

Cruelty, effects of, ii. 65. 

Currency, debasement of, i. 264. 

Cybebe, temple of, ii. 328. 

Damleh, picturesque village of, ii. 

142. 
Damelousky, General, i. 208. 
Dandies of Pera, ii. 84 ; their pride 

and intrigue, 85. 
Dardanelles, voyage up the, i. 48; 

inner castles of, 49; Sestos and 

Ab^rdos, 50 ; Asiatic castle of, 53. 
Dawkins, Mr., i. 7. 21. 
Debtor and creditor, ii. 276. 
Deaths by cold, ii. 57. 
Decapitation, practice of, ii. 64. 
Delih Salek, a slave merchant, i. 428. 
Delli Karochick, a small stream, ii. 9. 
Demirje, town of, ii. 265 ; its trade 

in opium, 266. 
Demodka, Turkish state prison, i. 

143. 
Derbent, village of, Turkish inhospi- 

talify at, i.315. 
Dereh beys, or hereditary governors, 

ii. 298. 
Dervishes, howling, exhibition o^ i. 

198. 

, tell fortunes, i. 201. 

Deserters, Russian, ii. 50. 



Deseiten, Tuild^, i. 02. 66. 64. 

Despotism, effects of, i. 272. 

Dialogue, military, i. 333. 

Diebitsch, Count, character of, i. 1 30 ; 
visit to, 157 ; description of bis 
head-quarters, 158 ; invested with 
the Older of St. George, 162; ap- 
pointed to the rank of field-marshal, 
189; his operations against the 
I^sha of Scutari, 191 ; his penooal 
appearance, 204 ; owes his fortune 
to nis fitoe, 205 ; offence gj^en to^ 
ib. ; pacified by the fimperor 
Alexander, 206 ; stipulation of, 
207 ; Turkish plempotentiarles 
proceed to his head-quaiters, 211 ; 
promise of, 214; why he did not 
ad vance upon Constantinople, 216; 
regret at learing Adrianople, 232 ; 
his magaxine of forage, 246. 

Dil, or tongue of land, ii. 1 43. 

Dinner, Turkish, ii. 251 . 

Discipline, European improvement 
in, li. 370. 

Dobral, Bulgarian village of, ii. 15. 

Dockyards, Turkish, Russians em- 
ployed in, ii. 52. 

Doctor, a renegade one, i. 323. 

Dogs, coterie of, i. 282. 

D'Ohsson, M., his picture of the Ot- 
toman empire, ii. 1 1 5 ; his remarks 
on fatalism, 400, 401. 

Dorylaeum, site of, ii. 257. 

Draco, river, ii. 159. 

Dragai, ruined village of, ii. 4. 

Dragoman of Adrianople, i. 167. 

Dress, Jewish, described, i. 181. 

, Turkish, recommended, ii. 

138; observations on, i. 342. 

Drill, new system of, i. 334. 

book, Turkish, i. 338. 

Drovetti, M., i. 424. 

DunIo,Lord,i.81.86. 107. 113. 114. 
121. 123. 135. 161. 164. 166. 173. 
185 ; his fortune told by a dervish, 
201 ; alluded to, 208, 209. 279. 
332. 335.339; ii.3.69. 91. 131 — 
135. 405. 

Duveluz, Mr., the British ccmsul, i. 
147. 149; his residence at Adrian- 
ople, 150; kind conduct o^ 154. 
164; alluded to, 210. 313. 322. 

Earthquake, shock of one, ii. 309. 



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457 



Echo, Dutch brig, i. 46. 

£eke Capi, yiUaffe of, ii. 320. 

Eeelut, village (M, ii. 389. 

EgioEy town ofy i. 14 ; its state, 383. 

Egyptian bazaar, at Constantinople, 
ii. 105. 

man-of-war, ii. 101. 

Eligree, village of, i. 125. 

English Mustapha, his life and ad- 
ventures,* i. 118; his fears of the 
Cossacks, 129; offended, 131 ; his 
•elf-will, 147; his remark relative 
to the howling dervishes, 201 ; his 
generalship, 286 ; anecdotes of, 
317. ii. 23 ; his cruel^, 63. 

Enos, sea-port town of, i. 253. 271. 

Ep^minondas, Greek brig, i. 8. 

Equality, Turkish, i. 361. 

Efkeneh, river, i. 142. 

Eski Pylos, a Greek village, ii. 31. 

Executions in Turkey, i. 78. 85. 114. 
327 ; remarks on, 92. 

female, i. 229. 

Fabrier, Colonel, i. 389. 

Fakih, Bulgarian cottage at, ii. 25. 

Farso, Signor, the pasha's physician, 

i. 243. 
Fashions, female, in Turkey, i. 166. 
Fatalism, remarks on, ii. 40. 
Feast of the Tabernacles, celebration 

of, i. 180. 
Ferry, Turkish, i. 148. 
FSte, magnificent, given to the Turks 

on board his Majesty's ship Blonde, 

ii. 71 ; at Count Guillemenot's,82. 
Fidia fort, taken by the Russians, i. 

356. 
Fight, a sham one at sea, i. 37. 
Finucane, Captain, i. 7. 
Fire at Constantinople, ii . 1 06 ; caused 

by the Janisaries, i. 107. 
Fitzroy, Lord Charles, i. 5. 
Forde, General, i. 46. 
Foreigners, in the Russian service, 

i. 248. 
Fortune-telling dervish, i. 201. 
Frank courier, ii. 58. 
Fricker, Mr., a king's messenger, 

i. 198. 
'Frost, intense, ii. 8. 
Funml, Bulgarian, i. 197. 
— , Russian, i. 294. 



Galata, fire in, i. 20.81. 

Gallantry, want of, ii. 103. 

Gallipoli, town of, i. 62; its popu- 
lation, 64. 

Callus, river, ii. 167. 

Galoonjee bedeli, or war-tax, i. 274. 

Garrison, at Corinth, i. 11. 

Gedis-dwee, the Hermus of ancient 
history, ii. 241. 

Geismar, General, success of, i. 190. 
192. 198. 

General, a Turkish one, i. 359. 

Gensaikies, or Turlush countiy- 
house, ii. 57. 

Ghebseh, town of, ii. 140 ; conjec- 
tures respecting, ib.; complaints 
of the inhabitants, 141. 

Ghi^diz, town of, ii. 239 ; its trade, 
241; Greek inscriptions at, 242; 
situation of the place, 245. 373. 
379. 

Ghieuldiz, village of, ii. 355 ; inscrip- 
tions a^ 357. 

Ghiurdiz, the ancient Julio-Gordus, 
ii. 273 ; its ruinous state, 281. 

Giaour Imaum, a celebrated robber, 
ii. 4. 

Gibbet at Zante, i. 5. 

Gibbon, the historian, quoted, i. 367, 
368. 

Gipsies, tribe of, ii. 332. 

Girl, Turkish, interesting one, ii. 250. 

Goorchabelli, ii. 389, 390. 

Gordon, Colonel, i. 23. 26. 

, Sir Robert, i. 73. 107. ii. 70. 

73. 92. 403. 

Gmves, Russian, i. 283. 

Greece, on the affidrs of, i. 27. 381. 
408; its future prospects, 29. ii. 
119. 

Greek antiquities, ii. 179. 

, castle, modem, ii. 185. 

inscriptions, i. 216. ii. 166. 

169. 196. 197. 202. 227. 242. 264. 
344. 

interpreters, i. 345. 

lady, modem, dress of, de- 
scribed, 1. 166. 

, a beautiful one, ii. 87. 

legislative assembly, i. 23. 

— ^— merchant murdered, ii. 301. 

murderers hanged, i. 114. 

— - parricide, i. 16. 



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index; 



Greek patriarch, his priTilegcs, ii. M; 

revenues of, 98. 

tfaea,tres, ii. 212. 

vessels admitted by the Porte, 

ii. 111. 

. wounded, ii. 287. 



Greeks, their barbarities in Candia, 
i. 32 ; their feelings towards the 
Turks, 220; welcome the Rus- 
sians, 221 ; their rights, 223 ; com- 
plaints of, 241 . 

and Bulgarians, contrast be- 
tween, ii. 43. 

Gregorios, the Greek patriarch, put to 
death, ii. 100. 135. 

Gregoiy, Captain, i. 232. 247. 253. 
381. 

Greig, Admiral, i. 45. 176. 196. 

Grey, Hon. George, i. 41. 

Grosvenor, Hon. Robert, i. 108, 109. 
1 14. ii. 83. 109 ; extracts from his 
joiunal, 419. 

Guilleroenot, Count, the French am- 
bassador, iL 82. 92, 93 ; heroism of 
his lady, ib. 

Haggermann, Mr., i. 322 ; illness of, 
326; convalescent, ii. 1. 

*Hail-storms, violent, ii. 56. 

Hajee Mahomet, Turkish perfumer, 
i. 105. 

Haji Baba, a slave-dealer of Adrian- 
ople, i. 153. 

Ilalish Pasha, ii. 49. 67. 

IJall, Dr., ii. 163. 173. 184. 206; 
plan of the theatre, &c. at Azani, 
furnished byhira, 211.216; of the 
temple of Jupiter, 218; his notes 
on tne ruins of Azani, 443. 

Hamilton, Admiral, i. 46. 

Hassan, a boot-maker, yafta on, i. 
430. 

Hastings, Captain, ii. 414. 

Hazeran, or staff of command, ii. 98. 

Heidegger, Colonel, ii. 387. 

Hellas, Greek flag-ship, i. -fil . 

Herraus, its source, ii. 256. 370. 

Hero, Turkish, i. 68. 127. 

Hersek, a Turkish post-station, ii. 
144. 

Heyden, Count, i. 33. 45. 401. 403. 

Hill, Mr., the minister, i. 5. 

Hirepoli, post town of, i. 136. 



Homer quoted, ii. 268. 

Honesty, Turkish, instances of, i. 

288, 289. 
Hospodars of Wallachia, ii. 97. 
Hoste, Captain, i. 14. 17. 22, 23. 36. 
Howe, Mr., colony formed by him, 

i. 12. 
Howling dervishes, i. 198. 
Hummaum, or public bath, ii. 182. 
Hussein Pasha, i. 452. 
Hyllus, or Macistus, ii. 261. 
Hylton JoUiffe, the Sultan's ste^n- 

boat, ii. 122. 

lagotin, town of, i. 458. 
lanbeli, town of, i. 293. 
lasigi, M., the Smyrna merdumt, i. 

169.201. 
Ibrahim Pasha of Rodosto,- visit to, 

i. 130. 401 ; confer0Dfle with, i. 

397 ; retinue of, ii. 48 ; opinions 

of, 114. 
lenijee, village of, i. 285. 
leni Kieu, small town of, i. 295; 

ii. 254. 259. 372. 400. 
Imaum, his absolute authority, ii. 

115. 
Imposts, oppressive, ii. 321 . 
Inoghi, village of, ii. 178. 
Inscription, Greek, i. 216. 
Inscriptions, unsuccessful search for, 

ii. 198. 
^^— ^— Greek and Latin, at 

Azani, 220. 222. 
Interpreter, Greek, i. 1 10. 
Invalids in Turkey, advice to, i. 106. 
Ipsariotes, their treachery, i. 156. 
Irby, Hon. Captain, ii. 63. 
Islamism, laws df, ti. 116w 
Ismail, a caf6ji, yaf^'on, t. 429. 
Istarajee, or collector, r. 269. 
Itch-^hlans, or pages, i. 111. 
Iwalleh, a Turkish village, ii. 46. 

Janisaries, destruction of, i. 92; 
unite with the ulemas, 96 ; their 
privileges, 97; their insubordina- 
tion, 99 ; fruits of their rebellion, 
100 ; put down by Mahmoud, ib. ; 
their origin, 365 ; their successes, 
366 ; relaxation in their discipline, 
371; abuses among, 372; defec- 
tion of, 375 ; their conduct,Ji. 107; 



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468 



, attempt to re-establish tbeir ord», 

317. 
Jewish DragomaD, i. 49. 

feast of the taberaacles, i. 



180. 



form of government, i. 183. 
ladies, dress of, i. 181 ; their 



notions of delicacy, 182. 
sabbath, i. 63. 



Jews, conduct of the Turks towards 

them, i. 184. 
Juma, town of, i. 319. 
Justice, admijiistration of, in Turkey, 

ii. 98.' 

Kainardje, treaty of, i. 373. 

Kamchik, passage of^ i. 23^6. 

Karabet, the Armenian banker^ eoter- 
tainment given by, i; 209. 

Kara Gatch, village of, i. 146. 

Kara Gurgi, village of, i. 57. 

Kelly, Captain, ii. 122. 

Kelmeme^ his proceedings, ii. 126; 
anecdote of one, 336. 

Keppel, Major, 'sets out (or Constan- 
tinople, ii, 3 ; arrives at Zante, 5 ; 
embarks on board the Rattlesnake, 
7; reaches Lepanto, 8; land^ at 
Corinth, 9; at Bgina, 14; the 
Pirseus, 15 ; visits the Bey of 
Athens, 18; meets with an acci- 
dent, 20; returns to Egina, ib. ; 
arrives at Napoli di Romania, 21 ; 
attends the Greek legislative as- 
sembly at Argos, 24; his inter- 
view with Count Capo dlstrias, 
26 ; goes on board the Samarang, 
35 ; describes a sham fight, 37 ; 
proceeds ^to Constantinople in the 
Putoh brig £cho, 47 ; progress up 
the Dardanelles, 48; his detention, 
52 ; reaches Gallipoli, 62 ; Pivates, 
70; Constantinople, 72; his de- 
scription of the city, 75; his ob- 
servations on the state of the Turk- 
ish empire, 93 ; visits the Capitan 
Pasha, 109; prepares for another 
journey, 117; engages English 
Mustapha as his servant, 118; 
arrives at Rodosto, 126; meets 
virith the Russian advanced guard, 
141 ; entertained by the British 
Ambassador at Adrianople, 150 ; 



his account of Mango, one of his do- 
mestics, ib. ; the massacre of Scio, 
156; visits Count Diebitsch, 157 ; 
General Reuchtem, 159; introdu- 
ced to Abidy Bey, 174 ; falls in with 
Captain Alexander, 175 ; visits the 
Russian camp, 179 ; his descrip- 
tion of Count Diebitsch, 205 ; visits 
the Archbishop of Adrianople, 213; 
his picture of the Russian army, 
233 ; leaves Adrianople, 282 ; first 
appearance of the Balcan, 296 ; 
reaches Selirono, ib. ; Cazan, 305 ; 
manners, &c. of the Bulgarians, 
described by, 310 ; visits the Grand 
Vizier Mahomet Redschid Pasha, 
332 ; dialogue -with him, 333 ; his 
departure from Shumla, ii. 2; 
meets with a patty of Cossacks, 
33 ; dangerous adventure, 34 ; dif- 
ficulties experienced by, 38 ; jour- 
ney firom Bourgaz to ChorH, 56 ; 
returns to Constantinople, 69 ; bis 
account of a fite given to the Turks 
on board the Blonde, 71 ; attends 
a ball at the French palace, 92 ; 
his particulars relative to the Ze- 
beks, 124 ; proposes to proceed 
into Asia Minor, 128 ; and engages 
as his Tartar Carle Michel, 129 ; 
advice to travellers in Turkey, 130; 
takes leave of his friends, 1 34 ; de- 
scribes the banishment of Arme- 
nian Catholics from Constanti- 
nople, 148; remains of the ancient 
Nicsa, 164 ; modeofraisingTurkish 
conscripts, 170; arrives at Shug- 
hut, 174; his search for antiqui- 
ties, 184 ; historical notices on 
Cotycum, 188 : ruins of Azani, 
204 ; visits Ghi^iz, the Cadi of 
the ancients, 239 ; crosses the Her- 
mus, 256; meets with a mysteri- 
ous personage, 268 ; his amval at 
Smyrna, 302 ; regrets on quitting 
the place> 318; visits the ruins of 
Saraes, 326 ; his reflections on 
quitting Turkey, 405. 

Kerislar, ancient castle at, ii. 195. 

Kerkhus, village of^ i. 13. 

Kharatch, or capitation tax, i. 274. 

Khatty scherif of Mahomet II., ii. 
95. 



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INDEX. 



KibtUerab, iBoeoTeDieDoet 9t, ii. 26. 

Kieaperli, vizier, i. 265; ii. 47. 172. 

Kieurkjiy village of, ii. 376. 

Kiosk, view from, at Adrianople, i. 
165. 

Kirk Klesia, town of, ii. 33. 

Kizderbint, or Virgin Pan, ii. 160. 

Knowledge, diffusion of, i. 258. 

Koehler, General, ii. 180. 189. 

Koonibariarc, village of, ii. 41. 

Koozoos Kieu, village of, ii. 272. 

Koran, precepts of Uie, ii, 117. 

Kula, (^proach to, i. 340, 341 ; dis- 
affection of the inhabitants, 342 ; 
inscriptions at, 345 ; beauty of the 
women, 354; its situation, 360. 

Ktmigli, village of, ii. 67. 

Kutaya, vegetables of, ii. 181 ; the 
Thymbres, 180 ; Hummaum, 181 ; 
antiquities of, 184; prison, 185; 
historical notices of, 189; com- 
merce, 190; rapid depopulation, 
191. 

Kutchuk Derbent, village of, i. 287. 

Laborde, M. de, ii. 450. 

Lachierda, a kind of fish, i. 122. 

Ladies of Adrianople, political opi- 
nions of, i. 227. 

Ladislaus, King of Poland, killed, i. 
367. 

Lampsaca, town of, i. 59. 

Lance, its adoption, i. 241 . 

Laws, Turkish, ii. 116. 

Lazaroff, Admiral, i. 41. 

Leach, John, the interpreter, i. 55 ; 
accident of, 56 ; his character, ib. 

Leake, Colonel, supposition of, ii. 
143; alluded to, 173. 176. 193; 
his accuracy, 194 ; his remarks on 
Asiatic theatres, 207. 212. 220; 
his account of some Greek inscrip- 
tions at Azani, 221 ; Phrygian 
cities indicated by, 247 ; map of, 
256 ; site of Dorylseum ascertained 
by, 257 ; his conjecture respecting 
Ghiurdiz, 273 ; his remarks on the 
ruins of Sardes, 328; on the in- 
scriptions at Kula, 345. 354; re- 
marks of, 358. 370. 386. 

Leflceh, town of, ii. 168. 

Lehfejee, a deserted village, ii. 34. 

Leighton, Dr., physician-in-chief, i. 46. 



Leontari Apostoli, a wealthy Greek, 
1.71. 

Leopold, Prince, i. 29. 

Lepanto and its fortifications, i. 8. 

Lie, fiibricated, ii. 60. 

Ligne, Prince de, remark of, ii. 64. 

Leggings, Tuikish, i. 140 ; miserable, 
325 ; ii. 6. 44. 61. 

Louleh Bour^az, account of the town 
of, ii. 47; deserted state of, ib. 

Lushington, Sir Henry, i. 5. 

Lyons, Captain, i. 108, 109. 114; 
grand ftte given by, ii. 72; pro- 
ceeds to the Black Sea, 83; his 
return, 90. 135, 136 ; 305. 403. 

McCarthy, Dr., the physician, L 
106. 

M'Ilvaine,Mr.,ii. 311. 

Madatof, a Russian general, i. 357. 

Mad-house, Turkish, i. 75. 

Magra, Mr., the surgeon, i. 23. 

Mahmoud I., his death, ii. 110. 

, Sultan, abolishes the Ja- 

nisaries, i. 100; etiquette of, 192; 
liis attempts at female reform, 229; 
his claim to military reputation, ii. 
10 ; his commands, 81 ; instance 
of his cnielty, 100; his attendance 
at the mosque, 109. 270 ; his pro- 
mises, 112; his infraction of the 
law, 118; and probable conse- 
quences, 1 1 9 ; his steam-boat, 1 22 ; 
example set by, 156 ; his signature, 
258 ; nis sister and daughter, 404 ; 
his fickle character, 411 ; com- 
pared to Peter the Great, 413; his 
reception of the British Ambas- 
sador, 419. 

Mahomet II., khatty scherif of, ii. 
95 ; successes of, 308. 

Mahomet Redschid Pasha, visit to 
him described, i. 332. 

Mahometan disafiection, i. 318. 

Mahometan service at Adrianople, 
i. 184. 

Maitland, Admiral, i. 23. 41 ; it 305. 

Major, a young one, i. 338. 

Malcolm, Sir Pulteney, i. 36. 46. 
155. 

Malsum, village of, conjecture re- 
specting, ii. 143. 

Mangles, Captain, ii. 63. 



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Manisa. the ancient Magnesia ad 
Sipylumy ii. 295; prosperity of, 
299. 

Manual and platoon exerciae, i. 360. 

MarigOy a b^utiful Greek, interest- 
ing story of, i. 150; her com- 
Simons in misfortune, 154; ano- 
er of the same name, ii. 313. 

Mantza river, i. 143. 252. 

Marriages, Bulgarian, i. 312. 

Martin, Captain, i. 35. 47. 

Mavrocordato, Prince, i. 128. 

Meat, scarcity of, ii. 49. 59. 145. 

Medicine in Turkey, i. 106. 

Medley, strange, ii. 80. 

Mehemet Ali, i. 403. 405. 411. 

Mellish, Mr., i. 108; U. 83. 135. 

Menas, an Armenian exile, ii. 393. 

Mercer, Admiral, his death, i. 46. 

Merchants, Greek^ enterprise of, i. 
262. 

Miaulis, Admiral, his person de- 
scribed, i. 22. 

Michalachi, Signor, the dragoman; 
i. 330. 337, 338. 343, 344, 345. 
350. 

Michel, Carle, servant to Major Kep- 
pel, ii. 129. 274. 334. 337. 

—— Emperor, bridge built by, i. 
164. 

Michell, Captain,, i. 399. 401. 404. 

Military autnors, ii. 102. 

dialogue, i. 338. 

Millingen, Dr., ii. 123; his advice 
to Major Keppel, 128. 181. 195. 
233 

Mills, movable, i. 144. 372, 373. 

Mines in Turkey, i. 255. 

Mint at Constantinople, i. 264 ; ii. 
121. 

Missolonghi, town of, i. 7. 

Blistake, a whimsical one, i. 163. 

Mityiene, island of, i. 42. 

Modon, conference at, i. 397.401. 
417. 

Mohumed Aga, the rizier's doctor, 
i. 349. 

MontecucuUi, General, i. 241. 

Montesquieu, opinions of, i. 229. 
270—272. 348; ii. 82. 382. 

Biontiesor, General, i. 299. 

Mortality in Turkey, i. 146. 

— — of the Russian army, i. 245. 



Mosqaes at Selimno, i. 298. 

Moudania, sea-port town of, ii. 397. 

Mountain passes, weakness of, in 
Turkey, u. 11. 

— — — scenery, ii. 147. 

Muffling, General, anecdote of, i. 4. 
37. 

Mufty, power of, i. 95 ; edicts of, 98. 

Mungul, its pernicious effects, ii. 144. 

Murderers, Greek, hanged, i. 114. 

Mussulman dress described, ii. 77. 

Mustapha engaged as Tartar by Major 
Keppel, ii. 130; quarrel of, 137; 
anecdote of, 145; deception re- 
specting, 182; modesty of, 337; 
his arrogance, 374. 

Pasha, i. 441. 

Napoli di Romania, i. 21 ; fortifica- 
tions at, 33. 

Navarin, incident after the battle of, 
ii. 65 ; allusion to it, 183. 

Navy, Austrian, espionage of, i. 42. 

Negro language, ii. 335. 

Nicsea, the ancient, walls o^ ii. 164 ; 
desolation of, 165. 

Nicknames, policy of, in Turkey, i. 
111. 

Nicolas, Emperor, his interference, 
i. 207 ; his intentions with regard 
to Turkey, 234. 

Nimphio, village of, ii. 320. 

Nissa, town of, i. 456. 

Odessa, hospital at, i. 244. 
Officers, Turkish, inferiority of, i. 336. 
Olives, forest of, ii. 164. 
Olympus, Mount, ascent of, ii. 389. 
Omens, importance of, i. 113. 
Ooch Shenfler, mosque of, at Adrian- 

ople, 170. 
Ooranjik, village of, ii. 380. 
Oozan Kupri, town of, i. 141 ; long 

bridge of, 142. 
Opium, fondness for, i. 75 ; trade in, 

ii. 266. 
Orio£^ Count, i. 160; ii. 104. 
Osman Bazaar, a Turkish town, i. 

314. 
Otranto, diligence to, i. 4. 

Pahlen, Count, i. 160. 176. 
Palamedes, fort of, i. 33, 34. 



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462 



INDEX. 



Palikah, or Greek troopt, i. 10. 
Panhellemum, acts of, i. 28, 29. 
Papasli, village of, i. 288. 
Parish, Mr., i. 108 ; ii. 83. 135. 
Parker, CapUin, i. 45. 391. 401. 

415. 
Pamcide, Greek, i. 16. 
Pasha, aoecdoie-of one, ii. 52. 
Pasbasy or temporary gdvemorsy ii. 

297. 
Peace concluded between Russia and 

Turkey, i. 210. 
Peasantry, armed, i. 303. 
Pendic, a 6shing-village, ii. 139. 
Personage, a mysterious one, ii. 268. 

274. 
Peter the Great, ii. 413. 
Petm, village of, ii. 31. . 
Philopopoli, advance of the Pasha of 

Scutari to, i. 190 ; alluded to, 437. 
Picket, Russian, L 295. 
Pireus, i. 15. 

Pisani, Count Alexander, ii. 94. 
Pivates, Greek village of, i. 70 ; wine 

of, 72. 
Plague at Varna, i. 245. 
Pliny^ error of, ii. 257. 359. 
Plutarch, remark of, ii. 143. 
Politicians, female, i. 227. 
Poll-tax, in Turkey, i. 275. 
Polonoise, danced by Turks, ii. 78. 
Pravadi, town of, consternation in, i. 

145 ; route to, ii. 2. 
Predestination, doctrine of, ii. 401. 
Priests, Russian, perform Te Deum, 

i. 204. 
Prison, Turkish, ii. 185. 
Punishment, summary, ii. 377. 
Pyramids, battle of, ii. 63. 

Quail shooting, i. 123. 
Quarter-master, Russian, volubility 

of, i. 285. 
Quarters, free, ii. 199. 

Radeech, village of, i. 304. 
Rattlesnake, frigate, i. 7. 
Ravahs, disaffection of, i. 221. 
R^schid Pasha refuses to resign his 

seals of office, i. 197; alluded to^ 

349. 
Reis Effendy, reply of, i. 4. 
Religion in Turitey, ii. 151. 



Reuchtem, General, visit to, i. 159- 

161.178.189.299. 
Review, Turkish, postponed, i. 350. 
Rhyndacus, river, ii. 205. 234; its 

course, 386. 
Rice, stewed in grease, ii. 37. 
Ricord, M., i. 45, 46. 
Rigny, M. de, i. 401. 404. 406. 416. 

418.420.421. 
Roads, wretdied, ii. 68. 
Rodosto, town of, i. 68. 126 ; its de- 
serted state, 134 ; cultivatioQ in its 

neighbourhood, 135. 
, Pasha o^ visit to, described, 

i. 129. 
Rogue, Armenian, 69. 
Roguery, Russian, ii. 19. 
Rosamel, Admiral, i. 21. 23. 4^. 
Rouen, M., the French minister, L 21 . 
Roumelia, castles of, i. 7 ; com of, 

268 ; scenery of, 293 ; torrents o^ 

45. 
Riidiger, General, illness of, L 196. 
Russian Admirals, i. 46. 

barbarism, L 171. 

camp, visited, i. 179. 

cavailryyWpearaDce ef, i. 17T. 

Tant,ii. 18. 



• deseiters, ii. 50. 

- funeral, i. 294. 

- graves, i. 283. 

- picket, i. 295. 

- village, i. 306. 



Russians cross the Balcan, i. 20 ; ad- 
vance into Turkey, 103 ; appear- 
ance of their troops, 142 ; their in- 
decent conduct, 172 ; Albanian 
prisoners taken by, 190 ; the 5th 
corps of the army return to Rosiia, 
203, 208; ratification of peace be- 
tween them and the Turks, 210 ; 
their policy, 217 ; their respect to 
property, 219; their dirty habiU, 
242 ; ii. 34 ; sickness among their 
troops, 242 ; pay and rations, 247 ; 
Ibreigneis in the service of, 248 ; 
their attack on Selimno, 296 ; ope- 
rations of^ in 1829, i. 355. 

Sabbaith, Jewish, i. 63. 

Saddle, Turkish, inooovenieooe of, i. 

138. 
Sailing-match described, 1 108. 



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INDEX. 



463 



St. Elme, Madame, ii. 289. 

St, George, order of, i. 162. 

St. Menas, iL 189. 

St. Stephano, i. 122. 126. 

Salani^, or tax, ii. 125, 

Salt-water bath, i. 123. 

Samaiang, proceeds up the Ardiipe- 

lago, i. 35. 
Samo6, iosurrectioa in, i. 155. 
Sardes, ruins of, ii. 326 ; Dr. Hall's 

observations on, 327. 
Sarikhli, village of, ii. 330; Greeks 

of, 331. 
Scammony, abundant at Ghi^iz, ii. 

240. 
Scampavia, or row4)oat, i. 6. 
Scandal, at Adrianople, i. 230. 
Scenery, beautiful, ii. 147. 
Scio, massacre at, i. 151 ; remarks on 

it, 155. 
Sdavonian language, i. 306. 
Scott>.novels of, i. 178. 181. 
Sculpture, ancient, ii. 364. 
Scutari, Pasha of, his army, i. 162. 
169; intelligence respecting, 179. 
190 ; advances on rhiloppopoh, 
190; his movements, 191. 193. 
409. 

, town of, ii. 136. 

Sea-fight, a sham one, i. 37. 
Selim, Sultan, his attempt to civilise 
Turkey, i. 76 ; kiosk of, 165 ; Ma- 
hometan service in, 184 ; approach 
to it, 185; description of tlie inte- 
rior, 186; the service described, 
187; reign of, 265. 
Selimno, town of, i. 296 ; its manu- 
fiaumires, 297; plans, ib.; popula- 
tion, ib. ; pass of, ii. 12 ; mosques, 
298 ; attack of Ui^ Russians on, ib. 
Selivri, route firom Chorli to, ii. 66 ; 

situation of the town, 67. 
Semlin, journey from Constantinople 

to, i. 436. 
Seraglio, old, at Adrianople, i. 159. 
Seraskier in love, ii. 87. 
Seraskier*s tower, at Constantinople, 

i. 105 ; ii. 109. 
Sestos and Abydos, castles of, L 50. 
Sherwood, Captain, i. 46. 
Ship-launch, account of one, i. 113. 
Simghut, town oi^ ii. 175. 
^omla, heights above the town, i. 



321 ; state of its fortifications, 351 ; 
Chunghiul Fort, 352 ;. Sultan Fort, 
353; operations of Uie Russians 
against, in 1829, 354. 

-, archbishop of, ii. 2> 344. 



Signature, Turkish mode of, i. 337. 
Sibstria, Seraskier of, ii. 436. 
Simaul, or Ismail, town of, ii. 262. 
Sirghie, village of, ii. 363. 366. 372. 
Skeleton, a living one, it. 383. 
Stade, Lieut., execution witnessed by, 

i.87. 
Slave-market at Constantinople, i. 79. 
Slaves on a march, ii. 294. 
Smyrna, city of, ii. 302 ; Christmas 
festivities at, 308 ; state of society 
at, 312; beauty ofthe women, 31 3; 
gaieties at, 314 ; appearance of the 
town, 315; bazaar at, 316; state 
of political feeling at, 317; onstom^ 
house at, 319. 
Soldier, Russian, a hungry ene, ii. 23. 
Soldiers, Turkish, extreme youth of, 

i. 339. 
Soliman the Magnificent, i. 368. 
Song, Turkish, i. 61. 
Soosooskieu, or the Waterless village, 

iL201. 
Sophia, town of, i. 448. 450. 
Spencer, Sir Robert, L 37. 
Spy, a government one, i. 280. 
Sfcames, Sir Thomas, i. 388. 
Steam-boat, belonging to the sultan, 

ii. 122. 
Storms^ violent, ii. 32. 135. 
Strabo, alluded to, ii. 234: 245, 246. 
256, 257. 261. 268. 284. 295. 341. 
355. 387. 
Strelitz, destruction of, i. 377. 
Sultan Fort, at Shumla, i. 353. 
Sulyman Bey, L 405. 

Tactics, Btitish and Russian, L 334. 
Tartar Agassi, or chief of the Tartars, 

i. 119. 

vrilh tpeae, ii. 174. 

Tartars, tribe o^ on a march, ii. 7. 
Tartar Bazaijik, Turkish village oi; 

ii. 196. 
Tauahanlu, town of, ii. 388. 
Taxation, remarics on, i. 347. 
Taxes in TWk^^, i. 266. 273. 
Tax-gatherer, Turkish, i. 276. 317. 



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464 



INDEX. 



Te Deunky celebiation of, i. 369. 

Tek^ Aflsulbegli, a Turkish Tillage, 
ii. 34. 

Tekehy or convent of dervtshet, i. 139. 

Temple of Jupiter, at Azani, de- 
scribed, ii. 213 ; ground plan of it, 
218; Greek inscriptions on, 219. 

Tenedos, island of, i. 43. 

Teshkerries, or game certificates, i. 
122. 260. 

Theatre at Azani described, ii. 206 ; 
the proscenium, 209; the hippo- 
drome, 210 ; Dr. Hall's plan of it, 
211. 

Theatres, Asiatic, Colonel Leake's re- 
marks on, ii. 207. 212. 

Tlieatricals on ship board, ii. 310. 

Therapia, residence of Sir Robert 
Gordon at, i. 73. 107. 122. 

Thornton's Turicey, extracts from, i. 
271.275.306. 

Thuriow, Captain, aid-de-camp to Sir 
Frederick Adam, i. 35. 

Thymbres, or the Pursek, ii. 180. 

Tingerogiu, the Armenian, banished, 
ii. 156. 

Tinghiroglau, an Armenian, ii. 392. 

Tjavdere Hissar, village of, ii. 204. 
237. 379. 

Tombstones, curious, i. 78. 

Tonbaili, village of, i. 340. 

TooDJa, river, scenery along, i. 292. 
294. 

Torrents, dangerous, ii. 40. 45. 

Tott, Baron de, his memoirs, i. 52. 
265. 267. 

Trant, Captain, aid-de-camp to Sir 
Frederick Adam, ii. 101 ; bis work 
on Greece, 102. 

Travellers, advice to, ii. 130 ; Turk- 
ish dress recommended to, 138. 

Travelling in Turkey, impediments 
to, ii. 68. 

Treasure, conveyance of, i. 133. 

Trebizond, mines at, i. 255. 

Troops on a march, ii. 29. 

Troy, plains of, i. 45. 

Turkey, hints to travellers in, i. 65 ; 
general disaffection throughout the 
empire, 83; abortive conspiracy, 
84; executions, 85; remarks on 
them, 92 ; observations on the con- 
dition of the empire, 93 ; origin of 



the olemas, 94; their union with 
the janisaries, 96 ; re-modeUiiig of 
the army, 101 ; v£le government «f 
the kingdom, 103; advice to inva- 
lids in, 106; policy of nicknames 
in, 111; state of the navy, 112 ; 
public treasure, 134 ; flight of the 
inhabitants on the advance of the 
Russians, 145; etiquette of the sol- 
tan, 192 ; ratification of peace with 
Russia, 211 ; invasion o^ agreeable 
to the Turks, 223 ; unprepared ibr 
war, 238; commerce on the de- 
cline, 264 ; debasement of the cur- 
rency, ib.; its effects on trade, 266 ; 
injurious laws of, 267 ; monopoly 
of the government, 268 ; tazatioii 
in, 273. 347; declining stale of the 
empire, 378 ; treaty of peace be- 
tween and Great Britain, 431 ; com- 
plaints against the government of, 
li. 140; rapid depopulation o^ 
192 ; on travelling by night in, 
293; gipsies in, 333; refiectioiis 
on quitting, 405; desperate con- 
dition of the empire, 406 ; depres- 
sion of commerce and agriculture, 
408 ; remarks on the afiairs of, in 
1829,428. 

Turkey and Russia, war between, 
i.l. 

Turkhana, a kind of food, L 57. 

Turkish batteries, i. 51. 

coffee-house, i. 124. 

conscripts, hard fiite of, iL 

170. 

executions, i. 78. 85. 114. 

327; remarks on, 92. 

flag-ship, state o^ i. 112. 

fleet, i. 109. 

•^— — heroes, i. 68. 127. 

honesty, ii. 288. 289. 

— — inhospitality, i. 315. 
— -^— laws, ii. 116. 
■ mad-house, i. 75. 

nicknames to the army, i. 226. 

policy, i. 222. 

— purveyor-general, i. 54. 

— scenei^, ii. 3. 
— ^— song, I. 61. 

Turks, feudal system of, i. 364. 
— , invasion agreeable to, i. 223 ; 
fMe given to, on board H. M.SL 



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INDEX. 



465 



Blonde, ii. 71 ; an in-made race, 
182. 

Uhlan's corps of cavalry, i. 163. 

Ulemas, origin of their power, i. 94 ; 
their privileges, 95 ; they unite with 
the janisaries, 96; their designs, 
98 ; their influence, 99 ; prediction 
of, 102. 

Urquhart, Colonel, i. 388. 

Valania, or small oak, ii. 142. 

Valentini, the Prussian general, i. 241 . 

Van Lennep, M., Dutch consul-ge- 
neral, i. 48 ; ii. 314. 

Varna, mortality at, i. 245 ; capture 
of, 358. 

Vedgerah, a neat village, i. 303. 

Venning, Mr., superintendent of pri- 
sons, i. 46. 

Vernon, Lieutenant-Colonel, i. 108 ; 
ii. 83. 

Villages, rased to the ground, i. 320. 

wretched, in Turkey, i. 289. 

Villiers, Edward, i. 108, 109. 114. 
ii. 83. 

Virgil, illustrated, i. 44. 

Virrin, holy, protection of the, i. 177. 

Viiiee, or tax, i. 273. 

Vizier, grand, treachery of one, i. 195; 
visit to, 331. 

. Khan, or the vizier*s inn, ii. 
172 ; supposed to be the ancient 
Agrilium, 173. 

Vostizza, reduced population of, i. 9. 

Vourla, bay of, i. 40. 

Waggons, drawn by bullocks, 1. 145 ; 

ii. 7. 
Wallachian prince, i. 175. 
Walsh,.Mr.,i. 118. 
Warren, Rear-admiral, ii. 415. 



Warspite meets with the Wolf sloop, 

i. 381. 
Wellesley, dinner on board the, ii. 

305 ; private theatricals, 310. 
Wellington, Duke of, i. 189; im- 
puted interference of, 234. 
White, Mr., ii. 415. 
Whittall, Mr. Charles, of Smyrna, ii. 

291.309.315.392. 
Willock, Sir Heniy, i. 118. 
Wilson, General, i. 46. 
Wine, bad, effecU of, i. 288. 
Wittginstein, Count, reason assigned 

for his non success, i. 807. 
Wolf, appearance of one, i. 292. 
Wolves, party of, ii. 16?, 
Woman, a hearty old one, ii. 187. 
Women ride unveiled, ii. 260 ; astride, 

286. 
Greek and Bulgarian, their 

dress described, ii. 42. 
Wood, Mr., murder of, it. 56. 
Wool of Adrianople, i. 260. 
Wylie, Sir James, i. 46. 

Yaftas, or sentences of death, trans- 
lations of, i. 89. 428. 

Yagee, village of, i. 136. 

Yarmouth, Lord, i. 107 ; ii. 83. 105. 

Yeni Maret, mosque of^ i. 173. 

Youssouf Pasha, the defender of 
Varna, i. 359. 

Yuz-bashee, or chief of a hundred, 
i. 127. 

Zante, town of, i. 5 ; gibbet at, 6. 

Zebeks, a band of mountaineers, his- 
tory of, ii. 124; intelligence re- 
specting, 253. 263. 265. 316. 822; 
their dress, 339. 



THE END. 



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HAM, Esq., Author of '* Travels in Palettfaie,** 
*' Travels in Mesopotamia,'* Ac 

" This volume m&y be pronounced more interesting 
than any of Mr. Buckingham's former Travels, as tt 
chiefly consists of personal narrative."— Ifon. Rev. 

XIX. 

LIEUT. HARDY»S TRAVELS in the 
INTERIOR of MEXICO, in 1826, 1827, and 
1828. In 1 vol. 8vo, with Map of Sonora, and 
the Gulf of California, and numerous lifais- 
trations. lOt. 

•* This work is certafaily one of the most curfons and 
valuable that has ever appewed on tBe subiiect of this 
interesting country. It seems that the author travelled 
far into the interior, and explored many 
before visited by any European."— Gnirt. Jm 

"An exceedingly entertaining book, a] 

miscellaneous informatioo and anecdote.**— OMMl 
Joum. 

XX. 

TRAVELS in CHALD^A, inchiding a 
Journey from Bussorah to Bagdad, 
HiLLAH, and Babylon, performed on Foot 
in the Year 1827; with Observadons on the 
Sites and Remains of Babel, Seleucla, and 
Ctesiphon. By Captain Mignan, of the 
Hon. East India Company's service. In 1 vol. 
8vo, with 25 Illustrations. 14«. 

** Captain Mignan has furnished the best account of 
the reUcs of Babylon that has ever been pabUsfaed."— 
MotuMag, 

«• An indispensable addition to the litanries of aO 
who take an interest in biblical criticism, in Oriental 
antiqaities, and in the most curious portions of the his- 
tory of human nature."— Jtfom. Gmm. 

** A book f\ill of curious matter, and moat valuable 
confirmations of Scripture pn^ibecy."- Gsnf.** Mag. 



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