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Entered, according to Act of Congress, is the year one thousand eight 
hundred and sixtj-fire, bj 


Id the Cletk's Office of the District Conn ot the District of Maasachusetts. 

I tjtig ioAtv XQ iJediotQ this Tolomo lo j'obt Lordahipt 
u> a tribute jngU/ dno to ihc g;re&t gtatesnun wlw bus ever luil 
At bcftrt the amelioration of the Afric&B i-Aoe ; uul ■« a toieu of 
AdmirMioti af tlio beneSml aflfocta of tint policj which he hu 
M loDg labored la oBtAblliih on tbe Wut Const of Atrics; and 
ffhlch, to ioiproriag that ragion, lias mast forcibl/ sliomi the aeeil 
of some Bimilor tjttem on the opposite Bide of the Continent. 




It has been my object in this work to g|ve as clear an ac* 
conot as I was able of tracts of country previously unex- 
plored, with their river systems, natarai produclioBS, and ca- 
pabilities; and to bring before my countTyinen, and all oth- 
ers interested, in the cause of humanity, the misery entailed 
by the slave-trade in its inland phaaeB — a subject on which 
I and my companions are the first who have had any oppor- 
tonitics of forming a judgment The eight years spent in 
Africa since my last work was published have not, I fear, im- 
proved my power of writing English ; but I hope that what- 
ever my descriptions want in clearness or literary skill may 
in a meamre be compensated by the novelty of the scenes de- 
scribed, and the additional information afforded on that curse 
of Africa, and that shame, even now, in the nineteenth cen- 
inry, of a European nation — the slave-trade. 

I took the " tady Nyassa" to Bombay for the express pur 
pose of selling her, and might, without any difficulty, have 
done so: but with the thought of parting with her arose, 
more strongly than ever, the feeling of disinclination to aban- 
don the East Coast of Africa to the Porttiguese and slave- 
trading, and I determined to ran home and consult my friends 
before I allowed the little vessel to pais from my hands. Aft- 
er, therefore, having put two Ajawa lads to school onder the 
eminent missionary, the Rev. Dr. Wilson, and having pro- 




vided satisfaetorily for the native crew, T atarted boroewai 
with the three white sailors, and reached London July 20th, 
1864:. Mr. and Mrs. "Webb, my much-loved friends, wrote to 
Bombay inviting me, in the event of my coming to England, 
to make Newstead Abbey my head-quarters, and on my ar- 
rival renewed their invitation ; and though, when I accepted 
it, I had no iutentiou of remaining bo long with my kind- 
hearted, generous friends, I staid with them until April, 1865, 
and under their roof transcribed from my own and my broth- 
er's journal the whole of this present book. It is with heart- 
felt gratitude I would record their unwearied kindncsa My 
acquaintance with Mr. Webb begau in Africa, where he was 
a daring and auccessftil hunter, and his continued friendship 
is most valuable, because he has seen missionary work, and 
he would not accord his respect and esteem to mo had he not 
believed that I, and my brethren also, were to be looked on 
as honest men earnestly trying to do our duty. 

The goTemment have supported the proposal of the Koyal 
Geographical Society made by my friend Sir Roderick Mur- 
chison, and have united with that body to aid me in another 
attempt to open Africa to civilizing influences, and a valued 
private friend has given a thouivind pounds for the same ob- 
ject. I propose to go inland, north of the territory which 
the Portuguese in Europe chiim, and endeavor to commence 
that system on the East which has been so eminently success- 
ful on the West Coast — a system combining the repressive 
oflforts of n. M. cruisers with lawful trade and Christian Mis- 
sions, the moral and material results of which have been so 
gratifying. I hope to ascend the liovuma, or some other riv- 
er north of Cape Belgado, and, in addition to mj other work, 
shall strive, by passing along the northern end of Lake Ny- 
assa, and round the southern end of Lake Tanganyika, to as- 



certain the watershed of that part of Africa. Iq so doing, 1 
have no wish to anaettle what with so much toil and dauger 
was accomplished by Speke and Grant, but rather to conilnn 
their illustrious discoveries. 

I have to acknowledge the obliging readiness of Lord Rus- 
sell in lending me the drawiugs taken by the artist who was 
in the first inatance attached to the Expedition. These sketch- 
es, with photographs by Charles Livingstone and Dr. Kirk. 
have materially assisted in the illu8tration& I would also 
very sinoorely thank my friends Professor Owen and Mr. Os- 
well for many valuable hints and other aid in the prepara- 
tion of this volume. 

StvtUad Ah6t^, April 1 6, 1865. 


The credit which I was fain to award to the Lisbon Btatos- 
inon for a sincere desire to put an end to the slave-trade is, I 
regret to find, totally undeserved. They have employed one 
Mons. Locerda to try to extinguish the fuels adduced by me 
before the meeting of the " British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science" at Bath by a series of papers in the 
Portuguese Official Jonmal, and their Minister for Foreign 
Affairs hflS since devoted some of the funds of his govern- 
ment to the translation and circulation of Mons. Lacorda's ar- 
ticles in the form of an English tract Nothing is more con- 
spiouous in this official document than the extreme ignorance 
displayed of the geography of the oountry of which they pre- 
tend that they possscss not only the knowledge, but also the 
dominion. A vagUR rumor, cited by some old author, about 
two marshes below Murchison's Cataracts, is conalJered con- 



elusive evidence that the ancient inhabitants of Senna, a vil- 
lage on the Zambesi, found no difficaliy in navigating the 
Sbire to Lake N3-aa3fl up what modern travelers find to be an 
ascent of 1200 feet in 35 miles of latitude. A broad, shallow 
lake, with a strong current, which Senbor Candido declared 
he had visited N.TiV. of Tettc, is assumed to be the narrow, 
deep Lake Nyassa, without current, and about N.N.R of the 
same point. Great offense is also taken because the discov- 
ery of the main sources of the Nile has been ascribed to Spoke 
and Grant instead of to Ptolemy and F. Lobo. 

But the main object of the Portuguese government ia not 
geographical. It is to bolster up that pretense to power 
which has been the only obstacle to the establishment of 
lawful commcroo and friendly relations with the native in- 
habitaots of Eastern Africa. The following work contains 
abundant confirmation of all that was advanced by me at the 
Bath meeting of the British Association; and I may here add 
that it is this unwarranted assumption of power over 1360 
miles of ooaat — from English Kiver to Cape Dclgado, where 
the Fortugucso have, in fact, little real authority — which per- 
petuates the barbarism of the inhabitants. The Portuguese 
interdict all foreign commerce except at a very few points 
where they have established custom-houses, and even at these, 
by an exaggerated and oKitructive tariff and diffcrpntial du- 
ues, they completely shut out the natives from any trade ex- 
cept that in slaves. 

Looking from south to norlii, let us glance at the enor- 
mous Hea-board which the Portuguese in Europe endeavor to 
make us believe belongs to them. Delagoa Bay has a small 
fort called Lorenzo Marques, but nothing beyond the walla. 
At Inhambane they hold a small strip of land by sufferance 
of the nativea. Sofalaia iu ruius, and from QuiUimane north- 



ward for 690 miles they have only one small stockade, pro- 
tected by "an armed launch in the mouth of the River An* 
goza to prevent foreign vessels from trading there. Then at 
;Wozambiquo they have the little island on -which the fort 
stands, and n atrip about three miles long on the main land, 
on which they have a few farms, which arc protected from 
tilily only by paying the natives an annual tribute, which 
they call "having the blacks in iheir pay." The settlement 
has long been declining in trade and importance It is gar- 
^risoncd by a few hundred sickly soldiers shut up in the fort, 
even with a small coral island near can hardly be called 
secttTO. On the island of Otbo, or Iboc, an iramcuse number 

'staves are collected, but there is little trade of any kind. 
At Pomba Bay a small fort was made, but it is very doubtful 
whether it still eiists, the attempt to form a eettlement there 
having entirely failed. They pay tribute to the Zulus for the 
lands they cultivate oo the right bank of the Zambesi, and 
the general effect of the pretense to power and obstruction to 
commcrec ia to drive the independent native chiefs to the 
Arab dhow slave-trade as the only one open to them. 

It is well known to the English government, from reliable 
documents at the Admiralty and Foreign Oilice, that no lon- 
ger ago than November, 1864, two months after my speech 
was delivered at Bath, when the punishment of the pcrpe- 
traton of an outrage on the crew of the cutter of U. M.S. 
" Lyra," near a river 4o miles S.W. of Mozambique, was de- 
manded by H.M.S." Wasp" at Mozambique, the present gov- 
CTiiOT general declared that he had no power over the natives 
iherc. They hare never been subdued, and, being a fine, en- 
ergetic race, would readily enter into commercial treaties with 
foreigners, were it not for the felse assertion of power by 
which the Portuguese, with the tacit consent of European 


governments, abut them out from commerce and evciy civil- 
iziug influcDce. 

This Portuguese pretense to dominion \a the cureo of the 
negro race on the East Coast of Africa, and it would soon fall 
to the ground were it not for tho raorol support it derives 
from the respect paid to it by our own flag. The Emperor 
Napoleon III. disregarded it ia the case of the "Charles et 
Georges," while only by the aid of English sailors has tho 
government of Mozambique, on more than one occasion, been 
saved from being overturned. Our squadron on the East 
Coflst costs over £70,000 a year, and, by our acquiescence in 
the sham sovereignty of tho Portuguese, we effect only a par- 
tial suppression of the slave-trade, and none of the commer- 
cial benefits which have followed direct dealing with the na- 
tives on the West Coast. A new law for the abolition of 
slavery has been proposed by the King of Portugal, but it in- 
spires me with no conEdcnce, as no means have ever been 
taken to put similar enactments already passed into execu- 
tion, and we can only view this as a new bid for still farther 
acquiescence in a system which perpetuates barbarism. Mons. 
Lacerda has unwittingly shown, by his eager advocacy, that 
the real scntimeola of his employers are decidedly pro-slav- 
ery. The great fact that the Americans have rid themselves 
of the incubus of slavery, and will probably not tolerate the 
continuance of the murderous slave-trade by the Portuguese 
nation, has done more to elicit their king's recent speech than 
the opinions of his ministry. 



ObjcctB of ihe Expedition. — PartngnMO Expedition In Se«rclt of tL« Oj>hir of 
Sing SohnDoa. — India and not Aliin iiidii;mtcd by ihu JtterchiuiOUe toiiglii. 
— Kulnn io So&illii. — SwottJ PonniciicK ExpudiiiuQ nfkr Gold Klines. — 
Beinlnd bjr large bodies or N&iivcs. — Cucholic UiBaoiu. — Want of rcliaUe 
labmaCkiQ reeudlDg liicm. — Eitqiicou!! Ideu m to tiie Interior of AMcn. — 
Sir Rodorieli Miircbison'H Hypothesis correct. — Decreote of tJic Slavi^-iiada, 
sod lncT«a*e of lawrul Cuminercc on tlio Weit Cout, owing to lonl Falmw- 
■toa^ l*olJc5r.^Thc Fauliiy of the MnrJfrrer alCondi the Slnve-irndw.^ 
OpJaioD of Ror.J. L. \VlUan oa ibo SlKve4rade.— Hio Operadons cf our 
Cnfaen.— ni ESbcu of Kjding up the Eut Coast.— Icuuxicuunit to ttic Ex- 
pediiiott P«^ I 

Beach the Coaat. — Explore the Itivcr Luawe. — Munihi of ttw XnmheAj^ 
Coacealed Io deceive Bngliab Cruiieri.— Tim Dircptioa ]iRlmod ofl* on Eo- 
nopeoB Govermnenta by Mtnisl^ra in I'oaagol. — OfDcIrtl Tetiimony. — Koo- 
tat». — Seenerf oa iba River. — FcnilUy of DeUu Soil.—Culouos or Serfs,— 
IDeepChnniwd oT tlie River.— Luid Laggagc on Expoditiuu Islnnd. — Coun- 
trj in a Stale of War. — "Free Etnigrniiu." — Alri>cilica uf Mariano. — Meet 
sa-caUed " Reb«li>.'^ — A FiRht beturcrn NuIitm nnil Portngneite. — An Army 
wMlinit for .Kinninnilion.^Uini) and Il«n«c« met with on iho River. — MazO' 
rc^The Hntiipmcnt of MorchanOiiH! there for QulUiinnne. — Shii]>a»ca.~ 
Znlo Dominion oa the rlgUi bank of ttio Znmbwi.— TribuU; pnid by ilio 
Portngacae.— Sennit and Sunhor Fcrriiu, — iScguati or Prcsoat. — Hippopot- 
amua UsDteiB. — Focolioriiy of Baobnti-trec*.— LapatA Gorge. 14 

Heel Jtojiolalo at Tolte.— Miirdrr of Six of them by Ikrnga, Iho Son of Xy- 
ande.— Itarajtcs of Smallpox. — Mokololo tupporled ooi occordinji lo piililii' 
Ordi r , bnt by the priraic Buuniy of Mnjor SicatJ.— Coiirict Class called 
" laoorrlKiUGa." — SnporeUtioua about M&Dgocs CoBcc, auij Rain -mot Lag. — 
ScrnriDir Slana br means of domestic Tie*. — Case of raloniary Sl«»cry. — 
Cmcl Xatara of llulf-caatea. — Native lore of Trade. — Native Mcdlenl Pro- 
ftndoa. — Elephant and Crocodilo School* of Medidne.^Dice Dnuturs and 
Ibeir nae aa deleciite Police. — .Vnna ami Inill^ Plnnls. — Coal. GoM, and 
IruiL— AaeenI to Kebrabtua Rniiiib — Black Glaze oa Rockn. — Trilie ofBn- 



dinuL— A TiuvcIot's Talc. — Tho Rkw Luia- — HippopoianniK Kiesli, — Dif- 
ficult TruTcHns- — Curatite Slocp. — SuDstroko. — Morumbwa Caiaract. — Ke- 
braliua tuncjrcd from End to End Pago 48 

ReioTn from KebrftlisftA. — Nsiive Miiiid&iis and their Insiruiucntc. — Igaa- 
nmcc m TetMr.— ChanRes produced liy Rain after th* hut Staaon. — CliriBl- 
mas in iropical Prusa, — Opiuiun* moJilicd liy early AfiMtiatiout in North- 
BTD ClimM. — tha SoaaoBs at Tone. — CoiioD-sccd not needed,— Afncnn 
Fever. — Quinine not a Prevemiro of.— Ttia beet I'rcutiition and Remedy. — 
"Warburgh'n ])ropS."' — ]-Jtiwdiliim turns from Ktbrnbasa towutd tJm Rirer 
Sbirc in Jnnuaiy, I8G0,— Iteporccd Harrier to Nnvigation. — First lutor- 
couise wrlib nnlitiawD People.— NnvigatiDii of Shiro.^i'rogiVM prevented 
by Mnrcliuutn'ii CnUrncts. — Return to Telle. — Second Trip up lh« Hhire in 
March, 1839. — Chibisn. — Njanjn Mukulu. — ManUc Guides. — Disto'cr Luke 
^rwa OD ilie ISili of April, IS5SJ. — Muauiains.— Itciurn lu the Vascl. — 
SorerQ cai9 of Ftvcr.— Rctuni to Totic on ibo 23d of June — Vcaicl found 
to be built of iinsliLble MatonaU. — At Knneone in August. 73 


Up Ihc Shire again, Angutt, 18fi!l.— Mount Moramhalo. — Hot Fonntain. — 
Cliatte by a Buffalo. — Nyanja I'anj(ono, or Liule Lake. — Nyanjn Mukulu, 
or QreaL Lake. — Aiicieal Purlugii«ao guogrnpliicul Kuoirledgi- iinnvailulili?. 
— Chikanda-lcidiQ. — Aii^cjdatit fioin unnuiUtbitiiy of .Steamer. — llippupot- 
ernus Trajjs. — MoBqultocs. — ElcphanH, — View of the Shire Marshoa. — 

, Birds. — Palm Wine, or Sura. — ^i-makinj;. — Brackish Sk>il and superior 
C&tUtn. — nakanamoio lElaiid.—^A loving Hornbill. — Cbibiiu. — Child wld 
intoSlavcrjr ^^ 


Leave ilio VwkI for DiBCorory of Lake Nyagia. — Mangnnja nit^blands beau, 
uful, well wooded, «od well watered. — Pastiiruge. — Sijlu of Iiiiruduciion to 
the Mwiganja. — People Agncitltiirieis, and Workers m Iron. Coiton, etc. — 
Fordgn and fndJgcnoufl Cniton. — The I'tiek, or Lip-ring. — Possible Use for 
tbb Oniameni. — Dcer-drinkcni, — Ordeal b/ Woave. — Mourning for the 
Dead. — Bdief in n Supreme Being. — Paicalorobc Lnkelet.— Chier* Wife 
killed b)- K Crocodile.— DiiicoT cry ofLnkc Nya*sa, Ifilli of September, 185ft. 
— Its iubie<)aeni Uitcovery by l>r. lioscher, — The "Gorw" or Stave -« lie It. 
— Several Mode* by which the Slaw-irade is snppiied. — Ajawa.— Maiigan- 
le. — More lufpiciuas ihnu the Znm^jeai Tribe--" — Ziniika's \aeV of Hiwpiial- 
Ity. — Fioe and bracing CUioBia. — Girat Inflcicncv to be gained by a ilcam- 
er on L«ke Kyoasa IIS 

Relnra lo the Vewcl. — Nearly I'Disoned by the Juice of Caasarn.— " Cwac- 
reep," or Couara Sap, a perfect Prcscrvmive of Meat..— Dr. Kiih inkcw the 
direct lioutc from Chibim's lo TBltc-^ireai Buffeting on the Journey. — 



^ilUgnstica] OfaMTTfttinM bv Cbarle* LivingiiUiiie. — Shin: BUcuit. — ^VhenU-ti 
flvur BWXWiirj for Kuropeiui Stonier hn.^-Se&Mn for untrliig Whrot. — Off 
a> JCoasroe. — ^Two Blitc« gf ElpiJinnu.— Our gcneraoa fficml Sealior Fer- 
Tk>. — KoQ^one. ~B«adi iho Vc^mI foi* Rppnin. — Arrival of U.M.Iii. hjux. 
— Lo»s of the Mail.— I^nvf for Tcttc Dec. IGth.— GoTcroor at Shupsnco. — 
llw Opintotift auil oan. — ConfM^ions ofan oltl 81aTo^calcr.^'uil JkluiaDO. 
— ArriTfll at TctU', Feb. 2J, IWW. — Faliulous Sihtr Mine of ChiMru. — Ex- 
wUoaa of the ItnnvBi tubmiltcd to hv the Portuguoe. — Somplanrv Lawn. — 
PPi1UKa««eofTeii«. — WineorClinialo?— Funentls.— W«vi](ling>i.— Coolmitl 
Gold. — Defer IMS DepMiure fur the Interior. — l>onn aRsio to Koniione.^ 
Up tbo Suenm on the llrlli of Mjircli. — Secret Couol ui«<l fvr Slating.— 
Gonnior of QuUlimAno sent to ditcuvcr Korigone. — Mr. Sunloy's tttcaipt to 
tesin lanrfal Trade at TtiTer Angoxe. — Major Sicnrd at Maivo. — Cluinf'e 
iOf NBm«».— Its Adranuec*- — llic " Ahthtnaiic" very il] tndecil.— Mr. Hat 
foet Home on Duly. — The Kwukim llivcr. — "Comical CrMtores." — Mice. 
—Hope for fat Folk, or Cockrtm<:hca as aid» to Baniing.— ZdIub come to Ufl 
iheir Itenn at S«niin.— Striped Senna Pigs »nJ Ftver. — Ffircr-plant.— 
Rmch Telle on ihc 2^ib of April. — Wont of Inrigaiion. — One Branch of 
1>ue lodaitr; Page l-U 

^ipan Ibr r Joatawy to the SIa):ololo Country. — Sailor's Oardnt.— Wbcat, 
nab tmd Mode of.Soiring. — Rtart from Tetio Mar ]5ili, to take the Mako- 
\6ki home. — Lnkewamin<M>t and T>Pxriion«. — Lvil Cfl'ccU of Contact with 
SlaTea.— Man [.ion and Lion Man. — Rciuoiiing nith & Lion. — Popular Be- 
lief.— New Path through Kcbrabiua HilU. — Satnlia.— Elefjihant-hunl, — 
Goum! Law. — A Fenit of GJi!])luinl-int!Mt.-~We sinkc! Znuil)oai hy Morumb- 
wa, and complete tlw Survey of Kebraba&a ficni Eml lo Urn). — Banyai 
■CiIb.— View of K«bralnaa.~-CtiicoTK Fkliw uid opon Biver.— Ssndia'a 
a*i«nofKd>r*bM» 178 

I tnm Kefarabaaa on to Chicova on tbe 7ih of Jnne, 18(H)- — Native Trar- 
eler»' MmIc of making Fir*.— Night ArriLngrtncnis of the Camp. — Native 
Kunea of Stars.— Moon-Ninrlnast. — Our Tolunieer fireman, — Nuiire voliu 
•ral DbcttMbiu. — Our Manner of Martliing. — Kot lo make Toil of a Plcu- 
tire. — ^The CivUiictl diow inoru cndiirtLUuc than the Uncivilized. — Cliitora'a 
Pi>UinM». — Filtered Water preferred by nailre Women.— Wlilt« Hobgob- 
Uh to the Blactu. — The fur of Man on wild Aitimak. — First Imprusioiii 
sfftDonkcj-'i local Powers..,..^..., 192 

chatteh IX. 

Seam* of Coal under Telle |;my .Snnd.htone.— U>e of Caid nnknoirn to the 
Nativesj — Hbia kill* a HippopotAmut.— Trap* ani! HifisLls.— .Sagncity of 
ElcphanU at IHifalb.— While Anta nod thcirGnllcric».~Black SoIdicr-ants 
lord it ovex the White Ania. —Language of Aula.— Biting Anu.-T-llogno 



IConkey iccpeded. — Nktira SaU-m&king. — ^Tbe Movntaiiu. — CbUnraaiiKli. 
— Afflicdons of Beasts.— Tbc hamtui BuSnlo.— Mp«ad«. — ChJloodo. — Mo- 
Will^l*g EDoHered. — AnimiUf which biiiv noi br^n hanicd wUb Firearms. 
— FwigolB. — A nfle-luTuis Chief,— Untii aod Fai« of .\fricui Empire. — 
Are AftiCAiu indiuimns ? — Arrive at Zumbo, on ifae Losneira, on the 
M|b of June. — Kcsolu of no Gorcrcincai. — Murder o( tiptagmi. — Se- 
qiMdn. »— ••••• Page S02 

Beantiful Bitoation of ZunU). — Church in Rsiiu. — Whj haic th« Catholic 
Uiuioni Tailed to pcfTtciiiate tho F&ith? — Ma-mlmnima. — Aoti-alavMy 
I'riDciplcs » HfcaniniaHlation.— Jujubes. — TtOse. — Dr. Kirk dangeranlj- 
Ul in ihc MonntniD ForcW-^Onr SIch'r feais of II anting.— n/enis.^1 Ion - 
ej-gnidei. — Imtinct of, liow to be accoiinwi for, S#tf-int«Tc«t or Friendship? 
-'A Serpcui.— Mpaofrwc't ViUise deaentd. — Lurgc Game abundant. — Dif- 
Icrcncc of Flami in. — Sights aMO in Uwchiug. — " Snwkee" tram Gnsa- 
bumiugii. — BiTcr CboaKwe. — Baiiattlii and tb«ir mpaiar Cotloa. — Eacapc 
from Itbtnoccroa. — The Wild Dog, ■^Familica Fltttiog. — TombAnraiQa.— 
ConHueccc of the IWac. _ 221 


Seualcmbuc. — 24rhoiiiokcla.— Mr. MofTnt't Misaioa to MoKlckaise heard of. — 
Native GttiDo-law. — MoDtKains. — Andem Suttc of tho Couuiry. — Keilbot 
An nor Power ponea tbe Effect of aiicii-'ni Klimclis. — Jrnlotujr of Stnwfera 
■ot African, t»t Arab. — The Bawo and '* Bacnda i>czi," or " Go-naked»." 
—Their floapitaliij. — Leave Zambeo, and ascend Zungw6 to Uatokn Eligb- 
ianda. — Sebctaone. — A Calm.—Baului Uen of I'enco. — Arboricnltnrula. — 
GrsTcy^Lrilii. — Muatc, — TseWe Medicine. — Dcairo for Peace. — Cam exten- 
Anlj cuUii-nled. — A Pool and JkEinslrcL — Miuical InntrunienU.— Our naked 
Friond.— Polite Totiacco-smokers. — Batre never risited by EutOfeaiK before. 
— Steve-trade fallovB otir FooiEtepo. — Attempt by the Governor Geneml of 
UoMmblqne to shut tip Itorutnn. — Scahenzo.— Elephant kill«l. — Xnnibers 
lOOatlly t\]aa. — Meteor.— The Fnllt visible npw&rd of twcnijr MJlca o{[\— 
Fever treated and untreated. — Moihobotvane. — Meet Makololo uenr tho 
Falls ™ 237 


Motl-Ok-teDjii, or Victoria Falls. — Vlfiii Oarden Uaad. — Wordfl fail to de- 

. Mrihe tbe FatU. — TiHco the Doptli of Niafrara. — MoBi-oa-tnnya burn tlie 

Palm. — Filtcd the native MitHl with Ave. — No Portuguese Record of them. 

—TwoSUtcs reach Tcttc from Caaeangc, and makti lb6 "^ PMitgaett /bad" 

■dCM Afriea. — Maahotlane and lui PriMner. SttB 

Condition of E^gltlvce and Cnpiivc* in nniive Tribes. — Scrriciide in tho Inte- 
rior light as compand to Slavery on the Ccuut. — Molcle's Village. — Scarcity 
of Food. — Tlanyaao ide&tit»l with Ourebi. — The Poku.— Dr. Liringiluno 



teaaaitei on lh« VbIqc or IIor»«L— Mpurira, vtlUge of Mokomp*.— StitiB^ 
len Bee. — Take Canoe for Scalieke. — Sekolutu'i Attempt at c n famitig Qnnnui- 

lioc. — Tbo Cbiefa' Ueiaeiigent.— ■* Thn Ar|[unicni" for lenmlQJt lo rcftd. 

" Wn» Pratuiue." — Nntivd Iniuriclions. — The CalUo-post Scliuol — $^fl]i«k« 
OU Ud New Town.— SekeleiM.— NoUiina like Beef, — " Btcf with Btnl Hwjf 
wlibom." — Vkiton. — Sokel«tg'« Lc'pToty and tU ftiicDdant KviU. — UUewe 

pnoounccd Inconblc bj natitro Ductars.— Takcu in Lund hv n Doctrea 

""■'■*■* orer to Dn. I^vingilMia auO Ktik.— IraprorcipGiit of tlio I'niietii. 

•-Detoiptioa of tlic IHwwc.— Tck luid jiivteired Fruiu frum SentfiuAo. — 

Bfo I»orf, DO Slarc-trmilo, — Eff«t of Sckelettt'» Ordon in cltwing the Slavr- 

SUtkoi. — P««hioi. — Iloreo-JaUiriit. — PoculUr Slyle of IlActng. — " The 

t'-loihoM Cwnirj," — Producu of iho Interior in Grain. — No VogctablcA. — 

' ITo PraiL — Mr.BaUwlD, sad Mr. lldiiiorc's Party. — Sad brcakiii}; ii]> of ihe 

I 3ii«ion.— f tror, not Poison, Uie ciiiiM of Dcaibsi. I'agoZSO 


la ind DOT Frc66DU.— Hu Idea of Anillen- PrtcUec— Sfbiioano's Sis- 
vat's deKription of tho fim Ap|>camnctt of Pc^-ct. — The Makololo ibe moH 
SBtclKgent «f all the Trlbea saen by ni.— Tho Muhololo of Old and Younc 
^frk«. — ^TbA Women, their AppearanOG and Ornaini.-nt«.^ItcsiiIts of Po> 
Ijgamj. — Rc«peri4»biliiy reckoned by Ihc Nnmbor of Wi»c». — Apparent, but 
■»o» teal, buying of Wivei. — Elc^nt Amiuements of tho Ladien.— Matok- 
9.— Smoking and itx EfTecU. — Nuvet line of a Spoon.— Kaw Iliiticr. — 
{.— Tbc Chief's Perqi><Kii*K^~'Tho Makololo wbo liad foen the S«a. 
Tnatiee wnonK tbe Mukolulo.— The Rights of Laljor.— Rdifrious Instnic- 
FUaiL — KaliTo Vicwa on Matrimony. — The Chief and ilic Hcud Men. — Capi- 
'tal PaniahmenL — An old Wamor. — Ancient Costume of the MakololD. — 
tlonsM built by the Won»>n. — Amnscmcnta of ibo Cliildren. — Makololo 
Faith in Hodiciue. — Dr. Linngiitonc revieits Linyanti. — The Wagon Itfi 
there in IB53 is fomid in Safe Keeping, with ito Oontents. — A native Proe* 
lunatioa.— Barlal-plaoo of Mr. Uclmoni and hb Comfianlons. — PaltlifulncM 
(/ tbo Makololo. — Sekeletn't Health improvw. — His Effcem fur Dr. Kirk. — 
Bis Deaire for an English Sculcfflcnt on the Batoka Highlands.— Sl«aliii|: 
Cattia conwdorwl no Crime.— T>i Tine Scrrioc nt .Scsheks. — Natlro Dottbtt as 
«• lie POi»iWlity of a Re*imwtion 29» 

Oipartim from Seahekc on the I7ih of Scptetnbor, 18C0-— ConTOyod hy Pit- ■ 
MBO and Leahoro.— E(nba«iy to iSinamnnc—Lcshoro and his Crev. — MtF- 
Ma and tbe Canoe-men. — Zambosi 1^'i«b, Ngwe«i nnd Konokono.— Fish-bone 
Uadteina.— Rennr the Garden at Mosi.«H-liiny(L — Kaltinila and Moanba 
PUb. — Nalire deaira of PleaeinK. — llmrpituHty of the Batoka. — Natirr 
ftvitt. — Valuable oil-yleldfae Tree. — Indian Tree* in the centre of Africa. 
—OolCTiKWB.— Great Heat.— Com* on i!ie Feet not pecoliar lo the Ciril- 
bed.— Hirer I^npkire.— Gipsy Bellows in Africa.— 1^0.— Clulombe Islet 

^JSaAnDnm. — Sinamane and hi« Long Spears. 821 





SiaUMiK. — Oosofl Narifuioo. — MoembB. — Waternlrawing StocktileB. — Cfin- 
craiii; of Llic Baioka. — I'lirehue of a Cwoe. — Ant-lion*.— Serd of H1|>im- 
polami.^<7atantct Doctor of Karibs.— Albinos, huoiAn and htp|iopotainic. — 
liemt ScqnuliB, nut quite »u Black m jiainlcd.— Kaitre Mode uf Halutalion. 
— KaTi¥»n. — CinlUnt CuiidacL of cliu Mukololo.— Itn-akfast inlomiptcd br 
Uambu Kniui. — Dinner spoiled bj pretended Aid. — Banj'ai. — Rapldi of 
KabnbaM.— Dr. Eirk in DaiiKUr.— Sud Lum of MSS., cic— Doatb of one 
afour I>onk«yB. — Amiatilo SqacunLfhocw of Makolulo.— Dinner a la Puuw. 
— ll«Mh I'ette on the &'{d of Nor«nib«r.— - Jacks of all Tradeo."— Inpal- 
tMQ praciiced on (lio King f4 I*onogai'> Culonial Sctienie Pace 9S^ 

Down to EcQgono. — Laicat Bulletin of " the Afiihmntic." — Tbe old Lady'o De- 
mise. — Riacb 3«Dna bj^ CantM. — Unprofitable Trading by Slavca. — The 
Bilor bit, or Scqnaeha fiqact^d. — CoaIs dear by Stnrc Labor. — Ilia KxcnU 
lency's yatht, — Kongtme. — EueliKli Papers — Ftoii, Fowl, Pisli, and faar- 
moniciiu Crabs of Uie Mangrove Horainini.— Uiutiugu.^Tlio Bawflah.,., 8S7 

AniTBl of "ibo Ptoncor.'' — MiMion Siaff taken to JohaRna. — Bishop Mac- 
k«nsle joins the Expedition np tlie Roruma. — Pall of Water.— Return to Co- 
moro. — Johanna. —Ascent of the Shire— "The PionMr" draws too math 
Water.— Cliar[(» Livingstone labuni Uj »tiu9tiliit« CuCtoii Cullnrc. — Want of 
Agents CD the East Cooct ^ompapcd to iliii Vieai Coiut.— England's Labota 
tliere. — Their Valno. — Expedition cminencl; sncoowfiil. — Turning-point of 
Socccs*.— Slares rescued. — Tl>« Biiliop acccpu tbo Chiefs invitatkoi to Mo- 
gomirD. — Visit to the Ajawa, wvlUmcunt, ill -takcu.— Stand at Bay. — Re- 
tnat of the Ajawa.— llUhop MackonEte's Mission at Maeomero. — Eziont 
of Dr. Livingstone's ltct>ponsibilil7'.— Keinni to tho Ship 867 

Ftvab Start fur Lake Nyaaw.- Carry a Boat past tlie Cataracts. — nnmpbacked 
Spokoctuan. — Lakelet Pamalooibc. — Indiciktiuns of Mnbriu. — Lake Nyaa&a. 
— Depth. — Slxo, — Shape. — Bays. — Mountain* am) Sionna. — Crowd* of 
People.— Midge Cake— Kbh, Saiyika, etc.— Apparpnl Ln«inc« nf the Peo- 
plo.— Torpidity of Skin.— BufticNetsi.— JWk Cloth,— Beauty a fc-'IMfllo." 
— Marcnga's Genenwty. — Horrors of Inland Slnve-lrade. — Thleres; the 
first IkibWy wo Buflered in Africa.— Native Grnres.— Maiiin or Znlita.— 
Four days' Separation.— Bough RoadE.— Man's Enemy, Man.— Our Dice 
Dirlnef Tsnlsbe^ but reappears. — Elephnntjs.— Arabs from Katanga. — Arab 
Oeography of Tanganyika and NyasM. —Tho SlBTc-trade . — Rocd Huts in 
Papyrus. — Young Womm gol ap for Snic..— Sentlblo uld Woman. — Ueel 
matanding Ajawa at Mikcna'i!. — Elephants' mblaic Sports. » 88fi 




3Bieoan|io8 Prosperta. — Biehop Mafkenzie. — Our Progreu down the Hirer 
■mtted. — ^The Kivcr flooded iu Jftnuarj-, 1862, — Mariinn TCfiiiri'M lib C«- 
nsr of Sarc-hnniing.— Tbo OorerDor plnyi ai Hide nnd Seek with him.— - 
Captalo Aires.— Itwch ilie Zamboii. — A Slave-owner's Iileu of bis Slaves. 
— Wiidom and Uuiuauil/ of Napdeoa III. — Ai Lonbo. — ArriTpJ of H.M. S. 
Goipia. — ^DiQ PtDOcw uat of Bqwr.— Catitaia WilBuu procoeds up ihc 
Shire. — Continuatioii of the Stary of ibc Bbhup*ii Miinlon. — lie d(«ccti(i« 
tte Shiro in n nntll CitDoc, — Loses Clotbiog, Medicine, etc. — Fcrcr.— I>c«th 
•nd BorioL— Bia Cbimctcr.— KlDdncH of ilio Hnlcololo. — Death of Mr. 
BarmpL-^nptoio Wilion nittiraii to SliufiongK. — TL« R«t. Jomu Sunrkrt 
exaninm the Coontrj previous to aU«mpling a Miwion bj ihn Krri' Chnri-h 
of Sootland. — FiiniiguGse PoUcy »«cl Stive- irading aro tho chief OlMtitcIes 
10 may Uiwioa. — Panooal Buponnbiliiy ignored niji3 Blame pot on uthcn. 
—Un.L)niieBtoiic'sIlliian, and Death on Uio £itli of April, 1863 Pago 421 

I. likitk and Charles Livingffone proct'cd lo Telte. — Bdcltior'ii Won.— Gov- 
ernor Almeida's prawxrorthf iMetdicL—Conuhnni-^ of ihc (joveniof G«D> 
enlat the Stave-tradu.^MaMeni oudSla^'es. — Xo love lost.— Lauucli of the 
iMiy Vyam. — Kativc Spccutailons on the Buoyancy of Iron. —Freedom of 
JXaenaioa on wnain Subjocts. — Birda at ?)af. — Onr new Qaartcr- master. 
^-Statt of ibc Lady Njnssa deferred. — I'ortainioe " proliibitivo" penoittioo 
^or Trnditij;. — Up tbc Rovuma in Boats. — InlinbitanlA. — Mats. — TscEse.— 
Zigiag CbaiuutL^A ([uoer I^Ji.— Canoo Rivalry.— Thu Englcibmou in Af- 
aricB.— An old Lady opens ibo Market — Men with rcb-lc,— SLibilin. — Mh- 
Aoa.— Slave Booto toKilna. — Life oo aSaod-haDk. — Unprovoked If osdltiy, 
— Hires ukil Boner- — Cos! found. —A jolly young Waierwomua. —Our 
3> <HW Mopped by rocky Narrows. — Sonrccs of ihc ilovama..— Crocodiica 
'— Thar E^EgD.— Hunting tlic Scnrc. — Back again to tbe Pioneer Ill 


^^•-B tUimone.— Colonel NnAes.— Gore m men t oppoied to Agricullure.— PaMport 
^ y ■ m n.^Tli e Quillimane"Do.n«iiiiiig*,"— llnliiru to the Ziimhcsi.^iihn- 
^J«lgi, December lOlh, ISG3-— OurMaiwoHyn ami tbeir RpIbiIods.— Fam- 
i nc at TeWe. — Dispereion of Slaves.— "Tho Pymigwese dun'i Farm" nor 
llunL — Janitary 10th, the Lady Nyawa in tow.— Mariano's Airucilios. — 
h^lM Biilkopi Gmve. — Smdl and Hearing in Anlma1& — AagltDg fur Crocn- 
r-iSile. — FWghind Sighi, — Cmcodilc iwiu Mnkclulo. — Penetration of Air 
thrwnnbooi the Systems of Binls.— Rotnm oTMr. Thorn I on,— Kilimanjaro. 
— Hr. Thoraloo'i geocrvus Kindnen to the Mission. — JoDmcy Iu Tclte too 
na«h for him. — His Death and Grave. — "Wide-spread Desolniion.— Slaro- 
trwk and Famine, — Marsh Cnliare. — I^thnnty of the rsmnant of tb« Pw- 
fle. — tifcelctoiH. — Abolition of the Slave-iradR a tin* fa^ mm.- InBoeilce of 
the EngUib Sleomer oo Lake >Iyasiui. — Iloa* I -making.- Green Fruhnest 
tfllilla.— No rrovi«iuus to be boagbu— No Labor.— Poor Food and de- 



pr«Md Sjririta the forernnners of DL^CBse. — Pr. Kirk nnd C. Liringfttone or- 
dered bumc. — Dr. Livio|r'U>R(^ III. — Dr. Kirk remain* lo arteai) hiui. — 19ih 
of Majr, Dr. Kirk uid 0. Livingvtoae Icate. — Renkumtrutioo to the LIsImki 
Oovcminent. — Vmpty Roinlu.— Conduct of Pgnugiicso Statcsmc-n toward 
Afrii'a.— Pr. T.ivjngnionfl and Mr. Rae start to look after niir Did BoaL— 
EiDplo/mcnta of those left bchiDd. — Womftn ironndod by no AtTCKr. — 1>- 
nacil/ of Life— Dr. Meiler ftgo 470 

Juno mtb, I81IS, start for ihti Upper CatamcU.—Cu](iTation.— Cotton. — Hats 
einpty, or tenanted b7 Skclocona. — Boflalo-blnlB nnd dread of ibc poisoned 
Arrow, — Komhi, n specie* of t^trophnnthas, the Poison eTjiplorcil. — Tim "Nro 
Poison.— Its Effocis, — lusliutt in Man. — Miikont-Maiise.— S'anu, or prickly- 
•ecded Cirau.—Ila Uir.— Native Paibs. — GHinca-foirl*. — Coiiou Patches,^ — 
£x[«<Eitiot] recalled. — No oihwr Coarvo 0|ien tt> vs, habor beinji all iwcpt 
awajr b^ PortagneH Slaro-tmdinK. — Mr. Waller wiinosscs a small pan of 
ttM Trade.— Friendliaen of tbe Ainwa and Makololo 10 tho Englbli.— Trj 
10 uha uuUher Boat past tho Cataracta.- Loss of the Boat.— Penitence of 
IbeLOMOk— TbaOaUracta— Gcolngy 489 


TravoUng Beverage — Good Behavior of the English Sailors. -^Moioia Ukiid. 
— SiarratioD Bare of Natires. — New Course of March. — Tho Ri^i-rivi. — A 
ConDlrrafter tbCKOiirpoof War haipiurudorer it. — Loeo onr Wajr. — Hoa- 
ftitaji'ty of iba People, — Kirk'a lUngc. — Valley of doa or Gova. — Difiniegra- 
tion of Rock* in a *ot Climiue. — Oor Party vJ*>woJ as Slavc-trnilcr*— Ma- 
luniln. — Reach tha Ilecl of Lake Nirn»«ii, — Katoia's Village. — AJawa Mi> 
grationn. — Nntiru Agrirnllnre,— Bisliop Mnckentio's Idea of natti^ -Agri- 
cult nro.-~Cotlon.^Cli i nun mba.' — Tlio Auyrinn CounlenAticc the tme Nogro 
Typo.— Tlie Ba1)li«. — Laiigli of nstivo Women,— Cry of CtUdreo, — Courso 
N.E. lo tlie Sborw of Lake Molamha.— The Cb!a Fish-net— 1Iw».~S«t- 
Mgca ^oalit nnt hnvo continued to t.ivo had they been oniirely Unimtmcted. 
— ^Thcy needed a sm-ctlinnian Iiistrmrlor COB 

KoM-kota Bay. — Arab) building n Dhow. — Natives coDcronale to any ?<nnt 
which affords hopo ofPraiection front War. — Docs MoiiiunmmlanUin Kpread 
in Africa? — Pa|.{an Africans sujierior in Morality to follower* of tho Pulse 
Propiiet. — Leave for tlio West. — Ai«c<Mit of the Plateau.— Na live Ceremony 
of tnltiniion. — Slaro KonW. — EfTectn of rarefied Air. — Primilire African 
Beligton inculcatea liumilily.— Uoliko Muliattiitiislaniani,— CniH llii^* limit- 
ed to the «niall dimricC of Dahomey.- Witchcrafi, or influence of I'lanK.— 
Abaence of Idol Worship. — Untnid Climate. — toangna uflhcLako and Lo- 
angwa of Maravl. — Maiuuboka. — Filinu ihu Tcctli and Tattooing. — Gun- 
powdor ihe sonrce of the Slave-trader's Power. — Slave-buniera' Mods of 
Attack.— Mnaxi in Kasnnsa. — Caiuos of Inundntion.<). — Rains. — Climate 
di^eiulcnt on prevailing Wind». — Tho Wauralied. — Native Ucogtapby. — 



Coap*rina beiwoen Africa And Dtdia. — Fotiila. — The Iron ^Vgc— Minata 
TopajpafJif.— Nativo LuiKuagc Ji'sCBfiSe 


Mtaat for ncnrning. — DbiAtch from IL M.'« Qoveruioeat.— A Tbiof.— Af- 
rican WotBCB rardy atldrcts StranKcn. — Emplti^tncuu of Wui&m. — Griod- 
ti^ Con.— Bniring Boer.— DrinkUig-bouu 666 

asu in Forest*. — ResenljlHiicc of Ilantere to uident Efjiition Figam. 
— MiikI. — DUHouli^ abonl tiuiUui. — BabUa nndenake to leatl lu to Chin- 
mnba't. — BaUUa and Mangaiua lieudt. — Difli-rvut Cliuraclvruiio.—Digt- 
jMta diflertnt, though lOcin.— Kkoma. — Tlic'Bua.— Wu arc takca for Uau- 
tu, aad treated Kucirdirigi}'.— IniractAblo llcod Man. — Well-broken- in [|o»< 
^baiuL^-Oli)>riaHi«« Stillnra* of thu duMHied C'oianir}-.— JUngirtf.— Meet Uio 
(axJtu.— Show a bold Front with SacceM.^Zacbarlah mend* his V»ei^— 
"Vc are ukcn fur a War Pari).— On ibe 8Ui of (kiubur wv rvucli Moliimbn 
CD Lake Njwaa. — Tim uni>aid Ciiid<i and hta doines. — Polygamy. — I^onjiula 
Dd Tanganyika. — RabUa's knowtodgc of the Interior tc.<ib;d.~Fi\l»n Aliirm 
^jOf Uaxitn. — pKvailing diroclion of Wind caste rly.-*-SliorM of thu Luke. — 
Fa^lirea and their UijtivM. — Tobacco-tiadurH attntkc-d by MMitu.— Gun* 
Bowt.— Mcjuiiio.— Cliiii>iimba'». — Minute Information nf a Cbinf,— 
.Africans not *o di-grodud mc described. — Preacnit.— ~Qaidei. — Brbk Slave- 
trading. — Sad Thoughts.— On the I5ih of October wo reaob Katout's. — Hb 
<IeM.-Ti]>liun of the Conduct of the Ajuwa. — Tlieir admirution of Red Hair. 
^'—-Sacar-catu ptobably indigeiiou*. — Bambooi, — Katcea ia iiivmed in an 
accr** Co«t and EpantcU. — His present VQlaKe and hia former one. — On 
Ibo SOtb of October ire arrivo at Motrnida's. — Hidden Stores of Prorlslona 
— Cabainba and Nyango. — Ttie Goa nr Gova Vnllcy.— llic Lttartgwe. — 
Klndoeci of Nadn Women. — On ihoSUt of Oi:'iot>er we reach the Unktuu- 
Had«e.— ThiDilvr and Ruiu.— Wet Clotlna oiid Fctbf 678 


Criiifytfi{( Coolidciiiec of Ajaira.— Annual Best of tropica] Tnea. — Riao in tbe 
fihtra inftuScienl.— Biihop fttnckenxitV STii-cnwor.—Lrtifn I filled Uopea — 
Wbal a HiMlonary oujcht to be. — AbtLiidonmf>Dt of Mii>*ion unneceHinrr. — 
Soccen of West Coast Misuont. — Juntur)- lOih, the Sldrt* in Flood. — Learn 
CblbiM'a. — Delayed. — Reach Morambaln on the Sd of February.— KtllitviiiTn 
bom thfl WattiT. — Its ESccts. — Take on Board Orphans and Widows. — The 
Zimbeil ia Flood. — IiilandA in the Znmhc'l. — Funnutinn of Iho Delta. — 
Diath of Mariano. — Very moderate Exporw.— Taken in Tow. — Hi-avy Gale. 
— BehaTior of the "Lady of th* I>ake." — Prompliiude wttd Skill of C.iptain 
Chapoian, of II.M.S. Ariel,— CIubo [lackinji of live Cnrgonx pcrhnp< noce»- 
■ry. — The PtotuMr takes rescued Orphans nnd Widons witb Mr. Waller to 
ike Cape. — Cabooelra. — M. Soores. — New GorcrDor of Moianibique. — New 
Sfocict of P«dalia. — On tlie 16th of April we rcuth Zaiuibnr. — iloFpitality 
vf ForviKiun and of oar own Country men.— Ou the 30tb of April ^e loan 


Zaniibv on howd tbo Lidy Vjmxm for BombEy. — ASriaa S&Hore. — AmTftl 
u Bombay. pBge 5W 

RerBiiiCuIniiuu of ilic Rctults of lb« Exjiedition. — Discoivry of » Port, luid « 
DMaai ofTniusit tu licullhT 1 1 ij(hlMid«.— Fertility ofSuU. — Indigo. — CoUOD- 
— Climate kdcI Soil ndmirnbly Buttcd for iu CuliirKiion. — Lwge Coctou- 
)mihe« of the Intorior. — Tub&ccg ssd Cnetor-oU PUiits, and Sugnr-cBOC 
— GrutM. — Continuotu Cto^ — Fat Catilc. — DrougblB. — Hard Woods 
eonnun.— Timber tCMce. — SwM(iaril)a. — CidRmliA-rooi.— Fibrous sad olt- 
ylildlng Pknla and Tree — Wont of bcart lod(»cri1x! discovcrita in AAiu. 
^jloom of ihe SUte-tntdc. — Difforcnl Wars in which it it carried on.— 
D{rKlEitn>po»ii>g«nc}-in the Trsffic— Nnpole«o 111. — "Enxog^Sfatvin." 
— SlaTO'tnide ■ Iwrrtor to sO PToi{rt». — Iu £llbctt dq i^Isra-inrnai^ Cono- 
117.— C«UM of tbc Vfu in America.— Similar Efibci of cvnmria of Barim- 
Im OB AMcai and utbcr Nalfaina. — Tbc African phjricaUT. ha Ughtbeart- 
adsMk— F1tn«ai tor Sen-itado not attrihuuble to Cfinate.— Fonn of Gor- 
emnuni l>airiarrhal.— AfHcan StagBatiom from the lamo caiae a* thai of 
Olfafir Naliooa.— Man an uncowtcluns Ckvofwrator.— Onidrd hx Wiitdocn not 
Ilia own.— It Ibo groateat rower ilorivablo firem SclONra pmerrptl r^r Cbrla- 
Ijunr— TIw AfVican'i Ca]iab«lii;r for Chrisuaaltj-.— lOndneM tbe ben Koad 
u> tbo Uoart.— Sierra Loom >U«lons.— Sunday at Saerra Leooe.— 8tal«- 
nwm of Cl|italn Ihinon.— fiuilHtes orSiem Lconc.— Contjnaance of Lord 
Pltmnmi't PoUe^ medad.- Tiwla ReianuL— C^load Onl> Repoit.— In- 
AiunMa of Beiihaienia— UonalHy on board tbs Wen Omk Si)nadn>n,_ 
TtaaiiMM of Ptvar.— MWoaary 8octatles oa At West Comi.— Our Amer> 
ion Mbiloiiatr nmhrcn.— tSUjEteallaH fbr a SoJalioii of oar Connct Qnw- 
tkMk— UokuwlOrxlou Seitkmoua. _ ei3 



Bird'm-eyo View of the Gn»l OftUmicts af the Zambesi Fmititpitct. 

f ftRtboiu or Screw Palm, cwcred with cllmlMng fUnU^ neat Iho 

Koncoia Cmis) of tbe Znnibeai .■ ^ 

VIdw of Howro. — ElglU betwim] PortugneM aod Rdwb in ibe dt*- 

uaw 81 

UoDce of Laodoens, or Zulus, como to lift the Annual Tiibate from 

tbo I'ortogocw! ftt Sliu^Jitng*. II 

WoKpoo* fvr killing ih^- IlifipopuCiiRiiu 44 

View of ft Futiion of Eebrnbua Rapids fli 

IfiHBaa <nlh WitMr-pou, litleDins to the Music of cbc MarioilM, 

SftBU, and Pan's Pipes 72 

HjiBTirm Calorset, the 6nt or lowest of Murcbisun's CatoncU 89 

Group of Native Miuicitng 98 

Afriou Piddte of uno 8tring .„ 10ft 

Tkw of Swamor, Traps, and dead Hippopounus 107 

rtdi-bBfcWei lis 

Mfttivc Web, and Wearer smoking tbo hugo Tobocco-pipo of iho , 

CoBnriy... 124 

Bbcksmiih^i Fofge And Ueliows of Ooatakia 125 

P«ltk, or Lip-ring of Mangaqja Woman „... I!t7 

"Coree," or SIsTMiIdc 187 

LtnduvDR, or Znlna, who lift IVibace of tlw Foftugnne « Senna, sx- 

, hiblting War Excrcisw. [fi2 

WsddJng Promatioa al Teito IGO 

The SIa-I£obcn in Iho Zambeai above Scdiia, witb thu wwldlc-Nhaix.'d 

1131 Kemunina in the distance. i ,'. 1B9 

Groopor liippopoiiuRi , flM 

Tusiteb of Amt „ MA 

Munca) InstruntcBis „ , , SSO 

Bollcnm and other Toob MA 

Wait-teli „ 3» 

Oang of C«jitiTca net at Mbarac'* on theii Wnj tu Tctto 870 

Ad old Hangaiiju Woman, uliowing tlio Pclclc, ot Ll^i-ring, and Iho 

Taltootng in inlcraeclttig Lim^n on Pnrv, Arms, ami Docly. 415 

The Graro of Sln,LiTJng«touo nndor the BaobaVtrec, iwar to SJin- 

pttnsaHouM 139 


SB. Boohirs. BukcU omploTed bj Women to catch FSah 168 

19. ViewofQalUlmuovidof tho "Pioneer". « 47L 

JWl. roi«««l Anom 491 

31. Fenialoi Hoeing 6» 

iU. ChU lUnil-net 681 

33. Muigw\JK Speui &3S 

M. Vunwa grinding 5€S 

311. Nulre Hill for grinding Corn C70 

36. KUntTl Bow 588 

Mat toiUuftTkte Dr. Livingstone's Trareb AtAatrnd. 




OliyBen of tlie Expedition. — PoriDRiiesc ExpodiUon in Senrch ofthQ Opliii of 
Xing Solomon. — India anil not Africa Indlcitted hy tlm Af^rchandUe lougbt. 
— Pailnro in Sofslla. — Second PortnguMC Expcdilion after Gold Mines,— 
Kcpatasd hj large bodies of NMivc*.— C'albolic Miaaions.— Waiil of reliable 
InfonnallOD reganiing tbem. — Kirgneoua Idcaa as to iho Interior of Africa. — 
6ir Roderick >(nn:UtMon's Bypoibe^ comet. — Dccreaae t>rt!iQ Slaw-tiade, 
ud Incraisa of lawful Commcrea on tbo W«aC Coast, owing to Lord Palmcr- 
sum't Poller.— TliB TaUiltj of tba MoTdacr niiends iho Slavc-tnidcr, — 
Opinion of Rev. J. L. Wilaon on tlio SlaTctradu.— The Operation* of out 
Oraben.— m KRiects cf Muiling up the EnJt C<nu1.— InKraclioDi to tlia Ex- 

WiTEX first I determined on publishing the narrative of 
my " Missionary Travels," I had a great misgiving as to 
whether the crilicism my endeavors might provoke would 
be friendly or the reverse, more particularly as I felt that I 
bad then been so long a sojourner in the wilderness aa to be 
qaite a stranger to the British public. Bat I am now in this, 
my second essay of authorship, cheered by the conviction 
that very many readers, who are personally unknown to me, 
will receive this narrative with the kindly consideralion and 
iJlowances of friends ; and that many more, under the genial 
influenoes of an innate love of liberty, and of a desire to see 
t2ie samo social and religious blessings they themselves en- 
joy, disseminated throughout the world, will sympathize with 
me ia the efibrta by which 1 have striven, however imper- 



feotly, to elevate the position and character of our fellow-men 
in Africa. This knowledge makes me doublj anxious to 
render my norratire acceptable to all my rcadcis ; but, in the 
absence of any excellenoo ia literary composition, the oatSral 
consequence of my pursuits, 1 have to offer only a simple ac- 
count of a mission which, with respect to the objects pro- 
posed to bo thereby accomplished, formed a noble contrast to 
some of ibc earlier expediltons to Eastern Africa. I believe 
that the iofonnation it will give, respecting the people visited 
and the countries traversed, will not be materially gainsaid 
by any future commonplace traveler like myself, who may 
bo Uesscd with fair health and a gleam of sunshine in his 
breast. This accouut its written iu the earncet hope that it 
may contribute to that information which will yet canse the 
great and fertile continent of Africa to bo no longer kept 
wantonly 8ealed,bnt made available as the scene of European 
enterprise, and will enable its people to take a place among 
the nations of the earth, thus seairing the happiness and 
prosperity of tribes now sunk in barbarism or debased by 
slavery ; and, above all, I cherish the hope that it may lead 
to the introdnction of the blessings of the Gospel. ^M 

The first expedition sent to East Africa, aAcr the Potta^ 
gtuso bad worked a passage round the Ciipe, was insdkated 
under the auspices of the government of Ponugul, for the ' 
poiposci it ia believed, of disoovering the land of Ophir, made 
mention of in Iloly Scripture as the oouuUy whence King 
Solomon obtained sandal wood, irory, apes, peaoocka^ and 
gold. The terms used by the Jews to expiess the first §aar 
ar^ea had. aoxmling to Max Miiller, no cxtstetwe in tbe 
Hdbrev laBguagei but were words imported into it from the 
Saucrit II IB ourwuBtthen, ibai the search was tiot directed 
to the Coast of India» mora particulariy as Saascmi was known 



OD the Malabar Coaat^ and tbcro also peacocks and sandal- 
'vrood are met with in abundance. The Portngucse, like 
some others of more modern times, were led to believe chat 
Sofalla, because sometimes pronounced Zophar by the Arabs, 
from being the lowest or most southerly port ihcy visited, 
■woa identical with the Ophir alluded to in Sacred History. 

Eastern Africa had been occupied from toe meet remote 
tiroes by traders from India and the Red Sea. Vnsco da 
Gama, in 1497-8, found them firmly established at MoTam- 
bique, and, after reaching India, he turned -with longing eyes 
from Calicut toward Sofalln, and actually visited it in 1502. 
Ab the Scriptural Ophir, it was expected to be the most lu- 
crative of all the Portuguese stations ; and, under the imprcs- 
Bion that an important settlement could be established there, 
ihe Portuguese conquered, at great loss of both men and 
money, the district in which the gold-washings were situated; 
bttl,in the absence of all proper machinery, a vast amount of 
Uhor returned so small an amount of gain, that they aban- 
doned them in disgust 

The next expedition, consisting of three ships and a thou- 
and men, mostly gentlemen voluntcera, left Lisbon in 1569 
fur the conquest of the gold mines or washings of the Chief 
of Jfcnonotapa, west of.Tetle, and of those in Manica, still 
iwier west, but in a more southerly direction; and also to 
fiiidi route to the West Coast. In this l.%<it object they fail- 
^] and to this day it has been accomplished by only one 
Kwropean, and that an Englishman. The expedition was 
^^tnmandcd by Francisco Barrcto, and abundantly supplied 
*ift horees, aascs, camels, and provisions. Ascending the 
^besi as far as Senna, they found many Arab and other 
*^en already settled there, who recei%'ed the strangers 
^4 great hospitality. The horses, however, having passed 


through a district aboundijig with tsetse, au insect whose 
bito ia fatal to domestic animuJ^ sooa libowcd the emaciutioa 
peculiar to the poison ; imd Seuna being notoriously ua- 
healthy, the sickness of both men and horses aroused Barie- 
to's suspicion that poison bad been adminititered by the ia* 
habitants, most of whom, coDscquciiUy, he put to the sword 
or blow away ftpra bis guns. March ing beyond Senna with 
a party five hundred and sixty strong, he and his men suf- 
fered terribly from hunger and thirst, and, after being re- 
peatedly assaulted by a large body of natives, the cxpcditioD 
was compelled to return without ever reaching the gold mines 
which Barieto so eagerly sought 

pKvious to this, however, devoted Rom'an Catholic mia- 
uonarics had penetrated where an army could not go; for 
Scuhor Bordalo, in his excellent Historical Essay's, mentions 
that the Jesuit father Gon^alo da Silreira had already suffer- 
ed martyrdom by command of the Chief of Monomotapa. 
Indeed, miasionaries of that body of Christians established 
ihcnisclves in a vast number of places in El&stern Alrica, as 
the ruins of miaioii stations still testify ; but, not having suc- 
OBcded in meeting with any reliable history of the labors of 
tinse good men, it is painful for mc to be unable to contia- 
diot the csalumnioE which I'urtagucse writers still heap oa 
their memory. So far as the impression left on the native 
miud g«es, it is dcoidedly favorable to their zeal and piety; 
while the writers veforrcd to roundly assert that the minoii- 
vies easK^ed in the slave-trade^ which is probably u &ke sa 
the More moderv scandals oeoaskOiutUy retailed i^aiui their 
Proiestani hralkreft. Phibwthro|MMs sooeliaMB err in ao-* 
ceplias tiw mere foanp of coast vilbgn « &ei8, when as- 
avtiagthaalrooitkaofoareoiuitTTaeaabroiid; vhileoihtti^ 
p H >Mtog to n8u>i all phdaDthropy aa weak&m^yct pao- 


'tdcing that siiHoat of all hypocrisies, tlie endeavor to appear 
_2Woree than they nro, accept and publish the mere brandy- 
«nd-irater twaddle of iromora] traders against a body of men k^ 
•^bo, as a whole, are an honor to human kind. In modern 
xnissionary literature, now widely spread, wc have a record 
trbich will probably outlive aU misrepresentation; and it ia 
znnch to be regretted that there is no available Catholic lit- 
erature of the same natore, and that none of the translataons 
■which may have been made into the native tongues can now 
t)e consulted. Wo can not believe that these good men 
-^rould risk their livcfl for the unholy gains which, even were 
they lawfn!, by the rules of their order they could not enjoy ; 
l>at it would be extremely interesting to all their sueccsaora 
to know exactly what were the real causes of their failure in 
perpetuating the faith. 

In order that the following narrative may be clearly un- 
derstood, it 13 necessary to call to mind some things which 
took place previous to the Zambesi Expedition being sent 
out Moat geographers are aware that, before the discovery 
of Xiake Kgsmi and the well-watered country in which the 
3tf akololo dwell, Ihe idea prevailed that a large part of the 
interior of Africa consisted of sandy deserts, into which riv- 
ers ran and were Joat Ihiring my journey in 1852-6, from 
aea to wa, acroas the south intertropical part of the continent, 
it -was found to be a well-watei;^! countiy, with large tracts 
of fine fertile soil covered with forest, and beautiful grassy 
▼alleys, occupied by a considerable population; and one of 
t'^e most wonderful waterfalls in the world was brought to 
^ight. The peculiar form of the continent was then asccr- 
'aJBod to be an clevatctl plateau, somewhat depressed in the 
^tre,and with fifanrea in the aides by which the rivers ea- 
••p^ to the »caj and this great fact in physical geography 


can never be referred to without calling to miuJ the remark* 
ablo hypothesis by which the distinguisbeJ Pix'Sidcut of 
the Royal Oeugrapliical Society (Sir Itodorick L Muicliisou) 
clearly indicated tliis jwculiarity, before it waa TeriGcd by 
actual observation of the altitudes of the country and by tbo 
courses of tbc rivers. New light was thrown on other por- 
tiona of the continent by the fjimous travels of Dr. Barth, by 
the researches of the Church of England Missionaries, Krapf, 
Erkhardt, and Rebman, by the persevering effbrta of Dr. 
Baikie, the last martyr to the climate and English enterprise, 
by the journey of Francia Gallon, and by the most interest- 
ing discoveries of Lakes 'Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza 
by Captain Burton, and by Captain Spcke, whose untimely 
end we all so deeply deploru. Then followed the researches 
of Van der Deckeu, Thornton, and others ; and last of all, 
the grand discovery of the main source of the Nile, which 
every Englishman must feci an honest pride in knowing was 
accomplished by our gallant countrymen, Speke and Grant 
The fabulous torrid zone, of parched and burning sand, was 
now proved to be a well-watered region resembling North 
America in its fresh-water lakes, and India in its hot humid 
lowlands,jungles, ghauts, and cool highland plains. 

In our exploration the chief object in view was not to di»- 
oovcp objects of nine days' wonder, to gaze and be gazed al 
by barbarians, but to note the climate, the natural produc- 
tions, the tocal diseases, the natives and their relation to the 
rest of the world — all which were observed with that pecul- 
iar interest which, as regards the future, the first while man 
can not but feel in a continent whoso history is only just be- 
ginning. "When proceeding to the West Coast, in order to 
find a path to the sea by which lawful commerce might be 
introduced to aid missionary operations, it waa quite striking 


to observe, several hundreds of miles from the ocean, tlic 
"very decided influence of that which is known as Lord Pal- 
zaerstoa'a policy. "Piracy had been abolished, and the slave- 
%rade so far suppressed, that it wua spoken of by Portuguese, 
''who had themselves been slave-iradcra, as a thing of the 
'jpASL Lawful commerce had increased from an annual total 
^f £20,000 in ivory and gold dnst, to between two and three 
»-niUions, of wliich one million was in palm oil to our pwn 
<:onntry. Over twenty Missions bad been cslablishcdj with 
^Khools, in which more than twelve thousand pupils wero 
tanghL Life and property were rendered secure on the 
0>ast, and comparative peace imparted to millions of people 
in the interior, and dl this at a time when, by the speeches 
of in6uential men in England, the world was given to un- 
derstand >tbat the English cruisers had done nothing but ag- 
kvate the evils of the slave-trade. It is so reasonable to 

that self-interest would induce the slave-trader to do '' 
Utmost to preserve the lives by which he malies his 
gwns, that men yielded ready credence to the plausible the- 
ory ; but the atrocious waste of human life was just as great 
when the slave-trade was legal ; it always has been, and 
mast be, marked by the want of foresight characteristic of 
the murderer. Every one wondenj why he who has taken 
aaother*B life did not take this, that, or the other precaution 
to avoid detection ; and every one may well wonder why 
ilaye-traders have always, by overcrowding and all its evils, 
tebed so much in direct opposition to their own interests; 
bat it is the fatality of the murderer; the loss of life from 
lais canse simply baffles exaggeration. 

On this anbject the opinion of the Bev. J. L. Wibon, a 
tnost intelligent American missionary, who bos written by 
&7 the ablest work on the West Coast that has yet appeared, 



is worth ft host He declares that the efforts of the English 
government arc wortiiy of a!! praise. Had it uot been for 
tho cruisers, and eapccially those of Engfand, Africa would 
still have been inaccessible to missionary labor ; " and it is 
devoutly to be hoped," he adds, " that these noblo and dlsin- 
tercated measures may not be relaxed until the foul demon 
be driven away from the earth." The slave-trade is the 
greajest obstacle in existence to civilization and commercial 
progress; and as the English are the mo.'it philanthropic 
people in the world, and will probably always have the lar- 
gest commercial stake in the African continent, tlio policy 
for its suppression in every possible way shows thorough 
wisdom and foresight 

When, in pursuit of the same object, the East Coast was 
afterward reached, it was found scaled up. Although praise- 
worthy efforts had been made by her majesty's cruisers, yet, 
in consequence of foreigners being debarred from entering 
the couutry, neither traders nor missionaries bad established 
themselves. The trade was still only in a little ivory, gold 
dust, and slaves, just as it was on the West Coast before Lord 
Palmeraton'fl policy came into operation there. It was, how- 
ever, subsequently discovered that the rortogucse govern- 
ilient professed itself willing, nay, anxious, to let the country 
be opened to the influences of civilijation and lawful com- 
merce — indeed, it could scarcely be otherwise, seeing that 
not a groin of bcnelit ever accrued to Portugal by shutting 
it up; and the Zambesi, a large river, promised to be a fine 
inlet to the highlands and interior generally; the natives 
were agricultural, and all fond of trading ; the soil was fer- 
tile — indigo, cotton, tobacco, sugar-cane, and other articles of 
value, were already either cultivated or growing wild. It 
seciaedt therefore, that if this region could be opened to law- 



fill commerce and Christon Missions, it vould have the ^f- 
iect of aiding or supplementing our cruisers ia the same wi^ 
as bftd been done by the missionaries and traders on the 
West Coast, and that an inestimable service would bo there- 
by rendered to Africa and Kurope. 

The main object of the Zambesi Expedition, as our instruc- 
tions from her majesty's government explicitly stated, was 
to extend the knowledge already attained of the geography 
cud mineral and ogricullnral resources of Koslern and Cen- 
tral Africa — to improve our acquaintance with the inhabit- 
ants, and to endeavor to engage them to apply themselves 
to indostrial pursuits and to the cultivation of their lands, 
^rith a view to the production of raw material to bo cxjwrtcd 
to England in return for British manufactures; and it was 
hoped that, by encouraging the natives to occupy themselves 
io iho development of the resources of the country, a oon- 
iijrfdenible advance might be made toward the extinction of 
the slave-trade, as they would not be long in discovering 
tkat the former would eventually be a more certain source 
rf profit than the latter. The Expedition was sent in ao* 
cotdancc with the settled policy of the English government; 
and the Earl of Clarendon being then at the head of the 
Foreign Office, the Mission was organized under his immo- 
•iiale care. When a change of government ensued, we 
experienced the same generous countenance and sionpathy 
from the Earl of Malmesbury as we had previously received 
^va Lord Clarendon ; and, on the accession of Earl Russell 
to tbe bigb oflica he has so long filled, we were always &- 
^<>Kd with equally ready attention and the Eamo prompt 
"BWance: Thus tbe conviction was produced that our work 
^bodied the principles, not of any one par^, but of the 
fceWfl of the statesmen and of the people of England gen- 



erally. Tlio Expedition owes great obligatioTis to the Lords 
oftlio Admiralty for iheir unvarying readiness to render us 
ererj as^tanco in their power; and to the warmbeartod 
and OTer-obliging hydrographer to tbe Admiralty, tbc lato 
Admiral Wflsbington, as a subordinate, but most effective 
agent^ our heartfelt gratitude is also due; and we must ever 
thankfully aeknowlcdgc that our efficiency was mainly due 
to the kind services of Admirals Sir Frederick Grey, Sir 
Baldwin Walker, and all the naval officers scrriag under 
them on the East Const. Nor must I omit to record our 
obligations to Mr. Skead, RN. The Lunwe was carefully 
sounded and surveyed by this officer, whose skillful aiid 
aealous laboi^ both on that rirer, and afterward on lh& 
Lower Zambesi, were dcserring of all praise. 

In iqpeaking of what has been done by the Expcdiuon, it 
should always bo undenttood that Dr. Kirk, &lr. Charles liv- 
tngsioiiei Mr. R. Thornton, and oilicra composed iL In using 
Un plttial number they are meant, and I wish to bear tes> 
tunoDj to tbo untiring zeal, energy, courage, and peraerer- 
anoe iriih xrhkix my oompamoos labored, undaunted by dif- 
flmltiMt dangen^ or faani fare It ts my firm belief UuOy 
won tlwir aerrioeB n^iuiix^l in any other atftaijy tbey 
might b4 tmpliciUy ivlied ou to peHbrm tlteir doty hk» 
IMA. Titt rsMoa why Dr. Krk's name does not appear oa 
iht iMv'lMise oT this namtire it beoanse H is hoped thai be 
«Mqr gin a» accoum of tbe botany wd Daxaral hiktocj of 
lh« Kxjwdiiioa in a »cp*rau> work ftom bb ^ntn pea. Bo 
oolkclai^ alwre ^r thousand s^tectosofpiaM^qiecwaDBof 
woal of ih« valuable ««odit of the diibRttI satire isaBa&B' 
nm^of the artioka of ftod^Md of thtt ^KAraBt kn^ of ' 
tfitkom ttem rnvmy «f<a« ire iU< > J > aad • gnai -vwia^ of. 
biAit ukd iiMK«s boNAai iMkias mtmotok^aili 



tioDs, aDii ofibrUiDg, as our instructions required, meUical us* 
sistaDce to the natives iu every case whoro be could be of 
«ujy use. 

Charles Liviagstono was also fully occupied lu his duties 
in following out Ibo general objycta of our mission, iu eu« 
oouxa^ng the culture of cotton, iu mukiiig uiauy magnetic 
and meteorological observations, in photogrepbiug so long as 
^o matcriuls would serve, and in collecting a largo number 
<3f birds, insects, and other objects of interest The collcc- 
-fcions, being government property, have been forvrardcd to 
-fclie I3ritiBti Museum aud to the Royal Botanic Gardens at 
Kew ; and, should Dr. Kirk undertake their dcscriptioD, 
trhreo or four years vill be required for the purpose. 

Though collections were made, it was always distinctly 
understood that, however desirable these aud our explora- 
tions might be, " her majesty's government attached more 
imporUince to the moral influence that might be exerted on 
-fclie minds of the natives by a well-regulated and orderly 
Ixouaehold of Kuropcans setting an example of consistent 
moral conduct to all who might witness it; treating the ])eo- 
|>le with kiodness, and Telieving their wants, teaching them 
i^> moke cxpciiments in agiicUlturo, explaining to them the 
lExore simple arts, imparting to them religious instruction as 
&>-r 33 they are capable of receiving it, and inculcating peace 
a*»<i good-will to each other." 

Jt would be tiresome to enumerate in detail all the little 

**5^tB which were performed by us while following out our in- 

st-Tuctions. As a rule, whenever the steamer stopped to take 

*^ wood, or for any other purpose, Dr. Kirk and Charles 

"ivingslone went ashore to their duties : one of our party, 

""ho it was intended should navigate the vessel and lay 

^wn the geographical positions, having failed to answer 



the expcctaUoDs formed of liim, these duties fell chiefly to 
my share. They iuvolved a considerable amount of night- 
work, in which I was always cheerfully aided by my com- 
pBnioDS, aud the results were regularly communicated to our 
warm and ever-ready fjiend, Sir Thomas Maclear, of the 
Kojal Observatory, Cape of Good llope. While this work 
was going through the press, we were favored with the 
longitades of several stations determiaed from obsen'ed oc- 
cultations of stars by the moon, and from eclipses acd reap* 
pearanccs of Jupiter's Batellites, by &lr. Mann, the able as- 
sistant to the Cape Astronomer Royal ; the lanars are still 
in the bands of Mr. G. W. H. Maclear, of the same Observa- 
tory. In addition to these, the altitudes, variation of the 
compass, latitudes and longitudes, as calculated on the spot, 
appear in the map by Mr. Arrowsmith, and it is hoped may 
not diilcr much from tho results of the same data in abler 
Lands. The ofUco of "skipper," which, rather than let the 
Expedition cotac to a stand, I undertook, required no great 
ability in ono " not too old to Icam :*' it saved a salary, and, 
what was much mora valuable than goM, saved the Expedi- 
tion from tho drawback of any ono thinking that ho was in- 
dispenaablo to its farther progress, Tho cfficc required at- 
tention to tho vessel both at rest aud in motion. It also in- 
volved considerable exposure to the sun; and, to my regret, 
kept mo from much anticipated intercourse with the natives, 
and tho formation of full vocabularies of their dialects. 

I may add Umi all woanaomc repetitions are as much as 
pOMJblo avoided in tho narralivo; and, our movements aud 
op«mtloTiH having proviously been given in a series of dts- 
patohet, iho attempt is now made to give as fairly as possi- 
ble juflt what would mont atriko nny person of ordinary in- 
toUlgenoo in imtwing through the country. For the sake of 


the freshness which uaually attaches to first impressions, the 
Journal of Charles Livingstone has been incorporated in the 
narrative ; and many remarks made by the natives, which 
he put down at the moment of translation, will convey to 
others the same ideas as they did to ourselves. Some are 
no doubt trivial; but it is by the little acts and words of 
every-day life that character is truly and best known, and 
doubtless many will prefer to draw their own conclusions 
from them rather than to be schooled by us. - 




R«ich iha Cout, — Explore the Rivm- Luaive. — Moailu of ibe Zatntnal. — 
CoaccalcJ todecuiTc English Cruu«n. — The Deccjition lulRied off oil Eu- 
■vpoftn GuTcrniDdiU b/ Miiiutcn iii Portuiitil. — OfBcutI TiitiiDony. — Koa- 
gone.— ^cnery on the River. — Foniliiy ofDuJtB Soil, — CoIoqob or Serfs. — 
Deep Chun nvl of tho River. — Land Lu^agfl on Exjwditlon LiUnd. — Cono. 
iry in u Siaio of Vr'ta. — " Free Emigranu." — Atrocities of Mjiriano. — Meet 
po~ca\]e>] " IttbcU." — A Figlil between Natives aod Portugueae. — Aft Arrojr 
wailing for Am muni I ion. — IlirdK mtid Buosts tnct «iih qn lIi« Itivcr. — Mam* 
ro. — Tlia RciliipRiCiit of McrcbaudlbC iliero fur Qiiillimaiic. — Siiii;)uDt;a. — 
Znln Dominioa on ttio riglil buik uf iltc Zuubcu. — Tribute puid b/ the 
I\irtiigued«. — Senna nnd Senhor Ferrio, — Segnati or Ptwcnt, — Hi[r[»poU 
uaui Ilnntcn. — I'ccaliiuril}- of lSBot)«l>-trc>es.'-Lnpata Uorgc 

The Expedition left England on the 10th of March, 1868, 
in her mojesly's coloDiol steamer "Pearl," commanded hy 
Captain Duncan; and, after enjoying the generous hospital- 
ity of our friends at Cape Town, with the obliging attentions 
of Sir George Grey, and receiving on board Mr. Francis 
Skead, R.N., aa surveyor, tvc reached the East Coast in the 
following May. 

Our first object was to explore the Zambesi, its mouths 
and tributaries, with a view to their being used as highways 
for commerce and Christianity to pass into the vast interior 
of Africa. When we came within five or six mile;3 of ibe 
land, the yellowish-green tinge of the sea in soundings was 
suddenly succeeded by muddy water with wrack, as of a riv- 
er in flood. The two colors did not intermingle, but the line 
of contact was as sharply defined as wlien the ocean ineeta 
the land. It was observed that under the wrack — consisting 




of reeds, sticks, and leaves — and even under 6oating cattle- 
fiali bones and Portuguese " men-of-war" (Physalia), numbers 
of small fisb screen themselves from the eyes of birds of prey 
and from the rays of the torrid snn. 

The coast is low nnd covered with mangrove swamps, 
among which are sandy patches clothed with grass, creeping 
plants, and stunted palms. The land trends nearly east aud 
Trest, without any notable feature to guide the navigator, and 
at is difficult to make out the river's mouth; but (he water 
shoala gradually, and each fathom of lessening depth marks 
about a milcL 

"We entered the River Luawe first, because its entrance is 
so smooth and deep that the " Pearl," drawing 9 feet 7 inch- 
es, went in without-a boat sounding ahead. A small steam 
Inanch, having been brought out from England in three eeo- 
tions on the deck of the " Pearl," was hoisted out and screw- 
ed together at the anchorage, and with her aid the explora* 
t-ion was commenced. She was called the "Ma Robert, aAer 
Adrs. Livingstone, to whom the natives, according to their cus- 
tom, gave the name Ma (mother) of her eldest son. The har- 
txsT is deep, but shut in by mangrove swamps; and, though 
cbe water a few miles up is fresh, it is only a tidal river; for, 
Ckfler ascending some seventy miles, it was found to end in 
nn.srshes blocked np with reeds and succulent aquatic plants. 
J^a tlic Luawe had been called "West Luabo," it was sap- 
I^c>ecd to be a branch of the Zambesi, the main stream of 
»hicb is called "Lnabo," or "East Luabo." The "Ma Hob- 
^^t" and '* Pearl" then went to what proved to be a real 
"Jooth of the river wc sought 

The Zambesi pours its water into the ocean by foar 
'booths, namely, the Mihunbe, which is the most westcrfy, 
^ht! Kongone, the Luabo, and- the Timbwc (or Muselo^ 


When tho river is in flood, a natural canal runtiiDg parallel 
wicli tbo coast, and winding very much among tbu liwamps, 
htms a secret way for conveying slaves irom Quillimattc to 
the bays ilassangano and Nameara, or to the Zambesi itself. 
The Kvrakwa, or Kiver of QuiUimane, some sixty miles dis- 
tant from the mouths of the Zambesi, has long been repre- 
Bentcd OS the principal entrance to the Zambesi, in order, as 
the Portuguese now maintain, that the Engliith cruisers might 
be induced to watch the false mouth, while slaves were quiet- 
ly shipped from the true one; and, strange to say, t^iis error 
has' lately been propagated by a map issued by the colonial 
minister of Portugal.* 

* Strnnffcr Bitll.tbe Pcrrtttgiieae offlcioJ rnp«T, "Annn^a do Conidh^ Ukri* 
ntvinho" far ISM thnmtlemiy UKru ihnt "in that hnrlior (lvongana),irlildl 
llr. LiTing»toTin »>y« lie iliKarcrcd, many ircwcl* witU aUrc* )i«vo t«keii refngs 
from Llio jii'm-ciiUoni of Engiith crutsers." Tliii. (sball we Hdinit?) wo* 
^ known to tho l*oflugiit»a Kovemraoiil! Would any oilier {(entli^ninii in En- 
rope ctinttmrl u map audi lu tlial mcniioiiual in the text, nnd cond U to the 
EngUidi g>iiirrtuni.-nt it* Hhnwing tliv ime tnoulli of i\us ZambcM ? Vi'a did not 
think of ijriniinK thn following Ipilcr frnm ono Portuguwe ofltcini to onotfaer 
in Afiifa till «e eAW the poar xwngi^rr of ili« Lisbon officinl pupcr, evidently 
iDiendud fur otiivr utatcatucn In Europe. The editor of a Cape pn|>cr aaja ■. 

" ChcvoliL-r Dnprni, Iibs, by tlie «anie oppoTtunily, remrcd a cominnntcatioii 
from the Poriii^cM goyemor of Tr-ttc. of which thr fnlloninit i« a trantlatiou : 

*' ' Sir — When, in the middle of liui rwir, wn* (Idircrwl to me, lij- tho bunds 
titTir. Livini^innp-, the letters wiili which ytmr rtcelloncy booored me, under 
date of April uf tlmt came year, I wa» at ihnt momiem involved in war with 
the Kafin of the district of Senna. Afrcr ihts, other w>orIf, affaini, and (til- 
ing hcftlfh prcvoiilcd mu frwm immrdinidj aditrcuiini; to yoitr Rxcclleney my 
thank* for the kind expreMiion« with which I liaro been honored by ron, 
Yoar cxeccltncjr recuiu mended lo mo the illumrivua I>r. T.inngfltoric. My re- 
lation! with thU gt-Jitlcmnn are so »Tm(inilnMii,' that I can nmcr omit rendering 
bim ihi; icrrico which ho TOqiiirw. aiiJ whicli aro within itiy rearli, SiiU my 
wiaboB nm (iihonlinal* to my jiower*, both as nn indiridniil and n« an sathoi^ 
Ity. I am aware how profitable t.i Kuofiraphical knowlcdKn and «eiciice aro 

ihcwplorniininivr the dorter, as well n» to tho prfwpcrity of t!ii» potiniry aa 

rich as neKl«cted. I sincerely hope it will be in my [Kiwpr to help him as I 
conld wish. NevcnheleB*. I awiiro your excellency lUt I wUI gcrvc him ao 
far as lies in my power. It Is mid thai nur j-ovcrnmort in about to c»laUi.h a 
poa at the bur of Liiabo, antk from ther« to earry on dirwi navigation to tbb 

Cb^. J. 



After the exacnination of tbroe branches by tho ablo and 

eoei^tio surveyor, Francis Skead, RN., the Kongone was 

found to be the best eatranoe. Tho iramcnso amount of 

sand brought down by the Zambesi in the course- of ages 

Ibrroed a sort of promonlory, against which tho long swell 

of the Indian Ocean, beating daring the prevailing winds, 

has formed ban, which, acting against the waters of the del- 

'^ta, nuiy hare led to their exit sideways. The Kongone is 

one of these lateral branches, and the safest ; inasmuch as 

the bar has nearly two fathoms on it at low water, and the 

X38e at spring tides is from twelve to fourteen feet. The bar 

>s DBTTOw, the passage nearly straight, and, were it buoyed 

^ad a beacon placed on Pearl Island, would always be ssSc 

to a steamer. When the wind is from the cast or north, 

tlie bar is smooth; if firom the south, and southeast, it has a 

li«avj break on it, and ts not to be attempted in boats. A 

strong current setting to the east when the tide is flowing, 

SLtad to the west when ebbing, may drag a boat or ship into 

tike 'brcakcis. If one is doubtful of his longitude and rans 

e.cwBt, ho will aoon sec the land at Timbwo disappear away to 

tla-« north; and coming west again, be can easily make out 

Scut Lo&bo from its great si7^; and Kongone follows seven 

Hacikt. Sboald tiiis ulic pluce, t:i«at vlriuitAfEcs will mtnll to this cotintrjr, 

tnd to Livlsobmo's great gW^r, because ho »&« the first who jiaMed over fram 

ihe tea liY this ir«j of commtiaieaUda. I tbank jour cxccncni7 fur tlm d^itk- 

fSfCn wiib which yoa fumi^ml mtt. 1 ippreciala UMm u anU-Ici* which Terj 

•tldoni i^pear hmv. Your «xr«ll«nc7' abo oblIg«cI me with Hiiae tecOt; livt, 

oAmsutel;, I «ra* at Moiambiquu, anil harint pUntcil ihcui tliis jwar. tbcy 

IP^aetd litllo ; I fear thay won alrandf old. Mr capabiliij ht terrice is rcr^r 

(■^M, kit It jaat excellcner tblnki tlial 1 can ba of any u»c. I thai) b« moet 

frt li i I haw^ etc., Tno A. d'A. Sicinn, Governor 9/ Tott. 

"TVw ktuss ware broag;hl to Natal by 11. M.'s brig ■ Pertian,* nhich had 
(■IM ibn« fntn M«nRibl<|ue for snpplioa, aod wers pat on board tho ' Wal- 
daii«< M ^ atuiiud out." 




Chap. I. 

miles west. East Luabo has a good but long bar, and not 
to be attempted unless the wind be northeast or ea£t. It 
has sometimes been called "Barra Calrina," and was used in 
the embarkatioDs of slaves. This may have been the " Riv- 
er of Good Signs" of Vasco da tiama, as the mouth is more 
easily seen from the Beaward than any other; but the ab- 
sence of the pillar dedicated by that navigator to "St Ra- 
phael" leaves the matter in doubt. No Portuguese live 
within eighty miles of any mouth of the Zambesi. The 
names given by the natives ref<;r more to the land on each 
side than to the streams ; thus, one side of the Kongone is 
Nyamisenga, the other Nyangalule; and Kongone, the name 
of a fbh, is appUed to one side of the natural canal which 
leads iuto the Zambesi proper, or Cuama, and gives the port 
its value. 

When a native of the temperate North first lands in tbe 
tropics, his feelings and emotions resemble in some respects 
those wliich the First Man may have had on his entrance 
into the Garden of Eden. He has set foot in a new worlds 
another state of existence is before him ; every thing he aeca, 
every sound that falls upon the ear, has all the freshness and 
charm of novelty. The trees and the plants are new, tlie 
flowers and the fruits, the bca.sts, the birds, and the insects 
are curious and strange; the very sky itself is new, glowing 
with colore, or sparkling with constellations, never seen in 
northern climes. 

The Kongone is five miles cast of the Milambe, or western 
branch, and sevoa miles west from East Luabo, which again 
is five miles from the Timbwe. We saw but few natives, 
and these, by escaping from their canoes into the mangrove 
thickets the moment they caught sight of us, gave untnismk- 
able indications that they had no very &Tomble opinion of 




-white moD. Thoy were probably fugitiyes from Ponu- 
(faeBe slavery. In the graasy glades, buffaloefl, wanhoga, 
and three kinds of antelope were abundant, and the latter 
easily obtained. A few hours' hunting usually provided 
Tenison enough for a score of men for several days. 

On proceeding up the Kongone branch it was found that, 
by keeping well in the bends, which the current had worn 
'iccp, shoals were easily avoided. The first twenty miles are 
straight and deep; then a small and rather tortuous natoral 
canal leads off to the right, and, after about five miles, dur> 
ing which the paddles almo^jt touched the floatiog grass of 
the sides, onds in the broad Zambesi The rest of the Kou* 
gone branch comes out of the main stream coasiderably 
higher up as the outgoing branch called Doto. 

The first twenty miles of the Kongono arc inclosed in 
nt&ngrovo jUngle; some of the trees arc ornamented with 
orohilla wood, which appears never to have been gathered. 
Hugo ferns, palm bushes, and oocaBioaally wild date-patms, 
peer out in the forest, which oonaists of different species of 
mangroves ; the bunches of bright yellow, though scarcely 
«dible fruit, contrasting prettily with the graceful green 
leaveB, In some spots the Milola, an umbrageous hibiscus, 
with largo yellowish Bowers, grows in masses along the 
luink. Its bark is made into cordage, and is especially valua- 
ble for (be mannfacturc of ropes attached to harpoons for kill- 
iag the hippopotamus. The Pandanus or screw-p&Im, from 
wUtib BUgar-bage ore made in the Mauritins, also appears, 
utd, on coming oat of the canal into the Zambesi, many are 
10 talU&s in the dbtance to remind us of the steeples of our 
aativQ land, and make us relish the remark of an old sjiilor, 
"that hut one thing was wanting to complete the picture, 
and that was ' a grog-shop uear the church.' " We find also 




a few gaava and lime-trees growing wilJ] but the natives 
claim the crops. The dark woods resound with the lively 
and exultant song of the kingbunter {Htdcyon strwiata) as 
he eitfl perched on bigli among the trees. As the steamer 
moves on throngh tho winding channel, a pretty little heron 
or bright kingftsber darts out in alarm from the edge of the 
bunk, llica on ahead a short distance, and settles quietly 
down, to be again frightened off in a few seconds as we ap- 
proach. The magnificent fishhawk {Halietus vocifsr) sits on 
the top of a mangrove-tree, digesting his morning meal of 
fresh fifb, and is clearly unwilling to stir until the immi- 
nence of the danger compels him at lost to spread his greai 
winga for flight. The glossy ibis, acute of -ear to a remarka- 
ble degi'ce, hears from afar the unwonted sound of the. pad- 
dles, and, springing from the mud where his fomily has been 
quietly feasting, is off, screaming .out his loud, barsb, and de- 
fiant, Ila! ha! ha! long before the danger is near. 

The mangroves are now left behind, and are succeeded by 
vast level plains of rich dark soil, covered with gigantic 
grosses, so tall that they tower over one's head, and render 
hunting impossible. Beginning in July, the grass is burned 
off every year after it has become dry. Theso fires prevent 
the growth of any great amount of timber, as only a few 
trees from among the more hardy kinds, such as the Boras- 
8U8 palm and lignum-vitie, can live through the sea of fin* 
which annually roars across tho plains. 

Several native Imta now peep out from the bananas and 
cocoa-palms on the right bank; they stand on piles a few 
feet above the low, damp ground, and their owners enter 
tbcm by means of ladders. The soil is wonderfully rich, and 
the gardens are really excellent. Rice is cultivated largely ; 
sweet potatoes, pumpkins, tomatoes, cabbages, onions (sha- 




IoIb), peasy a little cotton, and sugar-cano are also raised. It 
is said that English potatoes, wbcD planted at Quillimane on 
aoii reeembling this, in the course of two years become in 
taste lilie 8we«t potatoes ( Omvolvulm batatas), and are like 
OQT potato frosted. The whole of the fertile region extend- 
ing from the Eongone Canal to beyond Mazaro, some eighty 
miles in length, and fifty in breadth, is admirably adapted for 
the growth of sugar-cane ; and, were it in the hands of our 
EHends at the Cape, would supply all Europe with sugar. 
The remarkably few people seen appeared to be tolerably 
well fed, but there was a shivenng dearth of ulothing among 
tbem; all were blacks, and nearly all Portuguese "colo- 
ncoT or serfs. They manifested no fear of white men, and 
Mood in groups on the bank gazing in astonishment at the 
steamers, especially at the "Pearl,'' which accompanied us 
tboa far up the river. One old man who came on boan.1 
Temarked that never before had be seen any vessel so large 
as the " Pearl ;" it was like a village ; " was it made out of 
«ne tree?" All were eager traders, and soon come off to 
the ship in light, swiit canoes, with every kind of fruit 
and food they possessed ; a few brought honey and bees- 
^rax, whwh arc found in quantities in the mangrove forala 
i. the ships steamed off, many anxious sellers ran along 
tiie bank, holding up fowls, b^kcts of rice and meal, and 
shouting "Malondfl,MaIon<la," "things for sale," while oth- 
ers followed in canoes, which they sent through the water 
^»ith great velocity by means of short, broad-bladed pad- 

The ^fp channel, or Qwctc as the canoe-men call it, of 
Ihe Zambesi is winding, and narrow when contrasted with 
Uie great breadth of the river itself. The river bottom 
■ppoara to be a mocession of immense submerged sand* 



cbat. : 

banks, having, wbea the stxeaiu is low, from one to four 
feet of water ott them. The main channel rans for some 
distance belwevn the sand-bank and the river's bank, with 
a depth in the dry season varying from five to fifteen fe«t, 
and a cturent of nearly two knots an hour. It then turns 
and flows along the lower edge of the sand-bauk in a diag* 
onal direction across the river, and continut^s this process, 
winding from bank bo bank repeatedly dining the day's 
s^, making expert navigatora on the ocean feel helpleaslj 
at sea on the river. On these crossings the channel is shal* 
lowest. It is, in general, pretty clearly defined. In calm 
weather there is a peculiar boiling up of its water fiom some 
action below. With a light breeze the Qwete assumes a 
characteristic ripple, and when the wind freshens and blows 
up the river, as it usually docs from May to November, the 
waves on it are larger than those of other parts of the river, 
and a line of small breakers marks the edge of the sho«l^_ 
bauk abova ^| 

Finding the " Pearl's" draught too great for that part 
of the river near the island of Simbo, where the branch 
called the Doto is givea o£f to the Kongouo on the right 
bank, and another named Chiudo departs to the secret 
canal already mentioned on the left, the goods belonging 
to the expedition were taken out of her, and placed on 
one of the grassy islands about forty miles from -tbo bar. 
The " Pearl" then left us, and we had to part with our good 
friends Duncan and Skead ; tlio former to Ceylon, the lat- 
ter to rctom to his duties as government surveyor at the 

Of those who eventually did the work of the eipediUc 
the majority took a sober common-sense view of ths enter? 
prise in which we were engaged. Some remained on Ex- 




peditioD Island from the 18th of June ontil the 18th uf Au- 
gust, while tho laimcli and pincaoe wore carrying the goods 
up to Shupanga and Sonna. Tho oountry was in a state of 
war, our luggage was in. danger, and several of our par^ 
wens exposed to diacaae from inactivity in the malaria of the 
Delta. Here some had their first introduction to African life 
and African fever. Those alone were safe who were'nctivc- 
ly empbyed with the vessels, and of course, remembering tho 
perilous podtjon of their fellows, they strained every nerve 
to finish the work and take them away. This was the time, 
loo, for the fccble-minded to make a demand for their Sun- 
days of rest and full meal-houra, which even our crew of 
twelve Kroomen, though tampered with, had more sense and 
good feeling than to indorse. It is a pity that some people 
can not see that the true and honest discharge of the com- 
mon duties of eveiy-day life is Divine service. 

Tho weather was delightful, with only an occamonal flhow* 

ox or cold foggy morning. Those who remained on the isl- 

ajud made the most of their time, taking meteorological and 

zzaflgnetkal observations, and botanizing, so &r as the dried 

"v-egetation would allow. No one aotfmed to place much re- 

Luace on the "official report" of two naval commanders, who 

now, afler about a fortnight's experience in the Zambesi, 

solemnly declared it to be " more like an inland sea than a 

r~iver, with a climate like that of Italy, and infinitely more 

l»oalihy than any river on the West Coast ;" but, by the kad- 

^^B advice, each b^an to examine and to record his obser- 

'■fttions for himself, and did not take even his chiefa previ- 

*^»s experience as infallible, 

I^rge coltunns of smoke rose daily from different poinla 
of tbe horizon, abowing that the natives were burning off the 
immense crops of tall grass, here a nuisance, however valua- 




blc eliiewliore. A white cloud was oilen observed to rest on 
the head of tbo column, as if & current of hot damp air was 
'sent up by the huat of the Hamee, and Its moisture was con- 
densed at the top. Rain did not follow, though theohetti , 
have imiLgiDod that in such cases it ought. ' 

Largo game, buffaloes, and zebras, were, abundant abreast 
the island, but no men oould be seen. On the main land, 
over on the right bonk of the river, we were arnuscd by the 
eccentric gynttioua and evolutions of Rocks of small seed- 
eating bink, who in their flight wheeled into compact col- 
umns with such military precisioa as to give us the impres- 
sion that they must be guided by a leader, and all directed 
by the same signal. Several other kinds of small birds now 
go in flocks, and, among othcra, the large Senegal swallow. 
The presence of this bird, being clearly in a state of migra- 
tion from the North, while the common swallow of the coon' : 
try and the brown kite are away beyond the equator, leads 
to the oo^jeoture that there may be a double migration, 
namely, of birds from torrid climates to the more temperate, 
OS this now is;, as well as from severe winters to sunny- i^ 
gtous; but this could not be verified by such birds of paa- 
asge u ouraolvea. | 

On reaching MoBoro, the mouth of a narrow creek which ' 
in floods conimunioates with the Quillimanc River, ve found 
that the rortuguese wore at war with a holfcafte named I 
Mariano, alius Matakenya, from whom they had geDerslly 
fled, and who, having built a stockade near the mouth of the 
Shil«t owned all tho country between that river and MazaniL I 
Mariano waa best known by hi^ native name Kotakenjm, ^ 
which in their toogiw meaaa "trembling," or quivering as 
U«M do in a Btono. He was a been slave^hunter, and kept 
a large number oT mm. wvll ormod with moskets. It is au 

Coat. I. 



entire mtstako to suppose that the slave-tr&do is one of buy- 
ing aud scUiog oloae, or that engagements can be mado witb 
laborers in A&ica as they are in India ; Mariano, like other 
PortugucsD, bod no labor to spare. Ue bod been in the 
liiLbii of sending out armed parties on slave hunting-forays 
smong the helpless tribes to the northeast, and carr^-ing 
down the kidnapped vtcdms in chains to Quillimanc, where 
^hey were sold by his brother-in-law Cruz Coimbra, and 
shipped as "Free emigrants" to the French island of Bour- 
l^on. So long as his robberies and murders were restricted 
-fto the natives at a distance, the authorises did not interfere ; 
l>iit his men, trained to deeds of violenoo and bloodshed in 
-fclieir slave foray's, naturally' began to practico on the people 
xmcarer at hand, though belonging to the Portuguese, and 
^'ven in the village of Senna, uiider the guns of the fort. A 
^■eotleroan of the highest standing told us that, while at din- 
Kx^st with his family, it was no uncommon event for a slave to 
rvuh into the room pursued by one of Mariano's men with 
B}=>car in hand to murder him. 

The atrocities of this villain, aptly termed by tlic late 

ffOTomor of tiuillimane n " notorious robber and murderer," 

^v^iOBine at length intolerable. All the Portuguese spoke of 

bxm OS a rare monster of inhumanity. It is unnooouniablc 

wHy half-cnstes, such as he, are so much more cruel than the 

PortugucBe, but such is undoubtedly the ca^. 

It was asserted that one of his favorite modes of creating 

*ft imprcasion in the country, and making his nome dreaded, 

*aa to spear his captives with hia own hands. On ono occa- 

•oq lie is reported to have thus killed forty poor wretches 

pW»d iu a row before him. Wo did not at tlret credit theoe 

■t^tements, and thought that they wero merely exaggerations 

of the incensed Portuguese, who naturally enough wero ex- 



Chat. I. 

aipenitcd with him for stopping their trade aod harboring 
their runaway slaves ; but we learned al\erward from tho 
natiTQS that the aooounts given ua by the Portuguese bad 
not oxoeftied the troth, and that Kfariano was quite as great 
fc nfflia M they had described him. One expects slave- 
ownors to treat thoir human chattels as well as men do other 
aniffltU of value, but tho slave-trade seems always to engen- 
der an unroasoning ferocity, if not bloodtbirstiness. 

AVar was deolared against Mariano, and a force sent to 
take him ; be resisted for a time, but, seeing that he was 
hkxXy to get the wont of it, and knowing that the Porta- 
gQOSe gOTOniozs have small salaries, and are therefore " dis- 
posed to bo i^waorable," be went down to QniBimanc to 
" arrange'* with the govemor, as it » lermed hen ; bat Col- 
onel da Silra put him in priaon, and then sent him iOT trial 
to HoaH^iiquek Wben we came into the cotmtrf his peo- 
ple were flgbting uader hia farotber Booga. Hke war had 
iMlid mx toOBlbi^ and alifiped all trade oo tbe river duiqg 
thai period. Ob the IStb of Jane we fim eun into eoa- 
HKi with tbe "nbak.** IWy appeared as a cnnrd of weO- 
annad ihI ftnterttoHj^ihwwail Fea|4B mt6et the bev ak 
MaaniCh On es^sfadiuag Aai v« wecv Eagikh, some at oooa 
oaw 0* board and eaUed to «hoa» on ebon to ky ads Kfaeir 


«to«C««nalien«ihe«lmvi«ata. the 

Ihsr chKa% bat thi^ 


the noise of a battle at Mazaro ; and on arriving there im* 
mediately after, xaaxtj natives and Portuguese appeared on 
the bank. 

Dr. Livingstone, landing to salute some of his old fHends 
«mong the latter, found himself in the sickening smell and 
among the mutilated bodies of the slain ; he was request- 
ed to take the governor, who was very ill of fever, acwBS 
"to ^upanga, Ind just as he gave his assent^ the rebels re- 
viewed the fight, and the balk began to whistle about in all 
<3iTeotiouB. After trying in vain to get some one to aamst 
"the governor down to the steamer, and unwilling to leave 
kim in such danger, as the officer sent to bring our Rroo- 
xnen did not appear, be went into the but, and dragged along 
liis excellency to the ship. He was a very tall man, and as 
ixc swayed hither and thither from weakness, weighing down 
X}r. Livingstone, it must have appeared like one drunken 
■ zxian helping another. Some of the Portuguese white sol- 
W diers stood fighting with great bravery against the enemy in 
firont, while a few were coolly shooting at their own slaves 
for fleeing into the river behind. The rebels soon retired, 
a.Eid the Portuguese escaped to a sand-bank in the Zambesi, 
and tbence to an island opposite Shupanga, where they lay 
for some weeks, looking at the rebels on the main land op- 
poate. This slate of inactivity on the part of the Portu- 

^Sla.e8e could not well be helped, as they had expended all 
ih^ ammunition and were waiting anxiously for supplies; 
Oolong, Qo doubt, sincerely that the enemy might not hear 
dutt their powder had Guled. Luckily, their hopes were not 
F^^^tppoioted ; the rebels waited until a supply came, and 
wen then repulsed after a three and a half hours' hard 
Idling. Two months afterward Mariano's stockade was 
^>wacd, the garrison having tied in a panic; and as fionga 


UNnrrEREsrmG scehebt. 


declared that he did not wish to figbt with this governor, 
vith whom he had no qaajrcl, the war soon came to an end. 
Hjs ezoellciicy meanwhile, bciag a discnple of Raspail, had 
taken nothing for the fever but a little camphor, and 
he was taken to Sbupanga became comatose. More potent 
remedies were administcnxl to liim, to his intense 
and ho soon recovered. The colonel in attendance, whom^ 
he never afterward forgave, encouraged the treatmenL 
" Givo what is right ; never mind him ; he is very (mtato) 
impertinent;*' and all night long, with every draught of 
water, the colonel gave a quantity of quinine: tbe oonf 
qnencc was, next rooming the patient was ctnchonized aQ< 
better. The sketch opposite represents the scene of aclioOt 
and is interesting in an historical point of view, because the 
opening in which a large old canoe, with a hole in its botjj 
torn, is seen lying on its side, is the month of the 
Mutu, which in 1S61 appeared in a map published by tJ»1 
Portuguese "Minister of Marino and the Colonies" as that 
through which the chief portion of the Zambesi, here about 
a mile wide, flowed to QuiUimone. In reality, this creek; 
eight or ten yards wide, is filled with grass, and its bed i; 
six feet or more above the level of the Zambesi The 
of the creek opposite to the oanoe is seen in the right of ' 
picture, and sloping down from the bed to one of the 
bodies may bo marked tbe suooesain heights at which ihe^ 
water of the main stream Blood fitna fiood-time in Marefa to 
its medium height in Juno. 

For stxiy or aaranty miles before reaching Mazaio the 
■oamry is tanm and uiuntntstiag. On cither hand » a 
divftry aninbabitcil axpanaoi of the same level gnusy 
with moroly a few trees to rolievD the painAil 
Tho Tovud greOQ top of the stately palm-u«e looki at 

Cif«r. t 



distance, when its gray trunk caa not bo aeen, as though 
huDg in mid-air. Many flucks of busy sand-martins, which 
here, and as far south a.s Urn Orange Kivcr, do not migrate, 
have perforated the banks two or three feet horizontally, in 
order to place their nests at the ends, and are now chasing 
on restless wing the myriads of tropical insects. The brood 
rircr has many low islands, on wjiich arc seen various kinds 
of waterfowl, such as gcesc, spoonbills, herons, and flamin- 
goes. Rcpolaivc crocodiles, as with open jowa they sleep 
and bask in the sun on the low banks, soon catch the sound 
of the revolving paddles and glide quietly into the stream. 
The hippopotamus, having selected some stiJl reach of the 
river to spend the day, rises fi-om the bottom, where he has 
been enjoying his morning bath aflcr the labore of tha night 
on shore, blows a puff of spray out of his nostrils, shakes the 
water out of his cnra, puts his enormous snout up straight 
and yawns, sounding a loud alarm to the rest of the herd, 
with notes as of a monster bassoon. 

As we approach Mazaro the scenery improves. We see 

tbe well-wooded Shupanga ridge stretching to iim left,, and 

in front blue bills rise dimly far iu the distanca There is 

no trade whatever on the Zambesi below Mazaro. All the 

tnetchandise of Senna and Tottc is brought to that point in 

lArgC canoes, and thence carried six miles aei'oss the cuuu- 

^ oa men's heads to be reshipped on a small stream thai 

floire into the Kwakwa, or Quillimanc River, which is en- 

Rifely distinct from the Zambesi. Only on rare occasions 

•nd during the highest floods can canoes pass from the Zam- 

bwi to the Quillimanc River through the narrow natural 

*>anil ifufa. The natives of Maruni, or the country around 

Mazsro, the word ilazaro meaning the " mouth of the creek" 

««ln.have a bad name among the Portuguese; they awj 




said 10 be expert thieves, and the merchaotfl sometimea 
suffer from their adroitness while the goods are in transit 
from one river to tlie other. In general they are trained 
canoC'mcD, and man man^ of the canoes that ply tfaence 
to Senna and Tctte ; their pay is small, and, not trusting 
the traders, they must alprays have it before they start 
Africans buing prone to ^uwign plausible reasons for their 
conduct, HIce whito men in more enlightened lands, it ia 
possible they tnay be good- humo redly giving their reason 
for insisting on being invariably paid in advance in the 
worde of their favorite canoe-song, " Uachingere, Uachingere 
Kale," "You cheated mo of old;" or, "Thou art alippeiy, 
alippery truly." 

The Landeens or Zulus are lords of the right bonk of 
the Zambesi ; and the Portuguese, by paying this 6gbting 
tribe a pretty heavy annual tribute, pracucally admit thia 
Regularly every year corac the Zulus in force to Senna and 
Sbupanga for their aooustomcd tribute. The few wealthy 
merchants of Senna groan under the burden, for it fidls 
ohiofly on them. They submit to pay annually 200 pieces 
of cloth, of sixteen yards each, besides beads and brass wire, 
knowing timt refusal involves war, which might end in the 
loss of all they possess. Tho Zulus appear to keep as sharp 
a look-out on tho Senna and Shupanga people as ever land- 
Ion! did on tenant ; tho more thoy cultivate, tlic more tribute 
ihoy hftvo to pay. On asking some of them why tbey did 
not endoRvor to mim certain highly profitable products, we 
WOT8 nnsworvd, ""What's tho use of our cultivating any more 
■ than we do? thii Lnndmms would only oomo down on us for 
more tribute," 

In llio fonwtM of Shupanf^ tho Moknndu-kundu tree 
nboumU; iUi bright yellow wood makes good boat-masts. 

Cmat. I. 



nuU yields a strong bitter medicine for fever; the Gundu- 
tree aitains aa inimense size; its timber is bard, ratber cross- 
grained, with masses of sibca deposited la its substance; the 
large canoes, capable of carrj^ing three or four tons, are 
made of its wood. Fur permission to cut these trees, a Fort- 
□guesc gentloman of Quillimane was paying the Zulus, in 
185S, two hundred dollars a year, and bis successor now 
pays tbroo hundred. 

At Shupanga, a one-stoned stone house stands on the 
prettiest site on the river. In &ont, a eloping lawn, with a 
fine mango orchard at ita Boutbem end, leads down to the 
broad Zambc^ whose green islands repose on the sunny 
bosom of the tranquil watera Beyond, northward, lie vast 
fields and forests of palms and tropical trees, with the mass* 
ive mountain of Morambala towering amid the white clouds; 
and farther away more distant hUIs appear in the blue hor- 
izon. This beautifully situated house possesses a melan- 
oboly interest from having been associated in a most mourn* 
fill manner with the history of two English expeditions. 
Uae, in 1S26, poor Kirkpatrick, of Captain Owen's Survey- 
ing Expedition, died of fever; and here, in 1862, died, of 
the same fata] disease^ the beloved wife of Dr. Livingstone. 
A hundred yards east of the house, under a large Baobab* 
tJK, far from their native land, both are buried. 

The Shupanga house was the head-quarters of the govern- 
or daring the Mariano war. lie told us. that the proxnnoe 
of Mozambique costs the Ilomc Government between £5000 
tad £6000 annnally, and East Africa yields no reward in 
retoni to the mother country. "We met there several other 
inflactitial Portugucsa All seemed friendly, and expressed 
their willingness to assist the expedition in every way id 
their power; and better still, Colonel Nunes and Major Si* 




oord put tfaeir good- will into action by cutting wood for Ibe 
stoomor and aendiog men to help in unloading. It was ob- 
ttCrrable that not one of tbem knew any thing about the 
Kongoii6 MoQtb; all tbougbt tbat wc bad come in by tbe 
"Barra Catrina," or East Luabo.* Dr. Kirk remained here 
a few we«k8 ; and, besides exploring a small lake twenty 
miles to tbe soutbwcst, bad tbe boIc medical care of tbe 
aok and wounded soldiers, for wbicb valuable services be 
received tbe tbanks of tbe Portuguese government. We 
wooded up at tbis place witb African ebony or black wood, 
and ligDoni'Vita) ; tbe latter tree attains an immense size, 
^sometimes as mucb as four feet in diameter. Our engineer, 
knowing wbat ebony and ligtium-vitie cost at home, said it 
made bis heart soro to burn woods so valuablt Though 
botanically diifercnt, they nro c:ctremely alike; the black 
vood, as grown in some districts, h aopcrior, and the lignum* 
vilfo inferior in quality to tbcso timlwrs brought from other 
OOQntri€& Caoutchouc, or India-rubber, is found in abund- 
mioo inland from Sbupanga honse, and calumba root is plen- 
tiful in tbo district; indigo, in qnautitics, propagates itself 
cloeo to tbo banks of the river, and was probably at some 
time cultivated, for manufitetured iudigo was once exported. 
Tbo India-rubber is made into balls for a game resembling 
" fives," and calumba root is said to bo used as a mordant 
for ctrUiin collars, but not as a dye itself 
We started for Tetto on the 17th of August, 185S; the 

* IW IMMB «( ibnb m%m of tnowMeo— is wUch, ■wwMwtMJJnn die 
TOM iiitwr niiffillj ■■■Willi In oAeUd |«p«n, ike pmniiiient m Lisbon t»- 
qwwiwiiMr atAit^ — «u ftobMj, u «« tnniMatt, iaa necni funiMiwi 
Dnrinc the |«fiod of oox M^iMbitann wiih ttw KaaciB^nhonl dcfc? jvdt 
w«n vMthaJ ftumjr on om Mo nA ttr|iraitM] on iha ettar. A nwi^bk cka^ 
n-l Vt Ktbi««)hI* *m qnlw aUnl >•(<. «nd TmH Uhad dmtIj ail wMiNd 
aw«y. A* mdhim -whakint* k dono to fiwur% iht rtiBwnBJ il wOl non U 
V nUkxr w Am IfikMK «<l tnirtiy «ntan far rnii fnOm. 

Cou-. I. 



navigation waa rather difTiculi, the Zambesi from Sbupaiiga 
to SeDoa being wide and full of islands; oar black pilot, 
John Scissors, a serf, sometimes look the wrong channel and 
ran as agroond. M'othing abashed, he would exclaim in an 
aggrieved tone, "This is not the path; it is back yonder." 
" Then why didn't you go yonder at firet?" growled out our 
Kroomen, who had the work of getting the vessel oiF. When 
they spoke roughly to poor Sdasors, the weak, cringing shivc- 
apirit came forth in^ "Those men scold me so, I am ready 
to run away." This mode of finishing up an engagement is 
not at all uncommon on the Zambesi ; several cases occurred, 
when we wero on the river, of hired crews decamping with 
most of the goods in their chnrga If the trader can not re- 
dress his own wrongs, he has to endure tbent The Landeens 
will not surrender a fugitive slave, even to his master. One 
belonging to Mr. Azcvcdo fled, and was, as a great favor 
only, returned after a present of much more than his value. 

Our steamer's badly -constructed furnaces consumed a 
frightful amount of wood. Fires were lighted at two in 
the morning, but steam was seldom up l>cfore six. A 
great deal of time was lost in wood-cutting. The large, 
beary-hulcn country canoes could nearly keep up with us, 
and the small ones shot ahead, and the paddlers looked 
back in wonder and pity at the slow pufSng "Asthmatic." 
For QS, steam was no labor-saving power; boats, or canoes 
even, would have done for the expedition all that it did, 
with half the toil and expense. 

We landed to wood at Shamoara, just below the confluence 
of the Shire. Its quarta bills are covered with trees and 
gigantic grasses ; the buaze, a small fo^c$^tree, grows abund- 
_ui|]j; it is a species of polygala; its beautiful clusters of 
Dt-scented pinkish flowers perfume the air with a rich 




flttgrance; its seetk produce a fine drying oil, and the berk 
of the smaller bi-aucbes yields a fibre finer and strooger 
than ilax, with which the uatires make their nets for fish- 
ing. Bonga, the brother of the rebel MoriaDO, and uow at 
the head of the revolted natives, with some of his piincipal 
men, came to see us, and were perfcctljr friendly, though 
told of our having carried the sick governor across to Shu- 
panga, and of our having cured him of fever. Ou oor 
acquainting Bonga with the object of the expediti<»i, he 
remarked that we should sufler no hiuderauce from his 
people in our good work. He sent as a present of rice, 
two sheop, and a quantity of firc-woud. He never tried 
to make any uae of us in the strife; the other side showed 
less confidence by careAiIly cross -questioning our piloc 
whether wo had sold any powder to the enemy. We man- 
aged, however^ to keep on good terms with both rebels and 

Being unable to take the steamer up ihs shoal channel 
along which Senna stands, we anchored at Nyaruka, a small 
hamlet of blacks, six miles below, and walked up to Senna 
next morning. The narrow winding footpath, nlong which 
wo to march in Indian Sic, lay through gardens ancl 
patches of wooci, the loftiest trees being thorny acacias. 
The sky was cloudy, the air cool and pleasant, and the 
little birds, in the gladness of their hearts, poured forth 
sweet strange songs, which, though equal to those of the 
singing birds at home on a spring morning, yet seemed, 
somehow, as if in a foreign tongue. Wo met many natives 
on the road. Moat of the men were armed with spears, 
■bows and arrows, or old Tower muskets; the women bad 
short-handled iron hoes, and were going to work in the gar- 
dens; they stepped aside to let us pass, and saluted us po* 




litely, the men boning and scrApiog, and tbc womeD, eveu 
with heavy loads on their heads, coartcajing — ^a courtesy 
&om. bare legs is startling ! 

Senna is built on a low plain, on the right bank of the 
Zambtis), with some pretty dutacbt»l bills in the back- 
groond ; it is surrounded by a stockadu of living trees to 
protect its inbabitants from their troublesome and rebel- 
lious neigbbois. It contains a few large houses, some ruins 
of othere, and a weatherbeaten cross, where once stood a 
cboicb ; a mound shows the site of an ancient monastery, 
and a mud fort by the livor is so dilapidated that cows were 
graziDg peacefully over its prostrate walls. This grteres not 
the villagers, for its black garrison was wont to keep within 
c3oois when the foe came near, leaving the merchants to 
^Kttlu the strife as best they could; and they therefore con- 
^der that the decay of the fort has not caused them to be 
CkDj more helpless than they were before. 

The few Senna merchants, having litUa or no trade in the ^c*nn<^ 
-vilUge, send parties of trusted slaves into the interior to hunt 
^or and purchase ivory. It is a dull place, and very condu- 
cive to sleep. One is sure to take fever in Senna on the 
second day, if by chance one escapes it on the first day of a 
Bojoarn there; but no place is entirely bad. Senna has one 
T^edeeming feature : it is the native village of the largc-hcart- 
^ and hospitable Senhor U. A. FerriSo. The benevolence 
of this gentleman is unbounded. The poor block stranger 
pODDg through the town goes to him almost as a matter of 
^otaia for food, and is never sent away hungry. In times 
of fiunine the starving natives are fed by his generosity ; 
liDsdreda of his own people he never sees except on these 
ixiBKions; and the only bene6t derived from being their 
ler is, that they lean on him &s a patriarchal cbief^ and 


Ciur. I. 

he baa the .satistoctiou of settling their difierencea, oad of 
sarJDg their lives in seasons of drought and Bcardty. His 
father, a maa of soperior attainmeuts, was formerly the Port- 
uguese governor of Senna, and acquired a vast tract of riidi 
country to the southward, called Chlringoma, in a most hon- 
orable manner; but the government ordered it to be liplil 
op, and reserved two leagues only for the heir, apportion- 
ing the rest in free grants to emigrants ; the reason assigned 
for the robbery was that *' it would never do for a subject to 
possess more land than the crown of Portugal." The Lao- 
deens soon followed, took pussession of tho whole, aac 
spoiled the spoilers. 

Seubor Ferrilo received us with his usual kindness, and 
gave us a bountiful breakfast During the day tho prinoipol 
men of the place called, and were unanimously of opinion 
that the fVec natives would willingly cultivate lai^e quanti- 
ties nf cotton, could they find purchasers. They had in for- 
mer times exported lai^-ly both cotton and cloth to Mnnica 
and even to Brazil. "On their own soil," they declared, 
"the naiivca are willing to labor and trade, provided only 
they can do so to advantage: when it is for their int 
blacks work very hard." "Wo often remarked subsequently 
that this was the opinion of men of energy ; and that all 
settlers of activity, enterprise, and sober habits had become 
rich, while those who were much addicted to lying on their 
backs smoking invariably complained of the lazinefs of the 
negroes, and were poor, proud, and despicable. We dim 
with another very honorable Portuguese, Major Tito AJ 
d'A. SicAid, who quoted tho common remark that Dr. Liv- 
ingstone^ discovery of tho Kongone Bar had ruined Quilli- 
mane; for the government had proposed to abandon that fe- 
ver-haunted localitv, and to found a new town at ihe mouth 



of ibe KoDgoDe. it waa not then known that householders 
in the. old village preferred to resign oU offices rather than 
remove. The major bad a great desire to assist Dr. living- 
> alone in his enterprise; and said that when the war was 
past he would at once take up his goods to Tette in canoes; 
and this he afterward roost generously did. While return- 
ing to Nyaroka, we heard a bird like a nightingale pouring 
forth ita sweet melody in the stillness of the evening. 

A picturesque range of IoA.y hills commences on the left 
bank opposite Senna, and runs in a northerly direction, near- 
ly parallel with the river. Here we first fell In with that 
fine antelope, the koodoo (Antelope sirepsieeroa). Some miles 
above Senna is the island of Pita, with a ccnsidernble native 
population, which appearetl to be well off for food. A half- 
caete, claiming to bo the head man, came on board, and gave 
w a few ears of green maize as a "seguati.'* This is not an 
oidinary present, but a very small gil^, which is to win back 
to the donor at least twice ita value. When a stingy native 
W a tough little fowl, or a few ears of Indian com, the value 
of which is hardly appreciable— as a dozen of their best fowls 
Only cost two yards of cloth (once threepence a yard), and a 
ossket of maize but half a yard — ho forma it into a "seguati," 
hia heart overflowing with that gratitude once described as a 
"Welj sense of favors to come, and is rather disappointed if 
he does not get twice the value in return. We soon learned 
^dislike "seguati" from common people, but it was in vain 
to aay to the shrewd African, "Sell it; we will buy iL" 
"Oh ao, air, it is a seguati ; it is not for sale," was the inva- 
•wil© reply. As it is understood to be a compliment, we 
"'ttyB submitted to this customary politeness from bead 
*"*■ To have dono otherwise would have seemed to our- 
'68 like ungracious manners from the rich and exalted to 



'the poor and lowly. 
we declined. 

When private peraons attempted it^ 


Beyond Pita lies the little rslnncf 
Nyamotobsi, where we met a snaalL 
fugitive tribe of hippopotamus hunt- 
ers, who had been driven by war— 
from their own island in front All. 
were bu^y at work ; some wert? 
making gigantic baskets for graio, 
the men plaiting from the inside. 
With the civility so common omon^ 
them, the chief ordered a mat to h& 
spread for us under a sbed, and then 
showed ua the weapon with which. 
they kill the hippopotamus; it is a 
diort iron harpoon inserted in ths 
end of a long pole, but being in* 
tended to unship, it is made fiist to 
a strong cord of milola, or hibiscofl^ 
bark, which is wound closely ToaDd 
the entire length of the shaf^ and 
secured at its opposite eud. Two 
men in a swift canoe steal quietly 
down on the sleeping animal. The 
bowman dashes the harpoon into 
the unconscious victim, while tbe 
quick steersman sweeps the light 
craft back with his broad paddle; 
the force of the blow separates tfae 
harpoon from its corded handle, 
which, appearing on the surface, 
sometimes with an inflated bladder attached, guides the. 






hunters to vhcre tbc wounded beast hides below until they 
dispatch it ^ 

Theae hippopotamus hunters form « separate people, call- 
ed Akorobwi, or Mapodzo, and rarely — the women, it is said, 
never — intermarry with any other tribe. The reajson for 
their keeping aloof from certain of the natives on the Zam- 
besi is obvioua enough, some having as great an abhorrence 
of hippopotamus meat as Mohammedans have of swine's 
fieah. Our pilot, ScissorB, was one of this class ; he would 
not even cook his food in a pot which had contained hippo- 
potamus meat, preferring to go hungry till ho could find 
another; and yet he traded eagerly in the animal's tusks, 
and ate with great relish the flesh of the fcul-feediug mora- 
boat. These hunters go out frequently on long expeditions, 
taking in their canoes their wives and children, cooking-pots, 
and sleeping-mata "When they reach a good game district, 
they erect temporary huts on the bank, and there dry the 
meat they have killed. They arc rtlhcr a comely-looking 
Taoe, with very black, "smooth skins, and never disQgure 
"themselves with the frightful ornaments of some of the other 
■bribes. The chief declined to sell a harpoon, because they 
<xald not now get the mibia bark from the coast on account 
«3f Mariano's war. lie expressed some doubts about our 
^Deing children of the same Almighty Father, remarking that 
••they could not become white, let them wash ever so much." 
"VVc made him a present of a bit of cloth, and he very gener- 
owly gave OS, iniietum, some fine fresh fish and Indian corn. 
The heat of the weather steadily increases during thiis 
■noiklh (August), and foggy mornings are now rare. A 
Btnmg breeze ending in a gale blows up stream every night, 
^t came in the afternoon a few weeks ago, then later, and at 
P^went its arrival is near jnidnight; it makes our frail cabin- 





doors fly open before it, but continues ouly for a short time:^^ 
and is t!iioce«dtid by a dead calm. Game becomes mor^^ 
ebandant; near ourVooding-plooeB we see herds of zebraa^^ 
both BuTcbell'B and tbo mouataia varie^, pallobs {AiUdcp^ 
mtlampus\ waterbuck, aod wild hogs, with the spoor of buf^ 
&I0C8 and elephants. 

Shiramba Dembe, on the right bonk, is deserted ; a four' 
old iron guns show where a rebel stockade onoe stood ; ncaf! 
the river, above this, stands a magnificent Baobab hoUowe<L 
out into a good-sized hut, with bark inside as well as with- 
out The old ofika in Sherwood Forest, when hollow, bav^ 
the inadc dead or rotten ; but the Baobab, though stripped 
of its bark outside, and hollowed to a cavity inside, has the 
power of exuding new bark £rom its substanoe to botU the 
outer and inner surface; so a hut made like that in the oalc 
called the " Forest Queen," in Sherwood, would soon all be 
lined with bark. 

The portions of the river called Shigogo and Shipanga 
are bordered by a low, level exp'anse of marshy oonntiy, 
with occasional clumps of palm-trees and a few thorny aoa- 
ciaa. The river itself spreads out to a width of from three 
to four miles, with many islauds, among which it is difficult 
to navigate, except when, the river is iu flood. la front, a 
range of high bills from the northeast crosses and oom- 
preeses it into a deep narrow channel, called the Lupata 
Glorge. The Portuguese thought the steamer would not 
stem the current here; but as it was not more than about 
three knots, and as there was a strong breeze in our favor, 
steam and sails got her through with ease; Heavy-laden 
canoes lake two days to go up this pass. A current sweeps 
round the little rocky promontories Chifora and Rangomba, 

Ciur. L 



fonning whirlpools and eddies dangerous for the clumajr 
craft, which are dragged pasl with long ropes. 

The paddlers place meal on these rocks as on offering to 
the turbulent deities, which they believe preside over spots 
' fatal to many a large canoe. We were slyly told that native 
Portognese take off their hats to these river gods, and pass 
in solemn silence ; when safely beyond the promontories, 
they fire muskets, and, as we ought to do, give the canoe* 
len grog. From the spoor of buffaloes and elephants it 
appears that these animals frequent Lupata in considerable 
numbers, and — ^we have often observed the association — the 
jtse fly is common. A horse for the Governor of Tclte 
'"Vras sent in a canoe from Quilliraane ; and, lest it should be 
-wrecked on the Chifura and Kaugomba rocks, it was put on 
shore and sent in the daytime through the pass. It was of 
cx>aTse bitten by the tsetse, and died soon after; it was 
thought that the atr of Tette had not agreed with it. The 
ciirrenta above Lnpata are stronger than those below; the 
country bocomea more picturcJ^quc and hilly, and there is a 
larger population. Within a few miles of Tctto arc nnmcr- 
otis ruins of stone houses, which were detstroyed some years 
ago by hostile natives. 'On our approaching the vilhige, 
crowds of people, chiefly blacks, appeared on the beach, gaz- 
ing ih astonishment at the steamer, and, by the motions of 
tb.cir arms, demonstrating to othera farther off the manner in 
which the paddles revolved. 



Ciup. U. 


Meet Makololo at T«to. — MurJcr of Sis of iln*ni by Bonga, the Son of Nt- 
nudc. — HavagCA of Smallpox. — Mnkololu «apport«il n»t iiccorOing to public 
OnJcra, bul !>/ (Sie [irivatu Ituuntjr of Mujor t>icnril.— (.^nnvict CtaM called 
"IncorrigiWai."— SopGrttiiion* about MjmBoe«i, ColToc irnd lUin-Tiiiiking.— 
Securing SlaTeB by iii«hiis of dameEtio Tins. — Cnw of Toluin«r7 Slurcrjr.— 
Cruel Nntuni of Half-casie*.— Nalivi; love of TrnJc. — N(iti»« Medical l*n»- 
Ansion. — Klcpliant oud Crucuilite Schools of Medicine. — Dice Dociun and 
ibeir BBB as doiwiiro Police. — Scima nnd Indigo Plants. — CoiO, GoUl, and 
Iron. — Asc«nt tn Ki^lirnbium Itiipi^s. — Block GIuec on Roclw. — Tribe o(B»- 
dfema.— A TraveloT's ThJg — Tho River Luitv.--Hifijii);iutamMB Flesh. — Dif- 
ficalt Trftvcling.— CumtiiM BI«ep,— Sunsinikc^Moturoliwa C^tAracL — Ke- 
bnbaM aarvajtad fruru Bod to End. 

The sliip ancbored in tlie stream off Tette on the 8tH of 
September, 1858, and Br. Livingstone went ashore in the 
boat No 80oncr did the Makololo* recognize him than 
they mshed to the water's edge, and manifested great joy at 
seeing him again. Some were haatening to embrace bim, 
but otliers cried out, *' Don't touch him ; you will spoil his 
new clothes." The five head meil came on board and listen- 
ed in quiet sadnees to the story of poor Sekwebu, who died 
at the Mauritius oa his way to Kuglaud. "Men die^n any 
country," they observed, and then told us that thirty of their 
own number had died of smallpox, having been bewitched 
by the people of Tcltc, who envied them because, during the 
first year, none of their party had died. Six of their young 

• Mnlioloto, Manganjtt, AJHivn, BtvtgTca. Malebcic, Bflhisa, Boww, etc., etc., 
■re all plural noun*; Mft,Bft, A.beiiiK plural prcfiw»,w]iicli (he Arabs chuigfl 
into W», a» WaujfBwa, the peojik- of NyaaM, or Mangaryu, WaWia. who cftll 
ihcmiwlva* Bablift, and wmeUmea Avi,a. It hu iiM been deemed DeMMurr 
to add . to wordj ftlrtadjf jdonil. 



xstsi, beooming tired of cutliug firewood for a meagre pit- 
^ADCc, proposed to go and dunce for gain before some of the 
zieighboring cbieik "Don't go," Baid the othera; " we don't 
Icnow tho people of this country;" but the young men set 
ont and visited an indepeudeot half-coBte chief a few milea 
to the north, named Chisaka, who Bome years ago burned aU 
the PortDgucso villas on the north bank of the river; ol^r- 
vard the young men went to Bonga, son of another half 
caste chief, who bade deHance to the Tette authorities, and 
liad a stockade at tho oonGuenoe of the Zaxahea and LueQ' 
yo, a few miles below that village.* Asking the Makololo 
whence they came, Bonga rejoined, " Why do you come 
from my enemy to me? You have brought witchcraft 
medicine to kill me." In vain they protested that ibcy did 
not belong to the country ; they were strangers, and had 
oomc from afar with an Englishman. The superstitious 
^B^vage put them all to death. " We do not grieve/' said 
their companions, " for the thirty victims of tho smallpojc, 
who were taken away by Morimo (God), but our hearts are 
sore for the six youths who were murdered by Bonga." 
Any hope of obtaining justice on the murderer was out of 
the question. Bonga onoe caught a captiun of the Portu- 
gaese navy, and forced him to perform the menial labor of 
poonding maize in a wooden mortar. No punishment fol- 
lowed on this outrage The government of Lisbon has 
uooe given Bonga the honorary title of Captain, by way 
of coaxing him to own their authority ; but he still holds 

• Thla li ant that Bonga, brother of irariano, wlio was canyini; oq war id 
ttothcr qoMtcr ; Uie word neam Jt "tiKer-csl;" And thb «u tho ton of Nf • 
•ad^ «ho, when the nhola force of Tcti4 wu miiucreil iic iho LucDjra, wu . 
Mot ap the oppoMie iMnk hy his father, nnil buracJ all the Tillage save tbe 
thnrchand Curt, 




Oae of the head men remarked "that thej hod some 
pigs; they wished they had been oxen, but they were only 
pig8. Would the doctor eat pig?" "Why do you ask?" 
rgoined another; "if he won't, his people will." When 
parting they remarked, " We shall sleep to-night" The 
use of the Besidencia, or Government House, was kindly 
^ven us by Major Tito A. d'A. Sicard : it is a stone house 
of one story, thatcbed with graae, its windows of cloth, and 
the floors of clay. The Makololo carried up our goods ; the 
minstrel of the party, called Singcleka, fallowed, jingling his 
native bcUa, and chanting an energetic song extemporized 
for the occasion. Some readers may remember that when 
Dr. Livingstone was in Kngland, it was commonly reported 
that the Portuguese government bad sent out orders to have 
the Makololo supported at the public expense until he re- 
turned to take them back to their own country. This gen- 
erons sympathy on the part of the ministers in Lisbon grati' 
fled many English philaiilhropiflts, and, relieving the doc- 
tor's mind from anxiety, gave him time to prepare bis jour- 
nal for the press before setting out again t6 his work. 
When our own govemineQt promises to perform any thing, 
no one in big senses ever doubts their word of honor; and 
for this reason the English people and the English govern- 
ment naturally err by giving too ready credit to the assur- 
ances of governments whose moral tone is pitched much 
lower than their own. The Makololo never heard of the 
order from Portugal, and the Portuguese authorities at Tette 
were in profound ignorance of its existence. The pay of 
the officials, in fact, was several years in arrear, and for his 
most faithful majesty's government to pretend to order them 
to feed a hundred men out of their own private means look- 
ed a little like the not uTiusual kind of benevolence of being 




generous with other people's property. The poor fellows 
liad to go far to cut woo<1, and then hawk it round the vil* 
lage to buy a litUo food. They received no aid from the 
Mozambique government ; but Major Sicard did assist them 
moct generoasly at his own cost^ and also gave them land 
zmd boc8 to raise Eome food for themselves. 

Tetto stands on a succession of low sandstone ridges on 
the right bank of the Zambesi, which is here nearly a thou- 
aod yards wide (960 yards). Shallow ravines, running par- 
allel with the river, form the streets, the houses being built 
on the ridges. The w^ole surface of the streets, except nar- 
row footpaths, were overrun with self-sown indigo, and tons 
of it might have been collected. In fact, indigo, senna, and 
stramonium, with a species of cassia, form the weeds of the 
place, which are ansually hoed aS and bunted. A wall of 
stone and mud surrounds the village, and the native popu- 
lation live in huts outside. The fort and the church, near 
the river, are the strong-holds; the natives having a saluta- 
17 dread of the guns of the one, and a superstitious fear of 
ihe unknown power of the otlior. The number of white 
inhabitanla is small, and rather select, many of them having 
been oonsidcralely sent out of Portugal "for their country's 
good.'' The military element preponderates in society; the 
convict and *' incorrigible" clnss of soldiers, receiving very 
li^c pay, depend in great measure on the produce of the 
gardena of their black wives; the moral condition of the 
rosQlling population may be imagined. Even the officers 
seldom receive their pay from government; but, being of 
an enterprising ^irit, they contrive to support themselves 
by marrying the daughters or widows of wealthy merchants, 
and trade in ivory by means of the slaves of wliom they 
tbns become the mnstera. 




Droughts are of frequent ocxurrence at Tette, and the 
crops eufter severely. Tliis mny arise partly from the posi- 
tion of the town between the ranges of hills north and south, 
which appear lo have a strong attraction for the rain-clouda 
It ia oilea seen to rain oti these bills wheo not a drop lalls 
at Tette. Our Urst season was one of drought, Thrice had 
the women planted their gardens in vain; the seed, after 
just vegetating, was killud hy-tbe intense dry heat A 
fourth planting shored the same hard fate, and then some 
of the knowing ones discovered the cause of the clouds be- 
ing frightened away— our unlucky rain-gauge in the garden. 
We got a bad name through that same rain-gauge, and were 
regarded by many as a species of evil omen. The Makololo, 
in turn, blamed the people of Tett« for drought: "A num- 
ber of witches live here, who won't let it rain." Africans 
in general arc sufficiently superetitioua, but those of Totte 
are in, this particular pre-eminent above their follows. Com- 
ing from many different tribes, all the rays of the separate 
snpcnititiona converge into a focus at Tette, and bum oat 
common aonao from the minds of the mixed breed. They 
believe that many evil spirits Hve in the air, the earth, and 
the water. These invisible malicious beings are thought to 
inflict much suiTering on the human raoe; but, as they have 
a weakness for beer and a craving for food, they may be 
propitiated from time to time by offerings of meat and 
drink. The serpent is an object of worahip, and hideous 
little images are hung in the huts of the sick and dying. 
The uncontaminated Africans believe that Morungo, the 
Great Spirit who formed all things^ lives above the stars; 
but they never pray to him, and know nothing of their re- 
lation to him, or of bis interest in them. The spirits of their 
departed ancestors arc all good, according to iheir ideas, and 




on apocial occasions aid tbem in their enterprises. When a 
man hoa his hair cnt, he ia carefu] to burn it, or bury it ac- 
cretljt I^ falling into the bands of one who has %q evil 
eye, or is a witch, it should be used ns a charm to afflict 
him with headache. They believe, too, that they will live 
after the death of the body, but do not know any thing of 
the state of the Barimo (gods, or departed spirits). 

The mango-tree grows luxuriantly above Lupata, aztd 
fonusbcs a grateful shade. Its delicious fruit is superior to 
that on the coast For weeks the natives who have charge 
of the mangoes live entirely on the fruit, and, as some trees 
bear in November and some in March, while the main crop 
oomea between, fruit iu abuudauce may easily be obtained 
daring four months of the year ; but uo native can bo in* 
duced to plant a manga A wide-spread superstition bos 
become riveted iu the native mind that if any one plants 
tbiB tree he will soon die. The Makololo, like other na- 
tives, were very fond of the fruit; bat wheu told to take op 
•ome maogo-stones ou their return, and plant them iu their 
own country — they too having become deeply imbued with 
ihe belief that it was a suicidal act to do so — replied " they 
^ not wish to die too eoon." There is also a superstition 
fiven among the native Portuguese of Tcttc that if a man 
plants ooffee he will never afterward be happy: they drink 
(^ however, and seem the happier for it. 

X>aring the drought of 185B a neighboring chief got nj> 
3 performance, with divers ceremonies and incantations, to 
'"irig rain, but it would not come. The Goanese padre of 
"^(^te, to satisfy his compatriots, appointed a prooession and 
pwiyeia in honor of Saint Antonio for the same purpose. 
Tlbe 6iBt attempt did not answer, but on the second ooca- 
BOfi, arranged to come off after the new moon appeared, a 




grand procession in tho saint's bonor ended tn so much nun 
that the roof of the Kesidoncia gave way ; Saint Antoaio's 
image %aa decorated the following week wilb a golden cor- 
onal worth £22, for scDding the long-ddaycd and mach- 
necded rain. Wc never looked with disdaia on the rites 
or ceremonies of any Church ; but, on witnessing the acts 
of worship ou this occasion, so great was the irreverence 
manifested — the kneeling worshipers laughing and joking 
between the responses, not even ceasing tbeir grins when 
uttering "Ora pro nobis" — that we could not help believing 
that if, like the natives, tbcy have faith in rain-making, they 
have faith in nothing else. 

Most of tho trees shed their leaves iu May, tho beginning 
of winter, and remain baro until the rains como in Novem- 
ber; several kinds are in the curious habit of anticipating, 
as it wore, the rains by instinct ; and in the beginning of 
October, when the dry season baa reached its driest point, 
and there is not a drop of dew, tbcy begin to generate buds, 
and in a few days put forth fresh and various-hued foliage, 
and sometimes beautiful blossoms. In a somewhat similar 
manner, the trees in the arciic regions are &aid to anticipate 
tho coming spring, and display fresh green leaves when tho 
ground is hard frozen to a depth greater than that to which 
roots ever penetrate. 

The Portuguese of Tette have many slaves, with all the 
usual vices of their class, as ihell, lying, and impurity. As 
a general rule, the real Portuguese are tolerably humane 
masters, and rarely treat a slave cruelly: this may bo due 
as much to natural kindness of heart as to a fear of losing 
the slaves by their running away. When they purchase an 
adult slave, they buy, at the same time, if possible, all bis 
reJatioM along with him. They thus contrive to secure him 

Crap. U. 



to his new home by domestic ties. KunQing away then 
woukl bo to forsake all who hold a place in his heart for the 
mere chance of acquiring a freedom which would probably 
be forfeited on his entrance into the first native vilhige, for 
the chief might, without compunction, again sell him into 

A rather singular case of Toluntary slavery came to our 
knowledge: a free black, an intelligent, active young fellow, 
called Chibanti, who had been our pilot on the river, told us 
that he had sold himself into slavery. On asking why he 
bad done this, he replied that he was all alone in the world, 
had neither father nor mother, nor any one else to give him 
iTftter when sick, or food when hungry; so he sold himself 
to Major Sicard, a notoriously kind master, whoso slaves 
bad little to do, and plenty to cat "And how much did 
jou get for youTSclf?" we asked. "Three thirty-yai-d pieces 
of cotton cloth," he replied ; " and I forthwith bought a 
xnan, a woman, and child, who cost me two of the pieces, 
«nd I had one piece left." This, at all cvonia, showed a cool 
«nd calculating spirit; he afterward bought more slaves, 
«md in two years owned a sulTtcient number to man one 
of the large canoe* His master subsequently employed 
liim ia carrying ivory to Quilltmanc, and gave him cloth 
X^ hire mariners for the voyage ; he took his own slaves, of 
csoursc, and thus drove a thriving business; and was fully 
^sonviuced that he had made a good speculation by the sale 
-of himself, for, had he been »ck, his master must have sup- 
ported him. Occasionally some of the free blacks become 
a^&ves voluntarily by going through the simple but signifi- 
cant oereraony of breaking a spear in the presence of their 
future master. A Portuguese officer, since dead, persuaded 
one of the Makololo to remain in Tcttc instead of returning 




to lliS'Own ccunli7, and tried also to induce him to break ft 
spe&T borore him, and thus acknowledge himself his alave^ 
but the man nas too shrewd for this; he wm a great elfr 
phont doctor, who accompanied the hunters, told them when 
to attack the huge beast, and gave them medicine to insui« 
success. Unlike the real Portuguese, many of the half-caattt^ 
are merciless slaveholders ; their brutal treatment of the 
wretched slaves 13 notorious. What a humane oativo of 
Portugal onco said of them is oppropriate, if not true: '^God 
made white men, and God made black men, but the devil 
madft half-casicB." 

The offlccrs and merchants send parties of slaves under 
&tthfttl head men to hunt elephants and to trade in iTorj, 
providing them with a certain quanlity of dotfa, bead£^ eta, 
and requiring so much ivory in return. These slaves tliii 
ibat they have made a good thing of it when they kill an 
dophant near a village^ as the natives give them beer 
neal in exohange fer some of the elephant's meat, and 
ovvry ittsk that is bought there is expended a vast amount 
of time, talk, and beer. Host of (ho AlHcans an natonl- 
boru traders ; they love trade more for the soke of tradin^f 
than for what they inak* by iu An mieUigent genl 
oTTetto told qb tbat native tiadera often omm to him 
a task for aaH «oiMMler the price be oOen, demud mote^ 
talk over il« tttirs to cootfolt about it^ and at length go away 
vilkow attUia« H; nut day ihet try another merebaot, 
toOCk QoaatABr, |^ pnried, and go off aa oo tbe 
di^ and oontiiiMo ihia taum daily vmU tKey have 
ki|ii sawa VfWT aeruhani ia the vithp^ aid then at 

ettd by aaUtag tba pnetoaa 



coe Ibr eren 


k th* 

Chap. II. 



oa tbem by their being tbe object of the wheedling and 
coaxing of eager merchants, a feeling to which even the 
lore of gain is snbordinatc. 

The native medical profession ia reasonably well rcprc- 
aented. In addition to the r^ulor praciitioneis, who are a 
really useful class, and know something of their profession, 
and tb« nature and power of certain medicines, there ore 
others who devote their talents to some specialty. The ele- 
phant doctor prepares a medicine which is considered indis- 
pensable to the honters when attacking that noble and sa- 
gacious beast; no hnnter is willing to venture out before 
investing in this precious nostrum. The crocodile doctor 
aells a charm which is believed to possess the singular vir- 
toe of protecting its owner from crocodiles. Unwittingly 
we emended the crocodile school of medicine while at Tette 
by shooting one of these huge reptiles as it lay basking in 
tlie sun on a sand-bank ; the doctors came to the Makololo 
h wrath, clamoring to know why the white man had shot 
llieir crocodile. 

A shark's hook was baited one evening with a dog, of 
which the crocodile is said to be particularly fond; hut the 
dootoia removed the bait, on tho principle that tbe more 
crocodilee the more demand for medicine, or perhaps be- 
cause they preferred to eat the dog thcraficlves. Mimy of 
^e natives of this quarter are known, as in the South Seas, 
■o* eat the dog without p&ying any attention to its feeding. 
I^e dioc doctor or diviner is an important member of the 
^'c^'xununity, being consulted by Portuguese and natives alike. 
Pftrt of his business is that of a detective, it being his duty 
to tUscovcr thieves. Wlien goods are stolen, ho goes and 
^ks at the place, casts his dice, and waits a few days, and 
^^n, for a consideration, tells who is the thief: he is gen- 



erally correct, for he trusts not to bia dice alone ; be has 
confidential agents all over tbe village, by whose inquiries 
and information he is enabled to det«ct tbe cuIphL Since 
tbe introduction of muskets, gun doctora have sprung up, 
and tboy soil the mcdicioc which professes to moko good 
marksmen ; others are rain doctors, etc, etc. Tbe various 
schools deal in little charms;, which are hung lound ^e pur 
chaser's neck to avert evil: some of them contain the medi- 
cine, others increase its power. 

Indigo, about three or four feet high, grows in great lux* 
uriance in the streets of Tettc, and so does tbe senna plant 
The leaves are undistinguishable from those imported in 
England. We set the Makololo to collect tipticimens, but 
tbe natives objected to their doing so, though tboy tbeni- 
selves never make use of tbem. A small amount of first- 
rate cotton is cultivated by tbe native population for the 
manu&LCture of a coarse cloth. In. former times the Portu- 
guese collected it at a cheap rate, and made use of it instead 
of the.cahco now imported, to exchange for the Monica gold 
dost A neighboring tribe raises tbe sugar-cane, and makn 
a little sugar ; but they use most primitive wooden rollers, 
and having no skill in mising lime with the extracted juice, 
tbe product is of course of very inferior t|uality. Plenty of 
nugnetiio iron oro is found near Tettc, and coal also to any 
amount, a single cltfl'-sciun measuring twenty-Eve feet in 
thickness. It was found to bam wclL in the steamer on the 
first trial The ash showed a large quantity of ahaly re- 
fuse; but, suspecting that this was from tbe coal near tbe 
surface having been exposed to the weather for ages, we 
drove a sbaR. of some thirty feet, and the mineral was found 
to improve tbe farther we went in. Gold is washed for in 
tbe beds of rivers, within a couple of days of Tette. The 



natives are fully aware of its valae, but seldom search for 
it, and never dig deeper than four or five feet. They dread 
lest tho falling in of the sand of the river's bed should "bury 
them. In former timc^ when traders irent with hnndreds 
of aiavca to tho washings, tho produce was considerable. 
It is DOW insignificant The gold-producing lauds have al- 
ways been in the handa of independent tribes. Deep cut- 
tings near the sources of the gold-yielding streams seem 
never to have been tried here, as in California and Austra- 
lia, nor has any machinery been used save common wotden 
basins for washing. 

Oar curiosity had been so much excited by the reports 
we heard of the Kebrabasa Baplds, that we resolved to 
make a short eiamination of them, and seized the oppor- 
tunity of the Zambeiti being unusually low to endeavor to 
aacertain their character while uacovered by the water. 
We reached them on the 9:h of November. The country 
between Tette and Pauda Mokua, where navigation ends, 
is well wooded and billy on both bunks. Panda Mokua 
is a hill two miles below the rapids, capped with dolomite 
coniainiug copper ore. 

Conspicaoos among the trees for its gigantic size, and 
bark colored e^cactly like Egyptian syenite, is the burly Ba- 
obab. It often makes the other trees of the forest look like 
mere bushes in comparison. A hoUoi^ one, already men- 
tioiwd, is 74 feet In circumference, another was 84, and some 
have been found on tho West Coast which measures 100 
feeU Their great aixo induced some to imagine thai they 
afforded evidence that the flood of Noah never took place. 
A careful examination of many hundreds in the forests, and 
of some which have sprang up in the floors of old stone 
hooftcs, convinces us, from the number of concentric rings. 



that even the very largest specimcna of this remarkably 
60ft-wooded tree arc not 500 yeora old. The lofty rarij 
of Kebrabasa, consisiing chiefly of conical hills, coi 
with scraggy trees, crosses tbo Zambesi, and confiiies ii 
within a narrow, rough, and rocky dell of about a quarter 
of a mile in breadth; over this, which may be called the 
flood-bed of the river, large masses of rock are huddled ii 
indescribable confusion. The drawing, for the use of whichp 
and of others, our thanks are due to Lord Russell, conveys 
but*6. fiiint idea of the scene, inasmuch as the hills whtob 
confine the river do not appear in the sketch. The chief 
rock is syenite, some portions of which have a bcatitiful bluej 
tinge like hjfi-i lazuli diffused through them ; others 
gray. Blocks of granite also abound, of a pinkish tinge;^ 
and these, with metamorphic rocks, contorted, twisted, and 
thrown into every conceivable position, afford a picture of 
dislocation or unconformability which would gladden a 
logical lecturer's heart ; but at high flood this rough cl 
nel is all smoothed overj and it then conforms well with 
the river below it, which is half a mile wide. In the diy 
season the stream runs at tho bottom of a narrow and deep 
groove, whose sides arc polished and fluted by the boiliog 
action of the water in flood, like the rims of ancient Eaatorn 
wells by the draw-ropes. Tho breadth of the groove ii 
of^a not more than forty to sixty yards, and it has some 
sharp turnings, double channels, and littJo cataracta in ii 
As wc steamed up, the masta of the "Ma Robert," though 
Bomc thirty feot high, did not reach the level of the flooded 
channel above, and the man in the ohaina sung out, '^Ko 
bottom at ten fathoms." Huge pot-holes, as largo as draw- 
wells, had been worn in the sides, and were so deep that in 
some instances, when protected IVom the sun by overhang- j 

Chat. U. 


icg boulders, the water in them was quite cool. Some of 
these holes had been worn right through, and only the side 
next the roek remained, while the aides of the groove of 
the flood-channel were polished as smooth as if they had 
gone through the granite mills of Aberdeen. The preasore 
of the water must be enormous to produce this polish. It 
had wedged round pebbles into chinks and crannies of the 
rocks so firmly that, though they looked* quite looee, they 
could not be moved except with a hammer. The mighty 
power of the water here seen gave us an idea of what is 
goidg on in thousands of cataracts in the world. All the 
information we had been able to obtain from our Portu- 
guese friends amounted to this, that some three or four de- 
tached rocks jutted out of the river iu Kcbrubasa, which, 
though dangerous to the cumbersome native cauoes, could 
be easily passed by a st«amer, and that if one or two of 
tlieae obstructions were blasted away with gunpowder, no 
difficulty would hereafter be experieuced. After wo had 
dnfully esplored seven or eight miles of the rapid, we re- 
imed to the vesse], satisfied that much groaLor labor was 
requisite for the mere examination of the cataracts than our 
fiiends supposed necessary to remove them ; we tboreforo 
Vent down the river for fresh su])plics, and made prepara- 
tion for a more serious survey of this region. 

The steamer having retumedj'rom the bar, we set out on 
tlie 22d of November to examine the rapids of Kebrabasa.* 
Wg reached the foot of the hills again late in the aflcrnoon 
of the 24th, and anchored in the stream. Canoe-men never 
flleepon the river, but always spend the night on shore. The 

* TV word Bd prononiued bjr the ODiiTea is Eisorn-bua, " &jihh or break 
<k* ■ertce." The PortiipueM word Kebro (qiichm) mrnni the stano thing, 
*b4 rtCen to the break which occnn in the labor of loilinji np thu« Fat id httrj 
<**>oet,u]d then curpng Um logKiigc bencc overland tu Chicova. 



Caw. n. 

natives on the right Imnk, in the country called Shidima, who 
Eiro Banyai, and, crcu at this short dbtance from Tette, inde- 
pcndeot, and accustomed to lord it over Portuguese traden, 
wondered what could be our object in remaining afloat^ and 
were naturally suspicious at our departing from the universal 

They hailed us from the bank in the evening with " why 
don't you corao and sleop on shoro like other people?" 

The answer they received from our Makalolo, who now 
felt OS independent as the Banyai, was, " We arc held to 
the bottom with iron ; you may see we are not like your 

This hint, a little amplified, saved us from the aaual exac- 
tions. It is pleasant to give a present, but that pleasure the 
Banyai usually deny to strangers by making it a fine, and 
demanding it in such a superuilioua way that only a sorely- 
oowcd trader could bear it They often refuse to touch what 
is offered — throw it down and leave it — sneer at the trader's 
alavca; and refuse a passage until the tribute is raised to tbe 
utmost extent of his meana 

LettTing the steamer next morning, we proceeded on foot, 
oooompanicd by a native Portuguese and his men and a doz- 
en Makololo, who carried our baggage. The morning was 
pleasant; the hills on our right furnished for a time a delight- 
ftil shade ; but, before long,jhe path grow frightfully rough, 
and the hills no longer shielded us from the blazing sua. 
Scarcely a vestige of a track was now visible ; and, indeed, 
had not our guide aasured us to the contrary, we should have 
boon innocent of oven tho suspicion ofa way along the patch- 
es of sofl yielding aand, and on the great rocks over which 
we so painfully clambered. These rocks have a singular ap- 
peorauoe, from being dislocated and twisted in every direo- 



ton, aiid covered with a thin black glaze, as if highly poUsh- 
fftd and uoatcd with lampblack variiish. Tbia seems to have 

BD deposited while the river was in flood, for it covers only 
loee pocka which lie between the highest water-mark and a 
FHne about four feet above the lowesL Travelers who have 
visited the nipida of the Orinoco and the Congo say that the 
there have a similar appearance, anil it is attribnted to 
some deposit from the water, formed only when the current 
is strong. Tliia may account for it in part here, as it prevails 
only where the narrow river is confined between maasca of 
rock, backed by high hills, and where the cnrrent in floods is 
known to bo the strongest; and it does not exist where the 
[locks arc only on one side, with a sandy beach opposite, and 
ft broad expanse of river between. The hot rocks bamt the 
thick soles of our men's feet, and sorely fatigued ourselves. 
Our first day's march did not cxoccd four miles in a straight 
line, and that we found more than enough to be pleasant. 

A few inhabitants, of the tribe called Badima, were seen 
Uving in the valleys. They cultivate small quantities of 
maize:, tobacco, and cotton in the available hollows, and the 
holcos sorghum, or, as they call it, "mapim," on the steep 
slopes of their mountains. Fiah arc caught in the river with 
casting nets. Zebras, antelopes, and other animals are taken 
by driving them into ravines, strong nets made of baobab- 
bark being stretched across the narrow outlets. 

The slate of insecurity in* which the Badima tribe live is 
indicated by the habit of hiding their provisions in the hills, 
and keeping only a smalt quantity in their huts; they strip 
a particular species of tree of its bitter bark, to which both 
mice and monkeys arc known to have an antipathy, and, 
turning the bark inside out, sew it into cylindrical vessels 
for their gnuD, and bury them ia holes and in eraga ou the 



A 'riiAVlCI-KH'S TA1.E. 


woodcsd bill-sides. By tliis means, should a marauding parQ' 
plimder their liuis, they save a supply of corn. They " could 
give us no iuformution, and thoy bad uo food ; Chmka's meo 
had robbed them a few weeks before." 

" Never mind," said our native Portuguese, " they will sell 
you plenty when you return ; Lbey are afraid of you now ; 
OS yet thoy do not know who you are." We slept under 
trees in the open mr, and suffered no incoavenience from 
either musquitocs or dew ; and no prowling wild beast uoub- 
led us; though one evening, while we were here, a native 
eitdug with some others on the opposite bank wa^ killed by 
a leopard. 

One of the Tette slaves, who wished to be conaidereda 
great traveler, gave us, aa we sat by our evening fire, an in- 
teresUiig account of a strange race of men whom he had seen 
in the interior ; they were only three feet high, and bad horos 
growing out of their heads ; they lived in a large town, and 
bad plenty of food. The Makololo pooh*poohed this story, 
and roundly told the narrator that he was telling a down- 
right lie. "We come from the interior,'* cried out a tall fel- 
low, measuring some six feci four; "are i« dwarfs? have k»j 
horns on our heads?" and thus they laughed the fellow 
soom. I3ut ho still stoutly maintained that he had seen lU< 
little people, aud had actually been in their town, thus mak- 
ing himself the hero of the traditional story, which, before 
and since the time of Herodotils, lias, with cnrious perstst- 
cDcy, clung to the native naind. The mere fact that such ab- 
surd DOtions arc permanent, even in the entire absence of lit- 
erature, invests the religious ideas of these people also with 
importance, as fragments of the wreck of a primitive faith 
floating down tiio stream of lime. 

Wt waded across the rapid Luia, which took us up to the 




-waist, and was about forty yards wide. The water was dis- 
colored at the time, and wc were cot without apprehension 
that a crocodile might chance to fancy a white man for din- 
ner. Next day one of the men crawled over the blaok rocks 
to within ten yards of a sleeping hippopotamus, and shot him 
through the brain. The weather being wjjm, the body float- 
ed in a few hours, and some of ua had our first trial of hip- 
j»potamu5 flesh. It is a coarse-grained meat, something be- 
tween pork and be«f— pretty good food when one is hungry 
«uh1 can gel nothing better. Wlien wc reached the foot of 
the mountain called Chlpcreziwa, whose perpendicular rocky 
sides are clothed with many-colored lichens, our Portuguese 
<x>mpanion informed us there were no moro obstructions to 
xiavigatioD, the river being all smooth above ; he hod bunted 
\bere and knew it well. Supposing that the object of our 
trip was accomplished, we turned back ; but two natives, who 
cazno to our camp at night, assured us that a cataract, called 
Uorumbwa, did still exist in front Dra Livingstone and 
Kirk then decided to go forward with three Makololo and 
Beitlo the question for thcmselvea. It was as tough a bit of 
travel as they ever had in Africa, and, after some painful 
marching, the Badfima guides refused to go &rther ; " the 
Banyai," they said, " would be angry if they showed white 
men the country; and there was, beades, uo practicable ap- 
proach to the Hpot; ncither^elephant, nor hippopotamus, nor 
even a orocodile conid reach the catjtract." The slopes of 
the monntuns on each side of the river, now not 800 yards 
wide, and without the flattish flood-channel and groove, wore 
more than 8000 feet from the sky-Hne down, and were cov- 
ered either with dense ihombush or huge black boulders: 
tbia deep, trough-like shape caused the sun's rays to converge 
88 ioto a focus, making the surface so hot that the soles of the 


feet of the Makololo became blistered. Aronnd, and up anc 
down, the party clambered among tbcse heated blocks, st a 
pace not eiccoding a mile an hour; the strain upon the mus- 
cles in jumping from crag to boulder, and wriggling round 
projectioos, took an enormous deal out of them, and they 
were often glad to cover in the shadow formed by one rock 
overlianging and renting on another; the shelter induced the 
peculiarly strong and overpowering inclination to sleep, 
which too much 8un sometimes causes. This sleep is cura- 
tive of what may be incipient sunstroke: in its first gentle 
touches, it caused the dream to flit orer the boiling brain that 
they had becomo lunaticSj and had been sworn in as members 
of the Alpine club ; and then it became so heavy that it made 
them feel as if a portion of csistcnco had been cut out from 
their lives. The sun is excessively hot, and feels sharp In 
AiVica; but, probably from the greater dryness of the atmos- 
phere, wc never heard of a single case of sunfltrokc, so com-' 
mon in India. The Makololo told Dr. Livingstone theyi 
"always thought he had a heart, hut now they bolievod ho 
had none," and tried to persuade I>r. Kirk to return, on the 
ground that it must be evident that, in attempting to go 
where no living foot could tread, his leader Lad given un« 
murtakftblo signp of having gone mad. All their cflbrts of 
persuamon, however, were lost npon Dr. Kirk, as ho had not 
yet learned their language, and his leader, knowing his com- 
panion to be equally anxious with himself to solve the prob- 
lem of the navigableness of Kebrabasa, was not at pains to 
enlighten him. At one part a bare mountain spur barred 
the way, and had to be surmounted by a perilous and circui- 
tous route, along which the crags were so hot that it was 
scarcely possible for the hand to hold on long enough to in* 
sure safety in the passage ; and had the foremost of the party 

lost hia hold, he would have burled all behind bim ioto the 
liver at the foot of the promoatory ; yet in this wild hot re- 
gioo, OS they descended again to the river, they met u Qshcr- 
man casting his band-net into the boiling eddies, and hu point- 
ed out the cataract of Mommbwa: within an hour they were 
trying to measure it from an overhanging rock, at a height 
of about one hundred feet. When youitand fiscing the ca^ 
aract on the north bank, you see that it is situated in a sud- 
den bend of the river, which is flowing in a short curve ; the 
river above it \n jammed between two mountains in a chan- 
ad with perpendicular sides, and leas than fifty yards wide; 
one or two masses of rock jut out, and then there is a sloping 
ikll of perhaps twenty feet in a distance of thirty yank It 
would stop all navigation except durlag the highest floods; 
the rocks showed that the water then rises upward of eighty 
feet pcrpcodicalarly. 

Still keeping the position facing the cataract, on its right 
side rises Mount Morumbwa from 200Q to SOOO feet high, 
which gives the name to the spoL Ou the led of the cat- 
aract stafids a noticeable mountain which may be called 
onion-shaped, ibr it is partly conical, and a large concave 
Bake has pooled oS^ as granite oflcti docs, and left a bttiad, 
smooth convex face, as if it were on enormous bulb. Tliesc 
two mountoiaa extend their base nortliward about half a 
mile, and the river in that distance, still very narrow, is 
smooth, with a few detached rocks standing out from its 
bed. They climbed as high up the base of Mount Morumb- 
wa, which touches the cataract, as they required. The rocks 
were all water-worn and smooth, with huge pul-hulcs, eveu 
si 100 feet above low water. When, at a later jjeriod, they 
climbed up the northwestern base of this same mountain, 
the ^miliar face of the onion-shnped one opposite was at 




oiioQ Tccognized; ono point of view on the talus of Mount 
Morumbwa was not mure tliau 700 ur 800 yurdu distant 
from the otbur, and they then cuiuploted Ike survey of Ke- 
brnbaaa from end to end. 

They did not attempt to return by the way they came, 
but scaled tho slope of the mouiitnin on tbo north. It 
took thum three hours' haixl labor in cutting their way up 
through tbo dense thornbush which, covered the asccmt. 
Tho face of tho slope was often, about aa angle of 70°, yet 
thoir guide Sbokuinbenla, whose hard, horny Boles, resem-j 
bliug thoBe of elephants, showed that he was Hccustomed to 
this rough and hot work, carried a pot of water for them 
nearly all tho w«y up. They slept that night at a well in 
a tufaccouB rock on the N.W. of Cbipereziwa, and nercr 
was sleep more sweet. 

CflAT. III. 




Beum froQ Ecbrabua. — Xaiiro Mniiciaiu uid their InRtniiD«ois.— I^o- 
naOQ u Teue. — duutges produced by Itsin after the tiol Hcaaon. — Christ' 
mu in tropieiJ Dtca.— Opinions modified b/ carl; Awociatiotu in Nortb- 
•m C&nm. — The Scmou at Tuttc. — Cutiun-Kcd tiot nocdix^. — AfricBn 
Fover. — Qtuoitu not a Prereatiro of.^The best I'rocaiilioii anil Remcdv.— 
"Wsfbtugh'* IJrofw." — Kxpodiiion lurns from Kebrabofa toward iliu Riirer 
in Jannaff, 1859. — Ucpgricd Uurriti to NaviKition. — Fim loiirr- 
'conno i^b nnknowD Pwplo. — KoTigaiioD of Slilre. — Progicas prevented 
bf Mnrchitoa'a CauntcU. — Ikciirn to Tctte.— SeeoDd Tri[i ap the 81)ire in 
Mmrrb, 1>-S0. — ChiluuL — NvaojaMiikulia. — Maniu Gnidu. — J>iscofcr Like: 
on the 18th of April, 1859, — Mountain*. — Iteluni lu tlio Vc»mI. — 
CAM of Fewrt. — Rcinm to Tcttc on lh« S3d «f Jiitw. — Vc«tel found 
l« tiv twilt of gBUaUe >lAteri)UB. — At Kuit^-one Id Auguet. 

A BA>rD of Dative musiciiLDS camu to our camp one even- 
mg OD our way down, and treated us with their w^ild and 
aot unpleasant music on the marimbu, an iustrument formed 
of bars of bard wood of varying brejidth and thickness, laid 
on difEurent-sized hollow calabashes, and tuned to give the 
notes: a few pieces of cloth plcasud tlicin, and they pasBod 


As our companion had told us, Ibo people were perfectly 

villing to sell us provisions ou our way back. When we 

sriTed at Tcttc the commandant informed us that, shortly 

(ifter we had Icfl, the river rose a foot and became turbid; 

ttd oa seeing thif, a native Portuguese came to him with a 

gnre oountcnnncc, and said, "That KngUshmon is doing 

soBoething to the river." This, we regret to say, is a fair 

Mtplo of the ignorance and superstition common to the na- 

tite-hom, and, unfurtuiiatcly, sometimes shared in even by/ 




men renred in Portugal. While we wero at Tettc, a cap- 
tain of iofantry was seat prisoner to Mozambique for ad- 
ministering the muave, or ordeal, and for patting the sus- 
pected person to death on that evidence alone. 

At the end of the hot season every thing is dry anc 
dusty; the atmosphere is loaded with blue haze, and very 
sultry. Ailor the rains begin, the face of the country 
changes with surprising rapidity for the better. ThougK we 
hare not the moist hot- house-like atmosphere of the West 
Coast, fresh green herbage quickly springs up over the hills 
and dales so lately parched and brown. The air becomes 
cleared of the smoky -looking haze, and one sees to great dis* 
tftucos with ease ; the landscape is bathed in a perfect flood 
of light, and a delightful sense of freshness is givrai from 
every thing in the morning before the glare of noon over- 
powers the eye. On asking one of the Bechuanas once wl 
he understood by the wortl used for "holiness" (boits<Spho)^' 
' he answered, "When copious showers have descended dur- 
ing the nightf and all the earth, and leaves, and cattle are 
mihed oUao, and the sun, rising, shows a drop of dew oo 
tmrj blade of gross, and the air breathes fresh, that is holi>j 
SMHl" The young foliage of several trees, more especiallj 
on \ho highlands, comes out brown, pale red, or pink, like 
ihfl hues of autumnal leaves in England, and as the leai 
inpTvase in sise they change to a pleasant fresh light green ; 
bright white, scarlet, piuk, and ycUow Bowcta are eveiy 
where ; and some few of dark crimson, like tboae of the ki- 
gcUa, give varmth of coloring to Nature's garden. Uaoi 
mca^ svdi as the aoarlct enrthrina, attract the eye by the 
beauty of their bloasomBk The white, foil bloom of the b*- 
obali^ coning ml times befbra the nine, and tibe auall and 
dafiMM fkmm of olher ireea, giottped into ridi cla8tal^ 

cbat. m. 



deck the forest Myriads of wild bees are busj from morn- 
ing til) nigbc Some of the acacias possess a i}cculiar attrac- 
'tton for ono species of beetle, while the palm aUures others 
to congregate od its ample leaves. Insects of oil sorts are 
now in full force; brilliaDt butterflies flit from fiower to 
flower, and with the cbarroiug little sunbirds, which repre- 
aeni the humming-birds of America and the West Indies, 
ueTcr seem to tire. Multitudes of ants are bard at work 
liunUng for food, or bearing It hothe in triumph. The win- 
der birds of passage, such as the yellow wagtail and blue 
drongo shrikes, have all gone, and other kinds have oomo: 
t^o brown kite, with his piping like a boatswain's whiatle-, 
ic spotted cuckoo, with a call like "pula;" and tho roller 
id hombill, with their loud high notes, are occasionally dis- 
titnotlj heard, though generally their harsher musio is half 
drowned in the volume of sweet sounds poured forth from 
many a throbbing throat, which makes an African Christ* 
mafl seem like an Knglish May. Some birds of the weaver 
kind hare laid aside their winter garments of a sober brown, 
and appear in a gay summer dreea of scarlet and jot black; 
others have pasHod from green to bright yellow, with patoh- 
a like black velvet. The brisk little cock whydah-bird, 
with a pink bill, after assuming his summer garb of black 
and while, has graceful plumes attached to his new coat; 
Ui finery, as aome believe, is to please at least seven hen- 
birds with which he is said to live. Birds of song are not 
40tircly confined to villages ; but they have in Africfi so 
often been observed to conyrtgate around villages as to pro- 
dnee the impression that song and beauty may have been 
totended to please the car and eye of man, for it ia only 
when we approach the haunts of men that wc know that 
the time of the singing of birds is come. Wc once thonght 


cimisi'UAS iM 'ntopiCAL dress. 

Cbxf. in. 

tbat the litUe creatures were attracted to man only b_v grain 
and water, till we saw deserted villages, the people all swept 
off by slavery, with grain standing by running streams, but 
no birds. A red-throated black weaver-bird comes in flocka 
a little later, wearing a long train of magnificent plumee, 
which seem to be greatly in bis way when working for his 
dinner among the long grass. A goataucker or night-jar 
{QjmeUfmia vexiUarius), only ten inches long from head to 
tail, also attracts the eye in November by a couple of feath* 
era twenty-six inches long in the middle of each wing, the 
ninth and tenth from the outside. They give a slow, wavy 
Tuotion to the wings, and evidently retard his Qight, for at 
other times he flies so quick that no boy could tut him with 
a atone. The natives can kill a hare by throwing a clufa^ 
and make good running shots, but no one ever struck a 
night-jar in common dress, though in the evening twilight 
tbey settle close to one's fccL What may be the object of 
the flight of the male bird being retarded we can not tcU. 
The males alone possess these feathers, and only for a time. 
It appears strange to have Christmas come in such a 
cheerful bright season as this ; one can hardly recognize it 
in summer dress, with singing birds, springing com, and 
flowery plains, instead of in the winter robes of by-gone 
days, when the keen bracing air, and ground clad in a mxH' 
tie of snow, made the cozy fireside moelingplace of families 
doubly comfortable. The associations of early days spent 
in a Northern clime disjKwo us to view other lands with 
rather contracted notions, and, like the Esquimaux who wen 
brought to Europe, to look cheerlessly at this sunny portion 
of our fair world, which is unhealthy only because the ex- 
uberant (fertility with which the Maker has endowed it to 
yield abundant food for man and beast ia allowed to run to 



waste. In refercace to it and its inhabitants, it was long 
ago remarked that id Africa eveiy thing was contrary ; 
*' wool gfOW8 on the heads of men, and hair on the backs of 
sheep." Id feeble imitation of this dogma, let lis add, that 
the meD often wear their hair long, the women scarcely ever, 
^here there are cattle, the women till the land, plant the 
corn, and build the huts. The men stay at home to sew, 
spin, weave, and talk, and milk the cows. The men seem 
to pay a dowry for their wives instead of getting one with 
tbem. The moontaineers of Europe are reckoned hospita- 
ble, generous, aud brave. Those of this part of A&ica are 
iecble, spiritless, and cowardly, even when contraated with 
their own oountrjrmeu on the plains. Some Europeans aver 
that ADicans and themselves are descended from monkeys. 
Some Aincaos believe that souls at death pass into the bod- 
ies of apea. Most writers believe the blacks to be savages; 
nearly all blacks believe the whites to be cannibala The 
Qursory hobgobliu of the one is black, of the other white. 
'Without going farther on with these unwise comparisons, 
^rc roust smile at the heaps of qousl'^uso which have been 
'written about the negro intellect. When, for greater effect, 
■we employ broken English, and use silly phrases as if trans- 
lations of remarks, which, ten to one, were never made, we 
bave unconsciously caricatured ourselves and not the ne- 
groes^ for it is a curious fact that Europeans almost invari- | 
&bly begin to speak with natives by adding the letters e and / 
o to their words, "Givee me como, me pvetf you biacuito,"/ 
Or "Looko, looko, me wante beero mnch*." Our sailors be- . 
^mn thus, though they had never seen blacks before. It 
aeezned an innate idea that they could thus suit English to a 
people who all speak a beautiful language, and have no vul- 
gar ^'oi& Owing to the dilTerence of idiom, very few Eu- 



ropeana ticquire an accarate knowledge of African toDguos 
unless tbey begin to leam when young. A complaint as to 
the poverQ? of the language is often only a Bure proof of 
the BCanty attainments of the complainant, and gross mis- 
takes aro often made bj* the most experienced. We once 
oaught a Bound like "Syria" aa the name of a country on 
the other side of a river. It was ^'■Psidia" and meant only 
the ^^olher eiife.'' A grave professor put down in a scien- 
tifio work "Kttia" as the native name of a certain hzard. 
Kflia simply mcaiiB "I don't knowl" the answer which he 
received. Tliia name was also applied in equal innocence 
to a range of mountains. Kvery one can recall mistakesj 
the remembrance of which, in after years, brings a blush to 
bis brow. In general, the opinion of an intelligent mission* 
ary who has diligently studied the language is superior to 
that of any traveler. Quite as sensible, if not more perti- 
nent answers will usually be given by Africans to those 
who know their language, as are obtained from our own 
uneducated poor; and could we but forget that a couple of 
centuries back (he ancestors of common people in England 
— probably our own great-g^ea^grandfathers — were aa on- 
enlightened as the Africans are now, we might maunder 
away about intellect, and fancy that the tacit inference would 
be drawn that our own is arch-angelic. The low motives 
which often actuate the barbarians do unfortunately bear 
abundant crops of mean actions among servants, and even 
in higher ranks of more csiviUzed people; but we hope thai 
these may decrease in the general improvement of our race 
by the diffusion of true religion. 

Dr. Kirk very properly divides the year into three sea- 
sons, a cold, a hot, and a nuny season. The cold period lasts 
through May, June, and July; the hot prevails in August, 

Q^r. III. 



September, and October. The rams may be expected dux- 
lug the remaining months of the year. 

The rainy season of Tctte diifers a little from that of some 
of the other intertropical regions, the quantity of rain -fell 
being considerably Icsb. It begins in November and ends 
in ApriL During our fimt seaaon in that place, only a little 
over nineteen inches of rain fell. In an average year, and 
-when the crops ore good, the &11 amounts to about thirty* 
five inehei On many days it does Dot r^n at all, and rare- 
ly is it wet all day ; some days have merely a passing show- 
er, preceded and followed by hot sunshine ; occasionally an 
interval of a week, or even a fortnight, passes without a 
^rop of rain, and then the crops sulTer from the aon. Those 
partial droughts happen in December and January. The 
lieat appears to increase to a certaia point in the different 
latitudes so as to necefisitate a change, by some law similar 
to that which regulatca the intense cold in other countries. 
^fier several days of progreesivo heat here, on the hottest 
of vrhicli the thermometer probably reaches 103° in the 
sbad^ a break cecum in the weather, and a thundcf-storm 
cools the air for a time. At Kuruman, when the thermom- 
eter stood abov4S 84% rain might be expected; at Kolobeng, 
tlie point at which wo looked for a atorm was 96**. The 
ibe^ is in flood twice in the course of the year; the 
flood, a partial one, attains its greatest height about the 
^nad of Deoesnber or beginning of January ; the second, and 
^mftlestt occurs after the river inundates the interior, in a 
cscaanner mmilar to the overflow of the Nile, this rise not 
fc^Lkiog place at Tette until March. The Portuguese say 
t^bat the greatest hotglit which the March (looda attain is 
i-biny feet at TeUo, and this happens only about every 
r<ounh year ; their observations, however, have never been 


Crap. ni. 

very accarate on any thing but ivory, and they have in this 
case trusted to memory alone. The only fluvioincter at 
Tette, or any where else on the river, was set up at our 
BUggeatioD ; and the £rst flood was at its greatest height of 
thirteen feet six inches on the 17lh of Janunrf, 185ft, and 
then gradually fell a few feet, until succeeded by the great- 
er flood of March. The river rises suddenly, the water is 
highly discolored nnd impure, and there is a four-knot cur- 
rent in many places; but in a day or two after the first 
rush of waters is passed, the current becotnes more equally 
spread over the whole bed of the river, and reenmes its 
usual rate in the clintincl, although continuing in flood. 
The Zambesi water at other times is almost chemicaUy 
pore, and the photographer would find that it ia nearly as 
good as distilled water for the nitrate of ^Iver bath. 

A third visit to Kebrabasa was made for the purpose of 
asoertaioiDg whether it might be navigable when the Zam- 
besi was in flood, the chief point of interest being of coarse 
Morumbwa. It was found that the rapids observed in oar 
first trip bad disappeared, and that while they were smoothed 
over, in a few places the current had increased in strengtL 
As the river fell rapidly while we were on the journey, the 
cataract of STorumbwa did not differ materially from what 
it was when discovered. Some fishermen assured us that it 
was not visible when the river was at its fullcsl, and that 
the current was then not very strong. On this occasion we 
traveled on the right bank, and found it, with the additional 
inoonveiiicDoe of min, as rough and fatiguing as the Icflhad 
been. Our progress was impeded by the tall wet gnM» ani 
dripping boughs, and consequent fever. Daring the earlier 
part of the journey we came upon a few deserted hamlets 
only; but at last, in a pleasant valley, we met sotae of the 

Gmat. UL 



people of the country, who were miserably poor and hoQ- 

gry. The women were gutheriug wild fruits in the wooda 

A young man, having cynsenteU for two yards of cotton 

dutli to ebow us a abort path to the cataract, led us up a 

steep hill to a village pcrobcd ou the edge of one of its 

precipices; a tbuudei'- storm coiuiug oa at the time, the 

bead uuka invited us to take shelter iu a hut until it hail 

passed. Our guide, havaig iuformcd bim of what he knew 

and coDoeived to be our object, was favored in i-eturu witli 

a Jong reply in well-soundtug blank verso; at the end of 

every line, the guide, who listened with deep attention, re* 

spoiidud with a grunt, which soon became so ludicrous that 

our men burst into a loud taugb. Neither the poet nor the 

rc8i>ansivo guide took the slightest notice of their rudeDeas, 

but kept on OS energetically as ever to the end. The speech, 

or more probably our bad manners, made some impression 

on our guide, for he declined, although oflbred double pay, 

to go any farther. 

We brought cotton-aced to Africa, in ignorance that the 
cotton already introduced wns equal, if not superior, to the 
ccHDmon American, and offered it to any of the Portuguese 
and natives who chose to cultivate it ; but, though some 
tried tbia source of wealth, it was evident that their ideas 
could not BOOT beyond black ivory, as they call slaves, ele- 
phants tuska, tmd a little gold dust. 

A great deal of fever comes in with March and April; in 
If arch, if considerable intervals take place between the rainy 
days, and in April always, for then largo surfaces of mud 
and decaying vegetation aro exposed to the hot sun. bi 
general an attack does not continue long, but it pulls one 
down quickly, though when the fever is checked the strength 
ia as quickly restored. It had long been obser^'cd that those 




who wero stationed for any length of time in one spot, and 
lived sedentary lives, suffered more from fever than otbers 
who moved about, and had both mind and body occupied ; 
bat we oould not all go in the amall vessel when she made 
her trips, during which the change of place and scenery 
proved 80 conducive to health ; and some of us were obliged 
to remain in charge of the expedition's property, making 
occasional branch trips to examine objects of interest in the 
vicinity. Whatever may be the cause of the fever, we ob- 
served that all were often affected at the same time, as if 
from malaria. This was particniariy the case during n north 
wind: it was at first commonly believed that a daily dose 
of quinine would prevent the attack. For a number of 
months, all our men, except two, took quinine regularly 
every morning. The fever sometimes attacked the believers 
in quinine, while the unbelievers in its prophylactic pow- 
ers cscf^>cd. Whether we took it daily, or omitted it alto- 
gether for months, made no dilTerenoo ; the fever was im- 
partial, and seized us on the days of quinine as regularly 
and OS severely as when it remained undisturbed in the 
medicine -chest, and we finally abandoned the use of it as a 
prophylootia alttigethcr. The best preventive against fever 
is plenty of interesting work to do, and abundance of whole- 
some food to eat. To a man well housed and cloihedf who 
oi\joys iheeo advantages, the fovor at Tette will not prove a 
more formidable enemy than a common oold ; but let one 
of these bo wanting — let him be indolent, or guilty of ex- 
Qosei in eating or drinking, or have poor, scanty fare, and 
the fovor will probably become a more serious matter. It 
is of a milder type at Tettc than at Quillimane or on tbe 
Low seastoast; ami, as in this part of A&ioa one is aa liable 
to fovor aa to oolda iu England, it would be advisable for 



Strangers always to basteQ from the coast to the higher 
lands, in order that when the seizure does take place, it may 
he of tho mildest type. This having been pointed out by 
Dr. Kirk, the Portuguese authorities allenvard book the hint, 
and sent the next detachment of aoldien at ouoe up to 
Tottc It consisted of eighty men, and, in spite of the ir* 
regularities committed, most of them being of the ohiss term- 
ed "inoorrigiblea," in three years only ten died, and but five 
ottevor. Although quinine was not found to be a prevent- 
iva, except possibly in the way of acting as a tonic, and 
renderiDg the system mpre able to resist the influence of 
moliuia, it was found invaluable in the euro of tlie com- 
plaint, as Boon as pains in the back, sore bones, headache, 
yavniog, quick and sometimes intermittent pulse, noticea- 
ble polaatioDs of the jugolars, with suiTuscd. eyes, hot skin, 
and foul tongue, began.* 

Very curious are the cflTocts of African fever on certain 
minds. Cheerfulness vanishes, and the whole mental hori- 
zon ia overcast wiih black clouds of gloom and sadnesa 

* A RBWdy eompOMd of from ilx to eight gralaa of rarin of jdsp, tbe MSte 
of rfanbarb, and three each of calomal And quinine, miuls up into faar pilla, 
vilb tlnctoro of canJamoms, nmallr relieved all the iymptonii In Rre or lix 
boon. Four pitln nn; « fall dine Fur a man — oni: «ri]] HiifKcc for a wcnian. 
Thvf »c«iv«d trom our men th« name of "ronscn," from their efflcacj in 
muinic np erm iIiom movt pnwR&ted, When their openulun li (leluyi>d, u 
JmiiiiI nirnnfiil uf Eptgm tilt* xliould be gbcu. Quinino iift«r or during tbo 
•panuicm of tb« pUl«, in largo doses vrery mn or tliroe bourA, nntil deaftaeai 
« ciofiboaiam nuned, completed tho nnra.' The onlr ctu>M in nhieb iro fono'l 
■cw tw eonpleiel; hclplMs irerc those in which ubstinate romitini: tutiacd. 
We hod received from Visoouoi Tonington » )i«nilMinie mpplv of "War- 
hurgb's ferer drop*,"* mcdidne much e»i«omcd in Inill'i and, in conMidcr*- 
Uon of fab lonUbip'* kindnea* in fiirnisblng die dntgai a considerable expmiw^ 
ai well itt from a duire to find out a remieJ^ that miiihl be relied on for tbb 
fonnidable diJCAM, we e^^VB it as fair a trial as was in onr powvr. In tbc 
tUvering ata^ It caowd n-armth, bni dtd not cure. One old man seemed 
atred, but died a day or Iwo afurwjird. Wc irgrei that rce can not recotn- 
' tnead tt fbr Afiica, tlioagh wo know of iu high repute in India. 



The liveliest joke coa not provoke evun the sembliuice of a 
smile. The counteimnce is grave, the oyt» suiTused, and the 
few ultvratiws are made in tliu pipiug voice of a wailiog 
infant. An irrliable temper is often the first symptom of 
approaobiiig fovcr. At such times a man feels very much 
like a fool, if ho docs not act like one. Nothing is right, 
nothing pleoaea the fever-stricken ,victjin. lie is peevish, 
prone to find lault and to contnidict, and think himself 
insulted, and is exactly what an Irish naval surgeon before 
a court-martial defined a drunken man to be: "a man unfit 
for society." If a party were all soaked full of malaria at 
once, the lifo of tbo leader of the expedition wou]d bo made 
a burden to him. Ouu might come with lengthened visage 
and urge as a good reason for bis despair, if farther progress 
were attempted, that "he had broken the photograph of hia 
wife;" another, "tliat his pro|»er position was unjustly with- 
held because special search was not dii-ected toward ' the ten 
tost tribes.'" It is dangerous to rally such a one, for the 
irate companion may quote Scripture, and point to their 
habitat " beyond the rivers of Ethiopia." TVlien a man bfr 
gins to feel that eVery thing is meant to his prejudice, he 
cither takes a dose of '"rouscre," or writes to the newspa- 
pers, ucootding to the amount of sense with which Bataz« 
his endowed biro. 

Finding that ij was impossible to take onr steamer of only 
tPii-borae power through Kebnfaaaa^ and convinced that, in 
Older to force a passage when the river wa^ in flood, much 
greater pinter was required, duo information was fc^warded 
to her iitsgcety's government, and ^plication made for a 
Bwre suitable vcaeol. Our attention was in the moaa tiaw 
turned to the exptoratUHi oT the Kiver Shiie, a oortheni 
tributary of the Zambeei. which joins it about a hundred 

Our III. 



miles irom the sea. We oould learn nothing satisfflctory 
from tho Portuguese regarding thia afflaent; no one, they 
said, had ever been up it, nor could they tell whence it 
oame. Years ago a Portuguese espedition ia said, however, 
to have attempted the ascent^ hut to have abandoned it 
an account of the impenetrable duckweed {Piatia slratioles). 
Many asserted, on the strength of this, that not even canoes 
could force their way through the masses of aquatic plants 
that covered its surface. Othera, liowever, hinted in a pri- 
vate way that it was not the duckweed which drove back 
the expedition, but the poisoned arrows by which the hos- 
tile natives rcpuJsed the Portuguese with heavy loss. Ko 
one sent native traders up the Shire, nor had inlercoorse 
with the treacherous savages who lived on its banks. A 
merchant of Senna told us that ho once fitted out a trading 
party which went a short distance up the river, but the 
men of it were robbed and barely escaped with their lives. 
"Our government,'* said one commandant, "has sent us or* 
dere to assist and protect you, but you go where we dare 
not follow, and how can wc protect you?" "Wo could not 
kam from any record that the Shire had ever been ascended 
by Europeans. As far, therefore, as we are oonccmed, the 
exploration was absolutely new. All the Portuguese be- 
lieved the Manganja to be brave but bloodthirsty savages; 
and OD OUT return we found that soon aflcr our departure a 
report WAS widely spread that our temerity had been fol- 
lowed by fatal results, Dr. Livingstone having been shot, aud 
Dr. Kirk mortally wounded by poisoned arrows. 

Onr first trip to the SLire was in January, 1859. A con- 
siderable quantity of duckweed floated down the river for 
lite first twenty -five miles, but not suiTicient to interrupt 
navigation with canoes or with any other crafL Nearly 


Cnip. ni. 

the whole of this aquatic plant proceeds from a marsh on 
the west, and gomes into the river a little beyond a lofty 
hill called Mount Moranibala. Above that there is hardly 
any. As wo approached the vilbges the natives collected 
in large numbers, armed with bows and poisoned arrows: 
and some, dodging behind trees, were observed taking aim, 
M if on the point of ahooting. All the women had been 
sent out of the way, and the men were evidently prepared 
to resist aggression. At the village of a chief named Tin- 
gane, at least 6vo hundred natives collected and ordered us 
to stop. Dr. Livingstone went ashore ; and on his explain- 
ing that we were English, and had come neither to take 
slaves nor to 6glit, but only to open a path by which our 
countrymen might follow to purchase cotton, or whatever 
ebo they might hare to sell, except slaves, Tingane became 
At once quite friendly. The presence of the steamer, wbich 
showed that they had an entirely new people to deal with, 
probably coniribuled to this result; for Tingane was noto- 
rious for being the barrier to all intercourse between the 
Portuguese black traders and the natives farther inland ; 
none were allowed to pass him cither way. He waa an 
elderly, well-made man, gray-headed, and over six feet high. 
Though somewhat excitixl by our presence, he readily com- 
plied with the request to call his people together, in order 
that all might know what our objects were. 

Id eommoncing intercourse with any people, wo nlmoet 
Always referred to the English detestation of slanny. Most 
of them alrt'mly possess some infonnntion respecting the ef- 
fort* made by the English at sen to suppress the slave- 
tnde; and our work brang to induoe them to raise and 
•oil ootloo, instead of caplnring and selling their fellow-men, 
max errand appoan quite natural ; and at they all have dear 




ideas of their owd egIT- interest, and aro kueu traders, the 
KaeoDableDess of the propoBal is at once admitUid; and as 
a belief in a Supreme Being, tbo Maker and Baler of all 
tfaiogs, and in the continacd existence of departed spirits, 
is ouiversalf it becomes quito nppropnate to explaitk that 
we possess a Book containing a revelation of the will of 
Him to 'whom, in their natural state, they recognize no re-- 
latiouship. The fact that His Son appeared among men, 
and led His words in His Book, always awakens attention; 
but the great difficulty ia to make tliem feci that they have 
any relationship to Him^ and tliat He feels any interest in 
them. The nnmbnesa of moral pcrwiption exhibited is often 
discoaraging ; but the mode of communication, either by 
interpreters, or by the imperfect knowledge of the langoage, 
vhich not even miasionarica of talent can overcome save 
by the labor of mnny years, may in part acconnt for the 
phenomenon. However, the idea of the Father of all "being 
displeased with His children for selling or killing each 
other, at once gains their ready nsscnt: it barn:ioni2es so 
cwictly with their own ideas of right and wrong. But, as 
in our own case at home, nothing lass than the instruction 
and example of many years will secure their moral ele- 

The dialect spoken here closely resembles that used at 
Senna and Tette. We underetood it at firat only enough to 
know whether our interpreter was saying what wo bade 
him, or was indulging in his own version. After stating 
pretty nearly wbat bu was told, he had an inveterate tend- 
ency to wind up with "The Book says you are to grow 
ojtton, and the English are to come and buy it," or with 
some joke of bis own, which might have been ludicrous had 
it not been seriously distressing. 




In the first ascent of the Sbiro oar att/mtian was chiefly 
directed lo the river itself. The delight of threading oat 
the ineaoderings of upward of 200 miles of a hiibcrto unex- 
plored river must be felt to bo appreciated. AIL the lower 
part of the river was found to be at least two fathoms in 
depth. It became shallower higher up, where many depart- 
ing and re-entering brunches diminished the volume of wa- 
ter, but the absence of sand-bunks made it easy of naviga* 
tioa Wo had to exercise the greatest care lest any thing 
wc did should be misconstrued by the crowds who watched 
ue. After having made, in a straight line, one hundred 
miles, although thu windings of the river had fully doubled 
the distance, we found farther progress with the steamer ar> 
rested, in 15" C5' south, by magnificent cntaivcts, which wo 
called "The Murebison," after one whose name has already 
a world-wide fame, and whoso genorous kindness we cao 
never repay. The native name of tliat figured in the wood- 
cut is Mamvira. It is that at which the progress of the 
steamer wa^ firnt stopp<^. The angle of descent is mQofa 
smaller than that of the five cataracts above it; indeed, eo 
smoll OS compared with them, that after they were discov* 
cred this was not included in the number. 

A few days wore spent here in the hope that there might 
bo an opportunity of taking observations for longitude, but 
it mined most of the time, or tlic sky was overcast It was 
deemed imprndvut to risk n land journey while the natives 
were so very suspicious as to have n strong guard on the 
banks of the river night and day ; the wcatlicr also was un- 
favorable. After sending presents and messages to two of 
the chiefs, wo returned to Tcltft. lu going down stream oar 
progress was rapid, as we were aided by the current. The 
hippopotami naver mado a mistake, but got out of our way. 

Chat. lU. 



The crocodiles, not so wise, sometimca rushed with grcAt vc- 
\o^ty at us, thiaking that wc were some huge animal swim- 
ming. They kept about a foot from the surface, but made 
^lliree well-defined ripples from the feet and body, which 
rked their rapid progress ; raising the head out of the 
^•water when only a few yards from the expected feast, down 
they went to the bottom like a otoue, without touching the 

In the middle of March of the same year (1859) we started 

lin for a second trip on the Shire. The natives were now 

riendly, and readily sold us rice, fowls, and com. We en- 

sred into amicable relations with the chief Chibisa, whose 

village was about ten miles below the cataract Qe had 

It two men on our first visit to invite us to drink beer; 

>ut the steamer was each a terrible apparition to them, tbatr 

.After sboutiog the Invitation, they jumped ashore, and left 

"■heir canoe to drift down the stream. Chibisa was a re- 

ssiarkably shrewd man, the very image, save his dark hue, of 

^I3ae of our most celebrated London actors, and the most in- 

"t«lligent chief, by far, in this quarter. A great deal of figb^ 

mxighad fallen to his lot, he said, bat it was always others 

I'^^Ho began; he was invariably in the right, and they alone 

'^'wwe to blame. He was, moreover, a firm believer in the 

clirine right of kings. lie was an ordinary man, he said, 

^^^lon his fiither died, and left him the chieftainship; but di- 

r"'«^<tly he sncceeded to the high office, ho was conscious of 

P<"fer passing into his head, and down hia back; he felt it 

cstiiBr, and knew that he was a chief, clothed with authority, 

'*'*i-d potvessed of wisdom, and people then began to fear and 

'"^^rence him. lie mentioned this as one wonld a fact of 

"^tural history, any donbt being quite out of the question. 

^« people, too, believed in him, for they bathed in the riv- 



CKir. Ill 

er ivitboat tlie slightest fear of crocodiles, the chief having 
placed & powerful medicine there, which protected them 
from the bite of these terribie reptiles. 

Leaviug the vcitscl opposite Obibisa's village, Dhl Living- 
stone nnd Kirk and<a number of the Makololo started on 
foot for Lake Shirwa. They traveled in a northerly direo* 
tion over a moiintaiaous country. The people were far from 
being well-disposed to them, and Bome of their guides tried 
to mislead them, and could not be trusted. Masakasa, a Ma- 
koloto head man, overheard some remarks, which satisfied 
him that the guide was leading them into troubia He was 
quiet Ull they reached a. lonely spot, when he came up to 
Dr. Livingstone and said, "That fellow id bad; he is taking 
us into mischief; my spear is sharp, and there is no one 
here; shall I cast him into the long grass?'' Had the doc- 
tor given the slightest token of assent, or even kept silence, 
never more would any one have been led by that guide, for 
in a twinkling he would have been where "the wicked cease 
from troubling." It was aflerwaid found that in this case 
there was no tieacheiy at all, but a want of knowledge on 
their port of the language and of the country. They asked 
to be led to *'Kyanja Mukulo," or Great Lake, meaning, by 
this, Lake Shirwa; and the guide took them round a terri* 
biy rough piece of moantainons country, gradually edging 
away toward a long mardi, which, from the numbers of 
those animals we had eccn there, wo had called the Elepbjmt 
M&nh, but which was really the place known to him by tbe 
name "Nyaiya Mnknlu," ot Great I^e. Nyanja or Nyan- 
a means, generally, a marsh, lake, rirar, or even a mere tit- 

Hie party pu^ed on at Ust without guides, or only -with 
cnuy ouei; for, o4d^ etwugh, they were otien under great 

Cmat. lU. 


obligations to the madmen of the ditVereiit villages: one of 
these honored them, as they slept in the open air, by dancing 
and singing at their feet the whole night These poor fel- 
lows sympalhized with the explorers, probably in the be- 
lief that they be1ong(Kl to their own cla-»; and, uninQucnced 
by the general opinion of their countrymen, they really 
pitied, and took kindly to the strangers, and often guided 
them faithfully from place to place, when no sane man could 
be hired for love or money. 

The bearing of the Manganja at this time was very inde- 
pendent; a striking contrast to the cringing attitude they 
afterward aasomed, when the cruel scourge of slare-hunting 
passed over their country. Signals wore given from the 
different villages by means of drums, and notes of defiance 
and intimidation were soundtd in the travelers' cars by day, 
and occasionally they were kept awake the whole night in 
-^^pectation of an instant attack. Drs. Livingstone and Kirk 
'^lere desirous that nothing should occur to make the natives 
.^r^ard them as enemies; Mruuikasa, on the other hand, was 
i^snxious to show what he could do in the way of fighting 

The perseverance of Ihe party was finally crowned with 
^■^ecos; lor on the ISth of April they discovered Lake Shir- 
^*s, a considerable body of bitter water, containing leeches, 
fisfc, crocodiles, and hippopotami. From having probably no 
•HWlel, the water is slightly brackish, and it appears to be 
dwpiwith islands like hills rising out of it Their point of 
^w was at the base of Mount Piriiniti or Mopeu-peu, on 
** S.&W. side. Thence the prospect northward ended in a 
^ hoTizoD with two small islands in tLm diiilauco; a larger 
*0Ci resembling a hill-top and covered with trees, rose more 
•* tbe foreground. Kanges of hills appeared on the east ; 



Chuv UI. 

and on the west stood Mount Cbikala, which seems to be 
OODnectat) with the great inouutaia-mass called Zomba. 

Thu sUoru, ueat which they spent two nights, was covered 
with rcoda uid papyrus. Wishing to obtain the latitude by 
the imtuml hoiizoQ, they waded into the water some distance 
toward what was reported to be a aand-bank, but were so 
lUBaultetl by leeches they were fain to retreat; and a woman 
told them that in enticing them into the water the men only 
wanted to kill them. The information gathered was that 
this lake was nothing in size compared to another in the 
north, ttom which it is separated by only a tongue of land 
The northern end of Shirwa has not been seen, though it has 
bucn passed ; the length of the lake may probably be 60 or 
80 niiles> and about 20 broad. The height above the sea is 
1800 fbet, and the taste of the water is like a weak solution 
of EpBOm salts. TLie country around is very beautiful, and 
olotfaad with rich ve^tntion; and the wares, at tbo tisu tbey 
HW tboiv, breaking and foaming over a rock on the soath- 
«Mtem aide, added to the beauty of the picture. Szoeeding* 
tj MVy mountains, pei^pa SOOO feet above the sea-level, 
HUd BMr Um OMtan shore. When their k]^ abeep«ded 
Mnmhs appear, some above, some below ihe olooda, the 
■esiK^ is grand. This range ia called ^Cilaoje; oa the west 
■tanihi Mount Zouba, 7000 fetl is height, Mi eone twcatf 
milre k«g- 

Their Dtyeak fceias nther lo gun Ibe iwfirlfed of tin 
pee^Oe bj dcgnoa than to upk>n\ ih«T coeaidefed thai ihef 
hMl adiraMeil ht WM^gtt into th« (waatxy for one tiip; and 
batwTnslhUllMiy«(MMa««ttKtlwtrettdbTa npetiUm^ 
thuir TMl, as thry Had iIenm am ake SUi^ ihey .Wi^Hi to 
n«ara to Uw mwl at ftiHaaawmi Mwad; ha^Ml^ of 

iQr IW w^ t^f 

pMRO doVB 




■ward doee by Monnt Chiradzuru, sTnong ibe relatives of 
Chibisn, and thence by tbc pass Zedi down to the Shire. 
A.nd it van well that they got to the ship when they did, for 
our excellent quartermaster, John Walker, who had been left 
in chaT^ge, had been very ill of fuvcr all the time of their ab* 
sence, while those who had been roughing it for twenty-two 
days on the hills, and sleeping every night, except one, in 
the open air, came back well and hearty. Howe, his com* 
panioQ, who had charge of the medicine, bad not given him 
any, because he did not know what his illness was. One 
oaa scarcely mistake the fever if he attendf to the symptoms 
already enumerated, or remembers thut almost every com- 
plaint ia this country is u furm of fever, or is modified by 
the malariiL Walker's being a very severe cuse, a large 
dose of calomel was at onoe admiuistered. This sometimes 

t Telieves when other remedies fail, but the risk of salivation 
must be run. When 20 grains ore taken it may cause an 
abundant flow of bile, and a cure be the result, This is 
mentioned not as a course to be followed except when other 
ibmediea fait, or when jaundice supervenes. We have seen 
a case of this kind cured by a large dose of calomel, ^hen 
a blister put on the pit of the stonroch to allay vomiting 
'brought out serum as black as porter, as if the blood had 
1)Cen impregnated with bile These hints ore given, though 
~«c believe, as wc have before stated, that no Mitsion or Ex- 
pedition ought to enter the country without a skillful sur- 
>n OS an essential part of its etaS. 

Quflrtermastcr Walker soon recovered, though, from the 
Jong continuance of the fever, his system was very much 
snore shaken than it would have been had the medicine 

»1»en administered at once. The Kroomen had, white we 
Tirerc away, cut a good supply of wood for stcatniug, aiid we 
■oon proceeded down th** ^ver. 



Tbe steamer reached Tette on the 28d of June, and, oAer 
undergoing repairs, proceeded to the Kongone to receive 
provisioDa from one of H. M. cruiscre. "We had been ver_y 
abundantly supplied with first-rate stores, but we were an- 
fortunate enough to lose a considerable portion of them, and 
had now to bear the privation as best we could. On the 
way down we purchased a few gigantic cabbages and pump- 
kina at a native village below Mozaro. -Our dinners had 
usually consisted of but a single course; but we were sur- 
prised the next day by our black cook from Sierra Leone 
bearing in a second course. " What have you got there?" 
was asked in wonder. "A tart, sir." "A tart! of what is 
it made?" "Of cabbages, sir.'* As we had no sugar, and 
oould not "make believe," as in the days of boyhood, we 
did not enjoy the feast that Tom's genius bad prepared. 
Her mrycsty'a brig "Pcreiim," Lieutenant Saumarez com- 
mandittg, called on her way to the Cape, and, though some- 
what abort of provisions herself, generously gave us all she 
oould spam Wo now parted with our Kroomcn, as, from 
their inabihty to march, wo could not use them in our land 
journeys. A crew was picked out from the Makololo, wbo, 
besides being good travelers, oould cut wood, work the ship. 
lud required ouly native food. 

While at the Kougono it was found ncccssarj- to beach 
tbe stioamer fur repairs. Sho was built of n newly in vcntod 
sort of Bled plates, only a sixteenth of an inch in tbickneas, 
patented, but unforlunalely never tried before. To build an 
exploring shtp of untried material was a mistake. Some 
^temloal action on tbi» prcp&ratiou of steel causod a minute 
hole ; £ttim this point, branches like lichens, or tlio little 
raggud aun wo aoaeiimes aoo iu thawing ioe, radiated in 
all dirrationft. Small boles wi'nt through wherever a bend 

Obaf. IU. 



oocorred in these brancliea. The bottom very aoon became 
like a sieve, ocmplctely full of minute holes, which- leaked 
perpetually. The engineer stopped the larger ones, but the 
reaael was no sooner afloat than new ones broke out. The 
first news of a morning was commonly the unpleasant an- 
nouncement of another leak in the forward compartment, or 
in the middle, which was worse stUl. 

Frequent showers fell on our way up the Zambesi, in the 
beginning of August, On the 8th we had upward of three 
inches of rain, which large quantity, more than falls in any 
angle rainy day during the season at Tette, we owed to 
being near the sea. Sumetimca the cabm waa nearly Hood- 
ed; for, in addition to tho leakage from below, rain poured 
through the roof, and on umbrella bod to be ufed whenever 
we wiished to write : the mode of coupling the compart- 
ments, too, was a. new one, and the action of tho hinder com- 
partment on the middle one pumped up the water of the 
river, and sent it in streams over the floor and lockers, 
where lay the cushions, which did double duty as chairs 
and beds. In trying to form an opinion of the climate, it 
most be reooUected that much of the fever, from which wo 
mifTered, was caused by sleeping on these wet cushions. 
Many of the botanical specimens, laboriously collected aud 
carefully prepared by Dr. Kirk, were destroyed, or double 
work imposed, by llieir accidentally falling into wcl places 
in the cabm. 

When lying off an island a few miles below Mozaro, the 

owner of it, Paul, a relative of the rebel Mariano, paid us a 

visit. He bad just returned from Mozambique, having, to 

nee the common phrase of the country, ''arranged'' with the 

Ulhorities. He told us that Governor General d'Almeida 

knew nothing of the K.uuguRe, and thought, wilh others, that 



Up ike Bhirc nguit), Augniit, I&&9,— Moone MnramholA. — Hot FoQiitAln. — 
CluM bj ft BntTalo. — Nj-anjn I'angono, or Little Lake. — NjunJA Alnknlo, 
orGrenl L*ke.— Aiicieat Purlugaedo geographic^] Knowledge uiuirtuliible. 
— Cbiltando-kudic^Accidrnl (mm ansaiubSity of Stcjuncr. — Ili[)[iapot- 
noia* Trnp*. — Mojqultaei. — ElejihnnU, — View of iho Shire Mflnhea.— 
Binla.^l'fllm Wiuc, or i^Hra.— S«l^^lllki^g.^Brllcki*ll Soil ami superior 
Conon. — DakaniLrooia Islantl.— A \aviag Hurnbil). — Chibisu. — CLiId solJ 

I Aboot the middle of Angust, after culting wood at Sha- 
moara, we again steamed up the Shire, with tlie iiitenlion 
of becoming better acquainted with the people, and making 
another and longer journey on foot to the north of Lake 
Shirwa, in aearch of Lake Nyaasa, of which wo had already 
received some information, under the name Kyinyesi (the 
stars). The Shire is mitch narrower than the Zambesi, but 
deeper and more easily navigated. It drains a low and ex- 
ceedingly fertile valley of from fifteen to twenty miles in 
breadth. Ranges of wooded hills bound this valley on both 
Bides. For the first twenty miles the hills on the left bank 
ttfe close to the river; then comes Morarobala, whoso name 
Means "the lofty watch-tower," a detached mountain 500 
jardafrom the river's brink, which rises, with steep sides on 
the west, to 4000 feet iu height, and i3 obout seven miles in 
Tength. It is wooded up to the very top, and very beauti- 
fill. The southern end, seen from a distance, has a Sne 
gmdual slope, and looks as ir it might be of easy ascent; 
but the side which faces the Shire is steep and rocky, es- 
peoially in the upper half. A small village pee|!a out 



Caw. IV. 

about half waj up the mounUuD ; it has a pore and bracing 
atmoepber^ aod is pcrcbcd above musquito range. Tho 
people on tbe summit bave a very difiereot climate and 
vegetation &om tbose of tbe plains, but tUey have to spend 
a great portion of tbeir existenoe amid wbite fieecy clouda, 
whicb, in tbe rainy aeaeon, rest daily on tbe top of tbeir fa- 
vorite mountain. Wc were kindly treated by these mount- 
aineers on our first ascent: before our second tbey were 
nearly all swept away by Mariana Dr. Kirk found upward 
of thirty species of ferns on this and other mountains, and 
oven good-sized tree-ferns, though scarcely a single kind is 
to be met with on the plains. Lemon and orange trees 
grew wild, and pineapples bad been planted by the people. 
Many large hombills, hawks, monkeys, autelopta, and rhinoc- 
eroses found a home and food among tbe great trees round 
its base. A hot fountain boils up on the plain near the 
north cud. It bubbles out of the earth, dear as crystal, at 
two points, or eyes, a few yards apart from each other, and 
sends off a fine flowing stream of hot water. Tbe tempera- 
ture was found to be 174° Fahr., and it boiled an egg in 
about the usual time. Our guide threw in a small bran&h 
to show ns how speedily the Madse-awfra (boiling water) 
could kill the leaves. Unluckily lizards and insects did not 
seem to understand the nature of a hot spring, as many of 
their remains were lying at the bottom. A large beetle bad 
alighted on the water, and been killed before it bad time 
to fold its wings. An incrustation, smelling of sulphur, haa 
been deposited by the water on the stones. About a hund- 
red feet from the eye of the fountain the mud is as hot as 
can be borne by tbe body. In taking a bath there it makes 
the skin perfectly clean, and none of the mud adheres: it is 
strange that the Portuguese do not resort to it for the nu- 

CsAP. TV. 



meroas cutaneous diseases with which tbey ore so ofteu af- 

A few clumps of the palm aad acacia trees appear west 
of Monunbala, on tbe rich plaiu fonniug the tongue of land 
betweeu the rivers Shire and Zambesi. This is a good placo 
for all sorts of game. The Zambesi caaoe-men were afraid 
to Bleep on it from the idea of lious being there ; they pre- 
Jbrred to jiass the night oa an island. Some black men, 
who aocompuuied us as volunteer workmen from Shupanga, 
called oul one evening that a lion stcxtd on the bank. It 
was very dark, and wo could only see two sparkling lights, 
aaid to be the lion's eyes looking at us; for here, as else- 
where, they have a theory that the lion's eyes always flash 
fire at night Not being Hreflios — as they did not move 
when a shot was fired in their direction — they were proba* 
biy glowworms. 

Beyond Mommbala the Shire comes winding through an 
extensive marsh. For many miles to the north a broad sea 
of &esh green grass extends, and is so level that it might be 
used for taking the meridian altiiinlc of the sun. Ten or 
fifteen miles north of Mommbala stands the dome-shnped 
mountain Makangft, or Chi-kanda ; several othehi» with gra- 
nitic-looking peaks, stretch away to the north, and form the 
<»stcm boundary of the valley; another range, but of met*, 
amorphic rocks, eommcncing opposite Senna, bounds the 
valley on the west After steaming through a portion of 
ihia raarsh, we came to a broad belt of palm and other trees, 
Qroasing the fmc plain on the right bank. Marks of lar^e 
game were abundant Elephants hod been feeding on the 
|Hllm nnts, which have a pleasant fruity taste, and arc used 
«8 food by man. Two pytliona were observed coiled to- 
gether among the branches of a large tree, and were both 



Chat. IV. 

shot The larger of the two, a female, was ten feet long. 
They are harmless, aud said to be good eating. The Mako- 
lolo having set fire to the grass where they were cutting 
wood, a solitary bafTalo rushed out of the couflagratioii, aud 
made a furious charge at an active young fellow named] 
Mantlaoyane. Never did his fleet limbs ser\'e him better] 
than during the few seconds of his fearful flight before the 
maddened animal. Wheu he reached the bank and spranff. 
into the river, the infuriated beast was scarcely sis feet be*" 
hind him, Toward evening, afWr the day's labor in wood* 
cutting was over, some of the men went fishing. They fol- 
lowed the common African custom of agitating the water by 
giving it a few sharp strokes with the top of the fishing-rod^ 
immediately after throwing in the lijie, to attract the atten- 
tion of the fish to the bait. Having caught nothing, the 
reasoa assigned was the same as would have been given in 
England under like circumstances, namely, that " the wind 
made the fish cold, and they would not bite." Many gar^ 
dens of maize, pumpkins, and tobacco fringed the marshy 
banks as we went on. They belong to natives of the hills, 
who come down in the dry season, and raise a crop on 
at other times Hooded. "Wliile the crops are growing, largs* 
(lunntilioa of fish aro caught, chiefly Clarias cajKtisis and 
Jifugil Afrieanus; they are dried for sale or for future oon- 

As wo HBoendcd, wo pnssed a deep stream about thirty 
yards wide, flowing in from a body of open water several 
miles broad. Numbera of men were busy at difierent parts 
of it, filling their canoes with the lotus root, called J^i%a, 
which, when boilw! or roasted, resembles our chestnuts, and 
is extensively uswl in Africa as food. Out of this lagoon, 
and liy this atreani, tlio cliiof pun of the duckweed of the 


Sbiro flowa Tlio lagoon itself is colltid Nyuuja ea Motope 

(Lake of Mud). Il is oleo imuiL-d Nyanja Puiigoiio (Little 
X«ake), while the Elcpbaut Marsh goes hy the iianic of Ny- 

'imja Mul^ula (Great Lake). It is evideut, from the shore- 
line still to be observed oa the odjaceot hilts, thst in ancient 
times ihtso were really lokee, and the tmdiUoQal names thus 

.preserved are ouly another evidence of the general dcsicca- 
tioa which Africa has underguDe. No one would believe 
that beyond theise lilUe and great Nyaujas Portuguetie geo- 

tgiaphical knowledge never extended. But the Viscount Sa 
da Bandeiro, in an official letter to tbo Governor General of 
Mozambique, in his patriotic anxiety to prove that we did 
Dot discover Lai^-e Ayassa, actually quotes, as the only in- 
formation the ancient orcbivea of Lisbon can discloBc, that 
the people of Senna held commercial iatercouree with the 
pc(^le on Morambala, and of course, as ho avers, must have 
nailed into the little and great marshes or Nyanjas referred 
to above. As if cither of these were Lake Nyassa! The 
Shire cataracts are quite ignored The great Yicloria Falls 

' of Mosi-oa-tunya, we are aware, were quite unknown to the 
Portuguese; but, until we read his exccllency^s quotations 
from hearsay reports of some ancient author, we believed that 
the £ve great MurchiKon Cataracts, which form a descent of 
1200 feet, only a hundred and fifty milt« from Senna, must 
have been known to the old Portuguese, and we still incline 
to (he belief that they must have been explored; but, since 
the discovery was hidden from the rest of the world, it takes 
rank with the explorations of iUiterate Africans. It ia a 
pity, but tlie fact is, that the good viscount now feels the 
ioconveuicnce wbich follows tho shortsighted policy of his 
uicestors in geographical matters, as much as his descend- 
aata will feel and lament the present "dog in the manger" 



Cbaf. IV. 

commercinl policy of bis coDtemporaries. One of the Jes- 
uits formerly msde a busiuess-Hke proposal to explore Lake 
Maravi, but nowhere is it stated that it ever was carried into 
ofitjcL This, we regret to say, is all the information wc have 
been able to gain on this subject ijoia tbe Portuguese If 
wc bad been able to discover more particulars of tbeir explo- 
rations, we certaiuly are aot coiuicious of a desire to dwarf^ 

Late ill the afternoon of tbe first day's steaming, after wc 
left tbe wooding-place, we called at the village of Cbikaada- 
Eadze, a female cbief, to purchase rice for our men ; bat we 
were now in tbe blisaful region where time is absolutely of 
no account, aud where men may sit down and rest them- 
selves wben tired; so they requested ub to wait till next 
day, and tbey would sell us some food. As our forty black 
men, however, bad nothing to cook for supper, we were 
obliged to steam on to reach a village a few miles above. 
Wlien we meet tboao wbo care not whether we purchase or 
let it alone, or who think men ougbt only to be in a hurry 
when fleeing from an enemy, our ideas about time being 
money, and the power of the purse, receive a shock. Tbe 
state of eager competition, which in England wears out both, 
mind and body, and makes life bitter, is hero happily un- 
known. The cultivated spots are mere dots compared to 
the broad fields of rich soil which are never either grazed or 
tilled. Pity that tbe plenty in store for all, ixom our Fa^ 
ther's bountiful bands, is not enjoyed by more. 

The wretched little steamer could not carry all tbe hands 
we needed ; so, to bgbten her, we put some into the boats 
and towed them astern. In tbe dark one of the boats was 
capsized; but all in it, except one poor fellow who could 
not swim, were picked up. His loss threw a gloom over us 





all, and added to the cliagria we often felt at liaving been ao 
ill-served in our sorry cnift hy oue of our own couotrymeo. 
Few would have acted thus toward us: we bad received the 
asBuroncc that the steamer would carry from ten (o twelve 
ton.s, and about thirty-six men ; but we found that this made 
her draw so much as to be near einking, and we adopted the 
(iX|>edient mentioned, with the unfortunate result described. 
Next day we arrived at the village of Mboma (16° 56' 30" 
S.), where the people raised large quantities of rice, and were 
eager traders; the rice waa sold at wonderfully low rates, and 
wo could not purchase a tithe of the food brought for sale. 

AMoaiL i1ildl« of DM String 

A native minstrel serenaded us in the evening, playing 
several quaint tunea on a species of one-stringed fiddle, ac- 
companied by wild, but not unmusical songs. He told the 
Uakololo that be intended to play nil night to induce us to 
give him a present. The nights being cold, the thermome- 
ter fidling to 47", with occasional fogs, he was asked if he 
was not afraid of ^Mirishing from cold; but^with the genvunc 
ipiritof an Il.ili.'in organ-grinder, he replied, "Oh no; I shall 
spend the night with my while comrades in the big canoe; 
I have often heard of the white men, but have never seen 




tliem till now, ntid I mnst sing and play well to them," A 
small piece of cloib, however, bought him ofT, and he moved 
away in good humor. The water of iho river was 70* at 
sunrisSj which wns 23*" warmer than the air at the time, and 
this caused fogs, which rose like steam off the river. When 
this is the case, cold bathing in the mornings at this time of 
the year is improper, for, instead of a glow on coming out, 
one is apt to get a chill, the air being eo much colder than 
the water. 

A range of hilla, commencing oppoMte Senna, comes to 
within two or three miles of Mhoma village, and then runs 
}n a uurtLwesteriy dia-ction ; the piincipul hill is earned 
Malawe; a number of villages sumd ou ila treo-covered 
sides, and coal is found cropping out in the rocks. The 
country improves as we ascend, the rich valley becoming 
leas swampy, and adorned with a number of trees. 

Both banks are dotted with hippopotamus traps over every 
track which these animals have made in going up oat of the 
water to graza The hippopotamus feeds on grass aIonc,aDd, 
where there is any danger, only at tiighL Its enormous lips 
act like a mowing machine, and form a path of short-cropped 
grass as ii feeds. We never saw it eat aquatic plants or 
reeds. The tusks seem weapons of both oflcase and defense 
The hippopotamus trap consists of a beam five or BJr feet 
long, armed wiih a spear-head or hard-wood spike, covered 
with poison, and suspenilcd to a forked pole by a cord, which, 
coming down to the path, is held by a catch, to bo sot free 
when the beast treads on it. Being wary brutes, they arc 
still very numerous. One got frightened by the ship as she 
was steaming close to the bank. In its eager hurry to es- 
cape it rushed on bliore, and ran directly under a trap, when 
down came the heavy beam on its back, driving the poisoned 




Bpear-licnd a foot deep into ibi flcsli. In iIa agony it plunged 
bock into the river, to die in a few hours, and aA^ernard fur- 
Dished a ftisst for the natives. The poison on the spear-Lcad 
does QOi afl'ucl the meat^ except the part arouud the wound, 
and that is tbrowu away. Id some places the descending 
beam is weighted with heavy stones, but here the hard heavy 
wood is sufficient. 


Vleir of 81c«mer, Tfmpi, aiid JoiJ III j: papa taoiiu. 

About dusk we were hailed from the bank by an authori- 
tative voice. "Where are you going to? Where are you 
goiog to? What is all this journeying about?" "You may 
sleep there, so do not trouble yourself," was the answer re- 
tamed by the Makololo. 

"She is leaking worse than ever forward, sir, nnd there is 
a foot of water in the hold," was our first salutation on the 
morning of the 20th. But we have become accustomed to 
those things now, and are not surprised to hear of a new 



Chat. IV. 

"cataclysm" at any time. The cabin floor is always wet, 
and one is obliged to raop np the water many times a day, 
giving some countenance to the native idea that English- 
men live in or oa the water, and have no houses but ships. 
The cabin is now a favorite breeding-place for oiusquitoes, 
and we have to support both the ship-bred and shore-bred 
blood-suckers, of which several species show tis their irrita- 
ting attentions. A large brown sort, called by. the Porta- 
guese matiaos (tame), flies straight to its victim, and goes to 
work at once, as though it were an invited guest. Some of 
the small kinds carry uncommonly sharp tanoets and very 
potent poison. " What would these insects eat if we did not 
pass this way?" becomes a natural question. . 

Thejuiuos of plants, and decaying vegetable matter in the 
mad, probably form the natural food of mnsquitoes, and 
blood ia not necessary for their esistence. T3iey appear 80 
cpmmonly at malarious spots that their presence may be 
taken as a hint to man to be off to more healthy localiliee. 
Kone appear on the high lands. On the low lands ihoy 
swarm in myriads, fbe females alone are furnished with 
the biting apparatus, and their number appears to be out of 
all proportion in excess of the males. At anchor, on a still 
evening, they were excessively annoying, and the sooner wu 
took refuge under our musquito curtains the bettor. The 
miserable and sleepleaa night that only one musquito inside 
the curtain can cause is so well known, and has been so often 
described, that it is needless to describe it here. One soon 
learns, from eiperienee, that to beat out the curtains thor- 
oughly before entering them, so that not one of these pests 
can possibly be harbored within, is the only safeguard agaiust 
such severe tri.ils to one's tranquillity and temper. 

A few miles above Mboma we canio ogain to the village 

Cba». IV. 



(16" 44' 30" S.) of Ihe cbief Tingane, the beat of whoee war- 
druias can speedily muster some bundreda of armed men. 
Tbe bows and poisoned arrows bere are of superior work* 
maDsfaip to those below. MariaQo'ti shive • hunting parties 
stood in great awe of these barbed arrows, and long kept 
aloof from Tingane's villages. Uis people wero friendly 
eooagh with U3 now, and covered the banks with a variety 
of articles ior sale. The majestic mounuia Pirone, to which 
we have given tbe name of ^ount Clarendun, now looms in 
sight, and farther to the N.W. the southern end of tbe grand 
Milanje range rises in the form of on unfinished sphinx, louk- 
ing down on Lake Shirwa. The Ruo (16= SI' 0" &) is said 
to have its source in the Mihinje Houutains, and flows to the 
ShW., to join the Shire some distance above Tingane'a A 
short nay beyond the Buo lica the Elephant Murah^ or Ny- 
anja Mokulu, which is fre^iueuted by vast herds of these aui- 
mols. We believe that we eouuted eight hundred elephants 
in sght at once. In the choice of such a strong-hold tbey 
have shown their usual sagacity, for no hunter can get near 
them llirough the swamps. Tiiey now koop far from the 
steamer; but when she firet came up, wo steamed into the 
midst of a herd, and some were shot from the ship's deck. 
A single lesson was sufficient to teach them that the pujling 
monster was a thing to be avoided; and at the firat glimpse 
tbej ore now off two or three miles to the midst of the 
maisb, which is furrowed in every direction by wandering 
bntDches of the Shire. A fine youcg elephant was hero 
caoght alive, as he was cIttnbiDg up the bank to follow his 
retreating dam, When laid hold of, ho screamed with so 
much energy thatj to escape a visit from the eoragcd mother, 
we steamed off, and dragged him through the water by the 
probosois. As tbe men were holding his trunk over tbe 


Cur. IT. 

gunwale, Moogo, a brave Makololo elcphant-linntcr, rushed 
all, and drew bis knife across it in a sort of frenzy peculiar 
to ihe chase. The wound was Rkillfully scwod up. and the 
young animal soon became quite Uioie, but, unfortunately, 
the breatbiDg prevented the cut from healing, and be died in 
a feiv daya after from loss of blood. Ilad be lived, and bad 
we been able to bring him home, be would have been the 
&rst African elephant ever seen in England. The African 
male elephant is from ten to a Utile over eleven feet in 
height, and differs from the Asiatic species, more particularly 
in the convex shape of his forehead and the enormous nxe 
of bis cars. In Asia many of the males, and all the females, 
are without tusks, but in Africa both sexes are provided with 
tbcso weapons. The enamel in the molar teeth is arranged 
differently in the two speciea By an admirable proviaon, 
iww teeth constantly come up at the part where, in man, the 
wisdom teeth appear, and these push the others along, and 
oat at the front end of the jaws, thus keeping the niol&rs 
soand by renewal, till the animal attains a very great age. 
The tusks of animals from dry rocky countries are very 
rattcb nxtre deoso and heavier than those from wet and 
marshy districts, but the latter attain mnch the larger size. 

Th0 Shiro marshes support prodigious oumbeis of many 
kinds of «au>r-bwL An hour at the mast-bead unfolds 
aovW vinra of life in an African mar^. Near the edge. 
and oa the branches of some &vorite tive, rat aoores of plo- 
tMM and aoranffaats, which Hrettih tbeir snake-like nedka, 
mA ia mate aanaannont torn ana eye and tben another to- 
waid ibo i^ifvoachuig snoaMer. By^amt^y ite timid otaea 
begin to ty «fl;or taka ^'benders'* into tbe etteam; bat a 
ftw of tb* boUer. or iwwe eoopoaed, rcnain^ on}y taking 
«bt pceoantian to «piaad their viiif» xmAs fcr natant flight. 



The pretty ardettn (ffcrodias bubulcus), of a light yellow col- 
or when at reet, but seemingly of a pure white when flying, 
ulces wing, and sweeps across the green grass in large num- 
bers, often ahowing us where bufl'aloes and elephants are by 
perching on their backs. Flocks of ducks, of which the kind 
called "Soriri" {Dfiulrocygna per^onaUi) is most abundant, be- 
ing night feeders, meditate quieUy by the amall lagoons until 
startled by the noise of the steam machinery. Pelicana glide 
over the water, catching fish, while the acopus {Scopxa urn- 
hrttta) and large herons peer intently into pools. The large 
Uack and white spur-winged goose (a constant marauder of 
native gardens) springs up, and circles round to find out 
what the disturbance can be, and then settles down again 
with a splash. Hundreds of Hnongolos (Ana£tomu$ lameUi- 
gerus) rise on the wing from the clumps of reeds or low trees 
^tbe SkhinoiJiata, from which pith hats arc made), on which 
they baild in colonies, and are speedily high in mid-air. 
Cbanning little red and yellow weavers {PlcKxulte) remind 
ooe of butterflies as tbey fly in and out of the tall grass, or 
hang to the mouths of their pendent nests, chattering briskly 
to lieir males within. These weavers seem to have "cook 
Bests," built with only a roof, and a percli beneath, with a 
doorway on each side. The natives say they are made to 
protect the bird from the rain. Though her husband is very 
attentive, we have seen the hen-bird tearing her mate's nest 
to pieces, but why we can not tell. Kibes and vultures arc 
busy ovorbeadj beating the ground for their repast of car- 
rion ; and the solemn-looking, stately -stepping marabout, 
with a taste for dead ilsh or men^ stalks slowly along the 
almost stagnant channels. Groups of men and boys aro 
Harohing diligently in various places for lotus and other 
roota. Some arc standing in canoes, on the weed-covered 





]>ouds, spearing fish, while others are punting over the small 
iuttirscctiiig estreains to examine their sunken fisb-basket& 

Toward evening, hundreds of 
pretty little hawks {Erythropua 
vesperUniLs) are seen Hying in ■ 
southerly direction, and feeding 
oa drogon-lUes and locusts. They 
oomc, apparently, from resting on 
the pahn-trees during the heat of tbe day. Flocks of scia- 
8or-hilIa {Jihyncopx) arc then also ou the wtiig, and in search 
of food, plowing the water with their lower mandibles, which 
are nearly half an inch longer than the upper onea 

At the uorthcastcm end of the marsh, and about three 
miles from the river, commonws a great forest of palm-tpces 
(&>ni»ru .tH^iopium), It extends many miles, and at one 
point oomca close to tbe river. The gray trunks and green 
tops of this immense mass of trees give a pleasing tone of 
color to tbo view. The mountain range, which rises close 
behind the palms, is generally of a cheerful green, and has 
many trves, with pntches of a lighter tint among them, as if 
spots of land had once been cultivated. The sharp angular 
rocks and dcUs on its adcs have tbe appearance of a hogo 
crystal broken ; and this ia eo of^en the case in Africa, that 
000 can guess pretty neariy at sight whether a range ia of 
li» otd Oiystallino rocks or not The Borassus, thoagh not 
an oil-boaring palm, m a uaoAil tno. The fibrous pulp round 
tha la^ ntltt il ^a sweety (hiity taste, and is caien by men 
•ad «l4|)^tek Tbo nativta bury the nuts until tbe kernels 
bogltt to iipTont; when dng up ami brokco, the inside naon- 
Uw o»Ttv ixHAtiyw. and is prtx«d in tinws of aoaidty as on- 
uiiion* fcioX. During «e^-«>nil month* of tbe year, palm wimt, 
or mm, i» obtaiDod in large quauiiticfl ; vben &«£h, it is a 




pleasant diiak somewhat Hke Champaguc, and not at all iii- 
toxicatiog; though, a^r standing a few hours, It becomes 
highly sa Sticks a foot long are drivc^i into notches in the 
hard outside of the tree — the inside being soft or hollow- 
to serve as a ladder; the top of the fniil-sboot is cut oflj 
and the sap, pouring out at (he fresh wound, ia caught in an 
earthen pot, which is hung at the point A thin slice if: 
token off the end, to open the pores, aud make the juice flow 
every time the owner ascends to empty the pot. Tempo- 
mry bata are erected in the forest, and men and boys remain 
by their respective trees day and night, the nuts, fish, and 
wine being their sole food. The Portuguese use the palm 
wine as yeast, and it makes bread so light titat it melts in 
the mouth like &otb. 

Beyond the marsh the country is higher and has a much 
larger population. Wo passed a long lino of temporary hut? 
OD a plain on the right bank, with crowds of men and wom- 
en bard at work making sulL They obtain it by mixing th« 
«artb, which is hero highly saline, with water, in a pot with 
» small bole in it, and then evaporating the liquid, which 
niDS through, in the sun. From the number of women we 
saw carrying it off in bags, wo concluded that vast quantities 
• must be made at these works. It is worth observing that 
on soils like this, containing salt, the cotton is of larger and 
finer staple than elsewhere. "We saw large tracts of this 
tich brackish soil both in the Shire and Zambesi valleys, and 
'x^oe, probably, sea-islatid cotton would do well; a single 
plajit of it, reared by Major Sicard, flourished and produced 
'i*© long staple and peculiar tinge of this celebrated variety, 
tliough planted only in the street at Tette; and there also :i 
salt efflorescence appears, probably from decomposition ol* 
dift TOck, off which the people scrape it for use. 



Chap. IV. 

Above the palm-irces a suooession of rich low ialaods stud 
tlie river, Matty of tbem nra culiivntod, oiid grow mai^c at 
lUl umc9 of the yeaf, for we saw it in different stages of 
growth; fiomo patches ripe, and others half grown, or jusi 
.■tproutJng out of the ground. The shores ore adorned with 
rows of bonana-trocs, and the fruit is abundant and cheap. 
Many of the reedy banka are so intertwined with convol- 
vuliia and other creepers as to be absolutely impenetrable. 
They aro beautiful to the eye, a smooth wall of living groea 
rising oat of the crystal water, and adorned with lovely 
floweis ; but ao dense, that, if capsized in the water, one 
Qould scaroely pass through to land. 

The large village of the chief Mankokwe occupies a site 
on the right bauk ; he owns a aumbor of fertile islands^ and 
a said to be the Rundo, or ponunount chief of a laige dis- 
trict. Being of an unliappy, sospicious disposition, bo voold 
not sea us ; 80 we thought it best to move on rather than 
i^xuid time in Beekiug bis fiivor. 

Od the S6Ui of August we reached Dakanamoio Island, 
opposite the perpendicular bluff on which Chibisa's village 
dtanda; he had guoc, with meet of hts pec^le, to live near 
the Zambesi, bat his head man was civil, and jmiiiuaed ns 
guides and whaievw else va needed. A few of the men. 
««r» buy deaninft mtinft sfHomag, and weavii^ oottaa. 
Tbis is « eomaon aight ia aeaify aveiy viU^ev «Bd «*«* 
Auntly ftppMn to bare tta|ialdiorootttiD,8s oorow 
ton ilk Sootland had each hb patch of fiax. Near si 

Sook of the largest 



bera to raosi on the great tna wfaxdi Oait the 

4dg» of lh» ctUt They team eariy in the 
b««it« aaDria^fi»rlhttrfiiau«-ptKM^t» 
ia |iaai& Thej aiaeridealty ef a laving 

Chap. IV. 



attached to each other, the male olirayB nestling 
close bcaidc his mate. A fine male fell to the ground, fram 
fear, nt the report of Dr. Kirk's gun ; it^vras caught and kept 
on board ; the female did not go off in the mornings to feed 
with the others, but 6ew round the ship> anxiously tryiug, 
by her plaintive calls, to induce her bcIoTcd one to follow 
her: she came again in the evenings to repeat the invita- 
ttons. The poor disconsolate captive soon refused to eat, 
and in five days died of grief, because he could not have her 
company. No internal injury could be detected after death. 
Chibisa and his wife, with a natural show of parental feel- 
ing, had told the doctor, on bis previous visit, that a few 
years before some of Cbisaka's men had kidnappod and sold 
their little daughter, and that she was now a slave to the 
padre at Tette. On his return to Tette, the doctor tried 
hard to ransom and restore the ^1 to her parents, and of- 
fered twice the value of a slave ; the padre seemed willing, 
but she could not be found. This padre was better than the 
average men of the country ; and, boini; always civil and 
obliging, would probably have restored her gratuitously, but 
she had been sold, it might be, to the distant tribo Bazizulu, 
or he c»uld not tell where. Custom had rendered his feel- 
ings callous, and Chibisa had to be told that his child would 
never return. It is this callous state of mind which leads 
some of our own blood to quote Scripture in support of 
slavery. If we could afford to take a backward step in civ- 
ilization, we might find men among ourselves who would in 
Uke manner prove Mormonism or any other enormity^ to be 



Chap. V. 


LcAW tbo Vewct far Dinoovery nf Lake Virtutft. — ManKnnJK Hltthlands lic«u- 
lirul, well WDodiHl, ftod well wiiUrvd. — Pxtiunige. — Sijli; of Ipuvdueiioo (*• 
the >Iangsn)a. — Peopla AgricultnrifitE, and Workers in Iruo, Cotlon. «lc — 
ForeiKii anil lodigenoos Cotton. — The Pfkle. or Lip-ring. — Poeeiblo Dm (ot 
this OniBiiioni, — Bcrr-Jrinkoin. — Ortleol by Mbhtc. — Mourning for (he 
Dofld, — Belief in a Supremo Being. — rnmnloftibo L^kcIct. — ChicPs Wifc 
killed Iijr « Crocodile,— I>i«eoMry DfLnkc Nyiuwn, Ifitii of September, IBSit 
^It» KDbecqa«nl DiBCowery by Dr. Rdschsr. — Tlio " CjSoree" or SlAre-«iick. 
— Severe) Modee by wlitch tlie 8l&ve-trado lit supplied, — Aja.wa. — Mansao- 
ja.— -More *u»picioi» limn the Znmbc^i Tribe*. — Zimika'* lack of HaepHal- 
tt;. — Fino and bracing Cliantc— Great Inltncnce to bo gained bj k smun 
er on Lake Nf asaa. 

We left the abip on the 28th of Aagust, 185S, for the dis- 
cOTcrj of Lake Nyassa. Our party numbered forty-two in 
all — four whites, thirty-six Makololo, and two guides. We 
did not actually need so many, either for carriage or defense, 
but took thorn because we believed that., human nature being 
every ■where the sume, blacks are as reaily as whites to take 
advantage of the weak, and are as civil and respectful to the 
powerful. "We armed our men with muskets, which gave 
na influence, although it did not add much to our atrcngtb, 
as most of the men had never drawn a trigger, and in any 
conflict would in all probability have been more dangerous 
to us than to the enemy. 

Our path crossed the valley in a northeasterly direction, 
up the course of& beautiful flowing stream. Many of the 
gardens had excellent cotton growing in them. An hour's 
march brought us to the foot of the Manganja Hills, up 
whiuh lay the toilsome road. The vegetation soon changed; 




UB we rose, bamboos appeared, and new trees and plants 
were met with, wbicb gave such incessant employmeni to 
Dr. Kirk, that he traveled the distance three tiroes over. 
Bemarkably Cue trees, one of which has oil-yielding seeds, 
and belongs lo ihe mahogany family, grow well in the hol- 
lows along the rivulet courses. The ascent became very fa- 
tiguing, and we were glad of a rest Looking book from an 
devation of a tboutuiud feet, wu beheld a lovely prospect. 
The eye takes in at a glance the valley beneath, and the 
many windings of its silver stream Makubula, or Kubvula, 
from the shady hiU-side, where it cmcigca in foaming liasle, 
to where it slowly glides into the tranquil Shire; then the 
Shire itself is seen for many a mile above and below Chjbi- 
sa's, and the great level country beyond, vrith ita numerous 
greea woods; until the jirospect, west and ^orthwest, is 
tx>unded far away by masses of peaked and Uomo-slmpcd 
blae mountains, that fringe the highlands of the Maravi 

After a weary march we halted at Makolongwe, the vil- 
lage of Chitimba. It stands in a woody hollow on the first 
of the three terraces of the Manganja Hills, and, like all other 
Manganja villages, ia surrounded by an impenetrable hedge 
of poisonous euphorbia. This tree casts a deep shade, which 
would render it difficult for bowmen to take aim at the vil- 
lagers inside. The grass does not grow beneath it, and this 
may be the reason why it is so universally used, for when 
dry the grass would readily convey fire to the huts inude; 
moroover, the hedge acts as a fender to all flying sparks. 
As Btrangers are wont to do, we sat down nnder some fine 
lr«3 near the entrance of the village. A couple of mate, 
n&de of split reeds, were spread for the white men to sit on ; 
and the head man brought n segnati, or present, of a small 




goat and a basket of meal. The full value in beads and cot- 
ton, cloth was handed to him in return. lie measured the 
doth, doubled it, and then measured that again. The bcad« 
were scrutinized ; he had never seen beada of that color be- 
fore, and should like to consult mih his comrades before ac- 
cepting them, and this, after repeated examinations and much 
anxious talk, he concluded to do. Meal and peas wero then 
brought for sale. A fathom of blue cotton cloth, a full dress 
for man or woman, was produced. Our Makolclo head man, 
Sninyane, thinking a part of it was enough for the meat, was 
proceeding to tear it, when Chitimba remarked that it was a 
pity to cut snch a nice dress for his wife; he would rather 
bring more meal. "All right," said Sininyanc; "but look. 
the cloth is very wide, bo see that the basket which carries 
the meal bo ^ide too, and add a cock to make the meal taste 
nicely." A brisk trade sprang up n% once, each being eager 
to obtain as fine things as his neighbor — and all were in 
good humor. Women and girls began to pound and grind 
meal, and men and boys chased tiio screaming fowls over 
the village until they ran them down. In a few hours the 
market was completely glutted with every sort of native 
food ; the prices, however, rarely fell, as they could easily 
eat what was not sold. 

We slept under the trees, the air being pleasant, and no 
musquitoes on the hills. AocoTding (o our usual plan of 
marching, by early dawn our camp was in motion. After a 
cup of coffee and a bit of biscuit, wc were on the way. The 
air was doliciously cool, and the path a little easier than that 
of yesterday. We passed a number of vllagea, occupying 
picturesque spots among the hills, and in a few hours gained 
the upper terrace, 8000 feet abnve the level of the sea. The 
plateau lies west of the Milanjo Mountains, and its northeast- 




1 ad iul 

om border slopes down to Lake Shirwa. We were all 
ciuLTined with the splendid country, aud looked vitU never- 
fitiling delight on its fertile plains, its numerous hills, and 
majestic monntaios. In Eomo of tho passes vie saw bramble- 
berries growing ; and tho many other flowers, though of great 
beaut/f did not remind us of youth and home like the un- 
jjainly thorny bramble-bushes. We were a week in cross- 
ing the highlands in a northerly direction; then we descend- 
•d into the Upper Shire Valley, which is nearly 1200 feel 
the level of the sea. This valley is wonderfully fer- 
tile, and supports a large population. After leaving the 
somewhat flat-U>pped southern portion, tho most prominent 
mountain of the Zomba range is Njougone, which lias a fine 
stream running past its northern base. We were detained 
at the end of the chain some days by one of our compauious 
being laid up with fever. One night we were suddenly 
aroused by buflfaloes rushing close by the sick-bed. We 
were encamped by a wood on the border of a niarah, but our 
patient soon recovered, notwithstanding the unfavorable sit- 
uation and the poor accommodation. 

The Manganja country is delightfully well watered. The 
dear, oool, gushing streams are very numerous. Once we 
passed seven fine brooks and a spring in a single hour, and 
this, too, near the close of tho dry season. Mount Zomba, 
which is twenty miles long, and from 7000 to 8000 feet high, 
faa^ a beautiful stream flowing through a verdant valley on 
its summit, and running away down into Lake Sbirwa. The 
highlands are well wooded, and many trees, admirable for 
their height and timber, grow on the various water-courses- 
'* Is this country good for cattle ?" we inquired of a Mako- 
lolo herdsman, whoso occupation bad given him skill in pas- 
turage. " Truly," he replied, " do you not see abundance of 



CuAt; V. 

Ukwo gniBBCS which ihe cattle love, and get fat npon?" Yet 
the people have lut few goats, and fewer &hecp. With the 
oxocptiou of an occasional leopard, there arc no beasts of 
proy to diaturb domeetic aQiiiud& Wool-sheep would, with- 
uut doubt, thrive oq- these bighluod^ The Manganja gener- 
ally live in villages, each of which has its own head man, 
and be may be ruler over several ai^accnt villages. The 
people are regarded aa his children. All the petty chie& of 
a partioular portion of country give a sort of allegiance to a 
paamounl chief, called the Hondo, or Hundo. They are 
boand to pay him a small annual tribnte, and one of the 
Uttka of ewry elephant killed ; and it is his duty, in torn, to 
aausi and protect thvm when attacked by an cnemj. Man- 
kokve i» ihe Bundo of the wutbeni ponioa of the higfa- 
kftdb; b«t he is a besotted character, wbo nerer visits nor 
aids ihoiQ as his frthcr did, and so the tribote is tmrelj pud. 
Still all acknowledge him as their Bondo, and admit that it 
IS wrong in tbem not to pay the tribute^ thoogfa wrong in 
hfaoB not «o belp Aem wb<>n in trouble. Ptat of the Upper 
Shir* Valley hu a lady panmoanv named Kyai^o; and in 
her Ana ini o w woneo rank hi^er and leeeiTe mor respeel- 
M ti salmiMt thaa their aisMa aa the hgh. 

IV hiU chM; ^loagn, otted km wife ID Mfce c^^ oTa 
p«««««t WW had ^vaa hua. Sha Jirjipiil don <m ha 
kaawh <li«fNMC bar hands ia nTcmwa bcdH* aad aAer ze- 
TTli-riif TIT imiv fhn bai VinUj h aai i i ImapaMalto 
111 -^r -^^-" -T" 1 •'- -Vf'- I'll I iiBii iifiliUtLX^ 
kMh haskd* tha fMh as «* f»etaAz baft a gs^ 
»Qk: ylaoa whw w« gut taa» Kyango*^ aova^. 

Mtt «f tka isil or h« T«fc«i^ llM^ «M ^ I 

at ihM* aaawntw vOliga* had nitocd la mkm 
*ilm ft anie ■» M fc i i a nK w* a^^ alM^ ^ 




tlieu asked that bis wife also migbt be allowed to come aod 
loc^ at the watch, compass, and other curioatiea She came 
witK other wotoeD, and eeemcd to be a modest and intelli- 
gSDt pereou. Iler husband alwaja consulted her before con- 
clading a bargain, and was evidently influenced by her opin- 
ioa. The sites of the villages are selected with judgment 
and good taste, as a flowing stream is always near, and shady 
trees grow around. In many cases the trees Uave been 
planted by the head man himself. The Boalo, or spreading- 
place, is generally at one end of the village ; it is an area of 
twenty or thirty yards, made smooth and neat, near the fa- 
'vorite banyan and other trees, which throw a grateful shade 
over it Here the men sit at various sorts of work during 
the day, and smoke tobacco and bang ; and here, on the clear 
delicious moonlight nights, they sing, dance, and drink beer. 
On eatering a village, we proceeded, aa all strangers do, at 
vimcc! to the Boalo: mats of split rccda or bamboo were usual- 
ly spread for us to sit on. Our guides then told the men 
"Xrho might be there who wo were, whence we had come, 
"Xrhitber we wanted to go, and what were oar objects This 
information was duly carried to the chief, who, if a sensible 
Qum, came at once ; but, if he happened to be timid and sus* 
^icions, waitpd until he had used divination, and his warriora 
liad time to come in from outlying hamleta. When he 
vxtakea his appearance, all the people begin to clap their 
hands in unison, and continue doing so till ho gits down op- 
posite to ua Ilis counselors take their places beside him. 
Qe makes a remark or two, and \s then silent for a few sec- 
ondfl. Our guides then sit down in front of the chief and his 
Counselors, and both parties lean forward, looking earnestly 
at each other; thechicf repeats a word such as "Ambuiatu" 
{nxiT Father, or master), or "moio" (life), and all clap their 




Cntv. V, 

Imiida. Anotkcr word is followed by two daps, a iliird by 
«liU more clapping, when each toackcs the ground with both 
hands placed together. Then all rise, and lean forward with 
measured clap, aod sit down again with clap, clap, clap, iiunt- 
er and still faiater, till the last dies away, or is brought to an 
end by a smart loud clap from the chief. They keep perfeci 
time in this species of court etiquette. Our guides now tell 
the chief, oflen in blank verse, all they have already told bis 
people, with the addition perhaps of their own suspidona of 
the visitors. He asks some questions, and then oonvexaei 
with us through the gtiides. Direct commuuicatioa between 
the chief and the head of the stranger party is not customary. 
Id approaching they ot^cn ask who is the spokesman, and 
the spokesman of the chief addresses the person indicat 
oxolusively. There is no lack of punctilious good manners. 
The accustomed presents are exchanged with civil ceremoni- 
oosDeas, until our men, wuaricd and hungry, call OQt,"Eii:>j 
glish do not buy slitves, they buy fuod," and then the peop] 
bring meal, maize, fowls, batatas, yams, beans, beer, for aale. 
The Mangai^a are an industrious race ; and, in addition to 
working in iron, oottou, and basket-making, they cultivate 
the soil extensively. All the pot^lo of a village turn out to 
labor in tho ilclds. It is no uncommon thing to see men, 
women, and children banl at work, with tho baby lying doee 
by beneath n shady busli. When a now piece of woodland] 
is lo Ikj cleared, they proceed exactly as fimners do in Amer- 
too. Tho troos are cut down wiili their little axes of soft na- 
tive iron; trunks and branches are piled op and burnt, and 
the aahoa apnad on tho soil. The com is planted among 
tlio standing stumps which are leA to rot If gms land ia] 
to ba bronght under cultivation, as much tall graas as tlie 
laborer can ponvt>niontly lay bold of is collected together 




and Qed into a knoL lEe tbea strikes liia hoe round the 
tufts to sever the roots, and, leaving all standing, proceeds 
until the whole ground assumes the appearance of a Held 
ooTerod with little shocks of corn in harvest, A short time 
before the rains begin these grass shocks are collected in 
small heaps, covered with earth, and burnt, the ashes and 
burnt soil being used to fertilize the ground. Lai^ crops 
of the mapira, or Egyptian, dura {IJolcus soi-ghum), are raised, 
with millet, beans, and ground-nuts; also patches of yams, 
rice, pumpkins, cucumbers, cassava, sweet potatoes, tobacco, 
and hemp, or bang {Cunitabis saliva). Maize is grown all 
the year round. Cotton is culUvated at almost every vil- 
lage. Three varieties of cotton have been found in the 
country, namely, two foreign and one native. The tonjo 
manga^ or foreign cotton, the name showing that it has been 
introduced, is of excellent quality, and considered at Man- 
chester to be nearly equal to the beat New Orleans. It is 
perennial, but requires replanting once in three yeais. A 
cooaiderable amount of this variety is grown iu the Upper 
and Lower Shire Valleys. Every family of any importance 
owns a cotton patch, whicli,froni the ciitiro absence of weeds, 
scezned to be carefully cultivated. Most were small, none 
aeen on this journey exceeding half an acre; but on the for- 
mer trip some wore observed of more than twice that size. 

The tonjc cadja, or indigenous cotton, ie of shorter staple, 
and feels in the hand like wool. This kind has to bo plant- 
ed every season in the highlands ; yet, because It makes 
stronger cloth, many of the people prefer it to the foreign 
ootton; the third variety is not found here. It was remark- 
ed to a number of men near the Shire Lakelet, a little farther 
on toward Nyassa, " You should plant plenty of cotton, and 
probably the English will come and buy iL" "Truly," re- 



plied a far-traveled Babisa trader to his fellows, "the country 
ia full of cotton, and if these people come to buy they will 
enrich us.^' Our own obscrvatiuu on the cotton cultivated 
convinced us that this v/a& no empty lloumh, but a fact 
Every where we met Vvith it, and scarcely ever entered a 
vUlage without finding a number of men cleaning, epinniog, 
and weaving. It is first carefully separated from the seed 
by the fingers, or by aa iron roller, on a litile block of wood, 
and rove out into long soft bands without twist Then it 
receive* its first twist on the spindle, and becomes about the 



thickness of coarse candtewick ; after being taken off and 
woiiod into a large ball, it is given the final bard twist, and 
^un into a firm cop on the siiindlc again, all the pi 
being painfully slow. 

Iron ore is dug out of the hills, and its manufacture is the 




Staple trade of the southern higUaDds. Eacb village has 
its smelting -houac, its charcoal -baraers, and blacksmiths 
They make good axes, spears, needles, arrow-heads, bracelets 
and anklets, which, considering the entire absence of ma- 
chinery, are sold at surprisingly low rates ; a hoe over two 
pounds in weight is exchanged for calico of about the valae 

UUiLrnii'Ji'a I'urcn unl Ikj low* of UoauUa 

of fourpcnce. In villages near Lake Sbirwa and elsewhui^e, 
the inhabttauts enter pretty largely into the manufactare of 
crockery, or pottery, making by hand all sorts of cooking, 
water, and grain pots, which they ornament with plumbago 
found in the hills. Some find employment in weaving neat 
baskets from split bamboos, and others collect the fibre of 
the buaze, which grows abundantly on the bills, and make it 
iolo fiflh-neta. These they either Uiw themselves, or ex- 
dtUgo with (he fishermen on the river or lakes for dried 
fish and salt. A great deal of nutivo trade is carried on be* 
iveea the villages by menus of barter In tobacco, salt, dried 
flsh, skinA, and iron. Many of the men are intelligent-look- 




iDg, with wcll-sbaped beads, agreeable faces, aad high Co 
hcada Wc soon learned to forget color, and we Jrequentlv' 
saw countenances reaeuibling those of white people we had 
known in England, which brought bauk the looks of forgob- 
ten onca rividly before the mind. The men tjike a good 
deal of pride in the arrangement of their hair; the varieties 
of style are endleaa One trains bia long locks till they lake 
the admired form of the buffalo's boms ; olbers prefer lo let 
their hair bang in a thick ooil down their backs, like that 
animal's tail; while another wears it in twisted cords, which, 
stiffened by fillets of the inner bark of a tree wound spirally 
round each curl, radiate from the head in all directioi 
Some have ii hanging all round the shoulders in large masfr-' 
68 ; others abave it off altogether. Many shave part of it 
into ornamentftl figures, m which the fancy of the barber 
crops out conspicuously. About as many dandies run to 
seed among ibo blacks as among the whites. The Manganja 
adorn thoir bodies extravagantly, wearing rings on their fin- 
gers and thumbs, besides throatlets, bracelets, and anklets of 
brass, copper, or iron. But the most wonderful of oma- 
meats, if such it may be colled, is the pelele, or nppcr-lip 
ring of the women. The middle of the upper lip of the girls 
is pierced dose to the septum of the noee^ and a small pin 
inserted to prevent the puncture closing upi After it has 
healed, the pin is taken out and a larger one is pressed into 
its plaoo, and so on suooeedvely for weeks, and months, ami 
years. The process of increasing the size of the tip goes ou^n 
till its capacity becomes so great that a ring of two Jocbef^M 
diameter can bo intawluced with eaaa All the highland 
women wc«r the pelele, and it is common on the Upper and 
Lower Shire. The poorer classes make them of hollow or 
of solid bftmboo, hut tbo weaUhier of ivory or tin. The tin 

CtiAr. V. 



pelele is ofleo made in the form of a small dish. The ivorv 
one is uot aiUiko a napkin-ring. No woman ever appears 

Mill, or Up-rtiiB "t Maafuija Wobuii. 

^%a public without Lhe pelele, except in times of moumiog fur 
*-t»« dead. It is frightfully ugly to see the upper lip project- 
ing two inches beyootl the tip of the uose. Whea an old 
Nearer of a hollow bamboo ring smiles, by the action of the 
>%% Hades of the cheeks, the ring and lip outside it ore dragged 
t>a(^ and thrown above the eyebrows. The nose is seen 
tbxoQgh the middle of the ring, and the exposed teeth show 
taow carefully they have been chipped to look like those of 
% oat or crocodile. The pelele of an old lady, Chikanda 
^^adzc, a chieiUincsa, about twenty miles north of Moramba- 




]m, hang down below ber chio, with, of course, a piec« of tbe 
upper lip around its border. Tbe labial letters can not be 
properly pronoonced, but tbe undcT lip has to do its best for 
tbcm against tbe upper teeth and gum. Tetl them it makcF 
tbcm ugly ; they bad better throw it away ; they reply, 
"Kodil Beally! it ia the fasbioa." How this hideous fash- 
ion oHgioated is an enigma. Can thick lipa ever have been 
tbought beautiful, and thia mode of artificial enlargement re- 
sorted to in consequence? Tbe constant twiddling of tbe 
pelcle with tbe tongue by tbe younger women suggested tbe 
hrcverent idea that it migbt have been invented to give safe 
•mploymcnt to tbat nttlo member. "Wby do tbe women 
wear these things?^' wo inquired of tho old chief, Chinsunee. 
Evidently surprised at sucb a stupid question, be replied, 
" For beauty, to be sure 1 Men have beards and wbiskers ; 
women have none; and what kind of creature would a worn* 
an be without whiskers, and without the pelelc? She would 
have a mouth like a raan, and no beard; ha! h.i! ba|" 
Afterward, on the Rovuma, we found men wearing the pelele 
A8 well as women. An idea suggested itself on seeing the 
eSbcta of tho slight but constant pressure exerted on the up- 
per gum and front teeth, of which our medical brethren will 
judge the value. In many cases the upper front leetb, in- 
stead of the natural curve outward which the row presents. 
had bct'u pressed so as to appear as if tbe line of alveoli in 
which tboy were planted had an inward curve. As ibis was 
produced by the slight pressure of the pelele backward, per^ 
Aona with too prominent teeth might, by slight but loog-oon- 
tinncd prvssnre, by tome appliance only as elastic as tbe lip. 
have thu upper gum nud teeth depressed, especially in yoatb. 
moro easily than is usually imagined. The pnsBure should 
be applied in the upper gum more than to the teeth. 

Cuir. V. 



The Mangnnja are not a sober people; they brew large 
quaatities of beer, and like it 'wc\l. Having no hops or oth- 
er means of checking fermentation, they arc obliged to drink 
tho whole brew in a few days, or it becomes unfit for use. 
Groat merry-makings take place on these occasaond, and 
drinking, drumming, and dancing continue day and night 
till the beer is gone. In crossing the hills we sometimes 
£7uud whole villages enjoying this kind of mirth. The vet- 
eran traveler of the i>arty remarked that he had not seen so 
xnacb drunkenness during all the ^xtecn years he bad apcnt 
a n Africa. As we entered a village one afternoon, not a 
xnan was to be seen, but some women were drinking beer 
uudcr a tree. In a few momenta the native doctor, one of 
-tJic innocents, "nobody's enemy but his own," staggered out 
^^f a hut, with hia cupping-horn dangling from Uis neck, and 
txgaa to scold us for a breach of etiquette. *'Is this the 
"Way to come into a man's village, without sending him word 
"Clint, you are coming?" Our men boou paciQed the fuddled 
Vaut good-humored. incdic(.>, who, entering his bcer-cellar, call- 
^sd on two of them to bvlp him to carry out a Luge pot of 
1>cor, which he generously presented to u& White the "raed- 
mcsal pnictitioncr" was thus hospitably employed, the chief 
^-^jroke iu a fright, and shouted to the women to run away, 
or tlioy would all he killed. The ladies laughed at the idea 
of their being able to run. awny, and remained beside the 
l>oer*pots. We selected a spot for our camp, our men cook- 
e<3 the dinner as usual, and we wcro quietly eating il, when 
Bcsofcs of armed men, streaming with perspiration, came pour- 
ing into the village. They looked at- us, then at each other, 
ttr&d, turning to the chief, upbraided him for so needlessly 
»«nding for them. "Thcso people are peaceable; they do 
not hurt you ; you are killed with beer :" so s-iying, they re* 
ttirncd to their homes. 




ClIAT. V. 

Wc remarked the different varieliea of intoxication among 
these topera — the talkative, the boistcroue, tlie silly, the Btu* 
pid.und the pugDacious; the last, when the chief, at the head* 
of his men, placed himself in front, crying, " I stop ihLi path ; 
you must go back." He sprang aside, however, with more 
speed than dignity when an angry Makololo made a Iung« 
at him with the butt of his musket. 

Native beer has a pinkish color and the consistency of 
groel. The grain is made to vegetate, dried in the sun, 
pounded into meal, and gently boiled. When only a day or 
two old, the beer is sweet, with a slight degree of acidity, 
which renders it a most gmtcfnl beverage in a hot climate, 
or when fever begets a sore craving for acid drinks. A ain* 
gle draught of it satisfies this craving at once. Only by 
deep and long-continued potations can intoxication be pro- 
duced; the grain being in a minutely divided state, it is a 
good way of consuming it, and the decoction is very nntri* 
tiou& At Tetto a measure of beer is exchanged for an 
equal-sized pot full of grain. A present of this beer, so pe- 
froshing to our dark comrades, was brought to us in neariy 
every village Beer-drinking docs not appear to prodncc 
any disease, or to ^ortcn life, on the hills. Kever before 
did wo SCO eo many old gray-headed men and women ; lean- 
ing oa their staves, ihey came with the others to see the 
while men. The aged chief, Muata Manga, coald hardly 
have beca less than ninety years of ago; his venerable ap- 
p«iranoo slrttck the Makololo. "He is an old man," said 
tltey, "a very old man; his skin hangs ja wrinkles, just like 
that on elepbanis' hips." "Did you norer," be was asked, 
"bare a tit of travrling oome over you— a desiru to see oth- 
er lands and people?" Nix he had never felt that, and Lad 
nerer been far fium homo iu his life. For long life they are 

Cuw. V. 



QOt indebted lo frequent Abluttous. An old maa told Tts 
that be remembered to have washed once in his life, but it 
was so long since that he bad forgottea how it felt *■ Why 
do you wasb?" asked Chinsunse'a womea of the Makololo; 
"our men never da" 

Oa the Upper Sbire Valley, a man, after favoring ns with 
some queer geographical remarks, followed us for several 
days. TLe Makololo became very much annoyed with him, 
tbr he proclaimed in every village we entered, "Tlicao peo- 
ple hare wandered; tbey do not know where they are go- 
ing.** In vain did tbey scold and order him away. As 
aoon as we started, he appeared again in the lino of march, 
-vritb hts little bag over his shoulder, containing all his 
xrorldly gear, and as ready with bis uncalled-for remarks as 
before. Every eflbrt failed to drive him away, until at 
length the happy expedient was hit on of ihrcatcniDg to 
%4tk:e him down to the river and wash bim; be at once made 
ofi^ find wc saw him no more. Much skin disease is seen 
Qjnong the Monganja. Many had ulocrs on their limbs; in- 
■Oe«cJ, an indolent almost incurable ulcer is the worst com- 
{>laint wc saw. Some men appeared as if they had blotcbee 
•of whitewash all over them, and some were afflicted with the 
leprosy of the Cape. Many fowls, even, have their feet de- 
formed by a peculiar thickening of the skin. "We noticed 
also some men. marked with small-pox, and asked the chief^ 
AAongazi, if he knew whether it had come to them from the 
oottst or from the interior. Being, as usual, amiably tipsy 
axid ottxioua to pay us a compliment, he graciously replied 
he did not know, but thought it must have come to them 
£rom the KngUsh. 

Tho superetitious ordeal by drinking the poisonous muave 
obtains credit here; and when a person is suspected of crime. 



CVxr. V. 

this ordeal is resorted to. If the stomach rejects the poison, 
the accused is pronounced innocent; bat if it ia retained, 
guilt ia believod to be demonstrated. Their faith is so firm 
ill ita discriminatiDg power, that the supposed criminal ofieca 
of bis own accord to drink it, and even cbic& are not eX' 
oniptod. Chibiaa, relying on its efficacy, drank it several 
times in order to vindicate bis character. When asserting 
that all bis wars bad been just, it was binted that, as every 
, ohief had tbo same tale of innocence to tell, we ought to sus- 
pend our judgment. " If you doubt my word," said be, 
"givo mo tbo muave to drink." A chief at the foot of 
Mount Zomba successfully went through the ordeal the day 
before wo r«icbcd his village, and bis people manifested 
their joy at his deliverance by drinking beer, dancing, and 
drumming for two days and nights. It is possible that the 
native doctor, who mixes the ingredients of (be poisoned 
bowl, A»y be able to save those whom he considers inno- 
cent; but it is difficult to get the natives to speak about 
the inattcr,*and no one is willing to tell what the muave 
poiaoa consists of. We have been shown trees s&id to be 
«Md» but had always reason to doubt the ftccuracy of our 
inflbnnants. Wo once found a tree io a village^ with many 
pieces of tbo bark chipped oS, closely allied to ibe TaDgena 
or Tanghina, the ordeal poison tree of Madagascar ; but we 
oeatd Mi asooctiuii any particulars about iL Death is in- 
CeMd oa tfaoas Amnd gail^r oT witchcraft, by th« ranare 

The voom wwl for iKs tlead two daT& Seated on the 
gnaad, tbcr ebaat a few phintiTe w«^ aad end taA 
TCiw with Um prokMurd sound oT »— a, or o— o^ cr Qa«a-«a 
—A. WhatoTtr bnr » ia the hoose of the deeoMed a poor- 
ad oat w tin v^mad vMi ibA nndLaad aQ eoc^ii^ ud 
water pott uvbtokM, as Mb; oTaofti-ther use. Both 

Cm*. V. 



and women wear signs of raourning for their dead relatives. 
These consist of narrow strips of the palm-leaf wound round 
the head, the arms, legs, neck, and breasts, and worn till they 
drop off from decay. They believe in the existence of a Su- 
preme Being called Mpambe, and also Morungo, and in a 
future state. " We live only a few days here," said old 
Chinsunse, "but we live again after death; we do not know 
where, or in what condition, or with what companions, for 
the dead never return to tell ns. Sometimes the dead do 
oome back, and appear to us in dream:?, but they never speak 
nor tell us where ihey havo gone^ nor how they fare." 

Our path followed tlto Shiro above the Cataracts, which ia 
DOW a broad, deep river, with hut little current It expands 
in one place into a lakelet called Pamalomhc:, full of fine fish, 
and ten or twelve miles long by five or six in breadth. Its 
hanks are low, and a dense wall of papyrus encircles it On 
its western shore rises n range of hills running north. On 
reaching the village of the chief Muana-Mocsi, and about a 
day's march distant from Nyassa, wc were told that no late 
had ever been heard of there ; that the River Shire stretched 
on aa we saw it now to a distance of "two months," and 
then came out from between perpendicular rocks, which 
towered almost to the skies. Our men looked blank at this 
|fcco of news, and s-iid, "Let us go back to the ship; it is 
of no use'lrying to find the lake." *'Wo shall go and see 
tkoac wonderfal rocks, at any rate," said the doctor. " And 
lh«i you see them," replied Maaakasa, " you will just want 
tft bee something else." " But there w a lake," rejoined Ma- 
■aksBB, "for all their denying it, for it is down in a book.'' 
casa, having unbounded faith in whatever was in a 

sk," went and scolded the natives for telling him an un- 
tmUi. "There is a lake," said he, "for how could the white 




men know about it in a boolc if it did not exist?" They 
tlicn admitted that there was a \ake a few miles off. &ol]86- 
queot inquiries made it probable that tbe story of the "per- 
pendicular TOckH" may have had referenco to a fissure, 
kDOWn to both natives and Arabs, in the northeastern por- 
tion of the lakcL The walls riso so high that the path along 
tfa« bottom is said to be underground. It is probably a 
cnok similar to that which made the Victoria Kails, and 
formed iho Shire Valley. 

The chief brought a small present of meal in the evening, 
and sat with us for a few minutes. On leaving us he said 
that he wished we might sleep well. Scarce had he gone 
when a wild sad cry arose from the river, followed by the 
shrieking of women. A crocodile had carried off his prin- 
oipal wife as she was bathing. The Makololo snatched up 
thoir arms and rushed to the bank, but it was loo late; she 
yna gone. The wailing of the women conunaed all night. 
ud next morning wo met others coming to the village to 
Join in the general monnung. Their grief was eridestlj 
hamfel^ M wt faw the teus ooaiai^ down their cfaedoL 
In Tvporting this misfi>rtuDo tp his ndghboTs, Maant-yoen 
oud **lhal white men euae to his viUage; washed them- 
nh«»al iIm plan who* lus wife drew water Hid batbed; 
nthbed dnmetTaB with « white medkine (soap); and bia 
vtfbkkvriag goa« tebatho aAerwaid, was teken hj a cnx> 
adik; Iwdid not knew wfartfaor ia ooaseqiMBee of the med> 
kdM vmd w ml" This w« wttid Mt tad A»lt with. Oo 
tmr i«nm«« w«tv viMrtd «itk aw«,Hidafllke ■leafled 
M ottT «pp«vweh ; ^ W01WI n— iuid ; aiid this dkited 
4« llWWt Avn Mr ■m«.^TW wonm here the adnat- 
•^ ofteMia «ok Mvdtai^todnBdilMipeK.' Th^ pnc^ 

cic* ofbaAto^ 



Cbaf. V. 



plo led ua to believe was unknown to tbe natives, we after- 
wanl fouud to bo common in other parts of the MaDganja 

We discovered Lake Njasna & little before noon of tbe 
16th of September, 1859. Its southern end is in 14° 23' S. 
tat, and Sfi° 30' £. long. At tins point tbe vallc;y is about 
twelve miles wide. Thcra are hiUs ou both sides of tbe 
lake, bat the haze from buniing grass prevented us at tbo 
time from seeing far. A long time after our return from 
Nyassa we received a letter from Captjiin R. B. Oldfield, 
RN., then commanding II.M.S. Lyra, with the inforniatioo 
that Dr. Roscher, an enterprisiTig German who unfortunately 
lost his life in his zeal for exploration, had also reached the 
■ kke, but on ibc 19th of November following our discovery, 
and on hia arrival had been informed by tbo natives that a 
party of white men wero at the southern extremity. On 
comparing dates (16ib of September and 10th of November), 
wc were about two raontha before Dr. Roachcr. Informa- 
tion to the same effect as Captain OldHcld's was'also publish- 
ed in the Cape newspapers in a letter to Sir George Grey, 
the governor, from Colonel Kigby, H.M. Consul and Political 
Beaident at ^an^ibar, who derived his information from the 
depositions of Dr. Itoscher'a servants after they had reached 
tbe Coast. 

It is not known where Dr. Roachcr first saw its waters, as 
the exact position of Nusseewa, on the borders of tbe lake, 
where be lived some time, is unknown. He was three days 
Qortheast of Nussecwn, and on tbe Arab road back to tlie 
Qsuol crossing-place of the Rovuma,wben bo was murdered. 
The murderers were seized by one of tbe chiefs, sent to Zan- 
zihar, and executed. lie is said to have kept his discoveries 
to himself, with tbe intention of publishing in Europe tho 


A si.AVt:.t*ATir. 

Ca*». V.l 



wLole &t oQce, in a splendid book of travels. Hence we can 
only conjecture that as be traveled on iLe Arab route from 
ICilwa (Quiloa), be struck tbe lake at tbe Arab crossing-, 
place Ngombo, adjacent to Tsenga,jor possibly opposite Kc 
tokota Bay.* Tbe regular publication of our letters by tli« 
Hoyal Geograpliical Society we felt to be an inestimable ben- 
efit It Used tbe date of, and perpetuated every discovery. 

TUe chief of tbe villuge near tbe couiluence of the Lake^ 
and River Shire, an old man called Mosaaka, hearing 
we were sitting under a tree, came and kindly invited us to 
his village. He t<x)k us to a magnificent banyan-tree, of 
which be seemed proud. Tbe roots had been trained down 
to the ground into the form of a gigantic iLniL-chair wilhoat 
the seaL Four of us slept in the space betwixt its armsL . 
Mosaukii brought us a present of a goat and basket of mefl^^f 
"to comfort our hearts." He told us that a largo slave-pai^^" 
ty, led by Arabs, were encamjied close by. They had been 
up to Cazembc's country the past year, and were on their 
way back, with plenty of slaves, ivory, and malachite. In a 
few minutes half a dozen of the leaders came over to see 11& I 
They were armra with long muskets, and, to our mind, wcpc 
a villninous-looking lot. They evidently thought the same 1 
of us, for they offered several young children for sale, bat, 
when told that we were English, showed signs of fear, and 
decam|>cd during the nigfaL On our return to tbe Kongone 
we found that H.&I.Sk Lynx bad cauglu some of these very 
elares in a dhow ; for a woman told us Khe first saw us at 
Mosauka's, and that the Arabs Lad lied for fear of an 
ny sort of Basungu. 

This is one of the greatest slave-paths from the in 
others cross the Sbiro a little below, and some on tbe lake 

* Set A|>]ieD(lix. 


Cjwi-. V. 



itseir. We naigbt Lave released these slaves, but did not 
kuow whai to do with them aflerwanl. Ou meetiog men, 
led in slave-siicksj the doctor liad to bear tlic rcproaclies of 

"GoTM," Of KarMlkk. 

the Makololc^ who never slave; " Ay, you call us bad, but 
are we yellow -hearted, like these fellows? why won't you 
Jet us choke them?" To liberate and leave them would 
liave done bat little good, as the people of the surrounding 
Tillagee would soou have seized them, and have sold ihcm 
^^oin into slavery. The Manganja chiefs sell their own 
I)Cople, for we met Ajawa and slave-dealers in several high- 
land villages, who had certainly been encouraged to come 
zuaong them for slaves. The chiefs always seemed ashamed 
of the traffic, and tried to excuse themaelvea "We do not 
c3cU many, and only those who have committed Crimea" As 
a, role, the regular trade is supplied by the low and criminal 
dmsses, and hence the ugliness of slaves. Others are proba- 
bly sold Ixsides oriminala, as on the accusation of witchcraft 
Thendlcsft orphans also sometimes disappear suddenly, and 
no one -inquires what has become of them. The temptation 
10 sell their people is peculiarly great, as there is but little 
i^'ory on the bills, and oAcn the chief has nothing but human 
fle&h with which to buy foreign gooda The Ajawa offer 
cloth, brass rings, pottery, and sometimes handsome young 
women, and agree to take the trouble of carrying off by 
night all those whom the chief may point out to them. 
Tbcy give four yards of ootton cloth for a man, three for a 



Cbap. V. 

woman, and two for fl-boy or girl, lo bo taken to the Portu- 
guese at Mozambique, Iboo, ami QuilUmanc. 

Another channel of supply, fed by victims ftom all classca, 
but chiefly from the common people, is frequently opened, 
whea one portion of a tribe, urged on by tho greed of gain, 
begins to steal nnd sell their fellow-clansmen. The evil does 
not etop hero. A feud ta tho consequence. The weaker 
part of tho tribe is driven away, and, wandering about, be- 
comes so thoroughly demoralized as to live by marauding 
and selling their captives, and even each other, without com- 
pnnction. Thia was prr;ciscly the state of tho portion of the 
Ajawa wo first fell in with. 

Tbc Manganja were more suapicioua and less hospitable 
than the tribes on the Zambesi. They were slow to believe 
that our object in coming into their country was really what 
we professed it to be. They naturally judge us by ihc mo- 
tives which govern themselves. A chief in the Upper Shire 
Valley, whose scared looks led our men to christen bim Kit- 
labolawa (I shall be killed), remarked that parties had come 
before with as plausible a story as ours, and, after a few days, 
had jumped up and carried off a number of his people as 
slaves. We were not allowed to enter some of the villages 
in the valley, nor would the inhabitants even sell us food; 
Zimika's men, for instance, stood at the entrance of the en* 
phorbia hedge, and declared we should not pass in. *"Wo sal 
down under a tree close by. A young fellow made an an- 
gry oration, dancing from side to side with bis bow and pois- 
oned ari-ows, and gesticulating fiercely in our faces. He was 
stopped ih the middle of his harangue by an old man, who 
ordered him to sit down, and not talk to strangers in that 
way; he obeyed reluctantly, scowling defiance, and tb^us^ 
ing out his large lips very significantly. The women were 

Cuxr. V. 



obsenred leaving the village; oucl, su^pectiDg that mischief 
might ensue, we proceeded ou our journey, to tbe great dis- 
goBt of our men. They were very angry vitJi tbe natives 
for their want of bospilality to strangers, and with us be- 
cau£o we would not allow thcin to give "tbo things a throsli- 
ing." " This is what comt'rs of going with white men," they 
growled out; "had wo been with our own chicly we should 
have eaten their goats to-night, and had soma of themselves 
to carry the bundles for us to-morrow." On our return by 

path which leil this village oil our right, Zimika sent to 
Bpologize, saying that *'he was ill, and in another village at 
the time; it won not by bis orders that we were sent away; 
his men did not know that wo wore a party wishing the 
land to dwell in peace" 

We were not able, when hastening back to the men left 
in the ship, to remuin in the villages belonging to this chief; 
bat tbo people came aflcr us with things for sale, and invited 
OS to stop and spend the night with them, urging, "Are we 
to have it said that white people passed through our conn- 
tiy and we did not see them?" We rested by a rivulet to 
gratify these sight-seers. Wo appear to them to be red 
liather than white; and, though light color is admired among 
themselves, our clothing renders us uncouth in aspect Blue 
eyes Appear savage, and a red beard hideous. From the 
tinmbers of aged persons wc saw on the highlands, and the 
iocrease of mental and physical vigor wo experienced on 
OQT ascent from the lowlands, wc inferred that tho climate 
waa salubrious, and that our countrymen might there enjoy 
good health, and also bo of signal benefit by leading the 
multitude of industrious inhabitants to cultivate cotton, 
bnazc, sugar, and other Taluablc produce, to exchange for 
goods of European manufacture; at the same time teaching 




them, by prec^t and ej^ample, Uie great truths of our holy 

Our stay at the lake was necessarily short. We had 
(bund that the best plan for allaying any suspicionn that 
might arise ia the minds of a people accustomed only to 
slave-traders was to pay a hasty visit, and then leave for a 
while, and allow the conviction to form among the people 
that, though our course of action was bo different from that 
of others, we were not dangerous, but rather disposed to be 
friendly. We had also a party at the vessel, and any india- 
oretbn on their part might have proved fatal to the charoc* 
ter of the Expedition. • 

The trade of Cozcmbe and Katanga's countTy, and of other 
parts of the interior, crosses Nyaasa and the Shiro, on its way 
to the Arab port, Kilwa and the Portugiaese ports of Iboc 
and Mozambique. At present, slaves, ivory, malachite, and 
copper ornaments are the only articles of commerce. Ac- 
cording to information collected by Colonel Rigby at Zanzi- 
bar, and from other sources, nearly all tho slaves shipped 
from the above-mentioned porW come from the Nyaasa dis- 
trict. By means of a small steamer, purchasing the ivory 
of the lake and river above the cataracts, which together 
have a shorc-Hne of at least 600 miles, the slave-trade in this 
quarter would be rendered unprofitable; for it is only by 
the ivory being cairicd by the slaves that the latter do not 
cat up all the pro6ts of a trip. An influence would be ex- 
erted over an enormous area of country,for the Mnzitu aboat 
the north end of the lake will not allow slave-traders to pass 
round that way through their country. They would be meet 
efficient allies to the English, and might themselves be ben- 
efited by more intercourse. As things are now, the native 
traders in ivory and malachite have to submit to heavy ex- 




actions; and ii'we could give tbem iho same priocs which 
they at present get after carrying their merchandise 800 
miles beyond this to the Coast, it might induce them Xo re- 
turn without going farther. It is only by cutting off the 
supplies in the iAicrior that wc cim erush the slave-trade Ou 
the Coast. The plan proposed would stop the slave-trade 
from the Zambesi on one side And ^ilwa on the other, and 
would leave, beyond this tract, only the Portuguese port of 
Inbambane on the south, and a portion of the Sultan of Zan- 
zibar's dominion on the north, for our cruisers to look after. 
The Lake people grow abundance of cotton for their own 
conaumpiion, and can sell it for a penny a pound, or even 
leas. 'Water-carriage exists by the Sbire and Zambesi all 
the way to England, with the single exception of a portage 
of about thirty-five miles past the Murchison Cataracts, along 
which a road of less than forty miles could be made at a 
trifling expense; and it seems feasible that a legitimate and 
thriving trade might, in a short time, take the place of the 
present unlawful traffic. 

Colonel Rigby, Captains Wilson, Oldficld, and Chapman, 
and alt the most intelligent oiUcers on the Coast, were unani- 
moud iu the belief that one small vessel on the lake would 
b&Te decidedly more iuQuence, and do more good in sap* 
pressing the slave-trade, Uian half a dozen men-of-war on tbo 
ocean. By judicious operations, therefore, on a small scale 
inland, little expense would be incurred, and the English 
slave-trade poliey on the East would have the same fiur 
chance of sncccss as on the West Const. 



Cuxi: VI. 


Itclum lo ll<o Vcwcl. ^Nearly PoisoncJ liv iho Jnirc of Cssarn.-^" ( 
rerp," or CansTa SAp, a perfect I'reMrratlTe of Moot.— Dr. Kirk tnkea tbl'^ 
direct Rwuia from Ctiiblsn'i tv Tcit«. — GrciU Suflvring on iIiq Joan)«r. — 
Magti«iL'uI Obscn-alionB l-y Cliarius LLviDptoric. — Shire BUcuJt. — Wbcatcn 
Fluur D4m?BsiLry for Europunn SiomachB. — Sdkgou for lo'ving Wheal. — CMf 
to Kun^onc. — Two MiLea of Cloph&nU.. — Our generous friead Scnbor Fw- 
riio, — Koflgnuft,— Itench Iho Vessel for Rcpoire, — AlThft] of 11. M.S. Lynx. 
— Loss of iho Mail. — Learc for Tcito Dec. ICili. — Governor at ^hnpanga. — 
IliM Opinions and onn.^-Cunreasiumaraa old SUve-dFnlcr. — Paul Mariano. 
— Arrivid lit TpU*, Fqh.2d, ISGU. — Fiibiilaiis Stiver Mine ofChioora. — Ex- 
flciioDS of ibo Banya] EubmitUrd to by tho Portuguwc. — Sntnpinary Laws.— 
Ponugutao of Teuv, — Wine or Climu-to? — Funeral*. — Weddinss. — Coal ud 
GolJ. — Defer dnr Dcpmiuro for tho Inlcrior. — Duvm Dgasn to Eongotic. — 
L'p iho Stream on Iho I5th of Mure b. — Secret Canal used for Slaving.— 
fit^Femor of Qiiiliitnane ncnt vt diiicoTer Kongmio.— Mr. Smtlcy't attempt to 
begin lawful Trndc at HJvcr Angoxc. — Major Sicard nt Jliuaro. — Clianga 
of Niimen.— lu Advania(^. — Tim " Aslbiiiiitic" »ery ill indeci!.— Mr. Raa 
ItDCd Ilptin) on Duty. — Tliu Kwukwa Wmr. — "ComicuJCrcBtnrM," — Mice. 
— Ilnpo for fat Kolk, or Cockroaches as Bids to BnniinK. — ZuIob oonw to lift 
ilioir RoDLs at Soana. — Siripvd Seanu Piijx anJ Fever. — Fvrer-pUol. — 
ttcitch Telle on the 2Glh of April. — Wutt of Irrigation. — Ono Bnnch of 
Tctto Indastry. 

Aptek a land-journey of forty <3ays, we returned to the 
ship on the 6th of October, 1859, in a somewhat exhausted 
condition, arising more from a sort of poisoning than from 
tho usual fatigue of travel. We had taken a little mullaga- 
tawny paste, for making soup, in easo of want of time to 
cook other food. Late ono afternoon, at the end of an un- 
■osually long march, we reached Mikena, near the base of 
Mount Njongone, to the north of Zomba, and the cook was 
directed to use a couple of spoonfulH of the paste; but, in- 
stead of doing so, he put in tho whole* potful. The soup 

Ciur. YI. 



tasted ralber liot, but we added boiled rioe to it, and, being 
very bungry, ponook freelj of it; and, in consequence of the 
oveixlose, vo wore delayed sovend days in severe sufTering, 
and aomo of the party did not recover till after our return to 
tbe sbip. Our illaoss may partly bavo ansea Irom another 
cause. Ono kind of cassava (ftUr^jIia mattfpta) \a known to 
be, in its raw state, poisonous, but by boiling it carcftilly in 
two waters, which must be thrown off, the poison is extract- 
ed, and the cassava rendered fit for ibod. The poisonous sort 
ia easily known by raising a bit of the bark of the root, and 
putting tbe tongue to it A bitter taste shows poison, but it 
is probable that even tbe sweet kind contains an injurious 
priuciple. The sap, which, like that of our potatoee, is inju- 
rious OS an article of food, is uaed in the "Pepper-pot" of tbe 
West Indies, under the namo of '* Casscreep," as a perfect 
preservative of meat. Ttiisjutoc, put into an earthen vessel 
with a little water and CbiU pepper, is said to keep meat that 
is immersed in it good for a great length of time, even for 
years. Ko iron or steel must touch the mixture, or it will 
become sour. This "Pepper-pot," of which we first heard 
from the late Archbishop Wbatcly, is a most economical 
meat-safe in a hot climate; any hocf, mutton, pork, or fowl 
that may be left nt dinner, if put into the mixture and a lit- 
tle fresh cassereep added, keeps perfectly, though otherwise 
tbe beat of the climate or flics would spoil it Our cook, 
however, boiled the cassava root as he was in the habit of 
cooking meat, namclvi by filling the pot with it, and then 
pouring in water, wliich ho allowed to stand on the fire until 
it bad become absorbed and boiled away. This method did 
not expel the poisonous properties of tbe root, or render jt 
wholesome; for, notwithstanding our systematto caution in 
purchasing only the harmless sort, we sutiered daily from its 




effects, and it was oiily just before the end of oor trip that 

this pei'iiicious mode of boiling it was discovered by tis. 

lu ascending 3000 feet firora, the lowlands to the bigh- 
Jonds, or on rcachiog the low valley of the Shire from the 
higher grounds, the change of clitoate was very marked. 
The heat was oppressive below, the thermometer standing at 
from 84" to 103° in the shiide; and our spirita were as dull 
and languid as they had been exhilarated on the heights in 
a temperature cooler by some 20'*. The water of the river 
was sometimes Si" or higher, while that we had beea drink- 
ing in the hill 8tre:uns wits only GiJ^. 

It was found necessary to send two of our number across 
from the Shire to Tetto; and Dr. Kirk, with guides from 
Chibisa, and accompanied by Mr. Kue, the engineer, accom- 
plished the journey. "We had found the country to the 
north and cast so very well watered, that no difficulty was 
anticipated in this respect in a march oflci^ than a hundred 
miles; but on this occasiou our friends suffered severely. 
The little water to be had at this time of the year, by dig- 
ging iu iho beds of dry water-courses, was so brackish as to 
increase thirst; some of the natives, indeed, were making salt 
from it; and when, at long intervala, a less brackish supply 
was found, it was nauseous and muddy, from the frequent 
visits of large game. The tsetse abonndcd. The country 
was level, and large tracts of it covered with mopano forest, 
the leaves of which afford but scanty shade to the baked 
earth, so that scarcely any grass grows upon it. The auti 
was so hot that the meu frequently jumped from the path in 
the vain hope of cooling, for a moment, their scorched foet, 
under the almost shadeless bushes; and the native who car- 
ried the provision of salt jjork got lost, and came into Tette 
two da^s after the rest of the party, with nothing but the 

Chap. VI. 

fibre of tbe meat lcf\, tho fat, melted by tho blazing sun, hav- 
ing all run down his back. This path was soon made a 
highway for slaving parties by Captain Rapoeo, the com- 
numdanL The journey nearly killed our two active young 
fnenda, and what the slaves must havo since suffered on it 
no one can conceive ; but slaving, probably, can never be 
conducted without enormous suffering and loss of life. 

A series of mogneticol observations for ascertaining tho dip 
and declination of the needle was made by Charles Living- 
stone at Dakiknamoio Island, as others bad been made before 
at Expedition Island and at Tette; ofter which the ship left 
for the Kongone. All our provisions bad been expended 
except tea and salt pork ; hut fowls, beans, and mnpira meal 
oould be purchased from tho natives. This meal does not, 
I however, agree with tho European stomach; and whcaten 
Soar, in some form or other, is indispensable to the white 
man's health in Africa. Our ingenious first or leading 
stoker, Kowo, prepiired mapira meal in many wayfi; at llist 
he simply baked it pure, then tried a littlu pork gravy with 
it; next ho mixed bananas, and finally bananas and cloves; 
bat, in whatever form the frightful Sliire biscuit was baked, 
the same inevitable result ensued — gnawing heartburn 
throughout tho entire process of digestion. It would there- 
fore be advisable for missionaries and traders to secure a con- 
Btaot supply of wheat ; and that eould as easily be done by 
'Vhem as by the Portuguese, if only tbe proper season were 
^selected for sowing tL April and May, the beginning of the 
«3old weather, are the months in which no rain need be ex- 
X^ected to iall ; and irrigation must be resorted to, as at the 
^^qw, for which there are abundant facilities. If wheat is 
9CWQ in the rainy season, the crop runs alt to stalk. Men of 
^»ergy would never be dependent on any other country for 
tbeir food in this. 




Mnnkokwe now sent a message to say that he wished as 
to stop at his village on our way down. Be came on board 
on our arrival there with a handsome preseut, and said that 
his young people had dissuaded him from visiting ua before, 
but now lie was dotennioed to sec what every one else was 
seeing. A bald, square-headed man, who had been his prime 
minister when we came up, was now out of office, and anoth- 
er old man, who had takeu his place, accompantcd the ohiefl 
In pas^g the Kiephant Marsh we saw nine Isrgn herds of 
elephants; they sometimes formed a line two miles long. 
Oq the 26th of October a heavy thunder-storm camo on, and , 
some large liailstones fell, to the surprise of our Senna men^' 
who bad never seen heavy liail before, though it is not at all 
unusual for it to lall farther iuland. A shower fell at Ku- 
ruman which killed kids, fowls, and antelopes; another, at 
KolobcQg, was destructive to the glass of the miasioa-hoaae 

On th,e 2d of November we anchored oflFSbamoara, and 
sent the boat to Senna for biscuit and other provisioDS. Sen* 
hor Ferrio, with his wonted generosity, gave us a present of 
a bullock, which he sent to us in a canoe. Wishing to know 
if a second bullock would be acceptable to us, he consulted 
his Portuguese and English dictionary, and asked the sailor 
in charge if he would take anoOier ; but Jack, mistaking the 
Portuguese pronmicialion of the letter A, replied, "Oh, no, 
sir, thank you ; I don't want an olier ia the boat, they are 
such terrible biters I" 

"We had to ground the vessel on a shallow sand-bank every 
night; she leaked so fast that in deep water she would have 
souk, and the pump had to be worked all day to keep her 
afloat. Heavy rains fell cjaily, producing the usual injurious 
effects in the cabin ; and unable to wait any longer fur our 




. atBooiates, who hod gone overland Xrom the Shire to Tette, 
we ran down to tie Kongone and b^tcbed ber for repairs. 
Her majesty's Hbtp Lynx, Lieut. Berkeley commandiDg, call- 
ed shortly afterward with supplies ; the bar, which had beeo 
perfectly smooth for some time before, became rather rough 
just before her arrival, so that it was two or three days be- 
fore she could coumunicate with us. Two of her boats tried 
to come iu on the second day, and one of them, ntistakiog 
the passage, capsized in the heavy breakers abreast of the 
island. Mr. Hunt, gunner, the officer in charge of the seo- 
' oad boot, behaved nobly, and by his skillful and gallant con- 
duct succeeded in rescuing every one of the Grst boat's crew. 
Of course the things that they were britigiug to us were lost, 
but we were thankful that all the mou were saved. The 
loss of the mail^bagis, containing government dispatches and 
oar friends' letters for the past year, was felt severely, as we 
were on the point of starting on an expedition into the inte- 
lior, which might require eight or nine months; and twenty 
months is a weary time to be without news of friends and 
:£unily. In the repairing of our crazy craft, we received 
^nd and efficient aid from Lieutenant Berkeley, and we were 
«nablcd to leave for Tette on December 16th. 

On our way up we met the Governor of Quillimane com- 
log down in a boat. lie said that he was ordered by the 
Xiabon government to select, after personal investigation, tho 
{beet port for ships to enter, and the best landing-place for 
goods. We gave him directions how to find Kongone He 
ladded that he was confident that the Portuguese of his own 
district knew of a mouth from which they exported slaves, 
hut they would not tell him where it was, and it was on this 
I aooount be applied to ua His excellency next morning un- 
fortunately caught fover, and returned before he reached the 



Cii*i". VI. 

river's mouth, A Portugaese oaval officer was subsequently 
sent bjr tils government to examiae the diflereat entraacea. 
He looked only, and tkea made a report, in wbicb our pub- 
lished soundings were used without acknowledgment His 
own oountrymea smi]ed at the silly vanity exliibited. by 
their govenimont in thus seekiug information, and all the 
while pretending to antecedent knowledge; When opposite 
ExpeditioD Island, the furnace bridge of our steamer broke 
down, as it had often done before. Luckily, it occurred at 
a goed place for game, so we got buffalo beef and venison 
while it was undergoing repair. 

On the 31st of December, 1859, we reached Shupanga, 
where we had to remain eight days, awaiting the arriral of 
cotton cloth from Quillimanc. Gray calico or sheeting is 
the asual currency of Eastern Africa, and this supply was to 
serve as money during our expedition into the interior. 
The governor and his two handsome grown-up dauglitere 
were staying in the Shupanga house. It is seldom that the 
Portuguese show any repugnance to being served by blacks, 
but he preferred to be waited on by his daughters, and they 
performed their duty with graceful ease. This was the more 
agreeable to us, inasmuch as one rarely meets the Portuguese 
ladies at table in this country. His excellency, talking in no 
way eonfldcntially, but quite openly — indeed, it is here the 
common mode of speaking of lamentablo truths — said that 
the Portuguese in this country were a miserable lot, quite 
debased by debauchery, and with no entcrprisa whatever. 
A few of the largo slaveholders, had they any vigor left, 
might each send fifty or a hundred slavos to the Cape, Mau* 
ritius, and England, to learn sugar-making and trades, after 
which they could manufacture their own clotli from cotton 
groyrn on the spot^ and make their own sugar too, instead of 

ClKlP. VI. 



importing it from ftbroad: he saw no reason even wTiy ihey 
should not ere long have a railroad across the continent to 

His excellency's remarks exhibit a failing often noticed 
among the Portuguese, and resembling that of certaia of oar 
countrymen, who take a foolish pride in deriding every 
thing English. If we may judge by our own impreasions, 
Btrangcra would cither regret to hoar a man, as we often 
have, winding up a tirade with the climax "I am horribly 
ashamed that I was bom a Portuguese," or would despise 
him. His obaervationa also showed the magtiificent ideas 
that are entertained, to the entire neglect of plain matter-of- 
iaci business and industry. Indigo six feet high was grow- 
ing self-sown in abundance at our feet; superior cotton was 
found about a mile off, which had propagated itself in spite 
of being burned off annually for many years; and sugap- 
cane is said to be easily cultivated on the greater part of the 
Zambesi delta; but, instead of taking the benefit, in a com* 
mon -sense way, of these obvious advantages^ our friends, 
while indulging in magnificent dreams of a second East In- 
dia Company, to be established by English capitalists in 
Eastern Africa, were all the while diligently exporting the 
labor to the Island of Bourbon. The ])rogramme of this 
English Company, carefully drawn out by a minister of the 
crown at Lisbon, provides with commendable stringency for 
the erection of schools and bridges, the making of roads, and 
deepening of harbors, in this land of "Prcster John," all to 
bo delivered bock to the Portuguese at the lapse of twenty 

Hia excellency adverted to the notorious fact that the 
home govcmmcnl of Portugal had to iii*hold the Hottlcraenis 
in Eastern Africa at an annual loss of £oOOO, while little or 


comnEssioNs of a slave-tkader. 

Crap. T1. 

DO trade went thence to Lisbon, end no Portugnese ever 
made a fortune and retired to spend it at home. It is, in* 
deed, matter of intense regret that statesmen, known by t£e 
laws tlioy have enacted to be enlightened men, should be the 
means of perpetuating so much misery in this slave-making 
country, by keeping out other nations, with a pretense to 
domioioa where they have absolutely no power for good. 
Is it not paying too dearly for a mere swagger in Europe to 
have to bear the odium of united Christendom as the first 
to begin the modem ocean slave-trade, and the last to aban- 
don it? 

A worn oat slave-trader, sadty diseased, and nearly blind, 
used to relate to us id a frank and open manner the moving 
incidents of his past career. It was evident that he did not 
see slavery in the same light as wc did. His countrymen 
all knew that the pica of humanity was the best for exciting 
his liberality, and he was certainly ijiost generous and oUi- 
ging to us. On espreasing our surprise that so humane a 
man could have been guilty of so much cruelty as the ex- 
portaLion of slaves entailed, he indignantly denied that he 
had ever torn slaves away from their homes. He had ex- 
ported "brutos do nwto," beasts of the field alone — that is, 
natives still wild, or lately caught in forays. This way of 
viewing the matter made him gravely tell us that, when bis 
wife died, to dull the edge of his grief ho made a foray 
among the tribes near the mouth of the Shire, and took 
many captives. lie bad commenced slave-trading at Angola 
and made several fortunes, but somehow managed to dissi- 
pate them all in riotous living in a short timo at Rio de Ja- 
neiro. " The money a man makes in the slave-trade," said 
ho, " is all bad, and soon goes back to the devil." Some 
twelve years since he embarked with a lot of ivory from 


Cii*r. VI. 



Quillunane, and the veescl was seized as a slaver and carried 
to the Cape. Other ships of hia had been captured by our 
cniiscrs, and be bad nothing to Bay against that; it was all 
right and fiur, for they were actually employed in the slave- 
trade. But it was wrong, be thought, for the English to 
take this vojsel, as she was then on a lawful voyage. The 
Knglifih offioers bad thought bo to, and wished to restore it 
to him, and would have done so, for they were gentlemen, 
bat a raeoally countryman of bis own at the Cape opposed 
them, and bis vessel was condemned. Many years afterward 
a naval officer, who bad been in the cruiser that took his 
ship, acoompanied us up the river, and, recognizing our 
friend, at onco informed him that the British government, 
having subacqucntly ascertained that the capture of bis ves- 
sel was illegal, had paid to the Portuguese government the 
foil valnc of both ship and cargo. 

Senbor Vianna, a settler, had jnst purchased a farm of 
three miles square, one side of which was the battlc-Scld of 
Mazaro, and for this he was to pay nine hundred dollars, or 
£180, in three years. * He also rented from the government 
forty miles of Mariano's estate, situated on the Shire and 
Zambesi. Mr. Azevedo rented for many years eighty miles 
<^ the land on the Eastern side of Mazaro. The rental of a 
few hundred dollare is made up by the colonos or serfs pay- 
ing bim who farms the land a hag or two of grain annually, 
and performing certain services somewhat as was done in 
our " collar" system. The Landeens or Zulus on the oppo- 
ate or southern bank had come down for their tribute, but 
Vianna aent a pmall present, and begged them not to press 
for it nniit the governor bad gone. Meanwhile sending all 
his goods to the opposite side, be shortly after Ml wiLh the 
governor, the Zulus being unpaid. Th« chief object in pay* 



ing the Zola tax Is to obtain permission to cut the gigantic 
Gunda- trees, some twent7 miles inland, for the construction 
of the lai^ " rochea" or canoes that are uaed on the ZambcaL 
He had, by felling the timber, secured canoes cnongb from 
the estate to last ten years, and trusted ibat, long ere that 
time had expired, his sort of moonlight flitting would be 
forgotten. lie complained bitterly, notwithstanding, of the 
• want of respect shown by these natives to the governor and 

While we were at Sbupanga, Paul Mariano was carried 
post, on his way to Senna, a prisoner in a canoe. He had 
been accused of murdering a few poor black felhws, one of 
whom was a carpenter, belonging to the well-known Senhor 
Azevedo. An officer and some soldiers made a descent on 
Mariano by night, and took him prisoner. Ilis sister came 
to the governor, and asked him outright, before a number of 
gentlemen, how much money lie required to let her brother 
go free. His excellency, of course, was very much shocked 
at her audacity, and indignnntly reprimanded her; bnt, sin* 
golarly enough, within a few days Paul made his escape and 
returned to his island, where he has ever since remained un- 
disturbed. Before wo knew where be had gone, a gentle- 
man, well acquainted with the ways of the country, was ask- 
ed whither he imagined Paul had fled. " Bah ! (qual I)" said 
he, " to his own house, to be sure ;* ' and thither he had gone. 

We had now frequent rains, and the river rose considera- 
bly; our progress up the stream was distressingly slow, and 
it was not until the 2d of February, 1860, that wp reoofaed 
Tette. Mr. Thornton returned on the same day from a geo- ' 
logical tour, by which some Portuguese expected that a fab- 
ulous silver mino would be rediaoovercd. The tradition in 
the country is, that the Jesuits formerly knew and worked 



s precious lode at Cbicovo. Mr. Tboruton bad gone bejond 
Zumbo ia compaoy with a trader of color; ha boou after 
tbis hfi the Zambesi, and, joining the oxpeditioQ of the 
Baron vaa der Dcckeo, explored iho snow mouiilain Kili- 
manjaro, northwest of Zanzibar. Mr. Thomtoa'a uompan- 
ion, the trader, brought back ^uch ivory, having found it 
both abundant and cheap. Ho was obliged, however, to pay 
heavy fines to the Banyai and other tribes, in the country 
which \a coolly claimed in Europe as FortugaeB& During 
liiis trip of sis months 200 pieces of cotton cloth of sixteen 
yarib each, besidt^ beads and brass wire, were paid to the 
diflerent chiefs for leave to -pass through their country. lu 
addition to these sulTicteutly weighty exactions, the natives 
ei this d<miinum have got into the habit of imposing Ones for 
alleged milandos, or crimes, which the trader's men may 
have unwittingly committed. The merchants, however, sub- 
mit rather than ruu the risk of fighting. The ivory is cheap 
enough to admit of the payment Each merchant of Tette 
ia said to be obliged to pay for the maintenance of a certain 
number of the soldiers in the garrison; and be whohadjusl 
returned from the interior bad lo support five, although no 
aervicea were rendered to Lim. The usual way of bringing 
the ivory down is by canoes from Zumbo to Chicova ; there 
the canoes are leA, and land carriago takes their place past 
Kebnlb.^sa. This trader hired the Banyai to carry the ivory 
past the rapids. They agreed to do so for three yards of 
cloth each a trip, but threw down their loads on the path re- 
peatedly,, demanding more and more, until they raised their 
claims to ten yards. " I could have fought and beaten them 
all with my own men," said the trader, "but on reaching 
Tctto the governor would have fined me for disturbing the 
peace of the country. The Banyai would have robbed those 





of my party behind of the ivory, and all the rodresa to be 
obtained from onr authorities would have "been the mortifi- 
cation of knowing that, on hearing my complaint, they had 
sent up to the Banyai to purchase my ivory at a cheap rate 
for thcmaelves." 

The senior officer, sioce deceased, was acting commandant 
of the fort at Tette, and was a rare specimen of a governor. 
Soon after he came into power he passed a sumptuary law 
defining the market prices of native produce. Owing to the 
desolating wars of former years, the cost of provisions was 
nearly three times as much as in by-gone days; so his ex- 
cellency determined to reduce prices to their former stand* 
ard, and proclaimed that in future twenty-four fowls instead 
of eight were to be sold for two yards of calico, and that the 
prices of sheep, goats, and oil should be reduced in like pro- 
portion. The first native who camo to market rcfiiscd to 
sell his fowls at government prices, and was at once hauled 
up before the irate commandant, and, for contumacy to this 
new re-enactment of old laws, condemned to be marched up 
and down the street all day, with his cackling merchandise 
hung round bis neck, and then sent to prison to pass the 
night Another poor fellow brought a pot of ground-nut- 
oil for sale, and was condemned to drink of it largely for re- 
fusing to Bcll it nt the legal rate. The only difficulty that 
this gentleman met with in carrying out his reforms arose 
from the natives declining to como with their produce until 
the laws were repealed, 

As there is a pretty high tariff on all imported wines and 
spirits, Tette, for a mere village, must yield a respectably 
largo revenue. The climate is usually blamed for eveiy 
thing; thus the merchants, being of a social turn, have night 
parties in each other's houses. During these meetings the 

Chat. VI 



CDrioaa dc-bilitfiting effects of the climate may be witnessed. 
Id tbe course of an hour a number of the members become 
too feeble to sit in tbcir chairs, and slip unconsciously under 
tbe table; while others, who have been standing up loudly 
siDging or talking, fall into one another's arms, swearing ctcr- 
oal fnendship. but gradually losing coatrol both of tongue 
snd limb. Slaves sit at tho door, who, understauding these 
symptoms, enter and bear tbeir weak and prostrate masters 
home. Wc should not hesitate to ascribe these symptoms 
to inebriety if intoxication was not described hero by the 
pbrase "he speaks English," that is, "he's drunk;" so that 
any such charge would have tho appearance of a ^u ^uoque. 
The shocking prevalence of intemperance and other vices 
among the Portnguese at Tette made us wonder, not that 
they had fever, but that they were not all swept oif together. 
Their habits would be fatal in any climate; the natives 
marveled even more than we did ; our MakololOj for in- 
stance, looked on •ghost at those convivin.1 parties, and Si- 
nioyane described one in a way that might have done the 
actore good. *' A Portugucae stands up," said he, " and cries 
'Viva!' that means,! am pleased; another says 'Viva I' I 
am pleased too: and theu they all shout out 'VLval' we are 
all pleased together; they are so glad just to get a little 
beer." One night he saw three inebriated officers in tho 
midst of their enjoyment, quarreling about a false report; 
one jumped on his superior and tried to bite bim ; and, 
while these two were rolling on the floor, the third caught 
op a chair and therewith pounded thera both. Stninyanc, 
horrified at such conduct, exclaimed, '^ What kind of people 
can these whites be, who treat even their chiefs iu this 

The general monotony of existence at Tctto is sometimes 



Chap. VI. 

relieved by an occasional death or wedding. When the de- 
ceased is a person of consequence, the quantity of gunpow- 
der his slaves are allowed to expend ia enormous. The ex* 
pense may, in proportion to their means, resemble that in- 
curred by foolishly gaudy funerals in England. When at 
Telte, we always joined with sympathizing hearts in aiding, 
by our preaence at the last ritee, to soothe the sorrowB of the 
surviving relatives. We are huto that they would have done 
the same to us, had we been the mourners. We never had 
to complain of want of hospitality. Indeed, the great kind- 
ness shown by many, of whom wo have often spoken, will 
never bo effaced from our memory till our dying day. 
When wo speak of their failings it is in sorrow, not in an- 
ger. Their trading in slaves is an enormous mistake. Their 
government places them in a faise position by cutting tbom 
off from the rest of the world; and of this they always speak. 
with a bitterness which, were it heard, might alter the tone 
of the statesmen of Lisbon. But here tlfcre is no press, no 
booksellers* shops, and scarcely a achoolmaster. Had we 
been born in similar untoward circumstonoes — we tremble 
to think of it! 

The weddings are celebrated with as much jollity as wed- 
dings are any where. We witnessed one in the house of our 
ixiend the Padre. It being the marriage of his god-daugh- 
ter, he kindly invited us to be partakers in his joy ; and we 
there became acquainted with old Donna Eugenia, who was 
a married wife and had children, when the slaves came from 
Cassange, before any of us were born. The whole meny- 
making was marked by good taste and propriety. 

Another marriage brought out a feature in the Catholic 
Church akin, wo believe, to a custom in Scotland, which eom- 
mended itself to us as right. Our frieud Captain Terraz&o 

Ctui-. VL 



was about to be nuuriud to a youDg lady of ito less illus- 
trioQS a name thuo Victoria Alexandrina, the daughter of 
one of the riohest merohanis of TeWo. But her mother had 
been living only in a state of coucubinuge; and, to legitima- 
tize tho children, tlic marriage of the parentH was first cele- 
brated, and then TerrozOo received bis bride, and another 
gratleman her sister on the some day. With our Jaws it 
aeema to bo a pity that those who have the misfortune to be 
bom out of wedlock should be condemned, for no sin of their 
own, to bear the stain through life. 

lo the wedding processions, the brides and bridegrooms 
are carried in hammocks slang to poles, called mochillas. 
Tho female alavca, dressed in all their finery, rejoice in the 
happiness of their mOBters and mistrx^ses. The moles carry 
the machillas, or show their gladness by discharging their 
nmsketB. The friends of tho young couple form part of the 
prooGSUon behind the machillas, dressed usually in black 
dxee&«oats and tall chimney-pot hats, which to us outlandish 
speotatoiB look more hideous now than they ever did at 
home. The women, as seen in the wood-cut, eland admiring 
ihcir neighbor's finery, balancing their water-pots gracefully 
on their heads; while all tho invited guests proceed to wash 
down the dust, raised by tho crowd, in copious potations, fol- 
lowed by feasting, dancing, and joyous merry-making. 

About the only interesting object in the vicinity of Tette 
is the coal a few milce to the north. There, in the feeders of 
the stream Revubue, it crops out in cliff sections. The seams 
are from four to seven feet in tliicknces; one measured was 
found to be twenty-five fcot thick. That on the surface con- 
tuaa much shale, but, a shaft having been run in horizontal- 
ly fiar Bome twenty-five or thirty feet, tho quality improved, 
and it gave good steam. The imbedded roots of plants 




fibowcd it to bo of old foroialioii. It lies uudcr & ooarso 
graj sandstone, which often has the ripple mark, and im- 
pressioDS of plants and siliciSed wood on its surface. Gold 
also is found in maay of the streams on the south of Tcttc; 
but, so long as slavery maiatuns its way, the ooal and gold 
will be kept unworked, and siife for future generations. 

Learning that it would be diflicult for our parly to obtain 
food beyond Kcbrabasa before the new crop came in, and 
knowing the difficulty of hunting for so many men in the 
wet season, we decided on deferring our departure for the 
interior until May, and in the mean time to run down once 
more to the Kongone, in tbc hopes of receiving letters and 
dispatches from the man-of-war that was to call in March. 
We left Tette on the lOlb, and at Senna beard that our lost 
mail had been picked up on tlie beach by natives west of 
the Milambe; carried to Quillimane; sent thence to Senna; 
and passing us somewhere on the river, on to Tettc At 
Shapanga the governor informed us that it was a very large 
mail; no great comfort, seeing it was away up the river. 

Musquitoes were excessively troublesome at the harbor, 
and especially when a light breeze blew from the north over 
the mangrovwa. We lived for several weeks in small huts 
built by OUT men. Those who did the hunting for tlie 
party always got wet, and were attacked by fever, but gen- 
erally recovered in time to be out again before the meat was 
nil consumed. No ship appearing, wc started ofF on the 
16th of March, and stopped to wood on the Luabo, near 
nn encampment of hippopotamus hunters; our men heard 
again, through them, of the canoe path from this place lo 
Quillimane, but they declined to point it out. The Govern- 
or of Quillimane had already complained that the Portu- 
gueeo of his district kept it secret for slaving purposes, and 




refused to show it, even to him. Masakasa felt confident 
that he coold got it out of these hunters by his diplomacy, 
and said that a soA^ tongue vould eat them up, -vrhile a hard 
one would drive ihcm oH; but they all left during the night 
We subsequently ascertained that the entrance to it is by a 
natural opening called Kusbishone, betweea two and three 
miles above the Kongonc Canal, but ou the opposite bank 
of the Zambesi. It is, however, of no importance, as it is at 
times capable of passing only small canoes. 

The Portuguese government in Lisbon have since striven 
with amusing earnestness to prove that these parts were long 
ago well known to thuin. To iho rest of the world this is 
a matter of perfect iudiCTercncc. Wc had to discover, or at 
least to rediscover, theru for ourselves; and, considering the 
perfect knowledge possessed by that ministry, it Is odd that 
none of ibeir information accompanied the orders to the of- 
ficials in Africa. The Governor of Quillimaue hod orders 
to examine the Koogone, but frankly confessed he did not 
know where that harbor lay. Our friend Major Sic&rd, after 
receiviug the assurance from us that no Zulus could cross 
the creeks around it, with ely foresight resolved to gain pos- 
session of a large slice of the soil for himself, and sent slaves 
to make a garden, and build him a house at Kongone, which 
^ves the harbor its value. They executed their orders at 
a point some twenty miles off, not knowing that we had 
taken the name from the side of the natural canal between 
the Kongone branch and the Zambesi. We could see plain- 
ly that wc and our Portuguese friends had different ranges 
of vision. We looked for the large result of bene6t to all, 
both white and black, by establishing free commercial inter- 
course. They could sec nothing beyond our inducing En- 
glish merchants to establish a company, of which the Portu- 




gaese would, bj fictitious claims, reap oil the benefit. The 
dIiort*Bighted " dog ia tlie manger" policy was so transparent 
that yre always warned onr commercial iHends in Kuglaod 
that, without £rec naTigatioa of the Zambesi, it was in vain 
for them to ran any risk. Nothing but slaving will on any 
account be tolerated. W. Suxtley, Esq., of Johanna, on the 
recommendation of the late Admiral WyriJ, took a cargo 
of goods to the Hirer Angonsh, or Angoxe, in order to be* 
gin a legal traffic with the natives. He succeeded as well 
as he expected. He was then inveigled, on false pretenses, 
by two Portuguese oflicials, to Mozambique ; and, as aoon as 
be came under the guns of the fort, he was declared a pris* 
ODor, and his cargo and ship confiscated, for " illegal trafiio 
in Portuguese territory." Had ho been a slaver, without 
doubt a little head-money would have secured him lodging 
and a feast in the governor general's palace instead. 

We found our friend Kajor Sicard at Mazaro with pioks^ 
shovels, hurdles, aud slaves, having como to build a fort and 
custom-house at the Kongone. As we had no good reason 
to hide the harbor, but many for its being made known, we 
supplied him with a chart of the tortuous branches, which, 
running among the mangroves, per^ilex the search; and with 
such directions as would enable him to find his way down 
to the river. lie had brought the relics of our fugitive mail, 
and it was a disappointment to find that all had been lost 
with the exception of a bundle of old newspapers, two photo- 
graphs, and three letters which bad been written before wo 
left England. 

Sininyane had exchanged names with a Zulu at Shupan- 
ga, and on being called next morning made no answer,- to a 
second and third summons he paid no attention ; but at 
length one of his men replied, " He is not ^ninyane now, he 




is Moshoafaoma;" auii to this name he answered promptly. 
The custom of e:(cliaugbg namui with mm of othor tnbes 
is not uncommoQ ; and the exchangers regard themselves oa 
[dose comrades, owing special duties to each other ever after. 
Should one by choncxj visit bis comrade's town, ho expects 
to receive food, lodging, and other friendly offices from him. 
While Charles Liviugstone was at Kebrabosa' during the 
nuuy season, a hungry, shivering native traveler was made 
a comrade for life, not by eiEchanging names, but by Romc 
food and a small piece of doth. Eighteen months after, 
while on our journey into the interior, a mao came into our 
camp bringing a liberal present of rice, meal, beer, and a 
fowl, and, reminding us of what bad been done for him 
(which Charles Livingstone had entirely forgotten), said that 
now, seeing us traveling, he " did not like us to sleep hun- 
gry or thirsty." Several of our men, like some people at 
home, dropped their own names and adopted those of the 
cbiers; oftiers were a little in advance of those who take ihe 
Bumames of higher people, for they took those of the mounts 
ains or cataracts we had seen on our travels. We had a 
Chibisa, a Moratnbala, a Zoniba, and a Kebrabasa, and they 
were called by these names even alter they had returned to 
iheir own country. 

We had been so mQcb hindered and annoyed by the "Ma 
JRobert," alias " Asthmatic," that the reader, though a tithe 
is not mentioned, may think we have said more than enough. 
The man who had been the chief means of imposing this 
"Wretched crafl on us had passed away, and with him all bit- 
terneaB from our hearts. We felt it to be a sad pity, how- 
ever, that any one, for unfair gain, should do deeds which 
can not be spoken of af\cr bo is gone. We had still our 
lauch ■ esteemed and noble -hearted friend, the late Admiral 




Washington, at tome to see tbat we did not again suffer; 
but the prospect of effecting a grand work on Lake Nyaasa 
hy means of a steamer made to be unscrewed and carried 
past the eatajacts was so fair — indeed, it promised, if carried 
oat, 80 entirely to change the wretched system which has 
been the bane of the country for ages — that, to have the 
vessel propftrly constructed, we sent Mr. Eae, the engineer, 
homo to Buperiotend its constniction. He could be of do 
farther use la the "Asthmatic," as she was utterly beyond 
cure. We sent also five boxes of specimens, careftilly col- 
lected and prepared by Dr. Kitk ; four of tlieto^ to our very 
great sorrow and loss, never arrived at the Gardens at Kew. 
We all accompanied our engineer on foot to a smalt etreaoi 
that runs into tlie Kwakwa, or Hiver of QuillimaDe, on liis 
way to that port to embark for England. 

The distance from Mazaro, on the Zambesi side, to tbe 
Kwakwa at Ntcrra is about six miles, over a surprisingly 
rich dark soil. We passed the night in the long sned erect- 
ed at Nterra, on the banks of this river, for the use of trav- 
elers, who have often to wait several days for canoes j we 
tried to sleep, hot the musquitoes and rats were so trouble- 
some as to render sleep imposMble. Tbe rats, or rather 
large mice, closely resembling Ifus pumtlh (Smith), of this 
region, are quite facetious, and, having a great deal of fun in 
them, ■often laugh heartily. Again and again they woke 
us up by scampering over our facw, and then burating into 
a loud laugh of He! he I he! at having performed the fcoL 
Their sense of the ludicrous appcatB to be cxqnisite ; they 
screamed with laughter at the attempts which disturbed and 
angry human nature made in the dark to bring their ill- 
timed merriment to a close. Unlike their prudent Kuro- 
pean cousins, which are said to leave a sinkmg ship, a party 

Ch*p. VI. 


af tliese took up their quarters ia our leaky aad sinking 
vessel. Quiet aud iuvisible by day, tbey emerged at aijjht 
and cut their fuuny pranks. No sooaer were we all asleep 
tfaaa they made a sudden dash over the lockers aud acroas 
our laces for the cabin door, where all broke out inu> a loud 
He! hel he! he! he The! showing how keenly tbey enjoyed 
the joke. Tbey next treat forward with as much delight, 
and scampered Over the men. Every night they went fore 
and aft, rousing with impartial feet every sleeper, and laugh- 
ing to scorn the aimless blows, growls, aud deadly rushes 
of outraged humanity. We observed elsewhere a species of 
large mouse, nearly allied to Euryotts uniaulcalua (F. Cuvier), 
escaping up a rough and not very upright wall, with siiE 
young ones firmly attached to the perineum. They were 
old enough to be well covered with hair, and some wore not 
detached by a blow which disabled the dam. We could not 
decide whether any involunlary muficlea were brought into 
play in helping the young to adhere. Their weight seemed 
to require a sort of cataleptic state of the muscles of the Jaw 
to enable them to bold on. 

Scorpions, centipedes, ami poisonous spiders also were not 
lanfrequontly brought into the ship with the wood, and occa- 
-ajonally found their way into our beds; but, in every in- 
stance, we were fortunate enough to discover and destroy 
t.l)ein before they did any barm. Naval officers on ihia const 
X'^port that, when scorpions and centipedes remain a few 
'Weeks after being taken on board in a similar manner, their 
poison loses nearly all its virulence, but this we did not veri- 
fy. Snakes sometimes came in with the wooJ, but oftener 
Aoated doym the river to us, climbing on board with ease by 
the chain-cable; and some poisonous ones were caught in 
ihe cabin. A green snake lived with us several weeks, con- 



Chaj- VI. 

ccaliDg himself bebind the ca»iig of the deck-house m tt 
daytime. To be aroused in the dark by five feet of oolc 
green snake gliding over one's face is rather UDpleasAntyl 
however rapid the movement may be. Myriads of two war 
lieties of cockroaches infested the vessel ; they not only ate 
round the roots of our nails, but even devoured and de&I( 
our food, flannels, and boots; vain were all our eCbrta uT 
extirpate these destructive pests; if you kill one, say the 
sailors, a hundred come down to his funeral I In the work 
of Commodore Owen it is stated that cockroachea, poundod 
into a paste, form a powerful carminative ; this has not been 
cociirmed; but when monkeys are fed on them they 
«ure to become so lean na to suggest the idea tbat for 
people a course of cockroach might be as eJUcacioua as 
course of BantiDg. 

On coming to Senna, we found that the Zulus had arrii 
in force for their annual tribute. These men are under good 
discipline, and never steal from the people. The tax is 
claimed on the ground of conquest, the Zulus having for- 
merly completely overcome the Senna people, and chased 
them on to the islands in the Zambesi Fifty-four of ihe 
Portuguese were slain on the occasion, and, notwithstanding 
the mud fort, the village has never recovered ila former 
power. Fever was now very prevalent, and moot of the 
Portuguese were down with it. The village has a number 
of foul pools, filled with green fetid mud, in which horrid, 
long-snouted, greyhound-shnped pigs wallow with delight 
The greater part of the space inclosed in the stockade, wfaiob 
is an oblong of say a thousand yards by five hundred, is cov- 
ered with tall indigo-plants, cassia, and bushes, with mouuda 
on which once stood churches and monastcriea. The air is 
not allowed iree airculation, so. it is not to be wondered at 

Citir. vr. 



that men suffer from fever. The feeding of the pigs is in- 
describably shocking; but they are a favorite food them- 
selves, and tbe owners may be heard, both here and at Tette, 
recalling them from iheir wanderings by pet names, as 
"Joio," "Manoel," "kudia! kudia! (to cat, to eat), Anto- 
nio I" "We saw a carious variety which bad accidentally 
appeared among these otherwise uninteresting brutes. A Ut- 
ter was beautifully marked with yellowish-brown and whit? 
stripes alternately, and the bands, about an inch broad, were 
disposed, not as in the zebra, but horizontally along the 
body. Stripes appear occasionally in mules and in horses, 
and are supposed to show a reversion to tbe original wild 
type, in the same way iliat highly-bred domestic pigeons 
aomctimea manifest a tendency to revert to the plumage of 
the rock -pigeon, with its black bar across the tail. This 
striped variety may betoken relationship to the original wild 
pig, the young of which are distinctly banded, though the 
xnarks fade as the animal grows ap. 

For a good view of tbe adjacent scenery, the hill Bnra- 

jTinana, behind the village, was ascended. A caution was 

given about the probability of an attack of fever from a 

plant that grows near the summit Dr. Kirk disoovcrcd it 

to be the Ptxdevia Jceltda, winch, when smelt, actually does 

give headache and fever. It has a nasty fetor, as its name 

iudicates. This is one instance in which fever and a foul 

iOiell coincide. In a number of instances offensive effluvia 

fever seem to have no connection. Owing to the abund- 

•"il rains, the crops in tbe Senna district were plentiful; this 

flaa fortunate, after tbe partial failure of the past two years. 

U was tbe 26th of April, 1860, before we reached Tette; 

here also the crops were luxuriant, and the people said that 

tlcy had not had such abundance since 1856, tho year when 



Ca^. VI. 

J^r. Livingstone came down the river. It is astonishing to 
any one who has seen the works for irrigation in other coun- 
tnes, as at the Cape and in Egypt, that no attempt has ever 
been made to lead out the water either of the Zambesi or 
any of ita tributaries; no machinery has ever been nsid to 
raise it even from the stream, but droughts and starvation 
arc endured, as if they were Inevitable dispensations of Prov- 
idence, incapable of being mitigated. Our friends at Tette^ 
though heedless of the obvioiia advantages which other nsr 
tions would eagerly seize, have beaten the entire world in 
one branch of industry. It is a sort of anomaly that the 
animal most uearly allied to man in structure and function 
should be tho most alien to him in respect to labor or tras^ 
friendship, but hero the genius of tho monkey ia turned to 
good account. He is made to work in tho chase of certain 
" wingless insects better known than respectocl." Having 
been invited to witness this braneb of Tetto industTj, we can 
testify that the monkey took to it kindly, and i% seemed 
profitable to both, parties. 

cuAT. \a. 




fur « Juurnc; to the Hukololo Conntiy SuHdt'i Giinlun.— WIiciU, 

Urn aad klodfi of Sowing. — Start from Telle Ma^ Ibth, to t«ke the Uako- 
lolo boote.— LakcwArmncBi and Dcncrtionj. — »il KlTects of Contxct wiik 
Bl&TtA.— Man Lion anil Lion Man. — Kcii»ODing with a Lion.— I'opular 11^ 
lief.^New Path tlurotigh Kcbt'&btk*& Ilill^.— Sandia. — ELc|>fiant-liUDl.— 
Guae L«vr,— A Fen>t of ElcjiliDUl-jiic^al. — Wc RtTiku ZaiiilKBi by Mortiinb- 
wa, aad complolo tha Survcty of Kctirabiua from EutI to Kud. — Banfai 
again. — Vieir of KebrabUB. — Chlcora Plaina and open Riror, — SotuUa'a 
Be|Mrt of KebrabasRi 

FEKLtNG in honor bound to return witb those Tfho had 
been the &ithful companions of Dr. Ltvingstone in 1856, and 
lo whoee guardiansbip and services was duo the accomplish- 
menc of a journey which all the Portuguese at Tettc had 
preFiOTisly pronounced impossible, the requisite steps were 
taken to convoy them to their homes. 

Wc laid the ship alongside of the island Kanyimbe, oppo- 
site Tetlc, and, before starting for the country of the &[ako- 
lolo, obtained a small plot of land, to form a garden for the 
two English sailors who were to remain in charge during 
oar absence. We furnished them with a supply of seeds, 
uul they set to work with such zeal that they certainly mer- 
ited success. Their first attempt at African horticulture met 
with Ikilure from a most unexpected source; every seed was 
dag np and the inside of it eaten by mice. "Yes," said an 
old native, next morning, on seeing the hujiks, "that is what 
bippens this month ; for it is the motisc month, and the seed 
ahonid have been sown last month, when I sowed mine." 
TTie sailors, however, sowed more next day; and, being de- 
temuQod 10 outwit the mice, they this time covered the beds 




over with grass. The unions, with other seeds of plants cqI- 
tivaled by the Portuguese, aiis usually plsJited iu the begin- 
ning of April, iu order to have the advantage of the cold 
seasou; the wheat a little ]ater,for the sauio reason. If sown 
&t the beginning of the raiuj season iu Koveiuber, it runs, 
as before remarked, entirely to straw ; but, as the rains are 
nearly over in May, advantage is token of low-lying patchesi 
which have been flooded by the river. A hole is made in 
the mud with a hoe, a few seeds dropped in, and the earth 
shoved back with the foot. If not favored with certain mis- 
ty showers, which, lower down the river, are simply fogs, 
water is borne from the nvcr to the roots of the wheat io 
earthen pots; and, in about four months, the crop is ready 
for the sickle. The wheat of Tette is esportcd, as the best 
grown in the country; but a hollow spot at Maruru, close 
by Mazaro, yielded very good crops, though just at the level 
of the sea, as a few inches rise of tide shows. 

A number of days were spent in busy preparation for our 
journey; the clotU, beads, and brass wire for the trip were 
sewn up in old canvass, and each package had the bearer's 
name priuted on it. The Makololo, who had worked for the 
Expedition, were paid for their services, and every one who 
had come down with the doctor from the interior received a 
present of cloth and omamcnta, in order to protect them from 
the greater cold of their own country, and to show that they 
had not come in vain. Thoagh called Makololo by courtesy, 
as they were proud of the name, Kanyata, the principal hesftd 
man, was the only real Makololo of the party; and he, in 
virtue of his birth, bod succeeded to the chief place on the 
death of Sekwebu. The others belonged to the conquered 
tribes of the Batoka, Bashubia, Bn-Seica, and Barotse. Some 
of these men had only added to their own vices those of the 

Chap. VII. 



Tette slaves'; others, by toiling during the ftrst two ycara in 
navigating canoes and bunting elephants, h&d ofkn inanflged 
to save a little, to take back to their own country, but had to 
part with it all for food to support the rest in times of hun- 
ger, mid latterly had fallen into the improvident habits of 
slaves, and spent their surplus earnings in beer and ogua ar- 

Every thing being ready on the 15th of May, wo started 
ot 2 P.M. from the village where the Makololo had dwelt 
A number of the men did not leave with the good-will which 
their talk for months bcforo had led us to anticipate; but 
some proceeded upon being told that they were not compelled 
to go unless they liked, though others altogether deolined 
xnoving. Itfany had taken up with stave-women, whom they 
xtssisted in hoeing, and in consuming the produce of their 
^;aTden& Some fourteen children had been born to' them j 
nud in consequence of now having no chief to order them or 
to claim their services, they tbougbt that they were about as 
"well off as they had been in their own country. They knew 
and regretted they could call neither wives nor children 
their own; tho slave-owners claimed the whole; but their 
ttatural affections had been so enchained that tbcy clave to 
the domestic ticsu By a law of Portugal the baptized chil- 
<IreQ of slave-women are all free; by the custom of the Zam- 
Ijesi that law is void. When it is referred to, the offioera 
laagb and say, "These Lisbon-bom laws arc very stringent, 
but somehow, possibly from the heat of the climate, here they 
loeo all their force." Only one woman joined our parly — the 
"Xvife of a Batoka man ; she had been given to him, in consid- 
eratiou of bis skillful dancing, by the chief, Chisaka. A mer- 
chant sent three of his men along with us, with a present for 
Sokeleui, and Major Sicard also lent us three more to asnst 




US on our return, and two Portuguese geutlemeu Idodly gave 
us the loan of a couple of donkeys. "VVe skpt four nules 
above Tettc, and bearing tliat tKe Banyai, who levy heavy 
fines on the Portuguese traders, lived chiefly on the right 
bank, we crossed over to the left, as vie could not fully trust 
our Dien. If the Banyoi bad come in a threatening manner, 
our followers might perhaps, from having homes behind 
ihera, have even put down their bundlca and run. Indeed 
two of them, at this point, made up their minds to go no far- 
ther, and turned back to Tette. Another, Monga, a Baioka, 
was much perplexed, and could not make out what course to 
pursue, as he had, three years previously, wounded Kanyata, 
the head man, \vitb a spear. This is a capital offense among 
tbe jUakololo, and be was afraid of being 2>ut to death for it 
on his return. Ue tried in vain to console himself with the 
facts tlrat he had neither father, mother, sisters, nor brothers 
to mourn for him, and that he could die but once. He was 
good, and would go up to the stars to Yesu, and, therefore, 
did not care for death. In spite, however, of these reflections^ 
he was much cast down until Kanyata assured him that ha 
would never mention his misdeed to tbe chief; indeed, he 
had never even mcntioued it to the doctort which he woald 
assuredly have done had it Iain heavy on his heart We 
wens right glad of Monga's company, for he was a merry, 
good-tempered fellow, and his Hthe manly figure had always 
been m the front in danger; and, from being lefl-handed, 
had been easily recognized in the fight with elepbanta 

We commenced, for a certain number of days, with short 
maiches, walking gently until broken in to travel This is 
of so much importance that it occure to us that more might 
be made out of soldiera if the first few days' marches were 
easy, and gradually increased in length and quickoeaa. Tbe 




nights were cold, with heavy dews ond occasional showers, 
and we had several caaea of fever. Some of the men desert- 
ed every night, and we fully expected that all who had chil- 
dren would prefer to retwrn to Tette, for little ones are well 
known to prove the strongest lies, even to slavesi. It was 
ageless informing them that, if they wanted to return, they 
bad only to come and tell us bo ; we should not be angry 
with them for preferring Tette to their own country. Con* 
tact with slaves had destroyed their sense of honor; they 
would cot go in daylight, but decamped in the night, only in 
OQO instance, however, taking our goods, though in two more 
they carried off their comrades' property. By the time we 
bad got well into the Sebrabasa hills, thirty men, nearly a 
third of the p.irty, had turned back, and it became evident 
tiiat* if many more left as, Sekeleta's goods could not be ca^ 
xied upi At last, when the refuse had fallen away, no more 
desertions took plaea 

Stopping one afternoon at n Kehmbasa village, a man, who 
pretended to be able to change himself into a lion, came to 
saluto us. Smelling the gunpowder from a gun which had 
"been discharged, lie went on one aido to get out of the wind 
cf the piece, trembling in a most artistic manner, but quite 
oreracting his part The Makololo explained to us that he 
■was a Pondoro, or a man who can change his form at will, 
mad added that ho trembles when he smells gunpowder. 
■'Do yott not see how he la trembling now?" We told them 
to aak him to change himself at once into a lion, and we 
'Would give him a cloth far the perfomvance, " Oh no," re- 
plied they; "if we will tell him so, ho may change himself 
tind come when we are asleep and kill us." Ilaving simitar 
saperstitions at home, they readily became as firm believere 

in the Pondoro as the natives of the village. We were told 




CsAr. VU. 

that he nssiitnes the form of a lion and remains in the woods 
for (lays, and is sometimes absent for a whole month. His 
considerate wife had buiJt him a hut or dcti, in which she 
places food and beer for her transformed lord, whose meta- 
morphosis does not impair his human appetite. Ko one ever 
enters this hut except the Pondoro and bis wife, and no stran- 
ger is allowed even to rest his gun against the Baobab-tree 
beside it: tho Mfumo, or petty chief of another small village, 
wished to fine our men for placing Ihcir muskets against an 
old tumble-down hat, it being that of the Pondopo. At times 
tho Pondoro employs bis acquired powers in hunting for the 
benefit of the village; and, after an absence of a day or wo, 
his wife smells the Hon, takes a certain medicine, places, it ia 
the forest, and there quiclcly leaves it, lest the lion should 
kill even her. This medicine enables the Pondoro to change 
himself back into a man, return to the village, and say "Go 
and get the game that I have killed for you." Advantage is 
of coarse taken of what a lion has done, and they go and 
bring home the buffalo or antelope killed when he was a 
lion, or rather found when ho was patiently pursuing bis 
course of deception in the forest. Wc saw the Pondoro of 
another village dressed in a fantastic style, with numeroos 
charms hung round him, and followed by a troop of boys, 
who wero honoring liim with rounds of shrill cheering. 

It is believed also that the souls of departed chicis enter 
into lions and render ihcin sacred. On one occasion, when 
we had shot a buftalu in the path beyond the Kafue, a hun- 
gry lion, attracted probably by tho smell of tho meat, came 
close to our camp, and roused up all hands by bis roaring. 
Tuba Mokoro, imbued with the popular belief that the beast 
was a chief in difiK^'se, scolded liini roundly during hb brief 
intervals of silence. "You a chief, ch? You call yourself a 

Cnai*. Vll. 



chief, do you? What kind of chief are you, to come sneak- 
ing abeut in the dark, trying to steal our buffalo meat? Are 
you not aabamed of yourself? A pretty chief truly; you 
are like the scavenger beetle, and think of yourself only. 
Vou bave not the heart of a chief; why don't you kill your 
own beef? You must have a stone in your chest, and no 
beart at all, indeed 1" Tuba Mokoro prtxluciug no impres- 
rion on the transformed chief, one of the men, the most sedate 
of the party, who seldom spoke, took up the matter, and tried 
the lion in another strain. In bis slow, quiet way, he expos- 
tulated with bim on the impropriety of such conduct to 
Blrangers, who had never injured him. " Wc were traveling 
peaceably through the country back to our own chief. We 
Derer killed people, nor stole any thing. The buflalo meal 
was ours, not hi.-*, and it did not become a great chief like 
him to be prowling round in the dark, trying, like a hyena, 
*to steal the meat of strangers. He might go and hunt for 
himself, as there was plenty of game in the forest." The 
Pondoro, being deaf to reason, and only roaring the louder, 
the men became angry, and threatened to send a ball through 
Mm if he did not go away. They snatched up their guns to 
shoot him, but be prudently kept in the dark, outstdo of the 
luminous circle made by our camp-fires, and there they did 
not like to venture. A little strychnine was put into a piece 
of meat and thrown to him, when he soon departed, and wo 
heard no more of tbe majestic sneaker. 

The Kebrabasa people were now plumper and in better 
condition than on our former visits; the harvest had been 
abundant; they had plenty to eat and drink, and they were 
enjoying life as much as ever they could. At Defwe'a vil- 
lage, near where the ship lay on her 6rst ascent, wc found two 
Mfumos or head men, tho aon and son-in-law of the former 



chief. A mster's son hra much more chance of succeeding tD 
a chicftaiDsbip than the ohiers own oftsprmg, it being uoquea- 
tionable that the sister's child hus the family blood. The' 
men are all marked across the nose and up the middle of the 
forehead with short horizontal bars or cicatrices ; and a ain* 
gle brass earring of two or three inches diameter, like the an- 
cient Egyptian, ia worn by the men. Some wear the hair long 
like the ancient Assyrians and Egyptians, and a few have 
eyes with the downward and inward slant of the Chinese. 

After fording the rapid Lula, we left our former path on 
the banks of the Zambesi, and struck off in a N.W. direction 
behind one Of the hill ranges, the eastern end of which is 
allied Mongwa, the name of au acacia, Ijaviug a peculiarly 
strong fetor, found on it. Our route wound up a valley 
along a small mountain steeatn which was nearly dry, and 
then crossed the rocky spura of some of the lofty hilla The 
country was all very dry at the time, and no water was found 
except in an occasional spring and a few wells dug in tho 
beds of water-couises. The people were poor, and always 
anxious to convince travelers of the fact. The men, unlike 
those on the plains, spend a good deal of their time in huQt* 
ing; this may be because they have but little ground on the 
hill-sides fliiitable for gardens, and but little certainty of reap- ' 
ing what may be sown in the valleys. No women came for- 
ward in the hamlet east of Chipcriziwa where we halted for 
the night. Two shots had been fired at Guinea-fowl a little 
way off in the valley ; the women fled into the woods, and 
the men come to know if war was meant, and a few of the 
old folks only returned after hearing that we were for peace. 
The head man,Kambira, apologized for not having a present| 
ready, and afterward brought us some meal, a roasted coney 
(Z/yrax capCTWw) andapot of beer; he wished to be thought 




poor. The beer had come to him from a distance; he had 
none of his own. Lika tho Manganja, these people salalc by 
clapping their hands. When a man comes to a place where 
others are seated, before sitting down ho claps his hands to 
each in succession, and they do the samo to him. If he has 
any thing to tell, both .speaker and hearer clap their hands at 
the close of every paragraph, and then again vigorously at 
the end of the speech. The guide whom the head man gave 
U8 thus saluted each of his comrades before he started off 
with us. There is so little dificrenco in the language that all 
the tribes of tbis region arc virtually of one family. 

We proceeded still in the same direction, and passed only 
two small hamlets during the day. Except the noise our 
men made on the march, every thing was still around us: 
few birds were seen. The appearance of a whydah-bird 
showed that he had not yet parted with his fine long plumes. 
We passed immense quantities of ebony and lignum -vitse, 
and the tree from whose smooth and bitter bark granaries 
are made for com. The country generally la clothed with a 
forest of ordinary-sized trees. Wc slept in tho little Tillage 
near Sindabwe, where our men contrived to purchase plenty 
of beer, and were uncommonly boisterous all the evening. 
We breakfasted next morning under green wild date-palms, 
"beeide the fine flowery stream, which nnis through the 
charming valley of Zibah. Wc now bad Mount Chiperiziwa 
Iwtwccn us, and part of tho river near Morumbwa, having in 
fact come north about in order to avoid the difficultiw of our 
former path. The last of the deserters, n reputed thief, took 
French leave of us here. He left the bundle of cloth he was 
<2arrying in the path a hundred yards in front of where we 
ludted, but made off with the musket and moat of ihc brass 
rings and beads of bis comrade Shirimba, who had unsus- 
pectingly intrusted ihcm to his care. 



Proceeding S.V^. up this lovely valley, in about an hour's 
time Tvc reached Sandia's village. The chief was said lo be 
absent hunting, and they did not know when he would re- 
turn. This is such a common answer to the inquiry after a 
head man, that one is inclined to think that it only means 
that they wish to know the stranger's object before ex^)Osing 
their superior to danger. As some of our men were ill, a 
halt was made here, Sandia's people were very civil ; a 
kinsman of his came to see us in the evening, bringing a 
large pot of beer ; he did not like to sec us eating with noth- 
ing to drink, 80 brought it as a present. When at a distance 
from those who are engaged in the slave-trade, there is much 
iQ the manners of the natives, and their ways of speaking, 
lo remind us of the Patriarchs. The inhabitants of Zibah 
are Bad^ma,and a wealthier class than those we have roccDl- 
ly passed, with more cloth, ornaments, food, and luxunes. 
Fowls, eggs, sugar-canes, sweel potatoes, ground-nuts, turmer- 
ic, tomatoes, chillies, rice, mapira (/to/ctw soryhum), and maize, 
were offered for sale in large quantities. The mapira may 
be called the com of the country. It is known as Kaffir and 
Guinea com in the south and west; as dunt in Egypt, and 
badjery in India: the grain is rouud and white, or reddish- 
white, about the size of the hemp-seed given to canaries. 
Several hundred grains form a massive ear, ou a stalk as 
thick as a common walking-staff, and from eight to eighteen 
feet high. Tobacco, hemp, and cotton were also cultivated, 
as, indeed, tlicy arc by all the people in Kebrabasa. In near- 
ly every village here, as in the Manganja hills, men are en- 
gaged in spinning and weaving cotton of excellent quality. 

As wo were unable to march next momiDg, six of our 
young men, anxious lo try their muskets, went off to bunt 
elephants. For several hours they saw nothing, and some of 

Ciui-. VU. 



tbem, getting tired, proposed Lo go to a village and buy food. 
"No!" said Mantlauyane, "we came to Luui^so let us go od." 
In a short time tbey fell ia with a herd of cow elephanLs and 
calves. As soon as the first cow caught sight of the hunters 
on the rocks above her, she, with true motherly instinct, 
placed her youug one between her fore legs for prottictioo. 
The men were for scattering, and tiring into the herd indis- 
criminately. "That won't do," cried Mantlanyane; "let us 
all fite at this one." The poor beast received a volley, and 
ran down into the plain, where another shot killed her ,■ the 
young one escaped with the herd. The men were wild with 
excitement, and danced round the fallen queen of the forest, 
with loud shouts and cxultaut songs. Tbey returoed, bear* 
iog as trophies the tail and part of the trunk, and marched 
into camp as erect as soldiers, mid evidently feeling that their 
stature had increased considerably since the morning. 

Sandia's Wifu was duly Informed of their success, as here 
a law decrees that half the elephant belongs to the chief on 

E~ whose ground it has been killed The Portuguese traders 
always submit to this tax, and, were it of native origin, it 
eouJd hardly be considered unjust. A chief must have some 
Bource of revenue ; and, as many chiefs can raise none except 
Iiom ivory or slaves, this tax is more free from objections 
than any other that a black Chancellor of the Exchequer 
eoald devise. It seems, however, to have originated with the 
Portuguse themselves, and then to have spread among the 
adjacent tribes. The governors look sharply after any ele* 
phant that may be slain on the crown lands, and demand one 
of iho tusks from their vassals. We did not find the law in 
operation in any Uibe beyond the range of Portugue)*e trad- 
ers, or farther than the sphere of travel of those Arabs who 
imitated Portuguese customs in trade. At the Kafuo ia 




1855 the cblcfs bought tho meat wc killed, and demanded 
nothing as tbeir due ; and m it was up the Sbiro during; our 
visiia, Tho slaves of the Portuguese, who are sent by their 
mastera to ahoot clcphania, probably connive at the extension 
of this law, for they stnvQ to get the good will of the chiefs 
to whose country they come by advising thctn to make ft de- 
mand cif half of each elephant killed, and for this advice they 
are well paid in beer. When we found that the Portuguese 
fti^ed in fhvor of this law, we told the natives that they 
might exact tusks from diem, but that the Knglisb, being dif- 
ferent, i>referre<l the pure native custom. It was this which 
made Suudia, as afterward mcuUoned, hesitate; but w* did 
not civta to insist on exemption in our favor, where the prev- 
alence of tho custom might have been held to justify the ex- 

Sandia's wife said that she had sent a messenger to her 
husband on tho day of our arrival, and soon expected hia re* 
turn ; but that some of his people would go with our men in 
the morning, and receive what we chose to give. We ac- 
comprmied our hunters across the hills to the elephant vale, 
north of Zibah. It was a beautiful valley covered with tall 
heavy-seeded grass, on which the elephants had been quietly 
feeding when attacked. W^e found tho carcass undisturbed, 
an enormous moss of meat. 

The cutting np of an elephant Is quite a unique speotoclc. 
The men stand round tho animal in dead silcnoc, while tho 
chief of the traveling party declares that, according to ancient 
law, tho head and right hind leg belong to him who killed 
the beast, that is, to him who inflicted the Bret wound; the 
left leg to him who delivered the second, or first touched the 
animal after it fell. The meat around the eye to the English, 
or chief of the travelers, and difFerent parts to the head men 

Cbat. VI!. 



of the different fires, or groups, of which the camp is com- 
posed; not forgetting to enjoin the preaervntion of thefat 
and bowels for & second distribution. This oration finished, 
the natives soon become excited, and scream wildly as thej 
cat away at the carcass with a score of spears, whose long 
handles quiver in the air above their heads. Their excite- 
ment becomes momentorily more and more intense, and 
reaches the culminating point when, as denoted by a roar of 
gas, the huge mass is laid fairly open. Some jump inside, 
and roll about there in their eagerness to seize the precious 
fat, while others run off, screaming, with pieces of the bloody 
meat, throw it on the grass, and run back for more : all keep 
talking and shouting at the utmost pitcb of their voices. 
Sometimes two or three, regardless of all laws, seize the same 
piece of meat, and have a brief fight of words over it Oc- 
casionally an agonized yell bursts forth, and a native emerges 
out of the moving mass of dead elephant and wriggling bo- 
manity with his hand badly cut by the spear of his excited 
friend and neighbor: this requires a rag and some soothing 
■words to prevent bad blood. In an incredibly short time 
tons of meat are cut up, and placed in separate heaps around. 
Sondia arrived soon after the beast was divided: he is an 
elderly man, and wears & wig made of ife fibre (Mnseviera) 
<3yed black, and of a fine glossy appearance. This plant ia 
^licd to the aloes, and its thick fleshy leaves, in shape somc- 
'«rbat like our sedges, when bruised yield much fine strong 
-Gbre, which is made into ropes, nets, and wigs. It takes dyes 
**«adny, and the fibre might form a good article of commerce. 
■lie ■wigs, as we afterward saw, are not uncommon in this 
Country, though perhaps not so common as hair wigs at 
iAonie. Sandia's mosamcla, or small carved wooden pillow, 
exactly resembling the ancient Egyptian one, \?as hung from 




the back of his nock : this pillow and a slecpiag mat are usu- 
ally carried by natives when on hunting excuraions. The 
chief visited the different camp-fires of our men, and accepted 
presents of meat from them ; but said that he should like to 
consume it with his elders, as he wished to consult them 
whether he ought to receive the half of the elephant from 
the Englishmen. His cahinet, seeing no gocid reason for de- 
parting from the established custom, concluded that it was 
best to treat white tax-payers as on a perfect equality with 
black ones, and to accept the half which belonged to Sandia's 
government. In the afternoon the chief returned with his 
counselors, accompanied by his wife and several other wom- 
en, carrying five pots of hcer: three, he explained, were a 
present to the white men, and the other two were intended 
for sale. The women have a remarkably erect gait, proba- 
bly from having been accustomed from infancy to carry 
heavy walcr-poLi on their heads. This brings all the mus- 
cles of the back into play, and might prove beneficial as a 
practice to those who are troubled with weakness of spine 
among ourselves. They use a piece of wood between the 
head and pot, perhaps for elegance. 

We had the elephant's fore foot cocked for ourselves iu 
native fashion. A large hole wns dng in the ground, in 
which a fire was made; and, when the inside was thoroughly 
heated, the entire foot was placed in it, and covered over 
with the hot ashes and Boil; another iiro was made above 
the whole, and kept burning alt nighL Wo had the foot 
thus cooked for breakfast nest morning, and found it deli- 
cious. It is a whitish masB, slightly gelatinous, and sweet, 
like marrow. A long march, to prevent biliousness, ia a wise 
precaution after a meal of elephant's foot. Elephant's trunk 
and tongue are also good, and, after Jong Btmmoriug, much 


resemble the hamp of a buffalo and the tongue of an ox ; 
but all tho other meat is tough, and, form lU peculiar flavor, 
only to be eaten by a hungry man. Tho quaatities of meat 
our men devour is quite aatounding. Tbcy boil as much 03 
their pots will hold, and eat till it becomes physically impos- 
sible for them to stow away any more. An uproarious dance 
follows, oocorapanied with stentorian song; and as soon as 
tliey have shaken their Qrst course down, and washed oil' the 
sweat and dust of the alter performance, they go to work to 
roast more; a short snatch of sleep sacoeeds, and they are 
up and at it again ; all night long it is boil and cat, roost and 
devour, with a few brief interludes of sleep. Like other 
cornivora, these men can endure hunger for a much longer 
period than the mere porridge-eating tribes. Our men can 
cook meat as well as any reasonable traveler could desire; 
and, boiled in rar.hen pots, like Indian chatties, it tastes 
much better than when cooked in iron ones. 

Their porriJgo is a failure, at lea-st for a Scotch digealion 
that has been impaired by fever. When on a journey, un- 
accompanied by women, oa soon as the water is hot, ihej 
tumble in the meal by handfuls in rapid succession, until it 
becomes too thick to stir about, when it is whipped off 
the fire, and placed ou the ground ; an assistant then holds 
the pot, while the cook, grasping the stick with both hands, 
exerts his utmost strength in giving it a number of circular 
turns, to mix and prevent the soHd mass from being burnt 
by the heat. It is then served up to us, tho cook retaining 
ihc usn;d perquisite of as much m can be induced to adhere 
to tho stick when he takes it from the pot. By tbis process 
the meal is merely moistened and warmed, but not boiled; 
much of it being raw, it always causes heartburn. This is 
the only mode that the natives have of cooking the raapira 





metL Tbej seldom, if ever, bake it iDto cakes liko oatmeal ; 
for, though 6ncly grouDd aod beautifully white, it will not 
cohere readily. Maize m,eal is formed into dough mora 
readily, but that too is inferior to wheatcn flour, or even oat- 
meal, for baking. It was rather difficult to persuade the 
men to boil thu porridge for us more p&tientlj; and they 
became witty, and joked us for being like women, vbcn the 
weakness of fever compelled us to pay some attention to the 
cooking, evidently thinking that it was beneath the dignity 
of white men to stoop to such matters. They look upon the 
meal and water porridge of the black tribes as the English 
used to do upon the French frogs, and call the eaters ''mere 
water-porridge fellows," while the Makoiolo'a meal and milk 
porridge takes the character of English roaat-beef. 

Sondia gave us two guides; and on the 4tli of June we 
left the elephant valley, taking a westerly cnuree; and, after 
crossing a few ridges, entered the Chingcrcro or Pargum- 
guru valley, througli which, in tho rainy Ecaaon, runs the 
streamlet Pajodzc. The mountains on our left, bQtwocn ua 
and the Zambesi, our guides told us have the same name as 
the valley, but that at the conHucnce of the Pnjodze is called 
Morambwa. We struck the river at less tban half a mile to 
the north of the cataract Morunibwa. On climbing up the 
base of this mountain at Pajodze, we found tliat we wnre dis- 
tant only the diameter of the mountain from tho cntnraot. 
In measuring the cataract we formerly stood on its wmthern 
flank; now we wcro perched on its northern flank, and at 
once recognized tho onion-shaped mountain, here calh^l Za« 
kavuma, whose Bmooth convex surface overlooks the broken 
water. Its bearing by corapoaa was 180° from the spot to 
which we hfid climbed, and 700 or 800 yards disumt. Wa 
now, from this standing-point, therefore, completed our ia- 

Cur. vu. 



spection of all Kebrabasa, and saw what, as a whole, was 
never before seen by Europeans, so far na any records show. 
The difference of level between Pajodze and Tcltc, as 
shown hy the barometer, was about 160 feet; bot it mast be 
remembered that we had no simnltaneotis observations at 
the two stations. The somewhat conical shape of Zokavu* 
ma standing on the right, and the more castellated form of 
Morumbwa on the left, constitute the narrow ga^way In 
which the cataract exists. The talus of each portal, keeping 
close together northward, makes a narrow, upright-sided 
trough from the cataract up to Pajodze. The deep green 
river winds in it among massive black angular rocks; above 
thia, as far :is Chicova, the Zambesi again has a ilood bed 
and a deep water-worn groove, like that near the lower end 
of Kebrabasa, but the flood bed is only 200 or 300 yards 
broad, and the stream in this part of the groove is adorned 
in various places with the white foam of a number of small 
rapids. By the motion of pieces of wood m the water, and 
timed by a watch, the current was nscertAined to be from 
S'3 to 4'! knots per hour in the more rapid places. We 
breakfasted a short distance above Pajodze At a compara- 
tively smooth part of the 2ambesi, called Movuzi, still far- 
ther up, where tmdcrs sometimes cross from the soutbcm to 
the northern bank, a Banyai head man came over with a 
dozen armed followers, and in an insolent way demanded 
payment for leave to pass on our way. This was not a 
friendly request for a present, so our men told him that It 
was not the custom of the Knglish to pay fines for nothing; 
and, being nnsucoessful, be went quietly back again. One 
chief of the Banyai on the opposite bank is culled Zudo, 
which the Portuguese translate into Judas, on account of his 
grasping prupensttiea Tidking of ua to some of our party, 




ho said, "These men passed me going down and gave me 

nothing; the Knglish cloth is good; I am come to clothe 
myself with it now as they go up," His messenger came 
and sat down impudently in our midst before we rose (rom 
breakfast, nod began an oration, not to "us, but to bis attend- 
ant This talking at us roused the Makololo's ire, and they 
replied that " English cloth was good ; and Knglishmcn paid 
for all (hey ate. They were now walking on God'3 earth in 
peace, doing no barm to the country or gardens, though En- 
glish' guns hod six mouths, and English balls traveled iar, 
and hit hard." However, by keeping on the left bank, we 
avoided collision with these troublesome and exacting Ban- 

The remainder of the Kebrabasn path, on to Cbicova, was 
close to the compressed and rocky river. Ranges of lol^ 
trcc-covcred mountains, with deep narrow valleys, in which 
arc dry water-courses, or flowing rivulets, stretch from the 
northwest, and are prolonged on ibe oi)posite side of the riv- 
er in a southeasterly direction. Looking back, the moant- 
ain scenery iu Kebrabasa was magnificent: conspicuous from 
their form and steep sides ore the two gigantic portals of the 
cataract; the vast forests still wore their many brilliant au- 
tumoal-cglored tints gf green, yellow, red, purple, and brown, 
thrown into relief by the gray bark of the trunks in the 
background. Among these variegated trees were some con- 
spicuous for tlieir new livery of fresh light green leaves, as 
though the winter of others was their spring. The bright 
sunshine in these mountain forests, and the ever-changing 
forms of the cloud shadows, gliding over portions of the sur- 
face, added fresh charms to scenes already surpassingly bean- 

From what wo have seen of the Kehrabasa rocks and rap- 




ids, it appears too evident ibat tbey must always form a bar- 
rier to iiavigaiioQ at the ordinary low water of the river; 
but the rise of the water in tbis gorge being as mucli as 
eighty feet perpend leularly, it is probable tliat a steamer 
might be taken up at high flbod, when all tlio rapids are 
amootheil over, to run on the upper Zambesi. The moat for- 
midable cataract in it, Morumbwa, has only about twenty 
feet of fall in a distance of thirty yards, and it nmi^t entirely 
disappear when the water stands eighty feet higher. Those 
of the Makololo who worked on board the ship were not 
sorry at the steamer being left below, as they bad become 
heartily tired of cutting the wood that the inaatiablc farnuce 
of the "Asthmatic" required. Mbia,who was a bit of a wag, 
laughingly exclaimed in broken EngUsU, "Ob, Kcbrabasa 
good, very good; no let sbippec up to Sekeletu, loo niuchee 
work, outtee woodyec, cuttee woodyee: Kebrabasa good." 
It is currently reported and commonly believed that once 
upon a time a Portuguese named Jose Pedra — by the natives 
called Nyamatimbim — chief, or capitJo mor, of Zumbo, a 
man of large enterprise and small humanity, being anxious 
to ascertain tf Kebrabasa could be navigated, made two slaves 
&Bt to a canoe, and launched it from Chieova into Kebrabasa, 
ia order to see if it would come out at the other end. .As 
neither slaves nor canoe ever appeared again, his excellency 
concluded that Kebrabasa was unnavigable. A trader had 
a large canoe swept away by a sudden rise of tbe river, and 
it was found without damage below; but the most satisfac* 
"^ory information was that of old Sandia, who asserted that in 
tfood all Kebrabasa became quite smooth, and he bad often 
^aeen it bo. 





Pom from Kehrkbun on to Chirovit on iho 7ih of Janp, I860.^Nnti*e Trar- 
elcn' Mode of making Fire. — Kjglit Arranfiierocnis of I lie Cati>p- — Nntirc 
NamoB of Stars.— Mooci- blind iintt, — Onr roluntcer Fircmnii. — Xntivc p>^lit- 
EcrI DUcuvsions. — Oiir Manner of Murcliinu. — Not to mnka Toil of a Pleas- 
ure — Tiio CivLIixcd sliaw more cnJuranci: than iho Uocivjlizcd. — Chitorat 
Politeness. — FiltcrcJ Waicr itrcfcrrtrd h» nniivc Women. — Whitca Itobgob- 
)iii» to ilic Blnck«. — The tnax of Mna on wild Aniraab. — First Iin|jfC3a)0tis 
cf • Uonkey'i local Powcw, 

"VTe emerged from the thirty-five or forty mjlea of Kebra- 
basa hills id to the Cbicova plains on the 7th of June, 1860, 
having made short marches all the way. The cold nights 
caused some of our men to cough badly, and colds ia thia 
country almoat invariably become fever. The Zambesi sud- 
denly expands at Chicova, and resumes the size and appear- 
ance it has at Telte. Near thia point we found a large seam 
of coal exposed in the left bank. 

■\Ve met with native travelers occasionally. Those on a 
long journey carry with them a sleeping-mat and wooden pil- 
low, cooking-pot and bag cf meal, pipe and tobacco-pouch, 
a knife, bow and arrows, and two small sticks, of from two 
to three feet in length, for making lire, when obliged to sleep 
away from human habitations. Dry wood ia always abund- 
ant, and they gel fire by the following method. A notch ia 
cut in one of the sticks, which, with a close-grained outside, 
has a small core of pith, and this notched stick is laid hori- 
zontally on a knife-blade on the ground : the operator, squat- 
ting, places his great toes on each end to keep all steady, and 
taking the other wand, which is of very hard wood cut to a 



bluut point, fita it iDto the notch at right angles; the opright 
waod is made to spin rapidly back-ward and forward between 
the palms of tbo bands, drill fashion, and at the same time is 
pressed downward ; the friction, in the course of a minute or 
90, ignites portions of the pith of the notched stick, which. 
rolling over like lire charcoal on the knife-blade, are lifted 
into a handful of fine dry grass, and carefully blown, by 
waving backward and forward in the air. It is hard work 
for the hands to procure fire by this process, as the vigorous 
drilling and downward pressure requisite soon blister soft 

Having now entered a country where lions were numer- 
ous, our men began to pay greater attention to the arrange- 
ments of tlic camp at night. As they are accustomed to do 
with their chiefs, they place the white men in the centre; 
Kanyata, his men, and the two donkc)'s, camp on our right; 
Tuba Mokoro's party of Bashubia arc in front ; Masakasa, and 
Siniuyane's body of Batoka, on the left; and in the rear six 
Telto men have their fires. In placing their fires they are 
earefnl to put ihem where the smoke will not blow in our 
faces. Soon after wc halt^ the spot for the English is se- 
lected, and all regulate their places accordingly, and .deposit 
their burdens. The men take it by turns to cut some of the 
tall dry grass, and spread it for our beds on a spot cither nat- 
urally level or smoothed byabe hoe; some, appointed to car- 
ry our bedding, then bring our rags and karosses, and place 
the three rogs in a row on the grass; Dr. Livingstone's be- 
ing ID the middle, Dr. Kirk's on the right, and Charles Iiiv- 
mff.VoDo'a on the left. Our bags, rifles, and revolvers are 
carefully placed at our heads, and a fire made near our feet. 
We have no tent nor covering of any kind except the 

brniicUes of the tree under which wc may happen to lie; and 




Chap, vni. 

it U a pretty sight to look up and sec every brancli, leat, and 
twig of the tree stand out, reflected against the clear star- 
spaDgled and raoonlit sky. The stars of the first magnitndc 
have names which convey the same meaning over very wide 
tracts of country. Jlere, when Veuus comes out in the even- 
ings, she is called Ntanda, the eldest or tirst-born, and Uan< 
jika, the GrsL-boni of morning, at other times: she has so 
much radiance when shining alone that she casts a shadow. 
Sirius ia named Kuewa usifco, " drawer of night,'* becanse 
supposed to draw the whole night after it. The moon has 
no evil influence in this country, so far as we know. We 
have lain and looked up at her, till sweet sleep closed oor 
eyes, unharmed. Four or five of our men were afTected with 
moou-blindDess at Tette; though they had not slept out of 
doors there, they became so blind that their comrades had to 
guide their hand.s to the general dish of food; the affection 
is unknown in their own country. When our posterity shall 
have discovered what it is which, distinct from foul smells, 
causes fever, and what, apart from the moon, causes men to 
be raoon-slruck, they will pity our dullness of perceptioo. 

The men cut a very small quantity of grass for them- 
selves, and sleep iu fumbas or sleeping-bags, which are double 
mats of palm-leaf, six feet long by four wide, and sewn to- 
gether round three parts of the square, and left open only on 
one side. They arc used as a protection from the cold, wet> 
and musquitocs, and arc entered as we should get into our 
beds, were the blankets nailed to the top, bottom, and one 
side of tbe bedstead. When they are all inside their funabas, 
nothing ia seen but sacks lying all about the different fires 
At times two persons sleep inside one, which is, indeed, close 
packing. Matonga, one of the men, has volunteered to take 
the sole charge of our fire, and ia to receive for hid servicefi 

CiiAr. VIII. 



the ctutomflTT payment of the he&da And n^cks of atl the 
beasU we kill; and, except on the days when only Guinea- 
fowl are shot, he thus gets abundance of food. He bears our 
fowl did resignedly for a few days, and then, if no large 
game 13 killed, he comes and expostulates as scrioasly as he 
did with the lion that envied us our buffalo meat; "Morena, 
cay lord, a hungry man can not fill his stomach with the 
head of a bird; he is killed with hunger for want of meat, 
and will soon, from sheer weakness, be unable to carry the 
wood for the fire: he ought to have an entire bird to save 
him from dying of starvation." Ilis request being reasona- 
bie, and Guinea-fowl abundant, it is of course complied with. 
Guinea-fowl are conveniently numerous on the Zambesi dur- 
ing the dry season ; they then collect in large flocks, and 
come daily to the river to drink, and roost at night on the 
tall acacia-trees on its banks. "We usually fall in with two 
or three flocks in the course of the day's march, and find that 
they are all fat, and in exoellent condition. la a few spots, 
» at Shijpanga,a second variety is found, which has a pretty 
black feathery crest^ and is a much handsomer bird than the 
common one,* the oative name is Khanga Tore, and its spots 
are a fine light blue. J^aturaliats call it Numida ensiaia. 

A dozen fires are nightly kindled in the camp; and these, 
being replenished from tame to time by the men who are 
awakened by the cold, are kept burning until daylight. 
Abuudaoce of dry bard wood is obtained with little trouble, 
and bums beauUfulIj. After the great business of cooking 
and eating is over, all sit round the camp-fires, and engage in 
talking or singing. Every evening one of the Batoka plays 
Jm saasa, and continues at It until far into the night He 
accompanies it with an extempore song, in which be re- 
Liearses their deeds ever since they left their own country 



Cbap. vrit 

At tiiEM BJiimated political discussions spring op, and (he 
amount of elcquenco expended on tbeac occasions is amazing. 
The whole camp is aroused, and the men shout to one anoth- 
er from the different fires; while some, whose tongues are 
never heard on any other subject, now burst forth into im- 
passioned speech. The misgovernment of chiefs famishes 
an inexhaustible theme. "Wc could govern ourselves bet- 
ter," thej cry, "so what is the use of chiefe at all? they do 
not work. The ohief is fnl, and has plenty of wives; while 
we, who do the hard work, have hunger, only one wife, or 
more likely none; now this must he bad, unjust, and wrong." 
All shout to this a loud "eho," equivalent to our "Ilev, 
bear." Next the head man Kanyata, and Tuba with. hi.<i 
loud voice, arc heard taking up the subject on the loyal side. 
" The chief is the father of the people : can there be people 
irithout a father, eh? God made the chief. Who aaya that 
the chief is not wise? He is wise; but bis children are 
fools." Tuba goes on generally till he has silenced all oppo- 
ffltion; and if his nrgaments are not always sound, bis voioe 
is the loudest, and he is sure to have the last word. 

As a specimen of our mode of marching, we rise about 
five, or, as soon as dawn appears, take a cup of tea and a bit 
of biscuit; the servants fold up the blankets and stow them 
away in the bags they carry; the others tic their fumbas 
and cooking-pots to each end of their carrying-sticks, which 
are borne on the shoulders; the cook .secures the dishee, 
and all are on the path by sunriBC. If a convenient spot can 
be found, we halt for breakfast about nine A.M. To save 
time, this meal is generally cooked the night before, and has 
only to be warmed. We continue the march after breakfast, 
rest a little in the middle of the day, and break off early in 
the afternoon. Wo average from two to two and a half 

cuAP. vnr. 



miles aa hour In a straight liae, or as cbe crow files, ood sel- 
dom have more than five or aix hours a day of ootual travel. 
This, in a hot climate, is as much aa a man can uccompliab 
without being oppraescd; and we always tried to make our 
progress more a pleasure tbau a tutL To hurry over the 
ground, abuse, and luuk furociouj; at one's native oompauions, 
merely for the fuolish vanity of boasting how quickly a dis- 
(anoe waa accomplished, is a combinaliou of siUiucss with ab- 
surdity quite odious ; while kicdly coiisideration for the feel- 
ings of even blacks, the j)lcaaure of observing scenery and 
every thing new aa one moves on at an ordinary pace, and 
tho participation in the most delicious rest with our fellows, 
render traveling dclightfbl. Though not given to overhaste, 
ire were a little surprised to Hiid that we could tire our men 
oat; and even tlte head man, who carried but little more 
than we did, and never, as wo of\cn had to do, bunted in the 
afternoon, was no better than his comrades. Our experience 
tends to prove that the European constitution has a power 
of endurance, even in the trojjics, greater than that of the 
bardicst of the meat-eating Africans. 

After pitching our camp, one or two of us usually go oiT 

to hunt, more as a matter of necessity than of pleasure, for 

tbo men, as well as ourselves, must have moat. Wc prefer 

to take a man with us to carry home the game, or lead tho 

others to where it lies ; but, as they frequently grumble and 

complain of being tired, we do not particularly object to go- 

iDg alone, except that it involves the extra labor of our 

making a second trip to show the men wboro the animal that 

lua been shot is to be found. When it is a couple of miles 

Q^ it is raiher fatiguing to have to go twice, more especially 

on the days when it is solely to supply their wants that, in- 

stetkd of resting ourselves, we go at all. Like those who per- 


Cb&f. Tm. 

form benevolent deeds at home, the tired bonter, thoogli try* 
log hard to live in cbaritj with all men, is strongly templed 
to give it up "bj bringing only aafficient meat for the three 
whitea and leaving the r«st^ tfans sending the "idle ungrate* 
ful poor" suppcrlcss to bed. And yet it is only by oontina* 
ance in well-doing, even to the length of what the worldly- 
wise call weakness, that the conviction ui prodoeed any 
where that our motives arc high cnongh to sccnre sincere 

The Cbicova plains are very fertile, have rich darlc soil, 
and formerly supported a numerous populaliou; but desola- 
ting wars and slaving had swept away raoal of the inhabit- 
ants. In spite of a rank growth of weeds, cotton still re* 
mains in the deserted gardens of ruined villages. A juQgl« 
of mimosa, ebony, and " wait-a*bit" thorn lies between the 
Cbioova flats and the cultivated plain, on which stand the 
villages of the chief Chitora. lie brought us a present of 
food and drink, because, as he, with the innate politeness of 
an African, said, be "did not wish us U> sleep hungry: he 
bad heard of the doctor when be passed down, and had a 
great desire to see and convcT^e with bim; but he was a 
child then, and could not speak in the presence of great men. 
He was glad that he bad seen the English now, and was 
sorry that his people were away, or he should bavo made 
them cook for us." All his subsequent conduct showed him 
to be sincere. 

Many of the African women are particular about the wa- 
ter they use for drinking and cooking, and prefer that wbicb 
is filtered through sand. To secure this, they scrapo bolee 
in the sand-banks beside the stream, and scoop up the water, 
which slowly filters through, rather than take it from the 
equally clear and limpid river. This practice is common in 

Ciur. VUI. 


the Zambesi, the Rovuma, and I^ako Kjassa; and some of 
ihe Portuguese at Tctte have adopted iho native custom, and 
send canoes to a low island in the middle of the river for 
water. Chitora's people also obtained their supply from 
sbAllow wells in the aaody bed of a small rivulet close to the 
village. The habit may have arisen from observing the un- 
heakbinees of the main stream at oeriAin seasons. During 
nearly nine mouths in liie year, ordure ia deposited around 
coanUesB villages along the ibousanda of miles drained by 
the Zambesi. Wheu the heavy rains como down, and sweep 
the vast fetid accumulation into the torrents, the water is 
pollated with filth ; and, but for tUo precaution mentioned, 
the natives would prove tbcmsclvcs as tittle fastidious as 
those in London who drink the abomination poured into the 
Thames by Beading and 0,\ford. It is no wonder that sail- 
ors suffered so much from fever after drinking African river 
water, before the present admirable system of condensing it 
was adopted in our navy. 

There must be something in the appearance of white men 

frightfully repultiive to the unsopbtstiuiited natives of Africa; 

(or, on entering villages previously unvisiled by Europeans, 

if ire met a child coming quietly and unsuspectingly toward 

OS, the moment he raised his eyes and saw tbc men in 

"bags," he would lake to his hcek in an agony of terror, 

■*s«ch as we might feel if we met a live Egyptian mummy at 

cho door of the British Museum. Alarmed by the child's 

**ild outcries, the mother rushes out of her hut^ but darts 

A<2k again at the first glimpse of the same fearful apparition. 

-*Og8 turn tail, and scour off in dismay; and hens, abandon- 

^S" their chickens, lly acreaming to the tops of the houses. 

' t%e BO lately peaceful village becomes a scene of confusion 

'**ci hubbub until calmed by the laughing assurance of our 




men. that whito people do not cat black folks; a joke having 
ofteotimei greater iiiflueQCe ia Africa than solemn assertioos. 
Some of our j'oung swells, ou euteriag an Afiicau village, 
might experience a collapse of Belf-inflation at the siglit of 
all the jjretty girls fleeiug from thom as from hideous caani- 
bab, or by witoessiDg, as wo have done, the convemton of 
themselves into public hobgoblins, the mammas holding 
nauglity children away from thom, and saying *' Bo good, or 
I sbali call the white man to bite you." 

The scent of man is excessively terrible to game of all 
kinds, much more so, probably, than the sight of bim. A 
herd of antelopes, a hundred yards olF, gazed at us as we 
moved along the winding path, and timidly stood their 
ground until half our line had passed, but darted off the in- 
stant they " got the wind," or caught the flavor of those who 
had gone by. The sport is all up with the hunter who gets 
to the windward of the African beast, as it can not stand 
even the distant aroma of the human race, so much dreaded 
by all wiJd animals. Is this the fear and the dread of man, 
which the Almighty said to Noah was to be apoo every 
beast of the field? A lion may, while lying in wait for bis 
prey, leap on a human being as he would on any other ani- 
mal, save a rhmoceros or an elephant, that happened to pass ; 
or a lioness, when sho has cubs, might attack a man, who, 
passing "up tho wind of her," had unconsciously, by his 
scent, alarmed her for the safety of her whelps; or bufihloes 
and other animals might rush at a line of travelers on appre- 
hension of being surrounded by them, but neither beast nor 
snake will, as a general rule, turn on man except when 
wounded or by mistake. Ifgorillas, unwoundcd, advance to 
do battle with him, and beat their breasts in defiance, they 
are an exception to all wild beasts kuown to us. From the 

CifiP. VII!. 



way an elephant runs at the first glatico of man, it ts inferred 
that ^13 huge brute, though really king of beasts, would run 
even from a child. 

Our two donkeys caused as much admiration as the three 
white men. Greet was the astonishment when one of the 
donkeys began to bray. The timid jumped more than if a 
lion had roared beside them. All were startled, and stared 
ia mule amazement at the harsh-voiocd one, '^11 the last 
broken note was uttered; then, on being assured that noth- 
ing in particular was meant, they looked at each other, and 
burst into a loud laugh at tlieir common surprise. "When 
one donkey stimulated the other to try bis vocal powers, the 
interest felt by the startled visitors must have equaled that 
of the Londoners when they first crowded ta see the famous 





a of Coal nndcr Tettc gny SwutMono. — ITk of Cotl nnkaoini to ibo 
Nmirca. — MMa kills a Hippapouunns.— TVaps and ritfells. — Saguitx of 
ElfjihAnts at I'itfitlk — Vilhim Anu anil ihelrGolleriM.^RUck SaUiec-na 
lord h over the Wtiitc Anis. — Language of Ants — Biting AnU. — Rogne 
Honkey mfiectcd.— Kfttiic Ralt-malciiiK-^TliG Miiunuin*. — CliikwanitwU. 
.— AMiciiom of Bf-jwi*.— The bumsn Buffnlo — Mpcndo. — Chilondo-^Mo- 
nmkcng monlorcd. — Animals wlucli hare not bcon faiintcd v'lth Fire-ftnni. — 
Pitngola. — A rlQc-loring Chief, — L'ndi and Fate of African Empires — Are 
AfricariB iodtutnous? — Arrive at 7.atabu, on the I,oangii«,OD the 2Glli of 
June.— Reaolls of nu Goreramcnl.— Muidcr of MpKngwc.— Sc(]ua»lia. 

We were now, when we crossed the boundary rivtUet Ny- 
amatarara, out of Chicova and among sandstone rocks,similar 
to those which prerail between Lupata and Kcbrabasa. In 
the latter goi^, as already mentioned, igneous and sjeoitic 
masses hare been acted on by some great fiery convulsion 
of nature; the strata are thrown into a huddled heap of con* 
fusion. The coal has of course disappeared in Kcbrabasa, 
but is found again in Chicova- Tette gray sandstone is com- 
mon about Sinj^re, and, wherever it la seen with foaail wood 
upon it, coal lies, and here, as at Chicova, some 
seams crop out on the banks of the Zambesi. Looking 
southward, the country is open plain and woodland, with de- 
tached hills and mountains in the distance: but the latter are 
too far off, tbe natives say, for them to know their names. 
The principal hills on our right, as wc look up stream, are 
from six to twelve miles away, and occasionally they send 
down spurs to the river, with brooks flowing through their 
narrow valleys. The banks of tbe Zamheai show two well- 
defined terraces, the first, or lowest, bdng usually narrow, 

Chaf. IX. 



and of great fertility, whilo the upper one is a dry grassy 
plain, a thorny juagle, or a mopane {Baukinia) forest. One 
of th€so plains, near ibc Kafue, is covered with the lai^ 
Btumps and trunks of a petrified forest We baited a couple 
of days by the fine stream Sinji-'re, which comes from the 
Obiroby'rohy bills, about eight miles to the north. Many 
lamps of coal, brought down by the rapid current, lie in its 
channel. The natives never seem to have discovered that 
coal would hum, and, when informed of the fact, shook their 
heads, smiled incredalously, and said "ftxTt" (really), evident- 
ly regarding it ns a mere traveler's tale. They were as- 
tounded 10 sec it burning freely on our fire of wood. They 
told ns that plenty of it was seen among the hills; but, be- 
ing long ago aware that we were now in an immense coal- 
field, wc did not care to examine it farther. Coal had been 
discovered to the south of this in 1856, and several scams 
were examined on the stream Rcvubue, a few miles distant 
from Tetta This was evidently an extension of the same 
field, but the mineral was more bituminous. In an open fire 
it bubbled up, and gave out gaa like good domestic coal. 

A dike of black ba.sahic rock, called Kakolole, crosses the 
river near the mouth of the Sinji5re; but it has two open 
gateways in it of from sixty to eighty yards in breadth, and 
the channel is very deep. 

On a shallow sand-bank, under the dike, lav a herd of hip- 
popotami in fancied security. The young ones were playing 
with each other like young puppies, climbing on the backs 
of their dams, trying to take hold of one another by the jaws, 
and tumbling over into the water. Mbia, one of the Mako- 
lolo, waded across to within a dozen yards of the drowsy 
teasts, and shot the father of the herd; who, being very fat, 
soon floated, and was secured at the village below. The 

A nEAi> MAiTs viarr. 

Cau*. ! 

bead maa of llie village visited us while wc were at breakfast 
He wore a black ife wig and a printed sbirt. After a short 


(■roii[i ijl lll|ip'Jt'''I-<'l"i' 

silence he said to Masakasa^ " You are with the white people, 
so why do you not tell them to give me a cloth?" "We 
are strangers," answered Masakasa; "why do you not bring 
H8 some food?" lie took the plain hint, and brought us two 
fowls, in order that we should not report that in passing him 
we got nothing to eat; and as usual, we gave a cloth in re- 
turn. In reference to the hippopotamus he would make no 
demand, but said he would take what we chose lo give him. 
The men gorged themselves with meat for two days, and cat 
large quantities into long narrow strips, which they half 
dried and half roasted on wooden frames over the fire. 
Much game is taken in the neighborhood in pitfalls. Sharp- 
pointed stakes are set in the bottom, on which the game 
rambles and gets impaled. Tho natives are careful to warn 

CnAP. IX. 



strangeTs of these traps, and also of the poisoned beams sus- 
pended on tbo tall trees for Uio purpose of killing elephants 
and faippopotAmi. It ia not difficult to detect the pitfalU 
ftfter oiie*s attention Han been called to them ; but in places 
where they arc careful to carry the earth off to a distance, 
and a person is not thinking of such things, a sudden de- 
scent of nine feet is an experience not easily forgotten by 
the traveler. The sensations of one thus instantaneously 
swallowed up by the earth are peculiar. A momentary sus- 
pension of coDsciousBess is followed by the rustling sound 
of a shower of sand and dry grass, and the half-bewildered 
thought of where he is, and how be came into darkness. 
Beason awakes to assure him that he must have come down 
through that small opening of daylight overhcnd, and that 
he ia now where a hippopotamus ought to have been. The 
descent of a hippopotamus pitfall is easy, like that of Avcr- 
nna, but to get out again into the upper air is a work of la- 
bor. The sides are smooth and treacherous, and the cross 
reeds which support the covering break in the attempt to get 
out by clutching them. A cry from the depths is unheard 
by those around, and it is only by repeated and most desper- 
ate efibrta that the burled alive can regain the upper world. 
At Telle we were told of a white hunter, of unusnnlly small 
stature, who plumped into a pit wUUe stalking 1 Guinea-fowl 
00 a tree. It was the labor of an entire forenoon to get out; 
and he was congratulating himself on his escape, and brush- 
ing off the clay firom bis clothes, when down he went into a 
second pit, which happened, as is often the case, to be close 
besttde the first, aad it was evening before he could work 
himself out of (fial. 

Elephants and buffaloes seldom return to the river by the 
Mme path on two successive nights, they become so appre- 


Ueusive of danger from this huiuaa art. An old elephant 
will walk in advance of the herd, and uncover the pita witb 
his trunk, that tlie others may see the openings and tread on 
firm ground. Female elephants are generally the victims: 
mare timid b; nature than the males, and very motherly in 
their anxiety for their calves, they carry their trunks up, 
trying every breeze for funcied danger, which often, in reali- 
ty, lies at their fyet. The tusker, fearing less, keeps hie 
trunk do^n, and, warned in time by that exquisitely aeosi 
live organ, takes heed to his waya. 

Our camp on the Sinj<Jre stood under a wide-spread 
wild fig-tree. From the numbers of tins family, of large si 
dotted over the country, the fig or banyan species would 
seem to have been held sacred in Africa from the remotest 
times. The soil teemed with white ants, whoa© clay tunnelR, 

TniuMbof AoU. 

formed to screen them from the eyes of birds, thread ov6r 
the ground, up the trunks of trees and along the branches, 




from which the liltle arcbitegts clear away all rotten or dead 
wood. Very oflett the exact shape of branches is left in 
tuDueU on the ground, and not a bit of the wood inside. 
The first night wo passed here these destructive in^euts ate 
through our grass-bods, and attacked our blankets, and cer- 
tain laj^ red-headed onea even bit our flesh. 

On some days not a single white aut is to be seen abroad ; 

and on others, and duiing certain hours, they appear out of 

LdooTB ill myriads, and work with extraordinary zca! and en- 

■ ergy in carrying bits of dried grass down into their nests. 

During these busy reaping-Qts the lizards and birds have a 

good time of it, and enjoy a rich fcoBt at the expense of ibou- 

sands of hapless workmen ; and, when they swarm, they are 

' caught in countless numbers by the natives, and their roasted 

I bodies are spokun of in an unctuous manner as resembling 

'grains of soil rice tried in delicious fresh oil. 

A strong marauding p.irty of largo black ants attacked & 
□est of white ones near the camp: as the contest took place 
beneath the surface, we could not see the order of the battle; 
but it soon became apparent that the blocks bad gained the 
ay, and socked the white town, for they returned in tri- 
umph, bearing off the egg?, and choice bits of the bodies of 
ihe vanquished. A gift, analogous to that of language, has 
*30t been withheld from anta: if part of their building is de- 
stroyed, an official is seen coming out lo examine the darfl- 
^ge; and, after a careful survey of the ruins, be cbirrnps a 
fStw clear and distinct notes, and a crowd of workers begin at 
<^noe lo repair the breach. When the work ia completed, 
xk.T]other order is given, and the workmen retire, as will ap- 
f^ear on removing the soft freshly-built portion. We tried 
tio sleep one rainy night in n native but^ but could not,be- 
csauise of attacks by the flghting battalions of a very small 



Coat. IX. 

Species of fonnioa, not more than one sixteenth of on inch in 
length. It aeon became obvious that they were under regu- 
lar discipline, and even aliempting to carry oat the skillful 
plana and stratagemfi of some eniiaent leader. Our bonds 
and necks were the first- objecta of attack. Laige bodlee of 
these little pests were massed in silence round the pdnt to 
be assaulted. We could hear the sharp shrill word of com- 
mand two or three limca repeated, though, until then, we had 
not believed in the vocal power of an ant; the instant afler 
we felt the storming hosta range over head and neck, biting 
the tender skin, dining with a death-grip to the hair, and 
parting with their jaws rather than quit their hold. On our 
lying down again in the hope of their having been driven 
ofi^ no sooner was the light out and all still, than the ma- 
nceuvrc was repeated. Clear and audible orders were tssaed, 
and the aasanlt renewed. It was qb hard to sleep in that hot 
as in the trenches before Sebastopol. The white ant, being 
a vegetable feeder, devours articles of vegetable origin only, 
and leather, which by tanning is imbued with a v^etable 
flavor. "A man may be rich to-day and poor to-monow 
from the ravages of white ants," said a Portuguese merchant 
" If he gets sick, and unable to look after his goods, bis 
slaves neglect them, and they are soon destroyed by these 
insects." The reddish ant, in the West called drivers, cross- 
ed our path daily in solid columns an inch wide, and never 
did the pugnacity of either man or beast exceed iheira It 
is a su^cient catise of war if yon only approach them, even 
by accidenU Some turn out of the ranks and staud with 
open mandibles, or, charging with extended jaws, bite with 
savage ferocity. When hunting, we lighted among them 
too often ; while we were intent on the game, and without a 
thought of ants, they quietly covered us from head to foot; 

Caxr. IX. 



then all begaa to bite at tbe same instant; seizing a piece 
of tbe skin -with their powerful pincers, they twisted theni- 
aelvcs round with it, as if determined to tear it out. Their 
bites arc so terribly sharp that tbe bravest must ruD, and 
then stiip to pick off those that slitl cling with their hooked 
jaws, as with steel ibrceps. This kind abounds in damp 
places, and is usually met witli on the banks of streams. 
Wc have not heard of their actually killing any animal ex- 
cept the l*ython, and that only when gorged and quite le- 
thargic, but tbey soon clear away any dead animal matter; 
this appears to be their principal food, and their use tn the 
economy of nature is clearly in the scavenger line. 

We started from the Sinj«?re on the 12th of June, our men 
carrying with them bundles of hippopotamus meat for sale 
and for future use. "We rested for breakfast opposite the 
Kakolole dike, which confines the channel west of the Man- 
yer^re Mountain. A rogue monkey, tbe largest by far tbat 
we ever saw, and very fat and tame, walked oS* leisurely 
fiom a garden as we approached. The monkey is a sacred 
animal in this region, and is never molested or killed, be- 
caose the people believe devoutly that tbe souls of their an- 
oestora now occupy these degraded forms, and anticipate that 
th^ themselves must, sooner or later, be transformed in like 
manner; a future as cheerless for the black as the spirit* 
rapper's heaven is for the whites. The gardens are sepa- 
rated from each other by a single row of small stones, a few 
handfuls of grass, or a slight furrow made by the hoe. Some 
are inclosed by a reed fence of the flimsiest construction, yet 
sufficient to keep out the ever wary hippopotamus, who 
^reada a trap. His extreme caution is taken advantage of 
^y the women, who hang, as a miniature trap-beam, a kigelia 
:^*hiit with a bit of slick in the end. This protects the maize, 
3f which be is excessively fond. 



Cii*r. IX. 

The women arc accustomed to transact business for tbcra* 
selves. They accompany the- men into camp, sell their own 
wares, nod appear to be bolk fair traders, and modest, sensi- 
ble persons. Elsewhere ihey bring things for sale on their 
heads, and, kneeling at a respectful distance, wait tUl their 
husbands or fiilhers, who have gone forward, choose to re- 
turn, and to Like their goods, and barter for them. Perhaps, 
in this particular, the women here occupy the golden mean 
between the Manganja hiU -tribes and the Jflggae of the 
north, who live on the mountain summits near Kilimanjaro. 
It is said that at the latter place the women do all the trad- 
ing, have regular markets, and will, on no account, allow a 
man to enter the market-place. 

The quantity of hippopotamus meat eaten by otir men 
made some of them ill, and our marches were necessarily 
short. After three hours' travel on the 13lh, wo spent the 
remainder of the Any at the village of Cha.siribera, on a riv- 
ulet flowing through a beautiful valley to the north, which 
is bounded by magnificent mountain ranges. Pinkwe, or 
Mbingwc, otherwise Moeu, forms the southeastern angle of 
the range. On the 16th of June we were at the flourishing 
village of Seoga, under the head man Sfanyame, whicli lies 
ftt the foot of the Mount Motemwa. Nearly all the mount- 
ains in this country are covered with open forest and grass, 
in color, according to the season, green or yellow. Many 
am between 2000 and SOOO feet high, with the sky line 
fringed with trees; the rocks show just sufficiently for one 
to observe their stratification or Ihefr granitic form, and, 
though not covered with dense masses of climbing plants, 
like those in moistcr eastern climates, there is still the idea 
conveyed that most of tbo steep sides are fertile, and none 
give the impression of that barrenness which, Ln northern 




mountftins, suggests the idea that the bonea of the world are 
sticking through its skin. 

The villagers reported tlmt we were on the footsteps of a 
Portuguese hnlf-c&ste, who, at Senga, lately tried to purchase 
ivory, but, in consequence of his having murdered a chi^T 
near Zumbo and twenty of his men, the people declined to 
trade with him. He threatened to take the ivory by force 
if they would not sell it; but that same night the ivory and 
the women were spirited out of the village, and only a large 
body of armed men remained. The trader, fearing that he 
might come oflf second best if it came to blows, immediately 
departed. Chikwauitsela, or Sekuauangila, is the paramount 
chief of some lifty miles of the northern bank of the Zam- 
besi in this locality. He lives on the opposite, or southern 
side, and there his territory is still more exteusive. We 
sent him a present from Senga, and were informed by a 
messenger next morning that be had a cuugh and could not 
oome over to seo us. "And has his present a cough too," 
remarked one of our party, "that it does not coma to us? 
is this the way your chief treats strangers, receives their 
present, and sends them no food in return?" Our men 
thought CbikwaniLscla an uncommonly stingy fellow; but, 
as it was possible that somo of thoni might yet wish to re* 
torn this way, they did not like to scold him more than this, 
which was sufliciently to tho point 

Men and women were busily engaged in preparing tho 
ground for tho November planting. Large game was abund- 
ant; h^rds of elephants and buflhloes came down to the 
river in tho night, bat were a long way off by daylight 
Tboy soon adopt this habit in places where they are hunted. 

Tho plains we travel over are constantly varying in 
breadth, aocording as tho furrowed and wooded hills op- 




prcMLcb or recede from lh<s river. On tlie soutberD side we 
Bee the bill Buiigwc, aud tlie long, level, wooded hdgo Ny- 
aogombe, lbs firet of a series bendiug from ibe &.K. to the 
N. W. pa^L ibc Zauibcsi. We shot an old pallab on tbe 16tb, 
and found tbat tbe poor aaicaal bad been visited \rith more 
than tbe usual sbare of animal afflictions. He was stone- 
bliud iu both eyes, bad several tumors, and a broken leg, 
nbich showed no syinptonia of ever Laving begun to heal 
"Wild auimab sometimes suiTer a great deal fixim disease, and 
weariJy drag on a miserable existence before relieved of it 
bj some ravenous beasU Once we drove off a maneless lion 
and lioness from a dead buffalo, wblcb bad been in the last 
stage of a docliue. Tbey bad watched bim sta^^ring to 
tbe river to quench bis tbirst, and sprang on him as he VB8 
crawling up tbe bank. One had caught him by the throat, 
and the other by his high projecting backbone, which tras 
broken by the bon's powerful fangs. The struggle, if any, 
must have been short, Tbc^ bad only eaten tbe intestines 
when we frightened tbem off. It is curious tbat this is the 
part that wild animals always begin with, and tbat it is also 
the first choice of our men. Were it not a wise arrangement 
that only the strongest males should continue the breed, one 
^ could hardly help pityiog tbe solitary buftalo expelled from 
the herd for some physical blemish, or on aocount of the 
weakness of approaching old age. Banished from the soft- 
ening influences of female society, he natnially becomes mo- 
rose and savage ; the necessary -watchfulness agiunst enemies 
is now never shared by others; di^ustcd, he passeft into a 
fitato of chronio war with all who enjoy life, and the sooner 
aAer bis expulsion thai ho fills the lion's or the wild dog's 
maw, the better for himself and for the peace of the country. 
Though wo on not disp«K}d to be didaciic, tbe idea of a 




crusty old bachelor or of a cantankerous Imsband will rise 
up ia our minds; to this human buffalo, at whose approach 
wife and children, or poor relations, hold their breath with 
awe, wc can not extend one grain of pity, because it is not 
infirmity of temper this brute can plead, seeing that, when ia 
the herd with his equals, he ia invariably polite, and only ex- 
ercises bis tyranny when with those who can not tbrash him 
into decency. 

We encamped on the 20th of June at a spot where Br. 
Livingstone, on his journey from the "West to the East Coasts 
was formerly menaced by a chief named ilpende. No of- 
fense had been committed against him, but he hod Bre-anns, 
and, with the express object of showing his power, he threat- 
ened to attack the strangers. Mpende's counselors having, 
however, found out that Dr. Livingstone belonged to a tribe 
of whom they had heard tbat " they loved the black man 
and did not make slaves," his conduct at once changed from 
enmity to kindness, and, as the place was one well selected 
for defense, it was perhaps quite as well for Mpende that he 
decided as ho did. Three of his counselors now visited us, 
and we gave them a handsome present for their chief, who 
came himself next morning and made us a present of a goat, 
« basket of boiled maize, and another of vetches. A few 
miles above thi-s, the head man, Chilondo of Xyamaausa, apol- 
^^gizcd for not formerly lending us canoes. " lie was absent, 
«7id his children were to blamo for not telling him when the 
v^octor passed ; ho did not refuse tbe canoes." The sight of 
Knur nietf, now armed with muskets, bad a great effect. 
"Without any bullying, fire-arms command respect, and lead 
»ien to be reasonable who might otherwise feci disposed to 
^>e troublesome. Nothing, however, our fracas with Mpende 
excepted, could be more peaceful than our passage through 


CnAr. IX. 

this tract of country in 1856. Wo thea had nolhing to ex- 
cito the cupidity of iho people, and the men maintaiDcd 
Uiemselvcs, either by selling elephant's meat, or by cxbibit- 
ing feats of foreign dancing. Most of the people were vciy 
generous and firiendly ; but the Banyai, nearer to Tetle than 
tiuB, Stopped our march with a threatening war-danc& One 
of our party, terrified at this, ran nwoy, as we thought, in- 
sane, and could not, after a painful search for three days, be 
found. The llanyai, evidently toudied by our distress, al- 
lowed us to proceed. Through a man we left on an island 
a little below Mpendc's, we subsequently learned that poor 
Konaheng bad Hed thither, and had been murdered by the 
head man for no reason except that he was defeDselossL 
This head man had since become odious to hia countrymen, 
and had been put to death by them. 

Our patli leads frequently through vast expuaea of ap- 
parently solitary scenery; a stnuige stillness pcTradca the 
air; no sound is heard from bird, or beast, or living thing; 
no village is ueor; the air is still, and earth and sky have 
sunk into a deep, sultry repose, and like a lonely ship on the 
desert sea is tbo long winding line of weary travelers on the 
hot, glaring plain. Wo discover that wo are not alone in the 
wilderness; other living forms arc round about us, with cu- 
rious eyes on all our movements. As we enter a piece d 
woodland, an unexpected herd of pallahs, or watcrbucks, sud- 
denly nppeare, standing as quiet and still as if constituting a 
part of the landscape ; or we pass a clump of thick thorny 
and see through the bushes the dim, phantom-like forms of 
buflalocs, their heads lowered, gazing at us with fierce, un* 
lamnblo eye& Again a sliarp turn brings us upon a native^ 
who has scon us from afar, and comes with nois^cBa fbot- 
steps to got a nearer view. 




On the 23d of June we entered Pangola's principal village, 
which is upwarii of a milo from the river. The ruins of a 
mud wall showed that a rude attempi had been made lo imi- 
tate the Portuguese stylo of building. We established our- 
selves ttnder a stately wild fig-tree, round whose trunk witch- 
craft medicine had been tied, to protect from thieves the 
honcj of the wild bees, which had tbcir hive in one of the 
UDib& This is a common device. The charm, or the medi- 
cine, ifl purchased of the dice doctors, and consists of a strip 
of palm-leaf smeared with something, and adorned with a few 
bits of grass, wood, or roots. It is tied round the tree, and is 
believed to have the power of indicting disease and death on 
tho thief who climbs over it. Superstition ia thus not with- 
out iU uses in certain states of society ; it prevents many 
crimes and misdemeanors which would occur but for the sal- 
utary fear that it produces. 

Pangola arrived, tipsy and talkative. "We are friends — 
we are great friends ; I have brought you a basket of green 
maize — here it is!" We thanked him, and handed him two 
iathoms of cotton cloth, four times the market value of bis 
preaeDt No, be would not take so small a present ; be 
wanted a double-barreled xifie — one of Dixon's best. "We 
are friends, you know; we are all friends together." But, 
although we were willing to admit that, we could not give 
hita our best rifli;, so he went oil' in high dudgeon. Early 
aiext morning, as we were commencing Diviuo service, Pan- 
gola returned, sober. We explained to bim that we wished 
to, worship God, and invited bim lo remain; be seemed 
brightened, and retired ; but, aflor service, he again inipor* 
t:uned us for the rifle. It waa of no use telling bim that we 
liad a long journey before us, and needed it to kill game for 
Oniaelves. "He too must obtiun meat for himself and pco- 




pLo, fur tbey somelioies Kuirured from hunger." £Io then got 
sulky, und bis people refused to sell food except ut cjctrara- 
gaut priced. Knowing tbat wo had noLbiug to eat, they felt 
euro of st&rviiig us ititu cuiiipliance. But two of our youag 
men, having gone oA' at sunrise, shot a fine waterbuck, and 
down came the provision maiket to the lowest figure; they 
eyen bucnmo eager to ficH; but our meu were augry with 
them for trying compuUioii, and would not buy. Block 
greed bod outwitted itself, as happens often wiiU white cu- 
pidity; and Dot only here did the traits of AiHc^Lits remind 
us of Aiiglo-Sftxous elsewhere ; the notoriously ready world- 
wide disposition to take an unfair advantage of a man's ne- 
oeasitics shows that the same mc^fti motives are pretty widely 
diffused omoug all races. It may not be grantfid that the 
same blood flows in all veins, or that all have deaoGoded 
lh>m the same stock ; but the traveler has no doubt that, 
practically, the white rc^ue and black are meu and brothers. 
Pangola is the child or vassal of Mpcnde. Sandia and 
Mpende are the only mdependent chiefs from Eebrabasa to 
Zumbo, and bdoug to the tribe Manganja. The country 
north of tho mountains here in sight Cram the Zambesi is 
caUod Senga, and its inhabitants Asenga or Uasenga, bat aU 
Ifipear to be of tho same fiimily as the rest of the Aiangaoja 
and Maravi. Formerly all the Manganja were united noder 
ibe government of their great chteC Undi, whose empire ex- 
tended fh>m IaIm Shirwm to tbe Birer Loasgwa ; bat, after 
Undi's death, it fell to pieoea, and a laige poitkn of it oa 
the Zambesi was absorbed by tbw poweiful soatbeni ne^^^ 
boTB tbe Banrat. This has been tbe ineriiable &te ofi 
Afiioan empire from time itmneoxmaL A chief of moni 
than oidiMry abiltlj ariaei; and, sabduiog all bis len powers 
(hi neiskbora, founds a kingdom, whicb be goTcnn man or 

CiiJkP. IX. 



less wisely till ho dies. His successor, not having the talents 
of the conqueror, can not retain the dominiou, and some of 
the abler undcr-cbiels set up for themselves, and, in a fcv 
years, Che Temombrancc only of the empire remaiua This, 
which may be considered as the normal siale of African so- 
ciety, gives rise to frequentand desolating wars, and ihe peo- 
ple long in vain for a power able to make all dwell in peace. 
In this light, a European colony would bo considered by the 
natives as au inestimable boon to intertropical Africa. Thou- 
sands of indu3trioua nattvoa would gladly settle round it» 
and engage in that peaceful pursuit of agriculture and trade 
of which tlicy are bo fond, and, undistractcd by wars or ru- 
mors of wars, might listen to the purifying and ennobling 
troths of the Gospel of rTesu3 Christ. The Manganja on the 
Zambesi, like their countrymen on the Shire, arc fond of 
agriculture; and, in addition to the usual varieties of food, 
cultivate tobacco and cotton in quantities more than equal to 
their wants. To the question, "Would they work for Euro- 
peans?" an affirmative answer mny be given if the Euro- 
peans belong to tho class which can pay a reasonable price 
for labor, and not to that of adventurers who want employ- 
ment for themselves. All were particularly well clothed 
from Sandia'fl to Pangola's; and it was noticed that all the 
cloili was of native manufacture, the product of their own 
looms. In Senga a great deal of iron is obtained from the 
ore and manufactured very cleverly. 

As is customary when a party of armed strangers visits 
the vdlage, Pangola took tbe precaution of sleeping in one 
of tiie outlying hamlets. No one ever knows, or, at any rate, 
wU! tell where the chief sleeps. lie came not next morning, 
60 we went on our way; but in a few moments wc saw the 
rifle-loving chief approaching with some armed men. Bo- 




fore meeting us, he \ch tho path and drew np his "following" 
nnder a tree, expecting us to halt, and give him a chan( 
of bothering us again; but, having already had enoagh of 
that, we held right on : ho Bccmod dumbfonndcred, and could, 
hardly believe his own eyes. For a few seconds he wa» 
speechless, but at lost recovered so far as to be able to saj, 
"You are passing Pangola. Do not you see Pangola?" 
Mbia was just going by at the time with the donkey, and, 
proud of every opportunity of airing his smalt stock of En- 
glish, shouted in reply, "All right! then get on." "Click, 
click, click." This fellow, Pangola, would have aunoyed and 
harassed a trader until Lis uareasouablc demands were com- 
plied, with. 

On the 20th of June we breakfasted at Zumbo, oa the left 
bank of the I>oaDg*ira, near the ruins of some ancient Portu- 
guese houses. The Loangwa was too deep to be forded, and 
there were no canoes on our side. Seeing two small ones on 
the opposite shore, near a few recently -erected huts of two 
half-castes from Tette, we b:dted for the ferrymen (o come, 
over. I'Vom their movements, it was evident that they wer» 
in a state of roUicking drunkenness, llaving a water-proof 
cloak, which could he inflated into a tiny boat, we sent Man^ 
laayane across -in it. Three half intoxicated slaves then 
brought U3 the shaky canoes, which we lashed together and 
manned with our own canoc-men. Five men were all that 
we could carry over at a time ; and, after four trips had been 
made, the slaves began to clamor for drink. Not receiving 
any, as we had none to give, they grew more insolent, and 
declared that not another man Ehoiild cross that day, Si- 
uinyane was remonstrating with them, when a loaded musket 
was presented at him by one of the trio. In an instant the 
gun was out of the rascal's hands, a rattling shower of blows j 



fell on bis back, and he took ud involuntary header into the 
river. He crawled up tbu bank a sad and sober man, and 
all three at once tumbled from tUe height of saucy swagger 
to a low depth of slavish abjeccnesa The musket was found 
to have an enormooa charge, and might have blown our man 
to pieoea but for the promptitude vritli which his companions 
administered justice in a lawless land. Wo were all ferried 
saftilj across by S o'clock in ihc evening. 

In illustration of what takes place where no government 
or law exists, the two half-caatcs, to whom these men be- 
longed, left Tctte, wiih four hundred slaves, armed with the 
old Sepoy Brown Bess, to hunt elephants and trade in ivory. 
On our way up, we heard from natives of their lawless deeds, 
and again, on our way down, from several, who Iiad been 
eyewitne^es of the principal crime, and all reports substan- 
tially agreed. Tliu story is a sad one. Afler the traders 
reached Zambo, one of them, colled by the natives Seqnasha, 
entered into a plot with the dianffected head man, Namaku- 
mru, to kill his chief, Mpangwe, in order that Naraakusuru 
might seize upon the chicfUinsliip; and for the murder of 
Mpangwc, the trader agreed to receive ten large tusks of 
ivory. Scquashn, with a picked party of armed slaves, went 
to visit 3ipangwe, who received him kindly, and treated bim 
with all the honor and hospitality usually shown to distin- 
guished strangers, and the women busied tbem&clves in cook- 
ing the best of their provisions for the repast to bo set be- 
fore him. Of this, and also of the beer, the half-caste par- 
took heartily. Mpangwe was then asked by Sequasha to al- 
low his men to fire their guns in amusement -Innocent of 
any suspicion of treachery, and Biixious to hear the report; 
of fire-arms, Mpangwo at once gave his consent: and the 
slaves rose and inured a murderous volivy into the merry 



CHAr. IX. 

group of unsuspecting spectatorg, instantly killing thd chief 
find twenty of bis people. The survivors fled in horror. 
The children and young women wers seized as slaves, and 
the village sacked. Sequasha sent the message to ^ama- 
kusuru: "I have killed the Iton that troubled you: come 
and Let us talk over the matter." lie came, and brought the 
ivory. "No," said the half-caste, " let us divide the landj" 
and he took the larger share for himself, and compelled the 
TTOuld-bc usurper to deliver up his bracelets in token of sub- 
jectioD on becoming the child or vassal of Sequasha. Tbeae 
were sent in triumph to the authorities at Tette. The Gov- 
ernor of Quillimane had told us that he had received orders 
from Lisbon to take advantage of our passing to re-eslablish 
Zumbo ; and, accordingly, these traders had built a small 
stockade on the rich plniu of the right bank of Loangwa, a 
mile above the site of the ancient mission church of Zumbo, 
as part of the royal jxilicy. The bloodshed was quite un- 
necejisary, because, the land at Zumbo having of old been 
purchased, the natives would always, of their own accord, 
have acknowledged the right thus acquired ; they pointed 
out to Dr. Livingstone in 1850 that, though ihcy were culti- 
vating it, it was not theirs, but white man's land. Scquasba 
and his mate had left their ivory in charge of some of their 
slaves, who, in the absence of their masters, were now having 
ft gay time of it, and getting drunk every day with the prod* 
uee of the sacked villages. The head slave came and begged 
for the musket of the delinquent ferryman, which was re- 
turned, lie thought his master did perfectly right to kill 
Mpangwe, when asked to do it for the fee of ten tusks, and 
, be even justified it thus : " If a man invites you to cat, will 
■you not partake?" 


Our. X, 




Beuitirul SilBiitJoo of Zuaibo.— Church in BiiiiH.— Why bum ihe Catholic 
MiMioni hUeti to iwrpctuaic ilio Fiiih? — Jla-mburunift. — Aiiii-flavcnr 
PiincipW « K«omracinlaili>n. — Jujuhcs. — TwWc. — Dr. Kirk dunscrouslx 
ill in the Monniuiii Forest. — Oor Mea'ti ftau of llunilng.— HycnuA, — Hon- 
cv-gnitW. — InitiDCt of, liow lo be nocouotcd for, ScIf-JDCcrcet or Friendship? 
— A Serpepi. — Mp«ng*re'« Villnga ilcurncd. — Larfjc Gatnc ibnniUnt. — Dif- 
birenco of Fluvur in. — Siglils leea in Marching. — " Smokes" from Gni»«- 
buroin^ — Ki*cr Ctiongwo. — Bazizulu and ilwir supeilur Cotton. — Kscaiw 
from RUnoccnM. — ^Tha Wild Dog. — Families FUuiug. — TomUuijania. — 
Coafluenee of the Kafoa. 

We remained a day by the ruins of Zumba Tbo early 
tradeis, guided probably by Jesuit miBsioDarics, must bare 
been men of lasto aod sagacity. They selected for their vil- 
lage the most charmingly picturesque sito in the eou]ilry,and 
bad reason to hope that it would sood bo enriched by the 
kcratire trade of the rivers Zambesi and Loangwa pouring 
iato it from north and west, and by the gold and ivory of the 
Manica country on the south. The Portuguese of the present 
day have certainly reason to bo proud of the enterprise of 
Ibeir auoestora. If ever in the Elysian fields the convcrsa- 
tioD of these ancient and honorable men, who dared so much 
for Christianity, turns on their African deBccndants, it will be 
difficult for them to reciprocate the feeling. The chapel, 
near which lies a broken church bell, commands a glorious 
view of the two noble rivers — the green fields — the undula- 
ting forest — the pleasant hills, and the magniilcent mount- 
ains in the distance. It is an otter ruin now, and desolation 
broods around. , The wild bird, disturbed by the unwonted 
sound of approaching footsteps, rises with a harsh scream. 


Chav. X. 

Thorn-bushes, marked witli tho ravages of white ants, rank 
grass with prickly barbed seeds, and noxious weeds, overrun 
the whole place. The faul hyena has defiled the sanctuary, 
and the midnight owl has perched on its crumbling walls, to 
disgorge the undigested remnant of its prey. One can 
scarcely look without feelings of sadness on the utter deso- 
lation of a place where men have met to worship the Su- 
premo Being, or have united in uttering the magnificent 
words, "Thou art tho King of glory, O ChriBtl" and remem- 
ber that the natives of this part know nothing of His relig- 
ion, not even His name. A strange superstition makes them 
shun this sacred ])Ia.ce, as men do the pestilence, and they 
never come near it. Apart from the ruins, there is nothing 
to remind one that a Christian power ever bod traders here, 
for the natives of to-day are precisely what their fathers were 
when the Portuguese first rounded the Cape. Their Ian- 
gn:^, unless buried iu the Vatican, is still nnwritten. Not 
a single art, save that of distilling spirits by means of a gun- 
barrel, has ever been learned from the strangei^ ; and, if all 
the progeny of the whiles were at once to leave the country, 
their only memorial would bo the ruins of a few stone and 
mud-buitt walls, and that blighting relic of tho slave-trade, 
the belief that man may sell his brother man ; a belief which 
is not of native origin, for it is not found except in the track 
of the Portuguese. 

Since the early missionaries were not wanting in either 
wisdom or enterprise, it would bo intensely interesting to 
know the exact cause of their failing to perpetuate their 
fmth. Onr observation of the operations of the systems, 
whether of native or of European origin, which sanction 
slavery, tends to prove that <I\ey only perpetuate barbarism. 
Raids like that of Scquasha — also of Simoens, who carried 

tJUAT. X. 



his foray up the river as far as Kariba — and many others, 
have exactly the same effect as the jiormal native [roljcy al- 
ready meDtioned: one tract of country is devastated after 
another, and the slave-hunter attains great wcullli and influ- 
Quoc. Pcreiro^ the founder of Zumbo, gloried in being called 
"the Terror." If the scourge is not fleeced by some needy 
governor, his wealth is usually scattered to the winds by tbe 
children of mixed breed who succeed him. Can it be that 
the missionaries of old, like many good men formerly among 

itobly leads to warfare, and llius failed to obtain influence 
over the natives by not ititroduciiig another policy than that 
which had prevailed for ages before they came? ''^ 

We continued oar journey on the 28th of June. Game 
uras extremely abundant, and thcro were many lions. Mbia 
■drove one o&'from Us feast on a wild pig, and appropriated 
what remained of the pork to his own use. Lions are par- 
Ucularly fond of the flesh of wild pigs and zebras, and con- 
trive to kill a large number of these animals. In the oAer* 
Dooa we arrived at the village of the female chief Ma-mbu* 
ruma, but she herself was now living on the opposite side of 
the river. Some of her people called, and said tshe had been 
Irigbtencd by seeing her son and other children killed by 
Sequasha, and had fled to the otber bank; but when her 
heart was healed, she would return and live in her own vil- 
and among her own people. She constantly inquired 
)r the black traders who came up the river if they bad any 
news of the while man who passed with the oxen. "He 
has gone down into the sea," was their reply; "but we be- 
long to the same people," "Oh no, you need not tell me 
that; he takes no slaves, but wishes peace: you are not of- 
Ilia tribe." This anti-slavery character excites such unive^ 



Ciup X. 

sal aiEcntion, that nnj missionary who winked at tlic gigantic 
evils involved in the slavctrtide would certainly fail to pn^^ 
ducc any good impression on the native mind. ^H 

Wc left the river here, and proceeded up the valley which 
leads to the Mburuma or Mohango Pass. The nighta were 
cold, and on the 30th ofJuiic the thermometer was as low as 
89' at sunrise. Wc passed through a village of twenty large 
huts, which Scquosha had attacked on his rctam from the 
murder of the chief Mpnngwe. He caught the women and 
children for slaves, and carried off all the food except a huge 
bosketof bran, which the natives are wont to save against a 
tunc of famine. His slaves had broken all the water-pots 
and the millstones for grinding meal. 

The buaze-treea and bamboos are now seen on the hills; 
bat the jujube or zisyphus, which has cvideully been intro- 
duced from India, extends no farther up the river. Wo had 
been eating this fruit, which, having somewhat the taste of 
apples, the Portuguese call Ma£;ui"ia, all the way from Telle; 
and here they were larger than usual, though immediately 
beyond they ceased to be found. No mango-treo cither is 
to be met with beyond this point, because the Portuguese 
traders never established themselves any where beyond Zum- 
bo. Tsetse flies are more numerous and troublesome than 
we have ever before found them. They accompany us on 
the march, often buzzing round our heads like n swarm of 
bees. Thoy are very cunning, and when intending to bite, 
alight so gently that their presence is not perceived till they 
thrust in their lance-like proboscis. Ttis bite is acute, bat 
the pain is over in & moment ; it is followed by a little of the 
disagreeable itching of the musquito'a bite. This fly invari- 
ably kills all domestic animals except goals and donkeys; 
man and the wild uniinals escape. Wo ourselves were 

Cbat. X. 



verely bitten on this pass, and bo were our donkeys, but nei- 
ther suffered from any after eftecia. 

Water ia scarce in ilio Mbiiruma Pass except during the 
Ttdny reason. We however halted beside some fine springs 
ia the bed of tho now dry rivulet Podebode, which is con- 
tinned down to the end of the Pass, and yields waicr at in- 
tervals in pools. Here we remained a couple of days m con- 
sequence of the severe illness of Dr. Kirk. Ue had several 
limes been attacked by fever, and observed that when we 
were on tho cool heights be was comfortable, bnt when we 
happened to descend from a high to a lower altitude, he felt 
chilly, though the temperature in the latter case was 26" 
higher than it was above. IIo had been trying diiferent 
medicines of reputed efficacy with a view to ascertain wheth- 
er other oombinations might not be superior to the prepara- 
ijon wo generally used. In halting by this water, ho sud- 
denly became blind, and unablo to stand from faintness. The 
men, with great .alacrity, prepared a grassy bed, on which we 
laid our companion, with the sad forebodings which only 
those who have tended the sick in a wild country can realize. 
Wc feared that in experimenting he had overdrugged him- 
self; but wc gave him a dose of our fever pills; on the third 
day he rode the one of tho two donkeys that would allow it- 
self to be mounted, and on the sixth he marched as well as 
any of us. This case is mentioned in order to illustrate what 
"we have often observed, that moving the patient from pLicc 
to place is most conducive to the core; and the more pluck 
a man has — the less ho gives in to the disease — the less like- 
ly he is to die. 

Supplied with water by the pools in tho Podebode, we 
ngain joined the Zambesi at the confluence of tho rivulet. 
When passing through a dry district tho native hunter 





knows where to expect water hy the animals he sees. Hie 
presence of tbo geoubuck, duUcer or diver, springbucks, or 
elephants, is no proof that water is near; for tkeso animals 
roam over vast tracts of country, and may be met scores of 
miles from it. Not so, however, the zebm, pallab, buffalo, 
and rhinoceros; their spoor gives ossurauce that water is not 
far off, as they never stray ajiy distaQce from, its neighbor- 
hood; but when, amid the solemn stillness of the woods, the 
singing of joyous birds falls upon the ear, it is certiun that 
water is close at hand. AVhile waiting here, under a great 
tamarind-tree, we heard many new and pleasant songs Cram 
strange little birds, with the love-notes of pigeons, in the trees 
Dverbimging these livicig springs. 

Our men, in huuting, came on an immense herd of buffa- 
loes quietly resting in the long dry grass, and began to blaze 
away furiously at the astonished animals. In the wild ex- 
citement of the hunt, which heretofore had been conducted 
with spears, some forgot to load with ball, and, firing away 
vigorously with powder only, wondered for the moment that 
the buffaloes did not fall. The slayer of the younff elephant, 
having buried bis four bullets in as many buffaloes, fired 
three charges of number 1 shot he had for killing Guinea* 
fowl. The qnaiut remarks and merriment after these little 
fldvcniurca seemed to the listener like the pleasant prattle of 
children. Mbia and Mantlan3'ane, however, killed one buf- 
falo each : both the beasts were in prime condition ; the meat 
was like really esoellent beef, with a smack of venison. A 
troop of hungry, bowling hyenas also thought the savor 
tempting, as lliey hung round the camp at night, anxious to 
partake of the fenat. Tbey are, fortunately, arrant cowards, 
and never attack cither men or beasts except they can catch 
them asleep, side, or at some other disadvantage. With a 




bright fira at oar feet their preseDco excites no Qneasineas. 
A piece of meat hung on a tree high enough to make him 
jump to reach it, and a short spear, with its handle firmly 
planted in the ground beneath, are used as a device to induce 
the hjena to commit suicide by the iuipalemenL 

The honey-guide is on extraordinary bird ; how is it t^at 
every member of its family bos learned that all men, vbitc 
or black, are fond of honey? The instant the little feUow 
gets a glimpso of a man, ho hastens to greet him with the 
bear^ invitation to come, as Mbia translated it) to a bees' 
hive, and take some honey. IIo flics on in the proper direc- 
tion, perches on a tree, and looks back to see if you are fol- 
lowing; then on to another and another, until he guides yea 
to the spot. If you do not accept his first invitation he fol- 
lows you with pressing importunities, quite as anxious to 
lure the stranger to the bees' hive as other birds are to draw 
him away from their own nests. Kxcept while on the 
loarch, oar men were sure to accept the invitation, and mani- 
fested the some by a peculiar rcsponsivo whistle,, meaning, 
as they said, "All right; go ahead; wo arc coining." The 
bird never deceived them, but always guided them to a hive 
of bees, though some had but little honey in stora Has this 
peculiar habit of the honcy-guido its origin, as the attach- 
ment of dogs, in friendship for man, or in love for the sweet 
pickings of the plunder left on the ground? Self-interest 
aiding in preservation from danger seems to be the rule in 
most cases, as, for instance, in the bird that guards tho huf- 
ialo and rhinoceros. The grass is oflcn so toll and dense 
that one could go close up to these animab quite unper- 
ceivcd; but the guardian bird, silting on the beast, sees the 
approach of danger, flops its wings and screams, which causes 
its balky chai^ to rush ofl^'from a foe he has neither seen 



Chap. X. 

nor heard; for his rcTPard the vigilant little watcher has the 
pict of the parasites of bis fat friend. In other cases a 
chance of escape must be given even by the animal itself to 
its prey ; aa in the rattlesnake, which, when excited to strike, 
can not avoid using bis rattle any more than the cat can re- 
Bis? curling its tail when excited in the chase of a mouse, or 
the cobra can refrain from inflating the loose skin of the 
neck, and extending it laterally, before striking its poison 
fangs into its victim. There were many snakes in parts of 
this pass ; they basked in the warm sunshine, but rustled off 
through the leaves as we approached. We observed, one 
moming a small one of a deadly poisonous species, named 
Kakone, on a bush by the wayside, quietly resting in a hor- 
izontal position, digesting a lizard for breakfast. Though 
openly in view, its colors and curves so closely resembled a 
small branch that somo failed to see it, even after being 
asked if they perceived any thing on the bush. Here also 
one of our number had a glance at another species, rarely 
seen, and whose swift, lightniDg-like motion has given rise to 
the native proverb, that when a man sees this snake he will 
forthwith become a rich. man. 

We slept near the ruined village of the murdered chief 
Llpangwe, a lovely spot, with lUo Zambesi in front, and ex- 
tensive gardens behind, backed by a semicircle of hills, re- 
ceding up to lofty mountains. Our path kept these mount- 
ains on our right, and crossed several streamlets, which seem- 
ed to be perennial, and among others the Selole, which ap- 
parently flows past the prominent peak Chiarapela. Thc« 
rivulets have often human dwellings on ibeir banks, but the 
land can scarcely be said to be occupied. The number of all 
sorts of game increases wonderfully every day. As a speci- 
men of what may be met with where there are no human 

CUAt. X. 

AssOYED wriii TsrrsE. 


babitatioDs, and where no fire-arms have been introduced, 
we may mention what at times baa actuully been seen by us. 
On the mornmg of July 3d ft Leid of elei)haut8 passed with- 
in fifty jards of our filecping-ploce, going dowjj^jlho rivor 
along the dry bed of a rivulet Staitiog ^^^^Biutcs 1x!- 
fore the mnm body, we come upon IdMH^^^^B Guinea- 
fowl, shoot what may be wanted for olDaarj^^^Kt moru- 
ing's breakfast, and leave them in the path to be picked up 
by the cook and his mates ^hind. As we proceed, franco- 
lins of threti varieties run aot^ss the path, and hundreds of 
turtle-doves rise, with great blatter of wing, and fly off to the 
trees. Guinea-fowls, francoliiis, turtle-doves, ducks, and geeae 
are the game birds of this region. At sunrise n herd of pal- 
lahs, standing like a flock of sheep, allow the ijrbt man of 
our long Indian file to appro^fc within fifty yards; but, 
having meat, we let them trot o^h|B>^h- and unrnolcsttd. 
Soon aHeiward we come iipon ^^^Hnwaterbucks, which 
here are very much darker in c^^Muod drier in flesh than 
th« game species near the sea. They look at us and we at 
ihem, and we pass on to sec a herd of doe koodoos, with a 
mag^ficently homed buck or two, hurrying off to the dry 
hill-sides. We have ceased shooting antelopes, as our men 
have been so often gorged with meat that they have become 
ikfe and dainty. They say that they do not want more veni- 
son, it is so dry and tasteless, and ask why we do not give 
them shot to shoot the more savory Guinea-fowl. 

About eight o'clock the tsetse -v"*!\C^^ to buzz about 
V3, and bite our hands and nocks aiia/^^^Miiat as we are 
Xhinking of breakfast, we meet some baffaflCca grazing by the 
path ; but they make off in a heavy gallop at the sight of 
»3jau. We fire, and the foremost, badly wounded, separates 
Teom the herd, and is seen to stop among the trees ; but, as 



it ia a matter of great danger to follow a ■woTindcd buffalo, 
wc hold on our way. It is this losng of wounded animal* 
which makes fire-anns so annihilating to thcae bcaata of tbo 
field, and will in time sweep them all away. The small En- 
field ballet is worse than the old round one for this. It oft* 
en goes through aa animal without killing him, and he afler* 
ward perishes when he is of no value to man. After break- 
&st wo draw near a pond of water; a eouple of elephants 
stand on its bank, and at a respectful distance behind these 
monarchs of the wilderness ia seen a herd of zebras, and 
another of waterbucks. On getting our wind the royal 
beasts make oil at once, but the zebras remain till the fore- 
most man is within eighty yards of them, when old and 
young canter gracefully away. The zebra has a great deal 
of curiosity, and this is often fatal to him, for he has the hab- 
it of stopping to look at the hunter. In this particular he is 
the exact opposite of the diver antelope, which rualics off 
like the wind, and never for a moment stops to look behind 
after having once seen or smelt danger. The finest zebra of 
the herd is sometimes shot, our men having taken a sudden 
fancy to the flesh, which all declare to be the *' king of^good 
meat." On the plains of short grass between us and the riv- 
er many antelopes of different species arc calmly grazing or 
reposing. Wild pigs are common, and walk abroad during 
the day, but arc so shy na seldom to allow a close approach. 
On taking alarm they erect their slender tails in the air, and 
trot off swiflly in a straight line, keeping their bodies as 
steady as a locomotive on a railroad. A mile beyond the 
poo!, three cow buffaloes, with their calves, come from the 
woods, and move out into the pkin, A troop of monkeys, 
on the edge of the forest^ scamper back to its depths on hear- 
ing the load song of Singeleka, and old surly fellows, catch- 




iog sigbt of the human party, insult it with a loud and angry 
bark. Early in the afleruucu wc muy see buHkloes again, 
or other animals. We camp on the dry higher ground, aAer, 
as has happened, driving oft'a solitary olcpbaut. The nights 
are warmer now, and possess tic&rly as much of interest and 
novelty as the days. A now world avakoe and coraes forth, 
lore numerous, if wo may judge by the Doiso it makes, than 
it which is abroad by sunlight. Lions and hyenas roar 
around us, and sometimes come disagreeably near, though 
they have never ventured into our midst Strange birds 
^ng their agreeable sougs, while others scream and call 
bor&bly as if in fear or auger. Marvelous iusect-sounds fall 
upon the ear; one, said by natives to proceed from a large 
beetle, resembles a succession of measured musical blows 
upon an anvil, while many others are perfectly indescribable. 
A httle lemur was ouco seen to leap about from branch to 
branch with the agility of a frog; it chirruped like a bird, 
and is not larger than a robiu-red-breast. Heptiles, though 
numerous, seldom troubled us; only two men suffered from 
stings, and that very slightly, during the entire journey ; the 
one supposed that be was bitten by a snake, and the other 
was stung by a scorpion. 

Gross-burning lias begun, and is producing the bloc ha^ 
atnfosphere of the American Indian summer, which in West- 
Africa is called the "smokes." Miles of firo bum on the 
lOUDtain sides in the evenings, but go out during the night 
From their height they resemble a broad zigzag line of fire 
L in the heavens. 

^ft We slept on the night of the 6th of July on the left bank 

^of the Chocgwe, which comes thiough a gap in the hills on 

our right, and is twenty yards wida A small tribe of the 

III, from the south, under Dadangn, have recently set- 



Cbap. X. 

tied here and built a viUogti. Some of tlielr bouses are 
square, and they seem to be oa friendly terms with the Ba- 
koa, who owu the couulry. They, like the other natives, 
cultivate cotton^ but of a different species from any we have 
yet seen in Africa, the staple being very long, and the boll 
larger than what is usually met with; the seeds cohere as in 
the Fernambuco kind. They brought the seed with thorn 
from their own country, the distant muuntains of which in 
the uoutb, still inhabited by their fellow-countrymen, who 
possess much cattle, and use shields, can be seen irom this 
high ground. These people profess to bu children of the 
great paraiaount chief Kwanyakorombe, who is said to bo 
lord of all the Bozi^ulu. The name of this tribe is known 
to geographers, who derive their information from the Port- 
uguese, OS the Murusurus, and the hills mentioned above are 
said to have been the country of Chacgamira, the wafrior- 
uhiuf of history, whom no Portuguese ever dared to ap- 
proach. The Bazizulu seem, by report, to be bravo mount- 
aineers; nearer the river, the Sidima inhabit the plains; just 
OS on the north side the Babinipe live on the heights, about 
two Jays off, and the Makoa on or near the river. The chief 
of the Bazizulu we were now with was hospitable and friend- 
ly. A herd of buffaloes came trampling through the gar- 
deus and roused up our men, a feat that roaring lions seldom 

Our course next day passed over the upper terrace and 
through a dense thorny jungle. Traveling is always diffi* 
cult where there is no path, but it is even more perplexing 
where the forest is cat up by many game-tracks. Here we 
got separated from one another, and a rhinoceros with angry 
snort dashed at Dr. Livingstone as he stooped to pick up a 
specimen of the wild fruit morula; but she strangely stopped 

Qup. X. 


Stock-Still ivhcn leas than her own length distant, and gave 
him time to escape; n. hi-anch pulled cot his watch as he ran, 
and, tarning half round to grasp it, he got a distant glance of 
her and her calf sti!I standing on the selfsame spot, as if 
arrested in the middle of her charge by an unseen hand. 
When about fifty yards off, thinking hjs companions close 
behind, he shouted, " Look out there !" when off she mshed, 
snorting loudly, in another direction. The doctor usually 
went unarmed before this, but never al^crward. 

A peculiar yelping came from one part of the jungle, and 
Charles Livingstone found it to proceed from a troop of 
wild dogs wrangling over the remains of a bud'alo which 
they had killed and nearly devoured. The wild dog {Uyct- 
na vetiatica) has a large head, and jawa of great power; the 
ears arc long, the color black and yellow in patches, with a 
white taft at the top of the tail. They hunt their game in 
packs, and perseveringly follow the animal they first start till 
they bring him down. The Balala of the Kalahari desert 
are said to have formerly lamed them and to have employed 
them to hunt An intelligent native at Kolobcng remem- 
bered when a boy to have seen a pack of the dogs returaiog 
from a hunt in chaj^ of their masters, who drove them like 
a herd of goats, and for safety kept them in a pit. A fine 
eland was shot by Dr. Kirk this afternoon, the first we have 
killed. It wa.1 in first-r.itc condition, and remarkably fat; 
bat the meat, though so tempting in appearance, severely de- 
ranged all who partook of it heartily, especially those who 
ale of the fat. Natives who live in gamo countries, and arc 
acquainted with the different kinds of wild animals, have a 
prejudice against the fat of tho eland, the pallnh, the zebra, 
iiippopotamus, and pig: they never reject it, however, the 
oliinate making the desire fur all animal food very strong; 




bat they consider tluit it causes ulcers and leprosy, while the 
fat of" the sheep and of oxen never produoea any bad cflects, 
unless the animal is diseased. 

We frequently meet families flitting iVom one place to 
another, marchiug, like ourselves, in single (ila The fittber 
and huiiband at the head, Ciurying bis bow and arrow, bag, 
hatchet, and spear, and little else; next his son or sons, arm- 
ed also, bnt carrying loads; then follow wife and daugbtera, 
with bulky loads of household gear on their beads. They 
meet ns without fear, or any of the cringing ways-of slaves, 
so common down the river, where the icatitutJon has been 
established. When we kill any ammal these traveling par- 
ties are made welcome to a good portion of meat. At the 
foot or ou the branches of the great wild ijg-treo, at the pub- 
lic meeting-place of every village, a collection of the magnifi- 
cent horns of bufTalocs and antelopes shows the proud tro- 
phies of the buuter*^ success in. the chase. At these spots 
were soino of the most splendid buff:do beads we have ever 
seen: the horns, after making a complete circle^ hnd com- 
menced a second turn. This would be a rich country for a 
horn fancier. 

On the morning of the 9th, nfler passing four villages, we 
breakfitsted at an old friend's, Tombanyiuna, who lives now 
on the main land, having resigned the reedy island where 
be was tlrst seen to the buffaloes, which used to take bis 
crops and show fight lo his men. He keeps a large flock of 
tame pigeons, and some 6ne fat capons, one of which he gave 
us, with a basket of meal. They have plenty of salt in this 
part of the country, obtaining it from the plains in the usual 

The half-caste partner of Sequasha and a number ofhia 
mea were staying near. The fellow was very much fright- 

Cnxt. X. 



ened when he saw \is, and trembled 80 much when ho spoko 
that the Mokololo and other natives noticed and remarked 
on it. Bis fears arose from a sense of gaili, aa wo aaid 
nothing to frighten him, and did not allade to the murder 
till a few minutes before starting, when it was remarked that 
Dr. Livingstone having been accredited to the murdered 
chief, it would bo hia duly to report on it, and that not even 
the Portuguese government would approve of the deed. He 
defended it by saying that they bad put in the right man; 
the otht;^ was a usurper. He was evidently greatly relieved 
"when wc departed. In the afternoon we came to an outly- 
ing hamlet of Kambadzo, whose own village is on an island, 
Uyampungo or Nyangalule, at the confluence of the Kafue. 
The chief was on a visit here, and they had been enjoying a 
tegular jollification in honor of his highness. There had 
Ijecn much mirth, music, drinking, and dancing. The men, 
and women too, had taken "a wee dtap too much," but liad 
not passed the complimentary stage. Tho wifo of the head 
man, after looking at us a few moments, called out to the 
others, "Black traders havo come before, calling themselves 
Bazungu, or white men, but now, for the first time, have wo 
Been the real BazungLi." Kambadzo also soon appeared; 
he was sorry thab we bad not come before the beer was all 
done, but lie was going back to see if it was all really and 
entirely finished, and not one little potful left Bomcwhere. 

This was, of course, mere characteristic politeness, as he 
was perfectly aware that every drop had been swallowed; 
80 we proceeded on to the Kafue, or Kafuje, accompanied 
by the most intelligent of his head men. A high ridge, 
just before we reached tho confluence, commands a splendid 
Tiew of tho two great rivers and the rich country beyond. 
Behind, on tho north and east, is the high mountain range 


along whose base we have been traveling ; the whole range 
is covered with trees, which appear even on the prominent 
peaks, Chiarapela, Morindi, and Chiava ; at this last the 
chain bends away to the N.W., and we could see the distant 
mountains where the chief Semalembue gained all our hearts 
in 1856. 





t. — Nchomokela. — Mr.MofTiU'B Miwiun u> Mowlckstw lieHid of.— 
Vativc Gamc-Inw. — Myttiiiiiin*. — Anciuut Suilc of iKo Couniry. — Nciiher 
Art uor Poiwjf possess ilio Effect cf ancient Ktintclcis. — Jcftloiujof Stnngera 
not AMnn, hui Arali. — The Bawe nnd " BoiREiila pcti," or " Go-nakeds." 
— ^Hieir Uojpiinlit;-.— Lcure Zambcti, and aeccDd Zuagne to Bitloka High- 
lands. — Scbctuan*. — A Cairn. — Bntolca Men of I'encc. — ArlmTicultiirinta.— 
Ot»«J-yard«.— Mnavc— Ticia Meiltdnc— n««in> for I'cnco,— Corn exter- 
•inl>' ciilikatcd. — A Poet aiid MiitEirvl. — MubLcaI Inurumoiiu. — Our naked 
Friend. — Folilv TobuccD-Gmokcre. — Bnwe tictvr tUiicd by Europeans before. 
— SlaTc-irado follows our Footsteps. — Attempt by ilio GoTcrnor General of 
Houinbiiiao to abut up ItOTonia. — Saabenxo. — Klrphant LUIett. — Numbcn 
annually ilAin.— Meteor. — TliC Foil* visible iijiward of twenty Miles off.— 
FcTcr treated sad untreated. — Iklosbobocwanc. — AlecC Makololo near the 

Ok .the 9th of July we tried to send Semalembue a pres- 
ent, but the people here refused to incur the responabilily 
of carrying it We, who have the art of wriiing, can not 
realize the danger one incurs of being accused of purloinitig 
a portion of gooda sent from one person to another, when the 
carrier can not prove that he delivered all oomniitled to his* 
charge. Btimors of a foray baviug been made, either by 
Hakololo or Batoka, as far as the fork of the Kafue, were 
received here by our men with great indignation, aa it looked 
as if the marauders were shutting up the country, which they 
bad been trying so much to open. Below the junction of 
the rivers, on a shallow sand-bank, lay a large herd of hip- 
popotami, their bodies out of the water, like masses of black 
rock. Kambadzo's island, called Nyangalulo, a name which 
occurs again at the mouth of the Zambesi, has many choice 
Mot*ikiri {TrachtUa) trees on it, and four vciy conspicuous 




Stately palms growing out of a single stem. The Kafuc re- 
minds US ft little of the Shire, flowing between steep banks, 
with fertile land on both sides. It is a smaller river, and ha* i 
less current. Hero it seems to come from the west. Th« 
bead man of the village, near which we encamped, brought a 
present of meal, fowls, and sweet potatoes. They have 
the red and white varieties of this potato. We have, on sev* 
oral occasions during this journey, felt the want of vegeta- 
bles, in a disagreeable craving which our diet of meat and 
native meal could not satisfy. It became worse and worse 
till we got a, meal of potatoes, which allayed it at odo& A 
great scarcity of vegetables prevails in these parts of Africa. 
The natives collect several kinds of wild plants in the woods, 
which they use, no doubt, for the purpose of driving oif crav- 
ings similar to those we experienced. 

Owing to the strength of the wi;id and the cranky state of 
the canoes, it was late in the afternoon of the 11th bcf<ire our 
party was ferried over the Kafne. After crosang we were 
in the Bawe country. Fishhooks here, of native workman- 
ship, were observed to have barbs like the European hooks: 
elsewhere the point of the hook is merely bent in toward ibe 
shank, to have the same effect in keeping on the fish as the 
barb. Wo slept near a %-illage a short distance above the 
ford. The people here are of Batoka origin, the same as 
many of our men, and call themselves Batonga (independ- 
ents) or Balengi, and their language only differs slightly from 
that of the Bakoa, who live between the two rivers Kafae 
and Ijoangwa. The pararaonnt chief of tne district lives to 
the west of this place, and is called Ncliomokela — an heredit- 
ary title : the family bury ing-phice is on a small hill near ihiil 
village. The women salute us by clapping their hands and 
lullilooing as we enter and leave a village, and the men, a* 




tbey thiDk, respectfully clap their liands on their hips. Im- 
menao crops of inapira {holois sorgJium) are raised ; one spe- 
cies of it forms a nntuml bend on iho seed-stdk, so that the 
massive ear hangs down. Tho grain was heaped up on 
wooden stages, and so was a variety of other protyicts. The 
men are skillful hunters, and kill elephants and buffaloea with 
long heavy spears. Wo hailed a few minutes on tho morn- 
ing of the 12tk of July oppoate the narrow island of Sikakon, 
which has a village on its lower end. We were hern told 
that Moselckatac's chief town is a month's distance fram this 
place. They had heard, moreover, that tho English had come 
to Moselckatsc, and told him it was wrong to kill men; and 
he had replied that he was bom to kill people, but would 
drop the habit; and, since the English came, he had sent out 
bis men, not to kill as of yore, but to collect tribute of cloth 
and ivory. This report referred to the arrival of the Rcv.E. 
Moffat, of Kuruman, who, wo afterward found, had establish- 
ed a mission. The statement is interesting as showing that, 
though imperfectly expressed, tho purport of the missiona- 
ries' teaching had traveled, in a short time, over 300 miles, 
and we know not how far the knowledge of the English 
operations on the Coast spread inland. 

When abreast of the high wooded island Kalabi we came 
iu contact with one of tho game-laws of the counlry, which 
has come down from the most ancient timea An old buffalo 
crossed the path a few yards in front of us ; our guide threw 
his small spear at his hip, and it was going off scarcely hurt, 
when three rifle balls knocked it over. *'It is mine," said 
the guide. He had wounded it first, and the cstablLshcd na- 
tive game-law is that the animal belongs to the man who 
firat draws blood ; the two legs on one side, by the same law, 
IjeloDged to us for killing it. This beast was very old, blind 



CiLi?. Xl. 

of one eye, and scabbj ; tbe horns, mere stumps, not a foot 
long, must have atropLleU when by age be lost tbe strength 
distinctive of bis sex ; some eighteen or twenty inches of 
horn could not well be worn down by mere rubbing against 
the trees. We sav many buffaloes next day standing qnict- 
ly amid a thick thom-jungle through which we were passing. 
They often stood un^l wo were within £fty or n hundred 
yards of them. 

We bad always mountains before us in the distance, and 
sometimes j)assed through hills thai oome close to or int^- 
scct the river. This is the case with those called Moia 
They aro generally of igneous or mctaraorphic rocks, clay- 
slate, or trap, with porcellanitc and zeolite ; the principal 
rock in the central port of tbe country, where no syenite or 
gneiss bad been upheaved, seems to be a gray coarae sand- 
stone, known to us by the name of Tette sandstone. Large 
maases of it still lie horizontally or only slightly inclined. 
When much disturbed, it bas been tilted up by the eruption 
of igneous rocks, and near the point of contact it has cither 
been hardened or melted, and the coal which elsewhere still 
lies under tbe undisturbed stmtum is crystallized or entirely 
burned. The igneous rocks ofWn form dikes, as that called 
Nakabele, which stretches like a dam across the western en* 
trance to the Kariba gorge. lu tbe vicinity of the erupted 
rocks wo usually meet soft calcareous tufa, as if, after the ig- 
neous action, many hot fountains Bowing had depodted lime 
from their water, 

Previous, however, to this period, of eruption and upheav* 
el, it is probable that the sandstone formed the bed of prKkdig- 
ious inland scn.s, along tbe low shores of which the plants of 
the coal BourishcO, succeeded, as tbe land was gradually ele- 
vated, by the trees wo now Hnd ailicifiod on the surface; 




ibesB may perhaps have been submergtHl, as the land again 
sauk under souio igneuus agency, and became siubjected to 
the action of water at a hj^^h temperature, holding silica in 
solution. However that may have been, it is certain that u 
coal-fleld of unknown extent e.\ist£, for coal is found crop- 
ping oat near to the lava or basalt, which is the principal 
rock of tbo Yictoha Falls district^ and, with tho " laults" al- 
luded to, it extends to tho cast of Tcttc. Then, again, we 
oaw it in the liovuma, with the same characteristic of fossil 
wood lying on the gray sandstone. With abundance of fine 
iron ore, the existence of this prodigious coal-field leads to 
the belief that an import^int future is in store for Afnca. 

On the 1-ith of July we left the river ot tbo mountain 
range, whieh, lying northeast and southwest across the river, 
forms the Kariba gorge. Near the upper end of the Karibii 
Kaptds, the stream Saiiyati enters from the south, and ia re- 
ported to have Moselt-kalae's principal cattle-posts at its 
sources; our routti went round tho north end of the mount- 
ains, and we encamped beside the village of the generouii 
chief Moloi, who brought us three immense baskets of fint- 
mapira meal, ten fowls, and two pota of beer. On reoeiving 
a present in return, he rose, and, with a^few dancing gestures. 
said or sang " Motota, Motota, Motota," which our men trans- 
lated into " thanks." Uc visited Mosclckatse a few 
months before our arrival, and saw tho English missionaries 
living in their wagons. "They told Mosulekntiie," said he. 
'' they were of his family, or friends, and would plow the 
land and live at their own expense;" and he had repHcdj 
'■The land is before you, and I shall come and see yon plow." 
This again was subatantinlly what took place when Mr. Mof- 
&Lt introduced tho missionaries to his old friend, and shows 
still farther that tho notion of losing their country by admit- 



Chai-. XL 

ting foreigners does not come as llie tlrst idea to the native 
mind. One might imagioe that, as mechanical powers are 
unknown to the heathen, the a]ino9t magic operations of raa- 
obinery, the discoveries of modern science and art, or the 
preiWDCe of the prodigious furce which, for instjince, is aaso-^ 
ciated with the sight of a man-of-war, would have the effect 
which miracles once had of arresting the attention and in- 
spiring awe. But, though we have heard the natives ex- 
clmm in admiration at the sight of even small illustrations 
of what science enables us to do, "Ye are gods, and not 
men," the heart is unaifectcd. In attempting their moral 
elevation, it is always more conducive to the end desired that 
the teacher should come unaccompanied by any power to 
cauee either jealousy or fear. The heathen, who have not 
become aware of the greed and hate which too often charac- 
terize the advancing tide of emigration, listen with most at- 
teutiou to the message of Divine love when delivered by 
men who evidently possess the same human sympathies with 
themselves. A chief is rather envied his good fortune in 
first securing foreigners in his town. Jealousy of strangen 
belongs more to the Arab than to the African character; and 
if the women are let alone by the travck-r, no danger need 
bo apprehended from any save the rfave-trading tribes, and 
not often oven from them. 

We saw large flocks of the beautiful Numidian cranes; 
Guinea-fowls were still numerous, bat rather shyer, as the 
natives here shoot many wiih arrows, and kill them by skill* 
fully throwing their clubs. The Mambo, the name here for 
chief, of the island Mochue scut his brother and principal 
men after ua to present a gift, and to "hear the words which 
were to cause the land to rest." Wc apologized for passing 
without calling by stating that strangers could not know wh< 



was vba He proposed Bending a deputation with us to Se- 
kdleta, in order to renew the friendly iutei-course of former 
years, which of Jate bad been broken by maraudiog and war; 
but the doctor said he did not know whether Sckclelu was 
governing wisely, or whether he was hearkening lo the 
counsels of the old warriors, who wished bitn to follow in 
the fbotfiteps of his warlike father, Sebetuone. As we were 
spending the evening opposite Mochuc, some men came with 
Sk marimba and accompaniments of buCfalo-boms beaten with 
sticks; but oar men, knowing that we soon tired of their mo- 
notonous tunes and ungainly dancing, ordered them away. 
On the islands and on the left bank of the Zambesi, all the 
^ray from the River Kafue, there is a largo population ; the 
right bank is equally fertile, but depopulated, because Mose- 
lekatse does not allow any one to live there who might raise 
an alarm when he sends out marauders beyond. From Mo- 
loi's village onwanl, the people, though Baloko, arc called 
Bawe and Ba Sclea. Much salt is made on the Hivolet £x> 
&tto, and sold in largo quantities, aud very cheap. 

We passed through a fertile country, covered with open 
forest^ accompanied by the friendly Bawo. Tbey are very 
hospitable; many of them were named, among themselvea, 
"the Baenda pezi," or "Go-nakeds," their only clothing be- 
ing ft coat of red ochre. Occasionally stopping at their vil- 
lageoiwe were dniy luliiloocd, and regaled with sweet new- 
mado beer, which, being yet unfermented, was not intoxica- 
ting. It is in this state called Liting or Makonde. Some of 
the men carry large shields of bufialo-hide, and all arc well 
BOppHed with hca\7 spears. The vicinity of the villages is 
usually cleared and cultivated to large patches; but nowhere 
can the country be said to be stocked with people. At every 
village stands were erected, and piles of the native com, still 




untbraslicd, placed upon ihcra; some had been beaten out, 
put into oblong parcels made of gross, and stacked in wooden 

We crossed several rivulets in our courae;, as the Maudora, 
the Lofia, the Matizaia (with brackish water), the Rimbe, the 
Chibue, the Cbezia, the Cliilola (conLaining fragments of coolV, 
which did little mora than mark our progress. The island 
and rapid of Nakansalo, of which vro bad formerly heard, were 
of no importance, the rapid being but half a mile long, and 
only on one side of the island. The island Kaluzi marks one 
of the numerous places where astronomical observations were 
made; Mozia, a station where a volunteer poet leA us; the 
island Moobenya, aud Mpaudo Inland, at the mouth of (be 
Zungwe rivulet, where we left the Zambesi. 

When favored with the hospitality aud company of the 
"Gonakeds," we tried to discover if nudity were the badge 
of a particular order among the Bawc, but they could only 
refer to custom. Some among ihem bad always liked it for 
uo reason in particular: shame seemed to lie dormant, and 
the sense could not be aroused by our laughing and joking 
them on their appearance They evidently felt no less de- 
cent than we did with our clothes on ; but^ whatever may be 
said in fiiror of nude statues, it struck us that man, in a state 
of nature, is a most ungainly animal. Could we see a number 
of the degraded of oar own lower classes in like guise^ it is 
probable that, without the black color which acts somehow as 
a dress, they would look worse siilL 

In domestic contentions the Bawo are careful not to kill 
each other; but, when one village goes to war with another, 
they are not so particular. The victorious party are said to 
quarter one of the bodies of the enemies they may have killed, 
and to perform certain ceremonies over the Cragmeols. The 

Cuir. XL 



vanqnisbed call upon their conquerors to give them a portion 
olao ; aiid,wheD this request is complied witb^tLey loo perform 
tbe same ceremonies, and lameat over tbeir dead comrade, 
nfWr which the late combatants may visit each other in peace. 
Sometimes tbe liead ofthe slain is taken and buried in an ant- 
hill till all tbe flesb iii gone, and tbe lower javr is then worn as 
n trophy by the slayer; but this we never saw, ancl lb© fore- 
going information was obtamed only through an interpreter. 
TVe left tbe Zambesi at tbe mouth of the Zungwe, or Mo- 
zama, or Dela rivulet, up which we proceeded, first in a west- 
erly and then in a northwesterly direction. The Zungwe at 
Ibis time had no water in its sandy channel for tbe first eight 
or ten miles. Willows, however, grow on the banks, and wa- 
ter soon began to appear in the hollows ; and a few miles Dir* 
ther up it was u (Ine fluwing stream deliciously cold. As in 
many other streams from Chicova to near Siuamane, sbale 
and coal crop out in the bank ; and here the large roots of 
stigmaria or its allied plants were found. We followed the 
course of the Zungwe to the foot of tbe Batoka highlands, 
ap whose steep and rugged sides of red and white quartz we 
climbed till we attained an altitude of upward of 3000 feet 
Hero, on tho cool and bracing heights, the exhilaration of 
raind and body was delightful, as we looked back at the hol- 
low beneath covered with a hot sultry glare, not unpleasant 
now that wc were in tbe mild radiance above. We had a 
noblo view of the great valley in which the Zambesi flows. 
The cultivated portions are so small in comparison to tbe rest 
of the landscape that the valley appears nearly all forest, with 
a few graaay gladea. We spent the night of the 28tb of July 
high above the level of the sea, by tbe Rivulet Tyolyo, near 
Tabacbeu or Chirebuechina, names both signifying white 
ununtain ; in the morning hoar-frost covered the ground, and 




tbin ice vas on the pools. Skirtiag tlie soutbeni Qank of Ta- 
bacbcu, wc soon passed from the hills ou to the portion of UMj 
vast table-land called Jfataba, and, looking back, aaw all the ' 
way across the Zambesi valley to the lofty ridge some thirty 
miles oil', which, comiug from the Mashona, a country in the 
S.E., runs to the N.W. to join the ridge at the angle of which 
are tbe Victoria Falls, aud then bends far to the N.E. from 
the same point Only a few years since, these extensive high- 
lands were peopled by the Batoka ; numerous herds of cattle' 
furnished abundance of milk, and the rich soil amply repaid 
the labor of the husbandman ; now large herds of buffaloes, 
zebras, and antclopcB fatten on the excellent pasture ; aod on . 
that land which formerly supported multitudes, not a man ia 
to be seen. In traveling from Monday morning till late oo 
Saturday afternoon, all the way from Tabacheu to Moachem* 
ba, which is only twen^-onc miles of latitude from the Victo- 
ria Falls, and constantly passing the ruined sites of utterly de: 
^rted Batoka villages, wc did not fall in with a angle peisOD. 
The Batoka were driven out of their noble country by the 
invasions of Mosclckatse and Sebetuane. Several tribes of 
Bechuana and Basutu, fleeing from the Zola or Matebcle chief 
Mcselekatse, reached the Zambesi above the Falla Coming j 
from a land without rivers, none of them knew how to swim ; 
aud one tribe, called the Bamangwato, wishing to cross tbe 
Zambesi, was ferried over, men and women separately, to dif- 
feroit islands, by one of the Batoka chie& : the men were then 
left to starve, and the women appropriated by the ferryman 
and his people, titikomi, the pnsent chief of the Bamanj 
to, riien an infant in his mother's ann^ was rubied, throngl 
the kindDesB of a private Batoka, to escape, This act seecnal 
to have made an indehble improesioo oo Sekomi's heart ; for, 
though otherwise callous, he still noTer &ils to inquire after 
the wcltan of his benefactor. 

CiuJ-. XI. 



Sebetuane, with Ms wonted ability, outwitted the treacher- 
ous Baloka by insisting in the politest manner on their chief 
remoiuiDg at his own side until the people and cattle were all 
carried safe across; the chief was iheu baudsumely rewarded 
both with cattle and brass rings off Sebetuaue's own wives. 
Ko sooner were the ilakololo, then called Basuto, safely over, 
than they were confronted by tho whoJo Batoka nation ; and 
to this day the Makololo point with pride to the sptjt on the 
Lekone, near to which they were encamped, where Sebelu- 
ane, with a mere handful of warriors in comparison to the vast 
horde that surrounded him, stood waiting the onslaught, the 
warriors in one small body, tho women and children guard- 
ing the cattle behind ihem. The Batoka, of course, melted 
away before those who had beeu made veterans by years of 
continaal fighting, and Sebctuane always justified his subse- 
quent coaquesls in that country by alleging that the Batoka 
had oome oat to fight with a nuin Heeing for his life, who had 
never done tbem any wrong. They seem never to have been 
a warlike race ; passing through their country, we once ob- 
served a large stone cairn, and our guide favored us with the 
foUowing account of it: "Once upon a time, our forefathers 
were going to fight another tribe, and here they halted and 
sat down. AiUr a long consultation, they cams to tho unan- 
imoQS conclusion that, instead of proceeding to fight and kill 
their neighbors, and perhaps bo killed themselves, it would be 
more like men to raise this heap of stones a.s their protest 
agabst the wrong the other tribe bad done them, which hav- 
ing accomplished, they returned quietly home." Such men 
of peace could not stand before the Makololo, nor, of course, 
the more warlike Matubele, who, coming afterward, drove 
even their conquerors, tho Makololo, out of the country. Se- 
betuaue, however, profiting by the tactics which he had learn- 


CH»i-. XL 

ed of the Bfttoka, ioveiglod & large body of iliis new enemy 
on to anotbcr island, and after due starvation there overcame 
the whole. A much greater army of " Mosclekatse's own" 
followed with canoes, but were now baffled by Sebetuane'a 
placing all his people and cattle on an Lilaud, and so guard- 
ing it that none oould approach. Dispirited, famished, borne 
down by fever, they returoed to the Falls, and all except five 
were cut off. 

But, though the Batoka appear never to have bad mach in- 
clination to fight with men, they are decidedly brave hunters 
of buffaloes and elephants. They go fearlessly close np to 
these formidable animals, and kill them with large spears. 
The Bauyai, who have long bullied all Portuguese traders, 
were amazed at the daring and brayery of the Batoka in com- 
ing at once to close quarters with the elephant; and Chisaka, 
a Portngoesc rebel, having formerly induced a body of this 
tribe to settle with biro, ravaged all the Portagucse vlUas 
around Tcttc. They bear the name of Bosimilongwe, and 
some of our men found relations among them. Sininyane 
and Matenga also, two of our panv, were once inveigled into 
a Portuguese expedition against Mariano by the ascrtion that , 
the doctor had arrived and had sent for them to come down 
to Senna. On finding that they were entrapped to 6gfat, tbey 
left, after seeing an officer with a laigc number of Teite slaves 

Tho Batoka bad attuned somewhat civiliMd ideM in plant- 
ing and protecting Tarioas fmit and oil-seed yieidiDg trees of 
ibo ooantjj. Ko other tribe either plants or ahrtains from 
oatting down fruil-trecis, but here we saw some which had 
been planted in regular tows, and die trunks of which were 
quite two feet in diameter. Tbe grand old MosUm^ ft 
yielding a bean vttb a ihin T«d pellicle, said to be Tcrj fla- 




teniDg, bad probably seen two hundred summors. Dr. Kirk 
iband that the ^[osibc is peculiAr, in being allied to a species 
met with ouly in the West Indies. The MoLsikiri, sometimes 
called Mafut.1, yields a hiird fat, and an oi! which is exported 
from lubambane. It is said that two ancient Batoka travel- 
«3rs wont down as far as the Loangwa, and finding the Macaa- 
tree {jujiAe or zisyp/tw^) in fruity carried the seed all the way 
back to the great Falls, in order to plant them. Two of these 
trees are still to be seen there, the only specimens of the kind 
in tbat region. 

The Baloka had made n near approach to the custom of 
more refined nations, and bad permanent grave-yarda, either 
on the sides of hills, thus rendered sacred, or under lai^e old 
shady trees; they reverence the tombs of their ancestors, and 
plant the largest elephants' tusks as monuments at the head 
of the grave, or entirely inclose it witb the choicest ivory. 
Some of the other tribes throw the dead body into the river 
to be devoured by crocodiles, or, sewing it up in a mat, place 
it on the branch of a Baobab, or cast it in some lonely gloomy 
spot, surrounded by dense tropical vegetation, where it af- 
fords a meal to the foul hyenas; but the Batoka reverently 
bury their dead, and regard the spot henceforth as sacred. 
The ordeal by the poison of the mnave is resorted to by the 
Batoka as well na by the other tribes; but a eock is often 
made to stand proxy for the supposed witch. Near the con- 
flueuce of the Kafue, the Marobo, or chief, with some of his 
h«ad men, came to our sleep! ng-pl ace with a present; their 
foreheads •were smeared witb white flour, and an unu.'sunl se- 
~ rionsness marked their demeanor. Shortly before our arrival 
they had been accused of witchcraft: conscious of innocence, 
they accepted the ordeal, and nndcrtook to drink the poison- 
ed muave. For this purpose they made a journey to the R-i- 




ored hill of Nchomokela, on which rcposo the bodies of their 
ancestors; and, after a solemn appeal to the unseen spirits to 
attest the innocence of ihcir children, they swallowed the mu- 
ave, vomited, and were therefore declared not guilty. It is 
evident that tbey believe that the soul has a continued ex- 
istence, and that the spirits of the departed know what those 
ibey have left behind them are doing, and are pleased or not, 
according as their deeds are good or evil; this belief is uni- 
versal. The owner of a large canoe refused to sell it because 
it belonged to the spirit of bis father, who helped him when 
be killed the hippopotamus. Another, when the bargain for 
his canoe was nearly completed, seeing a large serpent on a 
branch of the tree overhead, refused to complete the sale, al- 
leging that this was the spirit of his father come to protest 
sgunst iL 

Some of the Batoka chiefs must have been men of consid- 
erable enterprise ; the land of one, in the western part of this 
country, was protected by the Zambesi on tbe S., and on the 
N. and £. lay an impassable reedy marsh, filled with water all 
the year rounH, leaviug only his western border open to in- 
vasion; bo oonocivod the idea of digging a broad and deep 
canal, nearly a mile in length, from tbe reedy marsh to the 
Zambe&i, and, having actually carried tbe scheme into execu- 
tion, he formed a large island, on which his cattle grazed in 
safety, and bis com ripened from year to year secore fix>m all 

Another chief, who died a number of years ago, believed 
that he bad discovered a remedy for tsetse-bitten cattle • his 
90a Ifoyaia showed us a plant, which was new to our bota- 
nist, and likewise told as bow the medicine was prepared ; the 
bark of the root, and, what might please ovr honM»q»thie 
frMods, a doxen of the Is^a^ are dried, and ground together 

CtlAf. XI. 

iDio a fine powder. This mixture is administered internally; 
and the cattle are fumigated by burning uudcr them the rest 
of the plant collected. The treatment must be continued for 
weeks whenever the sympiomB of poiaon appear. This med- 
icine, he frankly admitted, would not cure all the bitten cat- 
tle. " For," sold he, " cattle, and men too, die in spite of med- 
icine; but should a herd by accident stray into a tselae dis- 
trict and be bitten, by this medicine of my father, Kampa- 
kampa, some of them could be saved, while without it all 
would inevitably die." He stipulated that we were not to 
show the medicine to other people, and if ever we needed it 
in this region we must employ bim ; but if wo were far off 
we might make it ourselves ; and when wc saw it cure the 
cattle, think of him, and send him a present. 

Our men made it known every where that we wished the 
tribes to live in peace, and would use our influence to induce 
Sekeletu to prevent the Batoka of Moshobotwane and the 
Makololo undcr-chicfs making forays into their country: they 
bad already suffered severely, and their remonstrances with, 
iheir countryman, Moshobotwane, evoked only the answer, 
"The Makololo have given me a spear; why should I not 
use it?" Ue indeed it was who, being remarkably swift of 
foot, first guided the Makololo in their conquest of the eoun- 
trj-. In the character of j^ace-makers, therefore, we experf- 
eoced abundant hospitality ; and from the Kafue to the Falls^ 
none of our party were allowed to suffer hunger. The na- 
tives sent to our sleeping-places generous presents of the fin- 
■esl white meal, and fat capons to give it a relish, great pots 
of beer to comfort our hearts, together with pumpkins, beans, 
aad tobacco, so that we "should sleep neither hungry nor 

In traveling from the Kafuc to the Zungwe we frequently 




passed several villages ia tbe course of a clay's marcb. In 
the evening came deputies from tlie villages at wbicb we 
could not stay to sleep with liberal presents of food. It 
would have pmaed them to have allowed strangers to pass 
without partaking of tbeir hospitality; repeatedly were we 
hailed from buts, and asked to wait a moment and drink a lit- 
tle of the beer, which was brought with alacrity. Our march 
resembled a triumphal procession. We entered and left ev- 
ery village amid the cheers of its inhabitants; the men dap- 
ping their hands, and the women lulIUooing, with the shrill 
call, " Let us sleep," or " Peace." Passing through a hamlet 
one day, our guide called to tbe people, "Why do you not 
clap your bands and salute when you see men who are wish*j 
iog to bring peace to tbe land?" "When we halted for tbfti 
night it was no uncommon thing for the people to prepare 
our camp entirely of their own accord; some, with he 
quickly smoothed tbe ground for our bedai, others brought 
dried grass and spread it carefully over the spot ; some, with 
their small ases, speedily made a bush fence to shield us from 
tbe wind; and if, as occasionally happened, the water was 
little distance off, others hastened and brought it, with fire- 
wood to cook our food with. They arc an industrious peo- 
ple, and very fond of agriciilturc. For hours together we 
marched through unbroken flclcb of mapira, or native com, 
of a great width ; but one can give no idea of the extent of 
land under the hoe as compared with any European country. 
The extent of surface is so great that tlie largest fields undorj 
culture, when viewed on a wide landscape, dwindle to mere' 
spots. When taken in connection with the wants of the peo- 
ple, the cultivaUon, on the whole, is most creditable to Uidr 
industry. They erect numerous granaries, which give their 
villages the appearanoe of being large; and, when tbe water 

Chap. XI. 

soBRiErrr or the batoka. 


of the Zambesi baa subsided, ibey place large quantities of 
grain, tied up m bandies of grass, and well plastered over 
with day, ou low sand islands for protectioa from the attacks 
of marauding mice and men. Owing to the ravages of the 
wee^-il, the native corn can hardly be preserved until the fol- 
lowing crop comes in. However largely tliey may cultivate, 
and however abuudant the harvest, it must all be consumed 
in a year. This may account for tbeir making so much of it 
into beer. Tlie beer these Batoka or Bawe brew is not the 
sour and iotoaucating boala or pombe found among some oth- 
er tribes, but sweet and highly nutritive, with only a slight 
degree of acidity, suiBcient to render it a pleasant drink. The 
people were all plump and in good condition; and we never 
saw a single instance of intoxication among them, though all 
<lrank abundance of this liting, or sweet beer. Both men and 
"boys were eager to work for very small pay. Our men could 
iire anj number of them to carry their burdens for a few 
lieads a day. Our miserly and dirty ex-cook had an old pair 
^)f truwsers that some ono had given to him ; oder he had 
•long worn thvin himself, with one of the sorely-deeaycd legs 
lia hired a man to carry his heavy load a whole day; a sec- 
v^nd man carrietl it the next d.iy for tho other leg; imd what 
remained of the old g.irmcnt, without the buttons, procured 
"t4ic labor of another man for the third day. 

Men of remarkable ability have risen up among the Afri- 
cans from time to time, as among other portions of the hu- 
man family. Some have attracted tho attention and excited 
the admiration of largo districla by their wisdom. Others, 
opparently by the powers of ventriloquism, or by peculiar 
^3exterity in throwing tho spear or shooting with the bow, 
have been the wonder of their generation; but the total ab- 
sence of literature leads to the loss of all former experience, 



Ciup. XI. 

and tlie viadom of the wiso has not been handed down. TLej 
have bad tbclr mbstrcLs too, but mere tradition preserves not 
their €0*1181008, One of these, and apparently a genuiuo poet, 
attached himself to our party for several days, and, whonerer] 
wc halted, sang our praises to the villagers in smooth and bar- J 
monious numbers. It was a sort of blank verse, and eacl 
lioe consisted of five syllables. The song was short when it^ 
Qrst began, but each day he picked up mure information aboat 
UB, and added lo the [>Qein uutil our praiaes became an ode of 
respectable length. Wlicn distance from home compelled his 
return, he expressed his regret at leaving us, and was, of 
course, paid for his useful and pleasant flatteries. Another, 
though a less gifted son of song, belonged to the Batoka of 
our own party. Every evening, while the others were cook- 
ing, talking, or sleeping, he rehearsed his songs, coutaiaing a 
history of every thing he had seen in the land of the wbite 
men, and on the way back. In composing, extempore, any 
new piece, he was never at a loss; for if the right word did 
not come, he halted not, bnt eked out the measure with a pe- 
culiar musical sound meaning nothing at all. He accompa- 
nied his recitations on the sansa, an instrument figured in the 
VOodcut (c), the nine iron keys of which are played with the 
thumbs, while the fingers pass behind to hold iL The hollow 
end and omnments face the breast of the player. Persons of 
a musical turn, if too poor to buy a aansa, may be seen play- ■ 
ing vigorously on an instrument made with a number of thick 
corn-stalks sewn together, as a sansa frame, and keys of split 
bamboo, which, though making but little sound, seems to 
soothe the player himself. When the instrument ia played 
with a calabash (a) as a sounding-board, it emits a greater vol- 
ume of sound, rieces of shells and tin are added to make a 
jingling aocompaniiuentf and the calabash {b) is also omv 

ciur. xr. 




• :tt 

yO CkUliMh taiMiinixiMri, (U Chlabuh ornunmlcd «lth OgnroiL (f> Saant. 

In mnsing over the peculiar habit indicated in the name 
"Baenda jwzi" (Go-nakcdfl), wc conjectured that it might be 
ftn order similni* to ibal of Freemasons ; bat no secret society 
can be found among the native Africana A sort of broth- 
erhoctJ, called by the Portuguese "Empacasseiros," exists in 
Angola, but it only enjoins community of right to fopd in 
each Dther^a hut; and the qualification for admission is abil- 
ity to shoot the empacasso (buffalo or gnu). This ia very 
mach tho same thing as that which distinguishes the bands 
into which the young Makololo are formed on circumcisioi). 
They thenceforward consider each other as in a state of per- 
fect equality, and bound to keep up the discipline of their 
troop, and, in case of cowardice, to inflict punishment. Ko 
good, as far as we could learn, would result to any one in 
this country from his knowledge of Freemasonry. A noble 
spedmcn of the Baenda pezi order once visited us and gained 
oar esteem, thoagh tho full dress in which be stood consisted 
only of a tobacco-pipe, with a stem two feet long wound 
roond with polished iron. He brought a liberal present 





"Qod made him naked," be said, "aod he had therefura oev- 
er worn any aort of clothing." This gentleman's philosophy 
is very much like that of some dirty people we have known, 
who justified their want of faatidiousnees by saying "fingers 
were made before forks." Early next morning we bad an- 
other interview with our naked friend, accompanied this time 
by hia wife and daughter, bearing two largo pots of beer, wit 
which he wiahe<l us to refresh oaraelves before starting. Both 
the women, as comely and modest-looking as any we have 
seen in Africa, were well clothed, and adorned, as indeed all 
their women arc. Some wear tin ear-rings all round the ear, i 
and as many as nine often in each ear. The men rob their 
bodies with red ochre. Some plait a fillet two inches wide 
of the inner bark of trees, and shave the hair off the lower 
part of the head, an inch above the ears being bare ; the hair 
on the upper part banng been well smeared with red ochre 
in oil, the fillci is bound on to it, and gives the head the ap- 
pearance of having on a neat forage-cap. Some strings of 
coarse bends, and a little polished iron-wire round the arms, 
the never-failing pipe, and a small pair of iron tongs to lift 
the lighted coal, constitute the entire clothing of the most 
dandified young men of the Baenda pezi. All their other 
faculties seem fairly developed; but, as neither ridicule nor 
joking could awaken the sense of ishame, il is probable that] 
clothing alone would arouse the dormant feeling. Girls of 
eight or ten years, nearly naked, were clothed and taken into 
the Mission-house at Kolobeng as nurses to the children. Id 
a fortnight after, they hastily covered their bosoms, even if 
one only pasiwd through the sitting-room in which they slept 
~~:^Among Zulus, the smaller the covering, the more intense the 
shame on accidental exposure. 

Largo quAutities of tobacco are raised on the lower bank 

Chat. XI. 


of tbc Zambesi during tbe winter months, and tba people are 
perbaps tbe most iuveterato smokers in tbe world. Tbe pipe 
is seldom out of tbi^ir moutbs, aad tbcy ore as polite smokers 
as any ever met witb in a railway carriage: When they 
came witb a present, altboagb we were ia ibeir own country, 
lliey afikcd before ligbting their pipes if we bad any objec- 
tion to their smoktug beside us, which, of coaree, we never 
had. They think that they have invented an improved meth- 
od of smoking; u description of it may intcreiit those who 
are foud of the weed at home. Tbey take a whilf, pulF out 
the grosser smoke, then, by a Buddcn inhalation, contrive to 
eatoh and swallow, as they say, the real essence, tho very spir- 
it of tho tobacco, which in the ordinary way is entirely lost. 
The Batoka tobacco is famed in the country for its sLrongtb, 
and it certainly is both very strong and very cheap: a tew 
strings of beads will purchase enough to last any reasonable 
man for six months. It caused licadacho in the only smoker 
of our party, from ita strength ; but this quality makes tbe 
natives come great distances to buy it. 

The people above Kariba had never been visited 'before by 

foreigners; tbc chief of Koha, on being asked if any tradition 

existed of strangers having formerly oomo into tho country, 

TCpHcd, "Not at all; our fathers all died without telling us 

that they hail seen men like you. To-day T am cx-iltcd in 

seeing what they never saw." Others, In reference to old 

men being in tho habit of telling wonderful tales, said, " We 

are the tme ancients; we have seen stranger things than any 

of our ancestoi^ in seeing you." The only tradition of fcr- 

«igneT8 coming into the country refers to tho ascent of Simo 

«n8 as far ns the Sanyati, at the entrance to the Kariba gorge. 

-According to the testimony of tbe people of the country and 

the statement of tbe companion of this robber to us, it was a 




Ctur. XX. 

regular plandering foray similnr to that of S<K|aasha. Like 
the Bocra and others wo have known, this man, who is etill 
alive at Tcttc, eager to make the most of hia conquest, repre- 
scDted tUe people attacked to have been Matebele, aod on be- 
ing told that they were Bawe, a tribe of Batokn, he answered, 
"Well, we thought them to be Matebele (Landecns), becaase 
tKey were naked." After accumulating large quantities of 
ivory and many slaves by the aid of his followers' fire-arms^ 
which the people had never before encountered, Simoens lost 
nil the booty and hia life by a combination of the chie& ua- 
der Cbisaka at the Rivulet Zingcsi, near to Mpcndc. 

After we had passed up, however, a party of slaves, belong-^™ 
ing to the two native Portuguese who assassinated the chi«f^^| 
Mpangwc, and took possession of his lands at Zumbo, follow- 
ed OQ our footsteps, and, representing themselves to be oar 
"children," bought great quantities of ivory from the Bawe 
for a few coarse beads a tusk. They also purehased ten large 
new canoea to carry it at the rate of six strings of red or 
white beads, or two fatboms of gray calico, for each canoe, 
and, at tbo same cheap rate, a number of good-looking girls. 

We had long ere this become thoroughly convinced that 
the government of Lisbon had been guilty, posdbly uninton- 
tionally, of double dealing. Public instructions, as already 
stated, had been sent from Portugal to all the officials to ren- 
der us every assistance in their power, but those were to be 
understood with considerable reservation. From what we ob- 
served, it was clear that, with the public orders to the officials 
to Old us, private iastructions had come to thwart us. It ia 
p08»blo (hat these private instructions meant only that we 
wen to bo watched ; but where nearly every one, from gor- 
eroor to convict soldier, is an eager slave-dealer, such orders 
oould only meui, "Keep n sharp look-oat that your slave- 

Chap. XI. 



trade follows as near their heeis as possible." We were now 
so fully coDTincod that, in opening the country through 
which no Portugaege durst previouBly pass, we were made 
the unwilling instruments of extending the slave-tnidc, that, 
had wc not been under obligations to return with the Mako- 
lolo to their own country, we should have left the Zambesi 
and gone to the Rovuma, or to some other inlet to the inte- 
rior. It was with bitter sorrow that we saw the good we 
would have done turned to evil. 

We odcrward learned that no sooner was it proposed that 
we should go to the Rovuma, than the Governor Genera! 
d' Almeida hastencdup to Zanzibar, and tried to induce the 
sultan to agree to that river being made the boundary be- 
tween him and the Portuguese. This movement, the cfFect 
of instructions drawn up after information had been obtained 
from our lcttc;s being read at the meetings of the Geograph- 
ical Society, London, was happily frustrated by Colonel Rig- 
by, and the governor general had 1o be content with Cape 
Delgado 33 the extreme limit of Portuguese claims north- 

On the Batoka highlands, the invigorating breezes disposed 
OS to listen with pleasure to the sio^ng of birds. It might 
be owing to the greater cold, bnt the variety of notes in their 
warblings seemed greater than with African birds in general. 
A pretty little black bird, with white shoulders, probably a 
weaver, but not seen elsewhere, sat on the topmost twigs of 
the huge trees, pouring forth its melody as if glad, among 
the deserted villages, once more to see the laco of man. It 
flew Crom tree to tree, and sang on the wing, though not soar- 
ing like the lark. It bears frost, and to the bird-fancier or 
Acclimatizfttion Society might he an interesting addition to 
ihetr birds of song. It is not the honey-guide alone that is 



CR*r. XI. 

attacbed to man. ' The wlijdab-birtl and water-wogUU 
hdd sacred hy Uie natives of diifercut part^i, and consequent 
\j come without fear close to human kind. Were our smi 
birds not so much persecuted by unall bojs, their attachment 
would be more apparent, even in England. 

Scabenzo, the chief whom we found on the Tyotyo Rivn- 
lel, had accompanied us some distance over the undulatinj 
highland plains; and as ho and our own men needed mental 
we killed ^ elephant This, unless one Tealljr needs the 
meat, or is eager for the ivory, can scaroely be looked bnc 
to without regret. These noble beasts, capable of bang so" 
useful to man in the domestio state, are, we fear, destined, at 
no distant date, to disappear from the face of the earth. Yet, 
in the excitement, all this and more was at once forgotten, 
and we joined in the assault as eagerly aa those who think 
only of the fat and savory flesh. 

The writings of Harris and Gordon Gumming contain such 
fhl! and nauscatang details of indiscriminate slaughter of the 
wild animals, that one wonders to see almost every African, 
book aineo besmeared with feeWe imitations of these great 
hunters' tales. Some tell of escapes from situations whicl 
from our knowledge of the nature of the animals, it requiiw"" 
a painful stretch of charily to believe ever existed, even in 
dreams ; and others of deeds which lead one to conclude that 
the proportion of " bom butchers" in the population is aa 
great as of public-house keepers to the people in Glasgow. 

Tbo amount of ivory taken to the marts of the world 
shows that about S0,000 elephants are annually slain.* It ia 

'• Aftci a iMWrc by Profiasor Owen, F. R.S. , at the Soclciy of Art*. Dbodoo, 
inh Doc, ISTifi, un the " IraTV Anil TcciU of Commerce," tJb. V. h. Simnondt 
K«re Mne trade statittici rrom which it rraa calculalcd thsc upward of 80,000 
dapliMiU unnua1l7 pcriituMl. In one mrgo of I37G filei^JUrts' taafa^ irdghlnc 
in all S0,95S lb., tlie Kvcngc weight wm 1(i§ Ibi. In another cargo S56 cl^. 

Ciur. XI. 



highly, probable, that as the groit size of the earn exhibited 
oa ancient lioman coins prove the animals in use by that na- 
tion to have been of the African, and not of tha Asiatic spc* 
ciee, they must have been tamed by the negroes in the inte- 
rior of Africa. This is the more likely, inasmuch as there is 

phanlR* iiitlm irdghcd Ii6(*H !ba., pvinft an avera|^ otil^ Urn. In ih« accom- 
panjiog note, with which Mr. Kimmond* tin* kindly obliged us, Ihu trory mcn- 
tioDoI rrfei-* only lo oitr own tnide ; tlie csporu Troui ladra inid Siiim lo Clil- 
na, from Zonzibnr and tlio Ka»t Cwi»t to India and ihc United Rtatcak und from 
die French African poEKuiunB la Fiannj, oro not Included. IIo takes the at- 
crago wdsbt at 30 Ibi., and csiiraauis tlio number kilJcd Annajttly &t 30,000, u 
Mated in the l«xt. EIi^pliAnti, ok n. rnlc, ncvor shed tbcir InAkd. We have 
only tnct witfa f>ii;c«j hrukcQ off wtiun llic tuiirnkl waa engajtcd in digf;ing up 
ibe rgou of trees ; so, prncl^ciUy, orqrry tnsk koc in lti« marlcct belougcd lu an 
tiephuit now dead; and. conildering the namtxoi' of calves dc'tiruyud bcforo 
Ike tnak beeomca of uny value to ihc imder, it in probable that 40,000 ia abont 
Ae aclnal number annnnll}' killed, 

We have loadc no rcfcrencn lo ttHjiI may be fnlU'd monmrr tuskK, of from 
DO to ISO II)*.— 4ome arc upolten of as upward of 200 lbs. In some pnrU, the 
ncrftCO tubk mny weigh CO Iba. ; but, aa a Mt-off to tliia in tlio calculation, it 
nttst bo r«nicinbcr(.'d ihnt unc vf tb<3 [>Iiu?m not included, nftiriRly, Znnnbar, for 
JUany fMirs rcccif'cd annually 20,000 tcaka. 

" ImpoTtatioQ of IroBT o/ali kitub into th« Uotted Kiogdooi— eloplianca' 

>tuk«, nalraaea, and hippopotnnuia icctb : 

Cwu. e 

1866 9,86e 343,517 

1857 ■■ 9.8D0 <2I,S1S 

I9S8 V 12,279 4I0,fiO8 

1859 10,881 338, M7 

leeO™ - '0.86* .■J:(2,I6G 

11,188 297,491 

"l«IS,„ 11,605 262,963 

1883 9.W0 K6.[1B9 


Averago 10,T2L 


"* The Import of hippopotama* t«etU and wtilrue is scarcely more than Klor 

' Cons A je*r; therefore It is Bcnrccly worth cociiid«ring. Thoi difflcnliT i* 

'*»■»! aT«rago irciglit to Inkc the tusks at. 80 Ib«. may be confidored a fair 

'^'■^erjige. If African do not Average ranch more than 20 or 2S lb?., wlulo for 

^^n«ibar and Muuinbiqiic tlic ararngo would be CO to 80 tbK., taking tbo arsr- 

■** at 80 IW., thb wwuld imply itio annaal alauglitcr of Bfl.OOl} ei-'-phanls a 

y^^r • ,111^^ taking tho wuicrn and utliur markets, the nnmbcL' may be fairly m> 

j^^WVOAted at 90,000 wiiinaU killod vttrj )-ear fbt llio iworj." 




no instance on record of ancient Europeans daring to wxac 
this animal. Never, sinco the limo of the Romans and Car- 
thaginians, has the Afncan elephant bocn tamed, tbongh it 
was believed to be much more sagacious than the Asiatic 

In this hunt a small herd of female elephants, with their 
young, were encountered near a belt of open forest near Mo- 
tunta. Three rifle-balls, including a Jacob's shell, were lodged 
in the body of the nearest ; a smaller one charged back, but 
stopped on seeing so many enemies, and went off with the 
others. The herd waited twice for the wounded one, which 
was not able to keep up, and only left her to her fate when 
self-preservation became the more imperious law. This made 
us imagine that she was perhaps the mother of the lierd. 
She ran a mile and a half, and then stopped to lean against a 
tree. A few of our men approached and fired a volley ; she 
went on a few paces, shook her trunk, dropped gently on one 
knee, then on the other; alowly the two hind legs bent, and 
she fell.* We read it now with a pang. A shout of exulta- 

* The olpphant ira* ui ordinary *Ued fenude, tuid her messuremoitt maj' b* 

of intvrcet to some: 

n. m. 
Semi~circumferanc« u middle 
of chest 6 

Scoii'circuDiforcDcg of abdo- 
men to middJo t>rback * t) 

Prom neck to forefoot..^ 5 t 

From RlxJomcn to Ijiail Tool.... S S} 
From iiicnitu of var boriwmtat- 

ly to rxicrnal cilgo 3 9 

Din^onAllkreinilth ofear i i 

Ildi;lit from Itinil fwt 7 C . 

Mviuurement of full-grown fcoutl elcphaac, liaviog four plaeeauc iriib oolfl- 
cdoiu, and near iu full lime : 

Ft. In. 

tloiKht ai withers i S^ 

Circtttuforencc of ton foot 9 T 

Longib from lip of tntnk to 

eye « 10 

From ore to ejc » K) 

Eve to meatui of oar. 1 sj 

Eye tolovtrjnw I6| 

E/c to iiiwrtion of UiL 9 10 

From inwrtion to cod of tail... 3 4} 

Height ftlwiihctii 3 

Cireiiinr«rencc of fore foot I 

licisht at hind kg 1 

Proni lipoftrunkio tipoftaU. ft 
From lijtofiruDl: locre. ....... 1 TJ 

From tja to the meatiu of oar. 

Caw. XI. 



tion rose from the meu, who rushed up^ and danced round the 
Mlun animal with 'wi]d*Bhoats ctf triumph. VTbea we came 
up, Tuba Mokoro approached the doctor, who^ Jacob's shell 
had inflicted a mortal wound behind the orifice of the car, 
and, with great self-complacency, said, "You see it was speed 
that (lid it — mj speed. I kept up while all the others lagged 
behind, Uiough I fell and hart my knee. You will give me 
a cloth, won't you ?" 

The men, hariog had no meat for the last three or four 
days, thought that they could eat the elephnnt all themselves, 
and were not disposed to let Seabenzo and his people have 
any; bat, oiler gorging themselves all night, and grumbling 
at the £Dglish for posseosing so little practical sense as to kill 
an elephant, and then not wait long enough to eat it up, they 
gave Seabenzo upward of three quarters of it, and we pre- 
sented him with the tusks. The proboscis of the African el- 
ephant is so full at the insertion into the upper part of the 
face that the animal appears to have a very convene forehead. 
The trunk, when cut off close to the bone, is so heavy that 
oar companions declared only two or three men ia their tribe 
oould lift one. 

A herd of elephants makes sad havoc among the trees, 
which cover the highlands only in patches. Tbey break off 
great braoches as easily as we could snap the shoots of cctc- 
17; and they often break down good-sized trees in the mere 
"Wantonness of strength, without even tasting them. 

During the time we remained at Motunta a splendid me- 
teor was observed to lighten the whole heavens. The ob- 

FL la, I 

BoriioDUl (lianieler of w 

front mntas 6 

IM^gonal tircadih of ear 1 ^ 

fiemi.4:ircuinfcrcnGeof chen...- I T 

TV la. 

Scmi-circnmfcrcncc of iibdo. 

mm I ej 

Inength of cord 3 7 




server's back vas turned to it, bot oa looking round the 
streak of light was seen to remain on its path some seconds. 
This streak is usually explained to be only the continuance 
of tbo impression nmdc by the shining body on tho rctioa. 
This can not be, as in this cose the meteor was not actually 
seen, aud yet the streak was clearly perceived. The rays of 
planets and stars also require another explanation than that 
usually given. 

Fruit-trees, and gigantic wild &g-trees, and circles of stonca 
on which corn safes were placed, with worn grindstones, point 
out where the villages once stood. Tho only reason now as- 
aighed for this ijue country remaining desolate is the fear of 
fresh visitatious by tho Hatcbelc The ooontty now slopes 
gradually to the west into the Makololo Volley. Two daya^ 
march from the Batoka village nearest the highlands, we met 
with some hunters who were burning the dry grass, in order 
to attract the game by the fresh vegetation which speedily 
springs up aflerword. The grass, as already remarked, is ex> 
eeUent for cattle. One species;, with leaves having 6nely ser* 
rated edges, and of a rcddisli -brown oolor, we noticed oar 
men eating : it tq^tes exactly like liquorice- root, and is named^j 
kezu-kezu. The taetae, known to tlie Batokat by tbe DUB»i| 
udoka, does not exist here, though boflidoes and elephants . 

A small trap in tbe path, baited with a mouse, to catch 
spotted cats (/! Gimlta), is osoally the first indication that 
v* are diawing Dear to a village ; but when we get within 
tbe aounds of pounding com, oockcrowing, or tbe merry 
shouts of children at play, we know that the hats are bat a 
lew yards off, though the ti<TCe oonoeal them from view. We 
roaohed, on the 4th of August, UoacbeinfaB, the fiesi of the 
Batoka viUtgea vbioh i>ow owe alk^iaoe to Sehnlefn, and 

Cur. Xf. 



could sec distinctly with the naked eye, in ihe great valley 
spread out before us, Uio columns of vapor rising from the 
Victoria Falls, though upward of 20 miles distatil. We were 
informed tliat, the rains having failed this year, the corn- 
crops had been lost, and great scarcity and much hunger pre- 
vailed from Sesbeke to Linyaoti. Some of the wports which 
the men had heard from the Batoka of the hills concerning 
their fiamilies, were here confirmed. Takelang's wife had 
been killed by Mashotlane, the head man at the Falls, on a 
charge, as usual, of witchcraft. Inchikola'a two wives, be- 
lieving htm to be dead, had married again; and Masakasa 
was intensely disgusted to Lear that two years 4go his fncnds, 
upon a report of his death, threw his alueld over the Fallot, 
elaughteied all his oxen, and held a species of wild Irish 
wake in honor of hts memory : he said he meant to disown 
them, and to say, when they came to salute him, " I am dead. 
I am not hero. I belong to another world, and should stink 
if I came among you." 

All tho sad news wo had previously heard of the disastrous 
results which followed the attempt of a party of missionaries, 
under tho Gev. II. Helmore, to plant the Qoapel at Linyanti, 
were here fully confirmed. Several of the missionaries and 
thoir native attendants, from Kuruman, had succumbed to 
the fever, and the survivors bad retired some weeks beEbro 
oar arrival. We remained the whole of the 7th beside the 
village of the old Batoka chief, Moshobotwanc, the stoutest 
laan we have seen in Africa. The cause of our delay here 
was a severe attack of fever in Charles Livingstone. He took 
a dose of our fever pills ; was better on the Stb, and marched 
three hours; then on tho 9th marched eight miles to the 
Great Falls, and spent the rest of the day in the fatiguing 
exercise of sight-seeing. We were in the veiy same valley 




as Lioyanti, and this was the same fever whlcli treated, or 
rather maltreated, with, onljj' a little Dover's powder, proved 
so fatal to poor llclroore; the symptoms, too, were ideDtical 
wilh those af^rward described by non-medical persons as 
those of poison. 

We gave Afoshobotwanc a present, and a pretty plain ex- 
posiitioti of what we thought of his bloody forays among his 
Batoka brethren. A scoldiDg does moat good to the recipi- 
ent when pat alongside some obliging act Ue ceruunly did 
not take it ill, as was evident from what be gave iia in re- 
turn, which consisted of a liberal supply of meal, milk, and 
an ox. He has a large herd of cattle, and a tract of fine pas* 
ture-land on the beautful stream. Lekona A homC'feeling 
comes over one, even in the interior of Africa, at seeing once 
more cattle gra^ng peacefully in the meadows. The tselse 
inhabits the trees which bound the pasture-land on tbo west; 
so, should the herdsman forget his duty, the cattle stmying 
might be entirely lost. The women of this village were 
more numerous than the men, the result of the chieTs ma- 
lauding. The Batoka wife of Sima came up from the Falls 
to welcome her husband back, bringing a present of the best 
fruits of the country. Her hufband was the only one of the 
party who had brought a wife from Telle, namely, the prl 
whom he obtained from Cbisaka for bis feats of dancing. 
According to our ideas, his first wife coold hardly have been 
pl«ttMd at seeing the second and younger one ; but she took 
ber away home with her, while the husband remained with 
ns. In going down to the Fall village we met several of the 
real Makolola They are lighter in color than tbe other 
tribes, being of a rich warm brown ; and they speak in a 
slow, deliberate manner, distinctly pronouncing every woid. 
On reaching the village opposite Kolai, we had an interview 




with tho Mftkololo liead man, MashoUanc : ho came to the 
shed in which wc were seated, a little boy carrying his low 
thrcC'lcggcd stool before bim: on this ho snt down with be- 
coming dignity, looked lound him for a few seconds, then at 
U8, aud, saluting us with " Rumela" (good-morning, or hail), 
he gave us aome boiled hippopotamus meat, took a piece 
himself, and then handed tha rest to his attendants, who soon 
ate it up. He defended his forays on the ground that, when 
he went to collect tribute, the Batoka attacked him, and killed 
some of his attendants. The excuses made for their little 
wars arc often the very same as those made by Cffisar in his 
" Commeataries." Few admit, like old Moshobotwane, that 
they foaght because they had the power, and a fair prospect 
of conquering. "We found here Pitsane, who had accom,* 
panicd the doctor to St, Paul dc Loanda. lie had been sent 
by Sekelctu to purchase three horses from a trading party of 
Griquas from Kuruman, who charged nine large tusks a piece 
for very wretched animals. 

In the evening, when all was slill, one of our men, Take- 
lang, lired bis musket, and cried out, " I am weeping for my 
wife: my court is desolate: I have nv home;" and then ut- 
tered a loud waii of anguish. 






HctS4«4nD7fl, or Victoria KoIIm.— Vuit Gunlco IsUnd. — Woris ftO to 4a> 
•criba the Fall«.— Tnrici^ tlic Depth of Nugua.— H(»i.oa-uq« bem &ib 

I'nlm.— Fillt-d llic native Mlad wiili Awe— No I'DrtngnCM BoeorJ of thein. 
—Two SliiTc* rcncli Tetia frum Cawangc, and make the "I\>rt»^Mt RoatT' 
•croM Africa. — MMhotlnno and hii I'risoQer. 

We proceeded next mornbg, yih of August, I860, to see 
the Victoria Falls. Mosi-oa-tunya ib tho Makololo name, aDd 
meaus smoke eouudiag; Seongo or Chougwe, meaning the 
Bainbow, or the place of the Haiabow, was tbe more ancient 
term tbey bom We embarked ia canoes belonging to Tuba 
Mokoro, " smasher of canoes," au ominous name ; but be 
alone, it seems, knew the medicine which insures ooe against 
shipwreck in the rapids above the Falls. For some miles 
the river was smooth and tracqui], and we glided pleasantly 
over water clear as crystal, and past lovely islands densely 
ooTcred with a tropical vegetation. Noticeable among the 
t many trees were the lofty IlypbieDe and Borassus palms ; 
the graceful wild date-palm, with its iruit in golden clustera, 
and the nmbrngeoos mokononga, of cyprees form, with its 
dark green leaves and scarlet fruit Many flowers peeped 
out near iho water's edge, some entirely new to us, and oth- 
ers, 03 the convolvulus, old acqnaintinces. 

But our attention was quickly called from the charming 
islands to the dangerous rapids, down which Tuba might 
UQ intentionally shoot us. To confess the truth, the Tcry 
ugly aspect of these roaring mpids ooold scarcely fail to 
caoso some une-a^ness in the minds of new-comers. Tt is 
• only when the river is very low, as it was now, that any one 



duist ventare to the island to which we were bound. 1£ one 

went during the period of ilood, and fortunately^ bit the isl- 
and, he would he ohliged to remain there till the water sub- 
sided again, if he lived so Jong. Both hippopotami luid ele- 
phants have been known to be swept over the Falla, and of 
oouree smoBhed to pulp. 

Before entering the race of waters, we were requested not 
to speak, as our talking might diminish the-Ttrtue of the 
medicine i and no one with such boiling, eddjing rapids be- 
fore his eyes, would think of disobeying the orders of a "ca- 
noe-smasher.'' It soon became evident that there was sound 
sense in this request of Tuba's, although the reason assigned 
was not unlike that of the canoe-man from Scsbekc, who 
bpgged one of our party not to whistle, because whistling 
made the wind come. It wat* tlie duty of the man nl ihc 
bow to look out ahead for the proper course, and when he 
saw a rock or snag, to call out to the steersman. Tuba doubt- 
lees thought that talking on hoard might divert the attention 
of bis steersman, at a time when the neglect of an order, or a 
dight mistake, would bo sure to spill us all into the chafing 
river. There were places where the utnioet exertions of 
both men had to be put forth in order to force the canoo to 
the only safe port of the rapid, and to prevent it from sweep- 
ing down broadside on, where in a twinkling we should have 
found ourselves floundering among the plotuses and cor- 
morants, which were engaged in diving for tbeir breakfast 
of Bmall fish. At times it seemed as if nothing could save 
ns from dashing in our headlong race against the rocks, 
which, now that tho river was low, jutted out of the water; 
but, just at the very nick of time. Tuba passed the word to 
the steeiBmaa, and then with ready pole turned the canoo a 
little aside, and we glided swiftly past the threatened danger. 



crat. zn. 

Never was canoe more ftdmirablj managed : odoc only did 
the medicine seem to have lost something of its efficacy. We 
were driving amilly down ; a black rock, over which the 
white foam flew, lay directly in our path ; the pole was plant* 
ed against it as readily as ever, but it slipped just as TabA 
put forth his strength to turn the bow off. We struck hard, 
and were half full of water io a moment; Tuba recovered 
himself as speedily, shoved off the bow, and shot the canoe 
into a still shallow plaoe, to bale out the water. Here we 
were given to tinderstand that it was not the medicine which 
was at fkalt ; that had lost none of its virtue ; the accident 
was owiog entirely to Tuba having started without his break- 
iksi. Need it bo said wo never let Tuba go without that 
meal again ? 

We landed at the head of Garden Island, which is situated 
near the middle of the river and on the lip of the Falls. On 
reaching that lip and peering over the giddy height, the 
wondrous and unique character of the magnificent cascade at 
once burst upon us. 

It is rather a hopeless task to endeavor to convey an 
idea of it in words, since, as was remarked on the spot, ao 
accomplished painter, even by a number of views, could bat 
impart a faint impression of the glorious scene. The prob- 
able mode of its formation may perhaps help to the concep- 
tion of its peculiar shape. Niagara has been formed by a 
wearing back of the rock over which the river fulls; and, 
during n long couise of ages, it has gradually receded, and 
left a broad, deep, and pretty straight trough in frouL It 
goes on wearing back daily, and may yet discharge the lakes 
from which its river — the St.Lawrenoe — flows. But the 
Victoria Falls have been formed by a crack right across the 
river, in the hard, black, basaltic rock which there formed 




the bed of the Zambesi. The lips of the crack are still quite 
sharp, save ubout three feet of Uie edge over which the river 
rolls. The walls go sheer down from the lip3 without any 
projecting crag, or symptom of stratification or dislocation. 
"Wheu the mighty rift occurred, no change of level took place 
in the two jMirta of the bed of the river thus rent a.sundor; 
consequently, in coming down tho river to Garden Island, 
the water suddenly disappears, and we see the opposite aide 
of the cleft, with grass and trees growing where once the 
river ran, on the same level as that part of its bed on which 
we sail. The lintt crack is, in length, a few yards more than 
the breadth of the Zambesi, which by measurement we found 
to be a little over 18Q0 yards, but this number we resolved 
to retain as indicating the year in which the Fall was for the 
first time carefully examined. The main Blreuin here runs 
nearly north and soiilb, and the cleft across it is nearly east 
and west. The depth of the riil was measured by lowering 
a liae, to the end of which a few bullets and a foot of white 
cotton cloth were tied. One of us lay with his head over a 
projtcliug crag, and watched the descending calico, till, after 
his companions had paid out 310 feet, the weight rested on a 
sloping projection, probably 50 feet from the water below, 
the actual bottom being stUl fiirther down. The white cloth 
now appeared the size of a crown-piece. On measuring the 
width of ibis deep cleft by sextant, it was found at Garden 
laland, its narrowest part, to be eighty yards, and at its broad- 
est somewhat more. Into this chasm, of twice the depth of 
Kiagara Fall, the river, a fnll mile wide, rolls with a deafen* 
Ing roar; and this is Mosi-oa-tunys, or the Victoria Falls. 
Looking from Garden Island down to the bottom of the 
bysa, nearly half a mile of water, which has fallen over that 
orUon of the Falls to our right, or west of our point of view. 




is seen collected in a narrow channel twenty or thirty yards 
wide, and fiowing at exactly right angles to its previous 
course, to our left; while the other half, or that which fell 
over the eastern portion of the Falls, is seen in the left of the 
narrow channel below, coming toward our right Both wa- 
ters unite midway, in a fearful boiling whirlpool, and find an 
outlet by ft crack situated at right angles to the fissure of 
the Falls. This oullot is about 1170 ynnls from tho western 
end of the chasm, and some 600 from its eastern end ; the 
whirlpool is at its commencement. Tho Zambesi, now ap- 
parently not more than twenty or thirty yards wide, rushes 
and surges south, through the narrow escape-channel for 130 
yards ; then entera a second chasm somewhat deeper, and 
nearly parallel with the first. Abandoning the bottom of the 
eastern half of this second chasm to the growth of large trees^ 
it turns sharply oiF to tho west, and forms a promontory, 
with the escape- chaunel at its point, of 1170 yards long, and 
416 yards broad at the base. After reaching this base tho 
river runs abruptly round the head of another promontory, 
and flows away to tho east, in a third chasm ; then glides 
round a ihinl promontory, much narrower than the rest, and 
away back to the west, in a fourth chasm ; and we could see 
in the distance that it appeare<l to round still another prom- 
ontory, and bend once more in inother chasm toward tho 
eaet. In this gigantic, zigzag, yet narrow trough, ihc rocks 
are all so eliarply cut and angular, that tho idea at once 
arises that the hard biisnitio trap must have been riven into 
its present shape by a force acting from beneath, and that this 
probably took place when the ancient inland seaa were let 
off by similar fissures nearer the ocean. 

The land beyond, or on the south of the Falls, retains, as 
already remarked, tho same level as before the rent was 

Cur. XII. 



made. It is us if tbe trough below Niagara were bent right 
and left several times before it reached ihe railway bridge. 
The land in the supposed bends, being of tbe same height as 
that above the Fall, would give standing-places, or points of 
view, ol tbe same nature as that from the railway bridge ; 
but the nearest would be only eighty yards, instead of two 
miles (the distance to the bridge), fmm tbe Cice of the cascade. 
The tops of the promontories are in general flat, smooth, and 
studded with trees. The first, with its base on the cast, is at 
one place so narrow that it would be dangerous to walk to 
its extremity. On the second, however, we found a broad rhi- 
noceros path and a but; but, unless the builder were a her- 
init, with a pet rhinoceros, we can not conceive what beast or 
man ever went there for. On reaching the apex of this sec- 
ond eastern promontory wc saw the great river, of a deep 
' iea-gTccn color, now sorely comprciscd, gliding away at least 
400 feet below us.* 

Garden Taknd, when the river is low, commands the best 
view of the Great Fall chasm, as also of the promontory op- 
posite, with its grove of large evergreen trees, and brilliant 
rainbows of three quartera of a circle, two, tbree, and some- 
times even four in number, resting on tbe face of tbe vast 
■ perpendicular rock, down which tiny streams are always run- 
ning, to be swept again back by the upward rushing vapor. 

• We huve twice uted tbo word "glide" in iho aborc description, and wUh 
to DODTGj till! iilca tlml iliQ riTCT, (iKtiuuKfa m lum, tOMcd, and buffeted iu ihc 
fell thwoi, Bli)n raand tbo pmoia gf tlio pratDDiiiori«3 n-iib a rosistlcss don-, 
•nbrafcen tare by a pocaliar churning, Ciddying mfiiion. 'llits gave us the tin- 
pranion tbat the cleft mtut be proctigiDii*)y deep to ftllow a]] tbo nutcr jwtircd 
btio it to raui M> uniuinuliuoiiiily aivat ; and it Tna,j here be remArkcd that in 
tlie rnjiitiipica% n skeicli of wbicli wo* *eiit to Sir ItqcIcTick MuicIiuuti frotn tlio 
«pot in ISOO. the isind forming lii« promonioriM is necwKarily dv pnnwd to ex- 
biblt ihc Fullf, ilioueh it ia nut so iu nature. Tbe foragroond of ibis bird's-cyt 
ricw bu more vcEciaiion tliun nctuollj' appears ; fir avrof from tJie ialliieDce 
of the rapor, tlio nwki are ratber bare. 




But as, Qt Niagara, one has to go over to the Canadian shoi 
to see the chief wonder — the Great Horec-shoc Fall — 60 he 
wc have to cross over to Moselekatae's eide, to the promonto- 
ry of eveigreeus, for the best view of tho principal Falls of 
Mosi-oa-tuoya. Beginning, therefore, at the base of this prom- 
ontory, and facing the cataract, at tBe west end of the chasm 
thew is, first, a fall of thirty -six yards in breadth, and of 
course, as they all are, upward of 310 feet in depth. Then 
Boaruka, a small island, intervenes, and next comes a greatj 
fall, with a breadth of fl7S yards; a projecting lock scparatctl 
this from a second grand fall of 325 yards broad; in all up-J 
ward of 900 yards of perennial falla Farther east stonda 
Gurdcn Island; then, as the river was at its lowest, came & 
good deal of the bare rock of its bed, with a score of narrow 
falls, which, at the time of Bood, constitute one enormous aa- 
cade of nearly another half mile. Near the east end of the 
chasm are two larger falls, but tboy are nothing at low water 
compared to those between the Islands. 

Tho whole body of water rolls clear over, quite unbroken ; 
but, after a dcacent of ten or more feet, the entire mass sud- 
denly becomes like a huge sheet of driven snow. Pieces of 
water leap off it in the form of oomets with toils Btrcaming^ 
behind, Ull the whole snowy sheet becomes myriads of rash- 
tog, leaping, aqueous comets. Thb peculiarity was not ob- 
served by Charles Livingstooe at Niagara, and here it hap- 
pens, possibly from Uic dryness of the atmosphere, or wbai-' 
ever the cause may bo which makes every drop of Zambesi 
waU'r appear to posseBs a sort of individuality. It runs off 
the ends of the paddles, and glides in beads along the smooth 
surface, like drops of quicksilver on a table. Here we seA^ 
Utem in a oooglomcration, each with a train of pure whb 
vapor, raeiDg down Ull lost in clouds of spray. A 


dropped in became less and less to the e^e, and at last dis- 
appeared in the dense mist below. 

Cliarles Livingstone had seen Niagara, and gave Mosi-oa- 
tuojTB the palm, though now at the end of a drought, and the 
river at its very lowest. Many feci a disappointment on first 
seeing tlio great American Fails, bat Mosi-oa-tunya ia so 
strange, it must ever cause wonder. In the amount of water 
Niagara probably excels, though not during the months when 
the Zambesi is in flood. The vast body of water, separating 
in tlio comet-like forms dci^cribccl, necessarily incloses in its 
descent a large voLume uf air, which, forced into the cleft to 
an unknown depth, rebounds, and rushes up loaded with va- 
por, to form the three or even six columns, as if of steam, vis- 
ible at the Batoka village Moacheniba, twenty-one miles dis- 
tant. On attaining a height of 200, or at most 800 feet from 
the level of the river above the cascade, this vapor becomes 
condensed into a perpetual shower of fine rain. Much of iho 
spray, rising to the west of Garden Island, falls wi the grove 
of evergreen trees opposite ; and from their leaves heavy 
drops are forever falling, to form sundry little rills, which, in 
running down the steep face of rock-, are blown ofl'and turn- 
ed back, or licked off their perpendicular bed up into the col- 
umn from which they have Just descended. 

The morning sun gilds these columns ofwatery Bmckc 
with all the glowing colors of double or treble rainbows. 
The evening sun, from a hot yellow sky, imparts a sulphure- ' 
ous hue, and gives one tho impression that the yawning gulf 
might resemble the mouth of the bottomless pit No bird sits 
and sings on the branches of the grove of perpetual showers, 
or ever builds its nest there. We saw hornbills, and flocks 
of little black weavers flying across from the main land to 
the islands, and from the islands to the points of the promon* 




tories and back again, bat they oniformly shunned the re- 
gion of perpetual rain, occupied by the evergreen grove. The 
sunshine, elsewhere in this land so overpowering, never pen- 
etrates the deep gloom of that shade. In the presence of the 
strange Hosi-oa-tuuya, we can sympathize with those who, 
when the world was young, peopled earth, air, and river witU 
beings not of mortal form. Sacred to what deity would be 
this awful chasm and that dark grove, over which hovera an 
ever-abiding " pillar of cloud ?" 

The ancient Batoka chieftains used Kazeruka, now GaTdeD 
Island, and Boaruka, the island farther west, also on the lip 
of the Falls, as aacnid spots for worshiping the Deity. It is 
no wondor that under the cloudy columns, and near the bril- 
liant rainbows, with the ceaseless roar of the cataract, with 
the perpetual flow, as if pouring forth from the hand of the 
Almighty, their souls should be filled with reverential awe. 
It inspired wonder in the native mind throughont the inte- 
rior. Among the firet questions asked by Scbituanc of Mr. 
Oswell and Dr. Livingstone, in 1861, was, " Have you any 
smoke soundings id your country?" and "What caoaes the 
smoke to rise for ever so high out of water?" In that yeJur 
its fame was heard 200 miles off, and it was approached with- 
in two days ; but it was seen by no European till lSo5, when 
Dr. Livingstone visited it on his way to the East Coast. Be- 
ing then accompanied as far as this fall by Sckclctu and 300 
followers, his stay was neoessarily short; and the two days 
there were employed in obsorrations for fixing the goograph- 
ioal position of the place, and turning the showers, that a% 
times sweep from the columns of vapor across the island, to 
account, in leaching the Makololo arboricultopd, and making 
that garden from which the natives named the island, so thafti 
he did not visit the opposite sides of the cUti, nor aee the 



wonderful course of the river beyond tbe Falls. Tbe hippo- 
potami had destroyed tbe trees whicb were then planted; and, 
though a strong stockaded hedge was made again, aod. living 
orange-trees, cashew-uuta, and coffee seeds put in afresh, we 
fear that the perseverance of tbe hippopotami will overcome 
the obstacle of the hedge:* It would require a resident mis- 
sionary to rear European fruit-trees. The period at which 
the peaoh and aprieot come into blossom is about the end of 
the dry season, and artificial irrigation is necessary. The Ba- 
toko, the only arboriculturists in the country, rear aative fruit- 
trees alone — the mosibe, the niotsikiri, the boma, and others. 
'When a tribe takes. an interest in trees, it becomes more at- 
tached to the spot on which they are planted, and ihey prove 
one of the civilizing inlluenees. 

Before leaving the most wonderful Falls in the world, one 
niny be excused for refeniug to the fact that, though they 
had produced a decided iuipression ou the native mind in the 
interior, no intelligence of their cxisteuoe ever reached the 
Portuguese. About 1809, two black slaves, named Pedro 
Baptista and. Andre Jos^, were sent from Oossangc, a village 
three hundred miles from the West Coast, through the coun- 
try of Cozembe, to Tette, nearly an equal distance from tho 

t •,Th«Victi)Ti«FalU wcrcviiiioil by Sir Richard GIyo,BiiTt, and hhhroth- 
^^H^ vhcn on a Iinnting cxcnrrion In 18li3. 'I1tcy ^-iriiicfl Onnlcn Isluiicl. atid 
^Rand Ibnl onr fcAn of the rl^predatioiiR of tho liippopoiaini Ijad been od/ too 
^KtB rtiunilcd. Ilie fruii^tracB had been dcKlmyeJ. Sir Itiihan) kinitlj-tbwiv 
Vaed the imLinJi "D.L., IiSAK,"inad« on a tree on llio [iilniul ivlien tlie discov- 
^fj- took pljKW. and the onlj caio in vhlvti llio Icilcr* hnd bcpii I'at by Dr. t,\v- 
iSK't'^oo in the country. TrnJers and oCiicn aLw hnTo visited ifaa conouy 
«ODtli of ihcFoJU, Uit tvc have nut §ccn any new grouiiLl described in that qiiiir- 
Str, nor does anr nnn cIm neetn to hare ^ni; o^-f^ to the enitcm xidc, and 
«j|Ain MfTt the chitsmf Ihcrc. The river Loftkn-c or Qiiai. mid to hnve fanoea 
^pon il, and to join tire Zambtai between Mo» nnd Riniunnno'a, mi)tlit 
t^ IntenmiiiK to exptoror* ; nnd MooRlekntJit-, thu paramonnt lord of tha pou]>Io 
tJMre, is ktion^ to b« faTorabEo to tho CngtiRli. 



CiiJir. XII. 

East Coast A lady now living at Tette, Donna Eagcnia, re- 
members dislaoctly these slaves — their woolly hair dressed in 
the Londa fashion — arriving and remaining at Tette till let- 
ters came from the Governor General of Mozambique, which 
they successfully carried back to Cassange. On this slender 
fibre hangs all the Forluguesc pretension lo having possessed 
a road across Africa. Their maps show the source of th&i 
Zambe^ S.S'W, of Zumbo, about where the Falls were found ; 
and on this very questionable authority an untravelcd Ea- 
glisU map-maker, with most amusing assurance, asserts tbi 
the river above the Falls runs under the Kalahari Desert and ' 
is lost 

Where one Englishman goes, others arc sure to follov. 
Mr. Baldwin, a gentleman from Natal, succeeded in reachii 
the Falls guided by bis pocket-compass olona On meeting 
the second subject of bor majesty who had ever beheld Ui»j 
greatest of African wonders, wo found him a sort of pris 
at laiige. He had called on Mnshotlane to ferry him over to 
the north sido of the river, and, when nearly over, he 
a bath by jumping in and swimming ashore. "If," soil! 
Mashotlane, "he had been devoured by ono of ilie crocodileeT 
which, abound there, the English, would have blamed us for 
his death. He nearly inflicted a great injury upon us, there- 
fore we said be must pay a fine." As "Mr. Baldwin bad notb- 
ing with him wherewith to pay, thev were taking care of him 
till he should receive beads from bis wagon two days distant 

Mosbotlane's education bad been received in the camp of 
Sebitoane, where but little regard wns paid to human life. 
He was not yet in his prime, and hia fine open countenance 
presented to us no indication of the evil influences which un- 
happily, from infancy, had been at work on hia mind. The 
aative eye was more penetrating than ours; for the exj^rcs* 


sion of our men was, " He has drunk the blood of men — 
you may see it in hia eyea" He made no farther difficolty 
about Mr. Baldwin ; bat, the week after we left, he inflicted 
a severe wound on the head of one of his wives with hia 
rhinoceros-horn club. She, being of a good family, left him, 
and we subsequently met her and another of his wives pro- 
ceeding up the country. 

The ground is strewn with agates for a number of miles 
above the Falls ; but the flres, which burn off the grass year- 
ly, have injured most of those on the surface. Our men»were 
delighted to hear that they do as well as flints for muskets ; 
and this, with the new ideas of the value of gold {dalama) and 
malachite that they had acquired at Tette, made them con- 
ceive that we were not altogether silly in picking up and 
looking at stones. 



Caw. xm. 


Coodilion of Fugitives and GapiiTca in natirc Tribes. — S^rriiado in the laK- 
rior light M campaTe<d to SUver/ on ilio Coast. — Mololc'* Village. — ScMtirj 
of Fao<l.~-Tuui}rkua ideaticnl wiUi Ourebt.— The Polcii.— Ur. Liringrtone 
Wflfwlff^ oD llie Value of IlonM-^Mparira, villago of >lokompii.^.8dii^ ] 
lew Be«. — ^T«ke Cange fur Smheke. — S«keieiu'« Atiempt ai enforcing Qoami* 
lin.— Tha Chirfs' H«MORer«. — "TIw ArRomvor fw IcarnioR to read.— 
"FiwPrBtlqae."— NBtiToInstroclioiu.— Tlia Caltltspoa SctwoL — Solioka: 
Oldud New Town. —Sdicleia.—Naihingliko Beef.— "Beef wiib BadBeef 
without." — Viiiion. — Sckclcia's Lnjmay and ita aueodnt EriU. — DiMue 
proDouutwil Incurable by naiitu IXictor*. — TakAo ia band by a Docti««.^ 
IlBiided over to Drt. LiringitDnn and Kirk. — [ctiproTcmeat of ibe Puimt 
— ^Description oribe Db««w. — Ti'ii and preserred Fruiu from BeacoeU. — 
No IrorT,Ro;^air«-lradt!. — Effect of Sekelotn'a Orders in elaung iha &!«*«- 
narkfll. — Fasbion. — nor«c-deaIin«. — Pccntiar .Siylo of Racing. — " The 
ItmiM hnlil Caralr;'." — I'roUaco (tf the Tntcriar in Grain. — No Vegetables.^ — 
KoFrril. — Mr. Baldwin, and Mr. lliiltnoiTe'* Party. ~Sad breaUng npof ihfi 
Iffiiiinn T^irr. not Poison, the caase of Deaiha, 

?bEARcniKQ Up the river, Tre crossed the Xjekooe at its oon- 
flaencc, about eight miles above the island Kalai, and went 
oa to a village opposite the island Cbundo. Nambowe, tbc 
head man, is one of the Matebele or Zulus, who have had to 
flee from iho anger of Moselekatse, to tako refuge with the 
Makololo. During our interview, his six haadsome wires 
Cflino and eat behind him. He had only two childrea. The 
ladies were amueed with our question whether they ever 
quarreled, to which the monster answered, " Oh ves, thev are 
always quarreling among themselvea." Among the Coast 
tribes a fugitive is almost always sold, but here a man retains 
the same rank he held in his own tribe. The children of 
captives even have the same privileges as the childraa of 
their captora. The Kqv, T. il. Thomas, a missionary now 



living with Moselekatse, £[icU the same system, prcvaillug 
among his ZdIus or Matebele. He says that " the Africau 
slave brought by a foray to the tribe enjoys from tho begin- 
ning the privileges and name of ii chlkl, and looks upon his 
master and mistress in every respect as his new parents. Ho 
is not only nearly his master's equal, but he may, with im- 
panity, leave his master and go wherever be likes within tUo 
boundary of the kingdom: although a bondman or servant, 
his position, especially in Muselekatee's country, does not 
convey the true idea of a state of slavery ; for, by care and 
diligeace, ho may &oon become a master himsellj and even 
more rich and powerful thaw ho who led him captive." 

The practice pursued by these people on returning from a 
foray, of selling the captives to each other for com or cattle, 
might lead one to imagine that slavery existed in all its in- 
tensity among the native Africans ; but Mr. Thomas, observ- 
ing, OS we have often done, the actual working of the system, 
says very truly, "Neither the punctuality, quickness, thor- 
oughness, nor amount of exertion is req^uirud by the African 
asby tboEuropL'an master. Id Europe the difikuUy is want 
of time; in Africa, what is to be done wiLli it.'' Apart from 
the shocking waste of life, which takes place in these and all 
slave fora;)'8, their slavery is not so repulsive as it always be* 
comes in European hands. It is perhaps a failure iu a trav- 
eler to be affected with a specitja of home-sickness, so that the 
mind always turns from the conditions and circumstances of 
the poor abroad to the state of the lonely in our native land ; 
bat 80 it is. When we see with how much ease the very low- 
est class here can subsist, we can not help remembering, with 
Borrow, with what diiBculty our own poor can manage to live 
— with what timid eagerness employment ia sought — how 
hard the battle of life; while so much of this fair earth re- 



Cui.r. Xllf. 

mains unoccupied, and not put to the benevolent purpose fi>r 
vhich it was intended by its Maker. 

We spent Sunday, the 12lb, at the village of Molele, n toll 
old Batoko, who was proud of having formerly been a grcftt 
favorite with Scbituane. In coming hither we passed through 
patches of forest abounding in all sorts of game. The ele> 
phaotjs' tusks, placed over graves, are now allowed to decay, 
and the skulls, which tho former Batoka stuck on poles to 
ornamenl their villages, not being renewed, now crumble into 
duaL Here the famine, of which we had heard, became ap- 
parent, Molele's people being employed in digging up the 
teitfa root out of the marshes, and cutUng out the soft core of 
the young palm-trees for food. ' 

The village, situated on the side of a wooded ridge, cent- 
monds an extensive view of a great expanse of meadow and 
marsh lying along the bank of the river. On these holmes 
herda of bnfFaloes and waterbueks daily graze in security, as 
they have in the reedy marshes a refuge into which they can 
run on the approach of danger. The pretty little tinyane or 
ourebi is abundant farther on,* and herds of blue weldebecBts 

* From being entirely unknoHn in (he ncctinona coantr; wnth ot tli^ il 
vu ibongfat to be a new onlvlupe, «nil is bo moDtioncd by Dr.LiriuBilaii*; 
but dM description of |]iu uppcarancc iciul, Blnnig-4.iLll, ami habtu (eiron bj ao- 
Olbcr AIVic«n tTAVclcr, Mr. W. F. Wcbli) it ilio onrcbi, na found fn Naul, 
tearoi do dotibt tat thm the tno unirnob arc licnllcAL navinE mtdt ibis 
mistake bimicLf, Hr. Lirinffrtono \» quite •iisposcd to be lenient to othcn; but 
would rcspedfuUjr »u£gcflt « doubt, wnelh«r it lie ailvimble to tnulti|>Iy namet 
trbcn there b no more vkriation than m bcni! tn the »bajie of the bon]% or a 
slight dilTcrenra in tlje color of itie hair. An elaniJ, for imtaocv, deacribMl. 
from spccicneiis shot on thnu ^'crv ]i1ains in 1 8S3, u rctoininE in matttritj ibo 
stripes vbich nivp«ar on the janng of ail elands in iht Kalabari Desert, ten 
Tears later Iisk been TedisroTered ns iljikijnnka, niuncd fmm s)>e«imcn* aecn in 
West Africa. Tbi« lias been ihc casc hIm with the nokoitg or moc, and tbs 
najon aMi;;ned in tbin eiue visa its beinj; " faintly ii|H>tted." A ronng watw- 
bnclt's head iias qHo been broiiRht from Wot Africa and flj^ired ns a new (po. 
otes'; and tlifi cecamon biubbuck wus called^. Aoiia/tjn), though udl kao^ii 
ud dcscTibod bcforo nnv of i» were bom. 

Cmi'. XUI. 


or brindkd gnus (Katoblepas Qorgon) amused us by tbeir fao- 
tastic capers. They present a much more ferocious aspect 
than the Uon himselT, but are quite timid. We never could, 
\>y waving a red handkerchief, according to the prescription, 
induce ihem to venture near to us. It may therefore be that 
the red color excites their fury only when wounded or hotly 
pursued. Ilerds of lechee or lecbwiS now enlivea the mead- 
ows: and they and their youtiger brother, the graceful poku, 
smaller, and of a rounder contour, race together toward the 
grassy feus. We ventured to call the poku after the late 
Major Vardon, a noble-hearted African traveler ; but fully 
anticipate that some aspiring Nimrod will prefer that his own 
name should go down to posterity on tbe back of this buck. 

Midway between Tabacheu and the Great Falls the streams 
begin to flow westward. On the other side they flow east, 
Lai^e round mast<:s of granite, somewhat Kke old castles, 
tower aloft about the Kalomo. The country \a an elevated 
plateau, and uur men knew and named the diiFerent plains 
as we passed ihcm by. ' i 

On the 13th we met a party from Sekelctu, who was now 
at Sesheke. Our approach had becu reported, and they hod 
beeu sent to ask the doctor what the price of a horse ought 
to be i and what he said, that they were to give and no more. 
Iti reply ihey were told that by their having given uiue large 
tusks for one horse before the doctor came, the Griquas would 
naturally imagine that the price was already settled. It was 
exceedingly amusing to witness the exact imitation they gave 
of the swagger of a certain white with whom they had been 
dealing, and who had, as they had perceived, evidently wish- 
ed to assume an air of indifFcrcncc. Holding up tho head 
&nd scr.^tching the beard it was hinted might indicate not in- 
difTcrencc, but vermin. It is well that we do not always 



Cii*p. xm. 

know wbat they say about us. The remarks are often nt 
quite complimentary, and resemble closely what certain vbiu ' 
travelers say about the blacka. 

We made our camp in the afternoon abreast of the large 
island called Mparira, opposite the mouth, of the Chobc Fran- 
colins, quails, and Guinea-fowls, as well as larger game, were 
abundant. The Makololo head man, Mokompa, brought us 
a liberal present ; and, in the usual way, which is considered 
politeness, regretted be had no milk, as bis cows were all dry. 
"We got some honey here from the very small stinglcss beo, 
called by the Batoka moandi, and by others the kokomat- 
sane. This honey is slightly acid, and has an aromatic fla* 
vor. The bees are easily known from their habit of buzzing 
about the eyes, and tickling the skin by sucking it as com* 
moa flies do. The hive has a tube of wax like a quill for its 
eatntDce, and is usually in the hollows of trees. 

Mokompa feared that the tribe was breaking up, and la* 
mented the condition into which they had fallen in coqb6* 
quence of Sekeletu's leprosy; he did not know what was to 
become of them. He seat two canoes to take us up lo Se* 
shcke ; his best canoe had taken ivory np to tlie chief, to pur- 
chase goods of some native traders from Benguela. Abova 
the Falls the paddlers always stand in the canoes, using long] 
paddles ten feet in length, and changing from side to ade 
without losing the stroke. 

Mochokotsn, a messenger from Sekeletu, met us on the I7lh. 
with another request for the doctor to take ivory and pur- 
chase a horse. He again declined to interfere. None were 
to come up to Sckclctii but the doctor; and all the men who 
had hfid small-pox at Tette three years ago were to go back 
to Moshobotwanc, and he would sprinkle medicine over thenij 
to drive away the infectionj and prevent it spreading ia thft^ 

Cur. XUI. 



tribe. Mochokotsa was told to say lo Sekeleta that the dia* 
ease was known of old to white men, aud we even knew the 
medicine to prevent it; nnd, were there any danger now, we 
should be the first to wara him of it. Why did not ho go 
himself to bavcMosbobotaae sprinkle medicine to drive away 
bis leprosy? AVe were not afraid of bis diaeJise, nor of the 
fcver that had killed the teachers and many Makololo at Lin- 
yantt. As this attempt at quarantine was evidently the sug- 
gestion of native doctors to increase their own importance, 
wo added that we bad no food, and would hunt next day for 
game, and the day after; and, should wc bo still ordered pu- 
rification by their medicine, wo should then return to our 
own country. 

The mcAsage was not all of our dictation ; onr companions 
interlarded it with their own indignant protests, and s^d 
some strong things in the Tcttc dialect about these "doctor 
tbingg" keeping tbcm back from seeing their iaiher; when, 
to their surprise, Mochokotsa told them he knew every word 
they were saying, as he was of the tribe Bazizuin, and defied 
tbem to deceive him by any dialect, either of the Mashona 
on the cast, or of the ^rambari on the west. Mochokotsa 
then repeated our message twice, to be sure that he bad it 
every word, and went back again. These chiefs' messengers 
liave most retcnlive memories; tliey carry messages of con- 
siderable length great distances, and deliver them almost word 
for word Two or three usually go together, and when on 
Xhe way the message is rehearsed every night, in order that 
the exact words may be kept to. One of the native objec- 
tions to learning to write is that these men answer the pur- 
pose of transmitting intelligence to a disLtncc as well as a let- 
ter would ; and, if a person wishes to communicate with any 
one in the town, the best way to do so is cither to go to or 



send for him ; and as for corresponding with friends very fop 
o^ that is all very well for wbito people, but the blacks have 
no friends to whom to write. The only effective argument 
for their learning to read is that it is their doty to know tho 
revelation from their Father in Heaven as it stands in the 



Our messenger returned on tho evemug of the following 
day with " You speak truly," says Sekeletu ; ** the diseaao is 
old; come on at once; do not sleep in tlie path; for I am 
greatly desirous {ihtogdecoe) to see the doctor." 

After Moohokotsa. left us, we met some of Mokompa'a men 
bringing back the ivory, as horses were preferred to the West 
Const goods. They were the bearers of instructions to Mo- 
kompa, and as these instructions illustrate the government 
of people who have learned scarcely any thing from Euro- 
peans, they are inserted, though otherwise of no importance. 
Moshotlane had not behaved so civilly to Mr. Baldwin as Se- 
keletu had ordered him to do to all Englishmen, lie hod 
been very uncivil to tho messengers sent by Moselekatse with 
letters from Mr. Moffat, treated them as ppies, and would not 
land to take the bng until they moved oQ^ On our speaking 
to him about this, he justified his conduct, ou the plea that he 
was set at the Falls for the very purpose of watching these, , 
their natural enemies; and how was he to know that they 
had been sent by Mr. Moffat? Our men thereupon reported 
at head-quartera that Mashollano had cursed the doctor. The 
iiistructioDs to Mokompa from Sekeletu were to "go and tell 
Mashotlane that he had offended greatly. He had not cursed 
Monare (Dr. Livingstone), but Sebituane, as Monare was now 
in the place of Sebituane, and he reverenced him as he had 
done hia father. Any fine taken from Mr. Baldwin was to 
be returned at once, as he was not a Boer, but an English- 

Our. XIII. 



uian. Sekeleta was very aogrj, and Kokompn must not 
conceal tbe message." 

Ou finding aflerward that Masliollane's coudxict bad been 
moet outnigeQUS to the Batuka, Sekelctu. sent fur him to come 
to Sealieko, in order that be might have him mure under his 
OWD oje; but Mosbodoue, fearing that this meant the punish* 
ment of death, sent a polite answer, alleging that be was ill 
and unable to travel. Sekektu tried again to remove Ma- 
shotlane from the Kails, but without success, la iheorj' the 
chief is alisolute andq^uitc despotic; in practice bis authority 
is limited, and he can not, without occasionally putting re- 
fractory head men to death, force his subordinatt-s to do bis 

£xcept tbe small rapids by Mparira Island, near tbe mouth 
of the Cbobe, the rest of the way to Sesheke by water is 
smooth. Herds of cattle uf two or three varieties graze on 
the islands in the river : tbe Batoka possessed a very small 
breed of beautiful shape, and remarkably tame, and many 
may still be seen ; a larger kind, many of which have horns 
pendent, and loose at the roots; and a stiil larger sort, with 
horns of cslrnordinary diraenainns, apparently a burden for 
tbe beast to carry. This breed was found in abundance at 
Lake Ngami. We stopped at. noon nt one of the cattlc-posta 
of Mo kom pa, and had a refreshing drink of milk. lEen of 
his standing have usually several herds placcxl at different 
spots, and the owner visits each in turn, while his bead-quar- 
ters are at bis village. Ilia son, a boy of ten, hod charge of 
the establishmont during his father's absence. According to 
Makololo ideas, the cattle-poi^t is tbe proper school in which 
sons should bo brought up. Here they receive the right 
sort of education — the knowledge of pasture, and how to man- 
nge cattle. 



StroDg easterly winds blow daily from noon till miduigbt, 
and coDlinuc till the October or November rains set iii. 
"W"birl winds, raising hagc pillars of smoke from burning grass ^ 
aod weeds, are common in the forenoon. Wo were nearly 
caught in an immense one. It crossed about twenty yards 
in Ixont of us, the wind apparently rushing into it from &!] 
points of the compass. Whirling round and round in great 
eddies, it swept up hundreds of feet into tho air a contiuaoua 
dense dark cloud of the black pulverized soil, mixed with 
dried grass, off the plain. Herds of the new antelopes, lechw^, 
and poku, with the kokoiig, or gnus, and zebras, stood gazing 
at us as we i^asscd. The mirage lifted them at times half 
way to the clouds, and twisted tbcm and the clumps of pali 
into strange unearthly forms. The extensive and rich level 
plains by the banks, along the sides of wliich we paddled, 
would support a vast population, and might be easily irri- 
gated from the Zambesi. If watered, they would yield crope 
ail the year round, aud never suffer loss by drought The 
hippopotamus ia killed here with long lance-like spears. Wft I 
saw two men, in a light canoe, stealing noiselessly down on 
one of these animals thought to be asleep; but it was on tho 
alert, and they had quickly lo retreat. Comparatively few 
of these animahi now remain between Sesheke and theFall^ 
and they are uncommonly wary, as it is certain death for one 
to be caught napping in the daytime. 

On the 18th we entered Sesheke. The old town, now in 
ruins, stands on the left bank of tho river. The people have 
built another on the same side, a quarter of a mile higher up, 
since their head man Moriantaiane was put to death for be- 
witching the chief with leprosy. Sekeletu was on the riglit 
bank, near a number of temporary hutSL A man hailed us 
from the chiefs quarlera, and requested us to rest under the 




old kotia, or public meetiog-place tree. A young Uakololo, 
•witb the large ibigbs wbicU Zulus and most of this tribe 
have, crossed over lo receive orders from the chief, wbo had 
not Bhown himself to the people since he waa affected with 
leprosy. On returning he raa for Mokele, the head man of 
the new town, who, afler going over to Sekektu, came back 
and conducted ua to a small but good hut, and afterward 
brought us a fine fat ox as a preeent from the chief. " This 
is a time of hunger," he said, "and we have no meat, but we 
cxpoct some soon from the Barolso Valley." We were en- 
tirely out of food when we reached Sesheke. Never was 
better meat than that of the ox Sekelctu sent^ and infinitely 
above the Oesh of all kinds of game is classic beef I We have 
partokea of the Qesh of all iho eatable animals in Africa ex- 
cept the crocodile, and oflcn under circumstances when a 
keen appetite might be supposed to give a bias to the judg- 
ment in favor of the game ; yet all that could be said of the 
best was, it is nearly as good as the ilesh of oxen. Possibly 
some animals still untamed might be found to turn lo good 
account land covered with pasture such as Iieatbcr or brack- 
ens, otherwise useless for cattle j but we say, Let the "Ac- 
climatization Society" increase and multiply the number of 
beeves, and it will please the taste and benefit humanity 
more than it possibly could by the introduction of every wild 
aDimal from the elephant down to the crocodile. It must be 
confessed, however, that to the uninitiated it is rather awk- 
-ward to sit down to a meal of nothing but beef, however es- 
ccUcnL On taking a mouthful, hands and eyes turn instinct- 
ively in search of something in the form of bread, potatoes, 
or vegetables to accompany it, and there is an unpleasant 
sensation of wanting what the Scotch know by the word 
" kitchen" (oi/.ov). We made the fat h'tchfn the lean. The 





Makololo usually devour all the fat first, that being consid- 
ered the best, and afterward eat the lean, and, last of all,_tfac 
porridge or bread, if they have any. The people who, like 
them, live much oa milk and meat, can bear fatigue and 
privation much better than tbo^e whose suslcoancc is chiefly 
graia and pulse. When the Makololo go on a foray, as they 
Bometiines do, a inonlU dist&Qt, maoy of the subject tnbes 
who accompany them, being grain eaters, perish from sheer 
fatigue, while the beef eaters scorn the idea of even being 

A constant stream of visitors rolled in on us the day after 
oar arrival. Several of them, who had suffered nffliotioo 
during the doctor's abseuce, seemed to be much affected oa 
seeing him again. All were in low spirits. A serero 
drought had cut otT the crops, and destroyed the pasture of 
Linyanti, and the people were scattered over the countiy 
in search of wild fruits, and the hospitality of those whoso 
ground-nuta {Aracftis fit/pogtea) had not iailed. Sekelelu's 
leprosy brought troops of evils in its train. Believing him- 
self bewitched, ho bad suspected a number of his chief men, 
and had put some, with their families, to death; others bad 
fled to distant tribes, and were living in exile. The chief 
bad shut himself up, and allowed no one to come into his 
presence but his uncle ilamire. Ponwane, who had been as 
" head and eyes" to him, had just died; evidence, be thought, 
of the potent spells of those who hated all who loved the 
chief The country was suffering grievously, and Sebitu* 
anc's grand empire was crumbling to pieces. A large body 
of young Barotse had revolted and fled to the north, billing 
a man by the way, in order to put a blood-feud between 
Masiko, the chief to whom they were going, and Sekeletu. 
The Bacoka under Sinamane, and Mucmba, were indepeud- 

Cuxr. XJII. 



ecit, aad MosUotJane &t tbo Falls was setting Sekeletu'a au- 
tbority virtually at defiance Sebituane's wise policy in 
treating tbc coiiqucreJ tribes on equal terms with bis own 
ilofcololo, as all cbildrcn of tbe chief, and equally eligible 
to ihe bigliest bonon;, had been abandoned by his son, who 
married none but Makololo women, and appointed to office 
none but Makololo men. He bad become unpopular among 
the black tribes, conquered by tbo spear, but more effectu- 
ally won by tbo subsequent wise and just government of bis 

Strange rumors were afloat respecting the unseen Sekcle- 
ta; his fingers were said to have grown like eagle's claws, 
and his face so frightfully distorted ihat no one could recog- 
nize him. Some had begun to hint that ho might not really 
be the son of the great Scbituane, the founder of the nation, 
strong in battle, and wise in the afTnirs of stale. "In the 
days of the Great Lion" (Sebituane), said his only sister, Mo- 
riantaanc'a widow, whose husband Sekeletu had killed, "we 
had chiefs, and liltic chiefs, and eldera to carry on the gov- 
ernment, and the great chief, Sebituane, knew them all, and 
every thing they did, and the whole country was wisely 
ruled; but now Sekcleta knows nothing of what his nnder- 
lings do, and they care not for him, and tbc Makololo power 
is fast passing away."* 

• In ISCfi, four ream nfler lhe« forobodinga were penned, wo teecircd inicl- 
lIceiKO tlifti ihev hail all ronia to ptva. Kelsclulu dicJ in the bcginnlns of 
I K4 : K ci*il war broke unt about tlip iiicosMion to th« tliifHainaliiii : * large 
body orilioee oppowJ to the Inic vUivCa uiiele, loigjololo, boing rcRont, ilcpnrt- 
<sl w-ith their rnttli; lo Lftlte Ngami ; an insurrection by ihe bbick tribes fol- 
lowed ; Iin|«.lolo -nas sJnin, nnti th« kingdom, of which, under nu iible, Mj{ii- 
Cioas miwon, n Ta*l duni tnighlliavc birftn nmcii", hu suffered iho ttiud fate uf 
African eonqucBt*. Thiit fmo we deep!/ dejilotr ; for, whatever other faulu 
ihc Makololo miflht jrawly be diarjicil wiili, ihcy diH not belong i« the cloM 
•who bny aDd tcll each other, and the tribcH who liitve Buccocded them do. 



Ckat. xin. 

Tho native doctors had given the case of Sekeletu up^ 
They oould not cure him, and pronounced the disease incor- 
able. An old doctrcsa from the Manyeti tribe had oome to 
sec what sbs could do for him, and on her skill he non- bang 
his last hopes. She allowed no one to see him except his 
mother and unolc, making entire seclusion from society an 
cssentini condition of the much -longed-for cure. He sent, 
notwithstanding, for tho doctor ; and on the following day we 
oil three were permitted to see bitn. He was sitting in s oov- 
ered wagon, which was inclosed by a high wall of cloae-sct 
reeds; his face was only slightly disfigured by the thicken.-^ 
ing of tho skin iu parU^, where tho leprosy hod paSiod ore 
it ; and the only peculiarity about his bands was ihe extreme 
length of hia finger-nails, which, however, was nothing very 
much out of the way, as atl tho Makololo gentlemen 'we 
them uucommonly long. Ho has ihe quiet^ aaassuming' 
ners of bis father, Sebituane; speaks distinctly, in alow, pU 
ant voice, and appears to be a sensible man, except perhaps 
OQ tlio subject of his having been bewitched, and in thi^ 
when alluded to, he exhibits as firm a belief a£ if it were hisi 
moDomania. " Moriantsiane, my aunt's husband, tried the be- 
vitohing medidnc first on his wife, and she is leprous, and so 
is her head servant; then, seeing that it soccecded, ho gave 
me a stronger dose iu the cooked flesh of a goat^ and I have 
had the disease ever since. They have latcjy killed Pon* 
wane, and, as you see, are now killing mc." Ponwane had 
died of fever a short time previously. Sekeletu asked tis for 
medicine and medical attendance, but we did not like to take 
tho case out of the hands of the female physician already 
employed, it being bad policy to appear to tmdcrvalue any 
of tlio profession; ond Bhc,l)eing anxious to go on with her 
remedies, said *'she had not given him up yet, but would try 

Ciui-. XUL 



for another moolb ; if be was not cured by tbat time, then 
fihe vould baud bim over to tba wbitQ doctors." But we in- 
tended to leave tbo country before a month woa up ; ao Ma- 
mire, with othera, induced the old lady to suspend her treat- 
ment for a little. She remained, as the doctors stipulated, in 
the chief 's establishment^ and en full pay. 

Sekeletu woa told plainly that the disease was unknown in 
our country, and was thought exceedingly obstinate of cnre; 
that we did not believe in his being bewitched, and we were 
willing to do all we could to help him. This was a case for 
disintorcsted benevolence; no pay vcqs expected, but consid- 
erable risk incurred ; yet we could not decline it, as we hod 
the trading in horses. Havingi however, none of the medi- 
cines usually employed in skin diseaBee with us, we tried the 
local application of lunar caustic, and hydricdate of potash 
internally ; and wiUi such gratifying results, that Mnmire 
wished the patient to be smeared all over with a solution of 
lanar caustic, which he believed to be of iho same nature as 
the blistering fluid formerly applied to his own knee by Mr. 
Oswell. /to power he considered irresistible, and he would 
fain have had any tbing like it tried on Sekeletu. 

The disease begins with slight discoloration of the surface, 
and at first affects only the cuticle, the patches spreading in 
ihe manner, and with somewhat of the appearance^ of lichens, 
as if it were a fungus; small vesicles rise at the outer edges 
of the patches, and a diachai^o from, the vesicles forms scabs. 
The true skin next thickens and rises in nodules, on the fore- 
faead. nose, and ears; and, when the disease is far advanced, 
fbul fissures appear on the toes and fingers ; these eventually 
drop 0% and sometimes the deformed patient recovers. The 
natives believe it to be hereditiry, and non-contagious; but, 
irhile working with this case, something very like it was 



citAT. xm. 

transplanted to the hands of Dm. Kirk find LiviDgstone, and 

was cured only by the liberal use of the caustic. The chiefs 
health and spirita became better as tho skin became thinner, 
and the deformity of face disappeared. The nged doctresi^ 
naturally wishing to obtain some credit for the improvement, 
began secretly to superadd her remedies, which consisted of 
aoraping the diseased skin, and rubbing it with an astringent 
bark in powder. She desisted on receiving a hint from Ma- 
mire that perhaps the medicine of the white doctors and the 
medicine of the black doctors might not work well together. 

It was a time of grgit scarcity and hunger, but Sekelela 
treated us hospitably, preparing tea for us at every visit we 
paid him. With the lea we had excellent American biscuit 
and preserved fruits, which had been brought to him all the 
way from Bongucla. The fruits he most relished were those 
preserved in their own juices — plums, apples, pears, straw- 
berries, and peaches, which we have seen only among Porto- 
gueac and Spaniards. It made us anxious to plant the fruit- 
tree seeds wo had brought, and all were pleased with the 
idea of having those same fruits in their own country. 

Mokclc, the head man of Sesheke, and Sebituane's sister, 
Manchunyane, were ordered to provide us with food, as Se- 
kcletu's wives, to whom this duty properly belonged, were at 
Linyanti. We found a black trailer from the West Coast, 
and some Griqua traders from the South, both in search of 
ivory. Ivory is dear at Sesheke; but cheaper in the Batoka 
country, from Sinamanc's to theKafnc, than any where else. 
The trader from Benguela took orders for goods for his next 
year's trip, and offered to bring tea, coffee, and sugar at cent, 
per cent, prices. As, in consequence of a hint foronerly giv- 
en, the Makololo had secured all the ivorv in the Batoka 
country to the east by purchasing it with hoes, the Bcnguela 

Chip. XITL 



traders found it unprofital)lo to go thither for slaves. Tbey 
assured us that without ivory the tmdo in slaves did not pay. 
In this way, irnd by the ordera of Sekclctu, an extensive 
alaTe'iQ&rt was elated. Thcso orders were never infringed 
except 8cciietly. Wo discovered only two or three cases of 
ihdr infraction. 

Fashion is as despotic in Scshcko and Linyanii as in Lon- 
don and Paris. The ladies will not wear beads whioh are 
out of fashion, however ])rctty they may be. The chief is a 
M great horse- fancier, and has invested prt^ty largely in horae- 
I flesh; but be boa been very unlucky, nearly al! his honsea 
1 faaviog died soon afler being purchased. A party was sent 
^Klast year to Benguela with ivory to purchase five horses, said 
^" to have been imported from Lisbon ; all the animals died on 


the road, and the grieved drivers brought the five melancholy 
tails, and laid thcin before the chief. '^ A native Portuguese 
at Biht^, one of the siccping-stfttions, bewitched them ; they 
saw him look at the horses and touch them, and were sure 
that he bewitched them then, for they died soon after I" The 
universal belief in witchcraft, of which wc ourselves have but 
recently got rid, is a great barrier to the progress of civiliza- 
tion. Two horses left, by the doctor in 1853 had lived in 
^ite of hard usage and perpetual hunting; this was, in the 
native opinion, because he loved the Makololo; while others, 
irom whom they purchased horses, bated them and bewitch- 
ed their horses. The treatment the poor beasts received could 
scarcely faU to prove fatal. A jolly set of young men, the 
chiefs body-guard, had a rare sort of horse -racing: one 
mounted with neither saddle, bit, nor bridle, and, spreading 
out bqth arms, dashed ofl' at full speed. When ho tumbled 
oC^ to the great amusement of the by-standcra, the servants 
lUght the hoise nud rode off any where, leaving the fallen 



Ciui-. XIU. 

rider to rclam, rabljing LU bruises. The poor horse was kept 
at this work till completely exhausted, each of the guanis 
being anxious to show that he could keep on longer than th« 
others. This racing, and want of com and care, would sooa 
knock up any steeds they may obtain. The doctor, when in 
Angola, happening to ride the horse of a gentleman at Pun- 
go Andongo, remarked to his companions, "CThis would do 
for Sekeletu." A party had beeu sent over a thousand miles 
to purchase it ; but it was now so allcred as not to be recog- 
nizable. They ha(Jno grain at the time we were there, and 
but a little poor dry grass. 

The native produce cultivated in this, the centre of the 
continent, consists of mapira, or raabele {hokus scrghum), lo* 
belebele, or meshwcra {penniselum), millet, maize, groand> 
nuts {AratJn's fiypojira), underground beau3 {voandxa'a), Ctt- 
cumbers, melons, pumpkins, mchac, or sweet reed {hohus $ac- 
fharattim), sweet potatoes, tobacco, cotton, and Indian hemp 
or bang {Cannabis sativa); but wheat, rice, and yams they 
hare never seen. Sugar-cane^ bananas, and cassava grow in 
the Bnrotsc valley. They have no garden vegetables, nor 
any of ihe fruits found nearer the sea, such as mangoes and 
orange.', which have been introduced into Africa from other 

We had ascertained at the Falls the sad fate of the mt^ 
sionaries of the London Society. Our friend from Natal, Mr. 
Baldwin, had found them at a well in the desert suflering 
from hunger; they had no horses, without which game there 
can not easily be procured. They had failed to kill the. 
rhinoceroses which came to the water at night Mr. Baldwin 
kindly shot a couple of animals for them, but was apyrohcu- 
sivc, when he left them, that they would hardly live to see 
the Mokololo country. They did reach Linyanti, howeveTi 

though in that exhausted state on which tlie fever of the 
country is sure to fasten. The severe drought of that year 
had dried up the great marshes around the village, and leu- 
dered fever more than usually virulent Aware, from Dr. 
Livingstone's description, of the extreme unhealihiness of the 
place, Mr. Helmore, who seems soon to Lave gained the peo- 
ple's conQdcncc, told the chief that he could not remain in 
that locality, but wished to go on to a higher and more 
healthy part, northeast of the Falls. Sekeletu said that he 
oflered to take him to Scshekc to see if he liked that better 
than Linyanti. " You will take me also," said Mr. Uelmore, 
" to see Mosi-oa-tunya," the picture of which, in " ALiasionory 
^ftavels," was readily recognized; but, while they were get- 
ting TCiaily hr the journey, the wagon-drivers were seized 
with fever; Mrs. FTcImore was the first white person who fell 
a victim to the fatal malady. The devoted missionary then 
told the people that, although his wife had died, he did not 
mean to leave them, but would remain and do his duty. 
Notwithstanding the hunger, toil, and exhaustion consequent 
on the long journey through the desert, and ihi.s heavy adlic- 
tiou at Linyanti, the good man, already kuowing the native 
laDgirage, at once commeuccd the work of preaching the Gos- 
pel We heard some young men at Seshcke stng the hymns 
he had taught them. All liked and spoke kindly of him, and 
his death was generally regretted. It is probable that he - 
would soon have exerted a powerful and happy influence 
over the tribe, but in a month he was cut down by fovcr. 
Our information was derived entirely from the natives of the 
difiercnt tribes which now form the Makololo. They are 
generally .truthful unless they have .some self-interest at stake; 
and they can not be made to combine to propagate any down- 
right falsehood. Taking their statementa as probably true. 




the whole party consisted of twenty-two persona, of whom 
nine were Europeans, and thirteen people of color; of these, 
five Europeans und four natives perished by fever in less 
than three months. The missionary associate of Ilclmore 
was then left in a somewhat trying position. Four out of the 
nine Europeans had succurabe<3 to the disease, and his own 
wife was lying ill, and soon to bo the liflb victim. He had 
been but a short time in Africa; bis knowledge of the na- 
tive language was of course limited, his influence small, and 
he had no experience; accordingly, he took the wise conrsD 
of leaving the country ; his wife died befuro he reached tbo 
healthy desert. The native servants from tbo south, who bad 
never seen the fever in their own coutitry, thought that the 
party had been poisoned by the Makololo; but, altfaoi 
they are lieathciis, and have little regard for human life, they 
arc not quite so bad as that. The spear, and not poison, i 
their weapon. There is no occasion for suspecting other 
son thau malaria, tbat being more than enough. Wo have 
witnessed all the symptoms of this poison scores of ti 
and, from the survivors' description, believe the deaths to 
have been caused by severe African fever, and nothing else. 
We much regretted that, though wo were on the same river 
lower down, we were not aware of their being atLinyantititl 
too late to render the medical aid they so much needed. It 
is undoubtedly advisable that every Mission should have s 
medical man as an assential part of its staiT. 

CbaI'. XIV. SEKELKTU AND Ot'U rilESfiyiy. 



Btkelotn ami our l'rp«enU. — Tliii Idcn of Anill«ty Practice. — Scbittinne'ii Sis- 
wr*! ilMcn'iition of ihe firil Aiiprarancc of Kcvcr.— Tiie Makololo iha most 
iDtelliiCOiit of ftll itio Tribes eoen by ub.— The Mukololo oF Old and Voimg 
'..Africa. — Tim Woincu, ilicir App^urnnce and OrtiniiienU.—KMiilbt of Po- 
lY. —]]!}' rcvkuticU by ilm Number ufWirtii.^ Apparent, bill 
teal, buyliiK of Wives. — Elegant Amujcincnts uf the LnAloe. — ifato^li-t 
wane. — Smokinj utifl ii* )'-ir«t». — Hov«[ Uao of a .Spoon. —Kiiw Duller. — 
Begging, — Tho Ctiicf'a PcnjiiiJiK* — ^'I'hc Mnkolola who bad son ilic Hfn. 
— Jiutic« among llie Mnkololu. — Tlie RiglitH uf Labor.— Rdigi una Iiiitruc- 
liou. — Nati*'<! Vicn on Matrimony. — Tliu Chiuf and tlie HraU M[:n.<^Ca{>i- 
UlI Fiiatstii]]«n<. — Ad old Wnrrior— Anrifiil Contiimo of ilio Makolotd, — 
Boucs built by ilio Women. — AmuBcinoniif of ctio CiiiMreu. — Makololo 
Fkith in Mcdiciyic— Dr. I.iviiiK»'iii'0 rtvitJis LinjaDil. — Tlie Wngon left 
there in IS>'3 i^ found in Safu KH5t-])itig, wiib its Contents. — A nniivo Proc- 
hmMion,— Buriiil-]'! '•> cifMr. Ilclmoro andhif Cflmpanlons. — Faitlifuloets 
of the Makololo. — Sekclciii's IlenllU iin|irflVos.'-Ilis liatccm fur Ur Kirk — 
i IIi» Dtairc fur nn Etvglisli Soil Icuie tit on Llie Daloka lli(;Ulandt. — StcalioR 

B Cattle coneideroiJ n'> Crinin. — Oivine Scrrlce at Se*beke.^Nati*« Doubts ■» 

1^^ Id tlic PotsibiUtjr of a lliuurrcclioD. 

^B SEKiiLETU was well pleased witb the varioua articles we 
I brought for liim, and inquired if a sbip could not "bring his 
I sugar-mill and tbe other goods we had been obliged to I?ave 
behind at Tette. On hearing that there was a pn.ssibility of 
j' a powerful steamer ascending as far as Sioamanc's, bnt never 
ikbovo the Grand Victoria Falls, he nskcd, with charming aim- 
I plicity, if a cannon could not blow away the FaIl.^, so as to 
allow iho vessel to come up to Seshcke. 

To jwive the tribe from breaking up by the continual loss 
"of real Makololo, it ought .it once to remove to iho healthy 
Batoka highlands, near the Kafuc. Fully aware of this, Se- 
keletu remarked that all his people, save two, were convinced, 
that if tbcy remained in the lowlands, a few years would suf- 



fice to cat off all the real Makololo ; i^ey came origioaUy 
irom the healthy South, near the confluence of the Likwa and 
l^am&gari, where fever is almost unknown, and its ravages 
had been as frightful among them here as among Europeans 
on the coast Sebituane's suter described Its first appearance 
among the tribe, after their settling in the Barotse Valley on 
the Zambesi. Many of them were seized with a shivering 
sickness, as if from excessive coM : they had never seen the 
like before. They made great ijrcs, and laid the shivering 
•wretches down before thena ; but, pile on wood as they might, 
they could not raise heat enough to drive the cold out of the 
bodies of the sufferers, and they shivered on till they died. 
But> though all preferred the highlands, they wei'e afraid to 
go there, lest the Alatebele should come and rob them of their 
muob-lovcd cattle. Sebituaue, with all bis veterans, could 
not withstand thai enemy; and how could they be resisted, 
now that most of the brave warriors were dead? The young 
men would break, aud run away the moment they saw the 
terrible Malebele, being as much afraid of them as the black 
conquered tribes are of the Makolola "But if the doctor 
and his wife," said the chief and counselors, "would come 
and liffe with us, we would remove to the highlands at once, 
as Moselekatsc would not attack a place where the daughter 
of his friend, Moffat, was living." 

The Makoloio are by far the most intelligent and enterpria* 
ing of the tribes we have met None but brave and daring 
men remained long with Sehitiianc; his stern tlLsciplinc soon 
eradicated cowardice from his army. Death was the inevita- 
ble doom of the coward. If the chief saw a man mnniog 
away from the fight, ho nmhcd after him with amazing speed 
and cut him down, or waited till lie returned to the town, and 
thea Bummoncd the deserter into his presence. "You did 

Chap. XIV. 



cot wi&b to die on tbe £elJ ; you wished to die at bomo, did 
yoa? you sball bave your wishl" and he tras iustautly led 
olTaDd executed. The present race ofyoUDg men are infe- 
rior in most respects to their fathers. The old Makololo bad 
many inauly virtues; tbey were truthful, and never stole, ex- 
ceptJDg in what tbey coiiaidercd Ihc honorable way of lifung 
cattle in fair fight; but this can hardly be said of their sons, 
who, having been brought up among the aubjected tribes, 
bave acquired some of the vices peculiar to a menial and de- 
graded race. A few of the old Makololo cautioned us not to 
leave any of our property exposed, as the blacks were great 
thieves ; and some of our own men advised us to be on our 
guard, as tho Makololo also would steal. A very few trifling 
articles were stolen by a young Makololo, and be, ca being 
spoken to on the subject, showed great ingenuity in excusing 
himself by a plausible and untruthful story. The Makololo 
of old were hard workers, and did not consider labor as be- 
neath them; but their sons never work, regardiug it as lit 
only for the Mofihoua and Mukalaka servants. SebiLuane, 
seeing that the rival tribes had the advantage over his in 
knowing how to manage canoes, had his warriors taught to 
navigate ; and his own son, with bis companions, paddled the 
chief's canuo. All tho dishes, baskets, stools, and canoes arc 
made by the black tribes called Manycti and Mallotlora. 
The houses are built by the women and servants. The 
Makololo women are vastly superior to any wo bave yet seen. 
They are of a light, warm brown complexion, have pleasant 
countenauces, and are remarkably quick of apprehension. 
They dress neatly, wearing a kilt and mantle, and have many 
ornaments. Sebituane's sister, the head lady of Sesheke, 
wore eighteen solid brass ringtn, as thick as one^a finger, on 
each leg, and three of copper under each kuee ; nineteen brass 




jin^ on her left arm, and eigtit of brass and copper ou her 
right; also a large ivory ring above each elbow. Sbe had 
a pretty bead necklace, aod a bead sash encircled her waist. 
The weight of the bright brass rings round her legs impeded 
her walking and chafed her ankles; but, as it was the fash-^ 
ion, she did not mind the inconvenience, and guarded against 
tlie pain by putting soft rag round the lower rings. 

Tlic pracLicQ of polygamy, though intcoded to incrcaafl^'^ 
tends to diminish the tribe. The wealthy old men, who havo 
plenty of cattle, marry all the pretty young girls. An ugly 
but rich old fellow, who wns so blind that a servant hod to 
lead Iiini along the path, bad two of the very handsomest 
young wives in the town ; one of them, the daughter of Mo- 
kelc, being at least half a century younger than himself, was 
asked, "Do you like him?" "No," she replied; "I hale 
him, he ia so disagreeable." The young men of the tribe^ 
who happen to have no cattle, must get on without a wife, or 
be content with one who has few personal attractions. This 
state of aflairs probably leads to a good deal of immorality, 
and children are few. By pointed inquiri 's, and laying one's 
self out for tliat kind of knowledge, one might be able to say 
much more; but if one behaves us he must do among the 
civilized, and abstains from asking questions, no improper 
hints even will be given by any of tho natiro women we 
have met 

Polygamy, the sign of low civilization and the source of 
many evils, is common, and, oddly enough, approved of even 
by the women. On hearing that a man in England could 
marry but one wife, se^-eral ladies exclaimed that they would 
not like to live in such a country : they could not imagine 
how English ladies oould relish our custom; for, in their way 
of thinking, every man of respectability should have a nam- 

Ciur. XIV. 



beroi* wives, aa a proof of his wealth. Similar ideas prevail 
all dowD the Zambesi. No man ia respcctod by bis neighbor 
who bas not several wives. The reajioii Ibr this is, doubt- 
less, because, having the produce of cacU wife's garden, be is 
wealthy in proportion to their number. 

Wives ore not bought and sold among the Makololo, 
tboQgb the marriage looks like a bargain. The husband, iu 
proportion to his wealth, hands over to the father-in-law a cer- 
tain amount of cows, not as purchase money for the brid^ 
but to purchase the right to retain in bis own family the cbil* 
drea she may have; otherwise the children would belong to 
the family of the wife's father. A man may have perfect 
control over his wifb without this payment, but not of the 
children; for, as the parents make a aacritice of a portion of 
the family circle in parting with their daughter, the husband 
must sacrifice some of bis property, to heal, as it were, that 
breach. It is not absolute separation, for, when a wife dies, 
the husband gives an ox again, to cause entire severance, or 
make her family ''give her up." The Makololo ladies have 
aoCl, small, delicate hands and feet; their forcheadii are well 
shaped and of good size; the nose not disagreeably flat, 
though the alie arc full; the mouth, chin, teeth, eyes, and 
general form are beautiful, and, contrasted with the West 
Coast negro, quite ladylike. Having maid-servants to wait^ 
OD them and perform the principal part of the household 
work, abundance of leisure time is lefl them, and they are . 
sometimes at a loss to know what to do with it. Unlike their [ 
iairer and more fortunate sisters in Europe, they have neither \ 
sewing nor other needle-work, nor piano-forte practice, to oc- I 
cupy their fingers, nor reading to improve their minds; few J 
have children to attend to, and time does hang rather heavily 
on their hands. The men wickedly aver that their two great 



Chap. XTV. 

amusements, or modes for killing timo, are sipping beer, and 
86016117 smokiug bang, or Indiaa beiDp, here known aa ma- 
tokvane. Althougli ibo men indulge pretty freely in smok- 
ing it, they do not like ihcir wives to follow tlieir example, 
and many of the *' monstcta" prohibit it. Nevertheless, some 
women do smoke it secretly, and the practice causes a diseaaftJ 
known by a minute eruption on the skin, quite incurable un- 
less the habit be abandoned. The chief himself is a slave to 
this deleterious habits and could hardly be induced to give it 
up, even during the short time he was under medical treat- 
ment We bad ample opportunities for observing the effects 
of thia matoKwane smoking on our men. It makes them feel 
very strong in body, but it produces exactly the opposite ef* 
feet upon the mind. Two of our finest young men became 
inveterate smokers, and partially idiotic. The performances 
of a group of matokwane smokers are somewhat grotesque: 
tUey arc provided with a calabash of pure water, a split bam* 
boo, five feet long, and the great pipe, which has a large cal- 
abash or kudu's horn chamber to contain the water, through 
which the smoke is dra'ivn, narghillcJ fashion, on ils way to 
the mouth. Each smoker takes a few whiffs, the last being 
an extra long one, and hands the pipe to hla neighbor. He 
seems to swallow the fumes; for, striving against the eoa- 
vuULve action of the muscles of cbcst and throat, he takes a*! 
mouthful of water from the calabash, waits a few second^ 
and then pours water and smoke from his mouth down the 
groove of the bamboo. The smoke causes violent coughing 
in all, and in some a species of frenzy, which passes away in 
a rapid stream of unmeaning words or short sentences, as, 
"the green grass grows," "the fat cattle thrive," "the £sb 
swim." Ko one in the group pays the slightest attention to 
the vehement eloquence, or the sage or silly utterance of the 




Oracle, who stops abruptly, and, the instant common sense re- 
turns, looks ralber fbolisb. 

Our visit lo Seaheke broke in u^u the monotony of tbeir 
daily life, and -we bad crowds of visitors, both mou and wom- 
en, especially at meal-timea, for tben they Lad the double at- 
traotioD of seeing white men eat, and of eating with them. 
The men made an odd nse of the spoon in supping porridge 
and milk, employing it to convey the food to the palm of the 
left hand, whiob passed it on to the mouth. We shocked the 
OTer-refined sensibilities of the ladies by eating butter on our 
bread. " Look at them I look at them ! they are actually eat- 
ing raw butter — ugli I how nasty!" or, pitying ua, a good 
wife would say, '■ Hand it hero to be melted, and then yoa 
can dip your bread into it decently." They were as maoh 
disgusteil OS we should be by seeing an Esquimaux eating 
raw whale's blubber. In their opinion, butter is not fit to be 
eaten until it is cooked or melted. The principal use they 
make of it i^i to anoiiit thu body, and it keeps the skin smooth 
and glossy. Men and women begged hard for such things 
as they fancied, and were not at alL displeased when refused: 
tliey probably thought there was no harm in asking; it did 
not hurt us, and cost their glib tongues no effort. Mamiro 
asked for a black frock-coat because be admired the color I 
When told he might have it for a nice new kaross of young 
leobw^s' skins, be smiled, and asked no more: a joke usually 
stopped the begging. 

The chief receives the hump and ribs of erery ox slaugh- 
tered by his people, and tribute of com, beer, honey, wild 
fruits, hoes, paddles, and canoes, from the Barotse, Manyeti, 
Matlotlora, and other subject tribes. The priucipal revenue, 
however, is derived from ivory. All the ivory of the coun- 
try, in theory, belongs to the chief, and the tu&ks of every el- 





ephant killed are placed at his disposal This game-law at 
first sight seems more stringent than thai of the Portuguese 
and of the tribes adjacent to them, where onljr ooe tusk be- 
longs to government, and the hunter retains the other. Bat 
here the chief is expected to be generous, and, as a father 
among his children, to share the proceeds of the ivory withj 
his people. They say, "Children require the guidance of 
their futhers, so as not to be cheated by foreigners." This 
reconciles them to the law. The upper classes, too^ receive 
the lion's share of the profits from the elephant-hunt without 
Qodergoing much of the toil and danger; and the subject 
tribes get the flesh, wliich is all they ever had, and no one 
appears to have any wt&h to change the established custom. 
Our own men, however, had oAen discussed the rights of la- 
bor daring their travels ; and, having always been paid by u 1 
for their work, had acquired certain new ideas, which rather 
jostled against this old law. They thought it unjust to bo, 
compelled to give up both tasks to the chief: bad as the Poit- 
uguese were, they were not so expressive as that ; they allov- 
ed tlic hunter one of the tusks; Sdreletu's law was wrong;! 
they wished be would repeal iu This usage doubtlea pf» 
serves the elephants, though that is not the object in mew. 
Pitsanc shot a few on his return from Angola, and then gava 
up hunting altogether. 

Moaelekatse, too, claims all the ivory in his countiy, and 
allows no stranger even to hunt the ele[^ant. A gentleman 
from Natal, ignonnt of this prohibition, went with the inbeil* ' 
tton of shooting these anima^ hut was soon taken up and 
carried before the chie£ He via kept a prisoner at large for 
three months, and allowed to hunt the buffalo, giraffe,, rhi- 
nooeroe, and antelope as much as be pleaaed ; bat the mo- 
moit be began lo fidlow the tracks of the depha&t, hia al- 

CiiAi". XJV. 



tcndaalE^ or keepers, turned his horse's head In the oppoaite 

The Makololo man, Seroke, who had recently returned from 
BeoguelA with the tails of the poor bewitched horses, caJled 
on us vith some of his companions soou afler our arrivoL 
They had found out that ail tiie doctor had told them about 
the Und being surrounded by the oceaa was true. Tbey had 
seen the sen, and the wonders of the Bca-shore, and ships^ just 
as the Book hod siiid : travelers alone knew any thing, whiJe 
those who knew not the Book, and remained at home, were 
mere children in knowledge. Tbe merchants of Benguela 
had treated them kindly; and, to encourage trade with iho 
Makololo, had given to each one a Siberal present of clothing* 
Before coming to visit us tliey put on all these new clothes, 
And were certainly better drefised than we were ourselves. 
They wore shirts, well wasbod and Btarched, coats and trow- 
sers, white socks and patent-leather boots, a red Kilmarnock 
cowl on tbe head, and a brown wide-awake on the top of 
that. Tbey had a long conversation with our men about the 
wonderful things they bad seen, and all agreed that the Ma- 
kololo who tarried at home wore mere game, or beasts of the 
field. But their wealthier neighbors, referred to aspohlwh, 
or game, were by no manna disposed to admit that the travel- 
ers knew more than they did. " They had seen the sea. had 
they, and what is that? Nothing but water; they could see 
plenty of water at home — ay, more than they wanted to sec; 
and white people came to their towns; why then travel to 
the Coast to look at them ?" 

Justice appears, npon the whole, to be pretty fairly admin- 
istered among the Makololo. A head man took some beads 
and a blanket from one of his men who hnd been with us; 
the matter was brought before the chief, and be immediately 



Ciup. XIV. 

ordered the goods to be restored, and decreed, moreover, that 
no head man Bhould take the property of the men who had' 
returned. In theory, all the goods brought bock belooged 
to the chief; the men laid them at his feet, and made a for* 
mal oSer of them all ; he looked at the articles, and told the 
men to keep them. This is almoet invariably the case. Taba 
Mokoro, however, fearing lest Sckeletu might take a fancf 
to some of bis beat goods, exhibited only a few of his old and 
least valuable acquisitions. Masakasa had little to show; he 
had committed some breach of naUve law in one of the vil* 
lages OD the way, and paid a heavy fine rather than have the 
matter brought to the doctor's ears. Each carrier is entitled, 
to a portion of the goods in his bundle, though purchased by 
the chiefs ivory, and they never hesitate to claim their rights ; 
but no wages can be demanded from the chief if he fails to 
reepond to the first application. 

Our men, aocastomcd to our ways, thought that the Eq> 
glish system of paying a man for his labor was the only oor> 
rect one, and some even said it would be better to live under 
a government where life and labor were more secure and 
valuable than here. While with ub they always oondac^ 
ed themselves with propriety during Divine service, and not 
only maintained decorum themselves, but insisted on other 
natives who might be present doing the same. When Mo- 
shobotwane, the BatoVa chief, came on one occasion with a 
number of his men, they listened in eilence to the reading of 
the Bible in the Makololo tongue ; but, as soon as we all 
knelt down to pray, they commenced a vigorous clapping of 
bands, their mode of asking a favor. Our indignant Makolo- 
lo soon silenced their ncfey accompaniment, and looked with 
great contempt on this display of ignorance. Nearly all our 
men had learned to repeat the Lord's Prayer and the Apo» 

CuAP. XtV. 



ties' Creed ia tlieir owd language, and feit ratber proud of 
'being able to do so; and when ihey reached hume, tbey liked 
to recite tbem to groups of admiring friends. Their idens of 
right and vrroDg differ tn no respect from our own, except 
iu iheir professed inability to seo how it ean be improper for 
a man to Uavc more than cue wife. A year or two ago sev- 
eral of ibe wives of Lhose who bad been absent with us peti- 
tioQod the chief for leave to marry again. Tliey tliougbt that 
it was of no use waiting any longer; their husbands must bo 
dead; but Sckeletu refused permission ; be himself had bet a 
number of oxen that the doctor would return with their bus- 
bands, and he had promised the absent men that their wives 
should be kept for them. The impatient spouses had there- 
fore to wait a little longer. Some of them, however, eloped 
with other men; the wife of Mantlanyanc, for instance, ran 
oflTand left his little boy among strangers. Mantlanyane was 
very angry when he beard of it; not that he cared much 
about her deserting him, for he had two other wives at Tette, 
but he was indignant at her abandoning hia boy. 

While we were at Sesheke an ox was killed by a croco- 
dile; a man found the carcasa floating in the river, and ap- 
propriated the meat. When the owner heard of this, he re- 
quested him to come before the chief, as he meant to com- 
plain of him ; rather than go, the delinquent settled the mat- 
ter by giving one of his own oxen in lieu of the ]o.«it one. A 
bead man from near Linyanti oame with a complaint that all 
his people had run off, owing to the " hunger." Sekeleta 
said, "You must not bo left to grow lean alone; some of 
them must come back to you." He had thus an order to 
compel their return, if ho chose to put it in force. Families 
frequently leave their own head man and flee to another vil- 
lage, and sometimes a whole village decamps by night, Uav- 


AN UL1> WAilKlOa 

Chap. XIV. 

ing the head man by himself. Sekeleta rarely interfered with 
the liberty of the subject to choose his own head man, and, aa 
it ia oflcn the fault of the latter which causes the people to 
depart, it ia putiishraent enough for him to be lef^ aloDC. 
Flagrant disobedience to the chiefs orders is punished with 
death. A Moshubia man was ordered to cat some reeds for 
Sekeleta: he went off and hid himself for two days instead. 
For this he was doomed to die, ami was carried in a canoe to 
the middle of the river, choked, and tossed into the stream. 
The spectators hooted the executioners, calling out to ihcm 
that they too would soon bo carried out and strangled. Oc- 
casionally, when a man ia sent to beat an ofibndcr, he tells 
him his object, returns, and assures the chief he has nearly 
killed him. The transgressor then keeps for a while out of 
eighty and the matter is forgotten. The river here teems with 
monstrous crocodiles, and women are frequently, while drmw- 
ing water, carried off by these reptiles. 

Wc met a venerable warrior, sole survivor, probably, of the 
Mantatce host which threatened to invade the colony in 1324. 
He retained a vivid recollection of their encounter with the 
Griqaas: "As we looked at the men and horses, pufTs of 
smoke arose, and some of ns dropped down dead !" '* Never 
saw any thing like it in my life; a man's brains lying in one 
place and bis body in another !" They could not understand 
what was killing them; a ball struck a man's shield at an 
angle; knocked his arm out of joint at the shoulder; and 
leaving a mark, or bum, as he said, on the shield, killed an- 
other man close by. Wc saw the man with his shoulder 
still dislocated. Scbctoane was present at the fight, and had 
an exalted opinion of the power of white people ever after- 

The ancient costume of the Makololo consisted of the skin 

cbap. xnr. 



of a lamb, kid, jackal, ocelot, or other small animal, worn 
round and below the loins; and in cold weather a karoas, or 
skin mantle, was thrown over the shoulders. The kaross is 
now laid aside, and the young men of lasbion wear a raon- 
key-jacket and a skin round the hips, but no trowaers, waist- 
coat, or flhirt The river and lake tribes arc in general very 
cleanly, bathing several times a day. The Makololo women 
use water rather sparingly, rubbing themselves with melted 
butter instead : this keeps off parasites, but gives their clothes 
a rancid odor. One stage of civilization oilcn leads of ncces- 
Aity to another — the possession of clothes creates a demand 
for soap ; give a man a needle, and he is soon back to you for 

This being a time of mourning on account of the illness of 
the chief, the men were negligent of their persons ; they did 
not cut their hair, or have merry dances, or carry spear and 
shield when they walked abroad. The wife of Pitsane was 
busy making a large hut while we were in the town: she in- 
formed U8 that the men left house-building entirely to the 
women and servants. A round tower of aliikes and reeds, 
nind or ten feet high, is raised and plastered ; a floor is next 
mwle of tott tufa, or anvhill material and cowdung. This 
plaster prevents the poisonous insects, called tampans, whose 
bite causes fever in some, and painful sores in all, from har- 
boring in the cracks or soil. The roof, which is much larger 
io diameter than the lower, is made on the ground, and then, 
many persons assisting, lifted wp and placed on the tower, 
ftnd thatched. A plastered reed fence is next built up to 
in«t the outer part of the roof, which stil! projects a little 
over this fence, and a space of three feet remains between it 
and the tower. We slept in this space instead of in the tower, 
OS the inner door of the hut we occupied was uncomfortably 




sniall, being only Dtnetcen incbcs high, and twcnty-lwo inches 
wide at the floor. A foot from the bottom it measured sev* 
enteen inches in breadth, and close to the top only twelve 
inches, so it woe a difficult matter to get through it The 
towt^r has no light or veatilation except through this snuUi 
door. The reason a lady aaeigued for having the doors bo 
very small was to keep out the mice ! 

The children Iiavo merry times, especially in the cool of 
the evening. One of their games consists of a litUo girl be- 
ing carried on the shoulders of two others. She sits with 
outstretched arms as they walk about with her, and all the 
rest clap their hands, and, slopping bcfurQ each hut, eing 
pretty airs, some beating time on their little kilts orcowskia,.] 
others making a curious humming sound between the songat] 
Excepting this and tbe ekipping-rope, the play of the girla] 
consists in imitation of the serious work of their mothers, 
building little huts, making small pots, and cooking, pound- 
ing com in miniature mortars, or hoeing tiny gardens. Tbe 
boys play with spears of reeds pointed with wood, and small 
shields, or bows and arrows; or amuse themselves in mak* 
ing little cattle-pens, or in moulding cattle in clay : they 
show great ingenuity in the imitation of various-shapeit horns. 
Some, too, ara said to use slings, but as soon as they Oftn 
watch the goats or calves, they are sent to the field. We i 
many boys riding on the calves they bod in charge, but this 
is an innovation since the arrival of the lilnglish with th< 
horses. Tselaue, one of the ladies, on observing Dr. Living- 
atone noting observations on the wet and dry bulb thermom- 
eters, thought that he too was engaged in play; for, oo ie> 
oeiving no reply to her question, which was rather difficult to 
answer, as the native tongue has no scientific terms, she said, 
with roguish glee, " Poor thing, playing like a little childT' ., 

Ciur. XIT. 



Like other Africans, the Makololo have great Otilh in the 
power of medicine; tbey believe that there is an especial med- 
icine for every ill that llesh is heir to. Mamire is anxious to 
have children ; he has sis wives, and only one boy, and ho 
bcga earnestly for "child medicine." The mother of Sekelctn 
camo from the Biirotse Valley to see her bod. Thinks she 
haa lost flesh since Dr. Livingstone was here before, and asks 
for " the medicine of fatness." The Makololo consider plump- 
ness an essential part of beauty in women, but the extreme 
stoutness mentioned by Captain Spcke in the north would be 
considered hideoua here, for the men have been overheard 
speaking of a lady whom we call " inclined to embonpoini" as 
" fat unto ugliness." 

Two packages from the Kuruman, containing letters and 
newspapers, reached Linyanti previous to our arrival, and 
Sekeletu, not knowing when we were coming, left them there, 
but now at once sent a messenger for them. This man re- 
tarned on the seventh day, having traveled 240 geographical 
miles. One of the packages was too hejwy for him, and he 
left it behind. As the doctor wished to get some more medi- 
cine and papers out of the wagon left at Linyanli in 1853, he 
decided upon going thither himself. The chief gave htm his 
own horse, now about twelve years old, and some men, Ho 
found every thing in his wagon as safe as when he left it 
seven years before. The head men Mosaic and Pckonyano 
received him cordially, and lamented that they had bo UtUo 
to offer him. Oh I had ho only arrived the year previous, 
when there was abundance of milk, and corn, and beer I 

Verji early the next morning the old town-crier, Ma-Pulen- 
yane, of his own aecord made a public proclamation, which, 
in the perfect stillness of the town long before dawn, was 
striking : '* I have dreamed 1 I have dreamed I I have dream* 




edl Tbou Moeale and tbou Pekonj^ane, my lords, be Dot 
ikiut-bearted, nor let your hearts' be sore, but believe all the 
vords of MoDare (the doctor), for bis heart is wbite aa milk 
towfud the Makololo. I dreamed that be was coming, and 
that the tribe would live, if you prayed to God and gave 
hoed to the word of Monare." Ma-rulenyane showed Dr. 
Livingstone the buiying-place where poor Uelmore and seven 
oihers were laid, distinguishing those whom be bad put to 
rest, and those for whom Mofale had performed that kst of- 
fice. Nothing whatever marked the spot ; and with the iia> 
ttTo idea of biding the dead, it was said, " It will soon be all 
overgrown with bushes, for no one will cultivate there:'' 
None but Ma-Pulenyane approached the place; the others 
stood at a respectful di5tan<;e ; they invariably avoid every 
thing connected with death, and no such thing as taking por- 
tions of huuian bodies to make charms of, as is the custom 
farther north, has ever been known among the Makololo. 

When the wagon was Icil eight years before, several loose 
articles, as the mcdiciDe-chest, magic lantern, tools, and books^ 
vsn given by Sek^etu into the charge of bis wives. Every 
thing was now found in safety. The wagon was in sufficient* 
ly gootl condition for the doctor to sleep in, though the oot- 
ering liad partly rotted off; and when the chief was absent' 
at the Barotse, the wbite ants had destroyed one of the wheels. 
Sekeletu's wives, Seipone and Mantn, without being a^ed, 
cooked abundance of good beef, and baked a large supply ot 
little cakes after the pattern which the Kokololo, who went to 
Loanda, had brought back to them. With gentle repi 
for not bringing Ha-Hobert, or Mrs. Livingstone, tliey re- 
pealed some of the prattle of her cUldrcn in Secbnana, and 
said, " Are wo never more to know any thing of them bot 
their names?" These little points an noticed with feeliDgs 



of gratitude for abundant and unvarying kindness on numer^ 
oas occasions during many ycai^ But no mna in bis senses 
would supposo that the confidence which inspired tliese kind 
expressions would be impartod at sight, to any novice. It 
ought never lo be forgotten that influence among tlie heathen 
can be acquired only by a patient continuance in wcll*doing, 
and that good manners are as necessary among barbarians, aa 
among the civilized. 

^Vmong the articles put into the hands of Sckcletu'a wives 
for greater security were two manuscript volumes of notes, 
which, on starting in 1853 from the interior to the Wcat 
CoRst,Dr, Livingatono wished, in the event of hw never re- 
taming from that hazardous journey, to be transmitted to his 
family. A letter was left with them, addressed to any En- 
glish traveler or trader, and expressing a desire that the vol- 
umes might be handed to Mr. Moffat. One contained notea 
on the discovery of Lake Ngami, and on the Kalahari Desert ; 
the other, notea on ita natural history. The Makololo, who 
tad guarded all the rest of the property most faithfully, de- 
' clared that they had delivered tho books to ono of tie only 
two traders who had visited them. When they were now- 
told that the pereon in question denied their reception, Sei- 
pooe, one of Sekeletu's wives, said, "He lies; I gave them 
to him myself!" Conscience seems to have worked : for the 
trader, having gone to Moselekatse's country, one of the vol- 
ames was put into the mail-bag coming from the south, which 
came to band with the lock token oS in quite a scientific 

Taking a supply of the medicine, which had been lying 
only a hundred yards from the spot where the missionaries 
helplessly perished, the doctor returned toward Sesheke. The 
journey took three days each way. The path leads through 



Cmat. XIV. 

a district iiifeate<3 by tsetse; to prcserre the horses from be- 
ing bitteD, this was passed through by nighL The party slept 
at tbe diflcrent Makololo cattle-staUons. At oae a lion bad 
beea killed by a serpent. We bare often heard of animals 
being so killed; but in a twenty-two years' residence in the 
country, Or. Liviagstouc bas only met with one case in wbioU 
tbo bite was futal to a human beiug. Ipecacoanba mixed witb 
ntntnonia, and rubbed into the wound, is much esteemed in 
India. A key, pressed on the puncture for some time, ex- 
tracts the potaon; and when ipecacuanha ia not at hand, a 
little powder ignited on the spot will do instead. Very large 
herds of kualatas were seen on tbe plains, and many black 
buoks, though their habitat is generally on tbe hills.* 

S^kcletu'a health improired greatly during our visit; the 
melancholy foreboding left his spirits, and he become choc^ 
ful, but resolutely refused to leave his den, and appear in pab- 
lio till he was perfectly cured, and had regained what he con- 
sidered his good looks. He also feared lest some of those 
who had bewitched him. originally might still be among the 
people, and neutralize our remedie3,t 

* A fuiDBlo knaliiu (^Aiffoeavg equina} sbot here niFAtitred— 

tt tn. I Ft. In. 

At witlieti. 4 8 I Lcncth or honi s 2 

&ldt«l«D|Ui G al IlnircirramrcrcnoeataiMt 3 8 

TkcN tDMnreiiieno mtjr be iiit«Tmliiii to iIiuk i<bo try to ■c«llmiiliic ui- 
mali. The clund* in En^jlittiJ arg rcHoIt. Ono -wc meuuKd in Africft in 1819 
wu nx. Tect fvur incticc ni i!jv wiilicn, and It seemed bd Animal of onlj- onE- 
nuy ilu. lu power of Mking on fu, wiil ihc qnintky of fluid foond ia in 
MontMh in tho driest tcason, arc qniu: retnarkabLe. It browMa chwH; on tbe 
iMVMof trou. 

t It wot with sorrow that wo learned by s letter from Mr. Moffak, In IW*. 
iiml [>oor Scki-lclu win deuil. .\k wiLl bo lacniioned farther on, mftn t*«n: ttnt 
vilh US to brine fp nan medicine. They prcfcrmd to remain on Ibc Shirr, 
and, M the? w«n tree nun, we eould do no more tban try and |>enaade ibem 
la huten back to tbcir chief with ioilinc and olber remcdiea. Thcf cook tbe 
pftToel, but there beiiiK only two rral Maknlolo nmont; th«m, then could nei- 
ther return themtclrcs alono ngr forco ihdr atlendanls to Ictm iv part of the 



As we expected another steamer to be at Kongone in No- 
vember, it waa impossible for us to remain in Seahclcc more 
tbaa one month. Before our departure, the chief and bis 
principal men expressed in a formal manner iheir great de- 
sire to have English people settled on the Batoka highlands. 
At one time he proposed to go as far as Pbori in order to se- 
lect a place of residence ; but, as he afterward saw reasons 
for remaining where ho was till his cure was completed, he 
gave orders to those sent with us, in the event of our getting, 
on our return, paat the rapids near Tette, not to bring us to 
Sesheke, but to send forward a messenger, and he, with the 
whole tribe, would come to na. Dr. Kirk being of the same 
age, Sekclctu was particularly anxious that be should come 
and live with him. He .said ho would cut ofl* a section of the 
country for the special use of the English; and on being told 
that in all probability their descendants would cause disturb- 
ance in his country, he replied, " These would be only domes- 
tic feuds, and of no importance." The great extent of nncnl- 
tivated land on the cool and now unpeopled highlands has 
but to bo seen to convince the spectator how much room there 
is, and to spare, for a vastly greater population than ever, la 
our day, can be congregated there. 

The agricultural tribes are more peaceful than the pastoral. 
The Makololo ore both pastoral and agricultural, and their 
lore fur lifting cattle oHen leada them to great distancea 
This maraading, if sanctioned by the chief, is not considered 
dishonest or dishonorable, for they laugh if they are charged 
Tritb dtide-^faUnff, and assert that they have byicd them only. 
As, in the tribes nearer the Coast, slave-trading is the gigan- 

eomifT when ihty w«re itidcpeDdcnl, rhO coald nifiport thoracelvofi with euo. 
8c]wkitt. howSTcr, lind Iork cnoufih to r«cei>-o Mil acVoowlcdfu rooAm to iho 
TftlM ofXaC, kcnt, ID U'DQ of ihose nbich rem&ined ia Tcue, by hobax Moffat, 
Jui.,ilncc (iL'Ad. 




tic evil wliieh most be grappled with if any good is to be 
done, so bcre it was necessary frequently, yet in a kindly 
•way, to iwint out the evila of marimding. A wagon with 
Mx. Uelmore's name on it being in the chiefs possession, a 
doubt was expicaaed whether the person said to have giren 
it bad any power to dispose of the property of the orphaa 
children ; and Sckeletu wm told that, should Mr. Moffat, in 
answer to a letter, say that the doubt had weighty the wagon 
ought to be paid for in ivory: this the chief readily agreed 
10 ; and had it been possible for one with the wisdom, expe> 
riencc, and conciliating manners of Mr. Moffat to have visited 
the Makololo, he would have found them easily influenced to 
fairness, and not at all the unreasonable savages they wero 
represented to be. Unquestionably a great amount of good* 
ness exists in the midst of all their evil, and we know of no 
more de^rable field for an active and sensible missionary. 

In trying to bcneCt them, it was often pointed out that the 
necessary consequence of thcge lawless forays, such as that 
they had made the year before against a tribe of Damaraa to 
the west, was to produce a lawless state at home. They did 
not relish the idea of the reflected action on themselves, nor 
did they like being plainly told that those who shed tbe blood 
of other tribes, and then returned to kiil each other at home 
on charges of witchcraft, were the only real sorcerers; that 
murdering the children of the same Great Father, for the sake 
of cattle which did not belong to them, cntailsd guilt in His 
sight; that those who g-ive no peace to others could hopo 
from the Supreme Kuler for none among themselves. U 
all seemed reasonable and true; they would not dispute it; 
"They needed the Book of God. But the hearta of black 
men are not the same as those of the whites. They had real, 
sorcerers among tbem. If tLat was guilt which custom led 

Caut. SIV, 



them to do, it lay between tbc wbito man and Jesus, wbo had 
not given them the Book, nor favored then* as lie had the 
whites." None ever attempted to justify tho shedding of 
human blood; but gome, ia reference to cattle-liCtnig, said, 
'*Wby should these Makalaka" — a term of contempt for all 
the blacker tribes — " possess cattle if they can not iight for 
them?" Ma-Sekclotu asserted that it was Moselckatso who 
had made the Makololo covetous, or yellow-hearted, /je^utort- 
la. He bad taken tbcir cattle, and subsequent hunger had 
made them greedy of the oxen of other tribes. She being 
the chiefs mother, we may irniigino what his education on 
the maternal side has been. They often try to make peace, 
notwithstanding, among themselves. Two men were wran* 
gUog and cursing each other one day, when Muikele, a Ma* 
kololo man, rose, and, to prevent mischief, quiutly touU their 
epeais from the corner in which they slood, and, sitting down 
beside Dr. Livingstone, remarked, "It is the nature of bulls 
to gore each other." This is probably the Idea that lies at 
the bottom of Muscular Heathenism, if not of MuscularChris- 

On the last occafiion of our holding Divino service nt Se- 
eheke, the men were invited to coiivcrso on the subject on 
which they had been addressed. So many of them bad died 
since we were hero before, that not much probabihty existed 
of our all meeting again, and this bad naturally led to the sub- 
ject of a future state. They replied that Ihcy did not wish 
to offend tbc speaker, but they could not believe that all the 
dead would rise again: "Can tliosc who have been killed in 
the field and devoured by the vuhurea; or those who have 
been ealen by the hyenas or lions; or those who have been 
toewd into tbc river, and eaten by more than one crocodile 
— <an ihey all be raised again to life?" They were told that 



men could take a leaden bullet, chaoge it into a salt (acetate 
of lead), which could be dissolved as completely iu water as 
our bodies in the stomachs of animals, and then reconvert it 
into lead; or that the bullet could be transfonncd into the 
red and white paint of our wagons, and again be reconvert- 
ed into the original lead ; and that, if men exactly like them- 
selves could do so much, how much more could He do who, 
had made the eye to see, and the ear to hear! We added/ 
however, that we believed in a resurrection, not because wo 
understood bow it would be brought about, but because oar 
heavenly Father assured us of it in His Book. Tbe refer* 
euoe to the truth of the Book and its Author seems always 
to have more iiiflueuco on the native miud than the clever- 
ness cf the illustration. Tbe knowledge of tbe people is 
scanty, but their reasoning is generally clear as far as tbeir 
iafcrmalion goes. 





rXjpirtnrc from Scrfiekc on tlie 17lh of SeptcinbCT, l^fiO.— Conroynd by Pil- 
«8ne and Lcshore. — Einbnwj U> Sinninnne. — Le&horc aDd tiif Craw. — Mo- 
bila Hiiil tbe Cncoc-nieu.— Zunbeai Cisb, Ngtroal aijO Konokono. — Fuli-lnnc 
Modidnc. — Rcuvtv ilic GartLcu at Moci-Qu-toDyiL — EnlunOu mid Mosmbo 
?illf . — Native dcsira of PleosiDg. — HaspitaUt^ of tho Batoks. — XutItg 
Frain. — VKlokhla oll-yij^ldingTree.— Inttian Trees in the «ntre of Africa. 
^^olonewv. — Great IIc&L — CornD on the Fc«t not pocniiat to the Civil- 
iced.— Kivpr Lunftk.'^vc. — Ctpcv Bellows tit Afncik-^TilL-^hiloiube 'Islet. 
— Native Dross. — SuanuLDQ and his Long Speu^ 

"Wb left Sesheke on the 17th of September, 1860, convoyed 
by Pitsane and Leshore with their men. Pitsane was order- 
ed by Sekeletu to make a hedge rouud the gairden at the 
Falls, to protect the seeds wo had brouj^ht, and also to col- 
lect some of the tobacco tribute below the Falls. Leahor^ 
beades acting aa a sort of guard of houor to us, was sent on 
a diplomatic missiou to Sinamaue. Ko tribute was exacted 
bj Sekebtu from Sinamanc ; but, as he had sent in his adhe- 
sion, he was expected to act as a guard in case of the Mate- 
bele wiabing to cross and attack the Makololo. As we in- 
tended to purchase canoes of Sinamaae in which to descend 
the river, Leshore was to commend us to whatever help this 
Batoka chief could render. It must be confessed that Le- 
Bhore's men, who were all of the black subject tribes, really 
needed to bo viewed by us in the most charitable light; for 
Leshore, on entering any village, called out to the inhabit- 
ants, "Look out for your property, and see that my thieves 
don't steal it." 

Two young Makololo, with their Batoka scrv.'intg, accom- 
panied U8 to sec if Kcbrabosa could be surmounlcd, and to 



bring a supply of medicine for Sekeletu'e leprosy ; and Imlf 
a dozen able canoe-men, under Mobita, who had previously 
gone with I)r. Livingsione to Loanda, were sent to help us in 
our river navigation. Some men on foot drove six oxoi 
which Sekeletu had given xis as provisions for the journey. 
It was, as before remarked, a time of scarcity; and, consid- 
ering the dearth of food, cur treatment had boon liberal. 

By day the canoe-tnen are accustomed to keep close under' 
the river's bank from fear of the hippopotami; by nigt^ 
however, they keep in the middle of the stn^m, as then thoasl 
animala are usually close to the bank on their way to their 
grazing-grounds. Our progress was considerably imp«dcd| 
by the high winds, which at this season of the year bcgii 
about eight in the morning, and blow strongly up the rivei^ 
all day. The canoes were poor leaky afihirs, and so low ii 
parts of the gunwale that the paddlera were afraid to follow 
the channel when it crossed the river, lest the waves might 
swamp us. A rough sea is dreaded by all these inland ca- 
noe-men ; but, though timid, they are by no means unskillful 
at their work. Tho ocean rather astonished them afterward, 
and also the admirable way that the Nyassa men managed 
their canoes on a rough lake, and even among the breakers, 
whore no small boat could possibly live. 

On the night of the 17th we slept on the left bank of the 
Majeele, after having had all the men ferried acrosai An ox 
was slaughtered, and not an ounce of it was left next morn- 
ing. Our two young Makololo companions, Moloka andBa- 
makukane, having never traveled before, naturally clung to 
some of tho luxuries they had been accustomed to at home. 
When they lay down to sleep, their servants were called to 
spread their blankets over their august persons, not forget- 
liog their feet This seems to bo the duty of the Makololo 

Chai-. 3tV. 


wifb to her liusband, and straogers eometlmes raceive the 
boaor. One of oar party, having wandered, slept at the vil- 
lage of IJambowc Wbca he laid down, to his surprise two 
of Nambowe's wives came at once, and carefully and kindly 
spread bis kaross over him. 

A beautiful silvery fish' with reddish ilus, called Ngwcsi, 
is very abundant in the river. Large ones weigh fifteen or 
twenty pounds each. Its teeth are exposed, and so arranged 
that, when they meet, the edges cut a hook like nippers. 
The Ngwesi seems to be a very ravenous fish. It often gulps 
down the Konobono, a fish armed with serrated bones more 
than an inch in length in the pectoral and dorsal Gns, which, 
. fitting mto a noteh at the roots, can be put by the iish on full 
cock or straight out — they can not be folded down without 
itfi will, and even break in resisting. The name " Konoko- 
no," elbow-elbow, is given it, from a resemblance its extend- 
ed fins are supposed to bear to a man's elbow stuck out from 
his body. It often performs the little trick of cocking its fins 
in the stomach of the Ngwesi, and, the elbows piercing its en- 
emy's sides, he is frequently found floating dead. Tlie fin 

SDCfl aeem to have an acrid secretion on them, for the wound 
Ihcy make is excessively painful. The Konokono barks dis- 
tinctly when landed with the hook. Our catioe-men invari- 
ably picked up every dead fish they saw on the surface of the 
water, however far gone. An unfragrant odor was no objec- 
tion; the fish was boiled and eaten, and the water drunk a.<; 
soup. It is a curious fact that many of the Africans keep 
flsh as we do woodcocks, until they are extremely offensive, 
before they consider them fit to eat Our poddlcrs informed 
ca on our way down that iguanas lay their eggs in July and 
August, and crocodiles in September. The eggs remain a 
jnontb or two under the sand where they are laid, and the 



dui-, XV. 

young come out when the rains havti fairly commcuced. Tbe 
caDOC-men were quite positive tLat crocodiles frequeutly stuu 
men by striking them with their tails, aud thea squat oa them 
till they are drowned. "We once caught a young crocodile, 
which certainly did use its tail to iaflict sharp blows, and led 
us to conclude that the native opinion is correct. They be- 
lieved also that, if a person shuts the beast's eyes, it lets go 
its hold. Crocodiles have been known to unite and kill a 
large one of their own species and eat it.* Some fishermen 
throw the bones of tbe fUh into the river, but in most of tbe 
fishing villages there are heaps of them in various places. 
The villagers can walk over them without getting them into 
their feet; but the Makololo, from having softer soles, are un- 
able to do sa The explanation olTcred was, that the fisher* 
men have a medicine against fish-bones, but that they will 
not reveal it to the Makololo. 

We spent a iijght on Mparira Island, which is four miles 
long and about one mile broad. Mokompa, the head man, 
was away hunting elephants. Bis wifo scut for him on our 
arrival, and he returned next morning before we left. Tak- 
ing advantage of the long-continued drought, he had set fire 
to the reeds between the Chobc and Zambesi in such a num- 
ner as to drive the gamo out at one comer, where his men 
laid in wait with their spears. Ho had killed five elephants 
and three buflaloes, wounding several others which escaped. 

On our land party coming up, we were told that the oxen 

* A gro&ler vnrictj of lishos nre on (he uuqo AUlhoritv found above tbui bo- 
low ilio Falls, or tlioio ubtAt tlipy namo : Mpofii — 116— Nijujc — Njirwcd — 
Moshotin — Ndnbwtj — Soio Lobotu — Lobartrwa — Motome — Nembele — I.itorc 
— Ldxhuala or Ntlonibe — I.inj'Ongii— Mpdln — Joniogo — Likcva — Uoshibft-^ 
Bnnc]i>— Scto— Mitif^n — I.binje. 

In ailditiun to Oick.-, mj (wcnijr i\»hei, Ihej meniioa Macnbo, cftllod also bf 
llto Bjuhnhin Mijlitimbvr«, whicb icemN to bo a kind of snwAsb, and Likali, ttr 
Oaln, the Lepidtwircn in the BiLroise Vall^. 

Cba*. XV. 



were bitten by the tsetse : they could see a great djfiereace 
their looks. One was already eaten, aud ibey now wiahed 
' slaughter aDOther. A third fell into a bu£[alo-pit next day, 
so our stock was soon reduced. A man who accompanied 
us to the Falls ^as a great admirer of the ladies. Kveiy 
pretty girl he saw filled his heart with rapture. " Oh, what 
a beauty I never saw her like before; I wonder if she is mar- 
ried?" and earnestly and lovingly did he gaze aAer the 
charming one till she had passed out of sight. He had fouV 
wives at home, and hoped to have a number more before 
long, but he bad only one child; this Mormonism does not 
aecm to satisfy ; it leads to a state of mind which, if not dis- 
ease, ia truly contemptible. The Batoka chief Moshobotwane 
again treated ua with his usual hospitality, giving us on ox, 
some meal, and milk. We took another view of the grand 
Mosi-oa-tunya, and planted a quantity of seeds in the garden 
on the island; but, aa no one will renew the hedge, the hip- 
popotami will, doubtless, soon destroy what wo planted. Ma- 
sbollano assisted ua So much power was allowed to this 
under-chief, that he appeared as if he had cast off the author- 
ity of Sekeletu altogether. lie did not show much courtesy 
to his messengers; instead of giving them food, ns is custom- 
ary, he took the meat out of a pot in their presence, and hand- 
ed it to his own followere. This may have been because Sc- 
keJetu'a men bore an order to bim to remove to Linyanti. 
He had not only insulted Baldwin, but had also driven away 
the Griqua traders ; but this may all end in nothing. Some 
of the natives here and at Sesheke know a few of the low 
tricks of more civilized traders. A pot of milk was brought 
to OS one evening which was more indebted to the Zambesi 
than lo any cow. Baskets of fine-looking white meal, else- 
vhere, had occaaioually the lower half filled with bran. Eggs 


Chip. XV. 

are always a perilous iavestment. The natire idea of a goodJ 
egg dtflers aa widely from our own as is possible oq suoh a 
trifliog subject An egg is eatea here with apparent relish, 
tbougb an embryo cbtok be iuslde. 

We Icfi Mosi-oa-tunya ou the 27tb, and slept close to the 
village of Bakwini. It is built on, a ridge of loose red. soil, 
which produces great crops of mapira and ground-nuts; many 
magnificcDt mosibe-trees stand near tlio village. Macbimtsi, 
the head man of the village, possesses a herd of cattle and a 
large heart ; he kept us company for a couple of days to guide 
ufi on our way. 

Wc had heard a good deal of a strong-bold some mil«6 
low the Falls, called Kalunda. Our return p&tb was muchi 
nearer the Zambesi than that of our ascent — in fact, as near 
as the rough country would allow — ^but wc left it twice be- 
fore wo reached Sinamane's, in order to see Kalunda and a 
fall called Moornba, or Moamba. The Makololo hod once 
dispoasesaed the Batoka of Kalunda, but we could not see thej 
Sssure, or whatever it is, that rendered it a place of secarilyi] 
as it was on the southern bank. The crack of the Great Falla I 
wns here continued; the rocks are the same as farther op, 
but perhaps les3 weather-worn — and now partially stratified 
in great thick niassea. The country through which we 
traveling was covered with a cindery-looking volcanic tuft,' 
and might bo called " Katakaumena." 

The description we«.received of the Moamba Falls seemed 
to promise something grand. They were said to send up 
"smoke" in the wet season likeMosi-oa-tunya; but when We 
looked down into the clefl, in which the dark green narrow 
river still rolls, we saw, about 800 or 1000 feet below us, what; 
after Moai-oa-tunya, seemed two insignificant cataracta. It 
was evident that Pitsane, observing our delight at the Victoria 

Out. TV. 



Falls, wished to iucrcase our pleasure by a second wonder. 
One Mosi-oa-tunya, however, is quite enough for a continent. 

The natives of Africa have an amiable desire to please, and 
often tell what they imagiuc will be gratifying, rather than 
the umnterestiiig naked truth. Let a native ijrom. the in- 
terior be qaestioued by a thirsty geographer whether the 
mountains round his youthful home are high; from a dim 
recollection of sometking of the sort, combined with a desire 
to please, the answer will bo iti the aflir[Dativ& And so it 
will bo if the subject of inquiry be gold or UDiooms, or men 
viCh tails. English sportgn^en, though first-rate shots at 
home, arc notorious for the number of their misBes on first 
trying to shoot in Africa. Every thing is on such & ]axffi 
scale, and tbero is such a glaro of bright sunlight, that BOCOd 
time is required to enable them to judge of distancca "Is 
it wounded?" inquii^d a gentleman of his dark attendant, 
after firing at an antelope. " Yes; the bail went right into 
his heart" These mortal wounds never proving fatal, he 
asked a friend, who understood the language, to explain to 
^e man that he preferred the truth in every caaa " Ue is 
my father," replied the native, "and I thought he would bo 
displeased if I told him that he never hits at all" But, great 
aa this billing is among the free, it is much more annoying 
among the slaves. One can scarcely induce a slave to trans- 
late any thing truly, he is so intent on thinking of what will 
plensc. By fiir the greatest wonder of Captain Speko and 
Grant's journey was that they accomplished it with slaves. 

We had now an opportanity of seeing more of the Batoka 
than we had on the highland route to our north. They did 
not wait till the evening before offering food to the strangers. 
The aged wife of the head man of a hamlet where we rested 
at midday at once kindled a fire, and put on the cooking-pot 




to make porridge. Both men and women are to bo distin- 
guiahed by greater rouadness of feature than the other oar 
tives, and the custom of knockuig out the upper front teeth 
gives at once a distinctive character to the ^ce. Their ookr 
attests the greater altitude of the country in which many of 
thorn formerly lired. Some, however, are aa dark as the 
Bashabia and Barotse of the great valley to their wcst^ in 
which stands Seahekc, formerly the capital of the Baloi, or 

The assertion may seem strange, yet it is none the less trae, 
that in all the tribes we have ^"iaiteU we never saw a really 
black pcreoD. Differeut shades of brown prevail, and often 
with a bright broozo tint, which no painter, except Mr. An- 
gas, seems ablo to catch. Those who inhabit elevated, dry 
aitoations, and who are not obliged to work much in the son, 
are frequently of a light warm browfi, " dark but comely." 
Darkness of color is probably partly canaed by the sun, and 
partly by something in the climate or soil which wo do not 
yet know. We see something of the same sort in trout ant 
other fish, which take their color from the ponds or streama 
in which they live. The members of our party were mndi 
lees embrowned by free exposure to the sun for years than 
Dr. Livingstone and his family were by passing once from 
Karuman to Cape Town, a journey which occupied only a 
couple of months. 

What the peculiarity of climate is which lavors the depo- 
sition of coloring matter in the skin and hair is yet uoknovn ; 
but, in some cases observed, color was not a matter of tao^ 
for, after long rcadenoe in a hot country, a wound or boil 
heals much darker than the rest of the body. The hair of the 
Africans, microscopists inform us, is not really wool, but a 
growth of identically the same nature as our own, only with 




a greater amount of tbo pigmeat deposited. It is not at all 
uniutual to mc«t Europoaus with Lair darker tlian the Afri- 
can, aud with Afi'icans wbose hair has a distinct reddish tiage^ 
and who have ibc same uervo-sangULueous tcmperameat as 
the Xanthous varieties of other races. 

Bat few good-looking women appear in the fiist Batoka 
viUagea, because the Makololo marry all the pretty girls. In 
one village we saw on a pole the head of a crocodile. It had 
entered by night the inclosure constructed to protect the wom- 
en when drawing water, and caught one of them: the men 
rushed to the rescue, killed the monster, and stuck his head 
on a pole, as they were wont to do the heads of human crlm- 
ioals and of strangers. 

A stroug clannish feeling exists among the Batoka, as 
among all the other tribes. In traveling, those belonging to 
one tribe always keep by themselves and help one another. 
The Batoka, like the Bushmen, excel in following the track 
of a wounded animal ; it is part of their education. They 
arc also good climbers, from being accuatoraed to collect wild 

We passed over a rugged country, with many hiila and 
perennial streams, of which the Sindi was the finest for irri- 
gation. On returning from Moamba to the Sindi we found 
our luggage had gone on, and, as the chronometer was with 
it, we had to foUpw it up on Sunday; we all felt sorely the 
want of the Sabbath through the following week. Apart from 
any Divino command, a periodical day of repose is absolutely 
neeBBsaiy for the human frame. 

We encamped on the Kaiomo ou the 1st of October, and 
found the weather very much wanner than when we croi=sed 
thiB stream in August. At S P.M., the thermometer, four feet 
from the ground, was lOV in the shade j the wet bulb only 




61° : a difference of 40°. Yet, DotwiUistaadiDg this extreme 
dryness of the atmospUore, without a drop of rain having 
fallen for naontha, and scarcely any dew, many of the shrnbe 
and trees were pulling forth fresh leaves of various hues, 
while others made a profuse display of lovely blossoma. 
Near the sites of ruined Batoka villages arc always seen the 
Mochcnjo Milo, Boma, Mosibe^ ^[otsintsela, and several other 
kinds of native fruits ; Dr. Kjrk found the Mamosho-moeho 
and Milo to be Cinobonaccous trees. The Mosibc he consid* 
ered identioal with cxtpaifera kt/mena/otia of Cuba, a tree of 
which but little is yet known. As this tree is absent from 
the eastern and western slopes of the continent of Africa, and 
not met with on the East Coast, our finding it in this remote 
part, with other trees ghowing a relationship to India, is very 
interusting, as indicating thut much is unknown in tho mi- 
grations of plants. The Boma is a Vitex nearly allied to a 
Madagascar tree. It yields a very valuable oU-nut, and grows 
abundantly at Lake Nyassa, as well as in these quanors. 
Tim Mamosho-mosho is the best fruit in the country; bat 
we, being glad of auy fruit, are uuable to say whether Euro- 
peans in general would esteem it as highly as tho natives 
do. The edible part of uncultivated fruil£ is usually very 
small. One of our men speared a conger eel four feet seven 
inches in length, and ten and a half inches round the neck; 
it is here called Mokooga. 

Two old and very savage buffaloes were shot for our com- 
panions on the 3d of October. Our Volunteers may feel an 
interest in knowing that balls sonietiraes hare but little ef- 
fect: one buffalo fell on receiving a Jacob's shell; ii was hit 
again twice, and lost a brgo amount of blood; and yet it 
sprang up and charged a native, who, by great ngjlity, had 
just time to climb a tree before the maddened beast struck it, 

Cbap. XV. 



battering- nun fasbioD, bard enough almost to have split both 
head and tree. It paused a tew seconds — drew back several 
paces — glared up at the man, and then dashed at the tree 
again and again, as if determined to shake him out of it. It 
took two more Jacob's shells and five other large solid rifle 
balls to finish the beast at last. These old surly buffaloes 
had been wandering about in a aort of miserable fellowship ; 
'^eir skins were diseased and scabby, as if leprous, and their 
horns atrophied or worn down to stnmpa — the first was killed 
outright by one Jacob's shell, the second died hard. There 
is so much difference in the tenacity of life in wounded ani- 
mals of the same species, that the inquiry ia suggested where 
the seat of life ean be? We have seen a buffalo live long 
enough, after a large bullet had passed right through the 
heart, to allow firm adherent clots to be formed in the two 

One day's journey above Sinamane's, a mass of mountain 
called Goronguc, or Golongwe, is said to croag the river, and 
the rent through which the river passes is, by native report, 
qtiitc fearful to behold. The country round it ia so rocky, 
thai our companions dreaded the fatigue and were not much 
to blame, if, as is probably the case, the way be worse than 
that over which we traveled. As we trudged along over the 
black slag-like rocks, the almost leafless trees affording no 
Bhade, the heat was quite as great as Europeans could bear. 
It was 102° in the shade, and a thermometer placed under 
the tonpie or armpit showed that our blood was 99-5", or 
I'd" hotter than that of the natives, which stood at 98". •ur 
shoes, however, enable us to pass over the hot burning soil 
better than they can. Many of those who wear sandals have 
corns on the sides of the feet and on the heels, where the 
straps pass. Wc have seen instances, too, where neither saa- 



dais nor shoes were worn, of corns on the soles of the feet 
It is, moreover, not at all uncommon to see toes cocked np, 
as if pressed out of their proper places ; at home, we shonld 
have unhesitatingly ascribed this to the vicious fashions per- 
versely followed by our shoemakers. 

The LoDgkwe, or, as tho Makololo call it> the Bivcr of 
Quai, or tobacco, comes in from the country of Moselekatsc, 
or from the southeast, and joins the Zambesi above Golong- 
we. 'This fact may corroborate what is said by Mr. Thomas, 
that all the rivers rising on the one side of Mosclekatse's 
country run easterly, arid into the Shashc, to join the Limpo- 
po, while all the others run westerly, and then northerly, to 
the Zambesi. Golongwc was probably the dam which, be- 
fore the rent was made, converted the whole Linyanti Valley 
into a lake; but wo could not, on the path we oamc, observe 
any difference of level by the barometer. From the F&lla to 
Sinaraane's the country sloped, and was all lower than Se- 
sheke ; still a considerable difference of level must have taken 
place sinoe the deep undisturbed mass of soft tufa was depos- 
ited on the great flats of Seshekc and Linyanti. The courses 
of the rivers in tbo country of Moselekatsc, and on the Bftto- 
ka highlands west of the Kalomo, show that, in reference to 
the countries east of it, the great Makololo Valley is atill & 

On the 5th, after crossing some htlls, wc rested at the vil- 
lage of Simariango. The bellows of the blacksmith here 
were somewhat different from the common goatskin bags, 
and more like those seen in Madagascar. They consisted of 
two wooden vessels, like a lady's bandbox of small dimcQ- 
sions, the upper ends of which were covered with leather, 
and looked something like the heads of drums, except that 
the leather bagged iu the centre. They were fitted with long 

CiiAr. XV. 







- '• -^ 

BtHain and Mhor Taok 

nozslee, ihrough which the air wna driven by working the 
loose covering of iho tops up and down by means of a small 
piece of wood attached to their centres. The blackstniih said 
that tin waa obtained from a people in the north called M&- 
rendi, and that he had made it into bracelets; we had oever 
heard before of tin being found in the country. 

Our course then lay down the bi;d of a rivulet called Ma- 
patizia, in which there was much calc spar, with calcareous 
schist, and then the Tettc gray sandstone, which usually over- 
lies ooal. On the 6th we arrived at the islet Chilombe, be- 
longing to Sinamane, where the J^ambesi runs broad and 
smooth again, and were well received by Sinamane himself. 
Never was Sunday more welcome to the weary than this, the 
laat we were to spend with our convoy. 

Sinamane Js an active-looking man of a light complexion, 
and is the ablest and most energetic of tlio Batoka cbicfs we 
have met. He was independent until lately, when ho sent in 
bia adhe.''ion to Linyanli; and, as all that Sekeletu asks of 
Mm is not to furnish the Matebelo with canoes when they 



Chap. XV. 

wish to cross the Zambesi to attack tbe Makololo, ho will 
probably continue loyal. Leshore's mi^on, m we have said, 
was to ratify thia vassal-ahip, to request StDamane to furDJsb 
us with what cauoes he could, and to assure bim that Mosbo* 
botwane had not received, and never would receive, authority 
from Rekelctu to go on foray's among his countrymen. This 
message was communicated also to the ofiending Batoka at 
the Falls, with whom it would havo a good effect Wc now 
saw many good-looking young men and women. Tbe dreeees 
,of the ladies are identical with those of Nubian women in 
Upper Egypt To a belt on the waist n great number of 
strings are attached, to hang all round the peraon. These 
^^ fringes are about six or eight inches 
^^p*"^*^*"^^ long. The matrons wear in additi<») 
jf J^ a skin cut like the tails of the ooatee 

^^^^^^^g^S^ formerly worn by our dragoons. The 
^^^^^^1 younger girls wear the wust-belt ex- 

^^^^VB hibited in the wood-cut, ornamented 

with shells, and have the fringes onlj 
in front Marauding parties of Batoka, calling theniaelTes 
Bfakololo, have for some time had a wholesome dread of Sina- 
mane'fl "long spears," Before going to Tctte, our Batoka 
friend, Mosakasa, was one of a party that came to steal 9oqm 
of the young women ; but Sinamane, to their utter astonish- 
ment^ attacked them so furiously that the surrivots barely 
escaped with their lives. Masakasa hnd to flee so fast that he 
threw away bis shield, his spear, and his clothes, and retnmed 
home a wiser and a sadder man. 

CkaT. XVL 



chapteb xvx 

S. — Canoe NsTi^tion. — Miwinlia. — Wnter-drnwing Sccwknde*. — Oen- 
Htjr «f Ihc Bsloka.— ll'iirchiMie of » Cancw.— Am-lioM, — HeiJ of llippo- 
|)oUtni.— ^'titariLct DocioT ofKjriljit. — Alliinc*, human oiid Iiippoijoiiiinic. — 
Meet Sc<jiias!ia, nut ijuitc to Black u puintml, — NiUtvc Mude of Salutation. 
— RarivtiiL—Gullanl Conduct of the Mflkokilo. — Breakf&st InierTupwd by 
Mftinba Kazai. — Dianor Ejioiled by prcuinded Aid. — Dnnjrai. — Itnpids <A 
Kebraliosa. — Dr. Kirk in Dungcr. — Snd Loss of MSS.,eic.— De«lli of one 
of our UoDkcp. — AtniAbtcSqufflrat^QcM ofMitkololo. — UinucTd iii I'mixo. 
— Reach Telle on tlm :!3<i of Nuwaubef.—" Jacks of all Trades." — luipou- 
tiDB jirsciiced od the Jfing of rortugol's Colonlul Sclicme. 

Sixauanr's people cultivate large quantities of tobacco, 
wbiob they manufacture into balls for the Makololo market 
Twenty balls, weighing about three quarters of a pound each, 
ore sold for a. hoc The tobacco is planted on low moist spota 
on the banks of the Zambesi, and was in flower at the time 
wc wore there, iu October. Sinamaue's people appear to have 
abundance of food, and are all in good condition. He could 
Bell us only two of his canoea, but lent ua three more to carry 
as as far as Moemba's, where he thought others might be 
purchased. They were manned by his own canoe-men, who 
were to bring them back. The river is about 250 yards wide, 
and flows serenely between high banks toward the nortb- 
casL Below Sinamanc's the banks are often worn down fifty 
feet, and composed of shingle and gravel of igneous rocks, 
Bomctimes aet in a ferruginous matrix. The bottom is all 
gravel and shingle, how formed wo can. not imagine, unless 
in pot-holes in the deep Bssure above. The bottom above 
the Falls, save a few rocks close by them, is generally sanely 
or of soft tufa. Every damp spot is covered wilU maize, 




pumpkins, water-melons, totiacco, and hemp. Tbere in a pret- 
ty numerous Batoka population on both sides of tlie river. 
As we sailed sJuwIy down, the people salutud us from the 
banks by clapping their handj>. A head man even hailed us, 
and brought a geuerous present of corn and pumpkins. 

Mocmba owns a rich island, called Mosanga, a mile in 
length, on which his viUagu standa He has the reputadon 
of being a brave warrior, and is certainly a great talker ; but 
he gave us strangers sompthiug better than a stream of words. 
We received a handsome present of corn, and the fiittest goat 
we had. ever seen ; it resembled mutton. His people were 
as liberal as tlieir chief. They brought two large baskets of 
com and a lot of tobacco as a sort of general contribution to 
the travelers. One of Sinamane's canoe-mcn, aflcr trying to 
get his pay, deserted here, and went back before the Btipu* 
lated time with the story that the Englishmen had stolen 
the canoes. Shortly afler sunrise next morning, SinamanO] 
came into the village with fifty of bis "long spcats," evi-^ 
dently determined to retake his property by foroc; he 
at a glance that bis man bad deceived him. Mocmba ralli^ 
him for coming on a wild-goose chase. " Hero are your ca- 
noes left with me, your men have all been paid, and the Kn- 
gUshmen are now asking me to sell my canoes." Sinamane^ 
said little to us, only observing that he had been deceived 
bis follower. A single remark of his chicrs caused the fool- 
ish fellow to leave suddenly, evidently much fVigbtencd and 
crestfallen. Sinamane had been very kind to us, and, as he 
was looking on when wo gave our present to Moombo, wq 
made him also an additienal offering of some beads, and 
ed good friends. Moemba, having heard that we had called 
the people of Sinamane together to t«ll ibcm about our S 
ior'fl mission to man, and to pray with them, associated the 

Cbat. XVI. 



idea of Sunday with ibu muctiiig, dnd, befon) any tbing oSiho 
sort was pruposeU, camo and askvd that hu and bis people 
inigbt be ''sundaycd" aa well as his ncigbbom, and Le given 
a iittle seed wheat and fruit-true seeds, with which request, 
of course, we very willingly complied. The idea of praying 
direub to the Suprotnu Being, though not quite new to all, 
seems to strike their minds so forcibly that it will not be for- 
gotten. Stnaraane said that he pmycd to God, Morungo, and 
made drink-ofierings to him, Though he Imd heard of ua, 
he bad never aflen white men before. 

When bargaining witli Mocmba for canoes, we were grati- 
fied to observe that he wished to deal fairly and honorably 
with us. "Oar price was large; hut he had only two spare 
canoes. One was good — he would sell that; the ether he 
Tould not sell us, because it had a bad trick of capsizing, and 
spilling whatever was inside it into the river; he would lend 
U3 his own two large ones until we could buy others below." 
The best canoes are made from a large species of thorny aca- 
cia. These trees were now in seed; and some of the natives 

)ilcd the pods in water, and mixed the decoction with their 

sr, to increase its intoxicating qualities. In times of great 
hunger the beans too are eaten, though very astringent 

"Wc touched at Makondc's village to buy a canoe. They 
were having a gay time, singing, dancing, and drinking their 
beer extra strong. A large potful was at once brought to us. 
The chief spoke but little ; his orator did the talking and 
trading for him, and seemed anxious to show him how clev- 
erly he cQuld do both. .Many tiny stockades stand on tho 
edge of the river ; they are huilt there to protect the women 
from (he crocodiles while filling their water-pots. This is in 
advance of the Portoguesc ; for, alihough many women arc 
annually carried off by crocodiles at Senna and Tette, so lit- 



tie are ihc lives of these po()r drawers of water valued by the 
masters that ihcy never think of erecting even a simple fence 
for their protection. Dr. Livingstone tried to induce tUo Pa- 
dre of Senna to move in this loatter, oJTering to give twenty 
dollars himself, if a collection should K- mode oAcr mass;! 
but the padre merely smiled, shrugged bis shoulders, and did 

Beautiful crowned cranes, named from their noto "uw 
KJaHjf," were seen daily, and were beginning to pair. Jjorge 
(locks of spur- winged geesL*, or machikwe, Vere common. 
This goose is said to lay her eggs in March. We saw also 
pairs of Egyplinu geese, as well as u few of the knob-nosed, 
or, as they are called in India, combed gccse. When the 
Egyptian geese, as at the present timi^, have young, the gos- 
lings keep so steadily in iho wako of their mother that they 
look as if tUey were a part of her tail j and both parents, whea 
on laud, simulate lameness quite as well as our plovers, to 
draw off pursuers. Tiie ostrich also adopts the lapwing fash* 
ion, but no quadrupeds do: tticy show fight to defend their 
young instead. In some places the steep banks were dotted 
"with the holes which lead into the nests gf bee-eaters. These 
birds came out in hundreds as we passed. When the red- 
breasted species settlo on the trees, thoy give thcui the ap- 
pearance of being covered with red foliage. 

Our land party came up to us on the evening of tho 11th, 
a number of men kindly carrying their bundles for ihetn. 
They had received vahiablo presents of food on the way. One 
had been given a goat, another fowls and maize. They be- 
gan to believe that these Baloka "have hearts," though at 
first, as those who inflict an injury usually arc, they were sus- 
picious, and blamed them for hating the Mafcololo and kill- 
ing every one tbcy met. Marauding parties of Makololo nml 




gabject Batoka had fonnerly made swoops on these very vil- 
lages. A few moriiiugs since, ^oloka ajjpeared io great grief 
aod fear: his servnnt lianyeu bad disappeared the day be- 
^'SoTOf and he was sure that tbe Batoka had caught and killed 
him. A few minutes after, this l^nyeu arrired, with two 
men who had found Lim wandering after sunset, had given 
him supper and lodging, and, carrying his load for bim, had 
brought him on to us. 

On the morning of the 12tli of October we passed through, 
a wild, hilly country, with fine wooded scenery on both sides, 
but thinly inhabited. The largest trees were usually thorny 
acacias, of great size Jind beautiful forms. As we sailed by 
several villages without toucbinj^, the people became alarmed, 
and ran along tha banks, spears in hand. We employed oue 
to go forward and tell Mpande of our coming. This allayed 
their fears, and we went ashore, and took breakfast iiwir the 
large island with two villages on it, opposite the mouth of 
the Zungwe, whero we had left the Zambesi on our way up. 
Mpaudu was sorry that he had no canoes of his own to sell, 
bat ho would lend us two. He gave us cooked pumpkina 
and a water-melon. His servant had lateral curvature of the 
flpine. We have oElon seen cases of humpback, but this was 
the only case of this kind of curvature we had met with. 
Mpande accompanied us himself in his own vessel till we bad 
an opportunity of purchasing a fine large canoe elsewhere. 
We paid what was considered a large price for it : twelve 
strings of blue cut-glass neck-beads, an equal number of large 
blue ones of the size ofmarhles, and two yards of gray cali- 
co. Had the beads been coarser they would have been more 
valued, because such were in fashion. Before concluding the 
bargain the owner said "his bowels yearned for his canoe, 
and we must give a little more to stop their yearning." This 



was irresisLikle. The trading part; of Sequasha, which we 
now met, bad purchased len large now cauoes fur six striDgs 
of ebeap coatso white beadtt each, or their equiraleut^ four 
yards of calioo, and had bought for the merest trifle ivory- 
CDuugh to load them all. They wcro driviog a trade in slaves 
alao, which was something new in this pan of Africa, and 
likely soon to change the character of the inhabitants. These 
men had been living in clover, and were uncommonly fiu 
and plump. When sent to trade, slaves wisely never stinkj 
themselves of beer or any thing else which their master']' 
goods caq buy. 

The insects called ant-lions {ifi/rTneeoUo) were very nuiner» 
0U3 in sandy places under shady tnccSj even where but few 
ants were to be seen. These patient creatures lie in ambush,, 
and have a great deal of extra labor at this season of theJ 
year. The high winds fill up their pitfalls with drifting sand,' 
and no sooner have they carefully shoveled it all out, than it 
ia aguin blown in, thus keeping them constantly at work till 
the wind goes down. 

The temperature of the Zambesi had increased 10" sinos 
August, being now SO"*. The air was as high as 9ft* after 
sunset ; and, the vicinity of the water being the coolest part, 
we usually made our beds close by the river's brink, tfaongh 
there in danger of crocodiles. Africa differs from India in 
the air alvrays becoming cool and refreshing long before the 
sun returns, aud there can be no doubt that wo can in this 
country bear exposure to the sun, which would be fatal in In- 
dia. It is probably owing to the greater dryness of the Afri- 
can atmosphere that sunstroke is so rarely 'met wiih. In 
twenty-two years Dr. Livingstona never met or beard of a 
single case, though the protective head-dresses of India are 
rarely seen. 

Coat. XVI. 



When Ihc water is nearly at its lowest, we occasionally 
meet with small riiptda which are pro1>abIy not in existence 
during the rest of tbc year. Having slept opposite the Rivulet 
Bumc, which comes from the south, wc passed the island of 
Nakansalo, and went down the rapids of the same name on the 
17ih, and came on iho morning of the 19th to the more seri- 
009 onca of Nakabclo, at the entrance to Kariba. The Mako- 
lolo guided the canoca admirably through the opening in the 
dikes. When wc entered the gorge we camo on upward of 
thirty hippopotami : a bank near the entrance stretches two 
thirds across tlie narrowed river, and in the still place behind 
it they were swimming about. Several were in tbe channel, 
and our canoe-men. were afraid to venture down among them, 
because, as they affirm, there Is commonly an ill-natured one 
in a herd, ■which takes a malignant pleasure in upsetting ca- 
noe& Two or three boys on the rocks opposite amused them- 
selves by throwing stones at the frightened animals, and bit 
several on the head. It would have been no diflicult matter 
to have shot the whole herd. We fired a few shots to drive 
them off; the balls often glance off the skull, and no more 
harm is done than when a schoolboy gets a bloody nose ; wo 
killed ouo, which floated away down the rapid current, fol- 
lowed by a number of men on the bank. A native called to. 
tis from the left bank^ and said that a man on his side knew 
how to pray to the Kariba gods, and advised us to hire him 
to pray for our safety while wc were going down the rapids, 
or we should certainly all be drowned. No one ever risked 
his life in Kariba wilhont first paying the river-doctor, or 
priest, for his prayers. Our men asked if there was a cataract 
in front, but be declined giving any information; they were 
not on his aide of the river; if they wonld come over, then he 
might be able to tell them. Wo crossed, but he went off to 




the village. We ibeu landed and walked over the hills to 
have a look at Kariba before trusting our canoes in iL The 
cnrreut vas alrongt and ihere was broken water in some places^ 
but the cbaonel was nearlj straight, and had no cataract, 8o 
we determined to risk it Our men visited the village while 
wo were gone, and were treated to beer and tobacco. The 
priest who knows bow to pray to the god that roles the rapida i 
followed us with several of his friends, and they were 
surprised to see us pass down in safety, without the aid of htal 
iuteroessioD. The natives who followed the dead hippopot- 
amus caught it a coaple of miles below, and, having made it 
fiat to a rock, were sitting waiting for ua on the bank beside 
the dead animal. As there was a considerable current there, 
and the rocky banks were uoiit for our beds^ we took the hip* 
popotamus la tow, telling the villagers to f(^ow,and we woe 
give them most of the meat The crocodiles tugged so hard i 
the carcass that we went won obliged to cast it adrift, to 
down in the curreui, to avoid upsetting the caoo& We 
to go on so far before finding a suitable spot to spend the night 
in, that the natives concluded we did not intend to share the 
meat with them, and returned to the village. We alept 
nights at the place where the hippopotamus was cut op.* 
The crocodiles had a busy time of it in the dark, tearing away^ 
at what was lefl in the river, and thrashing the water fnrtooa- 
Ijr with their powerful tails. The hills on both sides of Ka- 
riba are much like those of Kebrabaaa, the strata tilted aud 
twisltd in every direction, with no Icvd ground. 

Although the hills confine the Zambesi within a narroi 
channel for a number of miles, there are do c^uds boyood 

* Ite niml «•* ft fcathi, nd bl ; it vat 10 IbM u tH^il «ad < fern 
tach h Iwii^ A 7M«e U1I obuiMd kd^v af «m 4 Gbk S iaehes at 
«Um. aftct'iBehnfraMibeWMli»lHtRka«(lk«t«L 

Chat. XVI. 



tliose near the entrance. The river is smooik and apparently 
very deep. Only one single humaa belug was seen in tbo 
gorge, tbo country being too rough for culture. Some rocks 
in the water, near the outlet of Karlba, at a distance look like 
a fort ; and Buch large masses dislocated, bent, and even twist- 
ed to a remarkable lit-gra-, at once attest sonic tremendous 
upheaving and convulsive action of nature, which probably 
caused Kebrabas:;, Karlba, and the Victoria Falls to assume 
their present forms; it took place aller the formation of the 
coal, that mineral having then been tilted op. We have prob- 
ably nothing equal to it in the present quiet operations of na- 

On emei^ing we pitched our camp by a small stream, the 
Pendele, a few miles below the gorge. The Palabi monntain 
stands on the western sitle of ibe lower end of llie Karibii 
Strait; the i-ange to which it belongs crosses the river, and 
runs to the southeast. . Chikumbala, a hospitable old head 
man, under Nchomokcla, the paramount chief of a large dia- 
trici, whom wo did not see, brought ua next moniing a great 
basket of meal, and four fowls, with some beer, and a cake of 
salt, "to make it taste good." Chikiimbula said that the clc- 
pbants plagued them by eating up the cotton-plants; but his 
people seem to he well off. 

A few days before we eame, they caught three buffidoes in 
pitfalls in one night, and, unablo to eat them all, left one to 
rot. During the night the wind changed and blew from the 
dead bufialo to our sleeping-place; and a hungry lion, not at 
all dainty in his food, stirred up the putrid mass, and growled 
and gloated over hia feast, to the disturbance of our slumbers. 
Game of all kinds is in most extraordinary abundance, espe- 
cially from this point to below the Kafue, and so it is on Mo- 
sclckatsc's side, where there are no inhabitants. The drought 




drives all the game to llio river to drinV. An Uour'a walk on 
tbc right bank, momiiig or evening, reveals a couittry swann- 
ing wiih wild animals : vast herds of pallabs, many ivater- 
bucks, koodoos, buffaloes, wild pigs, elands, lebras, and mon- 
keys appear ; francoHns, Guinea-fowls, and myriads of turtle- 
doves attract the oye in the covers, with the fresh sjKOr of 
elepbimts and riiinoceroscs, which had been at the river du^ 
iDg the night Every few miles we came upon a school of 
hippopouimi asleep on some shallow sand-bank ; their bodies, 
nearly all out of the water, appeared like masses of black rock 
in the river. When these animals are hunted much they be-^ 
oome proportionably wary, but here no hunter ever trouble 
them, luid they repose in security, always, however, taking thrf 
prccuutiuti of sleeping just above the deep channel, into whi^ 
they can plunge when alarmed. Whca a shot is fired into a 
sleeping herd, all start up on their feet^ and stare with pecuK 
iar stolid looks of hippopotamic surprise, and wait for another"' 
shot before dashing into deep water. A few miles below Chi- 
kumbula's we saw a white hippopotamus in a herd. Oor men 
had never seen one like it before. It was of a pinkish white, 
exactly like the color of the albino. It seemed to be the 
thcr of a number of others, for there were many marked wilff 
large light patches. The so-called it^ite elephant is just such 
a pinkish albino as this hippo potamu.4. A few miles abovo 
Kariba we observed that, in two small hamlets, many of the 
inhabitants had a similar aSection of the skin. The same in- 
fluenco appeared to have affected man and beast. A dork- 
colored hippopotamus stood alone, as if expelled from the 
herd, nnd bit the water, shaking his bead from side to side in 
a most frantic maimer. This biting the water with his huge 
jaws is the hippopotamus' way of "slamming the door." 
When the female has twins she is said to kill one of them. 

CniK XVI. 



"VTc toached at ths beautiful iree-coverecl island of Kalabi, 
opposite where Toba-mokoro lectured ihe lion in our way up. 
The BDcestors of ibc people vibo now inhabit this island pos- 
■Qssed cattle. The taclsc lias taken possesion of the counlry 
sinoe the "beevtrs were lifted." No one knows where these 
insects breed; at a certain season all disappea]', and as sud- 
denly come back, no one knows whence. The natives arc 
such close observers of nature, that their ignorance in this 

•case surprised us. A solitary hippopotamus had selected the 
little bay in which we landed, and where the women drew 
■w»ler, for his dwelling-place. Pretty little lizards, with light 
blue and red tails, run among the rocks, catching flies and 
other insects. These bamiiess — though to newcomers re* 
palsire — creatures eomelimes perform good service to man 
by eating great numbers of the destructive white ants. 

At noon on the 24th of October we found Sequasha in a 
village below the Kafue, with the main body of his people. 
He said that 210 elephants had been killed during his trip, 
many of his men being excellent hunters. The numbers of 
animals wc saw renders this possible. He reported that, aft- 
er reachiag the Kafue, he went northward into the country of 
the Zulus, whose ancestors formerly migrated from the south 
and set up a sort of republican form of government Se* 
quasha is the greatest Portuguese traveler we ever became 
acquainted with, and he boasts he is able to speak a doz- 
en difterent dialects; yet, unfortunately, he can give but a 
yeVy meagre account of the countries and people he has seen, 
And bis statements are not very much to bo relitd on. But, 
considering the influences among which he has been reared, 
and the want of the means of education at Telte, it is a won- 

'der that he possesses the good traits tbat he sometimes exhib- 
iu. Among his wares were several cheap American clocks ; 



Cb*!-. SVl. 

a useless iovestmeDt rather, for a part of Africa where no one 
cares for ibe arllficial nieaauremeut of time. These clocks 
gul biui into trouble umcDg ihe Bau^'ai : he set tbem All ago- 
ing iti the presence of a chief, who became frightened at tho 
strange Bounds they made, and looked upon them as so many 
Tvicchcrall agencies at work to bring nit manner of evils upon 
Iiiniscif and bis people. Sequosho, it was decided, hud been 
guihy of a milando or crime, and he bad to pay a heavy fine 
of cloth and beads for bis exhibition. He alluded to our bav- 
ing heard that be had killed Mpangwe, and he denied having 
actually done so; but in his nbsencc his name bad got mixed 
up in the aSair, in consequence of his slaves, while driakiag 
l>cei' one iiigbt with Namakiisurn, the man who succeeded 
Mpangwe, saying that they would kill the chief for him. Hia 
partner bad not thought of this when we saw him on the way 
up, for he tried to excuse the murder by saying that now they 
had put tbc right man into the ubieflaiiitihip. 

From Tombnnynmu's onward the Zambesi is full of islands, 
and many buSkloes Imd been attracted by tbe fresh young 
grass and reeds. One was shot on the forenoon of the 27lh.' 
Distant thunder was heard during the nighl, and, as usually 
happens in lliis BtJitc of tbc ntmosphore, tbe meat spoiled ao 
rapidly that it waa not fit to eat next morning. Hunger in 
this case, and with do choice but want, made a bitter thing 
Bweet. Tho same rapid decomposition is also produced if 
meat is bung on a papaw-trcc for four or Ave hours; an hour 
or two, hnwever, makes it tender only. * 

Three of Ma-mburuma's men brought us a present of meal 
and fowls, as wo rested on the 28th on an i«land near Podo- 
hoda Their mode of salutation, intended to show gooeftdan- 
ners and Tespcctful etiquette, was to clap the thigh with one 
hand while; npproaching with tbe present in the other; and, 




[ down before as, to clap the hands together, then to 
obi^ung oa the thigh when they handed ibe pres- 
to oar raeo, and with both hands when ihey received one 
in retom, sod alao on their departure. This ccrcmonioos 
lore is gone throagh with grave composure, and moth- 
may be observed enjoining on their children the proper 
of the bands, as good manners are taught among 

After three hoars' sail on the morning of the 29th, the riv- 
er was narrowed ngain by the mountains of Mburuma, called 
riroa, into one channel, and another mpid dimly appear- 
red. It was formed by two carrcnta guided by rodcs to the 
eentie. In going down it, the men sent by Sckelctu behaved 
very nobly. The canoes entered without prcvions survey, 
and the hage jobbling waves of mid-current began at once to 
n them. With t^-cai presence of mind, and without a mo- 
'ment's hesitation, two men lightened each by jumping over- 
board; they tlicn ordereJ a Butoka man to da the same, as 
" the while men must bo saved." " I can not swim," said the 
Batoka. " Jamp out, then, and hold on to the cnnoc;" which 
le instantly did. Swimming alongside, they guided iho 
'swamping canoes down the swift current to the fool of the 
rapid, and then ran them ashore to bale ihem out. A boat 
could have passed down sofoly, but our canoea were not a 
foot above the water at the gunwales. 

Thanks to the bravery of these poor fellow.% nothing was 

lost, although every thing was well soakod. This mpid is 

nearly opposite the west end of the Mburumn Mountains or 

Karivua. Another soon begins belo.w it They are said to 

■be all smoothed over when the river rises. The canoes had 

Ito be unloaded at this the worst rapid, and the goods carried 

'about 0, hundred yards. By taking the lime iii which a piece 




of Stick floated I'ast 100 feet, we found tlie current to be run- 
niog six knots, hy far the greatest velocity noted in tlic river. 
As tlie meu were bringing the last canoe down close to toe 
shore, tbe stern swuug round into the current, aad ail except 
one man let go, rather than be dragged off. He clung to tbc 
bow, and was swept out into the iDiddle O'ftbe slreatin. Hay* 
ing held on when he ought to have let go, be nest put bis 
life in jeopardy by letting go when be ought to bave held fxa, 
and was in a few seconds swallowed up by a fearTul wbirl* 
pool. Ilis comrades launched out a canoe below, and caught 
him :is he rosu the third time to the surface, and saved bia, 
though much exhausted and very cold. 

The scenery of this pass reminded us of Kebrabasa, al- 
though it is much iufcrior. A baud of the same black abin- 
ing gla/^ runs along the rocks about two feet from Uie wa- 
ter's edge. There was not a blade of grass on some of the 
hills, it being the end of ibe usual Jry season succeeding a 
previous severe drought; yet the hill-sides were dotted over 
with beautiful green trees. A few antelopes were seea aa 
the rugged slopes, where some people too appeared lying 
down, taking a cup of beer. The Karivua Narrows are about, 
tbirty miles in length. They end at the mountain Rt>gnnoni. 
Two rocks, twelve or fifteen feet above the water at the lime 
we were there, may in Oood be covered nfid dangerous. Oor 
chief danger was the wind, a very slight ripple being suffi- 
cient to swamp canoes. 

We arrived at Zumbo, at the month of the Loangwa, Ottj 
the lat of November. The water being scarcely up to 
knee, our land party waded this river with case. A buQalo 
was shot on au island opposite Pangola's, the ball lodging in 
the spk^. It was found to have been wounded in tho same 
organ previously, for an irou bullet was imbedded in It, and 

CuiJ-. XVL 



the wound entirely healed. A great deal of tbe plant Putui 
ttratiotts was seen flootiug in the river. Many people inhabit 
iho right Umk about iliia port, yet the game is very abundant 

As wo were taking our breakfast on the morning of tho 2d, 
the Matnbo Kazai, of \fhoin we knew nothing, and his men, 
came with liicir muaketa aud large powder-horns to levy a 
fine, and ubuiiii payment for the wood we used in cooking. 
But oa our replying to his demand that we were English, 
"Oh! arc you?" ho said; "I thought you were Bazuugu 
(Portuguese). They arc the people I take |>aynicnts from ;" 
and he apologized for his mistake. Bazungu, orAzungu, is 
a term applied to allforeignera of alight color, and to Arabs; 
even to trading slaves, if clothed; it probably racana foreign- 
era or visitors — from zuTiga, to visit or wander — imd ibo Port- 
uguese were the only foreigners these men had ever seen. As 
we had no desire to pass for people of that nation— quite the 
contrary — we usually made a broad line of deraarcatioa by 
saying that wo were English, and the English neither bought, 
sold, nor held black people as slaves, but wished to put a stop 
to the slave-trade altogether. 

"We called upon our friend Mpeude in passing, lie pro- 
vided a hut for us, with new mats spread on tbe floor. Hav- 
ing told him that we were hurrying on because the rains were 
near, "Are they near?" eagerly inquired an old counselor, 
"and are we to have plenty of rain this year?" We could 
only say that it was about the usual time for the rains to com- 
mence, and that there were the usual indications in great 
abundance of clouds floating westward, but that we knew noth- 
ing more than they did'themselvea Some people occasion- 
ally take advantage of the supposed credulity of the natives 
to gain temporary applause ; but Africans are usually shrewd 
enough to detect some discrepancy, and no one is du]3cd but 


the traveler himself. Mpendc had been blamed for driving 
the clouds away during the past drought, and had to pay a 
heavy fine to the Pondoro as tin atonement for hia offense. It 
blew a galo on the night of the 4t,b, after which the wind sud- 
denly chopped roand and blew down the river, and we had 
thunder, lightning, and rain. The temperature of both air 
find water was lowered next morning, the river having fallen 
7°, or to 78°. There were thunder-storms all around u3 dnr- 
iiig the day, and the Zambesi rose several inches, and bccamu 
highly discolored. 

The hippopotami are more wary here than higher up, as 
the natives hunt them with guns. Having shot one on a shal- 
low sand-bank, our men undertook to bring it over lo the left 
bank, in order to cut it up with greater It was a flnc 
fat one, and all rejoiced in the hope of eating the fat for but- 
ter, with our hard dry cakes of native meal. Our cook was 
sent over to cut a choice piece for dinner, but returned with 
the astonishing intelligence that the carcass was gone. They 
had been hoodwinketl, and wcro very much asliamed of 
themselvea. A number of Banyai came tn assist in rolling it 
ashore, and asserted that it was all shallow water. The^ 
rolled it over and over toward the' land, auj, finding the rope 
we had made fast to it, as ilicy said, an encumbrance, it. was 
unloosed. All were shouting and talking as loud as ibey 
could baw!, when suddenly our expected feast plumped into a 
deep hole, as the Banyai intended it should do. Whea nnk- 
ing, all the Makclolo jumped in after it. One caught frantic- 
ly at the tail ; another gras]icd a foot ; a third seized the hip : 
"but, by Sebituane! it would go down, in spite of all that wc 
ooutd do." Instead of a fat hippopotamus, we bad only a lean 
fowl for dinner, and were glad enough to get even that The 
hippopotamus, however, floal«d during the night, and was 

Chat. XVI. 



fount] about a mile below. The Eanyai then nsaembled on the 
bank, and disputed our right (o tbo beast: "It might have 
been shot by somebody else." Oormcu look a little of it and 
then left, it, rather than' come into collision with them. 

A fine watcrbucl: was shot in the ICakolole Narrows, at 
Mount Manyerere; it dropped beside the creek where it was 
feeding; an enormous crocodile, that had been watching it at 
the moment, seized and dragged it into the water, which was 
not very deep. The mortally- wounded animal made a desper- 
ate plunge, and, hauling the crocoi3i.lo several yards^ tore itself 
out of the hideous jaws. To escape the hunter, the waterbuck 
jumped into the river, and was swimming across, wheu an- 
other crocodile gave chase, but a ball soon sent it to the bot> 
torn. The walerbuck swam a little longer, the fine bead 
dropped, the body turned over, and one of the canoes dragged 
it ashore. Ik-luw Kakolole, and still at the base of Manyerere 
Mountain, several coal-seams, not noticed on our ascent, were 
now sccu to crop out on the right bank of the Zambesi. 

Cbitora, of Cbicova, treated us with hh former hospitality. 
Our men were all much plcjiscd with his kindness, and cor* 
tainly did not look upon it as a proof of weakness. Tlioy 
meant to return his friendliness when tlicy came this way on 
A marauding c^cpeJition to cat the sheep of the Banyai, for 
insulting them in the afl'air of the hippopotamus; they would 
then send word to Chitora not to run away, for they, being 
his friends, woidd do such a good-beartcd man no harm. 

la our voyage down wo had gleaned the following informa- 
tion respecting the river itself. From the point where we 
embarked at Sinamane'a to Kansalo, the river is more navi- 
gable than between Tette and Senna, though much of it is 
only from 250 to 800 yards broad, or like the Thames at Lon- 
don Bridge. It is deep, and flows gently. A little below 



Cuxr. XVL 

Knnailo, at Kariha, a basaltic dike, called Nakabelc, with a 
wide opening in it, dangerous only for canoes, stretches like 
an artificial dam across the fstrcam. The deep and narrow 
river then flows on for several miles tLrough a range of lofty 
mountains. Still farther down, and from the Kafue eastward, 
it is at least half a mile wide ; the ciirrent is gentle, and there 
arc many sandy islands. Then there is the rapid at Karivua, 
mentioned above, about 10() yards in length, with a current of 
nearly six knots an hour; this is the most rapid part of the 
Zambesi except in actual cataracts. In the space below Zam- 
bo, and on to Cbicova, the river is again broad and of easy nav- 
igation. Chicova, of which geographers have spoken some- 
times as a kingdom and sometimes as a cataract, is a district 
having a fertile plain on the south bank, and both sides of 
the river were formerly well cultivated; but now it has no 

We entered Kebrabasa Kapids at the east encl of Cbicova, 
in the canoes, and went down a number of miles, until the 
river narrowed into a groove of fifty or sixty yanla wide, of 
which wc have already spoken in describing the flood-bed and 
channel of low water. The navigation then became difiicuU 
and dangerous. A fifteen feet fafl of the water in our absence 
had developed many cataracts. Two of our canoes paasect 
safely down a narrow channel, which, bifurcating, bad an ugly 
whirlpool nt the rocky partition between the two branches, 
the deep hole in the whirls at times opening and then shut- 
ting. The doctor's THinoe came nest, and seemed to be drift- 
ing broadside into the open vortex, in spite of the utmost ex- 
ertions of the paddlere. The rest were expecting to have to 
pull to the rescue; the men saying, "Look where these peo- 
ple are going! look, look I" when aloud crash hurst on our 
ears. l>r. Kirk's canoe was dashed on a projection of the 

Chat. XVL 



perpendicular rocks by a sudden and mysterious boiling up 
of the river, which occurs at irregular intervals. Dr. Kirk 
was weo resisting tlie sucking-down action of the water, which 
mtut fanvc been fifbscn fathoms deep, and raising himself bj 
his arms on to the ledge, while his stccnimaii, holding ou to 
the snme rocks, saved the canoe; but ncfirly all its contents 
were swept away down the stream. Dr. Livingstone's canoe 
meanwhile, which distracted the men's attention, was 
saveii by the cavity in the whirlpool filling up as the fright* 
ftil eddy was reached. A few of the things in Dr. Kirk's 
.canoo were lefl ; but all that was valuable, including a chK>- 
nometer, a barometer, and, to our great sorrow, his notes of 
the journey and botanical drawings of the fruit-trees of tbe 
interior, perished. 

We now left the river, and proceeded on foot, sorry that 
■wc had not dono so the day before. The men were thor- 
oughly frightened; they had never seen such pcriloas navi- 
gation. They would carry all the loads rather than risk Ke- 
brabasa any longer; but the fatigue of a day's march over 
the hot rocks and burning sand changed their tune before 
night, and then they regretted having left the canoes; they 
thought they should have dragged them past the dangerous 
plnces, and then launched them again. One of the two don- 
, Jccys died from exhaustion near the Luia. Though the men 
'eat eobras and quaggos, blood relations of the donkey, ihcy 
were shocked at the idea of eating the ass; ** it would be like 
eating man himself, because the donkey lives with man, and 
is his bosom companion." We met two large trading parties 
of Tettc slaves on their way to Zumbo, leading, to be sold for 
ivory, a number of M.'inganjii women, with ropes round their 
necks, and all made fast to one long rope. 

I^nzo, the head man of the village east of, tt- 





ccived 113 with great kindness. After the usual salutatioQ h»j 
went np ihc hill, and, in a loud voice, called across the val* 
ley to the women of several hanalels to cook supper for as, 
About eight in the evening he returned, followed bj a pro- 
oeasion of women bringing the food. There were eight di^- 
cs of nsima, or porridge, six of different sorts of very goodi 
wild vegetables, with dishes of beans and fowls, all delicious 
ly well cooked and scrupulously clean. The wooden dishes 
were nearly as white as the meal itself: food also was brought 
for our men. Kipe mangoes, which usually indicate the vi- 
cinity of the Portuguese, wore found on the 2 1st of Novem- 
ber ; and we reached Tettc early on the 23d, having been ab- 
sent a little over six months. 

The two English sailors left in charge of the steamer werd 
well, had behaved well, and had enjoyed excellent health aUj 
the time wc were away. Their farm had been a failure We 
loft a few sheep, to be slaughtered when they wished for fresh, 
meat, and two dozen fowls. Purchasing more, they soon had 
doubled the number of the latter, and anticipated a good sup- 
ply of eggs; but they also bought two monkeys, and rfiry ate 
all the eggs. A hippopotamus cflme up one night, and laid^ 
wast« their vegetable garden ; the sheep broke into ibeir co^ 
ton patch when it was in ilower, and ate it all except the 
stems; then the crocodiles carried off the sheep, and the na- 
tives stole the fowlsw Kor were they more successful as gUD- 
amiths: a Portuguese trader, having nn exalted opinion of 
the ingenuity of English sailors, showed them a double-bar- 
reled rifle, and inquired if they could put on the broivninff, 
which had nistcd off. " I think I knows how," said one, 
whose father was a blacksmith; "it's very easy; you bjiTO^ 
only to put the barrels in the fire." A great fire of wood wi 
made on shore, and the unlucky banvls put over it, to secure' 

Cbu>. XVL 



the bandsome rifle color. To Jack's utter amazement, the 
bairels came asuuder. To get out of the scrape, his com- 
paoion and he stuck the pieces together with resin, and sent 
it to the owner, with the message, " It was all they could do 
for it, and they would not charge him any thing for the job 1" 
They had also invented au original mode of settling a bar- 
gain ; having ascertained the market price of provisions, they 
paid that, but no more. If the traders refused to leave the 
ship till the price was increased, a chameleon, of which th$ 
natives have a mortal dread, was brought out of the cabin; 
and the momeet the natives saw the creature, tbey at once 
sprang overboard. The chameleon settled every dispute ia 
a twinkhug. 

Bat, besides their good-humored intercourse, they showed 
humanity worthy of English sailors. A terrible scream 
roosed them up one night, and they pushed off in a boat to 
the rescue. A crocodile had caught a woman, and was drag- 
ging her across a shallow sand-bank. Just as tbey came up 
to her she gave a fearful shriek : the horrid reptile had 
snapped ofl" her leg at the knee. They took her on board, 
bandaged the limb as well as they could, and, not thinking 
of any better way of sbowiag their sympathy, gave her a 
glass of rum, and carried her to a hut in the village. Next 
morning they found the bandages torn off, apd the unfortu- 
nate creature left to die. "I believe," remarked Howe, one 
of the sailors, " her master was angry with us for saving her 
life, seeing aa how she had lost her leg." 

Having heard a great deal about a military and agncultur- 
al colony which was sent out by the late King of Portugal, 
Don Pedro v., well known as a true-hearted man, we fcH 
much interest in an experiment begun under his enlighten- 
ed auspices. Immediately after our arrival at Tette we called 


upon the new governor. Ilis excellency coolly said that the 
king had been grossly deceived by those appointed to select 
the men. He smiled at his government sending out military 
convicts as colonists, and said, "These men are not fitted to 
do any thing in the country ; they know how to keep their 
arms clean, and nothing else. Of what possible use was it to 
send agricultural implements for men like these? The gov- 
ernment is deceived respecting Africa." 

Chj*. XVII. 




Dom toKmiEone. — LalMt Unllctin of *' the A*thmfttic." — The old Liid/'t) De- 
mbe- — KcoL-h Scnn» by C&noe. — Unprolitabla Tniding bjr Kliivu ^Tha 
Biter bit, or Se<[UA.ihA vquMxi^d. — Cuoli drnr by Slnvo Labor. — Ills l^xceU 
IimcT* Vncht. — Kongnint — KnRlisb I'njwrs. — Ft«&1i, Fowl, Fi»li, niid Lar- 
moDioiu Crahi or the .MaBgrore Sivain|i*.-^SusuuEii. — Tbe SawtiBli. 

The Zambesi being unusually low, we remained at Tette 
till it rose a Jittli^ and tbea left oq the Sd of December for 
the Kougone. It was bard work to keep tbe vessel afloat; 
indeed, wo never expected her to remain above water. New 
leaks broke out every day ; the engine-pump gave way ; the 
bridge broke down; three compartments filled at night; ex- 
cept the cabin and front compartment, all was Hooded; and 
in a few days we were assured by Ituwe that "she can't be 
wone than she is, sir/' lie and Hutchias bad spent much of 
their time, while we were away, in patching her bottom, pud- 
dling it with clay, and shoring it, and it was chiefly to please 
them, that we again attempted to make use of her. We had 
long been fully convinced that the steel plates were thorough- 
ly unsuitable. On tbe morning of the 21st the uncomfort- 
able " AsthmaUc" grounded on a 8and-bank and Glled. She 
could neither be emptied nor got ofE Tbe river rose during 
tbe night, and ail that was visible of the worn-oat craft next 
day was about six feet of her two masts. Most of the prop- 
er^ we had on board was saved, and we spent the Chriatmaa 
of I860 encamped on the island of Gbtmba. Canoes were 
sent for from Senna; and we reached it on the 27th, to be 
again hospitably entertained by our friend, Senhor Ferrio. 

A large party of slaves belonging to the commandant, aft- 
er having been away the greater part of a year, had just re- 



ckaf. xva 

turned from a trading expedition lo Moselckatse'a country. 
They had taken inland a thousand muskets and a lai^e qaan- 
tity of gunpowder, these being, they said, the onl}* articles 
MoselekaLse caj?e3 to purchase. They started on their jour- 
Dey back with ivory, ostrich feathers, a thousand sheep and 
goals, and thirty head of flue cattle. Moselekatso sent, in ad- 
dition, aa a token that the traders and he had parted good 
friends, a splendid white bull to the coramanJanL The os- 
trich feathers bad been packed in reeds ; a fire broke out in 
iho camp one night, and most of them yrere bujTied. On 
their way the cattle had to pass through a tsetse country, 
they nil died from the effects of the bite. The white boll pa>-^ 
ished within two days of Senna; six hundred of the sheep 
and goats bad been eaten, either because they became lame, 
or because the drivers were hungry. The commandant, hav- 
ing an attack of fever, was unable to calculate his losses, 
mtended lo imprison the slaves, who, as usual, thought more' 
of their own comfort than of their master's gain. Slave labor 
18 oerlaiuly very dear; for an Englishman with two wagot 
and ten people could have made a more profitable trip lo 
Moselckatse's— from the much greater distaooes of Natal or 
the Cape — than was made by these hundreds of slaves^ 

Wheo w© met Sequasha, he confessed to having already 
amassed 800 arrobas or 26,60^ lbs. of ivory, the most of it 
purchased for a mere trifle. His comrade had about half 
that amount, or 12,800 lbs. When Sequasha returned toj 
Telle in the following year, he was cast into prison in 
fort, lie had brought down several tons of ivory, and vaB\ 
soon a free man again. The ostensible reason for his iraptis' 
onment was the disorders he had been guilty of in the inte- 
rior; but this was only like the customary manipulatioa by 
which, in pisciculture, the salmon is made to yield her spawn 

before abe swims off a ireo light lisb again. We do not envy 
the positioQ oftbd colonist in ikv&i Furtuguese convict settle- 
ments; but we do regret lUat our own couuLrjmuu of the 
Cape are presented, by ao uiiwiso policy, from carrying tbeir 
freedom and lovo of fair play jiito tlic country wliicb is, ko iur 
as discovery goes, by right tbcjr ovfn. And we may be per- 
mitted to record our beartfult sorrovr tliat liobert Mollat, tbe 
aon of the celebrated misBionary, was bo soon cut off in the 
midst of his days, and at the commencement of bis noble en- 
deavors to carry lawful commerce into all tbe interior. 

It may be intereaiiag to our Cape friends to know that, 
notwithstanding tbeir occasionally laudable growling about 
the fickleness of Ka6ir laborers, such laborers are much bet- 
ter than slaves. The coal here, as we have mentioned, lies 
quite exposed in cliff sections, in the sides of streams, which 
could easily be made available for corriagu by lighlera. A 
small vessel, exactly like tbe Ma-Robert, was sent out by Bon 
Pedro V. for the navigation of tbe Zambesi, and orders were 
forwarded to Tcttc to have a supply of coal rcaily for her from 
tho seam at which we had supplied our vessel. Tbia order 
was carried out by slaves; and from information supplied to 
us by the officer who superintended this easj mining opera- 
tion, we found that the mineral cost £i per ton, or at least 
twice as much as it docs by free labor at the pit's month in En- 
gland. Indeed, it would have been more expensive, if taken 
to the river's mouth, than coal brought by sea round tbe Cape 
to India. The facte mentioned showed that the chief expense 
-incurred was in the food required by the slaves. The wages 
allowed in liic calculation to the ma.itcrs were very small. 
Coal from the mines at Tette, according to the present system 
of labor, oould not be delivered at Kongone much under £10 
per ton. The contrast is more striking if wo rcnlcrabcr the 



Coif. XVIL 

great dcpih at which the coal in Engliuiil is ohtuined. We mw 
the Tcsscl referred lo above lying in Mozambique Harbor in 
1864 : it had not beeu used fur the purpoje it was Bent out for, 
ihough it bad been nearly three years there. What a howl 
would have rung through the Cflpo Colony if oar governor 
there had kept a vessel, ^ut from Kurope for the development 
of the colonial trade, for his excellency's own amusement! 

Wo reached thoKongone on tho4th of January, 1861. A 
flag-staff and a custom-house had been erected during oar ab- 
sence; a hut^ also, for a black lance-corporal and three pri- 
vates. By the kind permission of the lance-corporal, who 
came to see us as soon as he had got into bis trow.scrs and 
shirt, we took up our quarters in the custom-house, which, 
like the other buildings, is a small square floorlcss but of man- 
grove stakes overlaid with reeds. Tlio soldiers complained 
of hunger; they bad nothing to cat but a little mapira, acdi 
were making palm wine to deaden their cravings. Whilaj 
waiting for a ship, wo had leisure to read the newspapers and 
periodicals wc found in the mail which vr&a waiting our a^ 
rival at Tcttc. Several were a year and a half old. 

Our provisions began to run short, aiid toward the end of 
the month there was nothing IcfL but a little bad biscuit and 
a few ounces of sugar. Coffee and tea were expended, but 
scarcely missed, as our sailors discovered a pretty good sub- 
stitute in roasted mapira. Fresh meat was obtained in abund- 
ance from our antelope preserves on the large island made by 
a crock between the Kongone and East Luabo. 

Large herds of waterbuck {Aigocerus cUi}isipTymnia) f«ed 
there on tho grassy plains; when they desire fresh putnre 
they wait on the bank till the tide is low, and then swim the 
creeks, half a mile or more, with the greatest ease. Theea, 
animals arc difficult to kill, and seem at times to have as many 

lives as u cat A shot in the neck is generally fatal, but ihey 
have frequently gone off, aci if unliurt, wiLb two or tUreeEn- 
field bullets ia Iba luugs or otLer parts of Ibe body. The 
lungs Sbemed to have uumerous fibrous septa running into 
tbeir substance, so as tu furm a congeiies of smalt lobes, one 
of which might bo wounded wiihont^uch injury to the oth- 
ers; bnt, white trying to find in this an explanation of the 
fact iliai a wound in tbe lungs of waterbueks did not kill, we 
never had ibe means and time for careful dissection. A fine 
malo ran full speed upward of two hundred yards with part 
of the heart blown out by n Jacob's shell. It was hoped that 
Jacob's sheila would put animals out of pa,ia at once ; but, from 
exploding on a bone near the skin, or even on the skin, they 
were found not to answer our expectations. The Enfield ball, 
too, though propelled with prodigious velocity, 13 much too 
small to prove speedily fatjil ; the large two-ounce round bul- 
let is the best of all, if it is well driven home. Near the sea 
the meat of the waterbuck is always juicy and welMlavored, 
reminding one of beef; but in the interior the flesh of the 
same kind of antelope h so dry nnd tough, thst at last even 
our black men, though fur from being fastidious, refused lo cat 
it, and we gave up shooting antelopes there altogether. It is 
said to be a well-attested fact that the flesh of the sheep of the 
island of Ilalki is highly esteemed, and has a delicious flavor, 
in consequence, it is believed, of the animals drinking salt-wa- 
ter only. Tho vegetation here has usually a quantity of fine 
salt in efflorescence on it, and much of the water is brackish. 
The excellence of the flesh may in this case also, perhaps, be 
attributed to the salt It was only after partaking of it in the 
interior that we understood why Captain Harria had so low 
an opinion ofit 
The reedbuck {Rednnca ekotra{;us) commonly lies close in 


Chat. XVH. 

the long grass during the extreme beat of tbe day, aud waits 
till the huliwr is near before bounding off and uttenng its 
wbistiti of alarm. A better acqumnUince witli the habits of 
aniinalB might aid in their division into groups, as they i^ 
pear in nature, on the hills, plains, and inarshea The koodoo, 
pallab, blockbuck or kuniata, klipspriuger or kololo, aro gener* 
ally RccD on the hills, and, when pursued, fleo to them for : 
ty. The gemsbuck or kukatiia, kama, tsessebc, gnu, el 
puti or diver, stelnbuck, giraffe, nuui or blesback, sphogbock 
or taepe, and ourebi, are always on the plains; while the wa- 
terbuck, poedbuck, lechwe, poku, nakong, and bushbuck inhab- 
it swampy places, and (lee to waters or swamps for protection. 

In the mornings and evenings the pretty-spotted bushbuck 
{Trarjdaphtts sijlvaluxi) ventures, though only a short distance, 
out of the mangroves, to feed. When startled, its call of dan- 
ger is a loud bark, the imitation of which is its name among 
most of iho native tribca — " mpabala," " mpsware." The wa- 
tcrbuck keeps the open plains, and seldom lies down during 
the day. On clear windy days all the game arc extremely 
wild and wary, and can only be stalked with the greatest dif> 
(lenity ; while in still, sultry weather, they may be approached 
with ease. 

A few leopards {Fdis teopanlus), colled " tigre" by the Port- 
aguese, and troops of a green monkey called " pusi," find food 
and shelter among the mangroves. The hunting leopard (/V 
liajubata), with small round black spots, we never saw. 

In this focus of decaying vegetation, nothing is so much to 
be dreaded as inactivity. We had, therefore, to find what 
exercise and amusement we could, when hunting was not re- 
quired, io peering about in the fetid swampa; to have gone 
mooning about, in HstlcM idleness, would have insured fever 
in its worst form, and probably wilU fatal results. 




A curious little bleiiny-fiBh. Bworms ia the numcroas creeks 
which iateraect the mangrove topes. Whea olai-mcd, It hur- 
across the surlace of the water ia a series of leaps. It 
ay Ixj coosiilered amphibious, aa it lives as much out of the 

'•water as in it, aud its most busy time is during low water. 
Then it appears oa the sand or mad, near the little pools Icii. 
by the retiring tide ; it raises itself on its pectoral lins into 
somethiug of a standiog attitude, and with ite large projecting 
eyes keeps a sharp look-out for iho light-colored fly on which 
it feeds. Should the IJ3' alight at too great a distauce for 
even a second leap, the blenny moves slowly toward it like a 
cat to its prey, or like a Jumping spider ; and, as soon as it 

kgets within two or three inches of the insect, by a sudden 
ipring contrives to pop its underset moutli directly over the 
nnlucky victim. Ue is, moreover, a pugnacious httle fellow, 
and rather prolonged fights may be observed between him 
ftnd his brethren. One, ia fleeing from an apparent danger, 
jumped into a pool a foot 8<iuarc, which the other evidently 
regarded as his by right of prior discovery; in a twinkling 
the owner, with eyes flashing fury and with dorsal fin bris- 
tling up ia rage, dashed at the intruding foe. The fight waxed 
furious; no tempest in. a, teapot ever equaled the storm of 
that miniature sea. The warriors were now in the water, and 

ganon out of it, for the battle raged on sea and shore. They 
struck hard, they bit each other, until, becoming exhausted, 
they seized each other by the jaws like two bull-dogs, then 
paused for breath, and at it again as fiercely as before, until 
the combat ended by the precipitate retreat of the invader. 

The muddy ground under the mangrove-trees is covered 
with soldier-crabs, which quickly slink into their holes on any 
symptom of danger. When the ebbing tide retires, myriads 
of minute crabs emerge from their underground quarters, and 



CuAf. XVU. 

begin to work like so many busy bees. Soon many miles of 
the smooth sand become rongh with the results of their hibor. 
They are toiling for iheir daily bread: a round bit of mwst 
sand appears at the little laborer's mouth, and is quickly brush- 
ed off by one of the claws ; a second bit follows the first ; and 
another, and still another come as fast as they can be liud| 
aside. As these pellets accumulate, the crab moves sideways, 
and the work continues. The first impression one receives is 
that the little creature has swallowed a great deal of sand, and 
is getting rid of it as speedily as possible : a habit he indnlj 
in of darting into his hole at intervals, as if for fresh sopplii 
tends to streugtben this idea; but the size of the heaps for 
ed in a few seconds shows that this can not be the case, uut^ 
leads to the impression thal> although not readily seen at the 
distance at which he chooses to keep the observer, yet 
possibly he raises the sand to his mouth, where whatever ani- ' 
malcule it may contain is sifted out of ityiind the remaindsEv 
rejected in the manner described. At times the larger 
cies of crabs perform a sort of concert ; and from each, sub- 
terrftnean abode strange sounds arise, as if, in imitation of the 
songsters of the groves, for very joy they sang ! The wart- 
hogs {PhafX>charus A/ricanus) seem to be rather partial to 
these large, sound-producing crabs; they dig them out of the 
muddy swamps during the night, and devour them. Shoals 
of small fish abound in the shallows between the Kotigone and 
the land, Nyangalule, and this is the favorite fishing-station of 
a largo flock of pelicans during the months they rctnaia on. 
the coasL Tlieso birds destroy an immense number of fisb; 
they breed in April on the low island offKongoiic, and also 
on that off Blast Luabo. The eggs, of which we got a good 
supply, are so fishy ia tasto that anchovy sauce is necessary 
to render them palatable. At Luabo Island the turUes come 

Cdap. XVU. 



at stated times to la^ their eggs, which have a tough mem- 
brane inntcad of a shell, and arc pleasant In flavor. 

The mangrove itself is worth examining; and Dr. Kirk 
found it, and trees and plants brought from a di^tanae and 
atwudcd on these shores, an interesting and instructive study. 
One species of mangrove stands, at ebb tide, on iia fantastic 
roots, raised high above the ground, while at flood tide tho 
trunk seems as if planted on the surface of the water. Anoth- 
er has flat, broad, tortuous roots, placed on edge in the mud, 
BO OS to give it, even on tLat soft substance, a 6 rm Ibuiidation 
to stand upon. The.secds ol'one species are formed somewhat 
like arrow-heads, and, in falling, are by their own weight shot 
into the soft ground, and self-planted. Another fruit nearly 
as largo ns a child's head, of no vse, as far as we can guess, to 
man or beast, splits into pieces when it drops. The wood, 
however, makes excellent fuel, and poasessea tho valuable 
quality of burning -freely in Uio furnace, even when green. 
It also mokes capital rafiers, which, from their straightncss 
and length, arc much esieqtned by the Portuguese. 

Wo found some natives pounding the woody sccms of a 
poisonous climbing- plant {Ditra palustris) called BiiKungu, 
or poison, which grows abundantly in the swamiw. When a 
good quantity was bruised it was lied up in bundles. The 
stream above and below was objitructed witli biiahos, and with 
a sort of rinsing motion the poison was diflused through the 
water. Many fish were soon affected, swam in shore, and 
died; others wero only stupefied. The plant has pink, pea- 
shapcd blossoms, and ecnooth, pointed, glossy leaves, and the 
brown bark is covered with minute white points. The knowl* 
edge of it might prove of use to a shipwrecked party by en- 
abling them to catch the fish. 

The poison is said to bo deleterious to man if the water is 




drank, bat not when tho fish is cooked. The Basongn is ze- 
pulsive to some insects, and is smeared round the shoots of 
the palm-trees to prevent the anta from getting into the palm' 
wine while it is dropping from the tops of tbo palm-trees into 
the little pots suspended to collect it 

Wc were in the habit of walking from our beds into the 
salt -wau-r at sunrise for a bath, till a large crocodile appear- 
ed at tlie bathing-place, and from that time forth vrc took our 
dip in the sco, away from the harbor, about midday. This is 
said to bo unwholesome, but wc did not find it so. It is cer- 
tainly better not to batho in the mornings, when the air is 
colder than the water — for then, on returning to the cooler 
air, one is apt to get a chill and fever. In the month of the 
river many sawfish are found. Rowc saw one while bathing 
—caught it by the tail, and shoved it, "snout on," ashonr 
The saw is from a foot to eighteen inches long. "We never 
heard of any one being wounded by this fish, nor, though it 
goes hundreds of miles up the river in fresh water, oould we 
learn that it was eaten by the people. The hippopotami de- 
lighted to spend the day among the breakers, and seemed to 
ei^'oy the fun as much as we did. 

Several gules occurred during our stay on the Coast, and 
many small sea-birds {Privn Jknthsii, Smith) perished; the 
beach was strewn with their dej»d bodies, and some were found 
hundreds of yards inland ; many were so emaciated as to dry 
up without putrefying. We were plagued with myriads of 
musqiiitoca, and had some touches of fever; the men we 
brought from malarious regions of tho interior sufTercd al- 
most as much from it here as we did oursclrea This gives 
strength lo the idea that the civilized withstand the evil infla- 
ences of strange climates better than the uncivilized. Whca 
nt^ocs return to their own country from healthy lauds, Ihey 
Buftcr as severely as foreigners ever do. 

Arrival of "the rioilMr.*" — Mis^on Siulf taken to Joliann*. — Bifilioi) Mac 

kontte joins t lie Expedition up ihc Itovuain.— Pull nf Wnii>r. — Hciunt toCw- 

moro,— Johanna.— Am* n I of iJic Hiiirt^— "Tlio I'ioiioer" iirmvi% loo muck 

Water.— Cbar lea LiTingHtone Inbors lo aiinuiljite Cutluu CnUurc. — Wuni of 

AmoU uo lliu Entit Cu»t cmtiFMreil lo ilie Vfvtl Cout. — Englnnrln [.ivboni 

: there. — Tlieir Value. —Expedition eminently sncccstful. — Tiiminc-iioioi of 

! fiuccMM. — Slaii-fLit rp.'tciicJ.^Thc Ui^hop nccrpU iho Chiefs invtluiiun tuMo- 

flgoiiiero. — Visit to the Ajnwu, KcH-mcant, ill-tiikon. — Kttind nt !!ny.— H^ 

'-treat of the Ajnwu.— I]iKlin|> MnckenztE's MiRMon nt Msgui]i«ri>. — Kxient 

tliyc. LivinesloQe's KcspvubiUlJty. — Ri^turn to the Sliip. 

Ox theSlst of January, 1861, our new ship, "the Pioneer," 
arrived from Linglanii, and anchored outside the bar; hut the 
-weather Teas stornij, aad shs did not veuttue ia till the 4th 
of February. 

Two of H.M. cruisers came at the same tame, bringing 
Bishop Mackunzie, and the Oxford and Cambridge Mission 
to the tribes of the Sbire and Lake Ny:i8sa. I'he Mission 
ooDsisted of six Kngiishmen niul ilvu colored men from the 
Cape. It was a puzzle to know what to do with so many men. 
The estimublo bishop, anxious lo commence his work wilhoat 
delay, wished the Pioneer to carry the Mission up the Shiro 
as far as Chibisa's, and there leave thcni. But there were 
grave objections to this. The Pioneer was under oi'dera to 
explore the Bovumo, as the Portuguese govcrnmcut had re- 
fused to opeu the dumbest to the ships of olhor nations, and 
their ofTicials were very effectually pursuing a system, which, 
by abstracting the labor, was rendering the country of no val- 
ue either to foreigners or to themselves. She was already two 
months behind her time, and the rainy seasoa was half over. 
Then, if tlio parly were taken to Chibisa's, the Mission would 




be lefl without a medical attendant, in an unhcnlLhy region, 
at clio beginning of the most sickly season of the year, and- 
without tncans of reaching the healthy highlands, or of Te-, 
taming to the sea. We dreaded that ia the absence of med^ 
leal aid, and ail koowledgo of the treatment of fever, there 
might be a repetition of tho sorrowful fate which befell the 
similar non- medical Mission at Linyanti. Ii was well that 
wo objected 3o strongly, for wo afterward found that tho bish- 
op had purchased qur fever pilLs at tho Cape, which mnst 
have been made of dirt instead of drugsi. The bishop at last 
consented to proceed in tho Lyra mnn-of-war to .Tohannn, and 
there leave the members of the Mission with H.M.'s Consol, 
Mr. Sunley, while he himself should accompany us up th« 
Rovuma, in order to ascertain whether tho country round iu 
bead-waters, which were reported to flow out of Nyassa, ww 
a suitable place for a settlement. 

On the 2ut,h of February the Pioneer anchored in the month 
of the iiovuma, wiiich, unlike most African rivers, has a raag- 
nifioent bny and no bar. We wooded, and then waited for 
the bishop till tho 9th of March, when be came in the Lyn. 
On the llih wo proceeded up the river, aiul saw i.hat it had 
fallen four or five feet during our detention. The scenery on 
the lower part of the Kovuma ia superior to that on the Zam- 
besi, for we can seo tho highlands from tho sea. Eight miles 
from the month the mangroves are left behind, and n beauti- 
ful range ofwcll-woodeil hills on eiich bank begins. On these 
ridges the tree resembling Africiin blackwood, of finer grain 
than ebony, grows abundantly, and attains a large siKC. Foflr 
people were seoo, and those were of Arab breed, and did not 
appear to bo very well oft'. The current of the Rovuma wtit 
now as strong as that of the Zambesi, but the volume of water 
is very mucti less. Several of the crossings bad barely water 

Cbap. xvin. 



, enough for our ship, drawing five feet, to pass. When ve 
rere thirty miles up the river, the water fell suddenly aeren 
^Dches in twenty-four hours. As the March flood is the last 
of the season, and it appeared to be expended, it was thought 
prudent to avoid the chance of a year's detention by getting 
the ship back to the sea without delay, llad the Expedition 
been alone, wo would have poshed up in boats or afoot, and 
done what wc could toward the exploration of the liver and 
upper end of the lake ; but, though the Mission was a private 
one, and entirely distinct from our own", a public one, the ob- 
jects of both being similar, we felt anxious to aid our ecun- 
ttymen in their noble enterprise, and, rather than follow oar 
own inclination, decided to return to the Shire, see tlio Mis- 
sion party settled wifely, and afterward explore Lake Nyassa 
andtbcRovuma from the lake downward. Fever broke out 
on board llio Pioneer at the mouth of the Rovuraa, as wo 
thought from our having anchored cloae to a creek coming 
oat of the mangroves, and it remained in her until we com- 
pletely isolated the engine-room from the rest of the ship. 
The coal-dust, rotting, sent out strong cflluvia, and kept op 
the disease for more than a twelvemonth. 

Soon after we starter!, the fever put the Pioneer almost en- 
tirely into the hands of the original Zambesi Expedition, and 
not long afterward the leader had to navigate the ocean as 
well as the river. The habit of finding the geographical po- 
sitions on land renders it an easy task to steer a steamer with 
only ^ree or four sails at sea, whore, if one does not ron 
ashore, no one follows to find out an error, and where a cur- 
rent affords a ready cxease for every blunder. 

Touching at Mohilk, one of the Comoro Islands, on our re- 
turn, we found a mixed race of Arabs, Africans, and their con- 
querors, the natives of Madagascar. Being Mohammedans, 

A A 



they hare mosques and scbooU, in which we wero pleased to 
see girls as well aa boys taught to read the Koran. The 
teacher said he was paid by the job, aad received ten dollus 
for teaching each child to read. The clever oaes learn in 
months, but the dull oues take a couple of years. We next 
went over to Johanna for our friends, and, after a sojourn of 
a few days at the beautiful Comoro Islands, sailed for the 
KoDgone mouth of the Zambesi with Bishop Mackenzie and , 
bis party. We reached the coast in seven days, and 
up the Zambesi to the Shire. 

The Pioneer, constructed under the skillfhl supervision of 
Admiral Sir Baldwin Walker and the late Admiral Washing 
ton, warm-hearted and highly-estoemed friends of the Gxpe- 
dition, was a very superior vessel, and well suited for our work 
in every respect except in her draught of water. Five feet 
were found to be too much for the navigation of the up[ 
part of the Shire. Designed to draw three fcct only, thel 
weight necessary to impart extra strength, and fit her for the 
ooeon, brought her down two fcct more, and caused us a grcAt 
deal of hard and vexatious work in laying ont anchors, ant 
toiling at the capstan to get her off sand-banka. Wc shoald 
not have minded this much but for the heavy loss of time, 
which might have been more profitably, and infinitely more 
pleasantly, spent in intercourse with the people, exploring 
new regions, and otherwise carrying out the objects of the 
Expedition. Once we were a fortnight on a bank of aoA 
yielding sand, having only two or three inches less water than 
the ship drew; this delay was occasioned by the anchors com- 
ing home, and the current swinging the ship broadsido on the 
bank, which, immediately on our touching, always formed be- 
hind us. We did not like to leave the ship short of Chibiaa't 
lest the orew should suSer from the malnria of the lowland 

cuju'. xvm. 



around, and it would have been difficult to have got the Mis- 
aiOQ goods cairied up. "We were daily visited by crowds of 
natives, who brouglit us abundance of provisionB far beyond 
curability to coosumc. In hauliug the Pioneer over the shal- 

)w places, the bishop, with Horace Waller and Mr. Scuda- 

lore, were cvor ready and anxious to Iciid a baud, and wurk- 

^Bd &a hard as any oti board. Had our fine little ship drawn 

but three feet, she could have run up aud down the river at 

any time of the year with the greatest ease, but, as it was, 

kving onco passed up over a few shallow banks, it was im- 
Fpoeeible to take her down again until the river rose in De- 
comber. She could go up over a bank, but not come down 
owr it, as a heap of sand always formed instantly astern, 

rhild tbo current washed it away from under her bowa 
From the period of our second entrance among the tribes 
on the Shiro, Charles Livingstone had very zealously turned 
his energies to inducing the people to cultivate cotton for ex- 
portation. The Ma-Robert was eo leaky that nothing more 
could be done, while we bad her, than purchase small quanti- 
ties of cleaned cotton and yam of native manufacture, to be 
submitted to our friends at Manchester, and to inculcate the 
probability of our countrymen coming to buy as much as 
could be raised. Much of what we bought in this way was 
inevitably spoiled by the wet state of the vessel ; but the spe- 
amcns sent home were pronounced to be "the -VQTy kind of 
cotton most needed in Lancashire," and the yam, or rather 
rove, which we bought at about a penny per pound, excited 
the admiration of practical manufacturers there. 

Now that wc had more accommodation, Charles Living- 
irtone pursued the same system of attempting to turn the in- 
dustrial energies of the natives to good account, and with very 
gratifying auccesa. Cotton was bought, and cleaned with cat- 




ion-gins, an<], tbough we wcro restricted by the great draught i 
of the Pioneer to an area of leas than seven miles, in threej 
roonlhs he had collected 300 lbs. of clean cotton-wool, at leas 
than a penny per pound. No great amount, certainly, vbcn 
compared with the thousands ofbales which come from other 
countries, but still sufficient to prove that cotton of superior 
quality can be raised by native labor alone; and but for 
slave-trade, which soon afterward swept all these people away," 
it is highly ijrobable that in a few years the free labor could 
have been turned to account in the markets of the world. 

It wad never intended that a govemmeut expedition should 
become a mere cotton collecting or mercantile speculation. 
We ascertained that the part of Africa in which wo labored 
waa pre-eminently suited for the better varieties of the cotton- 
plant I that two species of excellent cotton had already beea^ 
iutroduoed, and so widely distributed by the natives them- 
selves as to reader new seed unnecessary, and the indigenous 
kind quite an excepdbn in the country. The climate and soil , 
were found to be so well adapted for raising this product tl 
no danger need ever be apprehended of the crops being cut 
off by frosts; and, from all we could learn, free labor was 
available here as it is in any other country in the world. But 
a mighty want was felt in the entire absence of those bless- 
ings which England has unquestionably conferred on tbe 
West Coast. There were none of those Christian natives that 
can be numbered by thousands at Sierra Leone and elsewhere, j 
who, whatever defects tbcy may have, do possess tbe qimlifi- 
cation of being trustworthy trade-agents among their country- 
men. HaviDg carefully examined and compared both coasts, 
and making allowance for the fact that perhaps a majority of 
those on whom English benevolence has been expended have 
been the lowest of the low— liberated African slavea — and 

Cbap. XVUI. success OF 'HIE EXl'EDITION. 


likewise giving all due weight to the assertions of the traders 
who havcruaed strong language to express their injured feel* 
ings in being prevented fmin using the people as brutes, we 
must say that the conduct of England on the West Coast of 
Ifttc years deserves the world's admiration. Her genci-oslty 
will appear grand in the eyes of posterity. Here, on the East 
Coast, wc have the contrast No trustworthy agents can be 
employed ; no education has been imparted ; aad not even 
slave agents can be sent to a distance except on the promise 
of plunder and rapine. In the Mission we had now with us, 
wc trusted that wc saw the dawn of a belter system for both 
Portuguese and natives thaa that which has been the bane 
of all progress for ages past 

The Expedition, ia spite of several adverse circumstanoea, 
was up to this point emineotJy successful ia its objocta. As 
will be afterward seen, we bad opened a cotton-field, which, 
taking in the Shire and Lake Nyassa, was 400 miles in length. 
We had gained the confidence of the people wherever we bad 
gone; and, supposing the Mission of the Universities to be 
ooly moderately auecessful, as all we had previously kuown 
of the desire of the natives to trade bad been amply confirm- 
ed, a perfectly new era had comtaenced in a region much lar- 
ger than the cotton-fields of the Southern States of America. 

Wc had, however, as will afterward be seen, arrived at the 
turning-point of our prosperous career, and soon came iato 
contact with the Portuguese slave-trade; and let any one re- 
flect on the injury that any country sustains, even by laws 
■which only hamper trade and free commercial intercourse, and 
he may judge how utterly destructive to all prosperity that 
system must be, which not only fosters internecine wars, but 
readers the pursuit of agriculture perilous in times of peace. 

On at last reaching Ohibisa's, we heard that there was war 




ia the MaDgnnja country, and the slave-trade was going od 
briskly. A deputation from & chief near Mount Zomba lutd 
just passed on its way to Cbibisa, who was in a distant village, 
to impJorc him to come himself, or send medicine, to drive off 
the Waiao, Wiuau, or Ajawa, whose marauding parties were 
desolating the land. A large gang of recently enslaved Mad- 
ganja crosaed the river, on their way lo Tette, a few days be- 
fore we got the ship up. Chibisa'a deputy was civil, and read- 
ily gave US penniesiou to hire m many men to carry the bish- 
op's goods up to the hilts as wore willing to go. With a suf- 
ficient number, therefore, we started for the highlands on the 
15th of July, to show the bishop the country, which, from its 
altitude and coolness, was most suitable for a station. Oui 
firel day's march was a long and fatiguing one. The few ham- 
lets wo passed wore poor, and had no food for our men, and we 
were obliged to go on till -1 P.M., when we entered the small 
village of Cbipindu. The inhabitants complained of hunger, 
and said they had no food to sell, and no hut for us to sleep in ; 
bat, if wo would only go on a little farther, we should come to 
a village where they had plenty to cat; but wo had traveled 
far enough, and determined to remain where we were Before 
sunset 03 much food was brought as we cared to purchase, and, 
as it threatened to rain, huts were provided for the whole party. 
Next forenoon we halted at the village of oar old friend 
Mbamo, to obtain new carriers, because Chibisa'a men, never 
before having been hired, and not having yet learned to trust 
us, did not choose to go farther. After resting a little, ^fbame 
told us that a slave party on its w.iy to Totlo would presentlj 
pass through his vilhige. "Shall wo interfere?" we inquired 
of each other. We remembered that all our valuable privftte 
baggage was in Tette, which, if wc freed the slaves, might, to- 
gether with some government property, be destroyed in retali- 



ntion ; but this system of slave-hunters dogging us wliere pre- 
Tioiuly they durst not venture, and, oa pretense of being "oar 
children," setting one tribe against another, to furnish them- 
selves with slaves, would so inevitably thwart all the effortSj 
for which we had the sanction of the Portuguese governtneut, 
that wc resolved to run all riska, and put a stop, if possible, 
to the alflve-trade, which had now followed on the footsteps 
of our discoveries. A few minutes after Mbame had spoken 
to us, the slave party, a long line of raanacled men, women, 
and children, came wending their way round the hill and into 
the valley, on the side of which the village stood. The black 
drivers, armed with muskets, and bedecked with various ar- 
ticles of finery, marched jauntily in the front, middle, and 
rear of the line ; some of them blowing eiullaat notes out of 
loD^tin boms. They seemed to feel that they were doing a 
very noble thing, and might proudly march with an air of 
triumph ; but the instant the fellows caught a glimpse of the 
Euglish, they dartefi oflf like mad into the forest — so fast, in- 
deed, that wc caught but a glimpse of their red caps and the 
soles of their feet. The chief of the party alone remained ; 
and he, from being in front, had his hand tightly grasped by 
a Makololo 1 lie proved to bo a well-known slave of tho late 
Commandant at Tctte, nnd for some time our own attendant 
while there. On asking him how he obtained these captives, 
bo replied, he had bought them ; but on our inquiring of the 
people themselves, all, save four, said they had been captured 
in war. ^Vliile this inquiry was going on, be bolted too. 
Tho caplivee knelt down, and, in their way of expressing 
thankfl, chipped their liands with great cnci^. They were 
thus left entirely on our hands, and knives were soon busy at 
work cutting tho women and clilldren loose. It was more 
ditBcuU to cut the men adrift, as each bod his neck in the 



ciu». xvin. 

fork of a stoat stick, six or seven feet long, and kept in by an 
iron rod which was riveted at both ends across the throat 
With a saw, luckily in the bishop's baggage, one by one the 
men were sawn out Into freedom. The women, on being told 
to take the meal they were carrying and oook breakfast for 
themselves and the children, seemed to consider the news too 
good to be true; but, after a little coaxing, went at it with 
alacri^, and made a capital Hre by which to boil their polB 
with the slave sticks and bonds, their old acquaintances 
through many a sad night and weary day. Many were mert 
children about five years of age and under. One little boy, 
with the simplicity of childhood, said to our men, " The oth- 
ers tied and starved us ; you cut the ropes and tell us to eat ; 
what sort of people are you ? Where did you come from ?" 
Two of the women had been shot the day before for attempt- 
ing to untie the thongs. This, the rest were told, was to pre- 
vent them fix)m attempting to escape. One woman bad her 
infant's brains knocked out because she could not carry her 
load and it; and a man was dispatched with an axe because 
he had broken down with iatigue. Self-interest would have 
set a watch over the whole rather than commit murder; hat 
in this traffic we invariably find sclf-iutercst overcome by con- 
tempt of human life and by blood-thirstiness. 

The bishop was not present at this scene, having gone to 
bathe in a little stream below tho village; but on hia return 
he warmly approved of what had been done; he at first had 
doubts, but now he felt that, had he been present, he would have 
joined us in the good work. I^ogic is out of place when the 
question with a true-hearted man is whether his brother-man 
ia to be saved or not Eighty-four, chiefly women and chil- 
dren, were liberated ; and on being told that they were now 
free, and might go where they pleased, or remain with us, they 

Chju*. XVII I. 



oil chose to Rtay ; and the bishop wisely attached them to his 
MissioD, to be educated as members of a Christian iiunUy. In 
this way a great difficulty in the oommeneement of a MisaioD 
was overcome. Yeara are usually required before confideuce 
is so iiu* ins^tilied into tlie natives' mind as to induce them, 
young or old, to submit to the guidance of strangers profcss- 
ing to be actuated by motives the reverse of worldly wisdom, 
and inculcating customs strange and unknown to tbem and 
their lathers. 

We proceeded next morning to Soche's with our liberated 
party, the men cheerfully carrying the bishop's goods. As wo 
had begun, it was of no use to do things by halves, so eight 
others were freed in a hamlet on our path ; but a party of 
tradeni, with nearly a hundred slaves, fled frurn Soche^s on 
hearing of our proceedings. Br.Kirk and four Makoiclo fol- 
lowed them with great energy, but thoy made clear oQ'to Tette. 
Sii more captives were liberated at Mongazi's, and two alave- 
tradeiB detained for the night, to prevent them from carrying 
information to a large party still in front Of their own ac- 
cord they volunteered the information that the governor's 
servants had charge of tlie next party : but we did not cLooee 
to be led by them, though they offered to guide us to hia ex- 
oellency's own agents. Two of the bishop's black men from 
the Cape, having once been slaves, were now zealous emanci- 
pators, and volunteered to guard the prisoners during the 
night So anxious were our heroes to keep tliem safe, that, 
instead of relieving each other by keeping watch and wntoh, 
both kept watch together till toward four o'clock in the morn- 
ing, when sleep stole gently over them both ; and the wake- 
fiil prisoners, seizing the opportunity, escaped: one of the 
goards, perceiving the loss, ruahed out of the hut, shouting, 
" They are gone, the prisoners are off, and they have taken my . 



rifle with them, aud ibo women tool Fire! every bodj fire!" 
The rifle and the women, however, were all safe enough, the 
elavc-tnidcrs being only too glad to escape alone. Fifty more 
slaves were freed next day in another village ; and, the whole 
party being stark-naked, cloth enough was left to clothe ihem, 
better probably than they had ever been clothed before. The 
head of this gang, whom wc knew as the agent of one of the 
prinoipal mcrchanta of Tette, said that they had the license 
of the governor for all they did. This we were fully aware 
of without bis stiting it. It la quite impossible for any en- 
terprise to be undertaken there without the governor's knowl- 
edge and connivance. 

The portion of the highlands which the bbhop wished to 
look at before deciding on a settlement belonged to ChiwawE 
or Chibaba, the most manly and generous Maogatija chief we 
had met with on our previous journey. Ou reaching Nsaoi- 
bo's, near Mount CUimdzuru, wc heard that Chibaba w. 
dead, and that Chigunda was chief inalcad. Chig;unda, ap^ 
parently of his own accord^ though possibly he may have 
learned that the bishop intended to settle somewhere in tbd 
country, asked liim to come and live with him at Magomero, 
adding that there was room enough for both. This hearty 
and ^ontaneous invitation had cousiderablo Influence oa the 
bishop's mind, and seemed to decide the question. A place 
nearer the Shire would have been chosen had he expected 
his supplies to come up that nvcr; but the Portuguese, claim- 
ing the River Shire, though never occupying even its mouth, 
had closed it, as well as the Zambesi. 

Oar hopes were turned to the Bovuma as a free highway 
into Lake Nyassa and the vast interior. A steamer was al- 
ready ordered for the Lake, and the bishop, seeing the ad- 
vantageous nature of the highlands which stretch an immense 

fjuAp. xvnr. 



vr&j to tba north, was more anxious to bo near the Lake and 
the Rovuma than the Sbtrc. When he decided to settle at 
Hagomero, it was thought desirable, to prevent the country 
from being depopulated, to visit tbe Ajawa chief, and to try 
and persuade him to give up his slaving and kidnapping 
courses, and turn the energies of his people to peaceful pur- 

Oq the morning of the 22d vc were infonned that the 
Ajawa were near, and were burning a village a few miles cS. 
Leaving the rescued slaves, wo moved off to seek an interview 
with these scourges of the country. On our way we met 
crowds of Mangauja fleeing from the war in front These 
poor fugitives from the slave-bunt had, as usual, to leave all 
the food they possessed, except the little they could cany on 
their heads. We passed field after 6eld of Indian corn or 
beans, standing ripe for harvesting, but the owners were away. 
The villages were all deserted : one where we breakfasted two 
years before, and saw a number of men peacefully weaving 
doth, and, among ourselves, called it the "Paisley of the hills," 
was burnt; the stores of com were poured out in cart-loads, 
and scattered all over the plain, and all along the paths, neither 
conquerors nor conquered having been able to convey it away. 
About two o'clock we saw the smoke of burning villages, and 
hoard triumphant shoute, mingled with tbe wail of the Man- 
ganja women, lamenting over their slain. The bishop then 
engaged us in fervent prayer; and, on rising from our knees, 
we Baw a long line of Ajawa warriors, with their captives. 
coming round the bill-side. The first of the returning con- 
querors were entering their own village below, and we heard 
women welcoming them back with " Hllilooings." The Ajawa 
buad man left the path on seeing us, and stood on an ant-hill to 
obtain a complete view of oar parly. We called out that wc 

ymtr to the ajawa. 

liad come lo have an inteiriew with. Uiem, but some of the 
MaDganja who followed us shouted " Our Chibtsa is come :" 
Chibisa b«iug well kuown as a great oonjuror and general. 
The Ajaw^k ran off yelling and Bcreaming " Nkondo! Nkom 
do I" (War! War I) Wo heard the words of the MaugaDJa, 
but thej i^d not strike us at the moment as neutralizing aU 
our aBBortions of i>cace. The cajHivcs threw down their kndSi 
on the path, and fled to the hills ; and a large body of anned 
mon catDO running up from the village, and in a few Becoodfi 
they were all araund us, though mostly coooealed by the pro- 
jeotiog rocks and long giafis. In vain we protested that we 
had not oome to fight, but to talk with them. They woald 
not listen, having, as we remembered afterward, good reason, 
in the cry of ''Our Chibisa." Flushed with recent victory' 
over three villages, and confident of an easy triumph over a 
mere handful of men, they began to shoot their poisoned st- 
rows, sending them with great force upward of a hundred 
yards, and wounding one of our followers through the ana 
Our retiring slowly up the ascent from the village only nuMle 
them more eager to prevent our escape ; and, in the belief 
that this retreat was evidence of fear, they closed upon us in 
blood-thirsty ftiry. Some came within fifky yard.i, dancing 
hideously; othets, having quite Burronnded us, and availing 
themaelvcs of the rocks and long grass hard by, were intent 
on cutting us off, while others made oflT with their women 
and a large body of slaves. Four were armed with muakotB^' 
and we were obliged in self-defense to return their Sre andj 
drive them ofC When they saw the range of the riOes thejl 
very soon dented and ran away ; but some shouted to 
from the hills the consoling intimation that they would fol* 
low, and kill ua where we slept Only two of the captives 
escaped to us, but probably most of those made prisoners that 

Cbj*. XVIIL 


day fled elsewhere ia the confusion. "We returned to the 
village which we had left in the morning, after a hungry, fa- 
tiguiug, and most unpleasant day. 

Though we could not Uame ourselves hi the course we 
had foUowedj we felt sorry for what had happened. It was 
the &rst time we had ever b«en attacked by the luitives or 
come into coUiaion with them ; though we had always taken 
it for granted that we might be called upou to act in self- 
defense, we were ou this occasion lcs3 prepared than usual, 
no game having been ejtpected here. The men had only a 
single round of cartridge each ; their leader had no revolver, 
and the nflo he usually flrod with was left at the ship, to save 
it from tho damp of tbo season. Had we known better the 
eflfect of slavery and murder ou tho temper of these blood- 
ihiraty marauders, we should have tried messages and pres- 
ents before going near Lbcm. 

The old chief Chinsunse came on a visit, to us next day, 
and pressed the bishop to come and live with him. "Chi- 
gunda," he said, "is but a child, and the bishop ought to live 
with the father rather than with the child." But the old 
man's object was so evidently to have the Mission as a shield 
against the Ajawa^ that his invitation was declined. While 
begging ua to drive away the marauders that he might live 
in peace, he adopted tho stratagem of causing a number of 
his men to rush into the village in breathless haste, with the 
news that the Ajawa were close upon us. And having been 
reminded that we never fought unless attacked, as we were 
the day before, and that we had come among them for the 
purpose of promoting peace, and of teaching them to wor- 
ship the Supreme, to give np selling His children, and to cul- 
tiratc other objects for barter than each other, he replied, iii 
a huff, " Then I am dead already." 




The bishop, feeling, as moet Englishmen would, at the pros- 
pect of the people now in his charge being swept olFinto alav' 
erjr by honlus of men-stealors, proposed to go at once to the 
reaoDO of the captive Mangai\ja, and drive the inaraudiog 
Ajawa out of the country. All wcro warmly in &vor of this 
save Dr. Liringstone, who opposed it on the ground that it 
would be bettor for the bishop to wait» and soe the c&cct of 
ihe check the slavc-huntcrs had just experienced The Aja- 
wa were evidently "goaded on by Portuguese agents from 
Tette, and there was no bond of union among the Manganja 
on which to work. It was possible that the Ajawa might be 
persuaded to something better, though, from having long been 
in the habit of slaving for the Quillimone market, it was not 
very probable. But the Manganja oould easily be overcome 
piecemeal by any enemy ; old feuds made them glad to see 
calamities befall their next neighbors. We counseled them 
to unite against the common enemies of their oountry, and 
added distinctly that we English would on no account enter 
into their quarrela On the bishop inquiring whether, in the 
event of the Manganja again asking aid against the Ajawa, il 
would be his doty to accede to their request, "Ko," replied 
Dr. Livingstone; "you will be oppressed by their iniporu- 
nities; but do not inicrfcro in native qaarrels." This advice 
the good man honorably mentions in his jouroaL We have 
been rather minute in relating what occurred during the few 
days of our connection with the Mission of the English Uni- 
versities on the hills, because, the recorded advice havii^ 
been discarded, blame was thrown on Dr. Livingstone's shoal- 
deis, as if the missionaries had no individual respooabili^ 
for their subsequent conduct This, onquestionably, good 
Bishop Mackenzie had too much manliness to have allowed. 
The connvction of the members of the Zambesi Expcdftion 

Cnw. xvni. 



with the acts of the bishop's Mission now ceased, for we re- 
turned to the ship and prepared for our journey to Lake Ny- 
asBft. We cheerfully, if necessary, will bear all responsibility 
up to this point; and if the bishop aflerward made mistakes 
in certain colhjiioiis with the slavers, ho had the votes of all 
his party with him, and those who best knew the peculiar 
circumstance^ and the loving disposition of this good-hearV 
ed man, will blaiue him least. In this position and in these 
circumstances, we left our friends at the Mission Station. 

As a temporary measure, the bisbop decided to place his 
iliasion Station on a small promontory formed by the wind- 
ings of the little, clear stream of Magomero, which was so 
ooldtbat the limbs were quitu benumbed by washiug in it in 
the July morDiugs. The site chosen was a pleasant spot to 
the eye, and completely surrounded by stately, shady trees. 
It yias expected to &er\'e fur a residence till the bishop had 
acquired an accurate knowledge of the adjacent country and 
of the political relations of the people, and could select a 
healthy and commandiDg situation as a permanent centre of 
Christian civilization. Every thing promised fairly. The 
weather was dclightfn], resembling the pleasantest part of an 
English Bummor; provisions poured in very cheap and in 
great abundance. The bishop, with characteristic ardor, com- 
meuccd learning the language, Mr. Waller began building, 
and Mr. Scudamore improvised a sort of infant school for the 
children, than which there is no better means for acquiring 
xa unwritten tongue. 




Ciur. XIX. 


Fresh Start Tor Lake Nyftssa.— Cbrry a Biut piut the Cntaracts.— HumpbidBd 

. SpokvBiuiku. — Lukelci PsukIuiuV. — Indicitiom of Mniarin. — I^ko NViml 
— Dc|.«h, — 8iM. — Kh«jii^. — ll.i_v5. — Mountain* «n4 Siorm^ — Crowdt 0/ 
PcD})k'.— MiJgo Cake.— Ftth, H«iijika, ei«.— Apparent LntincM of the I'tn- 
Jlle.— TorpiJiiy orskin.— Buajte NfU.— Bark Cloili.— Beantj ■'■ 4 " roklc." 
— Msreiifii'* Oenetwiiij.— Ilwirors of inUnd Slarc-inide. — Tticrca; the 
flni RobbvTy wc Bufll-red in Africa. — Niuivo GrBYci. — Haiitn or Znlm.— 
Four Jnji" Scpftreiion.— Rough Rood*.— Mwi'b Eueroy, Mmu — Our Dkv 
Divintr i-anixhci, biil reappears. — Elcpfinni*.— .\rntw ttatn Kiiuinga. — At«b 
Geograpli^ of Tnrg«njikn nml Nvnssa, — Tlio SluTe-tmie.— Recti HuM in. 
I'npyru*. — Young >Voniirn £01 Up fur Sale.— Sciwibis ol4 Woidmi. — Wm|^^ 
mantuJing Ajan'ii at MikcnaV — Etc|)'tuiiiu' atlilotic SpoiU. ^^^M 

On the 6ih of August, 1861, a few days after returning 
from Magomero, Drs. Livingstone and Kirk, and Charlc3 Liv- 
ingstone, started for Nynssa wiili a light four-oared gig, a 
white sailor, and a score of attendants. "We hired people 
along lite path to carry the bout past the foilj miles of the 
Murchi.son Cataracts for a cubit of cotton cloth a day. Thia 
being deemed great wages, more than twice the men required 
eagerly ottered their services. The chief difficulty was in 
limiting their numbers. Crowds followed us; and, had we 
not taken down in the morning the names of the porters eo- 
gaged, in the evening claims would have been made by thoee 
who only helped during the last ten minutes of the journey. 
The men of one village carried the boat to the next, and all 
we had to do vras to tell the head man that we wanted fresh 
men in the morning. He saw us pay the first party, and bad 
his men ready at the time appointed, so there was no delay 
in waiting for carriers. They often make a loud noise when 
carrying heavy loads, but talking and bawling does not put 

Ckaf. XIX. 



tbcm out of brcalb. The country vas rough and witb little 
soil on it, but covered with grass and open forest A few 
small trees irere cut down to clear a path for our sboutihg 
assietautf, who wcm good enough to consider the boat as a 
oertiQcate of peaceful intentions, at least to them. Several 
small streams were passed, the largest of which were tho Mu- 
kuru-Madse and Lesungwe. The inhabitants on both banks 
were now civil and obliging. Our poaeeasion of a boat, and 
consequent power of crossing independently of the canoea, 
helped to develop their good manners, which were not ap- 
parent on onr previous viaiu 

There is udcn a surprising contrast between neigbboriag 
villages. One is well oJT and thriving, having good huts, 
plenty of food, and native cloth, and its people are frank, 
trusty, generous, and eager to sell provisions ; while in the 
next the inhabitants hiay be ill -housed, disobliging, suspi- 
cious, ill fed, and scantily clad, and with nothing for sale, 
tbongh the land around is as fertile as that of their wealthier 
neighbors. We followed the river for the most part to avail 
ourselves of the still reaches for sailing; but a comparatively 
smooth country lies farther inland, over which a good rood 
could be made. Some of the five main cataracts are very 
grand, iho river falling 1200 feet in the 40 miles. AJter pass- 
ing the last of the catqraols, we launched our boat for good 
on the broad and deep waters of the lTpp«r Shire, and wore 
virtually on the Lake, for the gentle current shows bnt little 
difference of level. The bal is brond and deep, but the courso 
U rather tortuous .it first, and makes a long bend to the east 
till it comes within five or six miles of the base of Mount 
Zoniba. Tlie natives rcjrardod the Upper Sliire ns a prolon- 
gatinti of Lnko Nyassa; for where what we called the river 
approaches Lake Shirwn, a little north of the mounlaios, they 



said that the hippopotami, '* which are great nigbt travelers," 
paas from one lake into the oUier. There the land is tiat, and 
odly a short kind jouraey would be necessary. Seldom does 
the current here exceed a Jfnot an hour, while that of the 
Lower Shire is from two to two and a half knots. Our land 
party of Mokololo accompanied us along the right bank, and 
piSficd thousands of Manganja fugitives living in temponuy 
huts on that side, who had recently been driven from their 
villages on the opposite hills by the Ajawa. 

The soil was dry and hard, and covered with mopane-troes; 
but some of the Mauganja were busy hoeing the ground and 
planting the little corn thoy liad brought with them. The ef- 
fects of hunger were already visible on those whose food had 
been seized or burned by the Ajawa and Portuguese alavo- 
traders. The spokesman or prime minister of one of iho 
chieC), named Kalofijcrd, was a humpbacked dwarf, a flueat 
speaker, who tried hard to make us go over and drive off the 
Ajawa; but he could not deny that by selling people Kalofi- 
jerij bad invited these slave-hunters to the country. Tliista 
the second humpbacked dwarf we have found occupying the 
like important post; the otber was the prime minister of a 
Batonga chief on the Zambesi. 

As we sailed along wc disturbed many white-breasted cor- 
morants; we had seen the same speMcs fishing between the 
cataracts. Here, with many other wild-fowl, they find sub- 
sistence on the smooth water by night, and sit sleepily on 
trees and in the reeds by flay. Many hippopotami were seen 
in the river, and one of them stretched its wide jaws, as tf to 
swallow the wliole stem of the boat, dose to Dr. Kirk's back ; 
the animal was so near that in oponinj; its mouth it laahed a 
quantity nf water on to the stern-sheets, but did no damage. 
To avoid large marauding parties of Ajawa, on the left bank 

Chap. XIX. 



of the Shire, we continued on tte right, or western side, with 
our Und party, along the shore ofthe small lake Pamalomba 
This lakelet is ten or twelve miles in length, and fivo or 6ix 
broad. It is nearly surrounded by a broad belt of papyrus, 
so dense that we could scarcely find an opening to the shore. 
The plants, ten or twelve feet bigh^ grew so closely together 
that air was excluded, and so much sulphureted hydrogen 
gas evolved that by ono night's exposure the bottom of the 
boat was blackened. Myriads of musquitoes showed, as prob- 
ably they always do, the presence of malaria. 

We hastened from this sickly spot, trying to take the at- 
tentions of the musquitoes as bints to seek more pleaeant 
quarteis on the healthy shores of Ijoke Nyassa; and when wc 
sailed into it on the 2d of September, we felt refreshed by 
the greater coolness of the air off ibis large body of water. 
The depth was the fil^t point of interest. This is indicated 
by the color of the water, which, on a belt along the shore, 
varying from a quarter to half a mile in breadth, is light 
green, and this is met by the deep blue or indigo lint of the 
Indian Ocean, which is the color of ihc great body of Nyassa. 
We found the Upper Shire from tune to fifteen feet in depth ; 
but skirting the western side of the lake about a mile from 
the shore, the water deepened from nine to fifteen fathoms : 
then, as we rounded the grand mountainous promontory, 
which we named Cape Maclear, after our excellent friend ihe 
Astronomer Boya! at the Cape of Good Hope, we could get 
no bottom with our lead -lino of thirty -five fathoms. We 
pulled along the western shore, which was a succession of 
bays, and found that where the bottom was .eandy near the 
beach, and to a milo out, the depth varied from pi.'c to four- 
teen fiUhoms. In a rocky bay about latitude 11° 40' we had 
soundings at 100 fathoms, though outsido the same bay we 



Ciui-. XXX, 

found nono with a Bshmg-Hnu of 116 falboms; but this 
was unsaiisfactory, aa the line broke in comiug up. AuconJ-' 
ing to uur present knowledge, a t>bip could aucbor ouiy ueu 
the shore. 

Looking back to the southern end of Lake Nyassa, the arm 
from which tlic Shire flows was found to be about tbirty 
miles long and from tea to twelve broad. Rounding Cape 
Maclear, and looking to the Boutbweat, we Lave auother ann, 
which stretches some ciglitcen mites southward, and is 
nx to twelve milca in breadth. These arms give tho south> 
em end a forked appearance, and with the help of a little im- 
agination it may be likened to the "boot-sbape" of Italy., 
The narrowest part is about the auklc, eighteen or twenty 
miles. From this it widens to the north, and in the upper 
third or fourth it is fifty or sixty miles broad. The length is 
over 200 mites. Tbo direction in which it lies is as near as 
possible duo north and south. Nothing of the great bend lo 
tho west, shown in all the previous maps, could be detected 
by either oompass or chronometer, and tho watch we oaod 
was an excellent one. The season of tho year was very un- 
favorable. The "smokes" filled the air with an impenetrable, 
haze, and the equinoctial gales ma<:le it impossible for ns to 
orosB to the eastern side. When we caught a glimpse of the 
aun rising from behind tho mountains to the east, we made 
sketches and hearings of them at different latitudes, which en- 
abled us to secure approximate mca.quremenla of tho width. 
These agreed with the times taken by the natives at the dif 
fbrent crossing- places, as Tseuga and Molambu. About the 
beginning of the upper third the lalce is crossed \>j taking ad- 
vantage of the island Chizumaro, which name in the natiTe 
tongue means the "endiug;" fiirlher north they go round the 
^qdiostead, though that takes evvcral days. 




The lake appeared to be aurrounticd by mountains, but it 
was afterward found that these beauuful trec-covorcd heigbta 
were, on the west, only the edges of higb toble-lnnda. Like 
all narrow seua encircled by bigblands, it is visited by sudden 
and iremendous storma We were on it in September and 
October, perhaps the stormiest Hcasoii of the year, and wero 
repeatedly detained by 'gules, At times, while sailing pleas- 
antly over the blue water with a gentle breeze, suddenly and 
without any warning was heard the sound of a coming storm, 
roaring on with crowds of angry waves in its wake. We 
were caught one morning with the sea breaking all around 
US, and, unable either lo advance or recede, anchored a milo 
from shore, in seven fathoms. The furious surf on the beach 
would have shivered our slender boat to atoms had we tried 
to land. The waves most dreaded came rolling on in threes, 
with their crests, driven into spray, streaming behind them. 
A short lull followed each iriplo charge. Had one of these 
white-maned seas struck onr frail bark, nothing could have 
saved us, for they came on with resistless force; seaward, in 
shore, and on cither side of us, they broke in foam, but we 
escaped. For six weary hours we faced those terrible trios, 
any one of which might have been carrying the end of our 
Expedition in its hoary head. A low, dark, detached, oddly- 
shaped cloud came slowly from the mountains, and hung for 
hotuB directly over our heads. A flock of night-jars {Cbme- 
lomis vexilianus), which on no other occasion come out by 
day, Beared above us in the gale, like birds of evil omen. Our 
black crew became sea-sick, and unable to ait up or keep the 
boat's head to the sea. The natives and our land party stood 
on the higb clilla looking at us and exclaiming, as the waves 
seemed, to awailow up the boat, "They are lost! they are all 
dead!" When at last the gale moderated and we got safely 



CiuF. XCC. 

ashore, they saluted us w&rmly, as al\er a loog abaenoe. From 
thia time we trusted implicitly to the opiniooa of our aetunaa, 
Johu Neil, who, having been a fisberman oa the ooasl of Ire- 
land, understood boating on a stormy coast, and by his adrice 
we oflcn sat cowering on the land for days together waiting 
for the surf to go down, lie had never seen such waves be- 
fore. We bad to beach the boat evei^' night to save her from 
being swamped at anchor; and, did we not bolievo tbo galea 
to be peculiar to one season of the year, would call Kyaasa 
the "Lake of Storms." 

Lake Nyossa receives no great afHueots from the west 
The five rivers we observed in passing did not at tliis time 
appear to bring in as much water as the Shire was carrying 
out They were from lii\een to thirty yards wide, and aome 
too deep to ford; but the evaporation must be very coosid- 
crablc. These streams, with others of about the same size 
from tlio mountaini? on the cast and north, when swollen by 
the rains may be sufficient to account for the rise in the laka _ 
without any large river. Tbe natives nearest the nortbent^H 
end denied the existence of a large river there, though nt one 
time it seemed necessary to account for the Shire's perennial 
flow. Distinct white marks on the rocks showed thai, for 
some time daring the rainy season, the water of the lake is 
three feet above tbo point to which it falls toward Iho cloae 
of the dry period of the year. The rains begin hero iu No- 
vember, and the pcnnanent rise of the Shire does not take 
place till January. The western side of Lake Nyasso, with 
the exception of the great harbor to the west of Capo Maclear, 
ia^ as has been said before, a succession of small bays of near- 
ly similar form, each having an open sandy beach and pebbly 
shore, and being separated from its neighbor by a rocky head- 
lAQd» with detached rocks extending aome distance out to sea. 

Ciur. XUC- 




The great Bouthwcatcm bay referred to would form a mag- 
nULcent harbor, the only really good one we saw to the west 

The land immediately adjacent to the lake is low and fcr- 
though ia somti places marshy and teoauled by large 
flocks of ducka, geese, beroiia, crowned cranes, and other birds. 
In the fiouthero part we have sometimes ten or a dozen miles 
of rich plains, bordered by what seem high ranges of well* 
wootled liilU, running nearly parallel with the lake. North- 
ward tho mountains become loftier and present some magnifi- 
cent views, range towering beyond range, until the dim, lofty 
oatUnes projected against the sky bound the prospect. Still 
&rther Qorth the plain becomes more narrow, until, near 
where we turned, it disappears altogether, and the mountains 
rise abruptly out of the lake, forming the northeast boundary 
of what was described to us as au extensive table-land, well 
suited for pasturage and agriculture, and now only partially 
occupied by a tribe of Zulus, who came from the south some 
ears ago. These people own large Iierds of cattle, and are 
constantly increawng in numbers by annexing other tribes. 

Never before in Afri& have wc seen any thing like the 
dense population on the shores of Lake Nyassa. In the south* 
ern part there was an almost unbroken chain of villages. On 
the beach of wellnigh every little sandy bay, dark crowds 
were standing, gazing at the novel sight of a boat under sail ; 
and wherever we landed we were surrounded in a few sec- 
onds by hundreds of men, women, and children, who hasten- 
ed to have a stare at the " chirombo" (wild animals). To see 
the animals feed was the greatest attraction ; never did the 
ical Society's lions or monkeys draw more siglit-seers 
we did. Indeed, we ecjualc-^1 the hippopotamus on his 
first arrival among lbs civilizetl on the banks of the Thames. 
The wondering multitude crowded round us at meal-Umes 



NATiTK cuBiosnr. 


and fonned a tVicket of dark bodies, all looking on, n[iporcni- 
!y, with the deepest interest; but they good-naturedly ke|4 
each other to a line we made on tho sand, and Icll us room to 
dine. They were civil upon the whole. Twice they wcsnl 
the length of lifting up the edge of our sail, which wo used ea 
atent, as boys do the curtains of traveling menageries at home. 
They named us indeed "chirombo," which means only the 
wild beasts that may be eaten, but they had no idea that wc 
understood their meaning. No fines were levied on us, nor 
does demanded. At one village only were they impnden^ 
but they were "elevated" by beer. They cultivate the aoil 
pretty extensively, and grow large quantities of rice and 
sweet potatoes, as well as maisie, mapira, and millet In the 
north, however, cassava is the staple product, which, with fiah 
kept till tho ^avor is high, constitutes the main support of 
the inhabitania. During a portion of the year, the northern 
dwellers on the lake have & harvest which fumishea a singu- 
lar sort of food. As wo approached our limit in that dire^ 
tion, clouds, as of smoke rising from miles of burning gnas^ 
wore oU^ervcd bending in a southeasterly direction, and ire 
thought that tho unseen land on the opposite side wxs cloffli^' 
in, and that wc were near the end of the lake. But next ■ 
moniing we sailed through one of the clouds on our own aadfli 
and discovered that it was neither smoke nor haze, but connt- 
less millions of minute midges called "kungo" (a cloud or 
fog). They filletl the air to an immense height, and swarmeilj 
upon tlio water, too light to sink in it Ky« and mouth 
to be kept closed while passing through this living clond: 
they struck upon the face like fine drifUng snow. Tbousooda 
lay in the boat when she emerged from the cloud of midgea 
The people gather these minute insects by night nnd boil 
them into thick cakes, (o bo used as a relish— millions of 

Cbaf. XIX. 



miclgGS in a cake. A kungQ cake, an inch tliick aud as larga 
aa the bluo bonnet of a Scotch plowniaD, was olTercd to us; 
it was very dark ia color, and taated not unliko cuviare, or 
salted locusLs. 

Abandaucc of excellent fisb are found in the take, and near- 
ly all were new to us. The mpasa or sanjika, found by Dr. 
Kirk to be a kind of carp, was running up the rivers to spawn, 
like our salmon at home: Ibe largest we saw was over two 


feet in length ; it is a splendid £sh, and the best we have ever 
eaten in Africa. They were ascending the rivers in August 
and September, and furnished active and profitable employ- 
ment to many Ikhermen, who did not mind their being out of 
season. Weira were uonslructcd full of aluicea, in each of 
which was set a largo butik^^t-trap, through whoss single tor- 
tuous opening the ilsh once in has but small chance of escape. 
A short distance below the weir, nets ore stretched across from 
bank to bank, so that it seemed, a marvel bow tUe most saga* 
ciouB saojika could get up at all without being taken. Pos- 
sibly a passage up the river is found at night ; but this is not 
the country of Sundays or "close times" for either men or fiah. 
The lake fish aro caught chiefly in nets, although men, and 
even women with babies on their backs, are occasionally seen 
fishing from the rocks with hooks. 

A net with small meshes is used for catching the young fry 
of a silvery kind like pickerel, when they are about two inches 
long; thousands are often taken in a single haul. AVe had a 
present of a large bucketful one day for dinner: they tasted 
ae if they had been cooked with a little quinine, probably 
from their gall-bladdera being leJl: in. In deep water, some 
&ort» are taken by lowering fish-boskcts attached by a long 
oord to a float, around which is often lied a mass of grass or 
weeds, as an alluring shade for the deep-sea flsh. Fleets of 



Cbat. XIX, 

fine otooes aie eogiLged in the fisheries. The men b&ve long 
paddles, and stand erect while using them. They sometimea 
Teoture out whoa a oonsiderable sea is mnniog. Oar Mako- 
lolo acknowledged that, in handling canoes, the lake men 
boat them ; they were.onwilHng to cross the Zambesi ercn, 
when the wiod blew fresh. The first impresBion one reoeina 
of the Lake Nyaasa men is, that they are fax from being ia* 
dustrioos— or, to bo moro explicit, are troubled with down- 
right laziness. Groups may be seen daring the day lying Ca&t 
asleep under the shady trees along the shore, and apparently 
taking life very eaaly ; bat, on a little better acquaint 
this first impreamon is modified, and it is foaod that tfaeee : 
noon sleepers have been hard at work the greater pari of ftflfl 
night. In the afternoon they begin to bestir themadres; 
amining and mending their nets, carrying them to the 
!lnd coiling in their lines. In the erening they paddle off to 
the best fishing station, and throaghoat most of the night ' 
poor fellows are toiling in the water, dragging their nc 
Thejb too suflcr from fervr. We saw the herpetie eruptions 
roana their months which often mark its rnra^ and foand thai 
the chills act on them, thongh their skin i4 mtkch more torpid 
in function than ouia. Hence that confordiity to the c o stoms 
of the natives, which some people enjoin, wonkl require modi-., 
fioatioa for our highly excitable akina. Our bends grow 
much in a week as theirs do in a month. 

Though there are many crocodiles in the lake, and aozne' 
of an cxtraoidinaiy siae, the fiabennen say that it is a rare 
thing for any one to be earried off by these rcpdlcs. Wbao 
crocodiles can easiJy obtain abundanoe of fish — their natnnl 
Ibod — ihcy sddom attack men; bat when unable to see to 
caloh their prey, from the madness of the water in flood^ 
they are ^-ery dangerous. 

Cbat. XIX. 



Many men and boys are employed in gathering the buazo, 
in preparing the fibre, and in making it into long ncta. The 
knot of the net ia different from ours, for they invariably uao 
what sailors call the reef knot, but they net with a needle 
like that wc use. From the amouni of native cotton cloth 
worn in many of the souihcrn villages, it is evident that a 
goodly number of busy hands and patient beads must be em- 
ployed in the cultivation of cotton, jmd in the various slow 
proceaeea through which it baa to pass, before the web is fin- 
ished in the native loom. In addition to this branch of in- 
dustry, an extensive manufacture of cloth, from the inner bark 
of an nndescribcd tree, of the botanical group CcesalpiiwSj'a 
ew going on, from one end of the lake to the other; and 
both idLand lime arc rcqnired to procure the bark, nnd;to 
prepaa^t by pounding and steeping it to render it soft and 
pliable. The p^ilgious amount of the bark clothing worn 
indicates the dcCTruction of an immenBe number of trees eir- 
eiy year, yet the adjacent heights seem still well covered 
witb timber. ^ • 

The Lake people are by no means handsome: the women 
— ^o u.<4e onr^ildest term to the fair sex — are very plain, and 
really mak^ themselves hideous by the means thoy adopt to 
lender their persons beautiful and attractive. The ;WcZf, or 
ornament for the upper lip, is universally worn by the Lidies ; 
(he most valuable is of pure tin, hammered into the sliapc of 
a small dish ; some are made of white quartz, ami give the 
Trearer the appearance of having an inch or more of one of 
Price's patent candles thrust through the Up, and projecting 
Iwyond the tip of the nose. Some ladies, not content with 
iho upper pelele, go to extremes, as ladies will, and insert an- 
other in the under lip, through a hole almost opposite the 
lower gums. A few pelclcs are made of a blood-red kind of 



Ctiaf. XIX 

pipe-clay, much in fashion — "sweet things" in the way of lip- 
rings, but so hideous to behold ili»t nu tirao nor usage coald 
make our eyes rest upon ibcm without aversion. 

All the natives arc tattooed from head to foot, the 6gUTes 
being characteristic of, the tribes, and varj-ing with the 
The Matumboka, or Atimboka, raise up little knobs on 
skin of their faces, after a fashion that makes them look as if 
ooverwi nil over with warts or pimples. The young girls are 
good-looking before this ugly adornment hardens the icft* 
tares, aod gives them the appearance of age. Their govi 
are indescribable, owing to the extreme scantiness of the tna^ 
terial from which they are cut, and their beautiful teeth ai»j 
notched or clipped to points like those of cats. 

In character, the Lake iribt-s are very much like other peo- 
ple; there are decent men among them, while a good many 
are no better than they should be. They are open-handed 
enough : if one of us, as was often the ease, went to see a nel 
drawn, a fisU was always oflVrod. Sailing one day past a num* 
bcr of men who had just dragged tlieir netd ashore at one of 
the fine fisheries at Pamalombe, we were hailed and asked to 
stop, and received a liberal donation of bcantiful fish. Ar 
riving late one afternoon at n smnll village on the lake, 
number of tlic inhabitanis manned two canoes, took out theil 
seine, dragged it, and made us n present of the entini banl. 
The nnrthem chief, Marengo, a tall, handsome mnn, with a 
fine aquiline nose, whom we ftmnd living in his stockade in 
.1 forest about twenty miles north of the mountain Kowirw* 
behaved like a gentleman to ns. His land extended froi 
Damho to the north of Makuza Hill. He was specially gen- 
erous, and gave us bountiful presents of food and beer. "Do 
they wear such things in your eoiirtlry ?" he nskcd, pointing 
to his iron bracelet, which was studded with copper, and high* 

Cbat. XtX. 


ly prized. The dcHitor said ho had never seen such in his 
country, whereupon Marcnga instantly took it off and pre- 
sented it to him, and his wife also did the same with hers. 
On our retarn south from the mountains near tho north end 
of the Lake, we rcnchcii Marenga'a on the 7Ui of October. 
When he could not prevail upon us to forego the advantage 
of a fair wind for his invitation to "spend the whole day 
drinking Ilia beer, which was," he said "quite ready," he load- 
ed us with provisions, all of which be sent for before we gave 
him any present. In allusion to tho boat's sail, his people 
said that they had no bazimo, or nono worth liuving, seeing 
they bad never invented the like for them. Tiie chief, Man- 
kambirn, likewise treated us with kindness ; but wherever 
the slave-trade is carried on, the people are disboneat and un- 
civil; that invariably leaves a blight and a curse in its path. 
The 6rst question put lo us at the Lake crossing-places was, 
" Have you come to buy slaves?" On hearing that we were 
English, and never purchased slaves, the questioners put on a 
supercilious air, and sometimes refused to sell us food. Tbis 
want of respect lo us may have been owing to the imprcs- 
siotus conveyed to them by the Arabs, whose dhows have 
sometimes been taken by English, cruisers when cngngcd in 
lawful trade. Much foreign cloth, beads, and brass wire were 
worn by these ferrymen, and some bad muskcta 

By Chitanda, near one of the slave crossing-places, we were 
robbed for the first time in Africa, anil learned by esperienoe 
that these people, like more civilized nations, have expert 
liiicves among them. It might bo only a coincidence; but 
we never suffered from impudence, loss of property, or were 
endangered, unless among people familiar with slaving. We 
tiad such a general sense of security, that never, save when 
we suspected treachery, did we set a watch at night. Out 



Chat. XH. 

native companions had, on this oocoaion, been carousing on 
beer, and liad removed to a distance of some thirty yards, that 
we might not overhear their free and easy aflcr-dtnner re- 
marks, and two of us had a slight touch offerer; between 
three and four o'clock in the morning some light-fingered 
gentry came, while we slept ingloinonsly- — rifles and revolvers 
all ready— and relieved us of most of our gooda. The boat's 
soil, under which we slept, was open all around, so the feat 
was easy. One of us felt hia pillow moving, but, in the deli- 
cious dreamy state in which he lay, thought it was one of the 
attendants udjustiDg his covering, and bo, as be fancied, let 
well alone. 

Awaking, as honest men do, at ihc usual hour, the loss of 
one was announced by " My hag is gone — with all my clothes; 
and my boots too!" "And mine!" responded a seoond- 
"And mine also!" chimed in the third, "with the bag of 
beads, and the rice I" "Is the cloth taken?" was the 
inqoiry, as that would have been equivalent to all oar moMJl 
It bad been used for a pillow that night, and thus saved; 
The rogues left on the beach, close to our beds, the aneroid 
barometer and a pair of boots, thinking, possibly, that they 
might be of use to us, or, at least, that they could be of none 
to them. Tliey shoved back some dried plants and fisbfls 
into ono bag, but carried off rtiany other specimcna wo hod 
collected ; some of our notes also, and nearly all our clothing; 
one of our party, indeed, roso with nothing belonging to him 
but what he happened to have on at the time; another w 
iudcbted to female curiosity for the safety of his best suit; 
for, hnving on the day previous, Sunday, retired from the 
crowd to have a bath and change among the reeds, he looked 
about before being quite undressed, and found a crowd of 
ladies peering at the apparition. Ho retired without dther 

« of 




Chaf. XIX. 


bath, or change of apparel. One fccU ashamed of the whiLe 
akin ; it seems unnatural, like blanched celery — or white mice. 
On returning to the eamp, which was surrounded with per- 
petual clatter and crowds of visitors all day, he changed Lis 
clothing after dark, putting on and sleeping in hia beet, as it 
was too late to change it again, so ibe worst only was stolen. 

Wo could not suspect the people of the village near which 
we lay. Wc had probably been followed for days by the 
thiercs watching for an opportunily. And our suspicions 
fell on some persons who had come from the East Coast ; but 
having no evidence, and expecting to hear if our goods were 
exposed for sale in the vicinity, we made no fuss about it, and 
began to make new clothing. That our rifles and revolvers 
were left untouched was greatly to our advantage ; yet we 
felt it was most humiliating for armed men to have becu so 
thoroughly fleeced by a few black rascals. 

Some of the best fisheries appear to be private property. 
Wo found shelter from a storm one morning in a spacious 
lagoon, which communicated with the lake by a narrow pas- 
sage. Across this strait stakes were driven in, leaving only 
spaces for the basket fish-traps. A score of men were busily 
ec^iged in taking out the fisb. We tried to p'urchose some, 
but they refused to sell. The fish did not belong to them; 
they would send for the proprietor of the place; The propri- 
etor arrived in a short time, and readily sold what we wanted. 

Some of the buryiog-grounds are very well arranged and 
well cared for; this was noticed at Chitanda, and more par- 
ticularly at a village on the southern* shore of the fine har- 
bor at Cape Maclear. Wide and neat paths were made in the 
burying-ground on its eastern and southern sides. A grand 
old fig-tree stood at the northeast comer, and its wide-spread- 
ing branches threw their kindly shade over the lost restiog- 





place of the dead. Several other magmfioent trees grew 
aroutid the hallowed spot Mounda were raised as they are 
at home, but all lay north and south, the heads apparently 
north. The graves of the sexes wcro distinguished by ibe 
various implements whicb tbc buried dead had used id their 
different employments during life, but they were all broken, 
as if to be employed, no more. A piece of ftshing-net asd . 
broken paddle told that a fisherman slept beneath that 
The graves of the women had the wooden mortar, and the 
heavy pestle used in pounding the com, and the basket in 
which the meal is sifted, while all bad numerous broken cala- 
bashes and pota arranged around tbcm. The idea ibal 
future liftt is like the present does not appear to prevail; y< 
a banana-tree bad been carefully planted at tbe head of sev- 
eral of the graves, and, if not merely for omament, the fruit 
might be considered an offering to those who still possess hu- 
man tastes. Tbe people of the neigliboring villages we»i 
friendly and obliging, and willingly brought us food for saldi- 
Pursuing our exploration, we found that the northern part 
of the lake was the abode of LawhasncsB and bloodshed. Tbe 
^azile or Mazttu live on the highland^ oud make sudden 
swoops on tbe villages of tbe plains. They are Zulus whoj 
came originally from the south, inland of Sofalla and Inhamc' 
bane, and arc of the same family as those who levy annual 
tributC' from the Portuguese on tlie Zambesi. All tbe Til- 
lages north of Mankambira's (lat. 11° Ji' south) had been re- 
cently destroyed by these terrible marauders, but they were 
foiled in their attacks-upon that chief and Marenga. Th( 
tbickets and stockades round their villages enabled the bow- 
men to pick off the Mazitu in security, while they were a&aid 
to venture near any place where they could not use th< 
shields. Beyond Mankambira's we saw burned villages, and 

tfao putrid bodies of many who bad fallen by Mazitu spears 
only a few days before. Our land party were afraid to go 
farther, and dreaded meeting tUe inflicters of the terrible 
vengeance, of wbicb they aaw the evidence at every turning, 
without a European in tbeir company. Thb reluctance on 
the part of tiie native laud party to proceed without the pres- 
ence of a white man w:w very natural, because bauds of the 
enemy who had ravaged the country wore supposed to be 
still roaming about; and, if these marauders saw none but 
men of their own color, our party might forthwith bo at- 
tacked. Compliance with their request led to an event which 
miglit have been attended by very serious consequences. Dr. 
Livingstone gat separated from the party in the boat for four 
da.ys. Having taken the first morning's journey along with 
them, and directing the boat to call for him in a bay in sight, 
both parties proceeded north. In an hour Dr. Livingstone 
and his party struck inland, on approaching the foot of the 
mountflins w(hich rise abruptly from tho lake. Supposing 
that they had heard of a path behind the high range which 
tbere forms the shore, those in the boat held on their course; 
but it soon began to blow so- fresh that they hail to run ashore 
■ for safety. While delayed a couple of hours, two men were 
sent up the hills to look for the land party, but they could 
Bee nothing of them, and the boat party sailed as soon as it 
was safe to put to sea, with the conviction that the missing 
ones would regain the lake in front. 

In a short time a small island or mass of rocks was passed, 
on which were a number of armed Mazitu, with some young 
women, apparently their wives. The head man said that he 
had been wounded in the foot by MaDk.imbira, and that they 
were slaying there till he could walk to his chief, who lived 
over the lulls. They had several large canoes, and it was ev- 



Crat. XIX 

ident that tliis was a nest of lake pirates, who salllet] out by 
night to kill and plunder. They roporlcd a path behind the 
hills, and, the crew being reassured, ilio boat Baile>d on. A 
few miles farther, another and stUl larger band of pirates 
Trere fallen in with, and hundreds of crowa and kites hover- 
ed over and round the rocTw on which they lived. Dr. Kirk 
and Charles IJvingstone, though ordered in a voice of autho^ 
ity to come ashore, kept on their course. A number of ca- 
noes then shot out from the rocks and chased them. One 
with nine strong paddlcrs persevered for some time after all 
the others gave up the chase. A good breeiie, however, en- 
abled the gig to get away from them with ease. After sail- 
ing twelve or iUle«u miles north of the point where Dr. IJv- 
ingstone had lell them, it was decided that he must bo be- 
hind ; but no sooner had the boat's head been turned south, 
than another gale compelled her to seek shelter in a bay. 
Ilerc a number of wretched fugitives from the slave-trade on 
the opposite shore of the lake were fouud; the original in- 
habitants of the place had all been swept oiFihe year before 
by the Mazitu. In the deserted gardens beautiful cotton was] 
Bccn growing; much of it had the staple on inch and a balf 
long, and of very Qno quality. Some of the plants were un* 
commonly large, deserving to be ranked with trees. 

On their trying to purchase food, the natives bad nothing 
to Bell except a little dried cassava root and a few fish : and 
they demanded two yards of calico for the head only of a 
large fish. When the gale admitted of their return, their for- 
mer pursuers tried to draw them ashore by asserting tl 
they had quantities of ivory for sale. Owing to a succession 
of galea, it was the fourth day from parting that the boat was 
found by Dr. Livingstone, who was coming on in search of it 
with only two of his cumpaniuDs. 

Cn-u*. XIX 



After proceeding a sbort distance up tbo path 'm wblch 
they bjiii been Jost sight of, they learned that it would lake 
sevcnil da^'s to go round the mouatalng aod rejoin the lake; 
nnd tbcy therefore turned down to the bay, expectingito find 
the boat, but only saw it disappeahog away to the north. 
They pushed on as briskly as possible alWr it, but the mount- 
ain flank which forma the coast proved excessively tedious and 
fatiguing; traveling all day, the distance made, in a straight 
line, was under Eve miles. As soon as day dawned the 
march was resumed ; and, aiWr bearing at the first inhabited 
rock that their companions had passed it the day before, o 
goat was slaughtered out of the four which they bad with 
them, when suddenly, to the evident consternation of the 
men, seven Mazitu appeared aruicd with spears and shields, 
with their heads dressed fantastically with feathers. To hold 
a parley, Dr. Livingstone and Moloka, a Makololo man who 
spoko Zulu, went unanned to meet them. On Dr. Living- 
atone approaching them, they ordered him to stop, and sit 
down in the sun, while they sat in the shade. "No, no!" 
was the reply; "if you sit in the shade, so will wa" Thoy 
then rattled their ahielda with their clubs, n proceeding which 
usually inspires terror; but Moloka remarked, "It is not the 
first time wc have heard shields rattled," and all sat down to- 
gether. They asked for n present, to show their chief that 
they bad actually met strangers — something as evidence of 
having seen men who were not Arabs. And they were re- 
qnertcd in turn to take these strangers to the boat or to their 
chief. All the goods were in the boat, and to show that no 
present such as they wanted was in his pockets, Dr. Living- 
atone emptied them, turning out, among other things, a note- 
book : thinking it was a pistol, they started up, and said, "Put 
that in again." The younger men then became boisterous, 



aud demanded a goat. Th&t could not be spared, as Uiey 
were the sole provisiona When they insisted, they were 
asked how many of the party they had killed, that they thus 
began to divide the spoil ; this ovideutly made them asbmmed 
The elders were more reasonable; they dreaded treachery, 
and were &a mncli afraid of Dr. Livingstone and Im party as 
his men were of them, for on leanng they sped away up the 
hills like frightened deer. One of them, and probably the 
leader, was married, as seen by {>ortions of his hair sewn into 
a ring ; all were observed by their teeth to be people of the 
country, who bad been incorporated into the Zulu tribe. 

The way still led over a succession of steep ridges, with 
ravines of from 500 to 1000 feet in depth ; some of the aidea 
had to be scaled on hands and knees, and no sooner was the 
top reached than the descent began again. Each ravine had 
a running stream; and the whole countiy, though so veiyj 
rugged, had all been cultivated, and densely peopled. Many 
banana-trees, uucared-for patches of corn, and Congo*beaD 
bushes attested former cultivation. The population had alt 
been swept away ; mined villages, broken utensils, and ho* 
man skeletons, met with at every turn, told a sad tale of 
"man's inhumanity to man." So numerous wero the slain, 
that it was thought the iuhaUtants had been slaughtered in 
consequence of having made raids on the Zulua for cattle. 

Wc conjectured this to be the cause of the wholesale butch* 
cry, because Zulus do not usually destroy any save the old, 
and able-bodied men. The object of their raids in general is 
that the captured women aud children may be embodied into 
the tribe, and become Zulus. The masters of the captivM 
arc kind to them, and the children are put on the same levtl 
asthoeo of any ordinary mnn. . In their usual plan, we seem 
to have the condition so be]>nused by srane advocates for slav- 

erj. The members of small disunited communities are taken 
nodcr a powerful govcnimcut — obtaia kind masters, whom 
they are allowed to exchange for any one else within the 
tnbc, and their childrou become freemen. It is, as our eyes 
qfid nostrils ollen foutid by the putrid bodies of the slain, a 
sad system nevertheless, yet by no means so bad as that 
vhicb, causing a still greater wasto of human life, consigns 
the surviving victims to perpetual slavery. The Zulus are 
Sioid never to sell their captives. 

.Several Senna men were of the land party ; one of these, a 
dice diviner, being mortally afraid of the Mazilu, bolted the 
moment he saw our visitors. Before again starting his com- 
rades shouted for him, inid called him by firing their mus- 
kets for a long time, but be could not be induced to come out 
&om his hiding-]>lacc. 

Continuing the journey that night as long as light served, 
they slept unconsciously on the edge of a deep precipice, 
■without Qre lest the Mazitu should see iL Next morning 
most of the men were tired out, the dread of the apparition 
of the day before tending probably to increase the lameness 
of which they complained. When told, however, that all 
might return to Mankambira'a save two, Moloka and Charlie, 
tbcj would not, till assured that the act would not bo consid- 
ered one of cowardice. Giving them one of the goats as pro- 
vision, another was slaughtered for the remainder of the pa^ 
ty, who, having found on the rocks a cauoe which had be- 
longed to one of the deserted villages, determined to put to 
sea again; but the craft was very small, and the remaining 
goat, spite of many a threat of having its throat cut^ jumped 
and rolled about so as nearly to capsize it ; so Dr. Livingstone 
took lo the shore again, and after another night spent with- 
out fire, except just for cooking, was delighted to see the boat 
coming back. 



Ciur. XIX 

Wc pulkd that day to Mankambim's, a dietoooe that 
shore, with tbo most bean-breakiug toil, had tiLk«Q thre« Uaj 
to travel. This waa tho last latitudu takuu, 11" 'W S. The 
boat hml gone about 24' farther to the north, tho kud p&itj 
pro1>ably half tliat diataoce, but fever prevented the instra- 
metits being used. Dr. Kirk and Charles Livingstone we 
therefore farthest up the lake, and they saw about 20' beyoml^ 
their turning-point, aay into the tenth degree of south lati- 
lude. From the heights of at least a thousand feet^ Oi 
vhioh tho land party toiled, the dark mountain masses OD 
both sides of tbc lake wero seen dosing in. At this clevis J 
tion the view extended at least ss far as that from tho boat^ 
and it is believed the end of the lake lies on tho Bouthcra 
bordera of 10% or tho northern limits of 11*, south latitude. 

Mankambim thought that our diviner would die of starrar 
tion in the mountains; but he promised that, if ho aarvirod. 
and come to him, he would give him food, and send hira after 
ua A week afterward the poor fellow overtook us, to the 
great delight of bis comrades, who ran back to meet and b^ | 
lute him; they danced and shouted with joy, and fired off 
their muskets. lie had heard, from his place of conocalmcnt, 
his comrades calling for him and liring, but did not answer, 
bccauso ho thought that they were fighting witb the Mazitu. 
Hunger at length drove him from the mountains. Mankun- 
bira treated him kindly, gave him food, and sent him on, as 
he had promised; but a set of lawless fellows between Man* 
kambini's and Marenga's seized and robbc<l him, and put a 
slave-Htick on his neck, intending to sell him as a slave, when 
some of the older men said that the English would come backl 
and axunge the deed if they stole him. He waa then lot go^ 
and Marenga also gave him food, nud a piece of bark cloth 
as a covering. 

Elephants aro uttmerous oa the borders of tlio lake, and 
psingly tatnf;, being oElen found cloBC to the villagea 
spotami swonu very mach at their ease in tbc creeks 
and kgoone, and herds are sometimes seen iu tbo lake itself. 
Their taraeae^ arises from the fact that poisoned arrows have 
no effect on either elephant or hippopotamus. Fivo of each 
were shot for food during our journey. Two of the elephants 
were females, and had only a single tusk apiece, and wore 
each killed by the firet shot. It is always a case of famine 
or satiety when depending on the rifle for food — a glut of 
meat or none at all Most frequently it is scanty fare, except 
when game is abundant^ as it is far up the Zambesi. "We bad 
one morning t#o hippopotami and an elephant, perhaps in. 
all some eight tons of meat, and two days ai^r tbc last of a 
ftw sardines only for dinner. 

One morning, when sailing past a pretty-thickly inhabited 
part, we were surprised at seeing nine largo bull elephants 
standing near the beach quietly flapping their gigantic ears. 
Glad of an opportunity of getting some fresh meat^ we land- 
ed and fired into one. They all retreated into a marshy 
piece of ground between two villages. Our men gave chase, 
and fired into the herd. Standing on a sand hummock, we 
could see the bleeding animals throwing showers of water 
with their trunks over their backa The herd was soon 
driven back upon us, and a wounded one turned to bay ; yet 
neither this one, nor any of the others, ever attempted to 
charge. Having broken his logs with a rifle b.ill, we fired 
into him at forty yards as rapidly as we could load and dis- 
charge the rifles. He simply shook his head at each shot, 
and received at least sixty Enfield balls before be fell. Our 
excellent sailor from the north of Ireland happened to fire 
the last, and, as soon as he saw the animal fall, he turned with 




ao air of triamph to the doctor aod exclaimed, "It was my 
allot that done it, ar!" 

Iq a Tew minutes, upward of a thousand natives were roand 
the prostrate king of beasts ; and, aflcr our men had taken alt^ 
they wanted, an invitation ■was given to the villagers to take 
tlic remainder. They mshed at it like hungry hyenas^ : 
in an incredibly short time every inch of it was carried oJt 
It was only by knowing that the meat would all be used that 
we felt juBtiHed in the slaughter of this noble creature: The 
tusks wtiiglicil 62 lbs. each. A large amount of ivory might 
be obtained from the people of Nyoasa, and we were frequent- 
ly told of their having it in their but& 

While detained by a storm on the 17th of October at the 
mouth of the Knombc, we were visited by several men be- 
longing to an Arab who had been for fourteen years in the 
interior at Katanga's, south of Cazcmbe'a They had just 
brought down ivory, malachite, copper rings, and slaves to 
exchange fur cloth at the Lake. The malachite was said to 
be dug out of a largo vein on the side of a hill near Katanga's 
They knew Lake Tanganyika well, but had not heard of the 
Zambesi. They spoke quite poMtively, saying that the water 
of Lake Tanganyika flowed out by the opposite end to that 
of Nyassa. As they had seen neither of the overflows, we 
took it simply as a piece of Arab geography. We paased 
tb^ establishment of long sheds next day, and were satisfied 
that the Arabe must be driving a good trade. It is difficult 
to get at facts, or draw out of the natives anyrcliablo informa- 
tion respecting the country in front Some arc so suspicious 
of strangers that they show extreme caution in their answon^J 
and are unwilling to commit tbemiielves by any statement; 
vhile others draw largely upon their imagination, and tell 
marvels equal to the most romancing tales of ancient travel- 
ers, or sjiy just what they think will please one. 

"How far is it to the end of the Lake?" we inquired of on 
intelligent-looking native at the south part. "The other end 
of the Lake I" he exclaimed, in real or weU-f«igucd astonish- 
ment; *' who ever heard of such athing? Why, if one start- 
ed when a mere boy to walk to the other end of the Lake, he 
would be an old, gray-headed man before ho got there. I 
never heard of such a thing being attempted." "Wo were told 
on the Kovuma that that river flowed out of Nyassa; and on 
the lower half of the Lake every one assured us that a canoe 
could sail out of Nyassa into the Rovunia; but above that 
their testimony diflered, some saying that it ran near the Lake, 
bat not out of it, and others were equally positive that it was 
several days' journey from Lake Nyassa. Mankanibira had 
never heard of any largo river in the north, and even denied 
its existence altogether; giving us, at the same time, the 
names of the different halting-plaees round the head of the 
Lake, and the number of days required to reach the coast op- 
posite his village, which corresponded, ns nearly as wo could 
judge, with the distance at which we have placed its end. 

The Lake slave-trade was going on at a terrible rate. Two 
enterprising Arabs had built a dhow, and were running her, 
crowded with slaves, regularly across the Lake. "We were 
told she sailed the day before we reached their head-quar- 
ters. This establishment is in the latitude of the Portuguese 
slave-exporting town of Iboe, and partly supplies that vile 
market; but the greater number of the slaves go to Kilwa* 

• On one o<!ca.<tl<>n ono of onr crnijcrd, the Wfap, when c«Iiin([ nc Ihoc, WM 
taken Ixir * Iivrgo slaver just then pxpencij. Ttio slaves in ihc viciniiy ncra all 
liuirkd iiilo tho town, qiiJ, when Cn)itiiin J. C. Stirling lancifd, it wn* Tiill of 
tliffin. ()iir rrienil Major 8icn.rd nswntlhQ limo acliiiKgnrRrnorof Ibof, thniidh 
verj roucii agiiiiM bi* owq wlsbcs, It had ticcomc pnl^lic thnt tho Isic gijv- 
«rnor had left, in wfiuia buxei, rut luiiu of money acctiiuulatci) by skre-treil- 
ing. and the SDveniDr KcncrnJ wu Mid id be very mnch shocked that his ccnfl- 
dcniial gtibordinatc shoald baro behaved eo ahamofallv . Major Sicard had 



"We did not seo much evidence of a wish to barter. Some 
ivory was offered for sale; but the chief traffic wo3 ia hu- 
man chattels. Would that wc could give a comprehecsivc 
account of the horron of the slave-trade^ with an ftpprojdiD&- 
tion to tlie number of lives it yearly destroys I for we fed 
8uro that were even half tbe truth told and recognized, the 
feelings of men would be so thoroughly roused that this 
ilish traffic ia human flesh would be put down at all nak8;1 
but neither we, nor any one else, have the statistics necessaiy' 
for a work of this kind. Let us state what we do know of 
one portion of Africa, and then every reader who belierea our 
tale can apply the ratio of the known misery to fiud out the 
unknown. We were informed by Colonel Rtgby, late H. IL 
Political Agent and Consul at Zanzibar, that 19,000 slaves , 
^m this Nyassa country alone pass annaally through 
custom-house of that island. This is excluave, of course, of 
thoae sent to Portuguese slave-ports. Let it not be sup^ 
for an instant that this number, 19,000, represents all tbe 
tims. Those taken out of the country are bot a very 

to tha Ex|)ediuoa (■■d sow tkai Im ha« mnc m m tnM. to a baBer vrM, < 
voaU Mf nenr w(n ynblk thuka SMBoipftaM Ij nrr.- tercM pfftTMi I 
tait\ ud kc VM wl ec M d bj tbe fortraor fimtni •» SB tk« tacMC pott i 
Ovnnnr u Itei rata tba the* nccat aeaadal k*d pitj »w»j ami booi I 
CaMW. Utfot E&aud pmemti agaUed htaag thai {Jbcad onr a not oTi 
4BAlai%lMB wUoh k fa ttuneij panbk for aay Vartagmm. to «a 
mMntttihuam^tadmtmnajkmndtkmt ifa ro^Mw ha had Mf 
MoaMat tha ilMka flf the Baslnh rnwMMl wiOd ba avim^ ■■ 
«■(& qaaMioaaUa poaotkak Sa naaaaliiaaaKwaw aO is tida. far I 

^^-^■^■. . ..... ■■■ "mfHwilhiiliiiiAM a liflfcaiiiii 

Win Ctfata SiMtaK kaded. Mqv Sk^ «M « «aih nkaa aback Ir 1 

awafchi iiniiiina aaifc mrrl rfitirai laadj fa ii|iiaiMhinb^ ki nirfd 
aea— a<yawfa«laMi.arf. f ii n w l a » iaiii i l| i iii j Hm i i.gdaca— — a^ 
to tiidw l» Id! daarak T"*-i f P""M"1» inaniiii -"^i ftiii .fliwua 

liaa vbith Mtt aMfl adkm la a ikM liha Ibaa. «biA «xlM aalr Vr iti «- 
MMna tnda ia dan^ a^ «b«a aay aaa «W ^ate tal af^B^A « » ^ 

l^i^B OTMaaaa wkomw^b anDcsra a wmi. 




section of the suficrcrs. Wo never realized i\ic atrocioiia na- 
ture of tho traflBc until we saw it at the fouutaiii-heatl. There 
truly "Satan lias his seat.'' Besides tbose actually captured, 
thousands arc killed and die of thoir wounds and famtDe, 
driven from their villages by the slnvc raid proper. Thou- 
sands perish in internecine war waged for slaves with their 
own clansmen and neighbors, slain by tho ! of gain, which 
is Btimulated, be it remembered always, by the slave purehas- 
era of Cuba ami elsewhere. The many skeletons wo have 
seen among rocks and woods, by the little pools, and along 
the paths of the wilderness, attest the awful siicrificc of hu- 
man life, which must be attributed, directly or indirectly, to 
this trade of hell. We would ask our countrymen to believe 
us when we siiy, as we conacicntioosly can, that it is our d^ 
liberate opinion, from what wo know and have seen, that not 
one flfth of the vicima of tho slave-trade over become slavea 
Taking the Shire Valley as an average, we should say not 
even one tcnlli arrive at their destination. As the system, 
therefore^ involves sncli an awful wa-iito of human life — or 
shall we say of human labor? — and, moreover, tends directly 
to perpetnato the barbarism of those who remain in the coun- 
try, the argument for tho continuance of this wasteful course 
because, forsooth, a fraction of the enslaved may find good 
masters, seems of no great value. This reasoning, if not the 
result of ignorance, may be of maudlin philanthropy. A 
small armed steamer on Lake Nyassa could easily, by exer- 
cising a control, and furnishing goods in esehango for ivory 
ftnd other products, break the neck of this infamous traffic Id 
that quarter; for nearly all must cross the Lake or tho Up- 
per Shire. 

Our exploration of the Lake extended from the 2d of Sep- 
tember lo the 27th of October, 1S61 ; and, having expended 


RKKD nUTS IS PApynus. 

Cuxp. XCL 

or lost moat of tlie goods we bad brought, it was necessary to 
go back to the ship. "Wheu near tbe soutberu vud, un our 
return, we were told tbat a very large slave-party had just 
crossed to ibo eastern side. We heard the fire of three gons 
ia the evening, and judged by the report that they must bo 
at l^ttst six-poundcrs. They were Baid to belong to an Ajawa 
ofaief named Mukata. 

Id d«eoeading the Shire, we found concealed in the broad 
belt of papyrus round the Lakelet Taraalombc, into which tho 
river expands, a number of Manganja families who bad been 
driven from IbeLr homes by the Ajawa raids. So thickly did , 
the pupyruD grow, that when beat down it supported their 
small temporary huL:^, though when they walked from ono 
hut to another it heaved and bent bcueath their feet as tbin 
ice does at home. 

A dense and impenetrable forest of the papyrus was left 
standing between them aud the land, and no one passing by 
on the samo side would ever have suspected that human be- 
ings lived there. They came to this spot from the sonth by 
means of their canoes, which enabled thorn to obtain a living 
from the line fisli which abound in the lakelet. They had a 
largo quantity of excellent salt sowed up in bark, some of 
which we bought, our own having run out We anchored 
for the night off their floating camp, and were visited bjmyi^ 
iflda of musquitoes. Some of the natives show a love ofooon- 
try quite surprising. We saw fugitives on the mountains, in 
tlic north of the Lake, who were persisting in clinging to tho 
haunts of their boyhood and youth, in spite of starvation and 
the continual danger of being put to death by the Mazitu. 

A few miles below the lakelet is tho Inst of t)ie great slave- 
crossings. Sine* the Ajawa invasion the villages on the left 
bank had been abandoned, and the people, as we saw in our 
ascentj were living on the right or western bank. 




As we were resting for a fow miaatca opposite the valuable 
fishery at Movuuguli, a young, cflcmiDate-looking man from 
some eea-coo^t tribe came in great state to Luvo a look at us. 
Ho walked under a large umbrella, and waa followed by five 
handsoniQ damsels gnyly dressed and adorned with a view to 
attract purchasers. Odo was carrying bis pipe for smoking 
baog, here called "cbamba;" anotbcr bis bow and arrows; 
a third bis battle-axe ; a fourth one of bis robes ; while the 
last was ready to take his umbrella when he felt tired. This 
show of his merchandise was to excite tbo cupidity of any 
chief who had ivory, and may be called the lawful way of 
carrying on the slave-trade. What proportion it bears to the 
other ways in which we have seen this traffic pursued, we 
never found means of forming a judgment, lie sat and look- 
ed at us for a few minutes, the young ladies kneeling behind 
him; and, having satisfied himself that we were not likely to 
be cufitomere, he departed. 

On our first trip wc met, at the lauding opposite this place, 
a middle-aged woman of cooBiderablo inteUigcucc, aud pos- 
aeasing more knowledge of the country than any of the men. 
Our first definite information about Lake Nyassn was obtain- 
ed from her. Seeing ua taking notes, she remarked that she 
bad been to the sea, and had there seen white men writittg. 
She bad seen camels also, probably among Iho Arabs. She 
was the only Manganja woman we ever met who was ashamed 
of wearing the "peiele," or lip-ring. She retired to bor hut^ 
took it out, and kept her band before her mouth to hide tbo 
hideous hole in tbo lip while conversing with us. All the 
viUagers respected her, and even the head men took a sec- 
ondary place in her presence. On inquiring for ber now, we 
found thai she Wiis dead. We never obtained sufficient ma- 
terials to estimate the relative mortality of the highlands and 




Ab oU Muipqjk Wonan, ihowfog Uw PbUU, «r Up-rtor. mhI Dm TMloalec la i n <i iwai» i 
Iloa uu Uot, utikk uid Udjr. 

lowlands ; bat, ftom many very old, white-headed blacka hav- 
ing beeo seen on the highlands, wo think it probabla Uut 
even native races are longer lived tho higher their dw 
places are. 

"We landed below at Mikena'a and took observations for 
longitude, to verify those taken two years before. The village 
was deserted, Mikona and his people having fled to tho o^ier 
side of the river. A few had come across this morning to work 
in their old gardens After completing the observations we 
had breakfast; and, as the last of tho things were being car^ 
ried into the boat, a Manganja man came ruoaing down to his 
oanoe, crying out, " The Ajawa have just killed my comrade 1" 
We shoved off, and in two minutea the advanced guard of a 
large marauding party were standing with their moskets on 
the spot where we had taken breakfast. They wore evidently 


Cbaf. XIX. 



surprised at seeing us there, and baited, as did also the main 
body of perhaps a thousand men. "Kill them," cried the 
Mangaoja; " tbey are going up to the hills to kill the English," 
meaning the Miasionaries we had left at Magomcra But hav- 
ing no prospect of friendly communication with them, nor con- 
fidence in Manganja's testimony, we proceeded down the river, 
leaving the Ajawa sitting under a large baobab, and theMan- 
ganja cursing them most energetically across the river. 

On oar way up we bad seen that tlio people of Zimik n had 
taken refuge on a long island in the Shire, where they had 
placed stores of grain to prevent it falling into the bands of the 
Ajawa; supposing* afterward that the invasion and war were 
past, they had removed Vack again to the main hmd on the 
eastt and were living iQ fancied secuiity. On approaching 
the chiefs village, which was built in the midst of a beauti- 
ful grove of lofty wiJ J fig and palm trees, sounds of revelry 
fell upon our ears. The people were having a merry time — 
drumming, danciug, and drinking beer — while a powerful en- 
emy was close at band, bringing death or slavery to every 
one in the village. One of our men called out to several who 
came to the bank to look at us that the Ajawa were coming, 
and were even now at ^[ikena*s village ; but tbey were dazed 
with drinking, and look no notice of the warning. 

In passing a temporary village of Manganja fugitives, wc 
8&ir a poor fellow with his neck tn a slave-stick, and landetl 
a few hundred feet below ; but when wo walked up to the spot 
at which he bad been, he had vanished, and every one denied 
having seen such a person there. Though suflFering so ter- 
ribly from the slave-trade themselves, these Manganja still 
patronized it. A man, near whose temporary hut we slept 
among a crowd of fugitives, ^rted even before sunrise to sell 
a boy to some black Portuguese who were purchasing slaves 





ia a neighboring village: The fortuae of war had brought 
ibis poor boy Into the fellow's power, and the licartleasness 
of the ruIHan, who bad bimadf suiTered the loss of every thing 
by the slave-hunters, made as look upon him aud bis race aa 
without natural aiTection. Selling each other when on the 
point of perialiiug by starvation, not for grain, but cloth, of 
which there was uo great lack, was so very unnatural, that at 
first wc felt as if no mortal men, except blacks, could be guil- 
ty of such cruelly, and began to speculate how iho idea of 
property tn human kind could ever enter into beings 
iug reasonable minds like our own. We remembered, hoW' 
ever, having seen a man who was reputed humane, and in 
whose veins uo black blood flowed, parting for the sum of 
twenty dollars, or about jC4, with a good-looking girt, wlio 
stood in a closer rubUonsbip to bim than this boy did to the 
man who excited our ire; and, sUo being the nurse of his son 
besides, botli son and nurse made sucb a pitiable waU for aa 
entira day, that even the halfcastc who bad bought her re- 
lented, and offered to return her to the wlutc mau, but in vain. 
Community in suflering does uot always beget sympathy, 
though wo nnlurally expect it shoulJ. This was proved in 
the case of the wreck of the Frouch transport ship Medusa, 
on the West Coast, and may not be peculiar to black men. 

TheTette slavers subsequently broughtover corn (mapira), 
and tlierewitb bought many slaves. This might be consid* 
cred in one sense humane, as it actually kept many poor crea- 
tures from death by starvation; but, as in the case of the 
"removal to kind masters" scheme, the saviors of lives are 
actually the destroyers of all the lives that are lost. 

A number of elephants were standing near the spot where 
we left the boat, and one of thojierd was engaged in the ele- 
phantine amusement of breaking down trees; he did not cat 

any part of them, but, simply rejoicing in bis strength, waa 
knocking ihom over for tho mere fun of the thing. Three 
Enfield anil other rillo balls in the head sent him. rushing 
througli the thick bush with apparently as much ease as if it 
were only grass: an immeuae number of trees are destroyed 
by these huge beasts. They frequently chew the branches 
for the bark and the snp alone. 

Crowds of cirriers oftcrod their services after we left tho 
river. Several seta of ihcm placed so much coulidence in us 
as to decHno receiving payment at the end of the first day ; 
they wished to work another day, and so receive both days' 
vugea in one piece. Tho young head man of a new village 
himself came on with bis men. The mlirch was a pretty long 
one, and one of the men proposed to lay the burdens down 
beside a hut a mile or more from the nest village. The head 
man scolded the fellow for bis meanness in wishing to get rid 
of our goods where we could not procure carriers, and made 
him carry them on. The village at the foot of tho cataracts 
had increased very much in size and wealth since we passed 
it on our way up. A number of hirgo new huts had been 
built, and the people had a good slock of cloth and beads. 
Wc could not account for this sudden prosperity u nlll we saw 
aorao fine large canoes, instead of the two old, leaky things 
which lay there before. This had become a crossing- place for 
the slaves that the Portuguese agents were carrying to Totte, 
because they were afraid to take them across nearer to where 
the ship lay, about seven miles off. Nothing was more dis- 
heartening than this conduct of the Manganja in profiting by 
ibfi entire breaking np of their nation. It was nearly as bad 
as the behavior of our own countrymen, who bought np mus- 
kets and sent them out to the Chinese engaged in war with 
our own soldiers, or of those who, at the Cape, supplied am- 



muDition to tbc Kaffirs under similar circQiostaQoes, and coo^f 
]y JAthcred the traffic on the missionaries. 

ErtraH a/ a IXj^Kildk /rvm liewl. CbL C. P. Riobt, II. M. Onumt wtd BriHA^ 
A$m, ZmM^ar, to II. L. Akmuhoii, £*7n Stcntary to GovtmrnaA, Bomi^. 

" BrUi-h t-CB>t>UI*, ZaD«ilar, IMh Jidr. ISm 
" Sw,— I ltaT« the bonor lo ropon, fur the infunnftiiao of tho Blehi Hodoiv] 
aiM tlM GoTGmor in ConncU, that Dr. Albrcct Koseber, ■ gmUcnui who wife] 
Mint bf his m^Mtjr, the Kiajt of IterAriA, on * sckDtilie nbDOo to E. AMc*, 
WW nuinlercd on ^e 19tti oTMarcb lut, ai therOkge of KlaaoagoooM, llm* 
liaxt' jomrniy to the uortlicssi of Lake Nj-a***." 

After somo inTuniuUioD heuius oa Vt. BoadHr*! olbcr uomiionU, Ifai ik- 
paidi ]irooceda: 

*' i. Ue Mgain left Znmibar In Jane, IS59, to fxplore the gneX Lok* otVf- 
an*, and, haring jotocU » cA»Taa at Kc«lw«, started from that |MTt uo the 
Sith of Angau last, and i«acb«i ttie Lake on the 19th oT Norenber, beiiig ibn 
finl white man who has crcr rcuchvd tis ihorcs." 

[Tha maon of Colonel Rigb?'s mtsiakc wu, that sntScient time had not 
elapaed fortbenewioroardiKoitry of NyaMa lo rcarh bin alZaniihar : tuti 
wa* it thCB lutuwQ that tbo kkc Dr. ICoMhcr and no had both ThiCcd waa OH) 
and tlM aane. It docm not in ihg Inxl distract from llw buDor doa ta Dr. 
RoKher (br nMhIng the Lake b^ a path unallj' dininrt rrotti oare, ibat oiksn 
had preceded him In tbo dbcofvty; hat, fur the sake of accuracy, it la iteoi 
Nir7 lo prodnco the croondd on which the pRwdcDCc in tb<! explonuhiB h\ 
cMmci by tho IJiglbh.J 

" He iros in venr bod health nhcn he left Zansibar, and beeuM to mak oa 
the joara^ that bo mu trarricd in a cot nil th« latter jiart of it. 

" Ho reraaiaod at iViunni, on the boixlan of ihc L»kc, ntarlj foor ntootb. 
On ibe IGlh oTHardi last he left .Vuonni to e> to the Bivor Ravuna, «likfr<] 
la craned nbont twtUn inys' joumoj from Lake Vyiun on the road to Ktjk 
H« cTidimtly intended u retarn to tho Lake from tbo Jtwaiaa, us he left otutf 
all bis baegngc in chaive tit tht Saltnn of A'aMora, and was only aceompaBM ] 
by tvo Dflgro wrrants and two |>ortcra for hia lang^ee. Tit., one man and ooa] 

The ditpatch is long, and fnll of details snd depoaiikiaa. Dr. R^t^ei'* 
friend Kingomanga, the Snilaa of Niueenra. lim thm dap rmoi the Lak^ mat] 
probably opposite Kotatnta Bay, oreren farther Kiutb, and i»of ibeWalao iribo. 

The depoailiom of Ibe natiru are rsry inltratinf;. as they ahoir conelmiTelr 
that Boncher beanl of ui. Colonel RigtHT lUota that Dr. Rotcbcr bad bees 
■old of the Irlp w» had made to Shirwa, or, ■* be •Elites it. Kim, "whenw" 
lwninaria,"lbenaliveaof yuasewagoforaalt." Bol it b more likely that 
he Itfard of oar arrival at the toathom end of Hytuaa, mixn tbe Shiie flowi 
ftom it, whero tlicre are immense salt washing and where in: cane in costact 
with a party of coaEi Arsbe, vrho fled by nighi. and would lake the road tlinnigli ' 
the AJawa eonntry, in which Roschcr arrired two months Uler. 




EnooBNging rrospecU.~Bis[iDp Mackcnitc— Our Proereu down the River 
wreitoil. — The Rirar floodcJ in .laniiaTy, lefia, — Mariano rotuinea Iii» Ci»- 
T«r of Slave-liunu'ng.— The Governor plays at Hide »nd Seek with him. — 
Capuiu Al«a.— Reach the ZamU-ai. — A Slave-owncr'* IdcM of hi» Slaivs. 
— Wisdom and Hunuiiiljr of Niipalcon 111. — At r.uiilo. — ArririU ofU.M.S- 
Gorgon.— Tim Pioneer out of Hopiir— CajiiRin Wilioa proceeili u]» ilic 
^81iiR. — CoDliDuaLioD of tlio Story of llie B»lio|r> Mission,— liu ilwc«ndi 
the Shite in a Mnull Cacioc.— Loscd Ctotbinji, ^IcdiciDC, etc.— Fever.— Deuh 
uid Burial. — Ills Character — KtndacM of ilio Mjikololo. — D«atli of Mr. 
Bamipk — Captain Wilson rj:lnnts to Shti}iaRga. — ^Tli« Rev. Jfttncs Stcwatl 
cxamincit llic Couiitrv prvrious to attcmjiting n Mi»iun ti/ llie Free Cimtdi 
of Scotland. — PuriimuMio Polity iu«l Slnvt'-lrndiwi; uro ito cliii^f Ob^taelci 
W ao; Mission. — Fenonal Rcspoiiilbiliiy ignored und Illung pui on otUer*. 
— Mn. Idvingitono's ninos^ nud Deulli ou the 37tb of April, ISQ3. 

We penciled tlio sliip on the 8th of November, 1881, in a 
very weak conditioti, having Buffered more from hunger than 
on any proviotia trip. Heavy rains commenced on the 9th, 
and oontinued several days ; the river rose rapidly, and be- 
came highly discolored. Bishop Mackenzie came down to 
the ship on the 14th, with some of the Pioneer's men, who 
hod been at Magoracro for the benefit of their heaUh, and 
also for the purpose of assisting the Mission. The bishop 
appeared to be in excellent spirits, and thought that the fu- 
tore promised fair for peace and usefulness. The Ajnwa, 
having been defeated and driven off while we were on the 
Lake, had sent word that they desired to Jive at peace with 
the English. Many of the Manganja bad settled round Jla- 
gomero in order to be under the protection of the biahop. and 
it was hoped that the slave-trade would soon cease in the 
highlands, and the people bo left in the secure enjoyment of 
their industry. The Mission, it was also anticipated, might 



Caxr. XX. 

Boon bicomc, to a coimderablc degree, self-sapportuig, and 
raise certaia kinds of food, like the Porhigaese of Sienna and 
Qaillimane. Mr. Burnip, an energetic young man, bad ar- 
rived at Chibisa's the day before the bishop, having come np 
the Shire in a canoe. A surgeon and a lay brother followed 
behind in another canoe. Tbo Pionecr'a draught being too 
much for the upper part of the Shire, it vaa not deemed ad- 
visable to bring her up, on the next trip, farther than the 
Rug; the bishop, therefore, resolved to explore the coontiy 
from Magomero to the mouth of that river, and to meet the 
ship with bis sisters and Mra. Burrup in January. This was 
arranged before parting, and then the good bishop and Bor- 
rup, whom we were never to meet again, left us ; they gave 
and received three hearty English cheers as they went to Ae 
shore, and we steamed olf. 

The rains ceased on the 14th, and the waters of the Shire 
fell even more rapidly than tbcy had risen. A shoo], twenty 
milea below Cbibisa^a, checked our farther progress, and wo 
lay there fivo weary weeks, till the permanent rise of the riv- 
er took place. During this detention, with a large marsh oq 
each side, the first death occurred in the Expedition, which 
had now been ihrco and a half years in the country. The 
carpenter's mate, a fine, healthy young man, was seized with 
fever. The usual remedies no eflect ; ho died suddenly 
while we were at evening prayers, and was buried on shore, 
lie came out in the Pioneer, and, with the exception of a 
slight touch of fever at the moulh of the Rovuma, had ai- 
joyed perfect health all the time he had been with ua. The' 
Portugaeae arc of opinion that the European who has immu- 
nity from this disease for any length of time after he eaten 
the country ia more likely to be cut off by it when it don, 
cotae than the man who has it frequeutly at fireL 

Cnxr XX. 

RETURN 01? M&l 


The rains becftmc pretty gencriil toward the close- of De- 
cember, and tbe Shire waa in flood in the beginning of Janu- 
iiry,1862. At our woodiog-placc, a mile above the Huo, the 
water was three feet liigter tb^n it was when we were bere 
in Jane ; and on tbe nigbt of tbe Gtb it rose eighteen incbes 
more, and swept donm an immense amount of brushwood aod 
logs, which swarmed with beetles, and tbe two kinds of abolJs 
which ftre common all over tbe African continent. Natives 
in cances were busy spearing fish in tbe meadows and creeks, 
and appeared to be taking tbem in great nnmbera. Spur- 
winged geese, and others of the knob-nosed species, took ad- 
vantage of the low gardens being flooded, and came lo pilfer 
the beans. As we passed tbe Ruo on the 7tb, and saw noth- 
ing of the bishop, we concluded that he had heard from his 
sai*geon of our detention, and had deferred hia journey. He 
arrived there five days after, on the 12th. 

"We heard at Mboina's village that the notorious rebel-rob- 
ber and murderer, ifariano, had been allowed to return from 
Mozambique, and was at his old trade again of kidnapping 
the Manganja, and selliug them to the people of Quillimane 
as slaves. Ho bad already desolated a large porilou of the 
rigbt bank, and iho people of this village were living in con- 
stant dread of a visit from bis armed marauders. On coming 
to the Zambesi, we found that the Portuguese had lately made 
a station on an island opposite the mouth of the Shire. Cap- 
tain Alvez — Mozinga, or Big Gun, as the natives called him 
— was the officer in command, and came on bo-ird after we 
dropped anchor. The governor had desired him to assure us 
that the occnpation of the island waa only temporary, and 
solely in consequence of Mariano's escape and rebellion. 
' It appears^tbat this half-cnate rebel, notwithstanding all his 
notorious robberies and murders, and hia actual rebellion and 




war, had been tried at Mozambique, and had beea let ofif with 
the mild sentence of imprisonment for three years and a fine. 
Not Laving money enough with him to pay the £ue, the Mo- 
zambique authorities} considerately allowed him to go back to 
Quillimaue to collect some debts which be asserted were due 
U> him ; but, whea he got then;, it vfna found that his debta : 
were due somewhere up the country. His Quillimaue cred- 
itors, however, most feelingly petitioned the government to 
allow Mariano to go thither, in order to obtain ivory to pay 
both debts and fine. PermissioD was graciously given, and 
he was also allowed to take several hundreds of muskets and 
much ammuMtion; bat, iualead of collecting ivory, he return- 
ed to his own people up the Shire, and betook himself at onoo 
to his former course of robbery, murder, and kidnapping, and 
set the Portuguese authority at defiauce. The Governor of 
Qnillimane then declared war against his old enemy, and with 
all his available soldiers and slaves, in a Heet of boats and 
canoes, sailed up the Shire to caplure the rebel, but could not 
find him — so sailed down again. The whole thing had ihe 
appearance — to the uncharitable, who knew that nothing 
could bo done in a district without the knowledge of the gov- 
ernor — of Mariano's having been allowed to run away with a 
large assortment of arms and ammunition out of a small ham- 
let, whcro every one, by means of his slaves, knows the affairs 
of every one else. It is true the governor ran after him, but 
at the pace one dooa after a child in play, and, of course, could 
not catch him. A captain was afterward sent across the coun- 
try with a force, and was more fortunate than the governor, 
for he reached Mariano. Unluckily, however, instead of cap- 
turing the rebel, the rebel captured him, in a night attack it 
was said, with nil his aminniiition and a number of his men. 
The captain, accoi-diug to the account of his brother officers, 





was allowed to depart, after receiving a prcscut of ivoi-y. To 
us tills was incredible, but it is meatioQed to sbovr tlio fray 
that llieso mea, wbo hare been convicts, speak of each, other. 

Cuplain AJvoz was suffering from fever, and hsuX been ever 
since Lo came to this low, maraby placi?. The island woald 
be under water, he said, if tbo river roae iwo feet higher. 
which it was extremely likely to do. The lonely life of a 
solitary officer, living with a number of debased black sol-' 
diets, on such a spot as this, is something frightful to think 
of. It is next door lo imprisonment, if not to aolitiuy confine- 
ment ; and this waa the lot of a brave artillery officer, who 
was sent here for some political offense, and who had dono all 
tbo hard fighting with the rebels for a number of years back. 
While he who crushed out the rebellion was livJTig thus, Ma- 
riano, the rebel, was reported for the last three years to have 
been living sumptuously in the capiUd of the province, and 
even dining at the tables of the highest in the land Seeing 
that this sentence of imprisonment at Mozambique was car- 
ried out so mildly as not to amount to confinement at all, it 
is not to bo wondered at that men's tongues should speak 
hard things against the governor general, and that, though, of 
course, Jt can not be actually known, bribery should bo open- 
ly declared to havo taken place. We know nothing more 
than the probability and general report, which may be false. 
We never mot Mozinga again ; he succumbed in a few months 
to fever. 

After paying our Sonna men, aa they wished to go homo, 
we landed them here. All were keen traders, and had invest- 
ed largely in native iron faoes^ axes, and ornaments. Afany 
of the hoea and spears had been taken, from the slaving par- 
ties whose captives we liberated, for on these occasions our 
Senna friends were always uncommonly zealous and active. 



Tbo reminder liail been purchased with the old clothes we 
hod given thc'in, and their store of hippopotamus meat: ihejr 
had no fears of losing theni, or of being punished for aidiug 
as. The system in which they had been uaiticd had eradi- 
cated the. idea of personal respoosibiUty from their minds. 
The Portuguese slaveholders would blame the English alone, 
they said ; they wero our servants at the time. 24o white 
man on board could purchase so cheaply as tbeiie men coulJ. 
Many a time bad their eloquence persuaded a native trader to 
sell for a hit of dirty worn cloth things for which he had, bat 
a Utile before, refused twice the amount of clean new caUoa 
"Scissors," being troubled with a cough at night, received a 
present of a q^uilted coverlet, which had seen a good deal of 
eervice. A few days oflerward, a good chance of investing in 
hoes offering itself, be ripped off both sides, tore them into a 
dozen pieces, and purchased about a dozen hoes with them. 
"Wo entered the Zambesi on the 11th of January, and 
steamed down toward the coast, tiiktng the side on. which we 
bad come up ; but the channel had changed to the other side 
during the sammcr, as it sometimes does, and wo soon ground- 
ed A Portaguese gentleman, formerly a lieutenant in the 
army, and now living on Sangwisa, one of the islands of the 
Zambesi, came over with his slaves to aid us in getting the 
.ship ofC Ho aiid frankly that bis people were all great 
thieves, and we must be on our guard not to leave any thing 
about. Ue next made a short £i>cecli to his men, told ibem 
be knew what thieves they were, but implored them not to 
steal from ns, as we would ^ve them a present of cloth when 
the work was done. "The natives of this country," he re- 
marked to us, '* think only of three things — what tbey shall 
eat and drink, how many wives tbey can have, and what they 
may steal from their master, if not bow they may murder 




him." He alwavs slept with a loaded musket by hia side. 
This opinion may apply to slaves, but decidedly doea not, in, 
our experience, apply to freemen. We paid bis uxeii for help- 
Bg us, and believe that even they, being paid, stole nothing 
&om us. Our friend farms pretty extensively tlie largo isl- 
and called Sangwisa — lent hira for nothing by Senbor KcitSo 
— and raises large quaniitlcs of mnpira and beans, and also 
beautiful vrbite rice, grown from seed brought a few years 
ago from South Carolina, lie furnished us with some, which, 
was very acceptable; for, though not in absolute want, we 
were living ou bean^ salt purk, acid fowla, all tho biscuit and 
flour on board having been expended. 

We fully e^pecLed that tho owucfs of tho captives we bad 
liberated would show their displeasure, at least by their 
tongues; but they seemed ashamed; only one ventured a re- 
mark, and be, in l';e coarse of common conversation, said, 
with a smile, " You took the governor's slaves, didn't you?" 
" Yes, we did free several gangs that we met in the Manganja 
country." The Portuguese of Tette, from the governor down- 
ward, were extensively engaged in slaving. The trade is part- 
ly internal and partly external: they scad some of the cap- 
tives, and those bought, into the iuterior, up the Zambesi; 
some of these we actually met on their way up tbe river. 
The young women were sold there for ivory : an ordinary- 
looking one brought two aiTobas, sixty-four pounds weight, 
and an extra beauty brought twice that amount. The men 
and boys were kept as carriers, to take the ivory down from 
the interior to Telle, or were retained on farms on the Zam- 
besi, ready for export if a slaver should call : of this last mode 
Lof slaving wo were witnescs also. The slaves were sent 
'down the river chained, and in large canoes. This went on 
,opeuly ut Tette^ and more especially so while the French 




" Free Ernigralioa" system ■was in full operation. This doable 
mpdc of disjiositig of tbe captives pays be'itcr than tlic single 
system of sending them down to the const for ex{x)rtatioR. 
One merchant at Tette, with whom we were well acquaiiitod, 
sent into the interior three hunditxl Manganja women to 
sold for ivory, and another sent a hundred and fifty. Tt 
process hy which the Island of Bourbon was supplied witJt^ 
slaved was carried on with even greater eifrontcry than ibe 
Mangnnja raids. The commandant at Tette, having found 
that a cargo of slaves hod been taken down the river by a 
woman of bad character, for form's sake sent an ofticer 
her. He followed, overtook her, but returned without her.' 
When spoken to on the subject, tho commandant said, with 
an air of triumph, " Tho English can not now interfere, while 
wo have tho French flag to protect us." And this flag did 
protect slaving till May, 18*d4. Of all the benefits which tbo 
leign of Napoleon III. has conferred on his kind, none doei 
more credit to his wisdom and humanity than his having stop- 
ped this wretched system. As much was done as lay in his 
poVcr, in tho way of regulating the syfltem of abstractioa of 
labor from Africa, by the appointment of officer.'? to prevent 
abases in its working; but, in spite of every precaution, the 
" eogagee system" became neither more nor less than the 
abominable slave-trade in all its horrors, not so much by 
French agency as by thai of Portuguese and haLf-< 
Until the people are enlightened, every attempt of the kit 
must always promolc the slave-trade, and nothing elsa 

We anchored on the Great Luabo mouth of the Zaml 
becaun wood was much more easily obtained there than 
the Kongone. On the 30th II. M.S. Gorgon arrived, towiog 
the brig which brought Mrs. Livingstone, some ladies about 
to join their relatives in the Umversities' Mission, and the 

twenty-four sections of a Dew iron steamer intended for the 
navigation of Lake Nyaaaa. The Pioneer steamed out, and 
towed the brig into the Kongonc liarbor. The new steamer 
was called the La^ly of the Lake, or the Lady Kyassa, and as 
much as could be carried of her iu one trip was placed, by 
the help of the officers and nUQ of the Gorgon, on board lUo 
Pioneer, and the two large paadle-box boafe of II. M.'g ship. 
"We steamed off for the Iluo on the 10th of February, having 
on board Captain Wilson, with a number of his officers and 
men, to help us to discharge the cargo. Our progress up was 
distressingly slow. The river was in flood, aijd we had a. 
three-knot current against us in many places. The engines 
of the Pioneer were of thebeist quality, but had been entirely 
neglected by the engineer — the packing^ot having been re- 
newed during twenty months. These causes delayed us six 
months in the delta, instead of, as we anticipated, only sLi 
days ; for, finding it impossible to carry t!io sections up to the 
Rao without great lo.<is of time, it was thought best to land 
them at Shupanga, and, putting the hull of the Lady Nyassa 
together there, to tow her up to the foot of the Murchison 

A few days before the Pioneer reached Shupanga, Caplnin 
Wilson, seeing the hopeless slate of our engines, generously 
resolved to hasten with the Mission ladies up to those who, 
.wo thought, were anxiously awaiting their arrival, and there- 
fore started in his gig for the Buo, taking Miss Mackenzie, 
Mrs. Burrup, and his surgeon, Dt Ramsay. They were ac- 
companied by Dr. Kirk and Mr. Sewell, paymaster of the 
Gorgon, in the whale-boat of the Lady Nyassa. As our slow- 
paced-IauBcb, Ma-Kobert, Uad formerly gone tip to the fool of 
tbe cataracts in nine days steaming, it was supposed that the 
boats might easily reach the expected meeting-place at the 



Ruo in a week; but the Shire was now in ilood, and in its 
most rapid state; nnd tlicy were longer iu getting up aboat 
half the diatanoc, Lhau it was hoped thej would be in the 
whole navigable part of the river. They oould hear nothing-^ 
of the bishop from the chief of the island, Malo, at the mouth 
of the Ruo. " No white man had ever come to bis village," ho 
said. They proceeded on to Cfaibisa's, suffering terribly from 
iiiu^uiboes at night. Their toil in stemming the mpid current 
mode them estimate the distance, by the windings, as nearer 
300 than 200 miles. The Makololo who had remtuncd at Cht- 
bisn's told ihcm the sad news of the death of the good bishop 
and of Mr. Biirrup. Other information received there awak- 
ened fresh anxiety onbehalf of the survivors; so, leaving tho 
ladies with Dr.Ramgay and the Makoiolo, Captain Wilson and 
Dr.Kirk went up the hills, in hopes of being able to render 
aasistancc, and on the way they met some of the Mission party 
at Soche'a The excessive fatigue that our friends had under- 
gone in the voyage up to Cbibisa's in no wise deten-cd them 
from this farther attempt for the beneBtofthcir countrymen; 
but the fresh ]a}x>r, with diminished ration^, was too much for 
their strength. Tbcy were reduced to a diet of native beans 
nnd an occasional fowl. Both became veiy ill of fever, Cap- 
lain Wileon so dangerously that his lellow-suffurcr lost all 
liopes of his recovery. Ilia strong, able-bodied cockswain did 
good service in cheerfully carrying his much-loved command- 
er, and they managed to return to the boat, and brought the 
two bereaved and sorrow -stricken ladies back to the Pioneer. 
We learned that the bishop, wishing to find a shorter route 
down to the Shire, had sent two men to explore the oouutry 
between Magomero and the junction of the Ruo; and in De- 
cember, Messrs. Froetor and Scudamore, with a number of 
Manganja carriers, left SLigomero for the same pnrposa They 
vere to go close to Mouut Cboro, and then skirt (heEIephanl 

Cair. XX. 



Uarsb, with Mount Clarendon on their led. Their guides 
seem to have led them away to iho cast instead of south; to 
the upjier watora of the Ruo in iho Sbirwa valley, instead of 
to its mouth. Entering an Anguro slave-trading village, they 
soon began lo suspect that the people meant mischief, and just 
before sunset a woman told sorao of their men that if they 
slept there they would all be killed. On their preparing to 
leave, iho Anguro followed them and shot their arrows nt the 
retreating party. Two of the carriers were eaptured, and all 
Iho goods were taken by these robbers. An arrow-head 
struck deep into the stock of Proctor's gun ; and the two mis- 
siouarius, barely escaping with their lives, swam a deep river 
at Dight^and returned to Magomero famished and exliaasted. 
Tho wives of the captive carriers came to the bishop day 
otWrday weeping and imploring him to rescue their husbands 
from slavery. The men had been caught while in his serv- 
ice; no one else could bo entreated; there was no public law 
nor any power superior to his own, to which an appeal could 
be made ; for in him Churcb and Stale were, in the disorgan- 
ized state of tbc country, virtually united. It seemed lo bim 
to be clearly liis duty to try and rescue tbcsc kidnapped mem* 
bers of the Sfissioa family. He accordingly invited the vet- 
eran M:;kololo to go with him on this somewhat hazardous 
errand. Nothing could have been proposed to them which 
ibey would have liked belter, and they went with alacrity to 
cat the sheep of the Anguro, only regretting that the enemy 
did not keep cattle as well. Had the matter been left entire- 
ly in their hands, tbcy would have made a clean sweep of that 
part of the country ; but the bishop restrained them, and went 
in an open manner, thus commending the measure to all the 
natives, as one of justice. Tbis delibcratioD, however, gave 
the delinquents ach.incc of cicapp.* 
* On iba way tbo bbhop is »aid to have had an opportiinU)' of eoimiinic a 




Cbap. XX. 

The missionaries were saocessful ; the ofleoding villoge was 
burned, and a few sheep and goats were s«cun:d, which could 
not be considered other than a very miJd pUDisbment for the 
oficDsc committed ; the head mau, Mtuma-somba, afraid to re- 
tain the prisoneis any longer, forthwith liberated, tbem, and 
they returned to their homes. This incidenl took place atj 
tho time wo were at, the Hiio and during the rains, and proved, 
very trying to the bealih of tho misstonaries ; thcj were fre- 
quently wetted, and bad hardly any food but loasted 
Mr. Scudamore was never well afterward. Directly on their 
return to Magomero, tho biybop and Mr.Burrup, both snffer- 
ing from diarrbotfa in consequence of wet, hungur, and espo- 
sorei started for Cliibisa's to go down to the Rno by the Shire. 
So fully did the bishop expect a renewal of the soaking wet 
from which he had jast returned, that on leaving Magomero 
he walked through the stream. The rivulets were so swollen 
that it took five days to do a journey that would othcrwisoj 
have occupied only two days and a half. 

Konc of the Manganja being«willing to take tbem dowaj 
the river during the flood, three Makololo canoe-meu agreed 
to go with tbem. After paddling till near sunset, they de- 
cided to atop and sleep on shore ; but the musqnitoes were so 
numerous that they insisted on going on again ; the bishop, 
being a week behind tbu time ho had engaged to be at the 
Ruo, reluctantly consented, and in tho darkness the canoe was 
-upset in one of the strong eddies or whirlpools, which suddeo* 
ly boil up m flood-time near the outgoing branches of the riv- 
er; clothing, medicines, tea, coffee, and sugar were all lost 
"Wet and weary, and tormented by musquitoes, they lay in 

■Ughl s«ogn[>liicai miatalM mule by Dr. Lh-ingtloDO wh«n Lake Sliinrs WW 
diwMrcrcHt. A whii« v*por» at ilial time mtin? on ibe rich rallcv bI the Motb. 
rra en<J vf iho Uk«, bad led lo t]i« InfercDce dial the lake atKtchcd a little fiw> 
tlicr MMili iban U Mluall; dgcs. 

Cai^r. XX. 



the canoe till morning dawoed, and then proceeded to Malo, 
an island at the mouth of the Ruo, where the biabop was at 
once seized with fever. 

Had they been in tbetr usual healthy they would doubtless 
have pushed on to Shupanga or to the ship ; but fever rapid- 
ly prostratea the energies, and induced a drowsy stupor, from 
which, if not roused by medicine, the patieot gradually sinks 
into the sleep of death. Still mindful, however, of his office, 
the bishop consoled himself by thinking that he might gaiu 
the friendship of the chief, which would be of essential serv- 
ice to him in his future labors. TLat heartless man, however, 
probably suspicious of all foreigners firom the knowledge he 
bad acquired of while slave-traders, wanted to turn the dying 
bishop out of the hut, as he required it for his corn, but yield- 
ed to the expostulations of the Makololo. Day afler day for 
three weeks did these faithful fellows remain beside his mat 
on the floor, till, without medicine or even proper food, he 
died. They dug his grave on the edge of the deep dark for- 
est where the natives buried their dead. Mr. Burrup, himscll' 
far gone with dysentery, staggered from, the hut, and, as in 
the dusk of evening they committed the bishop's body to the 
grave, repeated from memory portions of oor beautiful serv- 
ice for the Burial of the Dead — " earth to earth, ashes to ash- 
es, duat to dual; in sure and certain hope of the resurrection 
of the dead through our Lord Jesus Christ" And in this sad 
way ended the earthly career of one of whom it can safely be 
said that for unselfish goodness of heart, and earnest devotion 
to the noble work he had undertaken, none of the commend- 
ations of his friends can exceed the reality. The grave in 
which his body rests is about a hundred yards from the con- 
fluence of the Ruo, on the left bank of the Shire, and opjjo- 
site the island of Malo. The Makololo then look Mr. Burrup 




up in ihe canoe ae £ir as they could, and, making a Utter of 
branches, carried him themselves, or got others to carry him, 
all the way back to his countrymen at Magomcro, They hur- 
ried him oo lest he shoald die in their hands, and blame be 
attached to them. Soon after his retom he expired, from the 
diaeasc which was on him wheu he started to meet his wif& 

C&plain Wilson arrived at Shupanga on the 11th of March, 
having been three weeks on the Sbire. Oo the 15ih the Pi- 
oneer steamed down to the Kongone. The Oorgon had been 
driven out to sea in a gale, and had gone to Johanna lor pro- 
visions, and it was the 2d of Aptil before she retained. Ii 
was fortunate for \is that she hod obtained a supply, as our 
provisions were exhausted, and we had to buy some &om the 
master of the brig. The Oorgon left for the Cape on the 4tfa, 
taking all, except one, of the Mission party who had come in 
Jaouaiy. We take this opportunity of expressing our htaxt- 
felt gratitude to the gallant Captain Wilson and hia officers 
for ymumerable acts of kindness and hearty oo-operatian. 
Our warmest thanks are aL»o due to Captain R B.OIdfield and 
the other ofiicers, from the admiral downward, and w^ beg to 
assure them that nothing could be more enoouraging to us in 
our difficulties and trials than the knowledge that we pos- 
eeased their friendship and sympathy in our hibors. 

The Rev. James Stewart, of the Free Church of Scotland, 
arrived in the Gorgon. He had wisely come out to inspect 
the country before deciding on the formation of a Mission in 
the interior. To this object he devoted many months of eain- 
est labor. This Mission was intended to embrace both the 
industrial and tho religiooa clement ; and, as the route by the 
Zambesi and Shire fomiB the only one at present known, with 
but a couple of days' land journey to the highlands, which 
stretch to an unknown distance into the oonlanent, and as no 




jealousy was likely to be esoited in tbc mind of a man of 

Bishop Mackenzie's enlarged views — there being, moreover, 
Toom for huDdredfl of missions — we gladly extended the little 
aid in our power to aa envoy from the energetic and most 
respectable body above mentioned, bat recommended bim to 
oxamino the field with bis own eyes. 

Duriag our sabacquent detention at Shupanga he proceed- 
ed OS far -up the Shire as the Upper Cataracts, and saw the 
mere remnants of that dense population which we at first bad 
found living in peace and plenty, but which wfta now scatter- 
ed and destroyed by famine and slave-hunting. The land, 
which both before and after we found so fair and fruitfulj was 
burned up by a severe drought; in fact, it was at its very 
worst With moat praiseworthy energy, and in spite of occa- 
sional attacks of fever, he then ascended the Zambesi aa far as 
Kebrabasa, and, what may be of interest to some, compared it, 
ID parts, to the Danube. His estimate of the highlands would 
naturally be lower than ours. The main drawbacks^in his 
opinion, however, were the slflve-trade, and the power allowed 
the effete Portuguese of shutting up the country from all ex- 
o^t a lew convicts of their own nation. The time ofhis com- 
ing was inopportune ; the disasters which, from inexperience, 
had befallen the Mission of the Universities, had a depressing 
effect on the mindu of many at home, and rendered a new at- 
tempt unadvLsable ; though, had the Scotch perseverance and 
energy been introduced, it is highly probable that they would 
have reacted most beneGcially on the zeal of our English 
brethren, and desertion would never have been heard of. Aft- 
er examining the country, Mr. Stewart descended the Zam- 
besi iu the beginning of the following year, and proceeded 
homeward with his report by Mozambique and the Cape. 

On the 7th of April we had only one man fit for duty ; all the 




real were down with fever, or with the vile spirit secretly sold 
to tbem by the Portuguese officer of customs, in spite of our 
earnest requci^t to him to refraJD from the pernicious traffia 
We started on the lltb for Shupanga with another load of 
the Lady Nyassa. As we steamed up the Delta, wc ohsei 
many of the natives wearing strips of palm-Icaf, the signs of 
sickness and mourning; for they too suffer from fever. This 
is the unhealthy season ; the nuns are over, and the hot son 
draws up malaria from the decayed vegetation ; disease seem- 
ed peculiarly severe this year. On our way up we met Mr. 
Waller, who bad come from Magoraero for provisions; the 
missionariea were suffering severely from want of food; the 
liberated people were starving, and dying of diarrhoea and 
loathsome sorea The Ajawa, stimulated in their slave imidB 
by supplies of ammunition and cloth from the Portuguese, 
had destroyed the large crops ofthe past year; a drought had 
followed, and little or no food could be boughL With his 
usual energy, Mr, Waller hired canoes, loaded them with 
stores, and took tbem up the long, weary way to Cbibisa's. 
Before be arrived be was informed that the Mission ofthe 
Universities, now deprived of its brave leader, had fled from 
the highlands down to the Low Shire Valley. This appeared 
to us, who knew the danger of leading a sedentary life, the 
greatest mistake they could have made, and was the result of 
no other counsel or responsibility than their own. Waller 
would have reascended at once to the higher altitude, but va- 
rious objections stood in the way. The loss of poor Scuda- 
more and Dickinson, in. this low-lying situation, but added to 
the regret that the highlands bad not received a fair triaL 

When the news of the bishop's unfortunate collisions with 
the natives, and of his untimely end, reached England, much 
blame was imputed to him. The policy which, with the fonn- 




al sauctioa of all bis compaQtoos, he had adopted, bciug di- 
reotly coutrary to tbe advice which Dr. Liviugstoue teudered, 
and to the assurauc<^ of the peaceable nature of the Miaaiou 
which the doctor had given to the natives, a friendly disap- 
proval of a bishop's engaging in war was ventured on, when 
wo met him at Ohibisa's in November. But when we found 
his conduct regarded with so much bitterness in J^lnglacd, 
whether from a disposition to "stand by the down man/' or 
from having an intimate knowledge of the peculiar circum* 
stances of the country in which ho was placed, or from tb© 
thorough congdence which intimacy caused us to repose In 
hia genuine piety, and devout service of God, we came to 
think much more leniently of his proceedings than his asstul- 
ants did. He never seemed to doubt but that ho bad done 
hifl duty, and throughout he had always been supported by 
his associates. One of them subsequently, and in a weak mo- 
ment, ignoring personal responsibility, rested all the blame on 
Dr. Livingstone ; and the gentleman who was designated as 
the bishop's successor declared in public meetings at Cam- 
bridge and elsewhere, in spite of the proof to the contrary in 
Bishop Mackenzie's own journal, "that the warlike measures 
of the Mission were the consequences of following Dr. Living- 
stone's advice." The question whether a bishop, in the event 
of hia flock being torn from his bosom, may make war to res- 
cue them, requires serious conBideration. It soema to narrow 
itself into whether a Christian man may lawfully use the civil 
power or the sword at all in defensive war, as police, or oth- 
erwise. Wo would do almost any thing to avoid a collision 
with degraded natives; but in case of an invasion — our blood 
boils at the very thought of our wives, daughters, or sisters 
being touched — we, na men with human feelings, would un- 
Liiesitatingly fight to the death with all the fury in our power. 


Chat. XX. 

The good bishop was as intensely averse to using arms be- 
fore be met the slare-hunters as any man in England. In 
the courac he pursued he may have made a mistake, bat it is 
a mistake which very few Englishmen, on meeting bands oS 
helpksa captives, or members of his ftmily in bonds, would 
have failed to commit likewise. 

During unhealthy April, the fever was more severe in Sh\ 
panga and Mazaro than usual. We had several cases 
board ; they were quickly cured, but, from our being in the 
Delta, OS quickly returned. About the middle of the mootb 
Mrs. Livingstone was prostrated by this diBome; and it was 
accompanied by obstinate vomiting. Nothing" is yet known 
that can allay this distressing symptom, which of course 
ders medicine of no avail, as it is instantly rejected. She 
oeived whatever medical aid could be rendered from Dr. Kiri 
but became unconscious, and her eyes were closed in the sleep 
of death as the sun set on the evening of the Christian Sab- 
bath, the 27th of April, 1832. A coihn was made during the 
night, a grave was dug nest day under the branches of the 
great baobab- tree, and with sympathizing hearts the little 
band of his countrymen assisted the bereaved husband in bt 
ying his dead. At his request, the Uev. James Stewart 
the burial service ; and the seamen kindly volunteered 
mount guard for some nights at the spot where her bodj 
rests in hope. Those who are not aware how this be 
good, English wife made a delightful home at Kolobeng, 
thousand miles inland from the Cape, and as the daughter • 
Moftflt and a Christian lady exercised most bene6ci«l infl* 
ence over the nidc tribes of the interior, may wonder that shtti 
should have braved the dangers and toils of this down-t 
den land. She knew them all, and, in the disinterested ancl^ 
dutiful attempt to renew her laborsi, was called to her rest in- 
stead, "/fcf, Durmnc^ voluntas tuaP* 

-t I 

I . 



Dr. Kirk and Cborles LiringitCone proceed to Tette. — Belehi<»f i Wan. — Qm- 
ernor Almeida'* pmiMwi>cth7 IntcrdicL — CoDnivaiin of Ibe Governor Oen- 
eiml ikt the Slavo-tradc. — Mut«n and Slaves.— No love lost.^Lnanch of tho 
Ladj Xjaua.— Native Speculiilions on the Bnoyancy of Iron.^ — Freedom of 
IMnaan'oa on certain SiiTijf<cl«. — Birds al riar,— Our neir Quarlur-iJiiisWr. 
—Stan of die Loily Nj'OMa deferru<l. — ?onugacse " prohibitive" permission 
for Trndiug,— Up ihc Itovuma in Bonw.— Inhabitanu. — Mau. — Titet*. — 
Zigtii^ CLaniwl— A queer Fisb. — Canoa RJvaJrv. — 'I'dc EngliRhman in Af- 
rica. — An old La«ly optinii ihu Market.— Men with rolclc — Mnbilia.— Ma- 
koo. — Sla»c Route to Kilwa. — Life on a Sand-baak.— Uiiprovokud IJwtiliijr. 
— m»is ttiid Ilonoj. — Cuid fuiiiid. — A jullv yputig Walcrwoman. — Oor 
Frognss stopped by mcky Narrowi.— Sonrces of iho RoTuma. — CrocodilM. 
— Theii Eggs. — UiiDtiug the Scni& — Back aeain to Uie Fiant^e^. 

On the 5th of May Dr.Kirk and Charles Lmngatone start- 
ed in the boat for Tette, in order to sec the property of the 
Expedition brought down in canoes. They took four Mazaro 
conoc-raen to manage the boat, and a white sailor to cook for 
ihem ; but, unfortunately, he caught fever the very daj after 
leaving the ship, and was ill most of the trip ; 60 they had to 
cook for themselves, and to take caro of him besides. The 
natives behaved remarkably well, and were very cleanly in 
their habits, bathing every day after sunset, although the 
weather was rather chilly. If a little food was given to one, 
according almost to nniveraal custom he shared it with the 
otheiB, although often there was not more than a mouthful 
for each. They preferred punting to paddling, and chose, in 
going up the river, the parts that had from two to four foet 
of -water, instead of the deep channel where the current is 
strong. They kept admirable time with their poles, raising 
them, bringing them down, pushing, and giving the final 
shove all at the same instant The helm had hardly to be 



Ca±r. XXI. 

toucbed at all, so well did they keep the boat on her cours& 
Many of their canoe eongs are very fine ; some are pecuUarlj 
plaintirc, like the one which appears to be a lament over a 
dying chief. There being but little wind during the fiist 
day, the siul could not be used ; but toward sunset a pleasant 
breeze sprang up, and sail was set The canoc-men were of 
course much pleased to see the boat mm'ing on without dieir 
exertions. The Makololo of our first party always maintain* 
cd that a sailing-boat was the perfection of naTigation — it was 
vastly superior to a steamer, because no wood bad to be cut 
— and you had merely to sit still, and let the wind drive yon 
along. After dark the wind increased, the boat swept swiftly 
through the water ; the men, who are of an en:itable temper- 
ament, felt the influence, and began an extemporary and very 
energetic song. A^ the breeze 6pe9hened, the boat dashed 
through the waves ; then, wild with excitement, the men 
sprang to their feet, aud sang still louder, gesUculaUng with 
might and main. Suddenly the career of song ceaaed — the 
singcns were sprawling on their backs — the boat was on a 

On an i<iland opposite Shiramba the party found a laige 
number of fugitive Manganja, who had fled from the war on 
the main land. A man baoisbed from Portugal, called Bel* 
ohior, who had married a sister of the half-caste chief below 
Tette, and bad settled near Lupnta, was encamped on an isl- 
and in Sbigogo. They were cliallenged as they sailed past it 
after dark. The fife and drums called to arms. "The En- 
glish I the English!'' our men answered, and no molestation en- 
sued. Chibisa, he told them, had sent an insulting message 
to him, so he attacked him, and, with seventy men armed 
with muskets, drove him from his principal village near tha 
Zambesi, and burned it Even private persons imitate railS* 




tary manneis, and make what tbey call war and peace, as if 
no other autliority cxislod. At a subsequent period this ad* 
venturur lurced Chibiaa to lice to the new MissioD-atation op- 
poeito Dakanamoio Islatid, and threatened to follow him thith- 
er. To prevent this, Dr. Livingstone applied to the Govern- 
or of Tette, Antonio Tav&res d' Almeida, and we have muoh 
pleasure in stating that his excellency had already laid an in- 
junction on Butuhior not to procoed with his intended foray. 
This very creditable order had preceded the application. 

Dr. Kirk and Charles Livingstone arrived at Tette on the 
17th, and found its wontod dull monotony agreeably broken 
by the marriage of the governor's daughter to one of the oflR- 
cers. The slaves were celebrating the joyful event in the 
usiual way, by drinking, dramming, dancing, singing, and fir- 
ing off muskets. Oar companions were hospitably received 
by the governor, which was more than they bad reason to 
expect, after having so recently freed his slave-gangs in the 
Manganja country. His excellency alluded to tUo subject 
one evening, remarking to Dr. Kirk that he had received from 
hia brother, the governor general, a dispatch, saying that as 
the slave-trade was legal under Portuguese law, if any slave- 
party, out of the Portuguese territory, was attacked, they were 
to resist force by force ; in plain words, they were to fight 
tbe next time wc attempted to rescue the kidnapped Mangan- 
ja. This is mentioned, not that it is in any way remarkable 
for a representative of the Portuguese crown to connive" at 
slaving, but because the Governor General Almeida, liy speak- 
ing English and professing to have an intense desire to sup- 
press the slave-trade, gained a character for uprightness among 
the officers of H. M. cruisers which none of his countrymen 
would for a moment indorse. On finding afterward that his 
leas powerful brother at Tette had unwittingly revealed to as 



the real sentiments of the big brother at Mozambiqae, his ex- 
oellency coiOd not conceal a little, perhaps excusable, chagrin, 
though he must have known that, hving behind the scenes, 
we had never been misled by his English palavers, and that 
we should have rejoiced had it been possible to have held him 
in higher esteem. Some of the slaves, captured by his hroih- 
er's agents, are sent inhiad for ivory, and otheiB kept on ihrmB^ 
whence he and every one else know they will be ahij>pcd by 
means of lai^ canoes whenever an opportunity occqts. This 
inland slave-trade feeds the foreign one ; and, if Portuguese 
legislation has any meaning, the whole thing is forbiddea If^ 
as the laws profess, they wish to get rid of slavery, no more 
slaves can be mode, unless the laws be only enacted to please 
the EngUsh, and gratify the sclf-cstcem of the le^slators. 

The Portuguese government is really famous for jMissing 
good laws in Lisbon, and no less for allowing those respecting 
slavery to remain a dead letter. It has been decreed that 
slavery is to be abolished in this province in 1878, and the 
government slaves to be free in the year 1864. An officer 
told us that they were working the government slaves tre- 
mendously, making stroeta and tiles, in order to get all the 
work they could out of them before they were set free. 

Tetto is very much improved since the present governor 
«Bne into office. Two good roads or streets have been made^ 
which is something new for this country. The governor him- 
self is nearly walked off bis feet looking after them. There 
are some hundreds of black soldiers in the town, who are very 
macb better clothed than a tithe of the number used to be in 
former years. "We were told, on what seemed good authority, 
that Tctte now costs the home government XSOOO a year, and 
yields an annual revenue of £300. The ivory-trade has de- 
clined very materially, from the elephants being nearly all 

Chat. XXL 



killed, or driven off from the part of the country formerly 

The canoea hired at Mazaro for the return voyage were at 
Tottc when we arrived. They had brought up stores for the 
Portuguese govcniment, and had been accompanied by an 
officer who had a number of the men flogged, though they 
were freemen, because he said they were lazy, and lost time 
in comiug up. The backa of the poor fellows were badly cut. 
Tubiic Jaw exists in theory; iu practice punishment is often 
inflicted at the caprice of individuals. On one occaaivn we 
sent a couple of the Shupanga thieves, caught with the booty 
on them, to the nearest uSicial ; we received a note next day 
aakuig what punishment was to be inflicted ; wo preferred let- 
ting the criminals go free to giving a sentence. Between men 
of equal standing, a threat is often made of Tising the musket, 
by the name of the "minister of justice." The canoe-men 
receive their pay and food for the trip before starting. When 
the canoes are heavily laden and the water low, they often 
eat up all their food before they reach Tette, and have none 
left for the return passage, unless they purchase more with 
their wages. This was the case with our men. Food was 
cheap, and, wishing to make them strong for their work, we 
gave them considerably more than they were accustomed to 
receive, with a pig and a goat besides, and they worked re- 
markably well. Starting, of their own accord, at the first dawn 
of day, and keeping on till dusk, they resolutely kept up with 
the boat, and reached Shupanga in four days and three quar- 
ters. The merchanta complain much of the dishonesty of the 
canoe-men, and sometimes they actually do make off with a 
whole cargo of cloth, and no punishment can reach them. One 
thing is certain, there is no love lost between these parties. 

We now proceeded with preparations for the launch of the 



CoJv. XXL 

Lady Kyaasa. Ground was leveled on ihe bank st Shupwi^ 
for the purpoee of arraagiog the oompartmcDts in order : abe 
-was placed oa palm-trees which were brought from a place 
lower down the river for ways, and the engineer and his as- 
sistants were soon busily engaged; about a fortnight after 
they were all brought from Kongone, the sections were screw- 
ed together. The blacks are more addicted to stealing wfae» 
slavay exists than elsewhere. We wcra annoyed by thieTaa, 
who carried off the iron screw-bolts, but were gratified to find 
that strychnine saved us from the man-thief as well as the 
hyena-thief. A hyena waa killed by it, and after the natives 
saw the dead animal and knew how we had destroyed it, they 
concluded that it was not safe to steal from men who po»- 
seaecd a medicine bo powerful. The half-caste who kept Sha- 
panga-house, said he wished to have some to give to the Zq* 
Ins, of whom he was mortally afraid, and to whom he had to 
pay an unwilling tribut«L. 

Tbu Pioucei made several trips to the KcHigone, and re- 
turned with the last load ou the 12th of June. On the 23d 
the Lady Nyassa was safely launched, the work of putting her 
together having been interrupted by fever and dysentery, and 
many other causes which it would only weary the reader to 
narrate in detail. Natives from all parts of the ooontry oame 
to see the launch, mont of them quite certain that, being made 
of iroUf she must go to the bottom as soon as she entered the 
water. Earnest discussions had taken place among them with 
regard to the propriety of using iron for ship-building. The 
majority affirmed that it would never answer. They said, 
"If wo put a hoe into the water, or the smallest bit of iron, 
it sinks immediately. How, then, can such a mass of iron 
float? it must go to the bottom." The minority anawerod 
Uiat tfats might be true with tfiem, bat white men had medi* 




cine for every thing. " They could even make a woman, all 
except tho sp^akiDg; look at tbat oae on the ^ure-head of 
the vessul." Tke itubelievera were aatonishcd, and could 
hardly believe their eyea when they saw the ship float lightly 
and gracefully on the hver instead of going to tho bottom, as 
they 80 confidently predicted. "Truly," they said, "theae 
men have powerful medicine.'* 

Our distinguished countryraau, Professor Owen, rooom- 
meuded our attention to bo diructod to the gencBis of the 
tsetse, in order to discover a meaiis for the extirpationof this 
pesL We frequently uwjuired of the different tribes if they 
could help us in our inquiries; and one of the Makololo re- 
membcrcd that this very question was once under public db- 
cuasioa at Linyanti, and, as usual, a bet was laid that no one 
could tell. AlW a Dumber of days had elapsed, an old man 
claimed the prise, asserting that the tsetse laid its eggs, which 
were of a red color, on the leaves of the mopaue-tree. These 
were probably only the eggs of an insect described in the 
" Miaaionary Travels" as depositing over its eggs a sweet gum, 
which is collected and eaten. Some denied that he had seen 
them; others affirmed that the red eggs were laid on the 
twigs of trees, and not on the leaves ; and others iDsisted that 
the eggs were placed in the droppings of buffaloes, and these 
last were probably in the right. The destruction of all game 
by the advauco of civilization is the only chance of getting 
rid of the tsetse. 

We remember to have heard a furiona discussion among 
the natives on the question whether the two toes of tho os- 
trich represent the thumb and fore Bnger in man, or tho little 
and ring lingers. On these occasions it is amusing to observe 
the freedom and earne-ttnesa with which men of the lowest 
grade assault the opinions of their butters. It is not often that 




they caa bring themselves into importAnoe, and ibey make 
the most of aa opportunity. " We are little infaats ; wo are 
still clioging to the bosoms of our mothers ; we can not walk 
alooe ; we know nothing at all; but on this UtUo subject we 
know that the elder guntlemen talk like all thoee who speak 
about tbat of which they know nothing. We never heard 
such nonsense," and so forth ; or two men of the same ago 
may be the disputants. He who is most glib of tongue cov- 
ers his opponent with confusion : that, however, does not end 
the aigument: Why should it? The sensation of choking 
in his throat, the pressor of blood on his heart, make the 
vanquished, wbeu unable to argue still, giisp out, "Can yoa 
outrun me, then ?" and off they start, run a mile, bring &^^m 
branch of a tree at the end of the usual raoe-course, and, tb«^| 
mental and bodily excitement by this means equalized, they 
settle down in peace. K our editors, after allowing the paper 
war to rage till both the " esteemed correspondents" are ready 
to go into fits from the blood being lashed into fiiry round the 
heart and brain, instead of the usual atrocious way (I) of pro- 
posing the next letters to be paid for as advertisements, would 
only advise that they should *' run a race," far fewer cases of 
heart disease and apoplexy would bo traceable to the '* sanc- 
tum" door. 

Birxis are numerous on the Shupanga estate. Some kinds 
remain all the year round, while many others are there only 
for a few months. Flocks of green pigeons come in April to 
feed on the young fruit of the wild fig-trees, which is also eat- 
en by a large species of bat in the evenings. The pretty lit- 
tle black weaver, with yellow shoulders, appears to enjoy life 
intensely after assuming his wooing dress. A hearty break- 
fast is eaten in the moraing, and then come the hours for 
making merry. A select party of three or four perch on the 




bushes which ekirt a small grassy plaiu, and chocr thera- 
0^ves with the music of their own quiet and suli-complacent 
•ODg. A playful performaac* on the wing succeeds. Ex- 
'pandinghis soft, velvet-like plumage, one glides with quiver- 
ing piniona to the centre of the open space, ain^ng as he 
flies, then turns with a rapid whirring sound from his wings 
— ■somewhat like a child's rattle— and returns to his place 
again. One by one the others perform the same feat, and 
continue the sport for hours, striving which can produce the 
loudest brattle while turning. These games are only played 
during the season of courting and of the gay feathers ; the 
merriment eeems never to be thought of while the bird wears 
his winter suit of sober brown. 

We received two mules from the Cape to aid us in trans- 
porting the pieces of the Lady Nyaasa past the cataracts and 
landed them at Shupanga, but they soon perished. A Port- 

itBO gentleirian kindly informed us, o/ler both the mules 
were dead, that he knew they would die-, for the land there 
had been often tried, and nothing would live on it — not even 
a pig. He said he had not told us so before, bccauae he did 
not like to appear officious 1 

Wo obtained from the Gorgon an assistant in the shape of 
an old qnarter-mastcr ; an excellent sailor, and exceedingly 
useful man when sober, but uncommonly apt to get drunk 
when he had the chance. He would have done well hod we 
able, as we intended, to proceed up the river at once, for 
then he must soon have been a total abstainer; but so long 
as we were near the Portuguese he was uselcaa and the pow- 
er which impelled him must have been terribly strong. He 
knew not a word of the language^ and the natives were equal- 
ly ignorant of English ; yet he succeeded in getting a native 
to go seren miles for some gin, and smuggle it, mixed with 




native boer, into tbe ship. Wben sober, be was quiet, respect- 
ful, obliging, quick to see wbat should be done, constantly at 
work, and taking particularly good care of every tbing. We 
feh sorry for the poor fellow, but, as we could not get up the 
riTcr, we had to put him on board tbe firat man-of-war w« 
were able. Those who have iiovcr acquired tbe intense crnr* 
ing for stimulants that these men feel, can scarcely rcalii 
tbe forco of tbe tcmplation they have to resist In the words' 
of tbe Scotch toper, " We know about, the drinking, but noih* 
ing of the drouth." 

By the time every thing bad been placed on board the I 
Nyaiisa, the waters of the Zambesi and the Shire had iiillen' 
so low that it was useless to attempt taking her up to the ca^ 
aracts before the rains in December. Praugbt oxon and pro- 
visions also were required, and couM not bo obtiuned n<c 
than the island of Johanna. The Portugueae, without refus- 
ing positively to let trade enter the Zambcai, threw impedi- 
menta in the way ; they only wanted a small duty ! They 
were about to establish a river police, and rearrange tbe 
crown lands, which bavo long since become Zulu lands; 
meanwhile they were making the Zambesi, by slaving, of no 
value to any one. 

The Rovuma, which was reported to come from Lake Ny- 
assB, being out of their claims anda&ee river, we determined 
to explore it in onr boats immediately on our return from 
Johanna, for which place, after some delay at the Kon( 
in repairing engines, paddle-wheel, and rudder, we sailed OE 
the 6th of August. A store of naval provisions bad bcca 
formed on a hulk in Pomone Bay of that island for the sup- 
ply of the cruisers, and was in charge of Mr. Snnlcy, tbe con- 
sul, from whom wo always received the kindest attentions 
and nssist&nce. He now obliged us by parting with six oxen, 




tnuned for bis own use in sugar -making. Thoagh. sadly 
hampered in his undertaking by being obliged to employ 
slave labor, be has by indomitable enci'gy overcome obetucltis 
under wbiuL taust persons would have sunk. He bos done 
all that, under tbe circumstances, could be dono to infuse a 
desire for freedom, by paying regular wages; and Ims usuib- 
lished a lai^ factory, and brought 800 acres of ricb soil un- 
der cultivation with sugar-cano. We trust bo will realize the 
fortune wbioh he so well deserves to earn. Had Mr. Siinley 
performed the same experiment on the main IunJ,where peo- 
ple would have flocked to hira for the wages he now gives, 
he would certainly have inaugurated a new era on the East 
Coast of Africa. On a small island whore the slaveholders 
have complete power over tbe slaves, and where there is no 
free soil such as is every where met with in Africa, the ex- 
periment ought not to bo repeated. Were Mr.Sunley com- 
mencing again, it should neither bo in Zanzibar nor Johanna, 
but on African soil, where, if even a slave is 111 treated, he can 
easily, by flight, become free. On an island under native 
rule, a joint manufacture by Arabs and Engliabmen might 
only mean that the latter were to escape the odium of flog- 
ging the slaves. 

On leaving Johanna and our oxen for a time, H. M. S. 
Orestes towed us thence to the mouth of the Rovuma at the 
beginning of September. Captain Gardner her commander, 
and several of his officers, accompanied ua up the river for 
two days in tlio gig ami cutter. The water was unusually 
low, and it was rather dull work for a few hours in the morn- 
ing; but the scene became livelier and more animated when 
the breeze begin to blow. Our four boats then swept on un- 
der full sail, the men on tho look-out in the gig and cutter 
calling "Port, fiirl'' "Starboard, sir 1" "As you go, sir I" while 




the black men in tho bows of tbe others shouted the pracuoal 
equivalents, "Fagombe I ragombel" " Kada quote 1" "Be- 
ranel BeraueT' Presently the leading boat touches on a 
sand-bunk; down comes tbe iluttering soil; the men jump 
out to shore her o^ and the other boats, shunning the oth 
utructioD, shoot on ahead, to be brought up each in ita turn 
by mistaking n sand-bank for the channel, which hod ofVon 
but a very little depth of water. 

A drowsy herd ol hippopotami were suddenly startled by a 
ecx)ro of rifle-shots, and stared in amazement at tho stTange 
objects which, had invaded their peaceful domains, until a few 
more bullets coropelled them to seek refuge at the bottom of 
tbe deep pool, near which they had been quietly reposing. 
On our retom, one of the herd retaliated. He followed the 
boat, came up under it, and twice tried to tear the bottom out 
of it; but, fortunately, it was too flat for his j&ws to get a 
good gripo, so he merely damaged one of the planks with his 
tuska, though he lifted tbe boat right up, with t«n men and a 
ton of ebony in iL 

We slept, one of the two nights Captain Gardner was with 
OS, opposite the Lakelet Cbidia, which is connected with the 
river in flood time, and is nearly surrounded by hUla some 500 
or 600 feet high, dotted over with treea A few small groups 
of huts stood on the hill-sides, with gardens off which the 
usual native produce bad been reaped. The people did not 
seem much alarmed by the presence of the large party which 
had drawn up on the sand-banks below their dwellings. 
There is abundance of large ebony in the neighborhood. Tbe 
pretty little antelo^ (Ckphahpfitis cteruZrus), about the size of 
a hare, seemed to abound, as many of their skiba were offered 
for sale. Xeat figured date-leaf mats of various colors are 
woven here, the different dyes being obtained from the barks 




of trees. Cattle could not live on the banks of the Rovuma 
on account of the tsetse, wliioh are found from near the month 
up OS far as we could take the boats. The navigation did not 
improve as wq asceudcd ; snaga, brought down by the floods, 
were common, and left in tlie channel on the sudden sab- 
sidence of the water. In many places, where the river di- 
vided into two or three channels, there was not water enough 
in any of them for a boat drawing three foet^ ao we had to 
drag ours over the ahoals; but we saw the river at its very 
lowest, and it may be years before it is so dried up again. 

The valley of the Rovuma, bounded on each aide by a range 
of highlands, is from two to four miles in width, and cotnea 
in a pretty straight course from the W.S.W. ; but the chan- 
nel of the river ia winding, and now, at its lowest, zigzagged 
80 perversely that frequently the boats had to pass over throe 
miles to mako one in a straight line. With a full stream it 
must, of courao, be much easier work. Few natives were seen 
during the first week. Their rillagoa are concealed in the 
thick jungle on the hill-aides, for protection from marauding 
alave-partiea Not much of interest was observed on this 
part of the silent and shallow river. Though feeling con- 
vinced that it was unfit for navigation except for eight months 
of the year, we pushed oo, resolved to see if, farther inland, 
the accounia we had received from different naval officers of 
its great capabilities would prove correct; or if, by communi- 
cation with Lake Nyassa, even the upper part could be turn- 
ed to account Our exploration showed us that the greatest 
precaution ia required in those who visit new countries. 

The reports we received from gentlemen who had entered 
the river, and were wcU qualified to judge, were, that the Ro- 
Tuma was infinitely superior to the Zambesi in the absence 
of any bar at ita mouth, in its greater volume of water, and 



in the beauty of the adjacent lands. We probaWj came at 
a different season from that in which they visited it, and oar 
account ought to be taken with theirs to arrive at the tratb. 
It might be available as a highway for ooipmerce duiiog 
three quarters of each year ; but casual visitois, like ooiselveE 
and others, arc ill able to decide. The absence of bird or an- 
imal life waa remarkable. Occasionally we saw pairs of the 
stately jabirus, or adjutant-lookiog marabouts, wading among 
the shoals, and spurwinged geese, and other water-fowlt but 
there was scarcely a crocodile or a hippopotamus to be sett. 
At the end of the first week, an old man called at our 
camp and said he would send a present from his village^ which 
waa up among the hill& He appeared next momiog irith a 
number of his people, briagiog meal, cassava roof, and yams. 
The laugoage differs considerably from that on the Zambeo, 
but it is of the same family. The people are Makonde, and 
ore on friendly terms with the Mabtha and the Makoa, who 
live south of the fiovuma. Wheu taking a walk up the 
slopes of the north bank, we found a great variety of trees we 
had seeu nowhere else. Those usually met with far inland 
seem here to approach the coast. African ebony, generally 
named mpinyu, is abundant within eight miles of the sea: it 
attains a larger size, imd has more of the interior black wood 
than usual. A good timber-tree colled nuMoko is also fonnd ; 
and we saw half-caste Arabs near the coast cutting up a large 
log of it into planks. Before reaching the top of the rise we' 
were in a forest of bamboos. On the plateau above, lai^ 
patches were cleared and cultivated. A roan invited us to 
take a cup of beer; on our compljring with his request, the 
fear previously shown by the by-staoders vanished. Our 
Mazaro men could hardly understand what they said. Some 
of them waded in the river, and caught a curious Qsh in holes 

Chap. XXI. 



in the clay bank. Its ventral Hn is peculiar, being unusaaJIy 
large, and of a circular shape, like boys' pIuythiiigH oalied 
"suckers." We "were told tbat this fish is fouatl alsQ iu tlic 
Zambesi, and ia called Chirii-c. Though all its fiits am large, 
it is asserted that it rarely ventures out into the stream, but 
remains near its hole, wliero it is readily caught by the hand. 

The Zambesi men thoroughly understood the characteristic 
marks of deep or shallow water, and showed great skill in 
finding out the proper channel. The Motinio i3 the steers- 
man at the helm, the Mokadamo is the bead canoe-man, and 
be stands erect on the bows with a long pole in hia bands, and 
directs the steersman where to go, aiding the rudder, if neces- 
sary, with his pole. The others preferred to stand and punt 
our boat, rather than row with our long, oars, being able to 
shove her ahead faster than they could pull her. They are 
accustomed to short poddlea, Our Mokadamo was affected 
with moon-blindness, ami could not sec at all at night. His 
comrades then led him about, and handed him bis food. 
They thought that it was only because bis eyes rested all 
night that ho could see the channel so well by day. At diffi- 
cult places the Mokadamo somctimea, however, made mis- 
takes, aod ran us aground ; and the others, evidently imbue<l 
with the spirit of resistance to constituted authority, and led 
by JoOo, an aspirant for the ofRce, jeered him for his stupidity. 
"Was he asleep? Why did he allow the boat to como there ? 
Could he not see the channel was somewhere else?" At last 
the Mokadamo threw down the pole in disgust, and told JoOo 
he might be a Mokadamo himself. Tho office was accepted 
with alacrity; but in a few minutes he too ran ua into a worse 
difficulty than his predecessor ever did, and was at onoe dis- 
rated, amid the derision of his comrades. 

In traveling it is best to enjoy the httEe simple incidents 



Cbat. XXL ' 

of this kind, which, at most, exemplify the tendendea 
into the being of the whole human fiunilj. Ii is a pitj 
hear that some of our oountrymea rudely iutcrfero in whtt 
really docs do harm. Blows even havB been inflicted nnder 
the silly asaumptioQ that the negro is thia, that, and the 
thing, and not, like other men, a curious mixture of good i 
evil, wisdom and foUy, cleverness and stupidity. An Englts 
man possessed of a gun, which had the ugly tnck of goingi 
of itself, came up the Zambesi in a canoe mau ned by natinftl 
He ficaroely knew another word of Uic langu^e than the 
verb "to kilL'' The gun, as was its wont, aoddentaUj 
oS close to the head of one of the party, who^ before g<mng i 
sleep, expressed his fears to his comrades that this nnli 
gun might " la'W* sqme of them. Our hero caught the word, 
and spent the whole night revolver in band, ready to punish 
the treachery which existed only in his own excited fanin. 
This adventure he aAerwaid published in a newspaper m a 
terrible situation, a hairbreadth escape &om blood-thirsty sav- 
ages. Another British Xiou, having to travel some two bt 
red miles in a canoe, and being unable to speak a word of the 
lango^e, thought it clever to fire off all the barrels of his re- 
volver every time his canoe-men proposed to laud during the 
livelolig day. The torrid sun right overhead was at its hot- 
teri. The poor fellows made signs they wished to purcbaM| 
aoana beer. Off went the revolver ; " Ko, no, no^ paddle yxm 
mnsL" This madness, as described to us by himself; was evi- 
dently thought clever. Auother, whose estimate of himself ' 
and that formed of him by a tribe he visited did not at all oo> 
incide, after complaining at a pnblic meeting of the nntrnth- 
fttlness of a previous traveler to whom that same tribe hadi 
shown distinguished kinduess and respect, stated, as we leamj 
oo the authority of a clergymau who was preseut, that be had 




tied up one of his people before reaching the tribo referred to, 
"andgiren kim a Bound thrashing." Let us fancy tho effect 
on an Kngttsh vitlngc if a black man came to it, and a whito 
servant complained that ho had been maltreated by him on 
the way. We have felt hcardly ashamed Bomctimes on dis- 
covering how causelessly we have been angry. No doubt 
the natives are at times as perversely stupid ns servants at 
home can bo when they like, but oar conduct must oflcn ap- 
pear to the native mind as a misture of silliness and insanity. 

On tho 16th of September we arrived at the inhabited isl- 
and of Kichokomanc. The usual way of approaching an on* 
known people is to call out in a cheerful tone "Malonda!" 
Things for sale, or do you want to sell any thing? If we can 
obtain n man from the last village, he is employed, though 
only useful in explaining to the nest that wo come in a friend- 
ly way. The people here were shy of us at first, and could 
not be induced to sell any food, until a woman, more adven- 
turous than the rest, sold as a fowl. This opened the mar- 
ket, and crowds camo with fowla and meal, far beyond our 
wants. The women arc as ugly as thoae on Lake Nyassa, for 
who can be handaomo wearing the pelelc or upper-lip ring of 
large dimensions? We were once surprised to see young 
men wearing the pelelc, and were told that in the tribe of the 
Mabiha, oa the south bank, men as well as women wore them. 

Along the left bank, above Kichotomane, is an exceeding- 
ly fertile plain, nearly two miles broad, and studded with a 
nomber of deserted villagei The inhabitants were living in 
temporary bats on low, naked sand-banks ; and we found this 
to be the case as far as we went They leave roost of their 
property and food behind, because they are not afraid of these 
being stolen, but only fear being stolen themselves. The 
great slave-route from Nyassa to Kilwa passes to N.E. from 




SiW. just beyond them, and it is dangerous to pemain in iheir 
Tillages at this times of year, when the kidnappere are abroad. 
In one of the temporary villages, we saw, in passing, two hu- 
man heads lying on the ground. Wa slept a coapio of miles 
above this village. 

Before sunrise next morning, a large party, aimed with 
bowa and arrows and musketa, came to the camp, two or 
three of them having a fowl each, which we refused to pur- 
chase, having bought enough the day before They followed 
us all the morning, and after breakfiist those on the left bank 
swam across and joined the main party on the other side. It 
was evidently their intention to attack us at a chosen spot, ^J 
where we had to pass close to a high bank, but their plan ^H 
was frustrated by a stiff breeze sweeping the boats past be- 
fore the majority conld get to the place. They disappeared 
then, bat came out again ahead of us on a high wooded bank, 
walking rapidly to the bend, near which we were obliged to 
sail. An arrow was shot at the foremost boat ; and seeing 
the force at the bend, we pushed out from the side, as far aa 
the shoal water would permit, and tried to bring them to a 
parley, by declaring that we had not come to fight^ but to 
see the river. "Why did you fire a gun a little while ago?"' 
they asked. " Wc shot a large puff-adder, to prevent it from 
killing men ; you may see it lying dead on the beach." With 
great courage, our Mokadamo waded to within thirty yards 
of the bank, and spoke with mudi earnestness, assuring them 
that wo woro a peaceable party, and had not come for war, 
but to see the river. We were friends, and our couutrymea 
bought cotton and ivory, aud wished to como and trat^e with 
them. All we wanted was to go up quietly to look at the 
river, and then return to the sea again. While he talk- 
ing with those ou-the shore, the old rogue, who appeared to 




be the ringleader, stole up the bank, and, with a dozea oth- 
ers, waded acro^ to the island, near which the boats lay, and 
came down behind us. Wild with excitement, they rushed 
into the water, and danced iu our rear, with drawn bows, tak- 
ing aim, and making various savage gesticulation b. Their 
leader urged tbem to get behind some snags, and then shoot 
at U3. The party on the bank in front had many muskets, 
and thoso of them who had bows held them with arrows 
ready set in the bowstrings. They had a mass of thick bush 
and trees behind tbem, into which they could in a jnomeat 
dart ai^r discharging their muskets and arrows, and be com- 
pletely hidden from our sight, a circumstance that always 
gives people who use bows and arrows the greatest coufi* 
denoe. Notwithstanding these demonstrations, we were ei- 
ceedingly loalli to come to blows. "We spent a full half hour 
exposed at any moment to bo stnick by a bullet or poisoned 
arrow. We explained that we were better armed than they 
were, and had plenty of ammunition, the suspected want of 
which ofleu inspires them with courage, but that wo did not 
wish to shed the blood of the children of the same Great Fa- 
ther with ourselves ; that if we must fight, the guilt would be 
all theirs. 

This being a common mode of expostulation among them- 
selves, we so far succeeded that, with great persuasion, the 
leader and others laid down their arms, and waded over from 
the bank to the boats to talk the matter over. "This was 
their river; they did not allow white men to use it. We 
must pay toll fur leave to pass." It was somewhat humili- 
ating to do so, but it was pay or fight ; and, rather than flght, 
we submitted to the humiliation of paying for their fiiend- 
ship, and gavo them thirty yards of cloth. They pledged 
Ihemselvea to bo our friends ever afterwH^rd, and said they 



woald havo food cooked for us on our rotani. Wo then 
hoisted sail and proceeded, glad that the afiair bad been am- 
icably settled. Thoae on shora walked up to the bend above 
to look at the boat, as wo supposed ; but^ the moment she 
was abreast of them, they gave us a volley of moaket balls 
and poisoned arrows, without a word of warniDg. Fortunate 
ly, we were so near that all the arrows paased dear over ns, 
but fuur musket balk went through the sail juak above oar 
heads. All our assailants boltvd into the bushea and long 
grass the iustaut after firing, save two, one of whom was about 
to disctiarge a musket and the other an arrow when arreeted 
by the Hro of Uio second boat Not one of them showed their 
fiwsca again till wo were a thousand yards away. A few shota 
wore then fired over their heads, to give them an idea of the 
range of our rifles, and they all fled into the woods. Those 
on the aand-bank rushed off too, with the utmost speed ; but, 
as they had not shot at us, wo did not molest them, and they 
went off safely with their cloth. They probably expected to 
kill one of our number, and in the confliaion rob the boats: 
It is only where the people are slavers that the natives of this 
part of Africa are blood-thirsty. 

These people have a bad name in the country in firoDl, 
even among their own tribe. A slave-trading Arab we met 
above, thinking we were then on oar way down the river, 
advised us not to land at the villages, but to tstaj in the boats^ 
as the inhabitants were trcacheions, and attacked at once^ 
without any warning or provocation. Our experience of 
their conduct fully confirmed the troth of what he said. 
There was no trade on the river where they Hved, but beyond 
that part there was a brisk canoe-trade in rice and saJt ; ihoae 
farther in the interior cnltivating rice, and sending it down 
the river to be exchanged for salt, which is extracted from 



the earth in certain places ou the bauka Our assailants hard- 
ly anticipated nrsistaxiuu, aud told a ueigUboriug cliief that if 
they had kiiown who wo woru, they would not have attacked 
English, who can ''bite hard." They offered uo molestations 
on our way down, though we were an hour in passing their 
village. Our canoe-men plucked up courage on finding that 
we had come off unhurt. One of them, named Chiku, ac- 
knowledging that he had been terribly frightened, said, "His 
lear was not the kind which makes a man jump overboard 
and run away, bat that which brings the heart up to the 
mouth, and renders the man powerless, and no more able to 
fight than a woman." 

in the country of Chonga Michi, about 80 or 90 miles up 
ihe river, we found decent people, though of the same tribe, 
who treated strangers with civility. A body of Makoa had 
oome from their own country in the south and settled here. 
The Makoa are known by a cicatrice in the forehead shaped 
like the new moon with the horns turned downward. The 
tribe possesses all the country west of Mozambique, and they 
will not allow any of the Portuguese to pass into their coun- 
try more than two hours' distance from the fort. A hill some 
ten or twelve miles distant, called Pau, has been visited dur- 
ing the present generation only by one Portuguese and one 
English officer, and this visit was accomplished only by the 
influence of the private friendship of a chief for this Portu- 
guese gentleman. Our allies have occupied the Fort of Mo- 
zambique for three hundred yeare, but in this, ns in all other 
cases, have no power farther than they can see from a gun- 

The Makoa chief, Matiogula, was hospitable and communi- 
cative, telling us all he knew of the river and country be- 
yond, lie had been once to Iboe, and once at Mozambique 



with slaves. Our mea uodeistood his kugai^ easily. A 
useless musket be bad bought at one of the above places vas 
offered us for a little cloth. Having received a present of 
food ljx>m him, a railway mg was banded to him : bo looked 
at it — bad never seen cloth like that before — did not approve 
of it, and would rather have cotton cloth. "But this will 
keep you warm at night" ** Ob I do not wish to be k^ 
warm at night" We gave him a bit of cotton cloth, not oi 
third the value of the rug, but it was more highly prised.1 
nis people refused to sell their fowls for oar splendid prinla 
and drab cloths. They had probably been taken ia with 
gaudypattcmed sham prints befora Tbey preferred a T«r^ 
obcap, plain blue stuff of which tboy had cxperienoe. A ; 
quantity of excellent honey is oolloctod all along the river 1 
bark hivea being placed for the bees on the high trees cm 
both banks. Large pots of it, very good and clear, were (rf** 
fered in exchange for a very little cloth. No wax WM, 
brought for sale ; there being no market for this oommodity, 
it is probably thrown away as useless. 

At ^fichi we lose the table-land which, up to this point, 
bonnda the view on both sides of the river, as it were, with 
nngee of floMoppcd hills, 600 or 800 feet high ; and to this 
plateau a level fertile plain succeeds, on which ^and detach- 
ed granite hills. That portion of the table-land on the ri^t 
bank seems to bend away to tlie south, still preserving the 
ai^Karance of a hill range. The height opposite extends a 
few miles farther west, and then branches off in a northeiJy 
direction. A few small pieces of coal were picked up oa the 
aand-banks, showing that this useful mineral exists oa ifae 
Bovuma, or on some of its tributaries : the natives know that ' 
it will bum- At the Lakelet Chldia we notioed the same 
sandstone rock, with fossil wood on it| whtoh we have on the 


CuF. XXI. 



Zambesi, and knew to be a sare evidence of coal bcneatli. 
We mentioned this at the time to Captain Gardner^ and our 
finding coal now Beemed a verification of what wc then said ; 
the ooal-fieltl probably extends from the Zambesi to the Ro- 
vuma, if not beyond it. Some of the rooks lower down have 
the permanent water-liufi three foet above the present height 
of the water. 

A few miles west of the Makoa of Matingnla we came 
again among the Malvonde, but now of good repute. War 
and slavery have driven them to 'seek refuge on the sand- 
banks. A venerable-looking old man hailed us as we passed, 
and asked us if wo were going by without speaking. We 
landed, and he laid down his gun and came to us; he was 
accompanied by his brother, who shook hands with every one 
in the bout, as he had aceo people do at Kilwa. " Then you 
have seen whiw men before?" we said. "Yes," replied the 
polite African, *'but never people of your quality." These 
men were very black, and wore but little clothing. A young 
woman, dressed in the highest style of Makonde fashion, 
punting as dexterous]y-,as a man could, brought a canoe full 
of girls to see us. She wore an omamentAl head-dress of red 
beads tied to her hair on one side of her licad, a necklace of 
fine beads of various colors, two bright figured brass brace- 
lets on her left arm, and scarcely a farthing's worth of clolb, 
thoogh it was atits cheapest. , 

As we pushed on westward we found that the river make* 
a little southing, and some reaches were deeper than any near 
the sea ; but when we bad ascended about 140 miles by the 
river's course from the sea, soft tufa rocks began to appear; 
len miles beyond, the river became more narrow and rocky; 
and when, according to our measurement, wc had 9.sceDdod 
156 miles, our farther progress was arrested. We were rath- 




er less than two degrees ta a straight line from the Coast. 
The iacidenta worth noticing were but few: seven canoes 
with loads of salt and rice kept companjr with ua for some 
da^a, and the farther we weot inland, the more civil the peo- 
ple becatae. 

When we came to a stanJ, justbplow the island of Nyflma- 
tclo, Long. 8»°36'E.,aud Lat.U=&3',the river was narrow 
and full of rocks. Near the island there is a rocky rapid 
with narrow passages fit only for native canoes; the Coll is 
small and the backs qnite low, but these rocks were an efleci* 
nal barrier to all farther progress in boats. Previous reports 
represented the navigable part of this river as extending to 
the distance of a month's sail from its moutb ; we found that, 
at the ordinary heights of ihe water, a boat might reach the 
obstructions which seem peculiar to all African riters in aix 
or eight days. The Govuma is remarkable for the high lands 
that flank it for some eighty miles from the oceao. The caUi 
aracts of other rivers occur in mountains ; those of the Rovu- 
ma fire found in a level part, with hills only in the distance. 
Far away in the west and north we coold see high blue 
heights, probably of igneous origiu from their forms, rising 
out of a plain. 

The diiitaQce from Ngomano, a spot thirty miles farther 
up, to the Arab crossing-places of Lake Nyassa Tsenga or 
Ko^akota was said to be twelve days. The- way wo bad dis- 
covered to Lake Nyassa by Murcluson'a Cataracts had so 
much less land carriage that we considered it best to take our 
steamer thither by the route in which we were well known, 
instead of working where wo were strangers, and accordingly 
we made up onr minds to retarn. 

The natives reported a worse place above our tamiDg-point, 
the passage being still narrower than tbia An Arab, they 

said, once built a boat abovo the rapids, and sent it down full 
of slaves, but it was broken to pieces in iiiesa upper narrows. 
Many atill maintained that iho Rovuina camo from Njasso, 
and that it is very narrow as it issues out of the lake. One 
man declared that he hod seen it with his own eyes as it left 
the lake, and seemed displeased at being cross-questioned, as 
if we doubted his veracity. 

More aatiafactory information, as it appeared to ub, was ob- 
tained from others. Two days, or thirty miles beyond where 
we turaed back, the Rovuma ia joined by the Licndc, which, 
coming from the Boutbuf est, rises in tho mountains on the cast 
side of Nyassa. The great slave route to Kilwa runs up the 
banks of this river, which ia only ankle-dccp at the dry sea- 
son of the year. The Rovuma itself comes from the W.N. W., 
and after the traveler posacA the confluence of tho Liende at 
N^gomano or " meeting - place," the chief of which part is 
named Ndonde, he finds the river narrow, and the people 

The Nyamatolo people have a great abundanco of food, 
and they cultivate the land extensively. The island is sim- 
ply their summer residence, their permanent villages being 
in the woods. "While hunting, we entered some of these vil- 
lages, and saw that large quantities of grain were left in them, 
and iQ some parts of the forest away from the villages we 
found many pots of oil -yielding seeds (sesamum), besides 
graiD. The scaamum was offered to us both for sale and aa a 
present, under the name mo/uta, or fat; and small quantities 
of gum copal were also brought to us, which led us to think 
that these articles may have been collected by tho i\jabB. 
Tobacco, formed into lumps, was abundant and cheap. Cot- 
ton-bushes were seen, but no one was observed spinning or 
weaving cotton for any thing but fishing-nets. The article of 




most Tulae was a climbing dye-wood, wfaicli attains the thick- 
ness of a man's leg, and which Dr. Kirk has found experi* 
mentally to be of considerable value as a last yellow color. 
BaobaVtrees on the Hovumo, though not nearly bo gigantic 
in size as those on the Zambesi, bear fruit more than twice 
aa laige. The great white blossoms were just ont, and much 
of last year's fruit was still hanging on the branches. 

Crocodiles in the Bovuma have a sorry time of it Never 
before were reptiles so persecuted and snubbed. They arc 
hnnted with spears, and spring-traps are sec for them. If one 
of them enters an inviting pool ^Hor Q^h, ho soon finds a feooe 
thrown round it, and a spring-trap set in the only path oat 
of the inclosnre. Their llesh is eaten, and rulisheJ. The 
banks, on which the female lays her eggs by night, are care- 
fully searched by da}', and all the eggs dug oat and devou red. 
The Gsh-hawk makes havoc among the few youug ones tfal 
escape their other enemica Our men were constantly on the 
look-out for crocodiles' nests. One was found containing 
thirty-five newly-laid egga, and they declared that the croco- 
dile would lay as many more the second night in another 
place. The eggs were a foot deep in the sand on the top of 
a bank ten feet high. The animal digs a hole with its foot, 
covers the eggs, and leaves them till the river ri.scs over the 
nest in about three months afterward, when she comes back, 
and assists the young ones out. We once saw opposite Tettc 
young crocodiles in December, swimming beside an island in 
company with an old one. The yolk of the egg is nearly as 
white as the real white. In taste they resemble hen's eg^ 
with perhaps a smack of custard, and would be as highly 
relished by whites as by blacks, were it not for their unsavory 
origin in men-eaters. 

HunUng the Senze {Auheodiu Sanrtderttianus), an animal 


the siae of a large cat, but in shape more like a pig, was the 
chief busintaa of men and boys aa we passed the reedy banks 
and low islands. They set fire to a mass of reeds, and, armed 
with sticks, spears, bows and arrows, stand in groups guard- 
ing the outlets through which the scared Senze may run from 
the approaching flames. Dark dense volamcs of impenetra- 
ble smoke now roll over on the lee side of the islet and 
shroud the hunters. At times, vast sheets of lurid Haines 
bursting forth, roaring, crackling, and exploding, leap wildly 
far above the tali reeds. Out rush the terrified animals, and 
amid the smoke are aeeu the excited hunters dancing about 
with frantic gesticulations, and hurling stick, spear, and arrow 
at their bnmed-out victims. Kites hover over the smoke, 
ready to pounce on the mantis and locu&Ls as they spring from 
the fire. Small crows and hundreds of swallows are on eager 
wing, darting into the smoke and cut again, seizing fugitive 
flies. Scores of inseets, in their haste to escape from the fire, 
jump into the river, and the active fish enjoy a rare feast. 

We returned to the Pioneer on the 9th of October, having 
been away one month. The ship's company had used distilled 
water, a condenser having been sent out from England ; and 
there had not been a single case of sickness on board since 
we left, though there were so many cases of fever the few 
days she lay in the same spot last year. Our boat party 
drank the water of the river, and the three white sailors, who 
had never been in an African river before, had some slight 
attacks of fever. 



ckat. xxn. 


QdUniMM. — Colonel NaAex. — Government opposed to Agricoltnre.— Pn^mt 
BfMaa. — The QuiltiinAno"l>o.Dulbiiigi." — Retuni to tlie ZKmlmi.— SbB> 
{Mtiga, Docoiulnsr lillli, 18G2.— Our Mnznni Men ntiil their Itelallun*.— Fsa- 
ine M Tcttit.^Ilwporsion of Sluw*.^- The Portugue*e don'i FarB** nor 
Hum — Januarr lOUi, the Lndjr N^omq iu toir. — Mkriano's Atnxiliei. — 
Tlic RUIiuji'i Gra'i'C. — SidoU nnd IIcuiuk in Anitoak. — AivUitc for Cneo- 
dile. — Frinhirul 8ijirhl. — CrociidUa rernu Mckololo.— Penefniion of Air 
Ihrou^hoai t]i« SvMCRii or Birdi. — Iteutra of Mr. Thornton.— Kilimaajvo. 
— Mr. Tliomton's );etioroiu KiudnoM to the Mbsion. — Joonmj to T«tu too 
iDodi Tor him.— niK D«alb and GmT«.— \VKl«-«|]riMd OwolUloo.— Sb**- 
tTkdo Mil) Famlno-— Marth Cnliuro. — LeihusT of tba le uium t of tke W» 
*pW. — SkeltiWn*.— AbolItitfD of the Sl&re-trade a mm f«l wob. — InfloeRM of 
tti« BnirtUli Steamsr on Lake 'Sjasen. — Rood-making. — Oreen FreUiaaM 
of Ililb.— No I'raritiona to b« booghL— No Labor.— I'oor Pood aad d*> 
pTMMd S|)irit* ibo fonrannen of UitcMtN— Dr. Kirk and C Li nn g w OM «■ 
doivd boaw. — TV. Lirin|t>toaaitK- — T^r- KirK remafot to ■ttood bin. — Ifth 
at Uaj, Dr. Kirk and C. li v tag Mo wt loatv.— BflOMnstraoce lo Ibo JMm 
Gtnvrmnnt.— £u^|ii7 Benda.— Gondvci of FonatruK-x Sisubms (omd 
AfHra.— Dr. LivincBMM Kod Mr. Jtm ctnt %a look after our old Bo*l— 
lUui'lovnvnts of tboM left beUnd.— Woau -wwaded bj an AiTMr.^-T»- 
tuxiyfol Utb.—'Dt, iidJUr. 

\^K put to sea OQ tbe IStfa of October, and, again toudung 
at JohaBDa, obtained a crew of Jobaooa meo and some oxoi, 
and sailed for tlie Zambesi; bat our foel failing before «« 
rMohed it, and tbo viad being oontrai;, w« lan into Qoilli- 
mane for wood. 

Qnitiimane most bare be«n boih adktfy lor iIm sake of 
cmrTvtDg OQ tbe dan^iade. for so man u Ui asBsea w»ld 
cTor ban dreamed of pbeng a villBe* c« Mcb ft hnr, Boddf, 
ftrv^bftOBlaU, and musqailo^smrmiAg site, had it not ben 
fitr tk« AotlitiBS it aflbidt^d for abriftg. Tbe bar mar at 
efaiagi and flwd^ bo casilj eraeaed \>j aiiling venel^ bnt, 
•beiag ftr fi«n the faukd, it is alvan dan ge roa fcr 

Cujj>. Kxn. 



Slaves, under the name of "free emigrants," have gone by 
thousands from QuillimaDC, during the last six years, to the 
ports a little to the south, panicalarly to Ma^sangano. Some 
excellent brick-houses still stand in the place, and the owners 



TIm> <f QnitUmAiu 4nd of Uu I1<itiMr. 

are generons and hospitahlc: among them our good friend, 
Colonel NuQez. Ilia disinterested kindness to us and to all 
our countrymen can never be forgotten. He is a noble ex- 
ample of what energy and uprightness may accomplish even 
bere. He came out as a cabin-boy, and, without a single 
friend to help him, he has persevered in an honorable course 
until he is the richest man on the East CoasL When Dr. 
Livingstone came down the Zambesi in 1656, Colonel NuHez 
was the chief of the only four honorable, trustworthy men in 
the country. But while he has risen, a whole herd has sunk, 
making loud lamentations, through puffs of cigar-smoke, over 
negro laziness; they might add, their own. 



Chap. XXII. 

All agricultiiral enterprise is virtually discouraged by the 
Qailliniane government A man must purchase a permit 
from the governor when he wishes to viat his country &rm; 
and this tax, in a country where labor is unpopular, causes 
the farms lo be almost entirely hd iu the hands of a head 
slave, who makes returns tu his muster as interest or honesty 
prompts him. A passport must also be bought whenever a 
man wishes to go up the river to Mo^ro, Senna, or Telle, or 
even to reside for a month at Quillimane. With a soil and 
a climate well suited for the growth of the cone, abundance 
of slave labor, and water commmiicatioa to any market in the 
world, they have never made their own sugar. All thoy osa 
is imported from Bombjiy . " The people of Quillimane bava 
no enterprise," said a young European Portuguese ; '* they do 
nothing, and are always wasting their time in suffering, or in 
recovering from fever." 

We entered the Zambesi about the end of November and 
found it nnusaally low, so wc did not get up toShupanga till 
the l&th of December. The friends of ourMazaro men, who 
had now become good sailors and very attentive servants, 
tunied out and gave them a hearty welcome back from the 
perils of the sea: they had begun to fear that they would 
never return. We hired them at a sixteen-yard piece of cloth 
a month — about ten shillings' worth, the Portuguese market- 
price of the cloth being then acvenpence halfpenny a yard — 
and paid them five pieces each for four nnd a half months' 
work. A merchant at the same time paid other Mazaro men 
three pieces for seven months, and they were with him in the 
interior. If the merchants do not prosper, it is not because 
labor is dear, but because it is scarce, and because they are so 
eager on every occasion to sell the workmen out of the coun- 
tiy. Our men had also received quantitica of good clothes 

Chat. XXU. 



from tbe sailors of the Pioneer and of iho Orestea, and were 
now regarded by their neighbors and by themselves as men 
of imporlanca Never before had they possessed so much 
wealth : tbey believed that ihey might settle in life, being 
now of BuQicient standicg to warrant their entering the mar- 
ried bUitu ; and a wilb and a hut were among their first in* 
vestments. Sixteen yards were paid to the wife's parents, 
and a hut cost four yards. We sjiould have liked to have 
kept them in the ship, for they were well-behaved, and had 
learned a great deal of the work required. Though they 
would not themselves go again, they engaged others for us, 
and brought twice as many as wo could take of their broth- 
ere and cousins, who were eager to join the ship and go with 
UB up the Shire, or any where else. They all agreed to take 
half-pay until they too had learned to work; and we found 
no scarcity of labor, though all that could bo exported ia now 
out of the country. 

There had been a drought of unusual severity during the 
past season in the country between Lupata and KebraboKi, 
and it had extended northeast to the Manganja Highlands. 
All the Tette slaves, except a vei-y few household ones, had 
been driven away by hunger, and were now far off in the 
woods, and wherever wild fruit, or the prospect of obtaining 
any thing whatever to keep the breath of life in them, waa 
to be found. Their masters were said never to expect to sec 
them ngain. There have been two years of great hunger at 
Tette since we liave been in tbe country, and a famine like 
the present prevailed in 1854, when thousands died of starva- 
tion. If men like the Cape farmeia owned this country, their 
cnci^ and enterprise would soon render the crops independ- 
ent of rain. There being plenty of slope or fall, the land could 
be easily irrigated from the Z:;mbesi and iw tributary streams. 



ciup. xxn. 

A Portagueao colony can never prosper: it is used aa a pe- 
nal scttlemcut, aud every thing must be done military fash- 
ion. "What do I care for this country?" said the most en- 
terprising of the Tettc merchants: "all I want is to make 
money as soon as possible, and then go to Bombay and en* 
joy it" All business at Tctte was now suspended. Carriew 
could not be found to take the goods into the interior, and 
the merchants could barely obtain food for their own fami- 
lies. At Mazoro more rain had fallen, and a tolerable crop 
followed. The people of Shiipanga were collecting and dry- 
ing different wild fruits, nearly all of which are far from pal- 
atable to a European tasta The root of a small crcejier called 
"bis6" is dug up and eaten. In appearance it is not unlike 
the small white sweet potato, and baa a litde of the jlaror 
of our potato. It would be very good if it were only a lit- 
tle larger. From another tuber, called " olanga," very good 
starch can be mat^lo. A few miles from Shupanga there is an 
abmidaocc of largo game, but the people here, though fond 
enough of meat, are not a hunting race, and seldom kill any. 
The Shire having risen, we steamed off on the lOlh of Jan- 
uary, 1863, with the Lady Nyassa in tow. It was not long 
before we came upon the ravages of the notorious Mariana 
Tlie survivors of a small hamlet, at the foot of MoromboJa, 
wore in a state of starvation, liavinglost their food by one of 
his marauding parties. The women were in the fields col- 
lecting insects, roots, wild fruits, and whatever could be eat- 
en, in order to drag on their lives, if possible, till the next 
crop should be ripe. Two canoes passed us, that had been 
robbed by Mariano's band of every thing they had in them; 
the owners were gathering palm-nuta for their subsistence. 
They wore palui-Ieaf aprons, as the robbers had stripped them 
of their clothing and ornaments. Dead bodies fioatcd past ua 




daily, and in the mornings the paddles had to be cleared of 
corpses, canght by lUc floats during the night. For scores 
of milea the entire population of the valley waa swept away 
by this scourge Mariauo, who is again, as he was before, the 
great Portugnese slave-agent. It made the heart ache to see 
the wide- spread desolation: the river-baaks, ouce &o popu- 
lons, all silent ; the villngt^ burned down, and an oppressive 
stJUness reigning where formerly crowds of eager sellers ap- 
peared with the various products of theLr industry. Here 
and there might bo seen on the bank a smidl, dreary, deserted 
shed, where had aat, day after day, a starving fisherman, un- 
til the rising waters drove the fish from their wonted haunts 
and iL-ft him to die. TingHxiu hiid been defeated; his people 
P bad been killed, kidnapped, and forced to floe from their vil- 
lages. There were a few wretched survivors ju a village 
above the Ruo; but the majority of the population was dead. 
The sight and smell of dead bodies was every where. Many 
skeletons lay beside the path, where in their weakness they 
bad fallen and expired. Ghastly living forms of boys and 
girls, with dull dead eyes, were crouching beside some of the 
buta. A few more miserable days of their terrible hunger, 
and thoy would be vnlh the dead. 

Oppressed with tlic shocking scenes around, we visited the 
bishop's grave ; and though it matters little where a good 
Christian's ashes rest^ yet it was with sadness tliat we thought 
over the hojwa which had clustered around him as be left the 
classic grounds of Cambridge;, all now buried in this wild 
place. How it would have torn his kindly heart to witness 
the sights we now were forced to see I 

In giving vent to the natural feelings of regret that a man 
BO eminently endowed and learned as was Bishop Mackenzie 
should have been so soon cut off, some have expressed an 



Caxr. XXIL 

opinion tbac it was wrong to use an iostrument so valaablc 
mKreltj to convert the heathen. If the attempt is to be made 
ftt all, it is "penny wise and pound foolish" to employ any 
but the very best mco, and those who are specially educated 
for the work. An ordinary clergyman, howerer well suited 
for a parish, will not, without special training, make a mis- 
sionary ; and as to their comparatiTO usefulness, it is like that 
of tho man, who builds a hospital, as compared with that of 
the surgeon who in after years only administers for a time 
the remedies which the founder Jiad provided in pcrpctDity. 
nad the bishop succeeded in introducing Christianity, his 
converts might have been few, but they wonld have formed 
a continuous roll for all time to come. 

The Shire fell two feet before we reached the shallow croa^ ■ 
ing where we had formerly such difficulty, and we had now 
two ships to take up. A hippopotamus wns shot two miles 
above a bank on which the ship lay a ibrtnigbt : it floated ia 
three hours. As tho boat was towing it down, the crocodiles 
were attracted by the dead beast, and several shots had to bo 
fired to keep tticin oiT. The bullet bad not entered the brain 
of the animal, bat driven a splinter of bone into it. A little 
moisturp, with some gas, issued from the wound, and this waa 
all that could tell the crocodiles down the stream of a dead 
hippopotamus, and yet they came up from miles below. 
Their sense of smell must be as acute as their hearing; botli 
are quite extraordinary. Dozens fed on the meat wo left. 
Our Kroonian, Jumbo, used to assert that the crocodile never 
eats fresh meat, but always keeps it till it is high and tender 
— and tho stronger it smells, the better ho likes it. There 
seems to be some truth in this. They can swallow but small 
pieces at a Lime, and find it difficult to tear fresh meat. In 
the act of swaliowing, which ia like Uiat of a dog, the head is 




[raised out of the water. We tried to catch some, and one 
waa soon booked ; it required half a dozen bands to haul htin 
ap the river, and the shark-hook Btraightcncd, and he got 
away. A large iron hook wtis next made, but^ as the crca- 
tnrea could not swallow it, their jaws soon pressed it straight, 
and our crocodile-fishing was a failure. Ab one might ex- 
pect, from the power even of a salmon, the tug of a crocodile 
was Icrribiy strong. 
The corpse of a boj floated past the ship; a monstrous 
lile rushed at it with the speed of a greyhound, caught 
it, and shook it as a terrier dog does a rat. Others dashed at 
the prey, each with his powerful toil causing the water to 
chum and froth as he furiously tore off a piece. In a few 
seconds it was all gone. The sight was frightful to behold. 
The Shire swarmed with crocodiles; we counted sixty-seven 
of these rqiulsive reptiles on a single bank, but they are not 
fierce as they arc in some rivers. '\ Crocodiles," says Cap- 

■tain Tuckey, "are ao plentiful in the Congo, near the rapids, 
and so frequently carry off the women, who at daylight go 
down to the river for water, that, while they are filling their 
calabaahcd, one of the party is usually employed in throwing 
large stones into the water outside." Here, cither a oalabash 
on a long pole is used in drawing water, or a fence is planted. 
The naiive-s eat the crocodile, but to us the idea of tasting 
the musky -scented, fishy-looking flesh carried the idea of 
cannibalism. Humboldt remarks that in South America the 
alligators of some rivers are more dangerous than in others. 
AUigatora differ from crocodiles in tho fourth or canine tooth 
going into a bole or socket in the upper jaw, while in the 
crocodile it fits into a notch. The fore foot of the crocodile 
has five toes not webbed ; the hind foot has four toes which 
are webbed; in the alligator the web is altogether wanting. 



Tbey aro so much alike that they would no doubt breed 

One of the crocodiles which was shot had a piece em 
off the end of bis tail, another had lost a foro foot iu Ggbting, 
wo saw actual lecclics between the teeth, such as are men- 
tioned by Herodotus, but we never witnessed tho plover pick- 
ing them out Their greater ficrconcfis in one part of the 
country than another is doubtless owing to a scarcity of Qsh : 
in fact, Captain Tuckcy says of that, part of tho Congo men- 
tioned above, "There aro no fish hero but catfiah," and 
found chat tho lake crocodiles, living in clear water, and with 
plenty of fish, scarcely ever attacked man. The Shire teei 
with fish of many different kinds. The only time, as alrcadj 
remarked, when its crocodiles aro particularly to be drcaded»1 
is when the river is in flood. Then the ftsh are driven from 
their asual haunts, and no game comes down to the river to 
drink, water being abundant in pools inland. Hunger now 
impels the crocodile to lie in wait for the women who come 
to draw water, and on the Zambesi numbers are carried oQf 
every year. The danger is not so great at other scaaoi 
though it 18 never safe to bathe, or to stoop to drink, where 
one can not see the bottom, especially in the evening, 
of the Makololo ran down in the dusk to the river, and, as 
was busy tossing the water to his mouth with bis band in the 
manner peculiar to the natives, a crocodile rose suddenly from 
the bottom, and caught him by the band. The limb of a tree 
was fortunately within reach, and he had presence of mind to 
lay hold of it. lk)tb tugged and pulled; the crocodile Ebr^ 
hia dinner, and the man for dear life. For a time, it a[ 
doubtful whether a dinner or a life was to be sacrificed ; but 
the man held on, and the monster let the hand go, leaving ibe 
deep marks of his ugly teeth in it 

Chat. XXII. 



During our detention, in expectation of the pennanent rise 
of the river in March, Dr. Kirk and Mr. C. Livingatoao col- 
lected nombcra of the wading birds of the marshes, and made 
pleasant addiUona to our salted provisions in gccsc, duck.^ 
and hippopotamus flesb. One of the comb or knob-noaed 
geese, on being strangled in order to have its skin proserred 
without injury, continued to breathe audibly by lie broken 
humerus, or wing-bone, and other means had to be adopted 
to put it out of pain. This was a^ if a man on the gallows 

rere to continue to breathe by a broken arm-bone, and afford- 
ed us an illustratioa of the fact that, in birds, the vital air 
letrates every part of the interior of their bodies. The 

)reath passes through and round about the lungs — bathes the 
eurface;^ of tbo viscera, and enters the cavities of the bones; 
it even penetrates into somo spacers between themuiiclesoftho 
c — and thus not only ia the most perfect oxygenation of 
the blood secured, but, the teniperaturs of the blood being 
very high, the air in every part ia rarefied, and the great light- 
ness and vigor provided for that the habits of birds require. 
Several birds were found by Dr. Kirk to have marrow in the 
tibiaJi though these bones are generally described as hollow. 
During tbo period of our detention oa the shallow part of 
the river in March, Mr. Thornton camo up to us from Shu- 
panga : he had, as before narrated, left the expedition in 1859, 
and joined Baron van dcr Deckeu in the journey to Kilimao* 
jaro, when, by an ascent of the mountaia to the height of 
8000 feet, It was first proved to be covered with perpetual 
snow, and the previous information respecting it, given by 
the Church of England Missionaries, Krnpf and Rebman, con- 
firmed. It is now well "known that the baron subsequently 
ascended the Kilimanjaro to 14,000 feet, and ascertained itit 

lighest peak to be at least 20,000 feet above the sea. Mr. 




Thornton made the map of the first journey, at Shupanga, 
fnjm materiala collected when with the baron, and, when thai 
work was accompIJAfacd, foHowod us. lie was then directed 
to examine geolo^callj the Cataract district, but not to ex- 
pose bimscir to contact with the Ajawa until the feelings of 
that tribe aljoald be ascertained. 

The roembere of Bishop Mackenzie's party had, on the lo 
of their head, fled from Magomero on the highlands down, to] 
Chibisa's, in tlie low-lying Shire Volley ; and Thornton, find- 
ing them RufTcring from want of animal food, kindly toIod- 
tocrcd to go acro^ thenoe to Tettc, and bring a supply of 
goats and sheep, ^''e were not aware of this step, to which 
the generosity of his nature prompted him, till two days after] 
he had started. In additi&n to securing supplies for the Uni- 
versities' Mission, he brought some for the Expedition, and 
look bearings, by which be hoped to connect his former work 
at Tettc with the mountains in the Shire district. The ttnl 
of this journey was too much for his strength, as, with the ad- 
dition of great scarcity of water, it had been for that of Dr. 
Kirk and Kae, and he returned in a sadly haggard and ex- 
hau-sted condition; diarrhoea superrened, and that ended in 
dysentery and fever, which terminated fatally on the 2l8t of 
April, 1863. He received the unremitting attentions of Dr. 
Kirk, and Dr.Meller, surgeon of the Pioneer, daring the fort- 
night of his illness; and as he had sufTcrcd very little from 
fever, or any other disease, in Africa, wo had entertained 
strong hopes that his youth and unimpaired constitatioa 
would have carried him through. During the ni^t of the 
20tb bis mind wandered so much that we could not n.'^certaiQ 
hia last wishes ; and on the morning of the 21st, to our great 
sorrow, he died. He was buried on the 22d near a large treei 
on the right bank of the Shire, about five hundred yards fiom 

Chju". XXII. 



the lowest of the Murehison Cataracla, and close to a rivulet, 
at which the Lady Nyasaa and Pioneer lay. 

No words caa convey an adequate idea of the scene of 
wide-spread desolalion, which, tho once pleasant Shire Valley 
now presented. Instead of smiling villages and crowds of 
people coming with things for sale, scarcely a soul wns to be 
seen; and when by chance one lighted on a native his frame 
bore the impress of hunger, and his countenance the look of 
^a cringing broken- spirited ness. A drought had visited the 
land after the slave -hunting panic swept over it. Had it 
been possible to conceive tho thorough depopulation which 
had ensued, wc should have avoided coming up the river. 
Large masses of the people had fled down to the Shire, only 
anxious to get the river between them and their enemies. 
Most of the food had been left behind ; and famine and starv- 
ation had cut olT so inauy, that the remainder were too few 
to bury the dead. The cor|3ses we saw floating down the riv- 
er were only a remnant of those that had perished, whom 
their friends, from weakness, could not bury, nor overgorged 
crocodiles devour. It is true tbnt famine caused a great por- 
tion of this waste of human life ; but the slave-trade must be 
deemed tho chief agent in the ruin, because, as we were in- 
formed, in former droughts all the people Hocked from the 
hills down to the marshes, which are capable of yielding crops 
of maise in less than three months at any time of the year, 
and now they were afraid to do so. A few, encouraged by 
the Mission in the attempt to cultivate, had their little patch* 
es robbed as successive swarms of fugitives came from the 
hilla "Wlio can blame these outcasts from house and home 
fot stealing to save tUcir wretched lives, or wonder that the 
owners protected the little all, on which their own lives de- 
pended, with club and spear? We were informed by Mr. 



Coat. XXIL' 

"Waller of the dTeadfol blight which had be&llen the once 
smiling Shire Valley. His words, though strong, fiuled to im- 
press Ds with the reality. In fact, they were received, aa 
some may accept our own, as tinged with exaggeration ; bat 
wbeo our eyes beheld the last mere driblets of this cap of 
woe, we for the first time felt that the enormous wrongs in- 
flicted on onr fellow -men by slaving aro beyond exaggera- 

The plan adopted by these Jfanganja Highlanders to raise, 
crops on the soft black mud of the marshes might not oceur 
to agriculturists of other countries. Coarse river-sand is put 
down on the rich dark ooze in spadefuls at about two feet 
from each other, and the maize planted therein. In vegetft- 
ting, the roots are free to take what they require from the too 
fat soil beneath, and also atmospheric constituents through 
the sand. Nearly the s-ime thing is done when the soil is 
more solid, but too damp. A hole is dug about a foot in 
depth, iho seed is thrown in and covered with a spadeful of 
sand, and the result is a flourishing crop ; where, without the 
sand, the rich but too wet loam would yield nothing. In this 
way the people saved their lives la former droughts, but noir- 
the slave-hunting panic seemed to have destroyed all pres- 
ence of mind. The few wretched survivors, even nfter our 
ftrrival, were overpowered by an apathetic lethargy. They 
attempted scarcely any cultivation, which, for people so given 
to agriculture as they arc, was very remarkable; they wcmj 
seen daily devouring the corn-stalks which had sprung up in 
the old plantations, and which would, if let alone, have yield- 
ed corn in a month. They could not be aroused from their 
lethargy. Famine benumbs nil the faculties. We tried to 
induce some to exert tliemselvca to procure food, but failed. 
They had lost all their former spirit, and with lacklustre eyes, 




scarcely meeting ours, and in whining tones, replied to every 
proposition for their benefit, "No, no!" {Aif aif) 

Wherever we took a walli, human skeletons were seen in 
every direction, and it was painfully interesting to observe 
the different postures in which the poor wretches hod breathed 
their last. A whole heap had been thrown down a slope be- 
hind a village, where the fugitives often crossed the river 
from the east; and in one hut of the same village no fewer 
than twenty drunis had been collected, probably the ferry- 
man's, fees. Many had ended their misery under shady trees 
— others under projecting crags in the hills — while otbera 
lay in their huts, with closed doors, which^ when opened, dis- 
closed the moulderiug corpse, with the poor rags round the 
loins — the skull fallen olT the pillow — the httle akeleton of 
the child, that had perished first, rolled up in a mat between 
two large skeletons. The sight of this desert, but eighteea 
months ago a well peopled valley, now literally strewn with 
human bones, forced the conviction upon us that the destruc- 
tion of human life in the Middle Passage, however great, con- 
stitutes but a small portion of the waste, and made us feel 
that unless the slave-trade— that monster iniquity, which has 
so long brooded over Africa — is put down, lawful commerce 
can not be established. 

We believed that, if it were possible to get a steamer upon 
the Lake, we could, by her means, put a check on the slavers 
from the Kftst Coast, and aid more effectually still in the sup- 
pression of the slave-trade by introducing, by way of the JBo- 
vuma, a lawful traffic in ivory. We therefore unscrewed the 
Lady Nyassa at a rivulet about Ave hundred yards below the 
iirst cataract, and began to make a road over the thirty-five 
or forty miles of land portage by which to carry her up piece- 
meal. After mature consideration, we could not imagine a 



ciur. xxn. 

more noble work of benevolence than Uiaa to inLroduco light 
and liberty into a qunrtor of this fair earth which human 
lust has converted into the nearest possible rcsemblanoe of 
what we conceive tbe infernal regioDs to be, and we sacriAoed 
much of our privdtc resources as an offering for the promo- 
tion of so good a cause 

The chief part of the labor of road-making oonsjated in cut- 
ting down trees and removing stones. The country being 
covered with open forest, a stnall tree bad to be cut about 
every filly or sixty yards. The land near tbe river was so 
very much intersected by ravines, that search had to be made, 
a mile from its bank;*, for more level ground. Experienced 
Hottentot drivers would have taken Cape wagons withoQt 
any other trouble than that of occasionally cutting down a 
tree. No tactsc infested this district, and the cattle brought 
from Johanna Nourished on the abundant pasture^ The first 
half mile of rood kd up, by a gradual slopCj to an altitude of 
two hundred feet above the ship, and a sensible difference of 
climate was felt even there. For the remainder of the dis- 
t&nce the height increased, till, at the uppermost cataract, we 
were more than 1200 feet above ihc sea. Tbe country faer^ 
having recovered from the efTects of the drought, was brighk^H 
with young green woodland, and mountains of the same w^B 
freshing hua But the absence of the crowds which bad at- 
tended us as we carried up tho boat, when the women follow- 
ed us for miles with fine meal, vegetables, and fat fowls for 
sale, and the boys were ever ready for n little job — and the 
oppressive stillness bore heavily on our spirita The PorUi- 
gueae of Tette had very effectually removed our laboreia 
Not an ounce of fresh provisions could bo obtained except 
what could be shot, and even the food for our native crew had 
to be brouglit vne hundred and HHy miles from the Zambe^ 

Chap. XXII. 


The diet of salt provisions and presen*cd meats without 
vegetables, with tlie dtrpression of spirits caused by seeing 
how efleciiially a few wretched convicts, aided by the con- 
nivance of officials, of whom better might have been hoped, 
could counteract our be^ efforts, and turn intended good to 
certain evil, brought on attacks of dysentery, which went the 
round of the Expedition; and, Dr. Kirk and Charles Living- 
stone having suficrcd most severely, it was deemed advisable 
that they should go home. This measure was necessary, 
though much to the regret of all ; for, having done so much, 
they were naturally anxious to lie present, when, by the es- 
tabli-shing ourselves oa the Lake, all our efforts should be 
erowued with success. After it had been decided that these 
two officers, and all the whiles who could be spared, should 
be sent down to the sea for a passage to England, Dr. Living- 
stone was seized in May with a, severe attack of dysentery, 
which continued for a month, and reduced him to a shadow. 
Dr. Kirk kindly remnitifd in attendance till the worst was 
passed. The parting tock place on the 19th of May. 

"We had still the hope that, by means of a strong remon- 
strance 8«iit to Lisbon against the Portugue^ ofliciaU in Tette 
engaging in the slave-hunting forays, some means would bo 
resorted to Tor preventing slavers for the future following on 
our footsteps and neutrnlizing our efforts. The appdal, how 
ever, we subsetjuently asccrioined, produced only a shoal of 
promises fryra the Portagnesc ministry. New orders were to 
bo sent out to the officials to render us every assistance, and 
a request was made for information respecting Dr. Living- 
stone's geographical discoveries, for the especial use of the 
Minister of Marina and the Colonics ; though it was notorious 
that his exuellency had made use of our previous information 
in coustrucling a map, in which, by changing the spelling, be 



Ciur, XXU. 


bad attempted to prove that Dr. Livingitonc had mode no 
discoveries At all. Truly our object was not so much disoor- 
eiy aa a desire to lead the nation, which bis ciccUency'a coun- 
trymen had 80 enslaved and degraded, to a state of freedom 
and civilisation. We regret to have to make this aiatemcni; 
but it was a monstrous mistake to believe in the honor of the 
government of Portugal, or in their having a vestige of desire 
to promote the amelioratiou of Africa. One ought to hope 
the best of every one, giving, if possible, credit for good in- 
tentions; but, though deeply sensible of obligations to indi- 
viduab of the aatioo, and anxious to renew the expressions 
of respect formerly used, we must declare the conduct of t*ort- 
nguese statesmen to Africa to be simply infamous. 

Aficr a few miles of road were completed and the oxen 
broken in, we resolved to try and render ouraelvea indepeod- 
eat of the South for fresh provisions by going ia a boat op 
the Shire, abovo the Cataracts, to the tribes at the foot of 
Lake Nyassa, who were still untouched by the Ajawa inva- 
sion. In furtherance of this plan, Dr. Livingstone and Mr. 
Bae determined to walk np to examine, and, if need be, mend 
the boat which had been left two seasons previously hang np 
to the limb of a large shady tree, before altcmpting to carry 
another past the Cataracts. The Pioneer, which was to be 
lefi in charge of our active and most trustworthy gunner, Mr. 
Edward Young, RN., waa thoroughly roofed over with eu- 
phorbia branches and grasa, so as completely to protect her 
decks from ihe sun : she also received daily a due amount of 
man-of-war scrubbing and washing; and, basidcs having ev- 
ery thing put in shipshape fiishion, was every evening swung 
out into the middle of the river, for the sake of the greater 
amount of nlr which circulated there. In addition to their 
daily routine work of the ship, the three stokers, one sailor, 





and one carpcDter— now our complemeulc-were encouraged 
to bunt for Guicea-fowl, wbick in June, when tLe water in- 
land is dried up, come in large flocks lo the river's banks, and 
roosi on thn trees at night Every thing that ctM bo done to 
keep mind and body employed tends to prevent fever. 

During the period of convalescence repairs were carried on 
on the Pioneer's engines. Trees were sawn into planks for 
paddle-floats by two carpenters from Senna, aud a garden 
made for vegetables, to be irrigated by a pump from the 
stream : our plot of ground was manured — a new style of 
agriculture to the people of this country — ihe wheat was sown 
in May, when the weather was cold and damp, and it grew 
beautifully; thia was interesting, as showing how easily a 
Mission might be supplied with corn by leading out one of 
the numerous 'springs which run among the hills. Good 
Bishop Mackenzie was fully aware of this, but unfortunately 
sowed bia crop at the wrong time of the year. Had we been 
able to continue to attend to ours, we should have had a crop 
iu about four months' time; but duty soon called us dse- 

While we were employed in these operations, some of the 
poor stan'ed people about had been in the habit of crossing 
the river, and reaping tho self-sown mapira in the old gardens 
of their countrymen. In the afternoon of the 0th a cauoe 
came floating down empty, and shortly after a wonrian was 
seen swimming near the other side, which was about two 
hundred yards di»taiit from us. Our native crew manned 
the boat and rescued her; when brought on board, she was 
found to have an arrow-bead eight or ten inches long in her 
"back, lielow the ribs, and Rlanting up through the diaphragm 
and left lung toward the heart — she had been shot fVom be- 
hind when stooping. Air was coming out of the wound, and, 



there being bat an inch of ibc barbed arrow-hcml vidiblc, ii 
was thought better not to run the risk of her dying uuder 
the operation necesory for ila removal ; so we carried her 
np to her own hut. One of her relatives was less scropti- 
lous, for he cut out the am>w and part of the lung. Mr. 
Young scat her occasionally portions of native oom, and. 
strange to say, found that she not only became well, but 
stouL The constitution of these people seems to hare a wott* 
deiful power of self-repair — and it could be no slight priv** 
tion which bad cut off the many thousands that we saw dead' 
around us. 

We regretted that, in consequence ofDr.MellerhavingDow 
sole medical charge, we could not have his company in our 
projected trip ; but be found employment in botany and na^'j 
ural history afler the annual sickly season of March, April, 
and May was over, and his constant pnaenoe was not so mnoh . 
required at the ship. Later iu tlie year, when he could 
well spared, he went down the river to take up an ai 
ment he had been offered in Madagascar, but, unfortunately, 
waa so severely tried by illness while detained at the 
that for nearly two years he was not able to turn his abilit 
as a naturalist to account by proceeding to that island, 
have no doubt but he will yet distinguish himself in thai im- 
traddcn field. 





Jane t6tK 1@<]3> >'^ri Tor llio Upper CRinniclf. — CiiltiTmion.— Cndfln,— Unti 
eD|}lv, cr ituHmed hy Skclvtuii^.— BiifTulu-binU ittid ihetiU of the jjoIfoneU 
Arrow. — Koml/i, a tpario of Si ruphanttiii!!, ibc I'oJBun (.■mplim-d. — TIiq'Nkh 
PoLwn,— lis EtTccu. — InaUiict in Mun. — Miikara-MnJrc— 5(^«^ or prictljr- 
BCcdcd Grits*. — Ju L'sc, — Nntirc 3'ntlit. — Guineu-fuwlft. — Coilon pAlchttS. — 
Kxpodiiion TOcnlJed. — No oilier Courso open lo ii«, i.nbor l«i'ii: nil mvcpi 
•way by PoriuKUMc SlaTi^lrnilitig- — Mr.Wnllcr v(irncs*« u stimil ]inn of 
the TrHiIe.— Friendliness ol' ihr Ajavrn. nnd Mftkolulo to tliQ HnglUt. — Try 
to Mko anoitii^r Bont pn^t ili« Cauimcts. — Lot* of Uio UvaU— -I'cnitcaue of 
tha Lwerth — ^Tha Cauruvb.— G«olo)^. 

On the 16th of June we Btarted for tbe Upper Cataracts 
with a mule-cart^ our road lying a distance of a mile west 
from the river. We saw many of the deserted dwelUngB 
of tbe people who formerly camo to us, and were v«ry much 
struck by tbe extent of lund under cultivation, though that, 
compared with the whole country, is very small. Large patch- 
I «s of uiaplra continued to grow, as it is said it does from the 
roots for tliree years. The mapira was mixed witli tall bush- 
es of tlio Coiigo-beaii, castor-oii plants, and uolton. The larg- 
est patch of tbi» kind we paced, and found it to bo six hnnd- 
Ted and thirty paces on quo side ; the rest were from one aero 
to three, and many not more than one thirtl of on acre. The 
cotton — of very superior quality — was now dropping off the 
bushes, to be left to rot — there was no one to gather what 
would have been of so much value in Lanuisbire. 1'hc huts, 
in the different villages we entered, were standing quite per- 
fect. The mortars for pounding corn — the stones for grind- 
ing it — the water and beer pots — the empty corn-safes and 
kitchen utensils, were all untouched; and most of the doors 



wcro shut, as if the starving ovrDers had gone out to wander 
ia search of roots or fruiLi iu tUe forest, and had cerer re- 
tamed. When opened, several buld revealed a ghastly sight 
of human Bkelctons. Some were secu in such unnatural po- 
sitions as to givo the idea that thej had expired in a faint, 
when trying to reach sometljiug to allay tho gnawiogs of 

We look several of the men as far as the Mukura-Kadse 
for the sake uf the uhango of air and fur uccupatiun, and also 
to secure for the ships a supply of buffalo meat — as thcee an- 
imals were reported to be iu abundanoo on that stn^m. But, 
though it was evident from the inicks (hat the report was 
true, it was im})oasiblc to get a glimi)sc of them. The grsss 
being taller than we wore, and pretty thickly planted, they 
always knew of our approach before wo saw them. And the 
first intimation we had of their being near was the sound 
made in rushing over the stones, breaking the branches, and 
knocking their horns against each other. Once, when sock- 
ing a ford for the cart at sunrise, we saw a herd slowly wend- 
ing up the bill'Stde from tho water. Sending for a rifle, and 
stalking with intense eagerness for a fat beefsteak, instead of j 
our usual faro of salted provisions, we got so near that 
could hear the bulls uttering llicir hoarse deep low, but coold 
6w nothing except the moss of yellow grass in front; snd- 
dcnly the bufialo-birds sounded their alarm-wfaistle, and awaj 
dashed the troop, and we got sight of neither birds norbeaBt& 
This would be no country for a sportsman except when the 
grass is short. The animals arc wary, from the dread they 
have of the poisoned arrows. Those of the natives who do 
hunt arc deeply imbued with the hunting spirit, and folk 
the game with a stealthy perseverance and cunning quite ex- 
traordinary. The arrow making no noise, the herd is follow- 




ed up until the poison takes effect, and the wounded animal 
ikils out. It is then patiently watched till it drops — a por- 
tion of moac round tbo wound is cut away, and all the rest 

Poisoned arrows are made in two pieces. An iron Wrb is 
firmly fastened to one end of a small wand of wood, ten inch- 
es or a foot long; the other end of which, fined down to a 
long point, is nicely fitted, though not otherwise secured, ia 


A. Gmiitiun rimii uf Ajitu* mtuh iiuii tif*<1. wltli hi.i'lxi. 

B. » •• MuigRt^ fuitutoi ml hvid and tarb*. Bad nook. 

C. Mionar ^4 ioMnlufi unvw-bmA tme Lb< thati. 
P. I^tlrauiow nowlj' fvur feet luBE, aaJ fnllicraiL. 

the hollow of the reed, which forma the arrow abaft. The 
•wood immediately Ijelow the iron head is smeared with the 
poison. When the arrow is shot into an animal, the rccd ei- 
ther fails to the ground at once, or is very soon brushed o£f 
by the bushes ; but the iron barb and poisoned upper part of 
the wood remain in the wound. If made in one piece, the 
arrow would often be lorn out, hwid and all, by the long shaft 
catching in the underwood, or striking agailist trees. The 
poison used here, and called kojubi, is obtaiuL^d from a f<|K:ciea 
of UrophanlhtiSy and is very virulent. Rr. Kirk found by an 
accidenwl experiment on himself that it acts by lowering the 
pulse. In using his tooth-brush, which had been in a pocket 
ooDtaining a little of the poison, he noticed a bitter tjiste, but 




attributed it to liia having sometimes used the lundlQ in tak* 
iag quiniue. Tliougb the quantity was small, it immediatdj 
showed its power bj lowering his pulse, which at the tzma' 
had been raised by a cold, and oejct day he was perfectly re- 
stored. Not much can be ioferred from a single caw of this 
kind, but it is possible that the kombi may turn out a vnloat- 
ble remedy ; and, as Professor Sbarpey has conducted a so- 1 
lies of cxpertmeuls with this substance, wc look with interest' 
for the results. An alkaloid has been obtained from it mmi- 
lar to strychnine. There is no doubt that all kinds of wild 
animals die from the ellects of poisoned arrows, except lh« 
elephant and Uippopolainus. The amount of poison that this 
littlo weapon can convey into their systems being too smaQj 
to kill those huge beasts, the hunters resort to the beam-trapj 

Another kind of poison was met with on Lake Nj 
which was said to be used exclusively for killing men. It' 
was put on small wooden arrow-heads, and carefully protect- 
ed by a piece of maize-leaf tied round it. It caused ntunb- 
ness of the tongue when the smallest particle was tasted. Hm 
Bushmen of the northern part of the Kalahari were seeo 
plying the entrails of a small caterpillar which they 
'Kga to their arrows. This venom was declared to be to^ 
powerful in producing delirium, that a man, in dying, re> 
tnmcd in imagination to a state of infancy, and would call far 
his moihcr's breast Lions, when shot with it, are said to 
perish in agnnifis. The poisonous ingredient in this case li^f 
be derived from the plant on which the caterpillar feeds. K 
is difficult to conceive by what sort of experiments Ibe prop- 
erties of these poisons, known for goneratioos, wero proved. 
Probalily the animal instinciit, which have become so obt 
by civilization, that ohildren in England cat thi: hemes of the 



deadly nightshade {Atropa Ulladonna) without suspicion, were 
in iho early uncivilized stale much more keen. In some 
poiais iuistinct is stiil rtiiaincd among savages, it is related 
that in the celebrated voyage of the French navigator Bou* 
gainvillc, a young lady, who had assumed tho male attire, per* 
formed all the bard duties incident to the calling of a com- 
mon sailor, and, even as a servant to the geologj-st, cjirricd a 
bag of stones and specimens over hills and dales without a 
complaint, and without having her sex suspected by her asso- 
ciates ; but on landing among tbc savages of one of the South 
Sea Islands, she was instantly recognized as a female. They 
began to show their impressions in a way that compelled her 
to confess her sez, and thraw herself on the protection of tho 
commaudor, which of course was granted. In like niaiiiier, 
the earlier portions of the human family may have bad their 
instincts as to plants more highly developed than any of their 
descendants — if, indeed, much more knowledge than we usu- 
ally suppose be not the effect of direct revelation from above. 
Tho Mukuru-Madse has a deep rocky bed. The water is 
generally nboat four feet deep, and fifteen or twenty yards 
broad. Before reaching it we passed five or six gullies; but 
beyond it the country, for two or three miles from the river, 
was comparatively smooth. The long grasa was overrunning 
all the native paths, and one species {mnu), which fans a sharp 
barbed seed a quarter of an inch in length, entcre every pore 
of woolen clothing, and highly irritates the skin. From iia 
hard, eliarp point a scries of minnte barbs arc laid back, and 
give tho seed a hold wherever it enters; the slightest touch 
gives it an entering motion, and the little hooks prevent Its 
working out. These seeds are so abundant in some spota 
that the inside of the stocking becomes worse than the rough* 
est hair shirt. It is, however, an excellent self-sower, and 



fine fodder; iirises to the height of common meadow-graas in 
England, and would be a capital plniit for spreading over a, 
new country not so abundantly supplied with grasses aa 
this is. 

Wc have sometimes noticed two or three leaTCs together 
pierced through by these seedfi, and thus made, aa it wetc^ 
inio wings to carry them to any soil suited to their growth. 

Wc always follow the native paths, though they are gen- 
erally not more than fifteen inches broad, and so of\ea have' 
deep little holes in them, made for the purpose of setting 
traps for small animals, and are so much obscured byr the 
long grass that one has to keep one's eyca on the groxind 
more than is pleasant Iq spite, however, of all drawbacks^ 
it is vastly more easy to travel on these tracks than to goi 
straight over uncultivated ground or virgin forest A patltJ! 
nsually leads to some village, though somedmca it tarns out 
to be a mere game-tract leading nowhere. 

In going north we came into a part called Mpemba, where 
Chibisa was owned as chief, but the people did not know that 
he had been asstassinated by the l'ortugue.«e Terera. A great ^ 
deal of grain was lying round the hut where we spent tb« 
night Very large numbers of turtlc'doves feasted undis- 
turbed on the tall-stalked mapira ears, and we easily secured 
plenty of fine fat Guinea-fowls, now allowed to feed leisurely 
in the deserted gardens The reason assigned for all this list- 
less improvidence was, "There are nd women to grind the 
corn : all are dead." 

The ootton-patchcs in all cases seemed to have been so well 
cared for, and kept so free of weeds formerlj, that, though 
now uDtended, but few weeds had sprung up ; and the bushea 
were thus preserved in the annual grass-buraings. Many 
baobab-trees grow in different spots, and the few people seea 



were using the white pulp found between the sgc^^s to make 
a pleasant subacid drink. 

On passing Malnngo, near the uppermost Cataract, not a 
80ul was to be seen ; but, as we rested opposite a beautiful 
tree-covered island, the merry voices of children at play fell 
on our ears — the parents had fled thither for protection from 
the slave-hunting Ajawa, still urged on by the occaaional vis- 
its of the Portuguese agents from Tettc. The Ajawa, instead 
of passing below the Cataracts, now avoided us, and crossed 
over to the east side, near to the tree on which we had hung 
the boat. Those of the Manganja, to whom we could make 
ourselves known, readily came to us; but the majority had 
lost all confidence in themselves, in each other, and in every 
one else. Tlie boat bad been burned about three months 
previously, and the Manganja were very anxious that we 
should believe that this bad been the act of the Ajawa ; but, 
on acajining the spot, we saw that it was more likely to have 
caught fire in the grass-burning of the country. Uad we in- 
tended to be so long in returning to it^ we should have hoist- 
ed it bottom upward ; for, as it was, it is probable that a quan- 
tity of dried leaves lay inside, and a spark ignited the whole. 
All the trees within fifly yards were scorched and killed, and 
the nails, iron, and copper sheathing all lay undisturbed be- 
neath, llad the Ajawa done the deed, they would have taken 
away ibe copper and iron. 

Our hopes of rendering ourselves independent of the south 
for provisions by means of this boat being thus disappointed, 
we turned back with the inlention'of carrying another up to 
the same spot; and, in order to find level ground for this, we 
passed across from, the Sbire at Malango to the upper part 
of the stream Lesungwe. A fme, active, intelligent fellow, 
called Pekila, guided us, and was reoiarkablu as aluiosl the 




only one of Uic population left -witli any spirit in bim. Tbe 
depreaaing cflcci which tbe alave-buntiiig scourge has upon 
the native mind, thoagh UtUe to bo wondered at, u aad, veij' 
sad to witness. Musical iiiscrument&, mate, pillows, morUu«i 
for pounding meal, were lying about unused, and 'becoaung 
tbe prey of the white ants. With all their little comforts 
destroyed, the survivors were thrown still fiirtbcr back into 

It ia of liLtle importance, perhaps, to any but travelers to 
notice that in occupying one night a well-built ^ut, whidi 
bad been shut up for some time;, tbe air inside at once gai 
us a chill and an attack of fever, both of which vanished 
when the place was well ventilated by means of a fire. We 
have frequently observed that lighting a fire early in the 
mornings, even in the hottest timo of the year, gives fresh' 
neas to tbe whole bouse, and removes that feeling of close- 
ness and languor which a hot climate induces. 

On the night of tbe 1st of July, 1863, several loud pcalj of 
thunder awoke us; the moon was shining brightly, and net 
a cloud to be seen. All the notives remarked on the cleai^ 
ness of the sky at the time, and next morning said, " Ws 
thought it was God" (Morungo). 

On arriving at the ship on tbe 2d of July, we found a dis- 
patch from Earl Itussell, containing instructions for the with* 
drawal of the Expedition. The devastation caused by slave- 
bunlJng and famine lay all around. The labor had been wj 
completely swept away from the Great Shire Valley as it had 
been from the Zambesi, wlfercver Portuguese intrigue or pow- 
er extended. The continual forays of Mariano had spread 
ruin and desolation on our southeast as for us Mount Clar- 

Whilo this was going on in our rear, the Tett© dave-hnnt 




era from the west had stimulated the Ajawa to sweep all the 
Manganja off the bills on our east, and slaving parties for 
this purpose were sUU passing the Shire above the Cataracts. 
In addition to the confession of the Governor of Tctte of an 
intention to go on with this Blaving in aocordance with the 
oonnscl of hia elder brother at Mozambique, we had reason to 
believe that slavery went on under the eye of his excellency 
the governor general himself, and this was subsequently cor- 
roborated by our rccogniaing two women at Mozambique who 
bad lived i^ithin a hundred yards of the Mission -station at 
Magomero. They were well known to our attendants, and 
bad formed a part of a gang of several hundreds laken to 
Mozambique by the Ajawa at the very time when hia excol- 
lency was entertaining English ofTicera with anti-slavery pa- 
lavera To any one who undcrsUinda how minute the in- 
formation is which Porrngucse governors possess by means 
of their own slaves, and through gossiping traders who seek 
to curry their favor, it is idle to assert that all thb slaving 
goes on without their approval and connivance. 

Kmore had been wanted to prove the hopelessness of pro- 
ducing any change in the system wbieli has prevailed ever 
since our allies, the Portuguese, entered tbo country, we had 
it in the impunity with which the freebooter Tcrera, who had 
mnrdcrcd Chibisa, was allowed to carry on his forays. Bel- 
chior, another marauder, had been checked, but was bUII al- 
lowed to make war, as they term slave-hunting. 

Mr. Horace Waller was living for sumc five months on 
Mount Morambala, a position from which the whole process 
of the slave-trade and depopulation of the country around 
coold be well noted. The mountain overlooks the Shire, the 
beautiful meandorings of which are distinctly seen, on clear 
days, for thirty miles. Tins river was for some time sopposcd 




cbat. xxm. 

to be closed against Mariano, who, as a mere matter of fonn, 
-was declared a rebel against the Portuguese flag. When, 
however, it become no longer possible to keep up the shun, 
the river was thrown open to bim; and Kr. Waller has seen 
in a single day from fiiWen to twenty canoes of di&brcnt sizes 
going down, laden with slaves, to the Portuguese sculcments 
from the so-called rebel camp. Tbcso cargoes were com- 
posed entirely of women and children. For tbreo months 
this traffic was incessant, and at last, so completely was the 
mask thrown off, that one of the officials came to pay a visit 
to Bishop Tozer on another part of the sanM monnlain, and, 
combining business with pleasure, collected payment for some 
canoe-work done for the Missionary party, and with this por* 
chased slaves from the rebels, who had only to be hailed trom 
the bank of the river. When he had concluded the bargain 
he trotted tho slaves out for inspection in Mr. Waller's -pnA- 
enoc. This official, Senhor Mesquita, was the only officer 
who could be forced to live at the Kongone. From certain 
circumstances in his life, he had fallen under the power of the 
local government ; all the other Custom-house officers refused 
to go to Kongone, so here poor Mesquita must live on a xo» 
erable pittance — must live, and perhaps slave, sorely against 
his will, nis name is not brought forward with a view of 
throwing any odium on hia character. The disinterested 
kindness which ho showed to Dr. Meller and others forlxds 
that he should be mentioned by ns with any thing like un- 

Other parties were out to the southeast of Senna, slaving 
for exportation from Inhambane. While we were at Shu- 
panga, an embassy was sent to us with an oSer of tvory, and 
all the land not occupied by the Zulus, if wc would only send 
a few people to expel the Senua slave-huntere ixom the neigh- 




borhooci. Here, aa witb yihat are called the emigrant Bocra 
of the iutehor of the Ca{]ti, the secret of power is thu posses- 
sion of gunpowder; bowmeu can not slajad tho attack cf mus- 
kets, and nhoover posseBses access to a sca-f>ort has the pow- 
er of carrying on slaviug to any extent, for on the East Coast 
there is no restriction in the introduction of arms and ammu- 
nition. The !aics arc quite as stringent aguuist these articles 
as at the Cape ; but, like the lawa for the abolition of slavery, 
no one obeys them — they are only for quotation and aclf-glo- 
TJiication in Kuropa 

Under all these considerations, Tvith the fact that \7C had 
not found the Ilovuma so favorable for navigation it the 
time of our visit as we expected, it was impossible not to co- 
incide in the wisdom of our withdrawal f but wo deeply re* 
gretted that wo had ever given credit to the Portuguese gov- 
ernment for any desire to ameliorate the condition of the Af- 
rican race; for, with half the labor and expense any where 
else, we should have made an iaJelible mark of improvement 
on a sectioa of the Continent Viewing Portuguese states- 
men in the light of the laws they have passed for the sup- 
pression of slavery and the slave-trade, and by the standard 
of the high character of our own public men, it can not be 
considered weakness to havo believed in the sinecrity of the 
anxiety to aid our enterprise professed by the Lisbon minis- 
try. We hoped to benefit both Portuguese and Africans by 
introducing free trade and Christianity. Our allies, unfortu- 
nately, can not see the slightest beneGt in any measure that 
does not imply raising themselves up by thrusting others, 
down. The official* paper of the Lisbon govyrniuent has 

• The PortOBawo gorcrnmcra lately trnfiloj-cil n gCDtlcmiLii nanicil I^nccrda 
lo write a teric* of papers in ilicir officinl jotim:il, tlio "Diario Jc Linbaii," to 
prore ituii Dr.Li*iai:MODQ made > grant mutako in ascribing kqt ni«nt lo 




since let tis know *' tliat their policy was directed to frustn- 
ting the grasping designs of the British government to tbe do- 
miuion of Eastern Africa." "We, who were on tlie spot and 

g|ttka KBilGnuit'sducovcryofwIuUappeare u>b« lh» n»m wurcB oflbr Kile. 
The sBcieni rortugncao miuioosrMK, Jeronjno Lobo ud Jouo Acm Sftiitui. 
anJ otli«r», U Beems, preceded oiur vtfatitrjmcR. Id fact, thb clsrcr writar 
prot'ca lo liU own ntUfuciion tbm the EDglUb hiro diaunrered n«xl to noilihi{| 
ID Africa. At do odo out of I'ortnRal rcqoirrB a rvfutatioa of tboe Ioom Mate* 
menu, in mm to • qvettion of inoro importanco. Do the Pottugaem miim* 
try. If cmploTisgtbo writer of thcTCpnper*, inean to indorao ibt d«rd« of tbvir 
olBc-UU in .Africa? We have bdkved ihem lo Iw iBcs[wbto of lo doiog; Ikii 
ibuy quoted vritli m tnucli eagerness a priTatc iloiq fruar U)« Bcr. IIodi^ Bow- 
ley, which ho novcT inu-ndod fur publication, that vn give oar friend'* opinion 
as to the chief came of tlie disailcr^ wlikh b«fel] Ihc Misaion orirtiicfa ho ma a 
member. Id tha intcrconiM bclwcro iho Slinion and Expedition not « ain^c 
bnak occuntd ia our friendly intercotme and good-will. 

" Bath, Ptinmrp <i. ISA 

■*£hUB Dtt. Ln-craarmii:. —Waller has written to menn tlio mt^oecof my 
IcUor to Mr. Glover, arid he tcUa ntc thnt a ceriain I'ortugiKcc puhUcuiao, pn> 
fbaaedlr tiiioting fii^ni that ktt«r, savs in subdtaDcc— 

*"TIm;R«v. Mr. l{owley tialea ibiit ibo allnck hf Dr. LivingttoDe oa ibe JLjh- 
wa ITU the cause of ihu liniil fioii-anec«» <4 Ibe Hiadon.* 

< ' I oercr uld that ; nor hare I al any time aaid any thing froni iilikb sack 
n Htatcment could lie justly inrerred. 

"The tniafurtuDca of Ihc MiMion were owing lo Iota of florae Ihe (aoun^ 
and, aboet all, to the etil praclieea of the PortogucM, who kindled and kept ap 
wan between the Iribea, in order that they might purchase tlw priconcn br 

" The Poniigncse were in our hour of need of grrjit cerrice to ns in ann'^y- 
In£ us wiiU food. Pertcinallv, wo miMionarics had mueh to tbauk them for; 
hut thvir conduct lownrd the nntivn i* i>ut (lescrijition bad; and I am entin^ 
ly one with you in your dcnouncctncnt ofRUch condncl. 

'* I have uloni-i inid and thought you did wull in releaaing the iJaree, and in 
KoluR Against the AJBwa under the idea ihnt they were ■ mere tiaving bonle. 
My letter u Mr. Glorcr wns not ^rritlcn lo bkmo you for what yon had doa^ 
nor to throw the rtspontihilityof our octM npon yon, bat lomake known tsonr 
friends nt iliu ra|j« that you had done what we had dmic, and thai yon were 
the Ant Ki do iL 

" Had v-ou at thai lime been in the eaine mind about our attack npon tbi 
AjawA ax you wore when you wrote tt> Sir CuIIIrc Eardley, my kttcr wooU 
ncrcr have been wriiien ; and geeing tlic ill effect it oppcan lo Imtb j^*"*-*, 
I am very wwry It was erer wrtrten. 

"I hope what I hare aaid will tneel yoar wfahed 

"Vcjy truly youra, IIksrx B<wxb».'* 



behind the scenes, know that feelings of private benevoleoce 
had the chief stiaro in the operations undertaken for introduc- 
ing the reign of peace aad good-will on tlic hikes and central 
reglous, which for ages have been the abodes of violence aud 
bloodshed. Bat that great change was not to be accomplish- 
ed. The narrow-minded would ascribe all that was attempted 
to the grasping propensity of the English. But the motives 
that actuate many in England, both in public and private life, 
are much more noble than the world gives tlicm credit for. 

Seeing, then, tbat wc wcro not yet arrived at "the good 
time coming," and that it was quite impossible to take the 
Pioneer down to the sea till the floods of December, we made 
arraogements to screw the Lady Nyassa together ; and, in 
order to improve the time intervening, we resolved to carry 
a boat past the Cataracts a second time, sail along the eastern 
shore of the Lake, and round the northern end, and also col- 
lect data by which to verify the information collected by Col- 
onel Rigby, that the 19,000 slaves who go through the Cus- 
tom-house of Zanzibar annually are chiefly drawn from Lake 
Nyasu and the Valley of the Shire. 

The people attached to the Mission by Bishop Mackenzie 
now formed a HlLle free community near Cbibisa's, supporting 
themselves by cultivating the soil. They imitated in this 
respect the Makololo, who had formed very extensive gar- 
dens, and wer« now able to sell grain and vegetables to the 
Expedition. The friendly feelings of both these people to- 
ward the English were uoraistokable. An instance in proof 
of this may be cited. The Makololo village was about a quar- 
ter of a mile distant from the Mission-huts, one of which was 
accidentally set on firs by the owner; aomo loaded gnns in- 
side went off as the firo reached the powder, and the Mako- 
lolo, hearing the unwonted sounds of guns in tho croning, 




aeizecl their arms and rushed to the rescue of ihe KngUsb, sap- 
posing that they were attacked by an enemy with fire-anaii. 
Notwitlislanding their refusal to return with medicine for 
ibcir chief, and in spite of screnil accusations made against 
them by the black men from the Cape, which, after a good 
deal of careful inquiry, could not be proved ; we remembered 
their noble conduct in saving our lives in the river at Kori- 
Tua, and, with this fresh proof of their willingness to lisk 
their lives for our countrymen, we selected five of the best 
rowers among them, in the belief that thwSe five were worth 
fiily of any other tribe for the navigatioa of the Lake, or for 
any difficulty which might occur in the course of our jour- 
ney northward. Our party consisted of tweuty natives, some 
of whom were Johanna men, and were supposed to be oapa* 
ble of managing the six oxen which drew the small wagon 
with a boat on it. A team of twelve Cape oxen, with a Hot- 
tentot driver and leader, would have taken the wagon over 
the country wc had to pass through with the greatest ease; 
but no sooner did we get beyond the part of the road already 
made, than our drivers cuoountered obstructions in the way 
of trees and gullies which it would have been a waste of time 
to have overcome by felling timber and hauling out the 
wagon by block and tackle purabascs. The J\jawa and Man- 
ganja settled at Clubisa'a were therefore sent for, and tbej- 
took the boat on their shouldere and carried it briskly, in a 
few days, past all the Cataracts except one; then coming to 
h comparatively still reach of the river, they took advantage 
of it to liaul her np a coaple of miles. The Makololo had 
her then entirely in charge; for, being accustomed to rapids 
in their own oountry, no better boatmen could be desin'd. 
The river hero is very narrow, and even in what are called 
still places the current is very strong, andoflcn obliged them 

Cbaf. XXUI. 



to haul the boat along by tho reeds on tho banks, or to hand 
a low-ropo ashore. The rceda are full of cowitch {DoUchos 
pruriens\ the poda of which are covered with what looks 
a fine Tclvety down, but is, in reahty, a multitude of fine 
prickles, wbicb go in by the million, and caused an itching 
and stinging in the naked bodies of those who were pulling 
the tow-rope that made them wriggle as if stung by a whole 
bed of nettles. Those on board required to bo men of ready 
Teeourco with oars and punting-polcs, and such they were. 
But, nevertheless, they found, after attempting to pass by a 
rock round which the water roshed in whirls, that the wiser 
plan would be to take the boat ashore and carry her past the 
last Cataract When this was reported, the carriers were 
called from the various shady trees under which they had 
taken refuge from the san. This was mid- winter, but the sun 
is always hot by day here, though the nights ore cold. Five 
Zambesi men, who had becu all their lives accustomed to 
great heavy canoes — tho chief recommendation of which is 
said to ba that they can. be run against a rock with the full 
forco of the current without injury — were very desirous to 
show how much belter they could manage our boat than the 
Makololo; three jumped into her when our backs were turn- 
ed, and two hauled her up a little way ; the tido caught her 
bow, we heard a shout of distress, tliu rope was out of their 
hands in a moment, and there she was, bottom upward; a 
turn or two in an eddy, and away she went, like an arrow, 
down tho Cataraclfl. Ono of the men, in swimming ashore, 
saved a rifle. The whole parly ran with all their might along 
tho bank, but never more did we see our hoaL 

Tho five performers in this catastrophe approached with 
penitential look& They had nothing to say, nor had wc. 
They bent dovni slowly, and touched our foot with both 



Cnu*. xxai. 

Iiaods. '* Ka kuata moeudo" — " to catch tbe fooi'' — ia their 
way of asking for;givene&a. Il yrsa bo Uko what wo have 
& liltlo cLild do — try to bring a dish uabiddcu tu lis pa| 
aud letliug it M\, burst iuiu a cry of distiees— that, they wors^ 
only sentODced to go back to the ship, get pruvisioDs, and, in 
the eosuiDg jouroey on foot, carry as much as they conic 
and tlius make up for tho loss of the boaL 

It was exceasivoly annoying to lose all tJiis property, anc 
be deprived of the means of doing ihe work proposed on iho ' 
cast and north of the Lake ; but it would have been like cry- 
iug OTCr spilt milk to do otherwise now tbau make the 
use ve could of our legs. The men. were sent back to the 
ship for provisions, cloth, and beads; aud while they are 
gone, we may say a little of the Cataracts whieh proved aa 
fatal to out boating plan. 

They begin iu IC 20' S., and end ia lat. 15° 65' S. ; tbo dif- 
ference of latitude ia thcrcforo 35'. Tho river runs in this 
-space nearly north and south till we pass Malango; so Ute 
entiro distance is under 40 miles. The principal Cataracts are 
five iu number, aud are called Tamofunda or Pamozima, Mo- 
rewa, Panorcba or Tcdsane, Pampatamaoga, and Papekira- 
Besides these, three or four Bmalier ones might be mentioned, 
as, for instance, Mamvira, where in our ascent we first met the 
broken water, and heard that gashing sound, wbleb, from the 
interminable windings of some 200 miles of river below, ve 
bad come to believe the tranquil Shire could never *«iiTc». 
While tbcso lesser cataracts descend at an angle of scarcely 
20^*, the greater fall 100 feet in 100 yards, at an angle of abont 
45", and one at an angle of 70°. One part of I'amozima is 
perpendicular, and, when the river is in flood, causes n cJond 
of vapor to ascend, which, in our joumcy to lAko Shirwa, w< 
saw at a distance of at least ci^ht milcf!. The entire descent 

CluiP. XXUI. 



from tlio Upjier lo the Lowur Sbire is 1200 feet Only on one 
spot iu all that distance ia tlie current mod(!r.itc, iiamelv, above 
TcUzaiie. Tbe rest is all rapid, and much of it being only 
fifty or eighty yards wide, and ruBbiug like a mill-raoe, it 
gives the impression of water-power auffioient to drive all the 
mills in Manchester running to waste. Pamofimda or Pamo- 
zima has a deep shady grovo on its right bant. TVhcn wc 
were walking alone through its dark shade, wc were startled 
by a shocking smell like that of a dissecting-room ; and on 
looking up, sow dead bodies in mats suspended from the 
brauches of the trees, a mode of burial somewhat similar to 
that which wo subsequently saw practieed by the Parscca in 
their "towers of silence" at Poonah, near Bombay. The 
name Pamozima means " the departed spiriw or gods" — a fit 
name for a place over which, according to tlic popular belief, 
the disembodied souls continually hover. 

The i-ock lowest down in the series la dark reddish-gray 
syenite. This seems to have been an upheaving agent, for the 
mica schists above it are much disturbed. Dark trappean 
5cka full of hornblende have in many places burst through 
theso schists, and appear in nodules on the surface. The 
highest rock seen is a fine sandstone of closer grain than that 
al Tcltc, and quite metamorphosed where it comes into con- 
tact with the igneous rocks below it. It sometimes gives 
place to quartz and reddish clay schists, much baked by heat 
This is the usual geological condition on the right bank of 
the Cataracts. On the other side wo pass over masses of 
porphyritic trap, in contact with the same mica schists, and 
'these probably give to the soil the great fertility we observed. 
Th« great body of the mountains is syenite. So much mica 
is washed into the river, that, on looking attentively on tho 
stream, one sees myriads of particles floating and glancing in 
the Bun, and this, too, even nt low water. 





^xreling Bcrersgc. — Good Bch&rior of the English Sailont.— MotoU blaaJ 
— SUnrftiion Viut Of Naliwts. — New Coarse of Mtfcb. — TTmJ ttm-riri. — A' 
Country lUtor tba K'lurgeuf War lias poBwlover it.— Lose onr Wnjr.— Bo^ 
|iiulity of the People. — Kiri's Itango.— Vallcv ofGua or Gora. — DisttiUgT*- 
liga uf Uijciu in ft hot Cliui&to.— Our Padj vi«wet1 m $l«T«-iro<len.— H*- 
tandtt. — Bench tbo HgcI of Lake N^iusu. — Kntuu't VlUagi^ — Aj**** i^ 
gtntioJin. — Native Asricnltitre. — BUbop Mikclicnzic's Idea of natire Af^< 
cnltarcL— Cotton. — Chtnsafflbo. — ^The ANijriaD CoanienaDce the tme Ncgn 
Tvpc — ThB BabisA. — Luigh of naiire Women. — Crj of Children, — Couw 

N.K. to tlie Shures of Lnko Molnmlut.— The Cbia Fiib-DcL — Boca Sar- 

sgos ooutil not bnvg rontinncd lo Liie had tbcy been catiitlf Usinttntcttd. 
— Thej uiK<lc4 a aupcrliutaaa In&tnictor. 

It was the 16th of August before the mea relumed from 
the ship, aooompanied by ilr. Rae and the steward of the Vi- 
oneer. They brought two oxen, one of which wna instantly 
slaughtered to put courage into all hearts, and some bottles 
of wine, a present from Waller and Alington. We never 
carried wine before, but this was precious as an esprcasioa 
of kind-heartedness on the part of the donora If one at- 
tempted to oarry either wine or spirita as a beverage, bo 
would requiro a whole troop of followers for nothing else. 
Oar greatest luxury in traveling was tea or coffee. Wc never 
once carried sugar enough to last a joomey ; but coffee is al- 
ways good, while the sugarless tea is only bearable, because 
of the unbearable gnawing feeliug of want and sinking which 
ensues if we begin to travel in the mornings without Eome- 
thing worm in the stomach. Our drink generally was water, 
and, if cool, nothing can equal it in a hot climate. We ttsn- 
ally carried a bottle of brandy rolled up in our blankets, but 
that was used only as a medicine; a spoonful in hot w> 




before going to bed, to fend oft' a chill and fever. Spirits al- 
yraya do harm if tlie lever has fairly begun ; and it is prob- 
able that brandy and water has to answer for a good many 
of tbc deaths in Africa. 

Mr. Kae had made gratifying progress in screwing together 
the Lady Nyassa. He had the zealous co-operation of three 
as fine, steady workmen as ever handled tools; and, as they 
■were noble apccimeus of English sailors, we wotdd fain men- 
tion the names of men who are an honor to the British navy 
— John Reid, John Pcnnell, and Richard Wilson. The read- 
er will excuse our doing so, but we desire to record how much 
they were esteemed, and how thankful we felt for their good 
behavior. The weather was delightfuily cool ; and, with fuU 
oonfidencs in those left behind, it was with light hearta we 
turned our faces north. Mr. liao accompanied us a day in 
front ; and, as all oar party had earnestly advised that at least 
two Europeans should be associated together on tUo journey, 
the steward was at the last moment lakeu. Mr. Rac returned 
to get the Lady Nyassa ready for sea; and, as she drew less 
water than the Pioneer, take her down to the ocean in Oc- 
tober. One reason for taking the steward is worth record- 
ing. Both he and a man named King,* who, though only a 
leading stoker in the Navy, had been a promising student 
in the University of Aberdeen, had got into that weak, blood- 
le68-looking state which residence in the lowlands without 
much to do or think about often induces. The best thing for 
this is chan^ and an active life. A couple of days' march 
only as for 03 the Mukuru-Madso infused so much vigor into 
King that ho was able to walk briskly back. Consideration 
for the steward's health led to his being selected for this 

* A brother, we bvlicvc, of one who ft<y^om|uuucd Burke and Willu in the 
I finnou bat gnronitOBlo AniiruUnn Expedition. 



northern journey, and the measure was so completely suc- 
oeasful that it waa often, in the hard march, a subject of re- 
gret that King had not been taken too. A njmoval of oaXy 
a hundred yards is sometimes so hcaeiicial that it ought, in 
severe cases, never to be omitted. 

"We were fairly on the march on. the 19th of August The 
island Hotola, at which the beat had been hung, was soon 
reached. Two men, who had taken refuge on the island, 
were walking along one of the paths which wound among the 
trees and bushes. The noise of the cataract, on the other aide 
of their island home, prevented them, from hearing the sound 
of our footsteps till we were within a yard of them. A start 
— and the bundles of roots they were carrying fell to the 
ground, and they made off as if to jump into the river; but 
we stopped beside the roots, and called them to come back 
and lake their food. They thought that we were Ajawa, but 
a glance assured them to the contrary, and we were gratified 
to see, in their look of confidence when told who we were, 
the wide-spread influence of the English name. The root* 
were about the size of common turnips, and called Malapa. 
The natives said that a person who did not know how to cook 
them would kill himself by using them as food. This is prob* 
•able ; for it is necessary to boil them in a strong ley of wood- 
ashes, pour that away, and boil them in the same kind of 
mixture a second and third time before they are eatable. 
The tamarinds of this country were now ripe, and the people 
were collecting them and neutralizing their excessive acidity 
by boiling the pods with the ashes of the lignom*vitai-tree, 
which are beautifully white, and sometimes cake as if Ihey 
contained a large amount of alkali; the same ashos are used 
too as a whitewash. When we came upon men like these 
poor fugitives, they wore employed to carry our luggage, and 




were paltl for their labor. This seemed to inspire more con- 
fidence than giving n present would have done. 

Our object now was to get away to the N.K.W., proceed 
parallel with Lake Nyassa, but at a considerable distance west 
of it, and thus pass by the Mazilu ur Zulus, near its northern 
cod, without contact — ascertain whether any large rivcT flow- 
ed into the Lake from the west — visit Lake Moelo, if time 
permiltod, and collect information about the trade on the great 
slave route, which erosaca the Lake at its eouthem end, and 
at Tscnga and Kota-kota. The Makololo were eager to trav- 
el fast, because they wanted to be back in time to hoe their 
fields before the raitis, and also because their wives needed 
[.looking after. Indeed, Masiko bad already been obliged to 
back and settle some diilerence, of which a report was 
brought by other wives who followed their husbands about 
twenty miles with goodly supplies of beer and meal. Masiko 
went off in a fury; nothing less than burning the offenders' 
houses would satit^fy him; but a joke about the inevitable 
fate of polygamisls, and our inability to manage more than 
one wife, and sometimes not even her, with a walk of a good 
many miles in the hot sun, mollified him ao much that, a 
week afterward, ho followed and caught us up, without hav- 
ing used any weapon more dangerous than his Vonguc, 

In going in the first instance N.E. from the uppermost cat- 
aract, we followed in a monsuro the great bend of the river 
toward the foot ofMountZomba. Hero we had aview of its 
most imposing side, the west, with the plateau some 3000 feet 
high, stretching away to its south, and Mounts Chirndzuru 
and Mochiru towering aloft to the sky. From that goodly 
highland station, it was once hoped by the noble Mackenzie, 
■who, for largeness of heart and loving disposition, really dc- 
Bcnred to be called the "Bishop of Central Africa," that light 


Ctur. XXIV. 

and liberty would spread to all the interior. "We still think 
it may be a centre for civilizing influences; for any ono de-j 
sccndiug from tbcdc cool heights, and stepping into a boat on^ 
the Upper Shire, can sail three hundred miles without a check 
into the heart of AfHca 

We passed through a tract of countiy covered with mo- 
pane-trees, where the hard-baked soil refused to let the asmd 
thick eropa of grass grow ; and here we came upon verf 
many tracks of buffaloes, elephants, antelopes, and the spoor 
of one lion. Au ox we drove along with us, as provision for 
tho way, was sorely bitten by the tsetse. The cflect of the 
bite was, as usual, quite apparent two days afterward, in the 
general flaccidity of the muscles, the drooping ears, and looks 
of illness. It always excited our wonder that we, who wer« 
frequently much bitten too by the same insects, felt no harm 
from their attacks. Man shares the immumty of the wild &&• 

Though this was the dry, or rather hot season, many flow- 
ers were in blossom along our path. The euphorbia, bao- 
bab, and caparidaceous trees were in full bloom. A number 
of lai^e bombills attmctcd our attention, and Masiko, ap- 
proaching the root of a tree in order to take sure aim at the 
birds, did not observe that within a few yards of the same 
tree two elephants stood in the cool shade fanning themselves 
with their huge ears. Dr. Livingstone fired a ball into the 
car of one of the animals at thirty yards distance, bat he only 
went off shaking his head, and Masiko for the first time per^ 
ceived his danger as the beast began to tear away through 
the bush. Many Manganja skeletons were passed on enter- 
ing a grove of lofty trees, under whose deep shade stood the 
ruins of a large village. Wild animals had now taken p06- 
seasion of what had lately been the abodes of men living in 
peace and plenty, 




FiadiDg a few people on the evening of the 20th of Au- 
gust, who were supporting a wretched existence ou tamarinds 
and miiie, we aaoertained that there was uo hope of our being 
able to buy food any where nearer than the Lakelet Pama- 
lombe, where the Ajawa chief Kaiflka was now living; but 
that plenty could be fouud with the Maravi female chiel^ Ny- 
ango. We tamed away northwestward, and struck the sLicam 
Eibvc-riUvc, or KivL-rivi, which rises ia the Maravi range, and 
flows into the Shire. Here, except below ila sandy bed, the 
channel was without any water, but higher up it has pools at 
intervals, with dry spaces between, and still farther west it be- 
comes a fust-flowing stream, furty feet wide, and one or two 
fcot deep. Its name impliui that it has cataracts in it, and 
the sanjika ascends it to spawn; but the evaporation is so 
great in the hot season that before it reaches the Sbire it is 
quite dry. 

Tbe country here has been divided into districts; that on 
the south of tLe Kivi-rivi is called Nk-wesi, and that un the 
north, Banda; and these extend along the boundary stream 
from its source to its confluence. This is interesting, as indi- 
cating an appreciation of the value of land. In many parts 
the idea hu3 not taken root, and any one may make a garden 
wherever be pleases. The garden becomes property, the un- 
cultivated land DO one claims. The villages, of the number 
of which we never previously had the smalleat idea, from our 
route having been along the river, seom always to have been 
selected with a view to shade — they were now all deserted. 
The lofly sterculias, with trunks of fifty feet without a branch, 
of a yellowish -green, stand around, and many of the hut8< 
have been overshadowed by wide-spreading wild fig-trees, on 
which the elephants now feed Undisturbed. The ground was 
strewn with branches which they had broken ofT. One spe- 




ci«8 of stOTcalia lias roundish pods tbu size of one's fist, witli 
seeds covered with canary-colored pulp wbich yields abund- 
ance of fine oil. The molsikiri-trecs have also been preserved 
for the sake of the fat and oil which maj be obtained from 
their seeds. 

As the Rivi-rivi camo from the N.W., we oontinaed to 
tmrel .ilong its bonks until we come to people who bad sue- 
ccssfully defended themselves against the hordes of the Aja- 
wa. By employing the men of one village to go forward and 
explain who we were to the next, we managed to prevent Che 
frightened inhabitants from conaderiog us a firesh pany of 
Ajawa, or of Portuguese slaving agents. Here they had co!- 
tivatcd maize, and were willing to sell, but no persoaaic 
could induce them to give us guides to the chieftaineas Nj 
go. They evidently felt that we were not to be trusted; 
though, ns we had to certify to our own character, our com- 
panions did not fail "to blow our own trumpet," with blasts 
in which modesty was quite out of the question. To allaj 
suspicion, we had at last to re&ain from mentioning the ladj^j 

It would be weansomc to repeat the names of the vil 
we passc<l on our way to the northwest. One was the '. 
wc ever saw in Africa, and quite deserted, with the usual aad-l 
ught of many skeletons lying about Another was called' 
Telle. We know three places of this name, which feet shows 
it to be a native word ; it seems to mean a place where the 
water rushes over rocks. A third village was called Cbipan- 
ga (a great work), a name identical with the Sfanpaoga of the 
Portuguese. This repetition of names may indicate that the 
same people first took these epithets in their traditional pas- 
sage fVom north to sooth. Tlie country generally was corer^ ' 
cd with open forest of moderate growth, and very laige trees 

Chap. XXETT. 



fringed Ibc water-con rsea. One, a flg-tree witli a peculiar leaf, 
liad been struck by liglitniug. On llic lines wliicb. the elec- 
tric iluid had made ia 8treaming down its trunk, masses of 
new growth were shooting out to repair the damage, and a 
great deal of gum, of a kind never observed before by us on 
any tree, hatl exuded. Beyond the village of Tette, the 
Hcouf^o of slave war had not passed westward ; and now, 
when wo camo to human dwelhngs, the people welcomed us 
in words, the full meaning of which we, wboee happy coun- 
try has never suffered fi-oni an invasion, can scarcely realize, 
" We are glad that it is not war you bring, but peace.'* 

At this season of the year the nighls arc etill cold, and the 
people, having no crops to occupy their attention, do not stir 
out till long after the sun is up. At other limes they are off 
to their fields before the day dawns, and the £rat sound one 
hears is the loud talking of men and women, in which they 
usually indulge in the dark, to scare off beasts by the sound 
of the humau voice. When no work is to be douo, the first 
warning of approaching day ia the hemp-smoker's loud ring- 
ing cough. 

Having been delayed one morning by some negotiation 
about guides, who were used chiefly to introduce us to other 
villages, we two whites walked a little way ahead, taking the 
direction of the stream. The men having been always able 
to find out our route by the prints of our shoes, wc went on 
for a number of miles. This time, however, they Itwt our track 
and failed to follow us. The path wa.<5 well marked by ele- 
phants, hyenas, pallabs, and zebras, but for many a day no hu- 
man foot had trod it. When the sun went down a deserted 
hamlet was reached, where we made comfortable beds for our- 
selves of grass. Firing muskets to attract the attention of 
those who have strayed is the usual resource in these cases. 




CuAr. XXIV. 

On this occasion the sound of fire-arms tended to mHead ns; 
for, hearing shots next morning, a long, vcaiy march led as 
only to some native hanters;, who bad been shooting buffalocs- 
Bcturning to a small village, we met with some people who 
remembered oar piossing up to the Lake in the boat; they 
were as kind as they could be. The only food they possess 
ed was tamarinds prepared with ashes and a little cowitoh 
raeal The cowitch, as mentioned before, has a vclve^ brown 
covering of minute prickles, which, if touched, enter the pores 
of the skin and canse a painful tingling. The women, in 
dmcB of scarcity, collect the pods, kindle n fire of grass over 
them lo destroy the prickles, then steep the beans till they be- 
gin to sprout, wash them in pure water, and either boil them 
or pound them into meal, which resembles our bean-meaL 
This phint climbs up the long grass, and abounds in all icedy 
part», and, though a plaguo to tbo traveler who touches its 
pods, it performs good service in times of famine by saving 
many a life from starvation. Iia name herb is Kitodzi 

Having traveled at least twenty miles in search of our par^ 
that day, our rest on a mat in the best hut of the village was 
very sweet. We had dined the evening before on a pigeon 
each, and had eaten only a handful of kitedzt ponidgs this 
aAernoon. The good wife of the village took a little com 
which she hod kept for seal,, ground it ai\or dork, and made 
it into porridge; this, and a cup of wild vegetables of a sweo^ 
ish taste for a relish, a little boy brought ia and put down, 
with several vigorous claps of his bands, in the manner which 
is esteemed polite, and which is strictly enjoined on all chil- 
dren. The repast was so scanty that even the smaller of the 
two starvelings, who was awake, thought that it was all for 
him, and set to work at oace, while his fellow-sufferer, over- 
come with sleep, hodjust commenced a pleasant dream of be- 

p. XXIV. 



ing at a grjind feast Awaking just in time to save a mere 
fragment of the tiny meal, be was amosed to hear the ex- 
cuses offered by the ruthless devonrer, which, from feeling the 
samo cravingB of {ippetite, bis companion perfect!/ understood. 

On the third day of separation, Akosanjere, the head man 
of this village, conducted ns forward to our parij, who bad 
gone on to Nsezc, a district to the westward. This incident 
is mentioned, not for any interest it poascasca apart from the 
idea of the people it conveys. We were dompletcly sep- 
arated from our men for nearly three days, and bad nothing 
wherewith to purchase food. The people were sorely pressed 
by famine and war, and their hospitality, poor as it was, did 
them great credit, and was most grateful to us. Our own 
men had become confused and wandered, but had done their 
utmost to find us; on our rejoining them the ox was slain, 
and all, having been on short commons, rejoiced in this " day 
of slaaghtcr." Akosanjere was, of course, rewarded to his 
heart's content 

On the 26th of August we left the village of Chasundu, 
where the party had reunited, and crossed several running 
streams of fine cold water. Wo had now attained a consider- 
able altitude, as was evident from the change in the vegeta- 
tion; the masuko-tree, with its large hard leaves, never met 
with in the lowlands, was here covered with unripe fruit — 
fine rhododendrons — the trees (Gf^salpinm), with pinnated 
leaves, from which bark cloth is madt; — the molompi {I^ero- 
carpus), which, when wounded, exudes largo quantities of a 
red jnicc so a-stringent that it might answer the purposes of 
kino, and furnishes a wood as elastic and light as ash, from 
which the native paddles are made. These trees, with ever- 
lasting flowers shaj>ed like daisies, and ferns, betokened an 
elevated habitat, and the boiling-point of water showed that 
oar altitude was 2500 feet above the sea. 



Aa we pursued our way, we came close np to a range of 
mountffins, tbo most prominent peak of which is called Mviii. 
This is a great, bare, rounded, block of granite sLooting op 
from the rest of the chwn. It and several other masses of 
rock are of a light gray color, with white patches, aa if of 
lichens; the sides and summits are generally thinly corercd 
with rather scraggy troea There are several other prom- 
ineut peaks — one, for instanco, still farther north, called Chi- 
robvc. Each has a name, but wo could never asoertaiD that 
there was an appellation which applied to the whole. This 
fact, and our wish to commemorate the name of Dr. Kirk, 
induced us afterward, when we could not discover a par- 
ticular peak meniioned to us formerly as Molomo-ao-koko, 
or CookVbill, to call the whole chain, fram the west of the 
Cataracts up to the north end of the Lake, "Kirk's Kange." 
The part we slept at opposite Mvai was named Paadio, and 
was evidently a continuation of the district of one of oar sta- 
tions on the Shire, at which observations for latitude weft 
formerly taken. 

Leaving Paudio, wo had Kirk's Kange close on our left and 
at least 5(XK) feet above us, and probably not less than 5000 
feet above the sea. Far to our right extended a long green 
wooded country rising gradually up to a ridge, ornamented 
with several detached mountains, which bounded the Shire 
\''alley. In front, northward, lay a valley aa rich and lovely 
as we ever saw any where, terminating at the moontains, 
which stretched away some thirty miles beyond our range 
of vision and ended at Cape Maclear. The groups of trees 
had never been subjected to the landscape gardener*s art, but 
had been cut down mercilessly, just as suited the conven- 
ience of the cultivator, yet the various combinations of open 
forest, sloping woodland, graasy lawns, aud massive clomps 

Cbap. XXIV. 



of dark grccn foliage along tlie ruQDmg streams formed as 
beautiful a landscape as coald be seen oq tbe Thames. Thia 
valley is named Goa or Gova, and as we moved through it 
ve found that what was smooth to the eye was very much 
furrowed by ranning streams winding round innuuicrable 
knolls. These little brooklets came down from the rawge on 
oar left, and the water was deliciously cool. 

Gova had been mvaded by tbe Ajawa under KaiRka, now 
living at the Lakelet Pamolombe, aud a party of Babisa, both 
eager slave-traders. The consequence of this visitation was, 
that, in the spots where women bad ventured back to their 
former gardens, our appearance was tbe signal for instant 
flight A very large portion of the land had once been un- 
der cultivation, but it was now abandoned to buflalocs and 
elephants. Tbo deep dork euphorbia hedges stood round 
the hamlets, and shady trees cast a grateful coolness over ttin 
smooth Boalo, where basket-making, spinning, and weaving, 
or dancing, drinking, and gossip formerly went on. Every 
thing was beautiful to the eye; but no people could be seen, 
except hero aud,there a few diyected-looking men. No food 
could be bought, and but a miserably small present of wild 
fruits was brought as the accustomed offering to strangers. 
We therefore tried to induce some of the villagers we fell in 
with to take as over the range oq out left; but, though we 
knew that the Maravi lived on its western side, they stoutly 
maintained that thurc were none within two days of it. Sev- 
eral of the mounUiin- sides in thia country are remarkably 
steep, and tbo loose blocks on them sharp and angular, with- 
out a trace of weathering. For a time wo considered the an- 
gularity of the loose fragments as eviJeuce that the conti- 
nent was of comparatively recent formation, but wo afterward 
beard the operation actually goiug ou by which the bouidera 




arc split into these sharp fivgrnonta The rocks nrc faeated 
by tlio torrid sun during the day to such an extent that one 
is sometimes startled on sitting dawn on them afler dusk to 
find them quite too hot for the flesh, protected by only thin 
tiowsers, to bear. The thennometer placed on them rises to 
137° in the sun. These heated surfaces, cooling from with- 
out by the evening air, contract more externally than within, 
and cho unyielding interior forces off the outer parts to a dis- 
tance of one or two fccL Let any one in a rocky place ob- 
aerve the fragments tbat have been thus shot off, and he will 
find in the vicinity pieces from a few ounces to one or two 
hundred pounds in weight, which exactly fit the new snriaoe 
of the original block; and he may hear in the evenings among 
the hills, where sound travclB readily, the ringing echo of the 
report, which the natives ascribe to Mchcsi, or evil spirits, 
and the more enlightened to these natural causes. 
. It would have been no great feat to have scaled tbcac 
mountains without any path to guide us, bat we could net 
aAbrd to waste the time necessary for a prolonged aaoent 
Our proviaions were nearly expended, so we pushed onward 
to the north, in hopes of finding what we needed there; 

"We alterward discovered that tie poor people had good 
reason for not leading strangers, of whom they knew noth- 
ing, to the stores of com which, after the invasion, they had 
been fain to hide among the crags of the hills. 

When we came abreast of the peak Chirobve, the peopk 
would no longer give us guides. They were afraid of lh«r 
enemies, whose dwellings we now had on our east; and, pro- 
ceeding without any ono to lead us, or to introduce us to the 
inhabitants, we were perplexed by all the paths running zig- 
zag across instead of along the valley. They had been made 
by tbe villagers going from the hamleta on the alopca to Uieir 



gardena in the meadows below. To adJ to our difficulties, 
tbo rivulets aod mountain torrents had wora gullica some 
thirty or forty feet deep, with steep sides ibat could uot be 
climbed except at certain points. The remaining inhabitaats 
on the flank of the range, when they saw strangers windiiig 
from side to aide, and often attempting to cross these tor- 
rent-beds at impossible places, screamed out their shrill war- 
alarm, and made the valley ring with their wild outcries. It 
was war, and war alone, and we were too deep down in the 
valley to make our voices heard in explanation. Fortunate- 
ly, they had burned off the long grass to a great extent It 
only here and there hid them from us. Selecting an open 
spot, we spent a night regarded by all around us as slave- 
hunters, but were undisturbed, though tho usual way of treat- 
ing an enemy in this part of tho country is by night attack. 

The nights at the altitude of the valley were cool, the low- 
est temperature shown being 37*; at 9 A.M. and 9 P.M. it 
was 58", about the average temperature of the day ; at mid- 
day 82°, and aonsct 70°. Our march was very much hi^de^ 
ed by the imperfectly buret corn and grass stalks having fall- 
en across the paths. To a reader in England this will seem 
a very small obstacle. But he must fancy the graas-stcma as 
thick as bis little finger, and the corn-stalks like so many 
walking-sticks lying in one direction, and so supporting each 
other that one has to lift bis feet up as when wading through 
deep high heather. The stems of grass showed the causes of 
ocrtain cjcplosioiis, as loud as pistols, which are beard when 
the annual Qres come roaring over the land. The heateU air 
inside, expanding, bursts the stalk with a loud report^ and 
strews the fragmente on the ground. 

A very great deal of native corn bad been cultivated here, 
and we saw buffaloes feeding in the deserted gardens, and 



CttAi*. XXIV. 

itomo voraen, wlio rau away very muub faster than the 

On the 2dLh, seeing &omo people standing under a tree by 
a village, wo 8at down, and sent Masego, one of our party, to 
communicate. The head man, Matnada, came back with bim, 
bearing a calabaBb. with water for as. Ho said that oU thoj 
people had fled from the Ajawa, who bad only just deeisted' 
from their career of pillage on being paid Rvo peraons as a 
flnc for some oflbnse for which they had commenced the in- 
vasion. &(atunda had plenty of grain to sell, and all the wom- 
en were soon at work grinding it into meal. We secured aa, 
abundant supply, and four milk goats. The Mangnnja 
is of a very superior breed to the general African animal, 
iog short'in the legs, and having a finety-sbaped brood body. 
By promising the Makololo that, when we no longer needed 
the milk, they should have the goats to improve the breed of ^ 
their own at home, they were induced to take the great 
possible care of both goats and kids in driving and pasturing.- 

Afler leaving Matunda, we came to the end of the high- 
land valley, and, before descending a steep declivity of a 
thousand feet toward the part which may be called the heel 
of the Lake, we had the bold mountains of Cape Maclear oa 
our right, with the blue water at their base, the hilJs of Tsen*^ 
gs in the distanoe in front, and Kirk's Range on our left, 
stretching away northward, and apparently becoming lower. 
As we came down into a fine, rich nndulaung valley, many 
perennial streams running to the cast £rom the bills on oof J 
left wer« crossed, while all those behind na on the higl 
ground seemed to unite in one named Lektie, which flowed 
iato the Lake. 

After a long day's march in the valley of the Lake, wher 
the temperature was veiy much higher than in that we had] 

Ctur. XXIV, 



just Iel\ wo culered the village of Kalosa, wTiich is situated 
(Ml the bank of & stream among gigantic timber trees, and 
found tbere a large party of Ajawa — Waiau ihcy caUed them- 
selves — all armed with muskets. We sat down among them, 
p and were sooa called to the chiefs court, and presented willi 
an ample mesa of porridge, buffalo meat, and beer. Katosa 
- ' was moro fraiik tlmu any Manganja chief we had met, and 
I oompliraented us by saying that "we must be bis 'Bazimo' 
I (good Epirits of his aooestora) ; for when he lived at Pama- 
I lotnbe, we lighted upon him from above — men the like of 
^^Lvbom he had never seen before, aud coming he knew not 
"whence." He gave us one of his own large and clean huts to 
aloep in; and we may take this opportunity of saying that 
the impression we received from our Urst journey oil the hills 
among the villages of Chisunsd, of the excessive dirtiness of 
the Manganja, was erroneous. This trait was confined to the 
oool highlands. Here crowds of men and women were ob- 
served to perform their ablutions daily in the stream that ran 
poet their villages j and this we have observed elsewhere to 
be a common custom with both Manganja and Ajawa. 

Before we started on the morning of the Ist of September, 
Katosa sent an enormous calabash of beer, containing at least 
three galions, and then came and wished us to " atop a day 
and eat with him." On explaining to him the reasons for 
oar haste, ho said that he was in the way by which travelers 
usually passed; ho never stopped them in their journeys, but 
would like to look at ns for a day. On our promising to rest 
a little with him on our return, he gave us about two pecks 
of rice, and three guides to conduct us to a subordinate fla- 
inale chief, Nkwinda, living on the borders of tho Lake in 

The Ajawa, from having taken slaves down to Quillimane 



CiLLP. xxir. 

and Mozambique, knew mora of us tban Katosa did. Thedcj 
muskets were carefully polished, and uever out of tliese slav^ 
ens' hands for a momeut, though in the chief's prtsdcnce. We 
uatorally felt appreheo^ve that we should nerer see 
agaiti. A migratory afllatus seems to havo come over the' 
Ajawa tribes. Wars amoug themselves, for the supply of the 
Coast slave-trade, arc mud to have first set ihem in mottou. 
The usual way in which they have advanced among the Mau- 
ganja has been by slavc-tradiug in a friendly way. Then, 
professing to wish to live as subjects, they have been wel- 
comed as guests, and the Maiiganja, being great agricuitui 
have been able to support considerable bodies of these 
itora for a time. When the provisions became scarce, the 
guests began to steal from the fields ; quarrels arose in coose- 
quenoc, and, the Ajawa having Hre-arms, their hosts got 
worst of it, and were expelled from village after village, 
out of their own country. The Manganja were quite as 
ia regard to slave-trading as the Ajawa, but had less enl 
prise, and were much more fond of the homo pursuits of] 
spinning, weaving, smelting iron, and cultivating the 8oi3, i 
of foreign travel. The Ajawa had Utile of a mechanical tani|j 
and not much love for ngricultare, but were very keen trad-, 
era and travclera. This party seemed to as to be in the fii 
or friendly stage of interoouiae with Katosa; and, as we aSl- 
erward found, he was fully alive to the danger. 

Our course was shaped toward the K. W., and we travened < 
a la]^ fertile tract of rich soil extensively cuttlvaied, bt 
dotted with many gigantic tbomy acacias which bad proi 
too large for the little axes of the cultivators. AAcr leaving 
Nkwinda, die first village we spent a night at in the distriot 
Kgabi was that of Chembi, and it had a stockade around iL 
The Asitu or Maxitu were said to be ravaging the oountij 



to the west of us, and no one was safe except in a stockade. 
We have so oi^eo, in traveling, heard of war in. front, that we 
paid litUe attention to the assertion of Chcmbi, tbat the whole 
country to the N.W. was in flight before these Mazitu, under 
a chief with the rather formidable name of Mowhiriwhiri ; we 
therefore resolved to go ou to Cliinaamba's, still farther in the 
same direction, and hear what be said about it. 

In marching across the same kind of fertile plains, there 
was little to interest the mind. The air was very sultry, for 
this is the "hot season" of the year. A thick haze restricted 
our view on all aides to a few miles. The blazing glare of 
the torrid sun on this haze gives to one, occuatomed to mists 
elsewhere, the impression of being enveloped in a hot fog. 
The cultivation was very extensive, and naturally drew our 
thoughts to the agriculture of the Africjans. On one part of 
this plain the people had fields of maiae, the plants of which 
towered far over our heads. A succession of holes three feet 
deep and four wide had been niado in a sandy dell, through 
which flowed a perennial stream. The maize sown in tho 
bottom of these holes had the benefit of tho moisture, which 
percolated from the stream through the sand ; and the result 
was a flourishing crop at a time of year when all the rest of 
the country was parched and dusty. On our counting the 
grains in one large cob or ear of maize, it was found to con- 
tain 360, and as one stalk has at times two or three coba, it 
may be said to yield three or four hundred-fold. 

^YhiIe advantage is taken of tho moist stratum in these 
holes during tho dry season, grain, beans, and pumpkins^ 
which are cultivated only in the rainy ti