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A NAEEATIVE OF EVENTS, 

&c. &c. 



NARRATIVE OF EVENTS 



CONNECTED WITH 



THE FIRST ABDICATION 



EMPEROR NAPOLEON, 



HIS EMBARKATION AT FREJUS AND VOYAGE TO ELBA, ON BOARD 
HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP UNDAUNTED. 



BY 



CAPTAIN SIR THOMAS USSHER, R.N.,K.C,H.C.B, 



HIS EMBARKATION AT ELBA, ON BOARD THE ELBESE BRIG OF WAR 

L'INCONSTANT, AND A JOURNAL OF HIS EXTRAORDINARY 

MARCH TO PARIS, AS 

NARRATED BY COLONEL LABORDE, 

WHO ACCOMPANIED THE EMPEROR ON THAT OCCASION. 



DUBLIN: 
GRANT AND BOLTON, 115, GRAFTON -STREET ; 

JAMES FRASER, REGENT-STREET, LONDON. 

1841. 



U87 




GEORGE FOLDS, Printer, 1, St. Andrew-street, 

OppooiU Trinity-treet, Dublin. 



PREFACE. 



ERRATA. 



t't; *--ij nut- \j"'"j\jt * v "- / j *j ? r * 

24 17 for " divient," read devient. 




24 19 /or "manufactuers," read manufactures. 


, 24 20 after " devroit," read en. 




, 24 22 for " cas," read car. 




} 24 , 23 /or " chore," read chose. 




, 24 


, 25 after " ont," read des. 




, 32 


, 8- for 


' Alemene," read Alcmene. 




, 42 


, IS for 


' conte," read coute. 




, 53 


, 31- for 


' Gourdon," read Gourgon. 




, 56 


, 23 /or 


* court," read coast. 




, 61 


, 16 /or 


' irrevalent," read irrelevant. 




, 63 


, 21 -for 'nourris," read nourrir. 




, 78 


, 6 for " autre," read outre. 





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to 



THOMAS USSHER, 



Mount Usher, Co. Dublin. 



JOURNAL OF EVENTS, 



CONNECTED WITH 



THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON 



IN the month of August, 1813, I was stationed in 
the Undaunted frigate, in the Gulf of Lyons, with 
the Redwing, Sir John Sinclair, and the Espoir, 
the Hon. Captain Spencer, under my orders. The 
latter, who had joined sometime before, had brought 
me letters and papers from England, in which were 
various reports of the reverses of the French army, 
and of the probable downfall of the Emperor 
Napoleon, with many speculations and surmises 
thereupon, and hinting at the possibility of his 
attempting to make his escape to America. The 
Courier newspaper even went so far as to insert in 
its columns a minute description of the Emperor's 
person, in case the attempt should be made. Sin- 
gularly enough, I cut out the paragraph in question, 
and wafered it on the book-case in my cabin, 
jokingly observing to the other captains, who 
happened to be dining with me about that time, that 
they had better take a copy of it, as he might 



possibly come our way, little imagining at the time 
I made this observation, that a few short months 
would see him at the very same table at which we 
were then sitting. 

The Redwing and Espoir afterwards returned 
to England, and I remained through the winter 
cruising off the coast of France. 

On the 24th of April, 1814, about ten o'clock 
at night, being five or six leagues from the town of 
Marseilles, in company with the Euryalus, Capt. 
Charles Napier, then under my orders, my attention 
was attracted by a brilliant light, in the direction 
of, and seemingly coming from the town, which I 
conjectured was an illumination for some important 
event. I began to think the Courier might prove, 
after all, to be a true prophet. Every exertion was 
then made, and every sail set in both ships to work 
up the bay. At day-break we were close off the 
land all was apparently quiet in the batteries, not 
a flag flying, nor were the telegraphs, which was 
uniformly the case on the approach of an enemy, 
at work. Everything betokened that some great 
change had taken place. The morning was serene 
and beautiful, with a light wind from the south- 
ward. Eager to know what had happened, but 
above all, anxious to hear (for who that has 
once experienced the horrors and miseries of war, 
can wish for its continuance !) that peace had been 
restored, I pushed in towards the island of 
Pomegue, which protects the anchorage of the 
bay of Marseilles. To guard against a surprise, 



9 

however, should such be attempted, I took the 
precaution of clearing the ship for action, and 
made signal to the Euryalus to shorten sail, that in 
the event of the batteries opening unexpectedly 
upon the Undaunted, my friend, Captain Napier, 
by whose judgment and gallant conduct I had on 
former occasions profited, might render me any 
assistance, in the event of being disabled. We now 
showed our colours and hoisted a flag of truce, 
and the royal standard of the Bourbons, which the 
ship's tailor had made during the night, at the 
main. This flag had not been displayed on the 
French coast for a quarter of a century : thus 
equipped, we were allowed to approach within gun- 
shot, when we observed men coming into the 
battery, and almost immediately a shot struck us 
on the main deck. Finding it was not their 
intention to allow us to proceed, I ordered the ship 
to be wore round, and hauled down the flag of 
truce and standard. While wearing, a second shot 
was fired, which dropped under the counter. This 
unusual and unwarrantable departure from the rules 
of civilised warfare, I resolved to notice, in the 
only way such attacks ought to be noticed, deter- 
mined at once, in the promptest and most energetic 
way, -to convince our assailants, that under no 
circumstances was the British flag to be insulted 
with impunity. I, therefore, again wore round, 
and arriving within point blank shot of the battery, 
poured in a broadside, which swept it completely, 
and in five minutes not a man was to be seen near 



10 

the guns. It was entirely abandoned. I now made 
sail for a second battery, and by signal directed the 
Euryalus to close, intending to anchor off the 
town. Shortly afterwards, observing a boat with a 
flag of truce, standing out of the harbour, I 
shortened sail to receive it. On coming alongside, 
I found she had on board the mayor and municipal 
officers of Marseilles, who had come from the town 
to apologise for the conduct pursued by the batteries, 
and intimating that it was an unauthorised act of 
some of the men. They informed me of the 
abdication of Napoleon, and the formation of a 
provisional government at Paris ; and I congra- 
tulated them on the change. I assured these 
gentlemen, that with regard to the conduct of 
the batteries, I could have no hesitation in forgiving 
all that had passed, and that I only hoped / might 
be as easily forgiven for the part I had taken ; that 
to prove my confidence in the honor and loyalty of 
their city, I should anchor my ship abreast of the 
town, a proposition they did not seem very much 
to approve of. I then made sail, with the Euryalus 
in company, and dropt anchor in the mouth of the 
harbour, that I might be the better able to take 
advantage of any circumstances that might occur. 
Captain Napier and myself then proceeded in the 
barge of the Euryalus towards the land. We 
found a dense crowd collected at the landing place, 
who, as we stopped to inquire for the Pratique 
officers, rushed into the water, and seizing the bow 
hauled her by main force on shore. Never did I 



11 



witness such a scene as now presented itself, as 
almost choked by the embraces of old and young-, 
we were hoisted on their shoulders and hurried 
along, we knew not whither. I certainly did not 
envy the situation of my friend, Captain Napier, 
whom I saw most lovingly embraced, by an old lady 
with one eye, from whom he endeavoured, in vain, 
to extricate himself, not using, I must say, the 
most gentle terms our language affords. 

In this way we arrived at the Hotel de Ville, 
amidst loud cries of " Vive les Anglais." We were 
here received by our friends, who had come with the 
flag of truce in the morning, but who were evidently 
not prepared for such a visit from us now. Indeed, 
under any other circumstances, we should not 
have been justified in ' appearing there as we did. 
Conscious, however, that we had no infectious 
disease on board, and as we had not visited any part 
of the Mediterranean where the plague prevails, we 
endeavoured to quiet their fears, and to satisfy 
them that no danger was to be apprehended from 
our visit. This infringement, however, of their 
sanitary laws (the observance of which they consider 
so essential to their safety,) they appeared to feel 
deeply, though I gave them every assurance of the 
healthy state of the ships. Besides, as I observed, 
it was no act of ours, but had been forced upon us 
by themselves, and under circumstances which we 
could not very well control. They said there was 
no previous instance of their sanitary laws having 
been violated, except by Napoleon, when he landed 



12 

from Egypt. They then invited us, with true 
French politeness, into the Maison de Ville, 
remarking, at the same time, how much their city 
had suffered in the reign of Louis XIV. from the 
dreadful plague, a magnificent picture of which, by 
David, showing some of the horrors of that 
visitation, hung in one of the principal rooms of 
the building. They now politely requested us to 
wait upon the General in command. We found 
that officer attending High Mass at the cathedral, 
and it is hardly possible to describe his astonishment, 
and the excitement caused by seeing two British 
naval officers, in their uniforms, in the midst of 
the congregation. I went up to the General, who 
received me with great apparent cordiality, and 
with considerable tact, (for we were at that time the 
greater "Lion" of the two,) invited us to join the 
procession, (I think it was that of the Virgin,) for 
which preparations had been made, and which was 
about to set out from the church where we then 
were. The streets through which we passed were 
excessively crowded, so much so, that it was with 
the utmost difficulty the procession could make its 
way at all. 

The predominance of old people and children 
among the crowd was remarkable. Observing upon 
this to some of the municipal officers, they told me 
that this was caused by the conscription, which had 
swept off, without distinction, (like another plague) 
all the young men who were capable of bearing 
arms, causing indescribable misery not only here, 



13 



but everywhere throughout France. Happy, indeed, 
were these poor people at seeing us amongst them, 
the harbingers of peace, which many of them had 
so long and ardently desired. That this was the 
prevailing feeling among them their whole de- 
meanour amply testified, as with vociferations, loud 
and vehement, of "Vive les Anglais!" they 
plainly r told us we were not unwelcome visitors. 
On arriving near the General's house, we were 
invited to take some refreshment, which we did ; 
but the populace outside were very impatient, and 
were not satisfied till we again made our appearance 
amongst them. I now began to reflect on the 
singular and difficult circumstances in which I was 
placed, and the responsibility I was incurring, 
being positively without any information on which 
I could rely-, as to the state of affairs outside of 
Marseilles. Nevertheless, as I knew the ships were 
prepared for any emergency that might happen, and 
in the hands of Lieutenant Hastings, my first 
lieutenant, in whose zeal and gallantry I had the 
greatest possible confidence ; I did not think there 
was much cause for apprehension, come what might. 
I had an idea, indeed, that this enthusiasm would 
not last. In the midst of all this rejoicing, I 
received a communication from the Commandant of 
the town, informing me that he had been instructed 
by his superior the Prince of Esling, the Governor 
of Toulon, and Commander-in-Chief of the district, 
to order us to our ships, and to allow of no further 
communication, excepting by flags of truce. I 



replied to this somewhat insolent mandate, by 
declaring my determination to remain where I was, 
telling the Commandant pretty plainly that I should 
not comply with the Prince's orders. I knew my 
strength, and that the ships, by their position, had 
the entire command of the town. The Prince then 
intimated that he would march three thousand men 
against the town. This also I was prepared for. 
During this angry discussion, Colonel Campbell, 
the English commissioner, arrived, bringing with 
him a very important note, which will be found in 
the appendix. I immediately waited upon him. He 
informed me that he had left the Emperor Napoleon 
on the road, pursuing his journey to St. Tropez, 
from which place, it had been arranged, he was to 
embark, accompanied by the envoys of the Allied 
Sovereigns. I immediately made arrangements for 
quitting the harbour of Marseilles, and on the 
following morning (April 26th) set sail for St. 
Tropez, leaving Captain Napier in command of 
the station. 



Undaunted, off St. Tropez, 
April 27th. 

On arriving off St. Tropez, we hoisted a red flag 
at the main, being the distinguishing signal agreed 
upon with Colonel Campbell at Marseilles. A boat 
immediately came out of the harbour, with a 
lieutenant from the French frigate, Dryade, (com- 
manded by the Comte de Montcabri,) which was 
lying there with the J^ictorieuse corvette. The 



15 



Comte sent his lieutenant to inform me, that the 
Emperor Napoleon had abdicated, and that the 
Comte de Montcabri had orders from the Provi- 
sional Government to remain at St. Tropez, with 
the Victorieuse, for the purpose of conducting 
the Emperor to the island of Elba, the sovereignty 
of which island had been guaranteed to him by the 
Allied Sovereigns, (it now struck me, that the red 
flag at the main was considered, in war, a signal of 
defiance.) At this moment a boat came alongside, 
with an Austrian officer, Major Sinclair, dispatched 
from Frejus by Colonel Campbell, to inform me 
that at the particular request of the Emperor, the 
Commissioners of the Allied Sovereigns had thought 
proper to change the place of embarkation, and 
requesting me to proceed to Frejus Bay. Frejus is 
an open roadstead, five or six leagues to the north 
of St. Tropez. Here it was that Napoleon landed 
on his return from Egypt, On arriving at the 
anchorage, I received a note from Col. Campbell, 
informing me that horses had been sent down from 
the town, and an orderly sergeant placed at my 
disposal, to carry on any communications with the 
town. Frejus lies on a height, three or four miles 
from the anchorage. I took advantage of this con- 
veyance and immediately waited on Col. Campbell, 
who, although suffering severely from his wounds, 
immediately accompanied me to the Chapeau Rouge, 
a small auberge or hotel (and I believe the only one 
in Frejus,) where Napoleon was lodged, and what- 
ever my previous feelings might have been towards 



16 

this, the most powerful and constant enemy the 
country ever had to contend with, I am proud to 
confess, all resentment and uncharitable feeling-, if 
any ever existed, quickly vanished, and I felt all 
the delicacy of the situation, in which circumstances 
the most extraordinary had placed me. His faithful 
follower in adversity, Comte Bertrand, was in 
attendance, and having* announced Col. Campbell 
and myself, we were immediately presented to him. 
Napoleon was dressed in the regimentals of the 
" Vielle Garde," and wore the star of the Legion 
of Honor ; he walked forward to meet us, with a 
book open in his hand, to which he occasionally 
referred, when asking me questions about Elba, and 
the voyage thither, he received us with great con- 
descension and politeness ; his manner was dignified, 
but he appeared to feel his fallen state. Having 
asked me several questions regarding my ship, he 
invited us to dine with him, upon which we retired. 
I was shortly afterwards waited upon by Comte 
Bertrand, who presented me with lists of the bag- 
gage, carriages, horses, &c., belonging to the 
Emperor. I immediately made arrangements for 
receiving them, and then demanded an interview 
with the several envoys of the Allied Sovereigns, 
feeling, that placed in a position of such peculiar 
responsibility and delicacy, it was necessary for me 
to learn from them the instructions they had received 
from their respective sovereigns, that I might shape 
my conduct accordingly, and particularly to know 
from them what ceremony was to be observed on 



17 

Napoleon's embarkation, and on arriving on board 
the Undaunted, as I was desirous to treat him with 
that generosity towards a fallen enemy which is ever 
congenial to the spirit and feelings of Englishmen. 
They informed me that their instructions were pre- 
cise and positive, and that he was styled by the 
treaty of Fontainbleau, Emperor and Sovereign 
of the island of Elba. I still entertained doubts 
as to the propriety of receiving him with a royal 
salute, but Colonel Campbell (in order to remove 
every doubt on that subject,) showed me Lord 
Castlereagh's instructions to him, which were con- 
clusive. I now gave orders to embark the Emperor's 
baggage, carriages and horses. Soon after, the 
Dryade, French frigate, and the F'ictorieuse 
corvette, arrived in the roads and anchored. The 
Comte de Montcabri, on landing, expressed his 
surprise to my first lieutenant, on seeing the 
baggage going on board. But on being presented 
to the Emperor shortly after, and learning his 
intention of embarking on board the Undaunted^ 
he returned to his ship and sailed out of the bay, 
with the Victor ieuse in company. The Victorieuse, 
I was given to understand, was to have remained at 
Elba in the Emperor's service. The party at table 
consisted of the Prince Schonwallof, Russian envoy ; 
Baron Roller, Austrian envoy ; Comte Truxos, 
Prussian envoy ; and our envoy, Col. Campbell ; 
Comte Clam, aide-de-camp to Prince Swartzen- 
burgh ; Comte Bertrand, Druo, and myself. The 
Emperor did not appear at all reserved, but on the 



18 

contrary, entered freely into conversation, and 
kept it up with great animation ; he appeared to 
show marked attention to Baron Koller, who sat on 
his right hand. Talking of bis intentions of build- 
ing a large fleet, he alluded to the Dutch navy, of 
which he had formed a very mean opinion ; he said 
that he had improved their navy, by sending able 
naval architects to Holland, and that he had built 
some fine ships there ; the Austerlitz (he said) was 
one of the finest ships in the world ; in speaking of 
her, he addressed himself to Prince Schouwallof, 
who did not seem to like the allusion \ he said the 
only use he could make of the old Dutch men-of- 
war, was to fit them to carry horses to Ireland. He 
talked of the Elbe, said the importance of that 
river was but little known, that the finest timber 
for ship building could be brought there, at a 
small expense, fromPoland, &c. &c. 

I slept this night at Frejus, and was awoke at 
four in the morning by two of the principal inha- 
bitants, who came into my room, to implore me to 
embark the Emperor as quickly as possible, intel- 
ligence having been received that the army of Italy, 
lately under the command of Eugene Beauharnais, 
was broken up, that the soldiers were entering 
France in large bodies, and were as devoted as ever 
to their chief; these gentlemen were afraid the 
Emperor might put himself at their head, I informed 
them I had no more to do with embarking the Em- 
peror than they had, and requested them to make 
known to the envoys (who, I dare say, were as 



19 

little pleased as I was, in being awoke at so un- 
seasonable an hour,) their fears and misgivings. It 
was, indeed, pretty evident that Napoleon was in 
no hurry to quit the shores of France, and .appeared 
to have some motive for remaining. The envoys 
became rather uneasy, and requested me to endea- 
vour to prevail upon him to embark that day. In 
order to meet their wishes I demanded an interview, 
and pointed out to the Emperor the uncertainty of 
winds, and the difficulty I should have in landing in 
the boats, should the wind change to the southward 
and drive in a swell upon the beach, which, from 
the present appearance of the weather, would, in 
all probability, happen before many hours, in which 
case I should be obliged, for the safety of his Ma- 
jesty's ship, to put to sea again ; I then took leave 
and went on board, and at 10 o'clock received the 
following note from Col. Campbell : 



"Dear Ussher, 

" The Emperor is not very well. He wishes to delay embarking 
for a few hours, if you think it will he possible then ; that you 
may not be kept in suspence, he begs you will leave one of your 
officers here, who can make a signal to your ship when it is 
necessary to prepare, and he will also send previous warning. I 
think you had better come up, or send, and we can fix a signal, 
such as a white sheet at the end of the street. The bearer has 
orders to place at your disposal a hussar and a horse, whenever 
you wish to go up or down, let me know your wishes by bearer. 
You will find me at General Roller's. 

" Y our's truly, 

"N. CAMPBELL;' 
" 10, A.M." 



20 



Napoleon finding that it was my determination to 
put to sea, saw the necessity of yielding to circum- 
stances ; Bertrand was accordingly directed to have 
the carriages ready at seven o'clock. I waited on 
the Emperor (at a quarter before seven) to inform 
him that my barge was at the beach ; I remained 
alone with him in his room at the town, until the 
carriage, which was to convey him to the boat, was 
announced. He walked up and down the room, 
apparently in deep thought. There now was a loud 
noise in the street, upon which I remarked, that a 
French mob was the worst of all mobs ; (I hardly 
know why I made this remark,) he replied, yes, 
they are a fickle people, and added, they are like a 
weathercock. At this moment Comte Bertrand 
announced the carriages ; he immediately put on 
his sword, which was lying on the table, and said, 
" allons, capitaine ;" I turned from him to feel if 
my sword was loose in the scabbard, fancying I 
might have occasion to use it. The folding doors 
(which opened on a pretty large landing place) 
were now thrown open, when there appeared a 
number of most respectable looking people, the 
ladies, in full dress, waiting to see him. They were 
perfectly silent ; but bowed most respectfully to the 
Emperor, who went up to a very pretty young 
woman in the midst of the group, and asked her, 
in a courteous tone, if she was married, and how 
many children she had. He scarcely waited for a 
reply ; but bowing to each individual, as he des. 
cended the staircase, stepped into his carriage, 



21 

desiring Baron Koller, myself, and Comte Ber- 
trand, (the Mareschal du Palais) to accompany him. 
The carriage immediately drove off at full speed to 
the beach, followed by the carriages of the envoys. 
On arriving there the scene was deeyly interest- 
ing. It was a bright moonlight night, with little 
wind j a regiment of cavalry was drawn up in 
a line upon the beachj and among the trees. 
On the carriage approaching, the bugles sounded, 
which, with the neighing of horses, and the noise 
of the people assembled to bid adieu to their fallen 
chief, was to me in the highest degree interesting. 
The Emperor having left the carriage, embraced 
Prince Schouwallof, (who, with Comte Truxos, took 
leave and returned to Paris,) and, taking my arm, 
proceeded immediately towards the barge, which was 
waiting to receive us. Lieutenant Smith, (nephew 
of Sir Sidney Smith^ who, it is well known, had 
been some time confined in the Temple with Capt. 
Wright) was by a strange coincidence the officer in 
command of the boat. He came forward and assisted 
the Emperor along the gang-board into the boat. 
The Undaunted lay close in, with her topsails 
hoisted, lying to. On arriving alongside, I imme- 
diately went up the side to receive the Emperor on 
the quarter-deck. He took his hat off and bowed 
to the officers who were all assembled on the deck. 
He soon afterwards went forward to the forecastle 
amongst the people, and I found him there con- 
versing with those among them who understood a 
little French. Nothing seemed to escape his obser- 



vation. The first thing which attracted his notice 
was the number of boats (I think we had eleven) 
Having made all sail, and fired a royal salute, I 
accompanied him to my cabin and shewed him my 
cot, which I had ordered to be prepared for him : 
he smiled when I said I had no better accommo- 
dation, and said that everything was very comfort- 
able, and he was sure he would sleep soundly. We 
now made all sail out of the bay, and shaped our 
course for Elba. At four, his usual hour, he was 
up, and had a strong cup of coffee, (his constant 
custom J and at seven came on deck, and seemed 
not the least affected by the motion of the ship ; at 
this moment we were exchanging numbers with the 
Malta, (Sir Benjamin Hallowel, standing towards 
Genoa) and I telegraphed to him that I had the 
Emperor Napoleon on board. The wind having 
changed to the south-east, I hauled on the larboard 
tack towards Corsica, at ten we breakfasted ; Comte 
Bertrand, Comte Druo, Baron Roller, Colonel 
Campbell, Comte Clam, and the officer of the 
morning watch were present. Napoleon was in good 
spirits, and seemed very desirous of showing that 
though he had ambition, England was not without 
her share also. He said, that ever since the time 
of Cromwell, we had set up extraordinary preten- 
sions, and arrogated to ourselves the dominion of 
the sea that after the peace of Amiens, Lord 
Sidmouth wished to renew the former treaty of 
commerce, which had been made by Vergennes 
after the American war ; but that he, anxious to 



encourage the industry of France, had expressed 
his readiness to enter into a treaty, not like the 
former, which it was clear, from the portfolio of 
Versailles, must be injurious to the interests of 
France ; but on terms of perfect reciprocity, viz., 
that if France took so many millions of English 
produce, England should take back as many mil- 
lions of French produce in return. Lord Sidmouth 
said, " this is totally new ; I cannot make a treaty 
on these conditions." Very well ! I cannot force 
you into a treaty of commerce no more than you 
can force me, and we must remain as we are with- 
out commercial intercourse. Then, said Lord Sid- 
mouth, there will be war, for unless the people 
of England have the advantage of commerce 
secured to them, which they have been accustomed 
to, they will force me to declare war. As you 
please, it is my duty to study the just interests of 
France, and I shall not enter into any treaty of 
commerce on other principles than those I have 
stated that although England made Malta the 
pretext, all the world knew that was not the real 
cause of the rupture ; that he was sincere in his 
desire for peace, as a proof of which, he sent his 
expedition to San Domingo. When it was remarked 
by Colonel Campbell that England did not think 
him sincere, from his refusing a treaty of com- 
merce and sending consuls to Ireland, with engi- 
neers, to examine the harbours ; he laughed, and 
said, that was not necessary, for every harbour in 
England and Ireland was well known to him ; and 



24 

Bertrand remarked, that every ambassador was a 
spy. Napoleon said, that the Americans acknow- 
ledged the justness of his principles of commerce, 
formerly they brought over some millions of tobacco 
and cotton, took specie in return, and then went 
empty to England, where they furnished them- 
selves with British manufactures. He refused to 
admit their tobacco and cotton unless they took 
from France an equivalent in French produce, they 
yielded to his system as being just ; he added, that 
now England had it all her own way, that there 
was no power which could successfully oppose her 
system, and that she might now impose on France 
any treaty she pleased " Les Bourbons pauvres 
diables (here he checked himself,) ils sont de Grands 
Seigneurs qui se coritentent d'avoir leurs terres et 
leur chateaux, mais si le peuple Fran^ais divient 
me content de cela, et trouve qu'il n'y a pas 1'encou- 
ragement pour leurs manufactuers dans 1'Interieur 
qu'ils devroit avoir, ils seront chasses dans six mois," 
Marseilles, Nantes, Bordeaux, et la Cote ne se 
soucient pas de cela, cas ils ont toujours le meme 
commerce, mais dans 1'interieur c'est autre chore. 
Je sais bien comment 1'esprit etoit pour moi a 
Terrare, Lyons, et ces endroits qui ont manu- 
factures, et qui j'ai encourages. He said that 
Spain was the natural friend of France, and 
enemy of Great Britain, that it was the inte- 
rests of Spain to unite with France in support of 
their commerce and foreign possessions that it 
was a disgrace to Spain to allow us to hold Gibraltar, 



it was only to bombard it night and day for a year 
and it must eventually fall. He asked whether we 
still held Ceuta ; he did not invade Spain, he said, 
to put one of his own family on the throne, but to 
revolutionize her, to make her a kingdom en regie, 
to abolish the inquisition, feudal rights, and the 
inordinate privileges of certain classes, he spoke 
also of our attacking Spain, without a declaration 
of war and without cause, and seizing the frigates 
bringing home treasure. Some one remarked, that 
we knew Spain intended to make common cause 
with him as soon as the treasure should arrive ; he 
said he did not want it, all he had was five millions 
(francs) per month. On my asking a question 
regarding the Walchern expedition, he said we 
could not hold Walchern with less than 14,000 men, 
half of whom would be lost annually by disease, 
and as he had such means in the neighbourhood at 
Antwerp, it could, at any time, be attacked, and 
by means of superiority of numbers must fall, that 
the expedition against it was on too great a scale 
and too long preparing, as it gave him time. He 
added that he wrote from Vienna, that the expe- 
dition was going to Antwerp. He thought a coup- 
de-main with ten thousand men, and with less 
preparation, would have succeeded laughed at our 
ignorance in suffering so much time to be lost, and 
sitting down before Flushing (whereby we lost a 
large proportion of our army through disease) 
instead of advancing rapidly on Antwerp, and 
seemed astonished at our government selecting such 



26 

a commander-in-chief for so important an expe- 
dition. After breakfast Napoleon read for some 
hours, and came on deck about two o'clock, and 
remained two or three hours, occasionally remark- 
ing- what was going forward, as the men were em- 
ployed in the ordinary duty of the ship, mending 
sails, drawing yarns, exercising the guns, &c. &c. 
After dinner he referred to a map of Toulon har- 
bour, and went over the whole of the operations 
against Lord Hood and General O'Hara (he com- 
manded the artillery there as major) all the other 
officers, he said, were for a regular siege ; he gave 
in a memoir proposing to drive off the fleet from 
the inner harbour, which, if successful, would 
place the garrison of Toulon in danger that it was 
upon this occasion he felt the superiority of the new 
tactics. He related an anecdote of one of the 
representatives of the people, ordering his battery 
to fire and unmasking it too soon. This evening 
a small Genoese trading' vessel passed near us, I 
ordered her to be examined, and as Napoleon was 
anxious to know the news, I desired the captain to 
be sent on board ; Napoleon was on the quarter- 
deck, he had a great coat and round hat on. As 
he expressed a wish to question the captain, I sent 
him to him on the after part of the quarter-deck, 
and afterwards ordered him down to my cabin. 
" Your captain," said he, " is the most extraordi- 
nary man I ever met with, he put all sorts of ques- 
tions to me, and without giving me time to reply, 
repeated the same questions rapidly to me a second 



27 

time." When I told him whom he had been speak- 
ing to he appeared all astonishment, and instantly 
ran on deck hoping to again see him ; but Napoleon, 
to his great disappointment, had already left the deck 
and gone below. When I told Napoleon that the 
man had remarked the rapidity with which he put 
questions to him twice over, he said it was the only 
way to get at the truth from such fellows. One 
morning, when Napoleon was on deck, I ordered 
the ship to be tacked, and we stood towards the 
Ligurian coast ; the weather was very clear as we 
approached the land ; we had a fine view of the 
Alps ; he leaned on my arm, and gazed at them 
with great earnestness for nearly half an hour \ his 
eye appeared quite fixed. I remarked that he had 
passed those mountains on a former occasion, under 
very different circumstances ; he merely said, it was 
very true. The wind was now increasing to a gale, 
he asked me, laughing, if there was any danger, which 
was evidently meant to annoy Baron Koller, who was 
near him, and who had no great faith in the safety 
of ships, and whom he constantly joked on his bad 
sailorship, as he suffered dreadfully from sea sick- 
ness. He made some observations to me as to our 
men's allowance of provisions, and seemed sur- 
prised that they had cocoa and sugar, and asked how 
long they had had that indulgence, I told him they 
were indebted to him for it, that the continental 
system had done this good for the sailors, that as 
we could not send our cocoa and sugar to the con- 
tinent, the government had made that addition to 
the allowance of the men. 



28 

We now tacked and stood over towards the Cor- 
sican shore, passing a small vessel, he was very 
anxious for me to hail her for news ; I told him 
we could not get near enough for that purpose, as 
she was to windward crossing us on the opposite 
tack, we were then at table ; he whispered me to 
fire at her and bring her down ; I expressed my 
surprise at his request as it would denationalize 
her (referring to his Milan decree) he pinched my 
ear and laughed, remarking that the treaty of 
Utrecht directs, that when vessels are boarded it 
shall be done out of gun-shot, it was on this oc- 
casion, he said, England was not prepared for the 
steps he took in retaliation, upon her blockading 
an entire line of coast trom the river Elbe to Brest, 
it was that which forced him to take possession 
of Holland. America behaved with spirit, he said, 
adding, he thought their state correspondence was 
very well managed and contained much sound rea- 
soning. I asked him if he issued his Milan decrees 
for the purpose of forcing America to quarrel with 
us ? he said he was angry with America for suifering 
her flag to be denationalized ; he spoke long on 
this subject, and said that America had justice on 
her side ; he rather expected America to invade 
Mexico, he said the expedition against Copenhagen 
was most unjust, and in every point of view bad 
policy ; and, that after all, we only took a few 
vessels that were of no use to us, that the gross in- 
justice of attacking a weaker nation, without a 
cause and without a declaration of war, did us 



29 

infinite harm. I observed, that it was at that time 
believed that their fleet was sold to him. In speaking 
of Toulon, he remarked that he found great incon- 
venience in being obliged to complete the provisions 
and stores after the ships went out of the inner 
harbours, as it gave information of his intentions 
to British cruizers, to avoid this, he sent the Rivoli 
out from Venice on a camel, with her guns, stores, 
and provisions on board, he meant to form an estab- 
lishment for building men-of-war at Bouc, near the 
mouth of the Rhone, instead of at Toulon, the timber 
for which was to be brought there by a canal from 
the Rhone, and that he intended to make Toulon a 
port of equipment. In speaking of Cherbourg, he 
described the basin cut out of the solid rock, with 
docks for ships, executed by his orders, and drew 
with a pencil, on a plan I have of the town, a line 
of fortifications, erected for its defence, against any 
expedition from England, which it seemed he ex- 
pected the entrance is mined at each side, the 
Empress Marie Louisa visited Cherbourg (when he 
was at Dresden) at the completion of the works 
last year. He said he had in his possession what 
would be invaluable to England, spoke of the weak 
and strong points of the empire ; some remarks 
arising from this observation, he said France is 
nothing without Antwerp, for while Brest and 
Toulon are blockaded a fleet can be equipped there, 
wood is brought from Poland ; he never would con- 
sent to give it up, having sworn at his coronation 
not to diminish France. He had the Elbe sounded 



30 



and surveyed carefully, and found that it was as 
favorable as the Scheldt for great naval establish- 
ments near Hamburgh. 

He told me his plans for the navy were on a 
gigantic scale, he would have had three hundred 
sail of the line ; I observed that it was impossible 
he could man half the number. He said the naval 
conscription, with the enlistment of foreigners, 
which he could have from all parts of Europe, 
would supply men enough for the whole of his navy, 
that the Zuyder sea is particularly well calculated 
for exercising conscripts. Having expressed some 
doubts as to the merits of his conscript sailors, he 
said I was mistaken, and asked my opinion of the 
Toulon fleet, which I had had frequent oppor- 
tunities of seeing manoeuvre in the presence of our 
fleet, he begged I would tell him frankly what I 
thought of it. The conscripts were trained or ex- 
ercised, for two years, in schooners and small craft, 
and his best officers and seamen appointed to com- 
mand them, that they were constantly at sea, either 
to protect the coasting trade or exercising ; he did 
not calculate on their becoming perfect seamen by 
these means, but intended to have sent squadrons 
out to the East and West Indies, not for the pur- 
pose of attacking the colonies, but for perfecting 
the men and annoying, at the same time, the com- 
merce of England ; he calculated upon losing some 
ships ; but said he should be able to spare them, 
that they would be well paid for. Whilst on this sub- 
ject, he surprised me by explaining to Baron Koller 



31 



(and that very well) a very nice point of seaman- 
ship, viz., that of keeping a ship clear of her anchor 
in a tide-way. 

He admired much the regularity with which the 
duty of the ship was carried on, every thing being 
so well timed, and, . above all, the respect observed 
by the different ranks of officers to each other, and 
to the quarter deck, he thought this most essential 
to good discipline, and was not surprised that we 
were so tenacious of the slightest deviation from it, 
that he endeavoured to introduce this into the French 
navy, but could not drive it into the heads of his 
captains. The wind still continuing to the east- 
ward, with a heavy sea, we stood in, to get well in 
with the Corsican shore, having carried away the leech 
ropes of the fore and main topsails ; we repaired 
them aloft, close reefed them, and sent down top- 
gallant-yards and royal masts, there being* now 
every appearance of bad weather. I mentioned my 
intention, if the gale increased, of anchoring at 
Bastia, Napoleon seemed most desirous that we 
should, in that case, anchor at Ajacio, I explained 
to him that it was much out of our course ; he pro- 
posed Calvi, with which he was perfectly acquainted, 
mentioning the depth of water, with other remarks 
on the harbour, &c., which convinced me he would 
have made us an excellent pilot had we touched 
there. 

This evening we fell in, and exchanged num- 
bers, with the Berwick, Aigle, and Alemene, with 
a convoy ; I invited Sir John Lewis and Captain 



32 

Coglan to dine with me. When they came on 
board I presented them to Napoleon ; he asked 
them various questions about their ships, their sail- 
ing, and other qualities. Captain Coglan was not 
a little surprised by his asking him if he were not 
an Irishman and a Roman Catholic. All this night 
we carried sail to get in shore, the Aigle and 
^4lemene keeping company. At daylight we saw 
the town of Calvi bearing south, Napoleon was on 
deck earlier than usual, he seemed in high spirits, 
looked most earnestly at the shore, asking the offi- 
cers questions relative to landing places, &c. As 
we closed with the shore, the wind moderated. 
During the bad weather Napoleon remained con- 
stantly on deck, and was not in the least affected by 
the motion of the ship this was not the case, how- 
ever, with his attendants, who suffered a good deal. 
The wind now coming off the land, we hauled close 
in shore ; Napoleon took great delight in ex- 
amining it with his glass, and told us many anec- 
dotes of his younger days. We rounded a bold 
rocky cape, within two or three cables length. 
Napoleon, addressing himself to Baron Roller, 
said he thought a walk on shore would do them 
good, and proposed landing to explore the cliffs. 
The Baron whispered that he knew him too well to 
trust him on such an excursion, and begged me not 
to listen to his suggestion. We now hauled in to- 
wards the gulf of San Fiorenza, fired a gun, and 
brought to a felucca from Genoa, who informed 
us that Sir Edward Pellew, the Commander-in-chief, 



S3 

and fleet were lying there. We then shaped our 
course for Cape Corso, which we passed in the night. 
In the morning we tacked and stood towards 
Capraja Isle, and observing colours flying at the 
castle, stood close in and hove to. A deputation 
came off from the island requesting me to take pos- 
session of it, and informing me that there was a 
French garrison in the castle. I accordingly sent 
Lieutenant Smith with a party of seamen to hoist 
the British colours for its protection. Napoleon 
held a long conversation with the members of the 
deputation, who expressed the utmost surprise at 
finding their Emperor on board an English man-of- 
war. Having now made all sail, and shaped our 
course for Elba, Napoleon became very impatient 
to see it, and asked if we had every sail set. I told 
him we had all that could be of any use. He said, 
" were you in chase of an enemy's frigate should 
you make more sail ?" I looked, and seeing that 
the starboard top-gallant stern-sail was not set, I 
observed, that if I were in chace of an enemy I 
should certainly carry it. He replied, if it could be 
of use in that case it might be so now. I mention 
this anecdote to show what a close observer he was, 
that in fact nothing escaped him. 

When the man stationed at the mast-head hailed 
the deck that Elba was right a-head, he became ex- 
ceedingly impatient, went forward to the forecastle, 
and as soon as the land could be seen from the deck, 
was very particular in enquiring what colours were 
flying on the batteries. He seemed to doubt the 



34 



garrison having given in their adhesion to the 
Bourbons, and it appears not without some reason, 
as they had, in fact, only done so during the pre- 
ceding forty-eight hours, so that if we had had a fair 
wind I should have found the island in the hands of 
the enemy, and consequently must have taken my 
charge to the Commander-in-Chief, who would, no 
doubt, have [ordered us to England. On nearing 
Elba, General Druot, with Comte Clam (aid-de- 
camp to Prince Schwartzenberg) and Lieutenant 
Hastings, the first lieutenant of the Undaunted, 
were sent on shore, commissioned by Napoleon to 
take possession of the island. Colonel Campbell 
accompanied them. They were conducted to the 
house of General Dalkeme, who had received 
orders from the Provisional Government only two 
days before, in consequence of which, he and his 
troops had given in their adhesion to Louis XVIII. 
and hoisted the white flag. The General expressed 
his desire to do whatever should be agreeable to the 
Emperor. 

May 3rd, 1814, one part of Druot's instructions 
from Napoleon, mentioned his desire to receive the 
names of all officers, non-commissioned officers, and 
privates, who would wish to enter into his service. 
He desired also a deputation of the principal inha- 
bitants to come off to him. At about eight o'clock, 
p.m., we anchored at the entrance of the harbour, 
and soon after the deputation waited upon Na- 
poleon ; there had been originally about three thou- 
sand troops, but desertion, and the discharge of 




35 

discontented foreigners, had reduced the number to 
about seven hundred. The island had been in a 
state of revolt for several weeks, in consequence of 
which, the troops were shut up in the fortifications, 
which surround the town of Porto Ferragio. 
During the night, an Austrian officer was sent off in 
one of my boats to Piombino, to invite a renewal 
of communication, and obtain news, &c. This was 
done by a letter from the Commissioners to the 
Commandant, who, however, politely declined com- 
municating with us, at the same time stating that 
he had written to his superior for permission to 
do so. 

May 4th, Napoleon was on deck at daylight, and 
talked for two hours with the harbour master, who 
had come on board to take charge of the ship as 
pilot, questioning him minutely about the anchorage, 
fortifications, &c. At six, we weighed and made 
sail into the harbour ; anchored at half-past six near 
the mole head, and moored ship, hoisted out all 
the boats and sent some of the baggage on shore. 
At eight the Emperor asked me for a boat, as he 
intended to take a walk on the opposite side of the 
bay, and requested me to go with him. He wore a 
great coat and a round hat. Comte Bertrand, Col* 
Campbell, and Colonel Vincent (chief engineer) 
went with us ; Baron Roller declined doing so. 
When halfway he remarked he was without a sword, 
and soon afterwards asked if the peasants of Tuscany 
were addicted to assassination. We walked for about 
two hours. The peasants, taking us for English- 



36 

men, cried " Viva," which seemed to displease 
him ; we returned on board to breakfast. He after- 
wards fixed upon a flag for Elba, requesting me to 
remain while he did so. He had a book with all 
the ancient and modern flags of Tuscany ; he asked 
my opinion of that which he had chosen, it was a 
white flag with a red band running diagonally 
through it, with three bees on the band (the bees 
were in his arms as Emperor of France.) He then 
requested me to allow the ship's tailor to make two, 
one of them to be hoisted on the batteries at one 
o'clock. At two, p.m., the barge [was manned, he 
begged me to show him the way down the side of 
the vessel, which I did, and was soon followed by 
the Emperor, General Koller, Comte Bertrand, 
and Comte Clam. The yards being manned we 
fired a royal salute, as did two French corvettes 
which were at that time lying in the harbour. 

The ship was surrounded by boats with the prin- 
cipal inhabitants, and bands of music on board. 
The air resounded with shouts of " Vive 1'Empereur, 
Vive Napoleon !" On landing, he was received by 
the Prefect, the Clergy, and all the authorities, and 
the keys were presented to him on a plate, upon 
which he made a complimentary speech to the 
Prefect, the people welcoming him with loud accla- 
mations. We proceeded to the church through a 
double file of soldiers, and from thence to the 
Hotel de Ville, where the principal inhabitants 
were assembled, with several of whom he conversed. 
Remarking an old soldier in the crowd (he was a 




37 

sergeant, I believe, and wore the order of the 
Legion of Honor) he called him to him, and 
seemed delighted to see him, spoke to him by name, 
and recollected having given him that "deco- 
ration" on the field of battle at Eylau. The old 
soldier shed tears, the idea of being remembered 
by his Emperor fairly overcame him. He felt, 
I doubt not, it was the proudest day of his life. 
Napoleon afterwards mounted a horse, and attended 
by a dozen persons, visited some of the outworks ; 
having, before leaving the ship, invited me to dine 
with him at seven o'clock. I ordered all my wine 
and stock to be landed for his use, the island being 
destitute of provisions of that sort. 

May 5th, at four a.m., I was awoke by shouts of 
" Vive 1'Empereur," and drums beating ; Napoleon 
was already up, and going on foot over the forti- 
fications, magazines, and storehouses. At ten he 
returned to breakfast, and at two mounted his 
horse, and I accompanied him two leagues into the 
country. He examined various country houses, 
and gave money to all the poor we met on the road. 
At seven he returned to dinner. I should remark 
that before leaving the Undaunted, Napoleon 
requested that a party of fifty marines might accom- 
pany him and remain on shore, but this he after- 
wards changed to an officer and two sergeants, one 
of whom, O'Gorum (one of the bravest and best 
soldiers I ever met with, and whom he had taken a 
great fancy to) he selected to sleep outside the door 
of his bedchamber, on a mattress, with his clothes and 



38 

sword on. A valet de chambre slept on another 
mattress in the same place, and if Napoleon lay 
down during the day, the sergeant remained in the 
antichamber. 

May 6th, at six o'clock, we crossed the bay in 
my barge and found horses waiting for us. We 
rode to Riou to see the famous iron mountains. 
We visited several mines, and likewise a temple 
built by the Romans, and dedicated by them to 
Jupiter. The road to the latter is highly romantic 
and beautiful, but it is difficult of access, being 
situated on the summit of a steep and lofty moun- 
tain ; this obliged us to dismount, and we walked 
through a thick covert of beautiful trees and shrubs 
till we arrived at the temple. We saw also a small 
museum very nicely kept, and containing many fine 
specimens of the ores of the adjoining mines, two 
or three of which Napoleon presented me with. 
He expressed a wish to see the principal mine, and 
when everything was prepared, asked Baron Koller, 
myself, and one or two of the party to accompany 
him, which they politely declined ; I, however, 
accepted his invitation. Two guides, with flam- 
beaux, accompanied us. When we arrived at the 
middle of, what appeared to me, an immense 
cavern, the guides suddenly struck the ground with 
their flambeaux, and all around became instantly 
and splendidly illuminated. At the moment I ex- 
pected an explosion ; Napoleon may have thought 
so too, but he very coolly took a pinch of snuff 
and desired me to follow him. At Riou, Te Deum 



39 

was chaunted, I suppose for the first time, as the 
officiating priest did not seem to understand his 
business. In passing through Riou a salute was 
fired, and he was received with loud acclamations 
and cries of " Vive 1'Empereur." The people 
seemed very anxious to see him. Several old women 
presented petitions, and numbers pressed forward 
to kiss his hand. At five, we embarked in the 
barge and crossed the harbour to Porto Ferraggio ; 
at seven we sat down to dinner. He spoke of his 
intention of taking possession of Pianosa, a small 
island without inhabitants, about ten miles from 
Elba. He said, " Toute 1'Europe dira, que j'ai 
deja fait une conquete ;" already he had plans in 
agitation for conveying water from the mountains 
to the city. It appears always to have been consi- 
dered by him of the first importance to have a 
supply of good water for the inhabitants of towns, 
and upon this occasion, it was evidently the first 
thing that occupied his mind, having almost imme- 
diately requested me to go with him in the barge in 
search of water. One day exploring for this pur- 
pose, he remarked the boats of the Undaunted in 
a small creek watering ; he said he was quite 
sure that good water was to be had there, I asked 
him why he thought so ; he said, depend upon it, 
sailors always know where to find the best, there 
are no better judges. We landed at the place he 
desired to taste the water ; Jack made the rim 
of his hat into what is called a cocked hat, and 
filled it with water, Napoleon was amused at the 



contrivance, tasted the water and pronounced it 
excellent. The cleanliness of the streets he als 
thought of the greatest importance, and requested 
I would allow the carpenter of the ship to go t 
him (having told him he was a tolerable good 
engineer) that he might consult him about forcing 
the sea water, by means of pumps, to the summit 
of the hill. Porto Ferraggio is built on the side of 
a hill, crowned by strong works for the defence of 
the town. I believe he afterwards abandoned his 
sea water plan, which would have been attended 
with great expense. He had also plans for a palace 
and a country house, and a house for Princess 
Pauline, stables, a lazaretto and quarantine ground, 
about the latter he asked my opinion. 

May 7th, from four till ten, A.M., Napoleon was 
employed visiting the town and fortifications ; after 
breakfast he again embarked in the barge, and 
visited the different storehouses round the harbour. 
In making excursions into the country he was ac- 
companied by a dozen officers and the captain of the 
gens d'armerie, and one of the Fouriers de Palais 
always rode before, and sometimes a party of gens 
d'armes a pied. After taking our places in the 
barge, some of the party kept their hats off, he de- 
sired them to put them on, remarking, " nous sommes 
ici ensemble en soldats." The fishing for the tunny 
is carried on here by one of the richest inhabitants, 
who, from poverty, has amassed a large fortune ; 
he employs a great number of the poor and has 
considerable influence. The removal of his stores 



41 

to a very inferior building, to make way for a stable 
for the Emperor's horses, is likely to give great 
offence. 

May 8th, the Curacoa, Captain Towers, ar- 
rived with Mr. Locker, secretary to Sir Edward 
Pellew, Commander-in-Chief, he requested ah 
audience, to present to the Emperor a copy of 
the treaty of peace. Napoleon received Mr. 
Locker very graciously, and seemed to read the 
treaty with deep interest. Baron Roller, Comte 
Bertrand, Druot, General Dalheme, &c. ; Colonel 
Campbell, Captain Towers, and myself were pre- 
sent. Having read it, he folded and returned it 
to Mr. Locker, expressing his obligations to the 
Commander-in-Chief. 

May 9th, Baron Roller having demanded an 
audience, took leave of the Emperor and embarked 
in the Curacoa for Genoa. I, this day, accom- 
panied Napoleon to Longone, where we lunched 
amid repeated cries of "Vive PEmpereur." Longone 
is a place of considerable strength, the works are 
regular, the bay is small, but there is safe anchorage 
within. Many old people presented petitions, and 
girls brought flowers, which he accepted with much 
condescension, talking to all, but particularly to 
those that were pretty. A young lad fell on his 
knees before him, either to ask charity or merely as 
a mark of respect, he turned to Col. Campbell and 
said, " Ah ! je connais bien les Italiens, c'est 1'edu- 
cation des moines, on ne voit pas cela parmi le 
peuple du nord." On proceeding a little farther 



42 

we met two well dressed young women, who saluted 
him with compliments, one of them, the youngest, 
told him with great ease and gaiety, that she had 
been invited to the ball at Longone two days before, 
but as the Emperor did not attend it, as was expected, 
she had remained at home. Instead of returning 
by the same road, he turned off by goat-paths to 
examine the coast, humming Italian airs, which he 
does very often, and seemed quite in spirits ; he 
expressed his fondness for music, and remarked that 
this reminded him of passing Mont St. Bernard, and 
of a conversation he had had with a young peasant 
upon that occasion ; the man, he said, not knowing 
who he was, spoke freely of the happiness of those 
who possessed a good house, and a number of cattle, 
&c. ; he made him enumerate his greatest wants and 
desires, and afterwards sent for him and gave him 
all that he had described, " cela m'a conte 60,000 
francs." 

May 10th, Napoleon rode to the top of the 
highest hill above Porto Ferraggio, from whence 
we could perceive the sea at four different points, 
and apparently not an English mile in a straight 
line in any direction from the spot where we stood. 
After surveying it for some time, he turned round 
and laughed, " Eh ! mon isle est bien petite." On 
the top of this hill is a small chapel and a house, 
where a hermit had resided until his death. Some 
one remarked that it would require more than com- 
mon devotion to induce persons to attend service 
there. ** Oui, oui, le Pretre peut dire autant de 



43 

Betises qu'il veut." On the evening of the 9th, 
after his return from Longone, he entered upon the 
subject of the armies and their operations at the 
close of the last campaign, and continued it for half 
an hour, until he rose from table. After passing 
into the presence chamber, the conversation again 
turned on the campaign, his own policy, the 
Bourbons, &c., and he continued talking with great 
animation till midnight, remaining for three hours 
on his legs. He described the operations against 
the Allies as always in his favor, while the numbers 
were in any sort of proportion, that in one affair 
against the Prussians, who were infinitely the best, 
he had only seven hundred infantry en tirailleurs, 
with two thousand cavalry and three batallions of 
his guards in reserve, against double their numbers. 
The instant those' old soldiers showed themselves 
the affair was decided. He praised General Blucher, 
" le vieux diable m'a toujours attaque avec la meme 
vigueur, s'il etoit battu, un instant apres il se mon- 
trait pret pour le combat." He then described his 
last march from Arcis to Brienne, said that he 
knew Swartzenberg would not stand to fight him, 
and that he hoped to destroy half his army. Upon 
his retreat, he had already taken an immense quan- 
tity of baggage and guns. When it was reported 
to him that the enemy had crossed the Aube to 
Vitry, he was induced to halt, he would not, how- 
ever, credit it, till General Gerard assured him that 
he saw twenty thousand infantry, he was overjoyed 
at this assurance and immediately returned to St. 



44 

Dizier, where he attacked Wintzingerode's cavalry, 
which he considered the advance guard of Swartzen- 
berg's army, drove them before him a whole day 
like sheep, at full gallop, took fifteen hundred or 
two thousand prisoners, and some light pieces of 
artillery ; but to his surprise did not see any army 5 
and again halted. His best information led him to 
believe, that instead of retreating to Sangres they 
had returned to Troyes. Accordingly he marched 
in that direction, and then ascertained, after a loss 
of three days, that the two armies of Swartzenberg 
and Blucher had marched upon Paris ; he then 
ordered forced marches, and went forward himself 
(with his suite and carriages) on horseback, day and 
night, never were he or his friends more gay and 
confident ; he knew, he said, all the workmen of 
Paris would fight for him, what could the Allies do 
with such a force ? The National Guards had only 
to barricade the streets with casks and it would be 
impossible for them to advance before he arrived to 
their assistance. At eight, a.m., a few leagues from 
Paris, he met a column of stragglers, who stared 
at him and he at them, " qu'est ce que c'est cela ?" 
he demanded ; they stopped and seemed stupified 
" quoi ! c'est 1'Empereur." They informed him they 
had retreated through Paris ; he was still confident 
of success. His army burnt with desire to attack 
the enemy and drive them out of the capital ; he 
knew very well what Swartzenberg would risk, and 
the composition of the allied army compared with 
his own, that he never would hazard a general 



45 

battle with Paris in his rear, that he would take the 
defensive position on the other side ; he would have 
engaged them in various points for two or three 
hours, then have marched with his thirty battalions 
of guards and eighty pieces of cannon, himself at 
the head, upon one part of the enemy's force, 
nothing could withstand that, but although his 
inferiority of numbers would not enable him to 
hope for a complete victory, yet he should succeed 
in killing a great number of the enemy, and forcing 
them to abandon Paris and its neighbourhood, what 
he would afterwards do must depend on various 
circumstances. Who could have supposed that the 
senate would have dishonoured themselves by assem- 
bling under the force of 20,000 foreign bayonets (a 
timidity unexampled in history) and that a man 
who owed everything to him who had been his 
aide-de-camp, and attached to him for twenty 
years, would have betrayed him ! Still it was 
but a faction, which ruled Paris Bunder the in- 
fluence of the enemy's, force ; the rest of the 
nation was for him, the army would, almost to a 
man, continue to fight for him, but with so great 
an inferiority in point of number, it would be cer- 
tain destruction to many of his friends and a 
war for years ; he preferred, therefore, sacrificing 
his own rights. It was not for the sake of a 
crown that he had continued the war, it was for the 
glory of France, and not for the sake of plans 
which he saw no prospect of realizing, he wished 
to have made France the first nation in the world, 



now it was at an end, "j'ai abdique, a present je 
suis un homme mort I" He repeated the latter 
phrase several times. In remarking on his confi- 
dence in his own troops and his " Vieille Garde," 
and the want of union among the Allies, he re- 
ferred to Colonel Campbell, to say candidly if it was 
not so, " dites, Campbell, franchement, n'est ce pas 
vrai." Colonel Campbell told him it was, that he 
had never seen any very considerable portion of the 
French army, but every one spoke of the Emperor 
and his " Vieille Garde," as if there were something 
more than human about them, that the inferiority 
which he conceived of Swartzenbergh's army, was 
justly founded, they had no confidence in them- 
selves or on their allies, each party thought he did 
too much, and his allies too little, and that they 
were half beaten before they closed with the French. 
He sneered at Marmont's anxiety for his life, " fut 
il jamais rien si naive que cette capitulation ;" he 
wished to protect his person but deserted, leaving 
him and the whole of his comrades open to the 
surprise of the enemy, for it was his corps which 
covered the whole front. The night previous, 
Marmontsaidtohim, " pour mon corps d'armee j'en 
reponds," so he might. The officers and soldiers were 
enraged when they found what had been done, 
eight thousand infantry, three thousand cavalry ^ 
and sixty pieces of cannon. "Voila 1'histoire," 
he animadverted on his conduct before Paris, 
saying, whoever heard of such a thing, two hun- 
dred pieces of artillery in the Champ de Mars, and 



47 

only sixty on the heights of Montmartre. General 
Dalheme asked whether he had not fought with 
vigour. This was nearly all that passed at that time. 
After accompanying him into another room he 
resumed the conversation, enlarging upon the 
general state of this army and the policy of France. 
He seemed to repent his abdication, and said, that 
had he known that it was owing to the treachery of 
Augereau only, that his army fell back behind 
Lyons, he would have united his own to it, even 
after Marmont's capitulation. He animadverted 
strongly on the conduct of Augereau, yet he met 
him with all the kindness of a friend. The first 
idea of his defection struck him after separating 
from him on the road between Valence and Lvons. 

t 

The spirit of the troops was such, that he durst not 
remain among them, for on his arrival, many old 
officers and soldiers came up to him weeping, and 
said, they were betrayed by Augereau, and requested 
Napoleon would put himself at their head ; he had 
an army of thirty thousand fine men, many of them 
from the army of Spain, which ought to have kept 
its ground against the Austrians. He again spoke 
of Marmont's defection, that it was reported to him 
in the morning, but he did not believe it that he 
rode out and met Berthier, who confirmed it from 
an undoubted source. He referred to the armistice 
between Lord Castlereagh and Talleyrand, that he 
thought the Allies were pursuing a bad policy with 
regard to France, by reducing her so much, for it 
would wound the pride of every man there ; they 



48 

might have left them much more power without any 
risk, and yet without being on an equality with 
several other powers. France had no longer any 
fleet or colonies a peace would not restore ships or 
St. Domingo. Poland no longer existed, nor 
Venice ; these went to aggrandize Russia and 
Austria. Spain, which is the natural enemy of 
Great Britain more so than of France, was inca- 
pable of doing anything as an ally, if to these 
sacrifices were added, that of a disadvantageous 
treaty of commerce with Great Britain, the people 
of France would not remain tranquil under it, " pas 
meme six mois, apres que les puissances etrangeres, 
quitterent Paris, 5 ' He then remarked that a month 
had already elapsed, and the King of France had 
not yet come over to the people who had placed 
him on the throne. He said, now England would 
do as she pleased, the other powers were nothing in 
comparison, "pour vingt annees au moins, aucune 
puissance, ne peut faire guerre contre 1'Angleterre 
et elle fera ce qu'elle veut." Holland would be 
entirely subservient to her, the armistice gave no 
information as to the ships at Antwerp or in the 
Texel, "le brave Verheul, se defend toujours," 
(this admiral commanded the ships at Antwerp.) 
He then enumerated the number of ships he had in 
each of the ports, that in three or four years he 
would have had three hundred sail of the line, 
"quelle difference pour la France!" with many other 
remarks in the same strain. Colonel Campbell 
remarked, but we do not know why your Majesty 



49 

wishes to annihilate us, he laughed, and replied, 
" si j'avais etc ministre d' Angleterre jaurais tache 
d'enfaire la plus grande puissance du monde." 
Napoleon frequently spoke of the invasion of Eng- 
land, that he never intended to attempt it without 
a superiority of fleet to protect the flotilla, this 
superiority would have been attained for a few days, 
by leading ours out to the West Indies, and suddenly 
returning, if it arrived three or four days before 
ours in the channel it would be sufficient. The 
flotilla would immediately push out, accompanied by 
the fleet, and the landing might take place on any 
part of the coast, as he would march direct to 
London ; he preferred the coast of Kent, but that 
must have depended on wind and weather ; he should 
have placed himself at the disposal of the naval officers 
and pilots, to land the troops wherever they thought 
they could do so with the greatest security and 
in the least time. He had 100,000 men, each of 
the flotilla having boats to land them, artillery and 
cavalry would soon have followed, and the whole 
could have reached London in three days ; he armed 
the flotilla merely as a false attack, to lead us to 
suppose that he intended them to fight their way 
across the channel, but it was only to deceive us. 
It was observed that we expected to be treated with 
great severity in case of his succeeding, and he was 
asked what he would have done had he arrived in 
London ; he said, it was a difficult question to 
answer, for a people with spirit and energy like the 
English, was not to be subdued, even by taking 



50 

their capital. He would certainly have separated 
Ireland from Great Britain, and the occupying the 
capital would have been a death blow to our funds, 
credit and commerce ; he asked us to say frankly, 
whether we were not alarmed at his preparation for 
invading England. He entered into a long con- 
versation with Comte Druot (who was with Admiral 
Villeneuve in the action with Sir Robert Calder) 
as to his operations, Comte Druot said, Admiral 
Villeneuve did not want either zeal or talents, but 
he was impressed with a great idea of the British 
navy that after the action, he was entreated by all 
the officers to pursue the British squadron and to 
renew the action. He said, that about the end of 
the campaign of 1804, before England had seized 
the Spanish galleons, and before he had obtained 
from Spain an entire and frank co-operation, having 
then no other auxiliary but the Dutch, he wished 
to run the Toulon fleet through the Straits, unite 
it to six sail of the line at Rochfort, the Brest fleet 
which consisted of twenty-three sail of the line, and 
with this combined force to appear before Boulogne, 
there to be joined by the Dutch fleet, thus securing 
the passage and landing of his troops. He said he 
was diverted from his intentions of invasion by the 
Austrians. 

At the death of Admiral de la Touche Treville, 
one of his most able admirals, Villeneuve was 
appointed Commander-in-Chief at Toulon, and 
hoisted his flag in the Bucentaur, his squadron 
consistedr of four eighty-gun ships, eight seventy- 



51 

fours, six frigates, and seven thousand troops. On 
the 30th March, 1805, Admiral Villeneuve sailed 
from Toulon, and on the 7th April was before 
Carthegena, waiting a reinforcement of six Spanish 
sail of the line, these ships not being ready, he 
pursued his course about the middle of April, 
appeared before Gibraltar and chased Sir John 
Orde, who, with five sail of the line, was before 
Cadiz. Admiral Villeneuve was joined by a seventy- 
four and two corvettes, and by Admiral Gravina 
with six sail of the line and two thousand troops, 
making eighteen sail of the line in all. The 9th 
of May, Villeneuve opened his sealed orders and 
gave Admiral Gravina his instructions, which were 
to separate with his squadron, reinforce the garrison 
of Porto Rico and Havannah, and rejoin him at a 
prescribed rendezvous. Villeneuve anchored at 
Martinique on the 14th May, and heard that 
Admiral Misiessy had just left the West Indies ; he 
sailed from Rochfortthe llth January, his squadron 
consisting of six sail of the line and three frigates, 
and three thousand troops, his flag-ship the 
Majestieux. Napoleon said, he was visiting the 
fortresses on the Rhine when he wrote the orders 
for these expeditions. The first to reinforce Mar- 
tinique and Guadaloupe, take Dominica and St. 
Lucia ; the second to take Surinam and its depen- 
dencies, and strengthen St. Domingo ; the third to 
St. Helena. It was before he quitted Milan, to 
visit the departments of the east, that he learnt 
the return of the Rochfort squadron, though he 



blamed the precipitation with which Dominique had 
been abandoned. He saw in this fortunate cruize 
the advantage he had gained, he felicitated himself 
in having concealed the secret of the destination of 
Villeneuve, still he was uneasy about Nelson. In 
his dispatch, written at the moment of his departure 
from Milan, he said, it is uncertain what Nelson 
intends doing, it is very possible the English, having 
sent a strong squadron to the East Indies, have 
ordered Nelson to America. I am, however, of 
opinion, that he is still in Europe ; the most natural 
supposition is, that he has returned to England to 
refit and turn his men over to other vessels, as 
some of his ships want docking ; he impressed on 
the mind of the Minister of Marine the importance 
he attached to Villeneuve's having the means of 
victualling his fleet at Ferrol ; he said, with respect 
to the Rochfort squadron, the English will, no 
doubt, send a squadron after them you must not 
calculate upon what it is the duty of the admiralty 
to do, one hundred thousand men at Boulogne, 
seven sail of the line in the Texel, with an army of 
thirty thousand men and a fleet of twenty-two sail 
of the line at Brest. It may happen that Villeneuve 
will return suddenly, but he might also direct his 
course to India or to Jamaica, what responsibility 
then weighs on the heads of the Ministers, if they 
allow months to pass without sending a force to 
protect the colonies; it is scarcely probable 
England could, at any time, assemble sixty-five sail 
of the line, you should send to Villeneuve the 



-53 



moment he arrives at Ferrol, as nothing gives 
greater courage and clears the ideas so well as 
knowing the position of the enemy. It is true, the 
English have one hundred and eleven sail of the 
line, of which three are guard ships, sixteen prison 
ships or hospitals, there remain then ninety-two, 
out of which twenty are under repair (that is not 
ready for sea) there remains then seventy -two, the 
disposition of which is, probably, eight or ten in 
India, three or four at Jamaica, three or four at 
Barbadoes, making sixteen or eighteen, leaving 
fifty-four or fifty-six with which it is necessary to 
blockade Cadix, Ferrol, and Brest, and to follow 
Villeneuve and Misiessy. The following is the state 
of our force twenty -two at Brest, fifteen at Cadiz, 
twelve at Ferrol, twenty with Admiral Villeneuve, 
one at Lorient, five with Misiessy, total seventy- 
four ; the fifteen at Cadiz occupy but six English, 
deduct the nine from seventy-four, there remains 
sixty -five, which I can unite. It is scarcely possible 
that the English can, at any time, assemble sixty- 
five. Villeneuve having sailed to the West Indies, 
was pursued by Nelson, he left the anchorage at 
Martinique on the 21st May, captured a convoy off 
Barbadoes and off the Azores, fell in with and cap- 
tured a privateer, with a rich prize, a galleon ; he 
was afterwards reinforced by Admiral Magon with 
two sail of the line, and received from him instruc- 
tions to proceed off Ferrol, when he would be 
reinforced by five sail of the line under the com- 
mand of Rear-Admiral Gourdon, and six sail of 



the line, Spaniards, under the command of Admiral 
Grandelina, and a third squadron, under the com- 
mand of Rear Admiral Lallemande, consisting of 
five sail of the line (formerly under the command 
of Misiessy.) It was with this mass of about forty 
sail of the line, that Villeneuve, driving away Ad- 
miral Cornwallis from Brest, would necessarily open 
the passage for Admiral Gantheaume, who had 
twenty-two sail of the line, and form at the entrance 
of the channel sixty-two sail of the line, six three- 
deckers, nine eighty-gun ships, and forty-seven 
seventy fours ; they were to cover the two thousand 
two hundred and eighty-three transports of which 
the flotilla consisted ; such was his plan, the exe- 
cution of which was defeated by Villeneuve, who, 
after the action with Sir Robert Calder, went into 
Vigo, landed his wounded, and leaving three sail of 
the line there ran into Corunna, where he was rein- 
forced by six sail of the line French, and ten sail of 
the line Spanish, making thirty-one sail of the line. 
Napoleon was at Boulogne at this titne, and learned 
from England the situations of the different 
squadrons, he ordered Gantheaume to anchor in 
Bertheaume bay (Brest) and to be ready to join 
Villeneuve with the twenty-two sail of the line, 
three of them three-deckers. The 21st of August, 
he anchored in Bertheaume bay. The 10th of 
August, wind easterly, Villeneuve having been 
reinforced by the French and Spanish squadrons 
under Gourdon, Gravina and Grandelina, anchored 
in the bay of Arras near Ferrol, and put to sea the 




13th. Nothing being then in sight, he first steered 
N.W., suddenly changed his course to the southward, 
out of sight of land, cruized four days off Cape St. 
Vincent, and entered Cadiz the 21st, the very day 
that he was expected at Brest ; Lord Collingwood 
was before Cadiz with four sail of the line, was 
surprised and narrowly escaped. Whilst this was 
going on, Admiral Lallemande, with four sail of 
the line, was cruizing in the Bay of Biscay, his 
orders were to cruize to a certain period, then to 
wait in a particular latitude for orders, and if none 
reached him, then he was to proceed to Vigo, the 
13th, in order to reinforce Villeneuve, he executed 
punctually his orders, and anchored on the 16th, 
two days after Villeneuve had sailed ; and although 
he expected this reinforcement, he left no orders 
for Lallemande, compromising by this extraordinary 
conduct the safety of the squadron. Lallemande, 
finding no orders, put to sea again, and cruized till 
the 24th December, he took a fifty gun ship, a 
sloop of war, anchored at Rochfort the 24th 
of December. Napoleon was at Boulogne, the 
anniversary of his birth-day, when he learned 
from England the certainty of Villeneuve arriving 
at Cadiz, he was furious, saying it was treason. 
Villeneuve, before leaving Ferrol, said that he was 
going to Brest, and even wrote to Lallemande, who 
was to meet him at Vigo, and notwithstanding that he 
expected this squadron at Vigo, he passed .the har- 
bour without sending in. Napoleon ordered the 
Minister of Marine to make a report of his 
proceedings. H 



May 26th, Napoleon had been so long expecting 
his troops and baggage, horses, &c., that he began 
at length to show signs of impatience, and to sus- 
pect the good faith of the French government, but 
when I informed him that our transports were 
engaged for that purpose, and might shortly be 
expected at Elba, he seemed satisfied, compli- 
mented us on our generosity, and added, that had 
he known our ships were to bring his troops, he 
should not have had a moment's uneasiness. I dined 
with Napoleon the following day. While at table, 
a servant announced one of my officers, who 
wanted to see me, it was an officer whom I had 
stationed at a signal post, established by me on a 
commanding height. He reported seven sail in 
the N.W. quarter, standing towards the island. I 
had no doubt from this number, and the course 
these vessels were steering, that they were the long 
expected transports, Napoleon almost instantly rose 
from table, and I accompanied him to his garden, 
which with his house occupies the highest part of 
the works, and has a commanding view of the sea 
towards Italy, and the court of France. Full of 
anxiety, he stepped at the end of every walk, and 
looked eagerly for the vessels, we walked till it was 
quite dark, he was very communicative, and his 
conversation highly interesting. It was now near 
midnight I told him with a good night-glass I 
should be able to see them, as from the breeze they 
had, they could not be very far from the island ; 
he brought me a very fine night-glass made by 
Donaldson, which enabled me to see the vessels 



57 

distinctly, they were lying to. He was much 
pleased, and in the highest spirits wished me 
good night. At four in the morning he was out 
again giving orders, I was awaked by the beating 
of drums, and cries of " Vive 1'Empereur." He 
ordered the harbour master and pilots out to the 
transports, made arrangements for the comfort of 
his troops, and provided stables for one hundred 
horses. At about seven o'clock, the troops were 
landed, and paraded before Napoleon, who addressed 
every officer, and private. They appeared quite 
delighted at again seeing their Emperor. Among 
the officers were several Poles, remarkably fine 
young men. At eight o'clock, I ordered half the 
crew of the Undaunted, to be sent on board the 
transport, and by four o'clock, the whole of the 
baggage, carriages, horses, &c,, were landed, and 
the transport ready for sea. During the whole of 
the operation he was on the quay, in the midst of 
an excessively hot sun. When I informed him that 
everything was landed, and that the transports had 
completed their water, and were ready for sea, he 
expressed surprise, and said, pointing to some Ita- 
lian sailors, those fellows would have been eight 
days doing what yours have done in as many hours, 
besides they would have broken my horses legs, 
not one of whom has received a scratch. General 
Cambrone, who came in command of the troops, 
remained in conversation with Napoleon the whole 
time. At four he mounted his horse, and rode 
into the country, and returned to dinner at seven. 



,58 

At half-past seven he rose from table, and I accom- 
panied him to his garden, where we walked till half- 
past eleven. It was during our conversation this 
night, that I told him it was generally thought in 
England, that he intended to rebuild Jerusalem, 
and that what gave rise to the supposition was, his 
convoking the Sanhedrim of the Jews at Paris. 
He laughed and said, the Sanhedrim was convoked 
for other purposes it collected Jews who came 
from all parts of Europe, but particularly from 
Poland, and from them, he obtained information of 
the state of Poland. He added, that they gave 
him much useful information, that they were well 
informed as to the real state of the country on 
every point, and possessed all the information he 
wanted, and which he was able to turn to account, 
and found to be perfectly correct. Great numbers 
came to Paris on that occasion, amongst them 
several Jews from England. 

In talking of his marshalls, he seemed to regret 
that he had not allowed some of them to retire ; he 
said they wanted retirement, he ought to have made a 
batch of young men who would have been attached 
to him ; like Massena, he considered Gouvion St. 
Cyr, one of his best soldiers. He said Ney was a 
man that lived on fire, that he would go into the 
canon's mouth, if he was ordered ; but he was not a 
man of talent or education. Marmont was a good 
soldier, but a weak man. Soult was a talented and 
a good soldier. Bernadotte, he said, had behaved 
ill on one occasion, and that he ought to have been 



59 

tried by a court-martial ; he did not interfere or 
influence in any way his election by the Swedes. 
He had a high opinion of Junot (who stood at his 
side when writing a dispatch on a drum-head, on the 
field of battle, during which time a shot passed, 
turning up the earth about them, Junot remarked 
that it was very apropos, as he wanted sand to dry 
his ink). The following morning I requested an 
interview to take leave, on my sailing from Elba 
to join the commander-in-chief at Genoa. He was 
alone at the time he seemed affected, and requested 
me to prolong my stay at Elba, and asked me if the 
wind was fair for Genoa. He said, "you are the 
first Englishman I have been acquainted with ; and 
spoke in a flattering manner of England. He said 
he felt under great obligations to Sir Edward Pellew, 
and requested I would assure him of his gratitude, 
for the attentions shown him ; hoped when the war 
with America was terminated, I would pay him a 
visit. I told him, I had that morning breakfasted 
with the Comte de Moncabri, on board the Dry ad e 
frigate, that he informed me of the Prince of Esling 
having had a dispute with Sir Edward Pellew, and 
that the government, had in consequence, some in- 
tention of removing him from the command at Tou- 
lon. He remarked, that he was one of his best mar- 
shalls, a man of superior talent ; but that his health 
was bad in consequence of bursting a blood vessel. 
I said, it was understood that he was so much displea- 
sed with the conduct of the Prince of Esling in the 
Peninsula, that he had ordered him to Barege. He 



60 



replied that I was greatly mistaken, that at the time 
he alluded to, his health was very delicate, and his 
physicians recommended him to go to Nice, the 
place of his birth, and that after his recovery, he 
gave him the command at Toulon, which was just 
then vacant. I requested he would allow me to present 
Lieutenant Bailey, the agent of transports, who had 
been appointed to embark his guards, etc. at Savona. 
He thanked Lieutenant Bailey for the attention paid 
to his troops, and the care which had been taken of 
his horses, and remarked how extraordinary it was, 
that no accident had happened to them (there were 
ninety three) either in the embarkation or disem- 
barkation, and highly complimented him on his 
skill and attention, and added, that our sailors 
exceeded even the opinion which he had long since 
formed of them. During this conversation Napo- 
leon gave a remarkable proof of his retentive 
memory, and of his information on subjects con- 
nected with naval matters. Lieutenant Bailey in- 
formed him, that after the guards had embarked, a 
violent gale of wind arose, with a heavy sea, which 
at one time threatened the destruction of the trans- 
ports, and that he considered Savona a dangerous 
anchorage. Napoleon remarked, that if he had gone 
to a small bay (I think it was Vado) near Savona, 
he might have lain there in perfect safety. 

He requested me to inform the commander-in- 
chief, how much he was satisfied with Lieutenant 
Bailey's kind and skilful conduct. He then thanked 
me for my attention to himself, and embracing 



61 



me a la Francaise, said, " Adieu Capitaine I 
comptez sur moi adieu !" he seemed much affec- 
ted. 

In closing- this narrative, I may be permitted to 
observe, that I endeavoured throughout, to execute 
the somewhat difficult mission with which I was 
charged, faithfully and zealously, but at the same 
time, with that deference and respect for the feelings 
of Napoleon, which appeared to me, no less due to 
his misfortunes, than to his exalted station and 
splendid talents. 

Having- shown in the foregoing conversation with 
Napoleon,his determination to have invadedEngland, 
had the force sent out to the West Indies eluded 
our fleet, it may not perhaps be considered uninte- 
resting or irrevalent to state, to what circumstance 
was owing our escape from the misery, which would 
have been entailed on the country, had the enemy's 
fleet arrived in the channel. 

No sooner had Nelson heard of Villeneuve's 
having sailed, and conjecturing that his destination 
was the West Indies, than he lost no time in pur- 
suing him, and though with only ten sail of the 
line, and his ships short of provisions, his decision 
was instantly made, and in the incredible short time 
of seventy days, arrived in the West Indies, watered 
at Barbadoes, visited all the islands, returned, 
watered again in Tetuan bay, and anchored at 
Gibraltar. Nelson was most singularly fortunate 
in the wind ; he passed the combined squadron which 
was eight days sail ahead of him, short of provisions 



and water, he was obliged to run for Tetuan, where 
he anchored, the day Sir R. Calder fell in with the 
combined squadron. He left Tetuan the 26th, 
passed the straits, and presented himself before 
Cadiz ; not finding the enemy there, he went off 
Cape St. Vincent, cruized off the coast of Portugal, 
crossed the bay of Biscay, without meeting a single 
vessel that could give him any intelligence, and 
with indefatigable perseverance ran over to the 
coast of Ireland, and stopping, on the supposition 
of their going to Brest, he detached nine of his 
best ships to reinforce Admiral Corriwallis, and 
with the Victory and Superb, returned to Ports- 
mouth. The arrival of the Curie ux in England, 
with Nelson's despatches, acquainting the Admiralty 
of the return of the combined squadrons, was most 
fortunate ; having had so much the start of Ville- 
neuve, it gave the admiralty time to order the 
Rochfort squadron to unite with Sir R. Calder's 
squadron, off Terrol. This circumstance alone, 
baffled all Napoleons plans ; he did not conceive it 
possible, that the government could be aware of 
Villeneuve's return ; he thought a fleet having 
eighteen days start, could not possibly be outstripped 
by any single vessel. The Curieux left the West 
Indies, the 16th of June, and arrived the llth 
of July. 



APPENDIX. 



DISCOURS DE NAPOLEON A SA VIEILLE GARDE, A 
FONTAINEBLEAU, LE 20 AVRIL, 1814. 

Les Officiers, Soldats, et Tambours, rassembles 
autour de lui (il les adressa ainsi) en presence des 
Officiers Autrichiens, Russes, Anglois, et Prusses, 
les Commissaires des Puissances Alliees 

" Officiers, sous officiers et soldats de la Vieille 
Garde, Je vous fais mes adieu x. Pendant vingt ans 
Je vous ai toujours trouves braves et fideles, mar- 
chant dans le chemin de la gloire. L'ennemi en 
me derobant trois marches, etoit entre dans Paris. 
Je marchois pour Ten chasser. Je vous remercie 
du noble elans que vous montrates dans cette place- 
ci et ailleurs. Mais une partie de mon armee ne 
partageant pas vos sentimens m'abandonna, passa 
au camps ennemi. De ce moment la delivrance du 
capital devient impossible. J'aurois pu avec les trois 
quarts de 1'armee qui me sont restefideles et aide 
des sentimens et des efforts de la grande majorite 
du peuple, porter mes pas sur la Loire ou dans 
plusieurs places, fortes et nourris la guerre pendant 
plusieurs annees. Mais les guerres etrangeres et 
civiles dechiroient le territoire de notre "beau pays, 



64 

et pour prix de tous ces sacrifices, et de tons ces 
ravages nous ne pourrions esperer de vaincre 
PEurope reunie contre nous, ou la ville de Paris 
dont la plupart des habitans etoit sous Tinfluence 
d'une faction qui etoit parvenu a dominer. Toutes 
ces circonstances reunies, Je n'ai considere que les 
interets de la patrie, le repos de la France. J'ai fait 
le sacrifice de tous mes droits, Je suis pret a faire 
celui de ma personne le but de toute ma vie a ete 
le bonheur et la gloire de la France. Quant a vous, 
soldats, soyez toujours fideles dans le chemin du 
devoir et de 1'honneur. Servez avec fidelite votre 
nouveau souverrain. La plus douce occupation de 
ma vie sera desormais de faire connoitre a la pos- 
terite ce que vous avez fait de grand et ma seule 
consolation sera d'apprendre ce que la France fera 
encore pour aj outer a la gloire de son nom. Vous 
etes tous mes enfans. Je vous embrasse tous dans 
la personne de votre General, et en embrassant ces 
aigles qui nous omt servi de guides en tant de perils 
et de jours fortunes." Lorsque Napoleon embrassa 
le General Friant et les aigles, les larmes couloient 
des yeux de tous les vieux soldats. "Adieu," (dit il) 
" conservez moi dans votre souvenir." 






LIST OF PERSONS ACCOMPANYING THE EMPEROR 
NAPOLEON TO THE ISLAND OF ELBA. 



General Koeler, 
Comte Clam, * 
Colonel Campbell, 
Comte Bertrand, 
Comte Druot, 



Austrian Envoys. 



English Envoy. 
Grand Marshal of the Palace. 
General of Division, and Aide-de- 
Camp to the Emperor. 



Baron Germanowki, 


Major of the Light Horse Guards. 


Chevalier Foureau, 


First Physician to the Emperor. 


Chevalier Baillon, ) 


Grooms of the Bedchamber. 


Chevalier Deschamps, > 




Chevalier Perusse, 


Treasurer. 


Mons. Gatte, 


Apothecary. 


Callin, 


Comptroller of the Household. 


Rothery, 


Secretary to the Grand Marshal. 


Gueval, 


Clerk to the Comptroller. 


Pelard, 


Valet de Chambre. 


Hubert, 


Ditto. 


Sotain, 


Master of the Ceremonies. 


Purron, 


Officer of the Ceremonies. 


Rousset, 


Chief Cook. 


Lafosse, 


Chief Baker. 


Gaillard, \ 




Archambault, / 




Paillett, Y 


Valets. 


Berthault, I 




Villmaime, j 




Dennis, 


Keeper of the Wardrobe. 


Gandron, -\ 




Mathiers, 


Domestics. 


Rousseau, 3 





* Aide-de-Camp to Prince Swartzenberg. 



66 



Armandran, Rider. 

Noverve, Body Servant. 

Besson, 1 Grooms of the Stole. 
Renaud, 

Chauvin, ) Couriers . 

Sentini. 3 



H. M. S. Undaunted, off Antibes, 
April 29*7*, 1814. 

SIR I have the honor to enclose for your infor- 
mation copies of letters I received from Colonel 
Campbell, commissioned by Lord Viscount Castle- 
reagh, to accompany Napoleon to the island of 
Elba, likewise a copy of Sir Richard King's order. 
In compliance with Colonel Campbell's requisition, 
I embarked Napoleon at Frejus on the 28th inst. ; 
he was accompanied by General Koller, Austrian 
Commissioner, and Comte Clam, Aide-de-Camp to 
Prince Swartzenbergh, with a numerous suite. 
The Russian Commissioner, Prince Schouwaloff, 
and the Prussian Comte Truxos (who accompanied 
him to Frejus) returned to Paris that night. 
I have the honor to remain, Sir, 
Your most obedient 

and faithful servant, 

THOMAS USSHER. 

To Sir Edward Pellew, Bart,, 
Commander-in-Chief, 
&c. &c. &c. 



67 



Caledonia, Genoa, 3rd May, 1814. 

MY DEAR SIR Your letters reached me by the 
Merope to-day only, and I fully approve of all you 
have done, in compliance with the request of Col. 
Campbell, you will receive this by Locker, who I 
send over to receive any communications Colonel 
Campbell may have to confide to me. I need not 
desire you to assure the Colonel of his having my 
entire confidence, as you know him so well. He 
will take an order for your proceeding to Frejus for 
Madame Pauline, and I am sure you have too 
liberal a mind not to do everything that is hand- 
some by your enemies * * * 
Take care to treasure up your anecdotes for us 
all, who are eager to devour * * * * 
When you have landed the lady, you may remain 
in that quarter or return to Genoa to me, and 
leave the Rainbow in charge, giving every caution 
that nothing unpleasant arises between him and 

B . But should any popular insurrection arise, 

I desire he will abstain from taking any part what- 
ever, but observe the strictest neutrality. He will, 
no doubt, be aided on such an event by the Colonel 
and Austrian Minister. 

Believe me ever, 

Faithfully your's, 

EDWD. PELLEW. 

P.S. Locker will tell you that we heard over- 
land of you and Napier being on shore at Mar- 
seilles,^ before your own report of opening that 
communication. 



68 



Extract of a Letter from Sir Edward Pellew, dated \th May, 
on board the Caledonia, Genoa. 

The desire of Colonel Campbell for a ship of 
war, appears to be for the purpose of keeping up 
his communication with Lord Castlereagh, and the 
respectability due to his situation, it is presumed, 
he will soon be directed to withdraw from Elba. 
Whenever the guards and followers of the Emperor 
are sent over, seven transports are employed to 
embark these objects at Savone whenever they 
arrive, when, probably, Elba will be left entirely 
to its Sovereign. I have received a letter from 
Lieutenant Smith, acting by your authority as 
Governor of the island of Capraja. I conclude long 
before this, that island is possessed by the Austrian 
troops, and that you have withdrawn that officer to 
his ship. I am very sorry to hear you have been 
unwell, and hope a little rest, which we shall all 
soon have, will restore you. 



Jit the House of General Drenny, 

Four, P.M. 

SIR I have the honor to acquaint you of my 
arrival here from Paris, with communications which 
regard the officer in command of his Britannic 
Majesty's ships on this station. Having been lately 
wounded, and much. fatigued, as well as from other 
circumstances, I trust you will excuse my not 
waiting on you, nor does the bearer know when I 




69 

can have that honor. May I, therefore, request 
to see you as soon as convenient, in order that I 
may state to you the nature of my mission with 
which his Majesty's minister, Lord Viscount Castle- 
reagh, has charged me. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

NEIL CAMPBELL, Col. 

Attached to the British Embassy at the 
Court of St. Petersburg. 



Marseilles, April 25th, 1814, 
Eight, P.M. 

SIR I have the honor to acquaint you that Lord 
Viscount Castlereagh, his Majesty's principal Secre- 
tary of State for Foreign Affairs, has charged me with 
a mission, to accompany the late Chief of the French 
government, Napoleon Bonaparte, to the isle of Elba, 
to whose secure asylum in that island, it is the wish of 
His Royal Highness the Prince Regent to afford every 
facility and protection. Having, afterwards, written 
to his Lordship, that Napoleon had requested that 
a British ship of war might be given to him as a 
convoy to the French corvette, and at his option 
for embarkation, in case of preferring it, his Lord- 
ship wrote to me as follows, dated Paris, April 
18th : " My instructions furnish you with autho- 
rity to call upon his Majesty's officers, by sea and 
land, to give all due facility and assistance to the 
execution of the service with which you are en- 



70 

trusted. I cannot foresee that any enemy can 
molest the French corvette, on board of which, it 
is proposed, Napoleon shall proceed to his desti- 
nation. If, however, he shall continue to desire 
it, you are authorised to call upon any of his Ma- 
jesty's cruizers (so far as the public service may not 
be thereby prejudiced) to see him safe to the island 
of Elba. You will not, however, suffer this arrange- 
ment to be made a cause of delay." Napoleon 
has, since his departure from Fontainbleau towards 
St. Tropez, pressed me to proceed here for this 
object, which I beg leave to submit to your consi- 
deration, hoping, that as the desire to proceed 
immediately to his destination, as in unison with 
that of the Allied Powers, which would be defeated 
by delay ; in referring to the Admiral commanding 
his Britannic Majesty's fleet, you will find yourself 
at liberty to proceed to St. Tropez with his Majesty's 
ship under your command. 

I have the honor to be^ Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

NEIL CAMPBELL, Col. 

Attached to the Mission of H. E. General 

Viscount Cathcart. 
To Captain Ussher, senior officer of 
His Britannic Majesty's ships, 
off Marseilles. 



Colonel Campbell informed me, that having been 
appointed by Lord Castlereagh to accompany 
Napoleon to the island of Elba, he arrived at 



71 

Fontainebleau on the 16th, at nine in the morning- ; 
he met there Comte Bertrand, who expressed the 
Emperor's anxiety to proceed to his destination, 
and of his wish to change the place of embarkation 
from St. Tropez to Piombino. As there could be 
no certainty of his being received by the Comman- 
dant of Elba, and by going to Piombino that would 
be previously ascertained. If refused, he might be 
driven off the island by tempest while waiting 
permission to land. He expressed his hope that 
Colonel Campbell would remain at Elba until his 
affairs were settled, otherwise an Algerine corsair 
might land and do what he pleased. He seemed 
much satisfied when Colonel Campbell told him he 
had Lord Castlereagh's instructions to remain there 
for some time, if necessary, towards the security 
of Napoleon, in his communications by sea. After 
breakfast, Comte Flahaut informed the Commis- 
sioners that the Emperor would see them after he 
had attended Mass. The Commissioners were intro- 
duced in the following order : Russian general 
Prince Schouwalloff, who remained five minutes ; 
Austrian general Baron Roller, the same time ; 
Colonel Comte Truxos ; Colonel Campbell, quarter 
of an hour, he asked him about his wounds and 
service, where his family resided, and seemed very 
affable. 

Colonel Campbell received from Paris a copy of 
the order from General Dupont, Minister of War, 
to the Commandant at Elba, to give up the island 
to Napoleon, taking away the guns, stores, &c. 

K 



72 

This displeased him exceedingly ; he had a conver- 
sation with General Roller on the subject, and 
requested him to send his aide-de-camp with a note 
relating to it to Paris, wishing to know how he was 
to protect himself against any corsair, saying, if 
this conduct was continued he would go to Eng- 
land. A note was presented to the Commissioners 
by Comte Bertrand, who added verbally, that the 
Emperor would not disembark unless the guns were 
left for security and defence. 

April 20th, the horses were ordered at nine A.M., 
he desired to see General Roller, he spoke warmly 
against the separation from his wife and child, also 
of the order for withdrawing the guns from Elba, 
saying, he had nothing to do with the Provisional 
Government, his treaty was with the Allied Sove- 
reigns, and to them he looked for every act ; he 
was not yet destitute of means to continue the war, 
but it was not his wish to do so. General Roller 
endeavoured to persuade him that the treaty would 
be fulfilled with honor. He then sent for Colonel 
Campbell, and resumed the conversation similar to 
what passed on the 17th, services, wounds, &c. 
the system and discipline of the British army, cor- 
poral punishments necessary, but to be applied 
seldom. He was much satisfied at Lord Castle- 
reagh placing a British man-of-war at his disposal, 
if he wished it, for convoy or passage, complimented 
the nation. He then said he was ready ; the Duke 
of Bassano, General Belliard, Arnano, and four 
or five others his aide-de-camps, with about twenty 



73 

other officers, were in the antichamber. On entering 
the first room there was only General Belliard and 
Arnano, the aide-de-camp suddenly shut the door, 
so that it is presumed he was taking a particular 
leave of them ; the door then opened, the aide-de- 
camp called out, The Emperor ! he passed with a 
salute and smile, descended into the court, ad- 
dressed his guards (see appendix) embraced General 
Petit and the colours, entered his carriage and 
drove off. 

The 21st, slept at Brienne, in a large hotel, a 
good supper being provided ; the Emperor supped 
with General Bertrand. 

22nd, slept at Nevers, cries of " Vive 1'Em- 
pereur." In the morning he sent for Colonel 
Campbell, the table was laid, he desired the servant 
to lay another cover, and invited him to stay and 
breakfast. General Bertrand also joined them, 
He asked Colonel Campbell who commanded in 
the Mediterranean, he said, he did not know for 
certain, but believed Sir Sidney Smith was one of 
the admirals. When Comte Bertrand sat down, he 
said, laughing, " que pensez vous, Sydney Smith, 
amiral dans la Mediterranee ;" he then related 
his having thrown several thousand shot from his 
ships on shore without killing a man (this was at 
Acre.) It was his great source, for he paid so 
much for every shot brought in by the men, " II 
m'envoya les parliamentaires comme un second 
Marlborough." 



74 

The 23rd, before the journey this morning, he 
requested Colonel Campbell to go on, in order to 
expedite the British man of war, and also to write 
to Admiral Emeriau at Toulon, to expedite the 
French corvette ; he sent off to Auxerre to order 
his heavy baggage, with the escort of six hundred 
guards and horses to go by land to Piombino ; but 
if that was objected to, to go by Lyons and drop 
down the Rhone. Colonel Campbell proceeded on 
by Lyons and Aix, when he learned that I was at 
anchor in the bay of Marseilles^ and where he 
arrived the following evening of the 25th. 

The morning of the 20th, the Commissioners 
communicated to Comte Bertrand the facilities 
which had been obtained in regard to the several 
difficulties presented, respecting a director of posts 
for the horses, and British man-of-war for convoy or 
conveyance, and a copy of the order given by 
General Dupont. After the formation of the Pro- 
visional Government, a person was asked by 
Napoleon what he thought of his situation, and 
whether he thought there were any measures to be 
taken, he replied in the negative ; he asked what 
he would do in a similar situation, he said, he 
would blow his brains out ; he reflected a moment, 
" Oui, je puis faire cela mais ceux qui me veulent 
du bien ne peuvent en profiter, et ceux qui me 
veulent du mal, cela leur feroit plaisir. 



Frefus, April 27th, 1814. 
tfeven, A. M. 

MY DEAR SIR I have this moment arrived 
here, and observed your ship in the offing. As 
circumstances have rendered it necessary to change 
the place of Napoleon's embarkation from St. Tropez 
to Frejus, I despatch the bearer to announce it to 
you. I passed him on the road, so I do not know 
whether he means to wait for the corvette ; but as 
I shall know in the course of the day, I shall lose 
no time in sending off to acquaint you, " in case 
you do not come on shore after you anchor." 
Napoleon will arrive here in an hour or two. As 
I have had no rest, I am just going to bed, and 
shall leave directions to let me know when you 
anchor, in order that I may be on the look out for 
your coming on shore. That there may be no 
mistake, will you haul down the red flag on quitting 
your ship, and I shall have a person ready to 
observe it. My quarter is at Mr. Michel's Rue de 
St. Joseph. Information was sent to St. Tropez for 
you of the change. 

Your's truly, 

N. CAMPBELL. 



COPIE DES ARTICLES DU TRAITE DE PARIS, 

DU 11 AVRIL, 1814. 



ART. 1. 

Sa Majeste 1'Empereur Napoleon renonce pour 
lui et ses successeurs et descendants, ainsi que pour 
chacun des membres de sa famille, a tout droit de 
Souverainete, et domination, tant sur P Empire 
Fran<?ais, et le royaume d'ltalie que sur tout autre 
pays. 

ART. 2. 

L. L. M. M. 1'Empereur Napoleon et 1'Impe- 
ratrice Marie Louise conserveront ces titres et 
qualites, pour en jouir leur vie durant. La mere, 
les freres, soeurs, neveux et nieces de TEmpereur, 
conserveront egalement partout ou ils se trouveront 
ces titres de Princes de sa famille. 

ART. 3. 

L'Isle d'Elbe adoptee par S. M. 1'Empereur 
Napoleon pour le lieu de son sejour formera sa vie 
durant, une principaute separee, qui sera possedee 
par lui, en toute sourverainete et propriete. II 
sera donne en outre en toute propriete a TEmpereur 
Napoleon, un revenu annuel de deux millions de 
francs, en rente sur le grand livre de France, dont 
un million reversible a I'lmperatrice, 



77 

ART. 4. 

Toutes les Puissances Alliees, Pengageant a 
employer leurs bons offices, pour faire respecter 
par les barbaresques le pavilion, et le territoire de 
1'Ile d'Elbe, et pour que dans ses rapports avec les 
barbaresques, elle soit assimilee a la France. 

ART. 5. 

Les Duches de Parme, Plaisance et Guastalla, 
seront donnes en toute propriete et souverainete a 
S. M. 1'Imperatrice Marie Louise. Us passeront a 
son fils, et a sa descendance en ligne directe. Le 
Prince son fils prendra des ce moment le titre du 
Prince de Parme, Plaisance et Guastalla. 

ART. 6. 

II sera reserve dans les pays auxquels 1'Empereur 
Napoleon renonce pour lui et sa famille, des domaines 
ou donne des rentes sur le grand livre de France, 
produisant un revenu annuel net, et deduction 
faite, de tout charge de deux millions, cinq cent 
mille francs, les domaines ou rentes appartiendront 
en toute propriete, et pour en disposer comme bon 
semblera aux Princes et Princesses de sa famille, et 
seront repartes entre eux de maniere a ce que le 
revenu de chacun, soit dans la proportion suivante 
savpir : 

Francs. 

A Madame Mere * - 300,000 

Roi Joseph et la Reine - - 500,000 
Roi Louis - - - 200,000 



78 

Francs. 

Reine Hortense et ses enfans, - 400,000 

Roi Jerome et la Reine - - 500,000 

Princesse Elise - 300,000 

Princesse Pauline - - 300,000 

Les Princes et Princesses de la famille de PEm- 
pereur Napoleon conserveront en autre, tous les 
biens, meubles et immeubles, de quelque nature que 
ce soit, qu'ils possedent titre particuliere, r et nota- 
ment les rentes dont ils jouissent (egalement comme 
particuliers) sur le grand livre de France, ou le 
monte Napoleone a Milan. 

ART, 7- 

Le traitement annuel de Tlmperatrice Josephine 
sera reduit a un million en domaines, ou en inscrip- 
tions sur le grand livre de France. Elle continuera 
a jouir en toute propriete de tous ces biens, 
meubles et immeubles particuliers, et pourra en 
disposer conformement aux loix Fran^ais. 

ART. 8. 

II sera donne au Prince Eugene Vice Roi 
d' Italic, un etablissement convenable hors de 
France. 

ART. 9. 

Les proprietes S. M. 1'Empereur Napoleon pos- 
sede en France, soit comme domaines extraordinaires, 
soit comme domaines prives resteront a la Couronne, 



79 

sur les fonds places par 1'Empereur Napoleon, soit 
sur le grand livre, soit sur la banque de France, soit 
sur les actions des forets soit de toute autre maniere, 
et dont S. M. fait 1' abandon a la Couronne, il sera 
reserve un capital, qui n'excedra pas deux millions, 
pour etre employes, en gratifications, en faveur des 
personnes, qui seront portiees sur 1'Etat. 

ART. 10. 

Tons les diamans de la Couronne, resteront a la 
France. 

ART. 11. 

L'Empereur Napoleon fera retourner au tresor, 
et aux autres caisses publiques, toutes les sommes et 
tous les effets, qui en auraient ete deplaces par ces 
ordres, a ^exception de ce qui appartient de la liste 
civile. 

ART. 1%. 

Les dettes de la maison de S. M. 1'Empereur 
Napoleon, telles qu'elles se trouvent au jour de la 
signature du present traite seront immediatement 
acquittes, sur les arrieres dues par le tresor public a 
la liste civile, d'apres les etats qui seront signes par 
un Commissaire nomme a cet effet. 

ART. 13. 

Les obligations de Monte Napoleone de Milan, 
envers tous les Creanciers soit Fran^ais, soit 
etrangeres, seront exactement remplis, sans qu'il soit 
aucun changement a cet egard. 



80 



ART. 14. 

On donnera tous les saufs conduits necessaries 
pour le libre voyage de S. M. 1'Empereur Napoleon, 
et de Tlmperatrice, des Princes et Princesses, et de 
toutes les personnes de leur suite qui voudront les 
accompagner, ou s'etablir hors de France, ainsi que 
pour le passage, de tous les equipages, chevaux et 
effets qui leur appartiennent. Les Puissances Alliees, 
donneront en consequence, des officiers et quelques 
hommes d'escorte. 

ART. 15. 

La Garde Imperiale Fran<?ais fournira un detache- 
ment de douze a quinze cents hommes tout armes, 
pour servir d'escorte jusqu'a St. Tropez lieu de 
1'embarquement. 

ART. 16. 

II sera fourni une corvette armee et les battiments 
de transport necessaire pour conduire, au lieu de sa 
destination S. M. 1'Empereur Napoleon ainsi que sa 
maison. La corvette demeurera en toute propriete 
a sa Majeste. 

ART. 17. 

Sa M. 1'Empereur Napoleon pourra emmener 
avec lui et conserver pour sa garde quatre cents 
hommes de bonne volonte, tant officiers que sous 
officiers et soldats. 



81 



ART. 18. 

Tous les Fran^ais qui auront suive S. M. 1'Em- 
pereur Napoleon ou sa famille, seront tenus, s'ils ne 
veulent perdre leur qualite de Fran^ais, de rentrer 
en France, dans le terme de trois ans, a moins qu'ils 
ne soient compris dans les exceptions, que le 
gouvernement Fran^ais se reserve d'accorder aprea 
T expiration de ce terme. 

ART. 19. 

Les troupes Polonaises de touts grades, qui sont au 
service de France, auront la liberte, de retourner 
chez elles, en conservant armes, et bagages, comme 
un temoinage de leurs services honorables. Les 
officiers, sous officiers et soldats, conserveront les 
decorations qui leur ont ete accordees, et les pensions 
attaches a ces decorations. 

ART. 20. 

Les hautes Puissances AlHees, garantissent 
^execution de tous les articles du present traite. 
Elles s'engagent a obtenir qu'ils soient adoptes et 
garantis par la France. 

ART. 21. 

Le present traite sera ratifie, et les ratifications 
en seront echanges a Paris dans le terme de deux 
jours ou plutot si faire le peut. 



82 

Fait a Paris le onze Avril, mil huit cent 
quatorze. 

(Signe) 

NESELRODE, 

Secretaire de lEmpereur de la Russie. 

NEY, 

M'DONALD, 

BERTHIER, 

Marechaux de T Empire. 

Pour copie conforme, 
E. H. LOCKER. 



FROM ELBA TO PARIS, 



BY 



COLONEL LABORDE. 



AT Elba the Emperor lived much in the same way 
as he did in Paris. All strangers who were pre- 
sented to him experienced a kind reception. After 
breakfast, he frequently took an airing in an open 
carriage, and almost always accompanied by General 
Bertrand. His favourite drive was about the neigh- 
bourhood of St. Martin, a place situated on the 
other side of the gulf. He dined at six o'clock, and 
in the evening received company, consisting of the 
residents of the island and their ladies, foreigners, 
officers, &c. The balls were very numerously 
attended. Princess Pauline, his Majesty's sister, 
did the honors at those entertainments, at which 
a vast throng of elegant ladies were always present. 
During our abode on the island, the officers and 
sub-officers of the guard, together with several 
ladies, formed an amateur theatrical company. In 
the theatre attached to the Emperor's residence, 
several performances took place, at which his Majesty 
and all his household were present. 



Subsequently, the Emperor built, at his own 
expense, a theatre at Porto Eerrajo. It was opened, 
during the carnival of 1815, with a grand masked 
ball, which commenced at six in the evening and 
ended at seven on the following morning. His 
Majesty and his suite were present at the ball, all 
attired in black dominos. 

The Emperor frequently went to Porto Longo, 
which was about two miles distant from Porto 
Ferrajo. Colonel Germanoski, who was the mili- 
tary commandant of the former place, frequently 
gave brilliant balls, to which the officers of the 
Imperial Guard and the ladies of Porto Ferrajo 
were invited. I often saw there the officers of an 
English ship, which was lying at anchor off Porto 
Longo. 

Among the foreign ships which visited Elba, there 
were several belonging to the regencies of Algiers, 
Tunis, and Tripoli, It is impossible to describe 
the joy manifested by the crews of these ships when- 
ever his Majesty honoured them with a visit. Their 
shouts of joy made the air resound. The captains 
said, that they regarded the Emperor as a God. 
These ships never departed without carrying with 
them proofs of the Emperor's generosity. 

The Emperor behaved with marked liberality; 
he made several new roads which facilitated commu- 
nication between various parts of the island. The 
inhabitants owe to him a debt of obligation which 
can never be forgotten. 

It has been falsely stated, that several eminent 



85 

individuals from France came to Elba, for the pur- 
pose of making- arrangements with the Emperor 
for his return. Only one Frenchman, of any 
consequence, visited Elba ; this was Henry de 
Chaboulon, formerly secretary to the Emperor, and 
his visit was but of short duration. During the 
nine months of our sojourn on the island no extra- 
ordinary circumstance occurred. We passed our 
time very gaily, amidst balls and other entertain- 
ments. 

Every Sunday the Emperor attended mass, which 
was performed by Arrighi, the Vicar General of 
the island, in his Majesty's apartments j all the civil 
and military authorities being present. 

The preparations for our departure from the 
island were made with the greatest secrecy. On the 
morning of the 26th of February (the day of our 
embarkation) whilst walking on the promenade at 
the harbour, in company with Baron Galeuzzinio, 
the Civil Intendant of the island, I was informed 
that General Cambronne wished to see me at eleven 
o'clock in the forenoon. I waited upon him at the 
time appointed, and he directed me to go to General 
Druot to receive orders. The latter addressed me 
as follows : 

" The labourers who are employed in the gar- 
dens of the owners, leave off their work at three 
o'clock ; at four, the troops take their rations. 
You must then immediately pack up your arms and 
luggage, and hold yourself in readiness to embark 
at five o'clock. Each officer to take only a port- 
manteau.' 



86 



These orders at first astounded me ; but after a 
moment's pause, I ventured to ask General Druot 
where we were going 1 , and whether I could take my 
wife with me ? 

I cannot say, replied he, obey the orders I have 
given you. 

At five o'clock in the afternoon the troops em- 
barked. Three hundred men and the staff battalion 
went on board the ship of war Inconstant ; the 
rest of the troops were dispersed in different trans- 
port vessels. The Emperor after taking leave of 
Madame Mere and the Princess Pauline, with whom 
he had dined, repaired on board the Inconstant at 
eight o'clock in the evening, accompanied by 
Generals Bertrand, Druot, and Cambronne. We 
speedily set sail, and no one knew whither we 
were bound, until a trivial circumstance solved the 
riddle. 

Lieutenant Taillade, an able officer, had com- 
manded the brig Inconstant during our residence at 
Elba, but he had been superseded by Captain 
Chantard, who had arrived from the continent a 
few months previously. On the 28th of February, 
Lieutenant Taillade, who was perfectly acquainted 
with the navigation of the Mediterranean, observing 
that the new commander of the brig was steering 
towards a point opposite to the coast of France, 
said aloud to the officers on deck " gentlemen, we 
are going either to Spain or Africa." 

Colonel Mallet reported these words to the Em- 
peror, who immediately sent for Taillade. 



87 

" Where are we ?" said his Majesty, addressing 
that officer. 

" Sire," answered Taillade, " we are steering 1 
towards Africa." 

" I will not go there," said the Emperor, laugh- 
ing, " Taillade," pursued he, " I confer on you the 
rank of captain. Take the command of the brig, 
and land me on the coast of France. 

" Sire," said Taillade, " your Majesty shall be 
there to-morrow at noon." 

The wind, which on the 27th had fallen almost to 
a calm, and left us off the island of Capraya, now 
rose to a strong breeze, and our new captain, in a 
few hours, brought us within sight of Antibes. At 
three o'clock, on the 1st of March, we landed in 
the gulf of Juan, between Caunes aud Antibes. 

The only incident worthy of remark that occurred 
whilst we were at sea, was our falling in with the 
French brig Zephyr, commanded by Lieutenant 
Andrieux, which frequently sailed to and fro 
between Toulon and Leghorn. On discovering the 
brig, the captain of the Inconstant intimated the 
circumstance to the Emperor, who immediately 
ordered that all the men on deck should lie flat down 
with their faces to the ground. Captain Taillade 
then took his speaking trumpet and called to 
Andrieux 

" Whither are you bound, Commander ?" 

" To Leghorn. And you ?" 

" To Genoa." 

"How is the great man r" 

" Very well." M 



88 



And the two brigs, after passing close alongside 
of each other, were soon far apart. The captain 
of the French brig little suspected that the great 
man was at that moment within hearing. 

Before the vessel reached the landing place, the 
Emperor directed Captain Lamourette, commanding 
the first company of Chasseurs, to go ashore in a 
boat, accompanied by thirty men and one drummer. 
He was ordered to take possession of a fortification, 
which had been established a considerable time 
previously for the protection of the bay, and which 
his Majesty supposed was occupied by a detachment 
from the garrison of Antibes. Captain Lamourette 
found no one there ; but urged by the desire of 
gaining partizans for the Emperor, and seeing the 
garrison manoeuvre on the glacis, he thought he 
had only to show himself and take possession of the 
fortress. Thither he accordingly marched. The 
sentinel advanced to meet him with the question 
" Who goes there ?" 

" The Emperor's guard," answered Captain 
Lamourette. 

The sentinel presented arms and allowed the 
detachment to pass ; but the officer commanding the 
posts, when he perceived that the troops wore the 
tri-coloured cockade, ordered the draw-bridge to be 
raised, and the detachment of the guard was cap- 
tured. The unfortunate detachment was conducted 
to Toulon, and there imprisoned in the casemates 
of Fort Lamalgue. The officers were tried by a 
court-martial, and would probably have been con- 




89 

demned to death, had not the authorities command- 
ing at Toulon received tidings of the Emperor's 
arrival in Paris. The intrepid prisoners were then 
immediately liberated. They were then feasted and 
entertained, and paraded in triumph through the 
city. In the course of a few days the detachment 
arrived in Paris. 

The disembarkation from the Inconstant was 
concluded at three o'clock on the afternoon of the 
1st of March. I landed in the first boat, together 
with the worthy and respected General Drouot. 
There was a custom-house station in a wooden bar- 
rack near the spot where we landed, and its occu- 
pants, as soon as they descried us, hastily mounted 
the tri-coloured cockade. 

His Majesty, having landed, ordered his bivouac 
to be established in an olive grove, between the 
gulf of Juan and the high road leading to Nizza, at 
a short distance from Carmes and the fortress of 
Antibes. As soon as the troops were landed, and 
before they could be posted in the proper stations 
requisite for covering his Majesty's bivouac, Lieut. 
Sarri, a young naval officer of distinguished courage, 
received orders to sail with the whole flotilla to 
Corsica. This order was obeyed with such singular 
promptitude and activity, that a young orderly 
officer, belonging to a family of the island of Elba, 
who had fallen asleep in a corner of the vessel, was 
astonished, on awaking, to find the vessel several 
miles from the shore. 

A few hours after the disembarkation, the staff 



90 

physician, Emery, of the guard, whose family and 
numerous friends were in Grenoble, was ordered 
by the Emperor to proceed with the utmost haste to 
that city, and to seek out young Dumouline, who 
had visited the Emperor several times previous to 
our departure. His Majesty wished to make 
arrangements with him for printing the pro- 
clamations dated from the gulf of Juan, and 
getting them circulated in Grenoble and its neigh- 
bourhood. 

The troops having been encamped round the 
Emperor's bivouac, General Cambroune, with a 
strong detachment, was despatched to Carmes with 
orders to collect as many horses as possible (paying 
for them a price beyond their value) and, at the 
same time, to guard the roads, and permit no tra- 
vellers to pass. The General issued orders to the 
Post Masters prohibiting them from furnishing any 
one with horses without previous authorisation. A 
few hours after these orders were issued, a courier 
of the Prince of Monaco announced the approaching 
arrival of his highness, and required to be furnished 
with a considerable number of horses ; but General 
Cambroune decidedly refused permission for supply- 
ing them. In a short time the Prince himself 
arrived, and earnestly solicited that the Emperor 
would permit him to continue his journey. His 
Majesty ordered that the Prince should be allowed 
to proceed. 

Captain Cazabianca, a native of Corsica, and a 
very meritorious officer, was sent by the Emperor 



91 

to the Commandant of the fortress of Antibes ; 
Colonel Cuneo (likewise a Corsican) with directions 
to liberate the detachment that had been captured ; 
but Colonel Cuneo refused to obey the order, and 
even detained Captain Cazabianca. That brave 
officer, driven to despair by the thought of being 
prevented sharing the dangers of his companions in 
arms, made an attempt to escape "by scaling the 
walls of the fortress. On the following day he was 
found lying in the moat, severely hurt. He was 
conveyed to the hospital of Antibes, where^he 
remained for a considerable time. The commissary 
Banthier was next despatched ; but he received 
warning not to approach the fortress. At last I was 
sent to the Commandant of Antibes ; but scarcely 
had I reached the first outposts than he called to 
me " Go back, or I will fire upon you." Finding 
it impossible to gain access to the fortress, I sent 
intimation of that fact to General Druot. 

We left our bivouac about eleven o'clock at 
night. The Emperor, at the head of his handful 
of brave followers, marched in the direction of 
Grasse, which place we reached at eleven o'clock 
on the 2d of March. The column halted and took 
up a position at the outskirts of the town, where 
the Emperor's breakfast was prepared. During the 
repast, his Majesty received several of the most 
distinguished residents of Grasse, among others, an 
officer decorated with the cross of honor ; he had 
lost his sight, and was led in by his wife. The 
Emperor received him in the kindest manner 



92 

imaginable. The officer begged permission to 
kiss his Majesty's hand : the Emperor embraced 
him. 

Breakfast being ended, and the troops (who were 
supplied with provisions and various sorts of wine 
by the inhabitants) having had a little rest, we 
pursued our march, leaving our artillery behind ; 
indeed, it would have been impossible to convey it 
along the steep and difficult roads we had to tra- 
verse. We had a most fatiguing day, threading our 
way through the narrow passes of Provence. We 
marched along paths which scarcely afforded suffi- 
cient width for one man, and which were surrounded 
by frightful abysses ; in short, we were in such a 
position that fifty men might have checked our 
advance. Our column, which consisted of between 
1000 and 1100 men, extended over such a length- 
ened space, that it might have been taken for a 
column of 2,500 men. We marched the whole day 
amidst snow and ice. The Emperor was 'obliged to 
alight from his horse, and to go several miles on 
foot. He was so fatigued, that we found it necessary 
occasionally to support him by holding his arms, 
and he several times fell, after a march of many 
hours. Having advanced about twenty leagues on 
our way to Paris, we arrived at a solitary country 
house, not far from the village of Cernon. There 
the Emperor passed the night, witb such accommo- 
dation as the desert place was capable of affording. 
Our beds consisted of bundles of straw, and his 
Majesty rested as well there, perhaps better, than 






93 

he had frequently reposed in the palace of the 
Tuilleries, though he was surrounded by only 500 
men of his guard and a few officers. The rest of 
the column, which was scattered about, passed a 
miserable night, and all our force was not collected 
together until the following day, the 3rd of March, 
about midday. We then marched on Castellone. 
From thence we sent forward our baggage, and the 
column marched daily, in groups, in the direction 
of Grenoble. On the 3rd, the Emperor passed the 
night at Barcone, and on the 4th at Digne. On 
the 5th, General Cambroune, with the advanced 
guard of forty men, made himself master of the 
bridge and the fortress of Sisteron. The Emperor 
passed the night of the 5th at Gap, and the advanced 
guard was quartered at Mure. 

During our march across the extent of country, 
no remarkable incident occurred. The inhabitants 
received us kindly, but without declaring for or 
against us. Throughout this long march we gained 
only two recruits, a gen-d'arme and a foot soldier. 
At length, to our great joy, we emerged from this 
mountainous district, and entered upon the smiling 
vicinity of the Mure, from thence to proceed to 
Grenoble. 

The Emperor, being informed that the garrison 
of Grenoble had marched out with the intention of 
preventing him from csossing the bridge of the 
Mure, made his arrangements, dividing his small 
force, scarcely 1100 men, into three columns. The 
first, consisting of three companies of Chasseurs, 



94 

the Polish lancers, mounted and unmounted, and 
eight or ten men of the marine guard, formed the 
advanced guard, commanded by General Cambroune, 
assisted by the intrepid Colonel Mallet. The second 
column, commanded by Captain Loubers of the 
Grenadiers, consisted of three companies of Gre- 
nadiers, the Artillery company, and about thirty 
officers without men, headed by the Corsican Major 
Pacconi ; the Emperor, the whole of the staff, and 
the caisse, drawn by two mules, accompanied the 
second column. The third column, consisting of 
the Corsican battalion, commanded by the Chef de 
Battaillon Guaso, formed the rear guard. As we 
approached the Mure, General Cambroune ordered 
me, accompanied by sixty Chasseurs, commanded 
by Lieutenant Jeanmaire, and a few Polish lancers, 
to form the head, and to dispose our first column in 
such a position that I might seem to be followed by 
1,200 men, though I had with me scarcely three 
hundred. It appeared that we were expected, for 
I found the whole municipal body assembled at the 
Mairie. 

In a few moments General Cambroune came up 
with the first column. Perceiving an enemy's post, 
stationed in some houses on the road leading* to 

o 

Grenoble, the General posted a party of our troops, 
commanded by an officer, within pistol shot of them. 
He dispatched Captain Raoul of the Artillery, 
accompanied by the Quarter Master of the Mame- 
lukes, to the officer commanding the post of the 
5th Regiment, to request that he would treat with 



9.5 

us ; but he could not be prevailed on to do so. The 
General went to him himself ; but he received for 
answer that all negociation was forbidden. 

General Cambroune immediately stationed his 
column on the place in front of the Mairie, and 
adopted the requisite measures for guarding against 
a surprise. These operations being completed, we 
proceeded to an inn, opposite to the Mairie, where 
I had ordered a dinner for twelve. No sooner had 
we sat down to table, than a peasant, who had been 
directed by General Cambroune to watch the 
enemy's troops, informed us that the column was 
beginning to move, apparently with the intention 
of retiring behind the Mure, blowing up the bridge 
over which we had passed, and thereby cutting us 
off from all communication with the Emperor. We 
immediately stationed ourselves on the bridge, of 
which we retained military possession throughout 
the night, whilst the enemy's force retired on 
Grenoble, three leagues distant. 

General Cambroune sent to inform the Emperor 
of what was going on, and about nine o'clock on 
the following morning, his Majesty arrived at the 
point of which we were in possession, placed him- 
self at the head of the troops, and directed General 
Cambroune where to march. The brave Colonel 
Mallet took the command of the companies of 
Chasseurs, forming the head of the column, and 
the Polish Lancers, commanded by the gallant 
Colonel Germanoski, covered the right side of the 
march. The officers, without commands, headed 



96 

by Major Pacconi, covered our left, and we marched 
strait towards the battalion of the 5th R,egiment of 
the line. The Voltigeur company was stationed at 
the furthest extremity of the village. The Emperor 
commanded Colonel Mallet to advance with the 
musquet on the left arm and the bayonet inverted, 
the point being in the mouth of the barrel. The 
Colonel observed that to adopt such a step in the 
face of a force whose intentions were unknown, and 
whose first impulse might be hostile, was hazardous. 
The Emperor replied hastily " Mallet, do as I 
order." 

On arriving within pistol shot of the regiment, 
the Emperor exclaimed in a loud and firm tone of 
voice " Soldiers, behold your Emperor, which of 
you will fire on him I" 

A young officer, aide-de-camp to General Mar- 
chand, Commandant of Grenoble, arid who had 
been instructed by his General to oppose our advance, 
gave the word of command " Fire." 

He was answered by a unanimous shout of " Vive 
1'Empereur." 

No sooner had we made friends with the 5th 
Regiment, than Dumoulin appeared, wearing in 
his hat the tri-coloured cockade. He advanced to 
the Emperor, and alighting from his horse, he 
eagerly exclaimed "Sire, I come to offer you 
100,000 men and my arm, and to assure you of the 
fidelity of your good people of Grenoble." 

The Emperor seemed pleased, and smiling, said, 
" mount your horse, Dumoulin, and we can talk 
together on our march. I accept your oifer." 




97 

On the evening of our arrival at Grenoble, the 
brave young- Dumoulin was appointed one of the 
Emperor's orderly officers, and his Majesty invested 
him with the decoration of the Legion of Honor. 
During the whole of our march from Grenoble to 
Paris, Dumoulin, with a party of fifty hussars of 
the gallant 4th Regiment, formed our advance 
guard, and rendered the greatest service to the 
Emperor's cause. 

Immediately after Dumoulin joined us, the troops 
were ranged in marching order. The Chasseurs 
of the guard formed the advance guard, and I, 
accompanied by some pioneers and a party of Polish 
Lancers, marched at the head, in order to prepare 
for the entrance into Grenoble. We passed Vizilla 
without any remarkable occurrence. About four 
in the afternoon, a young sub-lieutenant of gre- 
nadiers of the 7th Regiment of the line, came 
up to me, and said, " Major, is the Emperor 
far off?" 

" No," replied I, " only half a league : you will 
soon see him." 

" My Colonel," continued the sub-lieutenant, 
" whom you will come up with in about twenty 
minutes, is impatiently waiting his Majesty at the 
head of his fine regiment. 

Accordingly we soon joined the unfortunate 
Labedoyere at the head of his fine regiment. He 
advanced to meet me, and enquired whether the 
Emperor was far distant. I replied that he would 
be soon in sight. The joy manifested by the 



98 

Colonel, at this information, is indescribable. I 
continued my march to the gates of Grenoble, and 
had begun to think about entering the city, when 
the Emperor came up, accompanied by his staff and 
the Polish Lancers. Without a moment's delay 
I turned to the gate, which opened to the suburb 
of the town, I found it closed, though it was only 
half-past six in the evening. I required that it 
should be opened. Captain Raoul, of the artillery, 
made the same demand, as did likewise the Major 
of the llth Infantry, who was with his regiment on 
the outside of the garrison. The Major, calling to 
the Colonel of the 5th Regiment of the line, who 
had possession of the keys, said, " Open the gate, 
my good fellow, the Emperor is here." The Colonel 
replied, " I dare not ; I have pledged my word of 
honor to the Prefect (Fourrier) and the General 
(March and) to prevent the Emperor's troops from 
entering the garrison." All my appeals were vain. 
It was not until near eight o'clock that the Colonel 
determined to open the gate, and then only on 
being assured that the inhabitants of the suburb 
were preparing to force it open. The troops then 
immediately took possession of the ramparts, amidst 
shouts of " Vive 1'Empereur." 

The inhabitants came out bearing torches, and 
the Emperor soon entered Grenoble at the head of 
his army. 

On the 9th of March, the Emperor and his 
guard passed the night at Bourgoing. From Gre- 
noble to Lyons, his march resembled a triumphal 



99 

procession. The 4th Regiment of Hussars, which 
was sent forward to reconnoitre Lyons, was received 
in the suburb Guilla-iere, at four o'clock in the 
afternoon of the 10th of March, with shouts of 
" Vive PEmpereur." At eight in the evening his 
Majesty marched into the city, at the head of those 
same troops who had been destined to oppose his 
entrance. On the llth he reviewed all the troops 
collected at Lyons, amounting to 25,000 men. 
General Brayer, leading the advanced guard, 
marched forward to the capital. 

On the 13th of March, the Emperor, at the head 
of the guard and the 7th Regiment of the line, 
entered Villefranche, a small town, having a popu- 
lation of 4000 souls ; but which, at that moment, 
contained upwards of 60,000. At a late hour, that 
same day, the Emperor reached Macon, the inha- 
bitants of the neighbouring districts thronging 
round him, and giving vent to the most enthusiastic 
expressions of joy. 

On the morning of the 14th we reached Tournus, 
and the Emperor, with the guard, passed the night 
at Autun. On the 16th, we were at Avallon. On 
the 17th, his Majesty breakfasted at Vermenton, and 
that night slept at Auxerre. There we were joined, 
at eleven o'clock at night, by the gallant Colonel 
Marin of the artillery of the guard, who had come 
from La Fere to welcome his Majesty. At Auxerre, 
too, we were joined by the troops of the Prince of 
the Moskowa. 

On the 20th of March, the Emperor, with the 



100 

guards and the Jth Regiment of the line, entered 
Fontainbleau, where he was agreeably surprised to 
find Poles stationed as videttes at the gates of the 
castle. 

This able forced march, truly worthy of Polish 
troops, was conducted by Colonel Germanoski, 
commander of the Poles at Elba. 

On the same day the Emperor set off for Paris, 
where he arrived about nine o'clock in the evening. 

Thus ended this gigantic enterprize, undertaken 
with a column of 1000 men, and accomplished 
without shedding a drop of blood. 



FINIS. 







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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



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238 

U87 



Ussher, Thomas 

A narrative of events 
connected with the first 
abdication of the Emperor 
Napoleon 



m