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Full text of "Narrative of a second voyage in search of a north-west passage, and of a residence in the Arctic regions during the years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833"





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TO THE 



NARRATIVE 






SECOND YOYAGE IN SEARCH 



OF A 



NORTH-WEST PASSAGE, 



AND OF A 



RESIDENCE IN THE ARCTIC REGIONS 

DURING THE YEARS 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833. 

BY 

SIR JOHN ROSS, C.B., K.S.A., K.C.S. Slc kc. 

CAPTAIN IN THE ROTAL NAVY. 

COMMANDER, now CAPTAIN, JAMES CLARK ROSS, RN., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c. 

AND 

®f)e lii^co^en> of tf)e 0tivt\ftvn 0lnQnti\t ^ole* 



LONDON: 
A. W. WEBSTER, 166, REGENT STREET. 

1835. 



C wnlTIVO, BEAUFORT BOUSE, STRAND. 



CONTENTS. 



Preface 

Sketch of the Esquimaux found in the Territory of Boothia Fehx 

Vocabulary of the English, Danish, and Esquimaux Languages 

The Native Population of Greenland 

Dialogues in the English, Danish, and Esquimaux Languages 

Chronometers . . . • 

Aurora Borealis . . . • 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

Zoology 

Birds . . . • • 

Fish ..... 

Insects . . • . • 

Marine Invertebrate Animals 

Geology ..... 

Report on Instruments .... 

Terrestrial Refraction .... 

Analysis of Fluids, &:c. .... 

Philosophical Observations .... 

Surgeon's Report 

Biography of the Crew .... 

Meteorological Observations 

Meteorological Tables 

General Abstract of Meteorological Observations 

Diurnal Variation of the Magnetic Needle 

Dip, 8cc. of the Magnetic Needle 

Latitudes and Longitudes of Places 

List of Subscribers .... 



PAGE 
] 

61 

90 

9 

. 105 

113 



vu 

XXV 

. xlvi 

. Hx 

Ixxxi 

ci 

cvii 

cix 

cxi 

. cxv 

cxvii 

cxxix 

V 

XXXV 

XLI 

XLIV 

XLIX 

LXV 



LIST OF PLATES FOR THE APPENDIX. 



PAGE 

1 . Portrait — Frontispiece 

2. Nimna Himna, to face page . . . . . 1 

3. Alictu and Kanguagiu . . . . .27 

4. Kawalua, Tiagashu, and Adlurak .... 29 

5. lUictu and Otoogiu . . . . . .31 

6. Kunana ....... 33 

7. Hibluna . . . . . . .35 

8. Manellia and Adelik . . . . .37 

9. Poyettak, Kakikagiu, and Aknalua . . . .39 

10. Kemig ....... 41 

11. Kannayoke . . . . . . .43 

12. Ooblooria ...... 45 

13. Neweetioke . . .... 47 

14. Udlia, Awtigin, and Palurak . . . , .49 

15. Arctic Fox . . . . . . . xi 

16. Plate A. Hymens Petra • • . . . lxi 

17. Plate B. ..... . 

18. Plate C. . 

19. Refraction ....,,, cix 

20. Aurora . . . . . . .113 



LXXXIII 



XCIII 



PREFACE. 



The narrative of my late voyage in search of a north-west 
passage, having been increased in its length far beyond my 
expectations, it became necessary to reserve for the Appendix 
every thing which did not actually belong to the work itself. 
I have to regret, therefore, that matter of much importance to 
myself has consequently been postponed; among which I may 
mention the two following letters, which having been already 
published in the newspapers, for the purpose of showing to the 
public that I was not ungrateful for the sympathy so universally 
manifested towards me and my companions. 

I had, indeed, deemed them an unnecessary addition to the 
narrative itself, but certainly not without the intention of again 
gratifying my feelings by publishing them, and some others, 
a second time, in justice to myself and to those whose humane 
endeavours cannot be too often or too fully acknowledged. 



vi PREFACE. 

To the Committee for the 3Ianagement of the Affairs of 
Captain Back's Expedition. 

Portland Hotel, London, October 26, 1833. 

Gentlemen, 

Of the many circumstances of high gratification which 
have welcomed the delivery of myself and companions from four 
years' severe suffering, there is nothing (next after a deep sense 
of the merciful Providence wherewith we have been surrounded in 
such great perils) which has excited in me so strong a feeling of 
gratitude, as the humane and generous sympathy of a number of 
persons who, at the chance of being instrumental in our preser- 
vation, contributed, with the assistance of his Majesty's government, 
a sum, ample for the purpose of paying the expense of an expe- 
dition, which was so promptly and with so much judgment put in 
motion by your committee, and so wisely confided to the guidance 
of Captain Back, whose known intelligence and intrepidity gave 
the committee a certainty that all would be done which a sagacious 
mind and unflinching perseverance could accomplish. 

It is my wish and duty to make the earliest acknowledgment, of 
this instance of wide-extended compassion towards us, and I 
venture to rely on the favour of the committee, to receive with 
allowance, this imperfect expression of my feelings towards them, 
to his Majesty's government, to the contributors to the undertaking, 
and to the Hudson's Bay Company, for efforts which might have 



PREFACE. Vll 

proved, as designed, the means of snatching myself and my faithful 
companions from the further sufferings which, almost to the last 
moment, we seemed doomed to encounter. 
I have the honour to be. 

Gentlemen, 
Your very humble and grateful servant, 

JOHN ROSS, Capt. R.N. 



Arctic Land Expedition. — Answer. 

21, Regent Street, October 22, 1833. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter dated the 20th inst. addressed to the Committee for managing 
the Arctic Land Expedition, and returning your thanks to its 
members, to the Hudson's Bay Company, and to all the Subscribers 
towards the equipment of that expedition, for the exertions made 
by them in hopes of rescuing you and your brave companions from 
your perilous situation. 

In reply, I beg, in the name of the committee and of all the 
subscribers, to offer you our warmest congratulations on your safe 
return ; and although the main object of Captain Back's expedi- 
tion is thus attained without his assistance, yet we feel much 
gratified that it should have gone, inasmuch as it proves to all 
future adventurers in a like career, that their country will not be 
unmindful of them ; while, on the other hand, your return also 

A 2 



Vlll PREFACE. 

shows that no situation should be considered too desperate to be 
beyond the reach of a similar exertion. 
I have the honour to be. 
Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

CHARLES OGLE, Chairman. 

To Captain John Ross, Royal Navy. 

The above correspondence requires no comment, as they must 
fully convey to the public the feelings of both parties. I have 
now to introduce the two following letters, which were originally 
intended to precede the narrative, but which were omitted for 
reasons already mentioned. 

Victory Discovery Ship, Union Dock, 
London, March 28, 1829. 

Sir, 

I request you will have the goodness to submit to the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that I am about to 
undertake a voyage of discovery at the entire cost of myself and 
others, and in event of complete success in the discovery of a north- 
west passage, and subsequently falling in with his Majesty's ships 
of war, or those belonging to foreign nations, it may be proper 
and necessary that I should have on board a document to prove 
that my vessel is navigated, and my expedition undertaken with 
the approbation and good wishes of the Lords Commissioners 



PREFACE. IX 

of the Admiralty, and feeling assured of their Lordships' 
encouragement and protection. 

I have the honour to remain. 

Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

JOHN ROSS, Capt. R.N. 

To the Right Hon. J. \V. Croker, &c. &c. &c, 

Atiswer. 

Admiralty Office, March 23, 1829. 

Sir, 

Having laid before my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty your letter of this day's date, stating that you are about 
to undertake a voyage of discovery at the entire cost of yourself 
and others, and in the event of complete success in the discovery of 
a north-west passage, and subsequently falling in with his Majesty's 
ships of war or others belonging to foreign states, it would be 
desirable that you should possess a document to prove that your 
vessel is navigated, and your expedition undertaken, with tlie 
approbation and good wishes of their Lordships, I have it in 
command to express their Lordship's approbation and good wishes 
relative to the expedition in question, and also their authority to 
you to state the same. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. W. CROKER 

To Captain Ross, R.N. 
Victory Discovery Ship, Union Dock. 



X PREFACE. 

The next article, which I trust will be read with interest, is an 
additional Sketch of the Esquimaux, whom we discovered in 
Boothia Felix, and whom we named Boothians. This is given as 
an introduction to the biography of the most remarkable, whose 
portraits are given to represent both their colour, features, and 
costume, and, I may add, of the inhabitants of the most remote 
corner of the globe : added to which are a vocabulary and dialogues 
in the Esquimaux, Danish, and English languages, carefully 
corrected by my friend, Mr. Kijer, according to the works of 
Fabricius. The reports on Chronometers, which follow, will be 
perused with attention by every practical navigator, as well as the 
reports on the various instruments which accompanied the expe- 
dition. 

My new theory of the Aurora is respectfully submitted to the 
public, as the result of a long series of observations carefully made 
uuder very advantageous circumstances, in Scotland, as well as 
during my late residence of four winters in the Arctic Regions, 
and have been read at the British Association in Dublin. 

The Natural History has been compiled by Commander (now 
Captain) James Clark Ross, whose acquirements in that branch of 
science are well known and acknowledged ; and it will there be 
found manifest that something has been done which must interest 
the naturalist. 



PREFACE. XI 

I have preferred giving my own observations on the Diurnal 
Variation and Dip of the Magnetic Needle, to those of Commander 
Ross, understanding that his will appear elsewhere. The Geology 
is somewhat defective, from the impossibility of bringing home 
specimens from the most interesting places; but the Meteorological 
Tables, which have been kept according to the plan suggested by 
Captain Beaufort, are submitted to the public as the most complete 
of the kind ever published. 

The Surgeon's Report, and the Analyses of several Fluids, anil 
the State of the Provisions which we found, require no comment. 
These, with the Philosophical Observations, will be read with 
interest. 

In the Tables of Latitude and Longitude of places on the newly- 
discovered coast, I have given in italics the names which the* 
natives gave them, for which there was not room in the chart, and 
which will effectually correct the discrepances and omissions, 
which have been noticed by the subscribers, but which was 
occasioned by my unavoidable absence, and by my not being in 
possession of Commander Ross's narrative until long after the chart 
was printed and approved of by his Majesty; to whom it was 
submitted by Commander Ross and myself, on our arrival, with 
no names affixed. 

I ought also to observe that Sir Felix Booth, with whose 



Xii PREFACE. 



permission it was thus submitted, had, as the owner of the ship, 
the just and exclusive right of giving names to every place. In 
justice to the crew, I have added a short Biographical Sketch of 
each ; and I have concluded this work by giving a List of my 
generous Subscribers, with my most grateful thanks. 



:-Sg0W- 





^lone by j. br«,ncliird , irom Uie ongpinul Dra-Aine Ijy C:iplii]ji Ktiai* 
NIMNA HIMNA 

c.llcd Ijy Uic Mm OUI C/rccdT- 



SKETCH 



OF THE 



ESQUIMAUX FOUND IN THE TERRITORY OF 

BOOTHIA FELIX. 



2V S it has appeared to many of my readers, that the account I 
have given of the natives of Boothia in the Narrative of my Voyage 
was more limited than it ought, or would have been, had circum- 
stances permitted — and that correct portraits displaying their 
features and dress — which I could not afford to give at greater 
lengtli in the narrative would be acceptable in this portion of 
the work, I have commenced it, in the first place with a general 
sketch, and secondly with the individual description and history 
to accompany and explain each of the drawings. 

I need not dwell much on their manners and customs, nor 
enter into any great details respecting their arts and inven- 
tions ; since I could add little to what is already well known, 
and need not repeat what can be found in many books. As to 
their personal appearance, including, with their stature, forms, 

B 



2 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

and pliysiognomy, their dresses, it so accurately resembles that 
of the other tribes of Esquimaux so often described, that I n)ay 
almost pass it over, while referring to the ditFerent plates in this 
volume, and their accompanying explanations. 

I had abundant reason, in the first place, to believe that the 
natives of this spot, uniting with these a few with whom we had 
but a temporary and slender communication, were entirely unac- 
quainted with Europeans : while the nearest approach to any 
knowledge of them was, to have conversed with some one who had 
conversed with a third person who had seen them at Igloolik, and, 
possibly, elsewhere. Nor was this contradicted by their possession 
of a few European knives. Of these, they had indeed but three ; 
nor did those on which the maker's mark could be traced, permit 
our believing that they had been obtained from Sir Edward Parry. 
In reality, they admitted themselves to have possessed those for 
a " very long time," while unable to explain whence they had 
been obtained ; so that no conclusions of any kind could be drawn 
from this circumstance. 

Thns ignorant of civilized society, they were equally unac- 
quainted with the warlike tribes of America ; whether those of 
their own race, or the races which are included under the general 
term Indians. The peculiar insulation of the tract to which they 
confine themselves, is not only the cause of this, but is likely to 
operate henceforward, without interruption. While that tract is 
sufficient to give room for their summer and winter migrations, 
it supplies all their wants, and therefore leaves them no tempta- 
tion to wander eastward, where they might possibly hereafter 



SKETCH OP THE BOOTHIANS. 3 

come into contact with Europeans: while the nature of the 
country surrounding the isthmus which divides them from the 
larger mass of the continent of America, together with that of 
the country which must be traversed to reach this, as effectually 
precludes the visits of the Indians and the western Esquimaux, 
as it checks any desire on their parts to roam beyond their 
present limits. 

Excepting, therefore, the people whom I found in 1818, and 
whom I termed Arctic Highlanders, the natives of this spot form 
the narrowest and most insulated tribe of men that has yet been 
discovered by navigators : a fact which gives interest to whatever 
their characters may present. Here, if any where, we ought 
therefore to find how the human mind is developed under the 
narrowest education, in what manner the " light of nature" as it 
is termed, operates on the moral character and conduct, and how 
far human reason can proceed, under the smallest possible 
quantity of materials to act on, and under a very narrow range 
of application. If also there are peculiarities of character, 
whether for good or evil, the moralist and metaphysician may 
here speculate on what belongs to the original mental constitution 
of these people, and what is derived from their narrow and 
limited intercourse with their own species, in a society so 
restricted in numbers, and so incapable of changing customs or 
altering habits, where there is nothing beyond themselves to see, 
and no one to imitate. 

Whatever species of purity this may imply, the vices which 
they possess must, like their virtues, be those that originate 

b2 



4 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

among themselves : the natural produce of the human passions, 
acting where there is no control from religion, from the belief 
of an omnipotent Creator and Governor ; and where checked, 
subject to none but those checks which the mutual convenience 
of the society renders necessary. It is at least certain that they 
had never possessed the opportunity of acquiring the vices of 
civilization when we first knew them ; but I cannot confidently 
affirm that they learned no evil from us. 

If the fondness of the Esquimaux race for their children has 
been noted by those who have preceded us in these regions, if is 
a portion of their character which has been amply confirmed by 
our own observations on the present tribe. The testimonies of 
this never failed ; nor could they be flattered and gratified more 
than by the attentions and caresses bestowed by us on their 
offspring. It equally confirms prior observations to say, that 
we never saw any chastisement administered, nor ever witnessed 
even harsh language to them ; while, in return, the children are 
affectionate, attached, and obedient. To say more on this 
subject would indeed be but to repeat what has already been 
noticed by Captain Lyon, in many instances, in his account of 
other tribes. 

But there was one material point in which I must differ from 
my predecessors : though indeed I cannot call this differing, since 
each of us can but note what he has seen. It only follows, that 
from some cause, which neither T, nor they, I imagine, can assign, 
the people of this district differ in a very material point of 
character from those with whom they were so well acquainted ; as 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. O 

the superiority, in a very high degree, lies with those whose 
feelings and practices we had occasion to study. The facts, on 
both sides, were noted ; and though I should not make the 
deductions myself, they could be made by any reader. 

It cannot be forgotten, by those who have interested them- 
selves in the history of the people of Igloolik, that the aged 
parent was neglected, and that the helpless or widowed females 
in particular, were not simply sutfered to starve, but robbed of 
their little property. We had not the means of studying a very 
numerous tribe, and, of course, many facts could not have come 
under our notice ; but, such as they were, they could not have 
been exceptions, since they seemed consistent with the whole 
feelings and course of the community, and may, therefore, be 
safely taken as instances of general character and practice. Not 
to name mere instances, we found the aged Illiktu drawn ou 
a sledge by his companions, when the old man above alluded to 
was suffered to walk as he best could ; as was equally the case 
with Tulluahiu, whom we supplied with a wooden leg to 
replace his loss. If the ancient wife of the former was as well 
clothed and fed as any of the rest of the tribe, it was more 
remarkable to find two old and destitute females in the same 
good condition, and as well taken care of in every manner as if 
they were still of use. 

If this feature of their character removes from these people 
tliat charge of most disgusting selfishness and inhumanity which 
rests with so much justice on those of Igloolik, according to the 
published accounts, I need but notice, that there exists here the 



b SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

same custom of adoption as in that tribe, with the same conse- 
quences and practices, on both sides. If there was aught of 
difference, in any respect, it did not fall under our cognizance. 

I do not know that there were any differences between the 
state of the connubial relations and practices in this place and at 
Igloolik, or wherever else these have been remarked ; while 
there has been a little obscurity in some of the accounts of this 
subject. It is my business, at any rate, to relate what came to 
our knowledge. 

A state of celibacy is unknown : the mere supposition of such 
a condition is treated as a chimera, nor did they know how to 
believe that any of us could be without wives. Every woman 
therefore finds a husband, as every man procures a wife : but, 
often, inevitably, under a system of polygamy ; since the sexes 
cannot always be equal in numbers. The rule also appears to 
be, if it be not rather a natural arrangement than a law, that the 
most expert hunters obtain the superfluous women, as best able 
to maintain them ; though we did not know of any instance of 
a man possessing more than two wives ; of which the first, or 
eldest, is the senior in command and respect. In the same way, 
it is the strongest or most useful woman who most readily obtains 
a second husband : while, under either mode of this polygamy, 
or, possibly, only bigamy, the most perfect harmony seems 
always to subsist among the parties. If, never witnessing any 
angry word between husband and wife, and seeing each for ever 
treating the other with indulgence and frankness, we were 
willing to conclude that these people had attained that perfection 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 



of domestic happiness which is so rarely found any where, it is 
a conclusion, I fear, that reflection would not justify, and that 
a more intimate experience perhaps would not have confirmed. 

The forms of matrimony seemed here not to differ from what 
has been observed in other tribes of the Esquimaux, excepting 
that the young female must make her choice as soon as she is 
marriao-eable — but, the contract, such as it is, is settled between 
the parents for their children, and often at a very early age: the 
time of marriage seems to be about the age of fifteen ; and there 
is no other form but that of the female going to the hut of her 
destined husband. 

I believe that the practice of repudiation and change, whether 
of husbands or wives, has been found in all the Esquimaux who 
have come under the notice of navigators. Be that as it may, it 
is the custom in this district, though it was not easy to trace the 
extent to which it is curried. How far it may depend on satiety 
or disao^reement, we could not discover, or on the desire of 
change, or on more improper feelings, on either side : but where 
the morals and the feelings are both so extremely lax on this 
subject as we found them, it would be an idle and silly defence of 
this or any other mode of the savage condition, to suppose that 
vice, or what at least we must consider such, was a frequent 
source of this practice. It has been the custom, on one side, to 
overrate the virtues of savage nations, and, on the other, to 
exa"-'»-erate their vices. These things must be left to the novelist, 
and to the navigator who desires to emulate him, for the sake of 
producing an efi'ect ; to the false philanthropist and the lover of 



8 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

paradox ; and to him whose temper may have been soured by 
such collision, or who may have commenced with a prejudice 
distorting all that he saw. But the passions of our nature will 
strive to break forth, under all the restraints that society and 
religion can impose; and how should they not actually reign, 
where there is neither to check their operation, where there is 
nothing to say. This is wrong ; still more, where there is no 
inconvenience contemplated, to balance that which is gratifying, 
and may also be convenient ? 

But if there is no vice where there are no religion and no 
moral law to say. This is disobedience to God, and where custom 
and admission say that no injury is committed against our fellow- 
creatures, then is there also no vice in that want of chastity which 
is as remarkable here as it has been found among all the scat- 
tered tribes of the Esquimaux on the American shores. Who is 
there among the moralists to settle this question ? Be it deter- 
mined as it may, that " moral sense" on this subject, which is so 
generally diffused, is here deficient; since it is grossly unjust to 
attribute to selfishness alone, the respect entertained for chastity 
in the female sex; in whatever manner the value of this in the 
other is judged of The Esquimaux of Igloolik, at least, are 
proved to be in the last degree selfish : yet the virtue in question 
is held, by them, in no repute. 

We at least nuist speak as we, under civilization, feel. The 
conduct of the present people, as of all the rest of this race, is not 
more pure than that of the brute beasts : it is far less so than that 
of the pairing animals. But I need not dwell on a disgusting 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 9 

and improper subject : it has been told once ; and it must suffice 
that it has been once told. 

If I have already noticed the custom of adoption, I need not 
dwell on it: the reasons are the expected services from the 
subsidiary child : and the new attachment, on both sides, is equal 
to that between the natural parent and progeny. Thus also it is, 
that the widow with children, most especially if those are boys, 
becomes a prize, be her age what it may compared to that of 
the suitor ; since these become equally the property of the 
husband and bound to support both. 

Respecting their treatment of dead relations, or of the dead in 
general, we had a good opportunity of judging; as two deaths 
occurred within our experience. Illictu, the old man, was long 
left in the hut where he died, and would have been devoured 
by foxes and bears, had we not interred his remains. The 
incision found in his abdomen was unquestionably made after 
death : but we never learned its purpose, and could not conjecture 
whether it was a superstitious practice. The boy who had 
been killed by a stone was not found, and we were ignorant 
what became of him. But as we observed many graves in dif- 
ferent places, it is evident that those who formerly inhabited 
this country conformed, in this, to those of other tribes. On his 
death, there was an appearance of much despair, ending in anger 
directed toward us: but we had reason to understand that their 
lamentations for death, though severe, were soon over, nor could 
we hear of any ceremonies used on this occasion or on that of a 
funeral. 

c 



10 SKETCH OP THE BOOTHIANS. 

That these people are as egregiously conceited as all other 
savage tribes, can be no matter of surprise, when it is the 
character, not of nations alone, but of individuals, to be conceited 
in proportion to their ignorance. The land which they inhabit 
was, of course, the best of all possible lands; and it was equally 
matter of course, that those who had been born at one spot 
should extol its superiority over every other in the same district. 
But this is the attachment to home : it is what no sound moralist 
should blame, notwithstanding its occasional inconveniences, 
political or otherwise; since it is that source of happiness and 
contentment which has been beneficently given to all mankind, 
in whatever situation necessity or expediency has jtlaced them. 
We were quite content, ourselves, that they should prefer 
a covering of snow to the green face of nature, and should 
make themselves happy with blubber, oil, and sleep ; nor indeed 
would it be easy to dispute most of those points with them, 
when they could travel easier than we, could house themselves 
with a hundredth part of the labour, could find delights where 
we experienced only suffering, could outdo us in killing the 
seal, could regale on abundant food where we should starve 
because we could not endure it, and found ours as nauseous to 
them as theirs was to us. 

That they have never known war, it is perhaps superfluous to 
state, but it was interesting to discover in what light they consi- 
dered the crime of murder, to which some punishment has been 
assigned by every people, in whatever condition. We could only, 
however, hear of one instance on record ; where, in a quarrel 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 11 

about tlie division of a reindeer, one of the disputants had stabbed 
the other. What we could understand was, that tlie murderer's 
punishment consisted in being banished to perpetual solitude, or 
shunned by every individual of the tribe ; insomuch that even 
his sight was avoided by those who might inadvertently meet 
him. Wljen asked why his life was not taken in return, it was 
replied that this would be to make themselves equally bad, that 
the loss of his life would not restore the other ; and that he who 
should commit such an act would be held equally guilty. 
To these arguments, I imagine, no reply could easily be 
made, where there was no positive law to quote, within the 
compass of their understanding : but it would not be easy to 
deny that they carried in them an air of reflection and of 
humanity not undeserving of praise. 

It could not be conjectured that any one of the tribe possessed 
authority over the rest, that there was any one in the nature of 
a patriarch, where there was no chief. If superior age or talents 
commanded any respect, neither of these appeared to possess any 
influence. There seemed not the slightest approach, even to 
that insensible government, which, generally, in some manner, 
acts so as to unite a tribe in one common pursuit, or to combine 
them in a single society, so that the conduct of the whole, in their 
migrations and occupations, is similar and simultaneous. Here, 
every family decamped and travelled as its own views or caprices 
dictated ; all being as independent as they seemed, since each could 
soon construct its own habitation without the aid of others, and 
proceed to procure its own sustenance without the help of society. 

c 2 



12 SKETCH OP THE BOOTHIANS, 

The selfishness of this race, as known to Sir Edward Parry, can- 
not be more strongly marked than he has done it in his descrip- 
tion of his intercourse with them. Itadmitsof no dispute : yet such 
was not the character of the present tribe. I have already said 
that they paid as much attention to the aged and destitute as 
could have been done by any civilized people : and we had 
opportunities of observing, that so far from seeking the exclusive 
gratification of their own hunger or appetites, (the ever ready 
and most marked test of animal selfishness,) they were always 
ready to divide their provisions, even where they had not enough 
for the next day, with those who were in want. 

The striking and most repulsive want of gratitude in those 
who came under the cognizance of that observer, was certainly 
not evinced by the present tribe. So far from this, our expe- 
rience led us to assign them a character the very reverse : 
though the virtue of gratitude, if it be practically esteemed a 
virtue, as men may safely doubt, is not so very abounding or 
.so much cultivated, even under civilization and the lights 
of morals and religion, as to have led to any great censure 
of these people had they been without it. If those against 
whom the charge of ingratitude has been, and with unques- 
tionable justice, brought, are what men ought not to be, 
there is that to be recollected, which, though not an exculpation, 
forms a solution of an imagined difficulty, which has possibly 
been overlooked : in civilized society, it is acknowledged and 
admitted that ingratitude is a vice: but it is a profitable or an 
advantageous one, and, while practised as such, it becomes 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 



13 



necessary to conceal or suppress, as far as that is possible, the 
open and shameless display. The " children of nature," as they 
are, customarily, though very idly termed, go direct to the mark 
which others reach in a more circuitous and hidden manner: 
there is no check, from opinion, or usage, or morality: it is 
a convenient or profitable usage, and the shortest road to the 
desired end is taken. Where the extreme of self-love forms the 
basis of a character, whether it be that of a whole tribe at 
Tgloolik, or of an individual in England, ingratitude becomes 
an affair of course : it is a portion of the same virtue, where 
it is the custom to consider selfishness as the most needful 
of those, and thus, under such a code of brute morality, the 
most laudable. 

Be the fact as it may, however, as far as these general views 
are concerned, we must have been egregiously deceived, or, 
possibly, have contributed to our own deception, if the tribe of 
our acquaintance, here, did not display as much gratitude as 
could have been expected any where, if they did not impress us 
with the conviction that this formed a portion of a character 
which appeared in general so amiable, or, at the very least, so 
unexceptionable. 

It is not only, that, far exceeding the usual short and dry form 
of thanks, so general among this race, they seemed truly sensible 
of the favours conferred ; but the impression was found to remain. 
The thanks were renewed long after the services had been 
rendered, and when, according to the common course of things, 
these should have been forgotten ; while they were often 



14 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

accompanied by a free gift of some kind. It is but a part of the 
same cliaracter, that they were ever ready to confess a fault, and to 
make reparation, as they best could, either by apology, or restora- 
tion, or services; while ever seeming uneasy till they were forgiven 
and restored to favour. 

I may indulge in relating one petty history, by which this part 
of their character will be better illustrated than by any general 
statements, and I have no right to consider it the exception, rather 
than the rule, where no similar opportunity otfered; since it seemed 
to be consistent with their general character; and in other points 
than this. 

It had been settled, early in the spring, that Ooblooria and 
Awack, the son and nephew of Ikmallik, should provide them- 
selves with a sledge, dogs, and provisions, and accompany Com- 
mander Ross, who was to furnish his own supplies and carriage, 
and to proceed to Neitchillee, about fifty miles off, under their 
guidance. They accordingly came, at the appointed time, which 
was fixed by counting on the fingers, and by drawing on the snow 
the appearance which the moon would then present ; the stipulated 
quota of provisions being for five days. 

On arriving, however, they found that four families, including 
some relations, were hutted near the ship, and had been unsuccessful 
in their hunting ; on which they unpacked their sledges, and gave 
up so much of their stores as only to leave themselves enough for 
two days. This was barely sufficient to carry them on to Neitchillee, 
yet not enough to maintain them during their return ; but they had 
expected to find a deposit offish at that place. Unluckily, a storm 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 16 

of snow detained the whole party; and, in the calcnlated time, tlie 
provisions of the guides were exhausted. The needful supply was 
therefore given them from our own stores, which they promised to 
replace on their arrival at Neitchillee. 

Here, however, when they at length arrived, their deposits could 
not be found, from the mass of snow by which they had been 
overwhelmed ; in consequence of which they were again supplied 
with food enough to enable them to return to the ship. Here they 
related all that had been done for them, with the strongest expres- 
sions of gratitude ; adding that their parents would come and thank 
Commander Ross, when he returned, for the kindness which he 
had shown. Tliis was done on the next day, by our furnishing the 
means of that journey after we had accommodated them on board 
for the night ; when the father and mother arrived with a present of 
seal-skins of the best quality, and an offer to make them up into 
tlie water-proof boots for which they were intended ; while they 
seemed exceedingly pleased that we accepted them without offering 
any remuneration. In a few days they returned with the manu- 
factured articles; nor did their gratitude end even then, since it 
was often expressed afterwards, and, even at the distance of four 
months, with a promise of a similar pair when the ship should 
arrive at Neitchillee. 

If the Esquimaux race has often been noted for cheerfulness and 
good temper, we found that confirmed here. Under the latter 
quality, if kind in their domestic relations, as I formerly noticed, so 
were they to their dogs; unlike to many of their fraternity, who 
have been noticed for their ill-treatment of these useful animals. 



16 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

That these dogs were in bad training, was a natural consequence. 
Their cheerfulness was often vivacity, so that we might consider 
them a liglithearted people; and they seemed to possess great 
command of temper. The only show of resentment for what was 
thought an offence, was silence, after which they commonly left us 
and returned to their homes. 

The thievish propensities of savage nations are familiar : there is 
not a voyager's narrative which does not dwell on them ; and such 
excuses or defences have been made as these narrators could best 
contrive. I need not repeat the satirical defence which asks, what 
civilized Europeans, under equal temptations, and no restraints from 
divine or human laws, would act in a different manner. It seems 
a very simple question after all. Here, at least, whatever it may 
be elsewhere, there is no written divine law against theft, nor does 
there appear to be any moral sense which says that it is, abstract- 
edly, and universally, wrong. Human laws there are none ; and 
there can therefore be no check but that of the inconvenience : as 
some modern pedants write, they are governed by the principle of 
utility. But while there is much convenience in acquiring the 
coveted property, there is no counterbalancing evil : the society 
suffers nothing, while many or all may gain. The case of a wreck 
on our own shores is not essentially different: the resemblance to 
an enemy's town subjected to plunder is still more perfect. The 
thefts of savages are a warfare on property which seems placed in 
their power; it has been open warfare and bloodshed whenever 
they have dared ; and when too feeble, it is such plunder as is 
attainable, without hazard, and by whatever dexterity. That 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 17 

such is the principlt' by which they are guided in this case of theft, 
seems indeed fully proved by the fact that they do not rob each 
other; the evil in such a case would be felt and remedied. 

Tlie reasoning of these Esquimaux, however, seemed of a different 
nature, and of a more " liberal" character : it has often been used 
in far other lands, and has been considerably acceptable to the 
multitude, before the days of Wat Tyler and since ; as it is a rule 
of action for him who pilfers a book from a library or a rare shell 
from a cabinet. Not only are the sea and the land, with the animals 
which they bear, the common property of those who want them, 
but the same is true of every thing which can be found on the face 
of the earth. It is the want alone, therefore, with the power of 
using, which constitutes the right to possession : but it is a corollary 
from the general argument, which might not be so acceptable to 
those who use it among ourselves, under which they restore the 
stolen article when they find the original owner to be in want 
of it. 

In this manner did they practically conduct themselves toward 
us. No secret was made of the theft among themselves, so that the 
knowledge soon came to the owner, to whom the stolen article was 
returned on demanding it. Nor were the accusation, and the term 
thief, more than a matter of merriment : though after we had taken 
some trouble to explain to them that to steal was "bad," very few 
instances of a similar nature occurred. In one case, the husband, 
aware of his wife's propensities, always brought back what she had 
taken away. 

The extremely envious disposition of some of the Esquimaux has 

D 



18 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

been noticed, among their other faults. I must not be quite sure 
that we were not inclined to see every thing here in the most 
favourable light: but while admitting that every man wished to 
possess, by purchase, whatever his neighbour had obtained, we did 
not observe any workings of that bad passion in this desire. 

We did not observe any propensity to falsehood, or disposition 
to deceive ; and, on every occasion, there seemed a desire to com- 
municate all the information in their power, while, as far as we 
examined, this also proved correct. It was on the same principle, 
that we could always trust their promises ; there was the " point of 
honour" engaged ; and on the only occasion on which they broke 
one, in not keeping an appointment as guides, they long after 
accused themselves of " being very bad" for not giving notice; 
though, to have done so, would have been to lose a day of their 
hunting when they were without provisions. 

Such is the little we could discover or infer respecting the moral 
character of these people. It ought not to be an unexpected one, 
considering the mild dispositions of this race in general, and the 
circumstances in which they are placed in this narrow community 
and district. May I not say that it is a good one, and that the man 
of these lands may be considered a " virtuous savage ?" May I ask 
where are the civilized communities in which there is a more 
favourable balance of the vices and virtues ? since it is thus, and 
not by the varied action of either, that this question must be judged. 
This at least I may say, that the all-wise and beneficent Creator 
has not neglected this race, and that in giving them the means of 
animal happiness united to the desires which prefer those means to 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 19 

all Others, lie lias also, in his own way, instilled into them such 
principles as tend to preserve their moral happiness and order: 
while it is not for man to say in what manner he will hereafter 
judge those who have obeyed the impulses to good, and those who 
have indulged the propensities to evil. 

But, of Him, they have no knowledge : in this they resemble all 
their unconverted brethren of the same great tribe ; while I need 
not repeat the remarks so often made on this subject. Like others, 
we found nothing tliat even approximated to this wide-spread piece 
of knowledge ; and could only conclude that their opinions respect- 
ing a future state coincided with those which prevail among the 
Esquimaux at large. If they were influenced by any superstitions 
which have a reference to a Providence or a future life, we did not 
discover them : and though possessing an angekok, like all the others, 
he did not seem to be treated with much deference or any respect. 

We discovered in them a strong propensity to imitation and to 
mimicry : a property which they converted to immediate use, in 
learning to feed themselves in the same manner as we did, and with 
the same utensils ; and under which also they sometimes amused 
themselves in aping our gait and manners: above all, in the 
English custom of uselessly walking up and down under the 
notion of exercise : a practice which they could as little compre- 
hend as the Orientals, to whom it is so often a subject of wonder. 

This principle extended also to drawing, in which, even with 
our pencils, they were speedily proficients: while further rendering 
this talent very useful to us, in delineating the geography of the 
country; as has been found equally common in the other tribes of 

d2 



20 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIAN9. 

tliese people. All their geographical knowledge seemed very 
accurate ; and, to every river, hill, bay, or lake, there was a name : 
while it seemed to give them great pleasure to be able to com- 
municate this information. 

Notwithstanding the vanity which made them prefer whatever 
was there own, despising, or aifecting to despise, even our guns, in 
comparison with their own weapons, they were very desirous to know 
the name and use of every thing; nor had we any difficulty in 
making them comprehend the latter, in spite of our ignorance of 
their language. I must, in reality, consider them as an acute- 
minded people, who would be ready, after a little while, to receive 
instruction, and probably to adopt some inventions, and customs 
also, as far as these could be admissible under the circumstances in 
which they are placed. 

Of their intellectual faculties, beyond these points, it is difficult 
to form any judgment, so limited is the scope for the exertion of 
those; nor can I refer to aught more than their dexterity in 
hunting, and the practice of those useful arts which I shall 
immediately notice. But they are an energetic and active people; 
and though given to great excess in eating, like all others of their 
race, never appearing to give way to pure indolence, even when 
well fed. On the contrary, they seemed always busied in some- 
thing, even when at home : as some of us were inclined to think 
that much of their eating arose rather from the necessity of doing 
something than from appetite. 

In procuring their food, they seemed also more provident and 
systematic than the Esquimaux have generally been found. 



SKETCH OP THE BOOTHIANS. 21 

Nothing can be more regular and orderly than their migrations 
from one place to another, in pursuit of the different kinds of 
game: while their system of storing up provisions, and oil for 
fuel, in ditterent places, to meet future wants, seemed as perfect 
as possible. These are prepared in advance, at the several stations 
where the musk ox, the reindeer, and the seal are to be hunted ; 
and thus they can undertake their furthest migrations with the 
most perfect security. 

No one expects to hear that they are a more cleanly people 
than their fraternity elsewhere, and I need not repeat the dis- 
gusting details. Man is permitted to be more dirty than the 
beasts, and he is certainly not slow in taking advantage of this 
privilege wherever he dares. But, here there is really some 
excuse, and the people were not nnwilling to be clean. They 
cannot well avoid contamination from the oil which they use 
as food and fuel ; as, in a confined hut, where every thing must 
be dried at the flame of the lamp, the effects of smoke are equally 
inevitable. But the excuse, above all, is the want of water: and 
it has been resorted to as an excuse for similar neglect where it 
is not the rare and expensive article which it is here. The ex- 
penditure of fuel required to thaw what they drink is very great, 
as the quantity of water which they thus consume is enormous ; 
very often they cannot procure enough, or suffer severely from 
thirst should their oil be expended: so that we need not be 
surprised if they do not wash themselves in winter: while the 
habit of ten months in every year of life can scarcely be broken 
through in the two short ones during which water can be procuretl. 



22 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

Yet they wash their faces at least, by using a piece of wetted 
bear-skin as a towel ; while they were well pleased to be put into 
good order on board, even to the act of combing and cutting their 
hair, and the loss of their beards under the barber's hands. The 
hair of the men is indeed kept cjuite short, being an evident 
improvement of their appearance as compared with the long- 
haired tribes, as well as a decided peculiarity : it is the women alone 
who wear it long, and tied into two bundles, or long cues, hanging 
over the two shoulders. 

They seem little addicted to ornaments, and were very indifferent 
to our beads ; it was on the children almost solely that these were 
placed : while their own consisting of fringes of skin, teeth, and 
other things, were similar to those which have often been described. 
Their dresses being shown in plates and described in the ex- 
planations, I may omit any notice of those, as of many other 
matters. As elsewhere, the outer dress is always taken off and 
cleared of snow on entering the huts, altering their appearance in 
such a manner that they can scarcely be recognised. The snow- 
sofas on which tliey sleep have no covering of branches, as is 
common elsewhere : the first layer is that of seal-skins, above 
which are deer-skins with the hair uppermost, being the sheet 
or blanket; while a similar skin forms the coverlet. In what 
manner they sleep, I need not repeat : and the beds are not 
cold, except in very severe weather, though the temperature 
of the walls cannot be above the freezing point. The lamp is 
ever burning ; since it is the fire for cooking when not required as 
litrht. 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 23 

Their snow huts have been so particularly described that it is su- 
perfluous to speak of them again : while I have also noticed their 
method of proceeding with the construction in the course of the 
preceding journal. I need only name what has not yet been 
mentioned, namely, their method of procuring the ice window, 
which, in this country, is not to be found on the surface of a pond. 
For this purpose, a seal-skin is laid on the snow, so managed at 
the edges that it may contain two inches of water in depth, pro- 
cured by thawing snow before the lamp. This is immediately 
frozen into a transparent plate : and such, I presume, is esteemed 
the value of the fuel used for this purpose, that these windows are 
always removed and carried with them in their migrations. It 
is already equally known, that when the roofs of the snow huts 
begin to melt under the influence of the sun, they are removed, 
and a covering of skins substituted, as the summer tents consist of 
skins raised into a conical form by means of a central pole, from 
which lines are extended, and surrounded at the base by circles of 
stones. 

The walrus does not frequent these straits : and whether it is that 
the whale is rare or not, we could not understand that they ever took 
any, and many had never seen one. The seal, the musk ox, the 
reindeer, the fox, and the hare, form their quadruped game : they 
kill but few grouse, which, being considered delicacies, are reserved 
for the women and children ; but their supplies of fish seem to be 
very considerable. This last is eaten raw, if often half dried: the 
flesh of animals seems acceptable in any way, but it is always 
cooked, if possible, apparently for the sake of the oil soup. 



24 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

In the method of taking these several animals, there is nothing 
whicli has not been often described. The reindeer are generally 
shot by arrows, in the water,, as is usual elsewhere ; and, in their 
canoes, there is nothing to notice, if I except their manner of 
ferrying the women and children, by stuffing the latter within the 
skin of the boat, and making the former lie flat behind her 
husband ; in a rather dangerous position, when the least move- 
ment would upset the whole crew. 

Under the great scarcity of wood here, since very little is ever 
drifted on these shores, and in the want of the walrus and the 
whale, they are almost limited to the use of the reindeer's horn in 
the making of their spears and other weapons ; but tliese so nearly 
resemble those noticed by Crantz and others, that I need not 
describe them, unless indeed the fish-spear be not ditFerent from 
any of which 1 have read. The shaft of this, seven or eight feet 
long, is made of wood, if that can be procured ; if not, of horn ; 
and is furnished at the end with three points, so as to resemble 
a trident, of which, the central one is plain, and the two outer 
barbed, as may be seen by one of the plates. 

This want of materials compels them also to adopt a method of 
constructing their sledges, which differs very materially from 
all others hitherto described. A number of salmon are packed 
together into a cylinder about seven feet long, and wrapped 
up in the skins taken from the canoes, which cease to be of 
use when the frost is arrived. Being then well corded \\ith 
thongs, two of these cylinders are pressed into the shape of 
the runners, and, having been left to freeze, are secured by cross 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 25 

bars made of the legs of the deer or musk ox, so as to form 
the bottom of the sledge. This being done, the bottom of the 
runner is covered with a mixture of mossy earth and water, which 
soon freezes, to the depth of two inches ; after which comes the 
final process of plating the surface, that it may run smoothly over 
the snow. The operator takes some water in his mouth, and, 
when somewhat mixed with saliva, it is deposited on a bear-skin 
which is then rubbed over the runner, as by a brush, gradually, 
till a coating of half an inch thick is produced, when the work 
is finished ; the ice produced in this manner having an unusual 
degree of tenacity, and being also more slippery than the ordinary 
material. 

These carriages travelled much more lightly than our own, 
which were shod with iron; but as they cease to be of use as soon 
as the thermometer reaches the freezing point, they are taken to 
pieces; the fish being eaten, and the skins converted into bags, 
while the bones are reserved for the dogs. In the preceding 
journal I have noticed the sledges made of ice. 

In their miserable singing there is nothing which has not often 
been described ; and this is equally true of their dances, or rather 
dance, which seems intended to imitate the motions of a bear. 




l-V J hi-.-r/ideu d. Ttum ih^: c.ig-mel Pmwiiig by C 3 plain Ru 
AllCTU AIND KANGUAGIU. 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 27 



ALTCTU AND KANGUAGIU. 



Alictu and his wife are represented as clothed in seal-skins over 
deer-skins, and a statT of bone in the hand of the former. This indi- 
vidual was about seventy years of age, infirm, and bent so that his 
stature did not exceed five feet ; he was remarkable for being the per- 
son selected as a sacrifice on the first day of our communication, being 
placed on a sledge about ten paces in front of the column con- 
sisting of thirty men, three deep, who being armed with knives 
were waiting in breathless anxiety to behold the manner in which 
their aged companion would be treated, and on which depended 
their conduct towards us. He remained on the sledge with his 
arms folded, and with a countenance perfectly resigned to his 
fate, until Commander Ross approached and caressed him: even 
then he seemed to doubt that he was not destined to be the 
first to receive the poniard; and it was not until unequivocal 
proofs of friendship were interchanged with the whole party that 
he appeared satisfied his last moments had not arrived. He 
was much pleased to have his sledge drawn to the ship by 
myself and the sailors, and he was one of those first brought on 
board to see the wonders of the interior. He never visited the 
ship after the first day, and his death was announced to us on the 
second of March by an old woman and his eldest son Tiagashu, 
who took particular care of him, and who abundantly shed tears 

E 2 



28 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

on acquaintins' us of his demise. He had four 'sons who all 
paid him great attention, and he lived to see his great-grand- 
chiklren. He left a widow about ten years younger than him- 
self On examining his corpse a large but not deep incision 
was found in the abdomen evidently made long after his death, 
and probably to prove that he was really dead. The whole of 
the party left the snow huts at North Hendon, where he died, on 
the following day, leaving a small piece of wood on the top of the 
hut, and, after the party had gone out of our reach, his remains 
were interred by us to prevent its being devoured by foxes. Before 
leaving Felix Harbour the surgeon procured the skull, which 
T intended for the Phrenological Society, but which was one of the 
many valuable specimens of natural history which was of necessity 
left behind when we abandoned the ship at Victoria Harbour — his 
eyes were black and very small ; his hair, of which I have preserved 
a specimen, was grey approaching to white, when he died he was 
corpulent, and seemed to have no disease but old age. 

Kanguagiu, his widow, was afterwards found in possession of 
Poweytak, whose kindness to her, although helpless from infirmity 
and old age, will appear hereafter. She was certainly above 
sixty, about the middle size, and rather corpulent, her hair was 
grey and her face much wrinkled as well as tatooed. She was 
triply clothed in reindeer-skins, and was never seen out of the hut 
within which she is represented to be sitting, excepting when the 
family were removing to another station. 




On Stone by J.BrAndturd.. from-tii© ongLiiAi I>rawiii^ i-y Cai"JUii "R of r 



K /K W A L U A 



T 1 A G A S H U . 



A DL U R A K 



/Hni^iy l^n>fi,Jffr^i 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 



29 



KAWALUA, TIAGASHU, AND ADLURAK. 



TiAGASHU was the eldest son of Alictu, and who took particulai 
care of his father ; he was five feet six inches and five-eighths liigh, 
slender and weaker than the rest, his eyes were very small, and he ap- 
peared to be of a mild disposition. He was extremely industrious, and 
anxious to support his family, which consisted of a wife, three children 
of his own, and one of hers by a former husband, besides his father: 
he was not very successful. In May, 1830, he was reduced t.. 
absolute starvation, when he was assisted by Ikmallik's party as 
long as they could, but afterwards by us, for which he was very 
grateful, but never had it in his power to make a return. He shed 
tears on his father's death, and seemed anxious that we should 
refrain from going to the hut where he was left. 

Adlurak, his wife, was one of the best looking; she was 
remarkable for having large eyes, while those of her husband were 
very small, and she was perfectly aware of the peculiarity she 
possessed. She was of a lively disposition and was proud of having 
four children, two of which were still at the breast*; for some time 
she was a daily visiter, and was one of the most honest. 

Kawalua was about sixteen years of age, five feet seven inches 
hidi, and well made; he had neither tather nor mother, but being 
nephew to Ikmallik, was an inmate with his family. This lad was 
one of the most ii]quisitive, and soon became a favourite with us all: 



;}() SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

I therefore fixed on him to remain on board, with the intention 
of teaching him to read ; and having on board an Esquimaux bible 
anti the grammar published by Fabricius, I had hoped to make 
Inm useful. For this purpose he remained on board, and I began to 
teach him his letters; but on the second day he came to me and 
said, that Aglugga had told him that he was not to stay any 
longer, and nothing could persuade him to remain. My good 
intentions were therefore completely frustrated, which I had 
subsequently great reasons to regret. On the second year we met 
with him several times, and he was always rejoiced to meet us, 
enumerating at each interview the presents he had received. 




Od ftloYic hy 3 BTan(i*rJ,ft. 



ILUlCTU. OOTOOGl^. 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS, 31 



ILLICTU AND OTOOGIU. 



Are represented standing at the pool of Shagavoke, where both 
salmon and reindeer are killed in the autumn ; the piles of stones 
are erected by the natives, for the purpose of preventing the rein- 
deer from passing along the shore when they wish to drive them 
into the pool. A man or a dog being sent among them make all to 
appear moving, which alarms the animals and causes them to take 
the water; where they are attacked and killed by men in canoes. 

Otooffiu was five feet three inches and five-eighths high, inclining 
to corpulency, his face broad ; he was always clad in deer-skin 
jacket and seal-skin trousers. He was called an angekok or con- 
juror, but no one had any faith in his predictions, which were 
always a subject of merriment. He was among the first to show 
a disposition to possess himself of what he saw, and his taking out 
of my cabin the magnifying lens, which he is represented to be 
holding in his right hand, gave us a good opportimity of con- 
vincing him and his companictns of the danger of meddling with 
what belonged to us— as related in the Narrative. His wife's name 
was Kuauga, who had two children ; she was five feet three inches 
and a quarter high and rather good looking. 

lUictn, the son of Kunaua was a very fine lad about fifteen years 
of age, five feet six inches high. He was one who accompanied 
Commander Ross on his expedition to the north. When two musk 



32 SKETCH OP THE BOOTHIANS. 

oxen were killed on this occasion, he demonstrated that he was very 
tbnd of fresh beef, and that he could eat without being satiated for 
one whole day. We found him on the following year with his 
father near Cape Lawrence, and very much improved. He had 
been successful in hunting both reindeer and seals, and supplied 
me with skins and oil for fuel on the journey in which the Magnetic 
Pole was discovered. 

Otoogiu is represented with the magnifying lens which he had 
stolen in one hand, and a knife made of bone in the other. Illictu 
has in one hand a rod made of reindeer's horn, used for probing the 
depth of the snow, and in the other a fish-hook made of bone, 
which I purchased of him, and which now is in my possession. 
When we met him at Padliak, on the following year, he supplied 
us with about fifteen pounds of excellent venison, for which he was 
well rewarded. On seeing the surgeon with a swelled face, he ran 
suddenly to him, blew in his face, and hit him a pat on the face, 
which we understood afterwards, was a cure for every complaint; 
and as the surgeon very soon got well after that ceremony, liis 
recovery was entirely attributed to that charm. At that moment 
he had suspended to his neck a small phial containing an emulsion 
which the surgeon had given to him six months before, which 
instead of taking inwardly, as intended, was hung to his neck as 
a charm. 




On Stone hy J hi.ianUrd, hr.mi the orig'indl L'lAwmg by CnpU«iri Rf^s 



K U N A N A . 



/'rinuii.iy ^^Jt .^/y/ 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 33 



KUN AN A. 



This native, both in features and character, differed considerably 
from the rest; he measured five feet eight inches and five-eighths, 
was of a robust and healthy appearance ; his forehead appeared 
lower than it really was, from his eyebrows being very much 
arched; he was the most successful of all the hunters, particularly 
in killing bears, and he was constantly clad in bear-skins. lUictu, 
before mentioned, was his son by a first wife, which he had probably 
spared to a friend. By his second wife, which we saw at Cape 
Lawrence, he had two young children. His hut was almost entirely 
covered with snow at that time, but he had a large store of seal-oil, 
reindeer flesh, and salmon, buried under the snow, also skins of 
every kind ; and from him I bought a very large deer-skin, which 
was my bed during my fatiguing journey from Victoria harbour 
to Fury beach, and is now in possession of Sir Felix Booth, He 
informed us that Kablala (a woman who had a club foot, and who 
was highly respected by all on that account) had been with him, 
and had departed only a few days before with Tulooah, her 
husband. Kunana was one of those who gave us many supplies, 
consequently he was well stored with knives, spear-heads, hooks, 
&c., which he had received in exchange. On my return from 
Artists' bay, he convoyed us several miles, pointing out the names 
of the various capes, rivers, and stations, which we passed, and 

F 



34 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

and kindly directed us to the best route to Cape Isabella and 
Padliak. His wife IVangiak seldom came to the ship, and never 
without her husband. As they were the most successful, they were 
never in want, nor were they at all covetous or inclined to pilfer. Her 
stature was four feet nine inches and one-eighth, her complexion 
like that of her husband, lighter than the others, and her ap- 
pearance healthy. She had two young children besides lUictu, 
and the family were always thankful for what was given them. 




fm 



f^^'Y'f^>SSi- 



•kr'^H^' 



i>V ■ T' 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 



35 



HIBLUN A. 

(Oivhee.J 



HiBLUNA was remarkable for being the plainest-looking woman 
in the whole tribe, and also for being the most lively ; when a pre- 
sent was made to her of any useful article, such as a tin preserved 
meat case, her joy knew no bounds. Above, she is represented in 
one of her ecstasies on receiving a woman's knife which she holds 
in her right hand, and in her left a bone knife, while she is jump- 
ing up and exclaiming, Owhee ! Oivheel by which name she was 
soon known to the sailors. On this occasion, she had brought us 
a fine piece of a musk ox in a frozen state, and which we found to 
be most excellent food. She was one of our daily visitors, having 
with her an infant which she used to produce quite naked, even 
when the thermometer was 43° below zero of Fahrenheit. Her 
height was five feet three inches and a quarter, was near forty 
years of age, and extremely dirty and badly clothed; her face was 
broad, her nose flat, and the want of her fore teeth, added to her 
unseemly appearance ; her husband's name was Kunana (2d), and 
she had two young children ; however she was so good humoured 
and merry that she was a favourite among the sadors. 

Eringahriu, Hibluna's sister, was so extremely like her, that 
when they were apart it was difticult to discern which was which; 
but when together it was more easy, as the former was only four 

f2 



36 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

feet ten inches high. She had also lost her front teeth, and in 
habit and appearance was equally disgusting. Her husband's 
name was Ootoonina, who being as ill-looking as herself was an 
excellent match. They were both our guides and companions 
during our journey in 1831 across the lakes to the western sea. 
She was also of a lively disposition, and the sailors, who could not 
pronounce her name, christened her Nancy, to which she answered 
with perfect readiness; and was likewise a favourite with the sailors. 
Her husband was a very successful tisherman, and they had always 
plenty ; but she seemed to be a very bad housekeeper, and was not 
so industrious as the rest, and was never neatly dressed or clean. 
One of her children was at the breast, and the other was about five 
years old, which in the summer ran about naked. 




On ;i«.nc i)y j.lif*indBU-d, from the Ongmai Drawing- by Ca-plsun K.oss. 



f*7rictJ fy t^v^jp^.TV,- 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTIIIANS. 37 



MANELLIA AND ADELIK. 



Manellia was the wife of Nulluiigiak, and one of the prettiest 
of the females ; her stature was only four feet seven inches and 
a half; her features were small and regular, and her hands and 
feet were in proportion, very little ; and she was, notwithstand- 
ing her dirtiness, rather interesting. She is represented in the 
plate with a child on her back, which was born at North Hendon, 
but which died on the following year. Her manner was much 
milder than the rest, nor did she appear to covet what she saw. 

Adelik is an old woman who was a daily visitor to the ship. She 
appeared to observe with great attention every occurrence which 
took place, also to mimic or imitate people's actions. She is 
represented in the plate ludicrously imitating one of the officers who 
used to walk up and down near the ship's side for exercise, of which 
she could not see the utility. The staff in her hand is one of the 
spears with which seals are killed. She appeared about fifty-five 
years of age, and being rather bent was only about four feet seven 
inches in stature. She was supported by her children, and she 
was daily employed gleaning at the place where sweepings had 
been previously deposited on the ice at a little distance from the 
ship. Her face was much weather-beaten, and had in it the 
delineation of care and anxiety. She was never detected in 
dishonest practices. 



.38 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

3Ianellia and her husband returned to North Hendon in the fol- 
h)«ing or second summer, where there infant died, soon after 
which they departed and took up their station at Padliak, where 
we found them living on erkalook, a small sea fish, which has been 
already described. 



---=5'-^ '■" — »V*^ ■'^ T^W-n^ ^' 











-^ /.' V,- 



^■'T 






„ K A K 1 K A O I U A ► N « L U /V 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 39 



POYETTAK, KAKIKAGIU, AND AKNALUA 



Kakikagiu is represented standing between her two husbands. 
She was a native of Akullee, and by far the most robust woman we 
met with ; her stature was five feet three inches and a quarter; her 
face was broad, her eyes, nose, and mouth small, as also her hands 
and feet, in proportion to her figure which was completely en bon 
point; her favourite husband was Aknalua, who was decidedly 
better looking than Poyettak, accordingly the latter was sent ont to 
hunt and procure food whilst the other remained at home, and it was 
rather surprising to see how cheerfully he would obey from time to 
time this, which appeared to us, unfair command, of a capricious or 
partial wife, and bring home the fruits of his labours to be equally 
divided ! On one of these occasions, Poyettak was sent to guide 
Commander lloss to the Umingmak (musk ox) mountains, and was 
absent a whole week. It was this woman who had obtained some 
knowledge of the ships under Sir Edward Parry, and by whose 
advice the party advanced to communicate with us; when Poweytag 
had lost his adopted child, the fury of the old man was appeased 
by her interference, and she was one of the most useful and intelli- 
gent in giving us information about the coast, rivers, stations, &c. 
Latterly she was not very honest, and Aknalua made her return 
a carpenter's rule which she had taken and concealed. She was 
about twenty-five years of age. 



40 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

Poyettak was about twenty-eight years of age, he measured five 
feet four inches and five-eighths ; his complexion was darker than 
that of Aknalua, and his features not so pleasing, though small in 
proportion ; he was however a successful hunter, and very active, 

Aknalua was about twenty-six years of age, measured five feet 
eight inches, was strong and well made ; his complexion was not 
so dark a,s many of them, and his features were very pleasing; 
he seemed to have a very good temper, and often came to the 
ship, but never was accused of taking any thing away. Being his 
wife's favourite, he generally came to the ship with her, and was 
neither covetous nor dishonest. 

We did not see this family after the first year. 




--^?r'S^; 



un :3ione by J.hraiidard, IVimi !><:■ un^m.il l)i.*>vmj>- by i-Vipla.iii l,i 



K E. M I G 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTllIAN?. 41 



K E M I G. 



This youn^ woman, who was the most corpulent of the whole 
tribe, is represented as sitting on the bed within a snow hut, to 
have the tatooing delineated ; this consisted of three lines horizontally 
across each cheek, and three vertically across the chin, a double 
line round the neck and breast above the shoulder, another below 
the shoulder, and a third above the elbow; between each of these 
lines, which encircled the arms and parallel to each other, there were 
ornamental devices, but without any meaning ; and all the women 
were tatooed exactly in the same way. She was tive feet four inches 
and a quarter high, and was about twenty-five years of age. 
Her husband's name was Konag, who was also young, but 
they had no children, which is considered a great reproach 
to both parties. They went to the western sea in the sum- 
mer of 1830, but returned in 1831 to us at 8heriii"'s harbour, at 
which time she had become much more corpulent, and was still 
without a family. Her skin was a dirty copper colour, her face 
was broad, her brow very low, her eyes, nose, and mouth small, 
and her cheeks very red. She seemed very indolent, as well as her 
husband ; and, at one time, they were so unsuccessfid that we had 
to relieve their wants to keep them from starving. Her mother, 
whose name was Ninuia Himna, but nicknamed by the sailors, 
Old Greedy, as well as herself, was u constant visitor to the ship, 

G 



42 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS, 

and generally carried off something which she had picked up. 
On one occasion, when coming up the ladder, she was tumbled off 
by the surgeon, and falling on her back, pretended to faint ; from 
which, although all the doctor could do could not recover her, she 
was restored by the offer of an empty tin case, which had contained 
preserved meat : a stratagem which she subsequently tried more 
than once without success. She was about sixty years of age, five 
feet two inches high, extremely ill-looking, and decidedly the most 
disgusting of the whole tribe. 




..'■raji 4rt.r d , from '-h^ '.ri^i 



KAMA ^- OK E. 



J^rnlrd tf fn-M/'ie ^Wri 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 43 



KANAYOKE. 



Kanayoke came to the ship at Felix harbour, in the spring of 
1830; he had wintered at Pad I iak, and, having crossed the isth- 
mus, joined a party about six miles to the northward, one of whom 
guided him to us. It appeared that he was the father of Poyetta, 
by Kanguagiu, Alictu's widow, now the wife of his brother, 
Poweytag. He was about sixty-five years of age, was five feet 
eight inches high, and remarkable for being darker in colour 
than any of the rest. It appears that he lived to the westward, 
and had communication with a tribe in that direction where the 
females were most numerous ; and when a wife was wanted for some 
of his own party, he transferred to him his own wife, and went for 
another to himself, a friendly service which we understood he had 
performed no less than five times ; and he had now brought his 
sixth spouse, by whom he had three young children, to visit three 
of his former wives, and we witnessed the whole party living toge- 
ther in perfect harmony ! The advantages of this, as far as he was 
concerned, were obvious; for in each of the five different families 
he had a son or two, so that in his old age he might, according to 
custom, claim support from all or any of them, or from the most 
successful in hunting, as he was entitled to the share of a father. 
He brought several good specimens of natural history, for which 
he was well rewarded, and he gave us some valuable information 

g2 



44 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

respeotini; the western sea and the nature of the country to the 
westward. He also informed us, tliat Kablala, wIjo had a club- 
foot, and her husband, were to be at Padliak, and that we should 
see them next year. On the second visit, he brought liis present 
wife and <hildren to see us, whose description will occupy the 
next page. 




^ 

•^ 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 



45 



OOBLOORIA, PANINGAVOKE, AMINGO, AND 

NULLINGIAK. 



Amingo, the sixth wife of Kanayoke, is represented sitting- at the 
table in the cabin of the Victory, between lier two children, and an 
infant on her shoulder whose name was Aknallua. She was 
extremely well clothed in deer-skins, and so were her children, of 
whom the parents were very fond. Her complexion was mnch 
lighter and paler than the other females, and her behaviour very 
modest and unassuming. She sat at the table, and viewed the 
pictures that were set before her with great delight, pointing out 
to her children every thing she thought wonderful, as soon as it 
had been explained to herself. Her children were also very pretty, 
the eldest about four years old, the next two and a half, and the 
youngest about six months. After remaining some time, she 
returned to the huts, about six miles oiT, and we had not an 
opportunity of seeing her again. We understood that the whole 
family had gone ofl^", with that of Kablala, to the westward. 

Ooblooria, who is represented standing with a whip in one hand 
and a coil of line in the other, came with them. He was the eldest 
son of Ikmallik and Apelagliu, about seventeen years of age; his 
stature was five feet two inches and three-quarters, stout made ; his 
dress, on this occasion, was rather ornamental as well as useful, 
having above his deer-skin jacket, a tippet made of the belly part 



46 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

of the deer-skin, which being white, had a very pretty, as well as 
comfortable appearance ; he was one of the guides which Com- 
mander Ross had on his first journey to Neitchillee and Padliak, 
on which occasion his provisions ran short, and his gratitude, as 
well as that of his parents, has been dwelt upon already in the 
Narrative. He was a fine active and intelligent lad, and was, 
consequently, a great favourite with us. He was married to 
Shulianina, TuUuahiu's daughter, and his own cousin, his mother, 
Apellagliu, being TuUuahiu's sister. We had no reason to doubt 
that he was strictly honest, as also the whole family, who were 
certainly, and very deservedly, the favourites ; and as they showed 
no disposition even to covet, they were always presented with more 
of what was useful to them than the rest. 




On Stone by J.BrandBird from, the ongiDal Dra-^¥lng by Caxjlain R-oas. 



KON Y A R O K L t C K . 

OB B * LO M E AO. 



NEWEETIOKE. 



fl-mtttii iyr 6rmfJc Jffrtt- 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 47 



NEWEETIOKE AND KONYAROKLIK. 



Neweetioke was brother to Ikmallik, and certainly the tallest 
of the Boothians, being five feet ten inches high, but he had been 
described to us much taller before he came to us the second year at 
Sheriff's harbour ; but when he stood up beside Mr. Abernethy, 
who was six feet two inches, he looked so much shorter that his 
brother was quite astonished. He is dressed in a bear-skin jacket 
with deer-skin sleeves, and his trousers were bear-skin. He had, 
of course, been told all about us before he came, and his brother 
having received a great many things, lie was led to expect the 
same; he had, however, very little to give in exchange, and 
consequently was disappointed, and when nothing else would do 
he fell on an ingenious stratagem to obtain a piece of wood which 
he had fixed his mind upon. Having consulted his companions, it 
was agreed that they were to show us their method of killing seals, 
accordingly one personated a seal lying on the ice, now and then 
pretending to sleep, and sometimes holding up his head as if to 
look around ; while the others, watching his motions, graduallj- 
approach by creeping on their bellies, with a spear. Neweetioke, 
while this farce was going on, and supposing that our attention 
was entirely engrossed with it, slipped away, and having got the 
piece of wood, placed it along his spear, and on each end put over 
a boot, as if to carry them for the purpose of drying them by 



48 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

suspending them across his shoulders ; but he did not escape the 
vigilance of our look-out men, who caught him in the act, which 
was fatal to his obtaining any thing he wanted, and had he not been 
Ikmallik's brother, he would have been sent off in disgrace. He 
had a wife and two children, the eldest of which was one, of the 
performers in the stratagem. The detection, however, caused 
a hearty laugh. Although his forehead was low, his features were 
larger than most of them, and he appeared to be about forty-five 
years of age. 

Konyaroklik (or Bald-head) came at the same time with 
Neweetioke, and had one son, called Ulla, of whom he was very 
proud ; he was still more so of his bald head, which was unique 
here, being the only instance we saw of it. He was five feet six 
inches high, about fifty years of age, and rather good-looking. 
He brought us some skins, for which he was liberally paid, and 
was delighted when he saw his portrait, which I made of him. 
His costume was a dark deer-skin jacket and bear-skin trousers. 




fc. 




r-'^'^iHti^-.iii'.^^, 



A W 1 T I G I N 



P A L U R A ' 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 49 



UDLIA, AWTIGIN, AND PALURAK. 



AwTiGiN is represented in the engraving standing between his 
two wives. This family came to us at Sheriff's harbour in the 
spring of 1831, having learnt of our position from our former 
friends. His jacket is of reindeer-skin, as also those of his wives; 
his trousers are of bear-skin, and his wives' seal-skin, as also their 
boots. They had several good skins to dispose of, and left us well 
pleased with what tliey had in exchange. It appeared that he had 
first taken Udlia for a wife, and, in consequence of her having no 
child, he took Palurak in addition, by whom he has a son ; not- 
withstanding this, the two wives appeared on perfect good terms 
with each other, and were equally beloved (if I may so call it) by 
their husband. Awtigin was five feet six inches high, stout made, 
but had rather a stupid look. He was very desirous to possess 
many things which he saw, but was not detected in pilfering. 

Udlia was five feet one inch and a half high, and rather delicately 
made ; she could not be above twenty-five years of age, while her 
copartner was two inches shorter, and about two years younger. 
The child's name was Karuktachiu, and was about two years old. 
These females were delighted with the presents which we gave 
them, and showed no disposition to covet or to steal. After remain- 
ing with us about a week they departed to fish on one of the lakes. 

H 



50 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

Like the rest, they promised to return, but our departure would 
disappoint them, as we left Sherift''s harbour in the August 
following. 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 51 



SHULLANINA, TULLUAHIU, AND TIRIKSHIU. 



TuLLUAHiu, his wife Tirikshiu, and his daughter Shullanina, 
being the most remarkable family we met with ; a plate of them 
has been given in the book, and their names are so often introduced 
that little of their history remains to be told. The former, whose 
name signifies a young raven, was about forty years of age, he 
measured five feet eight inches, and was rather more corpulent than 
the rest, probably from being unable to take exercise; his features 
and costume are well represented, as also those of his wife and 
daughter. When we approached them on the first day of com- 
munication, Tulluahiu was stationed in the middle of the column, 
standing on one leg, and supported between Ikmallik and another, 
and was armed with a long knife, which he kept behind his back 
until peace was established. He was one of the first we had on 
board, and was remarkable for imitating every thing he saw done. 
It has been already mentioned that the wooden leg which we gave 
him was the means of establishing friendship between us, and he 
was always grateful for that signal service which we rendered to 
him. He was never detected stealing, but his wife was not so 
honest, and when she did succeed in carrying any thing away, her 
husband always made her bring it back. In the plate she is 
represented concealing a piece of wood, in which she was detected. 
She was sister to Ikniallik, and being five feet five inches and 

H 2 



52 SKETCH OP THE BOOTHIANS. 

a quarter high, was one of the tallest of the women ; her name 
signified an ermine, and she was about thirty-eight years of age. 
Shullanina, her daughter, was the eldest of three children; she 
was decidedly the prettiest girl and had the best figure ; her cheeks 
were rosy, and, when washed with soap and water, she looked very 
well, and appeared to have every amiable quality. The proof she 
gave of her obedience, by consenting to be exchanged for a wooden 
leg, has already been dwelt upon in the Narrative, as well as her 
subsequent marriage with her cousin Ooblooria, Ikmallik's son. 
After which I met with the whole family at Lindsay river. At 
Sherifi^'s harbour, a very short time after, they paid us a visit. 
TuUuahiu had damaged the trunk part of his wooden leg; this 
was repaired by bands of copper, and several spare legs given to 
him before we parted for the last time, and which excited new 
demonstrations of their gratitude and regard. 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 



53 



IKMALLIK AND APELLAGLIU. 



Ikmallik, and his wife Apellagliu, were certainly the best of tlie 
whole of the natives, and they seemed most respected by the rest. 
They are represented in the Narrative as drawing a map of the 
country ; and, from the information which he likewise gave us, he 
obtained the name of the " Hydrographer," and we always found 
what he, or his son Ooblooria, told us to be correct. They brought 
us every thing they could procure, leaving it entirely to us what 
they were to have in exchange, and were always contented with 
whatever was given to them ; by this kind of conduct they gained 
our confidence and esteem, and in the end they got best rewarded. 
They were extremely attached to their children, and for any kmd- 
ness shown to them their gratitude knew no bounds. The mutual 
desire to oblige each other, and every one else, was at once manifest 
and delightful. Ikmallik was the first who remained a whole 
night and slept on board, having been employed by me in building 
my magnetic observatory of snow, which he did cheerfully and 
extremely well. His youngest child, about two years old, was 
called Camuka, and was very pretty ; she was clothed in skins so 
as to resemble a ball, and was often entertained with prints in the 
cabin. Besides their own three children, two of which were at the 
breast, they had supported two nephews who had lost then- parents ; 
one of which, Awack, had now grown up, and was the companion 



54 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

and friend of Ooblooria ; he was one of the most active and expert 
hunters, as well as the most successful of the whole, and was one 
of Commander Ross's guides on the first journey. I met with him 
afterwards in Thoms bay, and he was the means of our discovering 
the great Salmon (Lord Lindsay) river. 

Apellagliu was five feet three inches and a half high, rather 
corpulent, and by no means good looking; she was sister to 
TuUuahiu, in whose features there was a family resemblance, and 
was about thirty-six years of age. Awack was about twenty-two, 
had a very pleasing countenance, and v^as five feet eight inches 
high. 

Ikmallik had another brother, besides Neweetioke, who was 
named Atayaraktak, who was an active young man, about thirty, 
and five feet eight inches and a half high ; his wife was a very 
delicate person, and they had two children. It was this man and 
Ookurahiu who first conducted me to Neitchillee, while Com- 
mander Ross was on a journey to the westward. Ookurachiu was 
also a nephew to Ikmallik, but lived with his mother Alurak. 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. OO 



AJOUA, AUOWAHRIU, AND NAQUASSIAK. 



Ajoua was an old woman, the mother of Tullualiiu and Auo- 
wahriu, who was very much bent, and could not walk without the 
aid of a staff; she was very covetous, and asked for almost every 
thing she saw ; at length I proposed that she should carry off the 
ship on her back, which had the appearance of being bent for re- 
ceiving a burden, at which her sons were much amused ; <ve 
received, however, from her a curious piece of wood which had 
been given to her by Cablala, and would have been a passport if 
we had succeeded in getting to the westward. This curiosity 1 
have still in my possession : of course she was well rewarded for 
it ; but she always put us in mind that her parting with it was a 
great favour. Auowahriu was her second son, and was also a 
cripple from accident; he had been a very powerful man and an 
excellent hunter, and was remarkable for the nice order in which 
he kept his spears, bows, and arrows. He was very dexterous 
at killing salmon, and in the management of a canoe; we met 
with him for the last time at the salmon fishery, at the mouth of 
Lindsay river. He had three children who had lost their mother. 
Naquassiak, the eldest, was about sixteen years of age, very tall 
and thin, but not very active ; when he went to show Connnander 
Ross the way to Shagavoke, he was detected in telling a falsehood, 
and thereby obtained the nickname of Shaglo, which signifies a 



56 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

lie; but he never was offended at this appellation, which indeed 
was a source of merriment whenever it was mentioned. The other 
two children were infants ; but when Tiagashu died, his widow 
Alurak became the wife of Auowahriu, and took charge of the 
children. This family were not covetous nor inclined to pilfer, 
and were therefore always in favour. 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIAN8. O/ 



NOYENNAK AND IBLUSHE, TIKATAGIU. 



These young men were brothers of Tiagashu, Poyettak, and 
Aknallua, by the same mother, but by a diiferent father. Noyen- 
nak was about twenty-five years of age, five feet four inches and 
three-eighths high ; liis complexion was lighter and more sallow 
than his brothers, and he seemed very quiet and inoffensive ; he 
contributed to the support of his aged mother, and when his father 
Alictu died he was much grieved. Iblushe, his brother, was about 
thirty years of age, five feet five inches and three-quarters high, 
and also of a light sallow complexion. He was remarkable for 
wearing ornaments of fbxes' teeth hung round his forehead, and at 
each temple a bear's tooth ; his countenance bespoke extreme good- 
nature, which we found completely verified. We understood that 
this family suffered considerably for want of food after they left us, 
and we did not meet them again on the second year. 

Tikatagiu was one of those who did not come to us until late in 
the first season. He was a very fine young man, about twenty-six 
years of age, and measured five feet nine inches. His wife, whose 
name was Kuria, was a very shy delicate woman, and had one 
infant named Karuktachiu. He was an excellent hunter, and 
had a very superior dog, of which he was very fond, and could 
not be bribed to part with him. He came and built a snow hut 
very near to the ship, and remained until he had exchanged 

I 



58 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 

skins and otlier articles which he could spare, for wood and iron. 
I met him some time afterwards at Neitchillee, and obtained 
a supply of fish, which were then in great plenty. 



SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIANS. 59 



MILLUCTU, TOPAKA, AWACK [l\ AND ALLINACHRIU 



MiLLUCTU was one of those who was very much at the ship, and 
was rather inclined to possess himself of what he saw, and was 
particularly jealous of any one receiving more than himself; when 
he perceived the quantity of wood which composed TuUuahiu's 
wooden leg, he complained that he could not walk on his right 
leg, and begged that he also might have a wooden one : when he 
was told that of course his leg, like that of TuUuahiu, must be 
taken off, he said he had not time, or that it was not convenient 
now, and promised he would come to-morrow ; but when he came 
he said that his leg ivas better. On another occasion when Ikmal- 
lik was rewarded with a tin meat-case, for dancing like a bear, in a 
ring formed by the women, he began also to exhibit ; but his per- 
formance was so much inferior to his predecessor, that he only 
excited laughter ; but seeing that he w s very much disappointed, 
I gave him a tin case also, which turned the laugh on his side. He 
was about twenty-five years of age, five feet foin- inches high, and 
well made. He had a wife and two children ; and his mother, an 
old woman named Topaka lived with him. This old lady was the 
first who committed a theft, by stealing a pair of brass snuffers, 
which was, however, found out by the rest, and immediately re- 
turned. She was one of those who gleaned daily on the dunghill. 
Awack (1) was a man about forty-five years of age, five feet three 

I 2 



60 SKETCH OF THE BOOTHIAN8. 

inches and three quarters high ; he was very quiet and industrious, 
and exchanged a great many articles with us honestly. His wife's 
name was Allenachriu, about his own age, they had a boy named 
Illiklaptuain and a girl called Beaktakhilla, the former six and 
the latter seven and a half years old. We met them afterwards in 
Padliak, in possession of plenty of fish, with which they supplied 
ns; and the lady politely convoyed us several miles on our way 
home. We did not see them during the last two years. 

As the rest of the natives have nothing remarkab'e or peculiar 
to them, I shall only mention a few of their names, &c. 

Aunai, an old woman, sixty years of age, five feet three inches 
and a quarter high. — Auatiu, an old woman, sixty-four years of 
age, four feet ten inches and seven-eighths high. — Strowok, an old 
woman, fifty-five years of age, five feet two inches and a half 
high. — Ugluta, an old woman, fifty years of age, five feet high. — 
Sheppung, a child, five years of age. — Karaksachiu, a cliild, six 
years of age. — Nangiak, a woman, forty years of age, four feet 
nine inches and a half high. 

The above will be sufficient to show that the Boothians are 
generally below the middle size. The first party we met with 
consisted of ninety-nine souls, viz., thirty-three men, twenty-five 
of whom had wives ; twelve old men and women, and twenty-nine 
children. We afterwards met with about sixty more, so that the 
country is but thinly peopled, the whole population amounting to 
no more than a hundred and sixty souls. Upon the whole, in the 
unqualified state of nature in which they were found, they were the 
happiest of human beings, on whom Providence has kindly and 
bountifully bestowed every necessary gift, if not every blessing. 



VOCABULARY 



OF THE 



ENGLISH, DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX 

LANGUAGES. 



PREFACE. 



In compiling the following vocabulary and dialogues I have 
adhered to the method of spelling the words which was published 
by Fabricius, both in the shape of a Grammar and a Dictionary ; 
the last edition of which was printed at Copenhagen in 1804, and 
to which I refer my readers for any further explanation than I 
have thought necessary to give. 

The pronunciation of the vowels, both in the Danish and Esqui- 
maux language is as follows : 



A 


sounds as 


A in 


War. 


E 


• • > ■ • 


E . . 


Cellar 


I 


• • . • 


I . . 


Line. 


O 




O . 


Block 


U 




U . . 


Full. 


Oa 




o . 


Load. 


Ou 




Oo . . 


Rood. 


Ej 


. 


Y . . 


Fly. 


Aj 


. . • 


I . . 


I 



64 PREFACE. 

The consonants are the same as in the English language, with 
the following exceptions : 

G sounds as G in Gay. 

J Y . . Yesterday. 

L and R, in the Esquimaux language, never begin a word, ex- 
cepting in lu (and), which, however, is often a definite termina- 
tion. Neither does H begin any but a proper name. 

In the whole narrative I have adhered to the above pronuncia- 
tion, which to me was perfectly easy, from being acquainted with 
the Swedish and Danish languages, and wliich is, indeed, the best 
method as being the least complicated ; but it will be observed that 
Commander Ross has not followed this plan, and therefore in 
reading his narrative this must not be attended to. 

N.B. — This Vocabulary is extended, that it may be found useful 
to those who navigate Davis's straits and Baffin's bay, as well as to 
future Voyages of Discovery. 



VOCABULARY 



ENGLISH, DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAU.X. 


Abate 


Aftage 


Miklinek. 


Armour 


Vaaben 


Sekkut. 


Able (I am) 


Jeg er island 


Piginnavonga. 


Arrive 


Komme 


Tikinek. 


Abode 


Opholdsted 


Inne. 


A rrow 


Piil 


Karsok. 


Accuse 


Beskylde 


Passiklernek. 


Ashes 


Aske 


Arsaet. 


Ache 


Smerte 


Anniaut. 


Ass 


Asen 


Siutitok(N.B.) 


Admonish 


Formane 


Okaukriksainek. 


Assassin 


Morder 


Innuaersok 


Adorn 


Pryde 


Arsoainek. 


Assist 


Hjeipe 


IkioVnek. 


Advance 


Komme frem 


Sasrbsarnek. 


Attachment 


Kjerlighed 


Assennirsusek. 


Advantage 


Fordeel 


Ajungikot. 


Attendant (his) 


Hans Ledsager 


Ajpa, v. ajpset. 


A ffi rm 


Sige ja 


Angernek. 


Aunt 


Faster 


Aja. 


Afraid (he is) 


Han er bange 


Erksiok. 


Austral 


Sydlig 


Kauangarnitsok. 


After him or it 


Efter ham 


Kingorna. 


Autumn 


Host 


Okiak. 


Again 


Igjen 


Ama. 


Auk (little) 


Soekonge 


Akpalliarsuk. 


Air 


Luft 


Silla. 


Awakes (he) 


Han vaagner 


Iterpok. 


Ale 


Ol 


Imiak. 


■ 




■Pigarpok, v. er- 


Alien 


Fremmed 


Tekkornartak. 


Awake (he is) 


Han er vaagen 


komavok. 


Alone 


Alene 


Kissime. 


Baby 


Barn 


Nalungiak. 


Also 


Ogsaa 


Ama. 


Bachelor 


Pebersvend 


Nukakpiak. 


Although 


Endskybndt 


Nauk, V. umni. 


Back (of a man) 


Ryg 


Tunno. 


Altitude 


Hiiyde 


Portursusek. 


Bad 


Ond 


Ajortok. 


Always 


Allevegne 


Tamatigut. 


Bag 


Pose 


Pok. 


Amiable 


Elskvserdig 


Assanartok. 


Ball 


Bold 


Arksak. 


Anchor 


Anker 


Kisak. 


Base 


Slet 


Isumaluktok. 


Ancient 


Gammel 


Utokak. 


Bay 


Bugt 


Kangerdluk. 


Angry (he is) 


Han er vred 


Kamakpok. 


Beard 


Skjteg 


Umik. 


Answer 


Svar 


Akke. 


Beats (he) me 


Han slaaer miu: 


Unatarpanga 


Answer (to) 


At svare 


Akkinek. 


Beauty 


Skjiinhed 


Pinnersusek. 


Ant 


Myre 


Myre (Prov. 6,6). 


Bee 


Bie 


Egytsak. 


Anxiety 


Frygt 


Erkse. 


Beer 


61 


Imiak. 


Any of them 


Nogle 


Tllejt or illejsa. 


Before 


For 


Siorna. 


Apple 


JEh\e 


Paurnarsoak. 


Beg 


Bedc 


Krcnunok. 


Apprentice 


Lserling 


Ajoksersiigak. 


Beggar 


Betlcr 


Krenursok. 


Approach 


Naerme sig 


Padlingnek. 






Kannong — il- 
liorsusek. 


Approves (he) it 


Han billiger det 


Illuara. 


Behaviour 


Opforsel 


Arm 


Arm 


Tellek. 


Belief 


Tree 


Opernek. 


Arm (rin-ht) 


Hciyre Arm 


Tellerpik. 


Believe 


Troe 


Opernek. 



66 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Belly of a man " 
Belly of a fish 


Bug 


Neersset. 


Cabin 
Cable 


Kahyt 
Toug 


Nalekkaminna. 
Aklunaursak. 


Bible 


Bibel 


Bibelit. 


Cape, or hood 


Hue, Haette 


Nesak. 


Big (large) 


Tyk 


Silliktok. 


Calfof a reindeer 


Rhenskalv 


Norrak. 


Big with youns: 


Frugtsonimelig 


Nartursok. 


Call 


Kalde 


Kakorsiuek. 


Billow 


Bolge 


Mallik. 


Callina^ 


Kald 


Kakorsut. 


Bird 


Fugl 


Tingmiak. 


Calm (it is) 


Det er stille 


Kaitsungavok. 


Bitch (large) 


Ta>ve 


J Kremmersoak 
[ arnak. 


Candle 
Candlestick 


Lys 

Lysestage 


Nennerout. 
Nenneroursivik. 


Bitch with young 


TocvemedHvalpe 


Sardliak. 


Canoe 


Kajak 


Kajak. 


Black 
Blankets 


Sort 
Lagener 


Kernektok. 
Tungit. 


Cape, head of a] 
land j 


Forbjerg 


Nouk. 


Bleed 


Aarelade 


Auaersinek. 


Captain 


Captain 


Nalegak. 


Bless 


Velsigne 


Pidluarkorsinek. 


Cash 


Kasse 


Iklerfik. 


Bliss 


V'elsignelse 


Pidluarkorsut. 


Cautious 


Forsigtig 


Missiksortok. 


Blood 


Blod 


Auk. 


Cave 


Hule 


Itersak. 


Blow 


Bla3se 


Annordlernek. 


Cease 


Ophore 


Sorarnek. 


Blue 


Blaae 


Tungiortok. 


Certainly 


Visselig 


lUomut. 


Boast 


Bryste sig 


Makkittanek. 


Chace of reindeer 


Rhensjagt 


Auarnek. 


Body 


Legem 


Timme. 


Chair 


Stol 


Ivksiavik. 


Boil 


Kaage 


Iganek. 


Chalk 


Kride 


Aglaut. 


Bone 


Been 


Saurnek. 


Chamber 


Kammer 


Inningoak. 


Bone (back) 


Rygbeen 


Kremertlok. 


Changes (it) 


Det forandres 


Adlangorpok. 


Bounty 


Godhed 


Isumagiksusek. 


Channel 


Sund 


Ikkerasak. 


Box 


TEske 


Mattursartok. 


Charcoal 


Steenkul 


Aumarsoit 


Bow 


Bue 


Pissikse. 


Chaste 


Kydsk 


Petejuitsok. 


Brain 


Hjerne 


Karisak. 


Cheap 


Let kjdbs 


Akkikitsok. 


Brandy 


Brsendevin 


Sillakangitsok. 


Cheerful (he is) 


Han er glad 


Nuennarpok. 


Bread 


Briid 


Timiursak. 


Cheese 


Ost 


Lnuk. 


Break 


Briste 


Asserornek. 


Chew 


Tygge 


Tamoarnek. 


Breast(woman's) 


Bryst 


Ivienge. 


Chicken 


Kylling 


Piarak. 


Breeches 


Buxer 


Kardleet. 


Child 


Barn 


Merak. 


Breeches (of "] 
women) J 
Bride 


Buxer 
Brud 


Serkinek. 
Nullieksak. 


Chimney 
Choose (do you) 


Skorsteen 
Vildu 


Pyorfik. 

rPiomavit ? pis- 
1 savit? 


Broad 


Bred 


Silliktok. 


Christmas 


Juuil 


Jule. 


Brook 


Elv 


fKok V. korsoak 


Church 


Kirke 


Okallukfik. 






1 V. kogejtsiak. 


Circle 


Passer 


Angmaloriksaut. 


Buoy (sealskin) 


Blaere 


Auatak. 


Citizen 


Borger 


Iglorperksoarmio 


Burden 


Byrde 


Nangmaut. 


City 


Stad 


Iglorperksoit. 


Burial 


Begravelse 


lUinek. 


Civil 


Hbflig 


Innuksiarnersok. 


Burn 


Brsende 


Ikinek. 


Claw 


Kloe 


Kukkik. 


Button 


Knap 


Attesingoak. 


Clean (it is) 


Det er reent 


Sellisimavok. 


Butterfly 


Flue 


Niviugak. 


Clock 


Klokke 


Nselluna?rkotak. 


Buy 


Kjobe 


Pissiniarnek. 


Cloth 


Klsede 


Annoraksak. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



67 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Clothes 


Kiti'der 


Annorarsaet. 


Cruel 


Grusom 


Nakitejtsok. 


Cloud 


Skye 


Nuiak. 


Cruelty 


Grusomhed 


Nakitejtsusek. 


Coach, a sledge"! 
with wheels J 


Vogn 


Kamutik ark- 
sakaursuglik. 


Cruise 
Crush 


Krydse 
Knuse 


Arksornek. 
Serkomitsinek. 


Coal, charcoal 


Steenkul 


Aumarsoit. 


Cry 


Raabe 


Torklularnek. 


Coast 


Kyst 


Siksak. 


Cup, teacup 


Thckop 


Thetorfik. 


Coat 


Kjole 


Annorak. 


Cure, medicine 


Cuur 


Nekkursaut. 


Coin, money 


Penge 


Anningaursaet. 


Curtain of a tent 


Forhoeng 


Umik. 


Cold 


Kulde 


Isse. 


Custom 


Vane 


Illerkok. 


Cold (get a) 


Forkjiilcs 


Nuangnek. 


Cuts (he) it 


Han skjaerevdetaf 


Kippiva. 


Colours (a ~| 
painter's) J 

Comb 


Farver 
Kam 


Kallipautit. 

rlllejautit, V. 
1 komangniutit. 


Daily, every day 

Damage of a ship 
Damp 


Daglig 

La;k, Skade 
Damp 


rUdlut nungud 

1 lug't. 

Asserornek. 

Pyok. 


Comes, he 


Han kommer 


Aggerpok. 


Danger 


Fare 


Nauveersusek. 


Company 


Selskab 


Illegeengnek. 


Dares, he 


Han vover 


Sapepok. 


Compass 


Conipas 


Pyorsiut. 


Dark 


M.irk 


Tartok. 


Compassion 


Medlidenhed 


Nakinnirsusek. 


Dawning 


At det dages 


Kaule.uek. 


Conceal 


Skjule 


Irsertoinek. 


Day 


Dag 


Udluk. 


Conduct 


Opforsel 


Kannong — illi- 
orsusek. 


Dead 
Deaf 


Dod 
Di3v 


Tokorsok. 
Tussilartok. 


Confidence 


Tillid 


Tette. 


Deal (to) 


Dele 


Augoainek. 


Conjurer 


Hexemester 


Angekok. 


Deal (a) of it 


Deel 


Ilia. 


Conscience 


Samvittighed 


Isuma. 


Dear 


Kjaer 


Assarsak. 


Consume 


Fortaeres 


Nunguneng. 


Death 


Dod 


Toko. 


Copper 


Kobber 


fKangusak auk 
padlartok. 


Debt 
Deceit, lie 


Gjeld 
Bedragerie 


Akketsugak. 
Seglo. 


Corn to make' 
groats of 




Suaurseksset. 


Deceives (he) me 


Han narrer mig 


rSeglokrittar- 
\ panga. 


Corn to make 
beer of 


Korn 


■{ Imiekstet. 


Decent 

Deck of a ship 


Sommelig 
Dspk 


Kursegunartok. 
Ka. 


Corn to make 
bread of 




Timiurseksast. 


Decree, law 
Deep 


Beslutning 
Dyb 


Pekkorsut. 
Itirsok. 


Corner 


Hjorne 


Tekerkok. 


Deer (rein) 


Rhensdyr 


Tukto. 


Cost 


Betaling 


Akke. 


Defect, want 


Mangel 


Ajorsaut. 


Count, number 


Tal 


Kissitse. 


Defence 


Beskyttelse 


Igdlersout. 


Counting 


Tcelle 


Kissitsinek. 


Defend 


Beskytte 


Igdlersoinek. 


Cow 


Koe 


Umingmak. 


Defray, pay 


Betale 


Akkillernek. 


Cowpock 


Kokoppe 


Koppe (Danish). 


Defy 


Trodse 


Pilferecnck. 


Creator 


Skaber 


Pingortitsirsok. 


Delays (he) it 


Han opsffitter (let 


Kakugorpa. 


Creatures 


Skabninger 


PingortitJet. 


Delight 


Vaere glad 


Nuennarnek. 


Creep 


Krybe 


Kajeksoarnek. 


Deliver, save 


Frelse 


Annaursinek. 


Crew 


Mandskab 


Kivgii't. 


Demand 


B5n 


Krenut. 


Crowd of men 


Folkeskare 


Innuierksoit. 

K 


Demand 
2 


Bede 


Kreniiuek. 



68 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Deny 


Nsegte 


Naggarnek. 


Duty 


Pligt 


Pirseksuk. 


Depth 


Dybde 


Itirsusek. 


Dwell 


Boe 


Innekarnek. 


Desert 


Orken 


Innukajui'tsok. 


Dye (to) 


Farve 


Kallipangnek. 


Descend 


Nedstige 


Akkarnek. 


Each 


Enhver 


Nungudlune. 


Design 


Hensigt 


Pioraarsak. 


Ear 


Ore 


Siut. 


Desire 
Destroy 


Onske 
Odelsegge 


Kiksaul. 
fPiorngserutit- 
1 sinek. 


Early in the' 

morning 
Earn 


Tidlig 
Hoste 


Udlarallangoak. 
Kattersoinek. 


Detains (he) it 


Hanopholderdet 


Innerterpa. 


Earnest 


Alvorlig 


lllungersortok. 


Detects (he) it 


fHan aaben-1 
1 barer det J 


Nsellunejarpa. 


Earth 
Earthenware 


Jord 
Leerkar 


Nuna, V. Irbsok. 
Marra°t. 


Detests (he) it 


Han afskyer det 


Kringara,v.umiga 


Easy, not difficult 


Let 


Ajornangitsok. 


Devotion 


Gudsfrygt 


rNalengnekOu- 
1 dimut. 


Eat 
Eclipse 


Spise 
Formorkelse 


Nerrinek. 
Tarsinek. 


Dew 


Dug 


Isugutanek. 


Eel 


Aal 


Nimeriak. 


Dice, cards 


Taerninger Kort 


Innukkoet. 


Elbow 


Albue 


Ikusik. 


Direct 
Dirt 


Sty re 
Skarn 


Tessioinek. 
rippek — plur. 
lervkit. 


Eloquent,agree-1 
able to hear j 
Embark 


Veltalende 
Gaae onibord 


Tussarominartok. 
Ikarnek. 


Disease 


Sygdom 


Nappaut. 


Emetic 


Brffikmiddel 


Meriarsaut. 


Distance 


Afstand 


Ungesiksusek. 


Eminence of land 


Hiiyde 


Kingiksusek. 


Distant 


Fjern 


Ungesiksok, v. 
auasiksok. 


Emperor 
Empty 


Kejser 
Tom 


Kejsere(Danish). 
Imraakangitsok. 


Distress 


Nod 


Pidluejtsusek. 


End 


Ende 


Naggate, v. iso. 


Dives (it) — a 




Aglorpok. 


Endless, eternal 


Uendelig 


Isukangitsok. 


bird, a seal, or • 


Dykker 








fAukpadlartok ; 


animal 




Akkarpok. 


Ensign, flag 


Flag 


y propr. the red. 


Dog 


Hund 


Kreraniek. 


Enter 


Gaae ind 


Isernek. 


Door 


Dor 


Isertarfik. 


Entry of a hut 


Indgang 


Pak. 


Down (Eider "1 
duck) j 


Duun 


Uvlut. 


Evade 
Even 


Undslippe 
Endog 


Annigoinek. 
Agtet. 


Draught 


Drik 


Iraigeksak. 


Evening 


Aften 


Uunuk. 


Draw 


Male 


rAglengnek, v. 


Event 


Hasndelse 


Neliautsartugak. 






1 arsillinek. 


Evil 


Ond 


Ajortok. 


Dreadful 


Skrsekkelig 


Erksinartok. 


Exalted 


Ophoyet 


Kotsiksok. 


Dream 


Drom 


Sinektugak. 


Excels (he) 


Han overgaaer 


Sualungnerrovok 


Dress 


Dragt 


Attirsaet. 


Exchange 


Bytte 


Taursinek. 


Drink 


Drikke 


Imernek. 


Excite 


Opmuntre 


Kajuraiksainek. 


Drum 
Dry 


Tromme 
Tor 


Krillaut. 
Pennertok. 


Excuse 


Undskylde 


rPaitsisiksar- 
1 siornek. 


Duck (Eider) 


Edderfugl 


Mitek. 


Exert 


Anstrsenge sig 


Aksorornek. 


Duck (king) 


Spidsbergens E. 


Kringalik, v. 
1 arnauiartak. 


Exorbitant 
Expect 


Ubillig 
For\ente 


Sualuktok. 
Nerigungnek. 


Dust 


Stov 


Pyoalak. 


Expectation 


Farventning 


Nerigut. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



69 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAU.X. 


Explains (he) it 


Han forklarer det 


Sukuiarpa. 


Fellow 


Cammerad 


Ajpak. 


Exposes (he) it 


rHan aaben- "j 
1 barer det ( 


Naellunejarpa. 


Ferryman 
Fertile 


Fsergemand 
Frugtbar 


Ikaursirsok. 
Naursoriksok. 


Express, post 


Expres 


Paurtok. 


Fetches (he) it 


Henter 


Aia. 


Extends (he) it 


[Han udstrmk-^ 
1 ker det (' 

Udslukkes 


Tessipa. 


Fetters 
Few 


Laenker 
Faa 


Kallimnerit. 
Ikitut. 


Extinguishes, a" 
light 


Kammipok. 


Fickle 
Field 


Ubestandig 

Mark 


AulfEJarsok. 
Narksak. 


Extremely 


Overmaade 


fAksut.v. aksur- 
1 soak. 


FcEtus (of a seal) 
Fight (they) 


Slaaes 


Iblau. 
Panikpuk. 


Extricates (he) it 


Han udreder det 


Illejarpa. 


Fight (a) 


Slagsmaal 


Paningnek. 


Eye 


Oye 


Irse. 


Fills (he) it 


Fylder 


Imerpa. 


Eyebrow 


Oyenbryn 


Kablo. 


Fin of a seal 


Lalle 


Tellerrok. 


Eyelid 


Oyelaag 


Irsib mattua. 


Final 


Endelig 


Kingurdlek. 


Face 


Ansigt 


Kenak. 


Fine (pretty) 


Smuk 


Pinnersok. 


Fact 


Gjerningssag 


SuUiak. 


Finger 


Finger 


Aksak. 


Fades (it), dies 


V'isner 


Tokovok. 


Finishes (he) it 


Ender 


Naggaserpa. 


Fagot, flute, pipe 


Trumpet 


Kardlortaut. 


Fire 


lid 


Ingnek. 


Faint 


Besvime 


Ounarsinek. 


Fireside 


Vramin 


Kirsseksout. 


Fair, adj. 


Smuk 


Pinnersok. 


Fish 


Fisk 


Aulisaegak. 


Faith 
Faithful 


Troe 
Trofast 


Opernek. 
Aulajangersok. 


Fish-hook 


Fiskekrog 


rKarasursak — 
[karssursak. 






'Ordlonek, nak- 


Fit 


Tjenlig 


Ajungitsok. 


Fall (to) 


Falde 


karnek, ni- 
vernek, tam- 


Fix (to) anything 


Gjore fast 


fAulaejanger- 
1 sainek. 






marnek. 


Flames (it) 


Luer 


Ikuellavok. 


False 

Famine, hunger 


Falsk 
Hunger 


Opernangitsok. 
Kangnek. 


Flannel, or 1 
wadmal C 


Flanel, wadmel 


rAnnoraksak 
1 merkolik. 
Isarkellavok. 


Famine 


Hungersnod 


Pertluk. 


Flaps (the bird) 


Feagrer 


Famous 


Bekjeudt 


Tytsiursok. 


Flat 


Fead 


Manitsok. 


Far (it is) 


Det er langt"! 


Ungesikpok, 


Flea 


Loppe 


Piksiksak. 


borte J 


auasikpok. 


Flesh 


Kjod 


Nekkre. 


Farmer 


Bonde 


Naursoriksairsok. 


Flexible 


Bdyelig 


Kretuktok. 


Farther, again 


Videre 


Ama, amalo. 


Flight 


Flugt 


Kremaniarnek. 


Fat 


Feed 


Puellarsok. 


Flings (he) it 


Kaster 


Egipa. 


Father 


Fader 


Atatak. 


Floats (it) 


Plot (er) 


Puktavok. 


Fathom 


Favn 


Issagak. 


Flogs (he) him 


Pidsker 


Orpikpa. 


Fault 


Fejl 


Tammartauzek. 


Flood, high water 


Plod 


Ulle (river kok). 


Fear 


Frygt 


f Erkse(Rossvoy- 


Floor 


Gulv 


Nettek. 




^ age, erkshe). 


Flour 


Meel 


Kajursoet. 


Feather 


Fjer 


Merkok. 


Flows (the river) 


Flyder 


Kokpok. 


Fee 


Belijnning 


Akke. 


Flower 


Blomst 


Naursok. 


Fees (he) 
Feels (he) it 


Betaler 
Foler 


Akkiok. 
Saui'pa. 


Flag (a) 
Fog 


Flue 
Taage 


Niviugak. 
Pyok. 


Feeling 


Ftilelse 


Missigirsak. 


Fold (on clothes) 


Fold 


Koglungnek. 



70 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Follows (he) him 


Folger 


Mallikpa. 


Fume 


Rog 


Issek. 


Folly 


Daarskab 


Siunekangitsusek 


Fun (to) 


Bedrage 


Seglokrittainek. 


Food 


Fode 


Nerrirseksak. 


Furious 


Rasende 


Sekkunersok. 


Fool 


Nar 


Mitartok. 


Furnace 


Ovn 


Kirsarsout. 


Foot 


Fod 


|'Isikkept(plur.of 
isigak, a toe). 


Furnish 
Fur 


Meddele 
Foder 


Tunnirsinek. 
Illupak. 


Forbids (he) it 


Forbyder ' 


Pekkongila. 


Further ! 


Videre ! 


Ama ! 


Forehead 


Forhoved 


Kauk. 


Furthers (he) him 


Hjelper 


Ikiorpa. 


Foreigner 


Fremmed 


Tekkornartak. 


Future 


Tilkommende 


Pirsuksak. 


Forfeits (he) it 


Forspilder 


Tammarpa. 


Gains (he) at play 


Vinder 


Immiarsiok (NB) 


Forge (a) 
Fork 


Smedde 
Gaffel 


Saffiorfik. 
Ajeksautik. 


Gale (it is a) 


Storm 


j'Annordlersor- 
1^ sovok 


Forgets (he) 


Gleramer 


Puiorpok. 


Gall 


Galde 


Sungak. 


Forgives (he) it 
Fortunate 


Tilgiver 
Lykkelig 


Isumakserpa. 
Pidluartok. 


Game, seal, "1 
deer, &c. j' 


Vildt 


Nekke. 


Foul 


Smudsig 


Minguktok. 


Game, birds: 


Vildt 


Tingmirsaet. 


Foundation 


Grundvold 


Tungavik. 


Garden 


Have 


Nautjevik. 


Fountain 


Kilde 


Puilarsok. 


Garment 


Klsedning 


Annorarsffit. 


Fowl 


Fugl 


Tingmiak. 


Garrison, soldiers 


Guarnison 


Sekkutout. 


Fox 


Reev 


Terienniak. 


Garter 


Hosebaand 


Navlokot. 


Frame 


Ramme 


Innerfik. 


Gather 


Samle 


Kattersoinek. 


Fraternity 


Broderskab 


rKattaenguti- 
1 geengnek. 


Gay 

Generous (he is) 


Glad 
Hoimodig 


Nuennartok. 
Ajungilak. 


Fraud 


List 


Pekkosersout. 


Gently 


Sagte 


Kigejtsomik. 


Free 
Freezes (it) 


Frie 

(Det) fryser 


Kivgaungitsok. 
Issekau. 


German, at j 
Baal's River j 


Tydsker 


Nourdlek. 


Frequent (to) 


Besoge tit 


Tikeiarajungnek. 


Ghost 


Aand 


Annersak. 


Frequenter (a) 


Besoger 


Tikiukajuktok. 
Tarajorningit- 


Holy Ghost 


Helligaand 


pAnnersak illu- 
1 artok. 


Fresh, not salt 


Fersk 


■ sok (R. V. ta- 


Giddy 


Svimmel 


Uirpsartok. 






riornityoke.* 


Gift 


Gave 


Tunnirsut. 


Friend 


Ven 


Ikingut. 






j- Erdiingnarto- 


Friendship 


Venskab 


flkingutigeeng- 
) nek. 


Gilt 


Forgyldt. 


• mik kajortomik 
[ kallipautilik. 


Fright 

From (the fox) 


Frygt 
Fra 


Erkse. 

JTerienniamit, 
[ from ; mit 


Gilt, subst. 
Ginger 


Forgyldning 
Ingefaer 


rKallipaun erd- 
[^ lingnartok. 
Kassillitsok. 


Frugal 


Tarvelig 


lbleruktok(N.B.) 


Girdle 


Belte 


Kreterrut. 


Fruit 


Frugt 


Paurnast. 


Girl 


Pige 


Niviarsiak. 


Fry 


Rogn 


Suak. 


Gives (he) him 


Giver 


Tunnia. 


Fries (he) it 


Steger 


Syeppa. 


Glass 


Glas 


Imertarfik. 


Fryingpan 


Stegepande 


Syetsivik. 


Glazes (he) it 


Glaserer 


Krebleiiksarpa. 


Fulfils (he) it 


Opfylder 


Erkorpa. 


Gloomy of face 


Mork 


Annuktok. 


Fully, he fulfils"! 
it fully J 


Fuldkommen 

1 


I'Eikordluinarpa, 
lluinarpok: fully 


Glory 
Gloss 


JEie 
Glands 


Ussornarsusek. 
Kreblersusek. 



• Tarajornityoke, tarajornitsoU — suit. Not salt, tamjoiningitsok. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



71 



EiXGLlSH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Glove 

Glue 

Gnat (mosquito) 

Goal, border 


Hand ska 

Liim 

Myg 
Maal 


fAket (a pair, 
1 aketik). 
Nepiniko. 
Ipernak. 
Kiglik. 


Guides (he) him 

Guilt 

Guilty 

Guitar 


Leder 
Erode 

Skyldig 

Guitarre 


Tessiorpa. 
AjortuUiak. 
Pitlaegeksak. 
I'Syaennek, v. 
1 kukkilligut. 


God 


Gud 


Gude (Dan.) 


Gum in the ears 


Gummi 


Siksik. 


Gold 
Good 


Guld 
God 


Guide (Dan.) 
kangusak erd- 
lingnartok. 
. aukpadlartok. 

Ajungitsok. 


Gums of a man 

Gun 

Gunpowder 

Habit 


Gummer 

Flint 

Krudt 

Vane 


J Kigutit naeggo- 
1 viaet (N.B.) 
Aulejt. 
Paursaet. 
Illerkok. 


Goods 
Goose 


Gods 
Gaas 


Pekkotit. 
Nerdlek. 


Hail, from hea-"] 
ven, frozen 


Hagl 


Natakornak. 


Gooseberry 

Gospel 

Gout 


Stikkelsbser 
Evangelium 

Vsrk 


Paurnaet. 
CEvangeliume 
I (Dan.) 
Auseluk. 


rain J 
Hair (of the head) 
Hair(ofananiraal) 
Hall 


Hovedhaar 
Haar 

Sal 


Nytsffit. 
Merkut. 
Innersoak. 


Gown 


Kjole 


Annorak. 


Ham 


Hasan 


Navlo. 


Grace 


Naade 


Sajma. 


Hand 


Haand 


Aksaet. 


Grain 


Korn 


Timiurseksak. 


Handkerchief 


Lommekleede 


Kakkiksaut. 


Grape 


Drue 


JPaurnak vinik- 
[ salik. 


Handle (a) 
Handsome 


Skaft 
Smuk 


Epo. 
Pinnersok. 


Grass 


Graes 


Ivik. 


Handspike 


Baerestang 


Ersut. 


Grater 
Grave (a) 


Rivejern 
Grav 


Aksaligutit. 
Illivek. 


Hangs (he) him 
Happen 


Haenger 
Traeffe sig 


Kreniipa. 
Nellautsartornek. 


Gravel 


Grovt sand 


Siorarsoit. 






■ Nellautsartor- 


Gray hair 
Greases (he) it 


Graae Haar 

Smorer 


Ksek. 
Orksorpa. 


It happened 


Det hsendte sig 


pok,v.pisima- 
. vok. 


Great 

Greedy 

Green 


Stor 

Graadig 

Gron 


Angirsok. 

Nerriaursok. 

Sungarpalluktok. 


I happened * 

Happy 

Happiness 


Salig 
Salighed 


Pidluartok. 
Pidluarsusek. 


Greenland 
Grey haired 


Gronland 

Graahserdet 


rinnuit nunset 
1 (Men's land). 
Ksersuktok. 


Harbour, for a ] 
boat, for a I 
ship J 


Ilavn 


Umiajtsiallivik, 

kisarfik. 


Grief 


Graemmelse 


Isumalungnek. 


Hard 


Haard 


Mangertok. 


Grieves (he) 


Groemmer sig 


Isumalukpok. 


Hardens (it) 


Forhaerdes 


Mangertipok. 


Groan 


Stonnc 


Nimarnek. 


Hardship 


Besvaerlighed 


Ajornartout. 


Groin 

Growls (the dog) 


Lyske 
Knurrer 


Akkullak (N.B.) 
Katimarpok. 


Hare 

Harms (he) him 


Hare 
Fornsermer 


Ukalek. 
Innarlerpa. 


Grumble 


Knurren 


Okallorulungnek 


Harness 


Sele 


Anno. 


Grows (the plant) 

Gruel 

Guard 


Groer 
Havresuppe 

Vagt 


Naulerpok. 

Nivgurs8et(N.B.) 
Pigartok. 


Harrow 
Harvest 


Harve 
Host 


J'Erkriterursoil 
{ (N.B.) 
Okiak. 


Guess (to) 
Guest 


Gjette 
Gjest 


Erkoiniarnek. 
Tikerak. 


Haste (to) 
Hat 


Haste 
Hat 


Tuoviornek. 
Kangursak. 



Happen, it liappens, I happeneil, must be translated by sunaufa, ^'hs(, unatvares. 



72 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 

Hates (he) him 
Haughty 
Hay 
Hazy 
Head 
Headach 
Heal 
Health 

To thy good "| 
health J 

Heap 
Hear 
Hearken 
Heart 

Hearty, from T 
heart J 

Heat 

Heave something 
Heaven 

Heavy 

Hedge (a) 

Heedless 

Heel 

Height 

Heir 

Helm 

Helps (he) him 

Hem! 

Hen 

Hence 

Herb 

Here 

Hide 

Hide 

High 

Hinders (he) ii 

High, tall 

Hints (he) at it 

Hire 

Hoarse 

Hog 

Hoists (he) it 

Holds (he) it 

Hole of a fox 
Holy 



DANISH. 



ESQUIMAUX. 



Hader 

Trodsig 

Hoe 

Taaget 

Hoved 

Hovedpine 

La?ge 

Sundhed 

Din Sundhed 

Hob 
Hcire 
Lytte 
Hjerte 

Hjertelig 

Varme 

Kaste 

Himrael 

Tung 

Indhegning 

Tankelos 

Hffil 

Hoide 

Arving 

Roer 

Hjelper 

Aah! 

Hone 

Herfra 

Urt 

Her 

Dijlge 

Hud 

Hoi 

Hindrer 

Hoi 

Underrettcr 

Hyre 

Grovmaelet 

Sviin 

Hejser 

Holder 

Hul 

Hellig 



ENGLISH. 



Umiga. 

Pitsereetsok. 

Ivik. 

Pyolik. 

Niakok. 

Niakordlungnek 

Ka'itsorsainek. 

Nekkornek. 

(Tnnudiuarkud- 

I lutit,your: luse 

Koe. 

Tussarnek. 

Siumiksarnek. 

Umat. 

Umamit. 

Kiek. 

Egitsinek. 

Krillak. 

Okemejtsok. 

Ungaelok. 

Isumakangitsok. 

Kimik. 

Portursusek. 

Kingorngursirsok 

Akout. 

Ikiorpa. 

Ijah ! 

Tukingarsolik. 

Manga. 

Naursok. 

Mane. 

Angiornek. 

Amek. 

Kotsiksok. 

Innerterpa. 

Porlursok. 

Nsellunserpa. 

Kivgartout. 

Katitok. 

Poleke. 

Amorpa. 

Tigua. 

Sisse. 

Illuartok. 



DANISH. 



Home, house 

At home 

Honest 

Hoof 

Hook in a boat 

Hoop for a ton 

Hope (to) 

Hops 

Horse 

Hot 

Hour 

House 

Hugs (he) him 

Hulls (it) 

Humble 

Hungry 

Hunt (Reind.) 

Hurricane 

Hurry (to) 

Hurts (he) it 

Husband 

Hushes (the seal) 

Hut 

He is in the hut 

Huzza 

Hymn 

Ice (of salt water) 

Ice(offresh\vater) 

Iceberg 

Idle 

Idol 

If it hushes 

Ignorance 

111 

Illegal 

Illness 

Imafjre 



ESQUIMAUX. 



Hjem 

Hjemme 

Skikkelig 

Hov 

Hage 

Baand 

Haabe 

Humle 

Hest 

Heed 

Time 

Huns 

Omfavner 

Driver 

Ydmyg 

Hungris 

J age 

Orkan 

He 

Beskadiger 

Mand 

Er stille 

Hytte 

Han er i Hytten 

Hurra 
Psalme 



lis 



1 

J 
lisfjeld 

Ledig 

Afgud 

Hvis den er st. 

Uvidenhed 

Ond 

Ulovlig 

Upasselighcd 

BiUede 



Iglo (land, nuna) 
flglomine (nu- 
I namine). 
Isumagiksok. 
Kukkik. 
Niksik. 
Sokartak. 
Nerigungnek. 
rSungarnitsok 
I (N.B.) 
rHestersoak 
[ (Dan.) 
Ounartok. 
( Nselluna?kotam 
I akkunera. 
Iglo. 
Erkripa. 
Savikpok. 
Kannilartok. 
Pertlilersok. 
Auarnek. 
Annorasuak. 
Arinek. 
Asserorpa. 
Uvek. 
Terdlikpok. 

I'Iglo, v. iglun- 
\ goak. 

riglomepok, v. 

1 iglungoamepok 

Hurra (Dan.) 
Tuksiaut. 

Sikko. 

Sermek. 

Illuliak. 

rSullieksakan- 

] gitsok. 

Gudepiluk. 

[Terdlikpet (see 

1^ Hush). 

Nasllursusek. 

Ajortok. 

Innertigak. 

Ikpigosungnck. 

Arsilliak. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



73 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Imitates (he) him 


Efterligner 


Arsiginiarpa. 


Ingrafts (he) it 


Indpoder 


Ikursorpa. 


Immense 


Umaadelig 


Kiglikangitsok. 


Ingrave 


Ind grave 


Aglengnek(NB.) 


Immortal 


Udodelig 


JTokuksaungit- 
(^ sok. 


Inhabitant 

Ink 


Indbygger 
Bleek 


Innuk. 
Blikke (Dan.) 


Immovable 


Urokkelig 


Aulsejangitsok. 


Inkhorn 


Blsekhorn 


Blikkillivik. 


Imparts (he) him 


Meddeler 


Illalerpa. 


Inlet 


Fjord 


Kangek. 


Impartial 


Upartisk 


I'Nellinginarsi- 
1 ortok. 


Inmost 
Inn 


Inderst 
Vaertshuus 


lUupak. 
Siniktarfik. 


Impatience 
Impediment 


Utaalmodighed 
Hindring 


Erinnitsengnek. 
Akkornot. 


Innocent 

• 


Uskyldig 


fPitlajgeksaun- 
1^ gitsok. 


Imperfect 


Ufuldkommen 


I'Namagluan- 
[ gitsok. 


Inquire 
Inquisitor 


Undersbge 
En Undersbger 


Kiglisioinek. 
Kiglisioi'rsok. 


Impertinence 
Impiety 


Uforskammenhed 
Ugudelighed 


Kangusuitsusek. 
fAjortullioroma- 
1 tounek. 


Insensible 
Insertion 


Ufblsom 
Tilsaetning 


rMissigirsakan- 
[^ gitsok. 
Illaursak. 


Importance 


Vigtighed 


Ange. 


Insolent 


Uforskammet. 


Kangusuitsok. 


Imposition 


Beskyldning 


Passikliut(N.B.) 


Instantly 


Strax 


Erngeinak. 


Improbable 
Improper 


Usandsynlig 
Upassende 


Opernangitsok. 
Arksoarnartok. 


Instead of me 


Istedetfor mig 


rSimnerdlunga 
1 (a verb). 


Improve 


Forbedres 


lUuarsarnek. 


Instrument 


Instrument 


Sennet. 


Imprudence 


Uforstand 


Sillakangitsu- 
sek. 


Insult 
Intend 


Forhaane 
Have i Sinde 


Miteklernek. 
Piomanek. 


Impure 


Ureen 


Minguktok. 


Intention 


Hensigt 


Piomarsak. 


Inch 


Tomme 


Kudlo. 


Interior of it 


Det Indvendige 


Illua. 


Incision 


Indsnit 


Kidlek. 


Internal (in it) 


Indvortes 


lUuanetok. 


Increase 


Forbges 


Agdliartornek. 


Interpret 


Fortolke 


Sukuiainek. 


Incredible 


Utrolig 


rOperirseksaun- 
i gitsok. 


Inters (he) it 
Interrupts (he) it 


Han begraver det 
Afbryder(han)det 


Illia. 
Sorarup^i. 


Incurable 


Incurabel 


Mammisuitsok. 


Interval 


Mellemrum 


Akkimek. 


Indeed 


Virkelig 


lUomut. 


Interview 


Sammenkc5mst 


Nellaunek. 


Indisposed 


Upasselig 


Ikpigosuktok. 


Intimates (he) it 


Tilkjendegiver 


Naellunaerpa. 


Induces (he) him 


Beveeger 


Kajungersipa. 


Intimidate 


Forskreekke 


Erksisainek. 


Inexhaustible 
Infamous 


Uudtdmmelig 
Berygtet 


rNunguksaun- 
1 gitsok. 
rTytsionerdluk- 
[ tok (N.B.) 


Intire 
Intirely 
Into dust 


Heel 

Oprigtigen 
Til Stbv 


Illuitsok. 
fPekkoserdiun- 
1 gitsoniik. 
Pyoala-mut* 


Infant 


Barn 


Nalijngiak. 


Intreats (he) him 


Bbnfalde 


Manigo/pa. 


Infection 


Smitte 


Ajtsornartok. 


Intrenchment 


Forskandsning 


Saliakot. 


Infinite 


Uendelig 


Isukangitsok. 


Invents (he) 


Opdager 


Nerpsarpok. 


Infirm 


Svag 


Nukangarsok. 


Iron 


Jern 


Savik. 


Inflexible 


Ubbjeljg 


Perkr^tsok. 


Irresistible 


Uimodstaaelig 


Arktornartok. 


Infuses (he) it 


Indgyder 


Koia. 


Irritates (he) him 


Opirre 


Ningeksarpa. 


Ingenious 


Sindrig 


Isumatok. 


Island 


6e 


Krikertak. 



• Mut is " into ;" every preposilion is affixed to the end of its noun. 



74 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Itch 
Item 


Kloe 
Item 


Ungilek. 
Ama. 


Kitchen 


Kjokken 


I'PakjV.pangoak, 
1^ V. parsoak. 


Ivory of a wal-"l 
rus j' 
Jacket 


Elefenbeen 


Tugak. 


Kitten of a hare 


Killing 


fUkal^rak, kit- 
\ ten erak. 


Troie 


Torojo (Dan.) 


Knapsack 


Randsel 


Pok. 


Jaw 


Kjeebe 


Aglerok. 


Kneepan 


KnsBskal 


S<;rkoak. 


Jawbone 


Kjaebebeen 


Ag-lerok. 


Knife 


Kniv 


Savik. 


Jest, lie 


Spog 


Seglo. 


Knit (a) 


Strikket Toi 


Tessitsuarsok. 


Just now 


Just nu 


Tersa tava. 


Knock 


Banke 


Kassuktoinek. 


Jewel 


J uveel 


rUjarak erdling- 
1 nartok. 


Knot 

Knows (he) him 


Knude 
Kjeuder 


Krelernek. 
Ilirsara. 


Joins (he) them 


Forener 


Kattitipej. 


Knowledge 


Kundskab 


Ilisimarsusek. 


Joiner 


Snedker 


Sennarsok. 


Knuckle 


Knokkel 


Napparsortak. 


Jokes (he) upon") 
him 1 
Jolly 


Narrer 


Seglokrittarpa. 


Labour 
Lace 


Arbejde 
Snor 


Sulliornek. 
Aklunaursak. 


Glad 


Nuennartok. 


Lad 


Dreng 


Nukakpiarak. 


Journey 


Rejse 


Ingerdlanek. 


Ladder 


Stige 


Majoartarfik. 


Joy 


Glaede • 


Tipejtsungnek. 


Ladle 


Slov 


Allnksaursoak. 


Judge (a) 


Dommer 


Erkartoursirsok. 


Lady, woman 


Dame 


Arnak. 


J udgment 


Dom 


Erkartout. 






fTessek (large 


Jug 


Dunk 


Marrak. 


Lake 


Soe 


- tessersoak, sm. 


Juice of fruits 


Saft 


Tungo. 






L tessingoak. 


Jump (to) 


Springe 


Pissingnek. 


Lame (he is) 


Lam 


Sefeepok. 


Justice 


Retfserdighed 


fAkkinnersidlu- 
1^ arsiniarsusek. 


Lamp 
Land 


Lampe 
Land 


Kodlek. 
Nuna. 


Justly 


Retfserdigen 


lUuartomik. 


Lane 


Gyde 


Akkosiningoak. 


Just so 
Knee 


Just saaledes 
Kuce 


Taj ma ! 
Serkok. 


Language 


Sprog 


["Okauzit (pro- 
|_ prie words). 


Keel 


Kjol 


Kyek. 


Lanthorn 


Lygte 


Nenneroarfik. 


Keen 


Skarp . 


Kenariksok. 


Laps (he) it 


Svober 


Imupa. 


Keeps (he) it 


Beholder 


Torkorpa. 


Larboard * 






Kernel 


Kjerne 


Saurnek. 


Lards (he) it 


Spaekker 


Orksorpa. 


Kettle 
Key 


Kjedel 

Nogle 


Ounavik. 
Makpersaut. 


Larder, store- ~j 
house . J 


Proviantbod 


Augoarfik. 


Kicks (he) it 


Sparker 


Tukerpa. 


Large 


Stor 


Angirsok. 


Kidney 


Nyre 


Tarto. 


Lashes (he) him 


Pidsker 


Ipperartorpa. 


Kills (he) it 


Dreeber 


Tokopa. 


Late (it is) • 


Sildig 


Unnukpok. 


Kind 


Artig 


J'lnnuksiarner- 
1 sok. 


Laugh 
Law 


Lee 
Lov 


Iglarnek. 
Inueizisit. 


Kindness 


Artighed 


rlnnuksiarner- 
] susek. 


Lawful (it is) 


Lovligt 


I'Inneizisit pek- 
1^ koeet. 


King 


Konge 


Konge (Dan.) 


Lazy 


Lad 


Erkreejasuktok. 


Kiss 


Kys 


Kunik. 


Leaches (he) it 


Sonderskjeerer 


Pillekpa. 



The translation hereof is determined by the position of the ahip. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



75 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Leads (he) him 


Leder 


Tessiorpa. 


Lining (inside) 


Det Indvendige 


lUo. 


Leaf 


Blad 


Pillo. 


Lie 


Lbgn 


Seglo. 


Leakage 


Laekkage 


["Angmarnek 
L (N-B.) 


Lion 
Lip 


Love 
Lfebe 


Love (Dan.) 
Kardlo. 


Leaky (it is) 
Lean 


Lffik 
Mager 


f Angmarpok 

1 (N.B.)* 
Selluktok. 


Liquid 

List of contents"! 
in a book J 


Flydende 
Register 


Puilarsok. 
Neellunajrut. 


Leans on (he) it 


Leaner sig 


Egarfiga. 


Listen 


Lytte 


Siumiksarnek. 


Learns (he) it 


Lserer 


Ilipa. 


Little 


Liden 


Mikirsok. 


Least, adj. 


Miudst 


Mingnek. 


Live 


Leve 


Innunek. 


Leather 


Laeder 


.4mek. 


Liver 


Lever 


Tinge. 


Leaves (he) it 


Forlader 


Kremekpa. 


Load 


Byrde 


Nangmsegak. 


Leaves (it) 


Ophbrer 


Sorarpok. 


Lock 


Laas 


PariiiErsaut. 


Lee 


LsEe 


Orkoak. 


Lodging 


Logis 


Inne. 


Left side 


Venstre side 


Saumieet tunga. 


Lofty 


Hoy 


Kiiigiktok. 


Left hand 


Venstre haand 


Saumik. 


Loin 


Lsend 


Kretek. 


Leg 


Been 


Nio. 


Look 


See 


Tekkonek. 


Legal 


Lovlig 


I'lnnertersiman- 
|_ gitsok. 


Loose (it is) 
Loss 


Lbs 
Tab 


Pserpok. 
Tammarnek. 


Leisure (he is at) 


Ledighed 


fSullieksakan- 
l gilak. 


Loud 
Love 


Lydelig 
Kjerlighed 


Nipitok. 
Assennirsusek. 


Lends 


Laaner ud 


Attartortitsiok. 


Lovely 


Elskelig. 


Assanartok. 


Length 


Lsengde 


Tekkirsusek. 


Lover 


Elsker 


Assarse. 


Less 


Mindre 


Mingnerrursok. 


Louse 


Luus 


Komak. 


Lessens (it) 


Formindskes 


Mikliok. 


Lousy (he is) 


Luset (ban er) 


Komakpok. 


Lesson of a pupil 


Lectie 


IliniaegeksaW. 


Low 


Lav 


Pukitsok. 


Letter 


Brev 


Aglegak. 


Luncheon 


Et Stykke Mad 


Nerriarut. 


Level land 


Jevn 


Manitsok. 


Lungs 


Lunge 


Puak. 


Liberty 


Frihed 


Kivgaungitsusek. 


Lustre 


Glimmer 


Kreblersusek. 


Licks (he) it 


Slikker 


Allukpa. 


Life 


Liv 


Innunek. 


Life 


Liv 


Innunek. 


Mad 


Gal 


Peblerortok. 


Lifts (he) it 


Lofter 


Kivikpa. 


Maid 


Mbe 


Niviarsiak. 


Light, adj. 


Lys 


Kaumarsok 


Mails (he) it 


Beklffider 


Kadlerpa. 


Light, subst. 


Lys 


Kau,v. nennerout 


Makes (he) 


Gjbr 


Piok. 


Light 


Let 


Ok^tsok. 


Mall, hammer 


Hammer 


Kautak. 


Lightens (he) it 


Oplyser 


Kaumarsarpa. 


Malt 


Malt 


Imieksak. 


Lightens (he) it 


Letter 


Ok^dlia. 


Man 


Menneske 


Innuk. 


Lightning 


Lyri 


Ingnaglegiak. 


Man 


Mand 


Angut. 


Like (it is) to it 


Lig 


Arsiga. 


Man of war 


Orlogsskib 


Sekkutout. 


Likeness 


Lighed 


Arsigeeksusek. 


ManlJ 


Mandig 


Angutauserdlune 


Limb 


Lem 


AuKt. 


Manner 


Maade 


lUerkok. 


Limp (to) 


Halte 


Sefeenek. 


Memure (to) 


Gjbde 


Orksoinek. 


Line (whale) 


Line 


Allek. 


Many 


Mange 


Kapseet. 



• Better perhaps " uvsinpnlok." 
1.2 



76 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



KNGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Map 


Kort 


Arsilliak (N.B.) 


Misfortune 


Ulykke 


Pertlout. 


Mark 


Mserke 


Nselluneerkot. 


Misleads (he) him 


ForfcJrer 


Asserorpa. 


Market 


Torv 


Pissiniarfik(NB.) 


Miss 


Vildfarelse 


Tammartauzek. 


Marriage 
Marrow 


Bryllup 
Marv 


Katternavik. 
Patek. 


Mistake 


Tage fejl 


fTammardlung- 
1 nek. 


Marsli 


Mose 


Pinguit. 


Mistress, wife 


Madame 


Nulliak. 


Match 


Lige 


Nelle. 


Misty,foggy(itis) 


Taaget (del er) 


Pyolirksovok. 


Matches (he) him 


Er lige med 


Nedlerpa. 


Mixes (he) it 


Blander 


Akupa. 


Mate 


Styrmand 


Akkutok. 


Mocks (he) 


Spotter 


Miteklerpok. 


Mathematics 


Mathematik 


Kissitsinek. 


Moist 


Fugtig 


Isugutarsok. 


Matrimony 


j^gteskab 


Nulliareengnek. 


Moment (in a) 


I Oyeblikket 


Tersugo. 


Matter (what isT 
the)? } 


Hvad vil du ? 


Syssavit ? 


Money 

Month and moon 


Penge 
Maaned, Maane 


Anningaursset. 
Kaumset. 


Mature 

Maxim (doctrina) 


Mod en 
Grundssetning 


Enersimarsok. 
Ajokaersut. 


Moon (it is full) 


Deterfuld Maane 


rAnningat imik 
1 siok.* 


Meadow 


Eng 


Pinguit. 


Morning 


Morgen 


Udlak. 


Meal 


Meel 


Kajursaet. 


Mortar 


Morter 


Asserorterivik. 


Mean 


Ringe 


Nikkanartok. 


Moss (lich isl.) 


Moos 


Orksursak. 


Means 


Middelstand 


Akkudlek. 


Mother 


Moder 


Ananak. 


Means 


Middel 


Pirsut. 


Motion 


Beveegelse 


Aulanek. 


Measles of a skin 


Narv 


Ekarte. 


Mould 


Skimmel 


Okok. 


Measure 


Maal 


Oktout. 


Mountain 


Fjeld 


Kakkak. 


Meat 


Kjod 


Nekkriksak. 


Mouth 


Mund 


Kanek. 


Mediator 


Midler 


Sajmarsairsok. 


Moves (it) 


Beveeges 


Aulavok. 


Medium, V. means 






Mud 


Mudder 


Mauvak. 


Meet 


Modes 


Nellaunek. 


Multitude 


Maengde 


Amerdlarsusek. 


Member of it 


Lem 


Ilia. 


Murder 


Mord 


Innusernek. 


Memory 


Hukommelse 


Erkairsut. 


Musters (he) it 


Mcinstre 


Tekkotipa. 


Mends (it) 


Forbedres 


Ajorungnserpok. 


Mustard 


Senep 


Senepe (Dan.) 


Mentions (he) it 


Omtale 


Okautiga. 


Mutiny 


Oprcir 


Pikititsinek. 


Mercy 


Barmhjertighed 


Nakinningnek. 


Mutton 


Faarekjod 


Saua. 


Merit 


Fortjeneste 


Piksak. 


Mystery 


Mysterium 


Naellunartok. 


Merry 

Message 


Moersom 
Budskab 


Tivsinartok. 
Okalluktout. 


Nail, iron or 1 
copper J 


Nagle 


Kikiek. 


Midwife 
Mile 


Jordemoder 
Miil 


Ernisuksiortok. 
Mile (Dan.) 


Nail of fingers "1 
or toes J 


N«gl 


Kukkik. 


Milk 


Melk 


rlmuk; of a wo- 
1 man, amamak. 
Asserorterivik. 
Isuma. 


Naked 
Name 


Nogen 
Navn 


Tamakangitsok. 
Attek. 


Mill 
Mind 


Molle 
Sind 


What is thy T 
name ? j" 


Hvadhedder du? 


fKannong, atte 
1 karpit? 


Minor 


Mindre 


Mingnerrursok. 


Namely 


Nemlig 


Imejtok. 


Mischief 

Misery 


Fortred 
Elendighed 


Nagliut. 
Pidluejtsusek. 


Naps of cloth 


Luug 


fMerkut, plura 
'\ of merkok. 


• It is new moon ( 


" Nye Maane ") " ussi 
( 


ok ;" it is first quarter 
/' sidste Quarteer") " 


(" Forste Quarteer") 
auningat igdlo.xrupoU. 


' nnningat igdlokarjiok 


;" it is last quarter 



DANISH AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



77 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Narrow 

Nasty 


Smal 
Skiden 


fAmitsok (Ross 
Y voy.amityoke). 
Ippertok. 


North wind 
Oak (a log of) 


Nordenvind 
Eeg 


Auangnak. 
fKressuk man- 
1 gertok. 


Naughty 


Unyts 


Suksaungitsok. 


Oar 


A are 


Eput. 


Navel of a child 


Navle 


Kallisek. 


Obedient 


Lydig 


Nalektok. 


Navy 
Near 


Marine 


rUmiarsoarperk- 


Obeys (he) 


Lyder 


Nalekpok. 


Ncer 


\ soft. 
Kannitok. 


Oblong 


Aflang 


rAngmalunga- 
1 jektok (N.B.) 


Neat 


Net 


Kursegunnartok. 


Obstacle 


Hindring 


Akkornot. 


Necessity (it is a) 


Nodvendighed 


Pirsariakarpok. 


Obstinate 


Halstarrig 


Perkretsok. 


Neck, lat. coUum 


Hals 


Kongsesek. 


Obstruction (hel 


Forstoppelse 


I'Tettuiok (a 


Neckcloth 


Halskleede 


Kongaeserut. 


has) J 


1 sickness). 


Need (to) 


Treenge 


Ajorsarnek. 


Obtains (he) it 


Erholder 


Angumera. 


Needle 


Synaal 


rMerkut, plural 
y merkutit. 


Obvious (it is) 
Occupies (he) it 


Tydelig 
Besidder 


Naellunangilak. 
Piga. 


Neglects (he) it 


Forsomraer 


Assiginnarpa. 


Occurs (he) him. 


Mbder 


Nellaupa. 


Neighbour, fel-"! 
low man ( 


Nseste 


Innukate. 


Odd 
Offence 


Besynderlig 
Forbrydelse 


Tupingnartok. 
Pinerdlugak. 


Nests of birds 


Reder 


Innit. 


Offends (he) him 


Fornaermer 


Ningeksarpa. 


Never (he comes) 


I'Aldrig (han T 
1 kommer) J 


f Pinauvisengi- 
lak (piok, he 
comes ; nauvi- 


Office of the "1 
church J 
Often 


Tjeneste 
Ofte 


Nalegiarnek. 
Kapseennik. 






[aangilak, never). 


Oil 


Olie 


Olie (Dan.) 


New 


Nye 


Nutak. 


Ointment 


Salve 


Tennirsut. 


Next to it (it is) 


Nsest ved (det er) 


Sennianepok. 






r(Man) utokak; 


Nibble 


Bide 


Nerritsiarnek. 


Old 


Gammel 


■ (thing) nu- 


Nice (he is) 


Vanskelig 


Ajornakau. 






Itaungitsok. 


Nickname 


Ogenavn 


Ajtseraut. 


Omits (he) it 


Undlader 


Pingila. 


Night 


Nat 


Unnuak. 


Once 


Engang 


Kanga. 


Nods (he) 


Nikker 


Sikkikpok. 


Only, adj. 


Alene 


Kissime. 


Noise 


Tummel 


Perpallungnek. 


Open (it is) 


Aaben 


Angmarpok. 


Noon 


Middag 


Udlub kerka. 


Opiate 


Opiat 


Siniksaut (N.B.) 


Nose 
Nostril 


Naese 
Neesebor 


Kringak. 
Kringak. 


Oppresses (he) ^ 
him J 

Opulent 


Undertrykker 


Kunnutipa. 


Nothing (it is) 
Notion 


Intet (det er) 
Mening 


Sungilak. 
Isuma. 


Formuende 


fPekkoutilirk- 
1 soak. 


Novelty 


Nyhed 


Nutaursusek. 


Orders (he) it 


Ordner 


Arkriksorpa. 


Now 


Nu 


Mana. 


Ore 


.Erts 


Kangusak. 


Number 


Tal 


Kissitsit. 


Oriental 


Orientalsk 


Pauangarnitsak 


Numberless 


Utallig 


Kissiksaungitsok 


Origin 


Begyndelse 


Naeorgovik. 


Nurses (she) it 


Ammer 


Milluktipa 


Ornament 


Prydelse 


Arsut. 


Wet nurse 


Amme 


Milluktitsirsok 


Ostentation 


Pralerie 


Ussorsitsaut. 


Nutmeg 


Muskatnod 


Kassilitsok. 


Otherwise 


Anderledes 


Adlamik. 


Nutriment 


Fcide 


rNerrirseksak, v. 
1 innutiksak. 


Oven 
Over it 


Ovn 

Ovenpaa 


Kirkseksout. 
Kane. 



78 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Out (it is) 


Ude 


Sillamepok. 


Peasant 


Bonde 


Naursoriksairsok- 


Outlet 


Aflob 


Akkut. 


Peel 


Skal 


Kallipak. 


Outside 


Ydersiden 


Kallek. 


Pen 


Pen 


Aglaut. 


Owe 


Skylde 


Akkeetsornek. 


Penetrates (it) it 


Gjennemtraenger 


Kiblikpa. 


Owl 


Ugle 


Opik. 


Pensive 


Tankefuld 


Isumatok. 


Own (to) 


Bekjende 


Naellunaernek. 


People 


Folk 


Innu'iejt. 


Owner (its) 


Ejer 


rinnua (prop, its 
1^ man). 


Pepper 

Perfect (it is) 


Peber 
Fuldkommen 


Kassilitsok. 
Namaksiok. 


Ox 


Oxe 


Umingmak. 


Performs (he) it 


Fuldforer 


Namaksia. 


Pace 


Skridt 


Abloriak. 






r It is perhaps 


Pack 


Byldt 


Ersugak. 


Perhaps 


Maaskee 


■ perfect, namak- 


Paddle, of a "1 
canoe,ofaboatJ 


Aare 


Paurtik, eput. 


Peril 


Fare 


L sinerpok.* 
Nauvisenartok. 


Padlock 


Heengelaas 


Parnsersaut. 


Perish in a canoe 


Omkomme 


Kajaunek. 


Page in a book 
Pail 


Side 
Spand 


Kopernek. 
Kattak. 


Perish in a wo- T 
men boat | 
Permits (he) it 




Umionek. 


Pain 


Pine 


Annernartok. 


Tillader 


Akkoera. 


Paints (he) 


Afmaler 


Arsilliok. 


Perpetual 


Bestandig 


Naksaungitsok. 


Paint (^a) 


Malerie 


Arsilliak. 


Personal, self 


Selv 


Nangminek. 


Pair (to) . 
Palate 


Parres 
Gane 


Nulliarnek. 
Krillak. 


Persuades (he)"! 
him j" 
Pert 


Overtaler 


Kajumiksarpa. 


Pale 


Bleg 


Asingarsok. 


Munter 


Krelarsok. 


Palpable 


Folelig 


Mallungnartok. 


Peruses (he) it 


Gjennemlseser 


Attuarkriksarpa. 


Pan (frying) 


Stegepande 


Syetsivik. 


Pestle 


Stoder 


Asserorterut. 


Pane 


Rude 


Igalaksak. 


Pew 


Kirkeslol 


Ivksiavik. 


Paper 


Papiir 


rPapire (Dan.) 
[^ erruktoriursset. 


Phrase 

Picks (the bird) 


Phrase 
Pikker 


Okauzek. 
Ikkuksiok. 


Parcel 


Pakke 


Imntak. 


Pickles (he) it 


Salter 


Tarajorpa. 


Parchment 


Pergaraent 


Unnek. 


Picture 


Malerie 


Arsilliak. 


Parsley 


Petersillie 


^Naursut, naut- 


Piece 


Stykke 


Asserkoko. 


Parsnip 
Part (to) 


Pastinak 
AdskiUes 


1 jeaet. 
Auingnek. 


Piety 


Gudsfrygt 


fNalengnek Gu- 
1 dimut. 


Pass 


Gaae 


Ingerdlanek. 


Pig 


Griis 


Polekerak (N.B.) 


Path 


Stie 


Akkosiningoak. 


Pigeon 


Due 


Due (Dan.) 


Patience 


Taalmodighed 


Illelarnek. 


Pike of a soldier 


Spyd 


Sekko. 


Paw 

Pays (he) it 


Kloe 
Betaler 


Kukkik. 
Akkillerpa. 


Pillow 


Hovedpude 


JAkit, V. akisin- 
1 goak. 


Pay 
Pea 


Betaling 

JEn 


Akkiksak. 
^rte (Dan.) 


Pilot 


Lods 


fllisimarsok 
I (N.B.) 


Peace 


Fred 


Erkriksinek. 


Pin 


Naal 


Kukkilit. 


Pear, apple 


Pffire, iEble 


Paurnarsoak. 


Pincers 


Tang 


Pyssugutik. 


Perches (the 1 
bird) I 


Saetter sig 


Mipok. 


Pinches (he) him 
Pines (he) 


Kniber 
Tseres 


Pyssukpa. 
Uingaerupok. 



* Perhaps, " nerpok." 



DANISH, AND ESQULMAUX LANGUAGES. 



79 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESyiLMAUX. 


Pious 


Gudfrytig 


fGudimut na- 
1 lektok. 


Precipice 
Preface 


Braining 
Fortale 


Imnak. 
Siulerkot. 


Pipe for smoking 


Pibe 


Pyortaut. 


Prefers (he*) it 


Foretrokke 


Ajunginerrotipa. 


Pit 


Hul 


Itersak. 


Prepare one's self 


Lave sig til 


Piler^rnek. 


Pitch (to) 


Styrte 


Ordlonek. 


Present (to) 


Foraere 


Tunnirsinek. 


Pitcher 


Leerkrukke 


Marrak. 


Present (a) 


Foragring 


Tunnirsut. 


Pity 


Medlidenhed 


Nakinnirsusek. 


Present(togivea) 


Forcere 


Tunnirsiiiek. 


Place 


Plads 


Inne. 


Presently 


Strax 


Erngeinak. 


Plain 


Slette 


Narksak. 


Preserves 


Syltetoy 


Torkugak (N.B.) 


Plains (he) it 


Jevner 


Manniksarpa. 


Press 


Presse 


Nakkrittaut. 


Plank 


Planke 


Segliligarsoak. 


Plover, bird 


Brokfugl 


Kajordlek. 


Plants (he) it 


Planter 


Ikursorpa. 


Presume 


Formode 


Isumakaniek. 


Plate 


Plade 


Singartugak. 


Pretence 


Paaskud 


Pajtsisiksiik. 


Play (to) withi 
cards J 


Spille 


Innuarnek. 


Pretend 


Foregive 


rPajtsisiksarsi- 
j^ ornek. 


Pleasant 


Fornoyelig 


Nuennersok. 


Pretension 


Fordring 


Pekkorsinek. 


Pleases (it) him 


Behager 


Niiennera. 


Prevalent (it is) 


Overlegen 


Sualukpok. 


If thou please 


Em du behager 


Pioraaguit. 


Prevents (it) 


Forekummer 


Akkornotavuk. 


Pleasure 


Fornoyelse 


Tipejtsut. 


Price 


Priis 


Akke. 


Plenty 


Maengde 


Koc. 


Pride 


Stolthed 


Makkittursustk. 


Plows (he) it 
Plum, pear, &c. 


Plciyer 
Blomme, ptere 


Kreporkarpa. 
Paurnarsoak. 


Prince 


Prinds 


fRongiin ernera, 
1 v. erkurdlia. 


Point of land 


Naes 


Nouk. 


Prints (he) it 


Trykker 


Nakkrittarpa. 


Poison 
Polite 


Gift 
Hoflig 


Tokonartok. 
Innuksiarnersok. 


Princess 


Prindsesse 


fRongib pannia, 
1 V. erkardlia. 


Pomatum 


Pomade 


Tennirsut. 


Prison 


Faengsel 


Parnsersorfik. 


Pond 


Park 


Tessingoak. 


Privy, a house 


Privet 


Anatarfik. 


Poop of a ship 


Bagstavn 


Akko. 


Prize 


Priis 


Akke. 


Poor 


Fattig 


Peetsok. 


Produces (he) it 


Fremstiller 


Nuisipa. 


Pork 


Flesk 


Poleke. 


Produce 


Frugt 


Kinguniksiik. 


Port 


Port 


Isertarsirksoak. 


Progress 


Fremskridt 


Agdliartornek. 


Postpones (he) it 


Opsa-tter 


Kakugorpa. 


Promise 


Liivte 


Unnersugak. 


Pot 


Potte 


Iga. ^ 


Promotes (he) it 


Fremhjelper 


Ikiorpa. 


Potatoes 


Vrartofler 


Nautjeset. 


Proof 


Prove 


Okattarut. 


Pound 


Pund 


Urssersaut. 


Property 


Eyendom 


Pigirsak. 


Pours (he) it 


Udgyder 


Koia. 


Propriety 


Egenskab 


Kannong esusek. 


Powder 


Krudt 


Paurseet. 


Prosperity 


Held 


Pidluarnek. 


Power 


Magt 


Pirsaut. 


Protection 


Beskyttelse 


Igdiersornek. 


Practice 


Vane 


Illerkok. 


Proud 


Stolt 


Makkittarsok. 


Prate 


Prat 


Okallektarnek. 


Provokes(he) him 


Fortornc 


Ningeksarpu. 


Pray 


Bede 


Tuksiarnek. 


Prunes 


Blommer 


Paurnset. 


Prayer 
Prayer-book 


Bon 

Bonnebog 


Tuksiaut. 
j'Tuksiautit(plur. 
(^ of tuksiaut). 


Publican 
Puff 


Tolder 

Er opbltest 


I'Tunnirsutinnik 
1 kattersoirsok. 
PudJekpok. 


Preach 


Proike 


Okallungnek. 


Pull in a boat 


Roe. 


Epunek. 



80 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH. 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Pulpit 


Prsekestoel 


Okalluktarfik. 


Raw (it is) 


Raa 


Ajpavok. 


Pump 


Pompe 


Miluartok. 


Rays (the sun) 


Straaler 


Nuersorpok. 


Punish 


Straffe 


• 
Pitlarnek. 


Razor 


Ragekniv 


Ungiaut. 


Purchase , 
Pure 


Kjobe 
Reen 


Pissiniarnek. 
Errbitok. 


Reach it (Lat."! 
cedo !) 1 


Rffik hid ! 


Kairsuk ! 


Purpose 


Forsset 


Pioraarsak. 


Reads (he) 


Lseser 


Attuarpok, 


Purses (he) it 


Renser 


Ervkrejarpa. 


Ready (it is) 


Fserdig 


Plaraerpok. 


Pursues (he) him 


Forfolger 


Mallersorpa. 


Reason 


Fornuft 


Silla. 


Push (to) 


Anstrsenge 


Aksorornek. 


Receives (he) it 


Modtager 


Pia. 


Put 


Laegge 


lllirsinek. 


Recently 


Nyligen 


Tersa tava. 


Putrid 


Raaden 


Mikiak. 


Reckon 


Regne 


Kissitsinek. 


Puzzles (it) him 


Bemiiyer 


Erdlokotipa. 


Reckoning 


Regning 


Kissitsisit. 


Quality 


Beskaffenhed 


Kannong-esusek. 


Recollects (he) it 


Erindrer 


Erkaia. 


Quantity 


StiJrreise 


Angirsusek. 


Recovery 


Helbredelse 


Piungnaersusek. 


Quarrel 


Uenighed 


Akkerareengnek 


Recreation 


Fornbjelse 


Nuennarut. 


Quay, beach 


Strand 


Siksak. 


Rectifies (he) it 


Berigtiger 


Illuarsarpa. 


Queen 


Dronning 


Kongib nuUia. 


Red 


Rbd 


Aukpadlartok. 


Quenches fire 


Slukkes 


Kammipok. 


Redeemer 


Forloser 


Annaursirsok. 


Question 


Sporgsmaal 


Apersut. 


Redemption 


Forlbsning 


Annaut. 


Quick 


Hurtig 


Akunit! 


Redresses (he) it 


Retter 


Ajunginerrotipa. 


Quiet (to be) 


Tie stille 


Nipangernek. 


Reef 


Rif 


Ikkatok. 


Quires (he) 
Quits (he) him 


Synger i choret 
Forlader 


Akpipok. 
Kremekpa. 


Refreshes (he)-| 
him 1 


Vederqvseger 


Nekkursektipa. 


Quiver 


Pilekogger 


Karksut pogcet. 


Refreshment 


Vederqvsegelse 


Nekkursaut. 


Race 


SlsGgt 


KingueksEet. 


Refuge 


Tilflugt 


Kremaviksak. 


Radish 


Rsedike "| 
Sort Reedike 1 


Nautjeak. 


Refuses, says no 


Afslaac 


Naggarpok. 


Black Radish 


Regards (he) ifi 


Ikke agte 


Suksaringila, 


Rag 


Pjalt 


Annoraminek. 


not (' 
Rejects (he) him 




Rage 


Raserie 


Sekkunek. 


Forstbder 


Ajektorpa. 


Rails (he) it 


Omgiver 


Ungalorpa. 


Reigns (he) 


Hersker 


Nalegavok. 


Rain 


Regn 


Sielluk. 


Relates (he) it 


Beretter 


Okautiga. 


Rainbow 


Regnbue 


j" Krillaungursak 
'\^ V. nerigursak. 


Relation 


Slsegtskab 


f Erkardlereengr 
'[ nek. 


Rainy (the \vea-~l 
ther is) j 
Rank 


Regnveir 


Siedleinarpok. 


Relief 

Relishes (he) it 


Trbst 

Finder Smag i 


Sungersout. 
Mammara. 


Stinkende 


Tipitok. 


Relies (he) on it 


Stojer paa 


Tunnara. 


Rapid (the "] 
stream is) (" 

Rascal 


Der er staerk"] 
Strom J 

Skurk 


Sarfarkau. 


Remain 
Remark 


Rest 
Anmserkning 


Simnek. 
Narkrigut. 


C Isumaluktopi- 
1 lurksoak. 


Remedy, medi-"j 

cine J 


Remedium 


Nekkursaut. 


Rash 


Ubesindig 


Siilaarutok. 


Remembers (he) 


Erindrer 


Erkaiok. 


Rate (of high) 


Dyre 


Akkissok. 


Remote 


Fjern 


Ungesiksok, 


Ratifies (he) it 


Stadfester 


Narkriksorpa. 


Removes (he) it 


Bortbringer 


Noukpa. 


Ravages (he) it 


Odelaegger 


Piorngaerutipa. 


Renew 


Fornye 


Nutangortitsinek 


Rave 


Veere gal 


Peblerornek. 


Repairs (he) it 


Reparerer 


Illuarsarpa, 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



81 



ENGLl.-^H. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


KN-jLISH. 


DANISH. 


KSQUIMALX. 


Repeats (he) it 


GJentager 


Utertarpa. 


Rock, in the sea 


Skjaer 


Ikkardlok. 


Repents (he) 


Fortryder 


Perkriksiraiuk. 


Rock, on shore 


Fjeld 


Kakkak. 


Report 


Beretning 


Unniut. 


Rod 


Riis 


Orpik. 


Reposes (he) 


Ligger 


Innarpok. 


Rogue 


Kjeltring 


Innupiluk. 


Represents (he)"| 
it / 
Reproach 


Forestiller 


Nsellunejarpa. 


Roof 
Room 


Tag 
V'serelse 


Auvek. 
Inne. 


Bebrejdelse 


Arksoardliut. 


Root 


Rod 


Tungavik. 


Request 


Bon 


Krenut. 


Rope 


Toug 


Aklunaursak. 


Rescues (he) him 


Befrier 


Annigortipa. 


Rough 


Ujevn 


-Vlaneetsok. 


Resembles (it)) 
him C 


Ligner 


Arsiga. 


Round it 
Roe, of fish 


Omkring 
Rogn 


Auatagut. 
Suak. 


Resides (he) at"| 
Iglolik f 


Boer 


Iglolik nunaga. 


Rubs (he) 
Rudder 


Gnider 
Roer 


Aggiaiok. 
Akkout. 


" J 

Resigns (he) it 


Opgive 


1" Ipperarpa, v. 
1 kremekpa. 


Rude (a) man 
Rue (to) 


Uvidende 
Angre 


Nasllursok. 
Perkriksiminek. 


Resists (he) it 


Modstaaer 


Akkerartorpa. 


Rug 


Uldent Toy 


Merkolik. 


Resolves (he) 
Rests (he) 


Beslutter 
Hviler 


Piomavok. 
Kassuaersarpok. 


Ruin (to) 


Odelaegge 


J Piorngeerutitsi- 
\ nek. 


Restore 


Give tilbage 


Utertitsinek. 


Rule (to) 


Regjere 


Nalegaunek. 


Retains (lie) it 

Returns (he) 

Revelation of"! 
St. John J 


Beholder 
Vender tilbage 

Aabenbaring 


lUumioga. 
rUterpok, v an- 
1 gerdlarpok. 

Tekkordlogak. 


Ruff, for the neck 

Rum 

Rumours (he) it 


Krave 

Rum 

Udspreder 


rSaliakot, v. kon- 
1 gseserut. 
[ Sillakangitsok 
1 aukpadlartok. 
Tytsiotipa. 


Revenge 


Haevne 


Akkiniarnek. 


Runs (he) 


Lbber 


Akpapok. 


Reviews (he) it 


Gjennemseer 


Missilingniarpa. 


Rust 


Rust 


Mangertornek. 


Revokes (he) it 


Tilbagekalder 


Utertipa. 


Sabre 


Sabel 


Psenna. 


Reward 


Belbnning 


Akke. 


Sack 


Ssek 


Pok. 


Rib 


Ribbeen 


Tullimak. 


Safe 


Sikker 


Naiivisenangitsok 


Rich 


Riig 


Pissok. 


Sail 


Seil 


Tingerdlaut. 


Rid 


Befrie 


Annigoutitsinek. 


Sailor 


Matros 


Kivgak. 


Rides (the ship) 


Ankrer 


Kisarput. 


Salmon 


Lax 


Ekalluk. 


Rises (the tide) 
Rigs (he) him 


Vandet voxer 
Pudser 


Ullilerpok. 
Arsorpa. 


Salt 


Salt 


I'Tarajok (adject. 
1^ tarajornitsok). 


Right 


Ret 


lUuartok. 


Salutation 


Hilseii 


Jlnnudluarkorsi- 


Right 


Ret 


Pirseksak. 


Salute 


Salut 


1 nek. 


Right hand 


Hoyre haand 


Telierpik. 


Salvation 


Frelse 


Annaursinek. 


Ring of the ear 


Orenring 


Siumio. 


Sample 


Prove 


Missiligut. 


Ring of the finger 


Fingerring 


Aksamio. 


Sand 


Sand 


.Siorak. 


Ripe 


Moden 


Enersimarsok. 


Sands 


Sandorkener 


Innuiiak. 


Rise, get up 


Rejse sig 


Makkinek. 


Sauce 


Sauce 


Missugutiksak. 


River 
Road 


Flod 
Vey 


Kok. 
Akkosinek. 


Saucy 


Necsviis 


(' Innuksisiman- 
[ gitsok. 


Roasted 


Stegt 


Syettak. 


Saviour 


Preiser 


Annaursirsok. 


Robs (he) him 


Plyndrer 


Pejarpa. 


Saw 


Saug 


Pillektout. 



82 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Says (he) 
Scale 


Siger 
Vaegt 


Okarpok. 
Urssersaut. 


Sennight 


Uge 


rSabbatik akku- 
1 nereek. 


Scales, on fish 


Skjsel 


Taptaursffit. 


Sense 


Folelse 


Missigirsusek. 


Scanty 


Knap 


Erdliktok. 


Sentence 


Dom 


Erkartout. 


Scar 


Ar 


Krelerok. 


Separates (he) it 


Adskiller 


Auikpa. 


Scarce 


Sjelden 


Erdlingnartok. 


Serious 


Alvorlig 


lilungersortok. 


School 


Skole 


Iliniarfik. 


Sermon 


Praediken 


Okalluzek. 


Schoolfellow 


Skolekammerat 


Iliniarkate. 


Serpent 


Slange 


PuHateriarsuk. 


Science 


Videnskab 


Ilisimanartok. 


Servant 


Tjener 


Kivgak. 


Scissors 


Sax 


Krejutik. 


Sets sail (he) 


Seetter Sejl til 


Tiksiuserpok. 


Scolds(he)athim 


Skjeender paa 


Nauvserpa. 
Innuk (a man's 


Sets (the sun) 


Solen gaaer ned 


fSekkrinek tar- 
1 rilerpok. 


Score, 20 


En snees 


10 fingers and 


Settle 


Bhve staaende 


Aulajungnsernek. 






10 toes). 


Sew 


Sye 


Mersornek. 


Scorns (he) it 


Bespotter 


Mitekpa. 


Shabby cloth 


Forreven 


AUiksimarsok. 


Scorn 


Spot 


Miteklernek. 


Shade 


Skygge 


Tarrak. 


Scrapes (he) it 
Scratches (he) 


Skraber 
Kradser 


Killiorpa. 
' Kukkillektor- 
pok. 


Shakes (he) it 

Shame 

Shape 


Ryster 

Skam 

Skikkelse 


Aulaterpa. 

Kangusungnek. 

Arse. 


Scream ^ 


Skrige 


Niblernek. 


Share of it 


Deel 


Ilia. 


Screens (he) it 


Bedeekker 


rPerorpajV. mat- 
1 torpa. 


Sharp (it is) 
Shave 


Skarp 
Rage 


Ipikpok. 
Ungiarnek. 


Screw 


Skrue 


Skrue (Dan.) 


Sheath 


Skede 


Inne. 


Scripture 


Skriften 


Aglekkset. 


Sheds (he) it 


Udgyder 


Koia. 


Scurvy 


Skjbrbug 


Aueeluk. 


Sheep 


Faar 


Saua. 


Sea 


Hav 


Imak. 


Sheet of a table 


Dug 


Saliakot. 


Seafaring man 


Soefarende 


Imarsiortok. 


Shelters (he) him 


Beskytter 


Igdlersorpa. 


Sealingwax 


Lak 


Nakrirsut. 


Shews (he) it 


Viser 


Niptarpa. 


Seam (a) 


Som 


Killuk. 


Shield 


Skjold 


Erkornauvaerkot. 


Searches (he) 
Season (summer) 


Soger 
Sommer 


Ujardlerpok. 
Aursak. 


Shifts (he)fronn 
a place J 


Flytter 


Noukpok. 


Seat 


Sfiede 


Ivksiavik. 


Shines (it) 


Skinner 


Kreblerikpok. 


Secret 


Hemmelig 


Angiortok. 


Ship 


Skib 


Umiarsoit. 


Secure (he) is 


Sikker 


Erkrikpok. 


Shirt 


Skjorte 


Illudlek. 


Seduces (he) him 


Forforer 


fAjoksersomerd- 
Y lukpa. 


Shoar (shore) 
Shock (to) 


Strand 
StSde 


Siksak. 
Aponek. 


Sees (he) 


Seer 


Tekkovok. 


Shoes 


Skoe 


Atteraursifk. 


Seed 


Saed 


Kinguniksak. 


Shoots (he) 


Skyder 


Egipok. 


Seeks (he) it 


Soger 


Ujarpa. 


Shop 


Krambod 


Niuvertartik. 


Seems (he) 


Synes 


j'He seems to see, 
1 Tekkokokau. 
Tigua. 


Short 
Shoulder 


Kort 
Skulder 


Naitsuk. 
Tue. 


Seizes (he) him 


Griber 


Shudders (he) 


Skjaelver 


Olikpok 


Seldom 
Selects (he) it 


Sjelden 
Vaelger 


Kakutigut. 
Krennerpa. 


Shuns (he) it 
Sheet of paper 


Skyer 
Ark 


Ingalekpa. 
Erruktoriursak. 


Sells (he) it 


Seelger 


Tunnia. 


Shy 


Sky 


Nyoartok. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



83 



ENOLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


D.\NI3H. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Sick 


Syg 


Napparsimarsok. 


Smooth water 


Smult 


Kaitsungarsok. 


Side (its) 


Side 


Sennia. 


Snare 


Snare 


Nigak. 


Sieve (a) 


Sold 


Nakkalaterut. 


Snatches (he) it 


Snapper 


Kalluva. 


Sign 


Tegn 


Nselluneerkot. 


Sneezes (he) 


Nyser 


Tangajorpok. 


Silent (he is) 


Tier 


Nipangerpok. 


Snores (he) 


Snorker 


Kangoiok. 


Silk (adject.) 


Silke 


Satok. 


Snow 


Snee 


Aput 






fSolve (Dan.) 


Snuff 


Snuustobak 


Sunnorse 


Silver 


Solv 


kangusak erd- 
1 lingnartok ka- 


Soap 
Soft 


Saibe 
Blod 


Kakorsaut. 
Akitsok. 






[ kortok. 


Soil 


Smuds 


Mingo. 


Sin (to) 


Synde 


f Ajortulliornek 
1 (a sin, ajorte). 


Soldier 


Soldat 


|'Sekkutok,v.sor- 
1 suktuksak. 


Since (hereafter) 


Siden 


Kingorna. 


Sometimes 


Undertiden 


Illane. 


Sincere 

Sinew 


Oprigtig 
Sene 


Illungersortok. 
Yalo. 


Son 


Son 


rErnek, v. niar- 
1 nak. 


Sings (he) 


Synger 


Ivngerpok. 


Song 


Sang 


Ivngerut. 


Sink 


Synke 


Ajtsingnek. 


Sooths (he) 


Sniigrer 


Kujarmavok. 


Sister, or brother 


Soster 


Kattsengut. 


Sore 


Byld 


Ajuak. 


Sits (he) 


Sidder 


pvksiavok, v. in- 
1 gipok. 


Sorrow 
Sorry 


Sorg 
Bedrovet 


Alliejsut. 
Alliejsuktok. 


Situation 


Beliggenhed 


Sumesusek. 


Soul 


Sjeel 


Tarnek. 


Skates (snow) 


Skier 


Sissorautik. 


Sound (noise) 


Lyd 


Perpallungnek. 


Skate 
Sketch 


Skbjte 
Skizze 


Sardlirsaut. 
Arsiliiak. 


Sound (it has"! 
good) J" 


Lyder godt 


Nipigikpok. 


Skill 
Skin 


Dygtighed 
Skind 


Piukursusek. 
Amek. 


Sound (it has a.'^ 
bad) J 


Lyder ilde 


Nipilukpok. 


Sky 


Himmel 


KriUak. 


Sour 


Suur 


Sernartok. 


Sledge 


Sleede 


Kamutik. 


Sows (he) it 


Saaer 


Siaramartipa. 


Sleeps (he) 


Sover 


Sinikpok. 


Spade 


Spade 


Tuggaut. 


Sleepy (he is) 


Sovnig 


Uernarpok. 


Spares (he) it 


Sparer 


Iblera. 


Sleeve 


iErme 


Ak. 


Sparks (it) 


Gnistrer 


Ikuellekpok. 


Slices (he) 
Slides (he) 


Gjor tynd 
Glider 


Seglileriok. 
Sissorarpok. 


Sparrow, Emb."| 
niv. j 


Spurv 


Kopanauarsuk. 


Slight 


Tynd 


Satok. 


Speaks (he) 


Taler 


Okallukpok. 


Slops (he) it 


Spilder paa 


Koia. 


Spectacles 


Briller 


Irsaurssek. 


Slope 


Skak 


Kurksangarsok. 


Speech 


Tale 


Okalluzek. 


Slow (he is) 


Langsom 


Kigeipok. 


Speeds (he) 


Her 


Tuoviorpok. 


Slumbers (he) 


Slumrer 


Siniorarpok. 


Spells (he) 


Bogstaverer 


Taiorpok. 


Small 


Liden 


Mikirsok. 


Spice 


Kryderie 


Kassilh'tsok. 


Smart 


Smertefuld 


Annernartok. 


Spirit (brandy) 


Spiritus 


Sillakangitsok. 


Smell 


Lugt 


I'Tipe (its smell. 


Splendour 


Glands 


Krebleriksusek. 




1 tivka). 


Splits (it) 


Splitter 


Kopivok. 


Smiles (he) 


Smiler 


Kongojukpok. 


Spoils (he) it 


Spolerer 


Asserorpa. 


Smith 


Smed 


Saffiortok. 


Sport, as a child 


Lege 


Pingoarnek. 


Smokes (he) 


Ryger 


Pyortarpok. 

M 


Spot 
2 


Plet 


Inne. 



84 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Spout 


Rende 


Illulinek. 






fKapput (where 


Spreads (it) 


Spredes 


Siammarpok. 


Sting of insects 


Braad 


■j is thy St. kap- 


Spring 


Foraar 


Upernak. 






L putet nau ?) 






rSarfariksimet.v. 


Stirs (he) him up 


Opmuntrer 


Kajumiksarpa. 


Springtide (at) 


Spring 


1 pet. 


Stitch, a disease 


Sting 


Kapportitsinek. 


Springtide (it is) 




Sarfariksiok. 


Stocks (he) it 


Forvarer 


Torkorpa. 


Springtide (it is") 
not) j 




Kingoartalerpok . 


Stomach 

Stone 


Mave 
Steen 


Nak. 
Ujarak. 


Springle 


Snare 


Nigak. 


Stoops (he) 


Bukker sig 


Pupok. 


Spunge 


Svamp 


Ermigut. 


Stop 


Standse 


Uningnek. 


Spurs, of a sledge 


Opstandere 


Napparirsaek. 


Store 


Forraad 


Koe. 


Spies (he) it 


Undersoger 


Kiglisiorpa. 


Storm 


Storm 


Annorasuak. 


Square 


Fiirkantet 


Koaksuktok. 


Story 


Historic 


Okalluktuak. 


Squeeze 


Trykke 


Nimnernek. 


Stout 


Stserk 


Nekkortok. 


Stable 


Staid 


Nerssulin innaet. 


Straight 


Lige 


Nardlursok. 


Stair 


Trappe 


Majoartarfik. 


Strains (he) 


Anstrsenger sig 


Aksororpok. 


Upstairs 


Oppe 


Kalliaenne. 


Strange 


Besynderlig 


Tupingnartok. 


Downstairs 


Nede 


Sammane. 


Stranger 


Fremmed 


Tekkornartak. 


Stalk 


Slilk 


Naeggovik. 


Strap, belong- " 
ingtothe'blad- • 






Stamp 


Stampe 


Tukarnek. 


Kobberem 


Aklunak. 


Star 


Stjerne 


Udloriak (N.B.) 


der of a canoe . 






Starch 


Stivelse 


Kreratakot. 


Stream 


Strom 


Sarfak. 


Start 


Forbauses 


Annilarnek. 


Strength 


Styrke 


Nuke, V. tengek. 


Starve 


Lide Nod 


Pertlungnek. 


Stretches (he) it 


Udstraekker 


Isuipa. 


State 


Tilstand 


Kannong-esusek 


Strikes (he) him 


Slaaer 


Unatarpa. 


States, lands 


Stater 


N unset. 


String 


Snor 


Aklunaursak. 


Statues, of men 


Statuer 


Innursaet. 


String (shoe) 


Skoetvinde 


Singek. 


Staves 


Staver 


rNappariaursa't, 


Strips (he) him 


Afkleeder 


Mattarpa. 






|_ N.B. 


Strong 


Sta;rk 


Pikkunartok. 


Stay (to) 


Blive 


Uningnek. 


Struggle (they) 


Strides 


Panikput. 


Steady 


Stadig 


Aulaejangersok. 
fTiglingnek (he 


Stupid 


Dum 


f Siliakardluang- 
(_ itsok. 


Steal (to) 


Stjaele 


St. tiglikpok ; 


Subdues (he) him 


Undertvinger 


Kunnutipa. 






thou St. tis- 


Subject 


Undersaat 


Nalekte 






likpotit). 


Subsist, live 


Erneere sig 


Innunek. 


Steam 


Damp 


Isseriak. 


•Succeeds (it) 


Folger 


Tugliovok. 


Steel 


Staal 


Sissek. 


Success 


Lykke 


Pidluarnek. 


Steep 


Brat 


Imnarsok. 


Succours (he)him 


Hjelper 


Ikiorpa. 


Steers (he) 


Styrer 


Akkopok. 


Sucks (the child) 


Dier 


IVlillukpok. 


Step (a) 


Trin 


Abloriak. 


Sues (he) for it 


Soger om 


Krenutiga. 


Stern of a ship 


Spejl 


Akko. 


Suffers (he) 


Lider 


Anniarpok. 


Stews (he) 


Stuver, koger 


Outsiok. 


Sufficient 


Tilstreekkelig 


Namaktok. 


Sticks (he) him 


Gjennemborer 


Kappiva. 






Sukko (Dan.) 


Stiff (it is) 


Stiv 


Kreratavok. 


Sugar 


Sukker 


■ tungosungnit- 


Still 


Endnu 


SuUe. 






. sok. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



85 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAU.X. 


Summer 


Sommer 


Aursak. 


Terrible 


Frygtelig 


Erksinartok. 


Sun 


Sol 


Sekkinek. 


Test 


Prove 


Missiligut. 


Sun (the) rises 


Staaer op 


Nuilerpok. 


Testify 


Bevidne 


Unnipkarnek. 


San (the) sets 


Gaaer ned 


Tarrilerpok. 


Thanks 


Tak 


Kujanak. 


Sure (to be) 


Sikkert 


Uloraut. 


Thaws (it) 


Tber 


Issengiarpok. 


Surgeon 


Doctor 


Nekkursairsok . 


Thick 


Tyk 


Irvsortok. 


Surrounds (he) it 


Omringer 


Ungalorpa. 


Thief 


Tyv 


Tigliktok. 


Surveys (he) it 


Beseerdet 


I'Krennerpa, v. 
(^ tagusarpa. 


Thigh 
Thimble 


Laar 
Fingerbol 


Ukpat. 
Tikek. 


Suspect 


MistiBenkt 


Passirsak. 


Thing 


Ting 


Pik. 


Swallows (he) it 


Svselger det 


Eia. 


Thin 


Tynd 


Satok. 


Sweats (he) 


Sveder 


Kiegukpok. 


Think 


Tsenke 


Erkarsarnek. 


Sweeps (he) it 


Fejer det 


Sengiarpa. 


Thirst 


Torst 


Imerosungnek. 


Swift of foot 


Let 


Okrillarsok. 


Thirsty 


Torstig 


Imerosuktok. 


Swims (he) 


Svomraer 


Nellokpok. 


Thistle 


Tidsel 


Kenariksok. 


Swings (he) it 


Svinger det 


Aulapa 


Thorn 


Torn 


r Kakkidlarnek 


Swoons (he) 


Besvimer 


Ounarsiok. 






1 otaursak. 


Sword 


Svaerd 


Paenna. 


Thought 


Tanke 


Erkarsaut. 


Symptom 


Symtom 


Naellunaerkot. 


Thrashes the ox 


Teersker 


Tukarpok. 


Syrup 


Sirup 


Tungasungnitsok 


Thread 


Traad 


Yaluksak. 


Table 


Bord 


Nekkrivik. 


Threatens (he)"! 

him j 

Thrives (a plant) 






Tail, of a dog- 


Hale 


fPamiok (not of 
j a bird). 


Truer ham 
Vozer 


Syorasarpa. 
Nauvok. 


Takes (he) it 


Tager det 


Tigua. 


Throat 


Strube det 


Torkluk. 


Talk 


Tale 


Okallungnek. 


Throws (he) it 


Raster 


Nellukpa. 


Tall 


Hoy 


Tekkirsok. 


Thumb 


Toramelfinger 


Kudlo. 


Tallow 


Talg 


Tunno. 


Thunder 


Torden 


Iktolarnek. 


Tame 


Tarn 


Nyoitsok. 


Tick (to) 


Borge 


Akkeetsornek. 


Tankard 


Kruus 


Imertarbik. 


Tide (the) rises 


Vandet vozer 


Ullilerpok. 


Tar 


Tjaere 


Uvserut. 


Tide (the) n^Ils 


Vandet falder 


Tinnilerpok. 


Tarry 


Nole 


Mullunek. 


Tie 


Baand 


Krelerut. 


Task 


Dagvserk 


SuUieksak. 


Tight 


Tret 


Sukangarsok. 


Tastes (he) it 


Smager det 


Ursserpa. 


Till (a) 


Skuffe 


Amursariak. 


Taylor 


Skreeder 


Mersortok. 


Time (day) 


Tid, V. Dag 


Udlok. 


Tea 


Thee 


The (Dan). 


Tin 


Tin 


Akkertlursak. 


Teaches (he) him 


Underviser ham 


Ajokaersorpa. 


Tinder 


Tiinder 


Arksaligak. 


Tear 


Taare 


Kodlilinek. 


Tinder-box 


Fyrtbnde 


Ikitsiniut. 


Teases (he) him 


Driller ham 


Innukotiga. 


Tires (it) hiui 


Plager ham 


Erdlokopa. 


Telescope 


Kikkert 


Kernut. 


Tiresome 


Kjedelig 


Erdlokrinartiik. 


Tell 


Sige 


Okarnek. 


Toe 


Taae 


Isigak. 


Tempest (it is) 


Er Storm 


r Annordlersor- 
1 sovok. 


Toil (to) 
Tolerable 


Slaebe 
Taalelig 


Aksorornek. 
Arktorn.mgitsok. 


Tends (he) him 


Betjener ham 


Kivgartoupa. 


Tomb 


Grav 


Illivek. 


Tender, servant 


Tjenei 


Kivoak. 


Tongs 


Tang 


Pyssugut. 


Tent 

1 


Telt 


Tupek. 


Tools 


Toy 


Sennetit. 



86 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 



Tooth 
Torch 
Torment 
Touches (he) it 
Tows (he) 

Towards the tree 

Tower 

Town 

Traces (he) him 

Trade 

Trains(he)them 

— dogs 
Train, of a bird 
Train oil 

Transfers (he) it 
Translates (he) it 
Transmits (he) it 
Trap (fox) 
Travels (he) 
Travellers 
Treacles (he) it 
Treason 
Treasure 
Treats (he) him 
Tree 

Trespasses (he) 
Trial 

Tricks (he) him 
Trifle 

Triples (he) it 
Trot 
Trouble 
True (he is) 
Truth 

Tries (he) it 
Tub 
Tumour 

Tune, of a hymn 
Turn 

Turns (he) it 
Turner 
Turnip 

Turnip (Swed 
Twilight (it is) 



■>\ 



DANISH. 



Tand 
Kirkelys 
Pine 

Berorer det 
Bogserer 

Mod Trseet 

Taarn 
Bye 

Folger ham 
Handle 

Over dem 

Hale Fugle 

Tran Stiert 

Bringer det 

Overseetter det 

Oversender det 

Ffjelde 

Rejser 

Rejsende 

Troder paa 

Forraederie 

Skat 

Bevaerter En 

Trae 

Fejler 

Fristelse 

Bedrager ham 

Smaating 

Tredobbler 

Trav 

Besvaerlighed 

Sandrue (er) 

Sandhed 

Prover det 

Kar 

Svulst 

Melodie 

Vende sig 

Drejer det 

Drejer (en) 

Roe 

Tusmbrke (er) 



ESQUIMAUX. 



Kigut. 

Nenneroursoak. 

Anniaut. 

Aktorpa. 

Kallipok. 

I'Orpingmut (to- 

I wards, mut). 

Kakkalliak. 

Iglorperksoit. 

Mallikpa. 

Pissiniarnek. 

Sungiursarpej. 

Pavkit. 

Orksok. 

Neksarpa. 

Nukterpa. 

Neksiupa. 

Pudlek. 

Ingerdlavok. 

Ingerdlarsok. 

Tungmarpa. 

Kiglout. 

Akkiksaut. 

Nerdlerpa. 

Orpik. 

Kiglornuvok. 

Urssernartok. 

Seglokrittarpa. 

Piungitsok. 

Pingaseriarpa. 

Pangalingnek. 

Erdlokirsut. 

Seglungilak. 

Seglungitsusek. 

Ursserpa. 

Erkorsivik. 

Pudlengnek. 

Erinak. 

Kavinek. 

Kavitipa. 

Kavititsirsok. 

Nautseiak. 

Tarsarpok 



ENGLISH. 



Twins 

Twist 

Type 

Ugly 

Ultimately 
Umbrella 

Unaccountable 

Unaffected 

Unanimous 

Unavoidable 

Unbecoming 

Unburdens it 

Unbuttons (he) it 
Uncertain 
Uncivil 

Uncle, father's 
brother 

Undeniable 

Underneath it 
Understands (he) 
Understanding 
Undertakes(he)it 

Underwrite 
Underwriter 

Undone (I am) 

Undress 
Undressed 
Uneasy (he is) 
Unequal things 
Uneven ground 
Unexpectedly 
Unfair 
Unfit 

Unfolds (he) it 
Unfortunate 
Ungrateful 
Uniform things 



DANISH. 



Tvillinger 

Fletning 

Sindbilled 

Haeslig 

Tilsidst 

Skjaerm 

Uforklarlig 

Ubevaeget 

Samdrsegtige 

Uundgaaelig 

Usommelig 

Afleesses 

Opknapper den 

Uvis 
Uholflig 

Onkel 

Unasgtelig 

Underneden 
Forstaaer 
Forstand 
Forsoger det 

Skrive under 

Underskrevne 

Odelagt 

Afklffide 

Afklaedt 

Urolig 

Ulige 

Ujevn 

Pludselig 

Uredelig 

Unyttigt 

Udbreder det 

Uheldig 

Utdknemmelig 

Eensformige 



ESQUIMAUX. 



Mardlulliaek. 

Perdlak. 

Arssersout, 

Pinnetsok. 

Kesa. 

Ulle. 

rNeellunejeksa- 

1 ungitsok. 

( Kibligunekan- 

I gitsok. 
lllegeeglutik. 

C Ingaleksaun- 
I gitsok (N.B.) 
Innardluktok. 

f Ussaerpok (a 

L sledge). 
Attesaerpa. 
Opernangitsok. 
Innuksiarnetsok. 

Aka. 

Missieksaun- 
gitsok(N.B.) 
Attane. 
Sinnekarpok. 
Silla. 
Ursserpa. 
JAttane agleng- 
\ nek (N.B.) 
j Attane agle- 
|_ gaursok. 
r Neeglingnak- 
1 aunga. 

Mattarnek. 

Mattarsimarsok. 

Kollarpok. 

Arsigeensitsut. 

Maneetsok. 

Tersangainak. 

Pekkoserdluktok 

Attungitsok. 

Issaijkpa. 

Pidluangitsok. 

Kujasuitsok. 

Arsigeeksut. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



87 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Union 


Foreening 


Illegeengnek. 


Vault 


Seiret, Locum 


Anartarbik. 


Unknown 


Ukjendt 


Ilirsaringitsak. 


Vegetables 


Gronsager 


Nautseiaet. 


Unlawful 


Ulovlig 


Innertigak. 


Veil 


Sloer 


Talut. 


Unlimited 


Ubegrsendset 


Kiglikangitsok. 


Vein 


A are 


Takkak. 


Unlucky 


Ulykkelig 


Pidluejtsok. 


Venal things 


Falbuden 


Nuisitak. 


Unnecessary 
Unpaid 


Unodvendig 
Ubetalt 


f Pirsariakangit- 
\ sok. 
Akkeetsugak. 


Ventures (he) 
Verbal (with ] 
words) J 


V'over 
Med Ord 


Sap^pok. 
Okauzinnik. 


Unpleasant 


Ufornoyelig 


C Tipejtsung- 
1 nangitsok. 


Verdict 

Verse 


Kjendelse 
Vers 


Unnipkarut. 
Verse (Dan ) 


Unreasonable 


Ufornuftig 


Sillakangitsok. 


Very 


Me get 


Aksut. 


Unreserved 


Aabenhjertig 


r Pekkoserdlun- 
[ gitsok. 


Vessel (whale"! 
boat) J 


Fartoy 


Umiajtsiak. 


Unruly 


Uregjerlig 


Utereetsok. 


Vexes (he) him 


Plager ham 


Nagleia. 


Unseen 


Usynlig 


Tekkuksaun- 
gitsok. 


Vice 


Last 


Ajortullioroma- 
tounek. 


Unsettled 


Ubestandig 


Aulaejarsok. 


Victim 


Offer 


■ Tunnirsut to- 


Unshaken 


Urokkelig 


Aula?jangersok. 






koteksak. 


Unsteady 


Ustadig 


Aulaejarsok. 


Victory 


Sejer 


Ajugaunek. 


Unthought 
Until I die 


Upaatsenkt 
Til min dod 


Erkarsautigir- 
saungitsok. 
Tokytserdlunga. 


Vie, at pulling"! 
(see pull) ^ 


Kappes 


r Epukaniunek 
(kaniunek is 
L vie). 


Until we return 


rril vi komme"] 
Usandsed 


Utilerserdluta. 


Views (he) it 
Vigour 


Beseer det 
Kraft 


Tekkordlorpa. 
Nuke. 


Untruth 


Seglo. 


Vinegar 


VUnaadike 


Sernartok. 


Unusual 
Unwieldy 


Usaedvanlig 
Tung 


Attortangitsok. 
Oketsok. 


Violates (he) it] 
— a promise 


Krsenker ham 


Unniorkotipa. 


Upright 
Urges (he) him 


Retskaffen 
Tilskynder 


Illuartok. 
Okaukriksarpa. 


Violence 


Voldsomhed 


fAngutausersou- 
1 nek. 


Urn 


Urne 


Marrak. 


Virtue 


Dyd 


Ajungitsusek.* 


Use 


Skik 


lUerkok. 


Virtuous 


Dydig 


Ajungitsok. 


Useful 


Nyttig 


Aftortok. 


Visible 


Synlig 


Tekkuksaursok. 


Usual 


Seedvardig 


Attortartok. 


Voice 


Stemme 


Nipe. 


Utter (in the sea) 


Yderst 


Anasiksok. 


Vomit 


Spye 


Meriarnek. 


Vain 


Forfaengelig 


Piungitsok. 


Vow 


Lofte 


Unnersugak. 


Vain (in) 


Forjaeves 


Imagl'det. 


Voyage 


Rejse 


Ingerdlanek. 


Valet 

Valley 


Tjener 
Dal 


Kivgak. 
Korok. 


Vulnerates (he)~l 
him 


Saarer ham 


Ikkilerpa. 


Value 


Vserd 


Akke. 


Wade 


Vade 


Nellorarnek. 


Vanity 


Forfsengelighed 


Piungitsusek. 


Wafer 


Vaffel 


Igalaursak, N.B. 


Vapour 


Dunst 


Pyok. 


Waft 


Flyde 


Puktanek. 


Various 


Forskjellige 


Arsigeengitsut. 


Wages 


Hyre 


Kivgartout. 


Vary 


Forandre 


Adlangortitsinek 


Waggon 


Vogn 


Arksakaursolik. 



* Ajungilak, tlie primitive of these words signifies, he, she, 
the Esquimaux language. 



a word for morid gnodriess is wanting in 



88 



VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. ESQUIMAUX. 


Wainscot 
Waist 


Vognskud 
Midie 


Segliligakman- 
gertok, N.B. 
Kretek. 


Week 


Uge 


Sabbatikakku- 
nerok, v. Ud- 
lut arbanek 


Waistcoat 


Vest 


Akangitsok. 






. — mardluk. 


Waits (he) him 


Venter 


Utakkria. 


Weep 


Grsede 


Krianek. 


Wakes 


Vaager 


Erkomavok. 


Weighs (he) it 


Vejer 


Urssersarpa. 


Wakens (he) 


Vaagner 


Iterpok. 


Weight 


Vasgt 


Urssersaut. 


Wakens (he) him 


Vsekker 


Itersarpa. 


Well 


Vel 


Ajungitsomik. 


Walk (to) 


Spadsere 


Pissungnek. 


Wet 


Vaad 


Kausersok. 


M'all 


Vaeg 


Karmak. 


Wheat 


Hvede 


Hvede (Dan.) 


Wander 


Vandre 


Iiigerdlanek. 


Wheel 


Hjul 


Arksakaursok. 


Want (a) 


Mangel 


Ajorsaut. 


Whelp of a dog 


Hvalp 


Kremm^rak. 


War 


Krig 


Sekkuaufik. 


Wherefore 


Hvofor 


Saag? 


Warbles (it) 


Baever 


Aulavok. 


Whets (he) it 


Hvffisser den 


Ipiksarpa. 


Warehouse 


Proviantbod 


Augoarbik. 


While he weeps 


Medens, lat.dum 


Kriamet.* 


Warmth 


Varme 


Kiek. 


Whip 


Pidsk 


Ipperautak. 


Warns (he) him 


Advarer ham 


Syorasarpa. 


Whiskers (beard) 


Bakkenbart 


Umik. 


Warrants (he) it 


Bekraefter det 


Narkriksorpa. 


Whisper 


Hviske 


Issirvsornek. 


Wasp 


Vespe 


Egytsarsoak. 


Whistle 


Floyte 


Umgiarnek. 


Wastes it 


Forgaaer 


Nungulerpok. 


White 


Hvid 


Kakortok. 


Watches (he) 


Vaager 


Pigarpok. 


Whitsuntide 


Pindsetid 


Pintse (Dan.) 


Watch 


Uhr 


Naellunserkotak. 


Whole 


Heel 


lUiiitsok. 


Watchmaker 
Water (fresh) 


Uhrmager 
Vand 


(' Nsellunserkut- 
[ siortok. 
Imek. 


Wholesome 
Wicked 


Sund 

Ryggeslds 


Perkriksairsok. 
["Ajortullioroma- 
[^ tok. 


Waterman 


Faergemand 


Ikaursirsok. 


Wide 


Viid 


Nerotok. 


Wave 


Vove, V. Bdlge 


Mallik. 


Widens it 


(Det) bliverviidt 


Nerotungorpok. 


Wavers 


Vakler 


Aulavok. 


Widow 


Enke 


Uiglarnek. 


Waxes (it) 


Voxer 


Agdliartorpok. 


Widower 


Enkemand 


Nullsernek. 


Way 


Vej 


Akkosinek. 


Width 


Vide 


Nerotoursusek. 


Weak 


Svag 


Sengetsok. 


Wife 


Kone 


NuUiak. 


Weakens (he) 


Svsekkes 


Ajulerpok. 


Wild 


Vild 


Nyoartok. 


Weakness 


Svaghed 


Ajulersusek. 


Wilderness 


Orken 


Innukajuitsok. 


Wealth 


Rigdom 


r Pekkouterperk 
|_ soil. 


Wile 


List 


rPekkoserdlung 
1 nek. 
Piomavonga. 


Wealthy 


Riig 


Pekkoutilik. 


Will (1) 


Jeg vil 


AVears it 


Opslides 


Asseroriartorpok. 


Wills (he) 


Vil 


Piomavok. 


Weary 


Trtet 


Kassursok. 


Wind 


Vind 


Annor^. 


Weather 


Vejr 


Silla. 


Window 


Vindue 


Igalak. 


Weaves (he) 


Va?ver 


Ikartiteriok. 


Wine 


V'iin 


Vine (Dan.) 


Wedding 


Bryllup 


NuHiartarnek. 


Wink 


Vmke 


Isingmiksainek. 


Wedges (he) it 


Klover 


Kopiva. 


Winter 


Vinter 


Okiok. 


Wedlock 


jEgteskab 


Nulliareengnek. 


Wipes (he) it 


Aftdrrer 


Allerterpa. 



While ia translated by a mood of the verb whereto it belongs. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



89 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Wise 


Viis 


Ilisimarsok. 


Wretch 


Stakkel 


Innukuluk. 


Wish 


Onske 


Kiksarnek. 


Wretched 


Elendig 


Nagliuktok. 


Wit 


Forstand 


Silla. 


Wrinkle 


Rynke 


Erkrinek. 


Withdraws (he) 


Gaaer bort 


Audiarpok. 


Wrist 


Haandled 


Arksaut. 


Withers it 


Visner 


Tokolerpok. 


Writ 


Skrift 


Aglegak. 


Witness 


Vidne 


Narkrikse. 


Writes (he) 


Skriver 


.Aglekpok. 


Wolf 


Ulv 


Amarok. 


Writing-desk 


Skrivepult 


Aglektarbik. 


Woman 


Quinde 


Arnak. 


Wrong 


Feil 


Kiglok. 


Wonders (he) 
Wonderful 


Forundres 
Forunderlig 


Tupigosukpok. 
Tupingnartok. 


Wrong (I am) 


Jeg feiler 


[■ Kiglornuvonga, 
1 V. seglovonga. 


Wood 
Wool 


Tra; 
Uld 


Kressuk. 
Merkut. 


Wrong(thou art) 


Du feiler 


r Kiglornuvotit, 
1 V. seglovotit. 


Word 


Ord 


Okauzek. 


Wronged 


Foraaermet 


hinardligak. 


Works (he) 


Arbeider 


Sulliok. 


Wry 


Krum 


Pekkingarsok. 


Work 


Arbeid 


Sulliak. 


Yard 


Alen 


Urssersaut. 


World 


Verden 


Sillarsoak. 


Yarn 


Garn 


Yalursset. 


Worm 


Orm 


Kopertlok. 


Yawns (he) 


Gaber 


Aitsarpok. 


Worn 


Forslidt 


r Attanetaengo- 
1^ akangitsok. 


Year 
Yelk 


Aar 
iEggeblomme 


Okiok. 

Tingursak. 


Worship (at "1 
church) J 


Gudsdyrkelse 


Nalegiarnek. 


Yellow 


Guul 


fSungarpalluk- 
( tok. 


Worsted stock-S 
ings 1 


Strijmper 


AUersik. 


Yet 
Yields (he) 


Endnu 
Giverester 


SuUe. 
Kunnuvok. 


Worth 


Vserd 


Akke. 


Yoke 


Aag 


N'angmaut. 


Wound 


Saar 


Ikke. 


Young 


Ung 


Innusuktok. 


Wrecks the ship 


Forliser 


Asserorput. 


Youth (a) 


Ungt menneske 


Innusnk. 


Wraps (he) it 


Svober 


Imupa. 


Zealous (he is) 


Nidkiaer 


Kemakpok. 


Wreaths 


Fletter 


Perdlaiok. 


Zone 


Belte 


Kreterrut, 



90 



POPULATION TABLE. 



o 



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o 

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a. 

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bo P :2 ;= ;= 
t. p: ^3 -^ ^ 

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!£■: 



*-? a: 






DIALOGUES 



ENGLISH, DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX 

LANGUAGES. 



X 2 



# 



t 



^<St* 



DIALOGUES, &c. 



ENGLISH. 



Relating to Coasts, Land, &c. 

Have you seen the land ? 

How far is the land ? 

How near is the land ? 

In what direction is the land ? 

Point to the land. 

Where is the water ? 

Point to the water. 

What is the name of the land seen ? 

What is the water's name ? 

Do you know the land ? 

Can we sail through this channel ? 

Is the water deep? 

How deep? 

How shallow ? 

Is there a river there ? 

Point to the river. 

Which is the road ? 

Go before us. 

When is it high water ? 

When is it low water ? 

Can we anchor ? 

Are you a pilot ? 

I want a pilot. 

Are you going on shore ? 

May we land ? 

Will you come back ? 

When will you ? 

Come to us again. 

Do you sleep on shore ? 

Do you come to-morrow ? 
1 jj^^ Come back to-morrow, 
^^r Come in two days. 

Is there a good harbour? 

Is the harbour bad ? ' 

Is the bottom rocky ? 

Is the bottom mud ? 
Is the bottom sand? 
Is the bottom clay? 



DANISH. 



Har Du sect Land ? 

Hvor langt er Landet borte ? 

Hvor nser er Landet ? 

Hvor er Landet? 

Peeg paa Landet. 

Hvor er Vandet ? 

Peeg paa Vandet. 

Hvad er Navnet paa Landet, vi see ? 

Hvad er Vandets Navn? 

Kjender Du Landet ? 

Kunne vi sejle gjennem dette Sund ? 

Er Vandet dybt ? 

Hvor dybt ? 

Hvor grundt ? 

Er der en Elv? 

Peeg efter Elven. 

Hvor er Vejen ? 

Gaae foraii. 

Naar bliver Vandet hiijt ? 

Naar lavt Vande ? 

Kan vi ankre ? 

Er du Lods ? 

legvilde have Lods. 

Gaaer du i Land ? 

Maae vi lande ? 

Vil du komme tilbage. 

Hvor vil du hen ? 

Kom igjen til os. 

Vil du sove i Land ? 

Kommer du imorgen ? 

Kom igjen imorgen. 

Kom i overmorgen. 

Er der god Havn ? 

Er Ha\ nen slet? 

Er der Stecn i Bunden ? 

Er der Dynd ? 

Er der Sand? 

Er der Leer ? 



ESQUIMAUX. 



Nuna tekkogalloarpiuk ? 
Nuna kannong ungesiksiga ? 
Nuna kannok kannitiga? 
Nuna nau ? 
Nuna tikoardlugo. 
Imak nau ? 
Imak tikoardlugo. 
C Kannong-attekarpa nuna tekkur- 
(. sarput ? 

Imang una kannong attekarpa ? 
Nuna ilirsaraiuk ? 

Ugona ikkerasakut akkutiksakarpa ? 
Imak itisimava ? 
Kannong itirsiga? 
Kannong-ikkatiga ? 
Ouane kogejtsiakarpa? 
Kok tikoardlugo. 
Sukut pissaugut? 
Siulersortigut. 
Kakugo uUissava? 
Kakugo tinnissava ? 
Kisarsinnavogut ? 
Ilisimarsovit ? 

Ilisimarsoniik piomagalloarponga. 
Ikaissavit (siksamut) ? 
Ikarkovisigut, v. aposinnavogut ? 
Utissavit (tamauuga) ? 
Suniut pissavit? 
Uterfigisigut. 
Nuname sinissavit ? 
Akkago ikaissavit ? 
Akkago aina ikkardlutit. 
Akkagoane ikarniarit. 
Ajungitsomik kisarfikarpa ? 
Kisiu'fik ajorpa ? 
Nakka ujarakarpa ? 
Nakka mauvarnarpa? 
Nakka syorakarpa ? 
Nakka marrakarpa? 



94 



DIALOGUES IN THE ENGLISH, 



KNGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


What mark is that ? 


Hvad Meerke er dette ? 


Sunauna nselluneerkotak ? 


Is there a current ? 


Er der en Strom ? 


Sarfakarpa ? 


Which way does it go ? 


Hvad Vey gaaer den ? 


Sumut sarfarpa ? 


Is the current strong ? 


Er Strommen staerk ? 


Sarfarkulukpa? 


I shall go on shore. 


J eg vilgaae i Land. 


Apossaunga. 


I shall not go on shore. 


Jeg gaaer ej i Land. 


Apossengilanga. 


I shall sleep on shore. 


Jeg vil sove i Land. 


Nuname sinissaunga. 


My boat is on shore. 


Min Baad er i Land. 


Umiajtsiara siksamepok. 


A man is on shore. 


En Mand er i Land. 


Siksame kivgakarponga. 


Is the landing good ? 


Er Landeplasen god ? 


Aponeng ajornangila ? 


Is there reindeer there ? 


Er der Rensdyr ? 


Tuktokarpa ? 


Are foxes there ? 


Er der Raeve ? 


Terianniakarpa? 


Are hares there? 


Er der Harer? 


Ukadlekarpa? 


Are bears there ? 


Er der Bjorne? 


Nennokarpa? 


I shall take a rope on shore. 


Jeg vil fore en Line i Land ? 


Siksame pittukomarpaka. 


Make fast the rope. 


Gjor Touget fast. 


Pittuta sukaglugo. 


Cut the rope. 


Kap Touget ! 


Pittouta kippivdlugo ! 


Loose the rope. 


Los! 


Pittursardlugo ! 


Make fast. 


Fast! 


Pittuglugo ! 


Relating to Wind and Weather. 


Om VlND OG VeJR. 


SiLLAMIK AnNORE.MIGLO. 


What do you think of the weather? 


Hvad tsenker du om Vejret? 


SiUa kannong — essesugaiuk ? 


Do you think the wind will continue? 


Tsenker du at Vinden vil blive ved ? 


Annore tajmaeginnaissanerpok ? 


Will the wind change ? 


Vil Vinden forandres ' 


(See, A) 


Shall we have rain ? 


Vil det regne ? 


Siedlilissaua? 


Shall we have snow ? 


Vil det snee ? 


Apissaua? 


Shall it be calm ? 


Bliver detstille? 


Kaitsyssava ? 


Shall it blow ? 


Vil det bleese? 


Annordlilissaua ? 


Will it be fair wind ' 


Faae vi god Vind ? 


Orkomiaissaugut ? 


Will the weather be good ? 


Bliver Vej ret godt ? 


Silla ajyssengila ? 


Has there been snow ? 


Har det sneet ? 


Aputekaralloarpise ? 


Has there been wind ? 


Har det bisest ? 


Annordleralloarpa ? 


Has there been rain ? 


Har det regnet ? 


Siedleralloarpa? 


Has there been frost? 


Har det frosset ? 


Issekaralloarpa ? 


Does it freeze ? 


Fryser det ? 


Issekarpa ? 


It freezes. 


Det fryser. 


Issekau. 


It did freeze hard. 


Det fros haardt. 


Issekulukalloarkau. 


Frostbitten. 


Som har Frost. 


Krerisimarsok. 


Are you frostbitten ? 


Har du Frost? 


Krerisimavit ? 


Is there ice there ? 


Er der lis der ? 


Tersane sikkokarpa ? 


There is much ice. 


Meget lis. 


Sikkokarkulukpok. 


There is little ice. 


Lidt lis. 


Ingmangoak. 


There is plenty of water. 


Vand nok. 


Akkutiksakarpok* (pn). 


No water. 


Ingen Vand. 


Akkutiksakangilak. 



( way^ 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



95 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


JZSQUIiMAUX. 


No ice. 


Ingen lis. 


Sikkongilak. 


Icebergs. 


lisfjelde. 


liluiirsast. 


Is the ice broken up ' 


Er isen brudt ? 


Sikkoferupa sikkoaerupok ? 


Is it frozen over ? 


Er der lagt til ? 


Sikkoinangolerpa ? 


There is no ice. 


Der er ingen lis. 


Sikkokangilak. 


The ice is not broken. 


Isen er ikke brudt. 


Sikkoi3Ernsimangilak. 


There is no water. 


Der er ingen Vand. 


Sikkoinavok, v. akkutiksakangilak. 


The weather was bad. 


Vejret var ondt. 


Silla ajoralioarpok 


The weather was good. 


Vejret var godt. 


Silla ajungikalloarpok. 


The weather was foggy. 


Vejret var taaget. 


Silla ])Volirksovok. 


The weather was clear. 


Vejret var klart. 


Silla alaralloarpok. 


In thick weather. 


1 tykt Vejr. 


Silla pyorsorsomet. 


In bad weather. 


1 ondt Vejr. 


Silla ajormet. 


In good weather. 


I godt Vejr. 


Silla ajungimet. 


I think a fog is coming on. 


Det bliver vist taaget. 


Pyolissakokau. 


I think the weather will continue as' 
we have it now. 


Jeg taenker Vejret vilblivedetsamme. 


Silla tajmaeginnaissakokau. 


It is a fair wind. 


Det er god Vind. 


Arkomiarpogut. 


It is a foul wind. 


Det er Modvind. 


Arksorpogut. 


It is a calm. 


Det er StiUe. 


Kaitsorpok. 


A baffling wind. 


Det er omlobende. 


Annor^ nellinginak. 


It is a hard gale. 


Det blaeser op. 


Nektimalerpok. 


This has been a mild season. 


Det har va^ret mildt. 


Kiekalloarpok. 


This has been a bad season. 


Det har vaeret uroligt. 


Annordleinaralloarpok. 


There has been much wind. 


Det har blaest meget. 


Annordleinaralloarpok, 


There has been much cold. 


Det har vseret meget koldt. 


Issekulukalloarkau. 


Is there ice there west ? 


Er der lis Vest paa ? 


Sammane sikkokarpa ? 


Is there ice there north ? 


Er der lis Nord paa? 


Auane sikkokarpa ? 


Is there ice there south ? 


Er der lis Syd paa? 


Kauane sikkokarpa? 


Is there ice there east? 


Er der lis (Est paa? 


Pauane sikkokarpa? 


The winter was very cold. 


I Vinter var detkoldt. 


Okiok issekulukalloarkau. 


The spring was a bad season. 


I Foraar var det uroligt Vejr. 


Upernigavta annordleralloarpok. 


Arms, &c. 






Knives. 


Knive. 


Saveet (one, savik). 


Spears. 


Spyde. 


Kallugirsset. 


Bows. 


Buer. 


Pissiksit. 


Arrows, 


Pile. 


Karksut. 


Guns. 


Kanoner. 


Auloirksoit, 


Muskets. 


Flinte. 


Aulejsit. 


Cutlasses. 


Sabler. 


Pwnnrot. 


Sundries. 


Adskii.ligt. 


Nellingin.^k. 


Books. 


Boger. 


Attutekkset. 


Compasses. 


Compasser. 


Nsellunserkotit. 



96 



DIALOGUES IN THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Canvas. 


Sejldug. 


Tingerdlautiksak. 


Casks. 


Huer. 


Nesset. 


Shoes. 


Skoe. 


.Atteraursaet. 


Blankets. 


Lagener. 


Tungit. 


Skin (outer jacket). 


Yder Pelts. 


Nejtsek. 


Skin (inner jacket). 


Under Pelts. 


Tingmirsset. 


Trousers. 


Buxer. 


Kardleet. 


Boots. 


Stbvler. 


Kaungit (sing, kamik). 


Shoes. 




See before, or isigamaet. 


Scissors. 


Sax. 


Krejutik. 


Razor. 


Ragekniv. 


Ungiaut. 


Needles. 


Synaale. 


Merkutit. 


Thread. 


Traad. 


Yalursset. 


Corks. 


Propper. 


Simeet. 


I wish to sell (it). 


Jeg vil sselge. 


Tunniomagalloarpara. 


I wish to buy (it). 


J eg vil kjobe. 


Pissiniaroniagalloarpara. 


I wish to exchange (it). 


Jeg vil bytte. 


Taursiomagalloarpara. 


I wont sell (it). 


Jeg vil ikke sselge. 


Tunniomangilara. 


I wont buy (it). 


Jeg vil ikke kjobe. 


Pissiniaromangilara. 


I wont exchange (it). 


Jeg vil ikke bytte. 


Taursiniaromangilara. 


Various. 






I want to borrow it. 


Jeg vilde laane det. 


Attartoromagalloarpara. 


Will you lend ? 


Vil du laane. 


Attorkoviuk ? 


I will lend it. 


Jeg vil laane. 


Attorkoara. 


I will not lend it. 


Jeg vil ikke laane. 


Attorkongilara. 


How many ? 


Hvormange ? 


Kapsit ? 


Where are you going ? 


Hvorhen vil du ? 


Sumut pissavit ? 


When do you come again ? 


Naar kommer du igjen ? 


Kakugo utissavit ? 


Are you going far away ? 


Skal du langt bort ? 


Ungesiksoraun audlaissavit '. 


Are you going north ? 


Skal du nord paa ? 


Auonga pissavit? 


Are you going south ? 


Shal du syd paa? 


Kauonga pissavit ? 


Are you going east? 


Skal du oster paa ? 


Pauonga pissavit ? 


Are you going west ? 


Skal du vester paa ? 


Sammunga pissavit ? 


Do you walk ? 


Skal du gaae ? 


Pissyssavit ? 


Do you take a sledge ? 


Skal du kjore ? 


Kremuksissavit ? 


Are you alone ? 


Er du allene ? 


Kissingorpit ? 


Who is with you ? 


Hvo er med dig ? 


Kina illegaiuk ? 


AVhat do you ask for ? 


Hvad vil du ? 


Sumik ? 


What will you take for ? 


Hvad vil du have derfor ? 


Sumik ? 


What news have you ' 


Hvad Nyt har du ? 


Sumik tussaralloarpit ? 


Very good news. 


Godt Nyt. 


Tussaekketin ajungilait. 


Very bad news. 


Onde Tidender. 


Tussaskketin ajorpset. 


It is war. 


Der er Krig. 


Sekkuaursokarpok. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



97 



ENGLISH. 


D.4NISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


It is peace. 


Der er Fred. 


Sekkuaursokangilak. 


There is a quarrel. 


Der er Strid. 


Sekkolirsarput. 


They fight. 


De slaaes. 


Panikput. 


They have fought. 


De have slaaets. 


Panikalloarput. 


Will fight (they). 


De ville slaaes. 


Panissaput. 


Are you armed ? 


Er du bevaebnet ? 


Sekkokarpit. 


I have been attacked. 


Jeg blev anfaldt. 


Pangnekarponga. 


I beat him. 


Jeg slog ham. 


Ajugavonga. 


I was beaten. 


Jeg blev slaaet. 


Arktorsartipanga. 


He is wounded. 


Han er saaret. 


Ikkilersimavok. 


He is killed. 


Han er drsebt. 


Tokotipok. 


Where are you come from ? 


Hvorfra er du ? 


Sumit aggerpit ? 


Where do you belong to ? 


Hvor horer du hjemme ? 


Suna nunagaiuk ? 


Where are you going ? 


Hvorhen skal du ? 


Sumut pissavit ? 


When are you going ? 


Naar reyser du ? 


Kakugo audlaissavit ? 


Where are they going ? 


Hvor sklle de hen ? 


Sumut pissapaet ? 


Where do they belong to ? 


Hvor have de hjemme ? 


Suna nunagaet ? 


When are they going? 


Naar sklle de rejse. 


Kakugo audlaissapset ? 


How far ? 


Hvor langt ? 


Kannok ungesiksigirsomut ? 


Which way ? 


Hvad Vey? 


Sukut ? 


By water. 


Til Vands. 


Imakut. 


By land. 


Over Land. 


Nunakut. 


Stop where you are till I come back. 


Bie hvor du er til jeg kommer igjen. 


Tersanegit utilerserdlunga. 


Do not wait for me. 


Bie ikke efter mig. 


Utakkrissengilarma. 


Wait for me here. 


Bie her efter mig. 


Tamane utakkrinianga. 


Wait for me there. 


Bie der efter mig. 


Ikane utakkrinianga. 


Are you ready to go ? 


Er du faerdig at gaae ? 


Enerpit audlarkudlutit ? 


When will you be ready ? 


Naar bliver du faerdig ? 


Kakugo enissavit ? 


Do you believe it ? 


Troer du det ? 


Operaiuk ? 


Do you advise ? 


Mener du ? 


Isumakarpit ? 


Why don't you answer ? 


Hvi svarer du ey ? 


Saag akkingilatit ? 


Have you any thing for me, or any"] 
one else ? r 


Hardunogettilrajgellernogenanden? 


fUamnut kimudloneen adlanmul 
1 sumik pekkarpit ? 


Do you like it ? 


Kan du lide det? 


lUuara'iuk? 


Don't like it. 


Kan du ikke lide det. 


Illuariugiliuk. 


What is the matter ? 


Hvad erder ? 


Sumik ? 


Where shall we meet ? 


Hvor skal vi modes ? 


Sunie nellautsomarpogut ? 


Will you attempt, or try ? 


Vil du prove det ? 


Okataissaviuk? 


Is that true ? 


Er det sandt ? 


lllomut ? 


Is that not true. 


Er det ikke sandt ? 


Seglo ? 


A disturbance has broken out amongl 
the — . 


Der er kommen Ufred imellem — . 


Ikingutigeegungnserput. 


Send a party of men. 


Send nogle Folk. 


Inniiin illejt kailit. 


I will send men. 


Jeg vil sende Folk, 
o 


Kivgaet audlartissavaka. 



98 



DIALOGUES IN THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMADX. 


Do not meddle. 


Bryd dig ikke herom. 


Syssersok. 


You ought to change your resolution. 


Du skulde beteenke dig. 


Tajma pissengikalloarpotit. 


I give my consent. 


J eg samtykker. 


Tajmaikile or akkoerara. 


I will not give consent. 


Jeg vil ikke samtykke. 


Ajornakau. 


I will leave you. 


J eg forlader Dig. 


Kremeissauagit. 


I can wait no longer. 


Jeg kan ikke bie. 


Audlaromarponga. 


1 will detain you. 


Jeg vil opholde dig. 


Unnikkogalloarpagit. 


It is unnecessary. 


Det behoves ikke. 


Pirsariakangilak. 


It is not right. 


Det er uret. 


Illuangilak, v. ajorpok. 


Will you dine ? 


Vil du spise ? 


Nerrissavit. 


I have dined. 


Jeg har spiist. 


Nerrirserponga. 


Bring your friend here. 


Lad din Ven komme hid. 


Illet tamaunga pile. 


Bring here your family. 


Lad din Familie komme hid. 


Nulliet krittornetidlo kailit. 


Do not forget. 


Glem ikke. 


Puiorkrennsek. 


I do not know. 


Jeg veed ikke. 


Nselluvonga. 


I must take time to consider of it. 


Jeg vil betsenke mig derpaa. 


Assukiak, erkarsautigiomarpara. 


A skin under jacket. 


En Underpelts. 


Tingmirsset. 


A skin upper jacket. 


En Overpelts. 


Nejtsek. 


Skin trousers. 


Skindbuxer. 


Kardleet. 


Boots. 


Stbvler. 


Kaungit. 


Shoes. 


Skoe. 


Atteraursaet. 


Stockings, 


Strdmper. 


Allersit. 


Gloves. 


Handsker. 


Aketit. 


A wooden or natural leg. 


Et Been. 


Neehu — nio (pronounced, neeo). 


Vessels, &c. 






Sleep on board. 


Sove ambord. 


Umiarsoarne siningnek. 


Sleep on shore. 


Sove iland. 


Nuname siningnek. 


You must not sleep on board. 


Du ma^ ej sove ombord. 


Umiarsoarne sinissengilatit. 


I require immediate help. 


Hjelp mig strax. 


Ikiorsinga erngrenak. 


Will you give me help ? 


Vil du hjelpe mig ? 


Ikiyssavinga? 


I will help you. 


Jeg vil hjelpe dig? 


Ikiyssauagit. 


I will not help you. ' 


Jeg vil ikke hjelpe dig. 


Ikiyssengilagit. 


Give me a rope. 


Giv mig en Line. 


Aklunaursak kairsuk. 


I will give you a rope. 


Jeg vil give dig en L. 


Akklunaursamik tunnissauagit. 


I cannot. 


Jeg kan ej. 


Ajornakau. 


An anchor. 


Et Anker. 


Kisak. 


A cable. 


Et Kabeltoug. 


Aklunaursarsoak. 


Files. 


File. 


Aggiutit. 


Hammer. 


Hammer. 


Kavtak. 


Axe. 


Oxe, 


Ullimaut. 


Chalk. 


Kride. 


Aelaut. 



Nails. 
Carpenters' tools. 



Scim. 

Toramermands Redskab. 



Kikitsset. 
Sennetit. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



99 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Lead. 


Bly. 


Akertlok. 


Harpoon. 


Harpun. 


Tukak. 


Shovel. 


Skovl. 


Nivaut. 


Spade. 


Spade. 


Tuggaut. 


Wooden shovel. 


Trseskovl. 


Nivaut. 


Provisions. 






Beef (fresh). 


Faersk Kjod. 


Nekkre. 


Beef (salt). 


Salt Kjod. 


Nekkre tarajornitsok. 


Fish (fresh). 


Fffirsk Fisk. 


Nerpik. 


Fish (salt). 


Salt Fisk. 


Nerpik tarajornitsok. 


Bread. 


Brod. 


Timiursak, v. tigek. 


Pease. 


JEvtei. 


yErtaet. 


Spirits. 


Spiritus. 


Sillaerunartok. 


Butter. 


Smor. 


Pongnek. 


Eggs. 


^g. 


Manneet. 


Milk. 


Melk. 


Imuk. 


Oil. 


Olie. 


Olie. 


Medicines. 


Medicin. ' 


NeHkursautit. 


Whiskey. 


Broendeviin. 


Sillakangitsok. 


Rum. 


Rum. 


Sillakangitsok aukpadlartok. 


Beer. 


Ol. 


Imiak. 


Water. 


Vand. 


Imek. 


Wine. 


Viin. 


Vine. 


Cheese. 


Ost. 


Imuk. 


Coffee. 


Caffe. 


Kaffe. 


Sugar. 


Sukker. 


Sukko. 


Tea. 


Thee. 


The. 


Plums. 


Svedsker. 


Kiggutiglit. 


Raisins. 


Rosiner. 


Serkordluktut. 


Barley. 


Gryn. 


Suaursaet. 


Syrup. 


Syrup. 


Mamanga. 


Vinegar (acetum). 


.(Edike. 


Sernartok. 


Relating to Health. 






Are you well ? 


Er du rask ? 


Ajungilatit ? 


Is he well ? 


Er han rask ? 


Ajungila ? 


Are they well ? 


Ere de raske 


Ajungilaet * 


I am well. 


Jeg er rask. 


Ajungilanga. 


We are well. 


Vi ere raske. 


Ajungilagut. 


They are well. 


De ere raske. 


Ajungilset. 


I am not well. 


Jeg er ikke rask. 


Ajorponga. 


I am very ill. 


Jeg er meget daarlig. 


Napparsimaku 1 uk ponga . 


They are ill (unwell). 


De ere daarlige. 


Napparsimaput. 



o 2 



100 



DIALOGUES IN THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 



Is your wife well ? 
Is your family well ? 
Is your husband well ? 
I have been sick. 
You have been sick. 
Are many sick ? 
How many are sick ? 
What is the sickness? 
Have you a doctor? 
I will send you a doctor. 
Send for the doctor. 
Is he or she alive ? 
Is he or she dead ? 
He or she is alive. 
He or she is dead. 
My son is well. 
My daughter is well. 
My son is not well. 
My daughter is not well. 
Where are the sick ? 
My doctor is sick. 
My doctor is dead. 

Relating to Vessels, &c. 

Is the ship large? 
How large? 
How small ? 
How many men ? 
She is large. 
She is not large. 
Have you any letters ? 
Send letters. 
I have letters. 
I have no letters. 
The vessel in sight is. 
A ship 

A boat with men. 
A packet (a launch). 
Are you on shore ? 
Is your vessel leaky ? 
Do you leak much ? 
We leak much. 
Are you in distress ? 
I want assistance. 



DANISH. 



Er din Kone rask ? 

Er din Familie rask ? 

Er din Mand rask ? 

Jeg har veeret syg. 

Du har veeret syg. 

Ere mange syge ? 

Hvor mange ere syge ? 

Hvad er den Sygdom ? 

Have I en Doctor ? 

Jeg vil sende Jer en Doctor. 

Send Bud til Doctoren. 

Er han eller hun levende ' 

Er han eller hun dod ? 

Han eller hun lever. 

Han eller hun er dbd. 

Min Son er rask. 

Min Datter er rask- 

Min Son er ikke rask 

Min Datter er ikke rask. 

Hvor ere de Syge ? 

Min Doctor er syg. 

Min Doctor er dod. 



Er Skibet stort ? 

Hvor stort ? 

Hvor lille ? 

Hvor mange Mand ? 

Det er stort. 

Det er ikke stort. 

Har du Breve ? 

Send Breve. 

Jeg har Breve. 

Jeg har ingen Breve. 

Hvader det Skib i Sigte. 

Et Skib. 

En Baad. 

En Barkasse. 

Er du paa Land ? 

Er jert Skib leek ? 

Lsekker I meget ? 

Vi Isekke meget. 

Er Ti Nod ? 

Jeg onsker Hjelp. 



ESQUIMAUX. 



Nulliet ajungila ? 
Krittornetin ajungilaet ? 
Uveen ajungila ? 
Napparsimagalloarponga. 
Napparsimagalloarpotit. 
Kapseet napparsimapaet ? 
Kapsit napparsimapaet ? 
Suna nappautigEet ? 
Nekkiirsairsokarpise ? 
Nekkursairsok kakyssauara. 
Nekkursa'irsok kaile. 
Innuva ? 
Tokosimava ? 
Innuvok. 
Tokosivamok. 
Ernera ajungilak. 
Panniga ajungilak. 
Ernera napparsimavok. 
Panniga napparsimavok. 
Napparsimersut nau ? 
Nekkursairsiga napparsimavok. 
Nekkursairsiga tokovok. 



UmiarsoTt angissimapeet ? 

Kannong aktigaot ? 

Kannok niiktigset. 

Innuee kapsiopset ? 

Angikaut. 

Angingilset. 

Aglekkronnik pekkarpit ? 

Aglekkaet neksiudlugit. 

Aglekkaennik pekkarponga. 

Aglekktennik pekkangilanga. 

Kikun okko umiarsoi't. 

Umiarsoit. 

Umiajtsiait. 

Umiaitsiarsoit. 

TuUekpit ? 

Umiarsoaese asserorpaet ? 

Asserorkulukput ? 

Asserorkulukput. 

Nauvaerpise ? 

Ikiorteksarsisukponga. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



101 



KNGLISH. 



1 am on shore. 

My ship is on shore. 

The leak increases. 

The leak is stopped. 

Ck)rae back. 

Go away. 

I want to come. 

I want to go. 

I want you to stay. 

Birds. 

Eagle (vultur albicilla). 
Falcon (falco islandicus). 
Snow owl (stryx nictea). 
Raven (corvus corax). 
White partridge (tetroa lacopus). 
Willow partridge (fringilla laponica). 
Willow partridge (fringilla linaria). 
Willow partridge (motacillaosnan the) 
Snow bunting (emberiza nivalis). 
Bernacle (anas bernicala). 
Gold eye (clougala anas). 
Harlequin (anas histronica). 
Mallard (anas boschas). 
King duck (anas spectabilis). 
Eider duck (anas mollissilna). 
Goosander (mergus merganser). 
Red-breasted Meganser (mergus~| 

serrator). | 

Great Auk (alca impennis). 
Razor bill (alca torda). 
Black bill (alca pica). 
Little auk or rotch (alca alle). 
Fulmar petrel (procellaria glacialis). 
Shearwater (procellaria puffinus). 
North guilemot (colymbus glacialis). 
Red-throated guilemot (colymbusT 

septentionalis). J 

Great tern (sterna trirundo). 
Xeme (larus Sabini, larus collaris)." 
Black-backed gull (larus marinus). 
Kittywake (larus tridactylus). 





J.A.MSH. 


ESQLIMALX. 


Jeger i Land. 




Apoponga. 


Mil Skiber i Land. 


Umiarsoaka nunaliput. 


Lcekken bliver 


stdrre. 


Asserornerrogiartorput. 


Loskken er stoppet. 


Asserorungnserput. 


Kom tilbage. 




Uterit. 


Gaae vsek. 




Arvsaerit, v. audlarit. 


Jeg vil komnit 




Aggissaunga. 


Jeg vil gaae. 




Audlaissaunga. 


Jeg vilde have 


dig til at blive. 


Tersanekoagit. 




Fugle. 


TlXGMIRS.tT. 


Orn. 




Nektoralik. 


Falk. 




Kirsoviarsuk. 


Hvid Ugle. 




Opik. 


Ravn. 




Tullugak. 


Rype. 




Akeiksek. 


Markspurven. 




Narksamiutak. 
Akpamiutak. 


Steensqvetten. 




Kussektak. 


lisfugl (Sneef) 




Kopanauarsuk. 


Radgaas. 




Nerdlek. 


Hviinand. 




KEertlutorpiarsuk. 


Stromand. 




Tornaviarsuk. 


Vildand. 




Kongmuktajok, v. kartUuok. 


Pukkelnaebbet Edderf. (femina). 


Arnauiartak. 


Edderfugl. 




Mitek (plur. merkdelineaturit). 


Guuland. 




Pararsuk. 


Fiskeand. 




Paik, v. nyaliksak. 


Geyrfugl. 




Isarokitsok. 


Klub alke. 




Akparnak, v. akpartluk. 


Alke. 




Akpa. 


Sijekonge. 




Akpalliarsuk. 


Malleraukken. 




Kakordluk. 


Enkekone ; Skrabe. 


Kakordlungnak. 


Ommer. 




Tudlik. 


Loom. 




Karksauk. 


Tserne. 




Imerkotejlak. 
Kongaeserutilik. 


Svartbaggen. 




Nai'ardlurksoak. 


Krykkie. 




Tatarak. 



Xot known. I have seen it in Cnpt. Ross's First Voyage, and can baptize it KnitgiFu-nititik, viz., " that with the neck-keicbief. 



102 



DIALOGUES IN THE ENGLISH, 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Ivory gull (larus candidus). 


Den hvide Maage. 


Najauarsuk. 


Glaucus gull (larus glaucus). 


Blaamaagen. 


Naianak, 


Cormorant (pelicanus carbo). 


Skarv. 


Okaitsok. 


Crested cormorant(pelicanuscristatus) 


Topskarven. 


Tingmik. 


Gannet (pelicanus bassonus). 


Havsule. 


Kuksuk. 


Snipe (scolopax gallinago). 


Hossegjcig. 


Sigguktok. 


Jardreka (scolopaxjardreka). 


Domsneppen. 


Sargvarsurksoak. 


Sandpiper (tringa striata). 


Strandsneppen. 


Sargvarsuk. 


Sandpiper (tringa interpres). 


Tolken. 


Telligvak. 


Sandpiper (tringa lobata). 


Nordvestfugl. 


Nellonmirsortok. 


Sandpiper (tringa alpina). 


Landsneppe. 


Tojuk. 


Plover (charadrius apricurius). 


Brokfugl. 


Kajordlek. 


Ringed plover (char, stiaticula). 


Pytfugl. 


Tukavajok. 


Puffin (alca arctica). 


Soepapagojen. 


Kiilangak. 


Puffin (uria grylle). 


Teist. 


Serfak, v. kernektarsuk. 


Pintail duck (anas hyemalis). 


Angletaske. 


Aglek. 


Parasitic gull (cataracta parasitica). 


Struntjager. 


Meriarsairsok, v. isingak. 


Horned owl (strix otus). 


Hornugle. 


Siutitok. 


Plain falcon (falco rusticolus). 


Spaellet falk. 


Kirksoviarsuk millakulartok. 


Eider duck (anas mellissima). 


Ederfuglehan. 


Amaulik. 


King duck (anas spectabilis). 


Osterboygds Edderf. 


Kdeliningalik. 


Animals. 


Dyr. 


Nerssutit. 


Polar bear (ursus maritimus). 


Bjbru. 


Nennok. 


Arctic fox (canis lagopus varietas"] 


Rajv. 


Kemektak. 


nigra). J 






Wolf (canis lupus). 




Amarok. 


Hare (cetraria islandus). 


Hare. 


Ukalek. 


Reindeer (cervus tarandus). 


Rhensdyr. 


Tukto. 


Walrus (trichecus rosraaurus). 


Hvalros. 


Auvek. 


Seals (phocse). 


Seelhunde. 


Puirsit. 


Hooded seal (phoca cristata). 


Klapmyds. 


Nejtsersoak. 


Common seal (phoca vitulina). 


Spraglet Saslhund. 


Kassigiak. 


Harp seal (phoca Groenlandica). 


Svartisden. 


Atak. 


Great seal (phoca barbata). 


Remmessel. 


Takamugak, v. urksuk 


Rough seal (phoca hispida). 


Fjord SBel. 


(Junior) millaktok. 


White seal (phoca leporina). 


Soeharen. 


Ukalerajek. 


Small seal (ph. barb, pullus). 


Un Uksukunge. 


Terkigluk. 


FcBtus of a seal, or its unborn youag. 


Iblau ufodt Seel 


Iblau. 


Sea unicorn (monodon monoceros). 


Narhval. 


Kemektak. 


Dolphin (delphinis delphis). 


Marsviin. 


Nesa. 


Wolverine (gulo Inscus). 




Kaeweek. 


Whales, &c. (cete). 


Hvalfisk. 


Arfek. 


(balena physalus). 


Finnefisk. 


Tunnolik. 



DANISH, AND ESQUIMAUX LANGUAGES. 



103 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Whales, &c. (balena musculus). 




Kreporkarnak. 


(balena rostrata). 


Svaerdfisk. 


Tikagulik. 


(balena mystietus). 


Bardehvalen. 


Arfavek, v. sokalik. 


White whale (delphinus albicans) 


Hvedfisk, 


Krelelluak. 


Fish (salmo rivalis). 


Bffikored. 


Aunardlek, v. ekailugak. 


Salmon (salmo scorpio). 




Krebseriksok. 


(salmo alpinus). 




Ivisarok. 


Codfish (gadus reglesinus). 


Kuller. 


Misarkomak. 


(gadus callarius). 


Kabliau. 


Saraudlik. 


(gadus morpua). 


Skrijtersk. 


Sarndlirksoak. 


(gadus barbatus). 


Torsk. 


Ogak. 


Hallibut ( pleuronectes hippoglossus) . 


Helleflynder. 


Nettarnak. 


Eel (angulla vulgaris). 


Aal. 


Nimeriak. 


Corriphine (coryphaena rupestris). 


Borglax. 


Ingmingoak. 


Mytilus edulis. 


Musling. 


Uidlok. 


Antique labrus (labrus exoletus). 


Blaastaal. 


Kreblernak. 


Sepia loligo. 


Blsekspruten. 


Amikok. 


Lobster (cancer norvegirus). 


Hummer. 


Naularnak. 


A bee. 


En Bie. 


Egytsak. 


Pike-headed whale (balaena boops). 


Butskop. 


Krepork&k. 


Gunnel blenny (blennius gunnellus). 


Tangsprel. 


Kurksaunak. 


Ascaris vermicularis. 


Barneorm. 


Koartak. 


Physeter macrocephalus. 


Eachelot. 


Kigutilik. 


Aranea saccata. 


Edderkop. 


Ausiek. 


Rough seal (phoca hispida). 


Fjordssel. 


Nejtsek. 


Areolated blenny (blenn. lumpenus). 


Tangspret. 


Tejarnak. 


Musca stercoraria. 




Anariak. 


Tabanus Groenlandicus. 


Vandbie. 


Miluiak. 


Musca vivax. ~l 
Volucella lapponica. J 




Milmarsuk. 


Musca vomitoria. 


Spyflue. 


Nivingak. 


Pool salmon (salmo stagnalis). 


En Ored. 


Ekallukak. 


Myahyssifera. 


Gaberskjael. 


Menningoak. 


Mya truncata. 


SandskJEel 


Usursak. 


Avis. 


Faar. 


Saua. 


Capra. 


Duttn nu ring. 


Sanaursak. 


Lernsea. 


Sililuluk. 


Massimio. 


Beroe. 


Uportaanligt. 


Ippiarsursak. 


Medusa. 


Wolf. 


Nuertlek. 


Medusa capillata. 




Nuertlersoak. 


River bullhead (cottus gobio). 


Grundling. 


Ujarangmio. 


White shark (squalus carcharias). 


Hay. 


Ekallurksoak. 


Lepus timidus. 


Hare. 


Ukalek. 



104 



DIALOGUES IN THE ENGLISH, &c. 



ENGLISH. 


DANISH. 


ESQUIMAUX. 


Ice. 


lis. 




On salt water 


Paa salt Vand 


Sikko. 


On fresh water 


Paa serok Vand 


Sermek. 


Iceblink 


lisblink 


Serraersoak. 


Heavy ice 
New thin ice 


Storiis 


Sikkorsoak. 


Tyndiis 


Sikkoak. 


On the earth 


Paa Jorden 


Nillersoak. 


Even ice 


Jevn 


Mannerarsoak. 


Rhip 


Blaa 


Annardlok. 


JJIUC 

Bay ice 


Fjordiis 


Kaksuk. 


Lain in a kettle to melt 




Imiugak. 


Iceberg 


lisfjeld 


Illuliak. 


Small streaming 




Kavalerngit. 

Kaingok. 

Ivksinek. 


Fast on the beach 


lisQor 


Moveable by the beach 






Navlornerit. 


Pieces at sea (drift) 






Icicle 


listap 


Kussugak. 


On the mside of a window 




Illo. 


Produced when water from beneath^ 




Ssersernek. 


goes o\ er the fast ice of a river j 







CHRONOMETERS. 



Ever since the year 1794, my attention has been much devoted to the practical use 
of chronometers, both while 1 belonged to the Honourable East India Company's 
service, and in the Royal Navy, where I had, when serving under the gallant Lord 
de Saumarez, the charge of the navigation of both the Channel and the Baltic fleet. 

On taking command of the expedition fitted out for the discovery of a North-west 
Passage, my first care was to obtain good chronometers, and also as many of them as 
possible. My own chronometer was made by the late justly celebrated Earnshaw, and 
was certainly a very superior one; I therefore took it as the standard for com- 
parison, with the whole thirteen. Several of these were the property of private 
persons, who either lent them to the expedition, or sent them on trial : of the latter 
description were those sent by Messrs. Parkinson and Frodsham, who sent two with 
a memorandum that their rate would increase to fourteen seconds and then remain 
steady : a circumstance which actually took place, and which went to prove that they 
had discovered some new principle, in their regulation or construction, and ray report 
on them could not be but very favourable. Since this every expedition has been 
furnished by Parkinson and Frodsham with these valuable machines, and the 
reports on their performance have been uniformly favourable. On this voyage 
I purchased of them the pocket chronometer 1081, which was distinguished as 
being that made for Sir E. Parry, on his attempt to reach the North Pole, as 
well as for its uniform rate. These makers also kindly sent with me a box chro- 
nometer at their own risk, which could not but be a great acquisition. Both of 
these performed to admiration; the box chronometer, until we left Victoria harbour, 
where it was purposely allowed to run down that it might be more easily carried, and 
the pocket one during the whole time. On our arrival they were both returned to the 
makers, and being desirous to make public the principle on which these instruments 

p 



106 CHRONOMETERS. 

have been brought to such perfection, and reserving my own observations on it for the 
conclusion of this article, I shall give their answer to my request in their own words. 

4, Change Alley, May 15, 1834. 

Sir, 

In compliance with your desire to be furnished with a report of the condition 
of the two chronometers of our make, which you took with you in your late Expedition 
to the Arctic Regions, we have examined them with the most careful and minute 
attention, and find them in an excellent state: indeed, very far more perfect than could 
have been expected after such a length of time, and the severe trials which they must 
have undergone. 

With regard to their peculiar construction, which you at the same time requested 
us to describe, as you were desirous of publishing it for the benefit of science and 
navigation generally, we have no hesitation in complying with your wishes ; so far 
as is consistent with justice to ourselves, and we hope that our communication may 
prove useful. 

The peculiar principle which we have discovered is of the highest importance in 
giving the final adjustment to chronometers, as by it we are enabled, in all cases, to 
give permanence to their rates, within the limits of exactness I'equisite in navigation. 

We beg, in the first place, to disclaim all intention of insinuating that in the 
mechanical construction of our instruments there is any thing superior to, or materially 
different from, those made by other respectable makers ; for we are well aware, that 
all chronometers lately made by intelligent artists, are on the same mechanical 
principle. But the fact is notorious, that of several instruments made with equal care, 
reference being had only to their mechanical construction, some are found to perform 
well, and others indifferently; while nothing can be discovered in the workmanship 
which will in any way account for the variation. 

Chronometers in general, as at present constructed, are found progressively to 
accelerate on their rates, and in many instances this takes place to such an extent, 
that a new rate is required, rendering them ill suited for long voyages; on the 
contrary, others have a continual disposition to lose on their rates, and are therefore 
equally unsuited to the wants of the seaman. 

But whether the rates of chronometers were accelerated or retarded in use, there 
existed no recognised or known remedy for the evil, until we made the discovery, 
which it is one object of this communication to record our claim to. Some artists 
have trusted to time for its correction; and a writer in a scientific journal* has recently • 

• Nautical Magazine. 



CHRONOMETERS. 107 

even assigned the period when the cure might be expected to be completed : but time 
being no party to the bargain, generally left the instruments thus turned over to its 
benevolence to pursue their vagaries without interference. 

The cause, which the writer alluded to has assigned for this acceleration, is the use of 
tempered balance-springs; now tempered balance-springs have been in use for more 
than half a century, and forty years ago they were made by ourselves. If time, there- 
fore, could have cured the defects of the tempered balance-spring, as stated in the 
paper above alluded to, these old chronometers would now have been excellent instru- 
ments, which certainly they are not in general found to be. 

The consequence has been, that the rates of most of the chronometers at this 
moment in existence, can only be considered constant for short intervals of time. 
Many years have elapsed since our attention was drawn to this peculiarity, from 
several mortifying circumstances which occurred in our own experience ; and after 
satisfying ourselves that it was in vain to look for the cause of so perplexing a phe- 
nomenon in the 7nechanical construction of the instrument, we resolved to examine the 
physical condition of the materials of which the balance and its spring are made : and 
we discovei-ed that the greater part, if not the whole of the discrepances, were owing 
to circumstances in this physical condition. 

After many experiments and much investigation, we had the good fortune to discover 
the means of correcting this physical peculiarity, either completely, or so nearly, that 
we can now undertake (after ascertaining the tendency) so to alter the physical pro- 
perties of the balance and its spring, as to make any chronometer, whose mechanical 
construction is otherwise satisfactory, perform with sufficient exactness for every purpose 
for which chronometers ai'e generally required. 

The acceleration of chronometers on their rates, hitherto unexplained in the history 
of chronometers, is produced by the constant action of winding and unwinding the 
balance-spring, which, in chronometers beating half seconds, takes place two hundred 
and forty times in each minute, and it is thereby deprived of a portion of its elasticity. 
It becomes consequently stiffer, stronger, and more stubborn ; and as the motions of the 
balance (the measurer of rime) are regulated by this spring, the vibrations become 
more rapid, and are perfonned in less time. 

The cause of chronometers losing on their rates, is also generally to be traced to the 
physical imperfection of the balance-and-spring ; which, contrary to what takes place in 
the tempered spring, becomes relaxed by constant action, combined with other causes ; 
and consequently has less power over the vibrations of the balance. But independently 
of all accidental circumstances, the chronometer is continually changing its rate, with 
every alteration of tension in the balance-spring. 



108 CHRONOMETERS. 

The scientific artist may, indeed, give to this spring the isochronal property, so far 
that under given and constant circumstances, unequal arcs of vibration in the balance, 
will be performed in equal time; but this adjustment will in no degree counteract the 
effect occasioned by change of tension to which we have been adverting. 

We do not allude in the preceding remarks to defective compensation for change of 
temperature, but to that gradual deviation from the rate which many chronometers 
are found to exhibit, and to an extent that often interferes with their usefulness. 

It is true that all chronometer makers do occasionally produce instruments, which, 
for a sufficient length of time, keep steady rates ; but they do so only from accidental 
circumstances, of which the makers themselves are not always aware. They ap- 
proximate to the con-ection which we have discovered the means of making in all cases. 
In our researches on this subject, we have found that the defect in the correction for 
change of temperature, is amongst the least of the difficulties to be contended with ; 
and the value of the principle of adjustment which we have discovered has been 
eminently proved by the accurate performance of our chronometers, which have been 
exposed to the severities of the arctic winters, in all the Polar voyages. In one of 
those voyages, eleven out o{ Jifteen chronometers stopped from the cold ; whilst four 
made by us, (all of ours that were sent) maintained the same rates at Melville island 
that they were found to have in London after the return of the expedition. 

The chronometrical parts of our chronometers consisting of the compensation balance 
and the detached escapement, are the same as invented before 1766, by the eminently 
distinguished artist, M. Le Roy, of Paris, with the important improvement of the 
detant on a spring instead of on pivots, as made by the late Mr. Earnshaw ; together 
with some minor but useful alterations in the execution and arrangement suggested by 
our own experience. 

We have said before, that chronometers made by the same artist do not always 
perform equally well, although the same workmen are employed, the same labour is 
bestowed, and the same attention paid to each. Several modern artists have endeavoured 
to remedy this defect by means of mechanical contrivances, some of which display con- 
siderable ingenuity and are apparently very plausible ; but, however beautiful in theory, 
these contrivances have produced no practical advantage ; no one has yet discovered 
the seat of the disease, or the cause of so remarkable an effect. We reassert that 
no mechanical contrivance can remedy the defect : it is only to be remedied by a know- 
ledge of the principle which we have discovered. 

Le Roy's original inventions of the balance for compensating for changes of 
temperature, and the escapement, were entitled, from their beautiful simplicity, to 
the reward so justly bestowed upon him ; and with the improvement above alluded 



CHRONOMETERS. 109 

to, by our countryman Earnshaw, continue unrivalled : in fact they are generally 
adopted by all intelligent chronometer-makers. 

We consider that the best balance is that composed of laminae of brass and steel, 
when properly proportioned, and worked so that the particles are placed under no par- 
ticular or partial constraint, which might prevent their free and natural action 
througl out the whole periphery of the balance. This we consider an important 
requisite ; for to the want of affinity in the condition of the particles, we attribute 
some of the irregularities observed in the rates of chronometers, when subject to the 
rigorous test of daily comparison — more particularly after sudden changes of temperature. 
There are inherent defects in the shape of the balance, which prevent its affording 
theoretically the means of a perfect compensation ; but it is doubtful whether other 
forms, which appear preferable in theoiy, would be found in practice to answer so well. 

As evidence of our possessing means peculiar to ourselves, of bringing a chronometer 
to keep a steady rate, we may mention the fact, amongst numerous other instances, and we 
do it with much satisfaction, that of the eight chronometers entitled to the prizes for 
the most accurate performance during the last three annual public trials at the Royal 
Observatory, at Greenwich, _^ye were constructed by us, and adjusted on the principle 
peculiar to ourselves. 

We may add, that within the last fifteen years, during which period we have been 
adjusting our chronometers on THIS PRINCIPLE, we have had extensive experience of 
its efficacy, having made and sold more than twice as many marine chronometers as 
any other maker has done during thirty years ; — the best proof that the public have 
appreciated our discovery. 

Attempts have recently been made to introduce glass in the construction of the 
balance-spring ; and the first performance of some of the instruments in which this 
alteration was introduced, was very satisfactory. 

There is, however, reason to apprehend that this material will not be found to give 
to the instrument a permanent rate, as one of the very best of them has, in the course 
of a few months, deviated from its rate to the amount of seven seconds a day : while 
another chronometer, under the same circumstances, on the usual construction, with 
a steel balance-spring, and which at the last public trial (1833) was second in per- 
formance to one made by us, kept a remarkably steady rate. 

We may also be allowed to state, that on this trial (1833), sixty chronometers were 
sent by various makers ; and at the termination, the numbers were reduced to ten. 
Jour of which were made by us ; and the extreme variation of each, in the twelve 
months, was considerably within the limits fixed in 1828 for the reward of Three Hun- 
dred Pounds. Three of them made less error than our chronometer, No. 1410, in 1828 ; 



] 10 CHRONOMETERS. 

for which we then received the premium of Three Hundred Pounds. The extreme 
variation of these five chronometers was as follows : 

In 1828, No. 1410 in twelvemonths 1.41 actual extreme variation. 
679 ditto 0.98 

1600 ditto 1.31 

^^^^^ 460 ditto 1.24 

1502 ditto 1.52 

In 1830, one of our chronometers was entitled to the second prize, and some others of 
our making were within the limits. 

In the trial of 1831, the chronometers made by us obtained the whole of the three 
prizes, and another was fifth on the trial list. We may be excused for making particular 
reference to the trials of this year, from the remarkable circumstance, that in all the 
preceding years, from 1822, when the trials for prizes were first established, a period in 
which several hundreds of chronometers had been sent for trial, but four had performed 
within one second of extreme variation in the twelve months ; whilst in this trial the 
WHOLE of our four chronometers went within less than a second of extreme variation; 
the following being the extreme variations as published by the Astronomer Royal : 

No. 311 in twelve months 0.70 actual extreme variation. 
2 ditto 0.86 

665 ditto 0.89 

1 ditto 0.99 

In 1832 and 1833, chronometers made by us were entitled to prizes; and several 
others of our manufacture have been frequently within the limits prescribed by the Go- 
vernment, forming a large proportion of the best chronometers submitted to public trial. 

It has been repeatedly suggested to us, that a principle so important as ours has 
proved to be, should be imparted to the public, as every thing tending to the improve- 
ment of chronometers is a matter of national concernment. We are willing to give 
up to the pubhc the benefit of our knowledge and experience in these matters, on 
receiving, as others have done, an adequate compensation for the value which the 
discovery is of to us in our private business; but we hold ourselves justified in with- 
holding an explanation of the principle, until it either ceases to be of importance 
to us, or we are adequately remunerated for disclosing it. 

Government having directed that the public trials of chronometers at Greenwich, for 



CHRONOMETERS. Ill 

prizes, shall cease after the present year, a few remarks on the origin of those trials, and 
on the favourable effect which they have had on the art of chronometer making", may not 
inappropriately close our observations. 

Notwithstanding the encouragement which Government had long afforded to the art, 
by purchasing chronometers largely, and at liberal prices, for the use of the navy ; and 
the very considerable rewards which had been given to three of the leading artists 
(3000/. each) for the superior performance of some instruments made by them, yet the 
general state of the art was much below what was generally believed, and might 
have been expected. 

Aware of this fact, and desirous that the art which we exercised should participate in 
the general improvement, we, in 1818, addressed a letter to J. W, Croker, Esq., at that 
time Secretary to the Admiralty, respectfully suggesting that Government might further 
and most essentially aid the progress of the art, by giving frequent and small rewards 
to ingenious workmen who made instruments that actually performed well, without refer- 
ence to the principles on which they were constructed. 

The public trials at the Royal Observatory commenced in 1820, and the performance 
of the chronometers on the first trial proved the correctness of the opinion which we had 
formed as to the general state of the art of chronometer making. The prizes of 300/. 
and 200/. were that year adjudged to chronometers which Government would not at 
the present time purchase at any price. 

Several of the chronometers which we sent on trial in the various scientific ex- 
peditions to the Polar Seas and towards the Equator, having performed satisfactorily, 
we sent some of our experimental chronometers to Greenwich on trial, a few years after 
the public trials were first estabhshed ; and the opportunity thus afforded us of having 
the effect of our successive alterations tested by daily observation, enabled us to detect 
many minute sources of error, which we should otherwise most probably never have 
discovered. 

The opportunity, too, of returning for trial chronometers which, having performed 
unsatisfactorily we had endeavoured to improve, gradually led us to the discovery of 
the principle which enables us now to control at pleasure, and to counteract, any general 
tendency in chronometers to deviate from their rates. 

We are. Sir, 

Yours, respectfully, 

PARKINSON & FRODSHAM. 

To Copt, Sir John Ross, li.N., 
Sfc. 6)C. 4-c. 



112 CHRONOMETERS. 

Those who have perused the above statement from Messrs. Parkinson and Frodsham, 
and are at all interested in the improvement of navigation, cannot but be desirous 
that a fair trial should be given to this important discovery ; and if it is found that 
chronometers which are the production of respectable artisans, and which from causes 
hitherto unknown deviate from their rates, so as to be comparatively useless, can be cor- 
rected by the application of their principle, so as to become sufficiently perfect for the 
purposes of navigation, by maintaining the uniform rate within the limits prescribed by 
Government, no one will deny, that this important discovery should be made public, 
and that such discovery is fully entitled to a liberal compensation ; and I cannot con- 
clude this article without recommending it to the serious attention of those whose duty 
it is to inquire into and reward merit. 

Mr. Murray, a very respectable chronometer-maker of London, being desirous to 
establish the excellent going of his chronometers, sent No. 620 eight day, 634 two 
day, and 558 one day, all box chronometers, which could not be a great acquisition 
to us; and it is but justice to say that they were excellent instruments, for although 
they all gained at first, they obtained a constant rate, from which they did not deviate 
whilst in my possession. I regret much that it was not in my power to bring them 
home, as I have no doubt they would have been found perfect, with the exception of 
one which met with an accident. 

In addition to No. 571, box chronometer, and of 1081 for the pocket, of Parkinson 
and Frodsham I purchased No. 418, pocket chronometer, of Barraud, which I knew 
to be good, having it formerly in my possession ; but the main spring gave way soon 
after we sailed, which reduced my number to five. These were under the charge of 
Commander Ross, until July, 1831, after which they were all under my own care, and 
the only two that were brought home were those by Parkinson and Frodsham. 




■?;^^r^r^'^'"^j:^ ^iK'^^^'^^'^ 




; 





S tiiiii 









AURORA BOREALIS. 



NEW THEORY. 



Many theories have been proposed during the last century, to 
account for the nature and appearance of this beautiful pheno- 
menon, but to each of these, and to all, objections have been made, 
that I think cannot be justly applied to the following, which has 
been founded on a long series of observations made carefully by 
myself on this interesting subject, and under circumstances pecu- 
liarly advantageous. 

Before I proceeded on my voyage of 1818, my attention was 
directed to the phenomenon of the Aurora by the late Dr. Wollaston, 
who had collected, with great pains, much information on the 
subject, which he kindly transmitted to me, as well as his own 
observations, from which, however, he came to no other con- 
clusion than a supposition that " the Aurora was beyond the 
atmosphere of the earth." 

As the expedition which I commanded in 1818 did not winter 
in the Arctic Regions, my observations during that voyage were 
confined to the months of September and October, during which 
time the ships were moving in a southerly direction from the 

Q 



114 AURORA BOREALIS. 

latitude of 74° to 58° north, when it was observed that from the 
latitude of 74° until 66°, the phenomenon was seen to the south- 
ward, particularly at midnight ; but when the ship had passed to 
the southward of the latitude of 66% it was seen to the northward. 
In several instances the Aurora was distinctly observed to be 
between the two ships, and also between the ships and the 
icebergs; proving unquestionably that it could not be at that 
time beyond the atmosphere of tlie earth. This indeed was 
the only fact which I completely established during that voyage, 
but which was a conclusion that led me to inquire how its 
proximity to the earth was to be accounted for. Both at my 
observatory in Scotland, and during my late and long-pro- 
tracted residence in the Arctic Regions, my attention has been 
particularly directed to this interesting subject, and my conclusions 
are, that the splendid phenomenon, called the Aurora, is entirely 
occasioned hy the action of the sun's rays upon the vast body of icy 
and of snowy plains and mountains which surround the poles. 

The rays of the sun, in the first instance, are reflected, from 
uneven, plain, or variegated surfaces, of the coloured, icy, or snow- 
clad substances, which are presented to them at the point of 
incidence by the rotation of the earth, and passing over the poles 
reach and illuminate clouds which are only rendered visible to us 
by such illumination, these clouds having positive, negative, and 
reflecting qualities, possess the power of producing all the sur- 
prising effects which have been observed by distributing the rays 
they have received, and as they receive them, in every direction ; 
and according to tlie state of the atmosphere, give additional 



AURORA BOREALIS. 115 

variety to the original colours as reflected from the point of 
incidence ; and further, if due regard is paid to the properties of 
light, its connexion both with magnetism and electricity may be 
satisfactorily explained. 

In support of this theory — In the first place, we have the 
fact, that when the spectator's position on the earth is to the north- 
ward of the 69° of north latitude, the Aurora is generally observed 
to bear to the southward, very seldom to the northward of east or 
west, and never in that direction or in the north, unless the sun is in 
opposition, or a region of icy or snowy substance is between the 
spectator and the bearings of the sun ; although the illimiinated 
clouds which I have mentioned might there, as in a lower latitude, 
very possibly reflect the rays they have received in every horizontal, 
as well as vertical direction. 

Secondly. The atmosphere between the sun and the spectator is 
always clear, whether he is to the southward or northward of the 
Aurora. When he is looking at the Aurora from a high latitude, 
towards it in the south, the sun is then at his back to the north ; and 
if the sky becomes cloudy in that (the northern) direction it is fatal, 
the Aurora immediately disappears, because the rays are inter- 
cepted by an impenetrable cloud. In like manner, when the 
spectator observes the Aurora bearing to the eastward or westward, 
if a cloud or fog intervenes between his position and the sun, it 
immediately disappears. 

Tiiirdly. When the spectator sees the Aurora to the northward, 
he is always to the southward of the icy regions, and at that time 
the sky in the direction of the sun is always clear ; should a cloud 

q2 



116 AURORA BOREALIS. 

intervene, either above or below the point of incidence, the pheno- 
menon will disappear. 

When the rays of the sun are reflected from a vast plain of icy 
substance to stationary and to us invisible clouds, it follows that the 
Aurora will remain a long time without changing, the rays being 
then reflected as from a circular or globular mirror, the angle of 
incidence and reflection remaining the same ; but the moment that 
these rays arrive (by the earth's rotation) at water, or at some non- 
reflecting substance or surface, the Aurora suddenly disappears, as 
it does by an intervening cloud, which is a fact I have had con- 
firmed by many observations. 

With regard to the action of the Aurora on the magnetic needle, 
I need only say, that in common with every other kind of light, it 
has the property of affecting the needle or combining with mag- 
netism. The effects of tlie Aurora on the needle were the same as 
the sudden approach of a naked candle, or when the light of 
a lamp was concentrated by a lens on the needle delicately 
suspended at a distance of eighty-four yards : an experiment which 
I repeatedly tried at Sheriff"*s harbour. With regard to electricity, 
it is notorious that there is less in the Arctic Regions than in any 
other place; and, during my first voyage, the electrometer was 
never moved by the electric fluid, although often tried. 

The position of the Aurora Borealis in the heavens, depends 
much on the depression of the sun below the liorizon of the spec- 
tator, on its bearings, and on the nature of the surface which first 
receives the sun's rays, at the point of incidence, which if uneven 
will produce the capra saltans^ or merry dancers; if the surface is 



AURORA BOREALIS. 117 

even it will produce the irabs, or beam, provided the illuminated 
cloud is tranquil, but if not it will produce the sagitta, or faces 
(pencil rays, or torch) ; and if the rays are conveyed from thence by 
a second reflection, which is very often the case, the bothinia, or 
cave, will appear with the pencil rays ascending ; the corona and 
pithifB depend also on the shape of the clouds as well as their 
positive and negative qualities. 

The colours of the Aurora depend on several circumstances : First, 
on the colours of the objects which originally receive the sun's rays 
at the incidental point. Secondly, on the state and qualities of the 
atmosphere, through which the reflected rays pass before they 
reach the clouds which they are to illuminate, and thereby render 
visible to the spectator not only the clouds themselves, but the 
various colours which the rays have then assumed. Thirdly, by 
the nature and composition of the cloud itself; however, it is most 
probable that the colour depends oftener or more materially on the 
colour of the objects which first receive the sun's rays at the 
incidental point, from whence they proceed by the laws of reflec- 
tion, according to the various oblique directions of that surface ; 
since the observations of Captain Cook, and other antarctic 
navigators, represent that the Aurora Australis has always " a clear 
white light," and that no coloured ice has been observed in the 
antarctic regions; while, on the contrary, ice of every colour has 
been observed by myself and others to exist in great abundance in 
the Arctic Regions. 

The reason that the Aurora is not always visible, is evidently 
because the sky near the pole is often cloudy and foggy, particu- 



118 AURORA BOREALIS, 

larly in the spring and autumn, and when it is considered that the 
Aurora cannot be visible unless the atmosphere is clear on both 
sides of the pole in the direction of the sun, it will appear probable 
that it does not often happen ; and in summer of course the Aurora 
cannot be seen in latitudes where the sun is then above the horizon 
below the pole, but I have often observed an appearance in the sky 
resembling the pencil rays of an aurora, with the exception that 
the illumination of the clouds was overpowered by the light of the 
day ; and as the sun was then always in opposition to the north- 
ward, I can have no doubt but that this phenomenon was an aurora, 
caused by the rays of the sun reflected from the circumpolar moun- 
tains of ice to the clouds: and I may add, that this appearance has 
been noticed by several navigators of the Polar Regions. 

The noise of the Aurora, described by some as resembling a silken 
flag exposed to a fresh breeze, and by others as that of a rushing 
noise like fireworks playing off*, was never heard or observed, on any 
of the recent Arctic voyages, and it may be concluded that such 
a noise does not take place in these regions : if, however, it is insisted 
upon to be the fact in more southern latitudes, it may probably 
be occasioned by the combination of the Aurora with electric 
matter, which is not found in the north. 

Since this paper was read at that excellent institution, the 
British Association for the advancement of Science, I have had 
the satisfaction of learning that several of its most distinguished 
members had made observations corroborative of my theory ; 
among which I may mention those of W. L. AVharton, Esq., of 
Drybuni, Durham, who has kindly transmitted to me the copy 



AURORA BOREALIS, 119 

of an article he wrote in the Durham Advertisei', November, 1830. 
In this case, the Aurora was seen at eleven, p. m., when it was 
considerably to the westward of north at twelve (midnight), the 
summit of the luminous arch was due north. He adds, " Those who 
may have remarked the radiations of the Aurora have probably 
been struck by their similarity to those beams of light which 
radiate from the sun when partially observed by a cloudy atmo- 
sphere. They may also have observed with us that the radiations 
for the most part appear to proceed from that spot under the 
horizon in which the sun would be seen, if not concealed by the 
body of the earth, and that the summits of the accompanying 
arches of light are always seen directly above the same spot. Is 
it not then possible that the phenomena of the Aurora may origi- 
nate in the light of the sun refracted at an immense elevation 
above us, after glancing over the nebulous strata of a distant part 
of the earth's atmosphere ?" — In like manner, the registers of the 
Aurora in all the recent voyages to the Polar Regions corroborate 
my theory, although different conclusions, or conjectures, were 
hazarded respecting its nature and origin, and to which I must 
refer my readers as they are too numerous for insertion. 

I may conclude by adding, that my theory has been submitted 
to the celebrated Professor Schumacher and others, who made no 
objections to it. 

JOHN ROSS. 



120 AURORA BOREALIS. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



A — The sun as at the Equinox. 

B B — The points of incidence. 

D D — Positions of the spectators. 

C C — Clouds rendered visible by the reflected rays. 

E — The earth as at the Equinox. 

F F — ^The rays of the sun. 

This diagram represents the sun's rays acting on the icy or snow- 
covered part of the earth, and being reflected over the poles reach 
clouds which are rendered visible by illumination; and having 
themselves reflecting qualities, distribute them upwards, down- 
wards, or in any other direction, and owing to the rotation of the 
earth, are changing or steadfast according to the nature of the 
surface at the incidental point which first receives the rays. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



ACCOUNT 

OF THE OBJECTS IN THE SEVERAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

SEEN AND DISCOVERED DURING THE PRESENT EXPEDITION. 

BY CAPTAIN JAMES CLARK ROSS, R.N., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.L.S., Sec. 



Having placed the department of Natural History under the 
exclusive charge of my Nephew, Captain J. C. Ross, whose ac- 
quirements in this branch of knowledge have been long known to 
the public, from the results of the former voyages in which he was 
engaged, I am indebted to him for the following pages ; which 
have been drawn up by himself, with the assistance of those friends 
whom he has noticed in his own Preface. 

JOHN ROSS. 



^v 2 



PREFACE. 



The recent publication of the Fauna Boreali Americana, by 
Dv. Richardson, has rendered a detailed account of the Zoology of 
the Arctic Regions quite unnecessary. Nearly all the quadrupeds 
and birds that were met with in the course of our voyage in the 
Victory having fallen under the notice of that tlistinguished 
tj-aveller and naturalist, they have there been described with accu- 
racy, and illustrated by beautifully coloured engravings, so that 
nothing further is now left to be desired. 

In the following brief notice the arrangement of Cuvier, in tlje 
Regne Animal, has been adopted, and in nearly all ca.ses a 
reference is given to Dr. Richardson's descriptions in the Fauna 
lioreali Americana, and to the valuable Zoological notices n\)- 
pended to the several narratives of the Expeditions of Discovery to 
those Regions, under the command of Sir W. E. Parry and Sir 
John Franklin, where will be found all that is interesting both to 
the general reader and the naturalist. 

I have much pleasure in expressing my obligations to Dr. 
Richardson for his observations on four species of Salmon brought 
home by me : his intimate acquaintance with the various .species 
of that extensive and interesting genus inhabiting the lakes and 



VI PREFACE. 

rivers of the North American Continent, will give a high valne to 
that portion of the notice of the Fishes. 

The rest of our collection having been necessarily abandoned 
with the Victory, a short and very imperfect account has been 
drawn up from my rough notes taken at the time, which, from my 
being but little acquainted with that branch of Natural History, is 
of course very defective. 

To my friend Mr. Curtis, my warmest acknowledgments are 
due for his valuable remarks on the few Insects which I was able 
to bring to England, and the very beautiful drawings and en- 
gravings which accompany them. 

The liberal and kind assistance I have received from Mr. Richard 
Owen, in drawing up the catalogue of the Marine Invertebrate 
Animals, requires my best thanks ; particularly for his careful and 
elegant dissection of the new genus which he has named " Rossia;" 
peculiarly valuable at a time when the internal organization of the 
inferior orders of animated nature has become so extensively used in 
their classification. 

J. C. R 



ZOOLOGY. 



BY COMMANDER (NOW CAPTAIN) JAMES CLARK ROSS, R.N., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c. 



1.— URSUS MARITIMUS (Polar Bear). 

Ursus Maritimus. — Cuv: Reg. An. — vol. i., p. 137. 
Rich : Faun. Bur. Amer. — p. 30. 
Fab : Faun. Grant.— Tp. 22. 

Is found in greater numbers in the neighbourhood of Port Bowen, and Batty Bay, 
in Prince Regent's Inlet, than in any other part of the Polar Regions that I have 
visited in the course of the several expeditions of discovery. This circumstance, pro- 
bably, arises from Lancaster Sound being but seldom covered by permanently fixed 
ice ; and therefore affording them means of subsistence during the severity of an 
Arctic winter ; and also from its being most remote from the usual winter residence 
of any of the Esquimaux, who alone dispute the sovereignty of the north with this 
monarch of its ferine inhabitants. 

During our stay at Fury Beach many of these animals came about us, and several 
were killed. At that time we were fortunately in no want of provisions, but some of 
our party, tempted by the fine appearance of the meat, made a hearty meal off' the first 
one that was shot. All that partook of it soon after complained of a violent headache, 
which, with some, continued two or three days, and was followed by the skin pealing oft' 
the face, hands, and arms ; and in some, who had probably partaken more largely, oft 
the whole body. 

On a former occasion I witnessed a somewhat similar occurrence, when, on Sir 
Edward Parry's Polar journey, having lived for several days wholly on two bears that 
were shot, the skin pealed oft" the feet, legs, and arms of many of the party. It was 



viii NATURAL HISTORY. 

then attributed rather to the quantity than the quaUty of the meat, and to our having 
been for some time previous on very short allowance of provision. The Esquimaux eat 
its flesh without experiencing any such inconvenience ; but the liver is always given to 
the dogs, and that may possibly be the noxious part. The Esquimaux of Boothia 
Felix killed several during their stay in our neighbourhood in 1830 — all males. 

The males are considerably larger than the females, as will be seen by the following 
measurements, being the average of nine males and seven females taken by myself: 

Length from snout to the end of the tail 
snout to shoulder 
snout to occiput 
Circumference before the eyes 

at broadest part of the head 
at largest part of the abdomen 
Length of alimentary canal 
Weight 

The vFeight varies very much according to the season and condition of the animal. 
The largest of the above measured 101.5 inches in length, and weighed 1028 lbs., 
although in poor condition. 



Male. 


Female. 


94 inches 


78.7 inches 


33.5 . . 


26.3 


18.4 . . 


15.6 


20.4 . . 


15.8 


32.2 . . 


28 


65.2 . . 


57.6 


61 feet . 


52 feet 


900 lbs. . 


700 lbs. 



2.— GULO LUSCUS (Wolverene). 

GuLO Luscus. — Cuv: Reg. An. — vol. i., p. 141. 
Rich: Faun. Bor. Amer. — p. 41. 
Sab. inSitpp.to Appx. to Parry's ]st Voy. — p. clxxxiv. 

Ka 6 week. — Esquimaux of Boothia Felix. 

Kab le a rioo. — Esquimaux of Melville Peninsula. 

Some traces of the existence of this animal in the highest northern latitudes were 
observed on two of the preceding Arctic expeditions ; but none of the animals were 
seen on either of those occasions : although we now know that it remains throughout 
the winter as far north as the 70° of latitude, and is not, like some other animals 
of that rigorous climate, subject to any change of colour from the most intense cold. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



IX 



A few days previous to the arrival of the Esquimaux near Fehx Harbour, in 
January, 1830, the tracks of this animal were first seen; and soon after, the skins of 
two old and two young ones were brought to the ship by the natives, who had taken 
them in traps built of stones. 

During each of the following winters their tracks were occasionally seen, and at 
Victoria Harbour they were very numerous. There, in the middle of the winter, two 
or three months before we abandoned the ship, we were one day surprised by a visit 
from one, which pressed hard by hunger, had climbed the snow wall that surrounded 
our vessel, and came boldly on deck, where our crew were walking for exercise. Undis- 
mayed at the presence of twelve or fourteen men, he seized upon a canister which had 
some meat in it, and was in so ravenous a state that whilst busily engaged at his feast 
he suffered me to pass a noose over his head, by which he was immediately secured and 
strangled. By discharging the contents of two secretory organs, it emitted a most 
insupportable stench. These secretory vessels are about tlie size of a walnut, and 
discharge a fluid of a yellowish-brown colour, and of tlie consistence of honey, by the 
rectum, when hard pressed by its enemies. 

The descriptions of authors are sufficiently accurate ; but the following dimensions 
may be useful : 



Length from snout to the insertioii of the tail 


28.4 inches 


of the tail . . . • . 


9.8 (vertebrae) 


of the hair of the tail . 


. 6 




44.2 inches 


Length from snout to shoulder 


11.2 inches 


to occiput . 


6.5 


Extreme breadth of head .... 


4.1 


Circumference at ensiform cartilage 


14.5 


at neck .... 


10.6 


at broadest part of the head 


13 


Vertebras — Cervical 7 




Dorsal 15 (10 true and 5 false 


ribs) 


Lumbral 5 




Sacral 3 (now in one) 




Caudal 15 




It was a female, and weighed 27i 


lb. 


*u 





NATURAL HISTORY. 



3.— MUSTELA ERMINEA {Ermine). 

MusTELA Erminea. — Cuv : Reg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 145. 
Rich : FauH. Bor. Ainer. — p. 46. 

These beautiful and elegant little animals were by no means numerous ; but their 
tracks were occasionally seen during the winter, following those of the Lemmings, upon 
which they chiefly subsist during that inclement part of the year. It is ahnost impos- 
sible to tame them, preferring rather to die than live in confinement. One that came 
on board of our ship and was taken, although treated with the greatest kindness, its 
restless and vicious nature so completely exhausted it, that it died at the end of a week 
or ten days. The Ermine assumes its winter dress early in September, and again 
changes to brown towards the end of May. It is the great enemy of the Lemming, and 
in its turn is preyed upon by the Fox. 
It is 18 inches long, and weighs 5-| oz. 



4.— CANIS LUPUS OCCIDENTALIS {American Woff). 

Canis Lupus. — Cuv: Rtg. Anim. — vol. i., p, 150. 
Canis Lupus Occidentalis. — Rich: Faun. Bor. Amer. — p. 60. 

Considerable numbers of this animal were seen on the narrow Isthmus of Boothia, 
where they arrive early in the spring to intercept the Reindeer on their way to the 
north. None were killed by us during our late voyage, owing to their extreme 
wariness ; but their tracks were occasionally seen during each of the winters. They are 
very troublesome to the Esquimaux, robbing their hoards, tearing the skin covering off 
their canoes, and killing their dogs. It is a remarkable circumstance, that a single 
wolf will go amongst any number of Esquimaux dogs, and can-y off any one from 
amongst them without the others attempting to attack it. Such is their extreme dread 
of the Wolf, that they begin to tremble and howl whenever they are aware of its 
approach. The Wolf will seldom attack a man, except when starving; but if alone 
and unarmed, it will not care to get out of his way. 




ARCTIC FOX 



•'■/riJM- ^- -.''■ >t/'Jt , ' 



NATURAL HISTORY. xi 



5.— CANIS LAGOPUS (Arctic Fox). 

Canis Lagopus. — Cuv: Rtg. Auim. — vol. i., p. 153. 
Rich: Faun. Bor. Amer. — p. 83. 
Sabine, in Franklin's \st Journey — p. 658. 
Rich : Appendix to Parrij's 2d Voi/. — p. 299. 

Inhabits the highest northern latitudes throughout the winter, and is provided with 
the finest and thickest fur, to enable it to withstand the intense cold of those regions. 

The young generally migrate to the southward late in the autumn, and collect in 
vast multitudes on the shores of Hudson Bay : they return early the following spring- 
along the sea-coast to the northward, and seldom again leave the spot they select as a 
breeding place. 

The summer fur of this beautiful animal is admirably described by Mr. Sabine, loc. 
cil. ; and the winter dress by Dr. Richardson, ut supra, where an interesting detail of its 
habits is given. 

In most of the individuals taken in February we observed that the long hairs on the 
back and loins are tipped with black, to the extent which they project beyond the rest 
of the far: this is particularly the case in the females. 

It brings forth from six to eight young early in June. In July, 1831, one of 
their burrows was discovered on the sandy margin of a lake ; it had several 
passages, each opening into a common cell, beyond which was an inner cell, 
where the young, six in number, were taken. They were precisely of the same 
colour as the old ones at that season of the year. Hearne says, that " the 
young are all over of a sooty black ;" this probably refers to the following variety 
of the Arctic Fox. In the outer cell, and in the several passages leading to it, we 
found great numbers of the two species of Lemming, several Ermine, and the bones 
of hares, fish, and ducks, in great quantities. Four of the young foxes were kept alive 
till the end of the following winter, and were a great amusement to our crew by their 
playfulness, as they soon became very tame. They never attained the pure white of 
the old Fox, a dusky lead colour remaining about the face and sides of the body. 

There is a remarkable difference in the disposition of these animals, some bcinj' 
easily tamed, whilst others remain savage and untractable, notwithstanding the kindest 
treatment. The females are much more vicious than the males. A Dog Fox that 
lived several months became so tame in a short time, that he regularly attended our 
dinner-table like a dog, and was always allowed to go at large about the cabin. 

*B 2 



sii NATURAL HISTORY. 

A pair kept for the purpose of watching the changes of their fur, threw off their 
winter dress during the first week in June ; the female a few days earher than the male. 
Towards the end of September the brown fur of summer gradually became of an ash 
colour, and by the middle of October was perfectly white : from that period it con- 
tinued rapidly to increase in thickness until the end of November, when the last of the 
two died, having lived in confinement nearly ten months. » 

The flesh of the young Fox is white, and well flavoured. Dr. Richardson says, 
" Captain Franklin's party agreed with Hearne in comparing the flavour of a young 
Arctic Fox to that of the American Hare." Captain Lyon considered it to " resemble 
the flesh of the kid ;" whilst those of our party, who were the first to taste them, named 
them " lambs," from their resemblance in flavour to very young lamb. The flesh of the 
old Fox is by no means so palatable ; and the water it is boiled in becomes so acrid as 
to excoriate the mouth and tongue. During our late expedition, they constituted one 
of the principal luxuries of our table, and were always reserved for holidays and great 
occasions. We ate them boiled — or more frequently after being parboiled, roasted in a 
pitch kettle. 

They were taken by us in considerable numbers,^ and formed a valuable addition to 
our provisions when meat was very scarce. 

The females are somewhat smaller than the males, and generally in poorer condition. 

The average weight of twenty males being 7 lb. 4 oz. ; of twenty females, 5 lb. 11 oz. 

Males. Females. 

Length from snout to insertion of tail . 22.4 inches . 21.8 inches 
to end of vertebrae of tail .35 . 33.5 

Length of fur in each 2.7 inches beyond the vertebrae of the tail. 
Length of the head measured with callipers 5.5 inches 

Mean length of the alimentary canal . . 86.7 
of the intestinum ctecum . 4.5 



6.— CANIS LAGOPUS (Var. p. Fuligimsm). 

Canis Lagopus Fuliginosus. — Rich: Faun. Bor. Amer. — p. 89. 

This variety of the Arctic Fox is much more rare than the preceding, only three 
individuals having been captured out of fifty of the pure white kind. Indeed in a. 



NATURAL HISTORY. x 

country which presents an unvaried white surface, they must have extreme difficulty 
surprising- their prey, and be much more exposed to the persecutions of its enemies. 
It is somewhat larger in its measurements than the white variety. 

Male. 
Length from snout to insertion of the tail . 23.7 inches 
to end of vertebrcE of the tail . . 36.2 
of the head measured with callipers 5.7 



7.— ARVICOLA HUDSONIA {Hudson's Ba^ Lemming). 

Lemmus Hudsonius. — Ctiv: Reg. Anini. — vol. i., p. 207. 
Aevicola HuDSONiA. — Rich: Faun. Dor. Amer. — p. 132. 

Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Foj/.— p. 308. 

The smallest of the quadrupeds of the Polar Regions, and has been found iiT 
the highest latitude tliat has yet been attained : even on the ice of the Polar Ocean, to 
the northward of the 82° of latitude, the skeleton of one was found.* 

It has never been met with far in the interior of the country, preferring to congregate 
during the summer months along the sea-shores, where amongst large loose stones tliey 
rear their young, and find shelter from their numerous enemies. In the winter season, 
each individual makes a nest of dried grass, on the surface of the earth, beneath the 
snow, and has many passages in different directions from its nest, along which it 
passes in search of food. It seldom appears during the winter, but its tracks are occa- 
sionally to be met with even in the coldest weather; but from the whiteness of its fui-, 
and the rapidity with which it burrows beneath the surface of the snow, it is seldom 
taken at that season of the year. 

It feeds chiefly on the roots of Polygonum Viviparum, on grasses, vetches, and 
during the summer on almost every kind of plant the country produces; but is never- 
theless fond of animal food, even to devouring its own species; and the salmon Iioaid> 
of the Esquimaux frequently furnish provision to numbers of these animals during tli< 
winter. 

* See Appendix to Parry's Polar Journey, p. 1-90. 



xiv NATURAL HISTORY. 

It brings forth from four to eight young at various periods of the year : tlius one 
taken by us in March had four young in utero, nearly matured ; and a nest with six 
young ones, blind, naked, and helpless, was found on 12th July; they abandoned their 
nest on the 22d. 

It is easily tamed, and fond of being caressed ; one that had been but a few days 
confined, escaped during the night, and was found next morning on the ice alongside 
the ship : on putting down its cage, which it recognised in the servant's hand, it imme- 
diately went into it. It lived for several months in the cabin ; but finding that, unlike 
what occurred to our tame hares under similar circumstances, it retained its summer 
fur, I was induced to try the effect of exposing it for a short time to the winter 
temperature. 

It was accordingly placed on deck in a cage, on the 1st of February ; and next 
moniing, after having been exposed to a temperature of 30° below zero, the fur on 
the cheeks and a patch on each shoulder had become perfectly white. On the following- 
day tbe patches on each shoulder had extended considerably, and the posterior part of 
the body and flanks had turned to a dirty white : during the next four days the change 
continued but slowly, and at the end of a week it was entirely white, with the excep- 
tion of a dark band across the shoulders, prolonged posteriorly down to the middle of 
the back, forming a kind of saddle, where the colour of the fur had not changed in the 
smallest degree. The thermometer continued between 30° and 40° below zero until 
the 18th, without producing any further change, when the poor little sufferer perished 
from the severity of the cold. 

On examining the skin, it appeared that all the white parts of the fur were longer 
than the unchanged portions ; and that the ends of the fur only were white, so far as they 
exceeded in length the dark-coloured fur ; and by removing these white tips with a pair 
of scissars, it again appeared in its dark summer dress, but slightly changed in colour, 
and precisely the same length as before the experiment. 



8._ARVIC0LA TRIMUCRONATA (Back's Lcmmi/ig). 

Arvicola Tkimucronata. — Rich: App. to Parri/'s 2d Voi/. — p. 309. 

Allhouoh seen by us on the coast of Boothia Felix in considerable numbers, it is not 
so generally to be met with in the Arctic Regions as the preceding species. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xv 

The individual specimen from which Dr. Richardson's very accurate description was 
drawn, was taken by Captain Back (in honour of whom it has been named) on Point 
Lake, in latitude 65° N. It was a female of smaller dimensions than those we have 
generally met with ; for Dr. Richardson states it to be a little inferior in size to the 
Hudson's Bay Lemming : whereas a comparison of the average measurements and 
weight of above twenty of each species is in favour of the latter. 

No specimens of this species were obtained during the winter; but it is more than 
probable that, like the preceding species, it is white during that season. 

The first fur of the young, as in the Hudson's Bay Lemming, is rather more obscure 
than that of the parents; and even in this early state the two species are easily distin- 
guishable by their colour, the trimucronate thumb not being at first so very apparent. 



9.— ARCTOMYS PARRYI {Parry's Marmot). 

Aectomys Pakryi. — Sab : in App. to Franklin's 1st Journet/. 
Rich: in App. to Parry's 2d Voy. 
Rich: in Faun. Bor. Amer. — p. 158. 

None of these animals were seen during our late voyage in the Victory; nor do I 
believe they have ever been found far north of the Arctic Circle. I notice it here 
merely to mention that some of the dresses of the Esquimaux who had lately left 
Repulse Bay were made of its skins. These people told us that it was very numerous 
in those parts. 



10.— LEPUS GLACIALIS {Polar Hare). 

Lepus Glacialis. — Rich: Faun. Bar. Amer. — p. 221. 
Lepus Timidus, — Fab : Faun. Grwnl. — p. 25. 

There is scarcely a spot in the Arctic Regions, the most desolate and steril that can 
be conceived, where this animal is not to be found, and tliat too throughout the winter : 



xvi NATURAL HISTORY. 

nor does it seek to shelter itself from the inclemency of the weather by burrowing in 
the snow, but is found generally sitting solitary under the lee of a large stone, where 
the snow-drift as it passes along seems in some measure to afford a protection from the 
bitterness of the blast that impels it, by collecting around and half burying the animal 
beneath it. 

It is accordingly provided with a remarkably fine, thick, woolly fur, admirably 
calculated to withstand the most intense cold. 

In summer it is found chiefly at the foot and sides of gentle acclivities, where 
amongst the large loose stones it finds some secure retreat to bring forth its young. A 
female killed by one of our party at Sheriff Harbour, on the 7th of June, had four 
young in titero, perfectly mature, oj inches long, and of a dark gray colour. In one 
shot by us at Igloolik, on the 2d of June, six young were found, not quite so far 
advanced ; and Fabricius, who states that he has himself seen eiglit young in utero, 
says it brings forth many young towards the end of June. One taken by us on the 
28th of June a few days after its birth, soon became sufficiently tame to eat from our 
hands, and was allowed to run loose about the cabin. During the summer, we fed it 
on such plants as the country produced, and stored up a quantity of grass and astragali 
tor its winter consumption ; but it preferred to share with us whatever our table could 
afford, and would enjoy pease soup, plum pudding, bread, barley soup, sugar, rice, and 
even cheese, with us. It could not endure to be caressed, but was exceedingly fond of 
company, and woidd sit for hours listening to a conversation, which was no sooner 
ended than he would retire to his cabin : he was a continual source of amuseuient by 
his sagacity and playfulness, until in tlie middle of winter, when playing some of his 
pranks, he struck his head against one of the beams, and was ever after subject to fits. 
He lived and thrived nevertheless throughout the winter, and died in the following 
summer after fifteen months' confinement. 

Although constantly in a temperature never much below the freezing point, its fur 
assumed its white colour as early as those that were running wild, and exposed to the 
climate; and although it cast its winter coat early in May, it was replaced by a pure 
white fur; from which, it is probable that the old males are not subject to the same 
change as the females in summer. Fabricius says, that "the Greenland Hare is white 
Ijoth in summer and winter." Amongst tlie inhabitants of Greenland, one Esquimaux 
woman was found who spun some of the beautiful white wool of the Hare into a 
thread, and knitted several pairs of gloves ; one pair of which, notwithstanding the 
native filthniess of the Esquimaux, came into my possession beautifully white. It very 
much resembles the Angola wool, but is still more soft. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xvii 



11.— CERVUS TARANDUS (Reindeer). 

Cervus Tarandus. — Cuv: Rtg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 261. 
Rich : Faun. Bor. Amer.—]). 238. 
Rich : App. Parry's 2d Foy.— p. 326. 

Although this animal was seen in great numbers on the Isthmus of Boothia, only 
one individual was killed in the course of our late voyage. It was a fine buck, of 
larger size than ordinary, and weighed 250 lb. ; the average of those killed at Spitz- 
bergen and Melville Island did not exceed half that weight. 

The does arrived about the middle of April, the bucks nearly a month later ; and 
herds of several hundreds were seen about the Isthmus towards the end of May. 
Numbers of the fawns, which at that period are in a very weak state, are killed by 
the natives, who hunt them with their dogs; and the does themselves often fall 
victims to their attachment to their offspring. 

The natives of Boothia depend chiefly on the skins of these animals for their beds 
and clothing ; their bows and spears are principally made from their horns, which being 
softened by steeping in water are easily cut into shape, even with their rude knives ; 
and the sinews of the Reindeer make the best thread. The paunch, termed by them 
ner-rook-kah, is esteemed a great delicacy; and its contents is the only vegetable food 
which the natives ever taste. 

It feeds on the usneae, alectoriae, cetrariae, and other lichens in the early part of 
spring ; but as the summer advances, the young and tender grass fattens it so quickly, 
that in August they have been killed with several inches thick of fat on their haunches. 
In this state the meat is equal to the finest English venison ; but is most tasteless and 
insipid when in poor condition. 

Dr. Richardson loc. cit. has given a most detailed and interesting account of the 
several uses to which every part of this animal is put, and the various ways by which 
it is captured or killed in different parts of the American continent. 

The natives of Boothia seldom hunt it in the spring, and then the bow and arrow is 
their only mode of killing it ; but in the autumn, as the animal returns from the north 
in fine condition, they are destroyed in great numbers by parties of the natives driving 
them into the water, whilst others in canoes kill them with spears at their leisure. 

Although they migrate, towards the middle of September, to milder chmes, yet 
stragglers are occasionally seen in the winter. 

*c 



xviu 



NATURAL HISTORY. 

Length from snout to insertion of tail 
length of tail 
hair of the tail 



Extreme length 



Height at fore shoulder , 

hind quarter 
Girth behind the fore legs 



70 


inches 


5.2 




2 




77.2 




51 


inches 


53 




55 





12._0VIB0S MUSCHATUS (Musk Ox). 

OviBOS MuscHATiTs. — Rich: Faun. Bor. Amer. — p. 271. 
Bos MuscHATUS. — Cuv: R^g. Anim. — p. 281. 

Sabine, in App. to Franklin's 1st Journey — vol. i., p. 668. 
Rich: in App. to Parri/'s 2d Voy. — p. 331. 
Musk Ox. — Hearne's Journey — p. 137. Pennant, Arctic Zool. — vol. i., p. 9. 



Oo ming mak.— Esquimaux. 

ITie circumstance of this animal and the Reindeer having been foimd in Melville Island, 
led to the belief that a chain of islands, at no great distance from each other, coimected 
Melville Island with the shores of the continent. The recent discovery of the Isthmus 
of Boothia, and the fact that the continent of America extends to the 74th degree of 
north latitude, affords an easy solution of the route by which this animal visits the 
North Georgian Islands, They are said by the natives to be very numerous between the 
Isthmus of Boothia and Repulse Bay ; but are not found to the westward, the whole 
country being of low hmestone formation, whilst the rugged granite hills are the 
favourite resort of the Musk Ox. 

On one of my surveying excursions from the ship, in April, 1830, we were fortunate 
in meeting with two of these animals, which we killed ; they were both males, m very 
fine condition. We found the meat most excellent food, and quite free from any musky 



NATURAL HISTORY. xix 

flavour, although the skin smelt strongly of it. The account of the manner in which 
the natives hunt this animal will be found in the narrative. 

The Esquimaux informed us, that at Aw-wuk-too-teak the Musk Ox is fre- 
quently seen in considerable numbers. It is not so highly valued by them as the 
Reindeer ; its hide being too thick and hard for clothing, is used only for beds. 

The dung of the Musk Ox, as well as of the Reindeer, when fresh, is considered a 
delicacy by the natives. 

There is an excellent drawing of the Musk Ox in Captain Parry's Narrative of his 
First Voyage, p. 257, by Lieut. Beechy. The description by Dr. Richardson is most 
accurate ; and a very fine specimen brought from Melville Island is preserved in the 
British Museum. 



13.— PHOCA FCETIDA (Rough Seal). 

Phoca Fcetida. — Cuv : Reg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 168. 
Fah: Faun. Grcenl. — p. 13. 
Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voy.— p. 332. 
Rough Seal. — Perm: Quad. — vol. ii., p. 278; and Arctic Zoo/. — vol. i., p. 160. 

Inhabits the seas both on the east and west sides of the Isthmus of Boothia, and 
constitutes the principal means of subsistence to the inhabitants during eight or nine 
months of every year. 

In July, August, and September, the Reindeer and Salmon afford to the Esquimaux 
an agreeable and salutary change. The skins of the Reindeer supply them with 
beds and clothes ; but it is the Rough Seal on which they wholly depend for their 
winter's food ; when all other animals have retired to a more temperate climate, the 
Seal is sought by the Esquimaux, whose dogs are trained to hunt over the extensive 
floes of level ice, and to scent out the concealed breathing-holes of the Rough Seal. 
So soon as one is discovered, a snow wall is built round it, to protect the huntsman 
from the bitterness of the passing breeze ; where, with his spear uplifted, he will sit for 
hours until his victim rises to breathe, and falls an easy sacrifice to his unerring aim. 
In this manner, a party of thirty hunters killed 150 of these animals during the first 
two months they remained in our neighbourhood ; the fishery for ten or twelve miles 

*c 2 



XX NATURAL HISTORY. 

round was then completely exhausted ; so they broke up into several smaller parties, 
and dispersed in various directions. In the month of May, the Rough Seal, with its 
young, lie basking in the sun, close to holes in the ice, and are at that time very diffi- 
cult to approach; but the natives imitate both their cry and action so exactly as to 
deceive the animals until they get sufficiently near to strike them with their spear. 
Fabricius says, it is the most heedless of all the Seals, as well on the ice as in the 
water : from our experience, we would certainly give them a very different character, 
for none of our sportsmen were ever able to get sufficiently near to shoot them. 
The natives of Boothia say they are not in their prime until the third year ; and we 
never heard them complain of the offensive smell, which their more fastidious brethien 
in Greenland are said to dislike so extremely. The blood of the Rough Seal answers 
all the purposes of glue. 

The Rough Seal resembles our common Seal, P. Vitulina, the principal differences 
being in the more diminutive size of the P. Fwtida, its being clothed with a more 
woolly coat, and some slight differences in its colour ; all of which may indeed be 
fairly attributed to diflerence of food and chmate. 

The average length from the snout to the extremity of the tail, of twenty measured 
by me, was 65 inches, the hind flippers extending 9 inches beyond the end of the tail ; 
and the average weight of the same number was 199 lb. : the circumference imme- 
diately behind the fore-flippers being 49.7 inches. The females are larger than the males. 

The average length of the young, when between five and six months old, was 
38 inches ; the weight 49 lb. ; circumference as above, 28.6 inches ; length of the 
alimentary canal, 49 feet 8 inches ; and of the ceecum, 3^ inches. 

It feeds chiefly on the Mj/sisjiuxuosus and other small Cancri. 



14.— PHOCA GRCENLANDICA (Harp Seal). 

Phoca Ghcenlandica. — Cuv: Reg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 168. 

Egede, Graiil. — p. 62, fig. A. 
Habp Seal. — Perm: Arct. Zool. — vol. i., p. 163. 

Kai ro lik. — Esquimaux of Boothia. 

Unlike the preceding species, it is seldom met with on the fixed ice of the bays and 
inlets, but prefers the loose floating floes which constitute what is termed by the whale 



NATURAL HISTORY. xxi 

fishers "the middle ice" of Baffin's Bay and Davis Straits. It is, however, occa- 
sionally met with near the coast of Greenland. 

We have never seen it in any part of Prince Regent's Inlet ; but from the natives of 
Boothia we obtained several skins of this Seal, which they describe as being some- 
times very numerous on the west side of the Isthmus, but is much more scarce than 
the preceding species. They have never seen any of this species on the east side of 
the Isthmus of Boothia. 



15.— PHOCA BARBATA (Great Seal). 

Phoca Barbata. — Cuv: R^g. Anim. — vol. i., p. 168. 
Fab: Faun. Grosnl. — p. 15. 

Oo ge ook. — Esquimaux. 

Is the largest of the Seals inhabiting the Polar Seas. It is but seldom sought after 
by the natives of Boothia, as it approaches the shores only in the summer season, when 
the salmon fishery wholly engrosses their attention. In winter it seeks those parts of 
the Arctic Ocean which are seldom, if ever, frozen over for any length of time. 

No specimens were obtained. 



16.— TRICHECHUS ROSMARUS (Walrus). 

Tbichechus Rosmarus. — Cuv: Rig. Anim. — vol. i., p. 171. 

Fab: Faun. Grccnl. — p. 11. 

I we ak. — Esquimaux. 

Inhabits the west coast of Baffin's Bay, and is occasionally seen m the northern part 
of Prince Regent's Inlet, but the natives of Boothia have never seen a Walrus ; and 



xxii NATURAL HISTORY. 

although we found amongst them several articles made from the tusks of that animal, 
they were all brought from Repulse Bay, where it abounds. 
No specimens were obtained. 



17.— DELPHINAPTERUS BELUGA (White Whale). 

Delphinapterus Beluga. — Cuv : R^g. Aiiim. — vol. i., p. 290. 
Delphinus Albicans. — Fab: Faun. Grceiil. — p. 50. 

Scoresbi/^s Arctic Regions — vol. ii., pi. xiv. 

Seen abundantly in Prince Regent's Inlet, but none were taken by us. 



18.— MONODON MONOCEROS {Narwhal). 

MoNODON MoNOCEROS. — Cuv : Reg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 292. 

Fab: Faun. Groenl. — p. 29. 
Scoresbi/'s Arctic Regions — vol. ii., pi. xv. 

The Narwhal, or Sea Unicorn, though occasionally seen in great numbers in the 
upper part of Baffin's Bay and Prince Regent's Inlet, are but seldom killed, from the 
great difficulty of surprising them when sleeping on the surface of the water, and the 
very short time they remain up when they rise to breathe. 

The oil produced from its blubber is considered superior to that of the Whale ; and 
the horn is valuable. Two or three years ago, several hundreds of these animals were 
found dead along the west coast of Baffin's Bay by the vessels employed in the whale- 
fishery ; and I was informed by Captain Humphreys, of the Isabella, that of a great 
many examined by him, the males only have the horn-shaped spiral tooth. 

Fabricius says, that both male and female have this horn ; and that sometimes, but 
very seldom, the male has two of equal size. A specimen of this may be seen in the 



NATURAL HISTORY. xxiii 

valuable museum of the Royal College of Surgeons; and an accoimt of a female 
Narwhal, which had a horn similar to the male, is given in the 13th volume of the 
Transactions of the Linnsean Society, p. 620; but both these cases are of rare 
occurrence. 

The largest horn I have seen measured 8i feet. In all the males the rudiments of a 
second horn or tooth is present ; and in the female are two such rudimental teeth, each 
about 8 inches in length. 

A female killed in June had one young in utero, nearly matured, of a bluish-brown 
colour, nearly 5 feet long. 

Several skeletons of this animal were seen by us as we travelled along the eastern 
coast of the Peninsula of Boothia, but only one horn was found amongst them; it mea- 
sured 7 feet in length, 9g inches in circumference at its insertion, and weighed I41b. 6oz. 



19.— BAL^NA MYSTICETUS ^Black Whale). 

Bal.s;na Mysticetus. — Cuv: Rig. Anim. — vol. i., p. 296. 

Fab : Faun. Grasnl.—^. 32. 

Scoresby's Arctic Regions — vol. ii., pi. xii. 

The capture of the Whale, which gives employment to several thousands of our 
seamen, and has annually produced, on an average of the last twenty years, between 
eleven and twelve thousand tons of oil, and from five to six hundred tons of whalebone ; 
has of late years greatly declined, owing to the increasing difficulties attending the 
fishery. Wearied by the incessant persecutions of man, the Whale has lately aban- 
doned all the accessible parts of the Spitzbergen Sea, where it was by no means 
unusual to see sixty or seventy sail of British vessels engaged in its capture. 

On the east side of Baffin's Bay, as far as the 72° of latitude, abundance of Whales 
of a large size were to be found, some few years ago ; but, hke the fishery in the Spitz- 
bergen Sea, this also was deserted. Tlie Whales retired to the westward of the then 
considered impenetrable barrier of ice that occupies the middle of Baffin's Bay. 

In 1818 that barrier was passed by the first Expedition of Discovery, sent by the go- 
vernment to those regions ; where the haunts of the Whale and the nursery for its young 
were laid open to the fishermen, whose daring enterprise and perseverance in following 



xxiv. NATURAL HISTORY. 

the track of the discoverers, were amply rewarded for the first few years by most 
abundant success ; since the produce that in any one year has been brought to 
England from those newly-discovered portions of the Arctic Seas, is more than 
sufficient to cover the whole expenses of all the Expeditions of Discovery that have 
been sent, during the last twenty years, to those regions : and yet people, not aware of 
this circumstance, are perpetually asking what benefit can result to this country from 
such undertakings ! 

The Whale, however, still continues to retire from the persecutions of man ; and the 
numbers of its young which are annually destroyed without remorse by the avaricious 
but imprudent fishermen, must soon exhaust the fishery ; and search must then be 
made far to the westward of Baffin's Bay, and to the eastward of Spitzbergen, for 
their places of retreat. 

We found them in considerable numbers as low as the latitude of 71° N, along 
the western shore of Prince Regent's Inlet ; and the whole line of coast is crowded 
with the remains of Esquimaux winter huts, which had been chiefly constructed of 
the crown bones of the young Whale. 

The natives of the Isthmus of Boothia say, that it is but rarely seen either on the 
east or west side of the Isthmus ; and they, not being sufficiently well prepared, or in 
sufficient numbers, never venture to attack it. Only two were seen by us during the 
three years we were frozen up in that neighbourhood. 

A most interesting account of the Whale fishery is given by Captain Scoresby, 
loc. cit., where its importance to Great Britain, as a nursery for seamen, employment 
of capital, and as a source of national wealth, is made sufficiently manifest. 



BIRDS. 



1.— FALCO ISLANDICUS {Jerfalcon). 

FALCO ISLANDICUS.— flicA; Faun. Bor. Amer.—\o\. ii., p. 27. Lath: Ind. Orn.— vol. i., p. 32. 
Cuv : Rig. Anim. — vol. i., p. 323. 

Sab: Greenl. Birds, in Trans. Lin. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 528. Temm. — vol. i., p. 17. 
WHITE JERFALCON.— lart; Si/«.— vol. i., p. 83; and Supp.—p. 21. 

Several were seen about Victoria Harbour, pursuing the packs of young Grouse, in 
August and September, 1 832 ; and a pair built their nest a short distance to the south 
of Fehx Harbour. No specimens, however, were obtained by us. 



2.— STRIX NYCTEA (Snmvi/ Owl). 

STRIX NYCTEA.— HicA : Faun. Bor. Amer.—\o\. ii., p. 88. Lath : Ind. Orn.— vol. i., p. 57. 
Cuv: Rig. Anim. — vol. i., p. 345. Temm. — vol. i., p. 82. 

Fab : Faun. Greenl. — p. 60; and in Appendices to Parry's 1st, 2d, and 3d Voyages. 
SNOWY OWL AND WHITE OWL.— Arct. ZooL— vol. ii., p. 233. Lath: Syn.— vol i., p. 132. 

Was occasionally seen throughout the winter about Victoria Harbour, where several 
pairs had bred in the preceding autumn, but none were obtained by us. 



xxvi NATURAL HISTORY. 



3,— ALAUDA CORNUTA {Shore Lark). 

ALAUDA CORNUTA.— RjcA : Faun. Bor. Amer.—vo\. ii., p. 245. 
ALAUDA ALPESTRIS.—i=brs< : Phil. Trans.— Ixil, p. 398. Lat : Ind. Orn.— vol. ii., p. 498. 
Cuv : Reg. Anim. — vol. p. 400. Temm. — vol. i., p. 279. 
Rich: App. to Parry's Id Voyage — p. 343. 
SHORE LARK.— Penn : Arct. Zool.— vol. ii., p. 392. 

One shot by us, near Felix Harbour, agreed well with the descriptions of authors. 
Two others were all that were seen by us ; it is therefore but rarely met with above 
the 70° of latitude. 



4.— SYLVIA CENANTHE (Wheatear). 

SYLVIA CENANTHE.— remm.— vol. i., p. 135. Lath: Ind. Or?i.— vol. ii., p. 529. 
Saline, in Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 531. 
MOTACILLA CENANTHE.— Cai- ; Mg. Anim.—io\. i., p. 382. 

Tab: Fami. Granl. — p. 122. 
WHEATEAR.— i<!</i .• S^n.— vol. iv., p. 465. Arct. ZooL— vol. ii., p. 420. 

One of these little birds was observed flying round the ship in Felix Harbour on 
the 2d of May, 1830, and was found dead alongside, the next morning: having 
arrived before the ground was sufficiently uncovered to enable it to procure its 
food, it had perished fiom want. It is the only instance of this bird having 
been met with in Arctic America, in the course of our several Expeditions to those 
regions. 

I do not find it mentioned by Dr. Richardson, in the " Fauna Boreah Americana." 
Fabricius found it in Greenland ; and several were seen by us, on our first voyage, ofi 
Cape Farewell, in October, 1818. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xxvi 



5— EMBERIZA NIVALIS {Snow Bunting). 

EMBERIZA NIVALIS.— Bzc/i : Faun. Bar. Amer.—\o\. ii., p. 246. Lath : hid. Oni.— vol. i., p. 397. 
Cuv : Reg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 405. Temm. — p. 319. Gmel. — vol. i., p. 866. 
Fab: Faun. Gia;nl. — p. 117. Sabine, in Trans. Linn. Sue. — vol.xii., p. 532. 
Rich : in App. to Parry's 2d Voyage. — p. 343. 
SNOW BUNTING.— Bni. Zool.—vo\. i., p. 444. Arct. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p, 355. 
Lath: Si/n. — vol. iii., p. 161. 

Abounds in all parts of the Arctic Regions, between the middle or end of April and 
the end of September. 



6.— PLECTROPHANES LAPPONICA (Lapland Finch). 

PLECTROPIIANES LAPPONICA.— Boss, in App. to Parry's 3d Voyage—p. 97. 

Selby, in Trans. Lin. Soc. — vol. xv., p. 156, pi. 1 (young). 
Rich: Faun. Bur. Amer. — p. 248, pi. 48 (excellent). 
PLECTROPIIANES CALCARATA.— il%er: Tasch.— vol iii., p. 176. 
EMBERIZA CALCARATA.— remm.- vol. i., p. 322. Rich : in App. to Parry's 2d Voyage— -p. 345. 
LAPLAND FINCH.— ^;r^ Zoo/.— vol. li., p. 377. Lath: Syn.—\o\. iii., p. 263. 

Is by no means numerous in the liigher northern latitudes. A nest with five eggs 
was brought on board early in July, 1830. 



7.— CORVUS COR AX {Raven). 

CORVUS CORAX.— J\iV/i ; Faun. Bor. Amer. — vol. ii., p. 290. Lath: Ind. Orn.—\o\. i., p. 150. 
Cuv: Reg. Anim.—yo\. i., p. 420.— Jo«m. p. 107. Gmel.~\o\. i., p. 364. 
Fab : Faun. Grccnl. — p. 62. Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage— f. 343. 
Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 97. 
RAVEN— L«//i : Syn. — vol. i., p. 367. Arct. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 245. 

This is one of the few birds tliat are capable of braving the severity of an Arctic 

*/) 2 



xxviii NATURAL HISTORY. 

winter and of enduring the scorching rays of a tropical sun, without any change being 
produced in its plumage by the extremes of climate. Cuvier and other authors mention, 
that in the north it is frequently found more or less white : we never saw any thing 
corroborative of such an observation. It preserves its plumage and peculiar charac- 
teristics, unchanged, in every part of the globe. 



8.— TETRAO LAGOPUS MUTUS {Ptarmigan). 

TETRAO LAGOPUS MUTUS.— JliVA .- Faun. Bor. Amer.—vo\. ii., p. 350. 
TETRAO LAGOPUS.— Cku : Reg. Anim.— vol i., p. 482. Lath : hid. Orn.— vol. ii. p. 639. 

Fab : Faun. Groenl. — p. 1 14. Sab : Supp. to Parry's \st Voyage — p. cxcvii. 
Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 350. 

HosSjApp.to Parry's 3d Voy. — p. 99; and App. to Parry's Polar Voy. — p. 193. 
PTARMIGAN.— Bn7. Zoo/.— vol. i., p. 359, pi. 57. Lath: Syn.— vol. iv., p. 744. Arct. Zool.—p. 315. 

Is not so numerous in the higher northern latitudes as the two following species. 
A pair was shot on the east side of the Peninsula of Boothia, in latitude 71° nearly ; 
and three or four more were obtained at Felix Harbour. 



9.— TETRAO LAGOPUS SALICETI (Willow Grouse). 

TETRAO LAGOPUS SALICETI.— EicA; Faioi. Bor. ^mer.— vol. ii., p. 351. 
TETRAO SALICETI.— C«u .- Reg. Anim.— vol. i., p. 483. Temm.— vol. ii., p. 471. 
Saline, App. to Franklin's 1st Journey — p. 681. 
Rich: App. to Parry's Id Voyage — p. 347. 
TETRAO ALBUS.— XaM .- Ind. Orn.— vol. ii., p. 639. GrneL— vol. i., p. 750. 
Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 101. 
WHITE GROUSE.— £nM .- Syn.— vol. iv., p. 743. Arct. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 308. 
WILLOW PARTRIDGE.— He«r«e's 2Vat;e/s— p. 338. 

Lihabits both shores of the inlet to the west of Boothia ; but is not to be found on 



NATURAL HISTORY. xxix 

the east side of the Peninsula, seeming to prefer the low limestone formation to that of 
the high rugged granite, which appears more peculiarly adapted to the habits of the 
Rock Grouse and the Ptarmigan. 



10.— TETRAO LAGOPUS RUPESTRIS (Rock Grouse). 

TETRAO LAGOPUS RUPESTRIS.— SiVA ; Faun. Bar. Amer.—vo\. li., p. 354, pi. 64, fern. 
TETRAO RUPESTRIS.— Sai ; Supp. to Parry's 1st Voyage— -p. cxcv. 
Rich : App. to Parry's id Voyage — p. 348. 
Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 99. 
Lath: Iiid. Orn. — vol. ii., p. 640. Gmel. — vol. i., p. 751. 
ROCK GROUSE.— ^Ircf. Zoo/.— vol. ii., No. 184. Lath : Syii. Supp.~p. 217. 

Is much more numerous in the higher northern latitudes than either of the two 
preceding species. It frequents the eastern side of the Peninsula of Boothia; but was 
not found to the westward. 



II.— COLUMBA MIGRATORIA {Passenger Pigeon). 

eOLUMBA MIGRATORIA.— Rjc/» .- Faun. Bar. Amer.— vol. ii., p. 363. 

Sab : App. to Franklin's Journey — p. 679. 
Cuv : Rig. Anim.—\o\. i., p. 488. 
Forster, in Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. — vol. Ixii., p. 398. 
PASSENGER PICEOli. —Arct. ZooL—yo\. ii., p. 322. 

A young male bird flew on board the Victory during a storm, whilst crossing Baffin's 
Bay in latitude VSi" N, on the 3Ist of July, 1829. It has never before been seen 
beyond the si.xty-second degree of latitude ; and the circumstance of our having met 
with it so far to the northward, is a singular and interesting fact. 

It is well known, from the dreadful devastation it commits in tlie rice-fields of 
America; and the accounts which authors give of the inconceivable multitudes that 
occasionally assemble together, are quite incredible. See Wilson's " American 
Ornithology," vol. ii., p. 299. 



XXX NATURAL HISTORY. 



12.— CHARADRIUS SEMIPALMATUS (American Ring Plover). 

CHARADRIUS SEMIPALMATUS.— JJicA ; Faun. Bor. Amer.— vol ii., p. 367. 
CHARADRIUS HIATICULA.— remm.— p. 539. Cuv : Rig. Anim.—\o\. i., p. 501. 

Sabine, in Franklin's Journey — p. 684. 
Sab : Supp. to Parry's l$t Voyage — p. cc. 
Hicli : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 351. 
Sab : in Trans. Linn. Soc. — -vol. xii., No. 10. 

Very numerous during the summer months in Boothia, inhabiting the marshy 
oTounds, and feeding chiefly on the larvae of the Tipula Arctica (of Curtis). 



13. CHARADRIUS PLUVIALIS (Golden Plover). 

CHARADRIUS PLUVIALIS.— i?icA : Faun. Bor. Amer.— yo\. ii., p. 369. 

Cuv : Reg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 501. Lath: Ind. Orn. — vol. ii., p. 740. 
Gmel.— vol. i., p. 688. Fab : Faun. Gra?H/.— No. 79. 
Temm. — vol. ii., p. 535. Sabine, Franklin's Journey — p. 683. 
Sabine, Supp. to Parry's 1st Voyage — p. cxcix. 
Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 683. 
GOLDEN PLOVER.— ilrcf. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 483. 

Abundant during the breeding season in most parts of the Arctic Regions. We 
found them plentifully in the neighbourhood of Felix Harbour, feeding in the marshes, 
in company with the preceding species. 



14._VANELLUS MELANOGASTER (Grei/ Lapwing). 

VANELLUS MELANOGASTER.— K/c/i .• Faun. Bor. Amer.— vol. ii., p. 370. 

Cuv : Reg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 502. 
Sabine, Franklin's Journey — p. 684. 
Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 352. 
SWISS SANDPIPER.— .^rof. Zoot.—vo\. ii., p. 478. 

Is somewhat larger than the Golden Plover, with which it has been frequently 



NATURAL HISTORY. xxxi 

confounded. It is also more rarely met with ; but was found by us breeding near the 
margins of the marshes immediately to the south-west of Fury Point, in considerable 
numbers. 
Some specimens were also obtained near Felix Harbour. 



15.— STREPSILAS INTERPRES {Turnstone). 

STREPSILAS INTERPRES.— JlicA ; Faun. Bor, Amer.—vo\. ii., p. 371. 

Citv : Reg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 529. 
STREPSILAS COLLARIS.— remm. — vol.ii., p. 553. Sabine, Franklins Journey—^. 684. 

Sai : Supp. to Parry's \st Voyage — p. cc. 
Uich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 352. 
TURNSTONE.— Edwards— pi. 141. 

Is still more rare than the preceding, and only one specimen was obtained, early in 
July, at Felix Harbour ; it was a female in full breeding plumage. Some others were 
seen by us, as we travelled along the coast between Victoria Harbour and Fury Point, 
about the middle and towards the end of June. 



16.— GRUS CANADENSIS (Broum Crane). 

GRL'S CANADENSIS.— RicA : Faun. Bor. Amrr.—vo\. ii., p. 373. Cuv : Rig. Amm.— vol i., p. 510. 
BROWN CRANE.— PenK ; Arct. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 443. 

Several individuals of a species of Crane were seen by us in the neighbourhood ot 
Fury Beach ; they were probably of the abovenamed species, but as no specimen was 
obtained, it cannot be identified with certainty. 



xxxli NATURAL HISTORY. 



17.— TRINGA MARITIMA (Purple Sandpiper). 

TRINGA MARniMA.— Rich : Faun. Bor. Amer.—voL ii., p. 382. Cuv : Reg. Anim.—vo\. i., p. 525. 
Sab : Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 532. Temm. — vol. ii., p 619. 
Sab : Supp. to Parry's 1st Voy. — p. cci. Rich : App. to Parry's Id Voy. — p. 354. 
STRIATED SANDPIPER.— .4rc<. Zool.—yo\. ii., p. 472. Lulh : .Syn.— vol. v., p. 176. 

But few individuals of this species were seen near our waterino- stations ; we found 
them, however, in considerable numbers near Fury Point ; and at Melville Island, on a 
former voyage, they were very numerous. 



18.— TRINGA ALPINA {American Dunlin). 

TRINGA ALPINA.— RicA .• Faun. Bor. Amer.—vo\. ii., p. 383. 
Sabine, Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 533. 
TRINGA VARIABILIS. — Sabine, Franklins Journey — p. 686. Temm. — vol. ii., p. 612. 
Sab : Supp. to Parry's \st Voyage — p. cc. 
Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage^p. 353. 
DUNLIN.— Psnn .• Arct. Zool.— vol ii., p 476. 

Is very abundant during the breeding season near Felix Harbour, building its nest in 
the marshes and by the sides of the lakes. 



19.— PHALAROPUS FULICARIUS (Flat-billed Phalarope). 

PHALAROPUS FULICARIUS.— i?«-A ; Faun. Bor. Amer.—vo\. ii., p. 407. 
PHALAROPUS PLATYRHYNCHUS.-Cwv: Reg. Anim.— vol. i., p. 528. Temm.—vo]. ii , p. 712. 

Sabine, Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 536. 
Sab : Supp. to Parry's ist Voyage — p. cci. ' 
Rich: App, to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 355. 
Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — -p. 102. 

Temminck's and Sabine's descriptions are excellent. Dr. Richardson's is taken from 
an individual killed in the Columbia River, and is of unusually small dimensions : of 



NATURAL HISTORY. xxxiii 

above twenty measured by me, the smallest exceeded 8 inches in length, and the 
average of that number was rather more than 8^ inches ; he states the extreme length 
of his specimen to be only 7 inches. The females are larger than the males. Twelve 
of them together weighed 21 ounces, or I? omices each. 



20.— STERNA ARCTICA {Arctic Tern). 

STERNA ARCTICA.— RicA .• Faun. Bnr. ^mer.— vol. ii., p. 414. Temm.— vol. ii,, p. 742. 

Sabine, Franklin's Journey — p. 694. Sab : Supp. to Parry's 1st Voy. — p. ccii. 
Rich: App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 356. 

Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 103; and App. to Parry's Polar 
Voyage — p. 194. 

Very scarce, both to the east and west of the Peninsula of Boothia, only five or six 
having been seen by us during the three years we were in that neighbourhood. 

It has lately been found abundantly on the west coast of Ireland, in the winter 
season. 



21.— LARUS GLAUCUS {Glaucous Gull). 

LARUS GLAUCUS.— RicA .- Faun. Bor. Amer.— vol. ii., p. 417. 

Cuv : Reg. Anim. — vol. i., p. 556. Temm. — vol. ii., p. 757. 
Sab : Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 543. 
Sab r App. to Parry's \st Voyage — p. cciii. 
Ross, .ipp. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 103. 
GLAUCOUS GVLL.—Arct. Zool.—\o\. ii., p. 532. Lath: Syn.— vol. vi., p. 374. 

Numbers of this magnificent species of Gull built their nests on the upper part of 
the face of a high precipice, two or three miles to the south of Felix Harbour ; and the 
whole line of precipitous rock that forms the western shore of Prince Regent's Inlet, 
is annually resorted to by them in the breeding season. Although feeding chiefly on 



xxxiv NATURAL HISTORY. 

fish, the young bird is scarcely inferior either in delicacy of flavour or colour to the 
tenderest chicken : the old ones, however, are not quite so palateable, and smell most 
offensively after being kept a day or two. 



22.— LARUS ARGENTATUS {Black-winged Silvery Gull). 

LARUS ARGENTATUS.— Gmei.— vol. i., p. 600. Temm.—vo\. ii., p. 764. 
Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 358. 
Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 104. 
SILVERY GULL— ,4rc<. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 533. Lath: Syn.—vo\. vi.,p. 375. 
HERRING GULL.— ^rc(. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 527. 

The individuals of this species obtained during our late voyage, agreed sufficiently 
with the descriptions above referred to, except perhaps that the markings on the 
primary quill feathers are not quite so dark as in European specimens. 

Dr. Richardson has referred the examples of this bird, brought to England on our 
former voyages from Melville Island and Melville Peninsula, to the Larus Argenta- 
toides of the Prince of Musignano. (Faun: Bor. Amer. — p. 417.) 



23.— LARUS LEUCOPTERUS {White-winged Silvery Gull). 

LARUS LEUCOPTERUS.— Ric/c Faun. Bor. ^mer.— vol. ii., p. 418. 
LARUS ARGENTATUS.— Sa6; Trans. Linn. Soc— vol. xii., p. 546. 
LARUS ARCTICUS M'GiUivray, Wer. Trans.— vo\.w.,p.^68. 

This bird abounds in Greenland and Iceland, and was first described many years 
ago by Dr. Edmonstone, of Shetland, in the Wernerian Transactions, under the name 
of the " Less Iceland Gull," from its general resemblance, except in size, to the 
L. Glaucus, which he had before described under the name of Iceland Gull. Captain 
Sabine, in his " Memoir on the Birds of Greenland," loc. cit., was disposed to have 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



XXXV 



considered this a new and undescribed species; but in deference to Mr. Temmintk, 
who conceived that the absence of the dark markings on the wings might be occa- 
sioned by the seventy of the chmate in which it was found, he classed it with the 
preceding species. Its distinctive characters are now, however, sufficiently well known : 
the specimens obtained by us during our late voyage, agreed most exactly with Cap- 
tain Sabine's description above referred to. 

It was found breeding on the face of the same precipice with the Glaucous, but at a 
much less height, and in greater numbers. 

It is not unfrequently met with at the Shetland Islands in the winter season, and 
may therefore be added to our catalogue of British Birds. 



24.— LARUS EBURNEUS {Ivory Gull). 

LARUS EBURNEUS.— BicA .- Faun. Bor. Amer.— vol. ii., p. 419. 

Phipps's Foj/age, App.—p. 187. Gmel.— vol i., p. 596. 
Lath : Itid. Oni. — toI. ii. p. 816. Temm. — vol. ii., p. 769. 
Sab : in Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 548. 
Supp. to Parry's 1st Voyage — p. cciv. 
LARU.S CANDIDUS.-f«6 : Faun. Grcenl.~p. 103, No. 67. 
IVORY GULL.—Pcnn: Arct. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 529. 

Although extremely numerous in Baffin's Bay, and frequently met with during our 
former voyages in the vicinity of Port Bowen, one of its breeding-places, yet few were 
seen by us after passing to the southward of that part of Prince Regent's Inlet; 
and only one specimen was obtained. 

This beautiful species of Gull has lately visited the western shores of Ireland. 



25.— LARUS TRIDACTYLUS {Kittiwake). 

LARUS TRIDACTYLUS.— JficA ; Faun. Bor. Amer.— vol ii., p. 423. Tcm?n.— vol li., p. 774. 
Fub : Faun. Grant.— p. 98. Lat/i : hid. Orn.— vol ii., p. 817. 
Sub : Supp. to Parry's 1st Voyage — p. ccv. 
Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage— p. 359. 

Ross, in App. to Parry's 3d Toy.- p. 105 ; and Polar Jouniey—p. 195. 
KITTIWAKE.— Penn : Arct. Zool.— vol ii., p 529. Brit. Zool.—vo\. ii., p. 186. 
Lath : Syn. — vol. vi., p. 393. 
*e2 



xxxvi NATURAL HISTORY. 

Inhabits all parts of the Arctic Regions, and has been met with in the highest 
latitudes yet attained by man. It is extremely numerous during the summer season 
along the west coast of Prince Regent's Inlet ; where, in several places that are pecu- 
liarly well fitted for breeding stations, they congregate in inconceivable numbers. 

We killed enough to supply our party with several excellent meals, and found them 
delicious food, perfectly free from any unpleasant flavour. 



26.— LARUS ROSSI I {Cuneate-tailed Gull). 

LARUS ROSSII.— ffic/i ; Faun. Bor. Amer.—vo\. ii., p. 427. 
Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 359. 
Ross, App. to Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 195. 
IVdson's Illust. Zool. — vol. i., pi. 8. 
LARUS ROSEUS.— Jardme and Selby, Orn. llbist.—p. 1, pi. 14. 

Was discovered near Igloolik in June, 1 823, where only two specimens were ob- 
tained, although many others were seen : it has since been found abundantly on the 
east side of Spitzbergen, and several pairs were observed by Sir Edward Parry's party 
beyond the 82° of latitude.* It is noticed here as occasionally visiting Boothia, on 
the authority of Mr. Abernethy, who reported to me that he had seen one fly over the 
ship in Felix Harbour. He had accompanied Sir Edward Parry on his Polar 
Journey, during which it was frequently seen ; and, although unsuccessfully, eagerly 
pursued as an object of more than ordinary interest, from the circumstance of only 
two specimens of it having reached England : he is therefore not very likely to have 
been mistaken. 

Dr. Richardson has accurately described its plumage ; but the measures having been 
taken from the dried skin, differ triflingly from those taken by me of the recent 
specimens, ut infra: 

Extreme length from the tip of the beak to the end of the tail . . 13.6 inches 

to the angle of the mouth . . 1.3 
Length of the tarsus ... ...... 1.2 

middle toe and nail . . . . . . . .1.2 

Extent of wing, 30 inches. Weight, 6 ounces. 

• See Parity's Narrative of his Polar Journey, p. 81. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xxxvii 



27.— LARUS SABINI {Fork-tailed Gull). 

LARUS SABINI.— JlicA ; Faun. Bor. Amer.—\o\. ii., p. 428. 

Sabine { Mr.), Trans. Linn. Soc— vol. xii., p. 520, pi. 29 (very good). 

Saline (Capt.), Trans. Linn. Soc— vol. xii., p. 551 ; and Supp. to Parry's: 

1st Voyage — p. ccv. 
Rich : A])p. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 360. 
Ross, App. to Parry's Polar Voyage— p. 195. 
XEMA COLLARIS.— LeacA, in Ross's Voyage, oct. edit.— vol. il., p. 164. 

Was discovered by Captain Sabine on the three islands of Baffin, during Captain 
Ross's first voyage to these regions in 1818, and described by Mr. Sabine with minute 
accuracy in the Transactions of the Linnaean Society, loc. cit. 

Since that period it has been found in many parts of the Arctic Regions ; at Spitz- 
bergen, Igloolik, and Behring's Straits; and by our party as we travelled along the 
coast, a little to the southward of Cape Garry. I have no doubt that the low land 
where it was met with, is one of its breeding-places. 

I have lately heard that it has also been found on the west coast of Ireland, so that 
It has a much more extensive range than was at first supposed ; and it is the more 
extraordinary that it remained so long unknown to naturalists. 

Only one specimen was obtained by us at Felix Harbour; it was shot by Dr. 
M'Diarmid, and was the only one seen during our three years' residence in that 
quarter. The Esquimaux informed me that it breeds in great numbers on the low 
land west of Neityelle. 

Dr. Leach founds its generic distinction on the forcature of the tail : for a similar 
reason the L. Rossii should also form the type of a new genus, no other known Gull 
having a cuneiform tail. 



28.— LESTRIS POMARINUS (Fomarine Jager). 

LESTRIS POMARINUS.— Kic/i : Faun. Bar. Amer.—vo\ ii.,f. i27. Temm. vo\. ii., p. 7^3. 

Sab: Supp. to Parry's Ut Voyage — p. ccyi. Rich: App. to Parry's 

2d Voyage — p. 361. 
Ross,App.to Parry's 2d Voyage— p.105 ; and Parry's Polar Voyage— p.\96. 

"is a larger bird and much more scarce than the common Arctic Jager. It varie^s 



-xxxviii NATURAL HISTORY. 

very much in colour, according to age, some being entirely of a uniform blackish- 
brown, and others more or less marked with lighter colours. 

A nest with two eggs was found near Fury Point, by the margin of a small lake. 



29.— LESTRIS PARASITICUS (Arctic Jager). 

LESTRIS PARASITICUS.— RicA ; Faun. Bor. Amer.— vol. ii., p. 430. Temm.— vol ii., p. 796. 

Sab: Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol.xii.,p.551. Supp.to Parry'sXst Voi/age—'p.ccvx. 
Rich: App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 361. Ross, App. to Parry's 3d 
Voyage — p. 105; and App. to Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 196. 
CATHARACTA PARASITICA— Fa6 .• Faun. Grwnl.— p. 103. 

The form and relative length of the central tail feathers of this bird vary so much 
according to age and other circumstances, as to have induced the belief of the 
existence of several distinct, but very nearly allied, species, and the differences 
observed in the plumage of the immature birds, materially tended to strengthen this 
idea. Temminck and Sabine were the first to point out the mistakes that preceding 
authors had made, and by giving accurate descriptions of the bird in every state 
of plumage from the egg to maturity, have prevented a recurrence of similar errors. 



30.— PROCELLARIA GLACIALIS {Fulmer Petrel). 

PROCELLARIA GLACIALIS.— remm.— vol. ii., p. 802. Lath : hid. Orn.—voX. ii., p. 823. 

Fab : Faun. Grasnl. — p. 86. Gmel. vol. i., p. 563. Sab : Supp, 
to Parry's \st Voyage — p. ccvi. Ross, App. to Parry's 3ii 
Voyage — p. 106 ; and App. to Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 196. 
FULMER PETREL.— Xa<A : Syn.— vol iv., p. 403. Penn .- Arct. Zool.— vol ii., p. 534. Brit. 

Zool. — vol. ii., p. 203. 

Abounds in most parts of the North Atlantic Ocean, but is peculiarly numerous in 
Hudson's Bay, Davis's Strait, and BaflSn's Bay. It is also occasionally met with to the 



NATURAL HISTORY. xxxix 

westward of Lancaster Sound, and in Regent's Inlet, following the whale ships, and 
availing themselves of the success of the fishermen, by feeding ofi' the carcase of the 
whale after it has been deprived of its blubber and turned adrift. It is often of 
essential service to those employed in the capture of the whale, by guiding them to 
those places where the fish are most numerous, and by giving notice of the first appear- 
ance of those animals at the surface of the water, by crowding to the spot from 
all quarters. 



31.— SOMATERIA SPECTABILIS {King Duck). 

SOMATERIA SPECTABILIS.— RicA ; Faun. Bor. Amer.—\o\. ii., p. 447. 
ANASSPECTABILIS.— lemm.— vol.ii., p.851. Gme/.— vol. i., p. 507. Lath: Jkc/. Orn.— vol. ii., p. 845. 
Fab: Faun. Grcenl. — p. 63. Sab: in Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol.xii., p. 553. 
Sab: Supp. to Parry's ist Voyage — p, ccvii. Rich: App. to Parry's 2d 
Voyage — p. 371. Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 106. 
KING DUCK.— Penn. Bnf.Zoo/.— vol. ii.,p.246. .^rcf.Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 554. Lath: Syn.—vo\.vi.,p.i73. 

Vast numbers of this beautiful duck resort annually to the shores and islands of the 
Artie Regions in the breeding season, and have on many occasions afforded a valuable 
and salutary supply of fresh provision to the crews of the vessels employed on 
those seas. On our late voyage, comparatively few were obtained, although seen 
in very great numbers. They do not retire far to the south during the winter, but 
assemble in large flocks; the males by themselves, and the females with their young 
brood, are often met with in the Atlantic Ocean, far distant from any land, where the 
numerous crustaceous and other marine animals afford them abundance of food. 



32.— SOMATERIA MOLLISSIMA (Eider Duck). 

SOMATERIA MOLLISSIMA.— RicA ; Faun. Bor. Amer.—yo\. ii., p. 44. 
ANAS MOLLISSIMA.— remm.— vol. ii., p. 848. Gmel.— vol i., p. 514. Lath : Ind. Orn.— vol. ii. p. 84.V 
Fab : Faun. Grwnl.—'p. 08. Sab : Supp. to Parry's ist Voyage— p. ccviii. 
Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage— -p. 370. Ross, App. to Parry's id Voyage— 
p. 106 ; and Polar Voyage — p. 197. 
EIDER DUCK.— Penn : Brit. Zool.—vo\. ii.,p. 243. Arct. Zool.—\o\. ii., p. 553. 
Lath: Syn. — vol.vi., p. 479. 



xl NATURAL HISTORY. 

Is so similar in its habits to the preceding species, that the same remarks equally 
apply to both. This is, however, more generally known as a European bird, and 
is famous for the beautifully elastic down from which it receives its name. That of the 
.S'. Spectabilis is equally excellent, and is collected in great quantities by the inha- 
bitants of the Danish colonies in Greenland, and forms a valuable source of revenue to 
Denmark. Vast quantities of this down is also collected on the coast of Norway, and 
in some parts of Sweden. 



33.— HERALDA GLACIALIS {Long-tailed Duck). 

HERALDA GLACIALIS.— BicA ; Fuim. Bur. Amer.— vol ii., p. 460. 
ANAS GLACIALIS.— rcmm.— vol. ii., p. 860. Gmel.—voL i., p. 529. Lath : hid. Orn.— vol. ii., p. 864. 
Sab : Tram. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 555. A/>p. to Parry's \st Voyage — p. ccviii. 
Kick : App. to Parry's id Voyage — p. 373. 

ANAS HIEMALIS.— ft* .- F«k«. Green/.— p. 71. 
LONG-TAILED DUCK.— Penn ; Brit. ZooL— vol n., p. 268. Arct. ZooL— vol ii., p. 566. 
Lath : Syn.—vo\. vi., p. 468. 

The most noisy and most numerous of the ducks that visit the shores of Boothia. 
Being a quicker diver, and of more rapid and irregular flight, fewer of this species than 
of the other were shot. Its down is equally valuable with that of the two preceding 
species, but is of a darker colour. Its flesh is most e.xcellent food. 

The pecuhar structure of the trachea of this and the two preceding birds, are. 
described and figured by Captain Sabine, loc. cit. 



34._ANSER BERNICLA (Brent Goose). 

ANSER BERNICLA.— RifA .- Faun. Bar. Amer.— vol li., p. 469. 
ANAS BERNICLA.— r«nm.— vol. li., p. 825. Gmel.—vo\. i., p. 513. Lath : Ind. Urn.— vol ii., p. 844. 
Fab: Faun. Grwnl. — p. 41. Sub: in Franklin's Journey — p. 698. Sab: Supp. 
to Parry's \st Voyage — p. 207. Rich : in App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 367. 
Ross, Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 196. 
BRENT GOOSE.— Pcnn : Brit. ZooL— vol ii., p. 151. Arct. Zool.—vo\. ii., p. 551. 
Lath: Syn. — vol. vi. p. 467. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xli 

This well-known winter inhabitant of the lochs and friths of the Scottish coast, is 
found during tlie summer months in the highest northern latitude that has yet been 
reached, but in no great numbers. It did not remain in the neighbourhood of Felix 
Harbour to breed, but several large flocks were seen on their way to the northward, 
of which only a few were shot. We found them in greater numbers near Fury Point, 
and along the low line of coast to the southward, which, abounding with extensive 
fresh-water lakes, is probably one of their breeding stations. 



35.— ANSER HUTCHINSII {The Less Canada Goose). 



ANSER HUTCHINSII.— K(V/i ; Faim. Bor. Amer.—vo\. ii., p. 470. 
ANAS BERNICLA, l3.—RU-li: App. to Parry's 2d r.)j/««:e— p. 368. 



These birds arrived in flocks about the middle of .June, in the neighbourhood of Felix 
Harbour, and soon after dispersed in pairs to their breeding places. At Igloolik, the 
only place where we had before met with them, their nests were found in the marshes 
near the sea ; but on this occasion several pairs constructed their nests on a ledge of rock 
near the foot of a high precipice ; immediately above them the dovekies, looms, several 
species of gulls, and near its summit the jerfalcon and raven built their nests. 

From tlnee to four eggs were found in each nest, of a pure white, and of an 
oval form, measuring 3.1 inches by 2.1, and weighing from 1800 to 2000 grains. 

The female bird is smaller than the male ; to the measurements given by Dr. 
Richardson, which are very accurate, we may add that its extent of wing is fifty-two 
jjiches, and that it averages about four pounds and a half in weight. 

Its flesh is of a most exquisite flavour. 



xlii NATURAL HISTORY. 



36.— COLYMBUS GLACIALIS {Great Northern Diver). 

COLYMBUS GLACIALIS.— Rich -. Faun. Bor. Amer.— vol ii., p. 474. 

Temm. — vol. ii., p. 910. Fub : Faun. Green. — p. 97. 
Sub ; Franklin's Journey — p. 703. 
NORTHERN DIVER.— Penn .- Brit. ZooL— vol. ii., pp. 16.5, 167, pi. 30. Arct. Zoo/.— vol. ii , p. 518. 

Only three specimens of this magnificent bird were obtained, and in each of these a 
most striking difference was observed in the colour of the bill, from the usual descrip- 
tions of authors. In our specimens the bill being of a very light horn colour, whilst 
in the European bird it is described as being black. There are other differences in 
the relative measurements of our bird, which will be more manifest by comparing the 
dimensions given by Dr. Richardson, loc. cit., with the mean of the measurements of 
our three specimens^ 

36 inches. Mean of bur specimens 31.4 inches 

2.7 
3.65 
5.42 
4.2 
58 
10 pounds. 

Thus it appears that our bird, though four inches and a half shorter, has a bill eight- 
tenths of an inch longer, and ten inches greater extent of wing than that described by 
Dr. Richardson. I should have been disposed to agree with Wilson in supposing that 
there are two species, and have assigned to the Boothian Divers a new specific name' ; 
but on communicating with my friend Joseph Sabine, Esq., whose ornithological e.xpe- 
rience is only exceeded by the ready assistance he affords to whoever may wish 
to avail themselves of his high authority, I am now induced to concur with him 
in the belief that the lighter colour of the bill may be occasioned by age, more 
especially as no ditlerence of any importance could be detected in the colours 
of the plumage. 



Extreme length 


36 ii 


Tail . . . 


4 


Bill above 


3.1 


to rictus . 


4.6 


Tarsus . . 


4.4 


Extent of wing 


48 


Wei 


ght 



NATURAL HISTORY. xliii 



37— COLYMBUS ARCTICUS {Black-throated Diver). 

COLYMBUS ARCTICUS.— RicA : Faun. Bor. Amer.—yo\. ii., p. 475. 

Temm. — vol. ii., p. 913. Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voyage — p. 376. 
BLACK-THROATED DIVER.— Ptnn .- Ant. Zvol.—yohxi.,^. 520. 

This beautiful species of Diver was but rarely met with by us, and only two spe- 
cimens were obtained. 

It is found abundantly in Greenland, which seems to be its chief breeding place. 
The natives make an inner dress of the richly-coloured velvet-like plumage of the 
throat of this and the following species, which being worn next to the skin, is the 
warmest and most luxurious dress that can be made. 



38.-COLYMBUS SEPTENTRIONALIS {Red-throated Diver). 

COLYMBUS SEPTENTRIONALIS.-RicA .- Faun. Bor. Jmcr.—vo]. i,., p. 475. Temm.— vol. ii., p. 916. 

Gme/.— vol. i., p. 586. Lath: Ind. O™.— vol. ii., p. 801. 

Fah: Faun. Grcenl. — p. 94. Sah: Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., 

p. 542. Supp. to Parry's Ist Voyage — p. ccix. Rich : 

App. to Parry's Id Voyage — p. 337. Ross, App. to Parry's 

3d Vox/age — p. 106; and Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 197. 

RED-TIIROATED DIVER— Penn : Brit. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 169. Arcl. Zool.— vol ii.,p.520. 

Lath : Syn. — vol. vi., p. 344. 

Much more abundant in Boothia than either of the two preceding species, and has 
been found in every part of the Arctic Regions visited by the late expeditions. 



F Z 



xliv NATURAL HISTORT. 



39.— URIA BRUNNICHII {Brunnichs Guillemot). 

URIA BRUNNICHII.— RjcA : Faun. Bor. Amer.—vo\. ii., p. 477. Tcmm.—vo\. ii., p. 924. 

Sab: Trans. Linn. Sac. — vol. xii., p. 538. Supp. to Parry's \st roj/.— p.ccjx. 
Rich: App. to Parry's 2d Voy. — p. 377. Ross, App. to Parry's Zd Voy.— 
p. 106; and Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 197. 

Captain Sabine, in his valuable memoir on the birds of Greenland, was the first to 
point out the mistaken notions of preceding authors with respect to this bird, and to 
rescue it from the confusion into wliich wrong synonyms and imperfect descriptions had 
involved it; and in distinguishing it by the name of Brunnich, paid a well-merited tri- 
bute to the indefatigable research and accuracy in observation of that learned 
naturalist. 

It abounds in Baffin's Bay, and is found in most parts of the Arctic Seas. I have 
also met with it at Unst, the northernmost of the Shetland Islands, and in several parts 
of Scotland ; but it has ever been confounded by authors, with the Uria Troille, which 
it so nearly resembles. 

Captain Sabine and Brunnich* have clearly marked the distinctive specific 
characters of this species. 



40._URIA GRYLLE {Black Guillemot). 

URIA GRYLLE.— Bif/i.- Tonn. Bor. Amer.—\o\. ii., p. 478. Temm.—\o\. ii., p. 925. 

Fat ; Faun. Grcenl. — p. 92. Sah : Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 540. 
Sab : Supp. to Parry's 1st Voy. — p. ccix. Rich : App. to Parry's 2d Voy. — p. 377. 
Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 107 ; and Polar Voyage — p. 197. 
BLACK GUILLEMOT.— Penn : Brit. Zool.—vo). ii., p. 163. Arct. Zool.— vol ii., p. 516. 

This well-known beautiful little bird is found during the summer months in 
all parts of the Arctic Seas, and is the only water-fowl that remains in very high 
northern latitudes throughout the winter. 

* Brunnichii Ornithologia Borealis (Uria Troille), No. 109. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xlv 

Di. Richardson has aheady described its plumage, during that season of the year, 
with minute accuracy, from some specimens that were shot by me near Igloolik, 
in March, 1823. One individual only was obtained by us during the winter, althouah 
several others were seen off Fury Point, in February, 1833. 

It was subsequently met with in great numbers as we travelled along the hiuh 
precipitous land between Fury Point and Batty Bay, where they collected in vast 
quantities during the breeding season, affording to our party many delicious meals, and 
proving a valuable addition to our then scanty stock of provision. Several thousands 
were shot by our sportsmen, and by means of this providential supply of fresh food, 
several of the men, that had been long afflicted with that most dreadful malndv, 
the sea scurvy, were restored to health. 

It is not equal in flavour to the preceding species, but is much more numerous and 
more extensively dispersed along the coasts of the Arctic Seas. 



41.— URIA ALLE (Littk Guillemot). 

URIA ALLE.— RiVA .- Fuun. Bar. Amer.— vol ii., p. 470. Ti:mm.—\o\. ii., p. 928. 

Sah : Supp. to Parry's 1st Voyage — p. ccx. Hoss, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — 
p. 107 ; and Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 197. 
ALCA ALLE. — Sab: Trans. Linn. Soc. — vol. xii., p. 554. Fab: Faun. Grant. — p. 84. 
LITTLE AIJK.—Penn .- Arct. Zoo/.— vol. ii., p. 512. Lat/i : Syn.—vo\. v., p. 327. 

t 

Collect during the breeding season in vast numbers along the north and east 
coast of Baffin's Bay, but are seldom to be met with far to the westward of Lancaster 
Sound. A few were seen by us near Leopold Island, and two or three specimens were 
obtained. 



FISH. 



1 CYCLOPTERUS MINUTUS. 

CYCLOPTERUS MINUTUS.— Po//as, Spicil. Zool.— vol vii., p. 12, pi. 3, figs. 7—9. 

Fab : Faun. Grctnl. — p. 135. 

Pallas's description of this extraordinary and beautiful little fish is most perfect. 
It IS the Cyclopthe Menu of Lacepede,* the Boucher Menu of Bonnaterre,t and 
probably the small species of this genus, alluded to by Mr. Couch, in his paper on 
the " Natural History of Fishes found in Cornwall," published in the fourteenth 
volume of the Transactions of the Linneean Society, p. 87. 

It is found in many parts of the Atlantic Ocean; Fabricius observed it m the 
southern parts of Greenland, and great numbers were taken by us from amongst the. 
extensive floating patches of seaweed that are met with off" that coast ; but it has never 
been seen at any great distance to the northward of the Arctic circle. 

It rarely much exceeds an inch in length, and is therefore not used by the natives of 
Greenland as food, but constitutes the chief means of subsistence to the several spe- 
cies of gulls which are seen hovering over those banks of seaweed in astonishing 
numbers. 

# 
* Histoire Naturelle des Poissons — tome ii., p. 60. 
t Planches de I'Encyclop^die Mcthodique. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xlvii 



2.— LIPARIS COMiMUNIS. 



LU'ARIS COMMUNIS.— &6 ; in App. to Parry's Ut Voyage— -p. ccxii. 
CYCLOFTERUS LIPARIS.— iatrpWc, Hist. Nat. Poissons— vol ii., p. G9. 

Fab : Faun, Grwnt. — p. 135, var. ]. 

B/uc/i.— pi. 123, fig. 3. Ross, App. to Parry's Polar Voy. — p. 109. 
CVCLOPTERLS GELATINOSUS '—Pallas, SpicU. Zoot.~vol. vii., p. 21, pi 3, fig. 1. 

Was found in forapaiiy with the preceding, but less numerous; it e.xtends its range 
to the highest northern latitudes, having been found at Spitzbergen, Melville Island, 
Kamschatka, and in almost every part of the Arctic Seas that has been visited by 
the late Expeditions of Discovery. 

Several specimens were obtained by us near Felix Harbour, all of which belong to 
the first variety of this species, noticed by Otho Fabricius, loc. cit., and may eventually 
prove to be a distinct species, although the descriptions of authors and figures quoted 
may equally apply to both varieties, except in the size, and in the absence of the two 
cirrhi in the upper lip, which are wanting in the individual under consideration. 

The average length of our variety, from the tip of the snout to the insertion ol the 
tail, is somewhat more than three inches, whilst that of the larger variety, mentioned 
by Fabricius, is often a foot, and by other authors said to attain sixteen to eio-hteen 
inches. 

The sucking apparatus consists of thirteen tubercles, arranged in a circular fbrm. 
about one-third of an inch in diameter, and placed exactly between the snout and 
the vent. 



3.— OPHIDIUM PARRII. 

OPHIDIUM PARRII.— ilosiJ, App. to Parry's U Voyage— p. 1C9. 

Ross, App. to Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 199. 

This species, which was discovered several years ago in Prince Regents 
Inlet, during Sir Edw^ard Parry's third voyage to the Arctic Seas, belongs to 



xlviii NATURAL HISTORY. 

Cuvier,* subgenus Les Fierasfers, and for the same reason to the second subgenus 
of Lacepcde,t distinguished by the absence of " harbillons aux muchoires.'''' 

A single individual of this very rare species, not exceeding four inches in length, 
was ejected from the stomach of a glaucous gull, shot by us near Felix Harbour. It 
agreed sufficiently well with the description above quoted. 



4.— OPHIDIUM VIRIDE. 

OPIIIDIUM VIRIDE.— fot; f««n. Grofn/.— p. 141. 

Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 110. 
OPHIDIUM UNERNAK — iafe/)e(/e, Hist. Nat. des Poissons—vol ii., p. 282. 

Like the preceding species, was but rarely met with by us ; a few individuals were 
obtained from among the patches of seaweed off the west coast of Greenland, in July, 
1 829, agreeing very exactly with the excellent description of Otho Fabricius, loc. cit. 



5.— GADUS MORHUA {Common Codfish). 

GADUS MORHUA.— CuK .- Reg. Jnim.—vo}. ii., p. 330. Tetede la Afon,e— pi. 10. 
Lacepide, Hist. Nat. des Poissons—vo\. ii., p. 369, pi. 10, fig. 1. 

0-wuk. — Esquimaux of Boothia. 

Becalmed off the west coast of Greenland, in latitude 66i° N, a number of very 
fine codfish were caught by our crew. The bank on which they were found, consists 
of coarse sand, broken shells, and small stones, with from eighteen to thirty fathoms 
water over it. 

* Rtgne Animal— vol. ii., p. 359. 

t Ilistoire Naturelle des Poissons — vol. li., p. 270. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xlii 

There are several other banks of considerable extent along that coast, where the cod- 
fish assemble in the autumn in astonishing numbers ; and although so near to some of 
tlie Danish colonies, but little advantage is derived from those fisheries, \^hich if pro- 
perly managed would doubtless prove of very great benefit to the inhabitants of that 
part of the country, as an article of food, and of considerable value to Denmark in a 
commercial point of view. 

We observed much difference in the number of the rays of the dorsal finr. from 
those given by Lacep^de. In all those examined by me, without a single exceijtion 
the second back fin contained a greater number of rays than either the first or third • 
although there was considerable variation in those of some individuals. 

The following dimensions are taken from an average of fifteen different fishes 
varying in length from twenty-nine to forty-six inches, and in weight from eioht to 
thirty-five pounds: 

Length from tlie tip of the snout to the end of the tail . . 36.7 inches 
of the head to the posterior part of the gill covers . . 9.1 
of the tail (from its insertion) ..... 5.2 

Depth of the tail 74 

Average weight, 161b. 2 oz. 

B 7. P 18. V 6. A 19, 20. D 14, 20, 17. C 38 to 40. 

This fish had never before been found during any of the preceding Arctic expeditions, 
although frequently sought for; but on our late voyage we purchased a number of a 
smaller size, nmch resembling in colour the rock codling of our coast, from a 
party of Esquimaux, who were fishing for them through holes in the ice, that 
covered the inlet on the west side of the peninsula of Boothia, near Cape Isabella, 
HI June, 183],. Those obtained from the natives varied from fourteen to twenty-five 
inches in length, but we were told by them that those taken in the autumn at a short 
distance to the westward often exceeded three feet. 

The alimentary canal of the largest examined by me rather exceeded twice 
the length of tlie body, and was furnished with two hundred and fifty simple 
cylindrical caeca. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



6.— GADUS CALLARIAS. 

GADUS CALLARIAS.— XacepWc, Hist. Nat. des Poissonj— vol. ii., p. 409. 
Cuv: Reg. Anim. — vol. ii., p. 332. 
Fuh : Fuun. Grccnl. — p. 144. 

Il-lit-toke. — Esquimaux of Boothia. 

This species of codfish is found abundantly in the Baltic, the White Sea, and along 
the whole of the continental coast line of the north of Europe. Fabricius describes it 
as being very numerous in many parts of Greenland; and our having found it on the 
north coast of the American continent, along the shores of the inlet to the west of the 
peninsula of Boothia, is an interesting feature in its history. At the same time, 
the fact that the only four species of fish which were found by us in that inlet, being 
also common to Davis's Strait and BafBn's Bay, may be considered an additional proof 
(if any be still wanting) of a water communication between these two seas. It is also 
worthy of remark, that only two of these four species inhabit the sea on the east side 
of the isthmus of Boothia. 

From the middle of May until near the end of June the seal-fisheiy is very unpro- 
ductive, and attended with great labour and difficulty ; the salmon do not arrive until 
the rivers begin to pour their waters into the sea; and during the interval, the 
Esquimaux assemble along the shores of that inlet, and procure a sure and abundant 
supply of this fish. At that period of the year it is in very poor condition, and 
nothing but absolute necessity could induce the natives to seek a kind of food which 
they dislike so much. Our party had been on very short allowance of provisions pre- 
vious to meeting the Esquimaux who were engaged in its capture, and this pro- 
vidential supply of provisions was of essential benefit to us, and we all thought 
it excellent food. 

It is not improbable that the three specimens of a species of Merlangus ? mentioned 
by Captain Sabine,* as having been found frozen in the ice that covered Winter Harbour, 
in Melville Island, belongs to this species, although from the mutilated state of the spe- 
cimens, he was unable to determine their identity. The number of fin rays given by him 
agree very nearly with the average of a number examined by me. It seldom much 

* Supp. to Pairy's 1st Voyage — p. ccxii. 



NATURAL HISTORY. li 

exceeds fourteen inches in length, but some specimens were obtained nearly a foot and 
a half long, from which the following dimensions are given : 

Length from the tip of the snout to the end of the tail . 17.3 inches 

of the head to the posterior part of the gill covers . 4.5 

of the tail (centre rays) . . . . , L2 

from the tip of the snout to the vent . . . 8.6 

Fin Rays : B 7. P 19. V 6. A 22, 22. D 12, 19, 23. C 40 to 44. 

Alimentary canal, fourteen inches. Caecal appendages forty-two, varying from an 
inch and a half to half an inch in length. Cirrhus on the lower jaw 0.7 of an inch long. 



7.— MERLANGUS POLARIS. 

MERLANGUS POLARIS.— 5«6 ; Supp.to Parry's Ut Voyage— p. ccxl 

Ross, App. to Parry's Polar Voyage— p. 199. 

This little fish inhabits the northern seas as far as we have hitherto been able 
to penetrate towards the pole; having been found in lat. 821° N, swimming near the 
surface of the sea, amongst the broken fragments of ice, and atlbrding to the gulls 
and other seafovvl their chief source of siibsistence. 

During our late voyage we found them wherever we went; great numbers were taken 
by us from between the cracks in the ice, which covered the harbour of Batty Bay, in 
July, 1833, and contributed greatly to support the strength of our party, when on a 
very small allowance of provisions. 

At that period of the year it is much infested with the LerncBa gadina, which 
attaches itself to the gills of the fish. 

It does not quit the Arctic Seas during the winter, several having been taken in a net 
at Felix Harbour during that season. 

It seldom exceeds ten inches in length. 



lii NATURAL HISTORY. 



8.— BLENNIUS POLARIS. 

BLENNIUS POLARIS.— .5«i: Supp. to Parry's \st Voyage—^, ccxii. 
Hoss, App. to Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 200. 

B. iinherbis,pinms anali, candali, dorsalique, unilis. (Sabine.) 

Like the Merlangus Polaris, it well deserves the specific name bestowed on it 
by Captain Sabine, from its having been found in the highest northern latitudes. 
It is, however, by no means numerous, and only one specimen was obtained during 
our late voyage ; it was taken from the stomach of a Gadus CaUarias, that was 
caught in the inlet on the west side of the peninsula of Bootliia, and agreed, so 
far as its mutilated state would admit of comparison, with Captain Sabine's de- 
scription, he. cit. 



9.— COTTUS QUADRICORNIS. 

COTTUS QUADRICORNIS.— iacfp^tfe, Hist. Nat. des Poissons— vol. in., p. 241. 

Sab : Supp. to Parry's Ist Voyage — p. ccxiii. 
Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 111. 
Block, Ich. — vol. iii., p. 146, pi. 108. 
COTTUS SCORPOIDES.— fafc ; Faun. Grwnl.—p. 157. 

Kan-ny-yoke. — Esquimaux of Boothia. 

Is abundant along the west coast of Greenland, but is more rarely met with in the 
higher northern latitudes. Two or three individuals were taken in a net in Felix 
Harbour, and several were captured by the natives on the west side of the peninsula of 
Boothia, differing in no respect from the excellent description and plate in the 
Ichthology of Bloch. 

Fabricius observes of the Coitus Scorpius, that although in daily use, it is the 
favourite food of the Greenlanders, and is considered wholesome for the sick ; and 
of the Cotlus Scorpoides, that it is less savoury ; the natives of Boothia, however, 
prize it very highly, preferring it to the codfish or salmon. 

It is also worthy of remark, that the Esquimaux of Boothia apply the same name 
to this fish that the Greenlanders do to the C. Scorpius of Fabricius. 



NATURAL HISTORY. li" 



10.— COTTUS POLARIS. 

COTTUS POLARIS.— .Sni : Supp. to Parn/s 1st Voyage— p. ccxiii. 
C. imberbis, capite spinis duabus, operculis spiiiis quatuor, armatis. (Sabine.) 

This species of Cottus was found abundantly in pools of water, left by the falling of 
the tide, near the mouths of rivers, or streams of fresh water, on the east side of the 
isthmus of Boothia, and particularly so along the low shores of Shenff Harbour. 
Those examined by me agreed very nearly with Captain Sabine's description, excepting, 
only, some slight difference in the number of the fin rays, svhich from the average 
of a great many noted by me, but varying considerably with each other, I found to be 
as follows : 

P 15. V 5. A 15. D 8, 13. C 12 to 14. 

It seldom exceeds two inches in length, and from its numbers, affords a supply 
of food to the gulls, ducks, and other waterfowl that resort to those regions to breed. 



11.— PLEURONECTES HIPPOGLOSSUS. 

PLEURONECTES HIPPOGLOSSUS.— Laccpede, Hist. Nai.dcs Poissojis— vol. iv.,p. (301. 

Cuv: Rig. ^Inim.— vol. ii., p. 340. 
Fab: Faun. Grcenl.—p. 161. 
PLEURONECTE FLETAN.— BZocA, /cA.— pi. 47. 
HALIBUT.— Pcnn. Brit. Zoo/.— vol. iii., p. 184. 

The common Halibut of our shores is found abundantly near the west coast of 
Greenland, but it seldom attains to a very great size. The largest seen by O. 
Fabricius did not much exceed four feet in length : those taken by us varied 
in this from thirty-eight to forty-four inches; and in weight from twenty-two 



liv NATURAL HISTORY. 

to forty- one pounds. According to Lacepede, it has been captured near the coasts 
of Iceland and Norway, of a most enormous magnitude, rivaUing in size some of 
the smaller species of the whale kind ; and Pennant, who had himself seen 
one that weighed three hundred pounds, says, that much larger ones are fre- 
quently taken near Iceland. The following dimensions are the average of ten, 
that we took off the west coast of Greenland, in July, 1829, from the same bank 
tis the Gadiis Moiliiia of this notice. 

Length from the tip of the snout to the end of the tail . 43.1 inches 

of the head to the posterior part of the gill covers 10.7 

of the tail (centre ray) . . . . . . fi.O 

of the rays of the anal and dorsal fins . . . 4.3 

Breadth of the tail 13.3 

of the body 21.1 

Average weight, 34|-lb. 

Number of fin rays : B 7. P 4f . V 6. D 99, A 77. C 17. 



NATURAL HISTORY. Iv 



SALMONES, 



BY JOHN RICHARDSON, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 



The following notices of four specimens of trout, brought from Boothia Felix 
by Captain James Clark Ross, are drawn up in very general temis, that they 
may not occupy more space than that assigned to the other objects of Natural History, 
described in the Appendix ; but figures, with the characters of the species in minute 
detail, will be given in the third volume of the " Fauna Boreali Americana," now 
preparing for publication. 

The first species is, as far as we know, peculiar to the inlet in which it was found. 
It would have been highly interesting to have detected the same species of salmon 
in Coronation Gulf and Regent's Inlet, but the Salmo Hearnii and Mackenzii, and 
several species of Coregonus, found in the former, were not seen in the latter; neitlicr 
have the S. salar, or common salmon, which frequents the rivers from Labrador to the 
forty-second parallel of latitude, nor an undescribed species, resembling the Gorbuscha 
of Kamtschatka, which abounds in New Caledonia, been hitherto detected in the 
American Polar Seas ; nor does the .S*. riamaj/cush (Pennant), a gigantic trout, which 
exists abundantly in all the great American lakes, appear to have been observed in 
the waters of Boothia Felix. The last species, however, that is mentioned in the 
following notices, is common in all parts of the fur countries ; and it is probable that 
.V. nlipes and nitidus have also an extensive range, though want of more southern 
specimens have prevented us from ascertaining the fact. 



Ivi NATURAL HISTORY. 

SALMO ROSSII (Ross's Arctic Salmon). 

ICO^.—Foiin. Bor. Amer.—^\. 80, and the head pi. 85, fig. 2. 

This salmon, named Eekalook by the Esquimaux, was found in vast numbers* in 
the sea near the mouths of rivers, and furnished an agreeable article of diet to the 
members of the Expedition. It is quite distinct from any species that we have 
had an opportunity of seeing in other parts of America, and it does not agree with the 
character of any of those described in the History of Kamtschatka, as quoted in 
" Arctic Zooloiiy," except perhaps with the Salmo mahna (Steller) or Golct of the 
Russians, which corresponds with it in its comparatively slender cylindrical form, 
small scales, scarlet spots on the sides, and the colours of some other parts. But the 
Golet, instead of being found only in the sea, ascends rivers to their very sources, and 
does not congregate in shoals like the Salmo Rossii. None of the Scandinavian 
salmons described by Nilsson have any resemblance to S- liossii. 

The most remarkable peculiarities of this species, are the truncated form of the 
upper jaw ; the length of the lower one, which considerably exceeds the distance between 
the tip of the snout and nape of the neck ; and the smallness and form of its scales. 
These are imbedded in a mucous skin, wliich entirely covers them, except their small 
truncated tips, that project and feel very rough to the touch in the dried specimen. 
The scales are rather remote, being nowhere tiled. The teeth in the jaws are 
remarkably obtuse. In addition to the row on each side of the tongue, which exists in 
all the other Truttce, there are two or more rows of smaller teeth, crowded across the 
tip of that organ. Two drawings by Captain Ross, with the inspection of the dried 
skin, enable us to describe the colours as follows: Back, top of the head, dorsal and 
caudal fins intermediate between oil-green and hair-brown ; sides pearl-grey and 
silvery, with a blush of lilac, marked near the lateral line with scattered round dots of 
carmine. The belly varies from tile-red to arterial blood-red ; the sides of the head are 
nacry. When the fish is out of season, the colour of the lower parts fades to a 



* Some idea may be formed of the amazing inimbers in which the Siilmo liossii visit the rivers of Roothia 
Felix, by mentioning that from a single haul of a small-sized seine net, we landed 33T8 salmon, varying in 
weight from two to fourteen pounds, and avernging something more than four; the whole rather exceeded 
six tons weight. A great many more were enclosed in the net, but escaped through some holes that were for 
Bome time unobserved, and others by leaping over it. — J. C, l!oss. 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ivii 

(lusky-orangc. The flesh is reddish, of different tints in different individuals, being 
best flavoured when the colour is most intense. 

The length of the specimen which was brought home is thirty-four inches, of which 
the head forms one-fifth. 

The following are the numbers of the rays of the fins : 

Br. 12, 13. D 1.3— 0. P 14. V 10. All. C21|. 



SALMO ALIPES {Long-Jimicd Char) 

ICON.— Fflj/n. Bor. Jmcr.— pi. 8!, and llie liead pi. 86, fig. 1. 

This species, which with several other kinds, is included by the Esquimaux under the 
general appellation of Eekalook-peedeook, was found in a small lake, whose waters 
were discharged into the sea by a rivulet about half a mile long. The smallness of its 
scales, and the vomerine teeth being confined to the anterior knob, characterize it as 
belonging to the subdivision Salvelini or Chars of rv'ilsson. Its form is slender, its 
jaws are of nearly equal lengtli, and it differs from all its congeners, that we have seen, 
in the great comparative length of its fins. The scales are small and crowded, but 
not tiled ; they are covered with a thin epidermis, and do not exhibit the projecting 
naked tips, which give so ])cculiar a character to the skin of Sahno Rossii, Even in 
the dried specimen they are perfectly smooth to the touch. No description of the 
colours of this species was furnished to us, but as far as can be judged from the tints 
remaining in the prepared skin, the upper parts were hair-brown, the sides paler, with 
yellowish spots, and the belly white or yellow ; the under fins more or less deeply 
orange. 

The length of the specimen is twenty-four inches, of which the head measures one- 

fiflh. 

Fins: Br. 11, 12. P 15. D 13— 0. V 9. AlOorll. C 19f 



SALMO NITIDUS {T/w Angmalook). 

ICON.— Fuim. Bor. ylwc;-.— pi. 82, fig. 1, and head pi. 86, fig. 2. 

This fish, which is also to be r.inked among the Ciiars, was fiiund in tlie same lake 
with the preceding one, to which it bears much resemblance in the form of the parts of 

*u 



Iviii NATURAL HISTORY. 

the head, and in the size and general character of the scales ; it differs from it, how- 
ever, in having a thicker body, a ventricose belly, and short fins. Its upper jaw, too, is 
comparatively shorter, the distance from the tip of the snout to the extremity of the 
labials, when apphed to the top of the head, falling about an inch short of the nape 
instead of reaching to it as in the preceding species. Its colours are described 
as follows by Captain J. C. Ross : " The body above the lateral line is of a deep green, 
softening towards the belly, which, posteriorly to the pectorals, is of a beautiful yel- 
lowish-red. There are several rows of occellate red spots, confined chiefly to the space 
between the lateral line and the yellowish-red of the belly, and varying in size, the largest 
being as big as a pea. The dorsal fins are of the colour of the back. The pectorals, 
ventrals, and anals, are dusky-red, their first rays white." 

The length of the specimen is twenty inches, of which the head forms more than 

one-fifth. 

Fins: Br. 11, 12. P 17. D 14—0. V 10. A 12. C 214- 



SALMO HOODII {The Masamucush). 

ICON.— Fflwn. Bor. Amcr.—^\. 82, fig. 2, pi. 83, fig. 2, and liead pi. 87, fig. I. 

This Char is well known throughout the fur countries, being found in every river and 
lake. Its Cree name is Masuw-mcEcoos. It resembles the two preceding Chars in its 
scales, but differs from them in the shortness of its jaws, and from the rest of the genus 
in the peculiar smallness of its head, which forms only one-sixth of the total lengtli. 
Plate 82, fig. 2, above quoted, is copied from a drawing made from a recent specimen 
taken at Cumberland House, on the Saskatchewan, lat. 54°, by the lamented officer 
whose name it bears; while plate 83, fig. 2, is from the dried skin brought home 
by Captain J. C. Ross, An individual killed at Fort Enterprise, in March, 1821, 
exhibited the following colours : Back and sides intermediate between olive-green and 
clove-brown, bestudded with moderately large roundish spots of yellowish-grey, 
the colour becoming more dilute as it descends on the sides ; the belly and under jaw 
are white, and there are a few bluish-grey dots in the latter : there are also some small 
and regular dots on the caudal and dorsal fins; irides honey-yellow, scales having 
merely a moderate degree of lustre; there is a row of teeth across the tip of the 
tongue, and a few scattered ones on its centre, as well as the usual row on each side. 

The length of the specimen from Boothia Felix is twenty-one inches. 

Fms: Br. 10, 11. P 16. D 12— 0. V 10. All. C 19 J. 



INSECTS 



DESCRIPTIONS, &c. 

OF THE 

INSECTS BROUGHT HOME BY COMMANDER JAMES CLARK 

ROSS, R.N., F.R.S., &c. 

BY JOHN CURTIS, ESQ., F. L. S., Sic. 

However delighted the naturaHst may be with the productions of his native soil, he 
cannot fail to take a deep interest in objects that are transported from distant regions, 
possessing, as they do, the chaniis of novelty, and frequently presenting to him new 
types of form, or at least species, that he has never before had the opportunity of 
investigating. 

The little collection of Insects lately brought from the Arctic Regions by Com- 
mander Ross, is consequently highly interesting, and the observations interspersed 
through the following pages, from his notes, contain data and information that are 
very important to the entomologist. 

I may here briefly observe, that all the forms in the collection of Insects are strictly 
European, and the greatest variety, as well as number, was found amongst the Lepi- 
doptera, but tliis might arise from the insects of that order being larger and more con- 
spicuous, and consequently more likely to attract the attention, than smaller and 
sometimes almost inanimate objects. I tliink it very probable, however, that the 
Coleoptera are less abundant in the Polar Regions than the Ilymenoptera, Lepidoptera, 
and Diptera. 



Ix NATURAL HISTORY. 

ORDER COLEOPTERA. 

Fam.— DYTISCID^. 
Gen. 95.*— COLYMBETES. (Clairv.) 

1. Moestus, narrow, ovate, somewhat piceous, legs castaiieous, female very finely 
shagreened. 

Length tliree lines, breadth one line and a half. 

Antennise yellowish-brown, ochreous at the base, trophi ochreous, palpi black at the 
apex ; head with two ferruginous spots at the base, and an impressed line and 
puncture on each side the base of the clypeus ; thorax with an impressed punctured 
line all round, deepest at the anterior margin, and a large puncture on each side ; 
elytra very long, slightly convex, piceous and shining, with a violaceous tint in the 
male, dull greenish and finely shagreened in the female ; the lateral margins obscure 
ochre, a few punctures are scattered over them, forming two or three indistinct lines ; 
legs castaneous, underside of thighs and posterior tibise piceous. 

This is the only beetle contained in the collection, and was found in tlie lakes not un- 
commonly; I believe specimens are also in the cabinets of the Zoological Society, that 
were brought home by the late Captain Lyon. 

Two large beetles were captured on the 23d of June, 1831, and anotlier on the 14th 
of July; they were found under stones, but were obliged to be abandoned with other 
valuable portions of the collections in Natural History. 



ORDER DERM A PTER A. 

Gen. 442.— FORFICULA. {Linn.) 

An earwig was taken on the 23d of June, 1831, "they were scarce," Commander 
Ross adds, "but several were found under stones." 

* The numbers of the genera refer to Curtis's Guide to an Arrangement of British Insects. 





-i^^' 





JiA 



L 




■V y 



t 



1 



J 












K^ 








J'ui.^'.'ifqy J.'St. 



NATURAL HISTORY. W 



ORDER IIYMENOPTERA. 

Fam.— ICHNEUMONID^. 
Gen. 484.— ichneumon. {Liirn.) 

2. Lariee. Antennse curled ; rufous, tips of antennse, head, underside of the trunk, 
with the coxse, and a spot and a broad stripe on the abdomen black. 

Plate A, fig. 1. 

Leno-th five lines, breadth ten lines. 

Clothed with very short brownish pubescence, pale castaneous, minutely punctured ; 
antennse and head black, the former filiform, the basal joint rufous, third and four 
following joints paler red ; trunk black, the upper surface of the mesothorax and 
scutellum rufous and shining, metathorax dull and darker above, with a black furcate 
stripe down the back ; abdomen ovate, very thickly punctured, a black dot at the 
base of the second segment, the third \Mth a broad black stripe down the middle, 
concave on each side, the remainder black with a rufous spot on each side at the base 
of the fourth segment, petiole rather short, narrowed at the base ; wings tinged with 
yellowish fuscous, nervures and stigma ferruginous ochre, areolet quinquangular ; legs 
rather stout, coxa and trochanters black, the former with a red spot on the upper side 
in the hinder pair. 

This Ichneumon infested the larva; of the Laria Rossii, from which it was bred 
early in July, another was taken on the 8th of the same month, but they were not 
very numerous. 

Gen. 516.— EPIIIALTES. (Grav.) 

A fragment only of a female was preserved, but from the existence of the specmien 
it might be inferred that fir trees or stumps were in the neiglibourhood. The meta- 
thorax, abdomen, sheaths of the oviduct, and posterior coxa; and trochanters are black, 
the remainder of the legs red, the tarsi dusky at the apex; oviduct ochreous ; mfcrior 
wings transparent, nervures piceous. It is similar in form to E. Carbonarius (Cliris;.), 
but considerably smaller I believe. 



ixn NATURAL HISTORY- 



Gen. 529.— CAMPOPLEX ? (Grav.) 

3. Arcticus. Black, legs fulvous. 

Length four lines, breadth seven lines and a half. 

Black and pubescent; antennjB as lung as the insect, subsetaceous and not very 
slender ; head and thorax thickly but minutely punctured, the former short, the latter 
subglobose, abdomen shining, clavate, and slightly compressed at the apex, peduncle 
rather short ; wings transparent, areolet very small, subtrigonate, with the base angu- 
lated, and the nervures uniting at the apex before they reach the marginal cell ; 
nervures and stigma piceous, the latter narrow ; legs fulvous, coxse, trochanters, and tips 
of tarsi black ; the spurs to the four posterior tibise rather long and slender. 

Gen. 554.— MICROGASTER. {Lat.) 

4. Unicolor. Black, wings nearly colourless. 
Length one line one-third, breadth three lines. 

Black, thickly and minutely punctured, base of the tibiee dirty ochre, spurs at the 
apex brighter ; wings transparent but stained with black, nervures and stigma ochreous 
brown, areolet imperfect.* 

A male was bred from a cluster of cocoons, enveloped in a silky ball, resembling 
those containing the eggs of some spiders. 

Fam.— EORMIClDiE. 

Gen. 661.— MYRMICA. {Lat.) 

5. Rubra. (Linn.) 

" In great numbers under stones." 

Fam.— APID.E. 
Gen. 723.— BOMBUS. (Lat.) 

6. Kirbietlus. Black, anterior and posterior margins of the thorax and base and 
apex of abdomen clothed with yellowish hairs. 

• Vide Cuvtis's British Entomology — vol. vii., folio and plate 321. 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixiii 

Male 7^ lilies long, 16 lines broad 
Female 10 ... 20 
Xeuter 7 .... 13 

Male. Black, antennae as long as the thorax, compressed at the apex; fa< e 
and crown of head clothed with long yellow and black hairs ; thorax yellow with hairs, 
having a transverse black band between the wings, basal half of abdomen yellow, the 
remainder orange, with a narrow black band across the middle ; wings slightly yellow 
at the costa, the posterior margin slightly stained with brown, nervures piceous ; basal 
joint of tarsi clothed inside with bright fen-iiginous hairs ; spurs, base of claws, and 
apex of tarsi ochreous. 

Female, pi. A, fig. 2. 

Black, a broad margin in front of the thorax, hinder margin of scutellum, and the 
abdomen, excepting the third segment and the apex, clothed with long yellow-ochreous 
hairs ; wings yellowish, excepting the posterior margin, the nervures piceous; inside of 
the tarsi with the pile bright ferruginous ; tips of spurs, apical joint of tarsi, and base 
of claws subcastaneous. 

Neuter. Similar to the female but much smaller, the hairs beyond the black band 
on the abdomen are generally orange, and the whole of the tarsi, excepting the basal 
joint, is subcastaneous. 

I have named this bee, which seemed to be the most abundant species, after my 
esteemed friend the Reverend William Kirby. 

7. Polaris. Black, clothed with yellow hairs above, with a black band across the 
thorax, and an indistinct one across the abdomen. 

Male 6 lines long, 15 lines broad 
Female 10 ... 20 

Male. Black, clothed with yellow hairs ; head black, with a patch of yellow haiis 
on the ilice, and another on the back part of the head, a blackish band across the 
centre of the thorax, and an indistinct nan-ow one on the third and fourth segments of 
the abdomen, the apex orange; inside of tarsi clothed with yellowish pile. 

Female. Black, a broad band across the anterior portion of the thorax, the 
scutellum, and abdomen clothed with long yellow hairs, whitish towards the apex 
of the abdomen, with a few black hairs on the sides of the third segment, a band of 
the same colour on the fourth, and a very slight one on the fifth segment; the tarsi 
clothed with black pile internally, the outside of the basal joints brownish, the edges 
ferruginous. 



Ixiv NATURAL HISTORY. 

A pair only of this species was preserved, in size and many respects it resembles B. 
Kirbiellus, but the indistinct and somewhat double band of black hairs across the ab- 
domen will distinguisli it, and tlie yellow pile inside of tlie tarsi in the male and the 
black in the female, are sufKcient characters I think to justify its being separated from 
the former species. 

R. Arcticus. (Kirby in the Supplement to the Appendix of Captain Parry's 1st 
Voyage, p. ccxvi.) 

An imperfect male was the only specimen brought home of the species. 

As Commander Ross's observations embrace the above three species, I shall be under 
the necessity of imbodying them ; but that is of little importance, as their habits must 
be very similar. 

" The largest bee seems to be the earliest insect on the wing ; it is generally seen 
early in June, but the smaller specimens do not appear until the middle or end of 
July." It may be observed that the females are the largest, and the next in size 
the males; these make their appearance first, and the neuters, or working class, come 
later, when more flowers probably are out, and their labours are less interrupted by 
unsettled weather. 

"The first female was seen on the 7th of June, 1830, they were very abundant on 
the 2d of July, and on the 14th a neuter was taken ; on the following day they were 
veiy numerous, and the females less abundant, but a few were observed as late as the 
18th of August, soon after which time they seem in a very weak state." 

" In 1831 the first bee was seen on the 19th of June, on the '26th two females, and 
on the 8th of July several were captured ; on the 14th many females, on the succeeding 
day some neuters, and on the 27 th of August, 1832, a large bee was seen." 



ORDER TRICHOPTERA. 

Fam.—PIIUYGANID^. 
Gen. 7G0.— TINODES? (Leach.) 

9. Ilirtipes. Slate colour, wings pale fuscous. 
Length two lines and a half, breadth nine lines. 
Pale slate colour, sparingly clothed with long whitish hairs ; head small ; eyes pro- 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixv 

minent, as well as two ocelli ; wings pale ochreous fuscous, pubescent and glossy, 
superior elongated and narrow, gradually narrowed to tlie base ; cilia short ; inferior 
wings iridiscent ; tibiae and tarsi dull ochreous, with numerous short black bristles 
inside, and especially beneath the latter; the four posterior tibiaa furnished with 
ochreous spurs at the apex. 

This insect has the habit of a Tinodes, but the neuration of the wings does not 
quite agree with any in my possession, and it has but one pair of spurs to the posterior 
tibiae; if, therefore, the antennae were not wanting, I should be disposed to give it 
a generic name. 



ORDER LEPIDOPTERA. 

Fam.— PAPILIONID^. 

Gen. 767. — COLIAS. (Fah.) 

10. Boothii. Yellow, posterior margins blackish, cilia rosy; a black spot on the 
superior wings, the disc orange, and a spot of the same colour on the inferior. 

Expansion of wings two inches. 

PL A, fig. 3 ^,4 ? , 5 underside of $ . 

Male. Antennae crimson, the club beneath ochreous, above brow-n : thorax and 
abdomen black, clothed with long whitish hairs, rosy on the collar and head ; wings 
sulphur colour, freckled with black at the base, and at the posterior margins forming a 
dentated fimbria, which vanishes before reaching the anal angle ; costa and cilia rosy, 
the nervures sometimes rather dark in the superior wings, with a large space of orange 
not approaching the costa or posterior margin ; at the apex of the discoidal cell is 
a black sublunulate spot ; inferior wings with a ferge orange spot on the disc, and 
sometimes a small one above it ; underside thickly freckled with black, especially the 
inferior wings, but less so at the posterior margins; the entire edges of the wings are 
rosy; superior with a whitish dot on the black spot, which is variously formed ; inferior 
with a large and small whitish spot on the disc, surrounded with reddish-chestnut 
colour, forming two tails towards the posterior margin, a spot of the same colour at the 
base, and frequently a lunate brown spot on the upper edge ; legs rosy. 

Female. Similar to the male, but the black freckled fimbria to the wings is broader 



Ixvi NATURAL HISTORY. 

and ornamented with seven large yellow spots in the superior, and six in the inferior, 
which are, excepting these spots, entirely freckled with black, and have a greenish 
tinge ; the underside is darker and brighter than in the male, the inferior wings and the 
freckled parts of the superior are green, parallel to the posterior margin is a line of sub- 
trigonate spots, very distinct and black in the superior, and reddish-brown in the 
inferior wings. 

A small specimen of the male, I observe, has indistinct yellow spots on the fimbria 
of the superior wings, and the castaneous comet-shaped spots on the underside of the 
inferior are very small, and in one female the black spot in the upper, and the orange 
spots in the inferior wings are very large, and in another female the upperside very 
much resembles the male. 

At the request of Commander Ross, I have named this handsome insect after Felix 
Booth, Esq., the munificent patron of the Expedition. 

11. Chione. Male, yellow, superior wings orange on the disc, with an orange 
spot near the centre of all the wings. Female ? with the nervures and a spot near the 
disc black, with a broad black fimbria spotted yellow. 

Expansion one inch eight lines to one inch ten lines. 

PI. A, fig. 6, $. 

Mate similar to C. Boothii, but the spot at the apex of the discoidal cell is orange, 
and the posterior margins of the wings are very slightly freckled with black ; the under- 
side in some examples resembles the female rather than the male of the same species. 

Female, greenish sulphur, superior wings slightly orange on the disc, with the ner- 
vures and a lunulate spot black, a broad black fimbria bearing six or seven small sul- 
phureous spots ; inferior with a similar fimbria, but less perfect, and an orange spot on 
the disc ; underside pale greenish sulphur, similar to C. Boothii, but having only one 
comet-shaped spot on the under wings. 

Knowing how variable some species of the genus Colias are,* I have great doubts if 
this be any more than a variety of C. Boothii. There are other specimens, which 
I believe are varieties of the female occasioned by age and other circumstances, being 
much paler, with the black of the nervures very much suffused, so much so in one 
specimen, as to render nearly the whole of the superior wings of the same colour 
as the fimbria. 

" These butterflies generally appear about the middle of July, as well as the two 

• I need only instance P. Elec/ra Linn. (C. EJttsa Fab.), which is of a deep orange colour, yet the 
female is sometimes met with of a pale yellow, and during my visit to the south of France, I took one of 
these females paired with a male of the usual orange colour 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixvii 

following species, they are chiefly found upon the Oxi/tropis Campestris and O. Arctica, 
two papilionaceous plants ; they were captured from the 14th of July to the 13th of 
August, 1830, and on the 19th were in a very wasted state ; on the 14th of July, of the 
following year, one Colias only was taken." 



Gen. 770.— HIPPARCHIA. {Fab.) 

12. Rossii. Brownish-black, antennae ochreous, superior wings with two rufous 
spots, with a black centre; having a white pupil also on the underside. 
Expansion of wings two inches. 
PI. A, fig. 7, underside of male. 

Male blackish ; palpi rather long and very hairy ; antennae slender and ochreous, the 
club elongated ; wings rounded, blackish-brown, with a slight bloom of violet, 
superior with two red spots towards the apex, with a black pupil, the superior one the 
smaller, cilia dull ochre, indistinctly spotted with brown ; underside with the disc of the 
superior wings chestnut colour, and two red spots towards the apex, each having a 
white pupil and black ocellus ; inferior freckled and variegated with ochre, forming 
several spots towards the base, and an indistinct band beyond the centre, on the 
external edge of which are four ochreous dots ; inside of four posterior legs pale 
ochreous. 

Female blackish, with an ochreous shade, the rufous spots towards the apex paler, 
with the black pupil more or less distinct, and one or two smaller rufous spots between 
them and the posterior angle ; the antennae are dotted with black on the upper side, 
and the club is dark above and very much compressed; underside with the superior 
wings more rust-coloured, and the two spots ochreous ; the spots and fascia on the 
inferior wings more distinct, the margins of the latter, especially the hinder one, 
dentated. 

This very distinct Papilio, I have the pleasure of dedicating to my friend Com- 
mander James Clark Ross, F. R. S., &c., whose zeal for natural history is equalled 
only by that enterprise and energy which have characterized all his undertakings, and 
carried him so successfully through his various voyages to the Arctic Regions. 

Five specimens only were brought home, " they were scarce, and frequented the pre- 
cipitous faces of dark-coloured rocks and loose stones. I never found," says Com- 
mander Ross, " any of them on flowers of any kind. A few- specimens were obtained 
on the 18th and 25th of July, 1830, and one on the 14th of the same month the year 
following." 

*i2 



Ixviii NATURAL HISTORY. 

13. Subhyaliua. Wings semitransparent, fuscous, costa freckled with black and 
white, two small black spots towards the apex with white pupils, most distinct on the 
underside. 

Expansion one inch eleven lines. 

Male black, antennas ochreous, the club elongated ; wings semitransparent, pale 
fuscous, nervures ochreous, costa black, freckled with white ; two indistinct white dots 
towards the apex with blackish ocelli, cilia whitish, spotted with black ; underside of 
superior wings similar to the upper, but the ocellated spots are distinct, and the 
surface, excepting the disc, is mottled with ochre and pale black, brightest at the apex ; 
inferior wings spotted and mottled with black and dirty white, forming a waved 
and curved pale line beyond the middle, with three or four whitish dots beyond it. 

A single male was preserved, and probably was taken with the last species, of which, 
at first sight, I thought it had been only an old and faded specimen, but on 
examination it proved to be in good condition. 



Gen. 775.— MELIT^A. {Fab.) 

14. Tarquinius. Wings tawny, spotted with black, inferior wings beneath with 
several pearly spots edged with black, an irregular pearly line beyond the middle, and 
seven spots of the same on the margin. 

Expansion from one inch six lines to one inch ten lines. 

Black, antennae with a large spoon-shaped club, the tip and underside tawny ; palpi 
somewhat ochreous beneath, freckled with scarlet outside ; wings tawny orange, blaqk 
at the base, superior with three long black spots on the discoidal cell, and a waved line 
across the middle formed of black crescents, beyond is a row of six black spots, and 
close to the posterior margin a line of a's, alternating with the same number of spots, 
which variegate the white cilia ; inferior similarly marked ; underside, superior wings 
paler, sometimes ochreous at the tip, variegated with ferruginous, the spots from the 
upper side apparent, but smaller and fainter ; inferior wings reddish-brown, a little 
variegated with ochre, with three pearly spots at the base, a v shaped one, and two 
larger elongate-trigonate spots, margined with black beyond them, across the middle is 
a row of black a's, with an irregular line of pearly crescents, with six small black 
spots beyond it, and seven pearly spots on the margin, edged internally with black a's, 
the superior margin is also pearly, the cilia pale ochreous spotted with black ; legs dull 
ochreous, thighs scarlet on the upperside. 

As this insect does not agree with the P. Tullia of O. Fabricius, and I have reason 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixix 

to believe that several species have been detected in the Polar Regions, I have care- 
fully described it and given it a name. 

M. Tarqiiinius was an abundant species, and like the Coliades was found feeding on 
the flowers of Oxytropis Campestris and O. Arctica ; specimens were captured on the 
10th of June, and between the 2d and 14th of July, 1830, they were most abundant; 
in 1831 the first butterfly seen was one of this species; this was the 10th of July, and 
on the 14th two more were taken. Commander Ross was so fortunate as to discover 
the caterpillar apparently of this species, from its structure resembling those larvae that 
are known of the European Melitaeos. " I do not know the caterpillar of any of the 
butterflies, unless it be that of the Melitaea, of which I made the following description. 
It measured exactly an inch in length, by 0.22 of an inch, it was composed of thirteen 
segments besides the hindermost one ; the first and last segments with two, the second 
and twelfth segments with four, and all the other segments of the body with six 
prickles or horns, and disposed in rows and equidistant on each side of the back. 
Colour dark brown, with a line of white spots along each side. Some caterpillars 
I have seen entirely of a blackish-brown, or rather brownish-black ; one that was found 
under a stone in the middle of March, and of course perfectly hard frozen, showed 
symptoms of life in half an hour after being brought into the cabin, and in less than 
an hour it was walking about the table. It is thus described in my note book, and 
difiers so much from the others, that it probably belongs to another species. Length 
0.75 of an inch ; three rows of prickles on each side of the back ; twelve ribs or seg- 
ments and a white dorsal hne along the back ; colour above brownish-black, beneath 
clove-brown." It possibly may be the same caterpillar in an earlier stage, as the 
different skins vary considerably. 



Gen. 779.— POLYOMMATUS. {Lat.) 

15. Fia)il;/iiiii. Silvery grey, with a black ocellated dot on the centre of eacli 
wing, beneath brown, with numerous white spots, those on the upper wing with large 
black pupils, in the under wings with only small ones or none. 

Expansion from eleven to thirteen lines. 

PI. A, figs. 8 and 9. 

Black with bluish hairs, palpi bluish white, margins of eyes silvery white ; antenna- 
dotted with white, club orange, excepting the back ; wings greyish powdered with 
silvery green, especially at the base, the spots on the underside slightly visible, a black 
spot on the disc on each wing witli a whitish margin ; the edges of the wings fuscous, 



Ixx NATURAL HISTORY. 

the posterior with a hue of indistinct whitish ocelli along the margin ; ciUa white ; 
underside, superior wings with a white spot towards the base, and another on the disc 
with a long black pupil, beyond them is a curved line of six black spots ocellated with 
white, and near the posterior margin the same number of indistinct kidney-shaped 
blackish spots margined with white ; inferior wings fuscous freckled with gold, but 
blue at the base, five whitish spots towards the base, the three outer ones with black 
pupils, four similar ones in a line beyond the middle, touching a row of eight whitish 
lunules bearing blackish spots, two towards the centre being the largest, and sometimes 
crescent-shaped ; legs bluish-white. 

I have named this pretty species after Sir John Franklin, whose overland expeditions 
in the Northern Regions have so greatly contributed to our knowledge of the geography 
and natural history of that part of the world. 

" Only two individuals of this species were taken ; they were feeding on Astragalus 
Alpinus near the end of July." 



Fam.— BOMBYCIDiE, or ARCTIID.E. 
Gen. 814.— LARIA. {Schr.) 

16. Rossii. Transparent grey, superior wings with two blackish waved lines 
forming a fascia across the middle, with a spot between them, and a similar sinuated 
line beyond them ; inferior wings cream colour, ochreous inside with a blackish 
fimbria. 

Expansion of male one inch eight lines, female one inch ten lines. 

PI. A, fig. 10. 

Male yellowish-grey, a spot on each shoulder, and the abdomen darker ; superior 
wings semitransparent, the costa blackish interrupted with grey, a waved blackish line 
before and another beyond the middle, with a crescent-shaped spot at the extremity of 
the discoidal cell, and a very sinuated and dentated line near to the posterior margin ; 
cilia blackish, spotted with ochre ; inferior wings cream colour, the abdominal margin 
ochreous, as well as the cilia, with a blackish fimbria. 

Female apparently paler, but very much injured. 

I have named this very distinct moth after Captain Ross, who first penetrated 
these inhospitable regions, and to whom we are indebted for many additions to our 
zoological collections. 

It is a very abundant insect, especially in the caterpillar state, for about a hundred 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixxi 

were collected on the 16th of June, 1832, near Fury Beach ; the first that was seen in 
the previous year was on the 19th of June, and several more on the 23d. The cater- 
pillar is large and hairy, of a beautiful shining velvety black, the hairs being somewhat 
ochreous, there are two tufts of black hair on the back, followed by two of orange. A 
great number of them are destroyed by several kinds of flies and ichneumons, one of 
which is represented at fig. 1 ; but those that arrive at maturity spin a close web, about 
the size of the silkworm's, and covered outside with its hairs, the pupa is piceous and 
shining, and the back thickly clothed with long brownish-ochre hairs its whole length ; 
the moth appears about the beginning of August. The following interesting experi- 
ments I have transcribed from Commander Ross's MSS. " About thirty of the 
caterpillars were put into a box in the middle of September, and after being exposed to 
the severe winter temperature of the next three months, they were brought into a warm 
cabin, where in less than two hours, every one of them returned to life, and continued 
for a whole day walking about ; they were again exposed to the air at a temperature of 
about 40° below zero, and became immediately hard frozen ; in this state they remained 
a week, and on being brought again into the cabin, only twenty-three came to life ; 
these were at the end of four hours put out once more into the air, and again 
hard frozen ; after another week they were brought in, when only eleven were restored 
to life ; a fourth time they were exposed to the winter temperature, and only two 
returned to life on being again brought into the cabin ; these two survived the winter, 
and in May an imperfect Laria was produced from one, and six flies from the other ; 
both of them formed cocoons, but that which produced the flies was not so perfect as 
the other." The caterpillar " feeds mostly on the Saxifraga trkuspidata and .*>'. 
oppositifolia. 



Gen. 820.— EYPREPIA. {Ochs.) 

17. Hi/perboreus. Castaneous brown, superior wings with a spot on the costa, and 
an interrupted stripe towards the hinder margin cream colour ; inferior win^s with an 
orange band across the middle, bearing a brown spot ; the margin orange also. 

Expansion one inch eleven lines. 

Male castaneous brown, antennaj black, the rays short ; the superior wings with a 
cream coloured spot at the middle of the costa, and a waved stripe of the same colour 
near the posterior margin, nearly divided in the middle ; inferior wings oclireous freckled 
with scarlet, castaneous brown at the base, an elongated spot at the middle, and 
a sinuated fascia beyond it of the same colour ; margin of the abdomen, upper side of 



Ixxii NATURAL HISTORY. 

the thighs, and underside of wings vermihon, variegated with the ochre and brown of 
the upper surface. 

On the 8th of August, this splendid moth was brought on board by one of the men, 
it was the only one seen, and too much inj ured for drawing. In a former voyage 
a similar insect was brought home by Captain Lyon, this may therefore be only 
a remarkable variety. 

Fam.— NOCTUID^. 
Gen. 849.— HADENA.* (Sckr.) 

18. Richardsoni. Brown and pale grey, the upper wings with an ear-shaped and 
two other spots on the disc, and two denticulated strigae beyond them ; inferior, dirty 
white, the base and a fimbria fuscous. 

Expansion one inch five lines. 

PI. A, fig. 11. 

Male pale grey, palpi and antennae black, the latter ciliated beneath ;t head and 
thorax variegated with black ; abdomen fuscous ; superior wings brown, the costa 
spotted with grey and black, two grey waved strigae near the base edged with black, 
with a small black oval attached to the second, above it is a small black ring united to 
a larger ear-shaped spot, beyond them is a curved denticulated grey striga edged inside 
with black, and a darker one near to the posterior margin ; ciha whitish, spotted with 
black ; inferior wings ochi-eous white, a lunulate spot on the disc, the base and fimbria 
pale black ; legs spotted with black ; wings beneath yellowish-white, with a fuscous 
lunulate spot on the disc of each, and a fimbria of the same colour. 

1 have named this very distinct moth after Dr. Richardson, the friend and companion 
of Sir John Franklin. 

Two males only were brought home, they were captured on the 25th of July, 
1830, and it was by no means a numerous species. It considerably resembles tlie 
Noctua Lappo of Godart, but is at once distinguished by the white on the under wings, 
and it is worthy of remark, that the only specimen I have seen of that moth was 
captured in Forfarshire, Scotland, and presented to me by Charles Lyell, Esq. 

* For the character of this genus, see Curtis's Brit. Ent. — fol. 308. 

t The tips are represented as in the specimen ; lliey appear to be brolien off. 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixxii. 

Fam.— PHAL.ENID^. 

Gen.— PSYCHOPHORA. (Khhj/.) 

Antenna rather short and setaceous, bipectinated in the male, simple in the female; 
the rays very short at the base, and vanishing towards the apex ; each joint producing 
two, which are clavate and pubescent (fig. 7 a) ; maxillce long and spiral ; palpi por- 
rected horizontally, short and very hairy, projecting a little beyond the head ; head and 
eyes rather small ; thorax subglobose and hairy ; abdomen short subcylindric, tufted at 
the apex in the male with a pair of horney incurved spoon-shaped forceps ; wings, 
superior subtrigonate, the apex a little angulated in the female ; legs, posterior a little 
the longest ; tibiae, anterior short, with an internal spine, the others longer, with a 
pair of spurs at the apex, the posterior with a pair also below the middle; claws 
simple and distinct. 

19. Sahini. (Kirby.) Cinereous, superior wings with an obscure dark patch at the 
base, and a slightly angulated fascia across the middle narrowed at the interior 
margin, the edges sinuated, with a dot on the disc; inferior wings paler, with two 
obscure transverse hnes ; underside whitish-cinereous, with a fuscous spot on the 
costa ; the cilia spotted fuscous. 

Expansion from one inch to one inch and two lines. 

Plate A, fig. 12, male ; fig. 7, the head in profile. 

Mr. Kirby's description being incomplete, from his want of perfect specimens, I 
have endeavoured to supply the deficiency by giving the generic characters. When I 
published the genus VsoAos {Treit.*), I thought, from the observations of Mr. Kirby, that 
P. trepidaria might be allied to his genus Psycophora, if not synonymous, but I am 
now satisfied that it is considerably removed from it. It bears considerable resem- 
blance to the genus Tliera {Sle), but is most probably allied to Zerynthia.f 

Gen. 915.— OPORABIA. {Ste?) 

20. Piinctipes. Cinereous, superior wings with an oblique fascia, and several pale 
waved strigas ; legs spotted with white. 

• Curtis's Brit. Ent.— vol. i,\., pi. 424. f lb.— vol. vii., pi. 296. 

#1.- 



Ixxir NATURAL HISTORY. 

Expansion one inch and two lines. 

AntenniE blackish, setaceous, pubescent beneath ; maxillae long and spiral ; palpi 
short, not very thickly clothed with scales ; superior wings cinereous, with a darker 
patch at the base, a faint oblique fascia across the middle; narrowed towards the 
interior margin, the edges crenated, with two very waved pale lines between it and 
the base, and three beyond it, and a dot on the disc ; cilia spotted ; legs fuscous, tips oi 
all the joints of the tarsi, of the tibiae, and a spot on the centre of the latter, white ; the 
middle tibiae are spurred at the apex. 

An imperfect specimen, wanting the body and under wings, was brought home. 



Fam.— TORTRICID.E. 
*Gen. 960.— ORTHOT^NIA. {Ste.) 

21. Bentleyana. (Don.) Ochreous brown, superior wings variegated with numerous 
whitish silvery spots, forming irregular lines, with a distinct round one at the centre, 
the costa spotted brown and white, each of the white dots bearing a brown one; 
inferior wings pale fuscous. 

Expansion from ten to twelve lines. 

Bentleyana. Don: Brit. /««.— vol. x., pi. 357, fig. 1. 

Pmetana. Hub: Tor^— pi. 10, fig. 57 ? 

I believe several specimens were taken the 2d of July, 1830, and the 14th of the 
same month the following year. This is an interesting discoveiy, as it shows the dis- 
tribution and times of appearance of a small moth. In ascending Schichallien in 
company with my friend Mr. Dale, on the 11th of July, 1825, we met with this insect 
in great abundance on the north side, near and at the top, upon the turf amongst the 
rocks; we found it in a subsequent year amongst heath, at an elevation of about 1000 
feet, on mountains in the neighbourhood of Ambleside in the middle of June, and 
afterwards at Trafford, near Manchester. 

22. Septentriotiaiia. Dark brown, superior wings with a darker oblique fascia, the 
costa spotted with white ; inferior wings fuscous white. 

Expansion seven lines. 

Blackish-brown, superior wings somewhat variegated with grey, with an indistinct 
oblique band across the middle, narrowest at the costa, which is marked with six or 

* Curtis's Brit. Ent. — vol. viii., fol. 364. 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixxv 

seven silvery white rays, several of them divided by a darker line ; cilia ochreous 
white, spotted at the base with brown; inferior wings, legs, and underside, pale fuscous 
white. 

The box contained two specimens of this small Tortrix, which resembles a little the 
T. hybridana of Hiibner, pi. 38, fig. 238. 



Gen. 964.— ARGYROTOSA ? {Ste.) 

23. Parryana. Grey, superior wings with an angulated brown band near the base, 
an incomplete one across the middle, and the apex of the same colour. 

Expansion eight lines. , 

PI. A, fig. 13. 

Brown, head and sides of thorax inclining to ferruginous, apex of abdomen ochreous; 
superior wings pale grey, with a lilac tinge, and delicately tessellated with brown, an 
angulated brown band near the base, indistinct at the costa, and another at the middle, 
vanishing at the interior margin, very narrow at the costa, and angulated and dilated 
outside at the disc, a round spot of the same colour at the tip, and three smaller ones 
approaching it on the costa ; inferior wings a little paler, the margin and cilia ochreous- 
fuscous. 

The antennae were broken oft' of the only specimen preserved of this very distinct 
Tortrix, which I have named after Sir William Edward Parry. 



ORDER XIII.— H EMI PT ERA. 

Fam.— ACANTHIDiE. 
Gen. 1094 ACANTHIA. {Lat.) 

24. Stellata. Blackish sericeous, elytra with a pale spot at the centre, and several 
at the apex ; legs ochreous. 

Length three lines. 

Black, clothed with very short shining hairs ; thorax transverse ; the edges beneatli 
subochreous, as well as the centre of the antepectus ; scutellum rather large ; elytra 
with the costa reflexed at the base, a semitransparent spot at the base, another on the 

*K 2 



Ixxvi NATURAL HISTORY. 

disc, and eight or nine arranged in a circle on the subtnembranous apex; margins 
of abdominal segments beneath ochreous, and forming a row of dots down each side ; 
legs dirty ochre somewhat freckled with piceous. 

The head is wanting to the only specimen I have seen ; it most resembles A. Zostera 
of Fabricius, but is very distinct from my examples of that insect ; as some of its 
larvae or pupae were found, it is probably not uncommon in the Polar Regions. 



Gen. 1094«.— PEDETICUS? {Lap.) 

25. Variegatus. Black, sides of thorax and numerous spots on the elytra whitish 
ochre ; legs spotted with white and ochre. 

Length two lines and one-third. 

Black, clothed with shining pubescence and black hairs ; eyes large, very globose 
and prominent, subferruginous striped with black, the clypeus, excepting a stripe 
down the middle, apex of the labrum, internal margin of the eyes, and a triangular 
spot on each side beneath, ochreous ; thorax trapezate, gibbose on the back, with 
a fovea at the centre, the base very concave, the sides pale ochreous ; elytra with a pale 
ochreous patch near the base, another beyond the middle, and a semiorbicular one at 
the apex, divided into several spots by the black nervures, each bearing a blackish dot ; 
legs hairy ; antepectus, coxae, trochanters, and base of thighs, excepting the anterior, 
whitish ochre, the thighs striped beneath with black ; the tips, two broad bands on the 
tibiae, excepting the posterior, and the apical portion of the basal joint of the tarsi, 
ochreous. 



ORDER XV.— DIPTERA. 

Fam.— CULICID^. 

Gen. 1137.— CULEX. (Limi.) 

26. Caspius. (Pall.) Black, head and thorax griseous, abdomen with seven 
white bands. 

From two to three lines long, from four to six broad. 

C. Pipiens. Fab: Faun. Granl.—p. 209, n. 171, 

Several females, but not one male, were brought home ; this may be accounted for, 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixxvii 

either from the males appearing earher or later, or from their not being sanguinary ; 
I have frequently for a week together found the females of Ctilex annulatus con- 
gregated in summer-houses in gardens, without being able to discover a single male.* 

Commander Ross remarks, "Of this genus only one species was observed. It first 
appeared about the 10th of July, on the 15th it became very numerous, and on tlic 
22d so extremely troublesome, as to prevent the necessary duties of the ship. They 
were in perfect clouds over the marshes, and their larvae constitute the principal food 
of the trout that inhabit the lakes. It was only in the beautiful summer of 1830 that 
we found them so very numerous. On the 13th of August of that year they came 
out again after the rain, but were no longer very troublesome, being apparently nipped 
by the frost at night ; indeed soon after this time the ground was again covered with 
snow, and all entomological observations were terminated." 



Fam.— TIPULID^. 
tGEN. 1140.— CHIRONOMUS. {Meig.) 

27. Polaris. (Kirb.) Black hairy, wings lacteous, iridescent, the costa fuscous, 
with the nervures darker, halteres dirty ochre. 

Length three lines and three-fourths, breadth six lines. 

Ch. Polaris. Kirby in Stipp. to App. of Capt. Parrifs ]st Voyage — p. ccxviii. 

PI. A, fig. 14, female ; fig. 2, head of same in profile. 

No males of this species were brought home, and only three females, none of which 
retained their first pair of legs, which are therefore merely sketched in the plate to 
show their situation. 

28. Borealis. Black, thorax grey, abdomen with seven whitish rings ; costa fuscous ; 
legs lurid. 

Length three lines, breadth six lines. 

Black, basal joint of antennae ochreous ; thorax hoary ; abdoirien clothed with long 
subdepressed yellowish hairs, the margins of the segments shining whitish or silvery ; 
wings lacteous, opalescent, the costa fuscous, the nervures darker ; halteres yellowish ; 
legs dull castaneous ochre, tips of the thighs and tarsi fuscous. 

Only one specimen has come under my observation, and that had lost its antenna 
and some of its legs. 

* Curlis's Brit. Ent.— vol. xii., fol. 537. f lb.— vol. ii., fol. 90. 



Ixxviii NATURAL HISTORY. 



Gen. 1160.— TIPULA. (Linn.) 

Division A with the fourth cell of the wings peduncled. 

29. Arctica. Cinereous, wings clouded with brown; legs subferruginous, tarsi fuscous. 

Length ten lines and a half or eleven lines, breadth one inch and seven to eight lines. 

PI. A, fig. 15, female; fig. 4, underside of apex of abdomen of the same. 

Silky slate colour ; thorax with a brown line down the centre, a stripe of the same 
colour on each side, furcate at the base ; abdomen more cinereous, the incisures slightly 
ochreous, the apex horny, with a large oval piceous and shining shield above, ter- 
minated by two moveable, lanceolate, serrated, and ferruginous lobes, curved at the 
apex, the penultimate joint furnished with two long slender spines beneath (fig. 4) • 
wings clouded with brown, forming a spot on the stigma and another behind it, and 
leaving several large transparent and irregularly-formed spots along the disc, the costa 
and base are ochreous, the nervures dark brown ; halteres dull and pale ochreous, 
fuscous at the tip; legs dull ferruginous, tips of thighs, tibise, and tarsi, black. 

Specimens only of the female were preserved, and none of them had antennae, or the 
anterior feet. " They appeared," says Commander Ross, " about the same time as the 
Culex, and were equally numerous. Their larvae are the principal food of the plover 
and other birds that seek their prey in the marshes, as was proved on the 27th of June, 
when great numbers of the larvae of the Tipula ? were taken from the stomach of 
a gull that had been feedino; in the marshes." 

This fine species of Tipula is reuiarkable for the singular termination to the apex of 
the abdomen, being, I imagine, an extraordinary development of the sexual organs- 
I have never seen any other species like it in this respect, excepting one lately described 
under the name of T. montana,* which has the same horny shield and broad serrated 
forceps, and it is worthy to be observed that tliis species is attached to elevated dis- 
tricts in the north, having only been found on Skiddaw and mountains of Scotland in 
July, by Mr. Dale and myself. 

Fam.— SYRPHID^. 

fGEN. 1245.— HELOPHILUS. {Meig.) 

39. Bilineatiis. Black, pubescent, two pale lines on the thorax, six lunulate spots 
on the abdomen, the first two yellow, as well as the base of the tibiae. 

* Ciiiti.'s Brit. Ent.— vol. xi., fol. 493, no. 9fl. t lb.— vol. ix., fol. 429. 



NATURAL HISTORY. ixxix 

Length four lines and a half to six lines, breadth nine to ten lines and a half 
Black, clothed with short yellowish pubescence ; face yellow or white with very short 
hairs, excepting a black shining space down the middle; antennae brown except at the 
base, the seta ochreous ; thorax with two narrow yellow lines down the fore part of the 
back ; scutellum dull ochreous ; abdomen with a rather large bright ochreous trigonate- 
lunate spot on each side at the base, and colouring the sides of the first segment 
beneath, the two following with a transverse yellow lunate spot on each side, the first 
pair sometimes being bright ochreous outside ; base of wmgs and costa tinged with 
dull yellow, stigmatic spot fuscous, nervures black, alulae and halteres ochreous; base 
of the tihuE, and sometimes the apex of the thighs, ochreous. 
The box contains three specimens. 



Fam.— MUSCID-E. 
Gen. 1276.— TACHINA. (///.) 

31. Ilirta. Black, very bristly, face silvery, hairs on back of head grey, scutellum 
subochreous. 

Length six lines, breadth ten lines. 

Black, pubescent, and covered with long bristles, especially the abdomen ; head tri- 
gonate, silvery-white, excepting the crown, the hairs behind the eyes grey ; eyes naked ; 
antennae with the third joint long and elliptical, seta stout at the base ; thorax with 
four indistinct whitish lines before ; scutellum tawny except at the base ; wings similar 
to fig. 23, tab. 41, of ISIeigen, yellowish-brown at the base; squamulae ochreous. 

A single specimen was preserved, which I believe was bred from the Laria. 

Gen. 1287.— ANTHOMYIA. {Meig.?) 

32. Diibia. Cinereous, eyes margined with white, thorax with three fuscous stripes. 
Two lines long, three lines and a half broad. 

Grey-ash colour, sparingly pilose ; antennae with the basal joint minute, the second 
subtrigonate, third scarcely larger and oblong ; eyes reddish-brown, face dull shining 
white, crown of head ash colour; thorax with three fuscous stripes down the back, 
and an indistinct one on each side ; wings rather broad, iridescent, the nervures 
and legs black. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



I have little doubt of this small fly being an Anthomyia, but as neither of the spe- 
cimens had any setse to the antennte, I cannot determine the genus with certainty. 



*Gen. 1293.— SCATOPHAGA. (Meig.) 

33. Apicalis. Cinereous, very pubescent, face, apex of abdomen, and legs, cas- 
taneous. 

Male, four lines two-thirds long, eleven broad ; female, four lines long, nine broad. 

Male. Cinereous, thickly clothed with fine long brown hairs, especially the abdomen 
and legs ; antennse blackish, two basal joints rufous, seta slightly pubescent only; lip 
horny and black ; head with a furcate space before the crown, the face and palpi 
reddish-orange; thorax with a double ash-coloured line down the middle, and an 
obscure one on each side ; abdomen elongate-ovate, with the margin of the third seg- 
ment, and the following joints, entirely ferruginous; wings tinged with yellow, the 
costa and base of a much deeper and brighter colour, the nervures ochreous, excepting 
the two transverse ones, which are fuscous, and suffused, as well as the longitudinal 
ones connecting them ; halteres and legs pale castaneous. 

Female much less hairy, especially the abdomen and legs, the former being ovate, 
the second segment sometimes having the margin ferruginous, and a greater portion of 
the third, as well as the apex, of the same colour. 

A male and two females of this handsome species were preserved. 

34. Fucorum. (Fall.) " Obscure cinereous ; thorax with four black lines; palpi, 
antennae, and legs, black." — Meig. 

Male, length three hnes, breadth six lines ; female rather smaller. 

Meig : Syst. BescL—\o\. v., p. 253, n. 14; tab. 45, f 29. 

This insect is common in Sweden amongst seaweeds, from which circumstance 
Fallen has named it P«fo;'»M. Commander Ross brought home a pair of flies that 
agree so well with the above description of Meigen, that I consider them identical, 

* Curtis's Brit. Ent.- vol. ix., fol. 405. 



MARINE INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS. 



The following account of the Marine Invertebrate Animals, inhabiting those parts 
of the Arctic Ocean visited in the course of our late expedition, is very incomplete 
owing to nearly the whole collection having been necessarily abandoned with the 
Victory. Some few, however, of those that were considered to be most interesting, as 
fomiing the types of new genera, were brought by us to England, and specimens of 
each have been deposited in the valuable museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. 

The arrangement and generic characters adopted in this notice, is that of Latreille in 

tlie last edition of Cuvier's " Regne Animal." 

J. C. R. 



CRUSTACEA — DEC APOD A. 

1.— CRANGON BOREAS. 

CRANGON BOR'EAS.—LcU. Cuv: Rig. Amm.—vo\.iv., p. 9i. 

Lam: Hist. Nat. des Aniiii. sans Vert. — vol. v., p. 201. 
Sab : Slip;), to Parry's \st Voyage — p. cc.\x.\v. 
Koss, App. to Varry's 3d Voyage — p. 120; and Polar Voy. — p. 205. 
CANCER BOREAS.— P/;(>/)s's Voyage, Appendix— p. 194, plate 11, fig. I. 
Zool. Dan. — vol. iv., p. 14, plate 32, fig. 1. 

Several specimens of this very fine species of Crangon were obtained, by means of 

*r. 



Ixxxii NATURAL HISTORY. 

a dredge, near Felix Harbour. It was also taken at a short distance from the west 
coast of Greenland, but seems to have entirely escaped the notice of Fabricius. We 
have in former voyages found it abundantly in various other parts of the Arctic Seas, 
but nowhere so numerously as near the Low Island (of Phipps), Spitzbergen, where it 
was first discovered. It has recently been brought from the shores of Kamtschatka 
and California, by Captain Beechey, as have also several hitherto undescribed species 
of Crustacea, but of which no account, it is much to be regretted, has yet been 
pubhshed. 



2.— SABINE A SEPTEMCARINATA. 

Char. GEti.—Antennce superiores setis duabus in e&dein ferfe linea horizontal! insertis : interiore longiore. 
Inferiores corpor'e breviores, setaceffi, squam^ ad apicem extern^ unidentata pedunculo adnexii : 
articulo primo ad squama medium non producto. 

Palpi pediformes articulis quatuor exsertis ; duobus ultimus longitudine sequalibus. 
Pedes decern ; par anticum majus compressum subdidactylum par secundum brevissimum tenue 
inutiguicutatum, par tertium tenue prwcedente longiore subcrassiore ungue simplici instructum ; paria 
4 et 5 praecedente crassiora unguibus compressis instriicta. 
Char. Sp. — Sabbiea thorace septemcarinato ; caiinis serratis. 

CRANGON SEPTEMCARINATUS.— Sa6 : Supp. to Parry's \st Foynge— p. ccxxxvi., pi. 2, fig. 11—13. 

Ross, App. to Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 205. 

Owing to the peculiar formation of the second pair of legs, in this singular animal, 
it has become necessary to estabhsh a new genus, of which it is the only known spe- 
cies ; and I have much pleasure in dedicating it to my friend, Captain Edward Sabine, 
of the Royal Artillery, by whom it was discovered in the west coast of Davis's Straits, 
during Sir Edward Parry's first voyage to those regions. His very accurate descrip- 
tion is as follows : " Length four inches ; colour varied, red and white above, white 
beneath ; thorax seven carinate, the three lateral carince on each side serrate, the 
middle one with strong spines ; rostrum short, curving down between the eyes, grooved 
in the centre ; the five upper carinae carried on in very faint rudiments along the back ; 
the terminal setae of the superior antennae inserted nearly in the same horizontal line, 
the interior one being the longest ; the first joint of the inferior antennae scarcely pro- 
duced beyond the middle of the squama ; a strong spine in the abdomen directed for- 
ward between the chelate legs; the last joint of the pediform palpi subacuminate. 



/'/. /; 




J'lih:' /"./iin.-JH.'i-/. 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixxxiii 

rather longer than the preceding ; second pair of legs slender, very short, bristled, and 
unarmed, in which last essential point it differs from the Poritophilus spitiosus of Dr. 
Leach, Mai. Pod. Brit., t. 37, to which in other respects this species bears a near 
resemblance." 

It is more rarely met with in the Arctic Seas than the Crangon Boreas, but a few 
specimens were obtained near Felix Harbour. It was also found in a previous voyage 
near the island of Igloolik in considerable numbers. 



3.— HIPPOLITE ACULEATA. 

ALPHEUS ACULEATUS.— Sa6 ; Supp. to Parry's Ut Voyage— p. ccxxxvii., pi, 2, figs. 9 & 10. 

Ross,App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 120; and Polar Voyage — p. 206. 
CANCER ACULEATUS.— fafc; Faun. Grcenl.—p. 239. 

A. (H.) thoracis carina dentibus quatuor, margine antico trispinoso, segmentis utrinque aculeatis, palpis 

pediformibus apice spinulosis. {Subine.) 

The Alpheus Aculeatus and A. Polaris of Sabine, belong to the genus Hippolite of 
Leach {Mai. Pod. Brit.), on account of the second pair of claws being shorter than 
the first. This arrangement, which appears to be now universally agreed to by 
naturalists, is adopted by Latreille in the " Regne Animal," and is therefore followed 
in this notice. It is an abundant species in the Arctic Seas. 



4.— HIPPOLITE SOWERBEL 
Plate B, fig. 2. 

HIPPOLITE SOWERBEL— ieacA, Mala. Pod. Brit.—t. 39. 
GAMMARUS SPINOSUS.— Sowtviy, Brit. Mis.—vo\. ii., pi. 21. 

II. rostro alto obtuso supra multi-serrato, apice emarginato serrulate ; subtus uni-serrato. (ifacA.) 

This species was first described by Mr. George Sowerby, in tlie " British Mis- 

*L 2 



Ixxxiv NATURAL HISTORY. 

cellany," he. cit. It was taken near the Scottish coast; and Dr. Leach received 
an imperfect specimen from the Firth of Forth, but it appears to be of very rare 
occurrence in those parts. During one of our former voyages, we found it near 
the island of IglooHk in considerable numbers, associated with the preceding and fol- 
lowing species. Some specimens were obtained by us, through a hole in the ice, 
at Felix Harbour, in the very depth of winter. 

The general form of the rostrum agrees with that figured by Dr. Leach, but 
many have it simply emarginate at the apex, and not serrulate. 

It differs from the two following species in the dentations of the carina of the thorax, 
extendino- along its whole length ; and in the upper part of the third segment of the 
body being produced posteriorly in a strong spine. 



5.— HIPPOLITE BOREALIS. («. s.) 

Plate B, fig. 3. 

Hipp, thoracis dimidio posteriore laevi, anteriore sub-carinato, raargine anteriore utrinque bi-spinoso. 

Tlie principal differences, as compared with the A. (H.) Polaris of Sabine, consist in 
the absence of, or very slightly marked, dentations on the thoracic carina ; in having 
only two spines, instead of three, on either side of the anterior margin of the thorax 
(that at the junction of the lateral margin being wanting in H. Polaris) ; in the superior 
antennae being proportionally longer ; and in being of a paler yellow colour, without 
the red spots and markings of the H. Polaris. As in the specimens of H. Polaris 
obtained by me, the middle lamella of the tail has from eight to ten minute spines along 
each side, and is terminated by several strong setae, the margins of the rest of the plates 
of the tail are beautifully ciliated, excepting on the exterior edge of the lateral plates, 
which are toothed at their posterior angle. 

Dr. Leach takes his specific characters from the rostral dentations, but these, as 
Captain Sabine justly remarks, in his description of A/p/ieiis (liippo/ite) Polaris, 
ao-ree in no two specimens of that species, as to number, nor the rostrum as to shape. 

H. Borealis was found associated with the preceding species, and was dredged up 



NATURAL HISTORY. ].mxxv 

from a depth of eighty fathoms off Ehzabeth Harbour. It was also found in 
considerable numbers near the island of Igloolik on a preceding voyage. 



6.— HIPPOLITE POLARIS. 

ALPIIEUS POLARIS.— .S'ai : Sitpp. to Parry's 1st Voyage— ^. ccxxxviii., pi. 2, figs. 5—8. 
Ross, App. to Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 206. 

A. thoracis dimidio posteriore lavi, anteriore cariiiato serrato ; clielis el unguibus apice nigris. {SaOine.) 

The excellent description and plate referred to above, render any further remark 
unnecessary, except that the rostral dentations are usually more numerous, both above 
and beneath. 

It is an abundant species in the Arctic Seas, 



7.— MYSIS FLEXUOSUS. 

MYSIS FLEXUOSUS.— iam .- Hist. Kat. Anim. sans Verl.—vo\. v., p. 200. 
CANCER FLEXUOSUS.— il/«M : Zool. Dan.— vol ii., p. 34, pi. 66. 
CANCER MVLTIPES.— Montague, in Trans. Linn. Soc.—vo\. ix., tab. 5, fig. 3. 
CANCER OCL LATUS.— Fai .- Faun. Grwnl.—p. 245, pi. 1, figs. A and B. 
PRAUNUS FLEXUOSUS.— Leaf//, in Edin. Encycl.~vo\. vii., p. 401. 

Though but sparingly found in the seas of Europe, it inhabits some parts of ihc 
Arctic Ocean in amazing numbers, and constitutes the principal food of the prodigious 
shoals of salmon, that resort thither in the months of July and August, and upon 
which the inhabitants of Boothia depend, in a great measure, for their winter store of 
provisions. It is also tlie chief food of the whale, by which sucli a prodigious 
quantity of fat is produced in the body of that immense animal. 

During the summer they assemble in vast myriads at the mouths of rivers, but in ihc 
winter are more generally distributed along the whole line of coast, and, together with 



Ixxxvi NATURAL HISTORY. 

the Argonauta Arclica, are to be seen in every crack that opens with the tide, even at 
the coldest period of the year. 

It is called by the natives Il-le-ak-kak. 



AMPHIPODA. 

8.— THEMISTO GAUDICHAUDII. 



Th. corpore elongate, luteo ; capite globoso ; antennis inferioiibus longioribus ; pedibus inaequalibus, quinto 
pari longissimo ; cauda appendicibus planis, ciliatis. {Gu(r.) 

This singular animal was first described by M. F. E. Guerin, in a paper entitled 
" Menioire sur le Nouveau Genre Themisto," kc, communicated to the Society 
of Natural History at Paris, August 29, 1828, and published soon after in the fourth 
volume of the memoirs of that society. 

The specific name is in honour of Dr. Gaudichaud, one of the naturalists of the 
corvette La CoquiUe, during a voyage round the world, under the command of Captain 
Duperrey, by whom it was collected, together with a number of other curious specimens 
of maiine invertebrate animals. 

M. Guerin's minute and accurate description is exceedingly well illustrated by 
a lithographic delineation of the various parts that compose this singular and 
interesting genus. The individual selected for description was smaller than those met 
with by us during our late voyage to the Arctic Regions, our specimens being as large 
as M. Guerin's second or^magnified figure ; in every other particular they agree with 
his description, of which the following is an extract : 

" Corps oblong, compose de douze segmens;* tete occupee entierement par deux 
yeux a r^seau, arrondie, non prolongee inferieurement en rostre. Quatre antennes, les 
superieures plus courtes que la tete, courbees au bout ; les inferieures beaucoup plus 
longues. Quatorze pieds ; les quatre premiers courts, diriges en avant, couches sur la 
bouche, et representant les deux dernieres paires de pieds-machoires des erustaces 
superieurs; les quatre suivans beaucoup plus grands, termines par un crochet dirige 

• Not including the head. 



NATURAL HISTORY. Ixxxvii 

vers la queue ; la cinquieme paire tres-longue dirigee vers la bouche, ayant I'avant- 
dernier article grele, fort long, garni d'epines en dedans et termine par un crochet ; 
les quatre derniers, de moitie plus courts, dirigcs et conformes de meme, mais sans 
dents a I'avant-demier article. Queue terminee par six appendices natatoires longs, 
aplatis, bifides a Textremite ; trois paires de filets egalement natatoires sous les trois 
premiers segmens de la queue." 

It is most nearly allied to Hypcria of Latreille and Phrosina of Risso,* but differs 
from the former in the great length of the fifth pair of legs, and in the inferior antennae 
being longer than the superior ; ,and from Phrosina, in the greater length of the 
antennae, and in the head not being prolonged inferiorly en rostre. 

It is a singular circumstance in the history of this animal, that it has hitherto been 
found only in the vicinity of the Falkland Islands, and near the west coast of 
the peninsula of Boothia. 



9.— GAMMARUS NUGAX. 

GAMMARUS NUGAX.— Sa6 ; Supp. to Parry's 1st Voyage—^, ccxxix.^ 

TALITRUS NUGAX. — Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage— p. 119; and Polar Voyage—^. 205. 

CANCER NVGAX.— App. to Phipps's Voyage— ■p. 192, pi. 12, fig. 3. 

By reason of the small superadded setse on the upper antenna of the Cancer Nugax 
{Phipps), I have referred it to the genus Gammarus, although it does not participate in 
all the characters assigned to that genus by Latreille. The lower antennae being 
longer than the upper, it belongs to Lamarck's genus Talitrus. This last character, 
together with the second pair of feet, being elongate, and terminated by a flattened 
setose articulation, without a claw, render the establishment of a new genus necessary 
for its proper arrangement. 

It is a very numerous inhabitant of the Arctic Seas. 

• CuTier Rfegne Animal — vol.iv., p. 117. 



ixxxviii NATURAL HISTORY. 



10.— GAMMARUS AMPULLA. 

GAMMARUS AMPULLA.— 5at : Supp. to Parry's ist Voyage— -p. ccxxix. 

Ross, App. to Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 204. 
CANCER AMPULLA.— PA#s's Voyage, Appendix— p. 192, pi. 12, fig. 2. 

In this species the superior antenna?, which have also the superadded seta, are one- 
half shorter than the inferior ; the second pair of feet are unguiculate, not setose, but 
the work is very minute. The fifth and sixth pairs have femoral laminae, but less than 
those of the seventh pair. 

It is by no means abundant in the Arctic Seas, excepting near the Low Island (of 
Phipps), Spitzbergen, where it was first discovered. Some few specimens were 
obtained near Felix Harbour. 



11.— GAMMARUS BOREUS. 

GAMMARUS BOREUS.— Sa6: Supp. to Parry's 1st Voyage— p. ccxxix. 

Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 119; and Polar Voyage — p. 204. 
SQUILLA PULEX.— Dfgecr, Lis.— vol. vii., p. 525, pi. 33, figs. 1 and 2. 

G. caudtE dorso spinoso, oculis lunatis, pedibus quatuor anlicis chelatis, pari septimo praecedentibus 

longiore. {Sabhie.) 

Is found abundantly along the shores of the north-east part of the American 
continent, and its contiguous islands, but especially so near the estuaries of rivers, 
seeming to prefer the brackish to the salt water of the ocean. 



NATURAL HISTORY; Ixxxix 



^ 12.— GAMMARUS LORICATUS. 

GAMMARUS LOIUCATUS.— Sni : Supp. to Parry's Ut Voyage— p. ccxxxj., pi. 1, fig. 7. 

Ross, App. to Parry's 3d f^oyiige — p. 118 ; and Polar Voyage^f. 204. 

G. roslro corniformi deflexo, dorso carinato, segmentis postice et acute productis. (Saliine.) 

The specimens obtained in Prince Regent's Inlet agreed generally with Captain 
Sabine's description, but some few, taken at the same time, approached more nearly to 
Falnicius's * description of Oniscus serratus ; the three posterior pairs of legs being 
much shorter than those of G. loricatus, but longer in proportion than those of 
O. serratus, when compared with the third and fourth pairs. In some specimens the 
rostrum was so veiy minute, as hardly to be distinguishable, whilst in others it was 
very large. 

It is an abundant species. 



13.— GAMMARUS SABINI. 

GAMMARUS SABINI.— XeacA, Ross's Voyage— oci. ed., vol. ii.,p. 178. 

Sal: Supp. to Parry's Isi Voyage — p. ccxxxii., pi. 1, figs. 8 — 11. 
Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 118; and Polar Voyage — p. 204. 

G. segmentibus dorsaUbus postice falcato productis, capite inter antennas acumine minuto. 

This species was found abundantly in Prince Regent's Inlet, and near Felix 
Harbour. 



• Fauna Grojnlandica — p. 262. 



xc NATURAL HISTORY. 



14.— AMPHITHOE EDVARDSI. 

TALITRUS EDVARDSI.— Soft : Supp. to Parry's 1st Voyage— p. ccxxxiii., pi. 2, figs. 1—4. 

Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage— p. 119; and Polar Voyage — p. 205. 

T. (A.) rostro corniformi, antennis subsequalibus, corpore ovato depresso, cauda compress^ tricarinata spinosii. 

The Talitrus Edvardsi of Sabine, belongs to the genus Amphithoe of Leach, whicli 
is adopted by Latreille. The excellent description and plate above referred to, render 
any further remark unnecessary. 

It is an abundant species in the Arctic Seas, more especially near the island of 
Igloolik, where it was taken on a former voyage in very great numbers. 



Nov. Gen.— ACANTHONOTUS. {Owen, MS.) 

Char. Gen. — Anteiinre subsequales, 4-articulatce, articulo ultimo e plurimis segmentis efformato, articulo 
tertio superiarum brevissimo. Pedes 4-antici, monodactyli, filiformes, articulo ultimo primi pans 
serrate. Rostrum productum acutum, incurvatum. Ocuh parvi. 



15.— ACANTHONOTUS CRISTATUS. 

Chab, Sp. — A. segmentis 4-anticis in cristil continuti supernis elevatis ; reliquis in spinis retrorsum 

inclinatis productis. 

Acanthonotus cristatus, which forms the type of a new genus, closely allied to 
Talitrus of Latreille, was first discovered near the island of Igloolik, during Sir 
Edward Parry's second voyage ; but as no account of the Marine Invertebrate 
Animals brought home on that occasion was published, it has hitherto escaped 
unnoticed. In the course of our late voyage a few specimens, both of this and the 
following new genus, were obtained at Felix Harbour. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xci 

To the generic and specific characters given above we may add, that all the segments 
of the body are produced inferiorly into long spines, that of the fourth being the 
broadest and longest ; of the dorsal spines, the fifth and sixth are the longer. 

The femora of the three last pairs of legs are produced posteriorly into long spines, 
and the penultimate segment has two spines. 

The first and second joints of the superior antennae are terminated above by a spine ; 
the third joint is the shortest. 

The toe of the first foot is serrate, having about eight teeth, and the claw is clothed 
with fine hairs on the exterior surface, as represented, highly magnified, in fig. 10', 

plate B. 

Plate B, fie. 8, represents a side view of Acant/ionotus cnstatus of the natural size. 

Fio-. 9, a magnified view of the upper part of the head and antennae. 

Figs. 10 and 11. Magnified view of the two first pairs of legs : and fig. 10' shows 
the peculiar formation of the toe and claw of the first pair. 

Fig. 12. Magnified view of the three posterior segments, and middle plate of the 
tail ; together with the lateral and temiinal styliform processes. 



Nov. Gen.— ACANTHOSOMA. {Owen, MS.) 

Char. Gen. — Antennce inequales, superiores dimidio breviores, articulo ultimo e plurimis segmentis 
efformato, articulis tertiis et secundis superiorum sequalibus. Pedes 4-antici, monodactyli, fibformes, 
articulo ultimo primi paris unguiculato. Kostrura productum acutum undulatum. Oculi parvi. 



16.— ACANTHOSOMA HYSTRIX. 

Char. Spec. — A. segmentis 9-anticis spinis septem armatis. 

This very distinct genus is more common at Felix Harbour than the preceding; it 
was taken at Igloolik on a former voyage in considerable numbers. 

On each of the first nine segments of the body there are seven spines, forming in 
the aggregate seven longitudinal rows, protecting the back and sides of the body ; in 
addition to these there are two spines above the eyes, one on each side of the rostrum ; 

*M 2 



xcii NATURAL HISTORY. 

this part is white, curved over the head, and directed forward ; the eyes are small and 
white. The tenth segment of the body has only five spines ; the fourth and fifth 
caudal segments having three, and the others only two spines. 

The femora of the three posterior pairs of legs are each armed with two strong 
spines posteriorly, of which those on the last are the largest and strongest. The two 
posterior caudal segments are each furnished with a double styhform process, of which 
the anterior is the longer. The middle plate of the tail is tmncate, with two styliform 
processes, similar to those of the preceding genus. 

Plate B, fig. 4, represents a large-sized specimen of the Acanthosoma Hj/strii. 

Figs. 5 and 6, a magnified view of the two anterior pairs of legs. 

Fig. 7, the three posterior segments and middle plate of the tail, together with the 
lateral and terminal styliform processes. 



MOLLUSCA— CEPHALOPODA. 

Nov. Gen.— ROSSIA. (Owen.) 

A single specimen of a small species of Cephalopoda was taken near the beach at 
Elwin Bay, Prince Regent's Inlet, on the 29th of August, 1832. It was preserved in 
spirits, and brought to England ; and I am indebted to the friendship of Mr. Owen, 
Assistant Conservator of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, for the 
following account of this remarkable animal, accompanied with illustrations of his dis- 
sections, which have been engraved by Mr. I. Curtis, F.L.S., Sic. 

J. C. R. 

" Tlie small Cephalopod which you have brought from the Arctic Regions to this 
country, proves to be the type of a new genus. It differs from Lo/igo and Sepiotciithis 
in the form, proportions, and position of its lateral fins, and in the extent of its horny 
dorsal style, or gladius; * in these respects, it bears a closer affinity to Sepiola (Leach); 
it differs, however, from Sepiola generically in having the anterior margin of the 
mantle free in the whole of its circumference ; its natural position is therefore intcrme- 

♦ This is the term by which Aristotle designates the horny plate of the Loligines : — " Tij jiiv oiv arjTla, 
Kai t'i TivBiii Kai. TO) TtvSio hroi; iTi ra iTTepea iv Tif Trpavci tov trw/iaroe, li KaXcvut to /ler ariinov, rb h fiAoc- 
Sub dorso iirma pars sepia: loligioi ac lolio continetur ; illius sepium, borum gladium vocant. — Hist. Animal,, lib. iv. 
c. 1. 12rao. Ed, Schneider. 



s^ 






NATURAL HISTORY. xciii 

diate to Sepiola and Sepioteuthis, wliicli it connects together as well by its intennc- 
diate size, as by the pecuhaiities of its structure. 

I propose to call the genus Rossia, in honour of the Commander of an Expedition, at 
once so honourable to the enterprising character of the British seaman, and so interest- 
ing in its scientific results. 

Class — Cepii a lopo d a . ( Ciivier.) 
Order — Dibranchiata. 
Tribe — D i.c a c e r a . 
Family — Loligkmd.e. 
Genus — Rossia. 

Chap.. Gen. — Corpus venUicosum ; duabus pinnis latis rotundutis, subdorsalibus, antrorsum posilis ; margir.e 
antico pallii libero. 

Brucliia subbrevia, triedra; acelabuhs peduiiculatis, pedunculis brevissimis ; ad basin bra- 
cliiorum in duabus seriebus altetnantibus, ad apicem in pUirimis senebus aggregatis. Ordo longitu- 
dinis parium brachiorum, I, 2, 4, 3. 

Tentacula longitudine corpus tcquantia, ad apicem acelabuUs pedunculatis minimis obsita. 
Gladius, corneus, longitudine lin. ix. aequans ; inferius parum dilatalus. 
Char. Sp. — Russia palpebrosa. 

From the obvious uncertainty of deducing a stable specific character from the only 
known representative of its genus, I have limited myself to proposing a noinen 
triviale, taken from the remarkable development of the skin surrounding the eyeball, 
by means of which this animal evidently possesses the power of defending the eye, as 
the pulmonated Vertebrata do by means of their more rcgularly-fonned eyelids. The 
utdity of this provision, in seas abounding with fragments of ice, is obvious. Fig. 1, 
pi. B, from a sketch by Captain Ross, shows the appearance of the eyes w bile the 
animal was alive ; fig. 2, pi. C, h. shows the closing of the eyelid after death. 

The admeasurements of the specimen were as follow, but it must be borne in mind 
that it had shrunk in all its dimensions in consequence of having been macerated 
in spirit. 

Iiichps. Lines. 
Length from the end of the visceial sac to the end of the longest 

tentacle . . . . . . .50 

Ditto from the end of the visceral sac to the anterior margin of the mantle 1 9 



xciv NATURAL HISTORY. 

Inches. Lines. 
Length from the end of the visceral sac to the interspace of the 

fir.'^t or middle pair of dorsal brachia . . ..32 

Ditto of the tentacle . . . . . .42 

Breadth of the body (exclusive of the fins) . . ..18 

Ditto of the head, across the eyes . . . .13 

The specimen presented a dull dusky brown colour, over the whole of the dorsal and 
lateral aspects, and over the exterior of the arms. The pigment producing this hue 
was disposed in minute close-set points. Captain Ross's drawing of the recent animal 
exhibits a greenish metallic lustre, reflected from these surfaces, slight remains of 
which are still perceptible in the specimen. The ventral surface is of a hght ash colour. 

The form of the abdomen or visceral segment of the body is more ventricose than in 
Sepiola. The anterior margin of the mantle projects slightly forwards at the middle 
of its dorsal aspect, as in Sepioteuthis, and is reflected downwards for about half an 
inch before being continued upon the back part of the head. There is a transverse 
groove on either side of the mantle, about a line behind its anterior margin: this part is 
colourless anterior to the grooves, as in Sepiola. 

The fins are short, semicircular, dorsal in their position, but nearer the sides of the 
body, and placed more forwards than in Sepiola vulgaris; the interspace between their 
origins is to the breadth of the body as 3 to 4, while in Sepiola vulgaris it is as 3 to 5. 
They project laterally from the body, with a slight inclination forwards. They measure 
in length one inch, in breadth ten lines. 

The brachia are proportionately shorter and thicker than in Sepiola, more resembling 
those of Sepia, but not having the same relative dimensions as in that genus, e. g. the 
third, and not the fourth pair, is the longest (counting from the dorsal aspect), but the 
fourth pair is proportionately longer than in Sepiola. They measure. 

The first pair, one inch. 
The second pair, one inch three lines. 
The third pair, one inch nine lines. 
The fourth pair, one inch five lines. 

They present the usual three-sided pyramidal form, with the internal facet beset witli 
tlie suckers or acetabula. These are of a globular figure, supported by very short sub- 
lateral peduncles. Commencing from the base of the arms, the suckers are arranged in 
a double alternate series; this disposition prevails along the whole of the first pair, along 



NATURAL HISTORY. xcv 

three-fourths of the second pair, and along about half of the tliiid and fourth pairs of 
arms, beyond which the suckers are aggregated into irregular transverse rows of from 
three to five, diminishing in size to the apex of the arm. In this respect there is an inter- 
mediate structure between Sepiola, in which the suckers arc in a double alternate 
scries along the whole arm; and Sepia, in which they are aggregated from the com- 
mencement. The horny cup in each acetabulum has its margins entire : and its 
diameter is equal to one-third of the fleshy sphere in which it is implanted. 

The tentacles or proboscides * are round, and slightly dilated at their extremities, 
which are beset for about nine lines by minute and close-set suckers ; these diminisli 
in size towards the extremity of the tentacle, and the largest of them do not exceed 
one-fiftieth of an inch in diameter. The horny cup of these acetabula is propor- 
tionately larger than in those of the brachia, and their pedicles are longer. (See b, 
pi. C.) A narrow membranous expansion is extended along the sides of the dilated 
extremities of the tentacle. 

The tentacula emerge from within the membrane extended between the third and 
fourth pairs of brachia, but this interbrachial fold, though of greater breadth, does not 
connect the arms together for a greater extent than the membrane between the third 
and second, or that between the second and first pairs of legs; but there is no coiTe- 
sponding fold between the ventral pair of amis. In this respect Rossia resembles 
Sepiola and Sepia; in all of which, therefore, the interbrachial membranes have 
obviously other uses than to protect the tentacles, which can be retracted into a cavity 
below the base of the arms ; they probably serve, but in a minor degree than in 
Octopus, as a retropulsive fin. 

The eyes of the specimen were of large size, forming the usual convexity on eacli 
side of the head ; they were, however, as has been before mentioned, almost com- 
pletely hidden from view by the contraction of the lower eyelid principally, the open- 
ing of the fold corresponding to the transparent portion of the integument continued 
over the eyeball (for the animal cannot be said to possess a true cornea), was of a 
longitudinal figure, and dorsal in its position. In Sepiola there is a slight fold beneath 
the eye, corresponding to the largely developed eyelid in Russia, but there is a greater 
proportionate breadth of the head at this part in Sepiola. 

The siphon or funnel extends to within a line of the interbrachial membrane of the 
ventral pair of arms, resembhng in this respect Sepiola rather than Sepia, or Sepw- 
teufhis, where the funnel reaches only half-way between that part and the margin of 

• Tins superadded pair of elongated avrns were termed by Aristotle Trpo^aKilai, in contradistinction lo 
the ordinary eight arnns, wWclihe calls voSeg. — hist. Anima!.,hh. iv., c. 1. 



xcvi NATURAL HISTORY. 

the mantle. It is depressed and tapers towards the extremity ; within the tube, and 
two hnes distant from the end, there is the small valve, which exists in all the Cepha- 
lopods that have locomotive organs adapted for propelling them forwards. On either 
side of the base of the funnel there is an oblong cartilaginous depression, surrounded 
by a raised margin, to which a corresponding projection on the inner side of the 
mantle is adapted. This structure for strengthening the attachment between the mantle 
and the head is met with in all the Decacera, and in Oci/thoe, but does not exist in 
Octopus, The membranous expansions from the sides of the base of the funnel, cor- 
responding to the 'cullottes ' in Octopus, extend in Rossia around the anal aperture. 

The rudimentary dorsal shell, or gladius, is not more than nine lines in length, and one 
line and a half in breadth at its lower and dilated half; there is a longitudinal mesial 
ridge on its external surface, and a corresponding groove with lateral ridges on the 
opposite side ; it is of a firm texture, and brown colour anteriorly, but becomes thin, 
soft, white, and cartilaginous at its posterior extremity. 

The digestive organs of Rossia resemble those of Sepiola, with the exception of the 
laminated pancreatic caecum being of a simpler form, and the follicles appended to the 
biliary ducts being more developed ; these are larger, indeed, than in any Cephalopod 
in which this structure has been found. The horny mandibles, and their surrounding 
fleshy lips, present no peculiarity worthy of remark. The outer lip, as in Sepiola, is 
more contracted than in Sepia. The oesophagus descends in the dorsal interspace of 
the hepatic lobes without dilating to form a crop. The muscular stomach is lined with 
a cuticle, but is not so strong as in Octopus. The laminated caecum is a simple oval 
cavity, as in ?^autilus, without spiral appendage. The biliary secretion enters it 
between two of the widest laminje, which are continued onwards some way into the 
intestine. The gut ascends without any convolution on the opposite side of the liver, and 
terminates between the two muscles which connect the base of the funnel with the 
ventral side of the mantle, and which, from their disposition, serve as a sphincter to 
the intestine. 

The lower pair of salivary glands are lobulated, arid of the usual proportionate size. The 
liver is bilobed, each lobe notched at its upper end, and expanding towards the lower 
end. Besides the proper capsule, which has a smooth glistening surfece, the liver is 
contained in a strong peritoneal cavity. The two biliary ducts emerge from the lower end 
and immediately branch out into a mass of larger and simpler follicles, which are arbo- 
rescent, and extend their ramifications half an inch from the ducts, forming a mass, which 
conceals the upper halves of both the stomach and rudimentary pancreas. The ink-bag 
is situated between the liver and the muscles which surround the arms, close to which 
its duct enters the intestme. The ink is black, of the same tint as the china-ink. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xcvii 

The organs of circulation, in the form of the systemic ventricle and of the spongy 
vence cavce, resemble those of Sepioteulhis more than those of Sepio/a; the branchial 
ventricles are proportionately larger than in any other Cephalopod. The vetia cava, 
after its division, becomes dilated and cellular, but the cells are not produced out- 
wardly into distinct pendulous follicles, the exterior of the vein presents simply a 
folded or convoluted appearance. The branchial ventricles are of a transversely oblong 
figure, four lines in length, and three in breadth : they have the small fleshy appen- 
dages, as in Sepiola, Sepoteuthis, and other true decapods. The fleshy stem of the 
branchia, through which the branchial artery passes is very broad. The branchial 
vein dilates into a sinus or auricle, before terminating in the systemic ventricle. This 
is of a cylindrical form, tapering at its lateral extremities where the blood enters, 
and bent upwards at the right side to give off the greater aorta ; the lesser aorta comes 
off from the middle of the opposite side of the ventricle. 

The larger aorta ascends with the cesophagus between the lobes of the liver, the 
smaller one descends to supply the ovary principally. The specimen was a female, and 
had been taken at the season of reproduction. The ovary occupied the lower half of 
the dorsal aspect of the abdomen ; it was filled with numerous bodies, varying in 
size from one line to six in the transverse diameter, and with as various figures, some 
being spherical, others oval, some pyriform, and a few rendered angular by external 
pressure, but all having their superfices more or less reticulated, as in Sepia, &c., in 
consequence of the honeycombed glandular structure of their parietes. These bodies, 
which are appended by delicate peduncles, of various length, to one point of the mem- 
branous ovary, are commonly regarded as the ova,* but they are, in fact, the glandular 
calyces, which secrete the true ova; the analogous parts in the Nautilus I have 
termed capsula oviferce : they correspond to the Graafian follicles or ovisacs of the 
Vertebrata. The ova in these ovisacs exhibited in Rossia various stages of develop- 
ment indicative of an internal impregnation : many of the reticulate ovisacs were 
collapsed, having discharged their ova ; nine of the ova so discharged, were situated 
in the single oviduct. The ova which still remained within the capsules had the 
smooth transparent cortical membrane perfectly formed, and differed from the ova in 
the oviduct only in the tenuity of this membrane. The discharged ova measured five 
lines in the long and four in the short diameters. The oviduct was wide, thin, and 
membranous; it passed along the ventral aspect of the ovary and pericardium towards 
the left side: its termination was thickened, and beset with transverse glandular 
folds, as in Nautilus, and was situated immediately behind the two large superadded 

• See Grant on the Anatomy of Sepiola, in Zool. Trans. — vol. i., p. 84, pi. 11, fig. 12. 

♦n 



xcviii NATURAL HISTORY. 

glands. These bodies have been described in Sepiola,* as the oviducts, but they are 
equally distinct from the true efferent tube in that genus as in Rossia ; the true oviduct 
being single in Sepiola, as in Sepia, and forming by its termination the crescentic glan- 
dular organ, which lies between and behind the two large accessory glands above 
mentioned ; of which the function is to secrete the adhesive substance which connects 
the ova, after they have passed out of the oviduct, and before they are discharged 
by the funnel. Filamentary processes of the secretion were hanging from the ducts 
of the glands in the specimen here described. They are composed of numerous trans- 
verse laminae, the secretion of which passes into a central longitudinal fissure, where it 
is moulded into the filamentary form. In Nautilus these glands are united at the mesial 
plane, and the corresponding organ is single in the pectinibranchiate mollusks. 



EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURES. 

Plate B. 
Fig. 1. Rossia palpebrosa, from the dorsal aspect. 

Plate C. 

Fig. 1. Rossia palpebrosa, with the mantle and funnel laid open on the ventral 
aspect, showing the infundibular valve, the ova in the oviduct, and other viscera 
in situ. 

Fig. 2. The same laid open on the dorsal aspect, and the capsule of the liver 
removed, showing the ovisacs, and the relative position of the viscera on this side of 
the abdomen. 

Fig. 3. The digestive canal laid open. 

Fig. 4. The branchia, and organs of circulation. 

The same letters indicate the same parts in each figure : — a, the eight brachia ; 
a, one of the brachial suckers magnified ; b, the two tentacula ; b', a tentacular 
sucker magnified ; c, the fins ; d, the inside of the mantle ; e e, the processes which 
enter ff, the cavities at the base of the funnel ; g, the infundibular valve ; h, the open- 
ing of the eyelids; i, the oesophagus; k, the muscular stomach; /, the pancreas; 
m, the intestine ; n, the anus ; o, lower salivary glands ; p p, liver ; p' p, hepatic ducts ; 
q, hepatic follicles ; r, ink-bag ; s, vena cava ; s' s, its glandular auricular portions 
going to t t, the branchial ventricles ; v v, their fleshy appendages ; w w, the branchiae; 

* See Grant on the Anatomy of Hepiola, in Zool. Trans. — vol. i., p. 84, pi. 1 1, fig. 10. 



NATURAL HISTORY. xcix 

X X, systemic sinuses; y, systemic ventricle; z, aortae; 1 1, ovisacs in the ovary 
appended to filamentary pedicles ; 2 2, ova in the oviduct ; 3 3, glands which secrete 
the nidamentum, or connecting substance of the ova. 

R. 0." 



PTEROPODA. 
2.— CLIO BOREALIS. 



CLIO BOREALIS. — Cuv ; Rig. Anim. — vol. iii., p. 27. Lamarck — vol. vi., p. 286. 
CLIO LIMACINA.— P/(i>;)S, Ellis Zonph.—^. 15, figs. 9 and 10. 

Leach, Ross's Voyage — oct. edit., vol. ii. p. 172. 
Sab: Supp. to Parry's 1st Voyage — p. ccxxxix. 

Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voy. — p. 120 ; and Parry's Polar Voy. — p. 206. 
CLIO RETU SA— i^aft: Faun. Grcenl.—^. 3ZA. 
CLIONE PAPILIONACEA.— Pa//as, Spicil. Zoo/.— vol. x., p. 37, pi. 1, figs. 18 and 19. 

Very numerous in most parts of the Arctic Ocean. Less abundant in Regent's 
Inlet and the Gulf of Boothia. 



3.— LIMACINA ARCTICA. 

LIMACINA ARCTICA.— Cuy; iZf^. ^nim.— vol. iii., p. 28. 
Lamarck — vol. vi., p. 290. 
Leach, Ross's Voyage — oct. edit., vol. ii., p. 172. 
Sab : Supp. to Parry's \st Voyage — p. ccxxxix. 

Ross, App. to Parry's 3d Voyage — p. 120. Parry's Polar Voyage — p. 206. 
ARGONAUTA ARCTICA.— ii'ai ; Faun. Grcenl.—p. 386. 

A very abundant species; peopling as it were the Polar Seas, and constituting the 
chief source of subsistence to the Greenland whale. It is indeed most truly won- 
derful that so small and apparently insignificant an animal can be made to fulfil the 
most important purposes ; from the smallest species of Crustacea to the enormous 
whale, all derive their food directly or indirectly from this little creature. It is in fact 

*N 2 



c NATURAL HISTORY. 

to the inhabitants of the Arctic Ocean, what the vegetable kingdom is to the inhabitants 
of the land — the foundation of animal existence. 



ACEPHALA. 

4.— BOLTENIA RENIFORMIS. 

BOLTENIA RENIFORMIS.— Mac Leay, Trans. Linn. S'oc .— vol. xiv., p. 536, pi. 18. 
ASCIDIA GLOBIFERA.— 5ai.- Supp. to Parry's \st Foyage— 
ASCIDIA CLAVATA.— i?'aA .• Faun. Grcenl.—p. 303. 

Char. Sp. — B. obscura scabriuscula, corpore subreniformi, orificiis subprominentibus, pedunculo ter- 

minali. {Mac Leay.) 

A single specimen of this extraordinary animal was dredged up from a depth of 
seventy fathoms, near Elizabeth Harbour. I can add nothing to Mr. Mac Leay's 
admirable description, except that the colour of the body is a very light brown, that 
of the pedicle darker. 



5.— CYSTINGIA GRIFFITHSH. 

CYSTINGIA GRIFFITHSH.— AZac Leay, Trans. Linn. Soc— vol. xiv., p. 540, pi. 19. 
C. ovata globosa cineracea glabra semipellucida, pedunculo vix longitudine corporis. {Mac Leay.) 

This interesting species is of very rare occurrence, even in those seas where it was 
first discovered ; a single specimen, taken in Fox's Channel, during Sir Edward 
Parry's third voyage to the Arctic Regions, fortunately for science came under the 
notice of Mr. Mac Leay, and, together with two other species of Ascidiae from the same 
place, was the occasion of his learned memoir on the " Anatomy of the Natural Group 
of Timicata," loc. cit. 

Two specimens were obtained by us near Felix Harbour, but as these were aban- 
doned with the rest of our collection, it is probable that the individual from which Mr. 
Mac Leay's description and drawings were taken, is the only specimen ever brought 
to England. 



GEOLOGY. 

BY CAPTAIN SIR JOHN ROSS, C.B., K.S.A., K.C.S., &c. 



GEOLOGICAL NOTICE RESPECTING THAT PART OF THE AMERICAN 
LAND VISITED DURING OUR VOYAGE. 

I MAY commence with James's Island, of which Sir E. Parry examined the southern 
and eastern coasts ; my observations which are peculiarly scanty for this part of our 
voyage, are limited to the northern shore, to which the name of North Devon has been 
given. I must at the same time say, that under my previous familiarity with the 
neio-hbouring and opposed shore of America, I formed the conclusions here drawn, 
more from a comparison of the physiognomy of the little known with that which had 
been far better studied, than from observations which our very brief intimacy with this 
coast afforded me no means of making. 

My acquaintance with the shore in question begins at Cape York, and extends to 
Possession Bay. The whole of this line presented that succession of limestone, which 
from its similarity, in every particular, of picturesque forms, positions, and mineral cha- 
racters, I had determined, when on the American shore, and with ample opportunities 
of examination, to be a " deposit " or " series," so resembling that which the geologists 
of England term mountain limestone, that it must be discriminated by this name, 
unless, as I do not yet know, the American philosophers have applied another term to 
their great calcareous formations. 

Of the interior country on this shore, I must speak with more reserve; yet drawmg 
such inferences as I here give, from the same source, namely, the exceeding similarity 



cii GEOLOGY. 

of character in the forms of the land on the two sides of the passage which includes 
Barrow's Strait and Prince Regent's Inlet. It will immediately be seen, that on the 
American shore, the limestone skirts the bases of chains of hills which consist chiefly, 
or, to our observation at least, most conspicuously of granite, including some portions 
of the primary stratified rocks, which might have been more extensive than I had the 
means of ascertaining. Now, the same exact character of outline and general aspect 
pervaded the interior of James's Island, as far as that was visible ; where a range of 
mountains possessing the same conical in-egular forms as those on the American shore, 
rose at the back of the assignable limestone hills. I could not but conclude that their 
geological nature was the same ; while some specimens of gneiss, of green compact 
felspar, and of granite, picked up on the beaches where our boats landed, served to 
confirm this conclusion : and the more so, from their absolute identity with the ana- 
logous rocks which I had collected along the shore from Fury Beach to the isthmus of 
Boothia. 

If I have thus referred to my first and far more detailed observations on the geolo- 
gical structure of the American shore, I may commence at Cape Northeast, being the 
north-eastern part of America, sufficiently noted in the chart appended to this work. 

At this place, the forms of the land alone might, to a practised eye, have 
disclosed the nature of the fundamental rocks ; since the hills present those out- 
lines, so well known, by which this limestone is characterized ; the stratification 
equally indicating the mineral constitutions of the rock, in those chffs and ravines, 
where it is peculiarly exposed ; as the examination of specimens at more leisure, with 
the long continued contact which I could command throughout a space of many miles, 
could leave no doubt of the truth of these conclusions, from the point in question, as 
far as Fury Beach. 

I must now observe, that from Northeast Cape onwards to Adelaide Bay, I could 
obtain no sight of any interior hills, of the same conical and irregular character as I 
had become so well acquainted with on the more southern parts of this shore. Every 
visible hill was flat-topped, so as to convince me that it was a part of the same cal- 
careous range. But at the bottom of Cresswell Bay, I first began to see a range of 
interior hills, of a very diflerent character : and subsequent observation, accompanied by 
a long experience of the nature of the rocks, which I could examine at hand, having 
taught me that the hills of this character consisted of primary rocks, and far most 
extensively, of granite, it is at this point that I must first note my assurance of the 
existence of a range of granitic and its associated rocks, on this coast ; forming the 
fundamental structure of this country, and covered, or rather skirted, as is usual, 
by a range of the secondary, and, for the most part, calcareous series. 



GEOLOGY. ciii 

As well as I could estimate, the distance of this primary interior range of momitains, 
from the sea-shore, judging at least by that of their summits, is about thirty miles. 
But from that, somewhat indeterminate point, of course, the ridge, if ridge it be, which 
appears so to the eye, inclines towards the sea line, and, in its progress thence, reaches 
the shore at Port Logan. The limestone which I have already mentioned, disappears 
in consequence, and I met with it no more on this eastern coast ; recovering it only to 
the westward of the isthmus of Boothia, near Neitchillee. 

I must now, therefore, note as much of its peculiarities as may enable geologists 
to form that judgment of its analogy to the rocks they have defined on which I have 
no right to decide, from my very imperfect acquaintance with this subject. I presume, 
of course, that they will call it " the mountain limestone," because this is the name 
which I have seen applied to rocks resembling it in character, and, as far as I under- 
stand those subjects, in position: but this however I must leave to the more com- 
petent. 

From Northeast Cape to Adelaide Bay, it presents those forms which distinguish the 
limestone district of Yorkshire, but with far more decided shapes in some parts of this 
line, of which the analogies and resemblances may be seen in Derbyshire, though in 
the most remarkable places, these are very like to some scenery which I remember 
seeing in a French picturesque work, representing the scenery and antiquities of Pola, 
in Istria. 

It would be to repeat what must be well known to every one interested in this sub- 
ject, to say, that the fractures which the precipices of this rock present, are frequently 
such as to display the appearance of castles and towers, as the smaller ones are apt to 
exhibit the appearances of niches and statues, so as to confer on them a singular and 
striking variety of architectural effect, which, under peculiar circumstances, is even 
very deceptive. Of these apings of the works of art, we had an abundant and various 
display ; that I could not make pictures of what I saw, from the extreme severity of the 
weather, and the difficult circumstances in which I was almost invariably placed, might 
possibly be regretted on the score of art, but can be of no moment for the present end, 
where the general fact and its bearings are so well understood by all whom geology 
can interest. 

If this leading and striking character is not sufficient to sarisfy geologists respecting 
the precise nature of this limestone, as it regards the systems of the earth which they 
have adopted, I suppose that this presumed character will be confirmed by its mmcral 
nature, and by that of the organic remains which it contains. In diflerent places, the 
former exhibits all those various characters, in te.xture and colour, which I have seen m 
collections of specimens of this particular limestone, as well as in several parts of Scot- 



•iv GEOLOGY. 

land, where this rock has been pointed out to me, though it would be superfluous for 
me to describe what is well known to every geologist. And if sometimes pure and 
somewhat marble-like in its texture, so it is argillaceous and dull, when it approaches 
to those shales into which it gradually passes, and with which it is interstratified. 

It is in its shales also, as I understand is usual with all limestones, that the organic 
remains which it contains are chiefly found ; though, as is not uncommon elsewhere, 
some of these occur only in that compact and almost pure calcareous rock, of which 
they form a part. If, even, I were better informed on this subject, so as to know the 
distinctions of rocks which are derivable from shells, I could not pretend to dis^ 
tinguish fragments, nor even the more perfect shells, by their present names in the mo- 
dem systems ; since I have had no means of keeping my knowledge up to the level of 
the improvements in this branch of science. Suffice it to say, that such organic 
remains, or shells, as I found, consisted of corals, of entrochi, of tetebratulae, and of 
others which I will not, or need not, pretend to name ; as of all I may say, that they 
bore such a general resemblance to those of the " mountain limestone " of England 
and Scotland, which I have seen in collections, as will doubtless satisfy others respect^^ 
ing that in which I am not inclined to take any further concern than may be necessary 
for allowing others to form those conclusions, which it would be presumptuous in me to 
draw. 

To terminate the history of this limestone, I need only remark in addition, that after 
ceasing at Port Logan, where the primary rocks reach the shore, it recurs at Neitchillee, 
to the southward of the isthmus of Boothia, and that it was thence traced for about two 
hundred miles to the westward, towards Cape Franklin, where our kno vledge of 
this coast ends. On this long line, however, no mountains of this rock, such as I have 
described as occupying so great a range of country, occurred. In general, the shores 
were barely skirted by low strata of a calcareous stone, frequently schistose, intermixed 
with shales ; as they were often so encumbered with fragments and blocks of the 
primary rocks, as well as of the limestone in question, that I could not often be sure 
that the fundamental strata were present. The geological conclusion that I was com- 
pelled to draw was, nevertheless, the same ; namely, that the primary district of this 
portion of the American coast was skirted throughout its whole extent, with the excep- 
tion of that line on which the sea met those rocks, by a series of secondary strata, of 
which this peculiar limestone was the leading and almost the exclusive member. 

I ought now, according to the usual doctrines of geology, as I understand them, to 
have also found the red sandstone, which holds a place between this limestone and the 
primary srtata. I must, however, observe, that on the whole of the long line which I 
examined at various times, extending from Northeast Cape to the Western Sea, that 



GEOLOGY. cv 

rock was never found in its position: whether owing to its real absence, or to the 
difficulty of seeing shores so often, and for such long periods, covered with ice and 
snow, or to my own negligence of this subject, where there was so much of more im- 
portance to engage my attention, I cannot now presume to say. Several fragments of a 
sandstone were however picked up on the shores, at various and distant places ; as, for 
example, near Batty Bay, at Fury Beach, at Victoria Harbour and at other places 
which I need not name, proving the existence of sandstone strata in the vicinity, or at 
least somewhere on this coast. 

But according to more practised judgments than my own, these specimens are inade- 
quate to prove whether the rock whence they have been derived belongs to the lowest 
red sandstone, or to that which is termed red marl. That they are red, brown, and 
mottled, sometimes soft, and at others very hard, is all that I can say respecting them ; 
and this diversity of character is, as I am informed, well known to occur in both the 
sandstones in question. 

But there is one fact whence I am told I may conclude, that in some parts of this 
shore, at least, the collected specimens must have been derived from the red marl, what- 
ever may be the case with respect to the southern part of the same line. This is the 
occurrence of gypsum in the vicinity of Northeast Cape : a mineral which geologists 
have liitherto referred to this series. But I must leave that matter to their judgments, 
as I have nothing more to suggest on the subject of these rocks, since I am not pos- 
sessed of any other evidence tlian that which I have stated. It is only needful to add, 
that as I saw no strata superior to the limestone, and obtained no specimens likely to 
have been derived from any series higher than the red marl, as the several friends 
whom I have consulted admit ; so I may, I presume, conclude that the secondary strata 
of this shore are limited to the rocks which I have described : a fact which, if I have 
read sufficiently on this subject, is exactly conformable to what occurs very widely in 
the northern portion of the North American continent. 

Having already said of the primary land of this coast, that it forms ridges of hills 
more interior than those of limestone wherever these occur, I must now observe that it 
reaches the shore at Port Logan, and occupies the remainder of that coast to the south- 
ward, together with the valley of lakes that crosses the isthnms, as far as Lake Witter- 
sted, where it is once more skirted by the flat limestone already described. Of the 
geography of this class of rocks, I can, of course, give no farther description, since the 
climate and the snow united, prevented all research into the interior, and all minute 
examination, for the most part, of what was accessible. 

To say that what I saw and could not touch, consisted of gi-anite, is more than, as 1 
am told, I ought to affirm, since geologists seem agreed that it is difficult to judge of 

*o 



cvi GEOLOGY. 

primary mountains by their physiognomy alone. Even when more near the eye, I will 
not say how often I may not have mistaken gneiss for granite ; yet this latter rock 
seemed to me to predominate through all the ridges, as it was also that which I found 
far most frequently whenever I could obtain actual contact with the rocks. 

That it presented the usual variety of external character, I need scarcely say, and 
that it included a great variety of mineral aspect or composition is what I can now but 
remember, without being able to describe. Only three varieties appear among the very 
few specimens which I brought home ; namely, one of red felspar, white quartz, and 
hornblende, one of the same felspar and quartz, with white mica, and a third of pale 
felspar and quartz, with a dark variety of this mineral. In one place I noted that a 
large mass of this rock was thickly studded with garnets ; but having brought home no 
specimens, I cannot now describe it more particularly. 

Having found no specimens of gneiss in this small rescued collection, and having but 
little recollection of the places where I saw this rock, I can give no account of it. 
Commander Ross appears to have met with it more extensively than I did, but as this 
branch of natural history was not under his charge, I cannot derive from his recollec- 
tion, any facts sufficiently positive to state, either respecting its geography or its mineral 
characters. I shall only note, that in Felix Harbour, I found hornblende schist, belong- 
ing to this series, as I am informed, together with that compact green felspar, which is 
known to be one of its inmates. That I saw common slate, or argillaceous schistus, in 
Victoria Harbour, and in one or two other places, is all that I can now recollect respect- 
ing that rock ; while one of the engraved plates represents a part of a stratum asso- 
ciated with another of gneiss, traversed, as it appears, by a granite vein, and the 
whole intersected by one of quartz. 

The last rock which I have to notice is trap. A considerable mass of this occurs at 
Saumarez River, and it is also represented in one of the plates ; the only other place 
where I noticed it was near Elizabeth Harbour, where numerous veins traverse the gra- 
nitic hills which skirt this shore. 

Of mere minerals, I found agate pebbles in one place, with veins of white, pink, and 
yellow quartz, near Elizabeth Harbour, and copper ore near Agnew River and Lord 
Lindsay River. 

The hills are often covered with granite boulders, offering the usual difficulty so often 
discussed : but I saw no other alluvia than those which are easily referred to the flow- 
ing of water during the summer thaws, and to the action of the waves on the shores. 



REPORT ON INSTRUMENTS. 



My transit instrument was made by Mr.T. Jones, of Charing Cross, for my observatory 
at North-west Castle, Wigtonshire, where I had it in use four years. Its telescope was 
thirty-six inches in length, with an object-glass two inches and five-eighths aperture, 
and was an excellent instrument: it was the whole time under the charge of Com- 
mander Ross. 

My theodolite was nine inches in diameter, with double telescope, and was made also 
by Jones, for the late Captain Bartholomew. 

The diurnal variation instrument was made by Mr. DoUond, whose instructions 
I received respecting its use, and was the same which had been made for Sir John 
Franklin. I had also two altitude instruments made by Jones, which were supplied 
to me from the Colonial Office, and which I used to determine the height of the Eastern 
over the Western Sea. I had three dipping-needles, one made by Jones, which was 
with Sir Edward Parry ; one by Pope, and one of my own construction. We had 
five sextants; an instrument sent by Mr. Warre, which was the invention of 
Lieut. Drummond, R.A., being a compass with apparatus for finding the latitude and 
longitude attached to it, and was a very ingenious invention ; but, as the compass 
had ceased to traverse where we wintered, it could not be tried. My telescope for 
occultations was sixty-six inches focal length, with an aperture of three inches and 
five-eighths ; the object-glass by Tully. I had also Barlow's apparatus, and Gilbert's 
azimuth compass, and six others ; two marine and one mountain barometer. Row- 
land's and Tyrrel's perspective instruments, the former was found of great value a.s 

*o 2 



cviii REPORT ON INSTRUMENTS. 

the greatest tyro in drawing could not fail to delineate the land correctly with it. 
The deep sea clamms, Dr. Marcet's water-bottle, Massey's patent log, and other 
instruments of minor importance, were, with the exception of Jones's dipping-needle, 
two sextants, and two spyglasses, left at Victoria harbour, where they were buried 
on the north side of the bay ; but I have no doubt but they would be discovered and 
destroyed by the natives. 



J^ 















^'^iit&^~aiM 



P 



TERRESTRIAL REFRACTION. 



Those who pass a year nortliward of the Arctic Circle, during the spring and 
autumn, are amazed at the extraordinary appearance of the objects around them, 
which are often changed in shape so totally different from what they really are, that it is 
quite impossible to take correct sketches, or make any thing like a true estimate of the 
distance of the land, which, in the course of a few minutes, is often so much changed 
as not to have any thing like the natural or true outline. Captain Scoresby 
gives some extraordinary instances of both land and ships seen at an immense distance, 
and on our first voyage it is recorded, that Cape Clarence was seen from the deck at 
the distance of one hundred and twenty miles, the ship being at that time two degrees 
of latitude south of the cape ; and, indeed, it was only in the spring after our arrival 
at Felix harbour, that we discovered the land to the east-south-east of us, with many 
intervening islands. But the most remarkable circumstance which occurred during 
our observations was the uneven current of refraction raising an intennediate body (an 
icebero- or island) above the more distant land, which at the time of no refraction was 
considerably higher. This fact at once shows the fallacy of setting up a mark or board 
at a distance of a few miles to observe a star setting behind it ; and which could be no 
proof of the inaccuracy of the table of refractions in the Nautical Almanac, which, 
indeed, I found by all my observations to be wonderfully correct. I cannot omit to 
mention an extraordinary instance of unusual refraction, which took place on the 22d of 
September, 1832, when we were at North End Cape, lat. 73° 53' north, long. 90° west. 
The weather was very clear, and, in an east-north-east bearing, no land could be seen. 



ex TERRESTRIAL REFRACTION. 

I was watching the rising of the sun, with my eyes fixed to the spot, when I saw tiie sun 
emerge ; in an instant his lower limb was his full diameter above the horizon, without 
his figure being changed ; in this position he remained about half a minute, then fell, 
his lower limb being dipped about one-eighth of the diameter; he then assumed 
various amorphous forms, continued varying for five minutes, and at length assumed 
the proper form. 

The plate is given to show the land in three different states : 

First, as with no refraction, distant fourteen miles. 

The second is the same land, with an iceberg four miles distant raised above the land. 

The third, the same refracted in a different way on the same day. 

These outlines are taken by Ronald's invaluable instruments which I had fixed on 
a point of land sixteen feet above the level of the sea, and by which the figure could be 
traced with the greatest precision, and with which I made above three hundred 
observations, tending to confirm what I have stated. These observations were taken 
during the first week in May, 1831. 



ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS, &c. 



I AM indebted for the following article to my friend Mr. Thomas Rymer Jones, who, 
in conjunction with Mr. Hemmings, submitted the articles I gave them to a careful 
examination, and made the following report, which requires no comment, as the acquire- 
ments of these gentlemen are known to quaUfy them highly for such an investigation. 

l.—SEA-WATER FROM PADLIAK OR SPENCE BAY. 

Thi.s water was taken from the sea by me on the 4th of June, lb3U, and carefully 
preserved in a bottle with a ground glass stopper, and was never out of my possession, 
having been carried by me the whole length of our fatiguing journey to Fury beach ; 
in order to establish the specific gravity and component parts of the water in the sea of 
King William, or that to the westward of the isthmus of Boothia. 

The specific gravity of this water was 1.011 at a temperature of sixty-four degrees of 
Fahrenheit, and a wine pint contains 116,97 grains, of which matter — viz.: 

GRAINS. 

Magnesia . . 5.81 

Chloride of sodium 92.5 

Sulphate of lime . 7.67 

Sulphuric acid . 4.39 — ^besides that contained in the sulphate of lime. 

Muriatic acid 5.65 — besides that contained in tlie muriate of soda. 



cxii ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS, &c. 

The salts therefore contained in the water are most probably — 





GRAINS. 


Muriate of magnesia 


. 8.7 


Sulphate of magnesia 


8.26 


Chloride of sodium (dry salt) 


. 9.25 


Sulphate of lime 


7.47 




116.93 



2.— BRINE FROM FURY BEACH. 

Having found this fluid in a beef-cask at Fury beach on our return to winter there, 
and still in a fluid state while the temperature was below zero, I made use of it as an 
artificial horizon ; and as it was subsequently exposed to a temperature of forty degrees 
below zero (at which point the finest mercury freezes) without being frozen, I thought 
it worth while to preserve some for analysis, and the following is Mr. Jones's report : 

The specific gravity of this brine was 1.171 at a temperature of sixty-four degrees of 
Fahrenheit. Two fluid drachms contained thirty-one grains and a quarter of solid 
matter, of which twenty-eight grains were pure chloride of sodium, the remainder 
contained traces of sulphates of magnesia and lime, and a small quantity of animal 
matter ; a portion placed in a thin glass tube was submitted in succession to the action 
of some of the most powerful freezing mixtures without undergoing congelation. 

3._WATER FROM THE RIVER SAUMAREZ. 

This river, which is in the latitude of seventy degrees nortli, was found flowing and 
unfrozen by us early in May, 1830, and, according to the account of the natives, never 
freezes. As the cause of this phenomenon was unexplained, and might be attributed 
to the nature of the water, I took some carefully out of the river and found its temperature 
then at thirty-three degrees of Fahrenheit ; since which it was, like that of the western 
sea, never out of my possession, but kept in a bottle with a ground glass stopper, and 
carried by me from the time the Victory was abandoned until our return, when it was 
handed to Mr. Jones, and the following is his report : 



ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS, &c. cxiii 

Specific gravity of the water from this river is L004 at sixty -four degrees of Fahrenheit. 
This was found to contain a minute portion of the chloride of sodium, and traces of tlie 
sulphate of lime. 

From this it must appear that the nature or component parts of the water could not be 
the reason that it did not freeze, and it must therefore be attributed to springs in the 
bottom of the Great Lake, out of which it flows, and which we estimated to be about three 
hundred feet above the level of the sea. This chain of lakes was about fifteen miles long, 
and in some places, three miles wide. 

4._WINE FROM FURY BEACH. 

This wine had been lying four years in cask on the beach before we arrived, when we 
took it on board, and bottled it, after which it was four years in my possession. 

Sherry — specific gravity 0.991 at temperature 64 degrees of Fahrenheit. 
Port wine — ditto ditto 0.981 ditto ditto. 

5.— RUM FROM FURY BEACH. 

This is under the same circumstances as the last. 

Specific gravity . • 0.910. 

These articles had undergone no change, except, probably, a cUminution of strength 
sufficiently indicated by the specific gravity. The same may be also said of a bottle of 
brandy cherries which were brought home, without being opened, the fruit not having been 
in the least decomposed. In addition to this, I may mention a bottle of the cordial called 
" Parfaite Amour," which, although exposed to the severest test, had lost neither colour 
nor flavour. 

6.— LEMON JUICE. 

This had been exposed in casks for eight years in Fury beach, and wc were of opinion 
tliat it had lost much of its antiscorbutic qualities, from its want of the expected effect on 
those who were afflicted with scurvy ; and our opinions seem io have been well founded. 
according to the following report : 

The lemon juice lias undergone a partial decomposition, but still contains a considerable 



exiv ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS, &c. 

proportion of citric acid ; the decomposition being principally in the vegetable matter, 
seems to imply that citric acid alone is not a check to that dreadful malady the scurvy, 

7.— THE MUSTARD 
Had, as might be expected, lost the greater part of its pungency. 

STATE OF PROVISIONS. 

The provisions of which the following account is given, had been lying exposed to the 
climate for eight years, in the latitude of seventy-three degrees and forty-seven minutes 
north, and longitude of ninety-one degrees and forty-seven minutes west, and very little 
above high-water mark. 

The preserved meats, with few exceptions, were the manufacture of Messrs. Gamble and 
Co., and being enclosed in tin cases, could not be discovered by animals who depend on 
the sense of smelling : these were cylinders of various sizes, the ends of each becoming 
concave or convex, according to the degrees of contraction or expansion caused by the 
climate, secured them against bursting from its effects, and the contents were found to be 
in nearly the original state : these consisted of beef, roasted and boiled, veal, mutton, 
spiced meat of various kinds, turnips, parsnips, and carrots, all of which were found to be 
in excellent preservation. The soups, which were preserved in quantities, from a quart to 
a gallon, were excellent, and we left a considerable quantity behind, but no meat of 
any kind. 

The flour, which was preserved in iron-bound casks, and had been likewise exposed for 
eight years to the climate, was found to be in good condition ; for although in many cases 
the hoops had slackened, so as to admit the moisture into the cask, it penetrated but 
a short way, while the whole of the interior was perfectly sound. The bread, of which 
there were many casks, was in a good or bad state, according to the soundness of the cask 
which contained it, and we employed ourselves in separating the biid from the good, and 
put all into repaired casks. A part of this, and also of the flour, is suflicient, with the 
addition of the remaining soup, to sustain the life of twelve men for a year. Owing to the 
pickles being also in cask, they had suffered much, the vinegar having leaked out of most 
of them: fifty of these, and twenty-five of lemon juice, are also left, at a little distance 
south of the house, and covered with coals, as the most effectual way of preserving both. 



PHILOSOPHICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



ON COLD. 

Havixg already devoted much in Chapter XIII. of the Narrative on this subject, as it 
regards the human body, it only remains to publish my experiments on its effect on other 
substances. I shall begin with those on ice, wliich were repeated yearly : the thickness of 
the ice was measured regularly, both on a lake and in the sea, everj' month, and was found 
to increase until the end of May, when it had arrived at its maximum thickness, which in the 
sea was ten feet, and the lake eleven ; the proportion being so much more on fresh than on 
salt water. In the months of February and March, when the temperature of the air was at 
fifty degrees below zero, the temperature of the ice gradually diminished between the 
surface and the water, which was, immediately below the ice, at the temperature of twenty- 
seven degrees ; showing that to freeze sea-water below the ice (where no air was to be 
found) required a temperature five degrees lower than the freezing point of Fahrenheit. 
This was done by excavating a large shaft in the ice, and, as it deepened, a horizontal 
hole was bored large enough to admit the thermometer at every foot in depth, until we 
arrived at the water, in which a thermometer was immediately immersed, and tlie result 
obtained, the fiurther detail of which need not be presented. 

ITS EFFECTS ON SNOW. 

The same experiments were made on snow, with proportional results ; twelve feet dcptli 
of snow being equal in the resistance of cold to seven feet of ice. It was from these 
experiments that I determined on covering our miserable canvas habitation at Fury 
beach with ice, which was accomplished by watering the snow walls as tliey were con- 
structed, and also tlie roof; the former being made from seven to nine feet thick, and 
the latter from four to six. Tliis we found effectual against cold until the mercury had 

*p 2 



CXVl 



PHILOSOPHICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



frozen ; after which, the frost penetrated more or less according to the force of the wind. 
Tlie general effects of the cold on the snow as it fell, was to pulverize it, so that when 
a strong breeze came it rose and filled the air like dust, to a considerable height. On the 
other hand, the valleys, and every place into which the wind had forced the snow, became 
so hard as to bear being formed into blocks, like Ashlar work, of large dimensions, and rolled 
into the sledges without damage, and thus we were enabled to build the walls of our huts 
with considerable rapicUty, our first care on halting being to find a place where the snow 
was hard. 

ITS EFFECTS ON MERCURY. 
The effect of cold on mercury depended materially on its purity, and I observed that the 
longer or the oftener it was used, it froze the sooner. It was at first imagined that the lead 
of tlie trough which is generally used in artificial horizons, amalgamated with the mercury, 
but I always used a wooden trough, and a glass bottle to keep it in ; notwithstanchng 
which the scum, which was always greatest in cold weather, was equally large, and every 
year the mercury which had been used, froze at a higher temperature, until it reached 
to thirty-one degrees, being eight degrees higher than the usual point ; while mercury, 
which had not been exposed, retained its purity. We went through the usual experiments 
of freezing it in a pistol-bullet mould, and firing the ball through an inch board ; as also 
the finest almond oil, which froze at fifteen degrees, and became very hard at thirty 
degrees, so as to penetrate, when formed into a bullet, through an inch plank at the 
distance of five yards. 

The effect of cold on various metals was found to be the same as has been often 
published ; but perhaps the loss of magnetic power, in no less than twelve needles of 
compass cards, which were found on Fury beach, may be most properly attributed to 
cold, as they were found with the needle pointing north, south, east, and west, and all 
alike deprived of their magnetic property. The effects of cold on the icebergs was the 
most striking ; as soon after the thermometer had sunk below zero, icebergs were heard 
renting and tumbling to pieces with tremendous noise ; and in the spring, these immense 
masses were seen, like as many mountains after the devastation of an earthquake. It has 
been supposed that the cold also had the effect of giving the green and blue colour to the 
ice ; but, although these colours were deeper and more general after than before winter, 
still I do not think the fact to be sufl^ciently proved, that the cold is the only cause. 



SURGEON'S REPORT. 



REPORT 



DR. GEORGE M'DIARMID, SURGEON OF THE VICTORY, 
ON THE SICK OF THE CREW. 



The following interesting Report of the Sick on board the Victory, was intended for 
tlie Narrative; but Dr. M'Diarmid, to whom I am now indebted for it, was unexpectedly 
appointed to a vessel which was ordered suddenly to India, and sailed before he could 
prepare it for publication; and he has only returned in time for its insertion in the Ap- 
pendix. The Report may appear short, as that of so great a length of time, but it is 
Dr. M'Diarniid's intention to give to the pubHc a fuller account than the prescribed 
limits of this Appendix could admit of. It has always given me great pleasure to do 
justice to his uniform zeal and attention, both as regards his profession and other duties ; 
and it has also afforded me much gratification that his conduct has been duly appre- 
ciated by the Lords of the Admiralty, who, having dispensed with the usual term of 
servitude in the Royal Navy, promoted him to the rank, successively, of Assistant- 
Surgeon and full Surgeon in his Majesty's naval service soon after his return. 

JOHN ROSS. 



SURGEON'S REPORT. 



July 13, 1829. — Our armourer was on tins day attacked with pulmonary inflamma- 
tion ; he had, as we subsequently learned, previously suffered from the same malady, 
and had not been long discharged from one of the London hospitals, when he proffered 
his services in this expedition. It had been Sir John Ross's intention, soon after the com- 
mencement of the voyage, to send him home in one of the whale ships, I having already 
reported my patient as unfit for further service, but no opportunity presented itself for 
his return. The poor fellow's case terminated in confirmed consumption, and, although 
his death was probably in some degree accelerated by the severity of the climate, I think 
that most likely his disease would have terminated fatally had he remained in England; 
and I question whether, had he been at home, he could have received more attention, 
or met with more kindness, even from his relatives, than he experienced at the hands of 
his shipmates. One wish of his only remained ungratified — he dreaded having his 
remains deposited in a foreign land, and often expressed vain regrets, that he could not 
return home to expire on his native soil. 

July 27, 1829. — On this day, John Wood, seaman, aged twenty-two, a healthy and 
robust young man, fractured both the bones of his left leg in jumping into the launch. 
The cure was completed within two months by ordinary means, nature effecting the 
union, and the doctor getting the credit of it. 

This man was, nine months after his recovery from this accident, severely afilicted 
with sea-scurvy, and likewise, subsequently in 1833 ; and as it has been observed, 
especially by the medical officers attached to Anson's expedition in his Voyage round 



SURGEON'S REPORT. 



CXXl 



the World, tliat fractures become disunited under the ravages of this malady, I tliink it 
proper to observe, that in this instance nothing of the kind occurred, although scorbutic 
symptoms made their appearance so soon after the fractured bones had become conso- 
lidated. The symptoms of his first attack, in 1830, were soon controlled; in 1833, 
however, the disease assumed a more malignant and violent character, and rapidly 
attained its worst and most deplorable form : the gums were absorbed almost to the 
edge of the sockets of the teeth, and had become black and putrid, livid patches appeared 
on the limbs, the legs became cedematous, and the powers of life were prostrated 
even to repeated faintings. This melancholy state was rendered still more distress) n«r 
from tlie bad quality of the lime juice which we had obtained from the stores of the 
Fury, and which having become decomposed by time, was almost inefficient; yet, in 
spite of the severity of the disease, and its protracted continuance during a period of 
four months, I never discovered any indications of disunion in the broken limb. It 
may, however, be observed, that Lord Anson's men were destitute of all kinds of 
fresh provisions, and, therefore, not only could not cure, but were unable even to 
mitigate the progress of the horrible malady which raged among them. 

July 24, 1831.— Anthony Buck, aged twenty-four. As this man's case, blindness 
after epilepsy, is referred to in the Report of the Committee of the House of Commons, 
it may be, perhaps, interesting to give a short outline of it. In May of this year, he 
had suffered from snow blindness, which had probably left a disposition to cerebral 
disease. On the day above mentioned, when on a fishing party seventeen miles 
from the ship, he had his first attack of epilepsy, from which he recovered with im- 
paired vision of the left eye. On the eleventh of October, he had a second attack 
still more violent, causing nearly total blindness of both eyes. The fits recurred at 
irregular inteiTals for two months, and eventually disappeared, leaving him, however, 
nearly blind. It cannot be of much interest to trace the various remedies used in this 
case; but it may be reasonably hoped tliat the sight may be eventually though 
gradually recovered ; since it is most probable that the blindness depends only on a 
loss of nervous energy in the retina, from the violence of the fits, a degree of impaired 
vision being a common consequence of such cases.* 

* Since writing the above, I have been told that Buck has partially recovered his sight. Such cases arc 
sometimes fairly referred to organic lesion, but are more usually functional diseases simply. 

*Q 



cxxii SURGEON'S REPORT. 

The second fatal case under my care was one of dropsy (ascites). James Dickson 
had been on a fishing party two months before the manifestation of dropsical symptoms. 
He had fallen into the water, and had slept through the night in his wet clothes. His 
general health from this period was gTadually disturbed, and I attribute his malady to 
the suppressed perspiration consequent upon exposure to damp and cold. On the 
20th of October, 1831, he complained of pain and tightness of the abdomen, which, on 
examination, was found to be swollen and tense. Aperients and diuretics were ordered, 
as also mercurials to promote the action of the absorbent system, due attention being 
paid to the function of the skin. I combated the accumulation of fluid with varying 
success, until the latter end of December, when the tension became extreme, and he was 
tapped. The operation, as usual, gave him only temporary relief; and, gradually sink- 
ing, he died on the 10th of January, 1832. 

It is worth while to notice, that at various times during the course of this complaint, 
symptoms of scurvy made their appearance. So again in Buck's case (epilepsy) the 
same disease occasionally manifested itself; again in Henry Eyre''s case (the cook), who 
was affected with rheumatism ; and in short, in nearly all the cases, the same scorbutic 
symptoms were mixed up with the proper characteristics of each disease. Even con- 
sumption, absolute as it is in our climate, was modified by the same controlling 
diathesis. The experienced statistical investigator will, in the history of all atmospheric 
constitutions, observe the same phenomenon in all parts of the world. The cholera 
epidemic, which stalked like a malignant giant over a great part of the globe, spreading 
death and desolation in its course, asserted the same controlling influence over disease 
in general, as has been remarked by most writers on that disease. So again in districts 
where ague prevails, most diseases receive some additional intermittent character 
which in other regions do not properly belong to them. 

From the experience of former voyagers, and from a consideration of the common 
causes of scurvy in a northern region, we had sufficiently been taught, that no precau- 
tion, however strict, no policy, however comprehensive, could ensure a crew from the 
occasional ravages of this debilitating malady. The absurdity of attributing it to the 
single cause of salt piovisions, would have been inferior to the pathological views even 
of the earliest investigators of disease ; for the ancients tell us, that not any one cause 
produces disease, but that is assumed in common parlance as the cause which seems 
chiefly to have contributed to the effect. Every depressing agent contributes to establish 



SURGEON'S REPORT. cxxiii 

the scorbutic condition. No wonder, then, that at one period a vexatious confinement 
with no probable limits, and the most harassing disappointments, hope almost chased 
away by despair, provisions at times scanty, and a deficiency of all comfortable clothing, 
should have rendered the constitutions of a great part of our little crew obnoxious to 
this northern enemy. There were times when the spirits of the crew, like our thermo- 
meters, were below zero ; and such a condition, conjointly with the causes above men- 
tioned, not only introduced some severe cases, but hkewise in a degree baffled our efforts 
at a cure. The means of prevention were rigidly enforced, and the importance of exer- 
cise, by walking, and occasionally dancing, was never lost sight of. Humidity was 
carefully watched as a known enemy ; and to the various ingenious contrivances of former 
expeditions, an original and successful invention for condensing vapour was superadded. 
Regular nutritious diet, and plenty of it, should be the rule in serving out the provisions 
for a northern expedition: we may be disposed to express disgust at witnessing an 
Esquimaux meal, and indeed nothing can well be more revolting to an European of 
even ordinary refinement ; but let us recollect that the common dietetic rule in the 
days of Augustan polity was " semper quamplurimum assumere dummodo hunc con- 
coquat," and we must leave the savage on a par with the Roman courtier, since they 
have equally the same limit to the work of refection — the utter impossibility of earing 
more. Let it be disrinctly understood, that I am not advocating gluttony, but merely 
recording what I beheve to be a fact, that very liberal feeding is indispensable to a due 
generation and preservarion of heat in such a climate, and therefore indispensable to 
the prevention of scurvy. 

Seventeen of our crew, in all, were more or less suflFerers from this complaint : one 
only fell a vicrim to it. So long as we had a store of good lime-juice, good clothing, 
o-enerous diet, and a favourable condirion of cheerfulness, it was not difficult to arrest or 
control the shghter cases which appeared ; but when, in tlie winter of 1832, and spring 
of 1833, after deserting the ship, the men had to contend with depression of mind, and 
a scanty diet (a diet which would have suited a Pythagorean better than a sailor, for we 
had scarcely any animal food, while our clothing had become almost unserviceable), the 
development of severe scurvy at once served to heighten our misery, and to sliow how 
poor a defence a vegetable regimen (chiefly farinaceous) is, when the causes above 
named are conjointly exerting their depressing influence. 

*q2 



cxxiv SURGEON'S REPORT. 

Here again I may note, that those who were slightly affected at the time they left the 
ship, were so far benefited by the daily exercise of walking from Victoria harbour to 
Fury beach, a distance of between two and three hundred miles, that on their arrival at 
the latter place every man had undergone a spontaneous cure. But it was during our 
stay at the Fury's stores that the worst form of the disease appeared. 

Mr. Chimham Thomas was one of those who had been scorbutic on leaving 
the ship, and also at various times for two years before. Like several others, 
he had experienced a spontaneous cure during the journey to the stores, and from 
July, 1832, to November of the same year, had remained free from the disease; but, 
under the causes above referred to, his symptoms claimed my notice. On the r2th of 
November, he was so seriously ill, that with a paucity of all means of controlling 
the disease, I from the first had apprehensions of the result. There was, indeed, 
lime-juice found among the Fury's provisions, but seven years had sufficed to render 
it inert. Neither had I much to expect from exercise; for although it were easy 
from the commencement to place a sentinel over such a patient on board a man-of-war, 
admonition was all that in our situation could be had recourse to. We had indeed 
plenty of good flour, carrots, parsnips, vegetable soup, peas, &c.; but it was impos- 
sible to get the men to persist in such food, neither, under the complication of such 
depressing causes, can it be relied on with any certainty as an antidote. After strug- 
gling with the usual appalling symptoms for three months, debilitated by recurrent 
haemorrhage from the nose, and his life prolonged by friction, and such excitants as our 
limited means allowed, a miserable death closed an existence still more miserable. 
Another case, previously recited (John Wood), promised to be equally severe ; but, as 
it did not occur until March of 1833, he had all the benefit of the warm season, and 
of a change of diet, which our shooting parties afforded us in the summer months, so 
that by July he was out of danger. 

The other fifteen cases were of various extent, and all did well : and I may here 
notice, that in all, a disposition to constipation rather than to diarrhoea characterized the 
disease. It might be supposed that, as scurvy is as familiar to the natives as the 
snow by which they are surrounded, some new remedy, either external or internal, 
might have been learned from them. With the direct causes of the complaint they 
were as conversant as the most learned of us : they say it follows a want of provisions. 



SURGEON'S REPORT. cxxv 

and they know well that good living and active exercise are indispensable to the cure. 
Their sole internal medicine is train oil. This is, in fact, their panacea; and, if it fail, 
the conjurer is their only refuge. 

All northern expeditions have furnished cases of frostbite, or, as we call the milder 
affections in our own temperate region, chilblains, for they differ only in degree. With 
due care, these accidents ought not to occur, but to be at all times on our guard is almost 
impossible. Security is mortals' chiefest enemy, and a long immunity from suffering 
renders us negligent of danger. In all, we had about a dozen cases. That of George 
Taylor, one of the mates, demands distinct observation. This poor fellow had gone 
out with a travelling party, and was at the time about forty miles from the ship. In 
the morning, he had put on a wet stocking; when on his journey, he felt his foot 
cold and benumbed, but imprudently persisted in walking without noticing it. In 
the evening, when ordered by Captain James Ross to put on the usual night-stockings, 
he discovered that the whole of his foot was frostbitten up to above the ankle. I did 
not see the case till his return, three days afterwards; Captain James Ross had judi- 
ciously ordered the limb to be rubbed with snow, and to be immersed in ice-cold water. 
On examination I found the foot much swollen, painful, and in a state of incipient gan- 
grene : anodyne poultices were applied, but it soon became necessary to amputate, 
a measure which the man urged me to delay till Sir John Ross's return, and which I at 
length performed with a favourable result. The other cases were of minor importance, 
and all did well. 

If the preservation of a uniform temperature by external means be of the highest 
importance, it must be admitted that the due and vigorous generation of caloric by u 
proper selection of food is not less so. The natural food of this climate seems well 
adapted to the purpose. Every one knows that solar caloric, caloric by combustion, 
and that generated by animal life, are the three chief sources by which our temperature 
is sustained. Now, it seems but reasonable that in a region where our supply from the 
two first is so exceedingly limited, the more active evolution from the last source should 
compensate for the deficiency. It is not so difficult, though certainly far from easy, to 
explain the laws of heat when exerted on inanimate matter, so as to produce the known 
vacillations of atmospheric temperature. But to explain these laws as influencing, and 
influenced by, the laws of vitality— in other words, to show how the affinities of matter 



cxxvi SURGEON'S REPORT. 

are antagonized by the power of vitality (or that we may not lead our readers to sup- 
pose there is any want of harmony in the code of laws by which Divine Providence at 
once governs the animate and inanimate, we will not say antagonized, but nicely 
balanced), this indeed has long puzzled, and will still puzzle, philosophers the most 
acute. There are, however, some facts upon which we can reason with interest and 
advantage to future navigators ; and we have a theory fairly grounded on those facts, 
which has now withstood the test of nearly half a century, and which has been indeed 
modified by the careful process of induction from experiments,* but which has never 
been altogether refuted. To this I deem it my indispensable duty to direct the atten- 
tion of any of my medical brethren, who may hereafter chance to visit these regions ; for 
what is notoriously said of air in all parts of the world, may here also be said of heat, 
" we must have it or we die." 

To the physiologist, and the general philosopher, my remarks, perhaps, appear 
commonplace, and certainly not original, but let him bear in mind that they are re- 
corded only as a means of directing my successors to the importance of this subject, and 
to the necessity of adapting the victus ratio accordingly. To proceed then, there are 
three modes by which heat is probably generated within the body — by the chemical 
decomposition which takes place in respiration, by the influence of the brain and 
nervous system, in some degree perhaps analogous to its development by galvanic 
mfluence, and by the process of digestion and nutrition. 

If it be acknowledged that combustion goes on more rapidly in cold weather, and 
that this is wisely pre-ordained, the same remark applies to respiration, in which the 
imaginative poet and the cold philosopher alike recognise the resemblance. The heat 
generated will partly depend on the rapidity of the union of the impurities of the blood 
and the consequent liberation of caloric. 

But it will partly depend on the quantity of carbon and hydrogen contained, and 
taken in with the food. On this ground alone, I expect the patience of my readers; 
for it will follow, if this be admitted, that such provisions should be selected for these 
expeditions as may have been found to contain these elements in the largest possible 

* Vide Crawford's Experiments, Spalding on the Diving Bell, and the more recent experiments of 
Brodie, Phillip, and Le Gallois. 



SURGEON'S REPORT. cxxvii 

excess, loosely combined, and in the most favourable state for elimination. We all 
know that articles of an opposite chemical constitution lower the temperature, such as 
nitre, acids, mineral and vegetable, and hence the failure of lime juice as an anti- 
scorbutic, unless aided by nutritious food. On reference to the food destined by 
nature for the support of the Esquimaux, we find it almost exclusively hydro-carbo- 
naceous, oil, blubber, fish, and flesh, the two latter of which cannot be too fat for 
them. Here we see a strong analogy between their process of nutrition and that oi' 
combustion ; nearly the same materials, the same play of affinities, the same results, the 
same change of latent into sensible caloric. That persons of a weakly digestion have no 
great conservative power with regard to temperature, is a matter beyond doubt ; and 
the converse seems equally manifest. It is here we have to regard the felicity of an 
Esquimaux-constitution, for whatsoever improvement our appetites underwent among 
them, their inherent digestive powers exceeded ours out of all reasonable proportion. 

If I am rightly understood, my readers must see that I contend that the gross diet of 
northern tribes is not a matter of chance, but in harmony with the slow but constant 
changes which are continually going on around them ; and intended to enable them to 
resist cold, and to vigorously generate heat. Thus, as we witnessed, the mother was 
enabled safely to expose her naked infant, but a few days born, to an atmosphere of 
seventy-five degrees below our freezing point for several minutes ; the heat being rapidly 
generated by the one, and as tenaciously retained by the other, for the child during 
this time was feeding at the breast. The influence of the nervous system in evolvincr 
heat is now generally admitted ; its elimination in the process of digestion and nutrition, 
although not less certain, is still more difficult of explanation. 

On a review of the journal of all the cases which came under my care, I can 
scarcely find room, in the limited space allowed me here, to do more than merely state 
that pneumonia, colds, simple fevers, and some cases of gastric disease, constituted the 
chief part of them. Duly considering the various difficulties and privations suffered 
by the crew, our mortality of three individuals will not be deemed either numerous or 
extraordinary. 



CAPTAIN BACK. 



Before this sheet was put to the press, this intrepid and persevering officer arrived in 
London. It will be recollected, that in the spring of 1833, he volunteered his services 
in the most praiseworthy and disinterested manner to search for me and my companions, 
who had then been absent nearly four years. Immediately after our providential return, 
despatches were sent to him, which he received in iVIay, 1834; and at the same time, 
directions to continue his survey of Great Slave river, the very existence of which was 
doubtful, principally with the view of uniting the coast between Cape Turnagain and 
Commander Ross's furthest beacon. The result of this enterprise has proved that 
the line of coast to the southward of the Isthmus of Boothia had not been completely 
examined, and that the information received by Commander Ross from the Esquimaux, 
making into a bay the land between the isthmus and Matty island, was incorrect; and 
thus opening a new field for conjecture; but, although it is very probable that the land 
to the westward of that inlet is an island, I am not of opinion that the western sea joins 
with Prince Regent's inlet. No one will deny that Captain Back, whose zeal, intelligence, 
and perseverance, has done so much, will be the fittest person to finish the work he has 
begun; and I have learnt with peculiar pleasure, that his Majesty, our august sovereign, 
having dispensed with the term of servitude established by the regulations of the navy to 
qualify him for the next step, has promoted him to the rank of Captain, as a reward 
(the most honourable) for his eminent services, and which will render it unnecessary 
for him to serve on board a ship, before he takes the command of another land expedi- 
tion, which I hope he will soon undertake by order of government. 

I cannot conclude without offering my grateful thanks, to the corporations of London, 
Hull, the Trinity of Hull, Liverpool, Bristol, and Wicklow, who have each conferred 
their freedom upon me, as also to the sovereigns of Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Den- 
mark, France, Belgium, and above four thousand individuals, who have presented me 
with splendid and flattering testimonials of the sense they have entertained of my humble 
endeavours in the cause of science, but more especially for the kind interest which has 
been so universally felt for me and my companions. 



BIOGRAPHY 



THE VICTORY'S CREW. 



BIOGRAPHY 



THE VICTOKYS CREW. 



This short Biographical Sketch of the Men, composing the Crew of the Victory, may 
not be found uninteresting to my Readers. 

MR. THOMAS BLANKY, First Mate. 

Mk. Bl.anky was born at Whitby, in the year 1800; is five feet seven inciies 
high, stout made, has a fair complexion, with light hair: went to sea at eleven 
years of age, and served an apprenticeship of six years in a colher, between Shields and 
London, on board two vessels, called the Liberty and the Property, after which he was 
one year in the coasting trade, and two years in the Greenland fishery, on board the 
Volunteer, of Whitby, where he filled the situation of line manager. He was twelve 
months in the Swan, revenue cutter, from which he went second mate of the Latona, for 
one voyage in the timber trade : after making a voyage as second mate of the Lord Wel- 
lington to Dantzic, he went two voyages first mate of a collier. In the year 1824 he 
volunteered to serve on board his Majesty's discovery ship, the Griper, Captain Lyon, 
and was on board her on that disastrous voyage to Cumberland strait. On her return 
he entered on board the Navigator, as second mate, and made a voyage to Alexandria ; 
and then as first mate of the Sprightly, to Riga, and two voyages in the coal trade. In 
1827 Sir E. Parry's attempt to reach the North Pole was undertaken, and he volun- 
teered on board the Hecla as a leading man ; but this attempt being also unsuccessful, 
he returned to the merchant service, making a voyage to Quebec, and another to St. 



Ui -1 



cxxxii BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. 

Petersburg, as first mate of the Abnira ; after which he joined an uncle as mate, who was 
master and owner of a schooner, but was wrecked soon after on Flamborough Head. When 
he joined the Victory as first mate, he had been eighteen years at sea, and had become 
an excellent seaman, of which he gave several remarkable proofs. I may mention that on 
the morning of the 12th of August, when his pre.<^ence of mind and decision saved the 
ship from being thrown into the breakers of a heavy pack of ice. His education having 
been neglected in his youth, he attended very diligently to instructions given him on the 
voyage, and became an excellent navigator. Having been before a shipmate of Com- 
mander Ross, he naturally attached himself to him, and from whom he received much 
instruction. Although he was the spokesman on most of the occasions of discontent, 
particularly on the march from Victoria harbour to Fury beach, I do not blame him so 
much as those at whose instigation he committed the act of insubordination, and I had 
no hesitation in giving him my strongest recommendation to A. Chapman, Esq., M.P., 
who appointed him mate of one of his ships, which led to his obtaining the command of 
a merchant ship, and which all along seemed to be the sole object of his ambition. 

MR. THOMAS ABERNETHY, Second Mate. 

I\Ir. Abernethy was born at Peterhead, in Scotland, in the year 1802, and was nearly 
six feet high, straight, and well made ; had a florid complexion, dark eyes and hair, an 
aquiline nose, and was decidedly the best-looking man in the ship. He went to sea at 
the early age of ten, and served an apprenticeship of four years in the Friends, of 
Peterhead, in which he went one voyage to the West Indies, and two to Greenland ; 
afterwards he went three voyages to Davis's straits, in the Hannibal ; and after which he 
entered and continued in the coasting. Oporto, and American trade. In 1824 he joined 
the Fury, Captain Hoppner, and was wrecked in Prince Regent's inlet, sharing the 
hardships of that unfortunate voyage. After making a voyage in a merchant ship, he 
volunteered his services in the Polar ExpecUtion of 1827, and was one of the most 
meritorious of Captain Sir Edward Parry's crew : for this, after serving the necessary time 
on board a ship of the Hne, he was promoted to the Blossom sloop of war, as gunner, and 
married the daughter of Mr. Fiddis, the carpenter who was with me and Sir E. Parry on 
all the previous voyages to the Arctic Regions. When he volunteered with me in the 
Victory, he had been seventeen years at sea, and was in my opinion the most steady and 



BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. 



CXXXlll 



active, as well as the most powerful man in the ship : he was one of those who volunteered 
to proceed to the westward, on the first journey with Commander Ross. I had no hesita- 
tion in recommending him strongly to the Admiralty, and he was accordingly promoted 
to his Majesty's ship Seringapatam, as a reward for his meritorious services. 

MR. GEORGE TAYLOR, Thikd Mate. 
Mii. Taylor was born at Lancaster in the year 1800; is five feet four inches and a 
half high ; has blue eyes, brown hair, and a good complexion. He served his apjjren- 
ticeship of five years to the trade of a ship carpenter, at Ulverston, in Lancashire, in the 
building-yard of James Hart, Esq. A short period after his time was served, he entered 
as carpenter of a merchant vessel, and served three years as second mate and carpenter of 
the Six Sisters, of Liverpool, employed in the timber trade, and subsequently in another 
ship belonging to Hull, before he joined the Victory steam-vessel, where I found him 
doing duty as master when I purchased her at Liverpool. He volunteered m the first 
instance to carry the vessel to London, where he was employed while the vessel was 
fitting out, and behaved himself so well that I made him third mate. In 1830, while on 
a journey with Commander Ross, he got his right foot frostbitten ; and being in the first 
instance neglected, ended in the amputation of his foot, two inches above the toes, since 
which he was unable to do any active duty, but was nevertheless very usefiil. He could 
walk very little during the remaining three years, and he had often to be carried on the 
sledge on our march from Victoria harbour to Fury beach. In 18;32, on leaving Batty, 
on the 1st of October, we attempted to carry him on the substitute for a sledge, which we 
made fi-om the staves of casks ; but being quite unable, we were obliged to leave him 
twice, and I myself returned with the empty sledge to bring him, for which he was always 
grateful. He was one of the most trusty I had of the crew, and was the person who 
detected William Light, the steward, purloining my allowance of provisions. When he 
returned home I provided for him a situation in the Dock-yard, but he preferred goin<r 
to Liverpool, where his wife and family were, and had been supported by Sir Felix Booth 
in his absence. 

MR. CHIMHAM THOMAS, Carpenter. 
Mk. Thomas was born at Devonport in 1792; was five feet three inches high, blue 
eyes, and sallow complexion. His father was a caulker in his Majesty's Dock-yard at 



cxxxiv BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. 

Plymouth, and he served his apprenticeship of seven years to a shipwright with Mr. 
Tucker, the master builder. He was employed in His Majesty's Dock-yard until the 
year 1814, when he volunteered to serve on the Lakes in America, assisted in the build- 
ing of the St. Lawrence of one hundred guns, and Psyche frigate, and several small 
vessels — shared in several actions, and returned to England in 1824, after ten years' 
arduous service. On his homeward passage he suffered shipwreck in the Mary, of Liver- 
pool, on the coast of Ayrshire, losing all his hard-earned property. Having entered on 
board his Majesty's ship Boadicea, Commodore Sir James Brisbane, as carpenter's mate, 
he sailed to the East Indies, where he served two years, during which time he was chiefly 
at Rangoon, Arrawadda, Stc, on board the flotilla opposed to the Burmese ; was in several 
storming parties, and was the next man to Captain Dawson when he was killed attacking 
a large stockade. In 1826 he was appointed carpenter of the Slaney, by Admiral Gage, 
and from thence to the Eurydice, in which ship he returned to England. He volunteered 
on board the Victory in 1829, only the day before she left Woolwich, and was promptly 
granted leave of absence by the Lords of the Admiralty, to enable him to join. Mr. 
Thomas was a most excellent workman, and could produce very high testimonials of his 
character and conduct : but his constitution was worn out by his servitude in the East 
Indies and America, and could not withstand the severe trials which it was now exposed 
to. and he sunk under the combined effects of cold and fatigue at the age of thirty-nine 
years, leaving a widow (to whom he had been only a year married), and a daughter, to 
deplore his loss. 

ALEXANDER BRUNTON, Chief ENaiNEER. 

Alexander Brunton was born at Temple, in Midlothian, is five feet four inches high, 
blue eyes and brown hair, sallow complexion, having much the appearance of a half-worn 
tradesman. He served his apprenticeship to Mr. Stevenson, the Engineer, at Edin- 
burgh, with whom he continued some time afterwards as a workman ; he set up in business 
for himself at Leith, as a scale-beam and edge-tool maker, but failed, and entered into 
several steam-vessels as engineer. Having served five years, he came to London ; and 
after working at printing-machine making, for some time, he got into Messrs. Maudslay's 
manufactory, where he was five years ; from thence he went to Messrs. Braithwaite's, 
and joined the Victory in 1829; having been one of those employed in constructing the 
engine, I considered him a great acquisition, especially as he had a strong recommendation 



BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. cxxxv 

from liis masters; he had hard work certainly until the 21st of August, as he had almott 
daily to repair one part or another of the engine ; but it was then given up, and his place 
was a complete sinecure for some time : he is an excellent but a very slow workman. At 
Fury beach, he was employed making tin utensils for the officers and men, and it was 
calculated that each tm-pot be made (taking his high wages into consideration) cost about 
1/. ! He had no less than 617/. 15«. to receive when he returned, yet he was not contented, 
and was one of those who sent a petition to the Admiralty to recover the value of clothes 
which had been furnished to him to keep him from perishing with cold. When we aban- 
doned the ship, he was one of the most useless. Since his arrival, he has married a widow 
and set up a " Gin Palace," called the " Crown and Cushion," in the Borough-! 

ALLAN MACINNES, Second Exgixeek. 
Alexander Macinnes was born in the year 1808, at the isle of Mull, in Argj'llshire; he 
is five feet seven inches high, stout made, of a swarthy complexion, and marked with the 
smallpox. He was the son of a farmer, but served his apprenticeship, first to a baker, 
then to an engineer at Gloucester. He had been five years in steam-vessels before he 
volunteered to the Victory. His situation would also have been a sinecure, after the 
steam-engine was given up, but he was wanted in his calling as a baker, and was found 
very useful while at Fury beach, where he made excellent bread. On our return home, 
he went to see his friends in the North, he returned in spring last, and applied to me for 
a recommendation to INIessrs. Maudslay and Field, which I readily gave him ; but in 
a few days after he signed the same petition with Brunton to recover the value of clothes, 
&c., which had been in like manner furnished to him, although he had received 
169/. 184-. 8d. of wages, not more than half of which he was entitled to by law, which was 
an act of ingratitude I did not expect, and of which he has since repented. 

JAMES MARSLIN, Aumouber. 
James Marslin was born in 1793, at Bristol; he was five feet seven inches 
high, sallow complexion, and slight made; recommended to me by Mr. Blanky, 
the mate, who had formerly been his shipmate. Until after the ship had .siilcd. he 
managed to keep from us that he was labouring under any complaint ; but we had no 
sooner left the land, than it was discovered that he was in a consumption, and he confessed 
that he had been discharged from an hospital for that complaint only a few months before ; 



cxxxvi BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. 

he did scarcely any duty, and I had determined on sending him home by the first whaler 
I could meet with, but unfortunately for him as well as ourselves, we never met with any, 
and he continued gradually to sink under his complaint, until the 20th of January, when 
he died, at Felix harbour, and was buried on M'Diarmid's island. His wages (being 
claimed by two different parties) were paid into the hands of the Accountant-general of his 
Majesty's Navy. He seemed to be an inoffensive man, and departed this life quite prepared 
for the great change. 

ROBERT SHREEVE, Carpenter's Mate. 

Robert Shreeve was born in 1806, at Teddington, in Norfolk, is five feet eight inches 
and a half high, blue eyes, and complexion sallow ; is the son of a farmer, and was never 
before at sea. After being at school in Bury St. Edmond's, he served seven years' appren- 
ticeship to a joiner and house carpenter; he afterwards came to London, and was employed 
at various places for several years before he came to Mr. Braithwaite's, at New Road ; and 
from whence he volunteered to serve in the Victory. He was a useful person, but had 
very indifferent health, and was not well calculated for such a service. Having had quite 
enough of the sea, he declined entering in his Majesty's service, and having received 
166/. 9s. of wages, he set up for himself as carpenter and undertaker. 

JOSEPH CURTIS, Harpooner. 

Joseph Curtis was born in the year 1805, at Rotherhithe, is five feet four inches and 
seven-eighths high, blue eyes, dark complexion, and brown hair ; his father was a tailor, 
and he went to sea at the early age of ten years, having served his time in the coal trade 
on board the Flora and Nancy of London. He entered the Davis straits' fishery in the 
Ehza whaler, and was also a voyage to Greenland in the Everett ; but the most remarkable 
event of his life, is, his having been on board the Dundee whaler of London, when she 
was frozen up in Davis's strait, and passed the whole of the winter in the ice, during which, 
the ship's company had three times abandoned the ship, expecting that she would be 
crushed to pieces by the ice ; their sufferings also from hunger and cold were great, but 
they returned in safety after the insurance had been paid to the owner. Since that event, 
he had been both in the coasting and timber trade, and came from a steam-vessel to the 
Victory. He was not a powerful man, and therefore not well calculated for such a service 



BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. cxxxvii 

as ours, but lie -was an excellent seaman, and his conduct being uniformly good, I gave him 
a strong recommendation, and he was sent, by Admiralty order, to the Excellent, to prepare 
for being made a gunner in the royal navy. 

JOHN FARK, Seaman. 

John Park was born in 180.3, at Bridport, in Dorsetshire, is five feet seven inches high, 
of a sallow complexion, with light blue eyes. His father, who belonged to the Dock-yard 
at Portsmouth, had him bound seven years apprentice to a hair-dresser, a trade he did 
not hke, and when his time was out he went to sea in 1821, on board his Majesty's ship 
Euryalus, in which he served three years, when he was paid off, and immediately joined the 
Glasgow ; on board of which he also served three years in the IMediterranean. Being asked 
by me, " What was the most remarkable event in his life?" he answered, that he " had 
shaved the Duke of Devonshire in a gale on board the Glasgow." I then asked, "Were you 
not on board her at the battle of Navarino .'" he replied, " Oh, yes, but that was nothing." 
His father having lost his life in the American lakes, where he had volunteered to serve, 
his mother married Mr. More, gunner of the Tenodos, who was formerly in the Hecla, and 
who recommended him to me. He was a very active, willing young man, and useful in 
his calling as a barber, but too delicate in constitution for this service. Being a good sea- 
iTian, and having always conducted himself well, I gave him a strong recommendation, 
and he was, with Curtis, sent by Admuralty order to the Excellent, to prepare for a gun- 
ner's warrant in the royal navy. 

RICHARD WALL, Harpooner. 

Richard Wall was born at North Shields, in the year 1803; is five feet five inches 
and a half high, has small features, blue eyes, and a sallow complexion, with dark hair. 
He served his apprenticeship of seven years to the sea in the Mary and Joseph, in the 
Madeira. Gibraltar, and coal trade, and after his time was served he went a voyage to 
Archangel ; he was afterwards both in the East India and West Incha merchant service. 
His father was a sailor, and having been twenty-three years in the navy, retired as a 
pensioner. He is an excellent seaman, though not powerful ; was one of the best men 
we had; and in consequence of his good conduct he obtained a good situation in 
his Majesty's Dock-yard at Deptford. 



cxxxviii BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. 



ANTHONY BUCK, Seaman. 

Anthony Buck was born in 1807, at Whitby ; is five feet seven inches and three- 
eighths high, slenderly made, strong features, with dark eyes, complexion, and hair. He 
liad been at sea eleven years before he joined the Victory in 1829: he was seven voyages 
in the whale fishery, but latterly in the Manchester to the Mediterranean. This man, 
when he entered, appeared to be in perfect health ; but in 1831, while at the river Lind- 
say, he was seized with epilepsy, and it turned out that he had been at the hospital of 
Malta for the same complaint. His entering with us was therefore an act of folly to him- 
self and cruelty to us, which was as unaccountable as inexcusable ; he was of course a 
burden to us ever since he was seized with the first fit, and was very near being numbered 
among the dead. His father was a sailor in the merchant service, but we did not know of 
any other relations. He became latterly nearly blind, and he was one of those we had to 
carry on a sledge after leaving Fury beach. Besides his wages, he received a share of 
a small subscription ; but under the circumstances the Admiralty did not entertain his 
petition for additional remuneration, and he returned to his parish. 



JOHN WOOD, Seaman. 

John Wood was born in 1809, at East Wemyss, in Fifeshire: he is five feet seven 
inches high, stout made, his complexion and hair fair, with blue eyes, and flat broad face. 
He served four years to the sea in the American trade, sailing from Kirkaldy ; he was 
afterwards several voyages in the West India and Quebec trade, and joined the Victory 
in 1829. In July the same year he broke his leg, by jumping from the ship to the 
launch to secure her while towing, and we were therefore deprived of his services during 
the remainder of the outward voyage; and he was never a useful man. He was attacked 
with scurvy every winter, and was nearly perishing from the efi^ects of that malignant 
disease at Fury beach, from whence we had to carry him on a sledge to Batty bay. His 
constitution was not calculated for such an expedition, or indeed for the sea service ; and 
he retired, after receiving his wages, for which he had done so little, to his friends in the 
North. 



BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. cxxxix 



DAVID WOOD, Seaman. 

David Wood was bom in 1805, in Midlothian; is only five feet two inches and a 
half high, has a fair and freckled complexion, with hght blue eyes. His father was a 
sailor, who had served long in the navj', and lost his life in his Majesty's service. He 
served four years apprenticeship out of Kirkaldy, in the Davis straits' trade, on board 
the Dryad whaler, and went afterwards in the Baltic trade, having been twelve years at 
sea before he joined the John, where he was in the situation of Schemer, the person who 
has charge of the hold. He did not join the mutineers of that ship, but volunteered 
for the Victory after it took place, in a very handsome manner. His constitution was 
delicate, but he was nevertheless a very useful person. He was one of the two who 
were on the topgallant-yard when the foremast-head gave way, but got down just in time; 
the other was John Park, who was also saved. David Wood retiu-ned to recruit his health 
in his native climate, and has not since been heard of 

GEORGE BAXTER, Ordinary Seaman. 

George Baxter was born in 1806, at Kinghorn, in Scotland, where his father kept 
a public garden ; he is five feet six inches and a half high, faur complexion, blue eyes, 
and light hair. He had never been at sea, and entered on board the John as what is 
caMed a green hand: he did not join the mutineers of the John, and entered after the 
mutiny, for which I gave him the rating of an ordinary seaman. His constitution was 
rather delicate, but latterly he held out well ; and on our arrival, after receiving his pay, 
he returned to his friends, since which he has not made to me any application for em- 
ployment, which I should consider him entitled to, in consequence of his good conduct. 

JAMES DIXON, Ordinarv Seaman. 
James Dixon was born in 1<S07, at Tamery, parish of Clanduff, in the county Down ; 
he was five feet eight inches high, and the stoutest man in the ship ; he had a florid 
complexion, with blue eyes and rather dark hair. His father was a sixty-acre farmer, 
and brought his son up to labour. When about eighteen he went to England as a pack- 
man, and the whole substance of the family was laid out in Irish hnen, which he was to 



cxl BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. 

sell ; but he did not succeed, and returned after having lost or spent all, and was at last 
reduced to sweeping the chimneys of steam-vessels. He entered on board the John as 
a green hand, and did not join the mutineers, but entered in the Victory after the mutiny. 
He was one of those whose heart failed him, and after having a severe cold, he fell 
into a state of despondency, from which he never recovered ; having given himself up 
in despair he wished to die — and from the circumstances under which we were then 
reduced it was perhaps better that he did not remain long enough to inculcate that 
feeling among the rest of the crew — he died on the 14th of January, 1832: his wages 
have been paid into the hands of the Accountant-general, but have not yet been claimed. 



BARNARD LAUGHY, Ordinauy Seaman. 

Barnard Laughy was born at Belfast in the yearlSlO; he is five feet five inches 
and a half high, of a sallow comple.xion, and a little marked with the smallpox ; he 
has blue eyes, brown hair, and has a strong Irish accent. His father was an Irish 
labourer, who came to Scotland and settled on the estate of Colonel M'DouaU, of 
Logan. He had never been at sea, except in fishing-vessels, but was recommended by 
Mr. Gibson, factor to Colonel M'Douall as a hard-working lad, who wovdd do to feed 
the fire of the steam-boiler • his constitution was, however, not calculated for such a 
voyage, and he was one of those who generally gave out soonest. His conduct was, 
nevertheless, good ; and I procured him a situation in the Coast-guard, which was very 
acceptable to him, as he managed to lose the whole of his money before he got the 
length of his father's house. 

HENRY EYRE, Ship's Cook. 

This man, who was fifty years of age, was an old sailor ; having been formerly cook 
of the Griper, with Captain Hoppner, he made some money, and set up a public-house, 
which he called " The North Pole." His story was that he was robbed of the money he 
had laid by to pay his bills, and therefore failed : but he was so addicted to drinking 
that he could not keep sober, and the receipt of his wages was fatal to him, as he 
died from intoxication a few days after. He was carried to the grave by his ship- 
mates, who subscribed for a monument to his memory. 



BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. cxli 

WILLIAM LIGHT, Steward. 

This man was born in 1800, at Mcdbury, in Devon; he was five feet seven inches 
high, and by his account had been fourteen years at sea. Having been in two of the 
former voyages to the Arctic seas, it was considered that he would be an acquisition, and 
he was entered as steward, in which capacity he had served before; but he turned out to 
be the very worst subject we had. He was always shamming, or complaining of some pain 
or other which incapacitated him for any thing but washing ; and was therefore excused 
harder duties, and allowed to wash linen and mend stockings. He was often in the sick 
list, especially in spring, and was decidedly the most useless person in the ship, as well as 
the most discontented. This man has been circulating the most scandalous falsehoods, 
as to my treatment of the crew ; and has been ftirnishing materials for a narrative of the 
expedition, with which the public have been attempted to be deluded, in the form of 
numbers, published weekly, and as he possessed no journal or record of the voyage, the 
o-reatest part of his pretended narrative is fabulous, and I suspect that the publisher is a 
considerable loser by the shilling trash. He attended, for some time, at the Panorama in 
Leicester Square, and amused his hearers with wonderful adventures, in which he always 
figured as the chief actor, although he was, of all the men on tlie expedition, the least 
fond of fatigue or hard work ; and instead of his lie in carrying me thirty miles, it was 
he himself that was carried. In consequence of his unfounded calumnies against me he 
was dismissed by the proprietor : but as, were I to give his previous history, and a true 
and full account of his conduct during the voyage, I might be supposed to harliour 
vindictive feelings towards him, I desist in doing so. 

It was indeed with great pain I was compelled, conscientiously, to except him from my 
recommendation of the crew to Government for future employment ; but I hope that the 
good quaUties of which he so loudly boasts, will be better appreciated by those uith whom 
he may be hereafter connected. 

The mterest which this expedition created, will be best expressed by my stating that 
I could have manned my ship with officers of my own rank, while several offered also to 
bear a part of the expense, if I would take them on any terms ; it was also productive of 
many curious apphcations, of which the following is an amusing specimen : 



csUi BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. 



(Copy.) 

Gosport, March 31, 1829. 
Hon. Sir, 

Singular it will appear, but true ; three nights following, a person appeared to 
me in a dream, and said, " Go with Captain Ross, he will be crowned with success.'''' 
And not having the smallest thought of such things before, and reading of dreams having 
led to great discoveries, I put some confidence in this, and make bold to offer my services, 
should a man of my description be wanted, I am thirty-eight years old, good con- 
stitution, and understand all tlie undermentioned branches, and have no objection to 
make myself useful in all to meet satisfaction from my commander: cooking in all 
its branches ; baking ; butchering ; preserving aU kinds of poultry in cases, retaining 
their proper flavour, dead for any time ; portable soups ; broths ; brawn ; preserved 
meat of every kind; game; stuffing birds, and setting them up in their skins; preservmg, 
&c. 8ec. If any of these professions would be of any utihty in the voyage, I should be 
happy to join the expechtion. I have been three voyages to the East Indies with one 
captain now in London, four years and a half in the flag-ship Victory — left four days ago 
at my own request — can produce discharge and certificates to any gentleman's satisfaction, 
being all the time as cook to the gentlemen on board ; and should you not have ordered 
your portable soups, it would be a great saving to let me make them: in fact, we can always 
renew the stock, when we can obtain fresh meat on the voyage. Honoured Sir, you will 
confer an honour on me by answering these few lines. 

Your most humble and obedient servant will be truly thankful, 

M. L., Castle Inn, Gosport. 

This application would, of course, have been treated as coming from some one who 
chose to amuse himself, but having met with an officer of the Victory who actually knew 
the man, and gave him an excellent character, and being really in search of a cook, 
I wrote to him that he might join the expedition under my direction, as cook, if he could 
produce certificates of his discharge, and if the references to his character were found to 
justify the account he gave of himself, but that he must lose no time. In answer, I re- 
ceived a note to inform me that I might depend on his joining the ship on Friday ; instead 



BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. cxliii 

of him, however, a letter came from his wife, of which the following is a copy, and which 
closed the transaction. 



April 9, 1S29. 
Sir, 

I have just found out that my husband has made an engagement with you 

to join your expedition, through a dream, uithout consullhig i/te ; I must beg to tell you, 

sir, that he shall not go — I will not let him have his clothes. He must be mad ever to 

think of leaving a comfortable home, to be frozen in with ice, or torn to pieces with 

bears ; therefore, I am determined he shall not leave Gosport, so I hope you will not 

expect him. 

Yours, Sir, &c., and so forth, 

MARY" L. 

The interest which the expedition excited, was indeed intense; but it was nothing 
compared to the feeling which was every where roused by our arrival. Subscriptions 
were proposed, and it was believed that 20,000/. might easily have been raised, but 
Ministers took up the cause so liberally as to induce me to depend solely on them, by, in 
the first instance, paying the men their double wages until the ship was lost, a,nd full wages 
up to the day of their arrival — which was far more than they were entitled to by law under 
any circumstances — and with this they had every reason to be contented, for in fact they 
were entitled to nothing after the mutiny of the John ; they all agreed by acclamation to 
I nil all risks for the promise of double pay if they succeeded, or nothing if not. y\y 
nephew Commander Ross, was put on full pay for a year, and then to receive his promo- 
tion. Mr. Thom was appointed to the Canopus, and the Surgeon made full Surgeon in 
the navy. And, although the remuneration which I received was small, compared to what 
I might have had by a subscription, it was sufficient to cover my losses, and to enable me 
to recover some of my property which had been sacrificed in my absence ; however, I had 
an opportunity of refuting calumnies which had been industriously circulated against nie 
for many years, and, above all, I had the honour of receiving valuable testimonials of high 
approbation from almost every sovereign in Europe, as well as from our most excellent 
King. 



cxliv BIOGRAPHY OF THE VICTORY'S CREW. 

The subscriptions which were begun in various parts of the kingdom, were discoun- 
tenanced by me ; but, although I did not receive or pocket one farthing of what may 
have been subscribed, I have reason to believe that the generous public have been im- 
posed upon by those who pretended they were receiving subscriptions for the survivors of 
the expedition. 



APPENDIX 



METEOROLOGY. 



*-- 



METEOROLOGY. 



Meteorology being considered of much importance by the scientific world, great 
attention was paid to this interesting department, wliicli was undertaken by Mr. Thom, 
whose duty led him to be more constantly on board the ship : the excellent form of a 
register invented and given to me by Captain Beaufort was adopted, and the men were 
severally instructed to read off' the degrees shown by Fahrenheit's thermometer, which 
was placed on the ice, in a canvas tent, at a convenient distance from the ship. Its 
altitude was registered every hour, and at the same time the direction and force of the 
wind, and the state of the weather, in a manner which will be manifest in the following 
table, to which directions are prefixed. The first column in the table is the day of 
the month ; the second column is the direction of the wind ; the third column is the 
force of the wind, denoted by figures in the following manner: 

0. Calm. 

1. Light air, or just sufficient to give steerage way. 



2. Light breeze 

3. Gentle breeze 



or that in which a man-of-war with 



y all sail set, and clean full, would < 3 to 4 knots. 



I 



4. Moderate breeze j go in smooth water. 

5. Fresh breeze 



1 to 2 knots. 



6. Strong breeze 

7. Moderate gale 

8. Fresh gale 

9. Strong gale 



or that which a well-conditioned 
man of war could carry in chase 
■full and by. 



J 



5 to 6 knots. 
'Royals. 

f Single-reefed topsails, 

I. and topgallant sails. 

Double-reefed topsails. 

Triple-reefed topsails. 

f Close-reefed topsails, 
- 1 and courses. 



10. A whole gale, or that which scarcely could bear the close-reefed main topsail and 

foresail. 

1 1. A storm, or that which would reduce her to storm staysails. 

12. A hurricane, or that which no canvas could withstand. 

a 2 ? 



IV APPENDIX. 

Fourth column denotes the state of the weather by tlie following letters of tl>e 
alphabet : 

b — Blue sky ; whether clear or hazy weather. 

c — Clouds ; detached, passing clouds. 

d — Drizzling rain — drift snow in winter. 

f — Foggy, f. — Thick fog. 

g — Gloomy ; dark weather. 

h— Hail. 

1 — Lightning. 

m — Misty, hazy atmosphere. 

— Overcast, or whole sky covered with clouds. 

p — Passing, temporary showers. 

q — Squally. 

r — Rain. r. — Continued rain. 

s — Snow. 

t — Thunder. 

u — Ugly, threatening appearances. 

v — Visible ; clear atmosphere. 

w — Wet dew. 

By the combination of these letters all the ordinary phenomena of the weather may 
be expressed with facility. Examples: 1st, b c m signifies, " Blue sky, with passing- 
clouds, and hazy atmosphere." 2d, g v, " Gloomy ; dark weather, but distant objects 
visible." 3d, qq p d 1 tt, " Veiy hard squalls, with passing showers of drizzle, and accom- 
panied with lightning, and with very heavy thunder." 

N.B. — In the following tables the first column expresses the day of the month ; the 
second the direction of the wind expressed fractionally, thus j^^^^ : that is, 4 hours 
at NNW; the numerator expressing the number of hours, and the denominator the 
direction: in like manner the force of the wind, state of the weather, and temperature, 
are expressed ; the numerator being always hours beginning after midnight. 



APPENDIX. 



c 
w 

c 

O 

o 



z 

o 



>- 

> 



>■ 

o 

H 
O 



K 



C 

o 

»—< 

< 

CQ 
C 

o 
o 

>-J 
o 
Pd 
o 
w 



3 O 

O E c 









<§=! 

s 



rt! cz) -t< — OP ir; 'T^i t^ o 00 CO CO o •— I (>i c^i CO o o 1--^ 00 — • c: — X -* t-^ «>. ::; v: t^ 

^ ^^ C5 Lfj 71 'X t^ — ^_ -^ c -r CO o o -f in ^ ^_ CO oi (N o X « p — ' i--^ X o -t <i3 ^ 

C5 X t^ x o t> -t* ^ i> I— < CO •t (m' X -t ci o "^' t*' c<i I— J '-^ rt .— ! i;o CO '^' -^ o o^i ■*' 






r, CO 

■(-coi'-^ct^cco-t^oi-t'oxooix-ffi-^oi-.ooio — xoi— tr^'^cox 






!='■ t-i* 






-to 



ct[*o 

Cl|« 

l-'-ln 



Ho. 






-1° ."^ H^ J" -i" "I 






• -io -i«- „p 



[coco-" 

. • „U -l"' e.h "I-; clfl ,_j; '7 , . - . 

■■ U .-|c ,-"1" ^ ' , • • -n -to ' I 



^1^l^l^^^l^J^l^^^^>l--^^l:^:^^•|:::^'|^:^r:-•^,^^:'^ 



-l^'^^^l: 






ffl H* . P* P* 



5t Wl-H ^-O 









'^L c. r* J* o|'° ["o 



H- •'I: "|: «|: -[: ~\i H:; -h -<|: =•!- H- -|: H- "j- -I- 



='i--|:H:H:-|>|:-jMs-i= 



-i-^ -I- J" -I- -I" 

o ' —to 

T^- Ix |t- |c^ k I'l k l=" I" N 1° I'' ^1= ^l'- .-I" 

=L '^L tL -^L •♦1:2 «|L -p *|- *j„ ">!- -|- ='j- "I- *|- «!- „|,: 



, >j>i-'|:-^-Hc,|,;-,r;%|:*-i^'"i--,, , 

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COCOCOCOCO(M(N(M(N(N(MC<ICNCO<MCOCOCO(M{N(M'-i + l--ip-i + 



OTO'-jl^CSOCSOTCirM-ft^ClinCSOfM— <C5aOCiC5-^C<)l>.COOCO 
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APPENDIX. 



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XXXIV 



APPENDIX. 



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'^ i-H Tf O O CC 00 O p-< O -^ «0 O O O C<l O '1^_ O CO CO lO O O I— I ^ o o r^_ QQ o 

00 O' QO* >— i' <M' CO O' to' O^' (M' ■^' -t* CO' '^ t'' I— i' O QO' CO I— t OO' (N O OO' O* p— <■ 00 ^d CO O CO 

cOTf<w-^^-t'i<oocNgocococococo(rocoG-icocooicoco(>iiroc-if>i'-^'--''— 1^ 



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uavaisav 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLES. 



The mountain barometer, from which the following observations 
were registered, was supplied by the Admiralty, and had been on 
the former voyage. It was constructed by Mr. Jones, of Charing 
Cross, and the scale graduated to hundreds, and was regularly 
observed by Mr. Thorn. 



X.XXVI 



APPENDIX. 



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OTff— COOiOiJ^'OOiOOC^iOOOOtMOOOOC^ll-TiooOtNOOOO 

oc^^^t^oooi-^i>.^coooo— 'C^Tfoio.^-^v:>cooooo^^cococ>*^coo 
i>o-<^'3>Ti'>oi>t>'*iO"aj«(>t<Nooooa;.-<C5ao050;0)C7)^'-i 


CO , 

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00 

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£ 
d 


Mean Total.' Mean Total. Mean Total. Mean Total. Mean'l'otal. Mean Total. 

29.682 29.896 29.692 30.116 30.015 29.997 


OiGioorooiOicnoiOooaiOiooocooaiooaia-jOiOiaioo 
c^(^»cococ^^t^»<^)'^^(N^oco■co(^>c^cococ:^c*:)oocoo»oococ^<Nc.^(^*c^»coco 




OOrfOiOOr^'0*^C-)000 0"jCOLOfO»0'OiO»OOOOOCCiOO^OO 
OO — 050 — — CO — OOCNC-)C005'*COOOM"'*^C035(NTtOCO'-t'OlO-*0 
t^OOCJl^- (MlOl-lOCOlOCOCD- (MC)OOOOCj-j — OCOCiOO(3-j — o 


cnOjOiOoc^G^iaiaiOOoaiOodcooocricriddo^Cjcidc^do 

(NC-lC-^COCO<N(>*CNO^COCOCOC*COCOCOCOCOCO(MC-»COCOCNC^C'tCOC*COCO 


< 

a. 


0^rOTfoOOOTfCOOOU^OOOO'-^<N*OLOOOOmoiOCOO'000 
'0'tl0CDC0C0OC000"*CTC0-J'-*-*<N00-I'Tt>.*ClC)I>C0 — COtJOlOOCO 

Cji>ooo)^co>oioio — Tr-q-c-jOc-jcocDoO'OooooocriOic^aj — o 
OiOiOiooaiaiaio^oooGiooooddodddo^c^aia^c^dd 

<N(N(MCOCO<N(M<N<N00mC0CNCOCOr0COC0COCOr0COCOC-»<M<MC-<<NCOCO 


d 

CO 

O 


-5 


O CO •* l■'^ rj- O O Cj C5 CN oo ^ -rf — CO O 00 iC O CO' l^ — O C-j 00 O O (N <0 i> O 

ccooo-fOicj)005(35oococoooaic-jOCKOiMc-) — — oo't^Cj^o- c^coc-i- 


cTjajoooiCiocjiCjiffiOiCiCj^OiaioaiooooooiaicrjOooooo 
(^^c■^coco<M(^»oo(N(^*'^*{^»<N(^^<^^c^*co(^)^ococococo'^^(Mc^>cococococOlCO 


Oh* 


lO (M "O (N "O C-l (>) <r^ CO O <M Ifl >C <M CO C-l 0» lO t^ — — — 00 oo i^ »o Oj t^ IC O CO 

ClCOCO^Cj'rt'CiCNO'OOO.^ — ^'I^^OOOJOOCOCOOO— 'OOCOOOO^O'OiC^ 

cDooooooiOooojcococorooiooo — CN — — CTic^CTO — — co(^l(^' 


dcsiccsciG^cicococjia. o5oicr!o-'ddc5odddcjio-Jc7-'ddcDcocod 

COC-)COCOC-!(MCOCOCOCN(MOJ(MCNCNCOCOCOCOCOCOCOC'-IC-)CJCOCOCOCOCOCO 


< 


iOO)OOlCOlO(NCJ10'0<NCO»OCOt^(NlOC0001>COiO — OlCCTlCOlOOO 
OOrt^O.^TtODai(NOO— <TtCO^^CO> — ^COOOO).^COCOCOa3C3jO— 'OCOOO 
— OOCj5000COOC30C^COI>05C3iaiOO — (N — — OC^OOO — — OtcoiM 


CO <M C! CO C-.l 0> C-l CO C-l CO C-! C^ CM (N C-) CN CO O:) CO CO CO CO CO C-l <M CO CO CO CO CO vr! 


CO 

Pi 

D 

W 


•5 


lOCOOOOOCOOOOOCO — OrfOCNlCt^^ — O — C-IOOOiO 
C»OO^OaiOOOO — O — ^ — OCOIO- ClC-lOOtNOCO- CNOOO- 
t>00 — roCr>00C^0000C»(N0CiOC0t>CC"*T)>^'.0-* — OOOOCjiOCO 


oococ^C50ia2(35C»c:3oroooc0'Oooooc;OG^ocj--oo 
c^»cocococ^*c^J(^*cNcN(^»<^>coc^Jcocococo^ococococococ^»CNCNcoco 




i-0<MOiOOOiO'-OCO'-0 0>0 0>OCOl-OCOOa) — OOIjO^OOC^OOOO 
COCOCO — OCOt^rCOCO — OlOCIOCCCOt^Ot^-^fOOOOt^OCOt^- 
l^ClO- OC-j00C0l^0000'MOtJ3>-0l>C0^T)iTt>0-*— OOOOOOOCO 


C^ClOOOOlOSClC^Cj^C^OOCTiOOOOOOOOOaiCTiOiOO 
C-)C>>COCOCOCiC*C<»CNCN'»OOCOO*COCOCOCOCOCOOOCOCO(NCN<NCOCO 




oorroi>ocJTf — <NOoocoer<o<oa>coo»^cO(Moi'-o>-TTft^co 

i>;Goo — cooa5i>i>ooooo — oococ-cqiOTr^iciocooJi^ooocN 

oaicodc^doio^o^dcjiddcr^cDCJdcocddddaicT'cJaio' 
(^JC•*cococooo(^^c■JCJ<^^c^cococ•'cococococococ^C'^coo»(MO»cJco 


d 

CO 
CO 

<1 
z 








0«OIjOOOOOOiO^OOO^^Om^'OOOOOiO^^OOGO*00^000 

ocococo'*coooo^^o^-+coc;5cotNCN^o — CTl<^)colM<^^oo — Tfi^io 
oooi^cDi>t>^t>ooco<M»oooai—c oO(Nioi>cocoTri>oooi-^coc35a> 


oa;c^CJiCia50c3^ooci^c^o^G~-OiOOooo^ooia^a;a:da:aiC^G^c^Gi 
coc^^t^i(^J{^^cNc^»<^Jcococ^<N(Nc^c^coco(Nc^*<NC-*c^>(^^cNc^^<N<^^c>c^»(^»<N 




C^OOOOOOiClO^O»00»00^»0^000»OOOOOO^OO^OOtO 
^O'^OOC-*— '^OOOvC-JlOO'^CO'JO'^COCJjlOOCTjOCOOOrfOOOCOCOOt^ 
OOOI>COt>CO>-OlOO — l>(M-*t^0500 — — COC^^CO'^CDOOCOt^COOOO 


CO CI OJ C^> OJ O) C-» O CO CO CN 0» C^> C^l O* CO CO C^ C-* O CI C-J C-» 0» C^J C-l Ol tN C* CJ CO 


c:^ 

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CNOO'00(MCOror>JOoO!0>00'1>COO— 'OO'OOOiO'OOOOOOO 

CllOOOC^OOOOOCOlO— C0G20COC5(NCO00a: — CO'^'Ift^CJlOi^OCCOCOC^ 

Oioooocit^co^t>t^ot^C5<j)i>cnt--aioooc-ioo'0-*'OooocMoo'*cNO 


OiO^Gi05C3idOO^CiOiC5CiG^GiC7^QiO^C7;000^0;C7>cJiO:)000000 
(N(NC^CN(NCN<>«<>»lM<NC((N<NCNC-)CN<NCNC-:iC'D(NCMClCN<NCOrOCOCOCOCO 


^ 

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C^ 


OOiOOOUOCCOOOOCOlOOOOC72CDOO»0-1'0'*coiOOOCO>0>OC^OO 
lOO — COCOt^C-ICD'^rfCO^OCOCnOOOO^lM — OOCJ.OOOOI-^ — t>(Mt.^C 

Cj^a3ooaicj5CD^coi>ococnocooDi>ooa)C2(NcNCD'*>ot^O(Mro-i'co — 


c^jc3^o>CTiCTic^cr)ai0^0iCj:)aioa:ciC^aiOjo^oooo:!c:ia50ooooo 

CM<>>(NIMC-)!MO)<N(N<M(N<NCOC<)(NCN(M<NC-)COCO<NC>)<NC-)COCO.-3COCOCO 


en 

9 
o 

2 








OOC'<!lO(NlO»00<NO-jO(M^OiC->OOCO>00»00'0 
CM'OO'tMlMOt^^OO'*— OTfCO — I>COroCOOOOOCDO 
M-Ot^COlOOCOt^Clt-OOOOOOtfVJCOCO^tMCDOiai — — 


O^CTjGjC750iO^C?;0'jC^C3^0^0^0^0jOidcr:GiO^OC^0500 
(N(MO»(M(N<M(M<M<N(M(>J(NCN(NeiCNC-)C-IC^(NCN(NCOCO 


a. 


*00»0»OCO^^OiO^'OCOCO^iOOUOtOOOOO^O(NC* 
■^tOlOt^ — CO00CJ2C000ajC0<N>0-*C0C^'TCNC><-t<C000 

TfTfCOOOt^OOOOCCI>Cr2COOOt^CO'OCOCOTt'<M>0000 — — 


C^CJC^OJCNC^OfNCNC^IOC-JdCNOJCNC^tMCtC^C^CNCOCO 




-3 


— C^CO^lOCOt^OOroO— OtCOTj-i-OCOC^COCnO — (NCO-TfiOCOC^OOCnO — 





APPENDIX. 



xxxvii 



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S S S § [^ S? 5^ ^ ^ ° § en q q q en q C; CO CO q q I- CO i> I- t- co oo co o 

gggggggSggggScocOC)CO(N O^OfOCOO^CTtNC. C^O)(NtNg^ 



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^^gggggggaagig°"°^^^gg°"^°°?-^gg^gg 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii^.piiiiii 

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SgS§o?o^oi3S'Oo^oi>i>i>;oqqqO;qqcnoo(>C;Oooqcoq 
■ _• • -^ Q ^ Q Q m o^ oi o" cr^ o> oi oi en en o^ o oi en en O O) o q O O Cl o 



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^* /-r," r< r-%' r^ r^ r-j' o oi CT^' ci o o^" c^" oi en en en ro c: 05 03 o en Oi Ci 31 o o c; o 
gggS°°^Sggggg^'gg<^<^<^< <N(N(Nco;NCoOi(><f?ro(NCO 



SSc^o"^S?ori'or-coSi-i-i--:i-;qqqqqqq<»^e^q=. '^. =^. 
• _ • _: Q Q o o nC m ci CTJ o cr" en ci en en en 0-- o C-. oi en (^ o 

g g g 5i « ^ S ^ g g g ci g. g Ol Q.) C> fN (N O) CO C< .?)•?) O^ ^) ^ ?) r? ?■ 0> 



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Xr-'/-!^r^c^ooocooooccioooc;ocnocncnc:r>cioo 



,«^^^--,_t,p<,ir)i-,ro2nTt<— •<x>coOiioc<en!N'0'Ooc)'Oc--<NO--e20 
^SSoog?^^£^S-- — ociCJ--_^'*<Nqq«;qcoi--.t-(>oocct- 
'oooooc^endCiCidcnencn 

'C0C>^O0COrtC^(N<NCNC^<NC^<N(M 



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^^gSS°SSS?^?2?oror:im^^c-jt^mm^o)<N<NCNOJ<N<M<Nc^ 



S ? o o o — ?; ^^ c-> — OJ o C-; V-; o; (N m TO (N c) q CO CO i- 1-. CO 

_• _• _■ ~ (— " —■ Q j^ r~ d d d d d d d d d d d d oi en oi 35 c; en 



c^ o o 

lo en CO 



^S§o--S??5iSco^Si::::qqq<Nq'r^q"^'*qff'. <N 

•^_;^~c-^~odddddddcT)'dddodoooooo 
gggTOS°TOTOTOTO?5TOmcocooicoocoro to c-; co r^ to ■-? co 






— c; -^ ■^ 
d d d d 

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XX.KVIII 



APPENDIX. 



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OC^^Of— 'COCOIO— 'O'MlOOOCO-^COTtt^-^t^OiOClC^t^C-* 

f— TtTtcoc-ic:)^iococDt>aiooooc:D^^coocot^G:f-H.-H— 1^- 


t o 

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oooooa^a;aioa:dC7iocrio;oc:3CDoic^c7ioooo 

C0COC0C0C0(N<N<M(N(N<NO<(NC-'<NC0C0C0C-<O)<NC0C0COC0 


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OOOOO OJCOOOOOO-^OOOO CDOOt^OtNO— ■ 
•O CO ^ CO _ a,t- OOCO — <>)COOOCOOO>«oCOCOOI>rf<C^OOCO 

"^co-^cosrOcqiot-oot^^aioococji^ErS— c»i>ooO<M.— o 

OOOOOOCiC. O^dOiO^tOOlGiOOOoio^CjiooocO 
COr^COCOCOCOCOC«01C>C^(M<MIM<NCOCOCO<NC^(NCOCOCOCO 


CO o» 
CD t^ 

c^ ai 


29.840 
29.948 
30.240 




■^"^OOO'— 'OC0O*0C^OCJ00OO(N<M00O^O'0C0t^ 
'— — ^"^•^O0C'T}'a;C0O-^00C^C0C0'^I>»Oa50i"^OTtCDC^ 
(NC-)'*COCO^r~-'*cqt>COOC0200000<NCOOOCOt^C7) — — o 

O'0ooooaio^a:)0^crjaia^cio^oooa;cia^*a"'ocoo 

COCOCOCOCOCOC-V(>JC^OtO*CN(NC^C-?COCOCOC^C^tC-*C-*COCOCO 


CO t 

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29.720 
29.840 
30.188 


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c^cioc-)-t<c>)ocooiOTrcDcocooco— i<MTroc-)r-.t>-^^ 

l^OOOOOO— ■'-'^OOOOOOOO^^'— 'OO^OOC^t^LO^OOOOO 

OidaiOioooo^ooooooooa:)aiOjaiaio^o^aio^ 

<NlM!NC->COCOCOC<tCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOO<OlM(M<N<MC<(NC-> 


lO 00 
CO — 

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29.880 
29.931 
29.930 
30.123 




'Ocococoooococoi~050o>"OCTi.— ooorfciccc^ooTtoo 
^•*a50i^cocoo^03oo-jioioocoot^>ooor^ajiorfoooo 
r>.ooi>.^o— .OGooiOOi— lO.— '^"-oaiooot^LO-^t^oooo 

(N(M(M(NCOCOCO(»<NCOCOCOCOCOCOCO(NC)CJOi<M01C^SS 


00 00 

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CM (M d CO 


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•^CDCNCOOO— 'C-iC^t^Tt^^OO^Jt^OJCOCO-^OJOCO^OCOCNOO 

t>i>-coGQGo-^_p-^c^ccoooooc-*c>o^oor^t^co^cooooo 
CiCioio^. oioo'oiciciJcocJcDocdoioiaicioi'oiaJoio^CTJ 

<N C-) (M CJ O) CO C^ C) C>J CO CO CO CO CO CO Cl C-< fM <M O <N OJ <N <M IM 


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OO — Tt-'o — oooioococooioococoLOOOOooc^ 

OOC0Tt<C0r^a^CCOa0t^'*^C0C0C^l^Tl*CNC^C0OC^TfC^»0 
OOCDO-:fiO(N<>><NC-» — a50l:^'0-*C005<N — — t^lOOO — 

o:)0^ooooooooo{cDC7;aiaioiaioooaic3{oio^o 

1N<NCOCOCOCOCOCOCOC-OC<CO(NC^CN(N(NCOCOCOC><N(N<NCO 


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tCOCO-TfOOOODOiCC'S-Ot^OOCOOO — CDTf — T<(MCO-*COt^ 
CO0000"*CO(MC^><N— <(NOOOOCDTt<COOO — C^ — O5COIMCO0O 


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C^C^C^COCOCOCOCOr^COCOCOCJCNOlfNC^COCOCOC^C^CNC^C^ 


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OOOOOOOOOOOTfoiOOOOOOOiOOOtNCOCOOOO 
CO'^C^CNCOUOt^CJ^O-^OO-^COQOt^COCOOiCOrfCO^^^-.COOO 
COCO^COiO-*C-}(MC<l!>)OOC-. CO't'Ot^OC-l — OI>TfOt^ 


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COCOO — — OOOO'cf'OOOOO'M'CO— ■— occco-o 
OO-JO^OCOOOiCO — COOOOO— ((>»C0OOi0OOC3i0C 
COCOOJCOCO-*COCO<Nr-.C:^«C005CDl>>Ot>05 — CM^OCOOOCC' 

ooooooococr>ocj>ocScj3a-!t3iaJtji<3io'o'o"ooo 

COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOC-lCOCOO^OtNtXCNClCOCOCOCOCOCO 


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29.950 
29.753 
30.041 
29.976 


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OTj*OOCOOOO>OOlOOt^OOCOC->C^COGCOCDOOOO 
OCOlOCOO^'^OOOCOOC^COC>'-C^OO^^C7iO'OOCOC^O 
COCO<N»0Cq-*C0C0C0~a3OC0OC0C0>0t>00 — C^»OCOCO<>( 

ooo(5ooc'cocoooicooocjiaicna;05coc3ciooo 

COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO<MCOCOC01MC-»(N<MCNCOCOCOCOCOCO 


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criTfooo — ocoo — co>ocs> — '*cO'X;cocJi-*otoa5— iiocN 

— COClCOt^-iOODCOCO — C35a>CO(NI>lOCOCOOOO— 'CO-*COrO 

oooocc5cococJcDoaiciocDoicnoici(jicocDOo'coo' 

COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO(M<NCOCOC^C>i'>*<NCJCOCOCOCOC<^CO 


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COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO(NC^COCN(NC^tMCOCOCNC^C-»C-* 


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29.714 
29.960 
29.912 
30.090 


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COt^— CO— iC-»0C0100CNt^<N00OCN — OCOOOOr-.t^OCJ50 

— CO — — -OCDt^C^OOlCOlOCO — CO— <(NTf-*COOOD(NOO(NO 
"OCN- rfCO<NM"COCOCO-^<N0050(35I>GOO — Tfot^coco 


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Tj*cr;co»0'^^'c^^coooorfoooo^o^oooocN'^iOc^ioo(N 

"^COCO— 'C0l0t^C0^C0C000C0C0'*0000O'^»OC0CIOC0C>» 

>oco — (Mcoo'coiococo'oo'Oc:505Cii>c^oococoi^coro 


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lOOi^C-tCOt^OOiO- cot — LOOiOlflCOOlUOCO-NCO — Ol 
lOOO — t^C-lCOOOCDCOOt-fOO!>>OCOlC»Cl^-*lOCOt-:CCOO 
C» — (JlCOCOC->>OlOOOCTll>OlOCOCO(N(3:il.050 — — CNCOOl 


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<^)co<^^c^)c)C'>l^^<^^(Mc<c^^cococococo<M<^^CNcocococococo 


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ooo»o— ^t^oococ^co^^coooc^ooooo^otooGo^o 

CO->COCDC31t>tOOO — 02 — OCCOOiC^IMtCOtCDOtt 
l>;(M_COTt;o» — ICIOOOO'00'OCCCDC0001>.00 — — c^coco 

oi CO CO Cji oi oi cji oi oi o oi CO o' o o' o' oi c3v' C3i o CO o o' o' o 

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30.200 
30.241 
30.518 


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— icnot^oiooiOicoio — I>OOOlOtcoooc<ICO(Mlc;ocoC 

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— C^COTt<iOC01>00030 — CtcotiOCOt^oOOJO — CNCO-^lO 
— — „ — — — — — — — (>)(M(^) CI C-)(N 


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00 Oi o — 

CJ CM CO CO 



APPENDIX. 



XXXIX 



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REGISTER OF THE BAROMETER, CORRECTED FOR TEMPERATURE, CAPACITY, AND NEUTRAL POINT. 


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COCOrOC>3COCO:OCOCOCOCOCOC;COCOCO(M(N'MCOCO<MC-l!MC-)(N(MO»rorOCO 


30.033 30.044 30.044.29.942 29.947 29.936 29.919 29.922 29.92 29.863 29.85 29.871 29.812 29.81 29.822 30.008 30.026 30.05 




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DIURNAL VARIATION OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 



The Diurnal Variation of the Magnetic Needle was a subject which attracted the at- 
tention of scientific men about the year 1759, when many experiments were made. Its 
motion westward was observed to commence about 8 a.m., and continue until 2 p.m., 
when it became stationary for some time, and afterwards moving gradually back until 
it attained its first position, its utmost extent of variation being 19" 4"'. It was also ob- 
seived that at the time an Aurora Borealis was seen, its variation though irregular, was 
slowly eastward in the morning and westward in the evening, and in the night suddenly 
both ways in a very short time. These phenomena were attributed to the power of the 
sun in heating the eastern magnetic properties of the earth in the morning, and those 
of the western in the evening ; this was demonstrated by placing a strong magnet on 
each side of a compass, so as to keep the needle in the magnetic meridian, and alter- 
nately screening the sun from each magnet, it was observed, that when the sun was 
shining on the eastern magnet only, that the needle moved to the westward. This 
hypothesis was also corroborated by the fact, that the diurnal variation was observed 
to be greater in the summer than in the winter at London, as will appear by the 
following table of the mean diurnal variation for each of the twelve months of the 
year 1759: 



January 


7' 8" 


February 


8" 58" 


March . . 


11' 17" 


April 


12" 2' 


May . 


13' 0" 


June 


13" 21" 



July . . 


. 13' 14" 


August . 


. 12' 19" 


September . 


. ir 43"' 


October . 


. 10' 36" 


November . 


. 8' 9" 


December 


. 6" 58" 



The maximum being in June, and the minimum being in December. Thus the regular 
diurnal variation was concluded to be occasioned by the heat of the sun, which, however, 



DIURNAL VARIATION, &:c. xlv 

did not apply to the irregular variation ; it was therefore supposed to be occasioned by some 
subterraneous heat which was at times unequally diffused. The above account will be 
sufficient to prove that the discovery of diurnal variation is not of a modern date, but 
we may pass over the experiments that were made subsequently, since none of them 
threw any light on the subject, until it attracted the attention of the late Captain 
Flinders, to whom also the discovery of the deviation of the magnetic needle is due. 

On my voyage to the Arctic Regions in 1818, the phenomena of the magnet parti- 
cularly attracted my attention, and although a paper has been published in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society, by Captain E. Sabine, the observations therein given are 
exclusively mine, that gentleman not having been even on board or present when they 
were made, but copied out of my note-book to which he had access. In both the 
editions of my narrative of that voyage, I have given, not only the observations them- 
selves, and conclusions drawn from them, but rules for the correction for deviation, 
which are so simple, that any master of a merchant ship can as easily correct his 
course for the deviation peculiar to his ship as for the variation of the compass. Nor 
have these rules been superseded ; for although Professor Barlow's ingenious plate 
has been described as " triumphant," it is by no means infallible, as it must be 
acknowledged that any alteration in the situation of the iron material on board the 
ship must affect its accuracy, and it cannot again be rectified without a good opportu- 
nity when the ship is at anchor ; while it is at any rate a piece of expensive lumber, for 
which there is not the least necessity, if the easy rules I have given are put 
in practice. 

During my late interesting voyage, I have not only had an opportunity of confirming 
all my former observations, but of adding many important facts, which our actual 
approach to the magnetic pole has put us in possession of. My first series of observa- 
tions were made at Felix harbour, in lat. 69° 59', long. 92° west, where the variarion 
was found to be 89° 45' west, and the dip 89° 55'. In order to carry on the observations 
on diurnal variation, which had been begun to the westward by Sir John Franklin, 
I was, by the liberality of Sir George Murray, then Colonial Secretary, fiimished with 
several instruments which had been used by that scienrific and persevering officer, 
among them the diurnal variation instrument constructed by Mr. Dolland, from whom 
I received the necessary instructions to use it. This instrument has already been 
described by Sir John Franklin, but its microscopes were since altered to make the arc 
more conveniently read off by them. Nevertheless, it was some time before I could 
use it to obtain any satisfactory result; my magnetic observatory was built entirely of 
snow, 200 yards distant from any metallic substance, and marks were put up for 
placing it in the true magnetic meridian. I soon found that this instrument, which had 



xLvi DIURNAL VARIATION, &c. 

never before been put to such a test, required the greatest delicacy in its use. When the 
needle was nicely suspended by a single fibre of New Zealand flax, I found that it was 
materially disturbed by the approach of any metallic substance, by any sudden increase 
or decrease of light, and by alteration in the temperature ; if I had a coat with brass 
buttons, or a watch in my pocket, I saw it move before I was within two yai'ds of it ; 
nor could I take five successive readings at each end of the needle, without observing 
that the increase of temperature caused by my looking through the microscopes had a 
considerable effect, and observing to a second was impossible, the needle having a con- 
stant tremulous motion. When too dark to observe without a light, I was obliged to 
take a paper lantern, and even then, when the lighted candle shining through the paper 
was held for the purpose of reading off the arc, it produced a horizontal motion in the 
needle, corresponding to the direction and strength of the light. We were now in a 
position so near the magnetic pole, that the natural or universal magnetic influence was 
at right angles with a magnetized needle, traversing on a point horizontally, and it was 
then at liberty to be acted upon by any other influence or power, without restraint, 
excepting from its friction on that point which was also materially lessened by the 
power of suspension already described ; and by inspection of the Tables for April and 
May, 1830, it will be seen that it followed the sun, although protected from its rays by 
a snow hut covered with canvass, and had it been at the time immediately in the 
vicinity of the magnetic pole, there could be no doubt but it would have followed the 
sun completely round the compass. Again, it was, during the winter, when every thing 
magnetic is more sluggish, proved, that it was disturbed by and followed the light of a 
candle ; that it was materially disturbed by a brilliant Aurora Borealis, particularly 
when that was of a deep red. I have therefore concluded, that light, of whatever 
kind, has the property of combining with the magnetic influence. Of electricity we 
had no opportunity of making experiments, there being less electric matter in the 
Arctic Regions than in any other place, as proved on my first voyage, when the elec- 
trometer was never affected by it. My second conclusion is, that metal of any kind 
will become iia some degree magnetized, the microscopes became magnetic in June 
1830, and after the brass instrument made by Mr. Dolland became affected, I sus- 
pended the needle through a glass barometer tube, and used a paper graduated card, 
which gave the observation to half a degree, and which, indeed, was as near as its 
tremulous motion would permit the eye to observe it on a silver arc. My third con- 
clusion is, that it is affected by temperature. 

So that my observations made during the first voyage were, in that respect, fully 
confirmed. The following table will clearly show the different periods on which the 
Diurnal Variation was greatest and least, as well as under what circumstances the 
differences took place. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



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DIP, &c. OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 



I HAVE already mentioned that I was in possession of three dipping needles: one the 
construction of Mr. T. Jones, one by Mr. Pope, and the last by myself on the plan of 
Mr. Jennings. The two lastmentioned served to prove the accuracy of the first, which 
was used by me in the month of May, 1830, where I found the dip, by all three dipping 
needles, to be eighty-nine degrees and fifty-five minutes ; and subsequently, at Padliak 
or Spence bay, where it was found to be eighty-nine degrees and fifty-six minutes, by 
six sets of observations taken on the two days which I remained there for the purpose ; 
but the variation of the compass was found to he considerably less, being only sixty- 
eight degrees and thirty-five minutes west, making a difference of twenty degrees and 
twenty-five minutes, sufficient to indicate nearly where the Pole must be found. It 
is, however, but justice to say, that the position assigned to the Magnetic Pole by 
Commander Ross, was made entirely from his own observations, and if any discre- 
pancies are found, I conceive that they must have proceeded from damage which 
the needle sustained while in my possession at Padliak ; but which, if I may judge 
from the subsequent observations, was not so great as I at first apprehended. 

I had also several observations on the magnetic force during the first year; but these 
1 did not follow up, because it was evident that every winter, the magnetic force of 
the needle constructed for that purpose, had diminished probably from the severity of 
the climate : these needles are still in my possession. 

The observations which I made on Sound, have so nearly the same result as those 
made on the preceding voyages, that they need not be detailed here ; as also those on 
the Radiation of Solar Heat, the maximum of which was eighty-four degrees of Fahren- 
heit, in an ivory-mounted thermometer, suspended between two poles. While opposite 
to black-painted canvas it rose to ninety degrees. 

g 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



S2 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



FROM THE N.E. CAPE TO GULF OF BOOTHIA AND KING M'lLLIAM IV. SEA. 



In the first Alphabetical Table the Latitudes and Longitudes of the new discoveries 
are given to the nearest minute. The names given by the natives are printed in italics, 
as are also those for which there was not room in the chart for their insertion. 

This list will also explain the omissions and the discrepancies between the narrative 
and the chart, which arose from my unavoidable absence, whilst Commander Ross's 
narrative was printing ; and by the chart having been printed and examined by His 
Majesty before I had received Commander Ross's narrative. Suffice it to remember, 
that the names on the chart are correct, and the latitudes and longitudes have been 
compared by Mr. C. Walker. 

The second Alphabetical Table contains the Latitudes and Longitudes of Baffin's 
Bay, as verified by the observations of this voyage, some of which had been unwar- 
rantably altered in some of the charts subsequently published ; and the banks of the 
Isabella and Alexander, which had been expunged, have been resurveyed and restored 
to their places. 

The third Table contains the Latitudes and Longitudes of the discoveries of Sir 
E. Parry, Sir John Franklin, and Captain Beechy, carefully abstracted from their 
charts by Mr. Charles Walker. 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



till 



TABLE.— No. 1. 





N.Lat. W.Long. 

o / n / 




N.Lat.W.Lono. 

O ' r\ 1 


Abernethy, Cape 


69.33 


96.7 


Biot Island . 


69.40 


91.0 


A'Court Bay . 


71.34 


94.40 


Bjornsterna Bay 


71.5 


93.35 


Adam Island 


69.16 


96.10 


Black's Islands 


69.50 


91.48 


Adelaide Bay 


72.45 


92.20 


Blair's Islands 


70.47 


92.28 


Adelaide, Cape, & Magnetic Pole of 






Blankey Island 


69.34 


95.17 


William IV . 


70.5 


96.44 


Bowles Bay 


70.47 


92.39 


Adolphus Island 


69.56 


92.5 


Bowles River, (Entrance of) 


69.26 


93.30 


Adolphus Island 


69.52 


96.59 


Brown's Island 


72.1 


95.21 


Agnew River, (Awatutiak River) 


70.42 


92.32 


Brunei Inlet . 


69.28 


91.42 


Airey, Cape . 


71.23 


94.8 








Alexander, Cape 


70.19 


96.54 


Cambridge, Cape . 


69.34 


94.46 


Allington, Cape 


70.36 


92.0 


Carl IV., Cape 


69.43 


95.46 


Arbutluiot Island . 


70.45 


92.30 


Christian Monument 


70.24 


92.0 


Artist's Bay . 


69.37 


94.34 


Christian, Cape 


69.36 


95.1 


Astronomical Society's Islands, {Ka- 






Clara, Cape 


72.17 


94 24 


yaktaguwik Island) 


69.50 


91.40 


Copeland Islands 


70.7 


91.45 


Athol Island 


70.57 


93.2 


Coults Lindsey Island 


70.11 


91.22 


Auckland, Cape 


69.21 


94.10 


Culgruff, Cape 


69.33 


95.53 


Augherston, Cape . 


71.27 


94.27 


Cumberland, Cape 


69.51 


95.87 


Augusta Island 


69.51 


97.38 


Curtis Lake . 


69.26 


93.18 


Augustus Island 


69.47 


96.52 


Cuvier Island 


69.40 


91.1 


Babbage Bay 


71.28 


94.36 


Destrove, Cape 


69.38 


91.30 


Back's Bay 


69.33 


98.35 


Dundas, Ann, Island 


69.18 


94.21 


Batty Bay 


73.17 


91.00 


Dundas, Jane, Island . 


69.20 


94.20 


Beaufort's Islands, (as changed by his 






Dundas Mountains 


69.26 


93.5 


Majesty's command) 


69.45 


91.30 








Bernard, Cape 


70.10 


96.47 


Eclipse Harbour 


70.30 


92.5 


Best Harbour 


70.13 


91.20 


Eden Bay 


70.19 


91.38 


Beverley Island 


69.19 


95.36 


Edgworth, Cape 


69.20 


96.8 



LIV 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 





N.Lat. W.Long. 




N.Lat. W. Long. 

o / o ' 


Elizabeth Harbour . 


70.38 


92.8 


Jane River, {Amitioke River) 


69.21 


93.10 


Elliot Island 


70.58 


93.10 


Jekyll Lake . 


69.45 


93.25 


Elwyn Bay 


73.29 


90.45 


Jones, Mary, Bay . 


70.22 


91.55 


Errol Island . 


69.48 


96.39 


Josephine Bay 


69.36 


94.40 


Erskine Island 


69.53 


96.50 


Isabella, Cape 


69.26 


93.55 


Esterhazy Bay 


70.12 


96.50 








Esther, Cape 


72.15 


94.31 


Kent, Duchess of, Bay . 


69.58 


96.10 








Keppel, Cape 


69.52 


92.15 


Fairbrother Island 


69.39 


93.1 


Kjer, Cape, {Tikipoke R.) 


69.43 


90.45 


Falkland Island 


69.55 


96.51 


Knight Island 


70.51 


92.46 


Faro Lina Bay, (Caro Lino) 


69.4 


94.32 


Kail, Cape, {Omatioke R.) 


69.37 


90.5 


Farrand, Cape 


71.47 


95.4 








Faulkner, Cape 


69.37 


94.37 


Lambert, Cape 


69.36 


95.27 


Fearnall Bay 


72.16 


94.30 


Landon, Cape 


69.5 


95.27 


Felix, Cape . 


69.55 


97.55 


Landseer, Cape, (Padliak Cape) 


69.30 


94.22 


Felix Harbour, {Tingerakiv) . 


70.0 


91.53 


Lang River . 


72.11 


94.52 


Ferguson, Cutlar, Island 


71.7 


93.30 


Lawrence, Cape 


69.36 


94.30 


Fox Island 


69.50 


96.43 


Lax Harbour 


70.22 


91.30 


Francis II., Cape 


70.14 


96.51 


Lax Island, {Imaglqoktooh) . 


70.23 


91.30 


Franklin, Jane, Cape 


69.36 


98.36 


Leiven Bay 


70.16 


96.51 


Franklin Point 


69.30 


99.5 


Leopold Island 


74.1 


89.57 


Frederick Island . 


69.49 


96.59 


Lindsey, Lord, River, {Titchik) 


70.9 


92.23 


Frederick IV., Cape 


69.38 


95.6 


Logan Port . 


71.17 


94.41 


Frederick William III., Cape . 


69.22 


93.54 


Louis- Philippe, Cape 


69.34 


96.8 


Garry, Cape . 


72.19 


94.19 


Manson, Cape 


70.41 


92.22 


Goudy Island 


70.12 


91.18 


Margaret, Cape 


70.9 


91.28 


George, Prince, River . 


69.34 


96.37 


Maria Gloria, Cape 


69.40 


95.17 


Glasgow, Cape 


69.42 


97.19 


Marjory Island 


70.56 


92.56 


Gloucester, Cape 


69.48 


95.52 


Maria Louisa, Cape 


69.47 


98.23 


Grimble Islands 


71.54 


95.20 


Martin's Islands 


70.12 


91.24 








Mary, Cape . 


69.46 


97.25 


Hardy Bay . 


69.30 


91.41 


Matty Island 


69.25 


95.40 


Hardy, Cape 


69.24 


95.22 


M'Culloch Island 


69.26 


94.0 


Harriet, Cape 


69.6 


94.30 


M'Diarmid's Island 


70.0 


91.53 


Hansteen Lake 


69.45 


94.10 


M'Dowall, Cape 


71.23 


94.6 


Hay, Dalrymple, Cape . 


71.10 


93.45 


Melbourne Island . 


69.15 


95.45 


Hazard Island 


72.4 


95.11 


Melville, Lady, Lake, {Neitchillee Lake) 69.26 


93.0 


Hecla and Fury Islands . 


70.4 


90.38 


Menchikoff Bay 


71.38 


94.46 


Hendon, North 


70.1 


91.58 


Mildred Lake, (Entrance of) 


69.4 


94.30 


Heytesbury, Cape 


71.33 


94.35 


Modina, Cape 


69.35 


96.30 


Hughes Hughes, Cape 


69.30 


95.18 


Molke Bay . 


71.8 


93.45 


Hull Bay 


69.21 


93.45 


Moore, Carrick, Cape 


71.12 


93.50 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



LV 







N.Lat. W.LoNo. 




N.Lat, W.Long. 

O ' n 1 


Mundy Harbour 


, 


70.14 


91.37 


Schumacher Island 


69.55 


91.37 


Munster Island, (^formerly Beaufort's 






Scoresby, Cape 


71.43 


94.46 


Island) . 


. 


69.58 


96.56 


Selkirk, Cape 


69.56 


96.9 


Murray Bay 




71.48 


95.12 


Seppings, Cape 
Shee, Cape 


73.46 
69.34 


90.12 
94.28 


Nicholas I., Cape, {Commander Ross' s 






Sheridan, Cape 


69.4 


95.11 


furthest N. W.) 




70.25 


96.56 


Sherriff Harbour 


70.2 


91.52 


Nordenskjold, Cape 




71.14 


94.52 


Slater Island 


69.37 


92.7 


Norfolk Bay 


. 


69.33 


91.58 


Somerset House 


72.48 


91.45 


Norton, Cape 


• 


69.14 


96.0 


Sophia, Cape 
South Island 


69.36 
69.50 


96.47 
91.26 


Oakley Island 


. 


70.54 


92.49 


Spence Bay, (Entrance of), {Padliak 






Old Man of Hoy 


. 


71.1 


93.18 


Bay) 


69.25 


93.45 


Oliver Mount 


. 


72.8 


94.51 


Stanly E. River 


70.15 


92.15 


Oscar Bay 


. 


69.44 


95.30 


Stillwell Bay 


71.24 


94.20 


Owen Lake 


• 


70.30 


92.33 


Sullivan Bay, (Entrance of) 
Susanna Island 


69.32 
70.31 


94.25 
91.50 


Palmerston, Cape 


. 


70.50 


92.42 


Sussex, Cape 


69.43 


95.30 


Palmerston, Point . 


. 


69.24 


93.41 


Sydney, Sophia, Cape 


69.48 


97.30 


Parry, Isabella Louisa, 


or Lady Parry 












Island 


. 


70.9 


90.50 


Taylor, H., Cape 


69.40 


91.28 


Parry Port, (Entrance 


of) 


69.40 


97.17 


Thompson's Islands 


69.45 


92.18 


Pearson Island 




69.47 


91.27 


Tilson's Islands 


69.45 


92.30 


Peel Inlet 


. 


69.13 


96.7 


Troughton Island . 


69.54 


91.43 


Porter, Cape 




69.11 


94.30 








Pouncet Island 


. 


70.33 


91.55 


Union River, (Entrance of) 


72.35 


95.00 


Purcell Bay 




71.41 


94.52 


Victoria Harbour . 


70.9 


91.34 


Ramage Island 


. 


69.42 


91.10 


Victory Point 


69.38 


98.36 


Rodd Bay 


. 


73.54 


90.10 








Rodwell Bay 


. 


71.44 


94.57 


Wall's Bay 


69.49 


98.14 


Ross, Andrew, Island 


. 


70.13 


91.27 


Wellington Strait, (Entrance of) . 


69.34 


96.0 


Rowley, Cape 


• 


69.4 


95.25 


Willersted Lake 
Wilson's Bay 


69.19 
71.50 


93.25 
95.25 


St Catherine, Cape, {Aktvennok) 


70.23 


91.35 


Will, of Wirt., Cape 


69.39 


97.2 


St. Mary's Mount 




71.15 


94.10 








Sauraarez River, {Kog 


ttloktok) 


70.4 


92.25 


York, Cape . 


73.50 


86.30 



LVI 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



TABLE.— No. II. 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES OF PLACES IN BAFFIN'S BAY, DETERMINED 1818, 1833. 



Adair, Cape . 
Agnes Monument Rock 
Agnew, Cape 
Alexander, Cape 

Bank 

Allison Bay 
Antrobus, Cape 
Arabella Rock 
Ardrossan Bay 
Aston, Cape 
Athol, Cape . 

BaflSn's Islands 
Bank's Bay . 
Barnard's Mountains 
Bathurst Bay 
Beatrice, Cape 
Bell's Isle 
Beverley Cliffs 
Bisson, Cape 
Black Hook, Cape 
Booth's Sound 
Borthwick 
Bowen, Cape . 
Brodie Bay 
Broughton, Cape 
Browne's Islands 
Bruce Bay 
Bushnan's Island 
Bute Island . 
Byam Martin, Cape 



N.LiT. W.LoNo. 

O ' O ' 

71.24 

70.37 

71.24 

77.43 

69.9 

74.40 

71.57 

76.35 

70.37 

70.10 

76.23 



74.41 

74.46 

75.55 

73.33 

74.32 

71.27 

75.40 

69.10 

71.27 

76.49 

65.54 

72.25 

68.00 

67.47 

75.29 

70.28 

76.04 

70.26 

73.33 



70.00 
67.30 
71.45 
75.30 
65.00 
57.56 
73.50 
70.34 
68.40 
65.25 
69.41 

57.25 
76.08 
81.00 
76.24 
80.30 
72.00 
67.30 
65.20 
55.31 
70.50 
61.10 
74.40 
64.05 
63.30 
60.09 
67.32 
65.26 
67.30 
77.10 





N. Lax. W. Long. 

O ' o ./ 


Caledon, Cape 


76.16 


79.22 


Campbell, Cape 


64.06 


65.12 


Cargenholm, Cape 


71.32 


72.36 


Carey's Islands 


64.06 


73.10 


Catherine's Bay 


73.30 


81.50 


Charlotte, Cape 


74.32 


79.30 


Charles's Island 


63.00 


64.50 


Chidley, Cape 


68.37 


53.33 


Christian, Cape 


70.35 


67.37 


Clarence, Cape 


76.45 


77.45 


Clephane, Cape 


65.45 


61.00 


Clyde River 


70.21 


67.30 


Cobourg Bay 


75.35 


78.40 


Cockburn, Cape 


74.49 


73.45 


Coquin Sound 


53.00 


65.37 


Coutt's, Cape 


72.00 


74.10 


Inlet 


71.58 


74.12 


Cranstoun, Cape 


71.15 


54.20 


Crimson Cliffs, (Beverley) 


76.00 


68.30 


Croker's Mountains 


73.58 


90.00 


Cumberland Strait 






Cunningham, Cape 


74.40 


96.02 


Dacre's, Cape 


65.36 


61.5 


Dalrymple Rock 


76.28 


70.42 


Darkhead, Cape 


72.10 


56.00 


Desolation, Cape 






Devil's Thumb 


74.16 


57.56 


Disco, N. End 


70.12 


59.12 


S. End 


69.11 


56.30 


Duck Islands 


68.49 


53.42 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



LVII 



Dudley Digges, Cape 
Duneira Bay 
Durham, Cape 
Dyer's, Cape 

Edward's Bay 
Eglinton, Cape 
Elizabeth's Bay 
Enderby, Cape 
Exeter Bay . 

Fanshawe, Cape 
Four- Island Point 
Frances, Cape 
Fry, Cape 

Gilbert Sound 
Graham Moore, Cape 
Gamble Bay 

Hackluit Lland 
Haig's Island 
Hamilton's Bay 
Hardwicke, Cape . 
Hathorn, Cape 
Hay, Cape 
Hope's Monument 
Hewett, Cape 
Hingston Bay 
Hoare Bay 
Home Bay 
Hooper, Cape 
Hoppner, Cape 
Horse's Head 
Horsburgh, Cape 
Hurd, Cape 
Hynd's Bay . 

Inglis Bay 
Inmalliek 
Iron Mountains 
Isabella, Cape 



N.Lat. 


W.Long. 




N.Ljit. 


W.Long. 


O ' 


o / 




O ' 


o / 


76.05 


68.54 


Isabella's Bank 


c 69.31 
I 69.28 


65.20 


75.27 


53.30 




64.40 


65.59 


61.54 








66.42 




Jacob's Bay, (or N.E. Bay) 


71.00 


53.00 






Jameson, Cape 


71.45 


73.30 


76.38 


78.30 


Jones's Sound 


76.20 


78.10 


70.49 


78.30 








73.30 


80.00 


Kater, Cape 


69.39 


65.40 


63.45 


65.30 








66.30 


61.00 


Lady Ann Bay 


75.54 


80.00 






Lancaster Sound 


74.19 


83.50 






Lawson, Cape 


71.45 


55.36 


73.40 


76.06 






70.46 


33.03 


Leifle Bay, {or Love Bay, or Good 






76.28 


70.25 


Haven) 


69.10 


54.40 


65.06 


63.25 


Leopold, Cape 


75.40 


78.12 






Lewis, Cape . 


75.31 


59.0 


67.42 


33.20 


Lindsay, Cape 


76.06 


79.24 


72.54 


75.28 


Loch Ryan 


65.06 


65.55 


77.20 


73.10 












Mackintosh, Cape . 


67.00 


62.10 






Martin Mountains 


73.25 


80.00 






Mary Ann Island, or Cape 


71.25 


71.35 


70.29 


67.45 


M'Culloch, Cape 


72.13 


74.24 


71.25 


70.40 


M'Douall, Cape 


71.24 


70.58 


76.30 


78.58 


M'Leay, Cape 


70.15 


66.35 


71,30 


72.20 


Meikleham, Cape . 


65.18 


63.00 


73.35 


80.35 


Melville Bay, Lat. 76° 5' to 75° 12' 






72.26 


80.45 


Long. 60° to 64°. 






70.27 


67.18 


Melville, Cape 


76.05 


64.30 


73.48 


57.20 


Melville's Monument 


75.33 


59.18 


65.18 


63.30 


Merchant's Bay 


67.38 


64.20 


68.40 


64.40 


Miller's Island 


65.12 


63.18 


68.06 


64.36 


Morris, Cape 


76.09 


62.08 


76.56 


70.48 


Mouat, Cape 


77.29 


78.00 


74.49 


58.15 


Murdoch, Cape 


76.08 


61.28 


74.35 


73.45 








77.49 


78.48 


Nius, Cape 


63.38 


65.58 


66.33 


61.0 


North Ayr . 


70.00 


72.10 






North Bay Islands . 


68.19 


53.47 


65.47 


61.50 


North Galloway 


71.00 


73.00 


76.00 


66.46 








76.10 


65.24 


Operniwick 


73.25 


57.26 


77.48 


77.00 


Osborne, Cape 


74.24 


81.12 



LVIII 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 





N.LiT. W.Long. | 




N.Lat. W.Long. 


Paget, Cape 


70.10 


75.55 


Skene's Island 


76.07 


63.24 


Parry, Cape 


77.06 


71.23 


Smith's Sound 


77.55 


76.15 


Petowack 


76.11 


69.00 


South East Bay 


69.00 


50.00 


Possession Bay 


73.33 


77.28 


Stair, Cape . 


77.43 


70.55 


Pond's Bay . 


72.38 


75.00 


St. Clair, Cape 


64.15 


65.05 


Prince Regent's Bay 


r 76.10 
I 75.45 


64.50 


SufFkowallick 


76.00 


57.00 


66.40 


Sugarloaf Island 


74.02 


57.30 


Prince William's Land . 


72.30 


78.00 








Princess Charlotte's Monument 


75.36 


78.28 


Thom Islands 


75.40 


60.00 








Three Islands (of Baffin) 


74.01 


57.25 


Queen Anne's Cape 


66.24 


53.20 














Unknown Island 


71.00 


53.45 


Raleigh Mount 


61.14 


61.40 








Red Head 


74.55 


53.44 


Walker, Cape 


75.46 


59.54 


Reid's Bay 


66.48 


61.40 


Walsingham, Cape 


66.00 


61.10 


Robertson, Cape 


77.24 


71.36 


Walter Bathurst, Cape 


73.03 


76.22 


Raper, Cape 


69.54 


65.20 


Warrender, Cape 


74.19 


32.40 


Rosamond, Cape 


74.10 


83.17 


Waygatt Island, (N. E. Side) . 
Waygatt Strait, (N. Entrance) 


70.24 
70.26 




Sabine Islands 


75.29 


60.09 


Whale Islands 


68.59 


63.13 


Salmon Islands 


70.11 


65.30 


Whale Sound 


77.15 


71.20 


Savage Islands, or Wild Islands 


67.44 


53.40 


White, Cape 


76.35 


70.36 


Saumarez, Cape 


77.30 


73.52 


Wilcox Point 


74.10 


57.45 


Saunderson's Tower 


64.50 


63.55 


WoUaston Island . 


69.25 


65.20 


Sowallick (or Iron) Mountains 


76.10 


65.04 


Wolstenholme Island 


76.24 


70.22 


Scott's Bay 


71.10 


70.10 


Wolstenholme Sound 


76.29 


70.00 


Shackleton, Cape 


73.36 


57.25 


Women's Islands 


72.45 


56.40 


SheflSeld Bay 


65.30 


62.40 








Siddon, Cape 


75.17 


59.00 


York, Cape 


75.55 


65.38 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



i.ix 



TABLE— No. III. 



SIR EDWARD PARRY'S FIRST VOYAGE. 



Cape Fisher . 
Cape Mudge 
Point Nias 
Point Ried 
Cape Beecliy 
Cape Edwards 
Bushnan Cove 
Hooper Island 
Liddon's Gulf 
Cape Hoppner 
Fife Harbour 
Winter Harbour 
Point Hearne 
Hecla and Griper Bay 
Cape Dundas 
Cape Hoy 
Cape Providence 
Sabine Island 
Point Griffiths 
Beverley Inlet 
Point Palmer 
Dealy Inlet 
Bridport Inlet 
Point Wakeham 
Cape Oilman 
Cape Cockburn 
Allison's Inlet 
Cape Capel 
Bedford Bay . 
Baker Inlet 
Garrett Island 



N.Lat. W.Long. 

O ' n / 




75.53 


111.38 


Lowther Island 


75.55 


110.8 


Davy Island . 


75.38 


110.36 


Young Island 


75.36 


110.0 


Cape AValker 


75.5 


113.3 


Cape Bunny 


75.8 


112.30 


Browne Island 


75.13 


111.45 


Somerville Island . 


75.6 


111.55 


Griffith Island 


75.5 


112.30 


Cornwallis Island . 


74.58 


112.50 


Cape Bowden 


74.50 


110.38 


Wellington Channel 


74.48 


110.50 


Cape Martyr . 


74.43 


110.40 


Barlow Inlet 


74.45 


110.30 


Cape Hotham 


74.28 


114.0 


Cape Gifford 


74.23 


113.10 


Cape Rennell 


74.25 


112.30 


Gamier Bay 


75.45 


109.30 


Cunningham Inlet 


75.5 


106.5 


Prince Leopold Island 


107.40 


75.0 


Cape Clarence 


108.8 


74.55 


Cape Seppings 


108.50 


75.0 


Point Innes . 


109.0 


75.0 


Cape Spencer 


74.48 


110.15 


Beechy Island 


75.3 


104.10 


Cape Riley 


75.4 


100.26 


Caswall's Tower 


75.2 


99.23 


Cape Ricketts 


75.6 


97.45 


Rigby Bay . 


75.3 


98.30 


Cape Hurd 


74.58 


97.50 


Cape Eardly Wilmot 


74.47 


98.28 

h! 


Gascoyue Inlet 



N.Lat.W.Losc. 


O ' 


O ' 


74.35 


97.40 


74.32 


98.55 


74.20 


98.50 


74 7 


97.42 


74.8 


95.15 


74.45 


96.36 


74.40 


96.25 


74.35 


95.40 


75.0 


95.0 


75.3 


92.20 


75.0 


93.0 


74.38 


95.10 


74.45 


93.50 


74.40 


93.50 


74.9 


93.50 


74.8 


93.20 


74.5 


93.10 


74.6 


94.0 


74.0 


90.0 


73.59 


90.50 


73.50 


90.20 


74.53 


92.15 


74.47 


92.8 


74.43 


92.0 


74.41 


91.47 


74.45 


91.12 


74.38 


91.10 


74.37 


90.10 


74.33 


90.0 


74.40 


91.20 


74.40 


91.22 



LX 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 





N.Lat. W.Long. 

/ n / 




N.Lat.W.Lonc. 

O ' D 1 


Cape Herschell 


74.37 


89.12 


Cape Warrender 


74.28 


81.50 


Maxwell Bay 


74.35 


89.0 


Cape Osborn 


74.40 


80.26 


Cape Fellfoot 


74.33 


88.25 


Cape Beatrice 


74.45 


80.20 


Sir Benjamin Hobhouse Inlet . 


74.27 


87.10 


Hope's Monument 


74.43 


80.30 


Stratton Inlet 


74.27 


87.0 


Barrow's Strait 


74.0 


85.0 


Burnet Inlet 


74.25 


86.40 


Cape Crawford 


73.50 


84.10 


Powell's Inlet 


74.25 


85.20 


Admiralty Inlet 


73.45 


83.30 


Brooking Inlet 


74.25 


85.5 


Cape Franklin 


73.42 


83.15 


Cape Bullen . 


74.23 


85.0 


Cape Charles Yorke 


73.53 


82.50 


Cape York 


73.50 


86.55 


WoUaston Isles 


73.50 


80.50 


Radstock Bay 


74.40 


91.0 


Navy Board Inlet . 


73.45 


81.20 


Eardly Bay 


73.48 


87.15 


Cape Castlereagh 


73.50 


80.45 


Jackson's Inlet 


73.17 


89.0 


Cape Hay 


73.52 


80.10 


Port Bowden 


73.13 


89.5 


Martin Mountains 


73.43 


79.20 


App Harbour 


72.27 


89.52 


Cape Liverpool 


73.40 


78.5 


Fitzgerald Bay 


72.10 


89.50 


Cape Fanshawe 


73.35 


77.33 


Cape Kater . 


71.50 


90.10 


Possession Bay and Mount 


73.30 


77.23 


Cape Home 


74.29 


84.5 


Cape Byam Martin 


73.29 


77.10 


Cape Rosamond 


74.33 


84.0 


Bathurst Bay 


73.26 


77.10 


Croker's Bay 


74.40 


83.20 


Cape Walter Bathurst . 


73.23 


76.50 


Cape Pateshall 


74.38 


82.45 









SIR EDWARD PARRY'S SECOND VOYAGE. 



Autridge Bay 
Whyte Inlet . 
Gifford River 
Cape Hallowell 
Cape Englefield 
Amherst Island 
Arlagnarigo 
Siattoke 
Aggrochiawik 
Liddon Island 
Griffith's Creek 
Crozier River 
Quilliam Creek 
Ormond Island 
Cape Ossory 
Cape Northeast 



70.7 


85.25 


Bouverie Island 


69.38 


82.10 


70.7 


85.0 


Mount Sabine 


69.38 


82.23 


70.0 


82.0 


Halse Creek 


69.40 


82.42 


69.58 


85.26 


Richards Bay 


69.35 


82.15 


69.51 


85.30 


Cape Matthew Smith 


69.25 


82.2 


69.48 


83.55 


Khemig 


69.25 


82.30 


69.15 


85.15 


Coxe Island 


69.27 


82.30 


68.18 


87.30 


Hooper Inlet . 


69.18 


82.0 


68.5 


86.15 


Mogg Bay 


69.14 


82.5 


69.47 


83.10 


Neerlonacto . 


69.30 


81.40 


69.39 


83.30 


Igloolik Island 


69.23 


81.45 


69.27 


83.15 


Arlagnuk 


69.12 


81.25 


69.28 


83.0 


Pingitkalik 


69.2 


81.15 


69.48 


82.40 


Murray Maxwell Inlet . 


69.50 


80.40 


69.44 


82.31 


Skeoch Bay 


69.36 


80.15 


69.42 


82.33 


Cape Elwyn . 


69.32 


80.20 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



LXI 



Calthorpe Island 
Tangle Island 
Tern Island 
Cape Konig . 
Oofflit Island 



N.I.AT. W 

O ' 


'.Long. 
o / 




69.28 


80.10 


Agwisseowik 


69.25 


80.17 


Ooglit . 


69.33 


80.52 


Amitioke 


69.32 


79.48 


Cape Jermain 


68.48 


81.4 





N. Lat. 1 


W. Long. 


O ' 


O ' 


68.31 


81.45 


68.23 


81.32 


68.15 


82.20 


67.47 


81.58 



FROM SIR JOHN FRANKLIN'S CHART. 



Point Beechy 


70.24 


149.35 


Point Calton 


69.31 


138.57 


Point Back 


70.24 


149.20 


Point Stokes 


69.24 


138.38 


Guider Bay 


70.21 


149.8 


Point Kay 


69.19 


138.10 


Return Reef 


70.25 


148.45 


Phillips Bay 


69.15 


138.15 


Prudhoe Bay 


70.22 


148.35 


Babbage River 


69.12 


138.10 


Point Heald 


70.21 


148.28 


Point P. King 


69.7 


137.44 


Yarborough Inlet 


70.18 


148.20 


Point Sabine 


69.4 


137.32 


Point Chandos 


70.20 


148.8 


Mount Conybeare 


69.29 


140.3 


Point Anxiety 


70.18 


147.45 


Mount Robinson . 


69.22 


140.40 


Foggy Island 


70.15 


147.36 


Mountain Indian River 


69.30 


139.10 


Lion and Reliance Reef 


70.11 


146.52 


Mount Sedgwick . 


68.58 


138.55 


Point Bullen 


70.10 


146.28 


Barn Mountain 


68.46 


137.51 


Point Thompson 


709 


146.7 


Cupola Mountain 


68.44 


137.55 


Flaxman Island . 


70.10 


145.50 


Mount Fitton 


68.42 


137.55 


Point Brovvnlow 


70.9 


145.40 


Mount Davies Gilbert 


68.43 


136.20 


Sir T. Staines River 


70.6 


145.40 


Pitt Island . 


69.5 


136.12 


Canning River 


70.4 


145.30 


Escape Reef 


68.56 


136.57 


Boulder Island 


70.3 


144.58 


Tent Island . 


68.56 


136.18 


Camden Bay 


70.4 


144.40 


Shoalwater Bay 


68.54 


136.25 


Barter Island 


70.5 


143.50 


Point Pillage 


68.53 


136.23 


Point Manning 


70.6 


143.35 


Pelly Isles 


69.32 


135.30 


Point Sir H. Martin 


70.4 


143.0 


Garry Isles . 


69.27 


135.36 


Point Griffin 


70.1 


142.42 


Kendall Isles 


69.24 


135.30 


Point Humphreys 


69.54 


142.15 


Whale Island 


69.12 


135.0 


Beaufort Bay 


69.46 


141.50 


Ellice Island 


69.9 


135.40 


Mount Huskisson 


69.35 


142.5 


Langley Island 


69.0 


135.10 


Mount Greenough 


69.30 


143.20 


Colville Island 


68.50 


135.50 


Icy Reef 


69.45 


141.28 


Halkett Island 


68.30 


135.0 


Demarcation Point Winter Houses 


69.40 


141.0 


Mount Gifford 


68.12 


135.24 


Clarence River 


69.36 


140.45 


Simpson Island 


68.12 


134.25 


Backhouse River 


69.35 


140.28 


Sacred Island 


68.58 


134.13 


Sir P. Malcolm River 


69.35 


139.55 


.Smith Island 


68.50 


134.30 


Herschell Island 


69.35 


139.0 


Harrison Island 


68.30 


134.10 



LXU 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 





N. Lat 


W.Long. 

O ' 




N. Lat. 

O ' 


W. Long. 

O ' 


M'Gillivray Island 


68.10 


134.0 


Point Pierce 


69.48 


122.30 


Williams Island 


68.37 


134.10 


Point Sir R. G. Keats . 


69.49 


122.0 


Peel River . 


67.40 


134.30 


Mount Colby 


69.36 


121.55 


Red River 


67.25 


133.30 


Point Deas Thompson . 


69.45 


121.20 


Fort Good Hope 


67.27 


130.51 


Palgrave River 


69.41 


121.10 


Richards Island . 


69.20 


133.50 


Roscoe River 


69.40 


121.1 


Point Encounter 


69.15 


133.18 


Mount Hooker 


69.36 


121.33 


Point Toker 


69.38 


132.20 


Mount Rennell 


69.33 


121.3 


Refuge Cove 


69.28 


132.31 


Point De Witt Clinton 


69.33 


120.27 


Point Warren 


69.45 


131.36 


Buchanan River 


69.23 


120.0 


Copland Hutchinson Bay 


69.45 


131.20 


Point Tinney 


69.20 


119.40 


Phillips Island 


69.50 


131.5 


Croker Bay . 


69.16 


119.5 


Atkinson Island 


69.54 


130.43 


Mount Sir H. Davy 


69.0 


118.47 


M'Kinley Bay 


69.55 


130.30 


Sir G. Clerk's Island . 


69.25 


118.35 


Browell Cove 


70.0 


130.20 


Point Clifton 


69.14 


118.30 


Cape Brown 


70.11 


129.50 


Inman River 


69.8 


118.25 


Russell Inlet 


70.5 


129.26 


Point Wise 


69.3 


118.0 


Cape Dalhousie . 


70.16 


129.20 


Hoppner River 


69.0 


117.39 


Campbell's Isles 


69.30 


129.0 


Cape Young 


68.56 


116.55 


Nicholson Island . 


69.55 


128.20 


Harding River 


68.50 


117.3 


Liverpool Bay 


70.10 


128.20 


Cape Hope 


68.57 


116.27 


Point Sir P. Maitland 


70.7 


127.40 


South's Bay 


68.58 


116.0 


Harrowby Bay 


70.10 


127.20 


Stapleton's Bay 


68.55 


116.20 


Cape Bathurst 


70.35 


127.30 


Cape Bexley 


69.0 


115.50 


Baillie's Islands 


70.34 


127.50 


Point Cockburn . 


68.52 


115.0 


Trail Point 


70.20 


126.30 


Chantry Island 


68.44 


114.23 


Point Fitton 


70.12 


126.15 


M. Sutton Island 


68.57 


114.15 


Cape Parry 


70.5 


123.33 


Sir R. Lislon Island 


68.52 


114.12 


Booth Island 


70.3 


123.52 


Lambert Island 


68.37 


113.52 


Moore Island 


70.1 


123.23 


Bayfield Island 


68.29 


113.43 


W. Horton River 


69.56 


126.0 


Douglass Island . 


68.26 


113.46 


Jardine River 


69.42 


125.40 


Pasley's Cove 


68.23 


114.0 


Burnett River 


69.39 


125.31 


Mount Barrow 


68.20 


113.54 


Franklin Bay 


69.40 


125.0 


Cape Krusenstern 


68.22 


113.44 


Selwood Bay 


69.50 


124.0 


Point Locker 


68.12 


113.56 


Cracroft Bay 


69.46 


124.0 


Saunders Islands 


68.10 


113.4G 


Wright Bay 


69.41 


124.0 


Cape Hearne 


68.11 


114.51 


Point Stivens 


69.33 


124.16 


Basil Hall's Bay 


68.15 


115.0 


Langton Bay 


69.23 


124.20 


Cape Kendall 


67.58 


115.16 


Burrovif's Isles 


69.48 


123.30 


Back's Inlet 


67.57 


115.50 


Darnley Bay 


69.40 


123.10 


Point Mackenzie . 


67.51 


115.30 


Clapperton Island 


69.41 


123.16 


Bloody Fall 


67.41 


116.0 


Cape Lyon . 


69.48 


122.47 


Copper Mine River 


67.48 


115.35 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



LXIII 



SIR JOHN FRANKLIN'S FIRST JOURNEY. 



Sir G. Moore's Island, 


(largest) . 


67.50 


Lawford Islands, (centre) 


67.52 


Port Epworth 




67.43 


Gray's Bay 




67.47 


Wentzel's River 




67.53 


Inman's Harbour 




67.58 


Cape Barrow 




68.4 


Galena Point 




67.54 


Detention Harbour 




67.50 


Moore Bay 




67.45 


Stockport Isles 




67.47 


Marcet's Island 




67.50 


Cheere's Islands 




67.42 


Hood's River 




67.20 


Baillie Bay . 




67.20 


Point WoUaston . 




67.33 


Back's River 




66.30 


Burnside River 




66.37 


Young's Island 




66.45 


Elliot's Islands . 




66.54 



N.Lat. W.Long. 

o ' o ' 

114.15 

113.40 

112.30 

111.55 

111.30 

111.6 

111.0 

110.40 

110.42 

110.20 

110.10 

109.52 

109.35 

109.50 

109.20 

109.24 

107.52 

108.1G 

108.30 

108.45 



N. L*T. W.Long. 



Tinney Cove 
Rideout Island 
Fowler's Bay 
Barry's Island 
Point Everitt 
Fisher's Island 
Buchan Bay 
Cape Croker 
Warrender Bay 
Point Hay 
Kurd's Islands 
Point Beechy 
Walker's Bay 
Porden's Isles 
Riley's Bay . 
Cape Flinders 
Harry Cook's Island 
Sir H. Davy Island 
Point Turnagain 



66.55 


108.6 


67.20 


108.30 


67.22 


108.20 


67.30 


108.55 


67.42 


108.42 


67.54 


108.30 


67.54 


108.20 


68.3 


108.24 


68.15 


107.25 


68.15 


107.40 


6b. 7 


108.7 


68.6 


108.16 


68.12 


109.10 


68.10 


109.20 


68.12 


109.22 


68.13 


109.30 


68.10 


109.48 


68.32 


109.40 


68.33 


109.10 



FROM CAPTAIN BEECHY'S CHAKT. 



Point Barrow 
Elson Bay . 
Franklin Extreme 
Cape Smyth 
Refuge Inlet 
Peard Bay . 
Seahorse Islands . 
Point Franklin 
Wainwright Inlet . 
Cape Collie . 
Point Marsh 
Blossom Shoals 



71.12 


156.10 


Icy Cape 


71.22 


1.56.6 


Point Lay . 


71.20 


156.4 


Cape Beaufort 


71.14 


156.45 


Vein of Coal 


71.6 


157.0 


Cape Sabine 


70.52 


158.20 


Cape Lisburne 


70.56 


159.0 


Cape Lewis 


70.58 


158.45 


Cape Dyer . 


70.36 


159.45 


Point Hope 


70.38 


159.55 


Cape Thompson 


70.36 


159.58 


Cape Seppings 


70.23 


161.45 


Mulgrave Hills 



70.18 


161.40 


69.52 


162.45 


69.4 


163.35 


69.2 


163.30 


68.54 


164.34 


68.52 


166.8 


68.42 


166.10 


68.38 


166.10 


68.20 


166.40 


68.7 


165.52 


67.58 


165.15 


67.36 


163.40 



LXiy 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 





N.Lat. 

O / 


W.Long. 

O ' 




N.Lat. 

O ' 


W.Long. 

O ' 


Cape Kruzenstern 


67.9 


163.37 


Kruzenstern Island 


65.47 


168.52 


Deviation Peak 


. , 67.5 


161.0 


Diomede Islands . 


65.48 


169 


Hotham Inlet 


66.50 


162 


Fairway Rock 


65.39 


168.43 


Cape Blossom 


66.44 


162.25 


Cape Prince of Wales 


65.34 


168.0 


Cape Espenberg . 


66.34 


163.28 


Cape York . 


65.24 


167.25 


Kotzebue Sound 


66.30 


163.0 


King's Island 


65.0 


168.0 


Bay of Good Hope 


66.14 


163.30 


Conical Hill 


65.40 


167.30 


Buckland River 


66.10 


161.0 


King-a-ghee 


65.36 


167.50 


Eschscholtz Bay . 


66.20 


161.30 


Ei-dan-noo . 


' . 65.36 


168.0 


Choris Peninsula 


66.20 


161.50 


Point Jackson 


65.22 


166.45 


Chamisso I. or E-ow-ick 


66.14 


161.45 


Point Spencer 


65.16 


166 50 


Spafarief Bay 


66.6 


161.50 


Port Clarence 


65.14 


166.30 


Cape Deceit 


66.6 


162.36 


Grantly Harbour 


65.16 


166.20 


Devil's Mount 


66.20 


164.25 


Kow-e-rok 


65.16 


165.56 


Cape Lowenstern . 


66.16 


165.35 


Tokshook 


65.14 


165.54 


SchischmarefF Inlet 


66.20 


165.30 


Cape Douglas 


65.0 


166.40 


SaritschefF Island 


66.18 


165.45 


Cape Woolley 


64.49 


166.24 


Ears 


66.0 


166.0 


Point Rodney 


64.38 


166.20 


False Ears 


65.48 


163.10 


Sledge Island 


64.30 


166.8 


Ass's Ears . 


65.46 


163.5 


Behring's Strait 


66.6 


169.40 


Ratmanoff Island 


65.50 


169.0 









LI 



1 ra^ 



OF 



SUBSCPvIBEPtS 



TO 



C A P T A I X SIR JOHN R O S S's 



Prii,vr*».. 



OF HIS 



f|fSi^i^|i 



D^ g«^.riii^ I 



.Ci> 



l)WI^IIW(§ "SlEim '^MAmB a©Si)a 51©S®a li) ©p <^ l^BB. 



PUBLISHED WITH THE APPENDIX 



Uomi Jfiimilg of <^Ycat UriUin, 



His Most Excellent Majesty 

Her Most Gracious Majesty 

Her Roy'al Highness 

Her Royal Highness 

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His Roy'al Highness 

His Royal Highness 



. THE KING 
. THE QUEEN 

. The Duchess of Kent. 

. The Princess Victoria. 

. The Duke of Cumberland. 

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. The Duke of Cambridge. 

. Prince George of Cambridge. 

. The late Duke of Gloucester. 



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.iforfirin IJrinrrg. 



His Imperial Majesty 

His Imperial Majesty 

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LXVIII 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



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Baird, Chas. Esq. St. Petersburgh 
Baker, A. J .C. Esq. Cresswell, Northumberland 
Baker, Sir Edwd.Bavt.Ranstow,nearBlandford 
Baker, Rev. I'rancis, \\ylye Rectory, near 

Salisbury 
Baker, Geo. Esq. Bewdley, Worcestershire 
Baker, H. Shenstone, Esq. Exeter Col. Oxford 
Baker, J. & T. Esqrs. Gibraltar-pl. Chatham 
BaUer, Mr. John, Christchurch, Hants 
Baker, R. Esq. West Hay, Wrington, Somerset 
Baker, Samuel, Esq. Rochester 
Baker, Rear-Admiral Sir Thos. K.C.B. K.]V. 

Walmer, Dover 
Baker, Lieut.W. II. R.N. Fort Moncrief,Hythe 
Baker, Mr. W. Academy, Holloway 
BALCARRES, Right Hon. the Earl of 
BALCARRES, Right Hon. the Countess of 
Bald, Hugh, Esq. Brecon 
Baldock, Mr. D. Frinsbury, Kent 
Baldock, Rev. R. Kingsnorth, Kent 
Baldwin & Co. Messrs. BooksUrs. 11 Copies 
Baldwin, Col., T. Dover 
Baldwin, J. Esq. Park-sc(uare, Leeds 
Baldwin, Mrs. Preston, Lancashire 
Baldwin, Wriothesley, Esq. Maidstone 
BALGRAY, Right Hon. Lord, Edinburgh 
Ball, ]\Ir. G. Bookseller, Chelsea 
Ball, John, Esq. 9, Great St. Helen's 
Balls, Henry, Esq. Cambridge 
Bally, W. Esq. Sion-hill, Bath 
Balnianno, Dr. 37, St. \'incent-st. Glasgow 
Balston, W. Esq. Maidstone 
Bancks, Ilayward, & Fletcher, Messrs. Book- 
sellers, Manchester. 8 Copies 
Bandinel, Rev. Dr. Bulkeley, Bodleian Li- 
brary, Oxford 
BANDON, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Banger, Thomas, Esq. Piddletown, Dorset 
Bankes,Rev. E. Rectory,CorfeCastle,Wareham 
Banks, D. Esq. Sheerness, Kent 
Banks, George, Esq. Leeds 
Banks, John, Esq. llalling, near Rochester 
Banmgartner, Mr. Bookseller, Leipzig 
Bannerman, A. Esq. Market-street,Manchester 
Bannerman Mr. W. 25, Cochran-st. Glasgow 
Baratty, Miss, Petersham 
Barber, G. E. Esq. 13, Y'ork-road, Cheetham, 

Manchester 
Barber, Joseph, Esq. Clapham-road 
Barber, William, Esq. 2, Regent-square 
Barclay, C. Esq. M.P. F.S.A. 43, Grosvnor-pl. 
Barclay, D. Esq. 12, Austin-friars 
Barclay, John, Esq. Stock Excliange 
Barclay, Mr. James, 95, Farringdon-street 
Bardsley, Dr. Jas. L. Piccadilly, Manc'nester 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Barge, G. Esq. 19, Church-street, Manchester 

BAKHAIM, Right Hon. Lord 

Barham, Kev. C. II. Harming, near Maidstone 

Baring, Rev. Frederick, Itchen Stoke 

Baring, Sir Tiiomas, Bart. Siratton I'ark 

Baring, W. B. Esq. M.P. 12, Ut. Stanhope-st. 

Barker, F. D. Esq. Cambridge 

Barker, J. Esq. Aldhorough, Sufiblk 

Barker, James Thos. Esq. St. Savioui's Dock, 

Southwark 
Barker, .Tohn, Esq. Print-street, jNIanchester 
Barker, Thomas iL Esq. Albion-street, Leeds 
Barker, William, Esq. .10, Mark-lane 
Barkliniore, Arch. Esq. 10, Charlotte-street, 

Bloomsbury 
Barkway, Rev. F. Bungay, Sufiblk 
Barkwoith, John, Esq. Anlaby, Hull 
Barlow, J.H. Esq. 11, Angel-court 
Barlow, J. Pratt, Esq. Godhnian-street, Doc- 
tors Coramons 
Barlow, Jos. T. Esq. Gt. Suffolk-st. Borongh 
Barlow, Mrs. Ilolybourne, near Alton, Hants 
Parlow, Rear-Admiral Sir Robert, K.C.B. 
Canterbury. 2 Copies 

Barnard, Major-Gen. Sir A. A'.C.B. K.G.H. 
Barnard, Benjamin, Esq. Cornhill 
Barnard, G. H. Esq. 17, Great St. Helen's 
Barneby, J. Esq. M.F. Brockhampton, Here- 
fordshire 
Barneby, William, Esq. Worcester 
Bamed, J. Esq. 23, Rodney-street, Liverpool 
Barnes, Dr. F. Master of Peter House College, 

Cambridge 
Barnes, F. H. Esq. Counter-slip, Bristol 
Barnes, IMr.G. Kmg'sArms Library ,Canterbui'y 
Barnes, John, Esq. Stock Exchange 
Barnes, R. Esq. Rustrolme-road, Manchester 
Barnes, Thos. Esq. George Inn, Cambridge 
Barnes, W. M. Esq. B.jl. -Trinity (.'ollege, 

Cambridge 
Barnett, Benj. Esq. Spring Garden Cottage, 

Stepney 
Barnett, F. Esq. Seven Oaks, Kent 
Barnett, Mr. G. Eccleshall. .3 Copies 

Barnett, John, Esq. 20, Charterhouse-square 
Barnett, Mrs. R. Ramsgale, Kent 
Barnett, R.C. Esq. 25, Chester-ter. Regnt's-pk 
Baniett, R. Esq. Highgate Rise, Kentish-town 
Barnett, Robt. Esq.'Uighgate Hill 
Barnewall, Colonel, Oriental Club. 2 Copies 
Barnstaple Book Club 

Baron, George, Esq. Drewton Cave, Yorkshire 
Baron, Jolin, Esq. Russell-street, liermondsey 
Baroth, Chas. Esq. York-street, iManchester 
Barr, John, Esq. St. Christopher's 
Barr, William W. Esq. Leeds 
Barraclough, Mr. Geo. Bookseller, Cambridge 
Barras, Mrs. Latcham, Middlesex 
Barratt, Thomas, Esq. Leicester 
Barratt, JMessrs. John Sc Sons, Cannon-street, 

Manchester 
Bairatty, Miss, Petersham 
Barrett, Major C. R. Cheriton, Hants 
Barrett, Air. J. Bookseller, Brackley. 5 Copies 
Barron, Mr. George William, B8, O.xford-streel 
Barrow, Simon, Escj. Lansdown-grove, Path 
Barrow, Capt. Thos. \\m. H. E. I. C. S. En- 
field Chase 
Barrowclougb, Rich. Esq. Devonshire-place, 

Everton, Liverpool 
Barry, John Smith, Esq. Foaty, County Cork 
Bartells, Tliomas, Esq. Distillery, Lambeth 
Barter, Rev. R. S. College, Winchester 



Bartholomew, John, Esq. 18, Brunswick-st. 

Glasgow 
Harlho!omew,R. Esq.l 8, Brunswick-st. Glasgw 
Bardioloniew.W. Esq.Redlion-st.Clerkenwell 
Barllett, Thos. C. Esq. Wareham 
Barllett, Josiah, Em\. Lower Clapton, Middl.x 
Barton, Bernard, Esq. Woodbridge, .Suffolk 
Barton, Rev. J. East Church, Sheerness 
Barton, R. W. Esq. Springwood, Manchester 
Barton, Samuel, Esq. Manchester 
Barton, T. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Barton, W. 11. Esq. Royal Mint 
Bassett, Geo. Esq. High lldl, Kentish Town 
Bassett, N. F. Esq. Mayor of Truro 
Bastard, T. C. Esq. Charlton Musgrove, near 

\\ incanton, Somerset 
Balavia Book Club 

Batclieler, Thos. Horatio, Esq. Grt. Yarmouth 
Balcheller, W. King's Arms Library, Dover 
Bate, Edw.Esq.7?.i\'.Croom's-hill, Greenwich 
Bate, Mr.;. Frances, Bishopsteignton, Devon 
Bate, Robert B. Esq. 20, Poultry 
Bateman, C.Esq. BerthoUy House, nr. Caerleon 
Bateman, T. Esq. Spring-gardens, Manchester 
Bates, Captain John, R.y. West Cowes 
Bates, Mr. J. Long-lane, Bermondsey 
Bateson, J. Esq. Park-square, Leeds. 2 Copies 
Bateson,T. Esq. High Fields,\Vorthy,nr. Leeds 
Bateson, T. jun. Esq. Aspining, near Leeds 
BATH, Most Noble the Marquis of 
Bath Literary Institution, Walks, Bath 
Bath, the Corporation of 
Bathurst, Su- F. Bart. Clarendon Park, Wilts 
Batley, J. Esq. Armitage Bridge, Iluddersfield 
Batson, Ily. Esq.Rochett's House, Brentwood 
Batson, T. R. Esq. Iligham-place, Newcastle, 

Northumberland 
Batten, Edward, Esq. Bank Coffee-house 
Batten, John, Esq. Penzance 
Battersby, Captain, Royal Engineers, Hull 
Batley, Mr. James, Mars Steamer, Liverpool 
Battley, Richard, Esq. 114, Fore-street 
Batty, Mr. H. Bookseller, Ware. 2 Copies 
Battye, R. C. Esq. Leeds 
Battye,W.W. Esq. Mould-green, Iluddersfield 
Baugh, Mr. W. Bookseller, Ellesmere 
Baxter, Wm. Esq. Dundee 
Baxter, Mr. W. Bookseller, Lewes 
Baylay, Rev. W. F. Canterbury 
Bayldon, J. Esq. Jesus College, Cambridge 
Bayley, Mr. Richard, jun. Newmarket 
Bayley, Thos. K. I'.sq. Abbott's Leigh, Bristol 
Baylis, Philip, Esq. Stoke Ash, Suffolk 
Bayack, S. Esq. \\illgate, Dundee 
Bazely, Lieut. John, R.N. Dover 
Beach, Col.Wm. Hicks, Oakley Hall, Basing- 
stoke 
Beadle, Joseph, Esq. Hull 
Beadon, Edwardf Esq. Taunton 
Beadon, John, I^sq. Gotten, near Taunton 
Beadon, Lt. R.X. GroveCottage, near Taunton 
Beale, Mr. Thomas, Manchester 
Beale, Mr. Thomas S.'.Cork 
Bean, P. Esq. 5, Southampton-court,Queen-sq. 
Beart, Lt. C. J. i?.-V. South Town, Yannoulli 
Beasley, \\ illiam, Esq. Dublin 
Beatty, Sir W. Bart. ^l.D. Physician to Green- 
wich Hospital 
BEAL CLERK, Adml. Lord Araelius,A'.C.B 

K.G.n. 
Beauchamp, Geo. Esq. Ford-place, Thetford 
Beanchamp, R. F. Esq. Walford House, near 
Taunton 



Beaufort, Mis?, Dublin 
Beaufoy, Henry, Esq. South Lambeth 
Beaumaris Book Society 
Beaumont, Abraham, Esq. 300, Ilolborn 
Beaumont, F. W. I'.sq. IJunmow, I'.ssex 
Beaumont, J. Esq. Dallon, near Iluddersfield 
Beaumont, Joseph, Esq. jun. Huddcrstield 
Beaumont, R. H. Esq. 21, Gtosvenor-square 
Beaumont, R. H. Esq. Gravesend 
Beaver, H. I'.sq. Cheediain-hdl, Manchester 
Beaver, J. A. Esq. Oxford-road, Manchester 
Beazley, Mr. W. Birmingham Steamer, Liverpool 
Bebb,'j. Esq. 20, Great Marlborough-street 
Beck, S. Adains, Esq. Ironmonger's Hall 
Beckwith, A. A. 11. I'.sq. Norwich 
Becklmm, Horatio, Escj. Ipswich 
Beckett, Christopher, Esq. Leeds 
Beckett, Kev. George, Rector of Epworth 
Beckett, Wm. Esq. Kirkstall Giange,Yorkshire 
Beckton, J. Esq. Lower Mosley-st. Manchester 
Beddome, J. R. lisq. Romsey, Hants 
BEDFORD, His Grace the Duke of 
Bedford, Rev. R. G. Devonshire \ ilia, Clifton 
Bedford, Mrs. Stonehouse, Devon 
Bedfordshire, East, Book Society 
Bedinfeld,J .Esq. Ditchingham Hall, Norfolk 
Bedwell, Bernard, Esq. 9, Canonbury 
Bedwell, Philip, Esq. St. John's-st. Clrknwell 
Bee, Messrs. W. & A. 'Tadcaster. Copies 
Beecham, W. P. Esq. Ilawkhurst, Kent 
Beecher, R. H. Esq. Cork 
Beek, S. Adams, Esq. Ironmongers' Ilall 
Beeke, Rev. Henry, Dean of Bristol 
Beer, I\Ir. William, Canterbury 
Behrends,T. G. Esq. 12, Broad-slreet-bldgs. 
Belirens, Jacob, Esq. 18, Somers-street, Leeds 
Behrens, S. L. Esq. Mosley-st. Manchester 
Beilby.KnotS^, Co. Mesrs.Bkslrs. Birmingham. 
Belcher, Wm. Esq. Highgate [3 Copies 

BELFAST, Right Hon. the Earl of, M.l'. 
Bell, Ben. Esq. 29, St. Andrew's-sq. Ediuburgli 
Hell, Dr. David ^Vake, Topsham 
Bell, Fred. B. Esq.Uallington, near Downham 

Maiket, Norfolk 
Bell, Captain Geo. li.N. Belmont, Falmoutli 
Bell, ."Mr. Matthew, Bookseller, Richmond 
Bell, Ramnie Sc Co. Messrs. Leith 
Bell, R. Esq. Collector of Customs, South- 
ampton 
Bell, Thomas, Esq. F.R.S. F.L.S. F.G.S. 

17, New Broad-street 
Bell, William, Esq. 18, Charterhouse-square 
Bell, W. lilsq. Rochester 
Bellcmois, Hippolite, Esq. Rouen 
Bellman, 1".. I'.sq. (Jueen's College, Cambridge 
Bence, H. B. Esq. Thoriiigton Hall, Suffolk 
Biiickauscn, I\lr. De, Russian Consul-general 
Bengal Mhow Military Library 
Bengough, Geo. Esfj. Cotliam Lodge, Clifton 
Beiiham, Mr. William Archibald, Gj, Strand 
Bennett, Mr. Charles, Redruth 
Bennett, I'.dw. Es(|. Princes-street, Manchester 
Bennett, J. Henry, Esq. 6, Cavendish-cres- 
cent, Bath 
Bennett, Jas. Esq. Almondbury, Yorkshire 
Bennett, Wm. Esq. Free Press (Office, Glasgow 
Benson, Rev. A. The Carse, Salisbury 
Benson, Rev. Christopher, Worcester 
Bentham, Mr. Bookseller, .Manchester 
Bentley, John, F.sq. 130, Cheapside 
Bentley, John, Esq. 4, Pump-court, Temple 
Bently, Wm. sen. Esq. 81, Brunswick-street, 
Glasgow 



Benyon, Thomas, Esq. Glednow 
Berbice Reading Association 
Berbidge, Edward, Esq. Stamford-hill 
Berbidge, William, Esq. 74, Aldersgate-street 
Berens, H. Esq. Sidcup, Kent 
BERESFOliD, Right Hon. General, Lord 
Viscount, K.C.B.K.G.H. K.T.S. K.F.M. 
and K.F. 
Beresford, T. B. Esq. Christ Church, O.xford 
Berger, Samuel, Eq. Upper Homerton 
Berger, Samuel, Esq. Five Houses, Clapton 
Berkeley, Charles A. Esq. Provost Marshal, 

St. Christopher's 
Berkeley, John, Esq. Basseterre, St. Christo- 
pher's 
Berkeley, Rev. J. Cothoridge, Worcester 
Berkeley, U.jun. Esq. Spetchley,Worce3tershire 
Berlin, the Royal Minmg Library of 
Bernard, J. C. Esq. Cork 
Bernard,, lames, Esq. Marble-st. Manchester 
Bernard, I-ady, I , Bryanston-pl. Biyanston-sq. 
Bernard, Dr. SV. R. Clieltenham 
Berners, Rev. Henry Denny, Archdeacon of 

Suflolk, Woolverstone Paik, Ipswich 
Berry, Lady, Ipswich 

Beiryman, \Vm. jun. Esq. Wells, Somersetsh. 
Berwick-upon-Tweed Subscription Library 
BESSBOROUGH, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Best, H. Esq. Thetford, Norfolk 
Best, Lieut-Col. Jas. Rome House, Chatham 
Best,W. B. Esq. Blackebrooke, Kidderminster 
Bediell, R. Esq. M.P. 7, Richmond-terrace 
Bettison, Mr. W. G. Library, Margate 
Betts, J. T. Esq. Smithfield-bars 
I^etts, Mr. James, Winchester 
Bevan, Charles J. Esq. 16, Devonshire-place 
Bevan, John, Esq. Parade House, Redruth 
Bevan, Dr. Robert, Monmouth 
Beverly, C. J. Esq. Beihnal-green 
Beverley, William, Esq. Coramercial-st. Leeds 
Bevis, Capt. R.N. W est Cowes 
Bewes, Thcs. Esq.il/.P. Eeaumount House, 

Plymouth 
BEXLEY, Right Hon. Lord 
Bickerton, Lady A. H. 15, Circus, Bath 
Bickley, Benjamin, Esq. Clifton 
Biddufph, John, Esq. Charing-cross 
Biddulph, Mrs. Myddleton, Chirk Castle 
Biddulph, Rev. T. T. St. James's-sq. Bristol 
Bidgood, Mr. A. M. 6, Vigc-street 
Bidwell, L. S. Esq. Thetfo'rd, Norfolk 
Bidwell, Mrs. Bury St. Edmund's 
Biggs, Rich. II. Esq. 19, Small-Street, Bristol 
Bindloss, Wm. Esq. Cheapside, JNIanchester 
Bingham, Colonel, Rochester 
Bingham, John, Esq. Rose-hill, near Derby 
Bingley, Robert, Esq, F-RS. Rojal Mint 
Binhall, I'^lwin, Esq. Leeds 
Bmks, Mr. Doncaster 
Binney, Lieut. John, Commander of II. M. 

Brig Pigeon, Falmouth 
Binns, Godfrey, Esq. Deighton, Iluddersfield 
Binns, Thomas, Esq. 20, Essex-street, Strand 
Binny, Waliam, Esq. 23, ludia-st. Edinburgh 
Binyon, Mr. Alfred, May field Print Works, do 
Biiiyon, B. Esq. lol, Market-st. Manchester 
Binyon, Edvvd. Esq. St. Aun's-sq. Manchester 
Binyon, Thos. Esq. St. Ann's-sq. Manchester 
Birch, Mr. H. Rochester 
Bird), Jonathan, Esq. 45, Upper Gower-street 
Birch, Samuel, Esq. Alderman of London 
Birch, Mr. Wm. 10, Iligh-st. Kensington 
Birch, Wm. Esq. Back Mosley-st. Manchester 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

Bird, Edward, Esq. Glastonbury 
Bird, Edward A. Esq. 29, Corn-street, Bristol 
Bird, Lieut. Edward, iJ.iV. 22, Arundel-street 
Birdsall, Mr. J. Bookr. Northampton. 9 Copies 
Birkbeck, Dr. George, Flnsbury-square 
Birkbeck, John, Esq. Anley House, near Settle 
Birkett, E. L. Esq. Caius College, Cambridge 
Birley, J. Esq. Back George-st. Manchester 
Birt, Rev. Dr. John, Faveisham 
Birtwhislle, Mr. William, Bookseller, Halifax. 

3 Copies 
Bish, Thos. Esq. M.P. 2, St. James's-square 
Bishop,George, Esq. South\'illa, Regenl's-park 
Bishop,J. Esq. 18, York-place, Regenl's-park 
Bishop, Thos. Esq. Tenterden, Kent 
Bishop, Lieut. Wm. li.N. Harleston, Norfolk 
Bishop, Wm. Chatlerley, Esq. B.A- St. John's 

College, Cambridge, and 9, Fitzwilliam-sq. 

east, Dublin 
Bishopp, Dr.G. M. 10, Upper Gloucester-st. 

Dorset-square 
Bisschop, F. lisq. Rue Kid Dorp, Antwerp 
Bissett,Capt. TJ.iV. Lymington 
Bisshopp, Dr. Thornley Grange, Northampton 
Bisshopp, Miss, Richmond, Surrey 
BJORNSTJERNA, His Excellency the Count 
Black, J. Esq. 109, Hope-street, Glasgow 
Black, Mr. James, jun. 28, Y'ork-st. Glasgow 
Black and Armstrong, Messrs. Booksellers, 

Tavislock-street. ^ 50 Copies 

Blackburn Ladies' Reading Society 
Blackheath Reading Society 
Blackmore, E. Esq. Princess-st. Manchester 
Blackmore, E. Esq. 5, Mitre-court-chambers, 

Temple 
Blackmore, Rev. R. Donhead St. Mary,Wilts 
Blain,Saml. Esq. Brnnswiek-street, Liverpool 
Blair, Alex. Esq. 13, Northumberland-street, 

Edinburgh 
Blair, — . Esq. 45, Gloucester-place 
Blair, Col. Thos. Dunskey, Port Patrick 
Blair, Harrison, Esq. Cross-street, Manchester 
Blair, Jas. Esq. Penuinghame, Wigtonshire 
Blair, Mrs. Lambert, Penniiighame,\Vigtonsh. 
Blair, Mrs. Penninghame, Wigtonshire 
Blake, E. P. Esq. Redgiove, Suffolk 
Blake, George, I'sq. Kitchen-street, Liverpool 
Blake, Dr. Malachi, Taunton 
Blake, Thos. I'.sq. West Cowes 
Blakeney, J. II. Esq. 1, FitzwiUiam's-place, 

Dublin 
Blakiston, Arthur, Esq. 38, Bedford-row 
Blarney, Joel, Esq. Pool, near Redruth 
Bland, Henry, Esq. Y'ork 
Bland, W. Esq. Hartlip Place, Kent 
Blandford, S. Esq. 20, Dover-street, Piccadilly 
Blayds, Thomas, Esq. Leeds 
Blayney,Thos. Esq. Evesham, Worcestershire 
Bleeck, Alfred, I^sq. Redcliff-parade, Bristol 
Blegborough, R. Esq. Downing Coll. Camb. 
Blencowe, Mrs. Rayne, Essex 
Blencowe, R. W. Esq. Dawlish 
Blick, Rev. I'. Tam worth 
Bligh, Capt. R.A". Milbrook, Southampton 
Bligh, Mrs. Admiial, Crescent, Southampton 
Bligh, R. F,sq.5, Upper Berkeley-place, Bristol 
Blight, S. F'.sq. Falmouth 
Blinkhorn, John, Esq. 5, Peel-st. Manchester 
Blinton, Robt. Esq. Small Wood Manor 

Uttoxeter 
Blois,SirChas. Bart. Cockfieldllall, Y'oxford 
Blundell,Capt. G. S.(BengalNative Infantry), 

Taunton 



Blundell, Dr. Thomas, Wisbeach 
Blundell, William, Esq. Taunton 
Blunt, Jos. Esq. 2, Upper Gower-street 
Blunt, Jos. Esq. Liverpool-Street, & 16, New 

Burlington-street 
Blutram, Mr. J. At Messrs. Dixon & Sons, 

I'riday-street, Manchester 
Boase, Matthew John, Esq. Redruth 
Bode, Frederick, Esq. 5, Chatham-place 
Boger, J. liext, Esq. Stonehouse, Devon 
Bogle, Jas. jun. Esq. 196, Athol-place,Glasgow 
Boghurst, J. Esq. Rochester 
Bogue, J. Esq. 4, John-street, Bedford-row 
Bohun, Richard, Esq. Beccles, Suflolk 
Bolam, William, Esq. Newcastle 
Bold, J. O. Esq. Edge-hill, Liverpool 
Boldero, Rev. G. Ixworth, Suffolk 
Boldero, J. Esq. Bury St. Edmund s 
Boles, General, Exmouth, Devon 
Bolitho, R. Foster, Esq. The Cliff, Penzance 
Bolitho, Thomas, Esq. Penzance 
Bolland, James, Esq. Leeds 
Bolland, Right Hon. Mr. Baron, 4, Royal- 
terrace, Adelplii 
Bolster, Mr. J. Bookseller, Cork. 10 Copies 
BOLTON, Right Hon. Lord 
Bolton, J. Esq. Walton's-bldgs. Manchester 
Bollon, J. Esq. 13, Milburg-terrace, Dorset-sq. 
Bolton, John, l-'sq. 92, Duke-street, Liverpool 
Bolton, Thos. Esq. Brunswick-st. Liverpool 
Bompass, Dr. George, Fishponds, Bristol 
Bonar, A. Esq. Castle-crescent, Edinburgh 
Bond, John, Esq. Grange, near Wareham 
Bond, Mr. John, King-street, Y'armouth 
Bond, Robert, Esq. W oodbine Cottage, West- 
end, Ilampstead 
Bond, Walter, M. Esq. Moy, Ireland 
Bond, Wm. Henry, Esq. R.N. Falmouth 
Bone, Mr. Joseph, Canterbury 
Bonner, Rev. George, Cheltenham 
Bonnett, Rev. C. S. Rectory, Avington 
Bonnor, Rev. R. Maurice, Oswestry 
Boobbyer, David, Esq. Stanhope-street, Strand 
Booker, John, Esq. St. Petersburgh 
Booker, J. W . Esq. \'eleudra, W. Cardiff 
Boone, JNIessrs. T. and W. Booksellers, New 
Bond-street. 10 Copies 

Booth, Sir Felix, Bart. 43, Portland-place. 

10 Copies 
Booth, Thos. Esq. Park Ironworks, nr Sheffield 
Booth, Charles, Esq. Roydon Lodge, Essex 
Booth, Geo. Esq. Brunswick-st. Liverpool 
Booth, H. W. Esq. Christ College, Cambridge, 

and Roydon Lodge, Essex 
Booth, John G. Esq. Crouch Hall, Ilornsey. 

2 Copies 
Booth, Mr. J. Bookseller, Duke-street, Port- 
land-place. 8 Copies 
Booth, Miss, 43, Portland-place. 2 Copies 
Booth itPettit, Mess. 10, Lancaster-pl. Strand 
Booth, William, Esq. dec. Roydon Lodge, 
Essex. 2 Copies 
Borlase, Henry, Esq. Ilelston 
Borlase, J. Esq. Mayor of Helston, Corn^vall 
Borlase, J. J. G. Esq. Truro 
Borlase, John, F'.sq. Ilelston 
Borough, Clias. Esq. St. Peter's-street, Derby 
Borradaile, W. Esq. 5, Barge-yd. Bucklersbury 
Bosanquet, Right Hon. Mr. Justice, 12 Mon- 
tagu-place, Russell-square 
Boss, Captain, John G. R.N. M.P. 
Bossange and Co. Messrs. Booksellers, Great 
Marlborough-street 



Botfield, \Vm. Esq. Decker-liill, Shiffual 
Bottoniley, James, Esq. Iluddersfieid 
Bottomley, J\Ir. .lolin, Bradford, Yorkshire 
Bott, A. Esq. Berkeley-street west, Edgwr-rd. 
Boucher, Chas. Esq. Wisbeacli, Norfolk 
Bourchier, Charles, Esq. 66, \\ impole-street 
Bourcliier, Rev. Richard, Brightwalton, Berks 
Bourdillon, G. Esq. llolybourn, Alton, Hauls 
Bourne, Mr. E. C. 19, Eamb's Conduit-.street 
Bourne, R.Esq. Hilderslone Hall, Siafibrd^hire 
Bourne, Timothy, Esq. l,Exchatige-al. Liverpool 
Bouverie, E. Esq. Delapre Abbey 
Bovill, Edvv. Esq. Fairfields, Tiverton 
Boville, J. W. Esq. Southampton 
Bow, W. M. Esq. i5ioughtou 
Bowden, Captain, Falmouth 
Bowden, J. S. Esq. 6b, Alderraaiibury 
Bowen, Rev. P. Sheffield 
Bower, Dr. Broxholm, near Doncaster 
Bowerbank,.!. S.Esq. 19,Cntchi!l-place, New 

North-road 
Bowie, Rev. J. Buona Vista, near Lymington 
Bowles, Captain, K.A'. 8, HiU-street 
Bowles, Charles, Esq. Shaftesbury 
Bowley, J. H. Esq. Cheltenham 
Bowling, John, Esq. Scots Fusilier Guards, 

Guards' Hospital, Grosvenor-place 
Bowyer, Miss A. 307, Holborn 
Bo.\, John, Esq. 68, Charlolte-st. Portland-pl. 
Bo.\er, Capt. Edward, II. JV. Dover 
Boyd, Geo. W. Esq. Bruiissvick-st. Liverpool 
Boyd, Mr. Isaac, 26, Church-st. Spitalfields 
Boyd, Walter, Esq. Plaistow, F'.ssex 
Boyer, Herbert, Esq.Trafi'ord-moss, Trafford- 

place, Manchester 
Boyle, Right Hon. David, Lord Justice Clerk, 

28, Charlolte-square, Ediiiburjjh 
Boynian, Captain, 1, Grosveiior-pl. CamberwU 
Boys, Jacob, Esq. 60, (irand Parade, Brighton 
Brace, Mr. Joseph, WiUow-walk, Bermondsey 
Brackenhury, Jas. F'sq. Brown-st. Manchester 
Brackenridge, G. W. Esq. University CoUes-e, 

Oxford 
Bradbury, Jas. Esq.QO, Marsden-sq. Manchestr 
Bradby, Rev. Thos. St. IMary's, Southampton 
Bradfield, J. B. S. Esq. Stoke Ferry, Norfolk 
Bradford, Rev. \Vm. Mussage, Beaconsfield 
Bradley, Mr. Tho. Gun Tavern, Lambeth-road 
Bradley, Thomas S. Esq. Hudderstield 
Braham, John, Esq. The (jrange, lirompton 
Braidley, Benj. Esq. Peel-street, Manchester 
Brailhwaite, Isaac, Esq. 61, Old Broad-st. 
Braithwaite, J. Esq. 1, Bath-place, Fitzroy-sq. 

3 Copies 
Bramley, Richard, Esq. School Close, Leeds 
Bramley, William, F.sq. 2, Bedford-row 
Brancker, Jas. Esq. .Matthew street, Liverpool 
Brancker, Sir Thomas, Rodney st. Liverpool 
Brand, Mr. Robert, 1 , 1 ngram-street, Glasgow 
Brand, Mrs. Durham 

Brandling, Chas. John, Esq. Middleton Lodge 
Brandling, Rev. R. li. Goslbrth House, New- 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

Brentford, Old, Book Society 

Brenton, liear Adruiral Sir Jahlee , K.C.B. 

Lieulenaiil-Governorof (ireeuwieh Hospital 
Brett, J. Davy, Esq. Caius College, Cambridge 
Brettle, George, Esq. 119, Wood-street 
Brewer, John, Esq. 10, Saville-row, Walworth 
Brewer, i\Ir. S. K. Bookseller, Brighton 
Briandon, D. Esq. 27, Euston-sq. New-road 
Briant, Miss Harriet, Bungav, Suifolk 
Brice, Samuel, Esq. I'renchay 
Briddon, Hy. Esq. Deansgate, Manchester 
Bridge, C. Esq. Weymouth, Dorset 
Bridge, .S. F". Flsq. Wellington 
Bridge, Wm. Esq. Dorchester 
Bridgeman, Hon. C. C). 11. X. Knockin Hall 
Bridgen, Mrs. (Jueen's-parade, Bristol 
Bridges, B. C. Esq. Oriel College, Oxford 
Bridges, Rev. Dr. T. E. President of Corpus 

Christi College, Oxford 
Bridgett, Mr. Jos. Bridge-street, Derby 
Brien, R. Esq., iJ.A'. Spencer-st. Clerkenwell 
Briggs, Rawdon, F^sq. Wakefield 
Briggs, Rawdon, jun. Esq. Halifa-X 
Bright, B. Esq. Uam-grn. St.Ceorge's, nr. Bristol 
Brighton Brunswick Book Club 

Book .Society 

Ladies' Book Club 

Literary & Scientific Institution 



LXXt 



Brooke, John, Esq. Stockport 
Brooke, l.ieul-Genl. Wm. 12, Alfred-st. Bath 
Brooke, P. jun. Esq. Norih-slreet, Leeds 
Brooke, Z. i;sq. 8, Arundel-st. Strand 



Brandon, David, Esq. 27 Euston-square 
Brandt, Robl. ICsq. Norfolk-st. Manchester 
Branen, (Jeorge, F^sq.7, Gray's-inn-square 
Branson, Rev. li. J Jf. .A. Rectory, .\rmthorp 
Brass, Wm. l^sq. Cumbeiland-road, Bristol 
Brawn, Mr. Wm. 9. Moore-place, Glasgow 
Btawne, Rev. Dr. T. 98, Montrose-st. Glasgow 
Bray, Joel, I'.sq. 62, St. Martin's-lane 
BRUaDALB.\NE, Most Noble the Marquis of 
BrelHt, G. Esq. 4, iCgremont-place, New-road 



Brine, Capt. U.S. Boldre-hill, Lymington 
Biinton, Miss, Speenhamland, Berks 
Brisbane, Lieut.-Gen. Sir Thomas Macdou- 

g,-dl, K.C.B. C.C.H. Makerstoun, Kelso 
BRIST(JL, The Most Noble the Marquis of 
Bristol, The Corporation of (j Copies 

■ — Library Society, King-street 

Britton, Capt. John, Stratton-place, Falmouth 
Britton, Dr. S.G. Newport, Barnstaple 
Broadbent, S.iniuel, Esq. Bradford, Yorkshire 
Broadbent,T. F2sq.2 Marsden sq. Manchester 
Broadhurst, Dan. Esq. Manchester 
Broadley, Mrs. M. 9, Dorset-pl. Clapham-rd. 
Broadmead, N. Esq. Lansport 
Broadrick, Wm. F^sq. University Coll. Oxford 
Broadwood, Rev. John, Findon, near Woithiug 
Brock, Rev. \\'. Rectory, Bishop's Waltham 
Brocklehurst, J. Esq. M.P. Hardsfield House, 

Macclesfield 
Brocklehurst, T. Esq. The Fence, Macclesfield 
Brockman, R. T. Esq. Saiidgale 
Brockman, Rev. J. D. Cheriton, Kent 
Brockman, Rev. W. Beachborouiih Hall, Kent 
Broderip, W. J. Esq. 2, Ravmcnd-buildings 
BroUie, SirB. C. Bart. F.H'.S. 14, .Saville-row 
Brodie &, Co. Messrs. Booksellers, Salisbury. 

8 Copies 
Brodie, J. C. Esq. Coulmony House, by Forres 
Brodie, William Bird, I'.sq. M.P. Salisbury 
Brodrick, J. B. I'.sq. Queen's Coll. Cambridge 
Broke, Sir Philip, Bart. K.C.B. Broke Hall, 

near Ipswich 
Bromley, B. Esq. Christ Church Coll. Oxford 
Bromley, Sir Robert H. Bart. 
Bromley, C. I'.sq. Southampton 
Brook, "G. H. Esq. Hudderslield 
Brook, Richard, I'.sq. Poultry 
Brook, Tiiomas, F"sq. Kiiig's-arms-yard 
Brook, Alessrs. \\ . Sc B. Booksellers, Lincoln 
Brook, William, Esq. lluddersfield 
Brooke, 1'.. Esq. Hanson's-court, Manchester 
Brooke, I^dward Basil, Major 67th Kegt. St. 

Christopher's 
Brooke, J. Esq. Armitage Bridge, lluddersfield 
Brooke, J. Esq. Shepley Hall 



Brookes, Robert, ]:sq. 3, .Mouiit-st. Lambetli 
Brooks, E. Esq. 26, Spital-square 
Brooks, V. 11. Esq. 25, Chancery-lane 
Brooks, .John, Esip Iligh-streel, Manchester 
Brooks, Robert, Esq. 80, Old Broad-str«et 
Brookshank, Tiiomas, l'.sq. 14, Gray's inn-sq. 
Brotherton, Joseph, Esq. i17. P. .Manchester 
Brough, Mr. A. Kidderminster 
Brougham, .Mrs. Booksr. Burslem. 4 Copies 
Broughton, Rev. B. S. Foaley Park 
Brown, .A.iilliony, J'sq. Alderman of London 
Brown & Co. .Messrs. Booksellers, Bristol 
Brown, Mrs. ICliza, 43, Portland-pl. 2 Copies 
Blown, Fountain, Esq. Park-place, Leeds 
Brown, (ieorge, F:sq. 1, Mall, Clifton, Bristol 
Brown, Geo. F^sq. 5, Stanliope-pl. Hyde-park 
Brown, C;eor^,'e, ICsq. 101, UpperThames-street 
Brown, H. Williams, Esq. Leeds 
Brown, J. Esq. 34, Foun!ain-st. .Manchester 
Brown, J. Esq. King James's Stairs, Shad well 
Brown, Jas. Esq. Dundee 
Brown, .lames, l^sq. Dundee 
Brown, James, Esq. Leeds 
Brown, John, iCsq. 26 Chester-terrace. Re. 
gent's-park. 2 Copies 

Brown, JNIr. J. B. Booksr. Windsor. 5 Copies 
Brown, .Mr. J. Booksr. Penrith. 3 Copies 

Brown, Mr. J. G. Bookseller, Leicester. 

1 1 Copies 
Brown, Rev. J. M.A. Trinity Coll. Cambridge 
Brown, Robert, Esq. F.S.S. F.L.S., &c. 

British Museum 
Brown, Stephen, i''.sq. Colchester 
Brown, Stephen, F^sq. Jesus Coll. Cambridge 
Brown, 'Thos. Esq. Master Attendant, Dock. 

yard, Woolwich 
Brown, iMr. Thomas, 36 Wood-st. Cheapside 
Brown, W. W., F:sq. Union Bank, Leeds 
Brown, Wm. Est\. All .Saints-place, JIanchester 
Browne, .\lox. Esq. I'.ast Shore, Dundee 
Browne, Alexander, i'.sq. Port Glasgow 
Browne, Charles, l^sq. Stock F^xchange 
Browne, Mr. C. Bear Inn, (Ire.at Y'arraouth 
Browne, F. ii. Esq. St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge 
I3rowne, Hon. Ueut.-Col. 5, Marlborou"h- 

buildiiigs, Bath 
Browne. Lieut.-Gen. G. Weymouth, Dorset 
Browne, Matthew, Esq. I^orl Cilasgow 
Browne, Rev. Thomas, M.A. Christ's Hospital 
Browne, ^\ illiani, I^sq. Shepton Mallet 
Browne, \\'. J. Utten, Esq. .Norwich 
Browning, Mr. Edwin, 36, Little Windmill- 
street, (jolden-square 
Browning, Henry, ICsq. 4, ("■loucester-place 
Browning, James, F".sq. 113, St. John's-slreet 
Browning, Thos. Esq. 5, South-sq. Gray's inn. 

3 Copies 
Browning, W. H. Esq. St. John's-street 
Browning, W. S. Esq. 8, Cumberland terrace, 

Regent's-park 
Brownless, A. Esq. Goudhurst, Kent 
BliOWNLOW, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Bruce, Mrs. Castle Eve Villa, near l^oole 
Bruce, Capt. Geo. Union Docky.ard, I.imehouse 
Bruce, J. B. F^sq. .Magistrate, Dufl'ryn, .•Vbeo- 

dam, Glamorganshire 
Bruce, Rev. J. Weslbcre,ne.ir Canterbury 
Bruce, Sir Stuart, Bart. &;c. Dublin Casile 



LXXH 



Bruce, Thomas, Esq. Framlingliam, Suffolk 
Bruce, Thomas, Esq. High-street, Manchester 
Brundrett, Jonathan, Esq. 10, King's-bench- 

walk. Temple 
Brunei, M. J. Esq. 53, Parliament-street 
Brunei, M. J-iun. Esq. 53, Parliament-street 
Brunton,\Vm. Esq. 12, Park-sq. Regent's-paik 
Bruton Book Society 

Brutton, Chas. Esq. Northenhay Place, Exeter 
BUCCLEUGH, His Grace the Duke of 
Buchan, H. Esq. Southampton 
Buchanan, John, Esq. 95, Candleriggs, Port 

Glasgow 
Buchanan, R. Esq. 109, Fife-place, Glasgow 
Buchanan, Robertson, Esq. l.Walbrook-bdgs. 
Buchanan, The Hon. A. H. Hales Hall, Salop 
Buchanon, Mr. H. 241, Brandon-pl. Glasgow 
Buck, Jno. Esq. 18, Soulh-slreer, Finsbury 
Buck, Lewis VVm. Esq.Hartland Abbey,Devon 
Buck, S. Esq. Hartest, Suffolk 
Buck, \V. Esq. Bury St. Edmund's 
BUCKINGHA^NI.Iier Grace the Duchess of 
Buckle, J. Esq. Wyelands, near Chepstow 
Buckle, Joshua, Esq. York 
Buckle, Miss, Brilton Ferry, near Neath, Gla- 
morganshire 
Bucknell, George, Esq. Eermondsey 
Buckton, G. Esq. Doctor's Commons 
Buckton, John, Esq. Canterbury 
Budd, John, Esq. Willesley, Barnstaple 
Buenos Ayres, Library of 
Bulgin, Mr. Bristol 
Bulkeley, Sir Richard B. Williams, Bart. 

M.P- Earon-hill, Beaumaris 
BuUer, Sir Jo'.in Yarde, Bart. 10, New-street, 

Spring-gardens 
Bullin, Re'^ar- Admiral, 13, Raby-place, Bath 
Bullmore,\V. H. Esq. Truro 
Bullock, Geo. Esq. B.A. St. John's College, 

Cambridge 
Bullock, H. Esq. Christ's College, Cambridge 
Bullock, St. Geo. Esq. Clare Hall, Cambridge 
Bultnan, Harrison, Esq. Ellison-place, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne 
Bulmer, George, Esq. Crown-street, Leeds 
BUL(J\V, His Excellency the Baron, Prussian 

Embassy 
Bumpus, Mr. Bookseller, 6, Holborn-bars. 

7 Copies 
Bund, T. n. Esq. Wick House, Worcester 
Bunny, Edw. B. Esq. Speenliamland, Berks 
Bunny, Jer. Esq. Northcote-slreet, Newbury 
Bunting, J. P. Esq. Kuig-street, Manchester 
IBunyard, Mr. Thomas, Maidstone 
Bunyon, II. J. Esq. New Bridge-st. Blackfriars 
Burbidge, Mv. J. J. 130, Fleet-street 
Burbidge, Thomas, Esq. Leicester 
Burcham, C. Esq. Lynn Regis, Norfolk 
Burcham, Rev. T.B. Trinity Coll. Cambridge 
Burd, John, Esq. Gt. Chatham-st. Broughton 
JBurdikin, E. Esq. IMarket-street, JIanchester 
Burge, Mr. George, Heme Bay, Kent 
Burgess and Hunt, Messrs. Ramsgate 
Burgess, John Hy. Esq. Mayor of Glastonbury 
Burgess, R. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Burke, C. G. Esq. Christ's College, Cambridge 
Burke, W. W. E. Esq. 3, Furnivals Inn 
BURLINGTON, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Burman, H. T. Esq. Caius College, Cambridge 
JJurn, J. G. Esq. Wenkworth 
Burnell, Miss, 29, Queen-street, Brompton 
Burnett, J. F. Esq. Crayford, Kent 
Burnett, J. II. Esq. 21,ChaiLoite-sq. Edinburg 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

Barney, 11. Esq. Exeter College, Oxford 
Burnie, John, Esq. 124, Bishopsgate-street 
Burningham, Miss, Froyle, Alton, Hants 
Burningham, T. Esq. Froyle, Alton, Hants 
Burr, J. H. S. Esq. Christ Church, Oxford 
Burrard, Capt. SirChas. Bart. R.N. Lyndhurst 
Burrard, Rev. G. per Mr.Galpine, Lymington 
Burrell, James F. Esq. Bel voir House, Fareham 
Burrell, John, Esq. Durham 
Burrill, Mr. II. Booksr. Chatham. 5 Copies 
Burrough, Sir James, 16, Bedford-square 
Burroughs, G. F. Esq. Shepton Mallet 
Burrows, Dr. Samuel, Bath House, Bideford 
Burslem Book Society 
Burt, Thos. C. Esq. Somerfield-court, Sel- 

linge, Kent 
Burt James, Esq. Bond-street, Manchester 
Burt, William, Esq. St. Giles's, Norwich 
Burton, J. & J. Messrs. Leeds 
Burton, Jas. Esq. Biidgewater-pl. Manchester 
Bury St. Edmund's Public Library 
Bury, Thos. Esq. Adelphi, Salford 
Bush, J. Esq. 3t3, St. James's-pl. Kingsdown 
Bush, Henry, Esq. Litfieda House, Clifton 
Bushby, Capt. Thos. R.N. Greenhilhe, Kent 
Bushby, \V. P. Esq. 9, Exchange-al. Liverpool 
Bushe, Right Hon. Charles Kendal, Lord Chief 

Justice of the King's Bench, Dublin 
Bushe, T. Esq. 5. FitzwiUiam's-square, Dublin 
Bushell, Wm. Esq. Portland-square, Bristol 
Buston, Roger, Esq. Buston 
Butcher, Lieut. li.N. Commander of the 

Redbreast Cutter 
Butcher, William, Esq. Norwich 
BUTE, Most Noble the Marquis of 
Butler, D. Esq. Dunford House, near Wilton 
Butler, G. S. Esq. Hi!l-place, Alton, Hants 
Butler, R. Esq. 2, Kent-terrace, Regent's-park 
Butler, T. D. Esq. 47, Castle-street, Liverpool 
Butler, Thomas, Esq. 42,Trinily-sq. Tower-hill 
Butler, JMr. Vv'. T. Bookseller, Beaconsfield 

4 Copies 
Butt, Rev. J. W. Bromley, Kent 
Butteniur, Robeit, Esq. 
Butterfield, Mr. John, Bradford, Yorkshire 
Butterworth, J. A. Esq. Cannon-st. Manchester 
Buxton, J. M. Esq. Oxford-st. Manchcsier 
By, Lieut-Col. Shernfold Park, Frani, Sussex 
Byerley, Nicholas, Esq. 105, Holborn-hiU 
Byng, Mr. John, jun. Osmaston-road, Derby 
Byrne, ISIr. Thomas, Beaumaris. 3 Copies 

Byrom, Miss, Eleanor, Quay-st. Manchester 
Bywater, Dawson, & Co. Messrs. Pool-lane, 

Liverpool 
Byzantium Book Club, Constantinople 



Callan, Captain Thos. Ship Bland, Liverpool 
Callender, Thos. P. Esq. Peel-st. INIanchester 
Callender, W. R. Esq. High-street, Manchester 
Callicut, W. B. Esq. 4, York-place, Bioinpton 
Callum, Mr. Charles, 48, Queen-st. Glasgow 
Caiman, Mr. John, Dundee 
CALTHORPE, Right Hon. Lord 
Calver, William, Esq. Ipswich 
Calvert, Edmond, Esq. 
Calvert, Mr. Edward, Rotten-row, Derby 
Calvert, Dr. J. W. Blandford-pl. Regent's-pk 
Calvert, Thomas, Esq. Kirstall-road, Leeds 
Calvcsche, — . Buchhandlung, Prague 
Cambourne (Cornwall) Literary and Scientific 

Institution 
Cambridge Book Society, Bull Inn, Cambridge 

■ Caius College Library 

Catherine Hall Library 

— Clare Hall Book Club 

Corpus Christ! College Library 

Emanuel College Library 

• Jesus College Book Society 

King's College Library 

Magdalen College Library 

Pembroke Hall Book Club 

Queen's College Library 

St. John's College Book Society 



c. 



Cable, Samuel, Esq. St. Christopher's 
Cadbury, William, Esq. Wellington 
Caddell, David, Esq. Salisbury-square 
Cadell, Mr. Thomas, Bookseller, Strand 
Cadman, John, Esq. Leeds 
Cagan, Hugli, Esq. Brunswick-st. Glasgow 
Cain, James, Esq. Douglas, Isle of Man 
Calcott, Captain B. Caynham Court, Salop 
CALCUTTA, Right Hon. the Lord Bishop of 
Calcutta Book Club 

CALEDON, Right Hon. the Earl of. 2 Copies 
Calkin & Budd, INIessrs.Bksllrs. 1 1 8, Pall-mall 

4 Copies 
Call, Mr. G. New Cross, Wolveiliampton 



Cameron, Lieutenant-General, 11, Circus, Bath 
Cameron, Patrick, Esq. Seagate, Scotland 
Campbell, A. Esq. Blythewood, Glasgow 
Campbell, Sir Arch. Bart, of Succoth, l. Park- 
place, Edinburgh 
Campbell, F.W.Esq.Birkfield Lodge, Ipswich 
Campbell, J. Esq. 43, Buchanan-st. Glasgow. 
Campbell, J. C. Esq. Guernsey 
Campbell, John, Esq. Budleigh, Devon 
Campbell, Major II. C. Northend House, Ports- 
mouth 
Campbell, R. Esq. 127, Brunswick-st. Glasgow 
Campbell, Rich. Esq. 11, Northuinberland- 

slreel, Edinburgh 
Campbell, W. Esq. 34, Candleriggs, Glasgow 
CAMPERDOWN, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Campion, Mr. Thomas, Cork 
Camplm, Alderman Thomas, Bristol 
Cancellor, Ellis, Esq. 15, Prince's-st. Lambeth 
Cannan, D. Esq. Sambrook-ct. Basmghall-st. 
Canuells, IMr. F. Liverpool 
Canning, Right Hon. Sir Stratford, M.P. 

G.C.B. 29, Giosvenoi-square 
Cannon, Alexander, Esq. R.N. West Cowes 
CANTERBURY. His Grace the Archbishop of 
Canton Book Club 

Cantwell, Uoberl, Esq. 25, Wimpole-street 
Canwell, Mr. F. Liverpool 
Capel, Captain, if. A'. Swanage 
Capel, John, Esq 32, Russell-square 
Capes, — , Esq. North-terrace, Camberwell 
Capes, William, Esq. KinE;-5treet, Manchester 
Capper, Joseph, Esq. 4, Union-street, Bristol 
Capper, Kobert, Esq. Cheltenham 
Carbis, Mr. John, Redrulh 
Garden, Thomas, Esq. Worcester 
Cardwell, • — . Esq. Cockpit-hill, Manchester 
Carew, Admiral Sir B. Hallowell, G.C-B. dec. 

2 Copies 
Carew, Capt. Thos. R.N. Beckford House, 

Southampton 
Carfiae, Colonel, Oriental Club 
Carfrae, J. Esq. 19, Holloway-place, Ilolloway 
Cargill, Thomas, Esq. Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Caikeet, William, Esq. Falmouth* 
CARLISLE, Right Hon. the Earl of 



Carlisle, Sir Anlliony, F.R.S. Langliam -place 
Carlisle, Tliomas, Esq. Nelson \'illa, Clifioii 
Carnac, Major, Kast India House 
Carne, Edw. C. Esq. Kimberley-pl. Falmoutli 
Came, Jobn, Esq. Cottage, Falmonth 
Carne, Jolm, Esq. Lariggan, I'enzance 
Carne, \\ illiam, Esq. Falmouth 
Carnegue, James, Esq. Cork 
Carpenler & Son, Messrs. Bookrs. Old Bond-st. 
Carpenter, John, Esq. Mount Tavy, Tavistocli 
Carpenter, Mr. John, 1 1 , King-street, W hitehall 
Carpenter, Rev. J. ]'hillips,Grenofen,Tavistocli 
Carpenter, Uev.Lant, LL.U. Great (Jeorge-st. 

Bristol 
Carr, John, Esq. 39, Bedford-row 
Carr, John, Esq. Walker, Nortliumberland 
Carr, Mr. Wni. 15, Aston-place, Islmeton 
Carrington, II. Esq. Caius College, Cambridge 
Carter, Mr. C. 1, Cliapel-road, Worthing 
Carter, Dr. II. W. Canterbury 
Carter, J. B. Esq. M.P. 21, Duke-st. Westmr. 
Carter, T. W. Esq. Maidstone 
Carter, ]\Iajor, Great Malvern, Worcestershire 
Carter, Miss, Library, Worthing 
Carter, Capt. T. W. R.N. Ryde, Isle of Wight 
Carter, Rev. W. D. Wye, Kent 
Carthew, Edmund, Esq. Liskcard, Cornwall 
Cartwel), Rev. J. li.A. Christ Coll. Cambridge 
Cartwright, Mr. Francis, 62, Lr. Grosvenor-st. 
Cartwright, Henry, Esq. Torquay, Devon 
Cartwriglit, Major, Brackley,Northamptonshire 
Cartwright, R. Esq. 35, Bloomsbury-square 
Cartwright, Wm. Esq. Teignmouth, Devon 
Carus, Rev. W. 31. A. Trinity Coll. (^'ambridge 
Carvick, Thomas, Esq. Ilendon, Middlesex 
Cary, Clarence Horatio, Esq. Bangor 
Casacubertas, A. Esq. Plymouth Grove, Man- 
chester 
Casbolt, Henry, Esq. Diamond Estate, St. 

Christopher's 
Case, J. Deane Esq. Abercrombie-sq. Lvrpool 
Case, R. Edward, Esq. Clifton, Gloucestershire 
Case, Rev. T. Bishops Caundle, Sherbourne 
Cash, James, Esq. Piccadilly, IManchester 
Caslon, Henry, Esq. Chiswell-street 
Casson, William, Esq. Brown-st. Manchester 
Castle, M. II. Eiq. 1, Rodney-plate, Clifton 
Cathcart, John, Esq. Genoch, Glenluce 
Cator, Captain B. Ji.N. Be.\ley, Kent 
Cattermoul, Everet, Esq. Norwich 
Cattley, S. W. Esq. 14, Queenhillie 
Caulfield, Lieut.-Col. Oriental Club 
Caulfield,\\ illiam, Esq. Dublin 
Cawood, John, Esq. Leeds 
Cazalet, P. C. Esq. Kemp Town, Brighton 
Cazinove, James, Esq. 6, Great Winchester-st. 
Chadwell, Mr. Thomas, Bksllr. Peterborough. 

2 Copies 
Chadwick, W. Esq. Ackey, near Doncaster 
Chafley, Mr. 11. T. Chard, Somersetshire 
Chainley, Mr. Newcasde. Mr. Raiikins 
Challenger, Richard, Esq. St. Christopher's 
Chalon, A. E. Esq. 42, Great Marlborough-st. 
Challoner, Robert, Esq. Dublin 
Chamlx-rlayne, T. Esq. Cranbury Park, Hants 
Chamberliii, Henry, jun. Esq. Norwich 
Chamberlin, Robert, Esq. Norwich 
Chambers, Sir Samuel, II. N. Hredgar, Kent 
Champ;uite,J. J.Esq. Belmont IIouse,Taunlon 
Champeriiovvne, II. Esq. Christ Churcli Coll. 

O.xford 
Cliandkr, J. Esq. 7, Charles-st. i\Ianchester- 
squaie 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

Chandler, L. Esq. 133, St. John's street 
Chanter, T. B. Esq. Bideford 
CliapUn, E.J. Esq. Magdalen Coll. O.sford 
Chaplin, Frederick, Esq. Harlow, Esse.x 
Cliapman, David, Esq. 39, Miller-st. Glasgow 
(,'hapman, E. Esq. Caius College, Cambridge 
Chapman, J. Esq. 16, Grosvenor-st. Chorlton, 

Jlanchester 
Chapman, Mr. John, 49, Albemarle-street 
Chapman, Thos. Esq. Marshal of the King's 

Bench 
Chapman, Wm. Francis, Esq. Ilampstead 
Chappel, W. T. Esq. Lemon-street, Truro 
Cliappell, Mr. J. 56, Skinner-street, Snow-hill 
Charge, John, Esq. Chesterfield 
('harlton, Edwin, Esq. 42, New Bridge-street 
Charlton, J. Esq. 42, New Bridge-st.Blackfis. 
Charlton, W. Esq. Rochester 
Charnley, ;\Ir. Newcastle 
Charnock, John, Esq. W oodhouse-lane, Leeds 
Charter, T. M. Esq. Lynchfield House, near 

Taunton 

Chatfield, Rev. R. LL.D. Vicar of Chatteris 
Chatham and Rochester Philosophical, &c. In- 
stitution 
Chatham Library 
Chaytor, W. R. C. Esq. M.P. Witton Castle, 

\\ itton le Wear, Durham 
Cheam School Library 
Chenery, C. Esq.Warner's-yard,!\Iincing-lane 
Cheney, E. II. Esq. Christ Church Coll. Oxford 
Cliennell, Mr. Thomas, Crown Inn, Guildford 
Chepstow Reading Society 
Chester Reading Society 
CIIEWTON, Right Hon. Lord Viscount 
CHICHESTER, Right Reverend the Lord 

Bishop of 

Chilcott, T. Esq. Pembroke House, Clifton 
Child, (ieorge, Esq. Stony-street, Borough 
Child, Mr. R. Stoie-street,Bedford-square 
Child, Stephen, Esq. Stony-street, Borough. 

2 Copies 
Child, Stephen, jun. Esq. Stony-st. Borough 
Children, John George, Esq. F.Jl.S. British 

Museum, Secretary of the Royal Society 
Cliilds, John, Esq. Bungay, Suffolk 
Chinchen & White, Messrs. Svvanage 
Chippendall, J. Esq. Mosley-rd. IManchester 
Chisholm, Rev. Charles, Eastwell, Kent 
Chi^llolln, Dr. R. Canterbury 
Cliittv, .losoph, jun. Esq. 6, Pump-ct. Temple 
CHOLMONDELEY, Most Noble the Mar- 
quis of 
Chorley, Henry, Esq. Calls, Leeds 
Chorley, Miss E. Park-lane, I.eeds 
Christian, John, Esq. First Deemster, Milne- 
town, Isle of Man 
Christopliers, J. Esq. 12, New Broad-street 
Cluirch, Mr. S. 10, Gray's-place, Brompton 
CIILIRCHILL, Captain Lord John Spencer, 

J{.A'. Kensington Palace 
CHURCHILL, Hon. Lady Henrietta, Ches- 
terfield 
Churchill, James, Esq. Poole, Dorset 
Churchill, Jlr. John, Bookseller, 16, Princes- 
street, Leicester-square 
Churchyard, Thomas, Esq. Melton, Suffolk 
Clair, Capt. D. L. H. R.N. Staverton Court, 

Gloucester 
Clapham, iMessrs. J. ic J. Leeds 
Clapham, Tliomas, Esq. Woodhouse, Leeds 
(lire, J. Esq. 19, St. John's-sq. Clerkenwell 
Clark, Andrew, Esq. Bear Garden, Soutliwark 



L.xxiir 

Clark, Cyrus, Esq. Street, near Glastonbury 
Clark, Ebr. Esq. 127, St. James's-st. Brighton 
Chirk, .Mr. G. Bookseller, Dorchester 
Clark, J. Esq. 3, Keppel-st. Russell-square 
(lark, .1. Esq. Trowbridge, Wilts 
Clark, Jos. jun. Esq. Pollard-st. Manchester 
Clark, J. P. Esq. 5, Sackvil!e-st, Piccadilly 
Clark, Hev. J. Grove House, Folkestone 
Clark, ilatlhew, Esq. 9, Hanover-terrace, 

Regent'.s-park 
Clark, Mr. Bookseller, Finch-lane 
(lark, Mr. William, 80, St. John's-street-road 
Clark, W. Esq. 74, St. John's-slreet 
Clarke, A. Esq. 57, Biooke-sticet, Grosvenor- 

square 
Clarke, Alexander, Esq. Academy, Newport, 

Isle of Wight 
Clarke, Chas. M. Esq. 40, Norfolk-st. Strand 
Clarke, Charles, Esq. Lincoln's-inn-fields, and 

Grove-road, St. John's-wood 
Clarke, Sir Charles M. Bart. M.D. F.R.S. 10, 

Saville-row 
Clarke, Mr. Edward, 144, Queen-st. Glasgow 
Clarke, General, 48, Charlotte-st. Fitzroy-sq. 
Clarke, George, Esq. Mosley-st. Manchester 
Clarke, John, Esq. Fort Pitt, Chatham 
Clarke, Mr. John, Booksllr. Horsham. 8 Copies 
Clarke, Lieut. Pickering, R.N. Perrymead, 

\\ idcomb, Bath 
Clarke, Rev. W. B. A.M. F.G.S. Stanley 

Green, Longfleet, Dorset 
Clarke, Saml. Esq. Church-street, Manchester 
Clarke, Thomas, Esq. F.A.S. Highgate Hill, 

Kentish Town 
C'larke, W'. R. Esq. Wymondham, Norfolk 
Clarkson, W. G. Esq. 7, Bell yard, Doctors'- 

comnions 
Clavin, jNIiss Jane, S. York 
Claxson, Rev. Dr. Gloucester 
Claxton, Lieut. C. P. R.N. 10, St. Vincent- 
parade, Bristol 
Claxlon, Robt. Esq. II. M. Solicitor-general, 

St. Christopher's 
Clay, John, F'sq. Huddersfield 
Clay, Miss, Tenant-street, Derby 
Clay, Richard, Esq. Rose \'illa, Huddersfield 
Clay, Samuel, Esq. St. John's-street, West 

Smithfield 
Clay, Mr. William, 50, West Smithfield 
Claydon, Charles, Esq. Cambridge 
Clayc, Mr. Thomas, Bookseller, Stockport 
Claye, Richard, Esq. King-street, Manchester 
Clayette, Louis, Esq. Queen-st. Jlanchester 
Claypon, Joseph, Esq. Ilampstead Heath 
Clayson, Capt. John, R.N. Deal 
Clayton, Michael, Esq. Lincoln's Inn 
ClaUon, Mr. John, Biadford, Yorkshire 
Clayton, Wm. Esq. I.augclifl'Place, near Settle, 

Yorkshire 
Cleasby, Stephen, jun. Esq. 3 Corn%vall-ter- 

race, Regent's-park 
Cleiig, Benjamin, Esq. Cromfoid Court, near 

Manchester 
Clegg, J. Esq. 5, Back Marsden-st. Manchester 
Clegg, J. jun. Esq. Hodgson-sq. Manchester 
Clegg, W. Esq. Cromford Court, near- Maa- 

chester 
Clechorn, R. B. Esq. St. Kitt's.West Indies 
CItiland, Col. St. Cermain's-place, Blackhealh 
Cleland, J. Esq. 130, Upper Mill-st. Glasgow 
Clements, Mr. R. Rochester 
CIcnt, .Mrs. Sarah, 37, Back, Bristol 
CLE\ELiVND, His Grace the Duke of 



IXXIV 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Cliff, Thomas, Esq. Downend 
Cliffe, Rev. L. A. Bishops Hull, near Taunton 
Clifford,Capt. SirAiigustus, C. B. 86,Eaton-sq. 
Clifford, Hon. C. Truham Hall, Lincolnshire 
Clifford, James, Esq. Shardlow, Derby 
Clinton, Jolin, Esq. St. Christopher's. 

2 Copies 
Clive, Theophihis, Esq. Ryde, Isle of Wit;ht 
CLIV'E, Right Hon. Lord \iscount, M.P. 
CLONCUllRY, Right Hon. Lord 
Close, Wm. Esq. Rotherham, Yorkshire 
Clowes, Rev. J. Broughton, Manchester 
Coape, James, Esq. Christ's Coll. Cambridge 
Coates, Henry, Esq. Colchester 
Coates, Richard, Esq. Brown-st. Manchester 
Coates, T. Esq. 42, Spring-gdns. Manchester 
Coates, Mr. Booksr. 139, Cheapside. 3 Copies 
Coates, Miss Walker, Drumseech, Edinburgh 
Cobb, J. Esq. Hawkhurst, Kent 
Cobbett, Mr. William, 106, St. Martin's-lane 
Cobbold, Charles, Esq. Rose-hill, Ipswich 
Cobden, R. Esq. Mosley-street, Manchester 
Cochet, Vice-Admiral James, Bideford, Devon 
Cock, Simon, Esq. 1, New Bank-buildings 
Cockburn, Vice-Adrairal Sir Geo. G.C.B. 

4, Whitehall 
Cockburn, Miss, Stratton-terrace, Falmouth 
Cockburn, Lieut.-Gen. Sir Wm. Bart. D.C.L 

4, Lansdown-crescent, Bath 
Cocker, Jonathan, Esq. Salford, Lancashire 
Cockerell, Hon. Lady, Seizincot, Worcestersh. 
Cockerell, James, Esq. Blackman-st. Borough 
Cockerill, R. M. Esq. R.N. Oswestry 
Cocking, Thomas, Esq. 19, Great Purtland-st. 
Codd, George, Esq. Town Clerk, Hull 
Coe, Captain Thomas, R.N. Cambridge 
Coffin, Richard Pine, Esq. Portledge, Devon 
Cohen, B. Esq. l,Wyndham-pl.Bryanston-sq. 
Cohen, J. C. Esq. Stock Exchange 
Cohen, Solomon, Esq. Pope's-head-alley 
COIGNE, Le Due de 
Colby, Capt. David, R.N. Tichfield 
Colchester Castle Society 
Cole, G. C. Esq. Sevenoaks, Kent 
Cole, Martin, Esq. Ipswich 
Cole, Thos. Esq. 46, Fountain-st, Manchester 
Coles, James, Esq. Old Change 
Coles, Rev. T. U. Ilonington, Lincolnshire 
Collett, B. Esq. Mathon Lodge, Worcestershire 
Collier, John, Esq. M.P. Plymouth 
Collier, Wm. Esq. Greengate, Manchester 
Colling, John, Esq. Stock Exchange 
Collingwood, H. J. W. Esq. Lilburn Tower, 

Northumberland 
Collins,!!. Usq.R.N. Christchurch, Hants 
Collins, Charles, Esq. Stamford-hill 
Collins, Mr. James, 115, Regent-street 
Collins, Mr. Jones, Richmond, Surrey 
Collins, Mrs. Charllon, Kent 
Collins, P.H. Esq. Hatch,'Beauchamp, Somst. 
Collins, Robert, Esq. Redcliff-parade, Bristol 
Collins, Mr. William, \'. R.N^. Harwich 
CoUinson, Mr. R. Booksr. INIansfield. 4 Copies 
Colls, Charles, Esq. Huddersfield 
Collyns, William, Esq. Kenton, Devon 
Colman, G. Esq. 10, Holland-place, Brixton 
Colmer, R.Esq. Abbot's Lodge, Sibton, Suffolk 
Colpoys, Rev. J. Rectory, Droxford, Hants 
Colquitt, S. M. E.sq. R.N. Neptune Hotel, 

Liverpool 
Colridge, Wm. Esq. 40, Dunlop-st. Glasgow 
Colson, Rev. W. Piddlehinton.nr. Dorchester 
Colston, E. F. Esq. Weymouth, Dorset 



COLVILLE, Right Hon. ^'ice-Admiral Lord 
Colville,Chas. Esq. ChristChurch Coll. Oxford 
Colyer, J. Esq. St. John's Cottage, Sevenoaks 
Combe, Geo. Esq. 23, Charlotte-sq. Edinburgh 
Comings, Richard, Esq. Cambridge 
COMPTON, Right Hon. the Earl 
Compton, H. Esq. Eddington, Berks 
Comyn, Richard, Esq. 1, Queen-street-place 
Comyns, Rev. J. Woodhouse, Bishopsteign- 

ton, Devon 
Conlan, John, Esq. Dublin 
Conn, Heni-y, Esq. Truro 
Connell, James, Esq. Irving Academy 
Connop, Rev. J. Bradfield Hall, Berks 
Connor, Daniel, Esq. Bally Bncken, Cork 
Conroy, Sir John, K.C. H. Kensington Palace 
Considine, H. Esq. Trinity Coll. Cambridge 
Consterdine, J.Esq. NewCannon-st. Manchestr 
Conway, F. W. Esq. Dublin 
Cook, James, Esq. New Mosley-st. Manchester 
Cook, James, Esq. North-terrace, Camber^vell 
Cook, Rev. James, Newton Hall 
Cook, John, Esq. Goodman's-yard, Minories 
Cook, Mrs. Greenock, N.B. 
Cook, Robt. K. Esq. Corpus Coll. Cambridge 
Cook, \\ m. Esq. 22, St. Paul's Churchyard 
Cooke, Charles, Esq. 45, Doughty-street 
Cooke, Isaac, Esq. Clifton, Bristol 
Cooke, P. Davies, Esq. Awston, nr. Doncaster 
Cooke, Samuel G. Esq. Colchester 
Cooke, SirW.B. Bt. Wheatley, nr. Doncaster 
Cookes, Mrs. Woodhampton House, Worces- 

teishire 
Cookson, Capt. J. Royal Artillery, St. Chris- 
topher's 
Cookson, J. Esq. York-crescent, Clifton 
Cookson, Rev. Edward, Park-square, Leeds 
Cooper, Sir Astley, Bart. F.R.A.S. Conduit-st. 
Cooper, Col. F. G. Barton Grange, nr.Taunlon 
Cooper, Frdk. Esq.7, Richraond-ter. Brighton 
Cooper, Rev. G. F. Yetminster, Dorset 
Cooper, E. J. Esq. il/.P. Martiee, Collooney, 

Ireland 
Cooper, Rev. Mark, Barnsbury Park, Islington 
Cooper, Richard, Esq. Monument-yard 
Cooper, Rev. Sir W. H. 57, Portland-place 
Cooper, Mr. Thomas, Stockport 
Cooper, T. W. Esq. Old-street & Tottenham 
Cooper, Thos. Esq. Bedford Hotel, Brighton 
Cooper, William, Esq. Norwich 
Coote, R. E. P. Esq. 19,Yoik-crescent, Clifton 
Coote, R. H. Esq. 1, Stone-bdgs. Lincoln's Inn 
Coote, William, Esq. St. Ives, Huntingdon 
Cope, Richard, Esq. Exchange-st. Manchester 
Cope, W. Wadham, Esq. Old Bailey 
Copeland, Thomas, Esq. JM.P. Alderman of 
London. 57 Copies 

Copenhagen, the Athenaeum of 

Classinian Library of 



Copenhagen, Union of Students of 
Copland, John, Esq. Sun-ey-street, Strand 
Co|)ling, John, Esq. H.E.I.C.S. UpperTulse 

Hill, Surrey. 2 Copies 

Coppin, Mr. Wm. Queen Adelaide Steamer, 

Livei'iwo! 
Coppinger, Wm. Esq. Cork 
Corbett, iNIr. William, 25, Bath-street, Glasgow 
Corbould, Henry, Esq. 5, Crescent-place, 

Burton-crescent 
Corfe, John D. Esq. 16, College-street, Bristol 
Cornish, F. S. Esq. South Molton, Devon 
Cornish, .Tames, Esq. Falmouth 
Cornish, William, Esq. Marazion, Cornwall 



Cornwall Library, Truro 
Corrall, P. Esq. Maidstone 
Cortazzi, John, Esq. 22, Brunswick-square 
Cosens, Captain E. S. Woolwich-road 
Coste, T. Esq. Lower Mosley-st. Manchester 
Costendiech, John, Esq. Lloyd's Coflee-house 
Cotesworth, R. Esq. St. Helen's-place 
Cottingham, George, Esq. Keisley House, near 

Bolton, Lancashire 
Cotton, Benjamin, Esq. Cambridge 
Cotton, C. R. Esq. Lewisham-road 
Cotton, Mr. Edward, Rochester 
Coalman, R.J. Esq. Wadworth Hall, Yorkshire 
C'oulman,Thos. Esq. Whitgift Hall, Yorkshire 
Coulthurst, J.N. Esq.Gargrave House, Skipton 
Court, Mr. Wm. Tolton Mill, Worcestershire 
Courlauld, Samuel, Esq. Booking, Essex 
Courteney, Chas. Leslie, Esq. Christ Church 

College, Oxford 
Couitis, Richard J. Esq. Mayor of Falmouth 
Cousen, Mr. William, Bradford, Yorkshire 
Cove, John, Esq. Bishopsteignton, Devon 
Cove, Richard, Esq. Milford, near Salisbury 
COVENTRY, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Coventry, Charles, Esq. 71, Dean-street, Soh(j 

square 
Coward, Noah, Esq. Treleigh, Redruth 
Coward, W. Esq. Haberdashers-place, Hoxton 
Cowie, Benj.G. Esq. Hill House, Esher, Surry 
Cowing, Mr. J. James, Library, Barnet. 

7 Copies 
Cowling, John, Esq. Garden-court, Temple 
Cowper, Henry, Esq. Tewin Water, Herts 
Cowper, Dr. William, Glasgow College 
Cowper, W. Esq. 193, Athol-place, Glasgow 
Cox, Edw. S. Esq. Brailsford, near Derby 
Cox, Henry, Esq. Park Fields, near Derby 
Cox,J. Esq. Leazes-teiTace,Newcastle-on-'ryue 
Cox, John, Esq. Wrington, Somerset 
Cox, Mrs. 3, Grove, Clapham Common 
Cox, Thomas, Esq. Friar-gate, Derby 
Coyney, W. Hill, Esq. Weston Coyney, near 

Newcaslle-under-Lyne 
Cozens, John, Esq. Sprowston Lodge, Norfolk 
Craden, Mr. James, Bromley, Kent 
Cragg, W. Esq. Threekingham, Lincolnshire 
Craggs, Mr. Bookseller, Hull. 7 Copies 

Cramer, Rev. Dr. Principal of New Inn Hall, 

Oxford 
Cramer, J. T. Esq. Rathmore, Cork 
Crane, John C. Esq. Bewdley 
Crane, Mr. James, Cerne Abbas, Dorset 
Crary, Mr. Liverpool 
Craslie, Shafto, Esq. Crastie Hall 
Craufurd, G. W. Esq. King's Coll. Cambridge 
CRAVEN, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Crawford, Colonel, Goodrich, near Ross 
Crawford, W. II. Esq. Dublin 
Crawley, Adml. 7, Green Park-buildings, Bath 
Crawshaw, Thomas B. Esc|. Huddersfield 
Crawshay, R.Esq. George-yard, Up.Thames-st. 
Ciawshay, Wm. jun. Esq. George-yard, Up- 
per Thames-street 
Cresswell, John, B. Esq. New-court, Topsham 
Cresswell, Mr. J. 121, Crawford-street 
Crewdson, T. Esq. Longsight, jNIanchester 
Crewe,' Sir G. Bart. M.P. Calke Abbey, near 

Melbourne 
Crewe, Rev. Henry, Breadsall, Derby 
Crickitt, J. G. Esq. Doctors'-commons 
Cringle, Capt. W. Smack Luna of Carron, 

Liverpool 
Cririe, NViUiam, Esq. Mosley-st. Manchester 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



LXXV 



Cristie, C. N. Esq. of Durie, 20, York-place, 

Edinburgli 
Critcliell, \Vm. Esq. Rinnvvood, Hants 
Critcbley, T. Esq. 35, Mosley-st. Manchester 
Crocker, Edward, Esq. King's-ainis-yard 
Crocker, I'. Esq. Stourton, Wilts 
Croft, .lames Robins, Esq. Liverpool 
Croft, \'enerable Archdeacon, Saltwood, Kent 
Crofts, !\Ir. W. Bookseller, 19, Chancery-lane 
Crofton, G. Esq. 61, St. BartholomewVclose 
Cronstadt, the Naval Li\)rary of 
Crompton, Benjamin, Esq. Bury, Lancashire 
Cronipton, James, Esq. Kearsley, Lancashire 
Crompton, John W. Esq. Leeds 
Crook, James, Esq. Skiimer-slreet, Snovtr-hill 
Crook, John Ch. is. Esq. 32, Mecklenburg-sq. 
Crookes, J. F. Esq. St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
Croose, A. Esq. Fme Court, Bloomtield, Somst. 
Crop, Jas. Esq. Gringley, near Gainsborough 
Cropper, Edward, Esq. Liverpool 
Cross, F. Esq. Great Duryard, near Exeter 
Cross, Henry, Esq. Gainsborough 
Cross, James, Esq. 8, Staple's Lin 
Cross, John Brent, Esq. 4, Somerset-st. Bristol 
Cross, Mr. J. Bookseller, Leeds. 4 Copies 
Cross, Dr. Robert, W'isbeach 
Cross, W. S. Esq. B.A. St. John's College, 

Cambridge 
Crossfield, Abm. Esq. 91, Whitecliapel-road 
Crossfield, J. Esq. Abraham's-ct. Edinburgli 
Crossland, James, Esq. Fenny, Huddersfield 
Crossley, T. Esq. Cromford court, Manchester 
Crossley, William, 2, 'i'ork-street, Manchester 
Crowder, R. B. Esq. 11, Pall-mall East 
Crowley, Henry, Esq. Alton, Hants 
Crowley, Mr. John, Wolverhampton 
Crowther, Caleb, Esq. il/.D. Wakefield 
Crowther, Robert, Esq. Quay-st. Manchester 
Croxon, Richard, Esq. (Jsweslry 
Cruikshank, William, Esq, Furnival's Inn 
Cruni, Mr. John, 51, Cochran-street, Glasgow 
Cryke, Capt,R,/?.iVr. Albemarle Cottage, Stoke, 

Devon 
Cudworth, .Tohn, Esq. Briggate, Leeds 
Cuff, J. Esq. Freemasons' Tavern,Gt. Queen st. 
Culme, Mrs. Wellmgton Court, Wellington 
Culledge, Charles, Esq. March, Cambridge 
Cumber, C. Esq. 13, Dickenson-st. Manchester 
Cuming, J. Esq. Grey's Wood, Hasleniere 
Cummm, William, Esq. Kilmarnock 
Cumming, Miss, Hill House, Taplovv, near 

Maidenhead 
Cunddll, n. Esq. Norwich 
Cunlitie, Col. Sir |{. Bart. Acton, Denbighshire 
Cunliflii, Thos. Esq. Chnrch-st. Manchester 
Cunningham, Capt. R.N. Baltramsley Lodge, 

Lyniiiii>ton 
Cunnin.:liam, J. Esq. 24, Upper Ilarley-street 
Cunningham, J. E^q. Rodney-place, Clifton 
Cunningham, R.Esq.GldSwan-wharf,Tower-st. 
Cunningham, Mr, Thomas, Bookseller, Ashton- 
undc-r-l.yne. 18 Copies 

Cunow, Uev. G, A. Dukinfield 
Curling, Daniel, Esq. Canonbuiy, Islington 
Curling, Joseph, Esq. Heme Hill 
Curlii g, Wm. Esq. Denmark-hill 
Curling, Rev. William, 4 1, Trinity-square 
Curlmg, W m. Esq. throve, Blackheath 
Currar, Miss, Eshlon Hall, near Skipton, York- 
shire 
Currie S; Bowman, Messrs. BksUrs, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 19 Copies 
Currey,G. Esq. St. John's College, Cambridge 



Currey, Roht. Esq, lOG, Fleet-street 
Curry, Mr. W. jun. 5c Co, Booksellers, 9, Up- 
per Sackville-street, Dublin, 2 Copies 
Curteis, Rev. Thomas, Seven Oaks, Kent 
Curtis, Mr. Richard, Basingstoke 
Curtis, A. T. Esq. St. John's Coll, Cambridge 
Curtis, Richard, E.sq. Acre-lane, Brixton 
Curtis, Captain Timothy, It.N. Exmouth 
Curtis, T. A. Esq. 8, Tokenhouse-yard 
Curtis, William, Esq. Alton, Hants 
Curtois, Rev. R. G. Chaplain to the Forces, 

Chatham 
Cust, Richard, Esq. Carlisle 
Cutbush, Mr. R. J.Maidstone 
Cutler, Henry, Esq. Sidmouth, Devon 
Cuttell, Josiah, Esq. Holmeftrth, Huddersfield 
Cuiten, Charles, Esq. Claphara Rise 
Cutto, A, W, Esq. 38, Canterbury-sq.Soulhwrk 

D. 

Dakins, Rev. Dr. Dean's-yard, Westminster 
Dale, John, Esq. North Shields 
Dalgleish, Andrew, Esq. Ingram-st. Glasgow 
Dalgleish, iMr. G, 8o, St. Vincent-st. Glasgow 
DALIIOL'SIE, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Dallas, Lieut.-Gen. Sir T. G.C.B. 36, Brock- 
street, Bath 
DaUaway,J. Esq. /?.A^, Buckland, near Dover 
Dalrymple,Lady Frances, 23, Up. Wimpole-st. 

2 Copies 
Dalrymple, Lieut-Col. Sir Adolphus, J, Bart, 

1'29, Park-street 
Dalston, John, jun. Esq. The Orange, nr.York 
Dallon, Francis B. Esq. Huddersfield 
Daltoii, Jas. E. Esq. B.A. Queen's College, 

Cambridge 
Dalton, Mr. W'. H, Booksr, 28, Cockspur-st, 
Dal way, Lieut. N.Ji. A'. Sutliei land Fort,Hythe 
Daly, Mr. Denis, Lime-street, Liverpool 
Darner, Hon. 11. D, Milton Abbey, Blandford 
Daiicie, George Robert, Esq. 2, ]\Iouiiljoy- 

street east, Dublin 
Dando, Josh. Esq. Horfield Lodge 
Daniel, Mr. (jeo. Abergavenny 
Daniel, Henry, Esq. 10, York-place, Clifton 
Daniel, Thos. sen. I'.sq. Alderman of Bristol 
Daniell, Edward, Esq. Colchester 
Daniell, J. S. Esq. Blandford, Dorset 
Danks, Mr. S, Bookseller, Bewdley. 7 Copies 
Dansey, John, I'.sq. Blandford, Dorset 
Dansey, Rev. Wm. Downhead St. Andrew's, 

Wilts 
Danson, F.dw, B. Esq. 2, New Broad-street 
Danson, Miss, Preston, Lancashire 
Darby, J. Esq. 10, Gt.George-st. Westminster 
D'Arcy, Lt.-Col. Milford House, Lymington 
Darell, E. Esq.Cale Hill, Charing, Kent 
Darell, John, Esq. Jersey 
Darlot, J. Esq. 39, I^ast Cliff, Brighton 
Darley, A. H. Esq. Christ Coll. Cambridge 
Darling, Mr. Jas, Booksr. 22, Little (iueen-st. 
DARNLEY, late Right Hon. liarl of 
Darter, Wm, Silver, I'.sq. Reading 
DARTMOUTH, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Darwell, Thos. F'sq. Ridgefield, Manchester 
Dashmen, Mr. I'eliiiam, Middlesex 
Dasliwood, 11. Esq. Corpus Christi College, 

( Ixford 
Dasliwood, M. Esq. Downing Coll. Cambridge 
Daubeny, E. Esq. Magdalen College, Oxford 
Daubuz, L. C. Esq. Truro 

k2 



Davenport, C, Esq. Tunstali, Staffordshire 
D.ivenport, Mr. U. A., Robert Napier steamer, 

Liverpool 
Davey, Francis, Esq. Topsham, Devon 
Davey, William, Esq. Redruth 
Davids, J. Esq. West Cowes 
Davidson, ."Mr. Rt. Brig Catherine, Liverpool 
Davidson, Robt. Esq. 28, York-pl. Edinburgh 
Davidson, W'ra. Esq. 1, South Frederick-st. 

Glasgow 
Davies, Rev. D. Studland, Dorset 
Davies, licv. G. Rochester 
Davies, Henr)', Esq. Monmouth 
Davies, Mr. Jas. North and South American 

Coffee-house, Threadneedle-stieet 
Davies, Mr. Js. Booksr. Holywell. 2 Copies 
Davies, Miss, Oswestry 
Davies, Mr. James, Bookseller, Holywell 
Davies, Capt, Richard L. R.N. Penzance 
Davies, Mr. R. Post-oihce, Merthyr Tydvil 
Davies, R. Esq, 126, Holborn-hill 
Davies, S. Esq. \N ye, near Ashford, Keot 
Davies, Wm. Esq. Merlhyr Tydvil 
Davis, Mr. A. J. BuU's-head-ct. \ewgate-st, 
Davis, Benj. Esq. 33, Cannon-st. Maucbestec 
Davis, Dr. David, Park-st, Bristol 
Davis, Mr. D. .\llen-st. Goswell-slreet 
Davis, Geo. jun. Esq. Mill-lane, Tooley-street 
Davis, Gideon, Esq, Hamond Hill, Chathaia 
Davis, Horatio Nelson, Esq. Fenchuich-st, 
D.avis, Major H.J. 1, Devonshire-bldgs. Bath 
Davis, Jas. Esq. Bradford, Dorset 
Davis, W", Esq. Gravesend 
Davy, Rev. C. W. Parksione, Dorset 
Davy, Rev. Dr. Martin, F.R. &. ^..5. Master 

of Caius College, Cambridge 
Davy, John, Esq. St. Christopher's 
Davys, Mr. John, Asliby-de-la-Zouch 
Davys, Mr. Thomas, Asliby-de-la-Zouch 
Dawes, 11. Esq.5,Carabridge-ter.Regeut's-pk 
Dawkins, Henry, Esq. Saiidgate, Kent 
Dawson, Dr. Jas. Mount-pleasant, Liverpool 
Dawson, John, Esq. 9, Billiter-square 
Dawson, J. Esq. Walton's-bldgs. Manchester 
Dawson, John, Esq, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Dawson, Mr, John, 25, Albemarle-slreet 
Dawson, \V, A. Esq, Abercrombie-terrace, 

Liverpool 
Day, D. J. Esq. Rochester 
Day, Mr. Frederick, Ilemel Hempstead 
Day, Hon. Judge, Dublin 
Day, J. I'.sq. 3, Water-lane, Tower-street 
Day, John, Esq. Beccles, Suffolk 
Day, T. l^sq. 9,Tliree-crown-sq. Southwark 
Day.T. H. Esq. Boley Hill, Rochester 
Day, Wm. Stuart, Esq. We»l Cowes 
Day, W. W, Esq. Rochester 
Day, William, Esq. 
Dayncs, Mr. John, Norwich 
Deacon, Charles, E Esq. Southampton 
Deacon, H. FZscj, Portsmouth 
Deacon, J. Esq. Alabledon, Tunbridge Wells 
Deacon, Saml. i->q. 3, Walbrook 
Deakc, Ciias. Esq. Laina-pl. New Cut, Bristol 
Deakin, Miss Jane, Wem. 
Deakin, lliomas, Esq. Adbaston House, near 

Eccleshall 
Deakins, Wm. Esq. Slafford-row, Buckiog- 

ham-gale 
Dealy, Jas. Esq. Stock Exchange 
Dean, G. Esq. Goswell-road 
Dean, Tlios. Esq. King-sireet, Manchester 
Deane, Rev. 11. Gillmgham, near Shaftesbury 



XXXVI 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



De BurCTh, Hubert, Esq. West Drayton 

Deck, Isaiah, Esq. Cambridge 

Deedes, \Vm. Esq. Sandling, Kent 

Deedes, Rev. C. Hinxlnll, Kent 

DE GREY, Right Hon. the Earl 

De Henr), Spencer, Esq. 8, Upper Grosvenor- 

street, and West Cowes 
Deighton Sc Moxon, Messrs. BookselIers,York 

2 Copies 
Deighlon, Messrs. J. & J. W. Bookselleis, 

Cambridge 

Deighton, Mr. II. Bookr. Worcester. 44 Copies 
De .Jersey & Co. Messrs. Lower Mosley-street, 

Manchester 
De Jersey, Dr. Romford, Essex 
Delafosse, Rev. Danl. A.M. Richmond-green 
De-la-Motte, Col. Peter, Fern Acres, Garrard's- 

cross 
De Lannoy, Richard, Esq. George-st. Manchstr 
Delavaud, G. Esq. 18, Marlboro'-bldgs. Bath 
De Leon, D. M. Esq. Throgmorton-street 
De Lisle, Consul-General of Rio de la Plata, 

Antwerp 
Delmar.W. B. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Delves, William, Esq. St. Christopher's 
Dempster, H. Esq. 6, Marlboro'-pl. Brighton 
Dempster, Mr. James, 6, Souih llanover-st. 
DENBIGH, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Dench, L. Esq. Ely, Cambridge 
Dendy, S. Esq. 16, Montagu-st. Russell-sq. 
Denman, Thos. Esq. 23, Harley-street 
Denmark, Dr. Alexander, Torquay, Devon 
Denniston, Wm. Esq. Kelvin-grove, Glasgow 
Dent, William, Esq. Worcester 
Derby Permanent Library 
Derby Philosophical Society 
Derliam, Robt. Esq. Leed.s 
Dering, Sir E. Bart. Surrenden-Dering, Kent 
Desanges, F. Esq. Weaver-st. SpitaUields 
DE SAUMAREZ, Right Hon. Admiral Lord, 

G.C.B. 
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De Teissier, Mrs. Epsom, Surrey 
Devas, \\'m. Esq. Lawrence-lane 
Devizes Literary Institution 
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DEVONSHIRE, His Grace the Duke of 
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Dewe, Rev. S. Rochester 
Dewer, Messrs. E. & R. 16, Old-street 
Dewson, Mr. F'rancis, Packet Ship, C. Bran- 
don, Liverpool 
Dibsdall, Silas, Esq. Brunswick-sq. Bristol 
Dickins, Thos. Esq. \'ale Lodge, Leatherhead 
Dickenson, Mr. George, Bnckland, near Dover 
Dickinson, Harvey, Esq. East India House 
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Dickinson, Jonathan, Esq. Water-lane, Leeds 
Dickinson, W. J. Esq. 5, Brunswick-pl. Leeds 
Dickson, R. Esq. 3, Charlotte-row, Mansion 

House 
Dighton, Major-Gen. J. Newland, Glostershire 
Dillon, Col. 6, Chester-ter. Regent's-park 
Diinsdale, J. Esq. Brunswick-pl. Regeril's-pk. 
Dim^dale, W. J. Esq. Brunswick-place. 

Regent's-park 
Dinning, Henry, Esq. Newlands 
Disbrowe, Sir Edward C.,K.G.H. Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to 

Sweden 



Dithelm, John, Esq. Pool-st. iNIanchester 

Dix, I\lr. John, Wellington 

Dix, Robt. Esq. Ely, Cambridge 

Dixon, Benjamin, Esq. \Vakefiel(l 

Dixon, D. G. Esq. Maidenhead 

Dixon, Dixon, Esq. Benton, Northumberland 

Dixon, Geo. R. Esq. 15, King's-arms-yard 

Dixon, John, Esq. Carlisle 

Dixon, Peter, Esq. Carlisle 

Dixon, Rev. W. II. Sutton-on-the-Forest, near 

York 
Dixon, W. S. Esq. Manchester Basin, Liverpool 
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Liverpool 
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castle-upou-'i yne 
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Doncaster 
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Dods, Dr. R. G. Rochester 
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Dodsworlh, George, Esq. Gale Fulfoid, near 

York 
Dodsworth,Rev. William, 3, Clarence-terrace, 

Rcgenl's-piirk 
Donaldson, Mr. J. 17, Exchange-sq. Glasgow 
Donaldson, Mr. J. 105, St. Vincent-st. Glasgow 
Doncaster Subscription Library 
Donkin, Bryan, Esq. 6, Paragon, New Kent-rd. 
Donkin, Henry, Es |. Durham 
Dorehill, W . A. Esq. Chalk, near Gravesend 
Dorling &c Son, Messrs. Booksellers, Epsom. 

17 Copies 
Dorrington, W. Esq. St. Ann's-sq. Manchester 
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Douglas, Rev. P. H. Epsom, Surrey 
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Dove, Mrs. Lower Hill House, Ipswich 
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Dover,.! -Ksq.Thi'eeCrane^-vvhfSouthwk.-brdg. 
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Dowries, John Fox, Esq. Ashfoid House, Salop 
Downey, Lieut. John, li.N. Commander ol 

H. M. Packet Bnseis, Falmouth 
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of Man 
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sei-.street 
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Nulwell Couit, near Exeter 
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mond, 128, Prince's-slreet, Edinburgli 
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head, Wilts 
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row. 2 Copies 
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sq nare 
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place, Reading 
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upon-Tyne 
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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



D'lTrban, C'lipt. W. J. 2,5lh Regt. Newpoil, 

near Exeter 
D'Urban, Capt. W. D. R.X. Warminster 
DURHAM, liight Hon. llie Eail of 
DURHAM, Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of 
Durham Rev. the Dean and Chapter of 

Subscription Liliraiy 

Durrant, George, Esq. Norwich 
Dyke, Rev. II. llinton Rectory, near Brackley 
Dyke, P. II. Esq. Lulling;,lon'e 
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port 
T)yson, Rev. Francis, Tidvvorth, Wilts 
Dyson, Colonel T. F. Manchester-square 
Dyson, Thos. Esq. Diss, Norfolk 
Dyson, Thos. Esq. Downhain-tnaiket, Norfolk 



Eade, Mr. Matthew H. Redruth 

Eadson, Saml. Esq. 16, Newmarket-buildings, 

INIancliesler 
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Eagle, William, Esq. Block House, Cravesend 
Earnshavv, John, Esq. Hull 
EAST IN -lES, Honourable COMPANY of 
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Easton, Mr. John, Brunswick Dock-master, 

Liverpool 
Eastwood, Joshua, Esq. Meltham 
Eastwood, Samuel, jun. Esq. Huddersfield 
Ebsworth, G.T. E-q. Clare Hall, Cambridge 
Eccles, Mr. W. Bookseller, Woodstock 
Echam, Thomas, Esq Cork 
Eckstein Jk Son, Messrs. 13, High Holborn 
Ecroyd, Mr. Benjamin, Bradford, Vorkshire 
Eddowes, Mr. John, Bookseller, Shrewsbury. 

4 Copies 
Ede, Mr. R. B. Bookseller, Dorking. 4 Copies 
Eden, J. Esq. Mount Pleasant, Liverpool 
Eden, Rev. John, 8, Gloucester-place, Clifton 
Eden, Ralph, Esq. Clerk to the Privy Seal, 26, 

Abingdun-slreet 
Eden, lion. & Rev. W. Beaksboume, Kent 
Ed'.;ell, H. Esq. 13, South-square, Gray's Inn. 
EDINBURGH, Rt. Hon. the Lord Provost of 
EDINBURGH, Rt. Hon. the Lord President 
of the Court of Session 

, Solicitors Library of 

Edleston, Mr. Thomas, Cambridge 
Edmeades, W. Esq. Nursted, Kent 
Edmed, James, Esq. Gravesend 
Edmeed, Jedediah Kerie, Esq. St. Christo- 
pher's 
Edmonds, Charles, Esq. Change-alley 
Edmonds, Christ. Esq. Bridge-st. Southwark 
Ednionds, Mr. A. BooksUr. Shitlnal. 3 Copies 
Edmonds, Mr. W. Sitlingbouruc, Kent 
Ediiioiislone, C. Esq. Trinity Cull. Cambridge 
Edwards, Capt. Kichd. R.N, llingwood, Hants 
Edwards, Mr. E. Oswestry 
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Edwards, J. B. Esq. Souihwold, Suffolk 
Edwards. James, Esq Oswesliy 
Edwards, .Mrs. M. Rhuaboii 
Edwards, Sam. C. Esq. Long Ashton, Bristol 
Edwards, T. G. Hsq. 6, Vork-ter. liegent"s-pk. 
Edwards, .Mr.Thos. 1 1 .,M. .Sieam Packet Office 
Edwards, T. L. Esq. Tiiiuiy Coll. Cambridge 



Edwards, ]Mr. Wm. Bookseller, Ave Maria-la. 

2 Copies 
Egan, Rev. J.Cork 

Egan, T. S. Esq. Caius College, Cambridge 
Egerton, V. T. Esq. Roche Court, Wilts 
Egerlon, Mr. Thos. Bookseller, Charing-cross 
Egginton, John, Esq. Hull 
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steignton, Devon 
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Elkins, Alfred, Esq. Foley-pl. Portland-place 
Elkins, John, Esq. 59, Newman-street 
Elkins, Mr.W. II. Bookseller, 85, Lombard-st. 

2 Copies 
EUerman, Charles F. Esq. Consul-General for 

Hanover, Antiverp 
Ellice,Capt. A. R.N. H.M.S. Ocean,Sheemess 
EUice, Rt. Hon. Edw. jl/.P. 3, Cleveland-sq. 
Ellin, Thomas, Esq. Sheftield 
Eliinthorpe, J. S.Esq. 65, Brook-st. Chorlton- 

on-Medlock, Manchester 
Elliot, Hon. Captain George, R.N^. 
Elliot, Hon. Henry, Trinity Coll. Cambridge 
Elliot, Lieut.-Col. Barley House, Plymouth 
Elliott, Rev. John, Minister, Peebles 
Elliott, Mr. Ashford 

Elliott, Mr. William, Speenbamland, Berks 
Ellis, Charles, Esq. 25, Soho-square 
Ellis, Mr. Henry, Exeter 
Ellis, J. Esq. Barming, near Maidstone 
Ellis, J. Esq. Wateringbury, Kent 
Ellis, jMrs. 52, Connaught-terrace 
Ellis, R. Esq. 4, Fitzwilliam's-s((uare, Dublin 
Ellis, Samuel, Esq. Stock Exchange 
laiis, Mr. William, 31, Old Steyne, Brighton 
Ellis, Wynn, lisq. M.P. 30, Cadogan-place 
Ellison, J. Esq. 2, Four Vards, Manchester 
Ellison, Michael, Esq. Shefheld 
EUswood, A. Esq. Bungay, Suffolk 
Elmslie, Mrs. Epsom, Surrey 
Elrington, Major J. H. Tower of London 
Elsoii, John, Esq. Bodmin 
I'.llon, Chas. A. Esq. 6, Prince's-bdgs. Clifton 
Elton, Capt. ll.R.JV. Lower-crescent, Clifton 
Elton, John, Esq. Redland, Bristol 
Elton, jM. E. Esq. \\'idworthy Court, Devon 
Elwes, Dudley, C. C. Esq. Stoke Bishop, Glos. 
Elwes, J. H. Esq. Christ Church, Oxford 
Elwin, W. Esq. Caius College, Cambridge 
Emery, Miss Sarah, Glastonbury 
Emery, Mr. St. Neots 
I'.mly, Henry, Esq. 2, Middle-Temple-lane 
Enderby, Mrs. Charles, Blacklieath. 2 Copies 
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Telbury 
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Euston, Mr. William, Rochester 
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Evans, Ed\v.jun.Esq.Basselcrrc,Sl.Cliiistphr's 



Evans, 11. P. Esq. Noyadd 
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Evans, Mr. Josiah, Aberystwith . 2 Copies 
Evans, Rev. John, ^-l.il/. Whitchurch, Salop 
Evans, John M. Esq. St. Christopher's 
Evans, Mr. M. Booksllr. Newport, Monmouth 
Evans, Samuel, Esq. Mary's-gale, Derby 
Evans, Thomas, Esq. Glastonbury 
Evans, Thos. Esq. 60, Cannon-st. Manchester 
Evans, William, Esq. 41, Grosvenor-place 
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jMancliester 
Everard, James, Esq. Lowestoft, Suffolk 
ICverard, Rev. Edw. ]).V. the Wick, Brighton 
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Everington, William, Esq. 10, Ludgate-hill 
Everitt, Wdliam, Esq. Cation, Norfolk 
Every, Sir 11. Bart. Egginton Hall, near Derby 
Every, J. Esq. Old Park, near Dover 
Ewart, John, Esq. Exchange-alley, Liverpool 
Ewing, Sir K. Wm. Bljlhewood-sq. Glasgow 
Ewing, Mr. R. Jolin-\\ ood Steamer, Liverpool 
EXETER, Most Noble the D. Marchioness of 

Ladies' Book Club 

Public Select Library 



Eyies, INIr. George, Speenharaland, Berks 

Eyres, W. Esq. Leeds 

Eyson, P. B. Esq. 5, Ardwick-green, JIanchster 



Faber, Chas. W. Esq. 89, Chancery-lane 
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FaillifuU, E.C. Esq. 5, King's-rd. Bedford-rw. 
Falconer, A. Esq. Falconer Hall, Edinburgh 
Falconer, Arch. Esq. Provost of Port Glasgow 
Fallows, John, Esq. Stone, Staflbrdshire 
FALMOUTH, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Falmouth Public Library 
Fancourt, .Major, M.P. 1, Old Palace-yard 
Fane, Capt. J . 11. R.N'. Green Park-buildings, 

Bath 
Faraday, Mr. Robt.114, Wardour-street, Soho 
Farebrother, Chas. Esq. .•\lderman of London 
Farmer, Thos. W. Esq. 79, Borough 
Farnabv, Rev. Sir C. Bart. Wickham Court, Kent 
IARN'ROROUGH, Right Hon. Lord 
Farquhar, James, Esq. \Soburn-place 
I'arr, Fred. Wm. Esq. Beccles, Suffolk 
Farr, W. I'.sq. Carno, Montgomeryshire 
Farraiid, F. Esq. Almonbury, Huddersfield 
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Farrer, Jas. Wm. Esq. 7, John-sl. Berkcley-sq. 
Farrer, Wm. Esq. Saham, Norfolk 
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Farrow, Samuel, Esq. Diss, Norfolk 
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riiigton-square 
Faulkner, Mr. B. Anglesea Hotel, Gosport 



iXXVIII 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Faunllei-oy, R. Esq. 2, Paragon, New Kent-rd . 
rauntleroy, Mr. Hobt. Bookslr. Leadenhall-st. 
Pavell, Edward, Esq. Cambridge 
Fawcett, K. M . Esq. Cambridge 
Payle, Kev. U.Wareham, Dorset 
Fearnall, Wm. Esq. Union Dock, Limehouse. 

3 Copies 
Fearne, Joseph, Esq. Angel-court 
Fearns, Miss, Acorn Bank, Westmorland 
Featherstone, \V. Esq. 17, Vere-street 
Fector, J. M. Esq. M.P. Kersney Abbey, near 

Dover 
Fedden, Olgar, Esq. Merrywood Hall, Bristol 
Feilden, Rev. — , Langley, near Derby 
Fell, M. E. Esq. Mitcham, Surrey 
Fell, Rev. H. F. Cloudesley Parsonage, Is- 
lington 
Fell, Jacob, Esq. Huddersfield 
Fell, M. E. Esq. Mitcham, Surrey 
Fellowes, Capt. Thos. R.N, Bradford Leigh, 

Wilts 
Fellowes, lion. Newton, M.P. Bryanston-sq. 
Fenn, Joseph, Esq. Newgate-street 
Fenn, Mr. Rob.Bookr.Charing Cross. 4 Copies 
Fennell, Rev. Samuel, B.D. Queen's College, 

Cambridge 
Fenton, Captain Thomas Charles, Chepstow 
Fenton, Jas. C. Esq. Huddersfield 
Fenwick, John, Esq. North Shields 
Ferguson, Col. 48, VVilton-crescent 
Ferguson, Captain James, Ship Henry Hoyle, 

Liverpool 
Ferguson, J. Esq. Carlisle 
Ferguson, John, Esq. 10,Cooper-st. Manchstr 
Ferguson, Gen. Sir R. C.M.P. G.C.B. 5, 

Bolton-row 
Ferguson, Joseph, Esq. Abbey-street, Carlisle 
Fergusson, David, Esq. 15, Hutchinson-street, 

Glasgow 
Fergusson, Right Hon. R. Cutlar, M.P. 17, 

Great Cumberland-street 
Fernie, Joseph, Esq. Leadenhall-street 
Ferrand, W.Esq. Harden Grange, near Bingley 
FERRARD, Riglit Hon. Lord Viscount 
Ferrier, J. Esq. Port Cilasgow 
Fenier, R. E. Esq. 18, Park-ter. Regency-pk. 
Ferris, John, Esq. Pydar-street, Truro 
Ferris, Rich. Esq. 10, Richmond Hill, Clifton 
Festing, Capt. H. Parkstone, near Poole, 

Dorset 
FEVERSHAM, Right Hon. Lord 
Few, Chas. Esq. Henrietta-st. Covent-garden 
Few, Robert, Esq. Doughty-street 
Ficklin, T. T. Esq. Cambridge 
Field, John, Esq. Throgmorton-street 
Fiehlen, J. Esq. MP. 5, Peel-st. Manchester 
Fielding, Messrs. George 5c G. H. Hull 
Fielding, Rev. Hy. George-street, Manchester 
Fielding, James, Esq. 6, New Cannon-street, 

Manchester 
Fifiietli Regiment of Foot, Library of 
Figgins, Vincent, Esq. West-st. Smithfield 
Fiimer, Sir E. Bart. East Sutton Park, Kent 
Finch, Clias.jun. Esq. Cambridge 
Finch, Mr. \V. Rochester 
Fincli,W. Esq. Corpus Christ! Coll. Cambridge 
Findlay, R. S. Esq. Virginia-bldgs. Glasgow 
Finlay, Alex. S. Esq. 8, St. Helen's-place 
Finlay &:, Co. Messrs. 2 Copies 

Finlay, Kirkman, Esq. Queen-street, Glasgow 
Finnie, Archibald, Esq. Kilmarnock 
Finnis, T. Q. Esq. 79, Great Tower-street 
Fiimin, Mr. P. V. 153, Strand 



Firth, James F. Esq. Guildhall 
I'isher, D. Esq. U.S.C. 15, Forth-st. Edinb. 
Fisher, Edw. Esq. Longroyd Bridge, Hud- 
dersfield 
Fisher, Francis, Esq. Jesus Coll. Cambridge 
Fisher, Capt. J. R.JV. Harbour-master's-oftice, 

St. Catherine's 
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Fisher, Jas. Esq. Great Yarmouth 
Fisher, John, Esq. Park Villa, Charlotte-street, 

Bristol 
Fisher, Rev. G. J. Winfiith Rectory, Dorset 
Fisher, Mr. T. M. 22, Tib-lane, Manchester 
F1T2CLARENCE, Lord Frederick 
Fitzgerald, Rear Admiral, 26, Park-st. Bath 
Filz Gibbon, Hon. Col. R. H. M.P. 44, Bel- 
grave-square 
FITZMAURICE, Lord Henry P. Trinity 

College, Cambridge 
FITZVVILLIAM, Right Hon. the Earl of. 

2 Copies 
Fitzwilliam, Hon. George Wentworth, Trinity 

College, Cambridge 
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College, Cambridge 
Flack, C. J. Esq. Cavendish-bridge, Derby 
Flack, Edward, Esq. Fall-street, Derby 
Fleck, Hugh, Esq. Basseterre, St. Christopher's 
Fleischniann, Mr. C. A. Bookseller, Munich 
Fleeming,Vice-Admiral, Hon.C. E. Sheerness 
Fleming^ Jas. P. Esq. 62, MiUer-st. Glasgow 
Fleming, Thos. Esq. Broughton View, Man- 

cliester 
Flesham, P. F. Esq. Kent-street, Manchester 
Fletcher, A. Esq. 6, BIythewood-sq. Glasgow 
Fletcher, Mr. A. Redbridge, near Southampton 
Fletcher and Co. Messrs. Paternoster-row 
Fletcher, Chas. Esq. Gloucester 
Fletcher, Captain, E. C. 1st Life Guards, 18, 

Sussex-place, Regent's-park 
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Fletcher, Jas. Esq. 6, New Brown-street 
Fletcher, John, Esq. Shiffnal 
Fletcher, John Henry, Esq. Sui-veyor-General, 

Post Office, York 
Fletcher, Jos. Esq. Union Dock, Limehouse. 

3 Copies 
Fletcher, Robt. Esq. Ashley Lodge, Mont- 

pelier, Bristol 
Flew, John, Esq. Clear Mount, Weymouth 
F'lood, C. Esq. Bramble Hill, Hoiuton, Devon 
Flood, John, Esq. Grace-street, Leeds 
Flood, J. D. Esq. 42, TothiU-st. Westminster 
Flooks, J. H. Esq. The Mount, near Wilton, 

Wilts 
Flower, Henry, Esq. 4, King's-arms-yard 
Flower, Rev. Mr. York 
FOLEY, Right Hon. Lord 
Fooks, T. B.^Esq. Dartford, Kent 
Footner, Wm. Esq. Romsey, Hants 
Forbes, Sir Chas. Bart, g, Fitzroy-square 
Forbes, David, Esq. Douglas, Isle of Man 
Forbes, G. Esq. 2, Mansion-house-place 
Forbes, George, Esq. West Coates, Edinburgh 
Forbes, J. H. Esq. Golder's Hill, Hampstead 
Forbes, Sir J . Stuart, Bart, of Pitsligo, Green- 
hill, Edinburgh 
Ford, Mr. W. Wolverhampton 
Ford, Rich. Esq. Heavitree Mouse, near Exeter 
Folder, Robt. Esq. 4, Bugle-.--t. Southampton 
Forester, Dr. Rich. F. Abbott's Hill, Derby 
I'ormby, Rev. J. Frinsbury, Kent 
Forrest, Sir Digory, Exmoudi, Devon 



Forrest, Mr. James, 23, Old Burlington-street 
Forrester, G. Esq. Vauxhall I'ouudiy, Livrpool 
Forshall, Rev. J. F.R.S. British iNIuseum 
Forster, G. Esq. Alderman, Forth, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Forster, James, Esq. 64, Old Broad-street 
Forster, Rev. J. Crescent, Leicester 
Fort, Lawrence, Esq. High-st. Manchester 
Foitescue, Hon. Geo. Weare Gifford, Devon 
Fortescue, T. Esq. Exeter College, Oxford 
I'ortescue, Wm. Esq. Smithfield-bars 
Fortescue, W. Esrj. ChristChurch Coll. O.xford 
Forth, Henry, Esq. Bridgewater-buildings 
Foster, Aug. Esq. Warmwell House, Dorset 
Foster, Rev. A. Kingston, near Taunton 
Foster-, Lieut. G. Commander II. M. Packet 

Lapwing, Falmouth 
Foster, John, Esq. Town Hall, Liverpool 
Foster, Mr. James, 10, Culver-street, Bristol 
Foster, Mr. John, Kirby Lonsdale. 7 Copies 
Foster, Rich. Esq. 3, Bedford-square 
Foster, Richard, jun. Esq. Cambridge 
Foster, Thos. Esq. Town Hall, Liverpool 
Foster, Capt. W . Schooner Tampico, Liverpool 
Foster, William, Esq. Lanwithan, Cornwall 
Foulkes, Edw. Esq. Star-yard, Manchester 
Fowler, Jas. Esq. 3, Lincoln's-inn-fields 
Fox, Alfred, Esq. F'almoutli 
Fox, B. Esq. Chestnut Lodge, near Horsham 
Fox, Dr. Brislington, near Bristol 
Fox, Dr. Edw. Long, Brislington, Somerset 
Fox, E. Berkley, Esq. 33, Montague-place, 

Bedford-square 
Fox, George C. Esq. Falmouth 
Fox, Mr. Hy.57, Falkner-street, Manchester 
Fox J. Elliott, Esq. 40, Finsbury-crescent 
I'ox, Rev. Dr. John, Provost of Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford 
Fox, Lieut.-Col. M.P. Addison-rd. Kensington 
Fox, Mr. Richard Ciott, Bi'adford, Yorkshire 
I'ox, Robert Weare, Esq. Falmouth 
Fox, Rev.Thos. H. L. Ilrnton St. Mary, Dorset 
Fr'aland, Mr. James, 56, Wilson-st. Glasgow^ 
Francis, Charles L. Esq. Wandsworth-road 
Fi-ancis, Henry, Esq. Monument-yard 
Francis, Robert, Esq. Canterbury 
Francis, Samuel, Esq. Norwich 
Fr-aukland, Sir Robt. Bart. Thirkleby Park, 

Yorkshire 
Fi-anks, John, Esq. 16, \\'ar-wick-ct. Holborn 
F'raser', Kev. Wm. St. Christopher's 
Fr'aser, J. F. Esq. 15, Eaton-pl. Belgrave-sq. 
Fraser, Gen. .Srr John, K.G.H. Campdenllill 
Fraser, Mr. Thos. 63, New Bond-street 
F'raser, W. R. Esq. Trinity Coll. Cambridge 
Frazer, Alex. Esq. Plymouth 
I'lederick, Lieut.-Col. 52, Bei'keley-square 
Freeling, Sir Francis, Bart. F.R.S. Post Office 
Freeman, H. L. Esq. R.N. Dublin Castle 
Freemair, John, Esq. Leamington-priors 
Freeman, John, Esq. Games, near Worcester 
Freeman, Spencer, Esq. Stowmarket, Sufiblk 
F'lend, Richai'd, Esq. Mayor of Canterbury 
Freud, ^^'m. Escj. 31, Upper Bedford-place, 

Kussell-square 
French, G. Esq. Hawkhurst, Kent 
French, J. M. Esq. F.R.A.S. 
Friend, John, Esq. Birchington, Kent 
F'vipp, W. Esq. Alderman, Cote House, Bristol 
Frolich Sc Besch, Messrs. 11, Hanover-street, 

Hanover-square 
Froost Sc Sons, Messrs. Neraarwket-lane, 
Manchester 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



LXXIX 



Frost, John, Esq. 1 1 , Wood-street, Cheapside 

Frost, Messrs. Jos. & Isaac, 02, St. John's 

square, Clerkenwell 
Fry, Edmund and Son, Messrs. 4, Bishops 

gate-st. within 
Fry, Josepli James, F>sq. Gloucester 
Fry, I\Ir. Bookseller, Tuiibridge 
Frye, Kev. Ur. Crescent House, Uronipton 
Fryer, Chas. Esq. Cattistoke, Dorset 
Fryer, F. W. Esq. \\ imboume, Dorset 
Fryer, John, Esq. Chatteris, Cambridge 
Fryer, Mr. Thomas, Northwich 
Fryer, Thos. Chatteris, Cambridge 
Fulcher, Rich. Esq. Bungay, Sufiblk 
Fuller, T. Esq. Stony Knolls, near Manchester 
Fuller, Captain W. S. 11. \. Brighton 
Fuller, Mr. John, Dunmow, Essex 
Fullerton, John, jun. Esq.Wellesbourre, War- 
wickshire 
FULLORTON,l!.ightnon. Lord John, Edin- 
burgh 
FulKvood, B. Esq. 24, Somerset-place, Hoxton 

New Town 
Funge, IMr. John, York-pl. City-road 
Furley, R. Esq. A>hford, Kent 
Furley, Robt. lisq. 17, \'ere-street 



Garrard, Thomas, Esq. Chamberlainof Bristol Gillett, W. E. Esq. Fairwatcr House, near 



Fyfe, Captain, li.N. 7, Albany-st. Edinburgh 



G. 



Gaddum, F. E. Esq. Pool-street, ^lanchester 
Gadsby, John, Esq. Water-la. Manchester 
GAGE, Right Hon. the Lord \ iscount 
Gage, Hon. W. Westbury House, Alton 
Gaitskell, Lt.-Col. 29, Regency-sq. Brighton 
Calbrailh, H. A. Esq.Surgeon, Royal Asylum, 

Glasgow 
Gale, E.Morant,Esq.l'pham,Bisliop'sWaltham 
fJale, John I'arrah, li^sq. Bouveiie-st. Fleet-st. 
Galley, Tliomas, Esq.Back-squaie,Mancheser 
Galloway, Alexander, Esq. West-street, \\ est 

Smilhfield 
Galpine, Mr. Lymington, Hants 
Gallon, J.n. Esq. lladzor House, Worcestrsh. 
Gandell, Edward, Esq. 10, Lombard-street 
Gandell, George, Esq. 10, Lombard-street 
Ganthony, R. P. Esq. Keiinington Common 
Garden, Mr. R. 302, St. Vincent-st. Glasgow 
Gardiner, C. W. Esq. Coombe Lodge, Oxon 
Gardiner, Kev.Dr.lO,Paragon-buildings, Bath 
Gardiner, L. Esq. High-street, I\lanchesler 
Gardiner, R. Esq. Pall-mall, Manchester 
Gardner, Rev. Dr. Lawrence, Sansaw, near 

Shrewsbury 
Gardner, Mr. Henry, Sandwich 
Gardner, Mr. Hereford 

Gardner, Kobert, Esq. Pall-mall, Manchester 
Gare, Mr. Samuel, Chard, Somersetshire 
Garey, E. li. Esq. 6, Upper Islington-terrace, 

PcntonvilU? 
Garland, Captain J. (i. i{. A'. Leeson House, 

Isle of PurbccU, Dor.set 
Garland, Major John, K.II. Qualre-Bras Cot- 
tage, Muckleford, Dorset 
Garland, N. F.sq. Epsom, Surrey 
Garlick, Joseph Prince, I'.sq. Leeds 
Garmeson, Mr. J. Bookseller, 9, Tcmple-st. 

Wlulcfriars 
Garnett, Mr. W. Bradford, Yorkshire 
Garnett, Uobt. Esq.St.James-sq. iNIanchester 
Gamier, Rev. Thos. Close, Winchester 
Gaiuiss, Mr. John, Queen's Dock, Liverpool 



(iarratt, John, Esq. Bishop's-court, near Exeter 
Ganatt, Mrs. 23, Uoyal-crescent, Bath 
(Jarrett, P. I'sq. Douglas, Isle of Alan 
Garry, Nicholas, Escj. 14, Stratton-st. Piccadilly 
Garwood, Thomas, Esq. Wells, Norfolk 
Garwood, William, Esq. York 
Gaselee, Right Hon. Mr. Justice, Montagu-pl. 
(I'askiii, Rev. T. ili./L Jesus Coll. Cambridge 
Gates, R. Esq. Bramley, Surrey 
Gatlill", \\ iiliam, Esq. Leeds 
Gallon, J. Howard, Esq. Hadgor House, Wor- 
cester. High Sherift' 
Gavaron, Theodore, Esq. 2T, Tavistock -square 
(Jay, J. Esq. 2, Queen-street, South wark-bridge 
Gay wood & Longworth, Messrs. 13, Graflon- 

slreel, Fitzroy-square 
Gee, Joseph, Esq. Cottingham, near Hull 
Gee, Robert, Esq. Hollywood, near Stockport 
Gell, Philip, Esq. Hopton Hall, near Wirk- 

worth, Derbyshire 
Geltenes,J. Esq. Pembroke Coll. Cambridge 
Gerreste, Rev. Max. West Cowes 
George, Alfred, Esq. Kingston Vdia, Clifton 
George, Mrs. Ann, Chepstow. 6 Copies 

(ieorge, Chris. Esq. Abbott's Leigh, Bristol 
George, John, jun. Esq. 192, Regent-street 
George, Spark, Esq. Kirkstall, Leeds 
Gerber, Wm. Esq. At Messrs. Rhomer, Bro- 
thers, Sc Co. B;ick George-street, Manchester 
(ierold, Mr. C. Bookseller, \ ienna 
Gerrard, J.H. Esq.D.C.L. Principal of Bristol 

College 
GEYML'LLOR, Baron Henry V. 
Gibb, Mr. H. W. Crown-street, Liverpool 
Gibbes, Charles, F-sq. 66, South Audley-street 
Gibbins, B. Esq. Neath, Glamorganshire 
Gibbins, Mr. John, Settle,Yorkshire. 5 Copies 
Gibbons, J. Esq. 19, Goree Piazzas, Liverpool 
Gibbons, Sir J. Bart. Stanwell-pl. Middlesex 
Gibbs, Edward, Esq. 32, Fenchurch-street 
Gibbs, G. H. Esq. 11, Bedford-square 
Gibbs, James, Esq. Bath Cottage, Clifton 
Gibson, SirA. C. Mailland, Bart. Charlotte- 
square, Edinburgh 
Gibson, Mr. Charles, Royal Oak, Ashford 
(iib.son, Edw. Esq. Mayor of Hull 
Gibson, Mr. Francis, SaflVon Walden 
Gib.son, J. Esq. Leazes-ter. Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Gibson, John, Esq. I^abonitory, Stratford 
Gibson, N. Esq. 13, Saville-row, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Gibson, R. Esq. Beckenham, Kent 
Gibson, Thomas, Esq. Theberton House 
Gibson, .Mr. W. (;. Saflroir Waldtn 
(Jibson, Wood, Esq. Poolfold, Manchester 
(;iddy, Captairr (Jrarles, li.jS. Penzance 
(iidorn. Rev. J. L. Lympstone, Devon 
Gilbert, A. Esq. Caius College, Cambridge 
Grlbert, H. Esq. Pickshipton, near Devizes 
Gilbert, Col. \>'. R. Cheltenham 
Giles, John .C Esq. JJ.iV. \\ oodside Cottage, 

Lymington 
Giles, Captain Joseph, Wells 
(iiles, R. B. Esq. 52, York-crescent, Clifton 
(;iirrllan, Jas. Esq. 2, Rodney-st. Liverpool 
(;ilkison, David, i'.sq. Port(;lasgow 
(iill. Captain J. B. Brig Thetis, Liverpool 
Gill, T. F.sq. 1, (Jreat Ormond-st. Bloomsbury 
GIl.LES, Right Hon. Lord, Udinbui-gh 
Gillespie, Alex. jun. Esq. 13, America-square 
Gillespie, R. Esq. 33, York-place, Baker-street 
GiUett, John, Esq. Street, near Glastonbury 



Taunton 
GiUient, W. Esq. Commerce-court, Lord- 
street, Liverpool 
GiUott, Mr. George, 36, Strand 
Gipps, T. M. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Giiardot, J.C. Kscp Little Bookham, Surrey 
Girdleston, S. Esrp Wisbeach, Norfolk 
Girling, Captain T. A. Grove, Holt, Norfolk 
Girton, Mr. J. F. Booksellr,HcmelHempstead. 

1 1 Copies 
Gladdish, W. Esq. Cliflf Cottage, Gravesend 
Gladstone, R. Esq. Abercromby-sq. Liverpool 
Gladstone, T. S. Esq. Chatham-st. Aberciom- 

by-square, Liverpool 
Glaister, Wm. Esq. M.A University College, 

Oxford 
Glasgow Port Library 

Public Library 
Glennie, Rev. J. D. A.M. Sandgate, Kent 
Glover-, Rev. William S. Cumberland Villa 
Glover, W. H. Esq. University Coll. Oxford 
Goadsby, John, Esq. Water-lane, Manchester 
Goadsby, Fi-ancis, jun. Esq. Salford 
Goddard ^ Brown, Messrs. Booksellers, Hull. 

9 Copies 
Goddard, Mr. R. Rose and Crown, AVisbeach 
Goddcn, Henry, Esq. Maidstone 
Coding, James, Esq. 2, Belgrave-square 
Coding, Thomas, Esq. Knightsbridge 
Godson, Edward, Esq. 72, Aldersgate-street 
Godwin, Richard, B. Esq. Mary's-gate, Derby 
Godwin, Mr. Shadrach, Hemel Hempstead 
Goffe, \\ lUiam, Esq. Falmouth 
Golrghtly, Rev. C. P. Godalming 
Gomersall, near Leeds, Book Society 
Gompertz, Ben. Esq. F.R.S. Alliance Office 
Goodenough, Dr. E. Dean of Wells 
Goodhall, Rev. Dr. Provost of Eton 
Goodhall, H. II. Esq. 5.5, Cnitched-friars 
Goodier, William, Esq. North Central Bank, 

Manchester 
Gooding, John, Esq. Soulhwold, Suffolk 
Goodman, George, Esq. Leeds 
Goodman, John, Esq. Leeds 
Goodman, John, Esq. Roundhay, near Leeds 
Goodman, T. R. Esq. Trinity Coll. Cambridge. 
Goodrich, R. Esq. 35, Amwell-st. Pentonville 
Goodridge, J.Esq.Sturminster, Newton, Dorset 
Goodsir, David, Esq. 71, Queen-st. Glasgow 
Goodwin, Edm. Esq. Mosley-st. Manchester 
Goodwin, William, Esq. Royal Mews 
Goodyear, Mr. Thomas, 0, Aldersgate-street 
Goold, Mr. John, Wimbome, Dorset 
Goolden, John, Esq. Maesbury, Oswestry 
Gordon, A. D. Esq. Rainbow-hill, W orcester 
Gordon, Lt.-Col. .Vrdiur, Port Ilill, Bidefoixl 
Gordon, C. Esq. W iscombe Park, near lloniton 
Gordon, C. Esq. 40, Gower-st. Bedford-square 
Gordon, H. M. Esq. 4, Lincoln's-inn-fields 
Gordon, Dr. T. 5, Duchess-st. Gt. Wimpole-st. 
Gore, Henry Jas. Esq. Merton College, Oxford 
Gore, Thomas, Esq. Piccadilly, Manchester 
Gore, Rev. W iiliam Charles, Barrow, Somerset 
Gore,Williara Ormsby, Esq. M.P. Porkington 

Hall, Oswestry 
Gosling, Robert, Esq. Dover-street, Piccadilly 
Goss, .Tames, Esq. Dawlish 
tioss, Jno. Wm. Esq. Bull-wharf, Queenhithe 
Gossc, Henry, Esq. Epsom, Surrey 
Gosselin, M. II. Esq.Chrisl's Coll. Cambridge 
Gossier, L'Abbc F. Rouen, Faubourg Beau- 
voisine, Rue du Nord, No. 1 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Gott, Benjamin, Esq. Armley House, Leeds 
Gott, .lolin, Esq. Leeds 
Gotelee, Mr. Jolin, Bookseller, Hounslow 
Goulburn, Edward, Esq. M.P. 21, Park-st 

Grosvenor-sqiiare 
Gould, liev.G. EleetHousejWeymouth, Dorset 
Gould, John, Esq. Leigh-place, Ardwick, near 

Manchester 
Gould, Mr. J. 20, Broad-st. Golder-square 
Gouldsborough, John, Esq. 92, Market-street, 

Manchester 
Gowan, P. Esq. 46, Lime-street 
Gowan, Wm. Esq. St. Christopher's. 2 Copies 
Gower, A. A. Esq. 14, Great Carter-lane, Doc- 
tors-commons 
Gower, A. Lewis, Esq. 31, Finsbury-square 
Gower, Edwin, Esq. 28, Coleman-street 
Gower, R. F. Esq. 31, Finsbury-square 
Grace, Capt. R. VV. Castle House, Hampstead 
Graefl', Edward John, Esq. Trafalgar-square 
Graeft', John George, Esq. 4, Furnival's-inii 
Grafton, J. S. Esq. Dover-street, Manchester 
Graham, F. J. Esq. Carlisle 
Graham, F. J. Esq. Postmr. Carlisle. 9 Copies 
Graham, George, Esq. Dublin 
Graham, Lady, 46, Grosvenor-place 
Graham, Lieut.-Colonel, Mosknow, Carlisle 
Graham, Sir Sandford, Bart, t, Portland-place 
Graham, Thomas, Esq. Turnham-green. 

2 Copies 
Graham, Rev. William, Artliurst, Longtowii 
Graham, W. Esq. jun. 70, MiUer-st. Glasgow 
GRANBY, Most Noble the Marquis of 
Grange, Mr. Stephen, 126, Oxford-street 
Granger, Edmund, Esq. E.xeter 
Grant, Alexander, Esq. 12, Arlington-street 
Grant, Rev. Andrew, 68, Great King-street, 

Manchester 
Grant, D. Esq. Cannon-street, Manchester 
Grant, D. Esq. 37, York-place, Edinburgh 
Grant, F. A. Esq. 1, Ulster-ter. Regent's-park 
Grant, Rev. F. B. Dartford, Kent 
Grant, George, Esq. 15, Rodney-st. Liverpool 
Grant, Dr. George, Richmond-hill 
Grant, M. Esq. 9, George-street, Edinburgh 
Grant, Miss, Clifton Hill 
Grant, Robert, Esq. 49, Melville-st. Edinburgh 
Grant, Sir Thomas, 20, Leicester-square 
Grant & Son, Messrs. Booksellers, 82, Prince's- 

street, Edinburgh 
Grant, T. Esq. Collector of H. M. Customs, 

Bideford 
Grant, W. Esq. Spring Side, nr.Bury,LancaBhire 
Grai>el, Mr. W. Booksr. Liverpool. 8 Copies 
Grave, John, Esq. Isle of Man. 14 Copies 
Grave, Jos. Esq. Fountain-street, Manchester 
Graves, John, Esq. 51, Call-lane, Leeds 
Gray, Benj . Esq. PoUard-etreet, Manchester 
Gray, John, Esq. Sherborne, Dorset 
Gray, John, Esq. Wheatfield, near Bolton 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. York 
Gray, Lieut.-Colonel, Lieut.-Governorof Pen- 

dennis Castle, Falmouth 
Gray, Mrs. B. 95, Great Portland-street 
Gray, Mr. Robert, 15, Gordon-street, Glasgow- 
Gray, Mrs. King-street, Mancliester 
Gray, Robert Alexander, Esq. Peckham Rye 
Gray, W. Esq. 10, Brandon-place, Glasgow 
Gray, Wm. jun. Esq. York 
Gray, W. Esq. St. Christopher's 
Greatheed, A. H. Esq. Chnst'sCoU.Cambridge 
Greaves, Capt. Jolin, Barque Golden Fleece, 
Liverpool 



Greaves, John, Esq. Crescent, Salford 

Greaves, Mrs. S. King's Newton 

Greaves, R. D. Esq. Leeds 

Green, C. Esq. Wakefield 

Green, Mr. F. High-street, Stoke Nevvington 

Green, Mr. F. O. Market-street, Mancliester 

Green, H. C. jun. Esq. 94, Hatton-gardeu 

Green, James, Esq. 22, Barbican 

Green, Mr. James, Green's Hotel, Serle-street, 

Lincoln's-inn-fields 
Green, Joseph H. Esq. 46, Lincoln's-inn-fields 
Green, Mr. Bookseller, Knutsford 
Green, Mr. T. St. Patrick Steam-packet Office, 

Clarence Dock, Liverpool 
Green, Thomas, Esq. Huddersfield 
Green, W. Esq. F.C. Worcester Coll. Oxford 
Greene, Benjamin A. St. Ives, Huntingdon 
Greene, Captain, B. R.N. Wickham, Hants 
Greenlull, Mr. R. Ashford, Kent 
Greenhow, Mr. Thomas, jun. Kendal 
Greenland and Co. Messrs. Booksellers, 38, 

Poultiy. 3 Copies 

Greenshields,J. Esq. 15, Percy-street, Liverpool 
Greenshields, John B. Esq. 125, Princes- 
street, Edinburgh 
Greenslade, Mr. J. Booksr. Guernsey. 6 Copies 
Greenup, Richard, Esq. M.Ji. Salisbury 
Greenway, J. Commander R.N. St. Thomas's, 

Exeter 
Greenwell, Colonel Sir Leonard, Commandant 

of the Garrison of Chatham 
Greenwell, Rich. Esq. Fawcet-street, Bishop 

Wearmonth 
Greenwell, Smith, Esq. 54, Great Surrey-street 
Greenwich Reading Society 
Greenwood, Rev. Dr. John, Christ's Hospital 
Greenwood, R. Esq. Brookwood, Winchester 
Greg, Robt. Hyde, Esq. Norcliffe, Cheshire 
Greig, Admiral, Imperial Russian Navy, 

St. Petersburg 
Ciregor, Mrs. Ockley, Surrey 
Gregory, G. Esq. Willesborough, Kent 
Gregory, J. Escj. Clement's-inn 
Greig, James, jun. Esq. W.S.23, Forth-street, 

Edinburgh 
Grtig, Thomas, Esq. 10, Duke-st. Manchester 
Greig, Woronzow, Esq. 2,Mitre-court, Temple 
Grenade, Captain Gullen, R.N. Carlskrona 
Gresham, John, Esq. Hull 
Greville, Charles, Esq. Bristol 
GREY, Right Hon. the Earl 
Grey, Hon. W. B. 43,Charles-st. Berkeley-sq. 
Grey, Sir George, M.P. 14, Eaton-place 
Griffin, Mr. John, Hemel Hempstead 
Griffin, Lieut. H.N. Stratton-place, Falmouth 
Griffin, Mr. Robert, White Lion, Ely 
Griffin, N. Esq. Portsea 
Griffith, R. Esq. Fitzwilliam's-place, Dublin 
Griffith, Rev. T. Llanfechan, Blontgomeryshire 
Griffiths, Lieut. S. R.N. Commander of 11. M 

Packet Swallow, Falmouth 
Grimble,\Villiam, Esq. Cow-cross. 2 Copies 
Grinisdell, Samuel, Esq. Sun-st. Bishopsgate 
Grindlay,H.M.Esq. 8,St.Martiu's-pl. Charing 

Cross. 2 Copies 

Grisdale, Rev. L. Bolton, near Manchester 
GROEBEN, Count de 
Groombridge, Mr. R. Bookseller, 6, Panyer- 

alley. 2 Copies 

Groos, Mr. C. T. Bookseller, Carlsruhe 
GROSVENOR, Lord Robert, M.P. 
Grote, Francis, Esq. Trinity Coll. Cambridge 
Grote, George, Esq. M.P. Threadneedle-street 



Grounds, David, Esq. 49, Threadneedle-street 

Grout, George, Esq. Norwich 

Grout, Joseph, Esq. Stamford IliU 

Grove, Thos. Esq. Feme House, Feme, Wilts 

Grove, Lieut. William, li.N. Ilolnest Lodge, 

Sherl orne, Dorset 
Grove, Rev. W. F. Teieles, near Mere, Wilts 
Grundy, Thomas, Esq. Bury, Lancashire 
Grunsill, J. Esq. Pendennis Castle, Falmouth 
Grylls, Glynn, Esq. Helston, Cornwall 
Grylls, Rev. Richard Gerveys, sen. Alderman, 

llelston, Cornwall 
Guest, W. Esq. Albion-buildings, Manchester 
GUlLDFORD,RightHon.&Rev. the Earl of 
Guise, Gen. Sir J. \V. Bart. A'.C.C Rendcourt 

Park, Gloucester 
Gullengrenade, Capt. Swedish Navy, Carls- 
krona 
Gumersall, Thomas Bedford, Esq. 10, Lom- 
bard-street 
Gumprect, Mr. J. Buchanan-street, Glasgow 
Gunn, Rev. D. Christchurch, Hants 
Gunn, Rev. John, Chard, Somersetshire 
Gunnell, Richard P. Esq. 7, Woburn-square 
Gunnery, Mr. Jos. Edge-hill, Liverpool 
Gunther, Mr. H.7, Pratt-place, Camden Town 
Guppy, Mrs. Sarah, Farway House, Clifton 
Gurne, Mr. A. J. Mediterranean Packet Office 
Guniey,D. Esq. North Runoton,Lynn, Norfolk 
Gurney, Hudson, Esq. F.R.S. F.P.S.A. St. 

James's-square 
Gustard,G. E. Esq. 1, Lancaster-pl . Strand 
Gutteres, M. Esq. Sidmouth 
Gutterson, Thomas, Esq. Chase Side, Enfield 
Guy, Mr. Chelmsford 

Gwillim, Lady, Staplefield Common, Sussex 
Gwilt, John, Esq. Icklingham, Suffolk 
Gwilt, Jos. Esq. Abingdon-street, Westminster 
Gwyer, Joseph, Esq. Redcliff-parade, Bristol 
Gwyer, W. O. Esq. Temple-street, Bristol 
Gvvynne, Lawrence, Esq. ii.D.Teignmouth 



H. 

Ilabertield, Jno. Esq. Redcliff Parade, Bristol 

HADDINGTON, Right Hon. the Earl of 

HADDO, Right Hon. Lord 

Haddon, Mr. Bookseller, Colchester 

Hadfteld, John, Esq. St. Ann's-st. Manchester 

Hadlow, Mr. F. Faversham, Kent 

Hadow, J. E. Esq. 5, Rood-lane 

Hadwen, John, jun. Esq. near Huddersfield 

HaggerstoMe, Sir Thos. Bart. Ellinghara 

Hague, John, Esq. Cranbrook, Kent 

Haig, David, Esq. Lochrin, near Edinburgh 

Haig, Geo. A. Esq. Bonnington, Leith 

Haigh, John, Esq. Huddersfield 

Ilaigh, Robt. Esq. Lochrin Distillery, Edinb. 

Haines, G. C. Esq. Godalming 

Haines, R. Esq. Godalming 

Hains, Parton, Esq. Bishopsteignton, Devon 

llairby, Dr. J. Sablecote Cottage, Parkstone 

Halden, R. G. Esq. Seagate 

Hale, Wm. Esq. Colchester 

Hales, Rev. Robert, Hillington, Norfolk 

Halesworth Book Club 

Halford,Sir Ily. Bart. 31.D. F.R.S. Prcs.C.P. 

Curzon-street 
Halifax Subscription Library 

New Subscription Library 

Hall, Mr. Andrew, Peel-street Book Society, 

Mancliester 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Hailing, Mr. R. Bookseller, Upper York- 
street. 2 Copies 
Hall, B. P. Esq. Kensington-square 
Ilall, Mrs. Elizabetli, Gainsborougli 
Hall, Francis, Esq. Hessle 
Hall, George, Esq. Ely, Cambridge 
Hall, Geo. Esq. Back Cannoii-st. Manchester 
Hall, Henry, Esq. Ashton-under-Lyne 
Hall, J. O. Esq. 44, (iueen-sq. liloomsbury 
Hall, IMessrs. J. \'. and Son, Booksellers, 
Maidstone. 8 Copies 
Hall, James, Esc). Stalybridge, Yorkshire 
Hall, Mr. James, St. James's, Barton, Biistol 
Hall, Jno. jun. Esq. Bloomsbury Iteading- 

rooms, Manchester 
Hall, John, Esq. High-street, Winchester 
Hall, John, Esq. St. Mary A,\e 
Hall, John, Esq. 1, Susse.x-street, Manchester 
Hall, Mr. John, Bookseller, Cambridge 
Hall, Sir J. K.C.B. St. Catherine's Deckhouse 
Hall Sc Marsli, Messrs. Booksellers, Speen- 
hamland. 14 Copies 

Hall, Robert, Esq. Leeds 
Hall, Samuel G. Esq. 130, London Wall 
Hall, Tlios. Esq. Komsey, Hants 
Hall, Dr. William, Leatherhead, Surrey 
Hallett, F. Esq. 12, iVorth-st. road, Brighton 
Halliburton, Mr. J. BksUer, Coldstream, N.B. 
Halliday, Rev. E.T. Yard House, Taunton 
Halliday, Rev. ^\"alter, St. Glenlliorne, near 

Minehead, Somerset 
Halsey, Thos. P. Esq. Christ Church, Oxford 
Halsted, Admiral Sir L. W. K.C.B. I'hojnix 

Lodge, Alton 
Hamer, L). Esq. Glanyrafon 
Hamilton, Jlajor Cien. A. Kerr, Innverwick 

Lodtre, Edinburgh 
Hamilton, H. A. Esq. Tlie Retreat, Topsham 
Hamilton, Capt. H.M. Packet Service, Dover 
Hamilton Sc Co. ^Messrs. Booksellers, London. 

12 Copies 
Hamilton. Jas. Esq. Woodland-ter. Falmouth 
Hamilton, Rev. J. Canterbury 
Hamilton, Hon. Robert, 2, Abercrombie-place, 

Edinburgh 
Hamilton, j\Ir. Robt. Ship Dryope, Liverpool 
Hamilton, Rev. R. W. East-parade, Leeds 
Hamilton, Capt. W. A. B. R.A'. DublinCastle 
Hamilton,W . C. Esq. of Claighlan 
Hamley, Joseph Esq. Bodmin 
Hammersley, Chas. J"sq. 2.), Park-crescent 
Hammett, James,Esq. 18, Lansdown-crescent, 

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]Sloomsbury. 2 Copies 

Hansard, Luke, Esq. 10, Bedford-square 
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Cambridge 
Ilanwell, \'ice-Adml.,Ioscph, Wareham 
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Hardwick, P. Esq. i'.R.S. F.S.A.GQ, Russell- 

sq uare 
HARDWICKE, Right Hon. the Earl of. 

2 Copies 
Hardy, Dr. J. Doncaster 
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Isle of Wight 
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llavlock, Jno. E<q. FJy, Cambiidge 
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Ilarman, John, I'.sq. 

Harman, T. Esq. Wombwell Hall, Northfleet 
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cester 
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llarpin, John, Esq. Burnlee, Huddersfield 
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Dorset 
Harris, William, Esq. Worlhing 
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1 



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ton-crescent 
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Harvey, Capt. E. Ship Howard, Liverpool 
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llarwood. Rev. J. Deane, near Overton, Hants 
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HASTINGS, ."Most Noble the Marquis of 
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llav,Sir Jas. D. Bt. Dunragct, Glenluce, N.B. 
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Hayihorne, Mr. Alderman John, IJill House, 
ilangotstield 



IXXXIt 



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Hevvsworth,lly.H. Esq. New Inn Hall,Oxford 
Uext, Wm. Esq. Commander, li.N. Bodmin 
Hey, Richard, Esq. York 
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lley, Wm. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
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llindle, Rev. Joseph, Gravesend 
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tlindmarsh, Luke, Esq. Treasurer of Alnwick 

Library 



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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

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Cliurchyard 
I hiiiter, Samuel, Esq. Herald Office, Glasgow 
Hunter, Thos. Esq. W'earmouth Walk, Bishop 

W earmouth 
Hunter,\\ illiam, F^sq. 14, Exchange-st.-East, 

Liverpool 
Huntingford, G. W. Esq. New Coll. Oxford 
Huntington, Aliss, Hull 
Huilc. J. E.sq. King's Parade Cottage, Clifton 
Hurst, John, Esq. Clapham-road 
Hurst, J. C. Esq. Dartford, Kent 
Hurst, Robert Henry, Esq. A]. P. Horsham 
Hurt, C. jun. FJsq. Wirksworth, Derbyshire 
Huseiibelh, Chas. Fredk. Esq. St. Janies's-sq. 
Huskisson,Capt./i.;.V. Governor of Greenwich 
Asylum 

l2 



I.XXXTII 

Hustler, Wm. Esq. Verulam-bldgs. Gray's-inn 

Hutch ings, Charles, Esq. Sherborne, Dorset 

Hutchins, E. J. Esq. Dowlais, -MerthyrTvdvil 

Hutchins, Rev. W m. W innifred House, Bath 

Hutchins, Wm. Esq. Battersea 

Hutchinson, Captain ]■:. R.N. T, Grove-road, 
Lisson-grove 

Hutchinson, Dr. Francis, Westgate-streer, 
Nencastle-upon-Tvne 

Hutchinson, Richard", Esq. Leeds 

Huth, Frederick, Esq. 

Hult, W illiam, lUq. M.P. 54, Conduit-street 

Hulton, John, Esq. Maske, Yorkshire 

Hutton, William, Esq. Gate Bruton, near 
Gainsborough 

Hulton, W. iM. Esq. 5, Larkhall-lane, Clapliara 

Hyde, C.J. Esq. .3, Southampton-pl. New-rd. 

llyde,Geo. Esq. 3, .Melburg-terrace, Dorset-sq. 

Hyde, George, Esq. Norwich 

Hyde, Mr. W. H. Bookseller, Newcastle, Staf- 
fordshire. 4 Copies 

Hyder, W. Esq. Canterbury 

Hyndman,J. B. Esq. Trinity Coll. Cambridge. 

2 Copies 

I. 

Ibbelson, Mrs. 37, Wilton-crescent 
Ichuster, Leo, Esq. 50, Spring-gardens, Man- 
chester 
Iggulden, John, Esq. Doclors'-commons 
llbeit, \\'m. Roope, Esq. Horswell House, 

near Kingsbridge, Devon 
Hey, Mr. M. Bookseller, Somerset-st. Port- 
man-squaie. 2 Copies 

Bderton, Robert, Esq. Lemington Hall 
ilderton, Sanderson, Esq. Lemington Hall 
Ing, -Mrs. Martha, Mount Pleasant 
Ingham, Robert, Esq. M.P. Westoe 
Ingle, John, Esq. Stonchouse, Devon 
Ingle, Thomas, Esq. Lynn Regis, Norfolk 
Ingleby.C. Esq. Ansiwick, nr. Settle, Yorkshire 
Inglis, Henry, Esq. F^dinburgh 
Ingpen, ]■;. Esq. 27,Burlon-st. Bnrton-cresceut 
Ingram, E. F'sq. Town Mailing, Kent 
Ingram, G. Esq. Cranbrook, Kent 
Ingram, Rev. Dr. James, President of Trinity 

College, Oxford 
Ingram, .^ir. John, 29, City-road 
Innes, Captain, iMill-hill, Middlesex 
Ipswich Liteiarv Inslitu'.ioii 
lRELA.M),Rig'htllon.theLordChitfJusticeof 
Ireland, W. Esq. AldtTmanbury 
Irving, John, jun. Esq. New Broad-street 
Irving, W. R. Esq. Trinity College, Cambridge 
Isaacs, Elias, ICsq. 51, Si. Mary Axe 
Isaacson, Harvest, Esq. Monnioulli 
Isaacson, Mr. J. 23, llury-sl. St. Mary Axe 
Isaacson, Rev. J. M.A. St. John's College, 

Cambridge 
Isherwood,John, Esq. Irwell-place, Broughton, 

near .Manchester 
Islington Literary and Scientific Society 
Ismay, .Mr. Wigioii 
halt, Mr. Thomas, jun. George Inn, Colten- 

ham, near Cambridge 
Ives, Mrs. Calton, Norfolk 



J. 

.fack. Rev. .•Vrehibald. Tynemoulh 
.lackson. Captain, H.X. .Milford 
Jackson, Charles, Esq. Doncaster 



xxxxiv 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Jaclcson, Mrs. Eliz. 4, Regent's-pl. Regent-sq. 
Jackson, Mr. G. BooksUr. Hastings. 2 Copies 
Jackson, J. S. Esq. District Bank, Manchester 
Jackson, J. V. Esq. 1, Auburn-st. Mancliester 
Jackson, Messrs. J. & J. Booksellers, Loutli. 

5 Copies 
Jackson, Rich. Esq. Parliament-st. Hull 
Jackson, Robt. Esq. Burmantofts Grove, Leeds 
Jackson, \Vm. Esq. 8, Church-lane, Liverpool 
Jackson, William G. Esq. Wisbeach, Norfolk 
Jackson &,Co. Messrs. Booksellers, St. Paul's 
Church-yard. 2 Copies 

Jacob, Ebenezer, Esq. ilf.P. 14, Manchester- 
buildings 
Jameeson,Mr. R. 186, St.Vincent-st. Glasgow 
James, Rev. Edward, Vicarage, Alton 
James, Mr. E. Duke's Head, Rochester 
James, Henry, Esq. Trinity Coll. Cambridge. 
James, Hoskin, Esq. Town Clerk of Truro 
James, Captain Joseph, R.N. Exeter 
James, James, Esq. Stroud, Kent 
James, Mr. Jameson, Leith 
James, Lieut. R. B. li.N. Commander of H.M. 

Packet Spey, Falmouth 
James, Robert, Esq. Glastonbury 
James,W.B. Esq. 3, Gloucester-place, New-rd. 
James, W. B. Esq. Brunswick-square, Bristol 
James, \Vm. Tice, Esq. Glastonbury 
James, W. T. Esq. R.N. John's Coffee-house 
James, William, Esq. IMaidstone 
Jameson, John, Esq. Edmburgh 
Jameson, James, Esq. Leith 
Jamieson, R. Esq. 32, Argyle-street, Glasgow 
Janes, John, Esq. Stock Exchange 
Jansnn, U. H. Esq. PeunsylvaniaPark, E.\eter 
Jardine, Sir Henry, Knt. 123, Prince's-street, 

Edinburgh 
Jarrold & Son, Messrs. Booksellers, Norwich. 

2 Copies 
Jarvis,L. W. Esq. Lynn Regis, Norfolk 
Jaulerry, Gerard, Esq. 15, King's-arms-yard 
Java Sourabaya Book Club 
Jebb, R. Esq. Chirk, Denbighshire 
Jefferson, W. B. Esq. Ballaholt, Isle of Man 
JEFEERY, Right Hon. Lord, Edinburgh 
Jeffery & Son, Messrs. Booksellers, 4, Pall-mall 
Jefl'rey, ]\Ir. \V. R. Abhibrd, Kent 
Jemnielt, William, Esq. Ashford, Kent 
Jenkins, Alfred, Esq. Trewergie, Redruth 
Jenkins, C. E. Esq. 13, Great Prescot-street 
Jenkins, George, Esq. Thames Ditton 
Jenkins, .lames, Esq. Chepstow 
Jenkins, Rev. William, Vicar of Sidmouth 
Jenkins, Henry, Esq. Sidmouth, Devon 
Jennard, William, Esq. Kemp Town, Brighton 
Jenner, H. Esq. 1, Chesterfield-street 
Jennett, Mr. T. Bookseller, Stockton-on-Tees 
Jenney, W. Esq. Newton Hall, King's Newton, 

Derby 
Jennings, G. Esq. Dover 
Jennings, George, sen. Esq. Buckland 
Jennings, J. Esq. Evershot, Dorset 
Jephson, C. D. O.Esq. M.F. Mallow Castle, 
Mallow 

Jerningham,Hon.E.S.Esq.9,SouthAudley-st. 
Jerningham, Hon. H. V. S. M.P. 11, Gros- 

venor-slreet 
Jervis, Edward, Esq. Christ Church, Oxford 
Jesse, Jos. Abbott, Esq . Princess-st. Manchester 
Jessop, E. Esq. Storekeeper, Royal Dock-yard, 

Devonport 
Jessop|i, Francis, Esq. Wardwick, Derby 
Jevons, Thcs. Esq. Tabley-street, Liverpool 
Jew, Mr. Thos. BooksUr, Gloucester. 3 Copies 



Jewsbury, T. Esq. Market-street, Manchester 
Jobling, John, Esq. 4, Eldon-pl. Newcastle- 

on-Tyne 
Johnes, J. Esq. Dolecothy, Carmarthenshire 
Johns, Edward, Esq. Penryn, Cornwall 
Johnson, Mr. Edward, Croydon 
Johnson, George, Esq. Addenbrock's Hospital, 

Cambridge 
Johnson, Henry, Esq. 39, Crutched-fiiars 
.Tohnson, J. Esq. Liverpool 
Johnson, Mr. J. Bksllr. Sidney-st. Cambridge 
Johnson, Dr. Jas. Physician Extraordinary to 

the King, 8, Suttblk-pl. Pall-mall 
Johnson, James, Esq. High-street, Manchester 
Johnson, Mr. James, Tudor-stieet 
Johnson, Mr. James, Skylark Revenue Cruiser, 

Milford station 
Johnson, Prior, Esq. Aldborough, Suffolk 
Johnson, R. Esq. Bute Iron Works, Merlbyr 

Tydvil 
Johnson, S.Esq. DowningCollege, Cambridge 
Johnson, Thos. Esq. St. Ann's-sq. Manchester 
Johnson, Thomas, Esq. Alderman of London 
Johnston, Dr. N.J. Suffolk-place 
Johnston, James, Esc[. of Sliaiton 
Johnston, R. Esq. 10, Upper Thames-street 
Jolifl'e, C. Esq. Alderney Cottage, near Poole, 

Dorset 
JoUiffe, W. E. Esq. Southampton 
Jones, A. Esq. Kirk Ella, Hull 
Jones, Arthur, Esq. 13, Judil-place, East 
Jones, C. Chadwicke, Esq. Milre-ct. Temple 
Jones, C. K. Esq. Downing Coll. Cambridge 
Jones, D. E. Esq. 46, S,disbury-sq. Fleet-street 
Jones, I^denThos. Esq.ThorntonVilla, Clifton 
Jones, Edw. Esq. 3, Dale-street, Manchester 
Jones, Mr. Edward, Pendre, Holywell 
Jones, Mr. Edward, 157, Strand 
Jones, Francis, Esq. 5, Ludgate-hill 
Jones, II. Esq.York-st. Cheelham, Manchester 
Jones, Mr. Hugh, Beaumaris 
Jones, Rev. H. Wynne, Llansantfraid 
Jones, Rev. H. A. M.A. Magdalen College, 

Cambridge 
Jones, Col. Sir J. T. Bart. Royal Engineers 

Brighton 
Jones, J. Esq. Friar-gale, Derby 
Jones, J. Esq. New Cross, Wolverhampton 
.lones, .Tames, Esq. Bradford-st. Birmingham 
Jones, Mr. Jasper, Bookseller, Shrewsbury 
Jones, John, Esq. Stock Exchange 
Jones, John, Esq. 44, Portland-place 
Jones, John, Esq. Oswestry 
Jones, John, Esq. Brecon 
Jones, Mr. John, Portsea 
Jones, Rev. M. W. Ospringe, Kent 
Jones, W. Esq. Great RusseU-st. Bloomsbury 
Jones, Rich. Esq. 17, Juvenal-street, Liverpool 
Jones, Capt. Theobald, li.N. 
Jones, Captain Thomas, Liverpool 
Jones, Lieut. Thomas, U.iV. 2, Duchess-street 
Jones, Mr. T. Saville place, Leicester-square 
Jones, Thos. Esq. F.R. A.S. Charing-cross 
Jones, Thomas Carr, Esq. 15, Cooper's-row 
.Tones, W. Esq. Hayle-place, near Maidstone 
Jones, Mr. Walter, 15, High-street, Islington 
Jones, Warren Willar, Esq. B.A. Caius Coll. 

Cambridge 
Jones, Mr. William, Rhayader, South Wales. 

2 Copies 
Jones, William, Esq. Market-st. Manchester 
Jones, William, Esq. Cardiff 
Jones, William, Esq. Oldham 
Jones, William, Esq. Crosby-square 



Jortin, J. Esq. Charlotte-street, Bedford-square 

Joule, Benjamin. Esq. Salford 

Jowett, J. Esq. Mayor of Asbton-under-Lyne 

Jowett, Miss, Biadlbrd, Yorkshire 

Joy, H. 11. Esq. U, Gt. Queen-st. Westminster 

Joy, John, Esq. Cheam, Surrey 

Joy, William, Esq. Northwold, Norfolk 

Joyce, Mr. F". Southampton 

Joyce, Miss Helen, Hampstead 

Judd, William, Esq. Curzoii Lodge, Old 

Brompton 
Judge, James Bourne, Esq. Ramsgate 



K. 



Kalm, Mr. Von, Gentleman of the Chase, 

Court of Brunswick 
KAlvOLYE, Count George, Vienna 
KAROLYE, Count Stephen, Vienna 
Kaslake, J.W. Esq. Magdalen Coll. Cambridge 
Kay, Alexander, Esq. Provost of Dundee 
Kay, Charles, Esq. Woodhouse-lane, Leeds 
Kay, Robt. B. Esq. Friars Hill, Sussex 
Kay, Samuel, Esi.|. Ashton 
Kearney, J. Cuthbert, Esq. Garrett's Town 
Kearney, Major, Queen's Bays, Norwich 
Keasberry, Edward H. Esq. Fifehead, Dorset 
Keay, James, Esq. 130, Prince's-st. Edinburgh 
Keeling, \\'m. Esq. M.A. St. John's College, 

Cambridge 
Keeling, G. Esq. 6,NewCannon-st. Manchester 
Keen, \V. Esq. Canterbury 
Keene, Charles, Esq. 102, New Bond-street 
Keene, S. B. Esq. 7, Great Coram -street 
Keene, Thomas, Esq. 6, Garlick-hiU 
Kekewich, Samuel Trehawke, Esq. Peamore, 

near Exeter 
Kelland, P. Esq. Queen's College, Cambridge 
Kelly, Thomas, Esq. Alderman of London 
Kelly, Wm. Esq. Monte Cassino, Isle of Man 
Kelsey, F.J.Escp Harnham Cliff, Salisbury 
Kemball, Lieut. W. li. JR. N 33, Queen-sq. 

Bristol 
Kemp, Captain, Fort Pitt, Chatham 
Kempson, Mr. Robert, Bookseller, 51, Lower 

Sackville-street, Dublin 
Kendal, Friends' Book Society 
Kendra, Wm. Esq. 33, MiU-slreet, Leeds 
Kendrick, Mrs. Clovelly, Devon 
Kendrick, Wm. E<q. 63, Stockwell, Glasgow 
KENMURE, Right Hon. Lord Viscount 
Kennaway, Mark, Esq. Exeter 
Kennedy, Hon. J. 24, Bryanston-square 
Kennedy, Mr. Robert, 59, Stockwell, Glasgow 
Kennedy, Thomas, Esq. Hav.mnah-st. Glasgow 
Kennedy, W. Esq. 9, Duke-st. IManchester 
Kenneit, iNIr. R. J. Bookseller, York-street 
Kennck, Miss, Peterborough 
Kensington Book Society 
Kensington, Edw. Esq. 17, St. Dunstan's-hill 
Kent, B. Goolden, Esq. Levant Lodge, near 

Upton-upoii-Severn 
Kent, George, Esq. Falcon-street, London 
Kent, John K. Ivsq. 33, Craven-street, Strand 
Kent, William, Esq. Bathwick-hill, Bath 
Kenworthy, J. Esq. Byrom-st. Manchester 
Kenyon, Hon. Thomas, Pradoe 
Keppel, Hon. Capt. Henry, It.N.l, James-st. 

Adelphi 
Keppel, Hon.T. R. ii.A^, 1, James-st. Adelphi 
Keppel, Lieut, ^as. R.N. 1, James-st. Adelphi 
Ker, John Bellenden, Esq. Southampton 
Ker, John, Esq. 127, Brunsvvirk-sl. Glasgow 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Ker, Thos. C. Esq. 11, Fiirnival's-inn 
Ker, W. jun. Esq. 5, Ccvent-gardeii, Liverpool 
Kerfoot, Tlio. H. Esq. 9, Breiid-st. Cheapside 
Kernot, Price, 5c Co. Jlessrs. Commercial-road, 

Limehouse. 2 Copies 

Kerr, Arch. Esq. 18, Glassford-street, Cdasijow 
Kerr, Jolin, Esq. 2, Royal-cres. Edmburgh 
KEHR, Hon. Lord Mark 
Kerr, Mr. W. Bookseller, Duke-st. I\Iaiichcs- 

ter-sq. 2 Copies 

Kerr, Niven, Esq. 4, Great Winchester-street 
Keir, P. Esq. Marsdeii-square, Manchester 
Kerrick, Richard Ednard, Esq. Cambridge 
Kerry, iMr. Richard, 20, Cork-street 
Kerschner, J. Esq. 10, Wiimington-square 
Kershaw, E. N. Esq. Catton liall, Lichfield 
Kershaw, James, Esq. High-street, Manchester 
Kershaw, Rev. John, Maidstone 
Kershaw, Mrs. Park-place, Leeds 
Kettlewell, W. Esq. Clapham, Surrey 
Key, Jonathan II. Esq. llampstead 
Key, Sir John, Bart. Bedford-square 
Key, Lady, Bedford-square 
Key, Mrs. S. Stone, Slattbrd. 3 Copies 

Kibble, Mr. J. 30, South Hanover-st. Glasgow 
Kibblewhite, James, Esq. Gray's-iiin-place 
KILDARE, Right Rev. the Lord liishopof 
Kilmarnock, Tradesmen's Library of 
KILMOREY, Right Hon. the Eail of 
Kinchant, R. H. Esq. Park Hall, Oswestry 
Kinder, Mr. V\ m. 25, John-st. Bedford-row 
King, Capt. Andrew, R.]\'. Superintendent 

of Packets, Falmouth 
King, Benj. Esq. Stowmarket, SufTulk 
King, Mr. E. Bookseller, Wycombe 
liing, George, Esq. Redbridgo, Southampton 
King, Capt. Hon.J.W. iv.A^ Craiibrook, Kent 
King, Captain J. H.yi.P.V. Messenger 
King, James, Esq. 4,Tavistock-place 
King, Commander John, Ji.jV. Portskewitt, 

near Chepstow 
King, John, Esq. Corhampton House, near 

Droxford, Hants 
King, John, Esq. 27, King-street, Portsea 
King, Rev. Joshua, D. D. President of Queen's 

College, Cambridge 
King, Knovvles, Esq. Maidstone 
King, Matthew, Esq. Port Glasgow 
King, Mr. Bookseller, Leamington 
King, R. M. Esq. Pyrland Hall, near Taunton 
King, Samuel, Esq. Acorn-terrace, Limehouse 
King, Mr. Thomas, Bookseller, Southampton 
King, Thomas, Esq. Alvesdiston, Wilts 
King, Messrs. W'. 5c T. New-ct. Broad-slreet 
King, Rev. Walker, Archdeacon of Rochester 
KINGSBOROL'GH, Rt. Hon. Lord \iscount 
Kingsbury, i\L B. Esq. Bungay, Suffolk 
Kingsford, Alfred, Esq. Buckland, near Dover 
Kingsford, Edward, Esq. Canterbury 
Kingston, Thomas, Esq. 13, Crescent, Clifton 
Kinnmard, A. Esq. St. Andrew's-st. Dundee 
Kinsey, Rev. W. M. Cheltenham 
Kinsman, Capt. R. J. Green Bank, Falmouth 
Kinsman, Major, II M. Stonehouse, Devon 
Kipling, ^L■. Robert, Barnard Castle. 4 Copies 
Kirhy, William, I'.sq. York 
Kirk, Henry, I'.sq. Parrs House, Heaton Nor- 

ris, Stockport 
Kirk, Thomas, Esq. 10, Syraonds-inn 
Kirkley, ICdward, Esq. 

Kirkness, Capt. W. Stratton-place, Falmouth 
Kirkman, J. Esq. 21, Mosley-st. Manchester 
Kirk Patrick, (!. Esq. Keston 
Kirwan, K. Esq. King's College, Cambridge 



Klage, l\Ir. C. Bookseller, Berlin. 5 Copies 
Knatchbull, Rev. Dr.Wyndhain, Snieelh, Kent 
Knatchbull, l{ight Hon. Sir Edward, Barl. 

3/. P. Merstham, Kent 
Kneeshavv, Captain, i?. A'. Rochester 
Knight, Charles, Esq. 22, Ludgate-.slrect 
Knight, I'.dward, jun. Esq. Cliawton House, 

Alton, Hants 
Knight, ( leoi;;e Andrew, Esq. Truro 
Knight, Mr. II. Poole, Dorset 
Knight, I. ICsq. 1, (ireenwood-st. Manchester 
Knight, J. Esq. New Walk, Leicester 
Knight, Mr. James Young, Kirkgate, Leeds. 

2 Copies 
Knight, James, Esq. Southampton 
Knight, James, Esq. Pall-mall,. Manchester 
Knight, Caiit. James, jun. 9, Glouccsler-sq. 

Soulhampton 
Knight, .lohn, Esq. Farnham, Hants 
Knight, Mr. John, Crawley, Susse.\. 4 Copies 
Knight, Stephen, Esq. Portrealh, near Redruth 
Knight, T. Esq. Alton, Hants 
Knight, Rev. W. Steventon Rectory, Hants 
Knight, William, Esq. 1, Canonbury-place 
Kntll, J. Esq. 20, Addinglon-pl. Camberwell 
Knowles, John, Esq. Crawley 
Knowles, Josh. I',sq. Church-street, Manchester 
Kiiowles, W. Esq. Clifton, (ilouceslershire 
Knowles 5c Brown, Messrs. Rotlierliam,Y'orksh. 
Kno.x, Cieorgp, Esq. Barnard Castle 
Knox, Hon. Tlios. St. John's Coll. Cambridge, 

and Barham House, Elstree 
Knox, .Mr. Robert, 13, Exchange-pl. Glasgow 
Kray 5c ]{ullray, Messrs. Dock-street, Dundee 
Kruse, Mr. Peter, Chelsea 
KrusenstPrn, Vice-Admiral, St. Petersburg 
Krusenstierna.Capt. /?.iV. Cailskrona, Sweden 
Kuller, Mr. James, Seagate, Dundee 
Kusteman, Mjr.W.B. Brews House, Milverton 
Kynaston, John, Esq. Poole, Dorset 
Kyrke, James, Esq. Glascoed, near Wrexham 



L. 



Laboucliere, Henry, Esq. HI. P. 

Labrey, Thos. Esq. .Market-street, Manchester 

Lace, F. .1. I'',sq. Ingthorpe Grange, Yorkshire 

Lachlan, J. I'.sq. Great Alie-street 

Lacy, II. C. I'.sq. Kinyon Hall, Manchester 

Lade, James, Esq. Port Glasgow, N.B. 

Ladell, W illiani, Esq. Braconsdale, Norfolk 

Laen, .Mr.T.7{.A'. lilackaulen,near Dartmouth 

Lafargue, Peter Augustus, Esq. Husband's 

Bosworth, Leicestershire 
Laforest, William, Esq. 8, Bedford-row 
Lagerstrale, Admiral, P. G. Carlskrona 
Lahee, Clias. Esq. 32, Cheyne-walk, Chelsea 
Laid, Thomas, Esq. Port tilasgow, N.B. 
Laing, Mrs.C. 38,Gt.Coram-st. Brunswick-sq. 
Laing 5c Forbes, .Messrs. Booksellers,Glasgow. 

5 Copies 
Lake, Rev. .\. West Walton, near Wisbeach 
Lake, R. Esq. 29, Keppel-sireet, Russell-sq. 
Lake, Mr. \\ m. Bookseller, L xbridge.3Copies 
La JIaiche, J. B. Esq. Iligh-st. Hull 
Lambe, H. Y. Esq. Truro 
Lambert, A. B. Esq. 26, Grosvenor-street 
Lambert, C. Esq. Blendon Hall, Bexley, Kent 
Lambert, J. Esq. liawkhurst, Kent 
I.amond, R. Esq. 60, Ingram-street, Glasgow 
Lampeel, C. W. Esq. Clare Hall, Cambridge 
Lancashire, Mr.T. G. UooksUer, Huddeisfield. 

04 Conies 



Lander,D. O. Esq. Custom IIouse,Poole,Dorset 
Lane, Rev. Charlton, A.M. Ellham-place 

Kennington 
Lane, Fred. Esq. Lynn, Norfolk 
Lane,.!. Esq. 30, Canonbury -.square, Islington 
Lane, John, Esq. Goldsmiths' Hall 
Lane, Joseph, Esq. Cheadle, near Stockport 
Lane, Michael, Esq. Braintree 
Lane, William, Esq. Stockport 
Lang, A. G. Esq. 02, Buchanan-st. Glasgow 
Lang, David, Esq. 37,\irgiiiia-street, Glasgow 
Lang, Owen, I'.sq. Woolwich Dock-yard 
Langdale, C. Esq. 9, Newlon-ter. Kennington 
Langdale,Hoii. C. M.P. 20, SackviUe-street 
Langley, H. Esq. Dover 
Langston, J. H. I'.sq. 31. P. 143, Piccadilly 
Langton,Capt. E. Gore, St. George's, Bristol 
I.aiigton, Col. Gore, M.P. Grosvenor-stiuare 
Langlon, John Bicknell, Esq. Heme-hill 
Langton, Zachaiy, Esq. 0, Bedford -row 
Lankester, Thomas, Esq. Bewdley 
Lapwonh, Mr. R. Bookseller, Stratford-on- 
Avon. 8 Copies 

Large, Mr. W. IL 12, Castle-square, Brighton 
Larkins, Capt. Thomas, Quendon, Essex 
Lascelles, Hon. Henry, 14, Hanover-square 
Latham, W. Esq. 8, St. Ann's-street, Liverpool 
La Touche, David Charles, Escp Dublin 
Latter, Edwd. A. Esq. ol, Ship-st. Brighton 
Latter, R. B. Esq. Bromley, Kent 
Launceston Public Subscription Library 
Laurie, .Sir Peter, Knt. Alderman of London 
Laurie, Mr. R. IL Bookseller, 53, Fleet-street. 

3 Copies 
Lavender, Mr. Barton House, Ropley, Hants 
Laver, Mr. C. 38, Speldhurst-st. Burion-cres. 
Laviiic, W.(;. Esq. 16, Princess-st. Manchester 
Law, G. Esq. 10, New-square, Lincoln's-inn 
Law, James, Esq. Seagate, N.B. 
Lawdav, Thos. Esq. A\enue-de-Caen, Rouen 
I.awdo.vn, John, Esq. Ailiany-place, Glasgow 
Lawlord, I'.dward, Esq. Draoers' Hall 
Lawfoid,.\dmiral John, Arundel-street,Strand 
Lawfoid, John, Esq. Drapers' Hall 
Lawrence, Isaac, Esq. W ailing-street 
Lawrie, John, Estp 1, Robert-st. Adelphi 
Lawrie, Patrick, Esq. West End, llampstead 
Laws, James E. Esq. Yarmouth, Norfolk 
I..awson, Arch. F'sq. 80, Miller-st. t;ia<gow 
I«iwson, DeC. IL Esq. 6, Woodland-pl. Bath 
I.awson, William, Esq. 39, St. Mary-at-hill 
Lax, Charles, Esq. Wells, Somersetshire 
Lax, Joseph, Esq. Bristol. 4 Copies 

Ijiyton Ladies' Book Society 
Lea, Mr. J. E. BksUr. Gloucester. 2 Copies 
Leach, George, Esq. Stoke 
Leach, Henry, Esq. Collector of IL M. Cus- 
toms, Milford. 2 Copies 
Leadbetter, Mr. J. 77, Queen-street, Glasgow 
Leadbitler, John, Esq. York 
Leaf, Edwin, Esq. Eist Dulwich. 2 Copies 
Leaf, .Mrs. East Uulwich 
Leaf, W illiam, Esq. GUI 'Change 
Leahy, Daniel, Esq. Shananeil, Cork 
Leake, John, Esq. Stock Exchange 
Lean, John Sluckey, Esq. South-hill, Sbep- 

ton .Mallet 
Leather, J. W. Esq. Leeds 
Le Blanc, T. Esq. 05, Paper-bldgs. Temple 
Lecesne, L.C. Esq. 1 1, Fenchurcli-buildings 
Ledgard.G. Esq. Poole, Dorset 
Lee, Chas. Esq. 20, Golden-square 
Lee, Charles, Esq. Leeds 
Lee, Daniel, Esq. 24, Cannon-st. Manchester 



txxxvi 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Lee, F.Valentine, Esq.Caltliorpe-street, Meck- 

lenbursih-square 
Lee, G. Esq. 71, Lombard-street 
Lee, Henry, jun. Esq. Cliiswell-street 
Lee, J. L. Esq. Bradford, Yorkshire 
Lee, Dr. John, 31, Bedford-place, Russell-sq. 
Lee, Mr. Jolin, Booksr. Cheltenham. 2 Copies 
Lee, Mr. John, Bradford, Yorkshire 
Lee, L. L. Esq. 17, Old Broad-street 
Lee, Lieut.-Col.Elford Breton ,Top3hani, Devon 
Lee, Robert, Esq. Welton, Hull 
Lee, Wm. Esq. Prospect House, Montpellier 
Lee, William, Esq. St. Sidwell's, Exeter 
Leechnian, Jas. Esq. RlelviUe-place, Glasgow 
Leeds Literary Institution 
- — — New Subscription Library 

Philosophical and Literary Society 

Leefe, J. E. Esq. Trinity College, Cambridge 
Lees, Adam, Esq. Ardwick, Manchester 
Lees, J. Esq. Stamford-crescent, Ashton- 

under-Lyne 
Leescombe, E. R. Esq. Christ Church, O.xford 
Leese, Jos. jun. Esq. Ardwick, Manchester 
Leeson, Robert, Esq. Dawlish, Devon 
Le-Feuvre, W. Esq. Mayor of Southampton 
Lefevre, Chas. S. Esq. M.P. 35, Eaton-place 
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Legg, Thomas, sen. Esq. 230, Bermondsey 
Legg, Thos. Esq. Abbey House, Bermondsey 
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Legge, Hon. Admiral, Sir A. K. K.C.B 

Blackheatli 
Legge, Hon. Captain, Blacklieath 
Legge, George, Esq. Ely, Cambridge 
Legge, Rev. Geo. 7, Kington-buildings, Bristol 
Legge, Hon. H. Dartmouth Grove, Blacklieath 
Legge, Hon. and Rev. Henry, Blackheath 
Le Hunte, G. Esq. Trinity College, Cambridge 
Leigh, C. Esq. Christ College, Cambridge 
Leigh, Robert, Esq. Taunton 
Leigh, W. Esq. 37, Market-st. Manchester 
LEINSTER, His Grace the Duke of 
Leir, Rev. Paul, Charlton Mnsgrove, Somerset 
Leister, John, Esq. 32, Booth-st. Manchester 
Leitch, Capt. John, Ship Montreal, Liverpool 
Lemare, E. N. Esq. Broughton View, Man- 
chester 
Le Merchant, Rev. J. Newport, Isle of Wight 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Ban. M.P. F.Jt.S. 46, 

Charles-street, Beikeley-square 
Lemon, i\Ir. Palmer House Academy,Holloway 
Leo, H. Esq. 4, Bond-street, Manchester 
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street, Lincoln's-inn-fields 
Lester, Major,W.H.//.£.LC. Army, Taunton 
Lestourgeon, Charles, Esq. Cambridge 
Letham^Mr. Patrick, 49, Virginia-st. Glasgow 
Lethbridge, J. H. Esq. Sandhill Park, Taunton 
Ledibridge, Sir Thomas Buckler, Bart. Sand- 
hill Park, near Taunton 
Lett, John, Esq. Brixton Rise 
Lett, Mrs. INIary, Mosley-street,' Manchester 
Letton,Mr. George, White Lion Inn, Wisbeach 
Letts, Messrs. Booksellers, Royal E.xcliange. 

13 Copies 
Levesque, P. Esq. 29, Guildford-street 
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Levicn, John, Esq. Slock Exchange 
Levy, Mr. Charles, Rochester 



Lewin, R. H. Esq. March, Cambridge 

Lewin, Thomas, Esq. Bexley, Kent 

Lewis, D. Esq. 28, ArtiUery-pl.Vv'est Finsbury 

Lewis, D. B. Esq. Rochester 

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Manchester 
Lewis, Mr. J. 53, Gt. Russell-st. Bloomsbury 
Lewis, James, Esq. 27, Great Rusiell-street 
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Ley, Rev. Carrington, Bere Regis, Dorset 
Ley, James S. Esq. Durant House, Devon 
Leyland, Rd. B. Esq. Walton Hall, Liverpool 
Library of 50th Regt. ofFoot 
LICHFIELD, Rt. Hon. the Earl of 
Lichfield Permanent Library 
Liddle, Wm. Esq. 89, High John-st. Glasgow 
Liebert, B. Esq. Ilalfmoon-slreet, Manchester 
Liebieich, Edward E. Esq. Leeds 
LIEVEN, His Highness the Prince of 
LIE\'EN, Prince Paul 
Lignum, Dr. Bridge-street, Manchester 
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LINCOLN, The Earl of,il/.P. 
Lincoln Monthly Book Society 
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LINDSAY, Right Hon. Lord 
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Lindsay, Thos. S. Esq. Dublin 
Lindsell, Mr. H. Bookseller, 87, Wimpole-st. 

2 Copies 
Lisle, Rev. W. B. M. St. Fagan's,Glamorgansh. 
LISTOWEL, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Little, Mrs. Cripplegate House, \Vorcester 
Little, Capt. T. Smack Swan, Liverpool 
Littledale, Thomas, Esq. Liverpool 
LitUehales, Rear-Adm. 6, Campden-pl.Bath 
Livermore, James, Esq. 21, Tower-street 
Liverpool, Clarendon Book Society of 
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Friends' Book Society 

. Library 

Union Book Societv 



Livesey, A. Esq. Church-street, Manchester 
Living, Sir. William, Clapham-road-place 
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ham, Manchester 
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Lloyd, Mr. E. Bksllr. 57, Harley-st. 4 Copies 
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Lloyd's, The Committee of 



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Locke, J. B. Esq. 12, Church-st. Jlanchester 
Locke, John, Esq. 2, Harcourt-buildings 
Locke, T. B. Esq. Hessle-mount, Hull 
Lockett, Mr. J. Apple-market, jNIanchestei- 
Lockett, William J. Esq. Wardwick, Derby 
Lockwood, Rev. C. B. Bury St. Edmund's 
Lockwood, j\Irs. Betchworth, Surrey 
Lockwood, Miss, Betchworth, Surrey 
Loder, Mr. R. Bookseller, Brighton. 6 Copies 
Lodge, J. Esq. Magdalen College, Cambridge 
Lodge, Mrs. Carlisle 
Loft, Thomas C. Esq. Hull 
LOFTUS, Lord Adam, Baliol College, Oxford 
Loftus, Chas. Esq. Little Dunham, Norfolk 
Log, T. Esq. Caius College, Cambridge 
Lomas, Thos. Esq. Market-street, Manchester 
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Lomax, Mr. F. G. Bookslr. Lichfield. 6 Copies 
Lomax, John, Esq. Bury, Lancashire 
Lomax, Major-Gen. 9, Park-street, Bristol 
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LONDON, Right Hon. The Lord Mayor 
(II. Winchester, Esq.) 

The Sheriffs of, and of Middlesex, 

(Mr. Alderman Ilarmer, and 
Mr. Alderman Wilson) 

The Recorder of (Hon.C. Ewaa 

Law) 

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thorpe, Esq. LL.D. F.S.A.) 

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hoiise, Esq.) 

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Tyrrell, Esq.) 
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man, Esq.) 
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Assurance Company 

Institution 

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Long, Peter B. Esq. Ipswich 
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Long, Waller, Esq. Preshaw House, Alresford 
Longdon, Robert, Esq. 32, Friar-gate, Derby 
Longlands, Henry, Esq. Charlton, Kent 
Longman &. Co. Messrs. Paternoster-row. 

112 Copies 
Longe, Rev. Robert, Coddenham, Suffolk 
Loraine, W. Esq. Eldon-st. Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Lord, Mr. John, Church-row, Hampstead 
Losack, iVIr. R. West Mailing, Kent 
Losweuborg, P. C. S. 1st Lieutenant Swedish 

Royal Navy, CarUkrona 
Loth.ian, T. Esq. 8, Chester-ter. Regent's-park 
LOVAINE, Right Hon. Lord 
Love, W. A. Esq. Downing Coll. Cambridge 
Loveday, Jlajor-Gen. 13, Grosvenor-pl. Bath 
Lovejoy, JMr. G. Bookseller, Reading. 5 Copies 
Lovejoy's Subscription Library, Reading 
Lovelace, Mr. John, Bookseller, 10, Munster- 

street, Regent's-park. 3 Copies 

Lovett, T. Esq. Fernhill Hall, Oswestry 
Low, — . Esq. Lyndhurst, Hants 
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Low, Mr. S. Bookseller, Lamb's Conduit-st. 

3 Copies 
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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



LXXXVII 



Lncas, Charles, Esq. 21, Fenchurch-street 
Lucas, iMatthew Prime, Esq. Alderman of 

London 
Lucas, R. G. Esq. L'niversity Colleije, Oxford 
Lucas, Robert, Esq. 53, Liiicohi's-iiin-tields 
Luck, Ricliard, Esq. Rutland-street, Leicester 
Lukyn, R. Esq. Eaversham, Kent 
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Luscombe, S. Esq. Exeter 
Luslungton, E. S. Esq. Trinity CoU.Cambrldge 
Lu.xmoore, C. J. Esq. Rose-mount, Alphington 
Lyall, George, Esq.^l/.P. 17, Park-crescent 
Lyde, Lionel, Esq. 291, Regent-street 
Lyle,W. G. Esq. 10, Gt. James-st. Ijedford-rvv 
Lynch, John, jun. Esq. Tralee, Ireland 
Lynch, IS'icholas .1. Esq. St. Christopher's 
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Lyne, L. S. Esq. 4, Old Broad-street 
Lyne, Thomas, Esq. Sevenoaks, Kent 
Lynn, Rev. James, Gad's-hiU House, near 

Rochester 
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Lyon, Rev. R. Sherborne, Dorset 
Lys, M. I-".sq. Ridguav. near Lymington 
LYTfELTON, Rrihl'Uon. Lord 
LYTTELTON, Itight lion. theUowager Lady, 

Great Malvern, \\ oicesiershire. 2 Copies 

M. 

Maaivil, Jas. Esq. Crown and Anchor, Fins- 

bnry-pavement 
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Glasgow 
Macallister, Mr. J. Queen's Court, Glasgow 
Mac Bride, JMr. Hugh, Master of Clarence 

Dock, Liverpool 
MACCLESFIELD, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Macclesfield, Library of 
Mac CuUoch, James, Esq. Guernsey 
Macdonald J. Esq. Secretary to the Highlands' 

Society 
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Mac Dougal,Monteith and Co. Messrs. Mexi- 
co, Soutli America 
Blace, J. Ellis, Esq. Tenterden, Kent 
Macfarlane, Rev. Dr. Principal of Glasgow 

College 
Macfarlane, Major J. Frant, Sussex 
Mac Gibbon, Walter, Esq. 26, Glassford-slreet, 

Glasgovv 
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Liverpool 
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Mac Haffies, Mr. Jas. 21, St. Andrew's-sq. 

Glasgow- 
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Glasgow 
Macliii), J. M. Esq. York Club, W'aterloo-pl. 
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jMac Indoe, A. Esq. 125, V'irginia-st. Glasgow 
Mac Intosh, C. Esq. Cross Basket, Glasgow 
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Mackay, Captain, 0th Dragoons 
]\Iackay,T. II. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Mac Kay, Thos. G. Esq. 10, Walker-street 

Edinburgh 
MACKENZIE, Right Hon. Lord, Edinburgh 
Mackenzie, J. J, R. Esq.Trin. Col. Cambridge 



Mackenzie James A. Stewart, Esq. M.P. 8, 

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I'erthshire 
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Maclean, Dr. Allan, Colchester 
Maclean, J. l",sq. Broad-street Chambers 
Mac Lean, James, Esq. Port Glasgow, N. B. 
Mac Lellaii, A. W. D. Esq. 78, MiUer-st. 

Glasgow 
Mac Leod, Colonel D. Oriental Club 
Macnical.A. A. Esq. Lieut. Adj 1. 1 si Royal Regt. 
Madras, Oook Society of the _Madras Euro- 
pean Regiment 
^lagnus, M.irlin L. ICsq. Steel-yard, Upper 

Thames-sireet 
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Magrath, Sir George, AJ.l). J\R S. Plymouth 
Maher, Capt. M.C. W.S.R.Y.C. Taunton 
Mahoiiy, Rev. D. Cork 
MAIDSTONE, Rt. Hon. Lord Viscount 
Maidstone Literary Institution 
Main, Mr. H. INIanchester Steamer, Liverpool 
Jiaine, Rev. John Thos. Rector of Husband's 

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Mainwaring, Sir II. Bart. Peover Hall, Cheshire 
Mainwarina, Uev.Jas. BramboroPark,Cheshire 
Mair, John, Esq. 17, \ ere-street 
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cudbright 
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2 Copies 
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Portsmouth Dock-yard 
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Stewart 
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.Major, Jas. Esq. iMayor of Folkstone, Kent 
Major, \\ m. Esq. 200, Wlutechapel-road 
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Makin, J. Ksq. Brougluon Mills, Manchester 
jAIakins, Charles, Esq. Woodhouse-la. Leeds 
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Malbon, Jas. Esq. 3, Newcastle-st. Strand 
I\Ialcolm, Jesse, Esq. 22, High-street, Hull 
Male, W. H. Esq. Comptroller of His Ma- 
jesty's Customs, St. Christopher's 
j\lalin, R. Esq. 80, Deansgate, Manchester 
.■Mallalieu, Mr. Wm. Bookseller, Merdiyr 
Tydvil. 18 Copies 

Mallard, Peter, l-^sq. Stock Exchange 
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Bristol 
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^I'Alpine, James, Esq. Leilh, N.B. 
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Exchange-street Library 

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-Mandell, Rev. B. D. (Queen's Coll. Cambridge 
.Manico, P. Esq. 11, Soutliampton-sU Covent- 

garden 
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Mann, Jas. Esq. Norwich 



Mann, John Esq. 173, Aldersgale-strcet 
Mann, M. Esq. Church-st. Manchester 
Mann, Robt. Esq Great Bridgewater-streef, 

Manchester 
Manning, Edward B. Esq. Lynn, Norfolk 
Manning, John, Fsq. 2, Dyer's-bldgs. llolbom 
.M inning, W . M. I'.sq. 11, King's-bencli-walk, 

Temple 
Manning, Wm. Esq. 7, One Stone,Mile-end-rd. 
Manningfoid, Jno. Esq. Britol 
Mansell, Captain, li.N. 
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Mansfield Subscription Library 
Manson, Dr. Alex. F.R.S. Nottingham 
Manton, Edward, Esq. Cheltenham 
MAN\ ERS, Rt. Hon. the Earl of 
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Marcus, II. J. Esq. Leeds 
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Markham, Rev. D. F. Canon of Windsor 
Maikham, William, Esq. Col. 2d West York 

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Markwell, Mr. John, Long's Hotel, Bond-st. 
Marlborough Book Society 
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Marples, .Messrs. D. and Co. 05, Lord-street, 

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Shields 
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Marriott, J. C. Esq. Narborough, Norfolk 
Marriott, Mrs. Horsham, Sussex 
JMarriott, Rev. W. M. S. llorsemanden, Kent 
Marryat, .Mrs. Wimbledon House, Wimbledon 
JIarsh, G. H. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Marsh, Mr. Bookseller, Yoik. 2 Copies 

Marsh, Mr. Thos. Bookseller, York 
Marshall, Benjamin A. Esq. St. Peter's ColL 

Cambridge 
ilarshall. Sir Chapman, Knt. Alderman of 

London 
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Marshall, Captain, J. U.N. Upnor, Kent 
Jlarshall, J. Esq. Water-lane, Leeds 
Marshall, J. jun. Esq. Water-lane, Leeds 
-Marshall, J. G. Esq. Water-lane, Leeds 
Marshall, J. S. Esq. 11, New Brown-sl. Man- 
chester 
Slarshall, John, Esq. Elm, Cambridge 
Marshall, Lady, 43, Russell-square 
-Marshall, .Mr.M.H. 1 2 l,Princes-st. Edinburgh 
Marshall, P. Esq. Surgeon, Slicpton Mallett 
Marshall, Air. R. Alton, Hants 
Marshall, Thos. Esq. Fenny, IluddersfieU 
Marshall, Capt. W. 20, Circus, Greenwich 
Marshall, Mr. Wm. 11, Grcen-ter. New River 

Head 
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MARSllAM, Right Hon. Lord \iscount 
Jlarsham, Rev. G. Allingtoii, Kent 
Marsham, Joseph, Esq. Fig-court, Temple 
Marsland, Henry, Esq. M.l'. Stockport 
."Marsland, Thomas, Esq. M.l'. Stockport 
Marten, William, Esq. Bradford, Yoikshire 
-M'.Vrthur, D. Esq. Park street, Bristol 
.Martin, Dr.A. Chalham 
.Martin, Chas. Esq. 81, Rue Aux Ours, Rouen 
Martin, Adml.SirG. O'.C.Zi. 51, Bcrkcley-sq. 
.Martin, Rev. George, Chaucellor of the Dio- 
cese of Exeter 



LXXXVIII 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Martin, J. A. Esq. Sidbrook, near Taunton 
Martin, R. Esq. 13, Bank Parade, Manchester 
Martin, Simon, Esq. Norwich 
Martin, Sir Roger, Bart. Burnham, Norfolk 
Martin, Adml. Sir Tliomas Byam, G-C.B.K.S. 

Wimpole-street 
Martin, W. Esq. Norwich 
Martyn, Rev. Tiios. W. Li ft on Rectory, Devon 
Martyr, James, Esq. Union Dk.-yd.Limehouse 
Mar.x, G. Esq. 81, Eaton-square 
Maskell, J. Esq. 34, Fore-street 
Mason, Hon. Mrs. Eastland \ ilia, Ryde,Isle 

of Wight 
Massey, Edward, Esq. Norwich 
Massingbend, Mrs.Beckingham,nr.Gainsboro' 
Massoii, Jno. Esq. 5 Lime-street-square 
Master, Lieut. Col. W. E. Knowle Park, near 

Bristol 
Mather, Capt. R. Clayton-street, Liverpool 
Mather, Dr. 112, Irongate, Glasgow 
Mather, Mr. 99, Cilassford-st. Glasgow 
Mathew, Dan. Byam, Esq. St. Christopher's 
Mathew, Nathaniel, Esq. Ixworth, Suflblk 
Matley, Richd. Esq. High-street, Manchester 
Matthews, J. Esq. Gravesend 
Matthews, Saml. Esq. 46, Cheapside 
Matthewson, Wm. Esq. 31, Rose-st. Glasgow 
IVIauchant, Mrs. Elizabeth, 4, Gray's-place 
Maude, Edmund, Esq. 4, Harcourt-buildings, 
Temple. 2 Copies 

Maude, Hon. Capt. J. Ashley, R.N. C.B. 

22, Arundel-st. Strand 
Maude, .Tames, Esq. Kirkgate, Leeds 
Maude, J. M. Esq. 32, Gt.\\'inchester-street 
Maude, Captain \Mlliam, li.N. 30, Abingdon- 

street, Westminster 
Maudslay &. Co. Messrs. Westminster-road 
Maughan, Capt. W. Cheltenham 
Maul, G. Esq, University College, Oxford 
Maunsell, T. P. Esq. Thorpe Malsor, North- 
amptonshire 
Maus, .1. jun. Esq. Huddersfield 
Maw, R. Stovin, Esq. li.N. Horton Lodge, 

Colnbrook, Bucks 
Maxwell, Rev. Geo. Ovver Moigne, Dorset 
Maxwell, Marmaduke Constable, Escj. 

Terregles, near Dumfries 
Maxwell, Mrs. Kirkconnel, near Dumfries 
Maxwell, Peter, Esq. Beckford, Gloucestershire 
Maxwell, Robert, Esq. Charleville 
Maxwell, Sir \V. Bart. Monreith, Wigton 
May, l\Ir. Thos. 49. Conduit-st. Bond-street 
May, Mr. W. 8, Prospect Cottage, Islington 
Maynard, . — .Esq. 32, Sackville-street 
MAYNARD, Rt. Hon. Lady, Easton Lodge 
Mayne.Capt. Charles Otway, R.A'^. 19, Hano- 
ver-terrace 
Mayne, Col. J. C.B. 31, Melville-st. Edinburgh 
Mayne, R. Esq. 42, Melville-st. Edinburgh 
Mayor, George, Esq. 2, Little Distaft'-lane 
Mayor, Henry, Esq. 115, Upper-st. Islington 
Maze, Peter, Esq. Rovvnham Lodge, Bristol 
Maze, Peter, jun. Esq. Sheriff' of Bristol 
M-Bean, Mr. Duncan, 187, Athol-pl. Glasgow 
M'Carthy, Alex. Esq. 4, Mountjoy-square 

East Dublin 
M'Clure, Mr. .Tno. Pecl-st. Manchester 
M'Coll, Dougald, Esq. St. Christopher's 
M'Culloch,A. Esq. Dumfries 
M'Culloch, J. Esq. Pieire Percee, Guernsey 
M'Culloch, Walter, Esq. 139, George-st. Edin 
M'Diarmid, air. J. Couiier Office, Dumfries. 

3 Copies 
IM'Donald, TSlr. James, 164,IIope-st. Glasgow 



M'Donald, Capt. John, H-N. Lewisham 
M'Donald, Mr. Wm. 43, M;ller-st. Glasgow 
M'Donnell, Capt. T. 8, Dorset-pl. Dorset-sq. 
M'Douall, Col. Robert, C.B. Stranraer, N.B. 
ai'Dougald, Colonel, St. Christopher's 
M'Gregor, Alex. Esq. St. Christopher's 
Meadows, Dan. R. Esq. Burghersh House, 

Witnisham, Suflblk 
Mears, Thomas, Esq. Whitechapel 
Mears, Rev. Tlios. Southampton 
Meares, George G. Esq. Cornwallis House, 

Clifton 
Mecham, Capt. Rodwell, Weymouth, Dorset 
Medcalf, Wm. Esq. 17, Hanging Ditch, Man- 
chester 
Medd, John, Esq. Stockport 
MEDWYN, Rt. Hon. Lord, Edinburgh ' 
Meek, James, Esq. Comptroller of Victualling 
Meeking, Charles, Esq. 02, Holborii-hill 
Meeson, Richd. Jas. Esq. Stratford 
Meeson, W. Escp Stone, Staffordshire 
Meggs, Capt. G. Hyde Vale, Greenwich 
Meheux, John, Esq. 52, Hans-pl. Sloane-st. 
Meiklam, W. Esq. Corpus Christi College, 

Oxford 
Meikleliam, ^^"m. Esq. 6, Maxwelton-place, 

Glasgow 
Mein, ?.Ir. Alex. 42, Miller-st. Glasgow 
Meir, Mr. Henry, Bugle Inn, Newport, Isle of 

Wight 
Melander, F.Commanderi?.5'.i\''. Carlskrona 
Mellburn, George, Esq. 13, Milman-street, 

Bed ford-row 
Mellor, Edwin, Esq. Ashton 
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Mellor, J. Esq. 2, Hilton-street, Manchester 
Melmoth, J. P. Esq. Sherborne, Dorse 
Melvil, Robt. A. Esq. 110, Fenchurch-street 
MEL\ ILLE, Rt. Hon. Lord Viscount 
Mendelsolin, J. Esq. Berlin 
Menzies, J. Esq. of Pitfodles, 24, York-place, 

Edinburgh 
Menzies, Sir Niel, Bart. Castle Menzies, 

Edinburgh 
Mercer, John, Esq. IMaidstone 
Mercer, John, jun. Esq. Ramsgate 
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Mercer, John, jun. Esq. Ramsgate 
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Mecklenburgh-square 
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Merivale, J. H. Esq. 15, W'obnrn-place 
Merridew, Mr. H. Library, Coventry 
Merridew, Mr. J. BooksUr. Warwick. lOCopies 
Mestayer, Blrs. Reading, Berks 
Mester, C. H. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Metcalfe, William, Esq. Jesus Coll. Cambridge 
Metevier, C. Esq. 2, Richmond-hill, Clifton 
METTERNICH, His Highness the Prince 
Meux, Sir H. Bart. 19, Great Russell-street 
Mew, Mr. Henry, Newport, Isle of Wight 
Meyrick, Wm. Esq. Merthyr Tydvil 
M'Farlane, John, Esq. George-st. Manchester 
M'Gillivray, S. Esq. Hudson's Bay Company 
M'Gregor, Alex. Esq. Oxford-st. Liverpool 
M'Grigor, Sir J. Bart. 31. D. F.Ji.S. 5, 

Berkeley-street 
Micklethwait, J. R. Esq. Rotherham, Ycrksh. 
Mickleburgh, James, and Son, Messrs. Thanet 

House, Margate 
Michan, Rlr. A. J. 51, Quadrant 
Michel, Rev. James, Sturminster Newton, 

Dorset 
Michell, Capt. J. Fred. R.^i Totness, Devon 



Michell, Edward, Esq. Truro 
jMIDDLETON, Rt. Hon. Lord 
Middleton, Charles, Esq. Crawley 
Middleton, J. Esq. 6, Gloucester-row, Clifton 
ftliddleton, Mr. Wm. 168, George-st. Glasgow 
Miers, Cape!, Esq. Neath 
Miklmay, Paulet St. John, Esq. M.P. East 

Gate House, Winchester 
Miles, Miss Eliza, Clifton, Gloucester5hire 
Miles, Hy. Esq. 2, Middle Teinple-lane 
Miles, Philip John, Esq. M.P. Leigh Court, 

Bristol 
Miles, Roger, Esq. Leicester 
Miles, Wm. Esq. M.P. 7, Hamilton-place 
Miles, Wm. Esq. 10, Dix's Field, Exeter 
Milward, George, Esq. Manor House, Lech- 
lade, Gloucester 
Milford, Samuel, Esq. Truro 
Mill, Sir Charles, Bart. Bury, Southampton 
Mill, J. Esq. Lloyd's Coffee-house 
Millar, Robt. Esq. Cowgate 
Miller and Co. Messrs. 4, Broad-st. Bloorasb. 
Miller, Gorrell House, Barnstaple 
Miller, Horatio, Esq. Market-st. Manchester 
Miller, Mr. John, jun. Library, Portsmouth 
Miller, John, Esq. F.L.Z. and B..S,. Nursery 

^'illa, Clifton 
Miller, John, Esq. Furnival's-inn 
Miller, Jos. Esq. 6, Brunswick-ter. Com- 
mercial-road 
Miller and Son, Messrs. Yarmouth, Norfolk 
Miller, Mr. Robt. George Inn, .Southampton 
Miller, W. H. Commander of H. M. Revenue 

Cutter Active, Falmouth 
Millett, Chas.Esq.Bramdean House, Alresford 
Millett, John, N. R. Esq. Penzance 
Millett, Richard, Esq. Penzance 
Milliken, Messrs. Andrew & Son, Booksellers, 
Dublin. 34 Copies 

Millner, Mr. Gainsborough 
Mills, \V. Esq. Cross-street, Manchester 
IMills, John, Esq. 12, Park-st. Grosvenor-sq. 
Mills, John, Esq. 14, Euston-square 
Mills, Lieut. -Col. WiUington, near Durham 
Mills, iMarkham, Esq. Christ Church College, 

Oxford, and 36, Pulteney-street, Bath 
Mills, M. Thomas, Esq. Taunton 
Milne, H.C. Esq. Harcourt-buildings 
Milner, H. Esq. 3, Hysley Cross 
Milnes, Mr. Edward, Bradford, Yorkshire 
Milthorp Book Society 
MILLTO\\ N, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Mihvard, Geo. Esq. Manor House, Lechlade, 

Ciloucestershire 
l\Iinet, Capt. Lewis, Delvidere, Frant, Sussex 
M'Innes, G. E. Esq. 4, Water-lane, Tower-st. 
MINTO, Right Hon. the Earl of 
iM'Intosh, David, Esq 39, Bloomsbury-square 
M'Inlyre, John, Esq. Brown-st. Manchester 
Mirehouse, John, Esq. Common Serjeant of 

London 
Missing, Richard, Esq. Tichfield, Hants 
Mitchel, Mr. John, Bookseller, 33, Old Bond- 
street. 4 Copies 
Mitchell, Mrs. J. Tusmore House, near Brackley 
J\Jitchell, Mr. Richard, Leicester 
JMitchell, Mr. Thomas, Bradford, Yorkshire 
Mitford, Robt. F'.sq. 34, Russell-squaie 
Mittis,'ihomas, Esq. King's-road, Chelsea 
M'lver, D. Esq. 33, Water-street, Liverpool 
IM'Kenzie, Miss C. 1, Castle-st. Edinburgh 
M'Laren, Mr. Hamilton, 20,Miller-st. Glasgow 
M'Leod, James, Esq. 75, Argyle-st. Glasgow 
M'Millan, Dr. Quinton, MiUord 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



LXX.VIX 



M'Millan, Mr. T. 7, Slegman's-row, Isliiigion 
M'.Murdo, Colonel Bryce, Dumfries 
M'Murdo, Clias. Esq. High-street, Liverpool 
M'-Murdo, D. Esq. Provaii-placCjCilasgovv 
M'Naghten, Capt. R.N. 10, Bedforii-row 
IM'Xamara, Hon. Mrs. Uiclimond, Surrey 
Moad, .lolui, Esq. Grange, W'areluim 
Moat, 'Jlios. Esq. 1, Hamillon-pl. New-road 
Mocalta, Moses, Esq. Russell-square 
Moflat, C-'orn. Esq. Merton College, Oxford 
Moffat, John, Esq. Settle, Yorkshire 
Mogg, John Jennet, Esq. W est I'ark, Bristol 
Wohr, Mr. J. C. B. Bookseller, Heidelberg 
Moises, Hugh, Esq. Amble House, Alnwick 
Molesworth,T. P. Esq. St. Austin's, Lymington 
Moline, U. Esq. 42, Lime-street 
Molineaux, Ths. Esq. Ancoats-cr. Manchester 
Molineux, C. Esq. Wolverhampton 
Molini, Mr. C. F. Bookseller, 14, Paternos- 
ter-row. 3 Copies 
Molini, Mr. Jos. Florence 
MoUoy, James Scott, Esq. Dublin 
Molyneux, Edmund, Esq. Newsham House, 

Liverpool 
MONCKIEFF, Rt. Hon. Lord, Edinburgh 
Moncrieff, Hugh, Esq. Exchange-ct. Glasgow 
Money penny, Capt. T.Frezingham House, Kent 
Monins, R.E. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Monkhouse, Cyril J. Esq. 3, Craven-street 
MONSON, Rt. Hon. Lord 
Montagu, H. S. Esq. Somerset House 
Montefiore, H. J. P^sq. Stock Exchange 
Monteith, C. G. Stewart, Esq. Abercromby- 

place, Edinburgh 
Monteith, Capt. \Vm. Liverpool 
Monteith, W'm. Esq. 15, Hutchinson-st. Port 

Glasgow, N. B. 
Montgomery, Robert, Esq. Dublin 
Montgomery, William, Hsq. Annick Lodge, 

Ayrshire 
Moody, Miss, Newmarket 
Moon, J. Esq. Ciomford-court, Manchester 
Moor, Lieut. Philip, ii. A'. CoUumpton, Devon 
Moore, John, Esq. Mayor of Plymouth 
Moore, — , Esq. (Queen's College, Cambridge 
Mooie, Ambrose, Esq. Milk-street 
Moore, Capt. Chas. R X. Aldburgh, Suffolk 
Moore, Charles, Esq. ^ iirmouth, Norfolk 
]\Ioore, Rev. Charles, Penzance 
Moore, Jas. Esq. Bridge-street, Manchester 
Moore, Wm. Esq. GrimeshiU, Westmorland 
Moore, James, Esq. Montague House, Bristol 
Moore, Mr. Jno. jun. Leicester 
Moore, Lieut. J. li.IV. Swanage 
Moore, J\Ir. Robt. Castle-street, Cambridge 
Moore, Rev. R. St. Giles's,\Voodyates, Dorset 
Moore, Richard, Esq. Marine Parade Hotel 
Moore, Mr. Wm. .^gent to the Londonderry 

Steam Packet Company 
Moore, Kev. William, Trnro 
Moore, W. F'.sq. Wychton Lodge, Stafl'uidshire 
Moorhouse and Brown, .Messrs. Hull 
Morcoin, Wm. Esq. Redruth 
Mordan, Mr. J. S. 22^, City-road 
Mordannt, Mr. A. Southampton 
More, Richard, I'.sq. Norwich 
Morgan, Chas. Esq. Rupena, near Newport, 

Monmouth 
Morgan, David, Esq. Stratford Green, Essex 
Morgan, G. J. Esq. Ashford, Kent 
Morgan, H. M. Esq. Houghton Lodge, Hants 
Morgan, Richard, E.sq. Old Market-st. Bristol 
Morgan, Thos. Esq. 1, L'liper Seymour-street 
Morgan, Wm. Esq. 38, Piinces-st. Bristol 



Morice, John, Esq. F.S.A. I'liper Goiver-st. 
.Morland, W. A. Esq. Lamberhurst. Kent 
MORLEY, Rt. Hon. the Earl of 
iMorlcv, Francis, Esq. Huddersfield 
.MORPETH, Rt. Hon. Lord Viscount, M.P. 
.Morphew, William, Esq. Sevenoaks, Kent 
Morrice, Wm. Esq. Eling, near Southampton 
.Morris, Dr. Trevor-square, Chepstow 
.Morris and (ioulding, Messrs. Princes-street, 

IManchester 
Morris, Joseph, Esq. Bradford, Yorkshire 
.Morris, James, Esq. 10, Portman-square 
Morris, Lady, Thames Bank, (Jreat Marlow 
.Morris, S. C. Esq. Burton- on Trent 
.Morris, T. Esq. Collector of Customs, Bristol 
.Morris, V. Esq. Retreat, Batiersea 
Morrison, Rev. A. A.M. Komsey, Hants 
Morrison, Mr. Duncan, 95, Ilutchison-st. 

Glasgow 
Morrison, John, Esq. 7G, Cheapside 
Morrison, J. W. Esq. F.Ii.S. Royal Mint 
Morrison, Capt. R. Liverpool 
-Mortimer, W'm. Esq. Richmond-ter. Clifton 
Mortlock, Wm. Esq. Cambridge 
.Morton, Colonel J. W. Ryde, Isle of Wight 
Morton, J. Esq. 23, Deansgate, Manchester 
Morton, John, Esq. Worcester Coll. Oxford 
Morton, Thos. Esq. Mortun-pl. Kilmarnock 
Mosed ale, .Mr. Richard, W rexham. 6 Copies 
iMosley, Charles, Esq. (33, Mount-pleasant. 

Liverpool 
Mosley, EliasJos. Esq. S,Loid-st. Liverpool 
Mosley, Lewin, Esq. 62, Mount-pleasant, 

Liverpool 
Mosley, Richard, Esq. Piccadilly 
Mosman, Adam, Esq. 7, Prince Edwin-st. 

Liverpool 
Moss, John, Esq. Derby. 
Moss, George, Esq. St. Katharine's 
.Mossop, Rev. Isaac, Smarden, Kent 
Mostyn, Sir Edw. Bart. Talacre, Flintshire 
.Mott, Wm. Esq. Christ Church Coll. Oxford 
.Mottershead, Mr. John, 8, Nile-st. Liverpool 
-Moult, Thos. I'.sq. Bowker Bank, Manchester 
-Mount, T. Esq, Saltwood, Kent 
iMountcastle, W. Esq. Market-st. Manchester 
.MOUNT EDGECUMBi:, Right Hon. the 

Earl of 
.Mountford, Rich. Esq. Park House, Shiflfnal 
.Mountfort, Henry, Esq. Beamhurst Hall 
-Mountain, Win. Esq. Saracen's Head Inn, 

Skmiier-street 
Mower, Geo. E.sq. Woodseats, nr. Chesterfield 
.Mowle, J. I'.sq. Earl of Roden Steamer, Liver- 
pool 
Moyse, Walter, Esq. Lynn, Norfolk 
.M'tjueen, Mr. \\ . 11. 1R4, Toitcnham-ct.-rd. 
M-Taggart, J. E-q. M.I'. 22, Manchesler-sq. 
M'Tcar, Thos. Esq. 55, 1'alconer-st. Liverpool 
Muckloston, Mr. .f. 44, Piccadilly 
Muir, Will. l'.s(|. Leith 

Muirdie, Mr. Robt. 1 3, Monlrose-st. Glasgow 
.\Iuirl, Thomas, Esq. Ingram-st. Glasgow 
.Mule, Mr. Secretary to the King of Denmark 
.Muller, C. H. Esq. Norwich 
.Midler, Mrs. E. I'arras, near ^Vimbon)e, 

Dorset 
.Monday, Mr. R. Rochester 
Munday, Admiral George, Grosvenor-place 
Mundell, .\. I'.sq. 37, tJeorge-st. Westminster 
\lunro, Mrs. Robert, 14, Bridge-st. Blackfrs. 
Munt, Mr. R. P. 30, Wood-street 
Murdock, Thos. Esq. F.U. Mid A.S. S, Port- 
land-place 

m 



Murdock, Wm. Esq. Port Dundas, Glasgow 
.Aliirgalioyd, Mr. W illiani, Bradford, '^'orkshire 
Muriel, C. Esq. Welluigton-slrecl, Southwark 
.Muriel, John, I'.sq. Ely, Cambridge 
Murly, G. B. ]'.s(|. L;ingport, .Somersetshire 
.Murphy, Wm. Esq. Cork 
.Murray, J. Esq. jun. Ancot's-lane, Manchester 
Murray, James A. Esq. 13, Mecklenburg-sq. 
Murniy, P. A. I'.sq. \ irginia-street, Glasgow 
.Murray, Robert, Esq. Port (Jlasgow, N. B. 
;Uusgrave, Thos. jun. Esq. .Monkgute, York 
Musgrove, Miss Jane, Library, Manchester 
.Aluskett, Henry, Esq. Clippesby, Norfolk 
.M'\icar, John, Esq. Mosley-st. .Manchester 
M'William, Robt. Esq. 12, Torrington-square 
.Mylius, Henry, Esq. 3, Token-liouse-yard 

N. 

Nadin, J. jun. Esq. St. John's-st. Manchester 
Nairne, Rev. C. Great Chart, Kent 
Naish, H. B. Esq. Glastonbury 
Nail, Mr. George, Bookseller, Leek 
Napier, Professor Macrery, 39, Castle-st. Edin. 
Nares, Rev. Dr. Biddenden, Kent 
Nash, Dr. Worcester 

Nash, Mr. James, Cow-cross, West Smithfield 
Nash, Mrs. Slade, W orcester 
Nash & Son, Messrs. Booksellers, Tunbridge 
Wells. 1 1 Copies 

Nason, Mr. Nuneaton 
Nattriss, Mr. Thomas, Wine-street, Bristol 
Naylor, George P. Esq. Sheffield 
Naysmiih, Mr. Alex. 47, York-place, Edinb. 
Neale, F. J. l-'sq Trinity College, Cambridge 
Neale, J. P. Esq. 26, Norfolk-street, Strand 
Neale, Mrs. Stoke, near Guildford 
Neale, T. T. M. Esq. L.L.Ii. Ipswich 
Neave, John, Esq. Dix's-lields, Exeter 
Neave, ^Ir.J.Fordingbridge, near Southampton 
Need, Mr. George, Nottingham 
Needham, C. jun. Esq. Milk-st. Manchester 
Needham, John, Esq. .Milk-st. Manchester 
Needham, John, Esq. George-sl. Manchester 
Neill, Mr. John, 25, (Jueen-street, Glasgow 
Nell, Wm. Esq. Bank Top, Manchester 
Nelthorp, J. T. I'.sq. Nuthurst Lodge, Sussex 
Nevill, Hon. and Rev. W. Birling, Kent 
Neville, W m. Henry, Esq. Esher, Surrey 
New, Rev. Francis Thomas, Shcpton Mallctt 
Newall,— , jun. Market-st. Manchester 
Newall, Captain David Rae, ll.K.I.C.S. 84 

Gloucestei'-iilace, Portman-square 
Newall, Waller, Esq. Seagate 
Newark Clinton Anns Book Society 

. Stock Library 

Newbould, Henry, I'^sq. Shetlicld 
Newcastle-under-Lyneand Pottery Permanent 

Library 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Literary and Philoso- 
phical Society 

Religious Book Club 

Trinity House of 



Newcombe, Capt li.X. 12, Queen-Charlotle 
road. New-road 

Newcombe, Mrs. Bloomsbury-square. 2 Copies 

.Vowdigate, F. I'.sq. Blackheatli 

Newell, (i.W. Esq. llolypoM Green, near Mai- 
denhead 

Newenham, U.C.O. Esq. Dundanion House, 
Cork. 13 Copies 

Newliouse,J.Ksq.Brunswick House,! luddrsfld 

Newington, S. Esq. Worcester Coll. O.xford 



xc 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Newman, Henry Wenman, Esq. Thornbury- 

park, Gloucestershire 
Newman, liobertW. Esq. Mamhead, Devon 
Newman, \\m. Esq. Darley-hall, near Barns- 
ley, Vorksliire 
Newman, W. L. Esq. Guildhall 
Newman, and Co. Messrs. Booksellers, 32, 
Leadenhall-street. 2 Copies 

Newmarsh, George B. Esq. Hull 
Newnliam, 11. Esq. Favnham, Surrey 
Newton, Edmund, Esq. Norwich 
Newton,J.P.Esq.Stagwood-hill,Huddersfield 
Newton, James, Esq. Stockport 
Newton, John, Esq. South Lambeth 
Newton, W. Esq. 13, Chesler-ter. Regent's-pk. 
Niccolls, R. Esq. Crumpwell, Oswestry 
Nicholas, Francis, Esq. Ealing, Middlesex 
Nicholl, J. jun. Esq. Z,X.D. Doclors'-commns 
NichoUs, Rev. R. Dimland House, Cowbridge 
Nioholls, N. Esq. 36, Harleyford-place, Ken- 

nington 
Nicholson, J. C. Esq. 1, Catharine-st. Liverpl. 
Nicholson, Robert, Esq. Bradford, Yorkshire 
NicoUe, B.C. Esq. Southampton 
Nielson, A. Esq, Port Glasgow, N. B. 
Nightingale, J. Esq. Rochester 
Nightingale, Miss, Bryan House, Blackl'.eath, 
Nightingale, Peter, Esq. Upper Brook-street 

Manchester 
Nisbet, Mr. J. W. 39, Wigmore-street, Caven- 
dish-square 
Nixon, Capt. Edgerton-road, Blackhealh 
Nixon, J. Lyons, Esq. Lieut.-Governor of St. 

Christopher's 
Nixon, H. Esq. 6, Watling-street, Manchester 
Nixon, John, Esq. Trinity-square, Tower-hill 
Noad,G. F. Esq. Worcester College, Oxford 
Noble, Thomas, Esq. 24, Park -row, Leeds 
Noel,C. H. Esq. WellingoreHall, Lincolnshire 
Noel, Hon. and Rev. F. J. Teston, Kent 
Nooth, Major Henry, Stonehouse, Devon 
Norclifi'e, i\Iajor N. York 
NORDENSKIOLD, Earon, Captain Royal 

Swedish Navy 
Nordenskiold, Rear-Adm. O. G. Swedish Navy 
NORFOLK, His Grace the Duke of 
Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution 
Norman, George, Esq. 1, Cucus, Baih 
Norrcys, R.J. Esq. Dawg Holme, Cheshire 
Norrie, J. W. Esq. Albany-st. Regent's-park 
Norris & Son, Messrs. Booksellers, Uttoxeter. 

6 Copies 
North, Frederick, Esq. M.P. Hastings 
NORTHAaiPTON, Most Noble the Mar- 
chioness of 
Northcote, Sir H. Stafford, Bart. Pyiies, near 

Exeter 
Northey, Colonel, Cheltenham 
Northey, E. R. Esq. Epsom, Surrey 
Northey, Captain, VV. B. HawkhursI, Kent 
Norton', Charles, Esq. 30, Mecklenburg-sq. 
Norton, J. E. Esq. Saville Cottage, Clifton 
Norton, Mr. Joseph, Wolverhampton 
Norton, S. Esq. Town Mailing, Kent 
Norton, Vv'. J. Esq. New-street, Bishopsgate 
Norwich Book Society 

Public Library 

Norwood, Rev. G. WiUesborongh, Kent 
Norwood, Weller, Esq. Charing, Kent 
Notl, Thomas, Esq. Bere Regis, Dorset 
Noltidge, George, jun. Esq. Booking, Essex 
Nottingham Subscription Libiary 
Novell!, J. F'.sq. Cheetham-hiU, Manchester 
Novelli, Lewis, Esq. 21, York-st. Manchester 



Novossilzoff, — , President of the Imperial 

Council, St. Petersburg 
Nowell,Alex. Esq.Underlr)'-park,Westmorlnd 
Nugent, Sir Chailes Edmund, K.G.H. Admi- 
ral of the Fleet 
Nugent, Dr. Cork, Ireland 
Nun, Mrs. St. Margaret's, Ireland 
Nunn, Roger, Esq. Colchester 
Nurse, W. Esq. Trinity College, Cambridge 
Nuttall, — , Esq. Newport-place, Bolton 
Nuttall, Rob. Esq. Kempsey House, Worcestrs. 



o. 



Oakey, Jno. Esq. London-wall 

Oakley, Mr. John, Frinsbury, Kent 

Oakley, Mr. North Parade, Derby 

Oakes, O. R. Esq. Newton Cottage 

Oakes, Rev. Charles, Tastock 

Observer Sunday Newspaper 

Occleshaw, Wni. Esq. Piccadilly, Manchester 

Occleston, Mrs. 81, Fountain-st. Manchester 

O'Connell, Daniel, Esq. M.P. 5, Park-street, 

Westminster 
Odiing, George, Esq. 159, High-street, Boro' 
Ody, R. S. Esq. 292, Strand 
Officers of the Chatham Division of Royal 

Marines 
Ogden, Ivobert, Esq. London-rd. Manchester 
Ogden, Thos. Esq. Brook-street, Blanchester 
Ogle, Sir Charles, Bart. 4, Belgrave-square 
Oidershavv, R. Esq. Mansion-house, Islington 
Oldfield, B. Esq. White Bear Inn, Manchester 
Oliphant, Capt. VV. K. Ship Mary Catherine, 

Liverpool 
Olivant, Thomas, E'q. Polygon, Manchester 
Oliver, Alex. Esq. St. James's-sq. Manchester 
Oliver & Boyd, Messrs. Booksrs. Edinburgh 
Oliver, Major, Potterne, near Devizes 
Oliver, Capt. Robert, R.N. H.M.S. Phoenix 
Oliver, ^' ice-Admiral R.D. Fitzwilliam-square, 

Dublin 
Oliver, Samuel, Esq. 83, Hatton-garden 
Oliver, Thomas, Esq. Spring-gardens 
Oliver, Wm. l-lsq. St. Peter's Coll. Cambridge 
Ollerenshaw, E. Esq. Mason-st. Manchester 
Olpherts, Robt. Esq. St. Christopher's 
Ommaney, Rear- Admiral John, A. CB. War- 

blington, Hampshire 
OMPTEDA, His Excellency, the Baron, 

Minister of State for Hanover 
0'Nally,Mr.Patrick, Skylark Revenue Cruiser, 

Milford Station 
O'Neil, Mr. C. Newman-street, Oxford-street 
Onley, C. Saville, Esq, Stisted Hall, Essex 
Onslow, T. Esq. Bradford Rectory, Dorset 
Orchardson, Col. IMaxvvell, Terregles, near 

Dumfries 
Ord, George, Esq. 62, Gt. Clyde-st. Glasgow 
Ord, George, Esq. Poolfold, Manchester 
O'Reilly, P. L. Esq. R.N. Falmouth 
Chmond, J. Esq. Chambers Hall, Manchester 
Oimston, Miss, SaviUe-pl. Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Orion, Thomas, Esq. March, Cambridge 
Osborii,Mr.W. 26, Up.North-pl.Gray's-inn-rd. 
Osborne, George, Esq. Old Brentford 
Osborne, Hon.''G. Godolphin, 31, Eaton-pl. 
Osborne, J. P. Esq. Colchester 
Osborne, M. R. Esq. St. Ives, Huntingdon 
Oswald, H. R. Douglas, IsleofMan 
Oswald, James, Esq. M.P. Glasgow 
Oswald, Rich. Alex. Esq. M.P. Esher, Surrey 
Oswald, William, Esq. Levvishara 



Onghton, S. H. Esq. Iligh-st. Manchester 
Ouseley, Sir Gore, Bart. F.R.S.A. 49, Upper 

Grosvenor-street 
Overbury, Nathaniel, Esq. 8, King's-arms-yard 
Overend, Wilson, Esq. Sheffield 
Owen, Mr. G. D. Oswestry 
Owen, J. Esq. Princess-street, Manchester 
Owen, Mr. John, City-road, Einsbury-square 
Owen, Joseph, Esq. Copenhagen 
Owen, O. T. Esq. 146, Holborn-bars 
Owen, Richard, Esq. College of Surgeons 
Owen, T. B. Escj. Tedsmore Hall, Oswestry 
Owen, Wm. Esq. Woodhouse 
Oxford, Brazen Nose College Library 

Exeter College Library 

Jesus College Library 

New College Library 

Oriel College Library 

■ Queen's College Library 

St. John's College Library 



— . The Radclifl'e Library 

Book Club 



Padbury, Mr. J. Speenhamland, Berks 
Paddison, Mr. John, Louth 
Paffard, J. H. Esq. Portsea 
Page, Vice-Admiral B. W. Ipswich 
Page, Rev. Dr. Gillingham, Kent 
Page, Miss Maria, Welwyn, Herts 
Page, Thos. Esq. Ely, Cambridge 
Paget, John S. F^sq. Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Paine, John, Esq. 57, High-street, Borough 
Pallant, Thos. lisq. Redgrave, Suffolk 
Pallet, Robt. Esq. Wimblington 
Palmer, Rev. Chas. Lighthorne, Warwickshire 
Palmer, Geo. Esq. 12, Upper Woburn-place 
Palmer, George, Esq. Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
PALINIERSTON, Rt. Hon. Lord \'iscount 
Palmquist,Adm. Rlagnus, Royal Swedish Navy 
Panier, John R. Esq. Houlton-street, Bristol 
Papillon, T. I^sq. Acrise-place, Kent 
Paquiro, Mr.RuedeGrenelle, StIIonore,a Paris 
Parbuiy 5c Allen, Messrs. Booksellers, Lead- 
enhall-street. 12 Copies 
Pareja, Le Chevalier de. Consul General 

d'F^pagne 
Park, Adam, Esq. Gravesend 
Park, Mr. J. John 0'(-iaunt steamer, Liverpool 
Parker, Capt. C. L. R.N. Alphington 
Parker, Chas. Esq. 39, Bedford-row 
Parker, Lieut. C. R.N. Parknook, Whitehaven 
Parker, D. J. Esq. Canterbury 
Parker, Mr. Hy. 53, Broad-street, Bloomsbury 
Parker, Mr. Henry, Bookseller, Oxford 
Parker, J. H. Esq. Wells, Norfolk 
Parker, Mr. John, Hereford 
Parker, Montague E. N. Esq. M.P. White- 
way, near Chudleigh 
Parker, Sam. W. Esq. Scott's House, Durhani 
Parker, Mr. T. J. 68, Threadneedle-st. 
Parker, T. N. Esq. Sweeney Hall, Oswestry 
Parker, W. Esq. Grantham 
Parker, Mr. W. Owersby, near Rasen, 

Lincolnshire 
Parkerson, Burrell, Esq. Dereham, Norfolk 
Parkinson Sc Frodsham, Messrs. Chronometer- 
makers, 'Change-alley. 3 Copies 
Parkinson, E. Esq. 10, Old Sleyne, Brighton 
Parkinson, Robert, lisq. Basinghall-st. Leeds 
Parkinson, Mr. Thos. 79, Oxford-street 
Parr, Lt. T. R.N. Haslar Hospital, Portsmouth 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



xci 



Parr, Saml. Esq. Knowle Cottage, Devon 
Parrott, G. L. Esq. R.X. Poole, Dorset 
Pairy, Dr. Charles, Sioii Hill, Bath 
Parry, G. F. Esq. Tvvysden, Lambeihurst, Kent 
Parry, i\Ir. C. II. Bookseller, 16, Nelson-pl. 

Old Kent-road. 2 Copies 

Parsons, Mr. II. W. INIarine Library, Brighton 
Parsons, Mr. Newport, Shropshire 
Parsons, Sara. Esq. Nottingham 
Partridge, Mr. Alderman, Colchester 
Passingham, Francis, Esq. Truro 
Patchett, T. Esq. 10, Shude Hill, Manchester 
Paternoster, Mr. C. Bookseller, Hitching 
Paterson, John, Esq. 8, Mincing-lane 
Paton, John, Esq. Cornbrook, Slanchester 
Paton, Wni. II. l",sq. Virginia-bldgs. Glasgow 
Patrickson. Lt.-Colonel W. G. Union Club 
Pattenden, JNIr. Kobt. Maidstone 
Pattensoa,Mrs. J. Melmerby IIall,Cumbrlnd. 
Patterson, C. T. Esq. Biddenden, Kent 
Patteson, .S. Esq. O.\ford-street, Manchester 
Pattison, Rob. Esci-Wrackleford House, Dorset 
Paul, Capt. G. Norfolk Lodge, Brighton 
Paul, John, Esq. Trevarth, Cornwall 
Paul, Kev. Jolin, 13, George-sq. Edniburgli 
Paul, Joseph, Esq. Norwich 
Paul, Mr. Peter, sen. 38, Broad-st. Golden-sq. 
Paul, \\illiam, Esq. Truro 
Pawley, JMr. W'm. Bromley, Kent 
Pawnie, Thos. Esq. Wellgate 
Pawson, William, Esq. Greek-street, Leeds 
Paxon, George, Esq. Hanipstead 
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Payne, Chas. Esq. F'reeman House, Clifton 
Payne, Chas. Jas. Esq. 6, Adara-st. Adelphi 
Payne, J. Esq. Milverton 
Payne, \Vm. Esq. Hand-court, Ilolborn 
Payne, William, Esq. Teignmouth 
Paynter, W. Esq. 4, Cornwall ter. Regent's- 

park 
Peacock, B. Esq. Harcourt-buildings, Temple 
Peacock, Rev. Edw. I'lfehead House, Dorset 
Peacock, Rev. Geo. 3I.A. Trinity College, 

Cambridge 
Peacock, li. B. Esq. St. .'\nn's-sq. Manchester 
Peacock, J. II. Esq. City of London Tavern 
Peacock, Stephen, Esq. 18, Salisbury-square, 

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College, Cambridge 
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Pearce, John, Esq. 2, Cockspur-st. Piccadilly 
Pearson, Rev. H. Sheffield 
Pearson, Mrs. Taunton 
Pearson, W. H. Esq. Christ Church, Oxford 
Peat, Jno. Esq. li.A. Sevenoaks, Kent 
Peat, Captain, 12, River-street, Middleton-sq. 

Pentonville 
Peche, Mr. M. A. Academy, Dover 
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Peede, Ambrose, Esq. 4.^), Liq':orpond-street 
Peel, Geo. Esq. Pollard-street, Manchester 
Peel, Jos. Esq. PoUard-slreet, Manchester 
Peel, Mr. Alexander, Mayor of Liverpool 
Peet, Thos. Esq. St. James's-sq. Manchester 
Peill, Rev. John Newton, M.A. Queen's 

College, Cambridge 
Peirce, John Jas. Esq. Canterbury 
Pelham, Hon. C. A. M.l'. 
Pelhain, Cresett, Esq. M.l'. Warren's Hotel 



Pendarves, E. W. W. Esq. M.P. F.R S. 36, 

Eaton-place 
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Manchester 
Penfold, M. P. Esq. Farnham, Hants 
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Redlion-stiuare 
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Penn, Mr. J. Leeds Steamer, Liverpool 
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Pennington, Col. G. C.B. Malshangar House, 

Hants 
Penny, Mr. W. S. Bookseller, Sherborne, 

Dorset. 2 Copies 

Penny, Wm. Webb, Esq. Sherborne, Dorset 
Penrose, E. W. Esq. (irange Erin, Cork 
Penrose, iMr. T. H. 281, High Holborn 
Penrudocke,Capt.Wyngton, Ringwood, Hants 
Pensam, Mr. James, Middle-row, Ilolborn 
Penson, T. Esq. Oswestry 
Penton, Mr. Edw. Basingstoke 
Perceval, Hon. Capt. R.N. Burgh, Surrey 
Percy, Henry, Esq. Nottingham 
Pereira, J. Esq. F.L.S. Aldersgate-strcet 
Perez, Sixto, Esq. 76, (Jreal Portland-street 
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place, Kent 
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Perkins, Mr. Wm. Bookseller, Haverfordwest. 

2 Copies 
Perrin, Right Hon. A. Lord Mayor of Dublin 
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Perrott, W. S. Esq. Queen's College, Oxford 
Perry, Miss C. UksUr. 'J, Lit. Bell-al. SCopies 
Perry, Saml. Esq. 27, Water-street, Liverpool 
Peterborough New Book Society 
Public Library 



Pettigiew,Tlios. J. Est]. /■'.K.tS-.rtf.S. Saville-row 
Petty, John, Esq. Acton-]>lace, Salford 
Petty, Samuel, jun. Esq. Pottery, Leeds 
Phelps, Rev. VV. W. Harrow 
Philip, Dr. A. P. W. F.R.S. Cavendish-sq. 
Philips, II. Leigh, Esq. Stone Fort Estate, St. 

Christopher's 
Philips, Mr. Bookseller, Relfont 
I'hilip])?, Col. J. P. L. L. Mabus, Aberystwith 
Phillnnore, J. Esq. LL.l). Doctors'-comraons 
Phillip, S. Esq. Barton Hall, Manchester 
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Pliilli])s, Mr. IC. jun. 19, King-st. Clieapside 
Pliilli|)s, Rev. G. J7..1. Queen's Coll. Camb. 
Phillips, H. Esq. 1, Paragon, New Kent-road 
Phillips, .fames, Esq. 9, King's-arms-yard 
Phillips, John Edw. Esq. Stock Exchange 
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Philluit, Rev. Chas. Dawlish, Devon 
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Blipomsbury 
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I'liipps, .\rtliur C. Esq. Sliepton Mallett 
Pickard, Rev. Geo. \\ .armwell, Dorsetshire 
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Clifion 
Pickering, Jlr.Wm. RooksUr. 57, Chanccry-la. 
Pickersgill, Mr. Richard, Bookseller, Clapton 
Picku]), Jas. Esq Four Yards, .Manchester 
Pierce, R. Esq. 41, Ludgate-hiU 

m 2 



Pierpoint, R. W. Esq. St. John's CoU. Camb. 
Pierrepont, Hon. Philip Sidney, Evenly Hall, 

near Brackley 
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Piers, Rev. O. Preston, Weymouth, Dorset 
Pigot, John Hugh Smith, Esq. F.S.A. Brock- 
ley Hall, Somerset 
Pigott, B. Esq. St. Peter's Coll. Cambridge 
Piggott, Mr. J. W. Lawrence-lane 
Pike, Ebenezer, Esq. Black Rock, Ireland 
Pike, Mr. IJerby 

Pilcher, ,(erh. l^sq. 46, Russell-square 
Pilc'ner, Jno. G. 1-^sq. Morgan's-la. Southwark 
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near Dorchester 
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Grove, near Lymington 
Plumer, J. Julius, Flsq. Baliol College, Oxford 
Plummer, Jos. G. Esq. King-street House, 

Great Yarmouth 
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Plymouth Institution, Athenxum 
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Pocock,Mr.Walier,Cow-cross, West Smithtield 
Podmore, Geo. Esq. Keppel-st. Russell-sq. 
Pointer, .Miss, Alphinglon, Exeter 
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Poland, Sir W . 11. Winchester Hall, Hlghgate 
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mall. 39 Copies 
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Liverpool 
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Goswell-strcet 



XCII 

Povtsmouth Royal Marine Library 

Fitter, Will. Esq. Aldgate 

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Potter, Mrs. Buile HiU, Manchester 

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Pryer, J. Esq. Denmark-row, Camberwell 
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bourg St. Sever, Rouen 
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Q. 

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R. 



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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



XCIII 



Reynolds, Capt.iJ.A^. Penair, nearTiuro 
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Reynolds, Jos. Esq. St. Micliael's Uill, Bristol 
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Robertson, Jas. Esq. Exchange-bgs. Liverpool 
Ro'iertson, Mr. John, 24, MiUer-st. Glasgow 
Robertson, Mr. John, 74,Buchanan-3t.Glasgow 
Robertson, Mr. John, Bookseller, 35, Lower 

S,)ckvil!e-street, Dublin 
Robertson, W. Esq. 16, Claphani-road-place 
Itobeson, V\ m. Henry, Esq. Bromsgrove 
Robin, Jas. Esq. Jersey 
Robins & Son, Messrs. Booksllrs. Toolcy-st. 
Robins, Rev. S. Up. Gloucester-st. Dorset-sq. 
Robins, Thomas, Esq. Liskeard, Cornwall 
Robinson, Charles, 1-Jsq. York 
Robinson, C. S. Esq. C'aversham 
Robinson, Chas. Sliackleford, Estj. Caversham 

House, Reading 
Robinson, Dr. Doncaster 
Robinson, Rev. Francis, M.A. Rector of 

Stonesfield, Oxon 
Robmson, G. Esq. 22,Swan-st. JIanchester 
Robinson, George, Esq. Doncaster 
Robinson, Mssrs.G.Sc J. Liverpool. 11 Copies 
Robinson, H. jun. Esq. 5,Henrietta-st. Cov-gii. 
Robinson, iNIr. John, Bookseller, Putney 
Robinson, Jas. Esq. lUulderslield 
Robinson, John E. Esq. Cambridge 
Rol)inson, John, Esq. EccleshiU Hall, ncnr 

Bradford 
Robmson, Lieut. L. A. 7?.A'. .II.M. Packet 

\iper, Falmouth 
Robinson, Matt. A. Esq. 25, Cumberland-ter- 
race, Regent's-park 
Robinson, Capt. M. 3,UpperNewinglon,Livpl. 



Robinson, Jliss Mary, Leeds. 2 Copies 

Robinson, R. Esq. Richmond Cottage, Clifton 
Robinson, Robert, Esq. lloddesdoii 
Robley, Kev. I. Islington, Salford 
Robson, Thos. Esq. Aylesford, Kent 
Koch, Nicholas, Esq. Alderman of Bristol 
ROCHESTER, Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of 
Rodd, Rev. C. Northill Parsonage, Cornwall 
Itodd, I'rancis Hearle, Esq. Trebarlha Hall, 

Northill, Cornwall 
Rodd, Richard, Esq. Devonport 
Rodgers, R. W. J. Esq. 5, Burton-street 
RoJwtll, Christ. B. Esq. 33, North Bank, 

Rcgent's-p irk 
Rodwell, Henry, Esq. 41, Finsbury-square 
Rodwell, Mr. J. Bookseller, 4, New Bond-st.' 

3 Copies 
Roe, George, Esq. Dublin 
Roe, Major John, Launceston 
Roe, Miss L. Springfield, Liverpool 
Roe, Mr. W. Bookseller, Newbury. 4 Copies 
Roger, James D. Esq. Toitola 
Rogers, Arthur, Esq. 29, Leazes-terrace, 

Nencastle-on-Tyne 
Rogers, Rev. J. Canon Residentiary of Exeter 
Rogers, John, l^sq. Jesus College, Cambridge 
Rogers, .Mr. Rt. Bksllr. Newmarket. 4 Copies 
Rogers, Thomas, Esq. Ilelston, Cornwall 
Roget, Dr. P. M. Src. U.S. 39, Bernard-street 
Roke & \arty, Jlessrs. Booksllrs. 31, Strand 
Rolaiidi, .Mr. P. Bookseller, 20, Berner.s-st. 
Kolfe, G. Esq. Thornbury, Gloucestershire 
Rolfcs, W. G. Esq. Walc'ot-place, Lambeth 
ROLLE, Right Hon. Lady 
RoUes, \'ice-.\dmiral Robert, Brighton 
Rolls, John E. W. Esq. The Hendre, near 

.Monmouth 
Romsey Reading Society 
Rooke, Capt. L.C.iJ .V.28,RoyalCrescent,Bath 
Rooke, Rev. G. Yardley Hastings, Norihampt. 
Rooke, Jno. Esq. Yoik-st.Cheelham, Lancash. 
Rooke, Jos. Esq. York-st. Cheetham, Lancash. 
Room, James, Esq. Queen's-square, Bristol 
Roorae, Col. Henry, 23, Sloane-street 
Rose, Right Hon. Sir G 11. T, Old Palace-yd. 
Rose, H.John, Esq. B.D. Fellow of St. Jehu's 

College, Cambridge 
Rose, Jos. F. Esq. 1 1, Great Surrey-street 
ROSEBl'.RRV, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Ross, Alexander, Esq. Inspector General, 

Custom-house, Liverpool 
Ross, Chas. Esq. Inverleith-row, Edinburgh 
Ross, Capt. Charles, R.N. Superintendent 

Royal Dock-yard, Devonport 
Ross, D.in. Esq. Perth-road, Dundee 
Ross, Edward, F.s(|. Dublin 
Ross, F.W. L. F,sq.liroadwayHouse,Topsham 
Ross, G. Esq. 20, Chapel-sl. Grosvenor-pl. 
Ross, Major G. 20, Alcxander-sq. Brompton 
Ross, Capt. Horatio, M.P. 112, Sloane-street 
Ross, Colonel Sir Hew Dalryraplc, K.C.li 

K.T.S. 129, Park-street 
Ross, Mr. John, 8, John-street, Glasgow- 
Ross, .Mr. John, jun. 22, Ingram-st. Glasgow 
|{oss,Miss, St. Cuthbert's Lodge. Kirkcudbright 
Ross, Thos. B. Esq. St. Clement's, Ipswich 
Ross, Thomas, Esq. Wakefield 
Ross, Major Wm. 23d Royal Welch Fusiliers 
Ross, W. Esq. Belmour House, Bishop's 

Waliham, Hants 
Ross, W m. Esq. Cannon-street, Manchester 
Ross, Wm. F.sq. 12, I.ambridgc, Bath 
Rosseter, James, Esq. 4, Kcnnington-tcrrac 
Rossi, R. Esq. 22, Harp-lane, Tower-street 



XCIV 

Rosson. J. Esq. 5, Bouverie-st. Fleet-st. 
Rosson, J. Esq. n, King' s-bench-wlk. Temple 
Rostron, Jolin, Esq. Eat;lesfield, Southampton 
Rostron, L. Esq. Sussex-street, Manchester 
Rotch, B.Esq. il/.P. Lowland's, Ilarrow-on- 

the-IIiU 
Roihery, \Vm. Esq. Doctors-commons 
Rothwell, P. Esq. Bolton, Lancashue 
Rothwell, Pet£r, Esq. Sunning Hill 
Rouffemont, Erancis, Esq. Broad-st.-buildings 
Roughsedge, Hornby, Esq. Bentham House, 

near Settle, Yorkshire 
Roiighton, Miss,Belvoir. street, Leicester 
Rourman & Schweigerd, Messrs. Booksellers, 

Vienna. 7 Copies 

Rouse, B. Esq. Wellington-street, Borough 
Rouse, Rolla, Esq. ^^ oodbridge, Suffolk 
Rouse, Mr. \Vm. jun. Bradford, Yorkshire 
Routh, William, Esq. 

Routledge.Rt. Esq. 13, Hamilton-pLNew-road 
Rowand, Michael, Esq. Glasgow 
Kowden, J. Esq. Heytesbury, Wilts 
Rowden, Mr. Heytesbury, \\ ilts 
Rowe, Mr. F. Bookseller, Plymouth 
Rovvell, John, Esq. 5, Peel-st. Manchester 
Rowland, Messrs. A. & Son, 20, Hatton-grdn. 
Rowland, Capt.C. Harbour Master, Greenwich 
Rowland, Dan. Esq. Saxonbury, Fiant, Sussex 
Itowland, J. Esq. B.A. Queen's Col. Cambr. 
Row^Iands, D. Esq. Chatham Dock-yard 
Rowles, Byron George, Esq. 
Rowlett, W. Esq.White Bayes, Burton, Dorset 
Rovpley, Alex. Esq. Burlington-st. Manchester 
Rowley, Vice-Admiral Sir Charles, K.C.B. 

K.M.T. Fern Cottage, Winkfield 
Rowley, R. C. Esq. Holbecks, Suffolk 
Rowley, Mr. Thomas, 37, Liquorpond-street 
Roxbourg, Adam, Esq. Tibb-st. Manchester 
ROXBURGHE, His Grace the Duke of 
Roxby, R. B. Esq. 46, Lime-street 
Roy, Richard, Esq. Fulham Lodge 
Roy, Rev. Robert, Burlington House, Fulham 
Roy, Rev. William, DD. Skirbeck 
Roy, \\m. Esq. 8, Church-lane, Liverpool 
Royal Exchange Assurance Company 
Roylance, P. Esq. 35, Hanging Ditch,Manchr. 
Ruck, Benj. Esq. Maidstone 
Rudderforth, Mr. T. S2,Newington Causeway 
Rudge, Mr. A. J. 29, St. Martin's-le-Grand 
Rudge, Edw. Esq. F.R.S. FS.A. F.L.S. & 

F.H.S. 44, Wimpole-street 
Rudkin, John, Esq. Peasenhall, Suffolk 
Rumley, Lieut. Gen. C. Sidmouth 
Rump, Piobert, Esq. Wells, Norfolk 
Rumsey, N. Esq. Beaconsfield 
Rushbridger, G. Esq. Stone, Staffordshire 
Rushbrooke, Col. M.P. Rushbrooke Park 
Rusher, Messrs. J. &Co. Booksellers, Reading. 

10 Copies 
Rusher, Mr. J. G. Banbury 
Rushoul, Hon. Ann, Wanstead Grove, Essex 
Rushton, Jos. Esq. Albion-bldgs. Manchester 
Ruskin, J. J. Esq. Heme Hill 
Russel,John, Esq. Heriot-place, Edinburgh 
Russell, A. Esq. Dartford, Kent 
Russell, C. Esq. Queen's Coll. Cambridge 
Russell, Mr. Edward, Maidstone 
Russell, George, Esq. Merthyr Tidvil 
Russell Institution, Great Coram street 
Russeil,J. Esq. Goulden-terrace, Islington 
Russell, Wm. Congreve, Esq. M.P. King's 

Heath, Birmingham 
RUSSIA, Scientific Committee of the Impe- 
rial Navy 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

Russia, Imperial Academy of Sciences 

Rust, J. Edgar, Esq. Abbot's Hall, Stowmrkt. 

RUTLAND, His Grace the Duke of 

flutter. Dr. Liverpool 

Rutter, J.C. Esq. 4, Ely-place 

Kyan, Major Thos. 50di Regiment, Chatham 

Hyde, Isle of Wight, JNIarine Library of 

Ryder, Mr. James, Jersey 

Ryle, J. Esq. il/.P. Park House, Macclesfield 

Ryle, J. C. Esq. Christ Church Coll. O.vford 



Sabb, Jolm, Esq. Epsom, Surrey 
Sabine. H. S. Esq. Bradford Peverell, Dorset 
.Sabine, J. S. Esq. Muckleford House, Dorset 
Sack, F. Esq. 4, Foukes-buildings, Tower-st. 
Sackin, Benj. Esq. Frederick-street, Bishop 

Wearmouth 
Sadleir, Rev. Dr. Fellow of Trin. Col. Dublin 
Sadler, Mr. Francis, 1, Fore-st. Cripplegate 
Saffron, Ily. Esq. Iluddersfield 
Sainsbury, Miss, 40, York-place, Porttnan-sq. 
SALISBURY, lU. Rev. the Lord Bishop of 
Salisbury and Wiltshire Library and Reading 

Society 
Salomons, D. Esq. Throgmorton-street 
Salomons, P. J -Esq. 2, Magdalen-row, Good- 

man's-fields 
Salt, Thos. Esq. Weeping Cross, Stafford 
Salte, Wm. Geary, Esq. Artdlery-pl. London 
Salvin, A. Esq. F.S.A. Somerset-st. Portm.-sq. 
Salvin, BryanJ. Esq. Burn Hall, near Durham 
Salvin, W'. T.F2sq. Croxdale Hall, nr. Durham 
Salvvey, Miss Elizabeth, The Lodge, Ludlow 
Sampson, Benj. Esq. TuUimaar, near Truro 
Sampson, Edward, Esq. Henbury 
Sampson, Mr. George, Ipswich 
Saras, Miss H. Bookseller, Hoddesdon 
Sams, Mr. BooksUr. St. James's-st. 4 Copies 
Sams, Wm. Ily. Esq. Ixworth, Suffolk 
Samson, IMiss, 48, Hunter-st. Brunswick-sq. 
Samson, S. Esq. Smeeth, Kent 
Samuel, D. M.Esq. 17, Hanover-terrace 
Samuel, Mr. Lewis, Lord-street, Liverpool 
Samuels, John, jun. Esq. Tibb-st. Manchester 
SamweU,W. L.W. Esq. Upton Hall, Northamp. 
Sandbach, Dan. Esq. Lloyd-st. Manchester 
Sandell, John, Esq. 87, Hatton-garden 
Saudeman, D. G. Esq. MehiUe-st. Edinburgh 
Sanders, J. Esq. Whitstable, Canterbury 
Sanders, E. -Lloyd, Esq. Stoke Hill House, 

near Exeter 
Sanders, G. Esq. Clifton-hill House, Bristol 
Sanders, II. Esq. 36, Lower Crescent, Clifton 
Sanders, John Naish, Esq. 3, Beaufort-build- 
ings, Clifton, Bristol 
Sanders, T. R. Esq. Ridgeway Villa, Bristol 
Sanderson, Jabez, Esq. Newmarket-buildings, 

Manchester 
Sandilands, Hon. John, Calder House, Mid 

Calder, near Edinburgh 
Sandle, Mr. Bardfield, Essex 
SANDON, Lord Viscount, il/.P. 
Sandon, Mr. Charles, Newcastle Wharf, New 

North-road, Hoxton 
Sands, Mr. Alex. Reepham Library, Norfolk 
Sandwich Book Society 

Sandwith, Colonel, Oriental Club, Hanover-sq. 
Sandys, Rev. John, 8, Canonbury-pl. Islington 
Sandys, Chas. Esq. Canterbury 
Sanford, E. A. Esq. JLP.4, Richmond-terrace 
Sankey, R. Esq. Canterbury 



Sankey, Mr. R. Ludlow. 7 Copies 

.Sanxay, Mrs. Epsom, Surrey 

Saigon, Mr. G. 65, Gt. Queen-st. Lincoln's 

inn-fields 
Sartoris, Ed. T. Esq. Trinity Coll. Cambridge 
SauU, \V. D. Esq. 15, Aldersgate-street 
Sauiuarez, Lieut.-General Sir Thos. Guernsey 
Saunders, Mr. B. Booksr. Nassau-st. Dublin 
Saunders, John, Esq. 57, Cannon-street 
Saunders, R. Esq. H.M. Customs, St. Christo- 
pher's 
Saunders and Otlley, Messrs. Booksellers, 50, 
Conduit-street. 11 Copies 

Saunders, T. B. Esq. 19, Lincoln's-inn-fields 
Saunders, T. Esq. F.S.A. 34, York-terrace, 

Regent's-park 
Saunderson, Mr. Robt. Bala, Wales. 2 Copies 
Savage, F. Esq. Springfield, Wesibury, Bristol 
.Savage, John, Esq. Alderman of Bristol 
Savage, Col. Sir John B. K.G.H. 6, Torring- 

ton-square 
Savage, Thos. Esq. Cloisters, Temple 
Saveiy, Frederick, Esq. 6, John-street, Adelphi 
Savile, Hon. C. S. Queen's Coll. Cambridge 
Sawbridge, S. E. Esq. Olantigh, Kent 
Sayer, Robt. Esq. Sibton Park, Suffolk 
Scale, Ily. Esq. Penydarron, Merthyr Tydvil 
.SCARBOROUGH,Rt.Hon.lheD.Counlessof 
Scarborough Agricultural Library 
, General Library of 



Scard, Mr. B. Eling, Southampton 

SCARSDALE, Right Hon. Lord 

Scarth, T. Esq. Barnard Castle 

Scartli, W. Gilyard & Sons, Messrs. Mill 

Garth, Leeds 
Schaumburg & Co. Messrs. BooksUrs. Vienna 

4 Copies 
Schenk'scheBuchhandlung,Brunswick. 2 copies 
Scheviz, George, Esq. 20, Brandon-pl. Glasgow 
Schofield, G. & I. Esqrs. Raistuck, Yorkshire 
Scholefield, Rev. James, Every-st. Manchester 
Scliolefield,Rich. B.Esq. St. John'sColl. Cami. 
Scholes, Jos. Esq. 10, Broken Bank, Salford 
Scholey, George, Esq. Alderman of London 
Scholey, J. B. Esq. 21, Grove hiU-ter. Cambwl. 
Schoolbred and Cook, Messrs. Tottenham- 
court-road 
Schneber, J. N. Esq. Melton, Suffolk 
Schubothe, Mr. G. H. Bookseller, Copenhagen 
Schiinemann, Mr. C. Bookseller, Bremen 
Schunck, Martin, Esq. Cooper-st. Manchester 
Schwann, Fred. Escp Iluddersfield 
Scole, Suffolk, Book Club 
Scoresby, Rev.Wm.B.D F.R.S. & Mem. Inst. 

of France, Exeter 
Scott, Andrew, Esq. 39,London-st. Edinburgh 
Scott, David, Esq. Cannon-street, Manchester 
Scott, Right Rev. Dr. 34, Gt. Ayer-st. Glasgow 
Scott, IMajor-Geneial Edw. 8, Sion-hill, Bath 
Scott, Francis Caterch, Esq. 39, Charlotte-st. 

Edinburgh 
Scott, Mr. Hudson, Booksllr. Carlisle. 4 Copies 
Scott, J. Esq. Dariford, Kent 
Scott, J. Esq. Winfrith, Dorset 
Scott, Jeremiah, Esq. \N'atetloo-street, Leeds 
Scott, John, Esq. Calls, Leeds 
Scott, John, Esq. Bishop Wearmouth 
Scott, J. W. Esq.il/.P. Rotherfield Park, Alton 
Scott, Mr. John, Mosley-street, Manchester 
SccH, Jos. Esq. Ilalfmoon-st. Manchester 
Scott, Page Nicol, Esq. Norwich 
Scott, William, Esq. Hall-place 
Scott, Wm. Esq. St. Christopher's 
Scovell, Mr. Chas. Southaraplou 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



xcv 



Scovell, Mr. George, 29, Clerkenwell-clo^e 
Scudamoie,G.A.Esq.Back King-st. Manchester 
Scurlock, J. Trevor, Esq. Doctors'-commons 
Sciirr, Rev. R. W. \'icarage, Aldbur^h, Suffolk 
Seacombe, Mr. .1. Bookllr. Chester. 2 Copies 
Seager, James, Esq. Poole, Dorset 
Seagrim, Chas. Esq. Winchester 
Seale, Lieut. Col. il.P. 102, Gloucester-place 
Searle, Thos. Esq. 56, Gower-st. Bedford-sq. 
Seddon, Peter, Esq. Brougliton, Manchester 
Seddon, \Vm. Esq. Ardwick-st. Jlanchester 
Sedgwick, Miss, Homerton, Middlesex 
Sedgwick, Mr. \Vm. 9, Regent-street 
Seeley, Mr. B. Bookseller, Kingston, Surrey 
Seeley & Sons, Messrs. Booksellers, lleet-st. 
SEGRAVE, Right Hon. Lord 
Selby, liy. Coll. Esq. SwainsHeld 
Selby, Jas. Esq. Otford, Kent 
Semper, Hugh Ryley, Esq. St. Christopher's 
Sencombe, jNIr. I. Bookseller, Chester 
Senior, .las. Esq. Lascellas Hall, Ihiddersfield 
Senior, Jos. Esq. Dalton Lodge, Hudderstield 
Serrell, Rev. S. Langton Jlatravers, Dorset 
Seton, Robert, Esq. 72, Upper Norton-street 
Sewell & Cross, Messrs. Reading-room at 
Sewell, G. D. Esq. Frith-street, Soho 
Sewell, John, Esq. 28, Upper Thames-street 
Sewell, Mr. Jos. Newcastle & Carlisle Steamer, 

Liverpool 
Sewell, Rev. Wm. A.M. Exeier Coll. O.xford 
Seymer, Rev. G. A. Iwerne Courtney, alias 

Shroton, near Blandford, Dorset 
Seymer, 11. Esq. Knoyle, \Vilis 
Seymer, IL K. Esq. Handford, Dorset 
Seymour, Hon. Capt.SirGeo. 17,\\ hitehall-pl. 
Seymour, Fred. Esq. Kemp Town, Brighton 
Seymour, Win. Esq. 27, Brunswick-square 
Shackell, Wm. Esq. Hammersmith 
Shackleford, Jas. Shuckburgb, Esq. Lutter- 
worth, Leicestershire 
Shafto, S. D. Esq. University Coll. Oxford 
Shand, Wm. Jno. Esq. 28, i\Iiller-st. Glasgow 
Shann, Thomas, E<q. Leeds 
Sharp, .las. Esq. IG, Bread-.nreet 
Sharp, James, Esq. 13, Hatton-garden 
Sharp, R.C. Esq. 5", Mosley-st. .Manchester 
Sharpe, Js. Esq. 68, HutcUinson-st. tllasgow 
Sharpe, Mr. Richard, P>laidstone 
Sharpe, W.C. Esq. St John's Coll. Cambridge 
Shaw, Mr. Fred. Bookseller, Dundee. 2 Copies 
Shaw, David, Esq. Ihiddersiield 
Shaw, George, Esq. iloUoway X'lUa, Bath 
Shaw, George, Esq. S\van-st. Briggate, Leeds 
Shaw, Mr. .T. C. City of Dublin Company's 

Works, Clarence Dock 
Shaw, Mrs. J. Y. Bookseller, 18, Southamp- 
ton-row, Russel square 
Shaw, Sir James, Bart. Chamberlain of London 
Shaw, Lieut. Col. 10,\Vidcombe-crescent,Bath 
Shawe, Robt. Newton, Esq. Kesgrave Hall, 

Woodbridge, Suffolk 
Shearcioft, Mr. J. V. Bookseller, Braintree, 

Esse.x. 6 Copies 
Shears, D. T. ICsq. Lawn, South Lambeth 
Shecrness Book Society 
Sheffield, Jos. James, Esq. Wellington-pl. 

Commercial-road 
Sheldon & Sons, Messrs. I\Iason-st. Manchstr. 
Shelley, J.N. Esq. I'.psom, Surrey 
Shelmerdiue, H. Esq. King-st. Manchester 
Shelton, Thomas, Esq. Edinburgh 
Shepheard, J. Esq. Chartmarle, Dorset 
Stepherd, J. Esq. Yeardon House, near Leeds 
Shepherd, ('apt. John, li.N. 37, Dorset-square 



Sheppard, Captain, Granby-street, Leicester 
Sheppard, liev. John, M.A. Blackheath 
Sheppard, Jos. Fran. Esq. Clevedon, Somerset 
S!iepherd, ^Ir. R. A. Bookseller, Newman- 
street, Oxford-st'cet 
SHERBORNE, Riglit Hon. Lord 
Sherbrooke, Mrs. Oxton Hall, Southwell, Notts 
Sherer, J. W. Esq. Leamington Priors 
Sheridan, iMr. Gloster Hotel, Ryde 
Sherratt, Thos. Esq. Salford 
Sherwin, Frank, Esq. 9, Burton-street 
Sherwood and Co. Messrs. Booksellers, Pater- 
noster-row. 7 Copies 
Sherwood, Col. 10, Great Cumberland-street 
Sherwood, Richard, Esq. Chaddleworlh, Berks 
SherwootI, Thos. Esq. 4, Mecklenburg-square 
.Shewell, John, Esq. Stock Exchange 
Shilleto, Wm. Esq. Langbourn Chambers, 

Fenchurcb-street 
Shirley, Rear- Admiral G. J. 35, Gay-st. Batli 
Sliirley,Rev.W.A.Shirley-vicarge.nr.Aslibourne 
Shirley, W. P. Esq. Debtling, ne.ar Maidstone 
Shone, Mr. \\'. Bookseller, Bangor. 7 Copies 
Shore, J. Esq. 23, Guildford-slreet 
.Short, Mr. E.W. Booksr. Nuneaton. 2 Copies 
Shortland,Rev. H. V. ^..W. Tilehurst, Berks 
Shutlier, Mr. Jolin, Rotherhithe 
Sliotter, Jas. F'sq. Farnham, Hants 
Shrewsbury .Subscription Library 
Shuckard, .Mr. L. Old Ship Hotel, Brighton 
Shute, .Vrthur \V. Esq. Gloucester 
Shuttleworlh, G. E. Esq. Poultry 
Shultleworth, J. Esq. Bishop's Tawton, Devon 
Sidebotham, J. Esq. Church-st. Jhmchester 
Sidebottom, I\lrs. Ann, St. Mail's Manchester 
Sidebottom, Henry, Esq. 52, Spring-gardens, 

Manchester 
Sidebottom,^V. Esq. Cleveland-bldgs. Manchr. 
Sid^wick, IMr. James, Skipton 
SIUMOUTH, Rt. Hon. Lord \'iscount 
Sieh', 15. C. Esq. Beech Grove, North Walsham 
Sikes, Capt. li.N. Arundel-street, .Strand 
.Silveitop, Colonel, 55, Lower Grosvcnor-street 
Silvester, Mr. H. P. Bookseller, Newport, 
Salop. 3 Copies 

Silvester, Mr. S. Bookseller, Market Drayton. 

3 Copies 
Sim, Rev. Henry, Longford, near Ashbourn 
Sim, Robt. I'.sq. Murray Gate 
Simkin, I'.dw. Esq. 2, New Cavendish-street, 

Portland-place 
.Sirams, Mr. G. Booksr. Manchester. -10 Copies 
Simmons, Wm. Esq. 10, King's-beuch-walk, 

Temple 
SimpkinJc Marshall, Messrs Stationers'-court. 

90 Copies 
Simpson, Edwin, Esq. Albion-street, Leeds 
Simpson, H. II. Esq. 12, Camden-place, Bath 
Simpson, John, Esq. 
•Simpson, John, Esq. Alderman of York 
Simpson, Joseph, Esq. Woodhouse-la. Leeds 
Simpson, Joseph, Esq. St. Petersburg 
Simpson, Mrs. Heme hill 
Simpson, R.W. Esq. Commercial-street, Leeds 
Simpson, Mr. Thos. Bksellr. Wolverhampton. 

12 Copies 
Simpson, Wm. W. Esq. C, Montague-place, 

Russell- ^cpiare 
Simpson, Dr. York 

Sims, James, Esq, Chasewater, near Truro 
Sims, Robt. F.sq. 30, Compton-slreet 
Sims, -Mr. \\ illiam, 51, Great Queen-street 
Simson, Mr. G. Bookseller, Hertford. 3 Copies 
Simson, Capt. Thos. Brig Rapier, Liverpool 



Sinclair, Mr. J. Dumfries 
Singleton, Cuthbert, Esq. 1, New-inn 
Singleton, John, Esq. Piitswood, Shetfield 
Singleton, Jonathan, Esq. Briggate, Leeds 
Singleton, W. Esq. Dock-street, Leeds 
Skellon, John, Esq. Calls, Leeds 
Skinner, .Samuel, Esq. 23, Portland-place 
Skurry, Rev. Benj. llornington, Wiltshire 
Slade, Hy. Esq. Frome, Soineiset 
Slade, Lieut, Gen. Sir John, Bart. Maosell 

House, North Petherton 
Slade, Robt. Esq. Poole, Dorset 
.Slade, T. jun. Esq. Poole, Dorset 
Sladen, Jos. Esq. jun. 2, Grove-end-road, 

Regent's-park 
Sladen, John, Esq. Fennel!-st. Manchester 
Slater, A. B. Esq. 10, Sackville-street 
Slater, Francis, Esq. 1, Montague-place, 

Clapham-road 
Slater, Mrs. Spa, Gloucester 
Slater, Wm. Esq. I'rincess-st. Manchester 
Slatter, Mr. IL Bookseller, Oxford. 2 Copies 
Slatter, Rev. Wm. Iffley, near Oxford 
.Sleigh, Lieut. J. H.N. Folkestone, Kent 
.Sleigh, Captain Wm. Niagara Collage, Staple- 
ford, near Nottingham 
Sleight, Rob. P. E.sq. Lougate, Hull 
Slingsby, Rev. H. Stout Provost, Dorset" 
Sloane, James, Esq. 113, Brunswick street, 

Glasgow 
Slocock,Chas. Esq. Donninton, Berks 
Slocock, E. Esq. West ALUs, Newbury, Berks 
Sly, Mr. James, Ship Forlield, Liverpool 
Sniail, Lieut. W. A. R. N. 18, Dublin-street, 

Edinburgh 
Smalley, C. Esq. St. John's Coll . Cambridge 
Smallpiece, John, Esq. Guildford 
Smallpiece, Mark, Esq. Guildford 
Smallwood, Mr. J. J. Nordiamplon 
Smart, John, Esq. Highbury-park 
Smerdon, Chas. Esq. I, Portland-pl. Clifton 
Smith, A. Bridges, Esq. Abbey \ ilia, Bath 
Smith, A. II. Esq. Queen's Coll. Cambridge 
Smiih, Abel, Esq. M.P. 30, Beikeley-square 
Smith, Anwick, Esq. Langley Grove, near 

Durham 
Smith, Archd. Esq. 204, St. Vinccnt-st. Glsgw 
Smith, JMrs. Asheton, \'aenol, near Bangor 
Smith, C. Esq. East Mailing, Kent 
Smith, Charles, Esq. 12, Paper-buildings 
Smith, C. J. Esq. 2, King's-arms-yard 
Smith, Chas. Esq. High-street, Manchester 
Sniiih, Rev.C. Lessingham, Cheltenham 
Smith, E. T. Esq. 3, Alfred-pl. North Brixton 
Smith, Edwin, Esq. 4, Gray's-inn-square 
Smith, i:;ider and Co. ^le?srs. Booksellers, 

Cornhill. 10 Copies 

Smith, Gustavus, Esq. Sidbury Castle, Devon 
Smith, Capt. U. John of Newfoundland, Li 

verpool 
Smith, Henry, Esq. FcU-slreel, Wood-street' 
Siniih, J. Esq. Put Press, Cambridge 
Smith, J. G. Esq. Ashley Down 
Smith, Jas. Esq. Mount Pleasant-sq. Alanchr. 
Smith, Captain John, Erin Lodge, Falmouth 
Smith, John, Esq. Ashbouine-road, I krby 
Smith, John, Esq. High-stiecl, Manchester 
Smilh, John, Esq. 22, Grosvenor-square 
Smith, John, Esq. Claremonl-pl. Urixton-rd. 
Smith, .Mr. J. Bookslir. .Maidstone. 2 Copies 
Smith, Mr. John, Clarence Dock, Liverpool 
Smith, Rev. Dr. John I've, Iloinerloii 
Smith, Kev. J.J. M.A. Caius Coll. Cambridge 
Smith, MillOD, Esq. Migh-st. Manchester 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Smith, Miss, Booksellei', Staines. 3 Copies 
Smith, M. E. Esq. 1 King's Bench-vvk. Temple 
Smith, iVIr. M. Alnwick 
Smith, Mrs. Ashby-de-la-Zouch 
Smith, N. B. Esq. Brockenhnrst, Hants 
Smith, P. J. Esq. Wood-st. Cheapside 
Smith, P. P. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Smith, Mr. II. English Hotel, Rue Raraasse, 

Rouen 
Smith, Robt. Esq. Critchill-place 
Smith StSon, Messrs. Bkrs.Glasgovv. 22 Copies 
Smith, Stephen, Esq. Peel-street, Manchester 
Smith, T. Hogan, Esq. Forberry-grove, near 

Nev.-bury 
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Smith, Thos. Esq. Old Brentford 
Smith, Thos. H. Esq. St. Mary Cray 
Smith, Thos. Esq. South HiU, Liverpool 
Smith, Messrs. Wni. & Co. Marsden-square, 

Manchester 
Sraitli, Mr. William, Stockport, Cheshire 
Smiih, VV. Masters, Esq. Camer, Gravesend 
Smith, W. Esq. Exchange-st. West, Liverpool 
Smith, Wm. Esq. \\'hitborne-court 
Smith, Wm. Esq. of Carbeth, 112, Hope-st. 

Glasgow 
Smith, Wm. Esq. Ilemel Hempstead 
Smith, Wm. Esq. Reddisli House, Stockport 
Smith, William, Esq. Leeds 
Smithson, Robert, Esq. York 
Smyth, Edmund, Esq. Horsham 
Smyth, Sir John, Bart. Ashton-court, Bristol 
Smyth, W.T. Esq. Little Houyhton, Northamp 
Smyth, Miss, Innage House, Shiffnal 
Smythe, Rev. E. 
Snell, John, Esq. Edmonton 
Snell, Wm. Esq. 20, Ingram-street, Glasgow 
Snoad, Mr. E. H. Ashford, Kent 
Snoulton, O. jun. Esq. Canterbury 
Snow, P. Duveluz, Esq. Queen's CoU.Camb. 
Snowden, T. H. G. Esq. Ramsgate 
Soames, Mrs. Mary, Pinner Lodge, Jliddlesex 
Sole, Wm. Esq. St. Neot's, Huntingdon 
Solly, R. H. Esq. 48, Gt. Ormond-st. Blooms - 

bury 
Solly, Joseph, Esq. Dyer's-ct. Aldermanbury 
SOMERSET, His Grace the Duke of 
Somerset, Rev. P. H.\'illiers, Rector of Eloniton 
Somerville, Henry, Esq. Stafford 
SoraerviUe, Jas. Somerville, Esq. Dinder 

House, near Wells, Somerset 
Somerville, John, Esq. 63, Candleriggs, Glasg. 
Somes, Mrs. S. Stratlord 
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Soper, Richd. Esq. Mayor of Totness, Devon 
Sorby, James, Esq. Sheffield 
Sotheby, Mr. E. S. 13, Lower Grosvenor-st. 
Sctheby, Rev. T. H. North Mymms, Herts 
Sotheran, Mr. Henry, Bookseller, York 
Sotheron, Admiral I'rank, 58, Grosvenor-street 
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vatory, Kensington 
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St. John's Wood 
SOUTHAMPTON, Right Hon. Lord 
Southby, Miss, Chieveley 
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Soulhgate, F. Esq. Gravesend 
Southwark Book Society of Friends 

Literary Society 

SOUTHWELL, Right Hon. Lord Viscount 
Sowerby, Jas. Esq. 2, Albion-bldgs. Manchstr. 



Soy, Mr. J. Britannia Steamer, Liverpool 
Spankie, Mr. Sergeant, M.P. Russell-square 
Sparkes, Henry, Esq. Pensylv.inia, Exeter 
Sparkes, Joseph, Esq. Exeter 
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Spence, Capt. Henry Hume, li.N. 25, Devon- 
shire-street, Portland-place 
Spence, W. Esq. 32, Alfred-place, Bedfoid-sq. 
SPENCER, Right Hon. the Earl 
Spencer, Mr. R. R. Slaidstone 
Spencer, Robt. Esq. Holyhead 
Spencer, T. Esq. 53, St. John-street-road 
Spens, Colonel, Mussleburgh, N.B. 
Sperling, J. M. Esq. Halstead, Essex 
Spicer, David, Esq. Portsea 
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Spicer, J. W. Esq. Esher place, Surrey 
Spicer, W. J. Esq. Royal College, Chelsea 
Spiers, B. Esq. New Brown-street, Manchester 
Spode, Mrs. the Mount, Newcastle-under-Lyne 
Spooner, Ralpli, Esq. Bolton, Lancashire 
Spooner, Mr. Thos. Ely, Cambridge 
Spragg, Chas. H. Esq. Exeter College, Oxford 
Springett, R. Esq. Finchcocks, Goudhurst 
Spry, J. II. Esq. 5, Charter-house-square 
Spurdens, Rev. W. T. North \\'alsham, Norf. 
Spurgeon, C. Wm. Esq. Lynn Regis, Norfolk 
Spurgin, Thos. Esq. Saffron Walden 
Spurrell, Charles, Esq. > 

Spurway, Lieut. John, R.N. Milverton 
Spyers, IMr. Thos. 6, Main-street, Glasgovir 
Stables, H. Esq. Crossland Mills, Iluddersfield 
Stacy, Mr. John, Norwich 
StaHbrd, Mr. C. Bookseller, ShefTord, Bedford- 
shire. 2 Copies 
Stafford, Mrs. M. Jlarine Library, Worthing. 

3 Copies 
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Manchester 
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Thames-street 
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St. Andre, Mr. Durant, Consul General de 

France, 44, Montague-square 
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ton-crescent, Hampstead-road 
Stanfield, Mr. J. Bookseller, Wakefield, York- 
shire. 21 Copies 
Stanfield, Mr. John, Bookseller, Bradford, 
Yorkshire. 8 Copies 
Stanger, Joshua, Esq. Wandsworth 
Staniforth, Samuel, Esq. Liverpool 
STANLEY, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.P. 
Stanning, Mr. Oxford 
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Clapham-road 
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Starkey, J. Esq. Spy Park, near Devizes 
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.Starr, Thos. Esq. Canterbury 
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Doctors'-commons 



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Stoggall, Dr. John, l.ly-place 
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.Steinstlial, L. l'lsq.74, Bloomsbury, Manchester 
Stennelt, Mrs. Islington-crescent, Wem 
Stephen, Mr. Alex. 60, Great Russell-street 
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Wells 
Stephenson, Gen. B. C. 16, Hertford-street, 

May-Fair 
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Stevens, Rev. Dr. R. Dean of Rochester 
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and St. Fort, Dundee 
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Stewart, Capt. R.N. Mussleburgh, N.B. 
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Slock, Thos. F'.sq. Henbury-crescent 
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Stockley, Mr. G. Bookseller, 44, Ilolywell- 

street. Strand 
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Slodart, R. Esq. 20, Athole-crescent, Edinb. 
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Stoker, Robt. Esq. Holt, Norfolk 
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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



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Stokes, J. Esq. Oukover, near Ashborne 

Stolteiibrlh, Dr. Sigisraund, Dover 

Stone, Edw. Esq. Pall-mall East 

Stone, George, jun. Esq. Lombard-street 

Stone, Henry, Esq. Lombard-street 

Stone, Miss, Dartmouth-row, Blackheath 

Stone, Mrs. Keccles, Suffolk 

Stone, Webb, Esq. Deputy-Lieut. Trull, near 

Taunton 
Stopford, Capt. R.N. 45, Gloucester-place 
Storer, C. pjsq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Storks, T.T. E^q. Jesus College, Cambridge 
Storr, Mr. R. Bookseller, Grantham. 3 Copies 
Stott, J. Esq. Bank-street, Leeds 
Stow, Mr. David, 85, Buchanan-st. Glasgow 
Stow, W. F. Esq. Hanover-square, Leeds 
Stowell, Kev. Hugh, Salford, Lancashire 
St. Paul, Horace, Esq. Ewart Park, Wooler, 

Norlhinnberland 
St. Petersburg, Naval Academy of 
Straford, J. C. Esq. Cheltenham 
Strange, Tlios. Esq. 65, Hounsditch 
STRATHALLAN, Right Hon. Lord Viscount 
Strather, U'ni. Esq. Alnwick 
Stratton Literary Institution 
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Brecon 
Stride, Messrs. and Co. Redbridge,near South- 
ampton 
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Strong, Mr. \\iUiam, Bristol 
Strother, Thomas, Esq. Briggate, Leeds 
Struthers, Jas. Esq. 40, Guildford-st. Glasgow 
Struthers, Robt. Esq. Grun Head, Glasgow 
Strutt, Josh. Esq. St. Peter's-street, Derby 
Strutt, Miss, St. Helen's House, Derby 
Stuart, Daniel, Esq. Upper Harley-street 
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Stuart, Hon. iSlajor-General P. Commander-in- 
chief, Edinburgh 
Stuart, R. Esq. 26, Pall-mall, i\Ianchester 
Stuart, Rear-Admiral, 52, Upper Brook-street 
Stuart, Robt. Esq. 26, Pall-mall, JNIanchester 
Stubbs, Mr. John, 5, Ann's-sq. Manchester 
Stuckey, J. Esq. Hill House, Langport 
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Stuckey, Vincent, Esq. ditto 
Sturgeon, J. Kemp, Esq. Dorking 
Sturmy, Herbert. Esq. 8, Wellington-st.Boro' 
Styk-man, H.L.S. Esq. Christ Church, Oxford 
Styles, Mr. I'rederick, Market, Cambridge 
Sudlow, Jolin, Esq. Princcss-st. Manchester 
Suett, John, Esq. Doncaster 
SUPFIELD, Right Hon. Dowager Lady 
Sugden, J. Esq.W'oodsome Lees, lluddersfield 
Sullivan, Capt. Sir Clias. Bait. U.S. Thames 

Daton 
Sully, Dr. Heniy, Taunton 
Summers, James, Esq. Haverfordwest 
Suinpton, Capt. P. Ship Canir-de-Lioii, Livpl. 
Sunuon, Mr. 11. Red Lion-yard, .-Mdersgate-st. 
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SUTHERLAND, His Grace the Duke of 
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liament-street 
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Sutton, Jas. Esq. Shardlow Hall, near Derby 
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Sutton, Miss, Regent- street, Cambridge 



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Swallow, Luke, Esq. lluddersfield 
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Swan, Alex. Esq. Ilythe, Kent 
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Swann, George, F'sq. York 
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Swanston, Wm. Esq. St. Christopher's 
Sweet, S. W. Esq. Dorset-square 
Sweetland, John, Esq. Teignmouth, Devon 
Sweetlaiul, ">Vm. Esq. .Star Cross, Devon 
Swete, J . Beaumont, Esq. Oxton House, Exeter 
Swift, Mr. C. 11. 78, Fleet-street 
Swindell, Mr. John, Aldburgh, Suffolk 
.Swiney, Dr. Arlington-street, Camden-town 
Swinnerton, JMr. Jas. Bookseller, Macclesfield. 

5 Copies 
Sword, Jas. jun. Esq.43, IIutchinson-st.Glasg. 
Sw}-er, Mr. It. York Hotel, Manchester 
Sykes, Capt. R.N. 11, Royal Crescent, Bath 
Sykes, John, Esq. Beech Grove, Leeds 
Sykes, John, Esq. Sheffield 
Sykes, Lieut.-Col. W. II. F.R.S. 47, Albion. 

street, Hyde-paik 
Sykes, Rev. W. Vicar of CoUumpton, Devon 
Sylvester, Mr. John, 85, Great Russell-street 
Syms, I'redk. George, Esq. 29, Craven-street 
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Symonds, Capt. R.N. East End Cottage, 

Lymington 
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Symons, Samuel, Esq. Gonvens, near Wade- 
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ymps 



Rev. Chas. J. Peversal, Notts 



Synnotj R. W. Esq. Claphani-comraon 



Tabor, John, Esq. 25, Finsbury-square 
Tadnian, William, F"sq. Norwich 
Tagg, Mr. William, Bookseller, Maidenhead. 

5 Copies 
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gent-street 
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T.M.BOT, Riu'ht Hon. llarl 
Talbot, C. R.'M. Esq. M.P. 63, Si. James's- 

stieet 
Talbot, Hon. 5c Rev. Gustavus, Ingistrie 
Talbot, Johii,H. Esq.ilLP. BeltvviUe,Wexford 
TALLF.VRAND, His Excellency le Prince de 
Tandy, Capt. Danl.ii.iV. Topsliani, Devon 
Tanner, Hy. Esq. Wearmoulli Walk, Bishop 

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Tassell, Robt. Esq. Maidstone 
Tassell, Thos. jun, Esq. Maidstone 

n 



Tasswell, G. M. Esq. Canterbury 

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yard . g Copies 

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Bedford-row 
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Taunton and Somerset Institution, Taunton 
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Tayler, (Jeoi^gt, Esq. Fleathar 
Tayler, Captain, J. N. R.N. C.B. Belle 

V'ue House, Devizes, Wilts 
Tayler, Mrs. Wimbourne, Dorset 
Tayler, Thomas, R. Esq. Portsea 
Tayleur, W. l".sq. M.P. 22, Mount-street 
Tayleur, W. IL F"sq. Seel-street, Liverpool 
Tayleur, Dr. W. }i,. Teignmouth, Devon 
Taylor, Admiral, Maize-hill, Greenwich 
Taylor, Beaumont, Esq. lluddersfield 
Taylor, Chas. Esq. Christ Church, Oxford 
Taylor, David, Esq. 148, Gallongate, Glasgow 
Taylor, Mr. David, Bookseller, Rye 
Taylor, Rev. Dr. Dedliam, Essex 
Taylor, Ed. Joseph, Esq. Water-lane, Leeds 
Taylor, Dr. Geo. Weymouth, Dorset 
Taylor, George, lisq. Adelphi-st. Salford 
Taylor, Guth. J. Esq. Assistant Surgeon, R.N. 

Sea Gull Packet, Falmouth 
Taylor, Lieut-Gen. Sir Herbert, K.G.H. St. 

James's Palace 
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Taylor, J. A. Esq. Worcester College, Oxford 
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Taylor, James, Esq. 15, I'umival's-inn 
Taylor, John, Esq. Bridge-street, Manchester 
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Taylor, Mr. J. Bookseller, Upper Gower-st. 
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Taylor, .Saml. Esq. 30, Cooper-st. Manchester 
Taylor, Mr. Tliomas, Cranbrook 
Taylor, Thos. L. Esq. Diss, Norfolk 
Taylor, \\ illiam IL Esq. Great Yarmouth 
Taylor, Wm. Esq. lluddersfield 
Taylor, W m. Esq. Ashbourne-road, Derby J 
Teal, Henry, Esq. Albion-street, Leeds 
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Tebbutt, J. R. F'sq. Deansgate, Manchester 
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Telford, Thos. Esq. F.R.S. .Vbingdon-slreet 
Tempest, Miss M.C. Broughton Hall, Yorksh. 
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Templeman, J. Ivsq. 33, Pultcney-strcet, Balli 
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Tennant, C. J. Esq. Cochrane-st. Cilasgow 
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Ti-nnanI, W. Esq. Kemp-town, Uri^liton 
Tennent, J. E. Esq. M.l'. The Lodge, BL-lfist 
Tcnnent, Lieut.-Col. II. 18, Russell-place, 

Fitzroy-square 



xcviii 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Tennent, Mr. John Robert, Dunchatten 
TENTERDEN, Right Hon. Lord 
Tetlow, John, Esq. Cannon-st. INIanthester 
Thackery, Rev. Geo. X).D. Provost of King's 

College, Cambridge 
THANET, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Thelwell, Richd. Esq. St. Ann's-square, Man- 
chester 
Thesiger, Fredericli, Esq. 9, Montague-place, 

Bedford -square 
Thick, Mr. Charles James, 3, Copthall-bdgs. 
Thirkill, F. Esq. 
Tliiselton, Mr. J. Faversham 
Thistlethwayte, Thos. Esq. Connaught-place 
Thomas, Capt. White Ladies, Worcester 
Thomas, Mr. C. J. Bungay, Suffolk 
Thomas, Mr. David, R. Union-street, Dundee 
Thomas, George, Esq. Truro 
Thomas, J. C. Esq. Redcliff-street, Bristol 
Thomas, John, Esq. 48, Upper, Harley-street 
Thomas, R. G. Esq. 21, Lombard-street 
Tliomason, W.Esq. 15, Church-st. Manchester 
Thompson, C. J. Esq. 9, Upper Phillimore- 

place, Kensington 
Thompson, Chas. Esq. Huddersfield 
Thompson, Fredk. Esq. 5, Brick-court, Temple 
Thompson, Mr. George, Bookseller, Bury St. 

Edmund's. 15 Copies 

Thompson, James, Esq. 22, George-street 

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Thompson, Jas. Esq. 9, George-st. Minories 
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Thompson, P. B. Esq. JW.P. 29, Berkeley, sq. 
Thompson, Rev. Wm. 5, Canonbury-place, 

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Thompson, Mr. W. 14, Old Burlington-street 
Thompson,\A'. Esq.il/.P. Alderman of London 
Thomson, Jas. T. Esq. Ravensdale, Isle of 

Man 
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Thomson, Dr. John, F.L.S. Hermitage-place, 

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Thomson, Robert, Esq. Edinburgh 
Thorman, J. Esq. 8, Lawrence-pountney-hill 
Thornborough, Captain, R.N. Clifton 
Thornton, H. Esq. Lastington, Barnard Castle 
Thornton, Robert, T. Esq. Barbadoes 
Thornton, R. Esq. Beccles, Suffolk 
Thornton, R. Esq. Old Swan, London-bridge 
Tliorold, H. Esq. Cuxwold, Lincolnshire 
Tliorowgood, W. Esq. Acre-lane, Brixton 
Thorp, Rev. Mr. A.M. Topsham, Devon 
Thorp, Saml. Esq. Cannon-street, Manchester 
Thorp, Rev. Thos. M.A. Trinity College, 

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Thring, John, Esq. Warminster 
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Thurling, Mr. C. Bookseller, Carlisle 
Thurnall, A. W. Esq. Cambridge 
Thurnam, Mr. C. Bookseller, Carlisle. 2 Copies 
Thurston, Simon, Esq. 9, Southampton-street, 

Bloomsbury-square 



Tlnvaitcs, Henry, Esq. 32, Euston-square 
Thwaites, Jos. Esq. Staples 
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Tichborne, Sir H. J. Bart. Tichbome Park, 

Hants 
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Tielans, J. E. Esq. 147, Fenchurch-street 
Tillard, R. H. Esq. St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge 
Tillett, Mr. Alexander, York-terrace, York-road 
Tdley, T. Harry, Esq. Falmouth 
Tilson, Thomas, sen. Esq. Brixton-hill 
Tilson, Tho. jun. Esq. 12, Finsbury-pl. South 
Times Newspaper 
Timothy, Mr. D. 31, Barbican 
Tims, Mr. R. Moore, 85, Grafton-st. Dublin 
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XCIX 



Tudor, E. E. Esq. St. Christopher's. 

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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



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Wilkinson, John, Esq. 58, Burton-crescent 
Wilkinson, Lieut.-General, Durham 
Wilkinson, Rev. M. Redgrave. Suffolk 
Wilkinson, Rev. Mr. Roilwell, Weymouth 
Wilkinson, Rev. T. Carlisle 
Wilkinson, William, Esq. George 's-court, 

Briggate, Leeds 
Wilkinson, William, Esq. 53, Old Broad-st. 
Wilkinson, William, Esq. Grove House, 

Sheffield 
Wilks, John, Esq. M.P. Finsbury-square 
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Willcox, B. M. Esq. 46, Lime-street 
WiUert, P. F. Esq. 9, Police-st. Manchester 
Willett, Henry, Esq. Norwich 
Willett, W. J. Esq. 18, Esse.v-street, Strand'^ 
Williams, Adm. SirT. Portsmouth Dock-yard. 
Williams, B. jun. Esq. Bioughton Mill, 

Manchester 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



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Williams, C. Esq. St. John's Coll. Cambridge 
Williams, Charles, Esq. 19, Ely-place 
Williams, Ilev. Dr. College, Wmchester 
Williams, Edw. A. Esq. Bromley 
Williams, Commander Edw. (B.) Twickenham 
\A'ilhams, Mr. E. W. 3, Gerrard-street, Soho 
Williams, George Arthur, Esq. 
Williams, Mr. George, Bookseller, Stourport. 

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Williams, Mr. G. A. Bookseller, Cheltenham. 

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Williams, Colonel Henry, Falmouth 
Williams, Henry, Esq. 37, Back, Bristol 
Williams, Hyde, Esq. 110, Fenchurch-street 
AVilliams, Isaac, Esq. Cottage-crescent, Bath 
Williams, John, Esq. Cannon-st. Manchester 
Williams, J. jun. Esq. Magdalen Coll. Camb. 
A\'illiams, J. Esq. London-rd. Mill, Manchstr. 
Williams, John, Esq. Burncoose, near Truro 
Williams, John, Esq. Pitmarston, Worceslersh. 
Williams, John, Esq. Stock Exchange 
'Williams, Mr. J. Hibeinia Steamer, Liverpool 
Williams, L. W. Esq. Old Bailey, Ludgate-hill 
Williams, Michael, Esq. Tievince, near Truro 
Williams, Miss, Duffryn 
Williams, Mr. Bookseller, Brecon 
Williams, P. U. Esq. M.P. Haunch Wood 

House, Nuneaton 
Williams, Philip, Esq. 15, Upper Bedford-pl. 
Williams, U. Esq. M.P. 36, Grosvenor-square 
Williams, R. D. Esq.Widcombe Villa, Clifton 
A\'illiains, 11. E. Esq. Weston Grove, Thames- 

Ditton 
AVilliams, Richard, Esq. Mayor of Penryn 
Williams, Stephen T. Esq. Truro 
Williams, Thos. Esq. Lyncombe House, Bath 
Williams, Win. Esq. Tregullow, Cornwall 
M'illiams, Wm. Paul, Esq. Penryn 
Williamson, H. H. Esq. Greenway Bank, High 

SheriH' of Staftbrdshire 
AViUiamson, John, Esq. 3, Raymond-bldgs. 
M'ilhamson, Joshua, Esq. 5, Nicholas-lane 
A\'illiamson, Waller, Esq. St. Christopher's 
■Willis, — ,Ksq.\'icar'sHilI Cottage, Lymington 
^\ illis, (ieorge, Esq. 18, St. James's-street 
Willis, Messrs. James .Sc William, Thatched 

House, St. James's-street 
Willmore, Mr. J. T.23, Poly2;on, Somers Town 
WILLOUGHBV UE ERESBY, Right Hon. 

Lord 
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Caledonia 
Willoughby, Mr. James, Midshipman, H.M.S. 

Blagicienne 
Willoughby, Capt. Sir N. R.y. 
Willoughby, Jos. Esq. Cheetwood, Manchester 
A\'illmett, J. A. Esq. Rochester 
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^\'illna!l, Hon. Mrs. i'ounsford Park, Somerset 
^\'iImot, .Sir Robert, Bart. Brighton 
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Wilson, Sir Alexander, 45, I'ulteney-st. Bath 
Wilson & Co. Messrs. Booksellers, Halifa.\ 

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Wilson, Rev. Daniel, Islington 
\\ ilson. Rev. Dr. Southampton 
Wilson, Lieut. Gen. Alexander, St. Petersburg 
^^ ilson, G. Esq. 3, Pall-mall, Mancliester 
Wilson, G. St. y. Esq. Redgrave Hall, Suffolk 
Wilson, George, Esq. Monmouth 
Wilson, Sir Giftin, RR.S. 2, Stratford-place 
Wilson, Mr. E. Bookseller, Royal Exchange. 

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Wilson, Henry, Esq. Stowlangtoft Hall, near 

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Wilson, Henry, Esq. 66, Guildford-street 
Wilson, i\Ir. J. Hawkhurst, Kent 
Wilson, Mr. Isaac, Bookseller, Hull. 5 Copies 
Wilson, J. Esq. 53, St. John's-st. Clerkenvvell 
Wilson, J. A. Esq. 13, Coventry-street 
Wilson, Mr. James W. Louth 
Wilson, John, Esq. Sheffield 
Wilson, John J. Esq. 25, Northampton-square 
Wilson, John B. Esq. Southborough,Tunbridge 

\\'ells 
Wilson, John, Esq. Ilunslet-lane, Leeds 
Wilson, Josiah, Esq. Stamford-lull 
Wilson, Miss, Belmont, Leeds 
Wilson, Mrs. Highfield, near Sheffield 
Wilson, R. H. Esq. 61, King's-st. Manchester 
Wilson, Rev. Robert, Ashwelsthorpe 
Wilson, Rev. R. Otway, St. Paul's, Poole, 

Dorsetshire 
Wilson, Robt. Esq. Albion Hotel, Manchester 
Wilson, Samuel, Esq. Alderman of London 
Wilson, Mr. Thos. Trentham-street, Liverpool 
Wilson, Sir T. M. Bart. Charlton, Kent 
Wilson, T. Esq. Edgerton Lodge, Huddersfield 
Wilson, Thos. Esq. Dulwich-place, Dulwich 
Wilson, Wm. Jas. Esq. Mosley-st. Manchester 
Wilson, W. W. Carus, Esq. Casterton Hall, 

Westmorland' 
WILTON, Right Hon. the Earl of 
Winby, Mr. William, 16, Price-st. Liverpool 
WINCHESTER, Right Rev. Lord Bishop of 
Windey, Nathan, Esq. 24, Park-street, Bristol 
Windham, J. S. Esq. 26, Brunswick-terrace, 

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burg-sqnare 
Wing, Charles, Esq. 22, Aberdeen-place, 

Maida-liiU 
Wingate, Mr. A. Royal Exchange-sq. Glasgow 
Whigatc, i\Ir. Andrew, Queen-street, Glasgow 
Wingrove, Col. G.P. li.M. Unity-pl. Woolwich 
Wilmington, Sir T. E. Bart. M.P. Stanford- 
court, \\ orcestershire 
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Newcastle-on-Tyrie 
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Winter, C. Esq. Watt's House, near Taunton 
Winter, T. W."Esq. 24, Cannon-pl. Brighton 
Winterborn, Benj. Esq. Cambridge 
Wintcrhottoni, John Keiiyon, Esq. Stockport 
\\ intle, J. Esq. 14, Lansdown-crescent, Bath 
Wintle, Thomas, Esq. Clare-street, Bristol 
Wintle, Rev. Thos. JX.B. St.Jolin's Coll.O.xfd. 
Winwood, John, Esq. Clifton, Bristol 
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near Barnard's Castle 
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W iiliington, Jas. Esq. Pendleton, Manchester 
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Wolll, A. J. Esq. Greenhays, Manchester 
Wol/f, Mr. James, Southampton 
Wolrige, Capt. Wm./J.iV. Lympston, Devon 
Wolstenholme, J. H. Esq. Huddersfield 
\\'olverliamptoii Library 



Wombwell, G. Esq. 15, George-st. Hanover-sq 
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Wood, David, Esq. Dinliam, Ludlow 
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Wood, (Jeorge, Esq. Iligh-st. Manchester 
Wood, Hy. Urme, Esq. St. John's Coll. Camb. 
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Wood, Rev. Dr. J. Master of St. John's Coll. 

Cambridge 
Wood, I\Ir. J. Bookseller, Market Ilarborough. 

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\\'ood, J. N. Esq. 59, Faulkner-st. Liverpool 
Wood, J. Esq. Falcon-street, Aldersgate 
Wood, J. Esq. St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
Wood, John, jun. Esq. Woodbridge, Suffolk" 
\\ ood, J. F. E<q. Caan Park, near Edinburgh 
Wood, James, Esq. High-street, Manchester 
Wood, Jno. Esq. Meltham -Mills, Huddersfield 
Wood, John, Esq. Dalton, Yorkshire 
Wood, John, Esq. Friday-street, Manchester 
Wood, Johnson, Esq. Aldersgate-strect 
Wood, JMrs. Chestham, Sussex 
Wood, Messrs. P. & C. Leith 
Wood N. Esq. Pebor, Carmarthenshire 
Wood, R. Esq. Ileartly-place, Old Kent-road 
Wood, Rev. Thos. Ashford, Kent 
Wood, Thomas, Esq. Lowestoff, Suffolk ' 
Wood, Thomas F. Esq. Stowmarket, Suffolk 
Wood, Rev. William, Staple Grove, Taunton 
Woodall, George, Esq. Y'ork 
Woodbridge, Jas. Esq. Wateringbury, Kent 
Woodburn, A. Esq. 57, Mill-street, Glasgow 
Woodburn, Allen, Esq. 112, St. Martin's-lane 
Woodburn, Mrs. Hendon, Middlesex 
Woodburn, Samuel, Esq. 112, St. !\Iartin's-la. 
Woodburn, Wm. Esq. Terregles Banks, 

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Woodcroft, Rupert, Esq. New Cannou-street, 

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Wood house, 'Hiomas Theakstone, Esq. 26, 

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Woodlark and Adamson, Jlessrs. Leith 
Woodrifl'e, Captain, iJ.iN''. Greenwich Hospital 
Woodrulfe, J. Esq. Ashton-under-I.yne 
U"oods, Mrs. Balladoole, Isle of .Man 
Woods, P. Esq. 23, Lord-street, Liverpool 
Woods, William, Esq. Furnival's-inn Hotel ^ 
Woodthorp, Henry, ]Li(.\^.LL.D. F.S.A. Town 

Clerk of London 
Woolhright,Jolm, Esq. Bold-street, LiTerpool 
Woolcombe, Hy. Esq. Recorder of Plymouth 
Woollaston, Miss Kath. Hyde, Eltham 
Wooller, William, Esq. Stockport 
Woolley, J. Esq. Denmark-hill, Camberwell ' 
WooUey, Rear-Adml. I. 11, Camdcn-pl. Bath 
Woolley, William, Esq. Stock Exchan-.-e 
Wooltorlon, J. Esq. 7, Euston-place, New-rd. 
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WORC ESTER, Right Rev. Lord Bishop of. 

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CII 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Wormald, Mr. R. 6, Broad-street buildiugs 
Wormald, Tliomas, Esq. 42, Bedford-row 
Worms, S. B. Esq. Stock Exchange 
Worrall, George, Esq. Frenchay 
AVorsIey, Charles C. Esq. Winster, Derby 
Worsley, Rev. li.LL.D.TieM IIouse,Newport 
Worsley, Rear-Adml. R. Stainton, Woodhouse 
Wotton, Mr. Richard, King's Largley 
Wrangham, W. Esq. Epsom, Surrey 
Wren, Major James, Raleigh, Devon [ 
Wrexham Book Society 
Wright, Colonel, Lympston, Devon 
Wright, Mr. C. N. Bookseller, Nottingham. 

10 Copies 
Wright, Rev. C. L. Newington, near Sitting- 
bourne 
Wright, E. Esq. Oriel College, O.xford 
Wright, Mr. Edgar, at Mr. Neron's, Bapaume, 

Rouen 
Wright, Rev. G. Bilham House, nearDoncaster 
Wright, Griffith, Esq. JNIayor of Leeds 
Wright, Henry, C. Esq. 40, Tavistock-stieet, 

Covent-garden ■ 
Wright, J. Esq. 225, St. Vincent-st. Glasgow 
Wright, J. Smith, Esq. Rempstone Hall, Notts 
Wright, John, Esq. Itchen Ferry, Southampton 
Wright, John, Esq. Lenton House, Nottingliam 
Wright, Mr. John, 106, Crawford-street 
AVright, Marcus, Esq. Trinity Coll. Cambridge 
Wright &, Sons, JNIessrs. Royal Colonnade, 

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Wright, Miss, Frogmore 
Wright, Mr. Richard, High-street, Leicester 
Wright, Wm. Esq. 109,Cannon-st. Manchester 
Wright, William, Esq. Stockport 
Wrightson and Webb, Messrs. Booksellers, 
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Wyatt, Edward, Esq. Lichfield 

W'yatt, Rev. C. F. Broughton, near Banbury 

\\'ycorabe Literary Society 

Wycombe, Mrs.Plicsbe, Bookseller, Maidstone 

VVyld, J. H. Esq. 83, Redcliff-street, Bristol 

Wyld, W. H. Esq. 83, Redcliff-stieet, Bristol 

Wyld, C. E. Esq. Magdalen Coll. Cambridge 

Wyllie, R. C. Esq. 4, Ilertford-st. May Fair 

\Vyndham,Rev.Dr. Hinton, near Christchurch, 

Hants 
Wynham, Chas. Esq. Donhead Hall, Wilts 
Wynn, Sir Watkin W. Bart. 3I.P. 2 Copies 
\Vynne, Colonel, Garthwyn, Denbighshire 
Wynne, Wm. Esq. 
Wynter, Rev. Dr. President of St. John's 

College, Oxford 
^Vylhe, John, Esq. Eye, Suffolk 



YARBOROUGH, Right Hon. Lord, 2 Copies 
Yard, A. C. Esq. Harcourt-buildings, Temple 
Yard, G. B. Esq. Trinity College, Cambridge 
Yarde, G. H. Esq. Topsham, Devon 
Yarmouth Book Club 
Yarrow, Mr. N. 42, King-street, Snow-hill 
Yates, Chas. Esq. 103, St. John-street 
Yates, E. Esq. Fairlawn, near Seven Oaks 
Yates, T. L. Esq. Lime-street-square 
Yates, James, Esq. Byrom-street, Manchester 
Yates, Mr. J. Bookseller, 118, Grafton-street, 
Dublin. 2 Copies 

Yates, Mrs. Mary, Star Hotel, Manchester 
Yates, Richd. Esq. Bread-street, Manchester 
Yates, R. V. Esq. Brunswick-st. Liverpool 
Yates, S. Esq. 16, Bury-street, St. Mary-axe 



Yates, Dr. Tliomas, Brig 

Yates, Wm. Esq. Hoole Hall, Chester 

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Yeatman, Rev. H. F. Stock House, Dorset 

Yeats, Dr. G. D. Tunbridge Wells 

Yeats, Jno. Esq. 26, St. Ann*s-