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P^nilJ^rsitg of '^Inroittn 



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THE ESTATE OF THE UTE 
Mary SINCLAIR 



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NARRATIVE 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES' I 'PEDITION 



TO 



THE RIVEE JORDAN 



AXD THE 



DEAD SEA, 



BY 



W. F. LYNCH, U. S.N.. 



COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION, 



WITH 



A MAP FROM ACCURATE SURVEYS. 



A NEW AND CONDENSED EDITION. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

LEA AND BLANC HARD, 

1850. 



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-1^ "'T 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1850, by 

LEA AND BLANCHARD, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



1 F ^ f! / ^ 



STEREOTYPED BY J. FAGAN. 

PRINTED BY T. K. AND P. G . COLLINS. 



(2) 



THIS CONDENSED NARRATIVE 



JIs ISetiicateif 



TO 



A FRIEND OF FORMER TIMES 



AN HONOR TO HIS COUNTRY 



AND HIS KIND. 



(iii) 



PEEFACE 



In the Preface to the large and illustrated edition of this 
work, it is stated that " The object of the Expedition, the 
narrative of which is here presented, was unknown to the pub- 
lic, until a very short time prior to its departure from the United 
States, when the indications were such as to induce me to ap- 
prehend that it was not appreciated. Nevertheless, I had an 
abiding faith in the ultimate issue, which cheered me on ; for I 
felt that a liberal and enlightened community would not long 
condemn an attempt to explore a distant river, and its wondrous 
reservoir, — the first, teeming with sacred associations, and the 
last, enveloped in a mystery, which had defied all previous 
attempts to penetrate it. 

"As soon as possible after our return, I handed in my ofiicial 
report, and, at the same time, asked permission to publish a 
narrative or diary, of course embracing much, necessarily eli- 
cited by visiting such interesting scenes, that would be unfit for 
an ofiicial paper. The permission asked, was granted by the 
Hon. J. Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy, with the remark, 
* I give this assent with the more pleasure, because I do not 
think that you should be anticipated by any other, who had 
not the responsibility of the enterprise.' " 

In presenting the illustrated edition to the public, I wished 
to render an exact account of all incidents that bcfcl and obser- 
vations that were made, in a style and execution commensurate 
with the character of the Government which sanctioned it. 
This object having been eficctcd, I now carry out the further 
design of extending- a knowledge of the results by issuing this 

1 * (V) 



VI PREFACE. 

cheaper, and conflensod edition. The reading matter is nearly 
the same, from the landing of the Expedition in Syria until its 
return to the United States. 

The Map has been carefully and accurately reduced from 
the larger one prepared for and published by the Government, 
and will be found to contain the more important details set 
forth in the two which accompanied the former edition. 

In preparing my first publication, I studiously avoided the ap- 
pearance of endeavouring to manufacture opinions for others. 
In response, however, to many calls that have been made upon 
me, as to my opinion, — that the Jordan originally ran through 
the vale of Siddim, before the latter was submerged, I have 
no hesitation in giving the reasons upon which it is based. 

From the pits of bitumen within sight of the highest peren- 
nial source of the Jordan, to the Salt Mountain of Usdum, at 
the south-west extremity of the Dead Sea, there is a continued 
chain of volcanic characters. Black basalt prevails from beyond 
the head of Lake Tiberias far down the Jordan ; and the north- 
eastern and north-western shores of the Dead Sea, present 
respectively tufa and a black bituminous limestone, which in- 
flames and is foetid when exposed to the fire ; while sulphur and 
naphtha are also found upon its shores. 

Thermal springs prevail upon the shores of the Sea of Ga- 
lilee, the Jordan, and the Dead Sea. The whole region has 
been convulsed by earthquakes, and the one, which in 1837 
nearly destroyed the towns of Safed and Tiberias, dislodged a 
huge mass of bitumen from the depths of the last-named sea. 

South of the Dead Sea, volcanic characters are also exhi- 
bited. Burckhardt saw volcanic rocks on the eastern base 
of Mount Sinai, and the traces are those of primary volcanic 
action. 

Our soundings ascertained the bottom of the Dead Sea to 
consist of two plains, an elevated and a depressed one — ave- 
raging, the former 13, and the latter 1300 feet, below the sur- 
face. Through the northern, and largest and deepest one, is 



PREFACE. VU 

a ravine, which seems to correspond with the bed of the Jordan 
to the north, and the Wady el Jeib, or ravine within a ravine, 
at the south end of the Sea. 

Between the River Jabok (a tributary of the Jordan,) and 
the Dead Sea, we unexpectedly encountered a sudden break- 
down in the bed of the last named river, and according to 
the account of a distinguished eastern traveller there is a similar 
break in the water-courses to the south of the Sea. 

As stated in the narrative too, the conviction was forced upon 
me, that the mountains which hem in the Dead Sea are older 
than the Sea itself — for, had their relative ages been the same 
at first, the torrents which pour into the Sea would have worn 
their beds in a gradual and correlative slope ; whereas, in the 
northern section, where a soft, bituminous limestone prevails, 
they plunge down several hundred feet, while on both sides of 
the southern portion, the ravines come down without abrupt- 
ness, although the head of Wady Kerak, at the south-east bor- 
der of the Sea, is more than 1000 feet higher than Wady 
Ghuweir on its north-west shore. 

Lake Tiberias is 312 feet ; the Dead Sea 1316 feet, and the 
Red Sea (computed by Laborde) 75 feet below the level of the 
Mediterranean. As an elevation of the wJiole GrJior, preserving 
those exact proportions, would carry its waters into the Southern 
Ocean, I cannot resist the inference that, by a general con- 
vulsion, the Avhole valley has sunk down, with the greatest de- 
pression abreast of Wady Ghuweir ; and that the streams which 
formerly ran through to the Red Sea, were thereby debarred 
an outlet and submerged the plain, the cities of which, from 
the abundance of bitumen that prevailed, were most probably 
the theatre of a preceding conflagration. 

Mahch, 1850. 



LIST 

OF THE 

MEMBERS OF THE EXPEDITION. 



"W. F. Lynch, Lieutenant-Commanding. 

John B. Dale, Lieutenant. 

R. AuLiCK, Passecl-Midshipman. 

Francis E. Lynch, Charge of Herbarium. 

Joseph C. Thomas, Master's Mate. 

George Overstock, Seaman. 

Francis Williams, " 

Charles Homer, " 

Hugh Read, " 

John Robinson, " 

Gilbert Lee, " 

George Lockwood, " 

Charles Albertson, " 

Henry Loveland, " 

Henry Bedlow, Esq., and Henry J. Anderson, M. D., 
■were associated "with the Expedition as volunteers, after its 
original organization, — the first at Constantinople, and the 
other at Beirut. More zealous, efficient, and honourable asso- 
ciates could not have been desired. They were ever in the 
right place, bearing their full share of Avatching and privation. 
In separating from Dr. Anderson, at Jerusalem, we felt that 
we were parting from a tried and sterling friend. To the 
skill of Mr. Bedlow, the wounded seaman was indebted for the 
preservation of his life ; and words are inadequate to express 
how, in sickness, forgetful of himself, he devoted all his efforts 
to the relief of his sick companions. His notes were of great 
service to me, and contributed very much to the value of the 
work. 

(viii) 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Paob 
Application to the Navy Department — Favourable result — Vessel de- 
signated — Preparations — Metallic boats — Selection of men — Officers 
— Orders for departure — Instructions for the Expedition — Detention 
of the ship — Time employed in various preparations — Water-bags — 
Boats, and the means of their transportation 25 

CHAPTER H. 
FROM NEW YORK TO PORT MAHON. 

Sail from New York— Pleasing anticipations — The Azores— Trafalgar 
—View of Gibraltar— Port Mahon 27 

CHAPTER III. 

FROM PORT MAHON TO SMYRNA. 

Departure from Mahon— Arrival at Valetta— Leave Malta— Enter the 
Egean Sea — View of the shores of Greece— Reflections — Smyrna — 
Oriental scenes— Aspect of Smyrna— Environs of Smyrna 32 

CHAPTER IV. 
FROM SMYRNA TO CONSTANTINOPLE. 

Embarkation for Constantinople— Shores of Greece— The Hellespont 
—Classic associations— A disappointment — Constantinople— Beauti- 
ful scene — Caiques — Harbour of Constantinople — Minarets — The 
slave-market— Probability of an invasion of Turkey by Russia— Ser- 
vile condition of the Turkish women— Blessings of Christianity 37 

(ix) 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 
CONSTANTINOPLE, AND VOYAGE TO SYRIA. 

Visit to the Sultan — Pipes and coffee — Disputed point of etiquette — 
Servility of the officers — Presence of the Sultan — Sad reflections — 
Offer of a present — Tlic American minister — Visit of the Sultan to 
the mosque — His appearance — Dancing dervishes — Necessity of reli- 
gion — Receive our firman — Embarkation — Rejoin the " Supply"' — 
Leave Smyrna — Gale — Scio — Riding on a rail — Ruins of Ephesus — 
Church of St. John — Patmos — Cos — Lunar rainbow — Candia — 
Rhodes — Cyprus — Mountains of Lebanon 45 

CHAPTER VL 
FROM BEIRUT TO DEPARTURE FROM ST. JEAN d'ACRE. 

Beirfit — Preparations — Peculiar costume — Departure — Sidon and Tyre 
— St. Jean d'Acre — Mount Carmel — Dangerous landing — Extensive 
view — Convent of Mount Carmel — Boats landed and tents pitched — • 
Thieviner — First niorht ashore — Arab horses — Brook Kishon — Akka 
— Visit to the American Consul — Appearance of the town — A draw- 
back to personal charms — Governor of Acre — A conference — Diffi- 
culties — Arab curiosity — Audience at the palace — Singular mode of 
begging — 'Akil Aga — Attempt at extortion — Meeting with American 
travellers— Exciting reports — Deliberations — Troublesome visitors — 
Etiquette — Sherif of Mecca — Camels used for draught — Delays .... 59 

CHAPTER Vn. 

FROM ST. JEAN d'ACRE TO DEPARTURE FROM THE SEA OP 

GALILEE. 

Disappointments — Effrontery of Sa'id Boy — Journey continued — Plain 
of Acre — Village of Abelin — Doubts and mistrust — Character of the 
village and surrounding country — I niiospitable reception — Embar- 
rassing position — Relief— Arab morals — An escort— Blowing Valley 
— Picturesque views— Khan el Dielil — Castle of SefCirich — Naza- 
reth — Reflections — Mode of dealing among the Arabs — Equestrian 
exercises— Difficulties of the road — Turan — Mount Tabor— Meet 
Dr. Anderson — An Arab repast— Music — Lubieh— Character of the 
country— Magnificent scenery— The Sea of Galilee— Thrilling emo- ] 
tions— Safed— Josepii's Well— Tiberias— Reception- Visits from and 



CONTENTS. XI 

to the Governor — Administration of justice— Thraldom of the Jews 
— Chapel of St. Peter — Jewish Synagogues — Habits and costume of 
the Jewish females — Letters from Jerusalem — Firman from the Pasha 
— Express from Acre — Launch of the boats — Profound emotion — 
Hot baths — Fish — Discouraging accounts of the Jordan — Summary- 
dealings — Preparations for the Expedition — Visit from an ogre prince 
— Assignment of duties - . . . 76 

CHAPTER VIII. — -" 

FROM THE SEA OF GALILEE TO THE FALLS OF BUK'AH. 

Departure of the boats — Scenery of the lake — Enter the Jordan — Mount 
Hermon — Bridge of Semakh — Dangerous situation of the boats — 
Character of the country — Arab hospitality — Formidable rapids — 
Village of Abeidiyeh — Falls and whirlpool of Biik'ah — Ruins of Del- j 

hemiyeh — Rejoined by the land-party — Predatory habits of the Beda- ^j 
win — Account furnished by the land-party — Visit from Emir Nasser 
— Preparations for further progress — Night-encampment 99 

CHAPTER IX. 

FROM THE FALLS OF BUK'AH TO THE FOURTH CAMPING- 
PLACE UPON THE JORDAN. 

Daybreak excursion — Profusion of flowers — Gadara — Loss of a boat — 
Passage of the cascades — Imprudence — Descent of the fourth rapid 
— the River YermSk — View from a hill-top — Bridge of the Place of 
Meeting — Ruined khan — Bedawin encampment — Continued succes- 
sion of rapids — A noble Arab — Land of Issachar — Visit of Lieutenant 
Dale to Muhammed Pasha — Preparations for defence — Perilous situ- 
ation of the Fanny Mason — Peculiar formation of the hills — Principal 
productions — Change of climate — Arab camp — Extraordinary wind- 
ings of the river — Starting of the caravan — Desolate aspect of the 
country — Heat and drought — Arab beauty — A pastoral entertain- 
ment — A Turkish camp — An unwelcome escort — Arab tents — Vora- 
city of the Arabs — A false alarm 110 

CHAPTER X. 

from the fourth camp on the jordan to the ford of 

sukVa. 

Start anew — Wonder of the barbarians — Beautiful scenery — Wild 
beasts — Birds — Management of the boats — Meeting with 'Akil — 
Perils of the voyage— Eastern Mountains— The ogre prince and hia 



XU CONTENTS. 

tribe — Geological features of the country — Fish and Birds — Wild 
Boars — Indications of ruins — Ruins of Succotli — True character of 
the camel — Route of the caravan — Fording the river — Fresh difficul- 
ties and dangers of the river — General description of the country — 
Ford of Siik'vva, — Alarming intelligence — Exciting incident — Vege- 
tation on the Jordan — The sukkum — Muhammedan sects — Arab fra- 
ternization — Description of the river — An Eastern scene — Mournful 
music — A singular minstrel — The Emir's love-song 127 

CHAPTER XI. 
FROM FORD OF SUK'wA TO PILGRIM's FORD. 

Changes in the vegetation — Suspicious neighbourhood — Arab cookery 
— Mode of eating — Singular caverns — River Jabok — Scripture loca- 
lities — El Meshra'a — A sacred spot — Capture of a camel — Gazelles 
— Jericho — Glimpse of the Dead Sea and mountains of Moab — Pil- 
grim's Ford — Army of pilgrims — Bathing in the Jordan — Happy 
meeting — Determination to proceed 155 

CHAPTER XII. 

FROM pilgrim's FORD TO FIRST CAMP ON THE DEAD SEA. 

Further progress — Character of the river — Enter the Dead Sea — Gale 
— Arab tradition — Night upon the sea — Ancient caverns — Fountain 
of the Stride — Dismissal of our escort — Painful Desolation — Arab 
honour — A Bcdawin feast — Unwelcome music — Arabs at prayer — 
Anxiety respecting the boats — Soundings of the Dead Sea — Brook 
Kidron — Valley of Jehoshaphat — Cliff of Mukiitta — Aspect of the 
shores of the sea — Fresh-water stream 170 

CHAPTER XIII. 

FROM AIN EL FESHKHAH TO AIN JIDY (eNGADDi). 

Preparations for moving southward — Wilderness of Engaddi — Evidences 
of former cultivation — Cavernous mountain — Examination of the 
boats — Barometrical and thermometrical observations — Scruples of 
the Arabs in regard to pork — Their sobriety — Their habits of pilfer- 
ing — Singular phenomenon — Arabs' opinion of the cause of our visit 
— Atmospheric phenomena — Currents in the Dead Sea — Magnificcn 
sunset — An Arab dance — Kindness of Mr. Finn, the British Consul 
— Departure for the peninsula — Orders — Result of soundings — De- 
scription of the Peninsula — Geological formation — Total absence of 
vegetation — Bushes incrusted with salt — The River Arnon — Arab 
improvisatorc < 183 



CONTENTS. XIU 

CHAPTER XIV. 

EXPEDITION AROUND THE SOUTHERN SEA. 

Start upon a reconnoissance — Currents — Clift'of Sebbeh— Ruined forti- . 
fication — Geological formation of the western shore— Locusts — Mo- 
ses' stone — Fears and anxieties of the Arabs — A sirocco — Search for 
the ford— Landing at Usdum — Salt mountain — Pillar of salt — Bitter 
melon— Dismiss the Arabs— Heat of the soil— Difficulties in taking 
observations— Remarkable phenomenon — Burning hurricane — Pain- 
ful effects of the sirocco — Insupportable heat and thirst— A dreadful 
night — Abatement of the heat — Moab — Arabs' ideas respecting the 
boats — Verification of Scripture narrative — Usefulness of the Arabs 
— Atmospheric refraction — Tendency to drowsiness — Return to Ain 
Jicjy — Intelligence from home — Dwellings in the rock — Egerian 
fountain — Luxurious repast — Singular appearance of the sea — Den- 
sity of the water — Opinion of Galen — Tiie osher, or apple of Sodom 
— Character of the north winds — Call to prayer — Party despatched 
to Masada — Firing of minute-guns in honour of Ex-President Adams 
— Remarkable changes in the aspect of the sea — Mode of reaping 
and threshing among the Arabs — Tiieir immanity to animals 197 

CHAPTER XV. 

FROM CAMP TO THE CAPITAL OF MOAB. 

The day of rest — Effects of tJie climate upon health — Irresistible drow- 
siness — Battle between two parties of Arabs — Friendly invitation 
from the sheik Abd 'Allah — The fellahin tribes — Mezra'a — Christian 
Arabs — Mode of salutation — Zoar — Ancient ruins — Muslim and 
Christian sheikhs — Curiosity and superstition of the Arabs — Songs of 
welcome and war-cries — Ancient fortification — Appalling storm — 
Wild character of the scenery — Inexpcrtness of the Arab marksmen 
— Entrance into Kerak — Filth and discomfort of the dwellings — A 
Christian priest and chapel — Magnificence of the castle — Ambitious 
views of 'AkiJ — Discontent of the Muslim sheikh — Oppression of tho 
Christians of Kerak — Their appeal to tlie Christians of America — 
Nocturnal pleasures — Departure from Kerak ^ Insolence of the 
Arabs — Muhammcd made prisoner — Arrival at the beach — Release 
of Muhammcd — Embarkation 218 

CHAPTER XVL 

CRUISE ALONG THE ARABIAN SHORE. 

The river Arnon — Lofty cliffs — Singular ravine — Fears of sickness — 
Sketch of tiie sliores — Hot springs of Callirohoe — Delightful contrast 244 



XIV CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

FROM THE OUTLET OF THE HOT SPRINGS OF CALLIROHOE TO 

AIN TURABEH. 

Changes of temperature — Deep soundings — Arrival at Ain Turfibeh — 
Return to the tents — Preparation for departure — Intense heat — Si- 
rocco — The bulbul — American flag floating over the sea — Analysis 
of the water — Result of our labours — Hypotheses — Conviction of the 
truth of tlie Scripture narrative — Our last night on the Dead Sea . . 248 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
FROM THE DEAD SEA TO THE CONVENT OF MAR SABA. 

Breaking up of our camp — Incidents of the journey — Night encamp- 
ment — Sherif tells his history — His character — Monks of Mar Saba 
Intelligence from the sick seamen — Rapid change of climate — Holy 
associations — Specimens forwarded — Painful alternations of tempera- 
ture — The brook Kedron — Convent of Mar Saba — Plants and flowers 
— The hyssop — Thunder-storm — The coney 254 

CHAPTER XIX. 

FROM MAR SABA TO JERUSALEM. 

Arab attendants discharged — Rocky cistern — Desolate aspect of the 
country — Fulfilment of prophecy — Arab burial-ground — Arab en- 
campment — Tobacco — Pilgrims" road — The tribe Subeih — Curiosity 
of the people — Attempted extortion — Insecurity of the husbandman — 
An Arab's love — Mode of courtship — Jealousy and revenge — First 
view of Jerusalem — Prominent objects — Character of the surround- 
ing country — Well of Job — Mount of Offence — Pool of Siloam — 
Fountain of the Virgin — Village of Siloam — Tombs of Absalom, 
Zacharias, and Jehoshapiiat — Garden of Gethsemane — Valley of the 
Son of Hinnom — The Aceldama — Garden of Urias — Mount Zion — - 
Hill of Evil Counsel — View from the encampment — Night under the 
walls of Jerusalem 2G6 

CHAPTER XX. 

JERUSALEM. 

Levelling proceeded with — Tomb of the Empress Helena — Scenery on 
the Jaffa road — Convent of the Holy Cross — Ludicrous superstition — 
View of the city — Habitations of the lepers — Boats sent to Jaffa — 
Dr. Anderson leaves us — His praiseworthy conduct — Extract from 



CONTENTS. XV 

the diary of one of the officers — His first day in Jerusalem — Via Do- 
lorosa — Mosque of Omar — Church of the Holy Sepulchre — Pious zeal 
of the Pilgrims — Description of the interior of the Church of the Se- 
pulchre — Ascent of the Mount of Olives — Visit to the Garden of Geth- 
semane — The Golden Gate — Fountain of the Virgin — Armenian con- 
vent — Character of the visitors to Jerusalem — Sacred localities, their 
claims to confidence — Scripture predictions — Scientific labours con- 
tinued — Interesting localities — Magnificent view from the Mount of 
Olives — Kindness of the British Consul — Pool of Bethesda — Varie- 
ties of costume — Singular marriage-procession — Walls of the city — 
Muhammedan and Christian predictions — Visit to Bethlehem — Pool 
of Gihon — Well of the Magi — Plain of Rephaim — Convent of John 
the Baptist — Tomb of Rachel — Wilderness of St. John — Valley of 
Elah — David's Well — Doubts as to the birtli-place of the Messiah — 
Calmet's views — Hill of the Annunciation — Ruth's gleaning-ground 
— Treatment of pilgrims at Jerusalem — Restrictions upon Christians 
— Products of the country 269 

CHAPTER XXI. 

FROM JERUSALEM TO JAFFA. 

Preparations for departure — Luxuriant vegetation — Scriptural localities 
— The olive tree — View of the Mediterranean — Vale of Sharon — 
Village of Latrun — Gaza — Kubab — Jackals — Filthy habits of the 
people — Ramleh — Environs of the town — Y4zur — Dervishes and 
pilgrims — Results of our operations in levelling — Jaffa — Copt village 
Muhammedan superstitions — Throwing the djerid — Funeral proces- 
sion — Syro-American Consul — Historical and mythological recollec- 
tions of Jafi'a — Traditions — Population — Kindness and courtesy of the 
Consul — Bridal procession — Treatment of Turkish wives — Laws of 
divorce — Universal thraldom of woman — Turkisii laws of inherit- 
ance — Zodiacal lights — Treatment of slaves 290 

CHAPTER XXII. 
FROM JAFFA TO NAZARETH. 

Preparations — Departure of the land-party for St. Jean d'Acre — Em- 
barkation — View of Jaffa from the harbour — Arrival at St. Jean 
d'Acre — Route of the land-party — Dreadful accident to one of the 
seamen — Visit from Sherif and 'Akil — Visit returned — Arab enter- 
tainment — Start fjr Nazareth — Valley of the Winds — Annoying 
accident — Arrival at Nazareth — Scene at the Fountain of tlie Virgin 
— Franciscan convent — Description of the town — Turkish tax- 
gatherer — Flowers collected 302 



XVI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

FROM NAZARETH TO THE SOURCE OF THE JORDAN. 

Start for Mount Tabor — Plain of Esdraelon — Villag^e of Nain — Ascent 
to the summit of Mount Tabor — Ruins — Ruined villases — Leave the 
lower Jordan — Sea of Galilee — Ruins of Tarrichcea and Kades — Hot 
bath of Emmaus — Tiberias — Magdala — Ruins of Khan Minyeh — 
Fountain of the Fig- — Debouchure of the upper Jordan — Singular 
tents — Bethsaida — Aspect of the country — View of Mount Hermon 
— Lake Merom — The Golden Stream — Castle of I Ion in — Roman 
bridge — The Ancient Dan — Derivation of the word Jordan — Cesarca 
Philippi — Improvements in culture and civilization — Town of II&s- 
beiya — Population of the town — Variety of sects — Religious discord 
— Persecution of Protestants— Visit from Prince Ali — Source of the 
Jordan — Terrace cultivation — Visit to the valley of the Litany — 
Women at the fountain — A trying transition 307 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

FROM THE SOURCE OF THE JORDAN TO DAMASCUS, BA'ALBEK, 

BEIRUT, AND HOME. 

Joyful intelligence — Start for Damascus — Druse villages — Gorge of the 
W^istanee — Cities visible — Geological features — Mineral spring — 
Approach to Damascus — Description of the town — Meeting with an 
American — The flag of our country displayed — Turkish insolence — 
St. Paul's escape from Damascus — Antiquity of the town — Jewish 
dwcllino's — Dress of the Jews — Distinguished visitors — Villajje of 
Zebdany — Ruins of IJeliopolis — Indisposition of some of the party — 
Roman mound — Arab fellahas — Increasing sickness — Numerous vil- 
lages — Town of Zahley — Roman road — Arrival at the sea-shore — 
Exhaustion and increasing illness — Convalescence — Anniversary of 
our country's independence — Alarming illness of Mr. Dale — Kind- 
ness of Rev. Mr. Smith and Dr. De Forest — Visit from Dr. Vandyke 
— Death of Mr. Dale — Preparations to convey the remains to his 
native land — Painful accident and disappointment — Interment of the 
body in the Frank cemetery — Embarkation — Arrival at Malta — 
Kindness of the American Consul — Arrival of the Supply — Reem- 
barkation — Uncourteous reception at Naples, Marseilles, and Gibral- 
tar — Arrival home — Conclusion — Analysis of Dead Sea Water. . . 318 



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EXPEDITION 



TO 



THE DEAD SEA. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

On the 8th of May, 1847, the town and castle of Vera Cruz 
having some time before surrendered, and there being nothing 
left for the Navy to perform, I preferred an apphcation to the Hon. 
John Y. Mason, the head of the department, for permission to 
circumnavigate and thoroughly explore the Lake Asphaltites or 
Dead Sea. 

My application was warmly seconded by Commodore Skinner, 
and having been for some time under consideration, I received 
notice, on the 31st of July, of a favourable decision, with an 
order to commence the necessary preparations. 

On the 2d of October, I received an order to take command of 
the U. S. store-ship " Supply," formerly called the " Crusader." 

In the mean time, while the ship was being prepared for her 
legitimate duty of supplying the squadron with stores, I had, by 
special authority, two metallic boats, a copper and a galvanized 
iron one,^ constructed, and shipped ten seamen for their crews. 

* Built by the patentee, Mr. Joseph Francis of New York. 
3 (25) 



26 INTRODUCTION. 

I was very particular in selecting young, muscular, native-born 
Americans, of sober habits, from each of whom I exacted a pledge 
to abstain from all intoxicating drinks. To this stipulation, under 
Providence, is principally to be ascribed their final recovery from 
the extreme prostration consequent on the severe privations and 
great exposure to which they were unavoidably subjected. 

Two officers, Lieutenant J. B. Dale and Passed Midshipman 
R. Aulick, both excellent draughtsmen, "\\^ere detailed to assist me 
in the projected enterprise. 

In November I received orders to proceed to Smyrna, as soon 
as the ship should in all respects be ready for sea ; and, through 
the U. S. Resident Minister at Constantinople, apply to the 
Turkish government for permission to pass through a part of its 
dominions in Syria, for the purpose of exploring the Dead Sea, 
and tracing the River Jordan to its source. 

I was then directed, if the firman were granted, to relinquish 
the ship to the first lieutenant, and land with the little party under 
my command on the coast of Syria. The ship was thence to pro- 
ceed to deliver stores to the squadron, and Commodore Read was 
instructed to send her back in time for our re-embarcation. 

In the event of the firman being refused, it was directed that 
the ship should rejoin the squadron without proceeding to tlie 
coast of Syria, but I had permission to resign the command of 
her for the purpose of prosecuting the enterprise alone, on my 
own responsibility, and at my own expense. 

The ship was long delayed for tlie stores necessary to complete 
her cargo. The time was, however, fully occupied in collecting 
materials and procuring information. One of the men engaged 
was a mechanic, whose skill would be necessary in taking apart 
and putting together the boats, which were made in sections. I 
also had him instructed in blasting rocks, should such a process 
become necessary to ensure the transportation of the boats across 
the mountain ridges of Galilee and Judea. 

Air-tight gum-elastic water and bread bags were also procured, 
to be inflated when empty, for the purpose of serving as life-pre- 
servers to the crews in the event of the destruction of the boats. 



DEPARTURE FROM NEW YORK. 27 

Our arms consisted of a blunderbuss, fourteen carbines with 
long bayonets, and fourteen pistols, four revolving and ten with 
bowie-knife blades attached. Each officer carried his sword, and 
all, officers and men, were provided with ammunition belts. 

As taking the boats apart would be a novel experiment, which 
might prove unsuccessful, I had two low trucks (or carriages with- 
out bodies) made, for the purpose of endeavouring to transport 
the boats entire from the Mediterranean to the Sea of Galilee. 
The trucks, when fitted, were taken apart and compactly stowed 
in the hold, together with two sets of harness for draught horses. 
The boats, when complete, were hoisted in, and laid keel up on 
a frame prepared for them ; and with arms, ammunition, instru- 
ments, tents, flags, sails, oars, preserved meats, and a few cook- 
ing utensils, our preparations were complete. 



CHAPTER II. 

FROM NEW YORK TO PORT MAHON. 

All things being in readiness, on the 20th of November, 1847, 
we dropped down from the Brooklyn Navy- Yard, abreast of the 
Battery, and waited for a change of weather. 

Friday, Nov. 26. At 10 A. M., weighed anchor, and, with 
a fresh breeze from W. N. W., under a press of sail, we stood 
down the bay of New York. Around us the ruffled water was 
chequered with numerous sails, and the shadows of detached 
clouds flitting before the keen and cutting wind, fit harbinger of 
the coming frost. Before us, the " Narrows" opened into Rari- 
tan Bay, and thence expanded into the wide-spread and magnifi- 
cent ocean. 

In a few hours, we passed the light -houses ; discharged the 
pilot, and bracing our yards to the fresh and favouring breeze, 



28 PLEASING ANTICIPATION. 

bade, as God in His mercy might decree, a temporary or a final 
adieu to our native land. 

Soon the low lands were sunk beneath the horizon, and at sun- 
set the high lands of " Navesink" were alone visible above the 
agitated surface of the water. The dry wind sweeping over the 
land, which had been saturated by the rains of the two preceding 
days, caused an evaporation so great as wonderfully to increase 
the refraction. The setting sun, expanding as it dipped, and 
varying its hues with its expansion, assumed forms as unique as 
they were beautiful. Now elongated in its shape, and now flat- 
tened at its ends, it would, at times, be disparted by the white 
crest of an intervening Wave, and present alternately the appear- 
ance of golden cups and balls, and jewelled censers, tossing 
about upon a silver sea. As the minutes advanced, the western 
,sky, tint by tint, became one glorious suffusion of crimson and 
orange, and the disc of the sun, flattening, widening, and be- 
coming more ruddy and glowing as it descended, sunk at last, 
like a globe of ruby in a sea of flame.- 

I took this as an auspicious omen, although we sailed on Fri- 
day, the dreaded day of seamen. Why superstition should select 
this day as an unlucky one, I cannot conceive. On the sixth 
day, Friday, God created man and blessed him ; and on Friday, 
the Redeemer died for man's salvation : on Friday, Columbus 
sailed from Palos in quest of another world : on the same day of 
the week, he saw the realization of his dream of life ; and returned 
upon a Friday, to electrify Europe with the wondrous tidings of 
his discovery. As a harbinger of good, therefore, and not of 
evil, I hailed our departure upon this favoured day. 

With the setting sun, all vestige of the land disappeared, and 
nothing remained but a luminous point, which, from the sohtary 
light-ship, gleamed tremulously across the waters. As it sunk 
beneath the waves, our last visible tie with the Western World 
was severed. How gladly on our return, perchance a tempest- 
uous night, shall we hail that light, which, flickering at first, but 
at length steadfast and true, welcomes the weary wanderer to his 
home! 



BEAUTIFUL NIGHT. 29 

Without the least abatement of affection for, I turned with less 
reluctance than ever from, the land of my nativity. The yearn- 
ings of twenty years were about to be gratified. When a young 
midshipman, almost the very least in the escort of the good La- 
fayette across the ocean, my heart was prepared for its subsequent 
aspirations. In truth, in our route across the Atlantic, in the 
silent watches of the night, my mind, lost in contemplation, 
soared from the deep through w^hich we ploughed our way, to that 
upper deep, gemmed with stars, revolving in their ceaseless round, 
and from them to the Mighty Hand that made them; and my 
previous desire to visit the land of the Iliad, of Alexander and 
of Caesar, became merged in an insatiate yearning to look upon 
the countiy which was the cradle of the human race, and the 
theatre of the accomplishment of that race's mysterious destiny; 
the soil hallowed by the footsteps, fertilized by the blood, and 
consecrated by the tomb, of the Saviour. 

Twice, since, at distant intervals, I contemplated making the 
desired visit. But the imperative calls of duty in the first in- 
stance, and a domestic calamity in the second, prevented me. 
As I have before said, in the spring of the present year I asked 
permission to visit the lands of the Bible, with the special purpose 
of thoroughly exploring the Dead Sea ; the extent, configuration, 
and depression of which, are as much desiderata to science as its 
miraculous formation, its mysterious existence, and the won- 
drous traditions respecting it, are of thrilling interest to the Chris- 
tian. 

The same liberal spirit which decided that the expedition should 
be undertaken, directed ample means to be furnished for its 
equipment; and with our boats, arms, ammunition and instru- 
ments, I felt wxll prepared for the arduous but delightful task 
before me. 

The boats "Fanny Mason" and "Fanny Skinner," of nearly 
equal dimensions, were named after two young and blooming 
cliildren, whose fathers were, in a measure, the patrons of the 
expedition. And I trusted that, whether threading the rapids of 
the Jordan, or floating on the wondrous sea of death, the " Two 
3* 



30 THE AZORES. 

m 

Fannies" would not disgrace the gentle and artless beings whose 
names they proudly bore. 

Friday, Dec. 11. This morning, made the islands of Corv'o 
and Flores, the north-westernmost of the Azores, and by sunset 
we had reached the meridian of Flores, its brown and furrowed 
sides, undecked with a single flower, and giving no indication of 
the origin of its name. Fearing that we should be becalmed if we 
ran to leeward of it, and the sea setting heavily upon Corvo, I 
determined to run between them, although we had no chart of the 
islands, and no one on board knew whether or not the passage 
was practicable. To this, I was induced by two considerations : 
In the first place, from the rounded summits of the islands, they 
were evidently of volcanic origin, and shoals are rare in such vi- 
cinities. In the second place, the sea ran so high, that it must 
break over any intervening obstacle, and present a distinct and 
prohibitory line of foam. We therefore stood boldly through, 
and, as if to cheer us, the rays of the setting sun, intercepted 
by a rain-cloud which had swept over us, arched the passage by 
the best-defined and most vivid rainbow I have ever seen. It 
was so striking, that every draughtsman on board was imme- 
diately employed, endeavouring to catch the flitting beauties of 
the scene. 

By the time we reached the middle of the passage, the bow 
had faded away with the setting sun, leaving the sky less brilliant, 
but far more beautiful. In the east, directly ahead, rose the })]a- 
net Jupiter, lustrous as a diamond, cresting with his brilliant light 
the line of vapour which skirted the horizon. Near the zenith, 
shone the moon in her meridian ; lower down, the fiery Mars ; and 
in the west, the beautiful Venus slowly descended, enveloped in 
the golden hues of the sun, which had preceded her. The 
gorgeous sun, the placid moon, the gem-like Jupiter, and the 
radiant Venus, bespoke the enduring serenity and tlie joys of 
Heaven ; while the agitated sea, crested with foam, breaking 
loudly on either shore, which, in the gathering dimness, seemed 
in dangerous proximity, told of the anxieties and perils of this 
transitory life. 



TRAFALGAR. 31 

We passed through unimpeded, at a glorious rate, and the 
next day, at 4 P. M., were abreast and in sight of the island 
Graciosa, the last of the group in our line of route, its rude out- 
lines dimly seen through its misty shroud. The barren faces of 
these lofty islands present no indication of their fertility. They 
abound, however, in cereal grains, and produce an excellent 
wine, and are frequently resorted to by our whalers, and by 
homeward-bound Indiamen, for supplies. 

Friday, Dec. 17. Made Cape St. Vincent, the " Sacrum 
Promontorium " of the Romans, and the south-western extremity 
of vine-clad Portugal, as it is of Europe also. This is the second 
time we have made land upon a Friday. 

Sunday, Dec. 19. Made Cape Trafalgar, and sailed over the 
scene of the great conflict between the fleet of England and the 
combined fleets of France and Spain. Here were once heard 
those sounds, frightful, yet stirring to the human heart, and ap- 
palling to every other creature, — the shout of defiance, the shriek 
of agony and the yell of despair, — and fish, and bird, and every 
other living thing fled precipitately from the scene, leaving man, 
the monarch of creation, to slay his fellow-man, the image of his 
august Creator! Such is battle ! and he who rushes into it, im- 
pelled by other than the highest motives, perils more than life in 
the encounter. It is a glorious privilege to fight for one's coun- 
try ; but the seaman or the soldier who strikes for lucre or ambition, 
is an unworthy combatant. 

4 P. M. Anchored immediately abreast of the town of Gib- 
raltar. 

The rock of Gibraltar, abrupt on its western side, and on the 
other absolutely precipitous, has a summit line, sharp and rug- 
ged, terminating with a sheer descent on its northern face, and 
sloping gradually to Europa point at its south extreme. From an 
angle of the bay, this rock, 1400 feet high and three miles long, 
presents the exact appearance of a couchant lion ; — his fore-paws 
gathered beneath him, his massive, shaggy head towards Spain, 
his fretted mane bristling against the sky, and his long and 
sweeping tail resting upon the sea. 



32 BOUNDFORSMYRNA. 

The entire water front of the bay is one continuous line of 
ramparts, and, from numerous apertures, the brazen mouths of 
artillery proclaim the invincible hold of its present possessors. It 
is said, that there is not one spot in the bay, on which at least 
one hundred cannon cannot be brought to bear. Its northern 
face, too, is excavated, and two tiers of chambers are pierced 
with embrasures, through w^hich heavy pieces of ordnance point 
along the neutral ground upon the Spanish barrier. This neutral 
ground, a narrow isthmus, at its junction with the rock, but soon 
spreading out into a flat, sandy plain, separates, by about half a 
mile, the respective jurisdictions of Great Britain and Spain. 

Sailing from Gibraltar, we arrived at Port Mahon, after a bois- 
terous passage of eight days ; and were there detained a month, 
delivering stores to the squadron. 



CHAPTER III. 

PORT MAHON TO SMYRNA. 

Friday, Feb. 4th. At midnight left the harbour of Mahon 
with a light but favourable wind. Our stay had been so pro- 
tracted that we gladly hailed the familiar sight of a boundless 
horizon before us. We had all become somewhat impatient of 
the many causes of detention that had interfered with our depart- 
ure ; and were, of course, proportionately elated when at length 
we were again careering over the blue waves of the Mediterranean. 

The breeze freshened as the night wore on, and we wended 
joyfully on our way, each congratulating the other on the pros- 
pect of a speedy disembarcation. The next day we passed south 
of Sardinia ; and the morning after made the Island of Maritime, 
and beyond it could see the blue outhnes of Sicily. The day 
was at first clear and beautiful, but, with the ascending sun, a 



THE GRECIAN ISLES. 33 

dim vapour spread along the sky, and, wafted by the wind, Uke 
a misty shroud, enveloped the larger island. To the eye, all was 
serene and peaceful, but beneath that veil, the myrmidons of 
power and tlie asserters of human rights were engaged in deadly 
conflict. The Sicilian revolution had begun. Its end, who 
could foresee? 

P. M. Passed the island of Pantellaria, the Botany Bay of Na- 
ples and Sicily, and accounted by some to be the Isle of Calypso. 

At early daylight, the Islands of Gozo (the true Calypso) and 
of Malta were directly before us. To the eye they presented the 
barren aspect of rugged brown rocks, their surfaces unrelieved by 
tree or verdure ; and the houses, built of the same material, and 
covered with tile, rather added to, than varied, the tiresome uni- 
formity of the scene. 

With a fresh and favourable wind, we sailed along the abrupt 
and precipitous shores, and came to anchor in the famous port of 
Valetta. Three promontories, their summits fretted with artil- 
lery, frown down upon the triune harbour. Along the city walls, 
from Castle Ovo to the extreme point on the right, are lines of 
fortifications, relieved here and there by some towering Saracenic 
structure, presenting, in graceful contrast, 

" The Moorish window and the massive wall." 

Here, too, has Napoleon been ! From Moscow to Cairo, where 
has he not ? 

As we were not admitted to pratique, we saw nothing more of 
Malta, but left it at sunset. Having once before been there, I 
bear in vivid remembrance her many scenes teeming with interest. 
The bay and the cave, spots consecrated by the shipwreck and 
tlie miraculous preservation of the great Apostle of the Gentiles : 
her armory, with its shields and swords, and her rare and exqui- 
site gardens. 

Saturday, Feb. 12. At daylight, made the Island of Cerigo, 
the ancient Cj'thera, upon which was wafted, at her birth, the 
Goddess of Love and Beauty. It is also reputed to have been 
the birth-place of Helen, the frail heroine of the Trojan war 



34 



GREECE, 



Passing under easy sail, between Cerigo and Ovo, leaving 
Candia (ancient Crete) to the south, we entered the blue Egean, 
and had the group of the Cyclades before us as we turned to 
the north. In the course of the day we saw Milo, famed for its 
spacious harbour and its excellent wine ; Paros for its marble 
quarries, and Anti-Paros for its celebrated grotto, deemed one of 
the wonders of the world. 

Sailing through tin; Sporadic group, we passed the Gulf of 
Athens, and saw Cape Colonna, (ancient promontory of Sunium,) 
where Plato taught, and where are the ruins of a temple of Minerva. 

Greece ! poetic Greece ! but that my soul is engrossed by one 
pervading thought, how I would love to visit thy shores ! How 
have I loved to follow the muse in this favoured land ! How 
delighted to pursue the arts, and trace the history of this wonder- 
ful people ! How admired the chaste philosophy of Greece, 
springing with Corinthian beauty into life, arnid the storms of 
sedition, and bending, like the brilliant Iris, her beautiful bow 
in the clouds which had overshadowed her sleeping oracles! The 
bold and inquisitive spirit of Grecian philosophy could not be fet- 
tered by a loose and voluptuous religion, however graceful in its 
structure and poetical in its conceptions. Grecian philosophy, 
reflecting the early rays of revelation, more powerful than the Ti- 
tans, scaled the pagan Heaven, and overthrew its multitude of 
gods. 

Did time permit, how would I love to look upon the Pira?us 
and the Acropolis ! Upon the place where Socrates, in the dis- 
pensation of a wise Providence, was permitted to shake the pillars 
of Olympus, and where the Apostle of Truth, in the midst of 
crumbling shrines and silenced deities, proclaimed to the Athe- 
nians the Unknoim God, whom, with divided glory, they had so 
long worshipped in vain. 

Continuing our route through the Sporades, between Ipsari, and 
Scio of sad celebrity, we rounded, on the morning of the 15th, 
the promontory of Bouroun, and entered the Gulf of Smyrna. 

P. M. By a sudden transition from the fresh head-wind with- 
out, we were now floating upon the placid bosom of a beautiful 



SMYRNA. 35 

bay, with our wing-like sails spread to a light and favouring 
breeze. 

Far beyond the shore, might be seen the snoAvy crest of the 
Mysian Olympus. We passed in sight of the first Turkish town, 
with its little cubes of flat-roofed houses, and its groves and trees, 
so refreshing to the eye after the Grecian isles, all brown and 
barren. It was the ancient Phocoea. 

The bay was dotted with the numerous sails of the feluccas, 
outward and inward bound. As we passed, the bay of Vourla 
opened on our right, — and on the left, were some remarkable 
green hills, — and beyond them, a long, very long, low track, 
widi a barely visible assemblage of white dots beyond. It was 
Ismir ! Infidel Ismir ! Christian Smyrna ! The setting sun em- 
purpled the neighbouring mountains, gilding here and shadowing 
there, in one soft yet glorious hue, lending a characteristic en- 
chantment to our first view of an Oriental city. 

The wind failing, we anchored about eight miles from Smyrna, 
near Agamemnon's wells. Abreast, was fort Sanjak Salassi, with 
its little turrets and big port-holes, even with the ground, whence 
protruded the cavernous throats of heavy guns, entirely dispropor- 
tioned to the scale of the fortifications. 

The next day, sailed up and anchored abreast of the city. 

We landed and passed into the streets, the narrow, winding 
ways of Smyrna. How strange everything seems ! After all one 
has fancied of an eastern city, how different is the reality ! The 
streets are very narrow and dark, and filled with a motley and, in 
general, a dirty population — passing to and fro, or sitting in 
their stalls, for they deserve no better name. Greeks, Armenians, 
and Jews, seem to prevail. 

But the most striking living feature of the east is the long 
strings of camels, huge, meek-looking beasts, with long necks 
and small projecting heads, tramping along under enormous loads, 
with their great pulpy. India-rubber splay feet, threatening to bear 
down everything in their onward march. Again and again we 
were compelled to slip into the open stalls to avoid being crushed. 
At length we adopted the precaution of each one keeping under 



36 ENVIRONS OF SMYRNA. 

the lee, as sailors term it, of a heavy-laden camel, for it was not 
only necessary to avoid the camels and little donkeys, but also 
dirty, ragged, staggering, overladen porters, whose touch threat- 
ened not only to communicate the plague, but also whole detach- 
ments of the insect tribes of Egypt. 

The city of Smyrna, so inviting in its exterior, is crowded, 
dirty, and unprepossessing within. The houses, excepting those 
on the Marina, or Water front, rarely exceed one story in height, 
and are dingy and mean ; and the very mosques, so imposing 
from without, fall far short of the conceptions of the visitant. 

The River Meles, sacred to Homer, in winter a foaming torrent, 
but in summer scarce a flowing stream, runs in a northerly direc- 
tion, along the eastern limits of the city. On the line of travel to 
the East, it is spanned by the caravan bridge, the great halting- 
place of returning and departing caravans. As we saw it, the 
river was a shallow stream, not half filling the space between the 
widely separated banks. Kneeling on the sands, on each side of 
the river, above and below the bridge, were many hundreds of 
camels, with their heavy packs beside them. It was the hour of 
feeding, and, arranged with their heads in the centres of circles, 
of which their tails formed the peripheries, without noise, they 
ate the dry straw which was placed before them. While we 
looked on, the hour elapsed, and the burdens were replaced on 
the backs of the patient animals. Although constituting a number 
of separate caravans, they were all, evidently, subject to the same 
regulations. At a given signal, they slowly raised first one foot 
and then another from beneath them, and then, with a peculiar 
cry, plaintive yet discordant, jerked themselves, as it were, to an 
erect position. The turbaned drivers, the uncouth, patient cam- 
els, and the tinkling bells, formed a scene truly Asiatic. 

The country around Smyrna is highly cultivated, and the be- 
nignant soil and genial climate amply repay the toil of the hus- 
bandman. Less productive of the cereal grains, its vintage and 
its crops of fruit are most superior and abundant. Except the 
mountain sides, which are sparsely covered with brushwood, the 
frequent groves of cypress, each denoting a burial-place, and the 



DEPARTURE FROM SMYRNA. 37 

clusters of orange trees around the villas of the wealthy, the surface 
of the country is thickly dotted with the olive and the almond, 
the mulberry and the fig-tree. Smyrna is particularly celebrated 
for an exquisitely flavoured and seedless grape, and for the supe- 
rior quality of its figs. 

It is also one of the claimants for the birth-place of Homer, the 
blind old bard, whose fame was purely posthumous ! The Grecian 
virgins scattered garlands throughout the seven islands of Greece 
upon the turf, beneath which were supposed to lie the remains 
of him, w^ho wandered in penury and obscurity through life, or 
only sang passages of his divine poem at the festive board of his 
contemporaries. We were shown his cave — but I will no longer 
trust myself to speak of him, whom 

''I fee], but want the power to paint." 

We also visited Diana's bath, whence Acteon's hounds, like many 
a human ingrate after them, pursued and tore the hand that had 
caressed them. 



CHAPTER IV. 

SMYRNA TO CONSTANTINOPLE. 

Friday, Feb. 18. At 5, P.M., embarked in the Austrian 
steamer "Prince Metternich," for Constantinople ; and sweeping 
with great rapidity up the beautiful Gulf of Smyrna, early in 
the night entered the channel of Mitylene, between the Island of 
Mitylene (the ancient Lesbos) and the main. 

As we advanced to the north, wuth the coast of Phrygia on the 
right, we soon beheld that of Thrace in Europe before us, with 
the islands of Lemnos and Imbros to seaward. Immediately on 
the Phrygian shore, facing the broad expanse of the Mediterranean, 
are two conspicuous tumuli, pointed out by tradition as the tombs 
4 



38 THE HELLESPONT. 

of Achilles and Patroclus. The requiem of tlie heroic friends is 
sung by the surging waves, which break against the abrupt and 
precipitous shore. 

Turning to the east, we rounded Cape Janissary (the Sigaran 
Promontor}'), and entering the strait, saw the supposed bed of 
the Scamander, between which and the promontor}', the Grecian 
fleet was hauled up, and the Grecian hosts encamped. A little 
beyond, is another barrow, said to be that of Hecuba ; yet further 
is the Rhaitian promontory, on which also is a mound, called the 
tomb of Ajax. 

The plain of Troy, so familiar to every classic reader, now 
barren and unattractive, save in its associations, presents nothing 
to the eye until it rests upon IVIount Olympus in the distance ; 
and the imagination, fixing upon the spot where 

"Silver Simois and Scamander join," 

fills the circumjacent plain with the lofty towers of " wide extended 
Troy," the beleaguring hosts and their dismantled ships. Pass- 
ing a point on the left, designated as the first in Europe whereon 
was raised the banner of the Saracen, w^e came to that part of the 
strait whence its other name of Hellespont is derived. 

The Hellespont teems with more poetic and classic associations 
than any other stream on earth. Its shores were the chosen scenes 
of the greatest and most wondrous epic produced in any age or 
clime ; and, separating two great continents, its swollen and im- 
petuous w'aters have been repeatedly crossed by invading armies ; 
by two Persian monarchs, by Philip's warlike son, by the crusad- 
ing hosts of Europe, and by tlie Muhammedan conqueror of 
Constantinople. 

Its rushing flood engulfed Leander within hearing, perhaps, of 
tlie thrilling shriek of the watchful and agonized Hero : and it is left; 
to the imagination to decide whether the lover, paralyzed by fear, 
yielded unresistingly, or, with all that he coveted on earth in view, 
grappled with fate, and struggled manfully, until, with the water 
drumming in his ear and gurgling in his throat, he sank beneath 
the surface as the last heart-rending cry swept across the angry tide. 



CONSTANTINOPLE, 



39 



Here, too, turning from poetic fiction to prosaic fact, tlie noble 
bard of England successfully rivalled the feat of Leander ; but for 
his reward, instead of the arms of a blooming Hero, found him- 
self gi-appled in the chill embrace of a tertian ague. 

A little after sunset, we entered the sea of Marmara (White 
Sea). The mists and clouds, which during the afternoon had 
gathered on the hills of Thrace, were now swept towards us, and 
discharging copious showers as they passed, the sea and its sur- 
rounding shores were soon shrouded in obscurity. 

When we retired, we were told that the steamer would stop 
until morning at the village of San Stefano, four leagues this side 
of Constantinople, and we anticipated enjoying the matchless view 
which this city is said to present from the sea of Marmara ; but a 
bitter disappointment awaited us. On first awaking in the morn- 
ing, we felt that the boat was not in motion, and hastening im- 
mediately to the deck, discovered that we were anchored in the 
" Golden Horn," or harbour of Constantinople. 

On our lefi; was the Seraglio, with the city of Stambohl 
(or Constantinople proper) stretching to the north and west, 
with a multitudinous collection of sombre houses, the dull, 
brown surfaces of their tile-roofs interrupted by the swelling 
domes of mosques, with their tall and graceful minarets beside 
them. 

The " Golden Horn," three miles in length, was filled wuth 
ships and vessels of every class, and rig, and nation ; and hun- 
dreds of light and buoyant caiques flitted to and fro among them. 
In the far distance, above the fwo bridges, the upper one resting 
on boats, flanking the harbour in an oblique line, were the heavy 
ships of war of the Turkish fleet. To the right, on the opposite side 
of the harbour, were the suburbs of Pera, Tophana, and Galata 
(each of them elsewhere a city), with the tower of the last spring- 
ing shaft-like to the skies. To the east, across the sea of Mar- 
mara, where it receives the Bosporus, was the town of Scutari 
(the ancient Chalcedon), where the fourth general council of the 
Christian church was held. Near Scutari, is a spacious grove of 
cypress, shading its m.illion dead ; and a high mountain behind it 



40 B E A U T 1 F U L V I E W . 

overlooks the cities, the harbour, the sea, the Bosporus, and the 
surrounding country. 

But, wearied witli the very vastness of the field it is called upon 
to admire, the eye reverts with renewed delight to the beautiful 
point of the Seraglio. 

A graceful sweep of palaces, light in their proportions and 
oriental in their structure, washed by tlie waters of the Sea of 
Marmara and the " Golden Horn," look far up the far-famed 
Bosporus. Here and there, upon the ascendhig slope, clustering 
in one place, and dispersedly in another, many a cypress shoots 
up its dark-green, pyramidal head, between the numerous and 
variegated roofs. The shaft-like form of the minaret seems to 
have been borrowed from the cypress, and they both exquisitely 
harmonize with oriental architecture. On the summit is a mag- 
nificent mosque, its roof a rounded surface of domes, the central 
and largest covered with bronze, and glittering in the sun, with a 
light and graceful minaret springing from each angle of its court. 
The pen cannot describe, nor the pencil paint, the beauties of the 
scene : I will not, therefore, attempt it. 

It is said, but untruly, that the slave-market of Constantinople 
has been abolished. An edict, it is true, was some years since 
promulgated, which declared the purchase and sale of slaves to 
be unla\\'ful. The prohibition, however, is only operative against 
the Franlfs, under which term the Greeks are included. White 
male slaves are purchased for adopted sons, and female ones for 
wives or adopted daughters. Nubians are bought as slaves, to 
serve the allotted term. Young females, of the principal families 
of Georgia or Circassia, are often entrusted to commissioners, 
who are responsible for their respectful treatment. They are only 
purchased with their own consent, and when so purchased, are 
recognised by the Muhammedan law as wives; the portion is 
settled upon them by law, and if the husband misuses them, or 
proves unfaithful, they can sue for divorce, and recover dowry. 
But, unfortunately, the husband has the power to divorce at will, 
without resorting to any tribunal ; and the words, " I divorce 
you," from his lips, are, to the poor woman, the sentence of dis- 



THESLAVE-MARKET. 41 

missal from her husband's roof, and from the presence of her 
children. If dismissed without good cause, however, she has a 
right to dowry, but is ever after debarred from appeasing that 
mighty hunger of the heart, the yearning of a mother for her 
children. 

The female slaves, bought for servitude, are subject to the wife, 
and not to the husband. He has no property in them, but is 
bound to protect and to aid them in their settlement.^ The males 
rise in condition with their masters: several pashas have been 
bondmen, and Seraskier Pasha was once a Georgian slave. 

In a ramble to and from the slave-market, I saw two females, 
whose lots in life are now widely difll'erent. The first was a Cir- 
cassian slave, young and interesting, but by no means beautiful, 
attired plainly in the Turkish costume, and her features exposed 
by the withdrawal of the yashmak. She w^alked a few paces 
behind her owner, who passed to and fro about the market. 
Stopping occasionally, and again renewing his walk, he neither 
by word nor gesture sought to attract a customer. When he was 
accosted, she quietly, but not sadly, submitted to the inspection, 
and listened in silence, and without perceptible emotion, to the 
interrogatories of the probable customer. 

The second female to whom I have alluded was an Armenian 
bride being escorted to the residence of her husband. There 
w^ere three arabas, or clumsy carriages of the country, drawn by 
two oxen each. On the backs of the oxen were four or five stakes 
diverging outwards, like radii from a centre, with long hearse-like 
purple plumes drooping from them. The panels of the second 
araba were richly carved and blazoned, and its roof was supported 
on upright gilt columns, with richly embroidered curtains, and 
fringes of silk. The concave bottom had no seats, but was cov- 
ered with cushions, upon which, at half-length reclined the bride, 
with a female attendant beside her. The former was gorgeously 
dressed, but her head and its appendage riveted my attention. 

' "And when thou sendest him out from thee, thou shall not let him 
go away empty." — Deut. xv. 13. 

4* 



42 ANARMENIANBRIDE. 

From it hung a veil (I can call it nothing else), composed of long 
strings of bright gold beads, spanning from temple to temple, and 
reaching from the forehead to the waist. With the motion of the 
araba, it swayed to and fro in gently waving lines, but with- 
out disparting, and my strained vision could not penetrate the 
costly screen. I have heard of the man in the iron mask, but 
never before of a woman in a golden one. 

The husband, who is yet as ignorant as myself, may, like the 
Prince of Arragon, fmd only the blank countenance of a Winking 
idiot beneath it, and discover, when too late, that the 

'' Beauteous scarf 
Veils but an Indian beauty." 

They were both destined victims to the matrimonial customs of 
the country ; and perhaps the sacrifice of the poor Circassian may 
not be more venal than the mercenary marriage of the other. 

The conditions of the two females are now widely different ; 
but, such are the peculiar customs of this people, that it is by no 
means impossible, indeed is far within the range of probability, 
that the slave of whom I have spoken, may yet be elevated to a 
sphere more exalted than that of the wealthy Armenian. If every 
good has its attendant evil, every evil has its antidote ; and in this 
clime of despotism the fetters of slavery are less galling than in 
our own more favoured land. The slave has here a voice in his 
own disposal, and his consent is necessary to make a transfer 
legal. The female slave therefore may, and doubtless does reject 
the ill-favoured or tyrannical, and yield her assent only to the 
comely or tlie wealthy purchaser, perchance a bey or a pasha, 
and become the favourite wife of a future governor of an extensive 
province. 

On the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus, is a rude granite column 
upon a projecting point, which indicates the last encampment of 
ten thousand Russians, on the march to succour Constantinople, 
when threatened by Mehemet Ali, of Egj-pt. 

When Constantinople was rescued from the clutches of this 
rebellious pasha by the interposition of the European powers, he 



INVASION FROM RUSSIA. 43 

came as a tributary to render homage to the sultan. While here, 
he selected, as the site of the palace he was required to build, the 
promontory immediately below and in full sight of the one upon 
which the Russian column is erected, as if to intimate to posterity 
that if the Russians came thus far, he had preceded them, and that 
it was the fear of kim that brought them. 

These are ominous signs, the first especially ; for, if a Russian 
army can so speedily and unexpectedly (it came without a sum- 
mons) reach the environs of Constantinople, what is to prevent 
the same rapid movement of a hostile and yet more powerful 
force ? Of their danger the Turks are well aware, but instead of 
preparing to resist, in the spirit of fatalism they supinely await the 
dread event. There is a tradition among them that they are to 
be driven from Europe by a light-haired race from the north, and 
their fears have settled upon the Russians. The prediction will 
work its own accomplishment : the unhappy presentiment of the 
Turk, (for the feeling amounts to such,) will be more than em- 
battled hosts against him, and the dispassionate observer can 
already predict not only his expulsion from Europe, but the down- 
fall of the Ottoman empire. The handwriting is on the wall, and 
it needs not a Daniel to interpret it. Under present auspices, 
this country must before long attain her destiny; and her decline 
and fall wUl add another to the many lessons of experience, to in- 
struct future generations and furnish additional proof of the per- 
ishable nature of all human institutions. Could Christianity but 
shed its benign influence over this misguided people, their national 
existence might be prolonged, and the sad catastrophe averted. 
One crying evil pervades the land, and while it exists, there can 
be no hope. 

In this country, froni the hovel to the palace, woman is in a state 
of domestic servitude. It is unnecessary to dwell upon the de- 
gradation of the female sex here, in India, and among all barbar- 
ous nations. The fact is clearly established, that everywhere, in 
all nations and among every people beyond the pale of Chris- 
tianity, woman is deplorably debased. Christianity has ever 
expressed the deepest solicitude for the female sex; for the 



44 woman's INFLUENCE. 

inordinate authority of man over woman, or the undue subjection 
of the female to the male, tends to the debasement of the morals 
of each. Woman, even when invested with the plenitude of her 
rigiits and mistress of her own actions, is but too often the feeble 
victim of the seducements which surround her. How utterly 
helpless is she, therefore, when her will is not her own ! The 
very idea of resistance vanishes, vice becomes a seeming duty, 
and man, gradually debased by the facility with which his irre- 
gular appetites are indulged, plunges into the lowest depths of 
sensuality. Woman, whose influence over the heart of man is 
irresistible, whenever she is debased, revisits her corruption upon 
man: and thus this pervading influence of the sexes over each 
other, by a species of mutual contamination, moves from genera- 
tion to generation in one vicious circle, from which they can 
only be delivered by the supernatural and refining influence of 
Christianity. 

Christianity acts first upon woman, because, from the gentleness 
and tractability of her nature, she is more susceptible of the 
influence of its law of purity and love ; and when she is thus 
regenerated, who shall declare the extent of her chastening influ- 
ence over the sons of the children of men? Under the elevating 
and benign influences of Christianity, she proceeds to subdue, to 
reform, to ennoble, and perfect everything around her ; and, by 
this supernatural power, she so softens the aflfections and refines the 
feelings of the lord of creation, as to dispose him to prefer the 
purity and confidence of domestic love, to the selfish and utter 
isolation of a life of sensual indulgence. 

But, alas! Christianity, all lovely and gentle as she is, can find 
no entrance here ; for bigotry, with sneering lip and contracted 
brow, stands at the portal. 



VISIT TO THE SULTAN. 45 



CHAPTER V. 

CONSTANTINOPLE, AND VOYAGE TO SYRIA. 

The application for a firman in behalf of a national expedition, 
being considered unusual, was referred by the Divan for the de- 
cision of the monarch, and I had, by appointment, an audience 
with the sultan. Accompanied by the Dragoman of our legation, 
I took a caique, and proceeded three miles up the Bosporus, to 
the palace of " Cherighan." 

We landed at the palace stairs, and leaving our overshoes, 
which etiquette required us to bring, w^e ascended a broad and 
lofty flight of stairs, and passing through an ante-chamber, were 
ushered into a room which overlooked the Bosporus, and was 
occupied by Sheffie Bey, the chief and confidential secretary of 
the sultan. It was handsomely furnished, but no more. 

With the secretary, was an Armenian, a great favourite of the 
monarch, and superintendent of the public works in and near 
Constantinople. 

Shortly after we were seated, as many pipe-bearers as there 
were visiters entered the apartment, and, with heads bowed down 
and their left hands upon their breasts, presented each of us with 
a chibouque ; then retiring backwards a few paces, dropped on 
one knee, and lifting the bowl of the pipe, placed a gilt or golden 
saucer (I could not tell which) beneath it. 

I am not a smoker, and hold, with King James I., that 

'' If there be any herb, in any place, 
Most opposite to God's herb of grace," 

it is tobacco ; but as an opportunity of inhaling the odour of the 
weed of royalty might never again present itself, my inclinations 
jumped accordant with the rules of etiquette, and I puflfed away 
\vith as much vivacity as any Turk. 



46 THE sultan's court-yard. 

In a short time the attendants reappeared, one of them bearing 
a golden salver, covered with a crimson cloth, gorgeously em- 
broidered. The latter was presently withdrawn, and exhibited 
upon the massive piece of plate a number of tiny coffee-cups, set 
in stands or holders, in shape exactly like the egg-cups we use at 
home. The cups were of the choicest porcelain, most beauti- 
fully enamelled, and the holders were rich filagree gold, set with 
turquoise and emerald. 

Again an attendant approached each of us, and in the same 
manner as before, presented a cup of coffee. Like the tobacco, 
it was flavoured with some aromatic substance, which rendered it 
delicious. 

The empty cups and exhausted pipes were removed by the 
attendants, who, in all their approaches and retirings, were care- 
ful not to turn their backs upon us. Observing this, 1 began to 
distrust my ability to make a retrograde movement in a direct 
line, from the sublime presence into which I was about to be 
ushered. 

One of the pashas had preceded me, and I was compelled to 
wait nearly half an hour. At length, we were summoned. De- 
scending the flight of stairs, and resuming our overshoes, we 
were led across the court, into which, when passing in a caique a 
few days before, I had looked so eagerly. It is oblong, and con- 
tains about four acres, laid out in parterres and gravel walks, with 
many young and thrifty trees, and a great variety of plants : flow^- 
ors there were few, for it was yet early in the season. In the 
centre, with a gravelled walk between, were two quadrangular, 
artificial ponds, in which a number of gold and silver fish were 
gambolling in security, protected as they w^ere from the talons of 
the cormorant by nets drawn over a few feet above the surface of 
the water. 

Tlie fish sporting beneath, the bird of prey poised above, ready 
for a swoop through the first rent of the flimsy screen, seemed 
fitting emblems of the feeble Turk, and the vigorous and grasp- 
ing Russian. 

There was nothing imposing, but all was rich and in exquisite 



A POINT OFETIQUETTE. 47 

taste. The bronze gates, with alternate gilt bars, which open on 
the Bosporus between the centre building and the northern wing, 
were exceedingly light and beautiful. A part of the court, most 
probably that appropriated to the harem, or apartments of the 
women, was screened off by a lofty railing of like material and 
construction. 

We were led to the entrance of the southern wing, and again 
throwing off our overshoes, entered a lofty and spacious hall, 
matted throughout, with two broad flights of stairs ascending 
from the far extreme to an elevated platform or landing, whence, 
uniting in one, they issued upon the floor above. 

On the right and left of the hall were doors opening into va- 
rious apartments, and there were a number of officers and attend- 
ants on either side and stationed at intervals along the stairway, 
all preserving a silence the most profound. 

The secretary, who had gone before, now approached and 
beckoned us to follow. But here an unexpected difficulty was 
presented. The chamberlain in waiting objected to my sword, 
and required that I should lay it aside. I replied that the audience 
was given to me as an officer of the United States ; that the sword 
was part of my uniform, and that I could not dispense with it. 
My refusal met with the assurance that the etiquette of the court 
peremptorily required it. I asked if the custom had been inva- 
riably complied with, and inquired of the dragoman whether Mr. 
Carr, our minister, had, in conformity with it, ever attended an 
audience without his sword ; but even as I spoke, my mind, with- 
out regard to precedent, had come to the alternative, no sword, 
no audience. 

Whether the secretary had, during the discussion, referred the 
matter to a higher quarter, I could not tell; for my attention 
was so engrossed for some minutes, that I had not noticed him. 
He now came forward, however, and decided that I should retain 
the sword. At this, I truly rejoiced, for it would have been un- 
pleasant to retire after having gone so far. It is due to Mr. 
Brown, the dragoman, to say that he sustained me. 

The discussion at an end, we ascended the stairway, which 



48 PRESENCE OF THE SULTAN. 

was covered with a good and comfortable but not a costly carpet, 
and passed into a room more handsomely furnished and more 
lofty, but in every other respect of the same dimensions as the 
one immediately below it. A rich carpet was upon the floor, a 
magnificent chandelier, all crystal and gold, was suspended from 
the ceiling, and costly divans and tables, with other articles of 
furniture, were interspersed about the room ; but I had not time 
to note them, for on the left hung a gorgeous crimson veh'et cur- 
tain, embroidered and fringed with gold, and towards it the sec- 
retary led the way. His countenance and his manner exliibited 
more awe than I had ever seen depicted in the human counte- 
nance. He seemed to hold his breath, and his step was so soft 
and stealthy that once or twice I stopped, under the impression 
that I had left him behind, but found him ever beside me. There 
were three of us in close proximity, and the stairway was lined 
with officers and attendants, but such was the death-like stillness 
that I could distinctly hear my own footfall, which, unaccustomed 
to palace regulations, fell with untutored republican firmness upon 
the royal floor. If it had been a wild beast slumbering in his 
lair that we were about to visit, there could not have been a 
silence more deeply hushed. 

Fretted at such abject servility, I quickened my pace towards 
the curtain, when Sheffie Bey, rather gliding than stepping before 
me, cautiously and slowly raised a corner for me to pass. Won- 
dering at his subdued and terror-stricken attitude, I stepped 
across the threshold, and felt without yet perceiving it, that I was 
in the presence of the Sultan. 

The heavy folds of the window-curtains so obscured the light, 
that it seemed as if the day were chawing to a close instead of 
being at its high meridian. 

As with the expanding pupil the eye took in surrounding ob- 
jects, the apartment, its furniture and its royal tenant, presented 
a different scene from what, if left to itself, the imagination would 
have drawn. 

The room, less spacious, but as lofty as the adjoining one, was 
furnished in the modern European style, and like a familiar thing, 



THESULTAN. 49 

a stove stood nearly in the centre. On a sofa, by a window, 
tlirough which he might have looked upon us as we crossed the 
court, with a crimson tarbouch, its gold button and blue silk tassel 
on his head, a black kerchief around his neck, and attired in a 
blue military frock and pantaloons, and polished French boots 
upon his feet, the monarch sat, without any of the attributes of 
sovereignty about him. 

A man, young in years, but evidently of impaired and delicate 
constitution, his wearied and spiritless air was unrelieved by any 
indication of intellectual energy. He eyed me fixedly as I 
advanced, and on him my gaze was no less intently riveted. 
As he smiled, I stopped, expecting that he was about to speak, 
but he motioned gently with his hand for me to approach yet 
neai'er. Through the interpreter, he then bade me welcome, for 
which I expressed my acknowledgments. 

The interview was not a protracted one. In the course of it, 
as requested by Mr. Carr, I presented him, in the name of the 
President of the United States, with some biographies and prints, 
illustrative of the character and habits of our North American In- 
dians, the work of American artists. He looked at some of them, 
which were placed before him by an attendant, and said that he 
considered them as evidences of the advancement of the United 
States in civilization, and would treasure them as a souvenir of 
the good feeling of its government towards him. At the word 
" civilization," pronounced in French, I started : for it seemed 
singular, coming from the lips of a Turk, and applied to our coun- 
try. I have since learned that he is but a student in French, and 
presume that, by the word "civilization," he meant the arts and 
sciences. 

When about to take my leave, he renewed his welcome, and 
said that I had his full authority to see anything in Stambhol I 
might desire. 

My feelings saddened as I looked upon the monarch, and I 

thought of Montezuma. Evidently, like a northern clime, his 

year of life had known two seasons only, and he had leaped at 

once from youth to imbecility. His smile was one of the sweetest 

5 



50 OFFER OF THE SULTAN. 

I had ever looked upon, — his voice among the most melodious 1 
had ever heard ; his manner was gentleness itself, and everything 
about him bespoke a kind and amiable disposition. He is said 
to be very affectionate, to his mother in especial, and is generous 
to the extreme of prodigality. But there is that indescribably sad 
expression in his countenance, which is thought to indicate an 
early death. A presentiment of the kind, mingled perhaps with 
a boding fear of the overthrow of his country, seems to pervade 
and depress his spirits. In truth, like Damocles, this descendant 
of the Caliphs sits beneath a suspended fate. Through him, the 
souls of the mighty monarchs who have gone before, seem to 
brood over the impending fate of an empire which once extended 
from the Atlantic to the Ganges, from the Caucasus to the Indian 
Ocean. 

Returning from the room of audience to that of tlie secretary, 
we were again presented with pipes, and, instead of coffee, sher- 
bet was handed round ; a drink so cool and so delicious, that my 
imaccustomed palate treasures its flavour in grateful remembrance. 

One circumstance occurred to me as singular. Neither on the 
palace stairs, nor in the court, nor in the palace itself, did I see a 
single soldier ; andj but for the obsequiousness of the Sultan's 
officers and attendants, I might have fancied myself on a visit to 
a wealthy private gentleman. 

One trifling circumstance will serve to show the generous dis- 
position of the Sultan. On the day succeeding the audience, he 
expressed to the Grand Vizier his desire to tender me a present, 
such as became a sovereign to make, and directed him to ascer- 
tain in what mode it would be most acceptable to myself. When 
his wish was made known to me, I replied, that I felt sufficiently 
compensated by an audience, which, I had been given to under- 
stand, was never before granted to any but officers of the highest 
rank ; and that, even if the constitution of my country did not 
prohibit it, I could not accept a remuneration for an act of duty 
that had been rendered so grateful in its performance. I furthei 
added, that more than any present, I would prize the granting of 
the firman. 



TURKISH REFORMS. 51 

My instructions from the Navy Department, when I left the 
United States, were to apply, through our Minister at the Ottoman 
Porte, for a firman, authorising our party to pass through the 
Turkish dominions, in Syria, to the Dead Sea. It was asked as 
a matter of respect to the Turkish government, and to procure 
facilities from its officials, when in their vicinities. As to protec- 
tion against the Arabs, it could afford none whatever ; for Eastern 
travellers well know that, ten miles east of a line drawn from 
Jerusalem to Nabulus, the tribes roam uncontrolled, and rob and 
murder with impunity. Mr. Carr fully carried out the instructions 
he had received, and did his best to procure the firman. 

Before leaving Constantinople, in part with the officers, in part 
alone, I visited some of the principal mosques, the seraglio, the 
arsenal, and the fleet, and found that the permission given by the 
Sultan was not an idle compliment. 

Whether the efforts made by the late Sultan, and now making 
by Abd' al Medjid, his successor, w^ill result in the civilization or 
the downfall of the Ottoman Empire, remains to be determined. 
From the eager employment of Franks, the introduction of foreign 
machinery, and the adoption of improved modes of cultivating 
the land, the present Sultan gives the strongest assurance of his 
anxiety to promote the welfare of his people. But the very 
attempt at a higher development of national character, has led to 
greater military weakness ; and the fable of the Wolf and the 
Lamb, its actors represented by Russia and the Porte, will ere 
long be transferred to the page of history. 

All good Muslims go to mosque on Fridays, besides praying 
five times a day. The Sultan goes every Friday to a different 
mosque, w^hich is known beforehand. For the purpose of seeing 
his sublime majesty in public, we went to the convent of dervishes 
in Pera, where he was to be present. A small collection of the 
faitliful had assembled in the court of the mosque, together wuth 
many Greeks, Armenians, and Franks. The convent is a mean- 
looking building, in the rear of a street of small shops and cafds, 
with a neglected burial-ground in front and beside it. None 
but the faitliful being permitted to enter a mosque when the 



52 T H E T U R K I S II W O M E N . 

Sultan attends, we were constrained to remain in the court, taking 
our position near the entrance. At the gate of the adjoining 
grave-yard were a number of females, forming a separate crowd 
of yashmaks and gay-coloured ferajes, with black eyes and henna- 
stained fingers. 

Here it is not the custom for men to notice, much less speak 
to, women in public ; and yet the constant presence of Turkish 
women in the streets and public places, shows that they are 
prone to gad about as much as some of their Christian sisters in 
America ; but, if restricted from the use of that little instrument 
the tongue, they contrive to do considerable execution with their 
almond-shaped eyes, inky eyebrows, and half-an-alabaster nose, 
which is all that is exposed to view. There was one little beauty 
in a pink feraje, with an extremely thin yashmak, who might have 
been an Odalisque. The rest of them looked like ghouls risen 
from the graves, upon the tomb-stones of which they were stand- 
ing. Most of the grave-yards we had seen were much neglected, 
many of them like open commons, the turbaned tomb-stones 
standing at all angles, and frequently trampled under foot. 

It was amusing to observe the crowd, waiting, like ourselves, 
in patient expectation of seeing the grand seignor. All the sol- 
diers and more respectable people wore pantaloons and the red 
tarbouch ; but the lower classes, ever the first to move in, and 
the last to be benefited by a revolution, adhered to the turban and 
capacious breeks, with a kind of tunic to match. The dervishes 
were moving about with serious faces, wearing faded brown or 
green cloaks, with felt hats, shaped like inverted funnels, upon 
their heads. 

. We waited for some time ; and, as the Sultan was about to 
appear in public, our imagination, pictured the magnificent entr(5e 
of a great Ottoman monarch, — troops of warriors, splendidly 
caparisoned horses, and all the barbaric pomp of an oriental court, 
- — when a low murmur indicated that the cortege was approaching. 

First came, walking backwards, the Imaum of the dervishes, 
in a high green felt hat, swinging a censer filled with burning 
incense, and followed by a grave, melancholy-looking young man, 



THE SULTAN IN PROCESSION. 53 

with a rather scanty black beard, the red tarbouch upon his head, 
and wearing a blue military frock-coat and fawn-coloured panta- 
loons; the coat fringed or laced, wnth a standing collar, — fawn- 
coloured gloves upon his hands, and a short blue cloak thrown 
lightly over his shoulders. It was the Sultan ! He was followed, 
in single file, by six or eight persons, attired in blue, some wear- 
ing swords, and others carrying small leather portfueilles, richly 
embossed with gold. 

Contrary to expectation, the Sultan had dismounted outside, 
and his gait, as he passed us, was feeble and almost tottering. 
Indeed, most of the Turks walk what is termed "parrot-toed," 
— very much like our Indians. Ascending a covered stairway 
to an upper gallery, with windows towards the court, he ap- 
proached one of them, and looked intently down upon us ; but 
our interpreter imprudently exclaiming, " Voila le Sultan ! le 
Sultan !" he turned slowly away, we presume, to his devotions. 

Without the court were his horses ; splendid steeds, caparisoned 
in richly-embroidered, but chaste saddle-cloths, which, as well as 
the reins and the pommels of the saddles, were studded with 
precious stones ; the head-pieces were embossed gold, and the 
frontlets glittered \\ith gems. 

The Sultan's figure was light, and apparently feeble. I thought 
so when I saw him before, in a semi-obscure apartment, and his 
appearance now confirmed the impression. The expression of 
his features at the moment of passing, was that of profound 
melancholy. Like the Mexican prince, of whom he so much 
reminded me, his mind may be overshadowed by the general 
and spreading opinion, that the Ottoman rule upon the European 
side of Turkey is drawing to a close. This impression has be- 
come so prevalent, that hundreds, when they die, direct their 
remains to be interred on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus. It is 
sad to think that, from the destruction of the Janissaries by Mah- 
moud to the present time, the very advancement of the Turks in 
civilization should increase the weakness, and precipitate the 
dismemberment, if not the downfall, of the empire! 

It was a singular scene ! A few ragged Turks in the old tur- 
5* 



54 DANCING DERVISHES. 

ban, the only relic of the past ; the mixture of European costumes 
and the red tarbouch ; a company of Christian officers, from a 
far-off land; the mild-looking young Sultan, so humble! so gen- 
tle ! with so little parade ! so different from his haughty Osmanlie 
ancestors ! And then there was the back-ground of veiled women 
— the ghouls peeping out of the grave-yard. 

Tuesday, Feb. 29. Visited the same convent to witness an 
exhibition of dancing dervishes. Casting off our overshoes, 
and passing through the door, beside which sentries were sta- 
tioned, we took our places within a railing, which ran around 
the circular floor of the mosque. There was a similar gallery 
above. Some twenty dirty-looking dervishes, in faded brown 
and green cloaks, with white felt conical hats upon their heads, 
were prostrate around the circle, while the Imaum, the same 
who had preceded the Sultan, chanted a prayer before the 
mihrab on the eastern side. There was music from the gallery, 
plaintive, yet barbarous, mingled with the occasional tap of a 
drum. 

After repeated prostrations, af a signal, the Imaum led the way, 
in a slow march, round the apartment. As each one passed the 
mihrab, he bowed three times, gracefully, without stopping, or 
turning his back towards the holy place. After marching round 
three times, making the same reverence, they halted with their 
faces inw^ards, and the Imaum resumed his seat upon a rug 
before the mihrab. The others, all barefooted, crossing their 
feet one after the other, in slow succession, began to twirl around, 
keeping admirable time to the music; and when all in motion, 
looked like so many teetotums spinning. The word spinning 
conveys a better idea than turning ; for they seemed to move 
about without the slightest effort, and their flowing garments, fly- 
ing out in extended circles below, gave the movement a most 
graceful appearance. As the music became louder and faster, 
they spun round with increasing rapidity, until the eye became 
dizzy with looking upon them. At a tap of the drum, they 
stopped simultaneously, with no perspiration upon the forehead, 
^nd neitlier frenzy nor fatigue expressed in the eye. They were 



THE FIRMAN. 55 

of all ages, from the old Imaum, with the benevolent features, to 
a boy of sixteen, whose melancholy face excited interest. Indeed, 
they all had an air of sadness and profound resignation ; noticing 
ferocious, nothing sinister, nothing fanatical. Renewing the 
march, and repeating the prostrations, the exercises continued 
about an hour, and concluded as they began. The audience 
either stood erect, or sat upon the floor, and preserved deep 
silence. The whole affair did not strike us in the ridiculous light 
we had anticipated. Indeed, some of the customs of Christianity 
are equally absurd. The religious sentiment is the same all over 
the world, and must find expression. Humanity rejoices, when 
such expression, harmless in itself, as in the present instance, 
neither assails the opinions nor the rights of others. Such is the 
necessity of religion for the support of all human institutions, that 
any form of worship, however false and corrupt, is preferable to 
the atrocious enormities which follow in the train of absolute 
impiety. 

The religious sentiment of Turkey, misled and faint as it is, is 
the best protection it possesses against such debaucheries as the 
Saturnalia of Rome or the utter debasements of tlie Parisian 
worship of the Goddess of Reason. 

March 1. Impatient about the firman, Mr. Carr addressed a 
note to the minister of foreign aflfairs upon the subject. In reply, 
the latter gave the assurance that there would be no difficulty, 
but that on the contrary the Sultan was anxious to promote our 
views. 

Tuesday, March 6. Received the long-expected firman from 
the Grand Vizier. It was addressed to the Pashas of Saida and 
Jerusalem, the two highest dignitaries in Syria. It was briefly 
couched. The following is a literal translation : 

" Governors of Saida and Jerusalem ! — Captain Lynch, of the 
American Navy, being desirous of examining the Dead Sea 
(Bahr Liit), his legation has asked for him, from all our authori- 
ties, all due aid and assistance. 

" You will, therefore, on the receipt of this present order, give 



56 scio. 

him and his companions, seventeen in number, all due aid and 
co-operation in his explorations. 

" Protect, therefore, and treat him with a regard due to the 
friendship existing between the American Government and that of 
the Sublime Porte. 

(Signed) " Mustafa Reschid Pasha, 

^'- Grand Vizier. 
" Mustafa Pasha, Governor of Saida. 
" Zarif Pasha, Governor of Jerusalem. 

"Stambohl, March 6, 1848." 

In half an hour after the receipt of the firman, I was on board 
the French steamer " Hellespont," the rest of the party having 
preceded me. 

Spent the night on the Sea of Marmara. Passed the next day 
in sweeping down the Hellespont, and skirting the Phrygian 
coast, and, on the morning of the 9th, rejoined the Supply. 

Friday, March 10. Sailed from Smyrna for the coast of Syria, 
and passed through the straits of Spalmatori and Scio, and by the 
island of Nicaria (ancient Icaria), named after him whose waxen 
pinions so signally failed him. 

Monday, March 13. The wind hauled to the southward and 
eastward, and freshened to a gale — a genuine levanter. The gale 
increasing, we w^ere compelled to bear up, and run for a lee. 
Scudded through the dark night, and in the morning anchored in 
the bay of Scio. 

In the afternoon, the w^eather partially moderating, visited the 
shore. From the ship, we had enjoyed a view of rich orchards 
and green fields ; but, on landing, we found ourselves amid a 
scene of desolation — an entire city, with all its environs, laid in 
ruins by the ruthless Turks, during that darkest hour of Turkish 
history, the massacre of Scio. Invited into one of the dwellings, 
we tasted some Scian wine, and at the same time caught a glimpse 
of a pair of lustrous eyes peering at us from above : — the \\ine 
was light in colour, and, to our tastes, unpalatable ; but the eyes 
were magnificent. The Greek costume differs little from, the 



RUINS OF EPHESUS. 57 

Turkish, in the capital. The tarbouch is higher ; the shakshen 
(petticoat-trowsers) shorter, wdth leggings beneath. The Greeks 
are more vivacious than the Turks, but much less respected in 
tlie Levant. 

We rode into the country. Our steeds were donkeys — our 
saddles made of wood ! It was literally riding on a rail. What 
a contrast between the luxuriant vegetation, the bounty of nature, 
and the devastation of man ! Nearly every house was unroofed 
and in ruins — not one in ten inhabited, although surrounded with 
thick groves of orange trees loaded witli the weight of their golden 
fruit. 

March 14. Weighed anchor and again endeavoured to pass 
through the Icarian Sea; but encountering another gale, were 
compelled "to bear away for Scala Nouva, on the coast of Asia 
Minor, not far from the ruins of ancient Ephesus. While weath- 
er-bound, we availed ourselves of the opportunity to visit the ruins 
about ten miles distant. There are no trees and very few bushes 
on the face of this old country, but the mountain slopes and the 
valleys are enamelled with thousands of beautiful flowers, among 
which the most conspicuous, from its brilliant colour, is the pur- 
ple anemone (anemone coronaria), one of the lavenders, and 
known to the ancient Greeks. 

Passing in view of the cave of the Seven Sleepers, we explored 
the ruins of the temple of Diana, and of the great church of St. 
John, the first of the seven churches of Asia. Over the massive 
portal of the last were originally fine basso-relievos, now all re- 
moved but one. From a cleft in the wall a tree shoots up and 
partly shades the portal within. It is the beautiful emblem of 
faith, springing from and surviving the ruins of its earthly temple. 

Sailing thence, the wind was light, and we advanced slowly. 

Sunday, March 19. Read prayers in the Forni passage, be- 
tween Samos and Icaria, in sight of " the island which is called 
Patmos." Samos, the birth-place of Pythagoras and of one of 
the Sibyls, as well as Chios and Mitylene, were visited by St. 
Paul. At night, observed the eclipse of the moon by the cliro- 
noraeter. 



58 TIIEARCniPELAGO. 

March 20. All day in sight of Patmos, \vhere St. John wrote 
the Apocalypse. How grateful, yet how awe-inspiring, would be 
a visit to the cave where the scribe of the Almighty dwelt ! 

Patmos is a small, rocky isle, with not a tree visible upon it, 
like most of the islands we have seen. There is little cultivation, 
although a considerable hamlet is seen clustering on the hill-side, 
while a castellated building crowns the summit. It is said that 
the inhabitants are supported, almost entirely, by the proceeds of 
the sponge fisheries along its rocky shores. 

March 21. The wind strong, but adverse — freshened to a g^e. 
We were now under the lee of Cos, where, as well as at Cyprus 
and Tyre, the god Phcebus was worshipped. This island was 
also visited by St. Paul on his way to Rhodes. 10 P. M. A fair 
wind, and a lunar rainbow ! Bore away under full sail, leaving 
Candia broad upon our weather-quarter, and the sandy coast of 
Asia Minor, glittering in the moonlight, on our lee. 

With a flowing sheet, we sailed past Rhodes and C}7)rus, — the 
first famed for its brazen colossus, which no longer spans the en- 
trance to the harbour. 

Saturday, March 25. This morning the mountains of Lebanon 
are before us — their shadows resting upon the sea, while their 
summits are wreathed in a mist, made refulgent by the rays of the 
yet invisible sun. Brilliant as the bow of promise, the many- 
coloured mist rests like a gemmed tiara upon the brow of the 
lofty mountain. Like the, glorious sunset on the eve of our de- 
parture, I hail this as an auspicious omen. 



PREPARATIONS. 



59 



CHAPTER VI. 

BEIRUT TO DEPARTURE FROM ST. JEAN d'aCRE. 

March 25. At 8 A. M. anchored off the town of Beirut, and 
I Avent on shore to call upon the Pasha, who is also a Mushir, 
which, next to the sovereignty, is the highest rank in the Ottoman 
empire. 

The Rev. Eli Smith, of the American Presbyterian mission, 
although in ill health, exerted himself in our behalf, and to him 
we were indebted for securing the services of an intelligent young 
Syrian, named Ameuny, for our dragoman or interpreter. I also 
engaged an Arab, named Mustafa, as cook. The other gentlemen 
of the mission rendered us all the assistance in their power, and 
cheered us with cordial good wishes for our success. 

We received here two pocket chronometers forwarded by Dent 
from London ; and I had the satisfaction of engaging Dr. Ander- 
son, of New York, as physician and geologist, while we should 
be descending the Jordan, and exploring the Dead Sea. 

An English party having been recently attacked in attempting 
to descend the Jordan, the tribes might yet be in an exasperated 
slate, and in the event of gun-shot wounds, surgical aid would 
be indispensable. Lieutenant Molyneux, R. N., the commander 
of that party, having, like Costigan, the only man who preceded 
him, perished of fever caught on the Dead Sea, I felt it a duty to 
secure the valuable services of Dr. Anderson. I directed him to 
proceed across the country, to make a geological reconnoissance, 
and to join us, if he could, on the route from Acre to Tiberias. 

Our consul, Mr, Chasseaud, was indefiUigable in his efforts to 
facilitate us ; and notwithstanding the weather was tempestuous, 
with incessant rain, we were ready at the expiration of tlie first 



60 MATTERS OF COSTUME. 

twenty-four hours. H. B. M. Consul-General, Colonel Rose, was 
kind and obliging. Besides partaking of his hospitality, I was in- 
debted to him for a letter to Mr. Finn, H. B. M. Consul at Jerusa- 
lem, — rendered the more acceptable as our country has no repre- 
sentative there. 

Beirut is a Franco-Syrian town, with a proportionate number 
of Turkish officials. The costumes of the east and of the west 
are singularly blended, but the races remain distinct, separated 
by difference of complexion and of faith. The most striking 
peculiarity of dress we saw, was the tantur, or horn, worn mostly 
by tlie wives of the mountaineers. It was from fourteen inches 
to two feet long, three to four inches wide at the base, and about 
one inch at the top. It is made of tin, silver, or gold, according 
to the circumstances of the wearer, and is sometimes studded 
with precious stones. From the summit depends a veil, which 
falls upon the breast, and, at will, conceals the features. It is 
frequently drawn aside, sufficiently to leave one eye exposed, — in 
that respect resembling the mode of the women of Lima. It is 
worn onlj'^ by married women, or by unmarried ones of the high- 
est rank, and once assumed, is borne for life. Although the 
temple may throb, and the brain be racked with fever, it cannot 
be laid aside. Put on with the bridal-robe, it does not give place 
to the shroud. The custom of wearing it, is derived from the 
Druses, but it is also worn by the Maronites. Its origin is un- 
known ; but it is supposed to have some reference to the words, 
"the horns of the righteous shall be exalted," and other like 
passages of Scripture. 

The illimitable sea was upon one side, the lofty barrier of the 
Lebanon on the other, with a highly-cultivated plain, all verdure 
and bloom, between them. But so indispensably necessary did I 
deem it to reach the Jordan before the existing flood subsided, 
that no time was allowed to note tlie beauties of the surrounding 
scene. It seemed better to descend the river with a rush, than 
slowly drag the boats over mud-flats, sand-banks and ridges of 
rock. 

Monday, March 27. At night, got under way ; but the wind 



MOUNT CARMEL. 61 

failing, and a heavy sea tumbling in, we were compelled to anchor 
again. 

Tuesday, 28. A. M. The wind light, and adverse, — employed 
in packing instruments, and making all ready for disembarkation. 
3 P. M. Sailed with a fine breeze from the north-west. At mid- 
night, having passed Sidon and Tyre, and hove to off the White 
Cape ("Album Promontorium" of the Romans, and "Ras-el- 
Abaid" of the Syrians), the north extreme of the bay of Acre. 

At daylight filled away, and the wind blowing fresh, sailed 
past the town of St. Jean d'Acre, its battlements frowning in the 
distance, and anchored under mount Carmel, before the walled 
village of Haifa. 

With great difficulty I landed through the surf, in company with 
our dragoman and our vice-consul at Acre, who had come with 
us from Beirut. W^e were in danger of perishing, and only res- 
cued by the Arab fishermen who came to our assistance. They 
are bold and dexterous swimmers, as much at home in the water 
as the natives of the Sandwich Islands. 

The increasing surf preventing further communication with the 
ship, we proceeded first to Haifa and thence to the convent for a 
bed, for in the miserable village there was no accommodation. 
The first thing in S)Tia which strikes a visitor from the western 
world, is the absence of forest trees. Except the orchards, the 
mountains and the plains are unrelieved surfaces of dull brown 
and green. No towering oak, no symmetrical poplar, relieves 
the monotony of the scene. The sun must surely be the monarch 
of this clime, for, outside the flat, mud-roofed, cube-like houses, 
there is no shelter from his fiery beams. 

The road to the convent led for a short distance through an 
extensive olive orchard, and thence up the mountain by a gentle 
ascent. On the plain, and the mountain side, were flowers and 
fragrant shrubs, — the asphodel, the pheasant's eye, and Egyptian 
clover. The convent stands on the bold brow of a promontory, 
the terminus of a mountain range 1200 feet high, bounding the 
vale of Esdraelon on the south-west. The view from the summit 
is fine. Beneath is a narrow but luxuriant plain, upon which, it 
6 



62 TENTS PITCHED. 

is said, once stood the city of Porphyraea.^ Sweeping inland, 
north and south, from Apollonia in one direction to Tyre in 
another, with Acre in the near perspective, are the hills of Samaria 
and Galilee, enclosing the lovely vale of Sharon and the great 
battle-field of nations, the valley of Esdraelon ; while to the west 
lies the broad expanse of the Mediterranean. But the eye of 
faith viewed a more interesting and impressive sight ; for it was 
here, perhaps upon the very spot where I stood, that Elijah built 
his altar, and " the fire of the Lord fell and consumed the burnt 
sacrifice, and the wood and the stones and the dust, and licked 
up the water that was in the trench." 

Friday, March 31. Wind changed offshore with a smooth sea. 
Sent to Acre for horses, and hoisted out the two " Fannies" and 
landed them with our effects. Pitched our tents for the first 
time, upon the beach, without the walls of Haifa. A grave-yard 
behind, an old grotto-looking well (then dry) on one side, and a 
carob tree on the other. This tree very much resembles an apple 
tree, and bears an edible bean, somewhat like the catalpa, which, 
in times of scarcity, is eaten by the poor. It is supposed to be 
the "husk" spoken of in the beautiful and touching parable of 
the prodigal son. The fruit is called by the Christians, " St. John's 
bread," and the tree, which is an evergreen, " the locust tree," 
from the belief that its fruit is the locust eaten with wild honey by 
St. John in the desert. For the first time, perhaps, without the 
consular precincts, the American flag has been raised in Palestine. 
May it be the harbinger of regeneration .to a now hapless people ! 

We were surrounded by a crowd of curious Arabs, of all ages 
and conditions, — their costumes picturesque and dirty. The 
rabble already began to show their thievish propensities by steal- 
ing the little copper chains of our thole-pins. They thought that 
they were gold. Great fun to our sailors putting together the 
carriages, which with the harness were made in New York, for 
the transportation of the boats. The men were full of jokes and 
merriment, at beginning camp life. Mustafa, the cook, prepared 
our first tea in Palestine. 

' The true site of Porphyreea is said to be near Sidon. 



FIRST NIGHT ASHORE. 63 

We had two tents made of American canvass. They were 
circular, so constructed that the boats' masts answered as tent- 
poles to tliem. The officers occupied the small and the men the 
large one. We had each, officers and men, a piece of India- 
rubber cloth, two yards long, to sleep on, and a blanket or com- 
forter to cover us. 

Night came, and the sentries were posted. The stars were 
exceedingly brilliant ; the air clear and cool — almost too cool, — 
and the surf beat in melancholy cadence, interrupted only by the 
distant cry of jackals in the mountains 

Saturday, April 1. A day of tribulation. A little past mid- 
night, the tinkling of bells announced the arrival of our horses, 
followed soon after by a screaming conversation in Arabic between 
the dragoman (interpreter) within our tent and the chief of the 
muleteers outside. Our sleeping was excessively uncomfortable, 
— what from the cold, and the stones on the ground, and the 
novelty, we scarce slept a wink. Some began to think that it was 
not a "party of pleasure," as an illiberal print had termed it. 

With the first ray of light, we saw that our Arab steeds were 
most miserable galled jades, and upon trial entirely unused to 
draught. It was ludicrous to see how loosely the harness we had 
brought hung about their meagre frames. On trial, as an exhibi- 
tion of discontent, there was first a general plunge, and then a 
very intelligible equine protest of rearing and kicking. After 
infinite trouble, and shifting the harness to more than a dozen 
horses, we found four that would draw, when once started. But 
the load was evidently too much for them. We then chartered 
an Arab boat, to convey the boat's-sails, and heavier articles, 
across the bay to Acre. Still, the horses could not, or would not, 
budge ; so that we were compelled to relaunch the boats, and 
send them to the ship, which had sailed over, and was then blaz- 
ing away, returning a salute of the town. With a sailor mounted 
on each of the trucks, the horses were at leno-th made to draw 
them, by dint of severe beating. The road along the beach was 
as firm and hard as a floor. About half a mile from our camp™ 
ing-place, a branch of the Valley of Esdraelon opened on the 



64 ST. jeand'acre. 

right, drained by the "Nahr Mukutta" (the river of the ford), 
the Kishon of Scripture, in which Sisera and his host were \ 
drowned, after their defeat by Deborah and Barak, at the foot of 
Mount Tabor. 

" The river of Kishon swept them away : 
That ancient river, — the river of Kishon." 

It was to the brink of this brook that the 450 prophets of Baal 
were brought from Mount Carmel, and put to death by order of 
Elijah. The half-frightened horses dashed into the stream, which 
they crossed without difficulty, it being only about eighteen inches 
deep, and as many yards across. Onward we went, occasionally 
coming to a dead halt, rendering necessary, renewed applications 
of the cudgel, — for lighter instruments of persuasion were of no 
avail. 

The road ran along the beach, — in fact, the beach w^as the 
road, curving gently towards the north, and eventually to the 
west. Passing the wrecks of several vessels, buried in the sand, 
about six miles from the Kishon, we came to the river Namaane 
(Belus), nearly twice as deep and as wide again as the first. 
Pliny says, that near this river some shipwrecked Phoenician sailors 
discovered the mode of making glass, by observing the alkali of 
the dried sea-weed they burned, to unite with the fused silex of 
the shore. Thence, the beach sweeps out into a low projecting 
promonotory, on which stands "Akka," the "St. Jean d'Acre " 
of the Crusades, and the "Ptolemais" of the New Testament. 

Akka has been esteemed the key of all Syria ; and Napoleon, 
when he saw it, exclaimed, " On that little town hangs the destiny 
of the East." It checked him, however, in his victorious career, 
and he, who had never known a reverse, recoiled before it. But 
an English fleet, a few years since, proved that it was not im- 
pregnable, and its walls and bastions are yet in a dilapidated state, 
but they are now being thoroughly repaired and strengthened. 

It being necessary to see the consul and the governor, I pre- 
ceded the party to the town. At the outer gate of this fortified 
stronghold, two or three soldiers were standing, and there was a 



APPEARANCE OF THE TOWN. 65 

guard-room just within it. I made ray way, as well as I could, 
to the house of pur consul, to which the stars and stripes occa- 
sionally beckoned me, as, from time to time, I caught a glimpse 
of them floating above a lofty turret. 

Riding through a mass of masonry, with every conceivable 
name in the science of fortification, — through tortuous, ill-paved 
streets, and narrow bazaars and covered ways, I found myself at 
the bottom of a cul-de-sac. Dismounting before a low gate- 
way, flanked by a gallery of blank walls, ascending a stone stair- 
way, and passing through courts and ruined buildings, I reached 
the consul's house, and was in a few moments seated on his divan. 

Had I not been in so much anxiety about our operations, the 
whole scene upon my entrance into St. Jean d'Acre would have 
been exceedingly interesting. It is the strangest-looking place in 
the world, besides its being so renowned from the days of chi- 
valry to the English bombardment. Perhaps no other town in the 
world could have stood the hurtling of the iron hail-storm as well. 
In some places, but comparatively few in number, there were 
chasms, showing where a cannon-shot had passed ; in others, the 
shot had formed a lodgment, and remained a fixture ; and in others, 
again, had only made an indentation and fallen to the ground. 

A short distance within the gate was a narrow bazaar, roughly 
paved, about two hundred yards in length, with small open shops, 
or booths on each side. They only exhibited the common neces- 
saries of life for sale. A short distance farther, opposite to the 
inner wall, was a line of workshops, mostly occupied by shoe- 
makers. These, with a few feluccas in the harbour, presented the 
only indications of commerce. 

In the walls of our consul's castellated, bomb-proof house 
several shot were lodged ; and in the court I stumbled over 
broken bomb-shells and fragments of masonry. From the flat 
terrace-roof we looked down upon numberless neighbours ; 
women with golden hair-ornaments and ragged trousers, — for 
they were too large to be called pantalettes. There was, on an 
adjoining terrace, a young girl with a glorious profusion of curl- 
ing tresses, which, from beneath a golden net-work on her head, 
6* 



66 GOVERNOROFACRE. 

fell gracefully down upon her dumpy form. Besides a boddice, 
or spencer, she wore a short pelisse and full trousers, which, to say 
the least, were rather the worse for wear. I should have admired 
the dark, wild-looking eye and the luxuriant hair, had it not been 
whispered to me that in the morning her beautiful head was seen 
undergoing a more critical examination than would be necessary 
with one of our fair countrywomen. 

The consul having prepared himself, we went forth to seek the 
governor, who, with his suite, had gone outside the walls. There 
■were few people in the streets, but I noticed that the turban was 
more generally worn than in Beirut, Smyrna, or Constantinople. 
Civilization has scarce landed upon these shores ; and in Syria, 
we may look for more unadulterated specimens of the Muslim 
character than in the capital of tlie empire. 

We found the governor just without the gate, seated in the 
most democratic manner, against the side of a thatched hut, a caf(?, 
I believe. He received us courteously, and we were immediately 
provided with seats. It was a singular place of audience, and 
contrasted strangely with the sparkling gem upon the finger of 
the governor, the amber mouth-piece of his chibouque encircled 
with diamonds, and the rich dresses and jewel-hilted swords of 
some of his officers : but I liked it ; there was no pretension or 
parade, and it looked like business ; moreover, it had a republican 
air about it that was gratifying. 

In this public place, the parley was held, and the horses that 
he had furnished were abused in unmeasured terms. His officers 
and ourselves were seated upon stools and benches ; the attend- 
ants were in front, and the rabble stood around and listened to 
the talk. 

Sa'id Bey, the governor, is about forty-five years of age. He 
is a Syrian by birth, an Egj'ptian by descent, and almost a mulatto 
in complexion. He was dressed in plain blue pantaloons and a 
long blue surtout, and wore a black beard and the red tarbouch. 
His countenance indicated cunning, if not treachery. 

In brief terms, I told the governor how worthless the horses 
proved which he had sent. He professed his deep sorrow, but 



CONFERENCE WITH THE GOVERNOR. 67 

asked what could he do, for there were none better to be procured. 
I then proposed oxen, but he stated that it was then the height of 
seed-time, and that without great injury to the husbandmen he 
could not take them. This was confirmed by our dragoman and 
a S^Tian gentleman, a Christian convert, educated by the mission- 
aries at Beirut. Of course, although burning with anxiety to pro- 
ceed, I would not consent to profit by an act of injustice. From 
the governor's manner, however, I suspected that he was coveting 
a bribe, and determined to disappoint him. 

Assuming a high stand, I told him that we were there not as 
common travellers, but sent by a great country, and with the 
sanction of his own government: — that I called upon him to 
provide us with the means of transportation, for which we would 
pay liberally, but not extravagantly. That his own sovereign had 
expressed an interest in our labours, and if we were not assisted 
I would take good care that the odium of failure should rest upon 
the shoulders of Sa'id Bey, Governor of Acre. By this time 
a great concourse of people had gathered around, and he said 
that he would see what could be done, and let me know in the 
course of the evening. 

The "Supply" had in the mean time weighed anchor, and 
stood close in shore to land the provisions and things sent back 
in the morning. The boats of the expedition had also arrived, 
as well as the trucks drawn round the beach. The Governor and 
his officers came to look at them, followed by nearly the whole 
population of the town. Such a mob ! such clamour and con- 
fusion ! I requested the governor to employ the poUce to clear a 
place for us to pitch our tents upon the beach. He did so im- 
mediately, but it was of no avail ; for the crowd, driven ofl' at 
one moment, returned the next, more clamorous than before : 
and he confessed that he had not power to prevent the townspeople 
from gratifying their laudable desire for information, — not to 
speak of acquisition, for they are notorious thieves. But for its 
vexation, the scene would have been very amusing. In tlie midst 
of this Arab crowd were many women, with coloured trousers 
and long coarse white veils ; and some stood in the grave-yard 



68 ARABCURIOSITY. 

immediately behind us, in dresses, veils and all, of common check, 
black and white. 

Finding it utterly impossible to land our effects and encamp in 
this place, we returned and pitched our tents on the southern 
bank of the Belus. But even here the crowd followed us, evinc- 
ing a curiosity only to be equalled by our own brethren of the 
eastern states. Since the authorities could not or would not pro- 
tect us, we determined to take the law into our own hands and 
protect ourselves, and accordingly posted sentinels with fixed 
bayonets to keep off" the crowd. Jack did it effectually, and the 
flanks of two or three bore witness to the " capable impressure" 
of the pointed steel ; after which we were no more molested. 
We then hauled the boats up to a small green spot beside the 
river, and a short distance from the sea. Behind us was the 
great plain of Acre. While thus engaged, some Arab fellahin 
(peasants) passed us, their appearance wild, and their complexions 
of the negro tint. 

With conflicting emotions we saw the " Supply," under all 
sail, stand out to sea. Shall any of us live to tread again her 
clean, familiar deck ? What matters it ! We are in the hands 
of God, and, fall early, or fall late, we faff only with his consent. 

Late in the afternoon, I received an invitation from Sa'id Bey 
to come to the palace. Ascending a broad flight of steps, and 
crossing a large paved court, I was ushered into an oblong apart- 
ment simply furnished, with the divan at the farther end. I was 
invited to take the corner seat, among Turks the place of honour. 
Immediately on my right, was the Cadi, or Judge, a venerable 
and self-righteous looking old gentleman, in a rich blue cashmere 
cloak, trimmed \\nth fur. On his right sat the Governor. Around 
the room were many officers, and there were a number of attend- 
ants passing to and fro, bearing pipes and coffee to every new 
comer. But, what specially attracted my attention, was a magni- 
ficent savage, enveloped in a scarlet cloth pelisse, richly em- 
broidered with gold. He was tlie handsomest, and I soon thought 
also, the most graceful being I had ever seen. His complexion 
was of a rich, mellow, indescribable olive tint, and his hair a 



ASANTON.' 69 

glossy black ; his teeth were regular, and of the whitest ivory ; 
and the glance of his eye was keen at times, but generally soft 
and lustrous. With the tarbouch upon his head, which he seemed 
to wear uneasily, he reclined, rather than sat, upon the opposite 
side of the divan, while his hand played in unconscious familiarity 
with the hilt of his yataghan. He looked like one who would be 

" Steel amid the din of arms, \ 

And wax when with the fair." 

Just as we were seated, an old marabout entered the room, 
and, without saluting any one, squatted upon the floor and com- 
menced chanting verses from the Koran. He had a faded brown 
cloak drawn around him, and a dingy, conical, felt hat, such as is 
worn by the dervishes, upon his head. His whole person and 
attire were exceedingly filthy, and his countenance unprepossess- 
ing in the extreme. The company sat in silence while he con- 
tinued chanting verse after verse in a louder and yet louder tone. 
At length the governor asked the cause of the interruption, but 
received no answer ; save, that the last word of the verse, which 
the madman or impostor was reciting at the moment, was sent 
forth with a yell, and the next verse commenced in a shriller key 
than the one which had preceded it. The whole council (for 
such I suppose it may be called) now resigned itself to the inflic- 
tion ; and, with a ludicrous, apologetic air, the Cadi whispered 
to me, " It is a santon !" 

At length the marabout paused for want of breath, and the 
Governor repeated his former question. This time there was a 
reply, and a very intelligible one. He wanted charity. A sum 
of money was directed to be given to him, and he took his de- 
parture. Surely this is a singular country ! Such an importunate 
mode of begging I never saw before, although I have been in 
Sicily. I relate the circumstance, with no farther comment, ex- 
actly as it occurred. 

When we were again quiet, the Governor stated that since he 
had parted with me he had received the most alarming intelligence 
of the hostile spirit of the Arab tribes bordering on the Jordan, 



70 INEFFECTUAL PARLEY. 

and pointed to the savage chief as his authority. He named him 
'Akil Aga el Hasse<5, a great border Sheikh of the Arabs. The 
Governor proceeded to say that the "most excellent Sheikh" 
had just come in from the Ghor, where the tribes were up in 
arms, at war among themselves, and pillaging and maltreating all 
who fell into their hands. He was, therefore, of opinion that we 
could not proceed in safety with less than one hundred soldiers to 
guard us ; and said that if I would agree to pay twenty thousand 
piastres (about eight hundred dollars), he would procure means 
for the transportation of the boats, and guaranty us from molest- 
ation. 

He could not look me in the face when he made this proposi- 
tion, and it immediately occurred to me that the Beda\vy Sheikh 
had been brought in as a bugbear to intimidate me into terms. 
This idea strengthened with reflection, until I had reached a state 
of mind exactly the reverse of what Sa'id Bey anticipated. 

The discussion lasted for some time, the Governor, the Cadi, 
the Sheikh, and others, whose names and rank I did not know, 
urging me to accept the offer. This I positively declined, stating 
that I was not authorized, and if I were, would scorn to buy protec- 
tion : that if draught horses could be procured or oxen furnished, 
I would pay fairly for them and for a few soldiers to act as 
scouts ; but that we were well armed and able to protect ourselves. 

Finally, the Governor finding that I would not embrace his 
terras, although he mitigated his demand, urged me to abandon 
the enterprise. To this, I replied that we were ordered to explore 
the Dead Sea, and were determined to obey. 

He tlien advised me, with much earnestness, to go by the way 
of Jerusalem. As he was too ignorant to understand the geo- 
graphical difficulties of that route, I merely answered that we had 
set our faces towards the Sea of Galilee, and were not disposed 
to look back. 

The Sheikh here said that the Bedawin of the Ghor would eat 
us up. My reply was that they would find us difficult of diges- 
tion ; but, as he might have some influence with the tribes, I 
added that we would much prefer going peaceably, paying fairly 



THE BEDAWY SHEIKH. 71 

for all services rendered and provisions supplied ; but go at all 
hazards we were resolutely determined. Here the conference 
ended, it having been prolonged by the necessity of conversing 
through an interpreter, which had, however, this advantage, that 
it gave me full time to take notes. 

Without the court, I overtook the Sheikh, who had preceded 
me, and asked him many questions about the tribes on the Jor- 
dan. In the course of the conversation I showed him my sword 
and revolver — the former with pistol-barrels attached near the hilt. 
He examined them closely, and remarked that they were the 
" devil's invention." I then told him that w^e were fifteen in 
number, and besides several of those swords and revolvers, had 
one large gun (a blunderbuss), a rifle, fourteen carbines with 
bayonets, and twelve bowde-knife pistols, and asked him if he 
did not think we could descend the Jordan. His reply w^as, 
" You will, if any one can." After parting from him, I learned 
that he was last year at the head of several tribes in rebellion 
against the Turkish government, and that, unable to subdue him, 
he had been bought in by a commission, corresponding to that 
of colonel of the irregular Arabs (very irregular!), and a pelisse 
of honour. It was the one he wore, v 

It was now near nightfall, and the gates were closed ; I there- 
fore accompanied our consul to his house for refreshment and a 
bed, for I had eaten nothing since early in the morning. It was 
a great disappointment to me to be separated from the camp ; for, 
apart from the wish to participate in its hardships, I was anxious 
to consult with Mr. Dale, who had cheered me throughout the 
day by his zealous co-operation. 

On reaching the consul's, I was told that some American tra- 
vellers from Nazareth had called to see me in my absence, and 
were to be found at the Franciscan Convent. Thither, I imme- 
diately hastened, anxious alike to greet a countryman, and to 
gather information, for Nazareth was nearly in our contemplated 
line of route. 

They proved to be Major Smith, of the United States' Engi- 
neers, an esteemed acquaintance, and Mr. Sargent, of New York, 



72 DOUBTS AND DELIBERATIONS. 

together with an English gentleman. Their account confirmed 
the rumour of the disturbed state of the country, and they had 
themselves been attacked two nights before, at the foot of Mount 
Tabor. 

I can give a very inadequate idea of my feelings. To turn 
back, was out of the question ; and my soul revolted at the 
thought of bribing Sa'id Bey, even if I had been authorized to 
spend money for such a purpose. I felt sure that he had exag- 
gerated in his statement, and yet the attack on our countrymen, 
so far this side of the Jordan, staggered me. Had my own life 
been the only one at stake, I should have been comparatively 
reckless ; but those only can realize my anxiety, who have them- 
selves felt responsibility for the lives of others. 

From all the information I could procure of the Arab character, 
I had arrived at the conclusion, that it would tend more to gain 
their good-will if we threw ourselves among them without an 
escort, than if we were accompanied by a strong armed force. 
In my first interview with Sa'id Bey, therefore, I only asked for 
ten horsemen, to act as videttes, which, under the impression that 
they v/ould be insufficient, he so long hesitated to grant, that I 
withdrew the application, and resolved to proceed without them. 
He afterwards pressed me to take them, and, calling upon me at 
the consul's, offered to furnish them free of cost ; but I was stead- 
fast in refusal. 

The attack upon our countrymen, however, indicated danger 
of collision at the very outset, and I determined to be prepared 
for it. 

On leaving the " Supply," I had placed a sum of money in 
charge of Lieutenant-Commanding Pennock, wdth the request, 
that he would, in person, deliver it to H. B. M. Consul at Jeru- 
salem. Partly for that purpose, and in part to make some simul- 
taneous barometrical observations, he had sailed for Jaffa, which 
is about thirty miles distant from the Holy Citj-. To him, there- 
fore, I despatched a messenger, asking him to call upon the Pasha, 
and request a small body of soldiers to be sent to meet us at 
Tiberias, or on the Jordan. This precaution taken, my mind w^as 



GRADATIONS OF RANK. 73 

al ease, and, indeed, I was half ashamed of the previous misgiv- 
ings ; for, from the first, I had^e^^ that we should succeed. 

In the camp, the day passed quietly. At one time, there was 
a perfect fete around it, — pedlers, fruit-sellers, and a musician 
with a bagpipe, who seemed to sing extemporaneously, like the 
Bulgarian at San Stefano. At length, the crowd becoming trouble- 
some, a space was cleared around the encampment, and -lines of 
demarcation drawn. Crosses were then made at the corners, 
which, from some superstitious feeling, the people were afraid to 
pass. 

In the evening, at the consul's, we received many visitors, 
scarce any three of whom were seated, or rather squatted, in the 
same attitude. There is no part of the world I have ever visited, 
where the lines of social distinction are more strictly drawn than 
here. In the present instance, the highest in rank were squatted, 
a-la-Turque, upon the divan, with their heels beneath them. 
The next in grade were a little more upright, in a half kneeling 
attitude ; the third, between a sitting posture and a genuflexion, 
knelt with one leg, while they sat upon the other ; and the fourth, 
and lowest I saw, knelt obsequiously, as if at their devotions. It 
was amusing to see the shifting of postures on the entrance of a 
visitor of a higher rank than any present ; — when the squatters, 
drawing themselves up, assumed a more reverential attitude, and 
they who bad bfeen supported on one knee, found it necessary to 
rest upon two. ^ 

I was particularly struck with these evolutions, on the entrance 
of a fine old man, an Arab nobleman, called Sherif Hazzd of 
Mecca, the thirty-third lineal descendant of the Prophet. He 
was about fifty years of age, of a dark Egyptian complexion, 
small stature, and intelligent features. His father and elder 
brother had been Sherifs, or governors of Mecca until the latter 
was deposed by Mehemet Ali. He was dressed in a spencer and 
capacious trousers of fine olive cloth. His appearance was very 
prepossessing, and he evinced much enlightened curiosity with 
regard to our country and its institutions. We were told tliat 
from his descent he was held in great veneration by the Arabs ; 
■ 7 



74 SHERIFOF MECCA. 

and I observed that every Muliammedan ^vho came in, first ap- 
proached him and kissed his hand with an air of profound respect. 
He was as communicative about his own affairs as he was inquisi- 
tive with respect to us and our country. Finding that he was 
now doing nothing, but inactively awaiting the decision of a law- 
suit, I suddenly proposed that he should accompany us. At first, 
he smiled, as if the proposition were an absurd one ; but when I 
explained to him that, instead of a party of private individuals, 
we were commissioned officers and seamen, sent from a far dis- 
tant but powerful country to solve a scientific question, he became 
interested. I further added that, with us, I knew he believed in 
the writings of Moses ; and that, with solutions of scientific ques- 
tions, we hoped to convince the incredulous that Moses was a 
true prophet. He listened eagerly, and after some farther con- 
versation, rose abruptly, and saying that he would very soon give 
me an answer, took his departure. I had, in the mean time, become 
very anxious ; for it seemed as if he had been providentially 
thrown in our way. But it was necessaiy to conceal my feelings, 
for it is the nature of this people to rise in their demands in exact 
proportion to the anxiety you express ; and even if he were to 
consent to accompany us, he might rate his services at an ex- 
orbitant price. 

Sooner even than, in my impatience, I had anticipated, he 
returned and accepted the invitation, shaming my previous fears 
of imposition by saying that he left the remuneration of his services 
entirely to my ow^n appraisement. He also brought a message 
from 'Akil, the handsome savage, to the purport, that Sa'id Bey 
was a humbug, and had been endeavouring to frighten me. 
Sherif thought it not unlikely that the Sheikh might also be induced 
to accompany us, if the negotiation were conducted with secresy. 

This Sa'id Bey is an instance of the vicissitudes of fortune in 
the Ottoman empire. Holding an office under Ibrahim Pasha, 
when the Egyptians were in possession of the countiy, he was 
detected in malpractices ; and at the restoration of Acre to the 
Turks, was found in chains, condemned to labour for life. He 
now walks as master through the streets which he formerly swept. 



CAMELS FOR DRAUGHT. 75 

When the company had retired, the Consul, " on hospitable cares 
intent," being a bachelor, superintended in person the prepara- 
tion of my bed. Among other things, he had spread upon it a 
sUk sheet, soft and fine enough to deck the artificial figure of 
a city belle, and sufficiently large for the ensign of a sloop- 
of-war. 

Although the couch was luxurious, the balm of refreshing sleep 
was long denied, and for hours I laid awake and restless, for I 
was not alone — the fleas were multitudinous and remorseless. 

There seemed to be no alternative but to take the boats apart 
and transport them across in sections, unless camels could be 
made to draw in harness, and I determined to try the experiment. 
During the night I suffered dreadfully from the nightmare, and 
the suflfocating monster was a camel. 

Sunday, April 3. In the afternoon, when the religious exer- 
cises of the day were over, the experiment of substituting camels 
for draught horses was tried and proved successful; and my heart 
throbbed with gratitude as the huge animals, three to each, marched 
off with the trucks, the boats upon them, with perfect ease. 

The harness, all too short, presented a fit-out more grotesque 
even than that of a diligence in an interior province of France ; 
but, with alterations, it answered the purpose, and we felt inde- 
pendent of Sa'id Bey ; for camels, at least, could be had in abun- 
dance. Determined, therefore, not again to have recouse to the 
grasping Governor, I contracted with Sa'id Mustafa, a resident of 
the town, for the necessary^ number of camels and horses. 

The first attempt to clraw the trucks by camels was a novel 
sight, witnessed by an eager crowd of people. The successful 
result taught them the existence of an unknown accomplishment 
in that patient and powerful animal, which they had before thought 
fit only to plod along with its heavy load upon its back. 

The qualities of the camel, uncouth and clumsy a* he is, are 
scarcely appreciated in the East, or he would be more carefully 
tended. It is a matter of surprise that the Romans never emjiloyed 
them. Porus used them against Alexander, and the Parthians 
against Crassus ; but, I believe, as far as history tells, tlie Romans 



76 DEPARTURE FROM ST. JEAN d'aCRE. 

never employed them in warfare, nor in any manner as means of 
transportation. 

Monday, April 3. We were moving betimes, packing up and 
waiting for the camels to transport our baggage, the boats having 
gone aliead. After many vexatious delays, made a start at 
2.30 P. M., but soon after two of the camels breaking down, we 
were compelled to camp again. 



CHAPTER VII. 

FROM ST. JEAN d'aCRE TO DEPARTURE FROM THE 

SEA OF GALILEE. 

Tuesday, April 4. The daylight brought disappointment. As 
Sa'id Mustafa was not to be found, I sent the dragoman to our 
Consul, requesting him to call immediately upon the Governor, 
and demand more camels ; for I had determined that I would 
not, under any circumstances, again present myself before him. 
By 8 o'clock, two additional camels arrived, and, at 9 o'clock, 
we took up the line of march after the boats, — sixteen horses, 
eleven loaded camels, and a mule. 

As we were starting, Sa'id Bey had the effrontery to send to 
me for a letter, stating that he had rendered all the services I had 
required. I sent him word in reply, that he had done nothing to 
assist us ; and that of his gross attempt at extortion, I had ap- 
prised our government at home, our minister at Constantinople, 
and his superior, the Mushir, at Beirut. 

Following the beach to within two hundred yards of the town, 
we turned off to the east, and skirted a hill, whence, on the left, 



AN UNCERTAIN GUIDE. 77 

we saw an aqueduct, and the garden of Abdallah Pasha, — a 
grove in the midst of a verdant, but treeless plain. Pursuing the 
same route taken the evening before, we crossed the gi-eat plain 
of Acre, enamelled with flowers, and struck into a rolling country 
of gentle undulations. Besides the profusion of flowers, a stunted 
tree was here and there presented. 

The evening before, I had promised 'Akil to visit him in his 
mountain fortress, if I could, and one of his followers now pre- 
senting himself as a guide, we rode ahead of the caravan. The 
village of Abelin was soon visible on the summit of a high hill, 
rising abruptly from the southern slope of the plain. To the east 
and south-east, in the far distance, were two other villages; all 
else was a nearly level plain, wuth broken ground in front. Riding 
over the shoulder of the hill, we opened upon the head of a 
ravine, — wide at first, but narrowing to a gorge as it descended, 
and swept around the bases of the hills. Crowning the one op- 
posite, Abelin looked like an inaccessible strong-hold. I had 
been cautioned to be upon my guard ; knew nothing of 'Akil, 
except that he was a daring Arab chief; had never before seen 
my guide, and was uncertain whether he would prove treacherous 
or faithful. I had accepted the invitation, for I was anxious to 
prevail on 'Akil also to accompany us, and I felt that it would 
not answer to show distrust. To guard against the worst, how- 
ever, I gave to a fellah, whom we met, a note for Mr. Dale, 
directing him, if I should not return, to push on without delay, 
and accomplish the objects of the expedition. 

The steep, rugged path had never before been trodden by any 
other than an Arab horse ; and but that the one upon which I 
rode was singularly surefooted, he would have often stumbled 
and dislodged me, for I could not guide him, so much were my 
senses engrossed by the extraordinary variety, fragrance, and 
beauty of innumerable plants and flowers. 

The village, perched upon the loftiest peak, commands an 
extensive view from the " Album Promontorium " to the Convent 
of Mount Carmel. But, if the situation be beautiful, the place 
7* 



78 INHOSPITALITY. 

itself is indescribably poor and filthy. The houses, built of un- 
cemented stones, are mostly one story high, and have flat, mud 
roofs ; and without, and encircling the whole, is a row of small, 
dome-roofed hovels, made entirely of mud, and used for baking 
bread ; all enveloped in a most offensive atmosphere, tainted by 
the odour of tlie fuel, — the dried excrement of camels. There 
appeared to be as many as one of those little hovels to each 
dwelling. 

After having been detained in an open court until I became 
impatient, I was ushered into a large room, open in front, with a 
mud floor and smoke-stained rafters, covered with twigs. A 
collection of smouldering embers was in the centre, stuck into 
which, a small and exceedingly dirty brass coffee-pot stood sim- 
mering ; and seated at the farther end, a short distance from it, 
were the Sherif, 'Akil, and a number of Arabs, armed to the 
teeth. I had parted with the first, at a late hour the previous 
evening, when he started for Haifa, ten miles in another direction ; 
and how he could have come here, puzzled me. 

For some moments, scarce a word was said; and, from ina- 
bility to speak the language, I could not break the awkward 
silence, having left the interpreter with the train, where his ser- 
vices were necessary. 

There were some tw'elve or fifteen present. Look where I 
would, their keen, black eyes were riveted upon me ; and wherever 
I turned my eyes, theirs immediately followed in the same direc- 
tion. I turned to Sherif, in the hope that he w^ould say some- 
thing ; but, lost in thought, he seemed to be studying the geo- 
logical structure of the lighted coal on the bowl of his narghile. 
To 'Akil I made a friendly sign of recognition, which was re- 
turned without rudeness, but without cordiality. My position 
began to be irksome, rendered not the less so, from the circum- 
stance that the pipe and the cup of coffee, the invariable marks 
of welcome beneath an Arab roof, were witliheld. 

I do not know when I have so earnestly longed for a cup of 
coffee ; for, apart from the danger inferred to myself, its not being 



EMBARRASSING SITUATION. 79 

tendered, seemed an ominous sign for the expedition. The 
whole business looked like a snare. 

While these thoughts were passing through my mind, a few 
words had been exchanged between the leaders and their fol- 
lowers, — mostly brief questions and monosyllabic replies, the last 
almost invariably the Arabic negative, " Lah!" 

Presently one of the questions elicited quite a warm discussion, 
during which I sat entirely unnoticed, except that occasionally 
one of the speakers looked towards me, when his example was 
followed by the whole assembly. There was an evident air of 
constraint; I had been received with bare civility, and they 
seemed undecided what measures to pursue. There were evi- 
dently conflicting opinions. 

Fretted with impatience, and perhaps more nervous than I 
should have been, I thoughtlessly looked at my watch. There 
was an instant pause in the conversation, and while Sherif asked 
to see it, they all crowded eagerly round. It was no curiosity to 
him, but most of those present examined it earnestly, like, so 
many wild Indians for the first time beholding a mirror. I took 
as much time as possible to exhibit the works, and when they 
M'ould look no longer, drew my sword, and glad to feel it in my 
grasp, pointed out to them the peculiar construction of the handle. 
They examined it as closely as they could, for, unlike the watch, 
I would not part with it ; when, just as their curiosity was be- 
coming sated, a cheering sound struck upon my ear, A single 
glance satisfied me that I was not mistaken, and springing to my 
feet, I stretched out one hand for the watch, while with the other 
I pointed to the foot of the hill, and cried out "djemmell!" 
Djemmell ! djemmell ! (camel ! camel !) was echoed by many 
voices, for the caravan was in sight, and from that moment there 
was a marked change in their manner towards me. 

I cannot venture to say that there was an intention to rob me, 
for, despite appearances, I can hardly think so. It may be that 
the omission of the chibouque and coffee made an undue impres- 
sion upon me, and my ignorance of Arab habits did the rest. 
Perhaps, too, I was rendered morbidly suspicious by the con- 



80 ARABS OF THE DESERT. 

sciousness of having a large sum of money about me. If a rob- 
bery were contemplated, I came upon them, perhaps, before their 
plans were matured ; or the arrival of Shertf, who could have pre- 
ceded me but a short time, might have disconcerted them. At 
all events, I now felt safe, for the gaping mouth of thcjjlunderbuss 
and the sheen of the carbines borne by my companions proved 
ample protectors. 

Notwithstanding the awkwardness of our recent position to- 
wards each other, I felt no hesitation in entering into an agree- 
ment with 'Akil on the same terms as with the Sherif. Our 
language was that of signs, fully understood by both parties. 

According to the Arab code of morals, 'Akil would have been 
perfectly justified in robbing me prior to a contract ; but to do so 
afterwards would have been the height of dishonour. 

On leaving Acre, our course was first east, then gradually round 
to south, when, crossing a ridge by Abelin, which shuts in the 
plain, the train entered a narrow gorge, and came to the Blowing 
Valley or valley of the winds, with forests of white oak on the 
flanks of the hills. 

I rejoined the caravan as it passed by Abehn, leaving our allies 
to follow. They were to bring ten spears, and formidable ones , 
they proved, to be. The road becoming difficult for the carriages, 
we moved slowly, and our Arab scouts soon overtook us. They 
had all assumed the garb of the desert, and each, with a flowing 
dark aba (cloak) on, and the yellow koofeeyeh upon his head, 
bound round with a cord of camel's hair, dyed black ; and bear- 
ing a spear eighteen feet in length, some of them tufted with 
ostrich feathers, looked the M'ild and savaije warrior. 

In the middle of Blowing Valley we came to a halt, three miles 
from Abelin. It was yet early, 3 P. M.; but the great regulator 
of every thing connected with life and motion in the East is water. 
We had passed a well about a mile back, and between us and 
the next one was a narrow defile, presenting great obstructions to 
the passage of the boats. We therefore pitched our tents upon a 
gently sloping esplanade, and our Bedawin friends camped over- 
against us. 



THE BLOWING VALLEY. 81 

It was a picturesque spot; on the left of our tents, which faced 
the south, were the trucks with the two boats, forming a kind of 
entrenchment ; behmd these were about thirty camels and all our 
horses. From the boats, and in front of our white tents, the 
American flag was flying ; and just beyond, an officer and two 
sailors, with carbines, had mounted guard, with the loaded blun- 
derbuss between them. The tent of our allies was a blue one ; and 
tlie horses tethered near, and tufted spears in front, together with 
their striking costume, varied and enlivened the scene. 

Towards each end of the valley, about half a mile from the 
camp, one of the Arab horsemen was stationed, and cutting sharp 
against the sky, 'Akil was upon tlie crest of the hill in our rear, 
taking a reconnoissance. They promised to make admirable 
videttes, and we had reason to rejoice at having secured them. 
One brought us a sheep, which we shared between the camps ; and 
Mr. Dale and myself went over and took a tiny cup of coffee with 
tliem. We took solar and barometrical observations ; and at 
night, observed Polaris. 

We this day passed through the narrow tract on the coast of 
Syria, which was never subdued by the Israelites, and through 
the narrowest part of the land of the tribe of Asser into that of 
Zebulon. 

It was a brilliant night, but we had reason to consider that 
the place was appropriately named. About midnight, the wind 
blew with great violence, and we were compelled to turn 
out, and assist the officer of the watch in securing the instru- 
ments. 

Wednesday, April 5. We were early on the move ; the sun 
was rising beautifully over the eastern hills; the camels were 
straying about upon their slopes, and the flags and ostrich feathers 
were drooping with the mist. Called all hands, breakfasted, 
struck tents, hitched camels, and started. The carriages, with 
the boats, were drawn by three camels each, two abreast, and 
one as leader, with twelve spare ones, to relieve every half hour. 
Our party numbered sixteen in all, including dragoman and cook, 
with eleven camels, laden with baggage, tents, instruments, &c.i 



82 BEAUTIFUL SCENE. 

and fifteen Bedawin, all well mounted, the followers and servants 
of the Sherif of Mecca and Sheikli 'Akll Aga el Ilassec. 

Our course was at first down a narrow gorge. Through this 
we found it impossible to drag the boats ; and therefore, deploy- 
ing to the left, we drew them to the summit of an overhanging 
hill, and there, taking the camels out, lowered them down by 
hand. It was an arduous and, at times, a seemingly impracticable 
undertaking, but by perseverance we succeeded. 

Passing along this ravine, in a south-easterly direction, for 
three-quarters of a mile, the boats rattling and tumbling along, 
drawn by the powerful camel trains, we came upon a branch of 
the great plain of Buttauf. The metal boats, with the flags flying, 
mounted on carriages drawn by huge camels, ourselves, the 
mounted sailors in single file, the loaded camels, the Sherif and 
Sheikli, with their tufted spears and followers, presented a glorious 
sight. It looked like a triumphal march. 

The sun was curtained, but not screened from the sight by the 
ascending vapour, and the soft wind was wooing nature to assume 
her green and fragrant livery. The young grain, vivified by the 
heat, sprang up in prolific growth, and carpeted the earth with its 
refreshing verdure. The green turf of the uncultivated patches 
of the plain, and the verdant slopes of the hills, were literally 
enamelled with the white and crimson aster, the pale asphodel, 
the scarlet anemone, the blue and purple convolvulus, the cyclaj- 
men with flowers so much resembling the eglantine rose, and 
many others of brilliant hues and fragrant odours ; while, inter- 
spersed here and there upon the hill-sides, were clumps of trees, 
on the branches of which the birds were singing, in the soft light 
of an early spring morning, — enjoying, like ourselves, the balmy 
air and smiling landscape. It was an exquisite scene, and elevated 
the mind, while it gratified the love of the beautiful. Surely, 

" There lives and works 
A soul in all things, and that soul is God." 

In front was a level lake of verdure and cultivation, and down 
the gentle slope, towards its basin, our long cavalcade wended 



NAZARETH. 83 

its way, — officers and men in single file, their arms glittering in 
the sunlight, and the wild Arabs, with their lances pointed at 
every angle, some of them mounted upo^ the best blood of Ara- 
bia, and seeming impatient at the slowness of the march. 

Winding around a green hill, tufted with oak, we reached 
Klian el Dielil, now in ruins, with an excellent well beside it. A 
few hundred yards beyond, we came to a shallow pond of water, 
the collection of winter rains, where we stopped to water the 
caravan. Here we took chronometer observations, — having to 
remove some distance in consequence of the vibration caused by 
the movement of the animals. 

From this ruined khan, across the plain, bearing south, cresting 
a lofty hill, was the castle of Sefuriceh (Sepphoris), the Dio Cesa- 
rea of the Romans. It was, for some time, the successful rival 
of Tiberias ; and, in the 12th century, was the great rendezvous 
of the Crusaders before the fatal battle of Hattin. There is a 
tradition among the Arabs, that Moses married and lived there 
twenty years. Thence south-east, over a hill, lay JYazareth.) but 
three hours distant from us. How we grieved that our duties 
prevented us from visiting a place which, with Bethlehem and 
Calvary, the scenes of the birth, the residence, and the death of 
the Redeemer, are of most intense interest to the Christian ! To 
the left, almost due east, one hour distant, lay Cana of Galilee, 

Who has not, in thought, accompanied the Saviour to that 
marriage-feast, and thanked him from his heart, that he sliould 
have gladdened with his presence the fleeting festivities of sinful 
man, and that his first miracle should have been, to all succeed- 
ing generations, a lesson of filial love ! 

Each day, some of the Sherif's or the Sheikh's followers 
brought us a sheep or a lamb as a present, for which, however, 
they expected, and always received, a fair equivalent. In doing 
so, they placed a quiet trust in Providence with regard to the 
payment, for which they never asked. Where the value of things 
is so well ascertained as among this primitive people, how much 
better is this plan, than a higgling bargain ! 

.Starting again, — our route was E. N. E. along the plain; our 



84 WALLED VILLAGE. 

Arabs caracoling their steeds, and giving us specimens of their 
beautiful horsemanship, — plunging about, and twirling their long 
spears, and suddenly couching them in full career, as they charged 
u^ion each other. It was like the game of the djerid, of which 
we had all read so often, except that, instead of the short blunted 
spear of pastime, these were the sharp-pointed instruments of 
war. The old Sherif was mounted upon a splendid grey stal- 
lion, worth many thousand piastres, and wore himself a rich olive 
cloth cloak, embroidered with silver. Beautiful bay mares were 
ridden by the Sheikh and his followers, among the last were two 
jet-black Nubians, — one of them of Herculean frame, disfigured 
by several scars. 

Coming to a broken and rocky country, we encountered much 
difficulty with the boats. At first it seemed impossible that the 
ponderous carriages could be drawn over such a rugged road. 
The word road means, in that country, a mule-track. Wheel- 
carriages had never crossed it before. In their invasion of Syria, 
the French transported their guns and gun-carriages (the latter 
taken apart) on the backs of camels, over the lofty ridges, and 
mounted them again upon the plain. 

At length, making a detour to the right, breaking off a project- 
ing crag here, and filling up a hollow there, we got the boats 
over the first ridge. It was shortly, however, succeeded by 
another and another, and the trains were obliged to abandon the 
road altogether. Winding along the flanks of several hills, we 
came upon an elevated plain of cultivated fields. Turning then 
more to the north, and skirting a ridge of rocky limestone, we 
gradually ascended a slope covered with olive orchards. Pre- 
sently we came in sight of Turan, an Arab village. 

In our acceptation of the word, a village means a number of 
scattered peasant dwellings, but here it is a stronghold of the 
agricultural population. Since leaving Acre, we had not seen a 
single permanent habitation without these walled villages. Tunin 
is quite a fortification. It is small ; the houses are built of uncut 
and uncemented stone, with flat mud roofs, and do not exceed one 
story in height. Just beyond the village, over the brow of the 



AN ARAB REPAST. 85 

hill, we pitched our tents upon the outskirts of an olive orchard. 
In the plain, immediately beneath, was fought a decisive battle 
between the Syrians and the French. Mount Tabor bore S. S. 
W. We were in the lands assigned to the tribe of Zebulon. 

By invitation, I accompanied Sherif and 'Akil into the village, 
and smoked a pip^nd drank coffee with its Sheikh, who wore the 
graceful and becoming turban. But for his costume, he would, 
in our country, pass for a genteel negro, of the cross between the 
mulatto and the black, i In order to economize time and provi- 
sions, and to prepare us for the endurance of future privations, I 
had from the first restricted the whole party to two meals a day — 
one early in the morning, before starting, the other when we had 
camped for the night. There was not an objection nor a murmur. 

While at supper. Dr. Anderson joined us. On his way to 
Acre, he had, from a height, seen the expedition moving along the 
plain. He described it as a beautiful sight. 

The Sheikh of the village punctually returned my visit, and 
was duly regaled with pipes and coffee. He seemed to prefer 
our tobacco to his own. In the evenino: we went down to the 
tent of our Arabs, pitched a short distance from us, with their 
horses tethered near and neighing loudly. What a patriarchal 
scene ! Seated upon their mats and cushions within, we looked 
out upon the fire, around which were gathered groups of this 
wild people, who continually reminded us of our Indians. Then 
came their supper, consisting of a whole sheep entombed in rice, 
which they pitched into without knives or forks, in the most 
amusing manner. There was an Arab bard withal, who twanged 
away upon his instrument, and sung or rather chanted mysterious 
Arabic poetry. 

We had ascended upwards of 1500 feet, which, better than 
any description, will give an idea of the steepness, but not of the 
ruggedness, of the road since we left the plain of Acre. To- 
morrow we may reach the Sea of Galilee! Inshallah! God 
willinof. 

Thursday, April 6. A beautiful morning, wind light, and 
weather very pleasant. As, in consequence of great impediments, 



86 MAGNIFICENT SLOPES. 

the boats moved but slowly, we started with them at an early 
hour. At 11, the camp followed us. Nothing could be more 
picturesque than the appearance of our cavaliers of the desert, 
when they rejoined us, mounted upon their spirited steeds, with 
their long spears and flowing garments of every variety of hue. 

At first our course was east, down a long descent, and thence 
over the undulations of a rolling plain, to a large artificial reser- 
voii", with an area of about three acres, partly filled with rain- 
water, where we stopped fifteen minutes. Our friends, who had 
preceded us, and Sherif, with one of his followers, had gone 
to perform their devotions in a field apart. 

While at this fountain, wishing to take some bearings, one of 
our swarthy friends, in the most graceful and polite manner, held 
one of our horses, and otherwise assisted us. Thus far these ter- 
rible Arabs conducted themselves like gentlemen. In courtesy, 
civilization could not improve them. -"^'Jccu £*<rSCri^ n'ir^\bi(AiAU 

Thence w'e passed immediately north of the village of Lubieh, 
differing only in its less conspicuous position, from Turan and 
Abelin. Our Arabs rode into the village, but I declined the 
invitation to coffee, and kept on with the cavalcade. 

Since leaving the olive-groves of Turiin we had not seen a tree 
nor a bush, except on the hill-sides of Lubieh ; yet the whole sur- 
face of the valley was dotted with unenclosed fields of growing 
grain, and carpeted with green. 

We continued rising, until we opened on our right, a magnifi- 
cent crater-like series of slopes, with a bare glimpse of the Sea of 
Galilee and the mountains of Bashan beyond. These slopes are 
fields of grain, divided into rectangles of different hues and dif- 
ferent stages of growth. Besides these, were patches of flowers 
scattered about, — here the scarlet anemone, there the blue 
convolvulus: — but the gentle and luxuriant slopes looked like 
mosaic, w-ith a prevailing purple tinge, the hue of the thorny shrub 
rnerar. On our route thus far the prevailing rock has been lime- 
stone, but since leaving Lubieh we have met several nodules of 
quartz, and much trap, totally destitute of minerals. The pre- 
vailing flower is the convolvulus, from tlie root of which scam- 



THESEAOFGALILEE. 87 

mony is said to be extracted. Ragged peasants were ploughing 
in the fields ; but not a tree, not a house. Mount Tabor now bore 
due south. 

Pursuing the route along the northern ridge of this valley, in 
half an hour we came to a fountain, on the high road from Jeru- 
salem to Damascus. Some Christian pilgrims, from the latter to 
the former place, were seated around it ; their tired horses, with 
drooping heads, waiting their turn to drink. Soon after leaving 
them, a small party passed us ; among them,, the only pretty female 
we had seen in Palestine : a young Syrian girl, with smooth bronze 
skin and regular features. 

Unable to restrain my impatience, I now rode aliead with 
Mustafa, and soon saw below, far down the green sloping chasm, 
the Sea of Galilee, basking in the sunlight ! Like a mirror it lay 
embosomed in its rounded and beautiful, but treeless hills. How 
dear to the Christian are the memories of that lake ! The lake 
of the New Testament ! Blessed beyond the nature of its element, 
it has borne the Son of God upon its surface. Its cliffs first 
echoed the glad tidings of salvation, and from its villages the first 
of the apostles were gathered to the ministry. Its placid water 
and its shelving beach ; the ruined cities once crowded with men, 
and the everlasting hills, the handiwork of God, — all identify 
and attest the wonderful miracles that were here performed — 
miracles, the least of which was a crowning act of mercy of an 
Incarnate God towards his sinful and errino: creatures. 

The roadside and the uncultivated slopes of the hills were full 
of flowers, and abounded with singing birds — and there lay the 
holy lake, consecrated by the presence of the Redeemer ! How 
could travellers describe the scenery of this lake as tame and 
uninteresting ? It far exceeded ray most sanguine expectations, 
and I could scarce realize that I looked upon it. Near by was the 
field, where, according to tradition, the disciples plucked the ears 
of corn upon the Sabbath. Yet nearer was the spot where the 
Saviour fed the famishing multitude ; and to the left the Mount 
of Beatitudes, where he preached his wonderful compend of 
wisdom and love. At its foot, as if to show how little man re- 



88 TIBERIAS. 

gards the precepts of his Maker, was fought one of the most 
dreadful battles recorded on the page of history. 

I neither put implicit faith in, nor yet, in a cavilling spirit, 
question the localities of these traditions. Unhappy is that man, 
who, instead of being impressed with awe, or exultant with the 
thought tliat he is permitted to look upon such scenes, withholds 
his homage, and stifles every grateful aspiration with queru- 
lous questionings of exact identities. Away with such hard- 
hearted scepticism — so nearly allied to infidelity! What mat- 
ters it whether in this field or an adjoining one — on this 
mount, or another more or less contiguous to it, the Saviour 
exhorted, blessed, or fed his followers ? The very stones, each 
a sermon, cry shame upon such a captious spirit — a spirit too 
often indulged, not in the sincerity of unbelief, but to parade his- 
torical or biblical lore. 

Not a tree ! not a shrub ! nothing but green grain, grass and 
flowers, yet acres of bright verdure. Far up on a mountain-top 
stands conspicuous the "holy city" of Safed, the ancient Japhet. 
Nearer is the well into which Joseph was put by his brethren. 
Beyond the lake and over the mountains, rise majestic in the 
clear sky the snowy peaks of Mount Hermon. We descended 
the steep hill towards the lake. How in the world are the boats 
ever to be got down this rocky and precipitous path, where we are 
compelled to alight and lead our horses ? From Acre to this 
place, we have dragged the boats along a series of valleys and 
ridges, but from hence there is a sheer descent. This difficulty 
overcome, we shall only have our own familiar element to deal 
with. We must, therefore, brace ourselves to a desperate 
effort. 

The boats could come no farther than the fountain, where the 
trains stopped for the night. Along the elevated plain the trap 
formation made its appearance in scattered fragments, covering 
the brown soil ; large boulders then succeeded, and on the shore 
enormous masses crop-out in the ravines. Winding down the 
rugged road, we descended to the city, seated on the margin of 
the lake. Tiberias (Tubariyeh) is a walled to\vn of some magni- 



OUR DOMICIL. 89 

tude, but in ruins, from the earthquake which, in 1837, destroyed 
so many of its inliabitants. Not a house nor a tree without the 
walls, yet cultivated fields behind and beside them. On an 
esplanade, a short distance from the dismantled gateway, were 
the tents of a small detachment of Turkish soldiers. 

Safed and Tiberias, Jerusalem and Hebron, are the four holy 
cities of the Jews in Palestine. Tiberias is held in peculiar 
veneration by the Jews, for here they believe that Jacob resided, 
and it is situated on the shores of the lake whence they hope that 
the Messiah will arise. 

Turning to the south, leaving behind us a beautiful concave 
slope, consecrated by tradition for the miraculous draught of fishes, 
we entered the northern half-ruined portal of the town. 

We were yet in the land of Zebulon ; on the opposite side of 
the lake are the lands of the tribe of Manasseh. 

It being necessary to adjust and fix the rate of our instruments, 
we rented part of a house in town, — many being proffered for 
our accommodation, — indicative alike of tlie hospitality of the 
people and the unprosperous condition of the place. We had 
letters to the chief rabbi of the Jews, who came to meet us, and 
escorted us through a labyrinth of streets to the house of Heim 
Weisman, a brother Israelite. 

Sherif and 'Akil turned up as if by magic. Here they were 
before us, although they stopped at Lubiyeh, and we did not see 
them pass us on the road. Nothing but their kind feelings to- 
W'ards us could have induced them to enter the house of a Jew. 
They received three rabbis, who came to see us, with much re- 
spect, and greeted their own Muslim visitors with the true 
oriental embrace. The governor, who was a relative of 'Akil, 
was among the first who called. 

There was no doubt of the high standing of Sherif and his 
nephew, Sherif Musaid, a much younger and very prepossessing 
Arab, who had recently joined us. The governor was a small 
intelligent Arab, with a dark Egyptian complexion. Our friends 
soon left us to quarter upon him. 

Our sailors were delighted with the novelty of having a roof 
8* 



90 '' LAKE OF TIBERIAS. 

above them, and we all felt relieved in no longer hearing the 
shrill and vociferous screams of the camel-drivers, — the noisiest 
of the children of men. Our saloon looked out upon the lake. 
It had mere apertures in its blank walls for doors and windows. 
A number of swallows, regardless of our presence, flitted in and 
out, busied in the construction of their nests amid the sustaining 
rafters of the mud roof. The windows might have been, but, 
from an error in its construction, the door could not be, 
closed. Our apartment, which was at once our parlour, eating- 
room, and chamber, was the rendezvous of all the curious. 

We had fish, delicious fish from the lake, for our supper, which 
"we ate in thankfulness, although we knew that we should pay for 
it in flesh, — for the king of the fleas, it is said, holds his court 
in Tiberias. 

We were surrounded by a motley assembly of all classes, 
standing, sitting, or reclining in democratic disregard of all rank 
or distinction, and looking with amazement, not unmingled with 
mirth, at our strange and elaborate mode of eating. 

Our instruments were uninjured, notwithstanding the rugged- 
ness of the road, and we fitted them up in a separate room, 
preparatory to a series of observations ; and then wearied, but 
gratified, laid down to sleep. '' 

Friday, April 7. The beams of the rising sun, reflected from 
the lalfe, were dancing about on the walls of the apartment when 
we awoke. A light breeze ruffled its surface, which 

"Broke into dimples, and laughed in the sun." 

There was a silence of some moments, as we looked forth upon 
it, and the mind of each, no doubt, recurred to the time when an 
angry wind swept across, and the Apostle of wavering faith cried, 
" Lord, save me, or I perish !" 

Our first thought was for the boats ; but, notwithstanding the 
utmost exertions, they were only brought at sunset, to the brink 
of the high and precipitous range which overlooked the lake from 
the west. 

In the course of the day, I returned the visit of the governor. 



THRALDOM OF THE JEWS. 91 

He received me in a large room, opening on a small court, with 
a divan in a recess opposite to the door. 

Justice was administered with all the promptitude and simpli- 
city of the East. On my way, I had been exasperated almost to 
the point of striking him, by a half-grown boy beating an elderly 
woman, who proved to be his mother. The latter made her com- 
plaint shortly after my entrance. The case was fairly but briefly 
examined by the governor in person, and in a few words the 
sentence was pronounced. From the coifntenance of the culprit, 
as he was led forth, I felt satisfied that he was on his way to a 
well-merited punishment. 

Another woman complained that her husband had beaten her. 
In this, as in the previous case, the complainant directly addressed 
the governor. The husband seemed to be a man of influence, 
and the trial was somewhat protracted. The evidence was clear 
against him, however, and he was made publicly to kiss her fore- 
head, where he had struck her. 

A trifling circumstance will show in what thraldom the Jews 
are held. Our landlord, Heim Weisman, had been kind enough 
to show me the way to the governor's. On our entrance, he 
meekly sat down on the floor, some distance from the divan. 
After the sherbet was handed round to all, including many dirty 
Arabs, it was tendered to him. It was a rigid fast-day with his 
tribe, and he declined it. It was again offered, and again declined, 
when the attendant made some exclamation, which reached the 
ears of the governor, who thereupon turned abruptly round, and 
sharply called out, "Drink it." The poor Jew, agitated and 
trembling, carried it to his lips, where he held it for a moment, 
when, perceiving the attention of the governor to be diverted, he 
put down the untasted goblet. 

On our return, Mr. Weisman led me to a vaulted chapel dedi- 
cated to St. Peter, built on the traditionary- spot of one of the 
miracles of our Lord. Strange that a Jew should point out to a 
Christian the place where the Messiah, whom the first denies and 
the last believes in, established his church upon a rock ! 

The Jews here are divested of that spirit of trade which is 



92 TURKISH TYRANNY. 

everywhere else their peculiar characteristic. Their sole occu- 
pation, we were told, is to pray and to read the Talmud. That 
book, Burckhardt says, declares that creation will return to primi- 
tive chaos if prayers are not addressed to the God of Israel at 
least twice a week in the four holy cities. Hence the Jews all 
over the world are liberal in their contributions. 

Returned the visit of the Rabbis. They have two synagogues, 
the Sephardira and Askeniazim, but live harmoniously together. 
There are many Polish Jews, with light complexions, among 
them. They describe themselves as very poor, and maintained 
by the charitable contributions of Jews abroad, mostly in Europe. 
More meek, subdued, and unpretending men than these Rabbis 
I have never seen. The chief one illustrated the tyranny of the 
Turks by a recent circumstance. In consequence of the drought 
of the preceding year there had been a failure of the crops, and 
the Sultan, whose disposition is humane, ordered a large quantity 
of grain to be distributed among the fellahin for seed. The latter 
were accordingly called in ; — to him whose portion was twenty 
okes^ was given ten, and to him whose portion was ten, five okes 
were given, — after each had signed a paper acknowledging the 
receipt of the greater quantity. How admii-ably the scriptures 
portray the manners and customs of the east ! Here is the verifi- 
cation of the parable of the unjust steward. It is true, that in 
this instance the decree w^as issued by the Turks — a compara- 
tively modern people, — but it was carried into effect by the 
descendants of the ancient Gentile races of the country. 

In the evening we visited several of the synagogues. It was 
impressive, yet melancholy to witness the fervid zeal of the wor- 
shippers. In gabardines, wnth broad and narrow phylacteries, 
some of them embroidered, the men were reading or rather chant- 
ing, or rather screaming and shouting the lamentations of Jere- 
mias — all the time swaying their bodies to and fro with a regular 
and monotonous movement. There was an earnest expression 
of countenance that could not have been feigned. The tones of 

■ An oke is about two and three-quarter pounds. 



JEWISH FEMALE COSTUME. 93 

the men were loud and almost querulous with complaint ; while 
the women, who stood apart, were more hushed in their sorrow, 
aad lowly wailed, moving the heart by their sincerity. In each 
synagogue was an octagon recess, where the Pentateuch and 
other sacred works were kept. Whatever they may be in worldly 
matters, the Jews are no hypocrites in the article of faith. 

The females marry very early. There was one in the house, 
then eleven and a half years of age, who, we were assured, had 
been married eighteen months. Mr. Weisman pointed out an- 
other, a mere child in appearance, ten years of age, who had been 
two years married. It seems incredible. The unmarried wear 
the hair exposed, but the married women studiously conceal it. 
To make up for it, the heads of the latter were profusely orna- 
mented with coins and gems and any quantity of another's hair, 
the prohibition only extending to their own. Their dress is a 
boddice, a short, narrow- skirted gown, and pantalettes gathered 
at the ankles. Unlike the Turkish and the Arab women, they 
sometimes wear stockings. The boddice is open in front, and 
the breasts are held, but not restrained, by loose open pockets of 
thin white gauze, 't-h^f ) ^ 

There are about three hundred families, or one thousand Jews, 
in this town. The sanhedrim consists of seventy rabbis, of whom 
thirty are natives and forty Franks, mostly from Poland, with a 
few from Spain. The rabbis stated that controversial matters of 
discipline among Jews, all over the world, are referred to this 
sanhedrim. 

Besides the Jews, there are in Tiberias from three to four hun- 
dred Muslims and two or three Latins, from Nazareth. 

P. M. Received an express with letters from Jerusalem. Among 
them is a firman, or buyuruldi, from the Pasha, which I transcribe 
as a curiosity : 

"Translation of Buyuruldi, 
from the Pasha of Jerusalem. 6 April, 1848. 

" Observe what is written in this, all ye who stand and see it, 
by the Sheiks and Elders of the Arabs and keepers of the high- 
ways : let it be known to you openly, according to this Buyuruldi, 



94 A BUYURULDI. 

that fifteen of the honourable persons of the government of Ame- 
rica desire to depart from this to the Sea of Lot and thereabouts, 
there to take boats and go down into the above-mentioned sea. 
And, accordingly, as it was necessary, we have drawn this, our 
Buyuruldi, to you ; and it is necessary for you, ye that are 
spoken to, that to the above persons, at their passing your dis- 
tricts, you do all that you can for their comfort, and let no one 
annoy them — but care and protection is required for them ; and 
if they are in want of food or other things for price, or animals 
for hire, you are to supply them. And if God please, no more 
command is wanting ; but to the persons that are here mentioned, 
by all means give comfort ; and for this reason we have drawn 
for you this Buyuruldi from the divan of the honourable Jerusalem, 
Nablus, and Gaza. So by this ye may know, according to what 
is written, ye are not to do the contraiy. Know and beware, and 
know according to what is herein, and avoid the contrary. 

'•' Translated by Moses Tanoos, 

British Consulate. 

Jerusalem." 

The express from Jerusalem was a Janissary, sent by the 
Pasha, with four soldiers. In the firm belief that we should not 
need them, I paid them and directed them to return. Our Be- 
dawin friends served as videttes, to apprise us of danger. It was 
only ambuscades we feared. 

Saturday, April 8. A beautiful, calm morning. Quiet as a 
sleeping infant, the lake laid in the lap of its lofty hills. Received 
an express from Acre, with letters. They brought intelligence of 
revolutions in Europe. Heaven speed the cause of freedom ! 

Took all hands up the mountain to bring the boats down. 
Many times we thought that, like the herd of swine, they would 
rush precipitately into the sea. Ever}' one did his best, and at 
length success crowned our efforts. With their flags flying, we 
carried them triumphantly beyond the walls uninjured, and, amid 
a crowd of spectators, launched them upon the blue waters of the 
Sea of Galilee — the Arabs singing, clapping their hands to the 
time, and crying for backshish — but we neither shouted nor 



HOT BATHS. 95 

cheered. From Christian Hps it would have sounded like pro- 
fanation. A look upon that consecrated lake ever brought to 
remembrance the words, "Peace! be still!" — which not only 
repressed all noisy exliibition, but soothed for a time all worldly 
care. 

Buoyantly floated the two " Fannies," bearing the stars and 
stripes. Since the time of Josephus and the Romans, no vessel 
of any size has sailed upon this sea, and for many, many years, but 
a solitary keel has furrowed its surface. 

Sunday, April 9. Another glorious morning. Rose early and 
went to the hot baths southward of the town, near the ruins of 
Emraaus, fitted up by Ibrahim Pasha when Syria was in posses- 
sion of the Egyptians. The road runs along the sea-beach, upon 
which also the baths are situated. On the way we passed some 
prostrate columns, and broken arches, and vestiges of ruins half 
concealed beneath mounds of earth and rank vegetation. These 
are no doubt the ruins of the ancient city of Tiberias, the present 
site of the town being a more modern one. A short distance 
back, the rugged face of the brown mountains, with here and 
there a yawning cavern, overlooked the narrow plain and pellucid 
sea. Now and then a splash of the water indicated the gambol- 
lings of fish beneath the surface, while above, the fish-hawk sailed 
slowly along, ready for a swoop, and just out of gun-shot a flock 
of wild ducks w^ere swimming about in conscious security. 

It is said that these baths are much resorted to in the summer 
months, particularly by rheumatic patients. It is Humboldt, I 
believe, who remarks that in all climates people show the same 
predilection for heat. In Iceland the first Christian converts 
would be baptized only in the tepid streams of Hecla ; and in the 
torrid zone, the natives flock from all parts to the thermal waters. 

We had not time to survey the lake, — the advancing season, 
and the lessening flood in the Jordan, warning us to lose no 
time. We deferred making the necessary observations, there- 
fore, until our return. The bottom is a concave basin, — the 
greatest depth, thus far ascertained, twenty-seven and a half 
fathoms (165 feet) ; but this inland sea, alternately rising and 



u 



96 FISH IN THE SEA OF GALILEE. 

falling, from copious rains or rapid evaporation, is constantly 
fluctuating in depth. 

The water of the lake is cool and sweet, and the inhabitants 
say that it possesses medicinal properties. It produces five kinds 
offish, all good, — viz. the " Musht," "Abu But," " Huffafah," 
"Abu Kisher," and Burbut;" the last, from some superstitious 
idea, is not eaten by the Jews. The musht, about one foot long 
and four or five inches wide, resembles the sole. Burckhardt 
mentions one called Binni, like the carp. All that we tasted, and 
we tried to procure them all, were delicious. 

In the evening, we had a long conversation with the Arab boat- 
man, who was one of the crew of Molyneux's boat. He gave a 
disheartening account of the great, and, as he thought, the in- 
superable impediments to boats as large as ours. He dwelt 
particularly upon the rapids and cascades, false channels and 
innumerable rocks, and was inclined to think that there was a 
cataract in the part of the river along which they transported their 
boat upon a camel. Among other tilings, he stated that many 
rivers empty into the Jordan, which I did not believe. 

That we should encounter great obstacles, perhaps seemingly 
insurmountable ones, I did not doubt ; but I had great faith in 
American sailors, and believed that what men could do, they 
would achieve. So there was no tliought of turning back. 

When in Constantinople, my patience was severely tried by a 
countryman, who, wuth the best intentions, but in bad taste, gave 
me a circumstantial account of the death of three British naval 
officers of my name, engaged in expeditions to the East. One 
captain and two lieutenants ; the first perishing with his vessel in 
the Euphrates ; one of the others massacred by the Arabs, and 
the third dying in the desert. Had their names been Jones and 
mine Jenkins, there would have been no foreboding ; but as it 
was, the supposed astounding information was conveyed in a 
mysterious whisper, with an ominous shake of the head ! 

The pashas and governors, in this country, have an off-hand, 
and unfeeling mode of transacting business. When our camels 
broke down at Acre, Sa'id Bey was applied to, by our consul, 



MUSTAFA, THECOOK. 97 

for additional ones. There happened, unfortunately, to be a 
fellah coming from Nazareth with two loaded camels, just then 
without the walls. He was made to throw his sacks of grain 
in the road ; and without clothes, or communication with his 
family, sent to assist in the transportation of our effects. By 
chance, he found a friend to take care of his grain. Of course, 
we knew nothing of this ; and would rather not have come at all, 
than have our progress facilitated by such an act of tyranny. It 
was not until about to settle with the camel- drivers, that we were 
told of it. The poor fellah was remunerated for his loss of time, 
and paid liberally for the use of his camels, the amount being 
deducted from the sum contracted for with Sa'id Mustafa. 

We found here an old frame boat, which I purchased for six 
hundred piastres, about twenty-two dollars, in order to relieve 
the other boats, lessen the expense of transportation down the 
Jordan, and carry our tents upon the Dead Sea ; for it was fast 
becoming warm, and we might not be able to work in that deep 
chasm without them. We repaired and named her "Uncle 
Sam." 

Since we occupied these quarters, as well as along the route 
from Acre, Mustafa had purchased and cooked our provisions. 
He was inestimable ; — a genuine Arab, speaking a little English, 
and able to boil a kettle, or roast a sheep, in a gale of wind in the 
open air. But his great recommendation was his unvarying 
■5 cheerfulness at all times, and under all circumstances. Every 
morning, before and during breakfast, our room was thronged 
with Arabs, and Mustafa knew exactly what amount of attention 
to bestow upon each. To the governor and the sheikhs, he ten- 
dered the tiny cup of coffee, or the chibouque, with his head 
bowed down, and his left hand upon his breast; to those approach- 
ing his own degree, they were handed with cavalier noncha- 
lance. 

Monday, April 10. It was necessary to procure other camels 

here, the owners of those we brought from Acre not being willing 

to trust them in the desert, for which reason we had been detained, 

but not in idleness, for we were constantly occupied in making 

9 



98 ANOUIIEPRINCE. 

barometrical and thermometrical observations, and tuldng sights 
to ascertain the rate of the instruments. It was necessary, also, 
to purchase and carry our provisions with us. Last night tlae 
camels were reported as coming, and this morning theh arrival 
was announced. All, tlierefore, is tlie busy note of preparation. 
A distinguished guest at our usual extempore levee this morn- 
ing, was the Emir or Prince of the tribes on the upper banks of 
the Jordan. This royal personage delights in the euphonious 
patronymic of Emir Nasser 'Arar el Guzzaway. He had heard 
of our purpose, and came to proffer the hospitalities of his tribes. 
He was considerably taller and stouter than the generality of the 
race ; his complexion was of the tint of burnt umber, his eye 
black, lascivious, and glistening like that of a snake ; he wore a 
tangled black beard, and, with his fang-like teeth, smiled a la 
Carker. His costume was in no manner distinguished from that 
of his numerous attendants, unless in its superlative uncleanliness, 
and a pre-eminence in the liberal mode of ventilation adopted by 
this people. 

The dirty barbarian affected a love of nature, and a slight taste 
for botany. Reclining lazily upon the cushions of the divan, with 
a kind of oriental voluptuousness, he ever and anon raised a rose- 
bud to his nostril, and enjoyed its fragrance with the exquisite 
languor of a city beau. The ogre prince ! We accepted the 
invitation, and he joined the caravan. 

In order that, by a division of labour, our work might be well , 
performed, I assigned to each officer and volunteer of tliis expe- 
dition his appropriate duty. With the command of the caravan, 
Mr. Dale was to take topographical sketches of the country as he 
proceeded, and such other notes as circumstances would permit. 

Dr. Anderson was directed to make geological observations, 
and collect specimens where he could ; Mr. Bedlow to note the 
aspect of the country on the land route, and the incidents that 
occurred on the march ; and Mr. Francis Lynch, who was charged 
with the herbarium, to collect plants and flowers. 

In the water party, I assigned to myself, in the " Fanny Ma- 
Bon," the course, rapidity, colour, and depth of the river and its 



ASSIGNMENT OF DUTIES. 99 

tributaries, — the nature of its banks, and of the country through 
which it flowed, — the vegetable productions, and the birds and 
animals we might see, with a journal of events. To Mr. Aulick, 
who had charge of the " Fanny Skinner," was assigned the topo- 
graphical sketch of the river and its shores. 

It %vas my anxious desire to avoid taking camels down the 
Ghor ; but, from the best information we could obtain respecting 
the river, I was -obliged to employ them. As the Jordan was 
represented to run between high banks, I felt that our safety and 
the success of the expedition would depend materially upon the 
vigilance and alacrity of the land party. I therefore placed it 
under command of Mr. Dale. It consisted of Dr. Anderson, Mr. 
Bedlow, Mr. Lynch, Sherif, 'Akil, Mustafa, and ten Bedawdn 
videttes. They were directed to keep as near to the river as the 
nature of the country would permit, and should they hear two 
guns fired in quick succession, to hasten with all speed to our 
assistance. I felt sure that Mr. Dale would not fail me, and in 
that respect my mind was at ease. The Sherif, 'Akil and the 
Emir all assured me that there was no danger to the caravan, but 
that the great fear was an attack upon the boats when entangled 
among rocks and shoals. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



FROM THE SEA OF GALILEE TO THE FALLS OF 
BUK'aII. DEPARTURE OF THE BOATS. 

Bright was the day, gay our spirits, verdant the hills, and 
unrullled the lake, when, pushing off from the shelving beach, 
we bade adieu to the last outwork of border civilization, and 
steered direct for the outlet of the Jordan. The " Fanny Ma- 



100 THE DEPARTURE. 

son" led the way, followed closely by the "Fanny Skinner;" 
and the Arab boatmen of the " Uncle Sam" worked vigorously 
at the oars to keep their place in the line. With awnings spread 
and colours flying, we passed comfortably and rapidly onwards. 
Our Bedawin friends had many of them exchanged their lances 
for more serviceable weapons, long-barrelled guns and heavily 
mounted pistols. 'Akil alone wore a scimetar : the priestly char- 
acter of the Sherif forbade him to carry arms. With the addi- 
tion of the Emir and his followers, they amounted in all to thirty 
horsemen, and passing along the shore, in single file, their line was 
long and imposing. Eleven camels stalked solemnly ahead, fol- 
lowed by the wild Bedawin on their blooded animals, with their 
abas flying in the wind, and their long gun-barrels glittering in 
the sun-light, and Lieutenant Dale and his officers, in the Frank 
costume, brought up the rear. 

Gallantly marched the cavalcade on the land ; beautiful must 
have appeared the boats upon the water. Little did we know 
what difficulties we might have to encounter ! But, placing our 
trust on high, we hoped and feared not. 

W^e started at 2 P. M., and at 3.40, arrived at the outlet. 
The same feeling prevented us from cheering as when we launched 
the boats, although before us was the stream which, God willing, 
Ji'Pjild lead us to our wondrous destination. 

/ The lake narrowed as w^e neared its southern extremity, and 
I the scenery, as we left it and advanced into the Ghor, which 
'■ is about three-quarters of a mile in breadth, assumed rather a 
tame than a savage character. The rough and barren moun- 
itains, skirting the valley on each hand, stretched far away in the 
I distance, like walls to some gigantic fosse, their southern extrem- 
Lilies half hidden or entirely lost in a faint purple mist. 

At 3.45, we swept out of the lake ; course, W. by N. The 
village of Semakh on a hill to the south, and Mount Hermon 
brought into view, to the north, the snow deep upon its crest, 
and white parasitic clouds clinging to its sides. On the extreme 
low point to the right were ruins, called by the Arabs, Es Sumra, 
only a stone foundation standing. A number of wild ducks 



THE RIVER JORDAN. 101 

were upon the water, and birds were flitting about on shore. 
Our cavalcade again appeared in sight, winding along the bank. 
The Bedawin looked fine in their dark and white and crimson 
costumes. 

Our course varied witli the frequent turns of the river, from N. 
W. by W. to S. The average breadth about seventy-five feet ; 
the banks rounded and about thirty feet high, luxuriantly clothed 
with grass and flowers. The scarlet anemone, the yellow mari- 
gold, and occasionally a water-lily, and here and there a strag- 
gling asphodel, close to the water's edge, but not a tree nor a 
shrub. 

Passing an inlet or bay, wider than the river, called El Muh, 
which extended north a quarter of a mile, we lost sight of the 
lake in five minutes after leaving it. Water clear and ten feet T 
deep ; saw the shore party dismounted on the right bank. Mount / 
Hermon glittering to the north, over die level tract which sweep^ 
between the mountain, the lake, and the river. 

When the current was strong, we only used the oars to keep 
in the channel, and floated, gently down the stream, frightening 
in our descent, a number of wild fowl feeding in the marsh grass 
and on the reedy islands. The current increasing, swept round 
a bend of the shore, and heard the hoarse sound of a rapid. At 
5 P. M., came in sight of the partly whole and partly crumbled 
abutments of " Jisr Semakh," the bridge of Semakh. 

The ruins are extremely picturesque ; the abutments standing 
in various stages of decay, and the fallen fragments obstructing 
the course of the river ; except at one point, towards the left bank, 
where the pent-up water finds an issue, and runs in a sluice among 
the scattering masses of stone. 

From the disheartening account we had received of the river, 
I had come to the conclusion that it might be necessary to sacri- 
fice one of the boats to preserve the rest. I therefore decided to 
take the lead in the Fanny Mason ; for, being made of copper, 
quite serious damages to her could be more easily repaired; and 
if dashed to pieces, her fragments would serve to warn the others 
from the danger. 



102 SHOOTING A RAPID. 

After reconnoitering the rapid, we shot down the sluice. The 
following note was made on shore : 

" We halted at the ruins of an old bridge, now forming ob- 
structions, over which, the river rushed like a mountain torrent. 
The river was about ninety feet wide. Soon after we halted, 
the boats hove in sight around a bend of the river. See ! the 
Fanny Mason attempts to shoot between two old piers ! she 
strikes against a rock ! she broaches to ! she is in imminent danger ! 
down comes the Uncle Sam upon her ! now they are free ! the 
Fanny Skinner follows safely, and all are moored in the cove 
below!" 

As we came through the rapids, 'Akil stood upon the summit 
of one of the abutments, in his green cloak, red tarbouch and 
boots, and flowing white trousers, pointing out the channel with 
a spear. Over his head and around him, a number of storks 
were flying disorderly. 

What threatened to be its gi'eatest danger, proved the preserv- 
ation of the leading boat. We had swept on a rock in mid- 
channel, when the Arab crew of the Uncle Sam unskilfully brought 
her within the influence of the current. She was immediately 
borne down upon us with great velocity ; but striking us at a 
favourable angle, we slid off the ledge, and floated down together. 
The Fanny Skinner, drawing less water, barely touched in 
passing. 

The boats were securely moored for the night in a little cove 
on the right bank, and were almost hidden among the tall grass 
and weeds which break the force of the eddy current. 

We found the tents pitched on a small knoll, commanding a 
fine view of the river and the bridge. Over the ruins of the latter 
were yet hovering a multitude of storks, frightened from their 
reedy nests, on the tops of tlie ruined abutments, by the strange 
sights and sounds. There were two entire and six paitial abut- 
ments, and the ruins of another, on each shore. 

We were upon the edge of the Ghor. A little to the north, 
the Ardh el Hamma (the land of the bath) swept down fi-om the 
left. The lake was concealed, although, in a direct line, quite 



ARAB HOSPITALITY. 103 

near ; and a lofty ridge overlooked us from the west. The soil 
here is a dark rich loam, luxuriantly clothed, three feet deep with 
flowers, — the purple bloom of the thistle predominates, and the 
yellow of the marigold and the pink oleander are occasionally re- 
lieved by the scarlet anemone. The rocks nowhere crop-out, but 
large boulders of sandstone and trap are scattered over the sur- 
face. Some flowers were gathered here, which equal any I have 
ever seen in delicacy of form and tint. Among them, besides those 
I have named, were the Adonis or Pheasant's Eye ; the Briony, 
formerly used in medicine ; the Scabiosa Stellata, in great luxu- 
riance, and which is cultivated at home ; and two kinds of 
clover, — one with a thorny head, which we have never seen 
before, and the other small but beautiful, with purple flowers. 

From the eminence above, our encampment beside the rapids 
looked charming. There were two American, one Arab, and one 
Egyptian tents, of different colours, — white and green, and blue 
and crimson. In the soft and mellow light of the moon, the scene 
was beautiful. 

On this side is the land of Zebulon ; that of the tribe of Gad 
lies upon the other. 

The Sheikh of Semakh holds a tract of land on a singular 
tenure. The condition is that he shall entertain all travellers who 
may call, with a supper, and barley for their horses. Our Beda- 
win determined to avail themselves of the privilege. Nothing 
could be more picturesque than their appearance as they forded 
the stream in single file, and galloped over the hill to Semakh. 
And what a supper they will have ! A whole sheep, and buckets 
orf rice ! ^ , 

Our friends returned late at night, splashing the water, shout- 
ing, and making such a clatter that we sprang to our arms ex- 
pecting an attack. Repeatedly afterwards during the night we 
were disturbed by Dr. Anderson's horse, which, since the moment 
he joined us at Turan, had kept the camp in constant alarm, 

' Usually, when the Sheikh is not wealthy, the tents of the tribe take it 
in turn to entertain strangers. 



104 FORMIDABLE RAPIDS. 

getting lOose at night and rushing franticly over the tent-cords, 
attacking some slumbering Arab steed, his bitter enemy. 

Tuesday, April 11. Very early this morning culled for our 
collection two varieties of flowers we had not before seen. At 
6 A. M., called all hands, and prepared for starting. To avoid 
stopping in the middle of the day, we were necessarily delayed 
for breakfast in the morning. 

8 A. M., started, the boats down the river, the caravan by land. 
The current at first about 2^ knots, but increasing as w^e descend- 
ed, until we came to where the river, for more than three hundred 
yards, was one foaming rapid ; the fishing-weirs and the ruins of 
another ancient bridge obstructing the passage. There were cul- 
tivated fields on both sides. Took everything out of the boats, 
sent the men overboard to swim alongside, and shot them 
successively down the first rapid. The water was fortunately 
very deep to the first fall, where it precipitated itself over a ledge 
of rocks. The river becoming more shallow, we opened a 
channel by removing large stones, and as the current was now 
excessively rapid, we pulled well out into the stream, bows up, 
let go a grapnel and eased each boat down in succession. Below 
us were yet five successive falls, about eighteen feet in all, with 
rapids between, — a perfect breakdown in the bed of the river. 
It was very evident that the boats could not descend them. 

On the right of the river, opposite to the point where the weirs 
and the ruined bridge blocked up the bed of the stream, was a 
canal or sluice, evidently made for the purpose of feeding a mill, 
the ruins of which were visible a short distance below. This 
canal, at its outlet from the river, was sufficiently broad and deep 
to admit of the boats entering and proceeding for a short distance, 
when it became too narrow to allow their further progress. 

Bringing the boats thus far, we again took everydiing out of 
them, and cleared away the stones, bushes and other obstructions 
between the mill sluice and the river. A breach was then made 
in the bank of the sluice, and as the water rushed down the shal- 
low artificial channel, with infinite labour, our men, cheerfully 
assisted by a number of Arabs, bore them down the rocky slope 



THE RAPIDS PASSED. 105 

and launched them in the bed of the river, — but not below all 
danger, for a sudden descent of six or seven feet was yet to be 
cleared, and some eighty yards' of swifl and shallow current to be 
passed before reaching an unobstructed channel. 

We accomplished this difficult passage, after severe labour, up 
to our waists in the water for upwards of four hours. Hauled to 
the right bank to rest and wait for our arms, and instruments. 
We were surrounded by many strange Arabs, and therefore 
stationed one of our men by the blunderbuss on the bows of the 
Uncle Sam, and one each by the other boats, while the remainder 
proceeded to bring down the arms. 

Starting again, we descended a cascade, at the rate of twelve 
knots, passing, immediately after, down a shoal rapid, where we 
struck, and hung, for a few moments, upon a rock. Stopped for 
the other boats, which were behind. The course of the river had 
been very circuitous, as reference to the chart will show. 

In half an hour, came to two mills, the buildings entire, but 
the wheels and machinery gone, with a sluice which had formerly 
supplied them with water. As in the morning, we turned the 
water from the upper part of the sluice, into the river, carried the 
boats along, and dragged them safely roimd these second series 
of rapids. 

The soil is fertile, but the country about here is wholly uncul- 
tivated. The surface of the plain is about fifteen feet above the 
river, thence gradually ascending a short distance to a low range 
of hills ; beyond which, on each side, the prospect is closed in by 
mountains. 

Stopped fifteen minutes to rest, after descending the eleventh 
rapid we had encountered. The velocity of the current was so 
great that one of the seamen, who lost his hold (being obliged 
to cling on outside), was nearly swept over the fall, and, wiUi 
very great difficulty, gained the shore. The mountains on the 
east coast of Lake Tiberias were visible over the left bank. The 
summit of Mount Hermon (the snowy summit could alone be seen) 
bore N. E. by N. 

At 5 P. M., passed a ravine (wady) on tlie left, in a bend 



lOG AN ARAB VILLAGE. 

between high, precipitous banks of earth. We here saw cane 
for the first time, growing thickly. On the right are lofty, per- 
pendicular banks of earth and clay. The river winding with 
many turns, w^e opened, at 5.04, an extensive, uncultivated plain 
on the right; a small, transverse, uncultivated valley, between 
high banks, on the left ; — the wheat beginning to head. The river 
one hundred and sixty feet wide and two and a half deep. Cur- 
rent, four knots ; the water becoming muddy. We saw a par- 
tridge, an owl, a large hawk, some herons and many storks, and 
caught a trout. 

Rounding a high, bold bluff, the river became wider and deeper, 
with gravelly bottom. Passed the village of 'Abeidiyeh, a large 
collection of mud huts, on a commanding eminence on the right ; 
— the people, men, women, and children, with discordant cries, 
hurrying down the hill towards the river when they saw us. It 
was too late to stop, for night was approaching, and we had 
seen nothing of the caravan since we parted with it, at the ruined 
bridge, this forenoon. 

If the inhabitants intended to molest us, we swept by with too 
much rapidity for them to carry their design into execution. 

The mountain ranges forming the edges of the upper valley, as 
seen from time to time through gaps in the foliage of the river 
banks, were of a light brown colour, surmounted with white. 

The water now became clearer, — was eight feet deep; hard 
bottom ; small trees in thickets under the banks, and advancing 
into the w^ater — principally Turfa (tamarisk), tlie willow (Sifsaf), 
and tangled vines beneath. 

We frequently saw fish in the transparent water ; while ducks, 
storks, and a multitude of other birds, rose from the reeds and 
osiers, or plunged into the thickets of oleander and tamarisk 
which fringe the banks, — beyond them were frequent groves of 
the wild pistachio. 

At 8 P. M., reached the head of the falls and whirlpool of 
Buk'ali ; and finding it too dark to proceed, hauled die boats to 
the right bank, and clambered up the steep hill to search for the 
camp. About one third up, encountered a deep dyke, cut in the 



RUINED VILLAGES, 107 

flank of the hill, which had evidently been used for purposes of 
irrigation. After following it for some distance, succeeded in 
fording it, and going to the top of the hill, had to climb in the 
dark, through briars and over stone walls, the ruins of the village 
of Delhemiyeh. A short distance beyond, met a Bedawy with a 
horse, who had been sent to look for us. Learned from him that 
the camp was half a mile below the whirlpool, and abreast of the 
lower rapids. Sent word to Mr. Aulick to secure the boats, and 
bring the men up as soon as they were relieved, and hastened 
on myself to procure the necessary guards, for our men were ex- 
cessively fatigued, having been in the w'ater without food since 
breakfast. A few moments after, I met 'Akil, also looking for us. 
At my request, he sent some of his men to relieve ours, in charge 
of the boats. 

The village of DeUiemiyeh, as well as that of Buk'ah opposite, 
were destroyed, it is said, by the Bedawin, the wandering Arabs. 
Many of the villages on and near the river are inhabited by 
Egyptians, placed there by Ibrahim Pasha, to repress the incur- 
sions of the Bedawin — somewhat on our plan of the military 
occupation of Florida. Now that the strong arm of the Egyptian 
" bull-dog," as Stephens aptly terms him, is withdrawn, the fate 
of these villages is not surprising. The Bedawin in their incur- 
sions rob the fellahin of their produce and their crops. Miserable 
and unarmed, the latter abandon their villages and seek a more 
secure position, or trust to chance to supply themselves with food 
(for of raiment they seem to have no need,) until the summer 
brings the harvest and the robber. Once abandoned, their huts 
fall into as much ruin as they are susceptible of, which is nothing 
more than the washing away of the roofs by the winter rains. 

Although I knew it to be important to note everything we 
passed, and every aspect of the country, yet such was the acute 
responsibility I felt for the lives placed under my charge, that nearly 
all my faculties were absorbed in the management of the boats — 
hence the meagreness of these observations. As some amends, I 
quote from the notes of the land party. 

'■' Our route laid through an extensive plain, luxuriajit in vege- 
tation, and presenting to view in uncultivated spots, a richness 



108 PROGKESS OF THE LAND PARTY. 

of alluvial soil, the produce of which, with proper agriculture, 
might nourish a vast population. On our route as we advanced, 
and whhin half an hour (distance is measured by time in this 
country) from the last halting-place, were four or five black tents, 
belonging to those tribes of Arabs called fellahin, or agriculturists, 
as distinguished from the wandering warrior Arab, who considers 
such labour as ignoble and unmanly. 

"Enclosing these huts was a low fence of brush, which served 
to confine the gambols of eight or ten young naked barbarians, 
who, together with a few sheep and a calf, w^ere enjoying a romp 
in the sunshine, disregarding the heat. We declined the invita- 
tion to alight, but accepted a bowl of camel's milk, which proved 
extremely refreshing. 

" A miserable collection of mud huts upon a most command- 
ing site, called 'Abeidiyeh, attracted our attention as we passed 
it. The wild and savage looking inhabitants rushed from their 
hovels and clambered up their dirt-heaps to see the gallant sight 
— the swarthy Bedawin, the pale Franks, and the laden camels. 
Still further on, w^e passed the ruins of two Arab villages, one on 
each side of the Jordan, and upon elevations of corresponding 
height, ' Delhemiyeh' and 'Buk'ah.' 

" Below these villages, and close upon the Jordan's bank, 
where the river in places foamed over its rocky bed with the fury 
of a cataract, we pitched the camp. Here we were to await the 
arrival of tlie boats. At 2.30 we had encamped, and at 5 they 
had not yet arrived. The sun set, and night closed upon us, and 
yet no signs of them. We became uneasy, and were about mount- 
ing to go in search of them, when the captain made his appear- 
ance." 

About 9 P. M., Emir Nasser, with his suite, came to the tent. 
After the customary cup of coffee, he said that he would go v.'ith 
us to Bahr Lilt (Dead Sea), or wherever else I wished, from pure 
affection, but that his followers would expect to be paid, and 
requested to know how many I required ; how far they were to 
go, and what remuneration to receive. I replied that I was then 
too weary to discuss the matter, but would tell him in the morn- 
ing, and he retired. Either from exposure, or fatigue, or the 



ROMANTIC ENCAMPMENT. 109 

effect of the water, one of the seamen was attacked with dysen- 
tery. I anxiously hoped that he would be better in the morning, 
for each one was now worth a host. 

Our encampment was a romantic one. Above was the whirl- 
pool ; abreast, and winding below, glancing in tlie moonlight, 
\Vas the silvery sheen of the river ; and high up, on each side, 
w'ere the ruined villages, w^hence the peaceful fellahin had been 
driven by the predatory robber. The whooping of the owl above, 
the song of the bulbul below, were drowned in the onward rush 
and deafening roar of the tumultuous waters. 

Every one laid down with his cartridge-belt on and his arms 
beside him. It was the dearest wish of my heart to carry through 
this enterprise without bloodshed, or the loss of life ; but we had 
to be prepared for the worst. Average width of river to-day, 
one hundred and thirty feet ; depth from two and a half to six 
feet ; descended nine rapids, three of them terrific ones. Gene- 
ral course, E. S. E. ; passed one island. 

It was a bright moonlight night ; the dew fell heavily, and the 
air was chilly. But neither the beauty of the night, the wild 
scene around, the bold hills, between which the river rushed and 
foamed, a cataract ; nor moonlight upon the ruined villages, nor 
tents pitched upon the shore, watch-fires blazing, and the Arab 
bard singing sadly to the sound of his rehabeh,^ could, with all 
the spirit of romance, keep us long awake. With our hands 
upon our firelocks, we slept soundly ; the crackle of the dry 
wood of the camp-fires, and the low sound of the Arab's song,, 
mingling with our dreams; dreams, perchance, as pleasant as 
those of Jacob at Bethel ; for, although our pillows were hard, 
and our beds the native earth, we were upon the brink of the 
sacred Jordan ! 

' The rehabeh is shaped like a miniature spade, with a short handle; 
the lowest and widest part, covered with sheepskin on both sides, is about 
one inch thick and five wide. The ghoss (bow) is simply a bent stick, 
with horse-hair for strings. This instrument is, perhaps, a coarser speci- 
men of the nokhara khana, which is played before the gateways of 
palaces in Persia. 

10 



110 THE ANCIENT GADARA. 



CHAPTER IX. 

FROM THE FALLS OF B & K 'a II TO FOURTH CAMPING 
PLACE ON THE JORDAN. 

Wednesday, April 12, Went out at daybreak this morning to 
look at the whirlpool and rapids above and below the camp. The 
banks were fringed with the laurestinus, the oleander, the willow, 
and the tamarisk ; and farther inland, on the slope of the second 
terrace, grew a small species of oak and the cedar. The arbutus 
(strawberry tree) was mingled with the flowers of the plain. 
From the banks to the elevated ridges, on either side, the grass 
and the flowers presented a surface of luxuriance and beauty. 

Picked up some specimens of quartz and trap. The chain of 
transverse hills through which the Jordan forces its way, is most 
probably that which separates the Ardh el Hamma from the vale 
of Jezrael. 

The tribes through whose territories we had passed thus far, as 
given to me by 'Akil, were the Beshatewa, one hour above and 
below the bridge of Semakh, numbering two hundred fighting 
men ; next, the 'Obeidiyeh, on both sides, one hour back from 
the river, mustering five hundred ; and the Es Siikr, in whose 
territories we are now encamped, numbering three hundred 
warriors. 

About three hours from this, on an eminence, at the foot of 
which flows the Yermak, is Urn Keis (the mother of ruins), the 
ancient Gadara. This place, restored by Pompey the Great, is 
said to contain magnificent ruins, in an extraordinary state of 
preservation. In its wonderful tombs, it is believed that the 
demoniac of the Gospel dwelt, when our Lord performed a 
miracle ; and in its hot baths is laid the strange scene of incanta- 



DISMISSAL OF THE EMIR. Ill 

tion in the life of lamblicus, where he is said to have called up 
the spirits of Eros and Anteros.^ 

As the hot baths indicated the existence of volcanic characters, 
which might throw light upon the geological structure of that 
region, I gave Dr. Anderson an escort, and directed him to di- 
verge from the line of march, visit Um Keis, and rejoin us at the 
appointed place of rendezvous at night. 

Lake Tiberias was but four hours distant, in a direct line ; 
although we had been a day and a half on the river, so tortuous 
is its course, and so interrupted is its channel. 

Before starting this morning, I sent for the elder Sherif and 
'Akil, and told them, and desired them to repeat to the Emir, 
that we did not ask for, and would neither buy nor receive pro- 
tection: — that we were willing to pay for guides and provisions, 
and for all services rendered in descending tlie river, as well as 
for all damage we might occasion to weirs or mill-dams, — but 
for nothing more ; and that the Emir and his guides would not 
be required beyond the limits of their territory. They said that 
we were perfectly right ; but as the Emir had travelled to Tuba- 
rlyeh to welcome us, and had since been very useful, suggested 
that a present should be made to him. This was reasonable ; 
and the Emir received an aba and a koofeeyah. Among other 
things, we had provided ourselves in Acre with articles of Arab 
wearing apparel for occasions like the present. In this country, 
it is usual to pay the followers of a Sheikh for services in money ; 
but to the Sheikh himself, a present is made. With much other 
judicious advice, the Rev. Mr. Smith had in Beirut cautioned 
me not to employ the Arabs of one tribe as guides through the 
territories of another. 

The " Uncle Sam " foundered, notwithstanding all our exer- 
tions to keep her afloat. Built of wood, she was less elastic than 
our metallic boats, and the thumps upon the rocks which only 
indented the last, shattered her. Thus ended all our hopes of 
transporting the tents from place to place along the Dead Sea, 

' Quarterly Review. 



112 A DIFFICULT PASSAGE. 

and thereby protect the party from the dews of night. In every 
evil, however, there is an antidote, and we now had conclusive 
proof of the superior qualities of metallic boats for such service. 
Frame. boats, constructed even in the strongest manner, would 
sooner or later have shared the fate of the " Uncle Sam." 

Having reconnoitred in the morning from where the boats lay 
to the Yermak, we went immediately after breakfast to endeavour 
to bring the former down. With a lofty hill, the terminus of a 
lateral range on each side, there was no possibility of conveying 
them round the falls, and we had, therefore, to shoot therm The 
current was too strong to use the grapnel. 

At 10 o'clock, cast off and shot down the first rapid, and 
stopped to examine more closely a desperate-looking cascade 
of eleven feet. In the middle of the channel was a shoot at an 
angle of about sixty degrees, with a bold, bluff, threatening rock 
at its foot, exactly in the passage. It would therefore be neces- 
sary to tiirn almost at a sharp angle in descending, to avoid being 
dashed to pieces. This rock was on the outer edge of the 
whirlpool, which, a caldron of foam, swept round and round in 
circling eddies. Yet below were two fierce rapids, each about 
150 yards in length, with the points of black rocks peering above 
the white and agitated surface. Below them again, within a mile, 
were two other rapids — longer, but more shelving and less 
difficult. 

Fortunately a large bush was growing upon the left bank, about 
five feet up, where the wash of the water from above had formed 
a kind of promontory. By swimming across some distance up 
the stream, one of the men carried over the end of a rope and 
made it fast around the roots of the bush. The great doubt was 
whether the hold of the roots would be sufficient to withstand the 
strain, but there was no alternative. In order not to risk the 
men, I employed some of the most vigorous Arabs in the camp 
to swim by the side of the boats, and guide them, if possible, 
clear of danger. Landing the men, therefore, and tracking the 
Fanny Mason up stream, we shot her across, and gathering in 
the slack of the rope, let her drop to the brink of the cascade. 



SHOOTING THE CASCADES. 113 

where she fairly trembled and bent in the fierce strength of the 
sweeping current. It was a moment of intense anxiety. The 
sailors had now clambered along the banks and stood at intervals 
below, ready to assist us if thrown from the boat and swept to- 
wards them. One man, with me in the boat, stood by the line ; ' 
a number of naked Arabs \vere upon the rocks and in the foaming 
water gesticulating wildly, their shouts mingling with the noise 
of the boisterous rapids, and their dusl^y forms contrasting 
strangely with the effervescing flood, and four on each side, in 
the water, were clinging to the boat, ready to guide her clear of 
the threatening rock if possible. 

The Fanny Mason, in the meanwhile, swayed from side to side 
of the mad torrent, like a frightened steed, straining the line which 
held her. Watching the moment when her bows were brought 
in the right direction, I gave the signal to let go the rope. There 
was a rush, a plunge, an upward leap, and the rock was cleared, 
the pool was passed, and, half full of water, with breathless velo- 
city, we were swept safely down the rapid. Such screaming and 
shoutino:! the Arabs seemed to exult more than ourselves. It 
was in seeming only, they were glad ; but w^e were grateful. Two 
of the Arabs lost their hold and were carried far below us, but 
were rescued with a slight injury to one of them. 

It was exactly twelve o'clock when we cleared the cascade. 
Mr. Aulick soon followed in the Fanny Skinner, and by his 
skill and coolness passed down in perfect safety. 

Stopping sufficiently long to give the men and the Arabs who 
had assisted us some warm coffee, we started again, and at one 
o'clock had completed the descent of the diird rapid to-day. 
Hard work for all hands. 

We then passed down the fourth fall and a shelving rapid of 
one third of a mile. Hauled over to the right bank, just above a 
shelving rapid, with a yet more ugly sheer at an abrupt angle, and 
waited for the Fanny Skinner. Sent for the arms, and gave 
directions for the caravan to proceed to Jisr el Mejamia (bridge 
of place of meeting), about three miles distant by land, but much 
farther, and far more difficult, ])y the river. It was represented 
10* 



114 RIVER YARMAK. 

by our friends as the only place where the caravan and boats 
could meet that night, and where, in the opinion of Sherif, yet 
greater difTiculties awaited us. 

At 2.30, the caravan passed about a mile off, a camel being 
detached towards us with our arms. When it came up, as all 
the arms had been packed away, I imprudently consented to let 
them be carried back to the caravan, taking out only a few 
weapons that were convenient. An hour after, saw the caravan 
again creeping along the crest of the high hills to the southward, 
in an extended and picturesque line. There is no road ; — in other 
words, no camel or mule track. 

At 3.50, the Fanny Skinner came down, and we descended 
the fourth rapid, rounding back from W. S. W. to S. E. by S. in 
a distance of ninety yards. 

At 4 P. M., passed the mouth of the Yermak (Hieromax), 
one hundred and thirty feet wide, with moderate current, its centre 
bearing E. n S. River very rapid — this was tlie most perilous part 
of our passage, owing to the great velocity of the current, about 
twelve miles an hour, and some sunken rocks, one of which we 
escaped by about two inches. 

Stopped to examine a very steep and tumultuous rapid. On 
hands and knees I climbed an almost perpendicular hill-side to ex- 
amine for a passage. The hill-side and summit were thickly covered 
with grass and flowers, which rendered it very slippery to climb. 

The hill w'as about three hundred feet high, and the view from 
the summit wild and peculiar. The high alluvial terraces on each 
side were everywhere shaped by the action of the winter rains 
into a number of conical hills, some of them pyramidal and coni- 
form, presenting the appearance of a giant encampment, so per- 
fectly tent-like w^ere their shapes. Tliis singular configuration 
extended southward as far as the eye could reach. At intervals I 
caught a glimpse of the river in its graceful meanderings, some- 
times glittering like a spear-head through an opening in the foliage 
of its banks, and again, clasping some little island with its shin- 
ing arms, or, far away, snapping with the fierceness and white 
foam of a torrent by some'projec.ting point. 



A RUINED KHAN. 115 

Fortunately there were some bushes on the right bank, which 
determined me to attempt the descent. Bearing the boats as far 
down as we could hold them against the current, we fastened the 
end of a rope to a bush and lowered them down to near its end ; 
then sheering in shore, fastened the rope to another bush, lowered 
away, and dropped through one of the most frightful rapids we 
had yet encountered. It was near sunset when both boats had 
accomplished the passage, and it became necessary in so wild a 
country to make every exertion to reach our friends, for we had 
but one carbine and three pistols with us. 

After shooting two more slight rapids, we came in sight of Jisr 
Mejamia (bridge of the place of meeting), above which we landed 
on the right shore, and ascended the cliff to examine the fall and 
raj^id immediately below. 

A ruined khan crowned the crest of the hill, at tlie foot of 
which large masses of volcanic rock or tufa were lying about, as 
if shaken from the solid mass by the spasm of an eai'thquake. 
The khan had evidently been a solid structure and destroyed by 
some convulsion, so scattered were the thick and ponderous 
masses of masonry. The bridge gracefully spans the river at this 
point. It has one large and three smaller Saracenic arches below 
and six smaller ones above them, four on the east and two on the 
west side. The river, deep, narrow, and impetuous, flows 
through the larger arch and immediately branches, — the left arm 
rushing down a nearly perpendicular fall of about eight feet, and 
scarce a boat's length ahead encounters the bold rock of the 
eastern bank, which deflects it sharply to the right. The right 
branch, winding by an island in the centre, and spreading over a 
great space, is shallow, and breaks over a number of rocks. 

Above and below the bridge and in the bed of the river are 
huge blocks of trap end conglomerate ; and almost immediately 
opposite is a great fissure exposing perpendicular layers of basalt, 
the structure distinct, black, and porous. Upon the left bank, 
which is about sixty feet above the river, a short distance up, 
were twenty or thirty black Bedawin tents, with a number of 



116 ANCIENT BRIDGE. 

camels grazing around, — the men seated in groups — the women, 
the drudges of each tribe, passing to and fro, busied apparently 
ill culinary preparations, and near them were some children play- 
ing. We decided to try the right branch, for we dreaded these 
ugly leaps. 

In some instances during the day the rapids had been perfect 
cataracts down which tlie boats plunged with such velocity as to 
drive them over the rocks below, upon which they would other- 
wise have rested, from the shallowness of the water. 

Resuming the oars, we shot through the main arch and down 
about two hundred yards of the descent to tlie right, when it 
becoming too dark, hauled to the bank and made fast for the 
night. Took everything out of the boats and proceeded with the 
crews to the camp, about a quarter of a mile below. Our main 
course had been S. S. W., but the river was very serpentine. We 
descended three very threatening and four less difficult rapids. 
The only tributary passed was the Yerraak, coming in from the 
east, as wide, and as deep nearly as the Jordan. The current 
was very rapid, averaging eight miles per hour. 

Our tents were pitched upon a small promontory, commanding 
a fine view of the ruined khan and the bridge, with the river 
dashing and foaming through its arch. Directly in front, the 
river, filled with fragmentary rocks, is quite wide, and, separat- 
ing into several channels, forms some small sedgy islands, where 
snipe were flitting about, and discordant frogs were croaking. 

The bridge is on tlie road from Nabulus, through Beisan, to 
Damascus. The second place, now in ruins, was the Bethsean 
of the Bible, and Scythopolis of the Greeks. Saul and his three 
sons, after the defeat under Mount Gilboa, threw themselves 
upon their swords, and their bodies were exposed from the wails 
his town. 

At noon to-day the thermometer stood at 90° in the shade. 
The elder Sherif (who byway of distinction we called theShen^) 
and 'Akil frequently visited us in our tent. The former was our 
counsellor, sagacious and prudent ; the latter was the bold war- 





ANOBLEARAB. 117 

rlor and the admirable scout. On the march, it was said that he 
contrived to get a sight of the boats when no one else could. 
We never tired of the company of this graceful savage. Altogether, 
he was tlie most perfect specimen of manhood we had seen. 
Looking at his fine face, almost effeminate in its regularity of 
feature, who would imagine that he had been the stern leader of 
revolt, and that his laughing, careless eye had ever glanced from 
his stronghold on the hill upon the Pasha's troops in the plain, 
meditating slaughter in their ranks and booty from the routed 
Turk ; or searched the ravines and the hill-sides, the wady and 
the valley, for the lurking fellahin and their herds ? That arm, 
which, in its easy and graceful position, seemed almost nerveless, 
had wielded the scimitar with fatal strength ; and he, seemingly 
so mild, had successfully led a small but desperate band against 
the authority of the Sultan, and forced the Governor of Acre to 
treat with him, and purchase the security of the district with a 
high office and the crimson pelisse of honour. 

'Akil did not excel in physical qualities alone ; his intelligence 
was far above mediocrity; and although a barbarian, he had much 
of the manners and feelings of a gentleman. Indeed, we had 
never seen manners more courtly, or an address more winning, 
than his. He was the Achilles of our camp. 

When 'Akil was this evening asked why he did not settle down 
on some of the fertile lands in his district, and no longer live on 
pillage, his reply was, " Would you have me disgrace myself, 
and till the ground like a fellah ?" 

When I told him that many of our most eminent men were 
tillers of the ground, his smile was more of a contemptuous one 
than we had ever seen upon his handsome features. This genuine 
barbarian owned a small pistol, which he has been known to give 
loaded to his children for a plaything. 

We were all fatigued, and retired early to our hard but wel- 
come beds. The moon was almost at her full, and the same wild 
scene of Arabs' tents, tethered horses, and watch-fires, with the 
strange, monotonous, song of the Bedawy bard, formed a repeti- 



118 PREPARATION FOR DEFENCE. 

tion of last night's romance. Early in the evening, Dr. Ander- 
son returned. In the forenoon, the weather was warm ; towards 
noon it clouded up and looked like rain, but in the evening, 
cleared away and was pleasant. 

We were in the land of Issachar, that of Gad still opposite. 

Thursday, April 13. Hearing that Muhammed Pasha, military 
governor of the district of Nabulus, was encamped in the Valley 
of Esdraelon (Jezral ?), a short distance from Bcisan, I seht 
Lieutenant Dale, this morning, to call upon him. I considered 
this a becoming mark of respect ; for, except Sa'id Bey, the 
Turkish officers had been very civil to us. 

Although it threatened rain yesterday, this morning's sky was 
cloudless. After much labour we succeeded in getting the boats 
down the rapids uninjured, except a few indentations in the bilge, 
and got on board the arms and instruments. At 9.30, started at 
the same time with the caravan. As we would to-day reach the 
utmost limits of cultivation, and approach the lower Ghor — a f^er- 
fect desert, traversed by warlike tribes, — the Sherif warned me to 
be prepared. I therefore mounted the blunderbuss on the bows of 
the Fanny Mason. Formidable it must have looked, with its 
gaping mouth, pointed down stream, and threatening slugs and 
bullets to all opponents. 

We soon came to an ugly rapid, by a long, thatched hut on the 
right bank. Notwithstanding all our efforts, the Fanny Mason 
struck and broached-to, broadside on, against the rocks beneath 
the surface, and was thrown upon her bilge, taking in a quantity 
of water. For some moments, I feared that she would go to 
pieces ; but, all hands jumping overboard, her combined strength 
and buoyancy carried her safely over. On the first heights of 
the Ghor, to the eastward, was the village of Sidum'ad; and the 
village of Jum'ah, on the western bank. Passed the \'illage of 
Kaukab el Hauma, visible to the west, on a lofty height, which 
presented trap-rock with fissures. Descended a rapid, and heard a 
small tributary falling in, from S. E. by E., but owing to the 
thicket, could not see it. A village in sight on a hill far to S. E. 



INTENSE HEAT. 119 

There are evidently two terraces to the Jordan, and through 
the lowest one, the river runs its labyrinthine course. From the 
stream, above the immediate banks, there is, on each side, a 
singular terrace of low hills, like truncated cones ; the upper 
terrace of which I have spoken ; w^hich is the bluff terminus 
of an extended table-land, reaching quite to the base of the moun- 
tains of Hauran on the east, and the high hills on the western 
side. Their peculiarity of form is attributable, perhaps, to the 
washing of rain through a long series of years. The hill-sides 
presented the appearance of chalk, without the slightest vestige 
of vegetation, and were absolutely blinding, from the reverberated 
sunlight. 

At times we would be perfectly becalmed, the trees and bushes 
■which lined the banks intercepting the light air that came down 
from the mountains; — when, even at this early season, the heat 
would be intense ; and the birds, ceasing to sing, hid themselves 
among the foliage, from which even the noise we made could not 
startle them. 

There is nothing more vivid than the impression made by such 
scenes — the stillness of an untrodden wilderness, when "the 
slightest sound makes an onslaught upon silence," — a silence 
rarely broken, except by the noise of the far-distant rapid, which 
comes upon the ear like the wind when it sweeps the dry leaves 
of autumn before it. 

On one of these occasions, when the stream was shadowed by 
the graceful oleander, the low, drooping willow and the fern-like 
tamarisk, and a stillness audible prevailed, we were swept sharply 
round the base of a high barren bluff, towards the opposite shore, 
w^hen it became necessary to pull out again into the channel. In 
so doing, the water-worn banks distinctly echoed the steady beat 
of the oars in the rullocks ; but it was soon after lost in the hoarse 
murmur of the rapid we were approaching, which went surging 
over the shallows in its burly, blustering course. 

Passing an island about a quarter of a mile long, with many 
trees upon it, we saw a singular gap in the mountains to the 
southward. 




120 CHANGE OF CLIMATE. 

Soon after reached Zor el Basha, the territories of the tribe el 
Gaurineh (Emir Nassir's), occupying two hours on the banks of 
the river, and numbering three hundred fighting men. Stopped 
to take observations for the latitude. 

There were many wild pigeons flying about, some of them 
very large. Started again, and passed two successive but slight 
rapids, with many trees in the stream, and stopped to rest in a 
grove of tamarisk ; the weather becoming warmer every day. 
We were changing our climate in a twofold manner, by descent 
*-.and by progress southward. 

2 P. M. Started again, 'the river becoming serpentine — course, 
all round the compass. A great many Arabs on the shore, who 
ran after us, shouting loudly. They were the subjects of the 
Emir. Some Arab women on a high hill to the left. The river 
one hundred and twenty feet wide, and six deep, gravelly bot- 
tom ; current, five knots ; four Arabs in sight Soon after, 
remarkably smooth but rapid descent, river ver}^ serpentine, five 
feet deep ; a beautiful strip of variegated sands and marls ; passed 
a wady, or dry ravine, on the right. Course S. W. to W. by N., 
thick canes and thistles ; water appeared to have fallen two feet 
within the last day or two ; steady descent. 

For the last hour, we had seen no rocks, but passed a small 
rapid, the river running from left to right, across the valley. On 
the right, a round point with an Arab encampment upon it, the 
population in an uproar; men, women, and children shouting, 
and running down to the landing-place ; passed a small island 
just below. 

In fifteen minutes, came to a long reach in the river ; the first 
straight line we have seen in its entire course, thus far. Passed 
the territory of the tribe Es Sukr el Ghor, five hundred fighting 
men. There were large ghurrah trees on each side. They are 
like the aspen, and are said to bear a juicy, sweet-flavoured fruit. 
There were many birds on shore, and several fish-hawks (hedda) 
flying about. Passed a cluster of small islands ; and many short 
turns in the river. Saw 'Akil, our tutelary genius, on the summit 



THE LAND OF ISSACHAR. 121 

of a high bank. Brought-to for the night, and secured the boats. 
The banks were high and precipitous, but guarded in some mea- 
sure from the erosive action of the swift current by the gnarled 
roots of the trees and the thicket growth along the bluff. Just 
above and below this sjiot, which was selected for our camping- 
ground, the river describes a series of frantic curvilinears, and 
returns in a contrary direction to its main course, thus forming a 
peninsula ; and the isthmus, now rapidly wearing aw^ay on both 
sides, bids fair speedily to become an island. The boats were 
secured to the right bank, thirty feet below the summit. We 
have descended to-day three large and seven small rapids ; gene- 
ral course, S. by E. We passed one small stream coming in 
from south-east, and four small islands. The river averaged 
one hundred and fifty feet in width, four feet depth, and five 
knots current. 

We were yet in Galilee, in the land of Issachar ; opposite was 
Gilead, the land of Gad. 

The caravan started with us this morning, 'Akil and his scouts 
acting as guides. As far as the eye could reach, the plain ex- 
tended before them ; the course of the river distinctly distinguish- 
able in some of its mazes and graceful sinuosities, and again 
hidden by some bold bluff or conical hill, at the base of which it 
turned abruptly, and left them in doubt whether it flowed north, 
south, east, or w^est. 

They first passed some cultivated patches of wheat and barley, 
even at this early season looking ripe, and nearly ready for the 
harvest. Who would reap them ? Not a human being w^as in 
the scope of vision ; nor tent, nor hut, nor sight of human dwell- 
ing. There was no sound, except the rush of the river and the 
noise of the wind, as it swept over the nodding grain — a yellow 
sea ! where light seemed chasing shadows as the breeze passed 
over. And yet, the hands that planted would come to reap them 
in the season, — if not anticipated by the spoiler. The wheat 
and the barley would fall before the sickle, and the hands of the 
gleaner be busy in the steps of the reaper ; the tents would be 
11 



122 A STERILE PLAIN. 

spread by the river-side, and the young and the old, the strong 
and the feeble, the youth and the young girl, would be abroad in 
those silent fields. And when the sheaves are bound with the 
whhes, and the unmuzzled ox has trodden out the golden grain, 
or the threshing sledge has been trailed round the slippery croft, 
and the light wind has winnowed the uptossed wheat, — then, of 
all their wealth close reaped and gleaned, once more upon their 
waste, unsheltered fields, will settle silence and the desert heat. 

The first hour of their journey, was through a most beau- 
tiful tract of alluvial, the country entirely destitute of cultiva- 
tion ; nothing but a rank luxuriance of thistles and wild grass 
indicating the natural productiveness of the soil. The variety of 
thorns and thistles was remarkable. 

Along the banks of the river, ran a singular terrace of low hills, 
in shape like truncated cones, which extended quite to the base 
of the mountains. 

From tJiistles and wild grass, they advanced into utter barren- 
ness and desolation ; the soil presenting the appearance of chalk, 
•without the slightest vegetation. Around, and quite near, were 
large flocks of storks, walking with exceeding vanity, and in no 
manner alarmed or disconcerted ; some even stood on one leg, 
in quiet contemplation of the unusual spectacle which the caravan 
presented. 

At one time, they stopped to rest; and, seated in the wilder- 
ness, the fierce sun beat upon their heads, and glittered on the 
barrels of their guns until they became painful to sight and touch. 
Not a tree, nor a shelter from the heat, in that vast plain ! but up 
from the parched and blasted earth went streaming, like visible 
air, the waving, heated atmosphere ; and the whole extent of 
land, to the deep-rooted hills in the purple distance, was quiver- 
ing with the heat. 

Starting atresh, a short ride brought them once more near the 
banks of the river, down to which they turned their horses. It 
■was almost impossible to restrain the thirsty animals. At the sio-ht 
and sound of the flowing river, they dashed down the slope, 



ARAB ENCAMPMENT. 123 

plunged through the thicket, and, standing mid-leg in the stream, 
thrust in their heads to the very eyes, and drank till their whole 
frame shook with the action. 

The day was considerably advanced when they came in sight 
of an encampment of black tents. Diverging from their line of 
march, they ascended the steep bank to an elevated plain, upon 
which the encampment stood. Several of the tribe came to meet 
them, bearing the tufted spear, which indicates the presence of 
the Sheildi himself or some of his sons. Dismounting, they 
entered the tent pointed out to them, where mats were spread, 
and coffee and pipes in readiness, indicating an expectation of 
their arrival. 

'^' Pottle-bellied children," with hair unkempt and streaming in 
a scalp-lock (the rest of the head close-shaven), naked as cherubim 
in a church picture, were rolling on the grass and performing 
other gambols peculiar to that tender age. Soon after, the old 
men and the Bedawiyeh (female Bedawin), the palms and finger- 
/ nails of the latter tinged with henna, and their cheeks and lips 
tattooed purple by the kholl powder, came forth to look upon and 
wonder at the Franks. Several of the young girls would have 
been pretty, were it not for the disfiguring tattoo, which gave the 
lips an appearance almost revolting, from its resemblance to the 
livid hue of death. Some of the young men of the tribe were 
cast in as soft and delicate a mould as manhood is susceptible 
of, without leaning to effeminacy. The brother of the Emir was 
a perfect Antinbus, who, however, thought more of his personal 
beauty than became a brave, and the brother of a warlike Sheikh. 

The encampment consisted of some thirty or forty of those 
peculiarly constructed tents, made of coarse cloth of goats' hair. 
They were supported by a row of poles in the centre, the sides 
slightly inclined and hauled out by ropes which are pinned to 
the ground. In shape they resemble somewhat an oblong shed, 
and are, generally speaking, miserable substitutes for a dwehing. 

The little cup, for they had but one apparently, having been 
artistically cleansed by the thumb of the attendant Ganymede, 



124 A PASTORAL ENTERTAINMENT. 

and presented to each in turn, the Franks, as guests, having 
the precedence, the coffee it contained being a concentrated 
essence of that luxury, pipes were offered, and then, submitting, 
as usual, to be stared at, and have their arras handled and 
inspected as if they were at muster, water was brought and poured 
upon their hands from a very equivocal water-jar, after which 
followed the repast. A large wooden bowl of pilau (boiled rice, 
liberally larded with rancid butter) constituted this pastoral ban- 
quet ; the enjoyment of which could not be attained through the 
medium of fork or spoon, but demanded a kind of scientific con- 
version of the hands and fingers into these civilized conveniences. 

An hour's ride thence brought them to the end of the plain, or 
tabular summit of the low range of sand-hills upon which the 
encampment they had visited was situated. Here descending 
the precipitous hill to the plain or terrace below, they came once 
more upon the banks of the Jordan. Numerous black tents 
occupied the green and richly cultivated plain, or were scattered 
here and there, close to the river bluff, half hidden by the pale 
green willow and the deeper shadow of the tamarisk. Here 
they pitched the tents and waited for the boats — the whole 
population crowding round them in speechless admiration of all 
that transpired. 

With the interpreter, (Mr. Ameuny), and the Arab escort, Mr. 
Dale started at an early hour this morning, to call upon Muham- 
med Pasha. The banks of the Jordan, he reports, are divided 
into two regular steps or terraces, one on each side, between the 
river and the mountains : 1st, a flat through which the river winds, 
and 2d, an elevated plain. After passing a deep ravine, he came 
upon tlie Emir's wheat fields which covered the sloping plain to 
Beisan, the soil a rich marl. 

Following the ravine towards Beisan, he came to quite a 
large stream, issuing directly from the base of a hill, with a 
solitary palm-tree near it ; the first tree of any kind he saw on the 
elevated plain. The flat, however, was covered with trees. This 
sprmg forms an oasis, and is called Ain es Sauda, the black spring. 



A TURKISH ENCAMPMENT. 125 

Instead of passing through the rums of Beisan, he went north, 
about a mile distant from them. He then came in sight of a 
magnificent valley, filled with the Pasha's tents, and a thousand 
horses, all picketed out to graze. 

Muhammed Pasha, a fat Osmanlie, received him frankly and 
kindly. He said he was about to move his command (one thou- 
sand Turkish cavalry), for the purpose of chastising a band of 
bad Arabs to the southward, but delayed his march on our ac- 
count, for fear of exasperating them to some attack upon us. He 
gave him coffee, pipes, and oranges, and insisted upon sending 
ten horsemen to accompany the expedition through the dangerous 
territory. 

It was a magnificent sight, the tents and the war-horses spread 
over this beautiful plain of Jezrael, a branch of Esdraelon. 

I regretted that the Pasha had sent the horsemen, for their 
presence would tend more, perhaps, to endanger than to aid us ; 
bat, as it was meant in kindness, it would have seemed rude to 
send them immediately back, particularly as the march of the 
Turkish encampment had been delayed on our account. But 
the presence of the horsemen increased ray anxiety : the sight of 
them might exasperate the Arabs, and I had no faith in their 
courage or fidelity. 

The Emir insisted upon our dining with him this evening, 
and would take no denial. It was decided that a part should go, 
and a part remain to guard the camp. At 5, the former set out 
to partake of the wild Arab's hospitality in his black tent. These 
tents, as I have said, are nothing but strips of black cloth, made 
of goats' hair, put up hut fashion, and opening in front. This 
cloth, is coarse and porous, but is said to swell when wet, and thus 
become impervious to the rain. 

When we arrived at their encampment, an Arab woman 
screamed out and wept bitterly at the sight of 'Akil. In him 
she recognised the murderer of her husband, in a foray the pre- 
vious year. If 'Akil felt remorse, as he certainly must have done, 
he possessed too much of the stoicism of the savage to let it be- 
come apparent. 
11* 



126 ARAB VORACITY. 

Great was the Emir's delight at our visit, and more particularly 
at the honour of receiving a lineal descendant of the Prophet in 
his tent. He exliibited his flocks of sheep, his cows (the first we 
had seen on the Jordan), his goats, his camels, and little dirty- 
objects which he called his children. There was the children's 
pet, a beautiful young camel, three months old, white as drifted 
snow, with hair soft and fleece-like as wool. 

At sunset, a young man wearing a white turban, probably a 
mullah (or teacher), spread his sheep-skin jacket upon the ground, 
and stood up and called the faithful to prayer. The Sherif and 
four others formed a line behind the mullah, who led the recita- 
tions. While going through their prostrations, like a file of sol- 
diers, the others were talking as usual. 

To add to the scene, the file of horsemen sent by the Pasha, 
on their way to our camp, arrived in time to partake of our din- 
ner, just then brought in. It consisted of an enormous wooden 
bowl filled with a stew of mutton and rice for the Arabs, and a 
smaller one for ourselves. The sheep had been killed and dressed 
immediately in front of the tent. All ate with their hands,— the 
Arabs gathering up small balls of unctuous rice, and fairly cram- 
ming them into their mouths. Hungry as we were, it was impos- 
sible to eat ; for, although a separate bowl was placed before us, 
we had seen the poor sheep killed, and had misgivings of the 
cleanliness of the cook. The most we could do, was to affect 
to eat. 

It was a wild sight after dark, the tents and spears, and 
groups of ragged Ghuarineh seated in front, around a blazing 
fire. 

It was a soft, clear night, and the dew fell heavily in the mid- 
watch ; and the bulbul sang a low, plaintive song in the thicket, 
and the sentinels walked to and fro upon the bank, which was 
wearing away beneath them. 

" Hark ! their heedless feet from under, 
Drop the crumbling banks for ever ; 
Like echoes to a distant thunder, 
They fall into the gushing river." 



THE GHAURlNEH. 127 

" Some gentle thing has heard their tread," for there was the 
sound of wings, and a quick, shrill cry, growing fainter and fainter 
in the distance. This sweet hour of romance was broken in upon 
by the most appalling sounds: — "To arms! to arms!" What 
is it ? Dr. Anderson's horse has made an attack upon his unsus- 
picious enemies. 



CHAPTER X. 

FROM FOURTH CAMP ON THE JORDAN TO THE 
FORD OF SUk'wA. 

Friday, April 14. A beautiful morning; but several of us 
quite sick. Took leave of the caravan for the day, and, with 
Sherif and the Emir, descended to the boats by the aid of the 
gnarled and tangled roots which protruded from the face of the 
bank ; and, with a " push off," " let fall," and " give way," we 
shot into the current, and swept away before the eyes of the 
wondering Ghaurineh. Their astonishment at beholding our 
boats, and our strange appearance, had in it something extremely 
ludicrous. On rising at an early hour this morning (for we were 
generally up and stirring long before the lagging sun), we found 
the whole bank lined with these wondering barbarians, who were 
lying at full length upon the bluff, with their heads projecting 
over the bank, and looking upon the floating wonders beneath ; 
turning, from time to time, to regard the race to whom belonged 
such rare inventions, such famous mechanism, as boats and six- 
barrel revolvers. 

The boats had little need of the oars to propel them, for the 
current carried us along at the rate of from four to six knots an 
hour, the river, from its eccentric course, scarcely permitting a 
correct sketch of its topography to be taken. It curved and 
twisted north, south, east, and west, turning, in the short space 



128 SCENERY OF THE JORDAN. 

of half an hour, to every quarter of the compass, — seeming as if 
desirous to prolong its luxuriant meanderings in tlie calm and 
silent valley, and reluctant to pour its sweet and sacred waters 
into tlie accursed bosom of the bitter sea. 

For hours in their swift descent, the boats floated down in 
silence, the silence of the wilderness. Here and there were spots 
of solemn beauty. The numerous birds sang with a music strange 
and manifold ; the willow branches w^ere spread upon the stream 
like tresses ; and creeping mosses and clambering weeds, with a 
multitude of white and silvery little flowers, looked out from 
among them ; and the cliff-swallow wheeled over the falls, or 
went at his own w41d w411 darting through the arched vistas, sha- 
dowed and shaped by the meeting foliage on the banks ; and, 
above all, yet attuned to all, was the music of the river, gushing 
with a sound like that of shawns and cymbals. 

There was little variety in the scenery of the river to-day. The 
stream sometimes washed the bases of the sandy hills, and at 
other times meandered between low banks, generally fringed 
with trees, and fragrant w^ith blossoms. Some points presented 
views exceedingly picturesque — the mad rushing of a mountain 
torrent, the song and sight of birds, the overhanging foliage and 
glimpses of the mountains far over the plain, and here and there 
a gurgling rivulet poured its tribute of crystal water into the now 
muddy Jordan. The western shore was peculiar, from the high 
calcareous limestone hills, which form a barrier to the stream 
when swollen by the efflux of the sea of Galilee during the winter 
and early spring ; while the left or eastern bank was low, and 
fringed with tamarisk and willow, and occasionally a thicket of 
lofty cane, and tangled masses of shrubs and creeping plants^ 
giving it the character of a jungle. At one place, w^e saw the 
fresh track of a tiger on the low clayey margin, where he had 
come to drink. , At another time, as we passed his lair, a wild 
boar started with a savage gmnt and dashed into the thicket; but, 
for some moments, we traced his pathway by the shaking cane 
and the crashing sound of broken branches. 

The birds were numerous, and at times, when we issued from 



THEBULBUL. 129 

the shadow and silence of a narrow and verdure-tented part of 
the stream into an open bend where the rapids rattled and tlie 
light burst in, and the birds sang their wnldwood song, it was, to 
use a simile of Mr. Bedlow, like a sudden transition from the 
cold, dull-lighted hall where gentlemen hang their hats, into the 
white and golden saloon, where the music rings, and the dance 
goes on. 

The hawk, upon the topmost branch of a blighted tree, moved 
not at our approach, but 

"Stood with the down on his beak, 
And stared, with his foot on the prey;" 

and the veritable nightingale ceased not her song, for she made 
day night in her covert among the leaves ; and the bulbul, whose 
sacred haunts we disturbed when the current swept us among the 
overhanging boughs, but chirrupped her surprise, calmly winged 
her flight to another sprig, and continued her interrupted melodies. 

Unable to obtain one alive, we startled the solitude of the wil- 
derness with a gun-shot, and secured the body of a brown- 
breasted, scarlet-headed and crimson-winged bird, the eastern 
bulbul. The Arabs call a pretty bird a bulbul, but Sherif, who 
was with me in the boat, insisted upon it that it was the specific 
name of the bird we had killed. We were less successful with 
others of the feathered race, for although the sharp crack of the 
rifle and the louder report of the carbine awoke the echoes of the 
Jordan wilds, no other trophy than this unhappy bulbul could be 
produced when we met at night. The gentle creatures seemed 
each to bear a charmed hfe, for when we fired at them, they 
would spread their wings unhurt, and dart into the thick and 
tangled brushwood, and burst forth again in song from a more 
hidden covert; or sometimes just rise into the air and wheel 
above the broken sprig, or torn leaf, to settle once more as calmly 
as if the noise which had startled them were but the familiar 
sound of the breaking of a dried branch, or the plunge of a frag- 
ment of the soil from the water-worn banks into the current below. 

Our course down the stream was with varied rapidity. At 



130 MANAGEMENT OF THE BOATS. 

times we were going at the rate of from three to four knots the 
hour, and again we would be swept and hurried away, dashing 
and whirling onward with the furious speed of a torrent. At 
such moments there was excitement, for we knew not but that the 
next turn of the stream would plunge us down some fearful cata- 
ract, or dash us on the sharp rocks which might lurk unseen 
beneath the surface. 

For the reasons I have before stated, the Fanny Mason always 
took the lead, and warned the Fanny Skinner when danger was 
to be shunned or encountered. When the sound of a rapid was 
distinct and near, the compass and the note-book were aban- 
doned, and, motioning to the Fanny Skinner to check her speed, 
our oars began to move like the antennae of some giant insect, to 
sweep us into the swiftest, which is ever the deepest part of the 
current ; when it caught us, the boat's crew and our Arab friend 
Jumah (Friday) leaped into the angry stream, accoutred as they 
were, and, clinging to her sides, assisted in guiding the graceful 
Fanny down the perilous descent. In this manner she was 
whirled on, driving between rocks and shallows with a force that 
made her bend and quiver like a rush in a running stream ; — 
then, shooting her through the foam and the turmoil of the basin 
below, where, in the seething and effervescing water, she spun 
and t^^^rled, the men leaped in, and, with oars and rudder, she 
was brought to an eddying cove, from whence, by word and 
gesture, she directed her sister Fanny through the channel. 

Beyond these interruptions, the river flowed broad and deep, 
yet maintaining much of the features of a torrent. 

Many islands, some fairy-like, and covered with a luxuriant 
vegetation, others mere sand-bars and sedimentary deposits, in- 
tercepted the course of the river, but were beautiful features in 
the general monotony of the shores. The regular and almost 
unvaried scene of high banks of alluvial deposit and sand-hills 
on the one hand, and the low swamp-like shore, covered to the 
water's edge with the tamarisk, the willow, and the thick, high 
cane, would have been fatiguing without the frequent occurrence 
of sand-banks and verdant islands. High up in the sand-bluffs, 



AN ARAB HORSEMAN. 131 

the cliff-swallow (asfiir) chattered from his nest in tlie hollow, or 
darted about in the bright sunshine, in pursuit of the gnat and the 
water-fly. 

A little before twelve o'clock we stopped to take a meridian 
observation. This requiring but a short time, we were soon on 
our way again, to encounter more trials in this difficult navigation. 
As the evening shadows lengthened more and more upon the 
stream, we repeatedly stopped to look out for the caravan. The 
Sherif was evidently very uneasy. On each occasion the faithful 
Jumah was our scout, but he never landed without putting on a 
belt with a brace of pistols. He returned, at last, with the intel- 
ligence that he had seen the caravan pursuing its march in the 
distance, and we continued on our way. 

The loud report of a carbine presently echoed among the cliffs, 
and a flock of storks rose from the margin of the river, and flew 
past us. The Sherif had wounded one poor fellow-, and his leg 
hung shattered and dangling, as he strove to keep up with his 
frightened companions. His efforts w-ere unavailing; the move- 
ment of his wrings was but a spasm of his agony, and he fell in 
the water before us. The stream carrying him down, threw him 
on a low marshy bank, where the poor creature was making 
des].">erate efforts to drag himself from the water, as we dashed by 
on the rapid out of sight. I could not refrain from telling Sherif 
tliat it was a pity to shoot a bird unfit to eat, and not required as 
a specimen, and which, by the Muhammedan law, was regarded 
as a sacred one. 

For an hour or more we sw^ept silently down the river, and the 
last tints of sunset were resting on the summits of the eastern 
mountains ; wet and weary, without a change of clothes, and with 
neither tents nor provisions, we began to anticipate a night upon 
the river, separated from our friends, when, at a turn, we beheld 
a horseman on the crest of a high hill, his long aba and his koo- 
feeyah streaming in the wind. To our great delight we recog- 
nised him to be our gallant 'Akil. He descended rapidly the 
almost perpendicular liill-side! None but an Arab steed and 
rider could have done it! 



132 CHANGE IN THE RIVER. 

The brief remainder of our day's journey was rendered more 
perilous even than the commencement, from the frequency of 
rapids and the difficulty of navigation in the fast-fading light. 
The swift current, as we sometimes turned a point of land, would 
seize us and send us off at a salient angle from our course, as if it 
had been lurkhig behind that point like an evil thing, to start out 
and clutch us suddenly and dash us upon the opposite bank, or 
run us under the low hanging boughs, as if for the purpose of 
rubbing us all out, or injuring us against the gnai'led and project- 
ing roots, where skulked the long clammy earth-worm and the 
green lizard. 

The scenery became also more wild as we advanced ; and as 
night, like a gloomy Rembrandt, came throwing her dark shadows 
through the mountain gorges, sobering down the bright tints upon 
their summits, the whole scene assumed a strange and savage 
aspect, as if to harmonize with the dreary sea it held within its 
midst, madly towards which the river now hurried on. 

But, altogether, the descent to-day was much less difficult than 
those which had preceded it. The course of the river formed a 
never-ending series of curves, sometimes dashing along in rapids 
by the base of a mountain, sometimes flowing between low 
banks, generally lined with trees and fragrant with blossoms. 
Some places presented views extremely picturesque, the rapid 
rushing of a torrent, the song and sight of birds, the overhanging 
trees, and glimpses of the mountains far over the plain. Here 
and there a gurgling rivulet poured its tribute of pure water into 
the now discoloured Jordan. The river was falling rapidly ; the 
banks showed a daily fall of about two feet, and frequently we 
saw sedge and drift wood lodged high up on the branches of 
overhanging trees — above the surface of the banks — which con- 
clusively proves that the Jordan in its "swellings" still overflows 
the lower plain, and drives the lion from his lair, as it did in the 
ancient time. 

In some places the substratum of clay along the banks presented 
the semi-indurated appearance of stone. For the first time we 
saw to-day sand, gravel, and pebbles, along the shores, and the 



AN EMIR AND HIS TRIBE. 133 

cane had become more luxuriant, all indicating the approach to 
the lower Ghor. The elevated plain or terrace, on each side, 
could be seen at intervals, and the high mountains of Aljun were 
visible in the distance. 

At 6.40 P. M., hauled up just above an ugly rapid, which runs 
by Wady Yabes (diy ravine). 

It looked too hazardous to "shoot" without lightening the 
boats of the arms, instruments, &c., and there being no near place 
of rendezvous below, we pitched our tents immediately against 
the falls and opposite to the ravine. 

We have, to-day, passed through the territories of the Emir 
Nassir el Ghuzza^vy, which are two hours in extent, but more 
than twice the distance along the tortuous course of the river. 
The tribe musters 300 fighting men. His territory, in size and 
fertility, surpasses some of the petty kingdoms of Europe. 

The Emir and some of his people have wiry hair and very dark 
complexions, but no other feature of the African. His brother 
and some of the tribe are bright, but less so than 'Akil and his 
followers. The darker colour of the skin may, perhaps, be attri- 
buted to the climate of the Ghor. 

The hills, forming the banks of the upper terrace, have, to-day, 
assumed a conical form, with scarped and angular faces, marked 
with dark bands, and furrowed by erosions. These hills, and the 
high banl<s of alluvial deposit, with abrupt and perpendicular 
faces, indicate that the whole valley has once been covered with 
water. The prevailing rock seen has been siliceous limestone 
and conglomerate, — much of the last lying in fragments in the 
river, covered with a black deposite of oxide of iron and man- 
ganese. Towards the latter part of the day, rock was less abun- 
dant, alluvion began to prevail, and pebbles, gravel, and sand, 
were seen beneath the superincumbent layers of dark earth and 
clay. Just above w^here we had secured the boats, were large 
blocks of conglomerate in the stream. 

The prevailing trees on the banks have been the willow, the 
ghurrah, and the tamarisk ; tlie last now beginning to blossom. 
There were many flowers, of which the oleander was llie most 
12 



134 TREES, FISH, AND BIRDS. 

abundant, contrasting finely \vith the ^vhite fringe blossom of the 
asphodel. Where the banks were low, the cane was ever at the 
water's edge. The lower plain was covered with a luxuriant 
growth of wild oats and patches of wild mustard in full flower. 

In our course to-day, we have passed twelve islands, all, but 
three, of diminutive size, and noted fourteen tributary streams, 
ten on the right and four on the left bank. With the exception 
of four, they were but trickling rivulets. 

We saw many fish, and a number of hawks, herons, pigeons, 
ducks, storks, bulbuls, swallows, and many other birds we could 
not identify — some of them of beautiful plumage. At one time, 
there were a number of moths flitting over the surface of the stream, 
and we caught one of them. Its body was about the size of a 
goose-quill, was an inch in length, and of a cream colour, widest 
at the head, and its wings, like silver tissue, were as long as the 
body. After frightening the wee thing by our close inspection, 
we let it go. Just before coming in sight of camp, we observed 
several tracks of wild boars. 

In our route of upwards of twenty miles to-day, we saw the 
scouts but twice ; and, in consequence of the nature of the coun- 
try, the caravan was compelled to diverge so far from the river, 
that the guns we fired from time to time at the wild-fowl were 
unheard. 

As we were now approaching the territories of tlie bad Arabs, 
and were not far from the place where the boat of poor Molyneux 
was attacked, eveiy precaution was taken. Our tent was pitched 
beside a brawling rapid, while all around were lances and tethered 
horses, betraying the position of the Arabs for the night. On the 
crest ot the hill behind us, the Sherif was looking out upon the 
vast plain to the southward, although I had just seen the old man 
asleep on the ground near our tent. He was the counsellor, and 
'Akil the warrior. 

It was a strange sight : collected near us lay all the camels, for 
security against a sudden surprise ; while, in every direction, but 
ever in close proximity, were scattered, lances and smouldering 
fires, and bundles of garments, beneath each of which was a 



PRECAUTIONS. 135 

slumbering Arab, with his long gun by his side. The preparations 
for defence reminded one of Indian warfare. 

At nicrht, Sherif and 'Akil came to our tent to consult about 
to-morrow's journey. They stated their suspicions of the tribes 
through whose territories we were about to pass, and how neces- 
sary it would be for tlie land and the river parties to keep close 
together. They gave it as their opinion, that it would be impos- 
sible for the caravan to proceed on the western shore to-morrow, 
and advised that early in the morning it should cross over to the 
eastern side. This course was adopted ; and it was agreed that 
'Akil and his scouts should keep along the western, while the 
caravan took the eastern side, — thus having the boats between, 
so that one or other of the land parties might be within hearing, 
and hasten to their rescue, if attacked. It was further agreed, 
that whenever, by the intervention of the mountains, the land 
parties were long out of sight of the boats, scouts should be sent 
to tlie summits to look out for them, and that two gun-shots, in 
quick succession, should be the signal, if attacked. They both 
said that there was not the slightest danger to the land parties, 
but expressed great solicitude for the boats. Sherif thought it 
best for him to be with the caravan to-morrow, as his influence 
might be of service with the Sheikhs of tribes, should they be 
inclined to hostilities. From the tortuous course of the river, it 
was supposed that the caravan on the eastern side would be ever 
in advance of, while the scouts on the western shore would keep 
pace with, the boats. 

Stationing the sentries, we then retired, — some of us quite ex- 
hausted, from frequent vomiting throughout the day. I thought 
that our Bedawin magnified the danger, to enhance their own 
importance. But it was well to be prepared. 

The course of the river varied to-day from N. E. by N. and 
N. N. W. to S., — the true course, from the place of departure 
this morning to our present camp, S. S. W. The width of the river 
was as much as seventy yards, with two knots current, and narrowed 
again to thirty yards, with six knots current : — the depth ranging 
from two to ten feet. The trees and flowers the same as yesterday. 



136 TRUE CHARACTER OF THE CAMEL. 

We struck three times upon sunken rocks during the day, 
and the last time nearly lost the leading boat : with ever^ihing 
wet, we were at length extricated, in time to direct the channel- 
way to the Fanny Skinner. The water was slightly discoloured. 

When we left the camp, the thermometer stood at 76° ; but in 
a few hours the weather was oppressive. 

About five miles nearly due west from the camp, were the 
supposed ruins of Succoth. To get to this place, Jacob must 
have made a retrograde movement after meeting Esau, and crossed 
the Jordan, or recrossed the Jabok. 

Saturday, April 15. We were up and off at an early hour this 
morning, with less than the usual disturbance between the camel- 
drivers and their insufferable beasts. Of all the burden-bearing 
beasts, from the Siam elephant to the Himmaleh goat, this " ship 
of the desert," as he has been poetically termed, — this clumsy- 
jointed, splay-footed, wry-necked, vicious camel, with its look of 
injured innocence, and harsh complaining voice, is incomparably 
the most disagreeable. 

Loud have been the praises of its submissive and self-sacrific- 
ing spirit, all gentleness and sagacity ; its power of enduring 
hunger and thirst for an indefinite period, and its unwearied 
tramp day after day through the smiting sun and over the burning 
sands of the desert ; but this animal is anything but patient or 
uncomplaining. As to the enormous weight it can carry, we have 
heard it growl in expostulation at a load which the common 
"kadish" (Syrian pack-horse) would be mortified to have allotted 
to him as suited to his thews and sinews. 

The steady little donkey, with preposterous ears and no per- 
ceptible hair on his hide, tliat leads the trudging caravan, and 
cats his peck of barley (if he be a lucky donkey), and travels 
stoutly all day long, is a model for him in endurance ; and the 
most unhappy mule that ever bore pack, or, blindfold, turns 
the crank of Persian water-wheel, is an example to him of patient 
meekness and long-suffering. While on the road, they do not 
loiter by the way, dropping their loads and committing trespasses 
upon the fields of grain, and rarely need to be urged on by the 



CAUSE OF THE CAMEl's ILL-NATURE. 137 

unceasing cry of "yellah," "hemshe," and the application of 
the belabouring cudgel of the mukris. While the "djemmel" 
(camel), with his hypocritical, meek look, his drunken eye, and 
sunken nether lip, begins to expostulate in a voice discordant 
with mingled hatred and complaint, from the moment he is forced 
upon his callous knees, until he clumsily rises with his burden 
and goes stalking lazily on his road. 

The meek enduring look of the camel is a deception ; we have 
seen it refusing the load, or, shaking it off, rise with a roar, and 
dash furiously at its master, even while its lip was reeking witli 
the fresh and juicy herb he had just gathered for it. 

It is a pity to contradict the pleasing accounts given of this 
friend of the wandering Bedawin, but our opinions have been 
formed after close observation of its manners and habits in the 
desert. Much of the ill-nature and obduracy of the camel is 
doubtless attributable to the almost entire neglect of its owner in 
providing food and cleansing its hide, so subject to cutaneous 
diseases. 

In the neighbourhood of towns, where it cannot graze, straw 
is given to it ; but in the desert it must crop the thistle or the 
parched herbage as it passes, straying from side to side in its 
march, like the yawing of a stately ship before the wind. At 
night, if it be necessary to keep the camels within the encamp- 
ment for security, the mukris gather thistles, herbage and dwarf 
bushes for them, but otherwise turn them loose to graze. There 
is no question that if the camel were well fed and gently treated, 
it would sustain the character ascribed to it by partial writers. 

The soft, spongy, india-rubber-looking foot of the camel is 
eaten by the Arabs, and considered a great luxury. Perhaps it 
is the same dish to which "rare Ben Jonson " alludes, when he 
describes our ancestors of the sixteenth century as eating — 

" The tongues of carps, dormice, and cameVs heels, 
Boiled in the spirit of sol." 

Leaving the place of encampment for the ford Wacabes, the 
caravan wound round the b*se of a low conical sand-hill, and 
12* 



138 FORDING THE RIV'eR. 

traversed a small grove of oak and arbutus and a thick and matted 
undergrowth of brush and briers, with long, keen, penetrating 
thorns. Here, as had been arranged, 'Akil and his Bedawin 
scouts separated from the caravan and proceeded down the west- 
ern shore ; while the latter crossed over to the eastern side. 

A little barren island divided the stream at the ford, and the 
current swept by with such rapidity as to render it doubtful 
whether the passage could be effected. Mr. Bedlow, however, 
made the attempt, and succeeded in reaching the island with no 
greater inconvenience than dripping extremities and a moist 
saddle. The rest were soon in the stream, clumsy camels and 
all, breasting and struggling with various success, against the 
foaming current. There was a singular mixture of the serious 
and the grotesque in this scene, and the sounds that triumphed 
above the " tapage" of the boisterous ford, were the yells of the 
camel-drivers and the cries of the Arabs, mingled with shouts of 
unrestrained laughter as some impatient horse reeled and plunged 
with his rider in the stream, and the water was scattered about 
in froth and spray like a geyser. 

The depth and impetuosity of the river caused us some appre- 
hensions for the safety of our cook, Mustafa, who, being mounted 
on an ill-favoured, scrubby little beast, already laden to the ears 
with the implements and raw materials of his art, was in danger, 
donkey and all, of being snatched from us, like another Gany- 
mede, by the Epicurean river-gods, or borne away by some deified 
Apicius, disguised as a donkey, for the little brute looked at times 
as if he were swimming away, not fording the stream. The tiny 
animal, as soon as it had achieved the passage, clambered, drip- 
ping, up the sloping bank, and convulsively shaking his eminently 
miscalculated ears, signalised his triumphant exploit by one pro- 
longed, hysterical bray, which startled the wilderness, and seemed 
to be a happy imitation of a locomotive whistle, and the sound 
of sawing boards, declining gradually to a sob. 

From the river, the banks sloped gradually to the terrace above ; 
presenting a broad and undulating surface of sparse wild oats and 
weeds, and a few fields of grass, intermingled with low bushes. 



A FLORAL PLAIN. 139 

and a slender brown fringe of such light and frail structure, as to 
bend low with the faintest breath of air. 

Among this scanty herbage, and yet hidden by it in the dis- 
tance, the earth was covered with a luxuriant gro^^'th of crimson 
flowers (the anemone), so thickly matted together, that, to the eye, 
the ground at times seemed covered with a crimson snow. Here 
and there, among this sea of scarlet bloom, were patches of 
yellow daisy, looking like little golden islands in the incarnadined 
and floral ocean ; while the bases of the hills were fringed with 
a light purple blossom, which not inaptly represented tire foam of 
this preternatural sea. . . 

When the wind, sweeping down the gorges of the hills, passed 
over the plain, a broad band of crimson marked its course ; for 
the wild grain, light and elastic, bent low, and revealed the 
flowers beneath it, — presenting the appearance of a phantom river 
of blood, suddenly issuing from the earth, and again lost to sight, 
to reappear elsewhere at the magic breath of the breeze. 

This plain was bounded towards the south by a deep ravine, 
and on its eastern and western sides it rose, in slight and irregular 
undulations, to a higher terrace or plateau, which blended with 
the hills in the distance, and seemed like the slopes of mountains, 
instead of the elevated plain which we knew it to be. Except 
upon the banks of the river, there was not a tree to be seen ; the 
sun poured down upon hill, and valley, and stream, a flood of 
heat and splendour, though as yet it was but early day. 

Shortly after passing the rapid, immediately below our place of 
encampment, the boats were whirled along with great velocity, 
and barely escaped a rock neai" the water's edge, and directly in 
the channel. The stream was fringed with trees of the same 
variety as have been heretofore noticed, and we began to meet 
with many false channels, which rendered our navigation more 
tedious and difficult. 

In order that no feature of the river miofht be omitted, I noted 
every turn in the course, the depth, the velocity, and temperature 
of the river ; the islands and tributary streams ; the nature of its 
banks; the adjacent scenery when visible; the trees, flowers. 



140 PLANTS AND FOSSILS. 

weeds, birds, and tracks of wild beasts. As all this would be 
tedious in perusal, however necessary for the construction of a 
chart, and an accurate knowledge of the river, I have embodied 
it in an Appendix to the ofhcial report. 

At 8.34, started from below the rapid. In half an hour, we 
passed Wady el Hammam (ravine of the bath), with a small 
stream coming down on the right or western side. It is a slender 
thread of water finding its way down a chasm, a world too wide 
for its little stream ; but, joined here and there in its meandering 
descent by tiny tributaries, it comes rattling down its pebbly bed, 
with ihe brawling joyousness "of a mountain stream. Soon after, 
came to an ugly rapid, by Wady el Malakli (ravine of salt), 
with a small stream of clear but brackish water running down 
from W. N. W. Beheld 'Akil and some of the scouts upon a 
hill beyond it. Stopped to examine the rapid for a passage. Saw 
tracks of a tiger upon the shore, and found some plants of the 
ghurrah, its leaves triangular-shaped, of a light green colour, 
their inner surfaces coated with a saline efflorescence : the upper 
parts of the stem purple, the new growth a light green : the taste 
of the stem and leaves salt and bitter. _The fennel was also quite 
abundant, the stalks of which, Jumah, our Arab friend, ate 
greedily. There were some large blocks of fossil rock on the right 
bank, and in the bed of the river, of which we collected speci- 
mens. The temperature of the brackish stream was 70°. 

At 11.30 A. M., we stopped to take a meridian observation of 
the sun. Temperature of the air, 82° ; that of the river, at twelve 
inches below the surface, at which depth it is always taken, 74°. 
Tlie heat was exceedingly oppressive for the thermometrical 
range ; for, the wind being excluded by the lofty hills and over- 
hanging trees, it was ever a perfect calm ; except when, at times, 
it came in squalls down the yaw-ning ravines. 

The plain above the ravine was much broken, presenting abrupt 
mounds and sand-hillocks, covered with varieties of the thistle, 
some of which were peculiar from the sabre shape of their thorns, 
and the rough and hairy coating of the leaves ; the latter emitting 
a milky fluid when broken. The thorn-bushes were so large and 



DESOLATE MOUNTAINS. 141 

SO abundant as to look like apple-orchards. The sides of the 
ravine exposed conglomerate rocks. 

The hills preserved their conical shapes, with bald faces, and 
the water was becoming of a light mud, approaching a milk colour. 

Except during the heat of mid-day, when every living thing 
but ourselves had sought refug-e in the thicket or in the crevices 
of the banks, there were birds flying about in all directions. 

At 1.30 P. M., we stopped to take a sketch of the extraordinary 
appearance of the terraces of tlie Jordan. 

The mountains towards the east assumed a gloomy aspect to- 
day, and stood out like rough and verdureless crags of limstone. 
Yet, when the eye could withstand the bright glare of the illu- 
minated cliffs and jagged ridges, it detected many portions which 
seemed susceptible of cultivation ; and when breaks in the cal- 
cined rocks caught the intense brilliancy, and reflected it into the 
deep gorges, patches of verdure relieved the arid monotony; but 
the scene, from the blinding light, permitted no minute inves- 
tigation. 

At 2.34, saw the caravan halted on the bank. Came to and 
pitched our tents at tlie ford of Siik'wa, on the left or eastern 
bank, abreast'of two small islands. The plain extended six or 
eight miles on the eastern, and about three-fourths of a mile on 
the western side. The place of encampment takes its name from 
a village of the Sukrs, two miles distant. 

'Akil was on friendly terms with this tribe, and some of them, 
who had just come in, stated that their village was last night 
attacked by about two hundred Bedawin, who killed several of 
their men, and carried off nearly all their horses, cattle, and sheep. 

About eighteen miles E. by N. are the ruins of Jerash, supposed 
to be the ancient Pella, to which, Eusebius states, the Christians 
were divinely admonished to fly, just before the siege of Jerusalem 
by Titus. With Gadara (Um Keis), it was one of the cities of 
tlie Decapolis. It has magnificent ruins, many of them churches, 
and we deeply regretted our inability to visit them. Its situation 
is said to be the most beautiful, and its ruins the most interesting, 
in all Syria. What a field the Hauran presents for exploration ! ^ 



142 UNKNOWN ARABS. 

This was a most solitary day's travel. We had not seen the 
caravan from the time of starting until now, and 'Akil and his 
party were visible but once. With the last exception, we did not 
see a human being. The caravan was a little more fortunate. 
Shortly after crossing the wady El Malakh (salt ravine), they dis- 
covered a solitary plane tree (dilbeh), gnarled and twisted by the 
action of the winds, its only companions the crimson poppy and 
the golden daisy, which clustered round its protruding roots like 
parasites. Their attention was instantly drawn to this solitary 
tree, for beneath its scanty shade, they saw the glitter of a spear- 
head, and soon after, two Bedawin horsemen, who came forth, 
and, hastening in another direction, were soon lost in tlie thick 
copse-wood which lined the ravine. For an instant, our Arabs 
drew the rein and consulted among themselves, when four or five 
started off at headlong speed in pursuit. Making a long detour 
to intercept the strange horsemen, they plunged into the ravine, 
and, like those they pursued, were soon lost to sight in the thick 
foliage that skirted its sides. 

This incident created more excitement than one so trifling would 
seem to justify; but we were wanderers in an unknown and in- 
hospitable wilderness, among barbarous tribes of Arabs, where 
the only security against rapine and murder is strength of num- 
bers and efficiency of weapons, and where the sight of a stranger 
to the party prompts each one instinctively to feel for his carbine, 
or grasp unconsciously the hilt of his sword. 

The strange horsemen proved to be friendly Beni Silkrs on their 
way to Beisan. 

Crossing the ravine of 'Ajliin, with a considerable stream run- 
ning down, they met some agricultural Arabs, one of whom kissed 
Sherif 's hand. From the southern side of the ravine, they saw 
an immense plain stretching towards the Dead Sea. Far off was 
also visible the village of Abu 'Obeideh, containing the tomb of a 
General of Muharnmed ; some say of a great Sultan of Yemen, 
who died on his way from Arabia Felix to Damascus. While 
crossing an extensive plain before halting, they saw many very 
large thistles in full bloom, the flowers various and beautiful ; and 



A CONTINUAL GLARE. 143 

a prevailing yellow flower, called " murur " by the Arabs. Just 
before camping, they passed large fields of wheat and barley, fast 
ripening. 

Although the day was some hours past its meridian, the weather 
was exceedingly sultry, and the eye ached from the reverberated 
glare of light it had encountered since morning. 

There was something in this solitude — in these spots forsaken 
and alone in their hopeless sterility and weird silence — that begat 
reflection, even in the most thoughtless. In all this dreary waste 
there was no sound ; for every living thing had retired, exhausted, 
from the withering heat and blinding glare. Silence, the fit 
companion of desolation, was profound. The song of a bird, the 
chirrup of a grasshopper, the drone of a fly, would have been out 
of harmony. The wind, without which even solitude is incom- 
plete, sounded mournfully as it went sweeping over the barren 
plain, and sighed, even in the broad and garish day, like the blast 
of autumn among the marshy sedge, where the cold toad croaks, 
and the withered leaf is spotted like a leprosy. 

Here, the eye looked in vain for the soft and tender sky, so 
often beheld in utter listlessness in our own far-distant land, and 
yet, dull and ungrateful that we were, we had remained untouched 
with the beauty of its transparent and penetrable blue — pure azote 
and oxygen — into the immeasurable depths of which the eye 
pierced and wandered,, but to return to earth again dazzled and 
unfixed, as though it had caught a glimpse of infinity, and, wearied 
and overpowered, sought the finite and the tangible, — the com- 
prehensible reality of laminated hills, broad plains, deep valleys, 
and the mountains, broad of girth and firmly rooted. The 
heavens of more favoured climes, — chmes as yet uncursed of 
God ; skies, tender, deep, and crystalline, so profound in their 
unfathomableness, and, with their lightning and black thunder- 
cloud, so terrific in their wrath, — such skies are never seen here. 

Here, there is no shifting of the scenes of natural beauty ; no 
ever-varying change of glory upon glory ; no varied development 
of the laws of harmony and truth, which characterises her work- 
ing- elsewhere ■ no morning film of mist, or low, hanging cloud of 



144 AN IMPRESSIVE LANDSCAPE. 

unshed dew ; no clouds of feathery cirrus, or white and wool-like 
pinnacles of cumuli ; or light or gorgeous tints, dazzling the eye 
with their splendours ; no arrowy shafts of sunlight streaming 
through the rifts of drifting clouds ; no silvery spikes of morning 
shooting up in the east, or soft suffusion of evening in the west : 
but, from the gleam of dawn, that deepens at once into intensity 
of noon, one withering glare scorches the eye, from which, blood- 
shot and with contracted pupil, it gladly turns away. 

Here, night smoulders the flame which seems to be consuming 
earth and heaven. Day after day, there is no change. Nature, 
which elsewhere makes a shifting kaleidescope W'ith clouds, and 
sunshine, and pure azure, has here the curse of sameness upon 
her, and wearies with her monotony. 

Beneath a sky hollowed above us like a brazen buckler, and 
refracting the shafts of smiting sunlight, we journeyed on, heeding 
neither light nor heat, hunger nor thirst, danger nor fatigue ; but 
each day looked cheerfully forward to the time when we should 
be gathered on the margin of the river, — the tents all spread, the 
boats fastened to the shore, the watch-fires blazing, and the sound 
of human voices breaking the tyrannous silence, and giving a 
home-like aspect to the wilderness. 

The character of the whole scene of this dreary waste was 
singularly wild and impressive. Looking out upon the desert, 
bright with reverberated light and heat, was like beholdmg a 
conflagration from a window at twilight. Each detail of the 
strange and solemn scene could be examined as tlirough a lens. 

The mountains towards the west rose up like islands from the 
sea, with the billows heaving at their bases. The rough peaks 
caught the slanting sunlight, while sharp black shadows marked 
the sides turned from the rays. Deep-rooted in the plain, the 
bases of the mountains heaved the garment of the earth away, and 
rose abruptly in naked, pyramidal crags, each scar and fissure as 
palpably distinct as though within reach, — and yet they were 
hours away , the laminations of their strata resembling the leaves 
of some gigantic volume, wherein is written, by the hand of God, 
the history of the changes He has wrought. 



VEGETATION OF THE JORDAN. 145 

Towards the south, the ridges and higher masses of the range, 
as they swept away in the distance, were aerial and faint, and 
softened into dimness by a pale transparent mist. 

The plain that sloped away from the bases of the hills was 
broken into ridges and multitudinous cone-like mounds, resem- 
bling tumultuous water at " the meeting of two adverse tides ;" 
and presented a wild and chequered tract of land, with spots of 
vegetation flourishing upon the frontiers of irreclaimable ste- 
rility. 

A low, pale, yellow ridge of conical hills marked the termina- 
tion of the higher terrace, beneath which swept gently this lower 
plain, widi a similar undulating surface, half redeemed from bar- 
renness by sparse verdure and thistle-covered hillocks. 

Still lower was the valley of the Jordan ! The sacred river ! 
Its banks fringed with perpetual verdure ; winding in a thousand 
graceful mazes ; its pathway cheered with songs of birds and its 
own clear voice of gushing minstrelsy ; its course a bright line in 
this cheerless waste. Yet beautiful as it is, it is only rendered so 
by contrast with the harsh, dry, calcined earth around. The 
salt-sown desert ! 

There is no verdure here that can vie, in intensity or richness, 
with that which June bestows upon vegetation in our own more 
favoured but less consecrated land ; where the margins of the 
most unnoticed woodland stream are decked with varieties of tree 
and shrub in almost boundless profusion. 

Here are no plumy elms, red-berried ash, or dark green hazel ; 
no linden, beach, or aspen; no laurel, pine, or birch; and yet, 
unstirred by the wind, the willow and the tamarisk droop over 
the glittering waters, with their sad and plume-like tresses ; the 
lily bending low, moistens its cup in the crystal stream, and the 
oleander blooms and flowers on the banks. Amid the intricate 
foliage, cluster the anemone and the asphodel, and the tangled 
copse is the haunt of the bulbul and the nightingale. There is a 
pleasure in these green and fertile banks, seen far along the slop- 
13 



1 i6 T 11 K Z U K K U M . 

ing valley ; a tracery of life, amid the death and dust that hem 
it in ; — 

"A thing of beauty and a joy for ever," 

SO like some trait of gentleness in a corrupt and wicked heart. 

Soon after camping, Sherif brought to me a fruit or nut which 
was described by the land party as growing upon a small thorny 
tree. The fruit is somewhat like a small date, but of an olive- 
green colour, the bark of the tree smooth, the leaves thin, long, 
and oval, and of a brighter green than the bark or fruit. It is 
bitter and acrid to the taste, and is called by our Arabs the " zuk- 
kum," which is declared by the Koran to be the food of infidels 
in hell. Dr. Robinson, quoting Maundrell and Pocoke, describes 
it as the "balsam tree," from the nut of which the oil of Jericho 
is extracted — called by the pilgi-ims Zaccheus' oil, from the belief 
that the tree which bears it was the one climbed by Zaccheus. 
Scripture, as Dr. Robinson states, renders it, with more proba- 
bility, the sycamore or plane tree. The "zukkiim" is little more 
than a shrub in height, and its branches are covered with thorns. 

One of the land party brought in a leaf of the osher plant, 
which bears the Dead Sea fruit. It is oval, thick, and of a deep 
green colour, very much resembling tliat of the caoutchouc or 
India-rubber plant ; the flower a delicate purple, growing in pyr- 
amidal clusters. The fruit was not yet formed. The centre of 
the unripe stalk is pithy, like the alder, and discharges a viscous 
milky fluid when cut or broken. 

At sunset, bathed in the refreshing waters of the Jordan. Sherif 
says that the Muhammedans are divided into two sects, the 
Shiahs, believing in the Koran only, and the Sunnites, in both the 
Koran and tradition. In the strict sense of the term they are all 
Unitarians, and hold Christians as idolaters, for their belief in and 
worship of the divinity of the Saviour and the Paraclete. They 
believe in the interposition of angels in human affairs, and in the 
resurrection and final judgment. They are divided in opinion 
with regard to purgatory, or an intermediate state after death, and 
hold Moses, the Saviour, and Muhammed, to have been prophets 



NOCTURNAL APPREHENSIONS. 147 

of God, the last, the greatest. And yet in his absurd night jour- 
ney to heaven, Muhammed makes Moses and the other prophets 
desire his prayers, but asks himself for those of the Saviour. 
They believe that another, in the semblance of the Redeemer, was 
crucified in his stead. When I asked Sherlf if he did not think 
that a good Christian might get to heaven, he answered, 

" How can you hope it, when you insult the God you believe in, 
by supposing that He died the ignominious death of a criminal?" 

This people, sensually imaginative, are incapable of a refined, 
spiritual idea ; and the arch-impostor, Muhammed, well under- 
stood the nature of his countrymen. 

Heretofore, we have been lulled to sleep by the hoarse sound 
of a rapid ; except those who, having to encounter it, felt natu- 
rally solicitous for the result. The noise of a rapid is much 
louder by night ; and one a mile off, sounds as if it were madly 
rushing through the camp. We were now, however, compara- 
tively quiet. 

As the attack upon the neighbouring village, last night, showed 
tliat bad Arabs were about, and there had been many strangers in 
the camp during the evening ; after all but the sentries had retired 
to rest, I went round to see that each one had his ammunition- 
belt on and his weapons beside him ; and repeated the injunction 
to rally round the blunderbuss in the event of an alarm. But the 
night passed away quietly. 

Late in the first watch, an interesting conversation was over- 
heard between 'Akil and the Nassir. 

Last year, while in rebellion against the government, 'Akil, at 
the head of his Bedawin followers, had swept these plains, and 
carried off a great many horses, cattle, and sheep ; among them 
the droves and herds of the Nassir. There had, in consequence, 
been little cordiality between them since they met at Tiberias ; 
but, to-night, Nassir asked 'Akil if he did not think that he had 
acted very badly in carrying off his property. The latter an- 
swered no ; that Nassir was then his enemy, and that he, 'Akil, 
had acted according to the usages of war among the tribes. The 
Nassir then asked about the disposition made of various animals, 



148 ARAB FRATERNIZATION. 

and especially of a favourite mare. 'Akil said that he had killed 
so many of the sheep, given so many away, and sold the rest ; 
the same with the cattle and horses. As to the mare, he said he 
had taken a fancy to her, and that it was the one he now rode. 
This the Emir knew full well. 

After some further conversation, Nassir proposed that they 
should bury all wrongs and become brothers. To this 'Akil 
assented. The former, thereupon, plucked some grass and earth, 
and lifting up the corner of 'Akil's aba, placed them beneath it; 
and then the two Arabs embracing, with clasped hands, swore 
eternal brotherhood. 

When questioned, immediately after, upon the subject, 'Akil 
stated that so obligatory was the oath of fraternity, that should he 
hereafter carry off any thing from a hostile tribe, which had once, 
no matter how far back, been taken from the Emir, he would be 
bound to restore it. 

As an instance, he mentioned that when he was in the service 
of Ibrahim Pasha, there were nine other tribes besides his own ; 
and that in one of their expeditions they carried off a number of 
sheep, forty of which were assigned as his portion ; that shortly 
after, an Arab came forward and claimed some of them on the 
ground of fraternization. 'Akil told him that he did not know 
and had never seen him before; but the man fisserted and proved 
that their fathers had exchanged vows, and the sheep claimed 
were consequently restored. 

These Bedawin are pretty much in the same state as the barons 
of England and the robber knights of Germany were, some cen- 
turies back. 

We have, to-day, descended ten moderate and six ugly rapids, 
and passed three tributaries to the Jordan, two quite small, and 
one of respectable size. Also four large and seventeen small 
islands. We have now reached a part of the river not visited by 
Franks, at least since the time of the crusades, except by three 
English sailortT, who were robbed, and fled from it, a short dis- 
tance below. The streams have all names given them by the 
Arabs, but the islan^ls are nameless and unknown. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE JORDAN. 149 

The course of the river, to-day, has varied from north-west to 
south, and from thence to east ; but the prevailing direction has 
been to the southward and westward. The velocity of the cur- 
rent has ranged from two to eight knots per hour ; the average 
about three and a half knots. The depth has been in proportion 
to tlie width and velocity of the stream. At one place the river 
was eighty yards wide and only two feet deep. The average 
width has been fift}'-six yards, and the average depth a little more 
than four feet. 

Where the river was narrow, the bottom was usually rock or 
hard sand, and in the wider parts soft mud. In the narrowest 
parts, also, the river flowed between high banks ; either bald-faced 
alluvial hills, or conglomerate, — in one place, fossil rock. Where 
the stream was wide, the banks were low alluvion ; towards the 
latter part of the day, resting upon sand or gravel. Where the 
stream was wide and sluggish, running between alluvial banks, 
the water was discoloured ; in some places of a milky hue. 
Where narrow, and flowing between and over rocks, it was com- 
paratively clear. At starting, in the morning, the temperature of 
the air was 78°, and of the water, twelve inches below the surface, 
71°. In the course of the day, the former rose eight and the 
latter three degrees. Excepting once, early in the afternoon, 
when a light air from the eastward swept through an opening, it 
was a perfect calm, and the heat felt oppressive ; yet less so, than 
the dazzling glare of light. We have twice, to-day, struck on 
rocks, but suffered no material damage. 

Our encampment was close to the river's edge, where tire banks 
were thickly wooded and the soil sandy. In front, the stream 
was divided by a small island, below which was the ford of 
Suk'wa. 

The scene of camping for the night is ever a busy one. The 
uprearing of tents, the driving of the tent-pins, the wearied camels 
standing by, waiting to be disburdened, all remind one forcibly 
of the graphic descriptions of the Bible. There are other features, 
too, illustrative of our brotherhood with the children of the desert 
— Sherif, seated beneath a tree, or under the shadow of a rock, 
13* 



150 PICTURESQUE GROUPS. 

issuing commands to his immediate followers, and 'Akil recon- 
noitering from the summit of a hill, or scouring about the plain, 
stationing the outposts. 

With us, too, everything bore the aspect of a military expedi- 
tion through a hostile territory. The boats, when practicable, 
were securely moored in front, and covered by the blunderbuss ; 
the baggage was piled between the tents, and the sentries paced 
to and fro in front and rear. 

Among the trees which bordered the river-bank, the horses of 
our Arab friends were this evening tethered, while our own 
luxuriously enjoyed a clandestine supper in the wheat-field near 
at hand. 

At this time, our benign and ever-smiling Mustafa with his 
bihous turban and marvellous pants, wide and draperied, but not 
hiding his parenthetical legs, seemed almost ubiquitous. At one 
time, he w^as tearing something madly from his laden donkey ; 
and the next, he was filling pipes, and, hand on breast, present- 
ing them with low salaams ; or, like a fiend, darting oflf after the 
Doctor's horse, which, having evaded the watchful Hassan, was 
charging upon the others, and frightening " the souls of his fear- 
ful adversaries" with the thunder of his nostrils. 

The day had been one of intense heat, and the physical relaxa- 
tion, caused by fatigiie and exposure, made us extremely sensitive 
to the chilly atmosphere of evening. 

The pale light of the rising moon, and the red flush of sunset, 
made the twilight linger, and gave to the east and the west the 
appearance of an auroral ice-light. The dew fell early and heavily, 
and the firm white sand of the river-bank was cold to the feet. 

As night advanced, the blaze of our watch-fires dispelled, to a 
great extent, the chill of the air around us. Our Arab scouts 
were posted on the hills which overlooked tlie camp, and our 
own guards, with glittering carbines and long, keen bayonets, 
were pacing in front and rear of the baggage and the tents. The 
scene was wild and picturesque. 

Around the blazing fires, which shot long, flickering tongues 
of flame into the night, and seemed to devour darkness, were 



ARAB MUSIC. 151 

gathered in circles, groups of Franks and wild Bedawin, solemnly- 
smoking the chibouque, drinking coffee, or listening eagerly, as, 
with wild gesticulations, one related an adventure of the day, or 
personal incident of times gone by. "Who, in the desert or the 
wilderness, would not listen to the veriest idle legend that ever 
beldame croaked over the blaze of "Yule," on Christmas eve ? ^ 

The camels were lying here and there about the camp, silent 
and motionless, utterly unconscious of their merit as objects in the 
picturesque. ' 

The tents were pitched upon a sandy bank, in a small opening, 
flanked by groves of willow and tamarisk, with an inner edging 
of acacia. The ford ran diagonally from bank to bank, across 
the most impetuous but shallow part of the stream. The bright 
watch-fires threw bars of red and trembling light over the sha- 
dowed waters, and illuminated the sombre willow groves beyond, 
among which, as if entangled in their boughs, hung motionless, 
as clouds hang in the chasms of mountains, a long and silvery- 
film of unfallen dew; while the purple shadows of the distant 
hills mingled with the cold grey of the evening, rendering all 
beyond dim and mysterious; and the peaked and jagged outlines 
of the lofty range, cut sharp against the sky, now faint and pale, 
yet relieved by the beautiful swell and regular waving curvature 
of the lower hills. 

Before the blue tent of Sherif were gathered our Arab friends, 
a large circle of swart faces, illuminated by the light of a crackling 
fire, listening to 'Akil's bard, who sang AraLic love-songs, to the 
accompaniment of his rehabeh, or viol of one string. 

As we drew near to enjoy this wild, romantic concert, the 
Sherif and 'Akil, stepping forth from the circle, invited us among 
them, with an urbanity and kindness of manner, unsurpassed by 
the courtesy of highest civilization. Mats were spread for us at 
the opening of the tent, and the Tourgiman having interpreted 
their many expressions of welcome, the bard was requested to 
continue the music, which had been interrupted by our approach. 

Without affecting a slight cough, or making vain excuses, he 
immediately complied. With his semicircular bow he began a 



152 AN ARAB MINSTREL. 

prelude, " fashioning the way in which his voice should go," and 
then burst forth in song. The melody was as rude as the instru- 
ment which produced it, a music, not such as Keats describes — 

'•Yearning like a God in pain;" 

but a low, long-drawn, mournful wail, like the ciy of the jackal 
set to music. He sang of love, but had it been a dirge, the wail 
of the living over the dead, it could not have been more heart- 
rending and lugubrious. There was no passion, nonnirthfulness, 
no expression of hope or fear ; but a species of despairing, chro- 
matic anguish ; and we could not refrain from regarding the in- 
strument as an enchanted sexton's spade, singing of the graves it 
had dug, and the bodies it had covered with mould. 

And yet, these children of the desert enjoyed the performance, 
and from under the dark brows, made darker by the low, slouch- 
'ing koofeeyali, their eyes glistened, and the red light gleamed on 
glittering teeth displayed in smiles of approbation. 

These demonstrations of enjoyment appeared strange to us ; 
for the song, to our ears, told only of mattocks and shrouds and 
the grave-digger's song in Hamlet ; — 

''A pickaxe and a spade, a spade, 
For J and a winding sheet." 

The bard was not a true Bedawy, but of Egyptian parentage, 
and resembled more our ideas of a ghoul than a human being. 
Low of stature and slightly built, he was thin, even to attenuation ; 
and his complexion of a pale, waxy, cadaverous hue. His eyes 
were small, black, and piercing, shadowed by thick pent-house 
brows, which, like his straggling beard, was nearly red ; his lips 
were livid, his teeth white and pointed, and the nails of his skinny 
hands as long iis talons. His whole appearance assisted materi- 
ally in sustainmg the ideas of coihns and palls, mildew and worms, 
and other grave-yard garniture. 

The costume of the minstrel was not materially different from 
that of his Bedawin companions. His head, like theirs, was 
closely shaven above the temples, and covered with a small red 



THE minstrel's ATTIRE. 153 

skull-cap or tarbouch, over which was tlirown the koofeeyeh, a 
coarse cotton shawl or kerchief, with broad stripes of white and 
yellow, triangularly folded, the ends ornamented with a plaited 
fringe, hung on each side of the face down to the shoulders, and 
was confined over the tarbouch by two bands of the akal, a roughly 
twisted, black cord of camel's^hair. An aba, or narrow cloak 
made of camel's hair, of extremely coarse texture, broadly striped 
white and brown, and fashioned like the SjTian burnoose, or 
horseman's cloak, hung negligently about his person. 

Beneath the aba he wore a long, loose cotton shirt, of very 
equivocal white, confined at the waist by a narrow leathern belt ; 
and a pair of faded red buskins, 

'•A world too wide for his shrunk shanks," 

and fearfully acute at the toes, where they curved like a sleigh- 
runner, completed his costume. 

While the bard and his rehab eh discoursed most melancholy 
music for our entertainment, the black and aromatic kahweh ^ 
(coffee) w^as handed round by an attendant of 'Akil Aga, — a tall, 
wiry-framed Nubian, wdth keen white teeth, and a complexion as 
black as Orcus, — black even to the surfece of the heavy lips, and 
with a skin drawn with extreme tension over the angular facial 
bones, giving it the dry and embalmed appearance of a JVIem- 
phian mummy. 

Each of us having drunk his little cup of coffee and smoked a 
pipe, the stem of which had run the gauntlet of every pair of lips 
in that patriarchal group, we were about to retire, when the Emir 
Nassir, the wild, old blackguard, seizing (he never took anything) 
the " sexton's spade " (the rehabeh), to our unfeigned astonish- 
ment, commenced a song, as if he too were a ghoul and could 
give us in character some church-yard stave in honour of his 
ghostly trade. 

' Kahweh is an old Arabic term for wine; Turkish, kahveh ; llalian, 
caffe, French, cafe; English, coffee. Can it be that the Muslims, in 
their affection, preserved the name of the beverage interdicted by their 
prophet 1 



154 THE emir's love-song. 

Translated by the Tourgamin, and versified by Mr. Bedlow, 
his sons: ran thus : 



'& 



"At her window, from afar, 
I saw my love, my Bedawiyeh, 
Her eyes shone through her white kinaa, 
It made me feel quite faint to see her." 

While singing, the Ogre Prince looked with grotesque devoted- 
ness and an inimitable languishing air upon Sherif Musaid, sitting 
near him, who, for the nonce, he had idealized into his " love," 
his " Bedawiyeh." The song was evidently a foreign one, per- 
haps derived from Persia. An Arab poet would have placed his 
love at the opening of the tent, or beside the fountain. A Beda- 
wiyeh, the fawn of the desert, and a window, the loop-hole of 
what they consider a prison, accord but ill together. 

The amateur musician surpassed the professional one, and the 
prince transcended the bard, as well in execution as in the quality 
of his voice. The music, although more varied in character and 
modulation, was essentially the same in its prevailing sadness. 
Truly " all the merry-hearted do sigh" in this strange land ; a 
land from which " gladness is taken away," and mirth, where it 
doth exist, hath a dash of grief and a tone of desperate sorrow. 
The sound of tabret and harp, of sackbut and psaltery, the lute, 
the viol, and the instrument of two strings, are heard no more in 
the land ; and the " rehabeh," with its sighing one string, befits 
the wilderness and the wandering people who dwell tlierein. 

Not even the Emir, although he threw all the mirth he could 
command into his voice, and touched the string with quick, elastic 
fingers, striking out notes and half-notes with musical precision ; 
— although his dark eyes flashed and his white teeth glistened, as 
he smiled seductively upon Musaid, and swayed his body to and 
fro, and nodded his head to the measure of his minstrelsy, and 
triumphed over the bard, and won applause whh every verse, he 
could not change the tone, — there was the same sad minor run- 
ning through the song. 

Those low, complaining notes lingered in our ears long after 



DEPARTURE. 155 

the sound had ceased, and the Arabs were gathered in sleep 
around the smouldering watch-fires. 

Towards morning, the wind swept down upon us from the 
mountain o-oro;es, and caused some of us to dream of snow-drifts 
and icicles, and unseasonable baths in cold streams. 



CHAPTER XI. 

FROM FORD OF SUk'wA TO PILGRIM's FORD. 

Sunday, April 16. A pleasant day — wind light from north-east. 
We were on the move early this morning. Sherif was very 
uneasy about the boats ; and yet thought it advisable for him to 
be with the caravan. He was urgent that the Emir should ac- 
company us on the river. The latter excused himself on the plea 
of headache. 

After a cup of coffee, taken standing, started off with the boats, 
leaving the caravan to cross over again, and proceed down the 
right bank. 

I found that our Arabs were utterly ignorant of the course of 
the river, or the nature of its current and its shores. Heretofore, 
we had been enabled to see the caravan at least once in a day's 
journey ; but, yesterday, from the impossibility of penetrating 
along the left bank and the high precipitous character of the hills 
on the right, we saw nothing of them, and our meeting even at 
night, was, for a long time, very doubtful. 

The country presented the same appearance as yesterday, 
except that conglomerate or any kind of rock was rarely seen ; 
but, in their stead, banks of semi-indurated clay. The lower 
plain was evidently narrower and the river often swept alternately 
against the hills, mostly conical in their shape, and with bald 



156 CHANGE IN THE VEGETATION. 

faces, which flank the lower and mark the elevation of the upper 
plain. 

These various ramifications of mountain ranges and rntervening; 
platforms and valleys afford, according to Humboldt, evidences 
of ancient volcanic eruptions undergone by the crust of the globe, 
these having been elevated by matter thrust up in the line of 
enormous cracks and fissures. 

The vegetation was nearly the same in character, save that it 
was much more luxuriant and of brighter tint on the borders of 
the stream ; more parched and dull on either side beyond it. 
The oleander increased ; there was less of the asphodel, and the 
acacia was rarely seen, as heretofore, a short distance inland. 
The tamarisk was more dense and lofty, and the canes were fre- 
quently thick and impenetrable. There were many drift-trees in 
the stream, and bushes and branches were lodged high up in the 
trees w'hich lined the banks ; and much above the latter, conclu- 
sive marks of a recent freshet. There were many trees on each 
side, charred and blackened by fire — caused, doubtless, by the 
Arabs having burned the dried-up grass to renew their pastures. 
The ghurrah was also becoming abundant ; and we noticed that 
whenever the soil was dry, the leaves of this tree were most 
silver^'. 

About an hour after starting, we came to the place where Mo- 
lyneux's boat was attacked while he was journeying down by 
land. Stopped to examine. It is just above a very rapid part 
of the river, where the boat could not have been stopped if the 
crew had kept her in the stream, unless most of them had been 
killed by gunshots from the shore. As they all escaped, I con- 
cluded that they were surprised when asleep, or loitering on their 
way. We here saw tracks of a tiger, and of other wild beasts 
which we could not identify. 

In many places the trees were drooping to the water's edge, 
and the channel sometimes swept us under the branches, thereby 
preventing us from carrying our awnings; in consequence of 
which, w'e suffered more than heretofore from exposure to the sun. 

At 8,30, there were Arabs in sight on a high hill, and we heard 



SUSPICIOUS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 157 

others in the swamp ; apprehending a stratagem, we laid on the 
oars and stood by our arms ; but we were not molested. 

In an hour, saw again tracks of wild animals on shore, and 
struck upon a snag, the current very strong. Soon after, saw 
some of our scouts on a hill. Stopped to take meridian observa- 
tions. Temperature of the air, 92° ; of the water, 72°. 

At 12.05, started again, and were hailed by Arabs on a high 
hill to the right, asking whether the horsemen who had passed 
were friends or enemies. We supposed that they referred to our 
scouts. Again saw tracks of wild animals upon the shore ; also 
a great many wild pigeons, some of them very large. The banks, 
hereabouts, were of red clay, resting on white ; the last, semi- 
indurated, and appearing like stone. There were many fissures 
in the hills, and much debris fallen into the stream. 

Shortly after, passed under an overhanging tree, with a bush 
fifteen feet up in its branches, lodged there by the recent freshet ; 
for it was deciduous, and the green leaves of the early season 
were upon it. The river must this year have ovei-flowed to the 
foundations of the second terrace. We saw some drooping lily- 
plants, long past their flowering. 

At 2 P. M,, the river running between high triangular hills, 
Ave struck in descending a rapid ; clothes, note-book, and papers, 
thoroughly wet, but the boats uninjured. 

Soon after, came in sight of the encampment, the tents, as 
heretofore, already pitched ; — the camping-place, Mukutta Damieh 
(Ford of Damieh), where the road from Nabulus to Salt crosses 
the river. 

We made but a short day's journey, in consequence of there 
not being another place where the boats and caravan could meet 
between this and the bathing-place of the Christian pilgrims. 

Soon after our arrival, both Sherif and 'Akll, calling me aside, 
expressed their belief that the Emir feigned a headache in the 
morning from fear of going in the boats. The same idea had 
occurred to me before, but was dismissed as an ungenerous one. 
They, however, cited circumstantial but conclusive proof that 
their suspicion was not unfounded. 
14 



158 PREPARATIONS FOR AN ATTACK. 

In the early part of their march to-day, the caravan anticipated 
a skirmish. A strange Arab, supposed to belong to a marauding 
party, was seen in the distance. The line was closed and the 
scouts came in, all but a few that were sent to reconnoitre a deep 
ravine in front. Although but one man was seen, it was suspected 
that many were concealed in the ravine ; for directly opposite 
was a large encampment of black tents. 

Our Bedawin felt or feigned a conviction that an engagement 
would take place, and all due preparations were immediately 
made. The camels were halted, and the horsemen, collecting 
in front, w^aited for the reconnoitering scouts to return. In the 
mean time, our Arabs went through their feats of horsemanship, 
singing their war-song, and seemed to be endeavouring to Avork 
themselves into a state of phrensy. At their solicitation, Mr. 
Dale laid aside his hat and put on a tarbouch and koofeeyeh. 
Guns were unslung and freshly capped, and swords were loosened 
in their scabbards. 

The other party, however, kept aloof, proving neither hostile 
nor friendly, and 'Akil, as he passed, contemptuously blew his 
nose at them. They were believed to belong to the tribe El 
Bely or El Mikliail Meshakah, whose territories were hereabouts. 
Doubtless, they were the same who hailed us, to know whether 
the horsemen who had passed were friends or enemies. 

After dinner, some of the party crossed the river to examine 
the ruins of a bridge, seen by the land party from the upper ter- 
race, just before descending to the river. They had to force their 
way through a tangled thicket, and found a Roman bridge span- 
ning a dry bed, once, perhaps, the main channel of the Jordan, 
now diverted in its course. To the best of our knowledge, this 
bridge has never before been described by travellers. 

We were amused this evening at witnessing an Arab kitchen 
in full operation. The burning embers of a watch-fire were 
scraped aside, and the heated ground scooped in a hollow to the 
depth of six or eight inches, and about two feet in diameter. 
Within this hole was laid, with scrupulous exactness of fit and 
accommodation to its concave surface, a mass of half-kneaded 



AN ARAB BAKE-OVEN. 159 

dough, made of flour and water. The coals were again raked 
over it, and the fire replenished. A huge pot of rice was then 
placed upon the fire, into which, from time to time, a quantity 
of liquid butter was poured, and the compound stirred with a 
stout branch of a tree, not entirely denuded of its leaves. When 
tlie mess was sufficiently cooked, the pot was removed from the 
fire, the coals again withdrawn, and the bread taken from its 
primitive oven. Besmeared with dirt and ashes, and dotted with 
cinders, it bore few evidences of being an article of food. In 
consistency, as well as in outward appearance, it resembled a 
long-used blacksmith's apron, rounded off at the corners. The 
dirtiest ash-pone of the southern negro would have been a deli- 
cacy, compared to it. 

The whole party gathered round the pot in the open air, and 
each one tearing off a portion of the leather-bread, worked it into 
a scoop or spoon, and, dipping pell-mell into the pilau, made a 
voracious meal, treating the spoons as the Argonauts served their 
tables, eating them for dessert. With a foot-wash in the Jordan, 
they were immediately after ready for sleep, and in half an hour 
were as motionless as the heaps of baggage around them. 

Monday, April 17. At an early hour, Mustafa, shivering and 
yawning, was moving about in preparation of the morning meal. 
JiOng before the sun had risen over the mountains of Gilead, the 
whole encampment was astir, and all was haste, for there was 
a long day's work before us. 

Although the air was damp and chilly, we knew, from past 
experience, that before noon the sun would blaze upon us with a 
power sufficient to carbonize those who should be unprotected 
from its fierceness. Moreover, from the plateau behind our 
camp, we could see nothing towards the south but rough and 
barren cliffs, sweeping into the purple haze of the lower Ghor. 
And the rolling sand-hills, which form the surface of the upper 
plain, stretched fiir along the bases of the mountains whhout a 
mark of cultivation, or the shelter of a tree. Heretofore, we had 
seen patches of grain, but there were none now visible, and all 
before us was the bleakness of desolation. 



160 FLOATING TREES. 

The banks of the river, too, were less verdant, except immedi- 
ately upon tlie margin, and the vegetation was mostly confined 
to the ghurrah, the tamarisk, and the cane ; the oleander and the 
asphodel no longer fringed the margin, and the acacia was no- 
where seen upon the bordering fields. 

Settled with the Emir for the services of his followers and him- 
self, and dismissed them. 

With a bite and a sop from Mustafa's frying-pan, w^e were 
off at an early hour. The river, one hundred and twenty feet 
wide and seven deep, was flowing at the rate of six knots down 
a rapid descent. ^ 

We soon passed two large islands, and saw tracks of wild 
beasts on the shore. 

Many large trees were floating down, and a number were lodged 
against the banks, some of them recently uprooted, for they had 
their green leaves upon them, and, as on yesterday, there were 
some small ones lodged high up in the branches of the overhang- 
ing trees. The banks were all alluvion, and we began to see the 
cane in blossom. Altogether, the vegetation was more tropical 
than heretofore. 

At 9 A. M., quite w^arm. Many birds were singing about the 
banks and under cover of the foliage, but we saw few of them ; 
now and then some pigeons, doves, and cranes, and occasionally 
a bulbul. Stopped to examine a hill, and collected specimens 
of semi-indurated clay, coated with efflorescence of lime. The 
bases of the ridges on each side presented little evidences of 
vegetation or fertility of soil, notwithstanding their proximity to 
the river. A few scrubby bushes were scattered here and there, 
exhibiting the utter sterility of the country through which we 
were journeying. 

Fields of thistles and briars occasionally varied the scene ; and 
their sharp projecting thorns bore the motto of the Gael, "Nemo 
me impune lacessit." 

The hiUs which bounded the valley were immense masses of 
siliceous conglomerate, which, with occasional limestone, extended 
as far as the eye could reach, showing the geological formation 



\ 



SALINE INCRUSTATION. 161 

of the Ghor from Lake Tiberias to the Dead Sea, where the Hme- 
stone is said to preponderate. 

High up in the faces of these hills were immense caverns and 
excavations, whether natural or artificial we could not tell. The 
mouths of these caves were blackened, as if by smoke. They 
may be the haunts of predatory robbers. At 11.40, stopped for 
meridian observation, near a huge conglomerate rock. 

At 1.20 P. M., came to the River Jabok (Zerka), flowing in 
from E. N. E., a small stream trickling down a deep and wide 
torrent bed. Stopped to examine it. The water was sweet, but 
the stones upon the bare exposed bank were coated with salt. 
There was another bed, quite dry, showing that in times of freshet 
there were two outlets to this tributary, which is incorrectly placed 
upon the maps. 

There was much of the ghurrah, which seems to delight in a 
dry soil and a saline atmosphere. The efflorescence on the stones, 
and on the leaves of the ghurrah, must be a deposition of the 
atmosphere, when the wind blows from the Dead Sea, about 
twenty miles distant, in a direct line. 

It was here that Jacob wrestled with the angel, at whose touch 
the sinew of his thigh shrunk up. In commemoration of that 
event, the Jews, to this day, carefully exclude that sinew from 
animals they kill for food. 

This river, too, marks the northern boundary of the land of the 
Ammonites. 

At 1.30, started again, and soon after saw a wild boar swim- 
ming across the river. Gave chase, but he escaped us. 

Passed a dry torrent-bed on the right, probably the Wady el 
Hammam, which separated the lands of the tribe of Manasses 
from those of the tribe of Ejihraim. Still opposite to us was the 
land of the tribe of Gad. On that side, about twenty miles dis- 
tant, was Amman, Rabbath Amnion, the capital of the Ammonites 
The country of Amraon derived its name from Ben-Ammi, the 
son of Lot. 

Descending wild and dangerous rapids, and sweeping along 
the base of a lofty, perpendicular hill, we saw a small stream on 
14* 



162 AN ARAB PRESENT. 

the left ; stopped to examine it ; found the water clear and sweet ; 
temperature, 76°. 

Suddenly we heard, and soon after caught glimpses of, an Arab 
in the bushes on the left ; at the same time a number of Arabs 
were calling loudly to us from a hill on the right. Stopped for 
the other boat to close in, and prepared for a skirmish ; at this 
moment there was a shot from above, and concluding that the 
other boat had been fired upon, I directed the men to shoot the 
first objects they saw in the bushes. Fortunately the man we 
had first seen had now become alarmed and concealed himself; 
and immediately after, the Fanny Skinner hove in sight, having 
stopped a moment to fire at a bird. The man in the bushes 
proved to be a messenger sent by the Arabs on the hill to show 
us the place of rendezvous for the night. They had been spoken 
by the caravan as it passed ; and their messenger, instead, of 
selecting a conspicuous place on the right bank, had crossed over, 
and was floundering through the thicket when we came upon him. 

This Arab was sent by the sheikh of Huteim, a tribe near Jer- 
icho, and brought from him a present of oranges, and a thin, 
paste-like cake made in Damascus, of debs (a syrup from grapes), 
starch, and an aromatic seed, I think the sesame. The oranges 
were peculiarly grateful after the heat and fatigue of the day. 
The cake was very good if you were very hungry, and, like the 
marchioness's lemonade, excellent, if you made-believe very hard. 

The sun went down and night gradually closed in upon us, 
and the rush of the river seemed more impetuous as the light 
decreased. We twice passed down rapids, taking care each time 
to hug the boldest shore. Besides the transition from light to 
darkness, we had exchanged a heated and stifling for a chilly 
atmosphere ; and while the men, more fortunate, kept their blood 
in circulation by pulling gently with the oars, the sitters in the 
stern-sheets fairly shivered with the cold. 

There had been sucli a break-down in the bed of the stream 
since we passed the Jabok, and such evident indications of vol- 
canic formation, that we became exceedingly anxious. In the 
obscure gloom, we seemed to be stationary, and the shores to 



A SACRED SPOT. 163 

flit by us. With its tumultuous rush the river hurried us on- 
ward, and we knew not what the next moment would bring 
forth — whether it would dash us upon a rock or plunge us down 
a cataract. The friendly Arab, although he knew the fords and 
best camping-places on the river, in his own district, was, like 
every one we had met, wholly unacquainted with the stream at all 
other points. 

Under other circumstances it doubtless would have been pru- 
dent to lie by until morning ; but we were all wet, had neither 
food nor change of clothing, and apart from danger of attack in a 
neighborhood represented as peculiarly bad, sickness would have 
been the inevitable consequence of a night spent in hunger, cold 
and watchfulness. 

At 9.30 P. M. we arrived at " El Meshra," the bathing-place 
of the Christian pilgrims, after having been fifteen hours in the 
boats. This ford is consecrated by tradition as the place where 
the Israelites passed over with the ark of the covenant; and where 
our blessed Saviour was baptized by John. Feeling that it would 
be desecration to moor the boats at a place so sacred, we passed 
it, and with some difficulty found a landing below. 

My first act was to bathe in the consecrated stream, thanking 
God, first, for the precious favour of being permitted to visit such 
a spot ; and secondly for his protecting care throughout our per- 
ilous passage. For a long time after, I sat upon the bank, my 
mind oppressed with awe, as I mused upon the great and won- 
drous events which had here occurred. Perhaps directly before 
me, for this is near Jericho, " the waters stood and rose up upon 
an heap," and the multitudinous host of the Israelites passed 
over, — and in the bed of the stream, a few yards distant, may be 
the twelve stones, marking "the place where the feet of the 
priests which bare the ark of the covenant stood." 

Tradition, sustained by the geographical features of the country, 
makes this also the scene of the baptism of the Redeemer. The 
mind of man, trammelled by sin, cannot soar in contemplation 
of so sublime an event. On that wondrous day, when the Deity 
veiled in flesh descended the bank, all nature, hushed in awe, 



16-1: CAPTURE OF A CAMEL. 

looked on, — and the impetuous river, in grateful homage, must 
have stayed its course, and gently laved the body of its Lord. 

In such a place, it seemed almost desecration to permit the 
mind to be diverted by the cares which pressed upon it — but it 
was wrong — for next to faith, surely the highest Christian obliga- 
tion is the performance of duty. 

Over against this w^as no doubt the Bethabara of the New 
Testament, whither our Saviour retired after the Jews sousht to 
take him at the feast of the dedication. The interpretation of 
Bethabara, is " a place of passage over." Our Lord repaired 
to Bethabara, where John was baptizing ; and as the ford probably 
derived its name from the passage of the Israelites with the ark 
of the covenant, the inference is not unreasonable that this spot 
has been doubly hallowed. 

■ In ten minutes after leaving the camping-ground this morning, 
the caravan struck upon the plain and crossed the wady Faria, 
pursuing a S. by W. course. Across the ravine, they saw a young 
camel browsing among: the brown furze and stunted bushes, 
which, in these plains, serve to protect the scanty vegetation from 
the intense heat of the sun. This creature had evidently strayed 
from some fellahin encampment, or had been abandoned by its 
owners when pursued by the Bedawin, many of whom had been 
seen the day previous on the eastern side of the Jordan. The 
camel being quite wild, racked off at full speed on their approach, 
and the scouts immediately started in pursuit. Its motion in 
running, although awkward, was exceedingly rapid ; dashing 
ahead at a long and stretching pace, and outstripping most of 
the horses in pursuit. Its whole body swayed regularly with its 
peculiar racking motion, as before remarked, exactly like the 
yawing of a ship before the wind. Whether it walks or runs, the 
camel ever throws forward its hind and fore leg on the same side 
and at the same time, as a horse does in pacing. The fugitive 
was soon caught, and true to its early teaching, knelt down the 
moment a hand was placed upon its neck. 'Akil, abandoning 
his mare, mounted the prize, and, without bridle or halter, 
dashed off at full speed over the plain to increase the number of 



GAZELLES. 165 

our beasts of burden. The high peak of " Kurn Surtabeh," 
" horn of the rhinoceros," bore W. ^ N. from this point of their 
progress. 

Crossing Wady el Aujeh, they pursued a southerly course ; the 
faces of the mountains broken here and there with dark precipices, 
which gradually assumed a dark brown and reddish hue, with 
occasional strata resembling red sandstone. 

Beyond Wady el Aujeh, the soil bore a scanty crop of grass, 
now much parched ; and to the right, where the mountains re- 
ceded from the plain, there were extensive fields of low, scrubby 
bushes, powdered with the clay-dust of the soil ; on the left, was 
a blank desert, with one or two oases, and a waving line of green, 
where the Jordan betrayed itself, at times, by a glitter like the 
sheen from bright metal. 

It was now mid-day, and the heat and blinding light of the 
sun were almost insupportable : they were obliged to stop to rest 
the wearied caravan, the Arabs making a tent of their abas, sup- 
ported on spears. 

At 1 P. M., they were again in motion, and, passing through a 
field of wild mustard, came to an open space, nothing but sand 
and rocks — a perfect desert — where were traces of a broad-paved 
road, which they believed to be Roman. At 3 P. M., for tlie 
first time, they saw some gazelles, and gave chase to them. At 
a low whistling noise made by one of the Arabs, the affrighted 
creatures stopped, and looked earnestly towards them ; but, owing 
to an incautious movement, they took to flight, and went bound- 
ing over the hills beyond the possibility of pursuit. 

Crossing Wady el Abyad, they passed through a grove of nilbk 
and wild olive, and came upon a ruined village. Shortly after, 
they stopped to water in the Wady Na-wa'imeh, with a shallow 
stream of clear, sweet water. Thence leaving the Quarantania 
(reputed to be the mountain of our Saviour's fasting and tempta- 
tion) on the right, and passing east of the fountain healed by 
Elisha, and of Jericho, they came to Ain el Iladj (Pilgrim's foun- 
tain), in the plain of Gilgal. Here they were joined by a few 
Riha (Jericho) Arabs, all having long-barrelled guns, with extra- 



166 AGLIMPSEOFTHEDEADSEA. 

ordinary crooked ram's-horn powder-flasks. Of Jericho, the first 
conquest of the Israehtes west of the Jordan, and where Herod 
the Great died, but a soUtary tower remains (if, indeed, it be the 
true site). How truly has the curse of Joshua respecting it been 
fulfilled! Here the wilderness blossomed as the rose. Abroad 
tract was covered with the olive, the nubk, and many shrubs and 
flowers. From it they had the first view of the Dead Sea, and 
the grim mountains of Moab to the south-east. There were few 
evidences of volcanic agency visible, but the calcined and desolate 
aspect indicated the theatre of a fierce conflagration ; — the cliffs, 
of the hue of ashes, looking as if they had been riven by thunder- 
bolts, and scathed by lightning. 

Pursuing a south-easterly course, they passed a broad tract of 
argillaceous soil, rising in fantastic hills, among which they started 
a coney from its form. At 5 P. M., they came upon the banks 
of the river, excessively wearied, having been eleven hours in the 
saddle. 

The tents had been pitched by the land-party before we ar- 
rived, directly on the bank, down which the pilgrims would, early 
in the morning, descend to the river. Mr. Dale had objected to 
pitching them on this spot, but our Arabs assured him that the 
pilgrims would not arrive until late to-morrow. The night was 
already far advanced, and the men w^ere so weary, that I thought 
it best to postpone moving the tents until the morning. 

After a slight and hurried meal, we stationed sentries, and 
threw ourselves, exhausted, upon the lap of mother eartli, with 
the tent our covering, and whatever we could find for pillows. 

During the night there was an alarm. — We sprang from the 
tents at the report of a gun, and found our Arab scouts on the 
right hailing some one on the opposite bank ; upon whom, con- 
trary to all military usage, they had previously fired. It proved 
to be a fellah, attempting to cross the ford, which was too deep. 

The alarm, although a false one, had the good effect of show- 
ing that all were upon the alert. At this time, it is said, there 
are always a great many Arabs prowling about, to cut off" pilgrims 
straying from the strong military escort which accompanies them 



AN ARMY OF PILGRIMS. 167 

from Jerusalem, under the command of the Pasha, or an officer 
of hio;h rank. 

We have, to-day, according to 'Akil, passed through the terri- 
tory of the Beni Adwans and Beni Sukr's, and into those of the 
wandering tribes of the lower Ghor, On the opposite side is 
" the valley over against Beth-peor," where the Israelites dwelt 
before they crossed the Jordan. 

In the descent of the Jordan, we have, at every encampment 
but one, determined its astronomical position, and its relative 
level with the Mediterranean ; and have, throughout, sketched 
the topography of the river and the valley. The many windings 
of the river, and its numerous rapids, will account for the differ- 
ence of level between Lake Tiberias and the Dead Sea. 

Tuesday, April 18. At 3 A. M., we were aroused by the in- 
telligence tliat the pilgrims were coming. Rising in haste, we 
beheld thousands of torchlights, with a dark mass beneath, mov- 
ing rapidly over the hills. Striking our tents with precipitation, 
we hurriedly removed them and all our effects a short distance to 
the left. We had scarce finished, when they were upon us : — 
men, women, and children, mounted on camels, horses, mules, 
and donkeys, rushed impetuously by towards the bank. They 
presented the appearance of fugitives from a routed army. 

Our Bedawiu friends here stood us in good stead ; — sticking 
their tufted spears before our tents, they mounted their steeds and 
formed a military cordon round us. But for them w^e should 
have been run down, and most of our effects trampled upon, 
scattered and lost. Strange, that we should have been shielded 
from a Christian throng by wild children of the desert — JNIuslims 
in name, but pagans in reality. Nothing but the spears and 
swarthy faces of the Arabs saved us. 

I had, in the mean time, sent the boats to the opposite shore, a 
little below tlie bathing-place, as well to be out of the way as to 
be in readiness to render assistance, should any of the crowd be 
swept down by the current, and in danger of drowning. 

While the boats were taking their position, one of the earlier 
bathers cried out that it was a sacred place ; but when the pur- 



168 A HETEROGENEOUS MULTITUDE. 

pose was explained to him, he warmly thanked us. Moored to 
the opposite shore, with their crews in them, they presented an 
unusual spectacle. 

The party which had disturbed us was the advanced guard of 
the great body of the pilgrims. At 5, just at the dawn of day, 
the last made its appearance, coming over the crest of a high 
ridge, in one tumultuous and eager throng. 

In all the wild haste of a disorderly rout, Copts and Russians, 
Poles, Armenians, Greeks and Syrians, from all parts of Asia, 
from Europe, from Africa, and from far-distant America, on they 
came ; men, women and children, of every age and hue, and in 
every variety of costume ; talking, screaming, shouting, in almost 
every known language under the sun. Mounted as variously as 
those who had preceded them, many of the women and children 
were suspended in baskets or confined in cages ; and, with their 
eyes strained towards the river, heedless of all intervening obsta- 
cles, they hurried eagerly forward, and dismounting in haste, and 
disrobing with precipitation, rushed down the bank and threw 
themselves into the stream. 

They seemed to be absorbed by one impulsive feeling, and 
perfectly regardless of the observations of others. Each one 
plunged himself, or was dipped by another, three times, below 
the surface, in honour of the Trinity ; and then filled a bottle, or 
some other utensil, from the river. The bathing-dress of many of 
the pilgrims was a white gown with a black cross upon it. Most 
of them, as soon as they dressed, cut branches either of the agnus 
castus, or the willow; and, dipping them in the consecrated 
stream, bore them away as memorials of their visit. 

In an hour, they began to disappear ; and in less than three 
hours, the trodden surface of the lately crowded bank reflected no 
human shadow. The pageant disappeared as rapidly as it had 
approached, and left to us once more the silence and the solitude 
of the wilderness. It was like a dream. An immense crowd of 
human beings, said to be 8000, but I thought not so many, had 
passed and repassed before our tents, and left not a vestige behind 
them 



BATHING IN THE JORDAN. 169 

Every one bathed, a few Franks excepted ; the greater num- 
ber, in a quiet and reverential manner ; but some, I am sorry to 
say, displayed an ill-timed levity. 

Besides a party of English, a lady among them, and three 
French naval officers, we were gladdened by meeting two of our 
countrymen, who were gratified in their turn, at seeing the stars 
and stripes floating above the consecrated river, and the boats 
which bore them ready to rescue, if necessary, a drowning pilgrim. 

We were in the land of Benjamin ; opposite was that of Reu- 
ben, in the country of the Ammonites, and on the plain of 
Moab. 

A short distance from us was Jericho, the walls of which fell 
at the sound of trumpets ; and fourteen miles on the other side 
was "Heshbon, where Sihon the King of the Amorites dwelt." 

Upon this bank are a few plane trees and many willow and 
tamarisk, with some of the agnus castus. Within the bank and 
about the plain are scattered the acacia, the nubk (spina Christi), 
and the mala insana, or mad apple. On the opposite side are 
acacia, tamarisk, willow, and a thicket of canes lower down. 

The pilgrims descended to the river where the bank gradually 
slopes. Above and below it is precipitous. The banks must 
have been always high in places, and the water deep; or the 
axe-head would not have fallen into the water, and Elisha's 
miracle been unnecessary to recover it. 

Shortly after the departure of the pilgrims, a heavy cloud settled 
above the western hills, and we had sharp lightning and loud 
thunder, followed by a refreshing shower of rain. 

We were all much wearied, and in consequence of living upon 
salted food since we left Tiberias, were much in need of refresh- 
riient. Disappointed in procuring fresh provisions from Jericho, 
we determined to proceed at once to the Dead Sea, only a few 
hours distant. 

Dr. Anderson volunteered to go to Jerusalem to superintend 
the transportation of the bread I had sent there ; and I gladly 
accepted his services, instructing him to make a geological recon- 
noissance of his route. 
15 



1 TO C U R S E O F T n i: R I \ i: R . 

The great secret of the depression between Lake Tiberias and 
the Dead Sea, is solved by the tortuous course of the Jordan. In 
a space of sixty miles of latitude and four or five miles of longi- 
tude, the Jordan traverses at least 200 jniles. The river is in the 
latter stage of a freshet — a few weeks earlier or later, and passage 
would have been impracticable. As it is, we have plunged down 
twenty-seven threatening rapids, besides a great many of lesser 
maijnitude. 



U^ 



CHAPTER XII. 

TROM pilgrim's FORD TO 'aiN EL FESHKHAH. 

At 1.45 P. M., started with the boats, the caravan making a 
direct line for Ain el Feshkhah, on the north-west shore of the 
Dead Sea, the appointed place of rendezvous. 

The course of the river was at first S. W. In about half an 
hour, we were hailed from the right bank, when we stopped and 
took in Sheikh Helu, of the tribe Huteim, and filled the India- 
rubber water-bags, having passed a small island thickly wooded. 
Weather close and sultry. At 2.22, started again, course from 
N. N. E. to S. by W.; the right bank red clay, twent}--five feet 
high ; left bank low, with high canes and wallows. Saw a quan- 
tity of drift-wood, and passed a camel in the river, washed down 
by the current in attempting to cross the ford last night. Weatlier 
cloudy at intervals, river forty yards wide, twelve feet deep, bot- 
tom blue mud. The banks alternating high and low — highest at 
the bends and lowest at the opposite points. 

In five minutes, passed another camel in the river, the poor 
beast leaning exhausted against the bank, and his owner seated 
dcspondingly above him. We could not help him ! 

From 2.42 to 2.54, course from S. to S. E. and back ; many 



APPROACH THE DEAD SEA. 171 

pigeons flying about. At this time, there was a nauseous smell 
on the left or eastern shore — traced it to a small stream running 
down the Wady Hesbon ; the banks very low, and covered with 
cane and tamarisk. The river here fifty yards wide, eleven feet 
deep, muddy bottom, current four knots. Sand and clay banks, 
with some pebbles on the right ; ever}'i;hing indicating the vicinity 
of the Dead Sea. 

At 3, course S. E. by S., water very smooth, discoloured but 
sweet. Saw a heron, a bulbul, and a snipe. Noted a fcetid 
smell, proceeding from a small stream on the right or western 
shore. Low and sedgy banks, high mountains of the Dead Sea 
in sight to the southward and westward ; saw many wild ducks. 
3.12, course south a long stretch, river seventy yards wide, left 
bank very low, covered with tamarisk, willow, and cane ; right 
bank fifteen to eighteen feet high, red clay, with weeds and shrubs 
— the mala insana, spina Christi, and some of the agnus castus — 
a few tamarisk at the water's edge. 

At 3.13, the mountains to the S. E. over the Dead Sea pre- 
sented a very rugged, iron-like appearance. Water of the river 
sweet. 3.15, the left bank low, running out to a flat cape. Right 
bank low with thick canes, some of them resembling the sugar- 
cane ; twenty feet back the bank twelve feet high, red clay. 
3.16, water brackish, but no unpleasant smell; banks red clay 
and mud, gradually becoming lower and lower ; river eighty yards 
wide, and fast increasing in breadth, seven feet deep, muddy bot- 
tom, current three knots. Saw the Dead Sea over tlie flat, bear- 
ing south — mountains beyond. The surface of the water became 
ruflled. 3.22, fresh wind from north-west — one large and two 
small islands at the mouth of the river; the islands of mud six to 
eight feet high, evidently subject to overflow ; started a heron 
and a white gull. 

At 3.25, passed by the extreme western point, where the river 
is 180 yards wide and three feet deep, and entered upon the Dead 
Sea ; the water a nauseous compound of bitters and salts. 

The river, where it enters the sea, is inclined towards the 
eastern shore, very much as is represented on the map of Messrs. 



172 ENTER THE DEAD SEA. 

Robinson and Smith, which is the most exact of any we have 
seen. There is a considerable bay between the river and the 
mountains of Belka, in Amraon, on the eastern shore of the sea. 

A fresh north-west wind was blowing as we rounded the point. 
We endeavoured to steer a little to the north of west, to make a 
true west course, and threw the patent log overboard to measure 
the distance ; but the wind rose so rapidly that the boats could 
not keep head to wind, and we were obliged to haul the log in. 
The sea continued to rise with the increasing wind, which gra- 
dually freshened to a gale, and presented an agitated surface of 
foaming brine ; the spray, evaporating as it fell, left incrustations 
of salt upon our clothes, our hands and faces ; and while it con- 
veyed a prickly sensation wherever it touched the skin, was, above 
all, exceedingly painful to the eyes. The boats, heavily laden, 
struggled sluggishly at first ; but when the wind freshened in its 
fierceness, from the density of the water, it seemed as if their bows 
were encountering the sledge-hammers of the Titans, instead of 
the opposing waves of an angry sea. 

At 4.55, the wind blew so fiercely that the boats could make 
no headway ; not even the Fanny Skinner, which was nearer to 
the weather shore, and we drifted rapidly to leeward ; threw over 
some of the fresh water, to lighten the Fanny Mason, which 
laboured very much, and I began to fear that both boats would 
founder. 

At 5.40, finding that we were losing every moment, and that, 
with the lapse of each succeeding one, the danger increased, kept 
away for the northern shore, in the hope of being yet able to 
reach it ; our arms, our clothes, and skins coated with a greasy 
salt ; and our eyes, lips, and nostrils, smarting excessively. How 
difierent was the scene before the submerging of the plain, which 
wns " even as the garden of the Lord !" 

At times it seemed as if the Dread Almighty frowned upon our 
efTorts to navigate a sea, the creation of his wrath. There is a 
tradition among the Arabs that no one can venture upon this sea 
and live. Repeatedly the fates of Costigan and Molyneux had 
been cited to deter us. The first one spent a few days, the last 



ASPECT OF THE SHORES. 173 

about twenty hours upon it, and returned to the place from 
whence he had embarked, without landing upon its shores. One 
was found dying on the shore ; the other expired in November 
last, immediately after his return, of fever contracted upon its 
watei's. 

But, although the sea had assumed a threatening aspect, and 
the fretted mountains, sharp and incinerated, loomed terrific on 
either side, and salt and ashes mingled with its sands, and foetid 
sulphureous springs trickled down its ravines, we did not despair: 
awe-struck, but not terrified; fearing the worst,, yet hoping for 
the best, we prepared to spend a dreary night upon the dreariest 
waste we had ever seen. 

At 5.58, the wind instantaneously abated, and with it the sea 
as rapidly fell ; the water, from its ponderous quality, settling as 
soon as the agitating cause had ceased to act. Within twenty 
minutes from the time we bore away from a sea which threatened 
to engulf us, we were pulHng at a rapid rate, over a placid sheet 
of water, that scarcely rippled beneath us; and a rain-cloud, 
which had enveloped the sterile mountains of the Arabian shore, 
lifted up, and left their rugged outlines basking in the light of the 
setting sun. A flock of gulls flew over, while we were passing a 
small island of mud, a pistol-shot distant from the northern shore, 
and half a mile west of the river's mouth. Soon after, a light 
wind sprung up from S. E., and huge clouds drifted over, their 
western edges gorgeous with light, while the groat masses were 
dark and threatening. The .sun went down, leaving beautiful 
islands of rose-coloured clouds over the coast of Judca ; but 
above the yet more sterile mountains of Moab, all was gloomy 
and obscure. 

The northern shore is an extensive mud-flat, with a sandy plain 
beyond, and is the very type of desolation ; branches and trunks 
of trees lay scattered in every direction ; some charred and black- 
ened as by fire ; others white with an incrustation of salt. These 
were collected at high-water mark, designating the line which the 
water had reached prior to our arrival. On the deep sands of 
this shore was laid the scene of the combat between the knight 
15* 



174 NIGHT UPON THE DEAD SEA. 

of the leopard, and Ilderim the Saracen. The north-western 
shore is an unmixed bed of gravel, coming in a gradual slope 
from the mountains to the sea. The eastern coast is a rugged 
line of mountains, bare of all vegetation, — a continuation of the 
Ilauran range, coming from the north, and extending south beyond 
the scope of vision, throwing out three marked and seemingly 
equidistant promontories from its south-eastern extremity. 

We were, for some time, apprehensive of missing the place of 
rendezvous ; for the Sheikh of Huteim, never having been afloat 
before, and scarce recovered from his fright during the gale, was 
bewildered in his mind, and perfectly useless as a guide. The 
moon had not risen ; and in the starhght, obscured by the shadow 
of the mountains, we pulled along the shore in some anxiety. 
At one moment we saw the gleam of a fire upon the beach, to 
the southward ; and firing a gun, made for it with all expedition. 
In a short time it disappeared ; and while resting on the oars, 
waiting for some signal to direct us, there were the flashes and 
reports of guns and sounds of voices upon the cliffs, followed by 
other flashes and reports far back upon the shore which we had 
passed. Divided between apprehensions of an attack upon our 
friends and a stratagem for ourselves, we were uncertain where to 
land. Determined, however, to ascertain, we closed in with the 
shore, and pulled along the beach, sounding as we proceeded. 

A little before 8 P. M., we came up with our friends, who had 
stopped at Ain el Feshkhah, fountain of the stride. 

The shouts and signals we had heard were from the scouts 
and caravan, which had been separated from each other, making 
mutual signals of recognition ; they had likewise responded to 
ours, which, coming from two points some distance apart, for a 
time disconcerted us. It was a wild scene upon an unknown 
and desolate coast : the mysterious sea, the shadowy mountains, 
the human voices among the cliffs, the vivid flashes and the loud 
reports reverberating along the shore. 

Unable to land near the fountain, we were compelled to haul 
the boats upon the beach, about a mile below ; and, placing some 
Arabs to guard them, took the men to the camp, pitched in a 



ANCIENT CAVERNS. 175 

cane-brake, beside a brackish spring, where, from necessity, we 
made a frugal supper ; and then, wet and weary, threw ourselves 
upon a bed of dust, beside a foetid marsh ; — the dark fretted 
mountains behind — the sea, like a huge cauldron, before \is — its 
surface shrouded in a lead-coloured mist. 

Towards midnight, while the moon was rising above the eastern 
mountains, and the shadows of the clouds were reflected wild and 
fantastically upon the surface of the sombre sea ; and everything, 
the mountains, the sea, the clouds, seemed spectre-like and un- 
natural, the sound of the convent-bell of Mar Saba struck grate- 
fully upon the ear ; for it was the Christian call to prayer, and 
told of human wants and human sympathies to the wayfarers on 
the borders of the Sea of Death. 

The shore party stated that, after leaving the green banks of 
the Jordan, they passed over a sandy tract of damp ravines, where 
it was difficult for the camels to march without slipping. Ascend- 
ing a slight elevation, they traversed a plain encrusted with salt, 
and sparsely covered with sour and saline bushes, some dead and 
withered, and snapping at the slightest touch given them in pass- 
ing. They noticed many cavernous excavations in the hill-sides, 
— the dwelling places of the Israelites, of early Christians, and of 
hermits during the time of the Crusades.^ They at length reached 
a sloping, dark-brown sand, forming the beach of the Dead Sea, 
and followed it to El Feshkhah. Our Arabs feared wdld beasts, 
but there seemed nothing for one to live on, in these untenanted 
solitudes. The frogs alone bore vocal testimony of their existence. 

In descending the Ghor, Mr. Dale sketched the topography of 
the country, and took compass bearings as he proceeded. The 
route of the caravan was on the bank of the upper terrace, on the 
west side, every day, except one, when it travelled on the eastern 
side. ,That elevated plain was at first covered with fields of 
grain, but became more barren as they journeyed south. The 
terrace was strongly marked, particularly in the southern portion, 

' "And because of the Midianites, the children of Israel made them the 
dens which are in the mountains, and caves, and strongholds." — Judges, 
xi. 2. 



176 FOUNTAIN OF THE STRIDE. 

\vhere there was a continuous range of perpendicular cliffs of 
limestone and consjlomerate. This terrace averagfed about 500 
feet above the flat of the Jordan, the latter mostly covered with 
trees and grass. They were each day compelled to descend to 
the lower plain to meet the boats. 

Wednesday, April 19. I was first recalled to consciousness this 
morning by rays of light, the pencilled messengers of the early 
dawn, shooting above the dark and fretted mountains which form 
the eastern boundary of the sea. This day I had assigned to rest 
and preparation for future work, and intended to let all hands 
sleep late, after the great fatigue of yesterday ; but, soon after day- 
break, we were startled with the intelligence that the boats were 
nearly filled with water. The wind had risen towards morning, 
and a heavy sea was tumbling in. We hastened to the beach to 
secure the boats, and dry our effects. With all our discomfort, 
we had slept better than usual, having been undisturbed by fleas. 
The wind was fresh from the south, and the brawling sound of 
the breakers was reverberated from the perpendicular face of the 
mountains. We were encamped just above the spring, in a 
clearing made in the cane-brake, under a cliff upwards of a thou- 
sand feet high — old crumbling limestone and conglomerate of a 
dull ochre colour. 

The fountain is a shallow and clear stream of water, at the 
temperature of 84°, which flows from a cane-brake, near the base 
of the mountain. It is soft yet brackish, and there is no deposit 
of siliceous or cretaceous matter, but it has a strong smell of sul- 
phur. We had no means of analyzing it. A short distance from 
its source, it spreads over a considerable space, and its diagonal 
course to the sea is marked by a more vivid line of vegetation 
tlian that which surrounds it. Between the cane-brake and the 
sea is the beach covered with minute fragments of flint. In the 
water of the sea, near the shore, are standing many dead trees, 
about two inches in diameter. We could neither find nor hear 
of the ruins mentioned by Dr. Robinson, and looked in vain for 
sulphur. The pebbles of bituminous limestone of which he 
speaks, are in great abundance. 



BIRDS UPON THE SHORE. 177 

Our Arabs finding it impossible to sustain their horses on the 
salt and acrid vegetation of this place, and Ain Jidy being repre- 
sented as no better, I discharged them and the camel-drivers, and 
applied to the Pasha at Jerusalem for a few soldiers to guard the 
depot I intended forming at Ain Jidy, while we should be explor- 
ing the sea and its shores. 

'Akil and his followers were to leave us here, but Sherif, with 
his servant, would remain. Sent Sherif to Jerusalem, to assist in 
superintending the transportation of stores, and to make arrange- 
ments for supplies of provisions from Hebron. Sent with him 
everything we could dispense with — saddles, bridles, holsters, 
and all but a few articles of clothing. 

At 1 P. M., made an excursion along the base of the moun- 
tain, towards Ras es Feshkhah (cape of the stride), and gathered 
some specimens of conglomerate and some fresh-water shells in 
the bed of the stream. We were struck with the almost total 
absence of round stones and pebbles upon the beach — the shore 
is covered with small angular fragments of flint. Started two 
partridges of a beautiful stone-colour, so much like the rocks, that 
they could only be distinguished when in motion. Heard the 
notes of a solitary bird in the cane-brake, which we could not 
identify. The statement that nothing can live upon the shores of 
the sea, is, therefore, disproved. The home and the usual haunt 
of the partridge may be among the cliffs above, but the smaller 
bird we heard must have its nest in the thicket. 

But the scene was one of unmixed desolation. The air, tainted 
with the sulphuretted hydrogen of the stream, gave a tawny hue 
even to the foliage of the cane, which is elsewhere of so light a 
green. Except the cane-brakes, clustering along the marshy 
stream which disfigured, while it sustained them, there was no 
vegetation whatever ; barren mountains, fragments of rocks, 
blackened by sulphureous deposit, and an unnatural sea, with 
low, dead trees upon its margin, all within the scope of vision, 
bore a sad and sombre aspect. We had never before beheld 
such desolate hills, such calcined barrenness. The most arid 
desert has its touch of genial nature : 



178 TIIK WORD OF OUR ARAB. 

" But here, above, around, below, 
In mountain or in glen, 
Nor. tree, nor plant, nor shrub, nor flower, 
Nor aught of vegetative power, 

The wearied eye may ken ; 
But all its rocks at random thrown, • 
Black waves, bare crags, and banks of stone." 

There was an unpleasant sulphureous smell in the air, which we 
attributed to the impregnated waters of the fountain and marsh. 

'Akil, to whom we were all much attached, came to see us 
prior to his departure. To our surprise and great delight, we 
learned, in the course of conversation, that he was well acquainted 
and on friendly tenns with some of the tribes on the eastern shore. 
I therefore prevailed upon him to proceed there by land ; apprise 
the tribes of our coming, and make arrangements to supply us with 
provisions. In ten days he was to be in Kerak, and have a look- 
out for us stationed upon the eastern shore near the peninsula. It 
was a most gratifying arrangement, for we might now hope to 
avoid difficulty where it had been most anticipated, and to visit 
the country of Moab, so little known to the world. 

Sometime aftep the agreement was made, 'Akil returned and 
expressed a wish to be released. I ascertained that some of his 
timid followers had been dissuading him, and held him to his 
obligation. He is a high-toned savage. At our former meeting 
I advanced him money for his expenses and the purchase of pro- 
visions, for which he refused to give a receipt or append his seal 
to the contract. An Arab never subscribes his name, even when 
he can write. I had, therefore, nothing but his word to rely upon, 
which I well knew he would never break. " The bar of iron 
may be broken, but the word of an honest man never," and there 
is as much honour beneath the yellow skin of this untutored Arab, 
as ever swelled the breast of the chivalrous Cceur de Lion. He 
never dreamed of falsehood. 

During the early part of the day the v/eather was pleasant, with 
passing clouds ; but when unobscured the sun was warm. To- 
wards the afternoon the wind subsided, and the calm sea, when 
the sun shone upon it, verified the resemblance which it has been 



AN ARAB MESS. 179 

said to bear to molten lead. In the forenoon it had looked as 
yesterday, like a sheet of foam. 

The night was clear, a thin mist hung over the southern shore, 
and the moon -was nearly at the full. Near us, when all was still, 
the sea had the exact hue of absinthe, or that peculiar blue of 
tlie grotto of "Azzura," d(?scribed in the " Improvisatore," 
Until 2 A. M. the night was serene and lovely. Although the 
earth was fine and penetrating as ashes, and the miasma from 
the marsh anything but agreeable, there loere no fleas, and the 
bites which had so smarted from the spray yesterday, are now 
healing up. 

To-night our Bedawin had a farewell feast, characteristic alike 
of their habitual waste and want of cleanliness. A huge kettle, 
partly filled with water, was laid on a fire made of wood gathered 
on the beach and strongly impregnated with salt ; when the water 
boiled, a quantity of flour was thrown in and stirred wnth a branch 
of drifi;-wood, seven feet long, and nine inches in circumference. 
When the mixture was about the consistence of paste, the vessel 
was taken from the fire and a skin of rancid butter, about six 
pounds, in a fluid state, was poured in ; the mixture was again 
stirred, and the Bedawin seated round it scooped out the dirty, 
greasy compound, with the hollow of their hands — 'Akil not the 
least voracious among them. He is a genuine barbarian, and 
never sleeps even beneath the frail covering of a tent. In his 
green aba, which he has constantly worn since he joined us, he 
is ever to be found at night, slumbering, not sleeping, near the 
watch-fire — his yataghan by his side — his heavy mounted, wide- 
mouthed pistols beneath his head. Before retiring, the Arabs took 
an impressive leave of us ; for it was evident that they anticipated 
encountering some peril in their route along the eastern shore. 

The Arab bard sang nearly the whole night. Stopping a little 
after midnight, he commenced again in less than an hour, and at 
2 A. M. was giving forth his nasal notes and his twanging sounds 
in most provoking monotony ; the discordant croaking of the frog 
is music in comparison. An occasional scream or yell would 
have been absolute relief. 



180 ARABS AT PRAYER. 

At midnight, again heard the bell of the convent of Mar Saba. 
It was a solace to know that, in a place wild and solitary in itself, 
yet not remote from us, there were fellow Christians raising their 
voices in supplication to the Great and Good Being, before whom, jj 
in different forms, but with undivided faith, we bow ourselves in 
worship. 

Tlmrsday, April 20. Awakened very early by one of the Arabs, 
more pious or more hypocritical than the rest, constituting him- 
self a Mueddin,^ and calling the rest to prayer. But the summons 
was obeyed by very few. An Arab, when he prays, throws his 
mat anywhere, generally, in obedience to the injunctions of the 
Koran, in the most conspicuous place. He puts off" his shoes ; 
stands upright ; leans forward until his hands rest upon his knees ; 
bends yet farther in prostration, and touches the earth with his 
forehead ; he then rises erect, recites a sentence from the Koran, 
and goes through with similar genuflections and prostrations. In 
the intervals of the prostrations, he sits back, his knees to the 
ground, and his feet under him, and recites long passages from 
the Koran. Sometimes they are abstracted, but not always ; we 
have seen tliem, in the intervals between the prostrations, comb 
their beards and address others in conversation, and afterwards, 
with great gravity, renew their orisons. 

The most extraordinary thing is, that some of the Turkish sol- 
diers we have seen, who were seemingly pious and really fanati- 
cal, did not understand one word of the Arabic passages of the 
Koran they recited with so much apparent devotion. 

Except those who accompanied us from Acre, we have not seen 
a single Muslim with beads : — there, as well as at Beirut, Smyrna 
and Constantinople, every one we met, from the Pasha down, had 
them in his hand, apparently as playthings only. 

The morning was pleasant ; a light breeze from the southward ; 
temperature of the air, 82°. After taking double aUitudes, sent 
Mr. Dale and Mr. Aulick in the boats to sound diagonally and 
directly across to the eastern shore. They started at 10.30 ; the 

' In Turkish, Muezzin. 



MORE BIRDS. 181 

wind had died away ; the sea was as smooth as a mirror towards 
either shore, but slightly ruffled in the middle, where there seemed 
to be a current setting to the southward. Thermometer, 89° in 
the tent, our only shelter, for the sun shone fiercely into every 
crevice of the mountain behind us. Employed in making ar- 
rangements for the removal of the camp farther south to-morrow. 

P. M. A short distance from the camp, saw a large brown or 
stone-coloured hare, and started a partridge ; heard another in 
the cliflfs above, and a small bird twittering in the cane-brake be- 
neath me. We discovered that these shores can furnish food for 
beasts of prey. Found some of the sea-side brache, supposed 
to be alluded to in Job, and translated mallows in the English 
version. Also, the Sida Asiatica. 

As the day declined, the wind sprang up and blew freshly from 
the north, and I began to feel apprehensive for the boats. To- 
wards sunset, walked along the base of the mountains to the 
southward to look for, but could see nothing of them. Started a 
snipe, and saw, but could not catch, a beautiful butterfly, che- 
quered white and brown. To-day a duck was seen upon the 
water about a mile from the shore ; — his home, doubtless, among 
the sedges of the brackish stream. 

Soon after sunset, some Arabs of the tribe Rashayideh came into 
camp, and proffered their services as guides along the western 
coast, and guards to our effects while absent in the boats. They 
were the most meagre, forlorn, and ragged creatures I had ever 
seen. The habiliments of Falstaff 's recruits would have been a 
court costume compared to the attire of these attenuated wretches, 
whose swarthy skins, in all directions, peered forth through the 
filthy rags, which hung in shreds and patches, rather betraying 
than concealing their nudity. 

Some of them would have answered as guides ; but it would 
not do to employ them in any other capacity. Their abject 
poverty would tempt them to steal, and their physical wealcness 
prevent them, even if they were courageous, from defending our 
property. Since the battle of Cressy, history does not tell of lean 
and hungiy men having ever proved valiant. 
16 



182 SOUNDINGS OF THE DEAD SEA. 

As night closed in, we lighted fires along the beach and around 
the camp as guiding signals to the boats. 

At 8 P. M,, went down to the beach and looked long and 
anxiously but could see nothing of them, although a dark object 
could have been discerned at a great distance, for the surface of 
the sea was one wide sheet of foam, and the waves, as they 
broke upon the shore, threw a sepulchral light upon the dead 
bushes and scattered fragments of rock. Returned to the camp, 
and placed every one on guard, for all our men but one being 
absent in the boats, our weakness, if coupled with want of vigil- 
ance, might invite an attack from the strange Arabs, who, we 
knew, were upon the cliffs above. 

At a very late hour, the boats returned. They had been re- 
tarded by the fresh wind, and corresponding heavy swell of the 
sea. The distance in a straight line from this to the Arabian 
shore measured seven nautical, or nearly eight statute miles. The 
soundings directly across from this place gave 116 fathoms, or 
696 feet, as the greatest depth — ninety fathoms, 540 feet, within 
a fourth of a mile from the Arabian shore. Mr. Aulick reported 
a volcanic formation on the east shore, and brought specimens of 
lava. Another line of soundings running diagonally across to 
the S. E. Mr. Dale reported a level plain at the bottom of the 
sea, extending nearly to each shore, with an average depth of 170 
fathoms, 1020 feet, all across. The bottom, blue mud and sand, 
and a number of rectangular crystals of salt, some of them per- 
fect cubes. One cast brought up crystals only. Laid them by 
for careful preservation. 

The diagonal line of soundings was run from this place to a 
black chasm in the opposite mountains. The soundings deepened 
gradually to twenty-eight fathoms a short distance from the shore ; 
the next cast was 137, and the third 170 fathoms, and the lead 
brought up, as mentioned, clear cubical crystals of salt. The 
casts were taken about every half mile, and the deep soundino-s 
were carried close to the Arabian shore. It was a tedious opera- 
tion ; the sun shone with midsummer fierceness, and the water, 
greasy to the touch, made the men's hands smart and burn severely. 



GROUP OF RAGGED ARABS. 183 

In the chasm they found a sweet and thermal stream, coming 
from above and emptying into the sea. It is, doubtless, the 
" Zerka Main," the outlet of the hot springs of Callirohoe. We 
trust to give it a thorough examination. 

By dark the sea had rolled up dangerously, and the boats took 
in much water, the crests of the waves curling over their sides. 
It was a dreadful pull for the men, and when they arrived, their 
clothes were stiffened with incrustation. 

The Rashayideh were grouped in a circle a short distance from 
our tents. In their ragged brown abas, lying motionless, and 
apparently in profound slumber, they looked by moonlight like 
so many fragments of rock, and reminded one of the grey geese 
around the hut of Cannie Elshie, the recluse of Mucklestane 
Muir. They were not all asleep, however, for when I approached, 
one instantly arose and greeted me. Retired to rest at 1 A. M., 
the sea brawling and breaking upon the shore. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

FROM AIN EL FESKHAH TO AIN JIDY ( E N G A D D l). 

Friday, April 21. Allowed all hands to sleep late this morn- 
ing, in consequence of the great fatigoie of yesterday. The sun 
rose at 5.29 ; a light wind from the westward. 

Prepared for moving to the southward. The sea w^as smooth 
and weather clear, and after sunrise it become quite warm. Lofty 
arid mountains on both sides ; a low flat shore to the northward 
and to the southward ; the south-eastern and the south-western 
shores converging, with only water visible between them. In 
that direction, a light veil of mist was drawn above the sea. 

At 11, broke up camp, and commenced moving every thing to 
the boats, excepting a load for the only remaining camel, to be 
conveyed along the shore. The Rashayideh were very active in 



184 THE BROOK KIDRON. 

the labour of transportation from the camp to the boats. Their 
astonishing brevity of shirt, and lack of all other covering, except a 
dirty and faded koofeeyeh, rendered them peculiarly interesting 
to the anatomist. Several of them wore sandals, a rude invention 
to protect the feet. It is a thick piece of hide, confined by a 
thong, passing under the sole, at the hollow of the foot, around 
the heel, and between the great toe, and the one which adjoins it. 

Our baggage seemed too heavy for the boats, but it was neces- 
sary to make the attempt to get away. Our Jordan water was 
nearly expended, and that of the fountain was not only unpalat- 
able, but I feared unwholesome also. If it came on to blovr, we 
would have to beach the boats to save them. 

At 11.42, started ; a light breeze from the southward and west- 
ward ; the sea slightly ruffled. Steered S. |^ E., along the shore 
by Ras el Feshkhah. The ras (cape) about 200 yards distant from 
the shore ; between it and our late camping-place is a low, narrow 
plain, skirted with cane. The precipitous limestone mountain 
towering a thousand feet above it. 

In half an hour, passed Wady Mahras, or Ravine of the Guard. 
It was dry, with a solitary ghurrah-tree at its mouth, larger than 
any we had seen upon these shores. It was about the size of a 
half-grown apple-tree. 

Half a mile beyond is the Wady en Nar (Ravine of Fire), which 
is the bed of the brook Kidron. The head of that ravine is the 
valley of Jehoshaphat, under the eastern wall of Jerusalem. Mid- 
way down the ravine, the convent of Mar Saba is situated. Be- 
tween the outlets of the two ravines of Mahras and En Nar, the 
debris of the mountains has formed a plain, or delta, sloping to 
the south-east, and rounding again to the southward. 

Soon after, stopped to examine where the Kidron empties into 
the sea, in the rainy season. The bed, much worn and filled 
with confused fragments of rock, was perfectly dry. It is a deep 
gorge, narrow at the base, and yawning wide at the summit, 
which was 1200 feet above us. 

The peak of Mukidla, immediately north of this ravine, was the 
loftiest of the range we had thus far seen on the Judean shore ; 



i 



GENERAL ASPECT. 185 

and presented, even more than the rest, the appearance of hav- 
ing been scathed by fire. Its summit is less sharp and more 
rounded, and the rapid disintegration of its face towards the sea 
has formed a sloping hill of half its height, resembling fine dust 
and ashes. 

The formation of this mountain, like the rest of the range to the 
north, consists of horizontal strata of limestone ; the exterior, of 
an incinerated brown, is so regular in its stratification as to pre- 
sent a scarped and fortified aspect. 

The mountain-sides and summits, and the shores of this sea, 
thus far, were almost entirely devoid of vegetation ; and the soli- 
tary tree, of which I have spoken, alone refreshed the eye, while 
all else within the scope of vision was dreary and utter desolation. 
The curse of God is surely upon this unhallowed sea! 

Picked up fresh-water shells in the torrent-bed, and fragments 
of flesh-coloured flint upon the sea shore, and gathered some 
specimens of rock. 

Starting again, we had scarce any wind ; weather warm but not 
oppressive ; the sky somewhat clouded with cumuli ; the course, 
S. I W. The curve of the shore forms a bay between the delta 
we have just left, and a point bearing S. S. E. 

At 3 P. M., abreast of the high cliff Hathurah, and the Wady 
Sudeir, immediately north of it. A little beyond was a large 
cave, two-thirds up the cliff. The delta, which had narrowed 
since leaving the bed of the Kidron, began to spread out again 
from the mountains towards the sea. 

We next came to Wady Ghuweir, which presented a singular 
appearance on its summits ; the northern one resembling a watch- 
tower, and the southern one a castle. 

3.30, low land visible to the southward; a fire on the eastern 
shore. The face and sides of this ravine are cut into terraces by 
the action of the winter rains. 

Narrow strips of canes and tamarisks immediately at tlie foot 

of the cliff, — a luxuriant line of green ; except the solitary ghurrah- 

tree, the only thing we have seen to cheer the eye since leaving 

the tawny cane-l)rake of Ain el Feshkhah. A beach of coarse, 

16* 



186 DESOLATE SCENE. 

(lark gravel below, and barren, brown mountains above, through- 
out the whole intervening space. 

Half a mile from the shore, threw over the drag in ten fathoms 
water. It brought up nothing but mud. 

4.30, a perfect calm. The clouds hung motionless in the still 
air, and their shadows chequered the rugged surface of the moun- 
tains of Arabia. It was the grandeur of desolation ; no being 
seen — all sound unheard — we were in the midst of a profound and 
awful solitude. 

4.41, approaching Ain Turabeh. On a point, stretching out 
into the sea, are a few ghurrah-trees and some tamarisk-bushes, 
and tufts of cane and grass, which alone relieved the dreary 
scene ; all besides are brown, incinerated hills ; masses of con- 
glomerate ; banks of sand and dust, impalpable as ashes, and 
innumerable boulders, bleached by long exposure to the sun. 

Rounded the point, which was low and gravelly, with some 
drift-wood upon it ; rowed by a small but luxuriant cane-brake, 
and camped a short distance from the fountain. 

The clear, shelving beach, the numerous tamarisk and ghur- 
rah-trees, and the deep green of the luxuriant cane, rendered this, 
by contrast, a delightful spot. 

The indentation of the coast formed here a perfect little bay ; 
and the water of the fountain, although warm, is pure and sweet. 
Its temperature, 75°. It rather trickles than gushes from the 
north side of the bay, within ten paces of the sea. 

We here found a pistachia^ in full bloom, but its pretty white 
and pink flowers yielded no fragrance. In the stream of the little 
fountain were several lily-stalks, and the sand was discoloured 
with a sulphureous deposit, as at Ain el Feshkhah. The Arabs 
formed a number of pools around by scooping out tlie sand and 
gravel with their hands. 

An Arab brought us some dhom apples, the fruit of the nubk, 

' Pistachia Terebinthus; the terebinth of Scripture. It is here a dwarf, 
but is said to grow larger on the plains. It was under the shade of a 
terebinth-tree that Abraham pitched his tent at Mamre. The Arabs 
call it '' biitm." 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 187 

or spina Christi. They were much withered, and presented the 
appearance of a small, dried crab-apple. It had a stone like the 
cherry ; but the stone was larger, and there was less fruit on it in 
proportion to its size. It was sub-acid, and to us quite palatable ; 
and, reclined upon the shelving beach of pebbles, we took off the 
edge of appetite while our cook was preparing the second and 
last meal of the day. 

The plants we found here, besides the lily, were the yellow 
henbane, with narcotic properties; the nightshade (anit et dil), 
or wolf-grape, supposed, by Hasselquist, to be the wild grape 
alluded to in Isaiah ; the lamb's quarter, used in the manufacture 
of barilla ; and a species of kale (salicornea Europea). This 
plant is found wherever salt water or saline formations occur. It 
was here upon the shore of the Dead Sea, and Fremont saw it 
on the borders of the Great Salt Lake, west of the Mississippi. 
Besides the single pistachia tree, there were a great many tama- 
risks, now also in blossom ; the flowers small and of a dull white 
colour : the wood of the tree makes excellent charcoal, and, in 
the season, the branches bear galls almost as acrid as the oak. 

The pebbles on the beach, to-day, were agglutinated with salt, 
and the stones in the torrent-beds were coated with saline incrus- 
tations. 

One of the party shot at a duck, a short distance from the shore ; 
— dark-grey body, and black head and wings. The bird, when 
fired at, flew but a short distance out to sea, where it alighted 
and again directed its course towards the shore. We therefore 
inferred that its haunt was among the sedges of the little fountain. 

It was a strange scene, to-night. The tents among the tama- 
risks, the Arab watch-fires, the dark mountains in the rear, tlie 
planets and the stars above them, and the boats drawn up on the 
shore. The night was serene and beautiful ; the moon, now 
beginning to wane, shone on a placid sea, upon which there was 
not the slightest ripple. The profound stillness was undisturbed 
by the faintest sound, except the tread of our sentinels. 

Early in the morning it was quite cool. At 6 A. M., tempera- 
ture of the air 70° and very pleasant. Took our breakfast beneath 



1S8 HILLS AND HAVENS. 

some tamarisk trees in bloom, the grateful shade enhanced by 
their delicious fragrance. An Arab brought some specimens of 
sulphur picked up on the banks of the Jordan near the sea, most 
probably washed down from the mountains by the river torrents. 
Some flowers were gathered and placed in our herbarium for pre- 
servation. Our arms, instruments, and everything metallic, were 
bronzed by the saline atmosphere. 

Started early for Ain Jidy (fountain of the kid) ; wind light 
from S. E., with a short troubled swell — the heavily laden boats 
rolled unmercifully. A few clouds in the north-east ; cumulus 
stratus; steered S. by E. to clear the point to the southward. 

At 8.20, abreast of Wady Ta'amirah, at the head of which is 
Bethlehem. Thus on one side is the sea, the record of God's 
wrath ; on the other, the birth-place of the Redeemer of the world. 

8.30, a thin, haze-like, heated vapour over the southern sea — 
appearance of an island between the two shores. 9.50, passed 
through a line of foam, curved to the north, and coloured brown 
by floating patches of what seemed to be the dust of rotten wood. 

At 10.25, hailed by an Arab from the shore, but could not 
understand him. At 11, under a high peak of a mountain, the 
escarpment furrowed with innumerable dry water-courses. The 
marks upon the shore indicated that the sea had fallen seven feet 
this season. 

Soon after noon, reached Wady Sudeir, below Ain Jidy (En- 
gaddi). Walked up the dry torrent bed, and finding no suitable 
place for encampment, directed the boats to be taken half a mile 
farther south, where they were hauled up, and our tents pitched 
near them, immediately in a line with, but some distance from 
where the fountain stream of Ain Jidy descends the mountain 
side and is lost in the plain ; its course marked by a narrow strip 
of luxuriant green. The Wady Sudier had water in it some dis- 
tance up, but too remote for our purposes. 

Instead of the fine grassy plain, which, from Dr. Robinson's 
description, w^e had anticipated, we found here a broad sloping 
delta at the mouth of dry gorges in the mountains. The surface 
of this plain is dust covered with coarse pebbles and minute 






THE LOTUS TREE. 189 

fragments of stone, mostly flint, with here and there a niibk and 
some osher trees. The last were in blossom, but had some of the 
fruit of' last year, dry and fragile, hanging upon them, and we 
collected some for preservation. The blossom is a delicate pur- 
ple, small, bell-shaped, and growing in large clusters. The leaf 
is oblong, about four inches long by three wide, thick, smooth, 
and of a dark green, and except that it is smaller, much resem- 
bling the caoutchouc. The branches are tortuous like the locust, 
and the light brown bark has longitudinal ash-coloured ridges 
upon it, like the sassafras at home. The niibk or lotus tree, the 
spina Christi of Hasselquist, called by the Arabs the dhom tree, 
has small dark-green, oval-shaped, ivy-like leaves. Clustering 
thick and irregularly upon the crooked branches, are sharp thorns, 
half an inch in length. The smaller branches are very pliant, 
which, in connexion with the ivy-like appearance of the leaves, 
sustains the legend that of them was made the mock crown of the 
Redeemer. Its fruit, resembling a withered crab-apple, is sub- 
acid, and of a pleasant flavour. 

There were tamarisk trees and much cane in the bed of the 
ravine, besides many pink oleanders. About the plain we found 
the rock rose, from one of the species of which the gum ladanum 
is procured ; also the common pink ; the Aleppo senna, which is 
used in medicine ; the common mallow, and the scentless yellow 
mignonette. 

On the upper part of the plain were terraces, which bore marks 
of former cultivation, perhaps cucumber-beds, such as seen by Dr. 
Robinson and Mr. Smith. They were owned by the Ta'amirah, 
and had been destroyed a short time before by a tribe of hostile 
Arabs. We found a few small prickly cucumbers, or gerkins, in 
detached places. There were two patches of barley standing, 
which were scarce above the ground, perhaps, at the time of the 
hostile incursion. Yet, although it could have been but a few 
weeks since, the grain was nearly ready for the harvest. The whole 
aspect of the country, these few trees and patches of vegetation ex- 
cepted, was one incinerated brown. The mountain, with caverns 
in its face, towered fifteen hundred feet above us ; and one-third 



190 ARAB REPUGNANCE TO PORK. 

up was the fountain, in a grove of spina Christi. It was a spot 
familiar to the imaginations of all, — the " Diamond of the Desert," 
in the tales of the crusaders. 

Examined the boats for repairs. Found them very much bat- 
tered, and tlieir keels, stems, and stern-posts, fractured. Com- 
menced a series of barometrical and therm ometrical observations, 
and surveyed the ground for a base-line. Observed some branches 
of trees floating about a mile from the shore, towards the north, 
confirming our impression of an eddy-current. At 6 P. M., an 
Arab brought in a catbird he had killed ; like all the other birds, 
and most of the insects and animals, we had seen, it was of a 
stone colour. 

In the evening, some of the tribe Ta'amirah came in, — a little 
more robust, but scarcely better clad, than the Rashayideh. They 
were warm and hungry, from walking a long distance to meet us. 
They had no food, and I directed some cooked rice to be given 
to them. They had seated themselves round the pot, and were 
greedily about to devour its contents, when one of them suggested 
that, perhaps, pork had been cooked in the same vessel. They rose, 
therefore, in a body and came to the cook to satisfy their scruple. 
I never saw disappointment more strongly pictured in the human 
countenance than when told the vessel had often been used for 
that purpose. Although nearly famished, they would not touch 
the rice, and we could give them nothing else. Fearing that our 
provisions would fall short, I advised them to return ; not to their 
houses, for they have nothing so stable as to deserve the name, 
but to their migratory tents. 

As in all southern nations of this continent, the principal food 
of the Arab is rice. Almost all other nations extract an intoxicat- 
ing beverage from the plant, containing saccharine matter, which 
constitutes their principal article of nourishment. But the Arab 
scarcely knows what strong drink is, and has no name for wine, 
the original Arabic word for which is now applied to coffee. 

Our Arabs were such pilferers that we were obliged to keep a 
most vigilant watch over everything, except the pork, which, 
being an abomination to the Muslim, was left about the camp, in 
full confidence that it would be left untouched. 



I 



ANXIETY AS TO PROVISIONS. 191 

At 8,30, there was a light breeze from the south-west — no 
clouds visible — a pale-blue misty appearance over the sea. At 
9, the wind shifted to the north, and blew strong; forced to 
strengthen the tent-stakes and pile stones upon the canvass eaves. 
The moon rose clear. Sea, rough. Weather, cool and pleasant. 
A strong smell of sulphuretted hydrogen, which surprised us, 
as we knew of no thermal spring in this vicinity. At midnight, 
sky almost cloudless ; thin strata of cirri, extending north-east 
and south-west. Wind ranging from north to north-east and 
abating. Sherif said that he had often heard of the tyranny of 
the Franks towards each other, but never thought they would 
have sent their countrymen to so desolate a place as this. Most 
of the Arabs, however, suspected that we came for gold ; and 
Dr. Anderson's hammering at the rocks was, to them, conclusive 
proof. 

We measured a base line of 3350 feet across the plain, and 
angled upon all possible points. An Arab, with two camels 
loaded with salt, came from the south end of the sea, and was 
going up this pass to Gaza. Commerce extends even here, 
although her burnished keels have never ploughed this dreary sea. 

Our water was brought the distance of a mile by the Arabs. 
There were about fifty of them around the camp, and we could 
not persuade them to go away. They were of the Raschayideh 
and Ta'amirah tribes — mere bundles of rags, very poor, and, so 
far, perfectly inoffensive. Some of them kissed our hands, and, 
pointing to their miserable garments, by comprehensible gestures 
solicited charity. 

Our bread and rice falling short, and being uncertain about the 
arrival of provisions from Jerusalem, I sent some Arabs to Hebron 
for flour. Would that we could have gone there, too, and visited 
the cave of Macpelah, near Mamre ! 

One of my greatest anxieties was the difficulty of procuring 
provisions. Should our train, coming from Jerusalem under 
charge of 13r. Anderson and the Sherif, be plundered on its way, 
and the emissary to Hebron procure but a small supply, we 
should be in a starving condition. I would have also sent either 



192 . GREAT HEAT. 

Mr. Dale or Mr. Aulick to Jerusalem, but that their presence was 
absolutely necessary. To sound the sea, take topographical 
sketches of its shores, and make astronomical and barometrical 
observations, gave full occupation to every one. This was to be 
our depot ; here we were to leave our tents, and every thing we 
could dispense with, and it would be our home while upon this 
sea. 

April 23, Easter Sunday. Deferred all work that we could pos- 
sibly set aside, until to-morrow. At 7.30, thermometer 85°, and 
rising rapidly ; the two extremities of the sea misty, with constant 
evaporation ; sky cloudless, a light breeze from the north, the 
heat so oppressive in the tent, that we breakfasted " al fresco." 
A. M. Walking along the beach, saw a hawk, and shortly after 
some doves, near the tent, all of the same colour as the moun- 
tains and the shore. Each day, in the forenoon, the wind had 
prevailed from the southward, and in the afternoon, until about 
midnight, from the northward ; the last wind quite fresh, and 
accompanied with a smell of sulphur. After midnight, it generally 
fell calm. Although the nights were mostly cloudless, there was 
scarcely any deposit of dew, the ground remaining heated through 
the night from the intensity of the solar rays during the day. 
r- Four young wild boars were brought in by an Arab ; they 
escaped from him and ran to the sea, but were caught, and as we 
would not buy them, in consequence of their being too young, 
they were killed. 

Nearly out of provisions, and, anxiously looking for Dr. An- 
derson and the Sherif ; we gladly hailed their appearance shortly 
after noon, creeping like mites along the lofty crags descending 
to this deep chasm. 

Although we saw the Doctor and Sherif shortly after noon, 
they did not reach the camp until three hours after. The provi- 
sions they brought were very acceptable. With them, came four 
Turkish soldiers, to guard our camp while we should be absent. 

P. M. We again noticed a current, setting to the northward 
along the shore, and one further out, setting to the southward. 
The last was no doubt the impetus given by the Jordan, and the 






AN ARAB DANCE. 193 

former its eddy, deflected by Usdum and the southern shore of 
the sea. 

Arranged with Sherif that he should remain here, in charge of 
our camp. 

The scene at sunset was magnificent; — the wild, mighty cliffs 
above us, the dull, dead sea, and the shadows climbing up the 
eastern mountains. And there was Kerak, castled upon the 
loftiest summit of the range ! We never looked upon it but we 
deplored the folly and rapacity of the " Lord of Kerak," which 
lost to Christendom the guardianship of the Holy Sepulchre. 

We all felt a great oppression about the head, and much drow- 
siness, particularly during the heat of the day. In the evening, 
it was calm and sultry. 

At night we visited Sherif A number of Arabs were gathered 
in front of the tent, and they gave us a dance. Ten or twelve 
of them were drawn up in a line, curved a little inwards, and one 
of them stood in front, with a naked sword. A mass of filthy 
rags, with black heads above and spindle legs below ! Clapping 
their hands, and chanting a low monotonous song, bowing and 
bending, and swinging their bodies from side to side, they fol- 
lowed the motions of the one in front. In a short time, one of 
them commenced chanting extempore, and the others repeated 
the words with monotonous cadence ; he with the sword waving 
it to and fro in every direction, and keeping time and movement 
with the rest. Their sons: referred to us. " Mr. Dale was stronar 
and rode a horse w^ell." " Kobtan, (the captain) made much 
work for Arabs, with his head." The dance was interrupted by 
an old man suddenly darting into the circle, and, bare-footed, 
with his aba gathered in his hands behind him, went jumping, 
hopping, crouching, and keeping time to the strange sounds of 
the others. The grotesque movements, the low monotonous 
tones, and the seeming ill-timed levity of the old Arab, gave to 
the whole affair the appearance of a wild coronach, disturbed by 
the antics of a mountebank. In the swaying of the body and 
clapping of the hands, some of us detected a resemblance to the 
war-dance of the South Sea Islanders. 
17 



194 SULPHUREOUS ODOUR. 

A calm, sultry night. In the mid-watch there was a bright 
meteor from the zenith, towards the north-east. The same sul- 
phureous smell, but less unpleasant than when the wind blew 
fresh. Molyneux detected the same odour the night he spent 
upon the sea, whence he thought it proceeded. We have been 
twice upon the sea when the spray was driven in our faces ; but 
although the water w^as greasy, acrid, and disagreeable, it was 
perfectly inodorous. I am therefore inclined to attribute the 
noxious smell to the foetid springs and marshes along the shores 
of the sea, increased, perhaps, by exhalations from stagnant pools 
in the flat plain which bounds it to the north. 

Monday, April 24. Called all hands at 4.45 A. U. ; light 
wind from the north ; clouds, cirro-stratus, in the south and east ; 
temperature, 78°. Wrote a note to Mr. Finn, H. B. M. Consul 
at Jerusalem, respecting provisions. This gentleman had been 
exceedingly kind and attentive. He had received our money on 
deposite, and paid my drafts upon it. By this means we kept 
but little money on hand, and avoided presenting a great tempta- 
tion to the Arabs. 

At 6, breakfasted luxuriously on fresh bread, brought, by the 
Doctor, from Jerusalem. The latter reported Hugh Reid (sea- 
man), one of the crew of the Fanny Skinner, as unable to work 
at the oar. Determined to leave him in the camp, his affection 
being a chronic one, uninfluenced by the climate. 

At 6.30, started with Dr. Anderson, in the Fanny Mason, for 
the peninsula, which had so long loomed, like Cape Flyaway, in 
the distance. Directed Mr. Aulick to pull directly across to 
Wady Mojeb (the River Arnon of the Old Testament), and sound 
as he proceeded. 

I left Mr. Dale and the rest of the party to make observations 
for determining the position of the camp, and measure angles for 
each end of the base-line. We steered, in the Fanny Mason, a 
south-east course, directly for the north -end of the peninsula, 
sounding at short intervals. The first cast, near the shore, brought 
up slimy mud, but further out, a light-coloured mud, and many 
perfectly well formed cubic crj'stals of salt. These, as well as the 



THE PENINSULA. 195 

mud, were carefully put up in air-tight vessels ; greatest depth, 
137 fathoms, 822 feet. One of the deepest casts, the cup to Stel- 
wagon's lead brought up a blade of gi-ass, faded in colour, but of 
as firm a texture as any plucked on the margin of a brook. It 
must have been washed down by one of the fresh-water streams, 
in connection with a heavier substance. 

About midway across picked up a dead bird, which was float- 
ing upon the water; we recognised it as a small quail. At 11, 
reached the peninsula ; the sun intensely hot. It is a bold, broad 
promonotory, from forty to sixty feet high, with a sharp angular 
central ridge some twenty feet above it, and a broad margin of 
sand at its foot, incrusted with salt and bitumen ; the perpendi- 
cular face extending all round and presenting the coarse and 
chalky appearance of recent carbonate of lime. There were 
myriads of dead locusts strewed upon the beach, near the margin 
of the sea. The summit of the peninsula is irregular and rugged ; 
in some places showing the tent-shape formation, in others, a 
series of disjointed crags. On the western side, the high penin- 
sula, with its broad margin, extends to the southward until it is 
lost in the misty sea. 

There were a few bushes, their stems partly buried in the water, 
and their leafless branches incrusted with salt, which sparkled as 
trees do at home when the sun shines upon them after a hea^"y 
sleet. Such an image, presented to the mind, while the frame 
was weltering with the heat, was indeed like "holding a fire in 
the hand and thinking of the frosty Caucasus." Near the imme- 
diate base of the cliffs was a line of drift-wood deposited by 
the sea at its full. Except the standing and prostrate dead trees, 
there was not a vestige of vegetation. The mind cannot conceive 
a more dreary scene, or an atmosphere more stifling and oppres- 
sive. The reverberation of heat and light from the chalk-like 
hills and the salt beach was almost insupportable. 

Walking up the beach we saw the tracks of a hyena, and 
another animal which we did not recognise, and soon after the 
naked footprints of a man. To the eastward of the point is a 
deep bay indenting the peninsula from the north. We followed 



196 WIDTH AND DEPTH OF THE SEA. 

up an arched passage worn in the bank, and cutting steps in the 
salt on each side, crawled through a large hole worn by the 
rains, and clambered up the steep side of the ridge to gain a 
view from the top. It presented a surface of sharp and angular 
points, light coloured, bare of vegetation, and blinding to the 
eye. We here collected many crystals of carbonate of lime. 
During our absence, the sailors had endeavoured to make a fire 
of the drift-wood as a signal to the camp, but it was so im- 
pregnated with salt that it would not burn. 

At 1 P. M., started on our return, steering directly across to 
measure the width of the strait between the peninsula and the 
western shore. There was little wind, the same faint sulphureous 
smell, and every one struggling against a sensation of drowsiness. 
Arrived at the camp a little before 6 P. M., in a dead calm, very 
much wearied, temperature 92°. As we landed, an Arab ran up, 
and gathering an armful of barley in the straw, threw it on the 
fire, and then husking the grain by rubbing it in his hands, brought 
it to me, and by gesture invited me to eat ; it was excellent. The 
Fanny Skinner arrived shortly after. Mr. Aulick had sounded 
directly across, and found the width of the sea by patent log to 
be a little more than eight geographical, or about nine statute 
miles ; the greatest depth 188 fathoms, 1 128 feet. He landed at 
the mouth of the "Arnon;" — a considerable stream of water, 
clear, fresh, and moderately cool, flowing between banks of red 
sandstone. In it some small fish were seen. 

On our first arrival here, I had despatched a messenger to the 
tribes along the southern coast to procure guides. This afternoon 
he returned with the information that they had been driven away, 
and that the country was inhabited only by robbers. Sherif was 
earnest in the advice to proceed no farther south ; but we could 
not leave our work unaccomplished. A Sheikh of the Ta'amirah 
agreed to walk along the coast in sight of the boats. We wished 
to visit the ruins of Sebbeh on our route southward, and prepared 
for several days' absence. At night a fresh breeze sprang up 
from the northward and eastward. There were several large fires 
on the peninsula. Secured a partridge and several insects for 



i 



ARAB IMPROVISATORE. ^ 197 

our collection ; and there was also gathered a specimen of every 
variety of flower for our herbarium. In the evening our Arabs 
had another entertainment. An improvisatore in Arabic poetry 
was engaged until a late hour reciting warlike narratives in verse 
for the amusement of Sherif — some from Antar the celebrated 
poet of Arabia ; others, unpremeditated, in praise of Ibrahim 
Pasha. At the end of each couplet, the audience pronounced 
the final rhyming word after him. This was more endurable 
than tlie one-stringed rehabeh, and less stupid than the dance of 
last evening. In the night, killed a tarantula and a scorpion. 
Oppressively sultry. A foetid, sulphureous odour in the night; 
felt quite sick. At daybreak, a fine invigorating breeze from the 
north ; air over the sea very misty. Did not rouse the camp until 
6.30, for the night had been oppressive. The Arabs becoming 
too numerous in the camp, I sent all away, except a few to bring 
water to Sherif, and some to accompany us to show where water 
could be found along the shore. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

EXPEDITION AROUND THE SOUTHERN SEA. 

Tuesday, April 25. Completed a set of observations, bundled 
up the mess things, and started on a reconnoissance of the south- 
ern part of the sea ; leaving Sherif in charge of the camp, with 
Read and the four Turkish soldiers. Steered about south, from 
point to point, keeping near the Arabs along the shore, for their 
protection; for they dreaded an attack from marauding parties. 
Threw the patent log overboard ; the weather fair but exceedingly 
hot ; thermometer, 89° ; little air stirring ; no clouds visible ; the 
mountains, as we passed, seemed terraced, but the culture was 
that of desolation. 
17* 



198 ANCIENT FORTIFICATION. 

At 11, the patent log had marked 27 knots; depth, six feet; 
bottom, soft brown mud ; made for a current ripple, a little farther 
out, coloured with decomposed wood, membranes of leaves, 
chaff, &c. ; depth, thirteen fathoms ; hard bottom ; resumed the 
course along the shore. Occasionally sounded out to 2^ fathoms, 
one mile from shore, to look for ford. Passed Wady Seydl Seb- 
beh (ravine of Acacias), supposed to have water in it, very high 
up, the log having marked 8J nautical miles. The cliff above 
the ravine was that of Sebbeh, or Masada. It is a perpendicular 
cliff, 1200 to 1500 feet high, with a deep ravine breaking down 
on each side, so as to leave it isolated. On the level summit is 
a line of broken walls, pierced in one place with an arch. This 
fortalice, constructed by Herod, and successfully beleagured by 
Silva, had a commanding but dreary prospect, overlooking the 
deep chasm of this mysterious sea. Our Arabs could give no 
other account of it than that there were ruins of large buildings 
on the cliff. 

The cliff of Sebbeh is removed some distance from the margin 
of the sea by an intervening delta of sand and detritus, of more 
than two miles in width. A mass of scorched and calcined rock, 
regularly laminated at its summit, and isolated from the rugged 
strip, which skirts the western shore, by deep and darkly sha- 
dowed defiles and lateral ravines, its aspect from the sea is one 
of stern and solemn grandeur, and seems in harmony with the 
fearful records of the past. 

There is that peculiar purple hue of its weather-worn rock, a 
tint so like that of coagulated blood that it forces the mind back 
upon its early history, and summons images of the fearful im- 
molation of Eleazar and the nine hundred and sixty Sicarii, 
the blood of whose self- slaughter seems to have tinged the inde- 
structible cliff for ever. 

At 3.05 P. M. a fme northerly wind blowing ; stopped to take 
in our Arabs. They brought a piece of bitumen, found on the 
shore, near Sebbeh, where we had intended to camp ; but the 
wind was fair, and there was an uncertainty about water. We 
ascertained that there is no ford here as laid down in the map of 



GEOLOGY OF THE WESTERN SHORE. 199 

Messrs. Robinson and Smith, One of the Arabs said that there 
was once a ford here, but all the others denied it. Passed two 
ravines and the bluff of Rilbtat el Jamus (Tying of the Buffalo), 
and at 5 P. M., stopped for the night in a httle cove, immediately 
north of Wady Mubughghik, five or six miles north of the salt- 
mountain of Usdum, which loomed up, isolated to the south. 
From Ain Jidy to this place, the patent log measured 13^ nautical 
miles, which is less than the actual distance, the log sometimes 
not working, from the shoalness of the water. 

We paid particular attention to the geological construction of 
the western shore, with a special regard to the disposition of the 
ancient terraces and abutments of the tertiary limestone and marls. 
There may be rich ores in these barren rocks. Nature is ever 
provident in her liberality, and when she denies fertility of sur- 
face, often repays man with her embowelled treasures. There is 
scarce a variety of rock that has not been found to contain metals ; 
and it is said that the richness of the veins is for the most part 
independent of the nature of the beds they intersect. 

There has been no great variety in the scenery, to-day; the 
same bold and savage cliffs ; the same broad peninsulas, or deltas, 
at the mouths of the ravines, — some of them sprinkled here and 
there with vegetation, — all evincing the recent or immediate pre- 
sence of water. This part of the coast is claimed by no particular 
tribe, but is common to roaming bands of marauders. 

The beach was bordered with innumerable dead locusts. There 
was also bitumen in occasional lumps, and incrustations of lime 
and salt. The bitumen presented a bright, smooth surface when 
fractured, and looked like a consolidated fluid. The Arabs called 
it hajar Mousa (Moses' stone). 

Our Arabs insisted upon it that the only ford was at the south- 
ern extremity of the sea. There were seven of them with us, and 
they were of three tribes, the Rashdyideh, Ta'amirah and Kubeneh. 
Being beyond the limits of their own territories, they were very 
apprehensive of an attack from hostile tribes. When, this after- 
noon, under the impression, which proved to be correct, that 
there was water in the ravine, we called to them, they came down 



200 RAVINE, WITH RUTINS. 

in all haste, unslinging their guns as they ran, in the supposition 
that we were attacked, — evincing, thereby, more spirit than we 
had anticipated. They were very uneasy; and, immediately 
after our arrival, one of them was perched, like a goat, upon a 
high cliff; and the others had bivouacked where they commanded 
a full view into the mouth of the ravine. 

Our camp was in a little cove, on the north side of the delta, 
which had been formed by the deposition of the winter torrents, 
and extends half a mile out, with a rounding point to the east- 
ward. The ravine comes down between two high, round-topped 
mountains, of a dark, burnt-brown colour, and a horizontal, ter- 
race-like stratum, half-way up. In the plain were several nubk 
and tamarisk trees, and three kinds of shrubs, and some flowers, 
which we gathered for preservation. Near the ravine, on a slight 
eminence, we discovered the ruins of a building, with square-cut 
stones, — the foundation-walls alone remaining, and a line of low 
wall running down to the ravine ; near it was a rude canal. There 
were many remains of terraces. Here Costigan thought that he 
had found the ruins of Gomorrah. About half a mile up, the 
faces of the ravine cut down perpendicularly through limestone 
rock, and turned, at right angles, a short distance above, with 
here and there a few bushes in the bottom. We found a little 
brook purling down the ravine, and soon losing itself in the dry 
plain. We were now almost at the southern extremity of tlie 
sea. The boats having been drawn up on the beach, their awn- 
ings were made to supply the places of tents, the open side facing 
the ravine ; the blunderbuss at our head, and the sentries walking 
beside it. At 8 P. M., there were a few light cumuli in the sky, 
but no wind. At 8.30, a hot fresh wind from north-west ; ther- 
mometer, 82° ; at 9, 86°. Finding it too oppressive under the 
awning, we crawled out upon the open beach, and, with our feet 
nearly at the water's edge, slept " a la belle etoile." After the 
manner of the poor highwayman, we slept in our clothes, under 
arms, and upon the ground. It continued very hot during the 
night, and we could not endure even a kerchief over our faces, 
to screen them from the hot and blistering wind. 



A S I R o c c o . 201 

This was doubtless a sirocco, but it came from an unusual 
quarter. At midnight, the thermometer stood at 88°. There were 
several light meteors from the zenith towards the north, seen dur- 
ing the night. While the wind lasted, the atmosphere was hazy. 
Notwithstanding the oppressive heat, there was a pleasure in our 
strange sensations, lying in the open air, upon the pebbly beach 
of this desolate and unknown sea, perhaps near the sites of Sodom 
and Gomorrah ; the salt mountains of Usdum in close proximity, 
and nothing but bright, familiar stars above us. 

Wednesday, April 26. When I awoke this morning there was 
a young quail at my side, where, in the night, it had most pro- 
bably crept for shelter from the strong, hot wind. 

We were up before sunrise ; light variable airs and warm 
weather. Started and steered in a direct line for Ras Hish (cape 
Thicket), the north point of Usdum. Sounding every few minutes 
for the ford ; stretching out occasionally from the shore line, and 
returning to it again, when the water deepened to two fathoms. 

At 8.12, stood in and landed on the extreme point of Usdum. 
Many dead bushes along the shore, which are incrusted with salt 
as at the peninsula. Found it a broad, flat, marshy delta, the 
soil coated with salt and bitumen, and yielding to the foot. 

At 8.30, started again and steered E. S. E., sounding every five 
minutes, the depth from one to one and three-quarter fathoms ; 
white and black slime and mud. Seetzen saw this salt mountain in 
1806, and says that he never before beheld one so torn and riven ; 
but neither Costigan nor Molyneux, who were in boats, came 
farther south on the sea than the peninsula. With regard to this 
part, therefore, which most probably covers the guilty cities, — 

"We are the first 
That ever burst 
Into this silent sea." 

At 9, the water shoaling, hauled more off shore. Soon after, 
to our astonishment, we saw on the eastern side of Usdum, one 
third the distance from its north extreme, a lofty, round pillar, 
standing apparently detached from the general mass, at the head 
of a deep, narrow, and abrupt chasm. We immediately pulled in 



202 PILLAR OF SALT. 

for the shore, and Dr. Anderson and I went up and examined it. 
The beach was a soft, shmy mud encrusted with salt, and a short 
distance from the water, covered with sahne fragments and flakes 
of bitumen. We found the pillar to be of solid salt, capped with 
carbonate of lime, cylindrical in front and pyramidal behind. 
The upper or rounded part is about forty feet high, resting on a 
kind of oval pedestal, from forty to sixty feet above the level of 
the eea. It slightly decreases in size upwards, crumbles at the 
top, and is one entire mass of crystallization. A prop, or but- 
tress connects it with the mountain behind, and the whole is 
covered with debris of a light stone colour. Its peculiar shape is 
doubtless attributable to the action of the winter rains. The Arabs 
had told us in vague terms that there was to be found a pillar 
somewhere upon the shores of the sea ; but their statements in all 
other respects had proved so unsatisfactory, that we placed no 
reliance upon them.'^ 

At 10.10, returned to the boat with large specimens. The 
shore was soft and very yielding for a great distance ; the boats 
could not get within 200 yards of the beach, and our foot-prints 
made on landing, were, when we returned, incrusted with salt. 

Some of the Arabs, when they came up, brought a species of 
melon they had gathered near the north spit of Usdum. It was 

■ A similar pillar is mentioned by Josephus, who expresses the belief 
of its being the identical one into which Lot's wife was transformed. His 
words are, "But Lot's wife continually turning back to view the city as 
she went from it, and beins too nicely inquisitive what would become of 
it, although God had forbidden her so to do. was changed into a pillar of 
salt, for I have seen it, and it remains at this day." — 1 Josephus^ AiUi., 
book 1, chap. 12. 

St. Clement, of Rome, a contemporary of Josephus, also mentions this 
pillar, and likewise St. Irenojus, a writer of the second century, who adds 
the hypothesis, how it came to last so long with all its members entire. Ro- 
land relates an old tnulition that as fast as any part of this pillar was 
washed away, it was supernaturally renewed. 

"Whose land for a testimony of their wickedness, is desolate, and 
smoketh to this day ; and the trees bear fruits that ripen not ; and a stand- 
ing pillar of salt is a monument of an incredulous soul." — Book of Wis- 
dom, X. 7. 



MUDDY SHORE. ' 203 

oblong, ribbed, of a dark green colour, much resembling a can- 
telope. When cut, the meat and seeds resembled the same fruit, 
but were excessively bitter to the taste. A mouthful of quinine 
could not have been more distasteful, or adhered longer and 
more tenaciously to the reluctant palate. 

Intending to examine the south end of the sea, and then pro- 
ceed over to the eastern shore in the hope of finding water, we 
discharged all our Arabs but one, and sharing our small store of 
water with them, and giving them provisions, we started again, 
and steered south. 

11.28, unable to proceed any further south from shallowness of 
the water, having run into six inches, and the boats' keels stirring 
up the mud. The Fanny Skinner having less draught, was able 
to get a little nearer to the shore, but grounded 300 yards off. 
Mr. Dale landed to observe for the latitude. His feet sank first 
through a layer of slimy mud a foot deep, then through a crust of 
salt, and then another foot of mud, before reaching a firm bottom. 
The beach was so hot as to blister the feet. From the water's 
edge, he made his way with difficulty for more than a hundred 
yards over black mud, coated with salt and bitumen. 

Unfortunately, from the great depth of this chasm, and the ap- 
proach of the sun towards the tropic of Cancer, the sextant (one 
of Gambey's best) would not measure the altitude with an artifi- 
cial horizon, and there was not sufficient natural horizon for the 
measurement. We therefore took magnetic bearings in every 
direction, which, with observations of Polaris, would be equally 
correct, but more laborious. We particularly noted the geogra- 
phical position of the south end of Usdura, which was now a little 
south of the southern end of the sea. The latter is ever-varying, 
extending south from tlie increased flow of the Jordan and the 
efflux of the torrents in winter, and receding with the rapid eva- 
poration, consequent upon the heat of summer. 

In returning to the boat, one of the men attempted to carry 
Mr. Dale to the water, but sunk down, and they were obliged 
separately to flounder through. When they could, they ran for 
it. They describe it as like running over burning ashes, — the 



204 A MUDDY BOTTOM. 

perspiration starting from every pore with the heat. It was a 
delightful sensation when their feet touched the water, even the 
salt, slimy water of the sea, at the temperature of 88°. 

The southern shore presented a mud-flat, which is terminated 
by the high hills bounding the Ghor to the southward. A very 
extensive plain or delta, low and marshy towards the sea, but 
rising gently, and, farther back, covered with luxuriant green, is 
the outlet of Wady es Safieh (clear ravine). Anxious to examine 
it, we coasted along, just keeping the boat afloat, the in-shore 
oars stirring up the mud. The shore was full three-fourths of a 
mile distant, the line of demarcation scarce perceptible, from 
the stillness of the water, and the smooth, shining surface of 
the marsh. On the flat beyond, were lines of drift-wood, and 
here and there, in the shallow water, branches of dead trees, 
which, like those at the peninsula, were coated with saline in- 
crustation. The bottom was so very soft that it yielded to 
everything, and at each cast the sounding lead sank deep into 
the mud. Thermometer, 95°. Threw the drag over, but it 
brought up nothing but soft, marshy, light coloured mud. 

It was indeed a scene of unmitigated desolation. On one side, 
rugged and worn, w^as the salt mountain of Usdum, with its con- 
spicuous pillar, which reminded us at least of the catastrophe 
of the plain ; on the other were the lofty and barren cliflTs of 
Moab, in one of the caves of which the fugitive Lot found shelter. 
To the south was an extensive flat intersected by sluggish drains, 
with the high hills of Edom semi-girding the salt plain Avhere the 
Israelites repeatedly overthrew their enemies ; and to the noith 
was the calm and motionless sea, curtained with a purple mist, 
while many fathoms deep in the slimy mud b^neatli it lay em- 
bedded the ruins of the ill-fated cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. 
The glare of light was blinding to the eye, and the atmosphere 
difhcult of respiration. No bird fanned with its wing the attenu- 
ated air through which the sun poured his scorching rays upon 
the mysterious element on which we floated, and which alone, of 
all the works of its Maker, contains no living thing within it. 

While in full view of the peninsula, I named its northern ex- 



INTENSE HEAT. 205 

tremity " Point Costigan," and its southern one " Point Moly- 
neux," as a tribute to the memories of the two gallant Englishmen 
who lost their lives in attempting to explore this sea. 

At 11.42, much frothy scum ; picked up a dead bird resembling 
a quail ; sounding every five minutes, depth increasing to four 
feet, bottom a little firmer ; the only ford must be about here. 

At 12.21, there was a very loud, reverberating report, as of 
startling thunder, and a cloud of smoke and dust on the western 
shore ; most probably caused by a huge rock falling from a high 
cHfT. 

In two hours, we were close in with the eastern shore, but 
unable to land from the soft bottom and shoalness of the water. 
At 2.50, a light breeze from W. N. W. ; hauled to the north 
towards the base of the peninsula. A long, narrow dry marsh, 
with a few scrubby bushes, separated the water from a range of 
stupendous hills, 2000 feet high. The cliff of En Nuweireh 
(Little Tiger), lofty and grand, towered above us in horizontal 
strata of brown limestone, and beautiful rose-coloured sandstone 
beneath. Clouds in the east, nimbus, seemed to be threatening 
a gust. Steered along a low marshy flat, in shallow water. The 
light wind subsided, and it became oppressively hot ; air 97^ ; 
water twelve inches below the surface 90°. A thin purple haze over 
the mountains, increasing every moment, and presenting a most 
singular and awful appearance ; the haze so thin that it was trans- 
parent, and rather a blush than a distinct colour. I apprehended 
a thunder-gust or an earthquake, and took in the sail. At 3.50, 
a hot, blistering hurricane struck us from the south-east, and for 
some moments we feared being driven out to sea. The thermo- 
meter rose immediately to 102°. The men, closing their eyes to 
shield them from the fiery blast, were obliged to pull with all their 
might to stem the rising waves, and at 4.30, physically exhausted, 
but with grateful hearts, we gained the shore. My own eye-lids 
were blistered by the hot wind, being unable to protect them, 
from the necessity of steering the boat. 

We landed on the south side of the peninsula, near Wady 
Humeir, the most desolate spot upon which we had yet encamped. 
18 



206 ANOTHER SIROCCO. 

Some went up the ravine to escape from the stifling wind ; others, 
driven back by the glare, returned to the boats and crouched 
under the awnings. One mounted spectacles to protect his eyes, 
but the metal became so heated that he was obliged to remove 
them. Our arms and the buttons on our coats became almost 
burning to the touch ; and the inner folds of our garments were 
cooler than tliose exposed to the immediate contact of the wind. 
We bivouacked without tents, on a dry marsh, a few dead bushes 
around us, and some of the thorny niibk, and a tree bearing a 
red berry a short distance inland, with low canes on the margin 
of the sea. 

At 5, finding the heat intolerable, we walked up the dry torrent 
bed in search of water. Found two successive pools rather than 
a stream, with some minnows in them ; the water not yet stag- 
nant, flowing from the upper to the lower pool. There were 
some succulent plants on their margins, and fern roots, and a few 
bushes around them. There were huge boulders of sandstone in 
the bed of the ravine ; a dead palm-tree, near the largest pool, a 
living one in a cleft of the rock at the head of the gorge ; and 
high up, to the summits of the beetling cliffs, the sandstone lay 
in horizontal strata, with perpendicular cleavage, and limestone 
above, its light brown colour richly contrasting with the deep red 
below. 

The sandstone below limestone here, and limestone without 
sandstone on the opposite shore, would seem to indicate a geolo- 
gical fault. 

Washed and bathed in one of the pools, but the relief was only 
iviomentary. In one instant after leaving the water, the moisture 
on the surface evaporated, and left the skin dry, parched, and 
stiff. Except the minnows in the pool, there was not a living 
thing stirring ; but the hot wind swept moaning through the 
oranches of the withered palm-tree,^ and every bird and insect, if 
any there were, had sought shelter under the rocks. 

Coming out from the ravine, the sight w'as a singular one. 
The wind had increased to a tempest ; the two extremities and 

' The date-palm. 



WELL-FORMED ARABS. 207 

the western shore of the sea were curtained by a mist, on this side 
of a purple hue, on the other a yellow tinge ; and the red and 
rayless sun, in the bronzed clouds, had the appearance it presents 
when looked upon through smoked glass. Thus may the heavens 
have appeared just before the Almighty in his wrath rained down 
fire upon the cities of the plain. Behind were the rugged crags 
of the mountains of Moab, the land of incest, enveloped in a cloud 
of dust, swept by the simoom from the great desert of Arabia. 

There was a smoke on the peninsula a little to the north of us. 
We knew not whether those who made it might prove friends or 
foes ; and therefore that little smoke was not to be disregarded. 
We had brought one of the Ta'amirah with us, for the express 
purpose of communicating with the natives, but he was so fearful 
of their hostility that I could not prevail on him to bear a message 
to them. With his back to the wind, and his eyes fixed on the 
streaming smoke, he had squatted himself down a short distance 
from us. He thought that we would be attacked in the night ; I 
felt sure that we would not, if we were vigilant. These people 
never make an attack but at advantage, and fifteen well-armed 
Franks can, here, bid defiance to anything but surprise. 

We have not seen an instance of deformity among the Arab 
tribes. This man was magnificently formed, and when he walked 
it was with the port and presence of a king. It has been remarked 
that races with highly coloured skins are rarely deformed ; and 
the exemption is attributed, perhaps erroneously, not to a mode 
of life differing from that of a civilized one, but to hereditary 
organization. 

The sky grew more angry as the day declined ; 

"The setting orb in crimson " seemed " to mourn, 
Denouncing greater woes at his return, 
And adds new horrors to tlie present doom 
By certain fear of evils yet to come." 

The h(*at rather increased than lessened after the sun went down. 
At 8 P. M., the thermometer was 106° five feet from the ground. 
At one foot from the latter it was 104°. We threw ourselves 
upon the parched, cracked earth, among dry stalks and canes, 



208 HEAT AND THIRST. 

which would before have seemed insupportable from the heat. 
Some endeavoured to make a screen of one of the boats' awn- 
ings, but the fierce wind swept it over in an instant. It was 
more like the blast of a furnace than living air. At our feet was 
the sea, and on our right, through the thicket, we could distinguish 
the gleaming of the fires and hear the shouts from an Arab en- 
campment. 

In the early part of the night, there was scarce a moment that 
some one was not at the water-breakers ; but the parching thirst 
could not be allayed, for, although there was no perceptible per- 
spiration, the fluid was carried off as fast as it was received into 
the system. At 9, the breakers were exhausted, and our last 
waking thought was water. In our disturbed and feverish slum- 
bers, we fancied the cool beverage purling down our parched and 
burning throats. The mosquitoes, as if their stings were envenom- 
ed by the heat, tormented us almost to madness, and we spent a 
miserable night, throughout which we were compelled to lie en- 
cumbered with our arms, while, by turns, we kept vigilant watch. 

We had spent the day in the glare of a Syrian sun, by the salt 
mountain of Usdum in the hot blast of the sirocco, and were now 
bivouacked under the calcined cliffs of Moab. When the water 
was exhausted, all too weary to go for more, even if there were 
no danger of a surprise, we threw ourselves upon the ground, — - 
eyes smarting, skin burning, lips, and tongue, and throat parched 
and dry ; and wrapped the first garment we could find around 
our heads to keep off the stifling blast; and, in our brief and 
broken slumbers, drank from ideal fountains. 

Those who have never felt thirst, never suffered in a simoom 
in the wilderness, or been fiir off at sea, with 

'•'Water, water everywhere, | 



Nor any drop to drink,' 



can form no idea of our sensations. They are best illustrated by 
the exclamation of the victim in Dante's Inferno. 

"The little rills which down the grassy side 
' Of Casentino flow to Arno's stream, 



THE HEAT ABATES. 209 

Filling their banks with verdure as they glide, 
Are ever in my view ; — no idle dream — 
For more that vision parches, makes we weak, 
Than that disease which wastes my pallid cheek." 

Our thoughts could not revert to home save in connexion with 
the precious element ; and many were the imaginary speeches we 
made to visionary common councils against ideal water-carts, 
which went about unsubstantiEd city streets, spouting the glorious 
liquid in die very wastefulness of abundance, every drop of which 
seemed priceless pearls, as we lay on the shore of the Dead Sea, 
in the feverish sleep of thirst. 

The poor affrighted Arab slept not a wink ; for, repeatedly, 
when I went out, as was my custom, to see that all was quiet and 
the sentries on the alert, he was ever in the same place, looking 
in the same direction. 

At midnight the thermometer stood at 98° ; shortly after which 
the wind shifted and blew lightly from the north. At 4 A.M., 
thermometer, 82° ; comparatively cool. 

Thursday, April 27. The first thing on waking, at day-break, 
I saw a large, black bird, high overhead, floating between us 
and the mottled sky. Shortly after, a large flock of birds flew 
along the shore, and a number of storks were noiselessly winging 
their way in the gray and indistinct light of the early morning. 
Calm and warm ; — went up and bathed in the ravine. There 
were voices in the cliffs overhead, and shortly after there was the 
report of a gun, the reverberating echoes of which were distinctly 
heard at the camp. As I had gone unattended, the officers were 
alarmed, and some went to look for me. Our Arab was exceed- 
ingly nervous. The gun was doubtless a signal from a look-out 
on the cliff to his friends inland, for these people live in a constant 
state of civil warfare, and station sentinels on elevated points to 
give notice of a hostile approach. I thought that we inspired 
them with more fear than they did us. Heard a partridge up in 
the ciiirs, and saw a dove and a beautiful humming-bird in the 
ravine. 

There were some fellahas (female fellahin) on a plain to th^ 
18* 



210 A MENACED ATTACK. 

northward of us. They allowed Mustafa to approach within 
speaking distance, but no nearer. They asked who we were, how 
and why we came, and why we did not go away. About an 
hour after, some thirty or forty fellahin, the Sheikh armed with a 
sword, the rest with indifferent guns, lances, clubs, and branches 
of trees, came towards us, singing the song of their tribe. I 
drew our party up, and, with the interpreter, advanced to meet 
them. When they came near, I drew a line upon the ground, 
and told them that if they passed it they would be fired upon. 
Thereupon, they squatted down, to hold a palaver. They 
belonged to the Ghaurariyeh, and were as ragged, filthy, and 
physicall}' weak, as the tribe of Rashayideh, on the western 
shore. I'inding us too strong for a demand, they begged for 
backshish. We gave them some food to eat, for they looked 
famished ; also a little tobacco and a small gratuity, to bear a 
letter to 'Akil, (who must soon be in Kerak,) appointing when 
and where to have a look-out for us. 

Before starting, we took observations, and angled in every 
direction. 

The Arabs gathered on the shore to see us depart, earnestly 
asking Mustafa how the boats could move without legs ; he bade 
them wait awhile, and they would see very long ones. The 
Fanny Mason sounded directly across to the western shore ; the 
casts taken at short intervals, varying from one and three-quarters 
to two and a quarter fathoms ; bottom, light and dark mud. 

This shallow bay is mentioned in Joshua, xv. 2. Everything 
said in the Bible about the sea and the Jordan, we believe to be 
fully verified by our observations. 

On our way, picked up a dead quail, which had probably per- 
ished in attempting to fly over the sea ; perhaps caught in last 
night's sirocco. Soon after, saw appearances of sand-spits on the 
surface of the sea, doubtless the optical delusion which has so often 
led travellers to mistake them for islands. Sent the Fanny Skinner 
to Point Molyneux, the south end of the peninsula, to take meri- 
dian observation ; much frothy scum upon the water. Landed 
at Wady Muhariwat (Surrounded ravine), on the western shore. 



ANOTHER SIROCCO. 211 

where a shallow salt stream, formed by a number of sprino-s 
oozing from a bank covered with shrubs, spread itself over a 
considerable space, and trickled down over the pebbles into the 
sea. There were some very small fish in the stream. Thermo- 
meter, 96°. 

Started again, and steered parallel with the western shore. 
Keeping about one-third the distance between the western shore 
and the peninsula, the soundings ranged steadily at two and a 
quarter fathoms ; first part light, the second part dark mud. At 
the expiration of two hours, encountered a very singular swell 
from north-west, — an undulation, rather; for the waves were 
glassy, with an unbroken surface, and there was not air enough 
stirring to move the gossamer curls of a sleeping infant. We knew 
well of what it was tlie precursor, and immediately steered for 
the land. We had scarcely rowed a quarter of an hour, the men 
pulling vigorously to reach the shelter of the cliflfs, when we were 
struck by a violent gust of hot wind, — another sirocco. The 
surface of the water became instantly ruffled ; changing in five 
minutes from a slow, sluggish, unbroken swell, to an angry and 
foaming sea. 

With eyes smarting from the spray, we buffeted against it for 
upwards of an hour, when the wind abruptly subsided, and the 
sea as rapidly became smooth and rippling. The gust was from 
the north-west. The wmd afterwards became light and baffling, 
— at one moment fair, the next directly ahead ; the smooth sur- 
face of the water unbroken, except a light ruffle here and there, 
as swept by the flickering airs. 

Stopped for the night in a spacious bay, on a fine pebbly beach, 
at the foot of Rubtat el Jamus (Tying of the Buffalo). It was a 
desolate-looking, verdureless range above us. There was no 
water to be found, and our provisions were becoming scarce ; we 
made a scanty supper, but had the luxury of a bed of pebbles, 
which, although hard and coarse, was far preferable to the mud 
and dust of our last sleeping-place. We hoped, too, to have 
but a reasonable number of insect-bedfellows. 
• Mr. Dale described the extreme point of the peninsula upon 



212 SCANTY PROVISIONS. 

which he landed as a low flat, covered with incrustations of salt 
and carbonate of lime. It was the point of the margin : there was 
a corresponding point to the high land, which is thinly laminated 
with salt. They picked up some small pieces of pure sulphur. 
In a cave, were tracks of a panther. After leaving the point, 
he saw a small flock of ducks and a heron, which w'ere too shy to 
permit a near approach. 

Before retiring, our Arabs, who had gone for hours in a fruitless 
search for water, returned with some dhom apples (fruit of the 
nubk), .which amazingly helped out the supper. 

I do not know what we should have done without these Arabs ; 
they brought us food when we were nearly famished, and water 
when parched with thirst. They acted as guides and messengers, 
and in our absence faithfully guarded the camp. A decided 
course tempered with courtesy, wins at once their respect and 
good will. Although they are an impetuous race, not an angry 
word had thus far passed between us. With the blessing of God, 
I hoped to preserve the existing harmony to the last. 

Took observations of Polaris. The north-west wind, hot and 
unrefreshing, sprang up at 8 P. M., and blew through the night. 

Friday, April 28. Breakfasted "a la hate" on a small cup of 
coffee each, and started at sunrise. If the wind should spring up 
fair, w^e purposed sailing over to the Arnon ; in the mean time we 
coasted along the shore towards Ain Jidy, for the water was ex- 
hausted, and we must make for the camp if a calm or a head wind 
should prevail. At 7.30, the wind freshened up from N. E. A 
little north of Sebbeh we passed a long, low, gravelly island, left 
uncovered by the retrocession of the water. A great refraction of 
the atmosphere. The Fanny Skinner round the point, seemed 
elevated above it. Her whole frame, from the surface of the 
water, was distinctly visible, although the land intervened. Our 
compass glass was incrusted with salt. 

Notwithstanding the high wind, the tendency to drowsiness 
was almost irresistible. The men pulled mechanically, with half- 
closed lids, and, except them and myself, every one in the copper 
boat was fast asleep. The necessity of steering and observing all 



INTELLIGENCE FROM HOME. 213 

I 

that transpired, alone kept me awake. The drowsy sensation, 
amounting almost to stupor, was greatest in the heat of the day, 
but did not disappear at night. In the experience of all, two 
hours' watch here seemed longer than double the period else- 
where. At 1.30 P. M., nearly up with Ain Jidy ; the white tents 
of the camp, the line of green, and the far-off fountain, speaking 
of shade, refreshment and repose. A camel was lying on the 
shore, and two Arabs a little beyond. Discerning us, the latter 
rose quickly and came towards the landing, shouting, singing, 
and making wild gesticulations, and one of them stooped and 
picked up a handful of earth and put it upon his head. Here the 
Sherif met us with a delight too simple-hearted in its expression 
to be insincere. The old man had been exceedingly anxious for 
our safety, and seemed truly overjoyed at our return. We were 
also much gratified to find that he had been unmolested. 

One of the Arabs whom we sent back from Usdum fell fainting 
on his return, and nearly famished for want of water. His com- 
panions, suffering from the same cause, were compelled to leave 
him on the parched and arid shore and hasten forward to save 
themselves. Fortunately there was a messenger in the camp, who 
had come on horseback from Jerusalem, and Sherif was enabled to 
send water forthwith, and have the poor man brought to the 
tents. _ ^ 

Found letters awaiting us from Beirut, forwarded express from 
Jerusalem. Our consul at the former place announced the death 
of John Quincy Adams, Ex-President of the U. States, and sent 
an extract from a Malta paper containing the annunciation. These 
were the first tidings we had received from the outer world, and 
their burthen was a sad one. But on that sea, the thought of 
death harmonized with the atmosphere and the scenery, and when 
echo spoke of it, where all else was desolation and decay, it was 
hard to divest ourselves of the idea that there was nothing but 
death in the world, and we the only living : — 

'• Death is here, and death is there, 
Death is busy everywhere." 



214 AN EGERIAN FOUTAIAN. 

We lowered the flag half-mast, and there was a gloom throughout 
the camp. 

Among the letters, I received one from the Mushir of Saida. 
After many compliments, he promised to reprimand Sa'id Bey 
for the grasping spirit he had evinced, and authorized our ally, 
'Akil, to remain with us as long as we might desire. 

In the evening we walked up the ravine to bathe. It was a 
toilsome walk over the rough debris brought down by the winter 
rains. A short distance up, we were surprised to see evidences 
of former habitations in the rocks. Roughly hewn caverns and 
natural excavations we had frequently observed, but none before 
evincing so much art. Some of the apertures were arched and 
cased with sills of limestone resembling an inferior kind of mar- 
ble. We were at a loss how to obtain an entrance, for they were 
cut in the perpendicular face of the rock, and the lowest more 
than fifty feet from the bed of the ravine. We stopped to plan 
some mode of gaining an entrance to one of them ; but the sound 
of the running stream, and the cool shadow of the gorge were too 
inviting, and advancing through tamarisk, oleander, and cane, 
we came upon the very Egeria of fountains. Far in among the 
cane, embowered, imbedded, hidden deep in the shadow of the 
purple rocks and the soft green gloom of luxuriant vegetation, 
lapsing with a gentle murmur from basin to basin, over the rocks, 
under the rocks', by the rocks, and clasping the rocks with its 
crystal arms, was this little fountain-wonder. The thorny nubk 
and the pliant osher were on the bank above ; yet lower, the 
oleander and the tamarisk ; while upon its brink the lofty cane, 
bent by the weight of its fringe-like tassels, formed bowers over 
the stream fit for the haunts of Naiads. Diana herself could not 
have desired a more secluded bath than each of us took in a 
separate basin. 

This more probably than the fountain of Ain Jidy (Engaddi), 
high up the mountain, may be regarded as the genuine " dia- 
mond of the desert" — and in one of the vaulted caves above, 
the imagination can dwell upon the night procession, Edith 
Plantagenet, and the flower dropped in hesitation and picked 



UNWONTED ENJOYMENT. 215 

up with avidity ; the pure, disinterested aspirations of the Cru- 
sader, the Hcentious thoughts of the Saracen, and the wild, im- 
practicable visions of the saintly enthusiast. One of those 
caverns, too, since fashioned by the hand of man, may have 
been the veritable cave of "Adullam," for this is the wilderness 
of Engaddi.^ Here too may have been the dwellings of the 
Essenes, prior to the days of Christianity, and subsequently 
of hermits, when Palestine was under Christian sway. Our 
Arabs say that these caves have been here from time immemorial, 
and that many years ago some of the tribe succeeded in entering 
one of them, and found vast chambers excavated in the rock. 
They may have been the cells where " gibbered and moaned " 
the hermit of Engaddi. 

Having bathed, we returned much refreshed to the camp. The 
messenger had brought sugar and lemons, and, with abundance 
of water, we had lemonade and coffee ; and, sheltered from the 
sun, with the wind blowing through the tent, we revelled iu 
enjoyment. This place, which at first seemed so dreary, had 
now become almost a paradise by contrast. The breeze blew 
freshly, but it was so welcome a guest, after the torrid atmosphere 
of noon, that we even let it tear up the tent-stakes, and knock 
the whole apparatus about our ears, with a kind of indulgent 
fondness, rather disposed to see something amusing in the flutter 
among the half-dried linen on the thorn-bushes. This reckless 
disregard of our personal property bore ample testimony to the 
welcome greeting of the wind. 

At one time, to-day, the sea assumed an aspect peculiarly 
sombre. Unstirred by the wind, it lay smooth and unruffled as 
an inland lake. The great evaporation enveloped it in a thin, 
transparent vapour, its purple tinge contrasting strangely with the 
extraordinary colour of the sea beneath, and, where they blended 
in die distance, gave it the appearance of smoke from burning 
sulphur. It seemed a vast cauldron of metal, fused but motionless. 

About sunset, we tried whether a horse and a donkey could 

■ "1"" ' " ~~ 

■ "And David went up from thence, and dwelt in strong holds at En- 
gaddi." — 1 Samuel, xxiii. 29. 



216 THE WATER OF THE DEAD SEA. 

swim in the sea without turning over. The result was that, 
although the animals turned a little on one side, they did not lose 
their balance. As Mr. Stephens tried his experiment earlier in 
the season, and nearer the north end of the sea, his horse could 
not have turned over from the greater density of the water there 
than here. His animal may have been weaker, or, at the time, 
more exhausted than ours. A muscular man floated nearly 
breast-high without the least exertion. 

Pliny says that some foolish, rich men of Rome had water from 
this sea, conveyed to them to bathe in, under the impression that 
it possessed medicinal qualities. Galen remarked on this that 
they might have saved themselves the trouble, by dissolving, in 
fresh water, as much salt as it could hold in solution ; to which 
Reyland adds, that Galeii'was not aware that the water of the 
Dead Sea held other things besides salt in solution. 

We picked up a large piece of bitumen on the sea-shore to- 
day. It was excessively hot to the touch. This combustible 
mineral is so great a recipient of the solar rays, that it must soften 
in the intense heat of summer. We gathered also some of the 
blossoms and the green and dried fruits of the osher for preserva- 
tion with the flowers collected in tlie descent of the Jordan, and 
the various places we have visited on this sea. 

The dried fruit, the product of last year, was extremely brittle, 
and crushed with the slightest pressure. The green, half-formed 
fruit of this year was soft and elastic as a pufl'-ball, and, like the 
leaves and stem, yields a viscous, white, milky fluid when cut. 
Dr. Robinson very aptly compared it to the milk-weed. This 
viscous fluid the Arabs call leben-usher (osher-railk), and they 
consider it a cure for barrenness. Dr. Anderson was enthusiastic 
in his researches, and although he kept his regular watch, was ever, 
when not on post, hammering at the rocks. He had already col- 
lected many valuable specimens. 

Through the night, a pleasant breeze from the west. Blowing 
over the wilderness of Judea, it was unaccompanied with a nau- 
seous smell. Towards morning, the wind hauled to the north 
and freshened — strange that the weather should become warmer 



FIRING MINUTE-GUNS. 217 

as tlie wind veered to the northern quarter ; but so it was. Sweep- 
ing alonof the western shore, it brou2;ht the foetid odour of the 
sulphureous marshes with it. The Arabs call this sea Bahr Lut 
(Sea of Lot), or Birket Lut (Pool of Lot). 

Saturday, April 29. Awakened at daylight by one of the 
Arabs calling the rest to prayer. The summons but slightly 
h(?eded. Soon after breakfast, sent the Fanny Skinner to sound 
in a north and south line, between the peninsula and the western 
shore. Wind fresh from N. W. Sent a detachment to explore 
the ruins of Masada. Experienced some difficulty in getting the 
boats through the surf. 

Remained in camp to write a report of proceedings to the Hon. 
Secretary of the Navy, and to answer the kind letters of H. B. 
M. Consul at Jerusalem, and Mr. Chasseaud, U. S. Consul at 
Beirut. Every thing quiet ; and, towards noon, as the wind sub- 
sided, the sea assumed its sombre and peculiar hue. 

At noon, fired out at sea, in honour of the illustrious dead, 
twenty-one minute-guns from the heavy blunderbuss mounted on 
the bow of the Fanny Mason. The reports reverberated loudly and 
strangely amid the cavernous recesses of the lofty and barren 
mountains. This sea is wondrous, in every sense of the word ; so 
sudden are its changes, and so different the aspects it presents, as to 
make it seem as if we were in a world of enchantment. We were 
alternately upon the brink and the surface of a huge, and some- 
times seething cauldron. Picked up a piece of scoriated lava. 

At 1 P. M., Mr. Aulick returned. He reported a gradual de- 
crease of soundings to thirteen fathoms, nearly up the slope to the 
shallow basin of the southern sea. Everything favours the sup- 
position that the guilty cities stood on the southern plain, between 
Usdum and the mountains of Moab. The northern part must 
have been always water, or the plain have sunk at the time of die 
catastrophe. 

Protected by our presence from the fear of robbers, some of the 

Ta'amirah came in to harvest their few scanty patches of barley. 

They cut the grain, with their swords for reapuig-hooks, and threw 

it upon the threshing-ilooi,— a circular piece of hard, trampled 

19 



218 ARAB HUMANITY TO ANIMALS. 

ground, around which were driven three donkeys, abreast. It 
was a slow and wasteful process. The little unmuzzled brutes 
were, in their rounds, permitted to nip the upturned ears. We 
had often noticed the humanity of this people towards the brute 
creation. In a moment of excitement Sherif wounded a stork, 
but seemed sincerely sorry for it afterwards. The Arab who 
brought the wild boar pigs to sell, cut their throats rather than 
turn them adrift, when they would have perished for want of food, 
which they were too young to procure. These Arabs always 
express great horror at anything like wanton cruelty towards ani- 
mals. And yet 'Akil looked upon the woman whose husband he 
had slain, without the drooping of an eyelid, or the visible relaxa- 
tion of a muscle. It is for philosophers to account for this trait 
of humanity towards animals, in a race proverbially reckless of 
the lives of their fellow-creatures. 

The small quantity of grain these people could spare, we pur- 
chased for distribution at home. In the afternoon, mounted on 
Sherif 's spirited horse, I went up to the fountain of Ain Jidy. It 
is a clear, beautiful stream, issuing from the rock, skirted by the 
cane and shadowed by the nubk, four hundred feet up the moun- 
tain. The view from it was magnificent, particularly towards 
Usdum and the southern basin of the sea. 



CHAPTER XV. 

FROM CAMP TO THE CAPITAL OF MOAB. 

Sunday, April 30. This morning, like the land we are in, we 
enjoyed our Sabbatli, and slept until the sun and flies compelled 
us to get up. The atmosphere of the tent being oppressive, we 
breakfasted outside in its shade. Some of us spent the forenoon 
in the quiet recesses of the ravine, endeavouring to observe the 
day. Thus far, all, with one exception, had enjoyed good health. 



EFFECTS UPON HEALTH. 219 

but there were symptoms which caused me uneasiness. The 
figure of each one had assumed a dropsical appearance. The 
lean had become stout, and the stout almost corpulent ; the pale 
faces had become florid, and those which were florid, ruddy ; 
moreover, the slightest scratch festered, and the bodies of many 
of us were covered with small pustules. The men complained 
bitterly of the irritation of their sores, whenever the acrid water 
of the sea touched them. Still, all had good appetites, and I 
hoped for the best.^ There could be nothing pestilentiial in the 
atmosphere of the sea. There is little verdure upon its shores, 
and, by consequence, but little vegetable decomposition to render 
the air impure : and the foetid smell we had frequently noticed, 
doubtless proceeded from the sulphur-impregnated thermal 
springs, which were not considered deleterious. Three times, it 
is true, we had picked up dead birds, but they, doubtless, had 
perished from exhaustion, and not from any malaria of the sea, 
which is perfectly inodorous, and, more than any other, abounds 
with saline exhalations, which, I believe, are considered whole- 
some. Our Ta'amirah told us that, in pursuance of the plan he 
had adopted with regard to the settlement of the Ghor, Ibraliira 
Pasha sent three thousand Egyptians to the shores of this sea, 
about ten years since, and that every one died within two months. 
This is, no doubt, very much exaggerated. 

There was, most probably, much mortality among the poor 
wretches, forced from their fertile plains to this rugged and in- 
hospitable shore ; but dejection of spirits, and scarcity of food, 
must have been the great destroyers. 

P. M., started for the eastern shore, leaving Sherif again in 
charge, with directions to move the camp to Ain Turabeh, on 
Wednesday. This was the day appointed to meet 'Akil, and I 
felt sure that he would not fail us. 

A light air from the south induced me to furl the awning 

' Wherever there is an evil there is usually its antidote near at hand ; 
and, perhaps, the remedy for these cutaneous diseases is to be foimd in 
the acrid juices of the osher, vi'hich grows here and upon the southern 
shores of this sea. 



220 HEAT AND DESOLATION. 

and set the sail to spare the men from labouring at the oars. A 
light tapping of the ripples at the bow, and a faint line of foam 
and bubbles at her side, were the only indications that the boat 
was in motion. The Fanny Skinner was a mile astern, and all 
around partook of the stillness of death. The weather was in- 
tensely hot, and even the light air that urged us almost insensibly 
onward had something oppressive in its flaws of heat. The sky 
was unclouded, except by a few faint cirri in the north, sweeping 
plume-like, as if the sun had consumed the clouds, and the light 
wind had drifted their ashes. The glitter from the water, with its 
multitude of reflectors, for each ripple was a mirror, contributed 
much to our discomfort ; yet the water was not transparent, but 
of the colour of diluted absinthe, or the prevailing tint of a Per- 
sian opal. The sun, we felt, was glaring upon us, but the eye 
dared not take cognizance, for the fierce blaze would have blighted 
the powders of vision, as Semele was consumed by the unveiled 
divinity of Jove. 

The black chasms and rough peaks, embossed with grimness, 
were around and above us, veiled in a transparent mist like visible 
air, that made them seem unreal, — and, 1300 feet below, our 
sounding-lead had struck upon the buried plain of Siddim, shroud- 
ed in slime and salt. 

While busied with such thoughts, my companions had yielded 
to the oppressive drowsiness, and now lay before me in every 
attitude of a sleep that had more of stupor in it than of repose. 
In the awful aspect which this sea presented, when we first be- 
held it, I seemed to read the inscription over the gate of Dante's 
Inferno: — "Ye who enter here, leave hope behind." Since 
tlien, habituated to mysterious appearances in a journey so replete 
with them, and accustomed to scenes of deep and thrilling interest 
at every step of our progress, those feelings of awe had been in- 
sensibly lessened or hushed by deep interest in the investigations 
we had pursued. But now^ as I sat alone in my wakefulness, the 
feeling of awe returned ; and, as I looked upon the sleepers, I felt 
*' the hair of my flesh stand up," as Eliaphaz the Themanite's did, 
when " a spirit passed before his face ; " for, to my disturbed ima- 



PRESENTIMENT OF DISASTER. 221 

gination, there was something fearful in the expression of their 
inflamed and swollen visages. The fierce angel of disease seemed 
hovering over them, and I read the forerunner of his presence in 
their flushed and feverish sleep. Some, with their bodies bent and 
arms dangling over the abandoned oars, their hands excoriated 
with the acrid water, slept profoundly ; — others, with heads thrown 
back, and lips, cracked and sore, with a scarlet flush on either 
cheek, seemed overpowered by heat and weariness even in sleep ; 
while some, upon whose faces shone the reflected light from the 
w^ater, looked ghastly, and dozed with a nervous twitching of the 
limbs, and now and then starting from their sleep, drank deeply 
from a breaker and sunk back again to lethargy. The solitude, 
the scene, my own thoughts, were too much ; I felt, as I sat thus, 
steering the drowsily-moving boat, as if I were a Charon, ferrying, 
not the souls, but the bodies of the departed and the damned, 
over some infernal lake, and could endure it no longer ; but 
breaking from my listlessness, ordered the sails to be furled and 
the oars resumed — action seemed better than such unnatural 
stupor. 

Prudence urged us to proceed no farther, but to stop, before 
some disaster overtook us ; but the thought of leaving any part of 
our work undone w^as too painful, and I resolved to persevere, 
but to be as expeditious as possible without working the party too 
hard. 

At 4.10 P.M., reached "Point Costigan," north end of the 
peninsula, and steered S. S. E. across the bay, to search for water 
and for signals from 'Akil. The heat was still intense, rendered 
less- endurable by the bright glare from the white spiculte of the 
penmsula, and the dazzling reflection from the surface of the sea 
Sounded in twenty-four fathoms, hard bottom, about gun-shot 
distance from the land. In a few minutes, saw an Arab on the 
shore among the low canes and bushes, and shortly after several 
others. Preparing for hostilities, yet in the hope of a friendly 
reception, we puUed directly in and hailed them. To our great 
delight one of them proved to be Jum'ah (Friday), sent by 'Akil, 
who yesterday arrived at Kerak. We immediately landed, and 
19* 



222 BATTLE BETWEEN ARABS. 

bivouacked upon the beach, a short distance from a shallow stream 
descending the Wady Beni llamed, 

'Akil, on leaving us at 'Ain el Feshkhah, endeavoured, accord- 
ing to agreement, to find his way to the eastern shore and thence 
to Kerak. On his way, he stopped with some of his friends, a 
portion of the tribe of Beni Sukrs from Salt, In the night they 
were unexpectedly attacked by a party of Beni 'Adwans. At 
first, being much inferior in numbers, they retreated, 'Akil losing 
his camel and all his baggage. Subsequently they were strongly 
reinforced, and became assailants in their turn. The action lasted 
several hours ; they had twelve wounded, including two of 'Akil's 
followers, and twenty-two of the 'Adwans were reported to be 
killed and wounded, among the former the son of the Sheikh. 
'Akil's Nubian was twice wounded in the arm, once by a gun- 
shot, and once by the thrust of a spear. The rifle of the hostile 
young Sheikh was given to Sherif Musaid, nephew of Sherif 
Hazaa, for his gallantry in the action. 

We learned from Jum'ah that there were two Sheikhs or Go- 
vernors in Kerak, a Christian one, who could muster 250 riflemen, 
and a Muslim one, whose followers were mostly mounted, and 
far more numerous ; — the former wholly subservient to the latter. 

At 7,30 P. M., Sulieman, the son of Abd 'Allah, Christian 
Sheikh of Kerak, with four followers, arrived with a welcome and 
an invitation from his father to visit him in his mountain fortress, 
seventeen miles distant, saying that he would have come himself 
if certain of meeting us. They had been despatched at 'Akil's 
instance at early daybreak, and from the mountains, on their way 
down, saw us crossing the sea. An invitation was also received 
from the Muslim Sheikh. I accepted it with a full sense of the 
risk incurred ; but the whole party was so much debilitated by 
the sirocco we had experienced on the south side of the penin- 
sula, and by the subsequent heat, that it became absolutely neces- 
sary to reinvigorate it at all hazards, I felt sure that Jum'ah 
would carefully guard our boats in our absence, and therefore 
sent to 'Akil, through whom alone I had resolved to hold trans- 
actions with this people, for horses and mules for the party. He 



THE FELLAH IN TRIBES. 223 

had sent an apology for not coming in person on account of his 
wounded followers, and in consequence of all their horses being 
foundered. 

Wady Kerak is at the S. E. extremity of the bay. Between 
it and us is the village of Mezra'a, and in the near vicinity of the 
latter are the supposed ruins of Zoar. To-morrow we will con- 
tinue the exploration of this deep and interesting bay. 

Between the camp and the stream, and scattered on the plain, 
are groves of acacia, and many osher trees as large as half-grown 
apple trees, and with larger fruit than any we had seen. We 
gathered some of the size of the largest lemon., but green, 
soft, and pulpy ; emitting, like the branches, a viscous milky 
fluid when cut, which the Arabs told us would be extremely 
injurious to the eyes if it touched them. There was some of the 
dried fruit too, as brittle as glass, and flying to pieces on the 
slightest pressure. Within the last was a very small quantity of 
a thin, silky fibre, which is used by the Arabs for gun-matches. 
The rind is thinner, but very much in colour like a di'ied lemon, 
and the dried fruit has the appearance of having spontaneously 
bursted. 

An Arab from Mezra'a brought us some detestably sour leban 
and some milk, but of which few could endure the smell, caused 
by the filthy goat-skins which contained them, and which, it 
seems, are never washed. He also brought some flour made of 
the dhom apple, dried and pulverized, which was veiy palatable. 

The Sheikh of Mezra'a, with some of his people, also came in. 
Together with the fellahin tribes at the south end of the sea, they 
are generally denominated Ghaurariyeh. They are nmch darker, 
and their hair more wiry and disposed to curl than any Arabs we 
have seen. Their features as well as their complexion are more 
of the African type, and they are short and spare built, with low 
receding foreheads, and the expression of countenance is half 
sinister and half idiotic. Their only garment is a tunic of brief 
dimensions, open at the breast and confined round the waist by a 
band or leathern belt. The Sheikh has rude sandals, fastened by 
thongs; the rest aic barefooted. The women are even more 



224 CHRISTIAN ARABS. 

abject-looking than the men, and studiously conceal their faces. 
They all, men and women, seem to bear impressed upon their 
ft-atures, the curse of their incestuous origin. 

Their village, JMezra'a, is on the plain about half an hour, or 
one mile and a half distant. Their houses are mere hovels plas- 
tered with mud. They cultivate the dhoura (millet), tobacco, 
and some indigo, a specimen of which we procured. 

The deputation from Kerak expressed great delight at beholding 
fellow-Christians upon the shores of this sea, and said that if they 
had known of our first arrival on the w^estern shore, they would 
have ffone round and invited us over. It was a stranofe sioht to 
see these wild Arab Christians uniting themselves to us with such 
heartfelt cordiality. It would be interesting to trace whether they 
are some of the lost tribes subsequently converted to Christianity ; 
or the descendants of Christians, who, in the fastnesses of the 
miountains, escaped the Muhammedan alternative of the Koran or 
the sword ; or a small Christian remnant of the Crusades. At 
all events, their gratification at meeting us was unfeigned and 
warmly expressed. They felt that we would sympathize with 
them in the persecutions to which they are subjected by their law- 
less Muslim neighbours. They had, indeed, our warmest sym- 
pathies, and our blood boiled as we listened to a recital of their 
wrongs. We felt more than ever anxious to visit Kerak, and 
judge for ourselves of their condition. Their mode of salutation 
approaches nearer to our own than that of any other tribe we met ; 
they shake hands, and then each kisses the one he had extended. 
They had never seen a boat, which in the language of the coun- 
try, is called "choctura," and supposing that ours must have 
feet, examined them with great curiosity. They could not believe 
that anything larger cpuld be made to float. In the course of the 
evening, one of the fellahin from Mezra'a, when he first beheld 
them, stood for some time lost in contemplation, and then burst 
forth in joyful shouts of recognition. He was an Egyptian by 
birth, and stolen from his home when quite young, had forgotten 
ever}'thing connected with his native country, until the sight of 
our boats reminded him of having seen things resembling them ; 



ACTION OF THE WATER ON COPPER. 225 

and the Nile, and the boats upon its surface, and the familiar 
scenes of his childhood, rushed upon his memory. It was inter- 
esting to see the dull and clouded intellect gradually lighten up 
as the remembrance of the past broke in upon it ; yet it was sad, 
for the glad smile of the Egyptian died away, and left a sorrow- 
ing expression upon his features — for from the Nile, his dormant 
affections had, perhaps, reverted to the hovel upon its banks — 
and he thought of his mother and young barbarian playmates. , 

These Christian Arabs are of the tribe Beni Khallas (Sons of 
the Invincible), a name inappropriate to their present condition. 
Their features are fuller and more placid in expression, and they 
seem more vigorous, manly, and intelligent than the Raschayideh 
and Ta'amirah of the Judean shore. After dinner, partaken by 
the light of the camp-fires, we set the watch and threw ourselves 
upon the shelving beach, each one wrapping up his head to screen 
it from the fresh wind. Our Christian Arabs kept watch and 
ward with us through the night, for they had reason to know that 
the Mezra'a people were dangerous neighbours. 

Monday, May 1. A calm and warm but not unpleasant morn- 
ing ; thermometer, 83°. Completed the topographical sketch of 
the shore-lines of the bay, and verified the position of the mouth 
of Wady Kerak, and sounded down the middle of the bay. 

Overhauled the copper boat, which wore away rapidly in this 
briny sea. Such was the action of the fluid upon the metal, that 
the latter, as long as it was exposed to its immediate friction, was 
as bright as burnished gold, but whenever it came in contact with 
the air, it corroded immediately. 

The stones on the beach were encrusted with salt, and looked 
exactly as if whitewashed. 

It was well that we despatched 'Akil in advance to the Arabian 
tribes, for the Sheikh of Mezra'a told Jum'ah that, when he first 
saw us coming, he hastened to collect his followers, with the de- 
termination of attacking us, and only changed his purpose when 
he heard him greet us as friends. It would have been a matter 
of regret had they fired upon us ; for, although we would most 
certainly have defeated them, there must have been blood shed. 



226 ANCIENT RUINS. 

and it was my most earnest wish to accomplish the objects of tlie 
expedition without injury t& a human being. 

P. M. Rode out upon the plain, with two Arabs on foot, to 
look for the ruins of Zoar. Pursuing a S. E. direction, up the 
peninsula, passed, first, some dhoura (millet) fields, the grain but 
a few inches above the ground — many of the fields yet wet from 
recent irrigation. Thence rode through many tangled tickets of 
cane and tamarisk, with occasional nubk and osher trees, and 
came, at length, upon an open space, with many large heaps of 
stones in regular rows, as if they had once formed houses. They 
were uncut, and had "never known iron;" but there were no 
other vestiges of a building about them; — so I concluded that 
they were the larger stones which had encumbered the soil, and 
were gathered by the fellahin. 

Proceeding a little more to the south, we came to many more 
such mounds or heaps, and, among them, to the foundation of a 
building of some size. It was in the form of a main building, 
with a smaller one before or behind it ; the first being a quadran- 
gular wall, and the other in detached pieces, like the pedestals of 
columns. The stones were large, some of them one and a half 
feet in diameter, uncut, but roughly hewn, and fitted on each 
other with exactness, but without mortar. There were many 
minute fragments of pottery scattered about on the soil ; and 
among the rubbish I found an old hand-mortar, very much worn, 
which I brought away. The ruined foundation bore the marks 
of great antiquity ; and the site corresponds to the one assigned 
by Irby and Mangles as that of Zoar. But I could see no co- 
lumns and no other vestiges of ruins than what I have mentioned. 

Returning, saw the horses and mules for which we had sent, 
coming down the mountains, and waited for them in the plain. 
They were accompanied by Muhammed, the son of Abd'el Kadir, 
the Muslim Sheikh of the Kerakiyeh, and by Abd' Allah, the 
Christian Sheikh of the Beni Kiallas ; the^latter residing in the 
town of Kerak, the former living mostly in black tents, about half 
a mile distant from it. 

On our way to camp, Muhammed endeavoured to display 



AN ARAB LETTER. 227 

his horsemanship ; but the animal, wearied by the rough mountain- 
road he had travelled, fell to the ground, and his rider was com- 
pelled to jump off to save himself. In mounting again, not find- 
ino- any thing more convenient, he arrogantly ordered one of the 
fellahin to stoop, and, placing his foot upon the abject creature's 
back, sprung upon his horse. 

This Muhammed is about thirty years of age, short but 
compactly built, with a glossy, very dark-mahogany skin, long, 
coarse black hair, and a thick, black beard and moustache. His 
eye, fiery but furtive, was never fixed in its gaze, but, rolling 
restlessly from one object to another, seemed rather the glare of a 
wild beast than the expression of a human eye. Altogether, we 
thouo;ht that he had the most insolent and overbearino- counten- 
ance and manner w^e had ever seen. 

Abd' Allah, the Christian Sheikh, about twenty years his senior, 
was a very different person ; robust in frame, he was mild even 
to meekness. In the bearing of the respective parties towards 
each other, we could read a long series of oppression on one side 
and submissive endurance on the other. 

They brought me a letter from 'Akil, of which the following is 
a literal translation : — 

DIRECTION. 

" By God's favour. May it reach Haditheh, and be delivered 
to the hand of the Excellency of our Beloved. 

"May God preserve him. Beduah, 8642." 

INSIDE. 

" To the Excellency of the most honourable, our dear friend — 
May the Almighty God preserve him. 

" We beg, first, to ofler you our love and great desire to see 
the light of your happy countenance. We beg, secondly, to say 
that in the most happy and honourable time, we received your 
letter containing your beautiful discourse. We thanked, on read- 
ing it, the Almighty God that you are well, and ask him now, 
also (who is the most fit to ask), that we may be permitted to 
behold the light of your countenance in a fit and agreeable time. 



228 ARABS. 

" The animals which you have ordered will be brought down 
to you by the Excellency of our brother Chief, Muhammed 
Niijally, and the Chief Abd' Allah en Nahas ; and the men ne- 
cessary to guard the boats will be supplied by the said Chiefs. 

" The reason of our delay in coming to you- was the weakness 
and fatigue of our horses. The time will be, God willing, short 
before we see you. 

" This being all that is necessary, we beg you will offer our 
compliments (peace) to all those who inquire after us. — From this 
part, the Excellency of our respected brother, Sherif, sends you 
his best compliments. May you be kept in peace. 

" © Seal of 'Akil Aga el Hassee. 
"Kerak, 28 Jamad Awah." 

The boats excited much attention; and, to gratify both the 
Christian and the Muslim Arabs, we launched one and pulled her 
a short distance out and back, some of the Arabs being on board ; 
but Muhammed, although he had been the loudest in expressions 
of wonder and incredulity, declined to go wdth them ; and I was 
disposed to think that he was a very coward after all. On re- 
turning from the beach, they stuck plugs of onions into their nos- 
trils, to counteract the malaria they had imbibed from the sea. 
They call it "the sea accursed of God;" and, entertaining the 
most awful fears respecting it, looked upon us as madmen for 
remaining so long upon it. 

During the forenoon, the thermometer ranged from 86° to 90°. 
At sunset, it stood at 83°, and quite pleasant. Sky filled with 
cumulus and stratus. A little after 8 P. M., we heard the song 
sung by the tribes when about to meet friends or enemies ; in the 
first instance, a song of welcome ; in the last, a war-cry of defi- 
ance. The wild coronach was borne upon the wind, long before 
the party singing it were in sight ; but presently fourteen mounted 
Arabs, headed by the brother of Muhammed, came proudly into 
the camp. The camp consisted of two boats' awnings, stretched 
over stakes, to screen us from the sun and wind. All carried a 
long gun and a short carbine, the last slung over the shoulders. 



ARAB WAR-CRY. 



229 



except one Arab, a kinsman of the Sheikh, who bore a spear 
eighteen feet long, with a large, round tuft of ostrich feathers just 
below the spear-head. Reining up before us, they finished then- 
song, prior to dismounting or exchanging salutations. The war- 
cry of the Arabs was the only true musical sound we heard among 
them, although they frequently beguiled the tedious hours of a 
march with what they termed a song. The following notes, by 
Mr. Bedlow, will give some idea of their war-cry. 



r . 


^=f-- 




M 


r^9 - 9 

\ \ r r 


r 


~r 


1 


1 


1 1 1 1 


~r 



These few notes are uttered in a high, shrill voice, and with a 
modulation or peculiarity bearing some affinity to the characteris- 
tic Yoddle of Tyrolean music. ~ The distance at which this 
wild war-cry can be heard, is almost incredible. 

After nightfall the wind sprang up fresh from the northward. 
We made a lee by stretching one of the boat's awnings across, 
and lying upon the beach with our heads towards it. For my- 
self I could not sleep. The conduct of Muhammed, almost 
insulting, filled me with distrust. He had come down with 
about eight men, his brother with fourteen more, and by two 
and three at a time they had been dropping in ever since, until, 
at 9 P. M., there were upwards of forty around us; and, if 
disposed to treachery, there might be many more concealed 
within the thicket. It seemed as if Muhammed considered us as 
already in his power, and it occurred to me at times, that it was 
my duty, in order to save the lives for which I was responsible, 
to depart at once ; but two considerations determined me not 
only to remain, but, at all hazards, go to Kerak. The second 
day after our arrival upon this sea, I had sent 'Akil to the Ara- 
bian tribes to announce our coming, and to make arrangements 
with them to supply us with provisions, lie had, through great 
peril, and at considerable loss, made his way along the whole 
eastern coast, and as directed, announced the coming of a party 
of Americans, people from another world, of whom they had 
20 



230 



HEAVY DEW. 



never heard before. I therefore felt that to retire now would be 
construed into flight, and the American name be ever after held 
in contempt by this people, and all who might hereafter sojourn 
among them. Moreover, to decline an invitation for which we 
had made overtures through 'Akil, might hazard his safety. In 
addition to these considerations, I felt satisfied that if not invito- 
rated by bracing air, even for one day, many of the party would 
inevitably succumb ; and I preferred the risk of an encounter 
with the Arabs to certain sickness upon the sea, with its result, 
unaccomplished work. 

Although the wind was high, too high to take observations of 
Polaris, the night was sultry ; thermometer 81°, the dew so heavy 
as to filter through the awning and drop upon our faces. This 
is the second time we have experienced dew upon this sea, each 
time with a hot wind from the north. It probably betokens some 
atmospheric change. Then it was succeeded by a sirocco. We 
shall see what to-morrow will bring forth. This is our fifteenth 
night upon this sea. Towards morning the wind lulled, and the 
sky became clouded and the weather cool. 

Tuesday, May 2. Cloudy. Called all hands at 4 A. M., and 
set off at 5.30, after a hurried and meagre breakfast. The sailors 
were mounted on most unpromising looking cradles, running 
lengthwise along the backs of their mules, while our horses were 
but little better caparisoned. At his earnest solicitation, I left 
behind Hemy Loveland, seaman, who was apparently one of the 
least affected by the previous heat.^ To him and our Bedawin 
friend Jum'ah, who had several Arabs with him, I gave strict 
charge of the boats and all our effects. 

We were fourteen in number, besides the interpreter and cook. 
The first I believed courageous; the latter I knew to be a 
coward. Our escort consisted of twelve mounted Arabs and 
eight footmen, the rest having gone in advance. 

We struck directly across the plain forming the base or root of 
the peninsula, towards the lofty ragged cliffs which overlook it 

' This man eventually suffered more from sickness, and his life waa 
longer in jeopardy, than any of the rest. 



EXCURSION INLAND. 231 

from the east, and passed many niibk and osher trees, and fields 
of dried stalks, some resembling those of the maize and others 
the sugar-cane. Crossing the stream which flows down the Wady 
Beni Hamad, and a number of patches of dhoura (millet), artifi- 
cially irrigated, we passed close under a ruin on an elevated cliff, 
which overlooks the plain of Zoar. It seemed to be the remains 
of a fortalice not more ancient than the times of the Crusades. 
We would have given much to explore the plain and visit the 
ruin above, but circumstances forbade it. It was essential to 
inhale the mountain air as soon as possible, and equally important 
that we should keep together to guard against treachery. We 
resolved to make an exploration on our return, if satisfied that 
we could do so with safety. 

We thus far passed in succession the loose tertiaries of the 
peninsula ; some ferruginous and friable sandstone, a yellow and 
shaly limestone, clay-slate, and argillaceous marls. 

From Wady Beni Hamad we skirted along the base of the cliffs 
for about two miles in a south direction, across the neck of the 
peninsula towards the S, E. inlet of the sea, and crossing the bed, 
turned up Wady Kerak, the steepest and most difficult path, with 
the wildest and grandest scenery we had ever beheld. On one 
side was a deep and yawning chasm, which made the head dizzy 
to look into ; on the other beetling crags, blackened by the tem- 
pests of ages, in shape exactly resembling the waves of a mighty 
ocean, which at the moment of overleaping some lofty barrier, 
were suddt nly changed to stone, retaining even in transformation, 
their dark and angry hue. In most places the naked rock dipped 
down abruptly into the deep and gloomy chasm, and it only 
required a torrent to come tumbling headlong over the rude frag- 
ments fallen from the clifis above to complete the sublimity of the 
scene. Nor was it wanting. 

When we first started, it was so cloudy that we congratulated 
ourselves upon the prospect of a cool and pleasant instead of a 
sultry ride. While passing under the ruin, it began to rain lightly 
but steadily. Before we had half ascended the pass, however, 
.there came a shout of thunder from the dense cloud which had 



232 A THUNDER STORM. 

gathered at the summit of the gorge, followed by a. rain, compared 
to which, the gentle showers of our more favoured clime are as 
dew-drops to the overflowing cistern. Except the slight shower 
at the Pilgrim's Ford, this was the first since we landed in Syria. 
The black and threatening cloud soon enveloped the mountain- 
tops, the lightning playing across it in incessant flashes, while the 
loud thunder reverberated from side to side of the appalHng 
chasm. Between the peals we soon heard a roaring and con- 
tinuous sound. It was the torrent from the rain-cloud, sweeping 
in a long line of foam down the steep declivity, bearing along 
huge fragments of rocks, \vhich, striking against each other, 
sounded like mimic thunder. In one spot, where the torrent 
made its maddest leap, a single palm-tree, bent by the blast, 
waved its branches wildly above the gorge, seeming to the ima- 
gination like the genius of the place bewailing the devastation of 
its favoured haunt. Durinof the whole of this storm, our rugfofed 
path led along the face of a steep precipice looking into the dark 
grandeur of the chasm beneath. It was a wild, a terrific, but a 
glorious sight ! 

"It more stirs the blood 
To rouse a lion than to start a hare ;" 

and I rejoiced to witness this elemental strife amid these lofty 
mountains. How much more exciting and sublime than anything 
a monotonous plain presents ! I have skirted the base of Etna, 
clothed in the luxuriant verdure of a favoured clime, and looked 
upon its summit, wreathed in a mantle of perpetual snow, while 
the smoke from its crater gracefully curled above it. I have 
clambered the cone of Vesuvius by nightfall, and looked aver its 
brink into the fiery cauldron beneath ; and in a thunder-storm, I 
once launched a boat at the foot of Niagara, and rocking in the 
foam of its cataract, marked with delight the myriads of gems, 
of every hue and radiance, reflected in the misty vapour at each 
successive flash ; but I never beheld a scene in sublimity equal to 
the present one. 

A meandering river and a fertile plain, with their accompani- 
ments, luxuriant foliage and fragrant odours, interspersed with 



SUBLIMITY OF THE SCENE. 233 

scenes of domestic peace, captivate the eye and delight the senses. 
But the boundless ocean or sky-piercing mountains are necessary 
to the grandeur of sublimity ; to embody, as it were, to the mind, 
and enable it to realize the presence of a great Being — great in 
all things, — but seeming to us most potent when either the "live 
thunder" leaps from cliflf to cliff, or " He rides upon the wings 
of the mighty wind" across the illimitable waste. 

The storm gradually subsided ; the cloud which had enveloped 
the mountain-tops and spread itself far down the chasm, gathered 
its misty folds and was swept by degrees over the crest towards 
the desert of Arabia ; — to refresh, perchance, the arid plains from 
its yet copious store. 

Bending a little from the ridge to tlie south, we passed a small 
stream, trickling down in a N. E. course towards the ravine. 
Like the torrent, the stream was doubtless -the creation of the 
shower. The general impression that there is a perpetual stream 
down the Wady Kerak, is an erroneous one. The Kerakiyeh tell 
us that it has only water in the rainy season, and for a short period, 
at other times, after storms like the one which has just passed 
over. When we crossed the foot of the ravine, there was no 
water in it ; but quite a considerable stream in the Wady Beni 
Hamad, whence the plain around Mezra'a is irrigated. Except 
the lone palm, we had not seen a tree or shrub since we turned 
up the side of the ravine ; but all along our zigzag path, the 
\vildest rocks, bare, black, and contorted, presented themselves in 
detached fragments, and in wonderous strata, — mountain-sides 
tumbled dow^n, perpendicular crags, and deep chasms. 

While we were passing along the edge of a sheer precipice, the 
weather partly cleared up, and gave us a terrific view down the 
ravine ; it pained the eye to look into its dizzy depths. 

At 9.45, stopped to rest at a small spring of pure water, which 
gushed out of a hill-side. The elements were not yet entirely 
hushed, the wind sweeping down the ravine in occasional gusts. 
Here^the Kerakiyeh amused themselves by firing at a mark. 
Approaching to pistol-shot distance, and taking rest with their 
long guns, they rarely hit the object. Their powder was so in- 
20 * * 



234 RUGGED SCENERY. 

(lifTerent, that one of our sailors contemptuously remarked that he 
could run a mile between the flash and the report. They were 
perfectly astonished at the execution of our rifle. 

Starting again, the road led upon a wide terrace over the val- 
ley ; and was almost blocked up by huge fragments, severed from 
the cliffs above, many of them, also, lying in every possible posi- 
tion in the valley beneath. Several of these blocks, and many 
places in the mountain-side, were hollowed out, sufficient in some 
places to shelter many persons. These old limestone-rocks are 
worn into caverns, arches, and the resemblance of houses ; an 
isolated block was exactly like a thatched, moss-grown cottaf^e. 
One of these may be the cave where Lot and his two daughters 
dwelt. About two-thirds up, we saw some of the retem, or broom 
plant,^ many purple hollyhocks, and, shortly after, some olean- 
ders. The last, which were in full bloom high up the Jordan, 
and in the plain below, were in this lofty region just beginning to 
bloom. We saw some partridges, hawks, and many doves; also 
much of the scarlet anemone, and a blue flower resembhng the 
convolvulus. 

The sides and bottom of the ravine at length betokened some 
slight cultivation ; here and there was a small patch of wheat, 
and higher up there were a few olive-trees. Gradually these 
appearances became more frequent ; the patches of wheat were 
larger, and the olive in occasional groves ; sometimes, too, there 
was a fig-tree, its green more refreshing to the eye than the tawny 
hue of the olive. When we thought that we were upon the town, 
we found thatw^e had yet a long, steep hill to clamber up. Here 
we came to a fork ; the main bed of the ravine coming down from 
the east, and another, broad and steep, from the south-east, with 
the walled town of Kerak, upon the crown of the hill, overlook- 
ing both. We skirted the last ravine, leaving on the left a walled- 
in fountain and luxuriant olive-groves, and continued ascending, 
for half an hour ; an extensive pile of ruins in sight at the S. W. 

' This plant, elsewhere a bush, is here quite large ; and it is supposed 
that it was under a retem, instead of a juniper-tree, that Isaiah took shel- 
ter in the desert. 



ENTRANCE INTO KERAK. 235 

extremity of the town, and a majestic quadrangular tower at the 
N. W. angle of its wall. Looking back, our cavalcade presented 
a singular sight, winding up the steep and sinuous path. After 
leaving the peninsula, and turning up the precipitous path along 
the Wady Kerak, we met with fossiliferous limestone, and the 
rock continued calcareous all the way to Kerak. 

About an hour after noon, came upon the brow of the hill 
(3000 feet above the Dead Sea) at the north-east angle of the 
town. Instead of a richly cultivated country, there was before 
us a high, rolling plain, the grass withered, and the grain blighted 
by the sirocco and the locust. Turning to the north, we passed 
along the wall, then under the tower, built of flesh-coloured, con- 
solidated limestone, and along the face of the western wall for 
about 150 yards, when, turning abruptly, we entered an arch cut 
through the rock, about thirty feet high and twelve wide. Over 
the gateway was a partly effaced Arabic inscription, recording the 
building, or repair, of the walls. The passage had two turns, 
and was about eighty feet long. From it, we emerged into the 
town, — a collection of stone huts, built without mortar. They 
are from seven to eight feet high ; the ground-floors about six 
feet below, and the flat, mud-roofs mostly about two feet above, 
the streets ; but in many places there were short cuts, from street 
to street, across the roofs of the houses. The people were assem- 
bled on the dirt-heaps and mud-roofs to see us pass. We were 
escorted to the council-house, which is also the Christian school- 
room, the same in which Irby and Mangles, the only Franks (who, 
as Franks), had preceded us since the Crusades, were lodged 
thirty years ago. Below, was a work-room, and ours was a room 
for all purposes. Opposite, was a Christian church under con- 
struction. Its walls, now about twelve feet high, measured seventy- 
four by forty feet, and there were pedestals laid for six pillars. 

Our room had nothing whatever, except the bare stone floor 
beneath ; the rafters supporting the mud roof above ; two win- 
dows without glass or shutters, and a crazy door without a fasten- 
ing. Assigning one side to the men, and taking the adjoining 
one for ourselves, we left the other two for the Arabs, who flocked 



236 DESCRIPTION OF KERAK. 

in crowds to look upon us. From some cause they did not furnish 
a sheep, ahhough there were hundreds in the vicinity. 

Through the exertions of the priest and Abd' Allah, the Chris- 
tian Sheikh, we procured some eggs, and after a scanty breakfast 
and a hard ride made a meagre dinner. 

Determined, at all hazards, to see the place, we went out by 
turns. We found but one shop, and the only articles for sale were 
thin cakes of dried and pressed apricots, and English muslin ! 

The houses, or rather huts, without windows and without 
chimneys, were blackened inside by smoke ; and the women and 
children were squalid and filthy. Kerak contains a population of 
about 300 families, three-fourths Christian. By paying an annual 
tribute, and submitting to occasional exactions, the latter live 
amicably with the powerful tribe of Kerakiyeh, whose encamp- 
ment is a short distance without the walls. The latter are so 
averse to houses, that some, then on a visit to the town, had 
pitc^hed their tents in the yards of vacant dwellings. 

The Muslim inhabitants are wild-looking savages, but the Chris- 
tians have a milder expression. The males mostly wear sheep- 
skin coats ; the women, dark-coloured gowns ; the Christian 
females did not conceal their faces, which were tattooed like the 
South-Sea islanders. The priest, in his black turban and subdued 
countenance, acted as our cicerone. lie took us to his little 
church, a low, dark, vaulted room, containing a picture of St. 
George fighting the Dragon ; two half columns of red granite 
from the ruins of the castle, and a well of cool water in the centre. 

The castle, partly cut out of, and partly built upon, the mountain- 
top, presents the remains of a magnificent structure ; its citadel 
cut ofl'frora the town by a ditch-ravine. It seems to be Saracenic, 
although in various parts it has both the pointed Gothic and the 
rounded Roman arch. A steep glacis-wall skirts the whole. 
The walls, now partly standing, are composed of heavy, well-cut 
stones ; and there are seven arched store-houses one above the 
other, with narrow slits for defence. The part used as the chapel 
was evidently built in the times of the crusades ; and the east end, 
where the altar stood, was least demolished ; for these buildings 



I 



REMAINS or THE CASTLE. 237 

have been devastated by the hand of man. Maundrell has re- 
marked that in all the ruined churches he saw, the part appropri- 
ated to the altar was ever in the best state of preservation ; — which 
he is at a loss whether to ascribe to bribery on the part of tire 
Christians, to a lingering reverence in the minds of the Turks, or 
to miraculous interposition. Against the walls were pilasters and 
parts of columns with sculptured ornaments, and upon the ceiling 
were traces of fresco painting, among them one of a female saint. 
In one place, the pavement had been dug up by the present 
Chi'istian inhabitants of Kerak for paving-slabs for their new 
church. The vast extent of this magnificent castle filled us wdth 
astonishment. It has five gates and seven wells and cisterns, and 
the whole summit is perforated by subterranean passages. From 
tlie narrow embrasures of the vaulted chambers we looked down 
into the ravine, green with fields of grain and grass, and the shrub- 
bery of oleanders, and upon part of the sea in the distance. 

We also visited the structure at the N. W. angle, under which 
■we had passed before entering the arched gateway of the town. 
It seemed, also, to be Saracenic, with the remains of a handsome 
cornice. 

Returning, we passed through the burial-ground, each grave 
indicated by a double line of rude, unsculptured stones. 

We procured here some of the wheat, which, it is said, retains 
the prolific quality ascribed to it in the Bible. We saw and 
heard nothing of the immense grapes, " like those brought back 
by the Hebrew spies," spoken of by Laborde. The harvests had 
been swept, the last seven years, by the^locusts and the sirocco ; 
the last occurring two or three times a month. 

P. M., held a long conversation with 'Akil as to the possibility 
of proceeding, by land, to Wady es Safieh, and its luxuriant 
delta, at the S. E. extremity of the sea. He thought it impracti- 
cable. He said that the southern tribes were in a great state of 
excitement, and were all coming up ; while those along the coast 
were gathering together, and that a general outbreak might be 
expected ; — the Beni 'Adwans and Beni Stdcrs having already 
begun hostilities. He could assign no other reason for this than 



238 PROBABLE DESIGNS. 

that the grain would soon be gathered by the fellahin, and the 
Bedauin were preparing to sweep it off, each tribe from a district 
remote from its own. 

In some respects 'Akil was mysterious ; and, at first, I could 
not comprehend the hints he threw out. His object seemed to 
be to ascertain whether, under any circumstances, we would aid 
an association of the tribes in an avowed object. I would not 
press him for an explanation, but merely told him that, if he had 
been captured and detained while coming round in our service, 
•\ve would have felt it our duty to leave every thing else and 
hasten to his assistance ; that I would endeavour to have him re- 
munerated for what he had lost while acting for us ; but we could 
take no part in their petty wars. I half suspected that this barba- 
rian, the most winning and graceful one we had ever seen, gene- 
rous, brave, and universally loved or feared, contemplated a 
union of the tribes for the purpose of throwing off the thraldom, 
here almost nominal, of the Turkish yoke, and establishing a 
sovereignty for himself. Exceedingly affable to all, he was more 
reserved and taciturn than his noisy countrymen, and was often 
absorbed in thought. Having once reaped profit from rebellion, 
he might then have been weighing the chances of a bolder specu- 
lation. He could not rely much on our party, but might hope 
that if we were involved our country would sustain us. He little 
knew how severely, and how justly, too, we should be censured 
at home if we became voluntarily embroiled either with the tribes 
or the Turkish government. If he had attempted a rebellion, he 
would have assuredly failed. The elements are too discordant. 
The antipathies between the highland Gael and the southron, of 
the Scottish border, were not more inveterate than the hostile 
feeling existing between many of the tribes. With some it is the 
feud of blood, transmitted from generation to generation with in- 
creasing rancour. Yet their God is gold, and fifty well-armed, 
resolute Franks, with a large sum of money, could revolutionize 
the whole country. The presence of 'Akil was of great service 
to us ; and but for him we should have come in collision with 
this rude people. 



ARAB DISCONTENT. 239 

The Christians were as kind and obhging as the Muslims were 
insolent. In order, as he told me, to secure the good behaviour 
of the Kerakiyeh, 'Akil brought with him the young prince of the 
Beni Sukrs, a powerful tribe, of whom even these fierce Arabs 
stood in awe. The Beni Sukr wore his hair in ringlets, like a 
girl ; but we were told tliat he behaved gallantly in the fight. 

To avoid another encounter with the Beni 'Adwans, on his 
return, 'Akil purposed providing his small party with sufficient 
flour and water for five or six days' subsistence, and to strike 
into the desert, in a direct east course, for a ruined khan, on the 
Great Hadj, or pilgrim route from Damascus to Mecca. Thence 
he would proceed north, still keeping east of the Jordan, until he 
reached the vicinity of the Sea of Galilee. 

It being absolutely impossible to ascend the Jordan with the 
boats, I gave 'Akil a note for Mr. Weiseman, at Tiberias, direct- 
ing the trucks, &c., we had left in his charge, to be sent to Acre. 

Our trip here exhibited the Arab character in a new light. 
From the first, the manner of Muhammed had been imperious 
and insolent ; and his father, whom he seemed to rule, had nei- 
ther invited us to his tents nor contributed, in the slightest degree, 
to our comfort. The reason was because we did not make them 
a large present. According to the arrangement with 'Akil, he 
was to pay for all that we might require ; and I held to the course 
we had heretofore pursued, of making no presents, except for 
kindness or for services rendered. Muhammed, growling, said 
that he wanted cloaks, a double-barrelled gun, a watch, &c., 
that other Franks, coming up from Egypt, gave them. — Where 
did we come from, thus out of the sea ? For the whole day the 
room had been crowded ; the dooiway, sometimes, blocked up. 
It seemed to be regarded by them in the light of a menagerie. 

When, at length, they left us to ourselves, for the first time, in 
twenty-three days, we lay down beneath a roof, having first en- 
joyed the unwonted luxury of a draught of sweet milk. Placing 
a board against the door, that its fall might rouse us at an at- 
tempted entrance, we lay down with our arms in our hands, with 
3' feeling of uncertainty as to what the morrow might bring forth; 



240 CHRISTIANS OF KERAK. 

for although 'Akil was there, he had but four followers, one of 
them wounded ; whereas the Kerakiyeh could muster 700 fighting 
men. Our belief was, that although the Christians might not 
dare to side with us, yet, so far from acting in combination 
against, they would give us timely warning. At all hazards, we 
wished to impress upon these people that we would do nothing 
which could be construed into the appearance, even, of purchas- 
ing forbearance. Were we private travellers, the case would be 
different ; but the time has long past when, even through its 
meanest representative, our government will consent to pay for 
forbearance from any quarter. 

In the course of a long conversation, to-night, Abd' Allah gave 
us a history of the condition and prospects of the Christians of 
Kerak, He said that there were from 900 to 1000 Christians 
here, comprising three-fourths of the population. They could 
muster a little over 200 fighting men ; but are kept in subjection 
by the Muslim Arabs, living mostly in tents, without the town. 
He stated that tliey are, in every manner, imposed upon. If a 
Muslim comes to the towm, instead of going to the house of an- 
other Muslim, he quarters himself upon a Christian, and appro- 
priates the best of every thing : that Christian families have been 
two days at a time whhout food — all that they had being con- 
sumed by their self-invited guests. If a Muslim sheikh buys a 
horse for so many sheep, he makes the Christians contribute until 
the number be made up. Their property, he said, is seized at 
will, without there being any one to whom to appeal ; and re- 
monstrance, on their part, only makes it worse. 

Already a great many have been driven away ; poverty alone 
keeping the remainder. They have commenced building a 
church, in the hope of keeping all together, and as a safe place 
of refuge for their wives and children, in times of trouble ; but 
the locusts and the sirocco have for the last seven years blasted 
the fields, and nearly all spared by them has been swept by the 
Muslims. They gave me the following appeal to the Christians 
in our more happy land, which I promised to malce known. The 
following is a literal translation : — 



AN APPEAL FROM KERAK. 241 

" By God's favour! 

" May it, God willing ! reach America, and be presented to 
our Christian brothers, — whose happiness may the Ahuighty God 
preserve ! Amen ! 

" 8642. Beduah. 

" We are, in Kerak, a few*very poor Christians, and are build- 
ing a church. 

" We beg your excellency to help us in this undertaking, for 
we are very weak. 

" The land has been unproductive, and visited by the locusts, 
for the last seven years. 

" The church is delayed in not being accomplished, for want 
of funds, for we are a few" Christians, surrounded by Muslims. 

" This being all that is necessary to write to you. Christian 
brothers of America, we need say no more. 

" The trustees in your bounty, 

" Abd' Allah en Nahas, Sheikh, 
" Yakob en Nahas, Sheikla's brother. 
"Kerak, Jamad Awah, 1264." 

Wednesday, May 3. It was exceedingly cold last night, the 
north wind whistling through the casement with a familiar sound 
of home. We all concurred in the opinion, that for comfort, the 
sea-beach would have been a preferable couch, the fleas having 
tormented us through the night. Notwithstanding our disturbed 
slumbers, however, we did not feel as debilitated as heretofore on 
rising from sounder sleep. The exercise of riding and the vai'iety 
of scenery through which we yesterday passed, were of service, 
and the air was much cooler and more invigorating than below. 

We rose early, and breakfasted on eggs and rice. Shortly 
after, Muhammed came in, very surly; I refused to converse with 
him, but referred him to 'Akil, whom I had commissioned to pro- 
cure the horses and make the necessary purchases for us. We 
would have liked to remain another day for the benefit of the 
mountain air and to make some examination of the neighbour- 
21 



242 DEPARTURE FROM KERAK. 

hood ; but we were unanimously of opinion that it would be 
unsafe, the prospect of difficulty with this insolent people increas- 
ing with the lapse of every hour. While we made preparations 
for our departure in the room above, the Arabs were in consultation 
beneath the window, Muhamraed and several of his tribe gesticu- 
lating violently. But 'Akil and the Beni Sukr prince were there, 
and we knew that they would stand by us. After much difficuhy, 
our horses were procured. As we were about starting, Muham- 
med again demanded a backshish, which was refused. He then 
said that he would not go down with us, and sneeringly asked 
what we should do if we found one hundred men in our path. 
We replied that we would take care of ourselves. I longed to 
seize him and carry him with us by force as a hostage, but he was 
surrounded by too many armed and scowling Arabs. 

We started, soon after sunrise, in battle array, our carbines un- 
slung, and everything ready for immediate use. The Christian 
Sheikh, the kind old man, although he made enemies by doing 
so, accompanied us, and three or four footmen journeyed along, 
w^ithout absolutely mingling with us. Muhammed, almost furious, 
remained behind. 

I had noted the ground well the day before, and knew that 
there was no place above the plain where an attack could be 
advantageously made. My greatest fear, concurred in by the 
Christian Sheikh, was, that any one lagging behind would be cut 
off. Giving to Mr. Dale, therefore, who ably seconded me, the 
charge of the front, I kept with the rear. We had scarce left the 
town a mile, before Muhammed, black and surly, with some 
horsemen, overtook us. I was never more delighted in my life, 
for we had now the game in our own hands. Instantly detaching 
an officer and one of our most trusty men, I directed them to keep 
by him without regard to his companions, and to shoot him at the 
first sign of flight or treachery. 

It was some time before Muhammed realized that he was a 
prisoner ; but observing that whether he rode ahead or tarried be- 
hind, he had ever the same companions, and that if he stopped, 
the march was arrested, and the whole party stopped also, the 



PRECAUTION AGAINST TREACHERY. 243 

truth flashed upon him ; and from being insolent and overbearing, 
he became first respectfiil and then submissive. 

At 10.15, came in sight of the sea, its surface covered by a 
thin mist, the garment in which it is ever wreathed during the 
heat of the day. The weather became w^armer and warmer as 
we descended, — the torrent bed of the ravine (Wady Kerak) per- 
fectly dry. 

As we approached the plain, I placed myself beside Muham- 
med to watch him more narrowly. By this time, all but two or 
three of his followers had ridden ahead and left us. When he 
first joined us he had demanded a watch, then a double-barrelled 
gun, and a number of articles in succession ; but when he saw 
that we held him as a hostage for the good behaviour of his tribe, 
he changed his tone. About an hour before reaching the shore, 
we stopped fifteen minutes to breathe the horses. When we were 
about to remount, he had become so much humbled, that per- 
ceiving my saddle-girth loose, he hastened forward and drew it 
tight for me. In the morning he would have cut my tliroat rather 
than have performed a menial office. * 

At 1.30, issuing from the thicket upon the beach, we were glad- 
dened with the sight of our boats, lying as secure as we had left 
tliem. We launched them and made preparations for immediate 
departure. At the instance of Abd' Allah, the Christian Sheikh, 
I wrote to 'Akil by Friday, requesting him to protect the Christian 
Arabs against the Kerakiyeh ; and in order to enlist the Beni 
Sukr Prince in the same cause, I sent him a richly ornamented aba. 

Burckhardt, and Irby and Mangles, were kindly received in 
Kerak ; but the first spoke the language, and came disguised as 
an Arab, and the two last had a letter of introduction to the Mus- 
lim Sheikh of Kerak, given to them by the Sheikh of Hebron, 
without which, they intimated that their reception w^ould have 
been a cold one. They had to pay down four hundred piastres 
(equal to 1600 now), and on the second day of their journey, 
while yet under the protection of the Sheikh of Kerak, one hun- 
dred and fifty (equal to 600 piastres) more were exacted. From 
Burckhardt, who had assumed the garb of a poor man, all was 



244 AGAIN ON THE WATER. 

extorted that it was thought he could afford to pay. Seetzen 
was robbed by some of the tribe before he entered Kerak. 

Everything being prepared, I had taken leave of Abd' Allah, 
after making him a present, and was about stepping into the boat 
without saying anything to Muhammed, when he sprang forward, 
and, taking my hand, begged for some gun-caps. But I refused; 
for had they been given, perhaps the first use made of them would 
have been against a Christian. Getting into the boat, therefore, we 
shoved off", and left him standing upon the shore. Thus far, these 
were the only Arabs from whom we had experienced rudeness. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

CRUISE ALONG THE ARABIAN SHORE. 

With S light breeze from the south, we steered down the bay, 
along the coast, towards Wady Mojeb, the river Arnon of the Old 
Testament, upon which, Aroer, one of the principal cities of the 
Moabites, was situated. Eight miles north from it is a mountain, 
supposed to be INIount Nebo, from the summit of which Moses 
viewed the promised land, and in a cave under it, Josephus and 
Epiphanius state that the ark of the covenant, with the tabernacle 
and the altar of incense, were concealed by the prophet Jeremiah, 
shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem. The shore presented 
the barren aspect of lofty perpendicular cliffs of red sandst6ne, 
and here and there a ravine with patches of cane, indicating 
that water was, or had recently been, there. 

The mountains of red sandstone were beautifully variegated 
with yellow and capped by high cliffs of white in the background. 
Near sunset, stopped for the night in a beautiful cove on the south 
side of the delta, through which, its own formation, the Arnon 
flows to the sea. The stream, now eighty- two feet wide and four 
deep, runs through a chasm ninety-seven feet wide, formed by 



RAVINE OF THE ARNON. 245 

high perpendicular cliffs of red, brown, and yellow sandstone, 
mixed red and yellow on the southern side, and on the north, a 
soft, rich red, — all worn by the winter rains into the most fan- 
tastic forms, not unlike Egyptian architecture. It was difficult to 
realize that some were not the work of art. 

The chasm runs up in a direct line for 150 yards, then turns, 
with a slow and graceful curve, to the south-east. In the deepest 
part, within the chasm, the river did not at that time exceed four 
feet in depth ; but after passing through the delta, narrowing in 
its course, it is ten feet deep, but quite narrow at the mouth. We 
saw here tracks of camels, and marks of an Arab encampment. 
There must be some passage down the ravine, the sides of which 
seemed so precipitous. There were castor-beans, tamarisks, and 
canes, along the course of the stream from the chasm to the sea. 
Walked and waded up some distance, and found the passage of 
the same uniform width, turning every 150 or 200 yards gradually 
to the south-east. Observed a dead gazelle, and saw the tracks 
of gazelles and of wild beasts, but could only identify those of the 
tiger. The report of a gun, which we fired, reverberating like 
loud and long-continued peals of thunder, startled many birds. 
The highest summit of the inner cliffs, north of the chasm, were 
yellow limestone. Saw a large brown vulture, its beak strong 
with two denticulations. After bathing in the cool, refreshing 
stream, and supping on rice and tea, we spread our awnings upon 
the beach, and slept soundly under the bright stars. At mid- 
night, thermometer 78°, wind N. W., and very cold. George Over- 
stock, one of the seamen, had a chill. We feared that the fever 
which has heretofore attacked all who ventured upon this sea was 
about to make its appearance. It was to a city, " in the border of 
Arnon" to which Balak, King of the Moabites, came to meet 
Balaam. From the Arnon to the Jabbok, " which is the border 
of the children of Ammon," was the land given to the tribes of 
Reuben and Gad. 

Thursday, May 4. A warm, but pleasant morning. Overr 
stock better, but I feared the recurrence of his chill. Started 
early, after filling the water-breakers. As we were shoving off, 
21* 



246 HOT SPRINGS. 

heard voices and two gun-shots in the cliffs above, but could 
see nothing. Sent Mr. Dale, in the Fanny Skinner, to sound 
across to Ain Turabeh. Our course was northwardly, parallel 
with, and a short distance from, the Arabian shore, sketch- 
ing the topography as we passed. It presented the same 
lofty, rugged, parched hills as heretofore. Passed a beau- 
tiful little stream, along the banks of which were twenty-nine 
date palm-trees, in groups of two or three, — a grateful relief to 
the monotonous and dreary hue of the mountains and the sea. 

In half an hour we passed a stream which was visible, in a 
long white line, from the summit to the sea, into which it plunged, 
a tiny, but foaming cataract. Its whole course was fringed with 
shrubbery, and its brawling noise was distinctly heard. 

At half-past 10, stopped to examine some huge, black boul- 
ders, lying confusedly upon the shore, which proved to be trap 
interspersed with tufa. The whole mountain, from base to sum- 
mit, appeared one black mass of scoriae and lava, the superposi- 
tion of the layers giving them a singular appearance. In the 
rocky hollows of the shore were incrustations of salt, of which, as 
well as of the lava, we procured specimens. 

Starting again, — the scenery was grand and wild ; wherever 
there was a rivulet, lines of green cane and tamarisk, and an oc- 
casional date-palm-tree, marked its course: a fine breeze from 
the southward. Stopped for the night in a cove formed by the 
Zerka Main, the outlet of the hot springs of Callirohoe. The 
stream, twelve feet wide and ten inches deep, rushes, in a south- 
erly direction, with great velocity, into the sea. Temperature of 
the stream, 95°. It was a little sulphureous to the taste. The 
stream has w^orn its bed through the rock, and flows between the 
perpendicular sides of the chasm, and through the delta, bend- 
ing south, about two furlongs, to the sea. The banks of the 
stream, along the delta, are fringed with canes, tamarisks, and 
the castor-bean. The chasm is 122 feet wide at the mouth ; and, 
for one mile up, as far as we traced it, does not lessen in width. 
There were a few date-palm-trees growing in it. The turns, 
about 200 yards apart, at first gently rounded, but subsequently 



BATHING. 247 

sharp and angular. There was a succession of rapids, and a cas- 
cade of four, and a perpendicular fall of five or six feet. A liUle 
above the rapid, trap shows over sandstone. The current was 
so strong that, while bathing, I could not, with my feet against a 
rock, keep from being carried down the stream ; and, walking 
where it was but two feet deep, with difficulty, retained a 
foothold with ray shoes off. There were many incrustations of 
lime, and some tufa. In the loneliest part of the chasm, nearly 
trod upon a sparrow before it flew away. Had this been a settled 
country, the wee thing would not have been ignorant that, in 
mere wantonness, man is its greatest enemy. Saw a white but- 
terfly, some snipes and brown hawks, and gathered some helio- 
trope, which was scentless, and a beautiful pm'ple flower, star- 
shaped, five petals, calix and seed-stalk a delicate yellow. 
Pulled up a species of willow by the roots, in the hope of pre- 
serving it. 

Bathed first in the sea and afi:erwards in the stream ; a most 
delicious transition from the dense, acrid water of the sea, which 
made our innumerable sores smart severely — to the soft, tepid 
and refreshing waters of Callirohoe. The water of the sea was 
very buoyant ; and, with great difficulty, I kept my feet beneath 
the surface. 

After half a cup of tea each, to which we were limited from 
scarcity of sugar, we slept upon the gravel until 2 A. M. 



248 SOUNDINGS. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

FROM THE OUTLET OF THE HOT SPRINGS OF CAL- 
LIROHOE TO AIN TURABEH. 

Friday, May 5. Rose at 2 A. M. Fresh wind from the 
north ; air quite chilly, and the warmth of the fire agreeable. It 
was this contrast which made the heat of the day so very op- 
pressive. Everything was still and quiet, except the wind, and the 
surf breaking upon the shore. I had purposed visiting the ruins 
of Machserus, upon this singular hot-water stream, and to have 
excavated one of the ancient tombs mentioned in the Itinerary of 
Irby and Mangles, the most unpretending, and one of the most 
accurate narratives I have ever read ; but the increasing heat of 
the sun, and the lassitude of the party, warned me to lose no 
time. 

At 2.45, A. M., called the cook to prepare our breakfast, after 
which we started to sound across to Ain Turabeh, thus making a 
srtaight line to intersect the diagonal one of yesterday. Two fur- 
longs from the land, the soundings were tw^enty-three fathoms (138 
feet). The next cast, five minutes after, 174 (1044 feet), gradu- 
ally deepening to 218 fathoms (1308 feet) ; the bottom, soft, 
brown mud, with rectangular crystals of salt. Two-thirds across, 
met the J'anny Skinner. Put Mr. Aulick, with Dr. Anderson, 
in her; also the cook, and some provisions, and directed them to 
complete the topography of the Arabian shore, and determine the 
position of the mouth of the Jordan ; and, as they crossed over, to 
sound again in an indicated spot. Made a series of experiments 
with the self-registering thermometer, on our way, in the Fanny 
Mason, to Ain Turabeh. At the depth of 174 fathoms (1044 



INTENSE HEAT. 249 

feet), the temperature of the water was 62° ; at the surface, im- 
mediately above it, 76^. There was an interruption to the gra- 
dual decrease of temperature, and at ten fathoms there was a 
stratum of cold water, the temperature, 59''. With that excep- 
tion, the diminution was gradual. The increase of temperature 
below ten fathoms may, perhaps, be attributable to heat being 
evolved in the process of crystalization. Procured some of the 
water brought up from 195 fathoms, and preserved it in a bottle. 
The morning intensely hot, not a breath of air stirring, and a mist 
over the surface of the water, which looked stagnant and greasy. 

At 10.30, we were greeted with the sight of the green fringe 
of Ain Turabeh, dotted with our snow-white tents, in charge of 
the good old Sherif. Sent two Arabs to meet JNIr. Aulick, at the 
mouth of the Jordan. Sherif had heard of the fight between 
'Akil and his friends ^^^th the Beni 'Adwans ; we learned from 
him that several of the Beni Sukrs had since died of their wounds, 
and that the whole tribe suffered severely. 

Reconnoitred the pass over this place, to see if it would be 
practicable to carry up the level. It proved very steep and diffi- 
cult, but those at 'Ain Feshkhah and Ain Jidy are yet more so ; 
and, after consultation with Mr. Dale, determined to attempt the 
present one. Made arrangements for camels, to transport the 
boats across to the Mediterranean. The weather very warm. 

Saturday, May 6. A warm but not oppressive morning ; the 
same mist over the sea ; the same wild and awful aspect of the over- 
hanging cliffs. Commenced taking the copper boat apart, and to 
level up this difficult pass. To Mr. Dale, as fully competent, I 
assigned this task. With five men and an assistant, he laboured 
up six hundred feet, but with great difficulty. 

At 9 A. M., thermometer, in the shade, 100°; the sky cur- 
tained with thin, misty clouds. At 11 A. M., Mr. Aulick re- 
turned, having completed the topography of the shore, and taken 
observations and bearings at the mouth of the Jordan. Dr. 
Anderson had collected many specimens in the geological depart- 
ment. The exploration of this sea was now complete. Sent Mr. 
Aulick out again, in the iron boat, to make experiments with the 



250 INCREASING HEAT. 

self- registering thermometer, at various depths ; the result the same 
as yesterday and the day previous, the coldest stratum being at 
ten fathoms. Light, flickering airs, and very sultry during the 
night. 

Sunday, May 7. This day was given to rest. The weather 
during the morning was exceedingly sultry and oppressive. At 
8.33, thermometer 106°. The clouds were motionless, the sea 
unruffled, the rugged faces of the rocks without a shadow, and 
the canes and tamarisks around the fountain drooped their heads 
towards the only element which could sustain them under the 
smiting heat. The Sherif slept in his tent, the Arabs in various 
listless attitudes around him ; and the mist of evaporation hung 
over the sea, almost hiding the opposite cliffs. 

At 6 P. INI., a hot hurricane, another sirocco, blew down the tents 
and broke the syphon barometer, our last remaining one. The 
wind shifted in currents from N. W. to S. E.; excessively hot. 
In two hours it had gradually subsided to a sultry calm. All 
suffered very much from languor, and prudence warned us to be- 
gone. The temperature of the night was pleasanter than tliat of 
the day, and we slept soundly the sleep of exhaustion. 

Monday, May 8. A cloudy, sultry morning. At sunrise con- 
tinued the levelhng. At 8, the sun burst through his cloudy 
screen, and threatened an oppressive day. Constructed a large 
float, with a flag- staff fitted to it. 

In the morning, a bird was heard singing in the thicket near 
the fountain, its notes resembling those of the nightingale of Italy. 
The bulbul, the nightingale of this region, is like our kingfisher, 
except that its plumage is brown and blue, and the bill a deep 
scarlet. We cannot say that we ever heard it sing ; but at vari- 
ous places on the Jordan we heard a bird singing at night, and 
the Arabs said it was the bulbul. 

The heat increased with the ascending sun, and at meridian 
the thermometer stood at 110° in the shade. The Sherif 's tent 
was dark and silent, and we were compelled to discontinue work. 
The surface of the sea was covered by an impenetrable mist, 
which concealed the two extremities and the eastern shore ; and we 
had the prospect of a boundless ocean with an obscured horizon. 



ANALYSIS OF WATERS. 



251 



At 4 P. M., the levelling party returned, having levelled over 
the crest of the mountain and 300 feet on the desert of Judea. 
They had been compelled to discontinue work by the high wind. 
The tent I sent them was blown down, and they were forced to 
dine under the " shadow of a rock." 

Tuesday, May 9. Awakened at early daylight by the Muslim 
call to prayer. A light wind from N. E, Sky obscured ; a mist 
over the sea, but less dense than that of yesterday. Sent Mr. 
Dale with the interpreter to reconnoitre the route over the desert 
towards Jerusalem. Moored a large float, with the American 
ensign flying, in eighty fathoms water, abreast of Ain Ghuweir, 
at too long a distance from the shore to be disturbed by the Arabs. 
Sent George Overstock and Hugh Read, sick seamen, to the con- 
vent of Mar Saba. 

Sent off the boats in sections to Bab el Hulil (Jaffa gate), Jeru- 
salem, Tried the relative density of the water of this sea and 
of the Atlantic— the latter from 25° N. latitude and 52° W. lon- 
gitude ; distilled water being as 1. The water of the Atlantic 
was 1.02, and of this sea 1.13. The last dissolved ^'y, the 
water of the Atlantic -}, and distilled water yV of its weight of 
salt. The salt used was a little damp. On leaving the Jordan 
we carefully noted the draught of the boats. With the same 
loads they drew one inch less water when afloat upon this sea 
than in the river. ^ 

The streams from the fountains of Turabeh, Ain Jidy, and the, 
salt spring near Muhariwat, were almost wholly absorbed in the 
plains, as well as those running down the ravines of Sudeir, Scyal, 
Mubughghik, and Humeir. Taking the mean depth, width, and 
velocity of its more constant tributaries, I had estimated the 
quantity of water which the Dead Sea was hourly receiving from 
them at the time of our visit, but the calculation is one so liable 
to error, that I withhold it. It is scarcely necessary to say, that 
the quantity varies with the season, being greater during the 
winter rains, and much less in the heat of summer. 

' Since our return, some of the water of the Dead Sea has been sub- 
jected to a powerful nnicroscope, and no animalculcp or vestige of animal 
matter could be detected. 



252 SUM OF OUR LABOURS. 

At nightfall, Mr. Dale and the interpreter returned. Before 
retiring, we bathed in the Dead Sea, preparatory to spending our 
twenty-second and last night upon it. We have carefully sounded 
this sea, determined its geographical position, taken the exact 
topography of its shores, ascertained the temperature, width, 
depth, and velocity of its tributaries, collected specimens of every 
kind, and noted the winds, currents, changes of the weather, and 
all atmospheric phenomena. These, with a faithful narrative of 
events, will give a correct idea of this wondrous body of water, 
as it appeared to us. 

From the summit of these cliffs, in a line a little north of west, 
about sixteen miles distant, is Hebron, a short distance from 
which Dr. Robinson found the dividing ridge between the Medi- 
terranean and this sea. From Beni Na'im, the reputed tomb of 
Lot, upon that ridge, it is supposed that Abraham looked " toward 
all the land of the plain," and beheld the smoke, " as the smoke 
of a furnace." The inference from the Bible, that this entire 
chasm was a plain sunk and '■'■ ovei' whelmed'''' by the wrath of 
God, seems to be sustained by the extraordinary' character of our 
soundings. The bottom of this sea consists of two submerged 
plains, an elevated and a depressed one ; the former averaging 
thirteen^ the latter about thirteen hundred feet below the surface. 
Through the northern, and largest and deepest one, in a line cor- 
responding with the bed of the Jordan, is a ravine, which again 
seems to correspond with the Wady el Jeib, or ravine within a 
ravine, at the south end of the sea. 

Between the Jabok and this sea, we unexpectedly found a sud- 
den breakdown in the bed of the Jordan. If there be a similar 
break in the water-courses to the south of the sea, accompanied 
wdth like volcanic characters, there can scarce be a doubt that the 
whole Ghor has sunk from some extraordinary convulsion ; pre- 
ceded, most probably, by an eruption of fire, and a general con- 
flagration of the bitumen which abounded in the plain. I shall 
ever regret that we were not authorized to explore the southern 
Ghor to the Red Sea. 

All our observations have impressed me forcibly with the con- 



HYPOTHESES. 253 

viction that the mountains are older than the sea. Had their 
relative ages been the same at first, the torrents would have worn 
their beds in a gradual and correlative slope ; — whereas, in the 
northern section, the part supposed to have been so deeply en- 
gulfed, although a soft, bituminous limestone prevails, the tor- 
rents plunge down several hundred feet ; while on both sides of 
the southern portion, the ravines come down without abruptness, 
although the head of Wady Kerak is more than a thousand feet 
higher than the head of Wady Ghuweir. Most of the ravines, 
too, as reference to the map will show, have a southward inclina- 
tion near their outlets, that of Zerka Main or Callirohoe especially, 
which, next to the Jordan, must pour down the greatest volume 
of water in the rainy season. But even if they had not that 
deflection, the argument which has been based on this supposition 
would be untenable ; for tributaries, like all other streams, seek 
the greatest declivities without regard to angular inclination. The 
Yermak flows into the Jordan at a right angle, an"d the Jabok 
with an acute one to its descending course. 

Tliere are many other things tending to the same conclusion, 
among them the isolation of the mountain of Usdum ; its differ- 
ence of contour and of range, and its consisting entirely of a 
volcanic product. 

But it is for the learned to comment on the facts we have labo- 
riously collected. Upon ourselves, the result is a decided one. 
We entered upon this sea, with conflicting opinions. One of tlie 
party was skeptical, and anotlier, I think, a professed unbeliever 
of the Mosaic account. After twenty-two days' close investiga- 
tion, if I am not mistaken, we are unanimous in the conviction 
of the truth of the Scriptural account of the destruction of the 
cities of the plain. I record with diffidence the conclusions we 
have reached, simply as a protest against the shallow deductions 
of loould-be unbelievers. 

At midnight the scene was the same as at Ain el Feshkhah, the 

first night of our arrival, except that the ground was more firm and 

the weather warmer ; but the sea presented a similar unnatural 

aspect. There was also a new feature betokening a coming 

22 



254 DEPARTURE FROM THE DEAD SEA. 

change ; there were camels lying around, which had boen brought 
in, preparatory to to-morrow's movement. Heretofore, I had 
always seen this animal reposing upon its knees, but on this 
occasion all not chewing the cud were lying down. The night 
passed away quietly, and a light wind springing up from the 
north, even the most anxious were at length lulled to sleep by 
the rippling waves, as they brattled upon the shore. 



CHAPTER XVni. 

FROM THE DEAD SEA TO THE CONVENT OF MAR 

SABA. 

Wednesday, May 10. At 7 A. M., the levelling party started. 
Made preparations for finally breaking up the camp on the Dead 
Sea. 

At 9.30, struck tents, and at 10, started, and ascended the 
pass of Ain Turabeh. With us were Sherif, Ibrahim Aga, and 
the sheikhs of the Raschfiyideh and Ta'amirah, and six camels. 
Winding slowly up the steep pass, we looked back at every turn 
upon our last place of encampment, and upon the silent sea. 
We are ever sad on parting with things for the last time. The 
feeling that we are never to see them again, makes us painfully 
sensible of our own mortality. 

At 12, overtook the levelling party, and shortly after the 
camels with the sections of the boats. Camped for the night in 
Wady Khiyam Seya'rah (Ravine of the Tents of Seyti'rah), so 
called from a tribe of that name having been surprised and mur- 
dered here. It is a rocky glen, over a steep precipice, a thousand 
feet above the Dead Sea. There are two large caves on the 
north side of the ravine, in which we prepared to take up our 
quarters, but the Arabs dissuaded us with the assurance that they 



HISTORY OF SHERIF. 255 

abound with serpents and scorpions, ^Yhich crawl out in the 
night. 

Our camp was, properly speaking, in a depression of the ex- 
tremity of the ridge between the ravines Ghuweir and En Nar. 

At night, we invited Sherif to our tent, and prevailed on him 
to tell his history. His father was Sherif, or hereditary governor 
of Mecca, to which dignity, at his death, the eldest brother of 
our friend succeeded. When Mecca surrendered to Mehemet 
Ali, his brother was deposed ; and a cousin, inimical to them, 
was appointed in his stead. The deposed Sherif fled to Constan- 
tinople ; our friend was carried captive to Cairo, where he was 
detained ten years a prisoner, but provided with a house, and an 
allowance of 3000 piastres (125 dollars) per month for his sup- 
port. When Arabia was overrun by the W^ahabees, Mehemet 
Ali, wisely counting on sectarian animosity, gave our Sherif a 
command, and sent him to the war. His person bears many 
marks of wounds he received in various actions. W^hen Mehemet 
Ali was compelled by the quintuple alliance to abandon his con- 
quests, our Sherif went to Egypt to claim his pay, and reimburse- 
ments for advances he had made. Put off with vague promises, 
he proceeded to Stambohl (Constantinople) to sue for redress, 
and having laid his application before the divan, was now await- 
ing the decision. His account of himself is sustained by the 
information we received from our Vice-Consul and Mr. Fingie, 
H. B. M. Vice-Consul at Acre, respecting him. He is intelligent 
and much reverenced, and, in consequence, very influential 
among the tribes. To him and to 'Akil, coupled with our own 
vigilance, we may in a great measure ascribe our not having 
encountered difliculty with the Arabs. He was to leave us the 
next day, and would carry with him our respect and fervent good 
wishes. We often remarked among ourselves, what should we 
have done without Sherif and 'Akil ; we have not the slightest 
doubt that their presence prevented bloodshed. 

A monk from the Convent of Mar Saba came in this evening, 
and brought word that our sick sailors were doing well. There 
seemed to be a good understanding between these religious and 



256 HOLY SCENES. 

the various tribes ; at night, an Arab shared his aba ^Yith the 
monk, and the shaven-crown of the Christian and the scalp-lock 
of the Muslim were covered by the same garment. 

In a few hours we had materially changed our climate, and in 
this elevated region the air was quite cool. We slept uncom- 
fortably, drawing our cloaks yet closer as the night advanced. 
At 4 A. M., thermometer 60° ; absolutely cold. 

We were in a most dreary country ; calcined hills and barren 
valleys, furrowed by torrent beds, all without a tree or shrub, or 
sign of vegetation. The stillness of death reigned on one side ; 
the sea of death, calm and curtained in mist, lay upon the other ; 
and yet this is the most interesting country in the world. This is 
the wilderness of Judea; near this, God conversed with Abraham ; 
and here, came John the Baptist, preaching the glad tidings of 
salvation. These verdureless hills and arid valleys have echoed 
the words of the Great Precursor ; and at the head of the next 
ravine lies Bethlehem, the birth-place of the meek Redeemer,— 
in full sight of the Holy City, the theatre of the most wondrous 
events recorded on the page of history, — where that self-sacrifice 
was offered, which became thenceforth the seal of a perpetual 
covenant between God and man ! 

Thursday, May 11. There is, perhaps, no greater trial to the 
constitution than sudden changes of atmospheric temperature. 
We were so enfeebled by the heat we had experienced in the 
chasm beneath us, that, at the temperature of 60°, the air here felt 
piercingly cold. We shivered through the night ; and so busy 
were the sentinels in searching for dried thistles and shrubs, to 
feed the watch-fires, that, perhaps, in all our wanderings, the 
guard had never been so remiss. 

We began, eariy, to prepare for work, and sent off three camel- 
loads of specimens, &c., to Jerusalem. Settled and parted with 
the good Sherif. 

Breakfasted in the rocky glen, with our backs towards the 
barren hills of the Desert of Judea ; while the rays of the sun, 
rising over the mountains of Moab, were reflected from the glassy 
surface of the desolate sea before us. 



LOWER TEMPERATURE. 257 

We levelled, to-day, over parched valleys, and sterile ridges, 
to the flattened summit of an elevation, at the base of which three 
ravines meet, called the " Meeting of the Tribes," — the Dead 
Sea concealed by an intervening ridge. We were fully 2000 
feet above it, and the wind was fierce and cutting. Strolling 
from the camp, soon after we had pitched the tents, I felt so cold 
as to be compelled to return. The thermometer, at the opening 
of the tent, stood at 69° ; but 1° below summer-heat. This 
place derives its name from a gathering of the tribes, or council, 
once held here. We saw, to-day, a light-brown fox, with a 
v.'hite tail. 

Friday, May 12. The morning and the evening cool ; the mid- 
day warm. Levelled into and up the Wady en Nar (Ravine of 
Fire) to the Greek Convent of Mar Saba. The ravine was shut 
in, on each side, by high, barren cliffs of chalky limestone, which, 
while they excluded the air, threw their reverberated heat upon 
us, and thus made the day's work an uncomfortable one. There 
was an association connected with the scene, however, which 
sustained us under the blinding light and oppressive heat of noon. 
The dry torrent-bed, interrupted by boulders, and covered with 
fragments of stone, is the channel of the brook Kidron, which, in 
its season, flows by the walls of the Holy City. 

The approach to the convent is striking, from the lofty, per- 
pendicular cliffs on each side, perforated with a great many na- 
tural and artificial excavations. Immense labour, sustained by a 
fervent though mistaken zeal, must have been expended here. 

A perpendicular cliff", of about 400 feet, has its face covered 
widi walls, terraces, chapels, and churches, constructed of solid 
masonry, all now in perfect repair. The walls of this convent, 
with a semicircular-concave sweep, run along the western bank of 
the ravine, from the bottom to the summit. The buildings form 
detached parts, constructed at diflfcrent periods. 

Coming up from the ravine, we descended an inclined wady, 

and camped outside of the western gate of the convent, under a 

broad ledge of rock, forming the head of a lateral ravine, running 

into the main one. A narrow platform was before us, with a 

22* 



258 CONVENT OF MAR SABA. 

sheer descent from its edge to the bottom of the small ravine, 
which bore a few scattering fig-trees. We were earnestly invited 
to take up our quarters inside ; but, dreading the fleas, we pre- 
ferred the open air. There was a lofty look-out tower on the hill 
above us, to the south. 

At the foot of a slight descent, about pistol-shot distance, was 
a low door, through which we were admitted to visit the convent. 
By the meagre monk wlio let us in, we were conducted through 
a long passage, and down two flights of stairs, into a court paved 
with flags ; on the right centre of which stood a small, round 
chapel, containing the tomb of St. Saba. On the opposite side 
was the church, gorgeously gilded and adorned with panel and 
fresco paintings; the former enshrined in silver, and some of them 
good ; the latter mere daubs. The pavement was smooth, varie- 
gated marble ; there were two clocks, near the altar ; and two 
large, rich, golden chandeliers, and many ostrich-eggs, suspended 
from the ceiling. 

From the court we were led along a terraced walk, parallel 
with the ravine, with some pomegranate-trees and a small gar- 
den-patch on each side ; and, ascending a few steps, turned shortly 
to the left, and were ushered into the parlour, immediately over 
the chasm. The adjoining room was occupied by our two sick 
men, of whom admirable care had been taken, and we rejoiced 
to find that they were convalescent. The parlour was about 
sixteen by twenty-four feet, almost entirely carpeted, with a 
slightly-elevated divan on two sides. The stinted pomegranate- 
trees and the few peppers growing in the mimic garden were 
refreshing to the eye ; and, after a lapse of thirty-two days, we 
enjoyed the luxury of sitting upon chairs. 

In times of scarcity, the Arabs throng here for food, which is 
given to them gratuitously ; and to this, doubtless, is attributable 
the popularity of the inmates of the convent with the wandering 
tribes. The monks live solely upon a vegetable diet. There are 
about thirty in the convent, including lay-brothers, and, except a 
few from Russia, they are all Greeks. They are good-natured, 
illiterate, and credulous. 



BOTANICAL SPECIMENS. 259 

The interior of the convent is far more extensive than one would 
suppose, looking upon it from the western side, whence only the 
tower, the top of the church, and a part of the walls, are visible. 

There is egress from the convent to the ravine by means of a 
ladder, which, at will, is let down from a low, arched door. The 
sio-ht, from the bottom of the ravine, is one well calculated to 
inspire awe. The chasm is here about 600 feet wide and 400 
deep, — a broad, deep gorge, or fissure, between lofty mountains, 
the steep and barren sides of which are furrowed by the winter 
rains. There are many excavations in the face of the cliffs, on 
both sides of the ravine, below the convent. They present a 
most singular appearance ; and, looking upon them, one expects 
every moment to see the inmates come forth. It is a city of caverns. 

We walked some distance up the bed of the Kidron, and en- 
countered several precipices from ten to twelve feet high, down 
which cataracts plunge in winter. It will be difficult, but not 
impracticable, to level this torrent bed. Collected some fossils, 
and a few flowers, for preservation. Even at this early season, 
the scanty vegetation, scattered here and there in the ravines of 
the desert of Judea, was already parched and withered. There 
were but few flowers within this ravine ; the scarlet anemone and 
the purple blossom of the thistle being the prevailing ones. We 
gathered one, however, which was star-shaped ; the leaves white 
near the stem, but blue above, and the seed-stalks yellow, with 
white heads. A few leaves nearest the flower were green, but 
the rest, with the stalk, were parched and dry. It was inodorous, 
and, like beauty without virtue, fair and attractive to the eye, but 
crumbling from rottenness in the hand of him who admiringly 
plucks it. In this ravine, from the Dead Sea to the borders of 
cultivation, we have, besides, gathered for our herbarium, the 
blue weed, so well known in Maryland and Virginia for its de- 
structive qualities ; the white henbane ; the dyer's weed, used in 
Europe for dyeing green and yellow ; the dwarf mallow, com- 
monly called cresses, and the caper plant, the unopened flower- 
buds of which, preserved in vinegar, are so much used as a con- 
diment. It is supposed that the last named plant is the hyssop 
of Scripture. 



260 A R C K - II E W N CISTERN. 

During the night, we had a severe thunder storm, with a slight 
shower of rain. One of the camels, in its fright, fell into the 
ravine before the caverns where we slept, and kept us long awake 
with its discordant cries. The animal was unhurt ; but the Arabs 
tortured it, by their fruitless endeavours to extricate it in the dark. 
They were alike deaf to advice, entreaties, and commands, until 
one of the sentries^was ordered to charge upon them, when they 
hurriedly dispersed, and the poor camel and ourselves were left 
in peace. 

Saturday, May 13. Calm and cloudy. Deferred levelling any 
farther, until we had reconnoitred the two routes to Jerusalem. 
The one up the ravine, although presenting great difficulties, 
proved more practicable than the route we had come. Let all 
hands rest until Monday. Extricated the camel from the ravine. 

Sunday, May 14. A quiet day — wind east; weather pleasant. 
Collected some fossils, and a few flowers, for preservation. While 
here, several of the bteddin, or coney of Scripture, were seen 
among the rocks. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

FROM MAR SABA TO JERUSALEM. 

Monday, May 15. Discharged all the Arabs, except a guide 
and the necessary' camel-drivers. The levelling party worked up 
the bed of the Kidron, while the camp proceeded along the edge 
of the western cliff. In about two hours, we passed a large 
cistern, hewn in the rock, twenty feet long, twelve wide, and 
eighteen high. There was water in it to the depth of four feet, 
and its surface was coated with green slime. In it two Arabs 
were bathing. Nevertheless, our beasts and ourselves were com- 
pelled to drink it. Soon after, isolated tufts of scant and parched 
vegetation began to appear on the hill-sides. We were truly in a 



A CONTRAST. 261 

desert. There was no difference of hue between the dry torrent- 
bed and the sides and summits of the mountains. From the 
Great Sea, which washes' the sandy plain on the west, to that bit- 
ter sea on the east, which bears no living thing within it, all was 
dreary desolation ! The very birds and animals, as on the shores 
of the Dead Sea, were of the same dull-brown colour, — the colour 
of ashes. How literally is the prophecy of JoeV fulfilled! "That 
which the palmer- worm hath left, hath the locust eaten ; and that 
which the locust hath left, hath the canker-worm eaten ; and that 
which the canker-worm hath left, hath the caterpillar eaten. The 
field is wasted, the land mourneth, and joy is withered from the 
sons of men." 

How" different the appearance of the mountain districts of our 
own land at this season ! There, hills and plains, as graceful in 
their sweep as the arrested billows of a mighty ocean, are before 
and around the delighted traveller. Diversified in scenery, luxu- 
riant of foliage, and like virgin ore, crumbling from tlieir own 
richness, they teem with their abundant products. The lowing 
herds, the bleating flocks, the choral songsters of the grove, gra- 
tify and delight the ear ; the clustering fruit blossoms, the waving 
corn, the grain slow bending to the breeze, proclaim an early and 
redundant harvest. More boundless than the view, that glorious 
land is uninterrupted in its sweep until the one extreme is locked 
in the fast embrace of thick-ribbed ice, and the other is washed 
by the phosphorescent ripple of the tropic ; while, on either side, 
is heard the murmuring surge of a wide-spread and magnificent 
ocean. Who can look upon that land and not thank God that 
his lot is cast within it ? And yet this country, scathed by the 
wrath of an offended Deity, teems with associations of tlie most 
thrilling events recorded in the book of time. The patriot may 
glory in the one,^the Christian of every clime must weep, but, 
even in weeping, hope for the other. 

Soon after leaving the cistern, or pool, we passed an Arab 
burial-ground, the graves indicated by a double line of rude 
stones, as at Kerak ; excepting one of a Skeikh, over which was 
a plastered tomb. Before it our Arab guide stopped, and, bow- 
ing his head, recited a short prayer. 



262 ARAB AGRICULTURE. 

As \ve thence advanced, pursuing a north-westerly course, 
signs of cultivation began to exhibit themselves. On each side 
of us were magnificent rounded and sharp-crested hills ; and, on 
tlie top of one, we soon after saw the black tents of an Arab 
encampment ; some camels and goats browsing along the sides • 
and, upon the very summit, the figures of some fellahas (Arab 
peasant women) ctit sharp against the sky. 

A little farther on, we came to a small patch of tobacco, in a 
narrow ravine, the cotyledons just appearing ; and, in the shadow 
of a rock, a fellah was seated, with his long gun, to guard it. 
Haifa mile farther, we met an Arab, a genuine Bedawy, wearing 
a sheepskin aba, the fur inwards, and driving before him a she- 
camel, with its foal. A little after, still following the bed of the 
Kidron, we came to the fork of the pilgrim's road, which turns 
to the north, at the foot of a high hill, on the summit of which 
was a large encampment of the tribe Subeih. Leaving the pil- 
grim's road on the right, we skirted the southern base of the hill, 
with patches of wheat and barley covering the surface of the nar- 
row valley; — the wheat just heading, and the fields of barley lit- 
erally " white for the harvest." Standing by the roadside, was 
a fellaha, with a child in her arms, who courteously saluted us. 
She did not appear to be more than sixteen. 

The valley was here about two hundred yards wide ; and to 
our eyes, so long unused to the sight of vegetation, presented a 
beautiful appearance. The people of the village collected in 
crowds to look upon us as we passed far beneath them. Some 
of them came down and declared that they would not permit the 
'Abeidiyeh (of which tribe were our camel-drivers) to pass through 
their territory ; and claimed for themselves the privilege of fur- 
nishing camels. We paid no attention to them, but camped on 
the west side of the hill, where the valley sweeps to the north. 

Tuesday, May 16. Vv'eather clear, cool, and delightful. At 
daylight, recommenced levelling. Soon after, the Sheikh of the 
village above us, with fifteen or twenty followers, armed with 
long guns, came down and demanded money for passing through 
his territory. Finding his efibrts at intimidation unsuccessful, he 



A RURAL SCENE. 263 

presented us with a sheep, which he refused to sell, but gave it, 
he said, as a backshish. Knowing that a return was expected, 
I directed the fair value of the sheep, in money, to be given. 

It was a pastoral sight, when we broke up camp, this morning. 
The sun was just rising over the eastern hills ; and, in every 
direction, we heard shepherds calling to each other from height 
to height, their voices mingling with the bleating of sheep and 
goats, and the lowing of numerous cattle. Reapers were harvest- 
ing in every field ; around the threshing-floors the oxen, three 
abreast, were treading out the grain ; and women were passing 
to and fro, bearing huge bundles of grain in the straw, or pitchers 
of leban (sour milk), upon their heads. Every available part of 
this valley is cultivated. The mode of harvesting is primitive. 
The reaping-hook alone is used ; the cradle seemed to be un- 
known. The scene reminded one forcibly of the fields of Boaz, 
and Ruth the gleaner. But, with all its peaceful aspect, there 
was a feature of insecurity. Along the bases of the hills, from 
time to time, shifting their positions, to keep within the shade, 
were several armed fellahin, guarding the reapers and the grain. 
The remark of Volney yet holds true: — "the countryman must 
sow wnth his musket in his hand, and no more is sown than is 
necessary for subsistence." 

Towards noon, it became very warm, and we were thirsty. 
Meeting an old Arab woman, we despatched her to the Subeih 
for some leban. We noticed that 'Awad, our Ta'amirah guide, 
was exceedingly polite to her. But when she returned, accom- 
panied by her daughter, a young and pretty fellaha, he became 
sad, and scarce said a word while they remained. On being 
asked the reason of his sudden sadness, he confessed that he had 
once spent twelve months with that tribe, sleeping, according to 
the custom of Arab courtship, every night outside of the young 
girl's tent, in the hope of winning her for his wife. He said that 
they were mutually attached, but that the mother was opposed to 
him, and the father demanded 4000 piastres, about 170 dollars. 
'Awad had 2000 piastres, the earnings of his whole life, and in 
the' hope of buying her (for such is the true name of an Arab mar- 



264 AN Arab's love. 

riage), he determined to sell his horse, which he valued at 1000 
piastres, or a little over forty dollars. But, unfortunately, his 
horse died, which reduced him to despair. Shortly after, the 
girl's uncle claimed her for his son, then five years old, offering 
to give his daughter to her brother. According to an immemorial 
custom of the Arabs, such a claim took precedence of all others, 
and the beautiful girl, just ripening into womanhood, was be- 
trothed to the child. With the philosophy of his race, however, 
'Awad subsequently consoled himself with a wife ; but, true to 
his first love, never sees its object without violent emotion. 

He further told us, that in the same camp there was another 
girl far more beautiful than the one we had seen, for whom her 
father asked 6000 piastres, a little more than 250 dollars. The 
one w^e saw was lightly and symmetrically formed, and exceed- 
ingly graceful in her movements. The tawny complexion, the 
cheek-bones somewhat prominent, the coarse black hair, and the 
dark, lascivious eye, reminded us of a female Indian of our border. 
Leaving the fellahin busy in their fields, and still following the 
ravine, we came to a narrow ridge, immediately on the other side 
of which were some thirty or forty black tents. Here a stain 
upon the rocks told a tale of blood. 

An Arab widower ran ofT with a married woman from the 
encampment before us, — a most unusual crime among this people. 
In little more than a month, the unhappy woman died. Know- 
ing that by the laws of the tribes he could be put to death by the 
injured man, or any of his or the woman's relatives he might 
encounter, and that they were on the watch for him ; and yet 
anxious to return, he made overtures for a settlement. After 
much negotiation, the feud was reconciled on condition that he 
gave his daughter, 400 piastres, a camel, and some sheep to the 
injured man. A feast was accordingly given, and the parties 
embraced in seeming amity. But the son-in-law brooded over 
his wrong, and one day seeing the seducer of his former wife 
approaching, concealed himself in a cavity of the rock and delib- 
erately shot him as he passed. Such is the Arab law of ven- 
geance, in cases of a flagrant breach of faith like this, that all of 



FIRST VIEW OF JERUSALEM. 265 

both tribes, 'Awad told us, are now bound to put the murderer 
to death. 

This elopement is not an isolated circumstance, although a 
most unusual one. The only wonder is that with such a licen- 
tious race as the Arabs, the marriage contract, wherein the woman 
has no choice, is not more frequently violated. 

Soon after noon, we passed the last encampment of black tents, 
and turning aside from the line of march, I rode to the summit of 
a hill on the left, and beheld the Holy City, on its elevated site 
at the head of the ravine. With an interest never felt before, I 
gazed upon the hallowed spot of our redemption. Forgetting 
myself and all around me, I saw, in vivid fancy, the route tra- 
versed eighteen centuries before by the Man of Sorrows. Men 
may say what they please, but there are moments when the soul, 
casting aside the artificial trammels of the world, will assert its 
claim to a celestial origin, and regardless of time and place, of 
sneers and sarcasms, pay its tribute at the shrine of faith, and 
weep for the sufferings of its founder. 

I scarce realized my position. Could it be, that with my com- 
panions I had been permitted to explore that wondrous sea, which 
an angry God threw as a mantle over the cities he had con- 
demned, and of which it had been heretofore predicted that no 
one could traverse it and live ? It was so, for there, far below, 
through the descending vista, lay the sombre sea. Before me, on 
its lofty hill, four thousand feet above that sea, was the queenly 
city. I cannot coincide with most travellers in decrying its posi- 
tion. From that view, it seemed, in isolated grandeur, to be in 
admirable keeping with the sublimity of its associations. A lofty 
mountain, sloping to the south, and precipitous on the east and 
west, has a yawning natural fosse on those three sides, worn by 
the torrents of ages. The deep vale of the son of Hinnom ; the 
profound chasm of the valley of Jehoshaphat, unite at the south- 
east angle of the base to form the Wady en Nar, the ravine of fire, 
down which, in the rainy season, the Kidron precipitates its 
swollen flood into the sea below. 

Mellowed by time, and yet further softened by tlie intervening 
23 



266 APPROACH TO JERUSALEM. 

distance, the massive walls, with their towers and bastions, looked 
beautiful yet imposing in the golden sunlight ; and above them, 
the only thing within their compass visible from that point, rose 
the glittering dome of the mosque of Omar, crowning Mount 
Moriah, on the site of the Holy Temple. On the other side of 
the chasm, commanding the city and the surrounding hills, is the 
Mount of Olives, its slopes darkened with the foliage of olive- 
trees, and on its very summit the former Church of the Ascension, 
now converted into a mosque. 

Many writers have undertaken to describe the first sight of 
Jerusalem ; but all that I have read conveys but a faint idea of 
the reality. There is a gloomy grandeur in the scene which lan- 
guage cannot paint. My feeble pen is wholly unworthy of the 
£ffort. With fervent emotions I have made the attempt, but con- 
gealed in the process of transmission, the most glowing thoughts 
are turned to icicles. 

The ravine widened as we approached Jerusalem ; fields of 
yellow grain, orchards of olives and figs, and some apricot-tree's, 
covered all the land in sight capable of cultivation ; but not a 
tree, nor a bush, on the barren hill-sides. The young figs, from 
the size of a currant to a plum, w^ere shooting from the extremities 
of the branches, while the leaf-buds were just bursting. Indeed, 
the fruit of the fig appears before the leaves are formed, and thus, 
when our Saviour saw^ a fig-tree in leaf, he had, humanly speak- 
ing, reason to expect to find fruit upon it. 

Although the mountain-sides are barren, there are vestiges 
of terraces on nearly all of them. On the slope of one there are 
twenty-four, which accounts for the redundant population this 
country once supported. 

Ascending the valley, which, at every step, presented more and 
more an increasing luxuriance of vegetation, the dark hue of the 
olive, with its dull, white blossoms, relieved by the light, rich 
green of the apricot and the fig, and an occasional pomegranate, 
thickly studded with its scarlet flowers, we came to En Rogel, 
the Well of Job, or of Nehemiah (where the fire of the altar was 
recovered), with cool, delicious water, 118 feet deep, and a small, 
arched, stone building over it. 



VICINITY OF THE HOLY CITY. 267 

On our ritjht, was the Mount of Oflence, where Solomon wor- 
shipped Ashtaroth : before us, m the rising slope of the valley of 
Jehoshaphat, had been the Kings' gardens in the palmy days of 
Jerusalem : a little above, and farther to the west, were the pool 
of Siloam and the fountain of the Virgin : on the opposite side of 
the chasm was the village of Siloam, where, it is said, Solomon 
kept his strange wives; and, below it, the great Jewish burial- 
ground, tessellated with the flat surfaces of grave-stones ; and, 
near by, the tombs of Absalom, Zacharias, and Jehoshaphat ; and, 
above and beydnd, and more dear in its associations than all, the 
garden of Gethsemane. 

We here turned to the left, up the valley of the son of Hinnom, 
where Saul was anointed King; and, passing a tree on the right, 
which, according to tradition, indicates the spot where Isaiah was 
sawn asunder ; and by a cave in which it is asserted that the 
Apostles concealed themselves when they forsook their Master; 
and under the Aceldama, bought with the price of blood ; and 
near the pool in the garden of Urias, where, from his palace, the 
King saw Bathsheba bathing; we levelled slowly along the skirts 
of Mount Zion, near the summit of which towered a mosque, 
above the tomb of David. 

It was up Mount Zion that Abraham, steadfast in faith, led the 
wondering Isaac, the type of a future sacrifice. 

Centuries after, a more august and a self-devoted victim, laden 
with the instrument of his torture, toiled along the same acclivity; 
but there was then no miraculous interposition ; and He who felt 
for the anguish of a human parent, spared not Himself. 

From this valley Mount Zion rises high and precipitous ; and, 
isolated as the hill was under the Jebusites, might well justify 
their scornful message when summoned by David to surrender. 

Following the curve of the vale of Hinnom, the Gehenna of 
the Old Testament, which rounds gradually to the north, with the 
Hill of Evil Counsel^ on our left, we proceeded to the lower 

' Soiciilled, from the tradition that on it Caiaphas dwelt when he coun- 
selled with the Jews. 



2G8 NIGHT UNDER THE WALLS OF JERUSALEM. 

pool of Gihon, where, at 5 P. M., we were compelled to halt, in 
consequence of the high wind agitating the spirit-level. 

We pitched our tents upon a terrace, just above where the 
aqueduct crosses from Solomon's pool, with Zion gate imme- 
diately over us, and, a quarter of a mile below the tower of Hip- 
pacus and the Jaffa gate. In a line with us, above the Jaffa gate, 
was the upper pool of Gihon, with a number of Turkish tombs 
near it. On the opposite, or western side of the ravine, were 
old, gray, barren cliffs, with excavated tombs and caverns. The 
lower pool, beneath the camp, is formed by two huge, thick walls 
across the chasm. The aqueduct is led along the upper edge of 
the lower one ; and the surface of the wall serves as a brido-e. 
over which passes the road to Bethlehem, — the one traversed by 
our Saviour, on his first visit to Jerusalem. 

There was little evidence of curiosity respecting us or the labour 
in which we were engaged. Our interpreter once or twice heard 
the remark, "the Franks are preparing to take possession of the 
Holy City.-' 

The localities around us were so interesting, every spot teem- 
ing with recollections of the past, that the night was far advanced 
before we slept. The stars shone forth lustrous, yet serene ; and 
the fleecy cloud drifted slowly along the sky ; and the glittering 
dew settled upon the bending blade, which, while it bent, it fer- 
tilized. The luxuriant valleys, the lofty mountains, and the 
jewelled sky, proclaimed the existence of a Being as merciful as 
He is potent ; while the crumbling terraces, the desecrated tombs, 
and the fast-bound gates of the silent city, beyond which, after 
night-fall, none can venture in security, told of the devastating 
hand, and the cruel and rapacious nature of man. 

The dew was heavy, and we suffered from the cold, although 
the thermometer did not range below 52° in the nio-ht. The 
grain, already cut, laid in heaps in the valley below, 'exposed to 
the depredation of the spoiler, for none dared remain to guard it. 
Of all that solitude, we were the only tenants. 



ENTRANCE TO JERUSALEM. 269 



CHAPTER XX. 

JERUSALEM. 

Wednesday, May 17. At 4 A. M. this morning, the thermo- 
meter stood at 53°. In our present condition, the air felt as keen 
at this temperature as formerly at home, when the slcy was clouded, 
and there was snow upon the ground. 

We ran the level up the road, and beyond the Jaffa gate, to 
the highest near peak, north-west of Jerusalem. There were 
many Jewish women and children, clothed all in white, under the 
olive-trees in the valley as we passed. They were families from 
the city, who thus came to spend the day beneath the shade, 
away from the stifling air of the Jewish quarter. 

Passing a large tomb which stands conspicuous to the north, 
we camped a little off the Jaffa road, beside an olive-tree, about 
a mile and a half distant from the city ; and as far south-west 
from the reputed place where the Empress Helena was buried, 
and immediately west of the site most probably occupied by the 
besieging camp of the Roman aVmy under Titus. There were 
many fields (Tf grain around us, occasionally separated by low 
walls of uncut and uncemented stone. There were few trees, 
and the mountains, from their summits two-thirds down, were 
masses of brown rock without soil and unrelieved by verdure. 
South-west from us, about a mile distant, was a large building, 
its towers just visible over an intervening ridge. It was the 
Greek convent of the Holy Cross, where, we were told, " is the 
earth that nourished the root, that bore the tree, that yielded the 
timber, that made the cross." A most irreverent play upon 
words connected with such a theme, for it reminds one forcibly 
pf the nursery tale of the " house that Jack built." 

It is from this quarter that the appearance of Jerusalem has 
23* 



270 JERUSALEM. 

been usually described. Looking hence upon the city, but little 
above a level, it is certainly less grand and imposing than from 
the gorge of the valley to the south-east, \vhere it towers majes- 
tically above the spectator. Yet, beheld even from this point, 
there is no other city in the world which can compare with it in 
position.. It does not, like other cities, present an indefinite mass 
of buildings, which must be viewed in detail before the eye can 
be gratified ; but, with only its dome-roofs swelling above the 
time-stained and lofty walls, Jerusalem sits enthroned, a queen in 
the midst of an empire of desolation. Apart from its associations, 
we look upon it in admiration ; but, connected with them, the 
mind is filled with reverential awe, as it recalls the wondrous 
events that have occurred within and around it. 

The city is nearly in the form of a parallelogram, about three- 
fourths of a mile long, from east to west, and half a mile broad, 
from north to south. The walls are lofty, protected by an artificial 
fosse on the north, and the deep ravines of Jehoshaphat, of Gihon, 
and the Son of Hinnom, on the east, south, and west. There 
are now but four gates to the city. The Jaffa gate, the fish-gate 
of the New Testament, on the west ; the Damascus gate, opening 
on the great northern road, along which our Saviour travelled, 
when, at twelve years of age, he came up with his mother and 
kmdred ; the gate of St. Stephen, on the east, near the spot 
where the first Christian martyr fell, and overlooking the valley 
of Jehoshaphat ; and the Zion gate, to the south, on the crest of 
the mount. Immediately within the last, are the habitations of 
the lepers. 

On the I8th, sent the sections of the boats to Jaffa, under the 
charge of Sherif, whom we found here. We remained in camp 
nntil the 22d, the officers and men by turns visiting the city and 
its environs. During that time the weather was clear, cool at 
night, and delightful throughout the day. 

Dr. Anderson left us here, his business calling him in another 
direction. Although not required to do so, he had, while with 
us, generously persisted in bearing his portion of watchfulness 
and fatigue ; and by his invariable cheerfulness, his promptitude 



MUSLIM PILGRIMS. 271 

and zeal on all occasions, proved, independently of his profes- 
sional services, a most valuable auxiliary. He won our esteem, 
and carried with him the fervent good-will of every member of 
the party. Mr. Bedlow, who had studied medicine, and given 
us satisfactory proof of his capacity, was appointed to fill the 
place of Dr. Anderson. 

The following account of his first day in Jerusalem is from the 
diary of the youngest member of the party, who was sent up from 
Ain Jidy in advance of the camp. I give it as the unvarnished 
recital of one who simply relates what he saw. 

" Our bones yet ached from the effects of our fatiguing ride ; 
nevertheless, we determined first to visit the holy places of Jeru- 
salem, and then to regale ourselves with a civilized repast, and 
afi;erwards to luxuriate upon a bona fide bed. 

" Our cicerone had arrived betimes, and installed himself in 
his office with that pleasantness of manner which the expectation 
of a liberal fee produces. His entreaties to make haste roused us 
from our recumbent postures, and we sallied forth through mis- 
able apologies for streets, lined on each side by dilapidated bazaars. 

"The Via Dolorosa, or Sorrowful Way, first arrested our at- 
tention, and our guide pointed out the spot where our Saviour 
fell under the burthen of his cross. A little farther on, we had a 
partial view of the mosque of Omar, above the high walls by 
which it is surrounded. While we gazed upon it, a crowd of 
Abyssinian pilgrims called out to us with such fierce expressions 
of fanatic rage that our hands instinctively grasped our weapons. 
The movement had its effect, and after indulging our curiosity, 
we passed on unmolested. 

" Next to Mecca, Jerusalem is the most holy place of Mu- 
hammedan pilgrimage, and throughout the year, the mosque 
of Omar and its courts are crowded with turbaned worshippers. 
This mosque, built upon the site of the Holy Temple, is the 
great shrine of their devotions. It is strictly guarded against all 
intruders, and there is a superstitious Muslim belief that if a 
Christian were to gain access to it, Allah would assent to what- 
ever he might please to ask, and they take it for granted that his 



272 CHURCH OF THE SEPULCHRE. 

first prayer would be for the subversion of the religion of the 
Prophet. 

" In one of the streets we came to a low gate, passing through 
which and descending a long flight of stairs, we entered upon an 
open court in ^ont of the church of the Holy Sepulchre, an ancient 
and venerable building. Scattered about the court were motley 
groups of Jew pedlars, Turks, beggars, and Christian pilgrims. 
The appearance of a poor cripple excited ray compassion, and I 
gave him a piastre ; but the consequences were fearful. The 
war-cry of the Syrian pauper, "backshish! backshish!" instantly 
resounded from all quarters, and we were hemmed in, pressed, 
and swayed to and fro by the rabble. Our cicerone plied his 
stick vigorously in our defence, and it truly seemed to be gifted 
with miraculous powers, for the blind saw, and the lame walked, 
and amid their imprecations upon our Christian heads we entered 
the church. 

"Just within the door, seated on a raised divan, two sedate 
old Muslims were regaling themselves with miniature cups of 
coffee and the everlasting chibouque. Immediately in front of 
the entrance is the stone of unction, upon which, according to 
tradition, the body of our Lord was anointed. It is a plain slab 
of Jerusalem marble, slightly elevated above the floor of the 
church, and enclosed by a low railing. The pilgrims, in their 
pious fervour, crowding forward to kiss it, prevented our near 
approach. 

" Turning to the left, we saw in the centre of the main body 
of the church a small oblong building, which contains the sepul- 
chre. There were different processions crossing and recrossing 
each other with slow and measured pace, each pilgrim with a 
taper in his hand, and the numerous choirs, in various languages, 
were chanting aloud the service of the day. The lights, the 
noise, and the moving crowd had an eflTect for which the mind 
was not prepared, and with far less awe than the sanctity of the 
place is calculated to inspire, we entered the sepulchre. In the 
middle of the first apartment, for it is divided into two, is a stone, 
upon which the angel was seated when he informed the two Marys 



THE MOUNT OF OLIVES. 273 

of tne resurrection. This room is about eight feet square, and 
beautifully ornamented. From this we crept through a narrow 
aperture in the inner apartment, against the north side of which 
is the sepulchre in the form of a low altar. It is about the same 
size as the first, and between the sepulchre and the southern wall, 
there is barely space to kneel. It was brilliantly lighted by rich 
and costly lamps. 

" From the sepulchre we were led to see the pillar of flagella- 
tion, visible through a hole in the wall, but we did not credit the 
pious imposition. Thence, we ascended to the altar of Calvary, 
with three holes beneath it, where were planted the crosses upon 
which the Saviour and the two thieves were crucified. The holes 
are cut through beautifully polished marble.^ Near by is a fissure 
in the limestone rock, caused, it is alleged, by the earthquake 
which closed the sad drama of the crucifixion. This rent is cer- 
tainly not an artificial one. Before leaving the church, we visited 
the tomb of Godfrey of Bouillon, and the place where the true 
cross, it is said, was found by the Empress Helena. 

" We next determined to visit a spot respecting the identity of 
which even the mind of the most skeptical can have no room for 
doubt. Passing through the Damascus gate, we skirted the 
northern wall, and descending into the valley of Jehoshaphat, 
and crossing the bridge over the dry bed of the Kidron, we com- 
menced the ascent of the Mount of Olives. We soon reached 
the summit, but the scorching heat of a Syrian sun did not per- 
mit us to enjoy long the magnificent view it afforded. Parts of the 
Dead Sea were visible, and looking down upon it, we felt proud 
in being able to say that we were the first thoroughly to exj)lore 
this sea, which has for ages kept its mysteries buried in the deep 
bosom of its sullen waters. 

" On our return, we stopped at the garden of Gethsemane, 
which is held by the Latins, who have enclosed it with a wall. 
After repeatedly knocking at the gate, we were about to come 
away, when it was opened by a garrulous old Spaniard, whose 

B 

' The writer was not aware that the surface of the natural rock had 
been cut away, and marble placed upon it. 



274 THE ARMENIAN CONVENT. 

visage was as gnarled as the trees we now saw before us. The 
garden consists of eight enormous olive-trees, their venerable 
appearance truly typical of old age ; and there can scarcely be a 
reasonable doubt that this is, indeed, the very place where the 
Saviour wept and prayed, 

" Crossing the valley of Jehoshaphat, and ascending the slope 
of Mount Moriah, we passed by the Golden Gate, now walled up 
by the Turks. Why it is called ' golden,' I am unable to say, 
unless from its rich and elaborate sculpture. 

" We next came to the fountain of the Virgin, which flows 
through a subterranean passage into the pool of Siloam, and is 
thence distributed along the slope of the valley. The pool is 
near the foot of the mount, and is a deep oblong pit, with frag- 
ments of columns in the centre. There are steps leading down 
to it on the left side, and the water is muddy and shallow. Here 
Christ restored the blind man to sight. 

"Re-entering the city through the Jaffa gate, our cicerone 
declared ' by the body of Bacchus' that he would show us the 
greatest sight in the Holy City. It was the Armenian convent 
near by. We entered through the portal, and were ushered into 
an antechamber by a sour-looking old monk, where, in the midst 
of a crowd of camel-drivers, we waited for permission from the 
patriarch to see the riches of the convent. We were first shown 
the portraits of all preceding patriarchs, now canonized as saints 
in their calendar ; while that of the present one was the most 
gorgeously framed— par excellence, the greatest saint of them all. 
Persons well versed in the art of discolouring canvass had painted 
these miserable daubs, which, taking the portrait of the present 
patriarch as a fair criterion, bore not the slightest resemblance to 
their originals. 

" We then entered the chapel, the chef-d'ceuvre of this costly 
building. The most tasteful ornaments were the doors, made of 
tortoise-shell, and inlaid with mother-of-pearl. The walls were 
of mosaic, representing saints and devils engaged in most furious 
combats; but unfortunately, although our cicerone zealously 
endeavoured to point out which were the saints and which the 



VISITORS TO JERUSALEM. 275 

devils, we often fell into a mistake respecting them. We were 
shown throughout the convent, which is constructed in the well- 
known Saracenic style of architecture ; and the patriarch long 
detained us with an account of the improvements he intended to 
make. 

" We returned to our hotel sorely fatigued, and for lack of 
better amusement, watched the preparations for dinner with more 
avidity than would a hungry citizen of Arkansas the like evolutions 
on board of a western steamboat." 

Jerusalem, its narrow, tortuous streets, with its pavement of 
large. round stones, and its arches and recesses, time-stained and 
ivy-grown, and the walls of many of the houses, like those of 
the pavement, a consolidated lime-stone, cream-coloured and 
streaked with blood-red, has been repeatedly described. 

Visitors to Jerusalem consist, usually, of three classes : — the 
ignorant and credulous, who are prepared to believe everything ; 
the conceited and intolerant, who are equally determined to 
believe nothing ; and the weak and indolent, who side with the 
last, because it is easier to doubt than to investigate. 

The first listens with greedy ear, and assenting mind, to the 
most improbable legends. The second, stubborn and querulous, 
scoffs openly at what he hears, and laughs in his sleeve at the 
simplicity of those who differ from him. The third, not suffi- 
ciently ill-natured to sneer, adopts the opinions, without the ma- 
levolence, of others, who, because they are more positive, he 
concludes must be the best informed. 

Most of the wall, and all the houses of Jerusalem, were 
demolished by Titus. Who, therefore, can believe in the assigned 
localities along the "Via Dolorosa?" Who can credit that here 
the Virgin Mary was born ; there, the Saviour instituted the 
sacrament of the last supper ; or that yonder is the house where 
Pilate sat in judgment? Faith does not require, and true 
reverence would not be sustained by, such weak credulity. 

But there is a place which, above all others, should be a])- 
proached with humility, — the church of the Holy Sepulchre; for 
even the greatest cavillers admit that, if it do not cover all the 



276 SACRED LOCALITIES. 

sacred localities assigned to it, some, at least, may lie beneath its 
roof, and none can be be very far distant from it. 

It is known that early in the second century, the pagan con- 
querors of Jerusalem erected a statue to Jupiter, on the site of the 
Holy Sepulchre, and one to Venus, on Mount Calvary ; — thus, 
tlie very means taken to obliterate the recollections of those 
localities, served, as has been often remarked, to perpetuate them. 
The Christians were never absent from the city, except at its 
destruction by Titus, when they took refuge, for a short time, in 
Pella. In less than two centuries after the destruction of the 
temple, the holy places were restored to them. So that they 
could not have forgotten them. Can the Jews forget the site of 
the temple } 

It is not my purpose to enter into an argument. No one, 
however, should venture to approach the sacred precincts without 
learning thus much ; and he who, with this knowledge, enters 
them with a cavilling spirit, is a heartless scoffer. 

It is true that much occurs in these places calculated to shake 
the faith of the unstable, who cannot distinguish between what 
men do and what they are enjoined to do. 'ihe Almighty with- 
held from the Israelites all knowledge of the final resting-place 
of their great law-giver: may not the same Supreme Wisdom 
have left us in ignorance of the exact position of places infinitely 
more sacred, to preserve them from desecration, whether of 
wanton malice or intemperate zeal ? The possibility that any 
assigned spot may be the true one, and the certainty that it cannot 
be very far removed from it, is sufficient to inspire awe in every 
feeling breast. 

Disgusted with the conduct of many of the pilgrims, in paschal 
week, without looking to the impelling motive, many come to 
the sage conclusion that the temple must be an imposture because 
some of its visitors are disorderly; — which is about as fair as to 
judge of the nature of our beautiful institutions by the pugilistic 
combats which sometimes (Uiank God, rarely) disgrace our 
national halls of legislation. 

Intemperate zeal may be as reckless as intoxication from 



PRESUMPTUOUS CAVILLING. 277 

drink; — But is the sincere Christian to be, therefore, classed 
with a fanatic ; or a sober citizen with an inebriate ? At all 
events, on such a subject, an excess of enthusiasm is preferable 
to insensibility ; and he who believes and bows down is more to 
be envied than he that stands scornfully erect because uncon- 
vinced by so many feet and inches. He who, in such places, 
employs himself in estimating the sizes of objects, and their exact 
distances from each other, thereby endeavouring not only to 
destroy what he persuades himself are the illusions, but absolutely 
undermining the religious belief, of others, is little better than a 
heathen. 

There is nothing w'hich so perverts the heart as intellectual 
pride. The calamities which have most afflicted and debased 
our race have sprung from the abuse of the free and gifted intel- 
lect. In the perversity of a corrupt w^ill, and in the excesses of 
a presumptuous understanding, man has frightfully abused the 
powers entrusted to him for high and holy purposes. Too often, 
the extent of human knowledge is the measure of human crime. 

History, revelation, and tradition, unite to teach us that the 
unchastened will, and the perverted genius, seeking to snatch the 
forbidden fruit, have been man's first, greatest, unforgiven sin. 
While other crimes seem rather to excite the pity than to provoke 
the immediate wrath of heaven, and, by degrading the soaring 
spirit to the earth, serve to humble its pride, this appears to be a 
rebellion agviinst Him, who is a jealous God, and who will avenge 
his cause. From the fall of the son of the morning star, who, in 
tne excess of a presumptuous understanding, dared to wage war 
"against the throne and m.onarchy of God," down, through the 
deserted paths of paradise, to the terrible convulsions of the last 
century, when an impiety, second only to that of the archangel 
ruined, met with a punishment scarcely less horrible, we see, 
everyw'here, this frightful lesson written in characters of ruin. 

Yet mind is not like the "corporal rind" with which it is 

" immanacled," subjected to age, and decay, and decrepitude. 

Nor is it refluent in its essence, having a latent power within, or 

a controlling principle without, whicli proclaims, thus far shalt 

24 



278 HUMAN PRIDE. 

thou go, and no farther. It is immortal in its energies and aspir- 
ings — ever advancing and to advance — soaring still higher and 
higher with untiring wing, and gaining new scope and vigour 
from every flight towards Him from whom it descended, and with 
whose image it is stamped. Limitless and free, its nature is pro- 
gressive, its spring is upward ; no barrier to check its lofty aspira- 
tions ; no power to control its daring flight ; no obstacle to stay its 
resistless progress, but its own wild and erring presumption, its 
own fiery and impetuous promptings, its own inherent and rebel- 
lious pride. As long as, with humble heart and chastened will, 
it seeks the end of its being in the ocean of truth, its stream can 
never flow backward. 

Such is the law of all intelligence. "The rapt seraph thai 
adores and burns," the chief of the hierarchy of Heaven, the mo- 
ment he deems himself sufficient for his own support, by that one 
act of impious self-idolatry, falls, headlong, from his high estate. 

Such is the awful and salutary lesson which we glean from that 
book, which contains all that is useful in time and hopeful in the 
future. 

As if to impress indelibly upon the soul of man the terrible 
consequences of a presumptuous intellect, a jealous Deity has 
enforced the lesson with special revelations. He has not only 
bestowed upon us the godlike capacity of reason to collect and 
compare the fruits of experience in the ages which have been 
gathered to the past, but he has suspended the arm of the cheru- 
bim that we might enter the forbidden paths of paradise to read, 
beneath the tree of knowledge, the price of disobedience. And 
he has unbarred the gates of heaven itself, that, in the fall of the 
angelic hosts, we might tremble at the instant and irremediable 
ruin which followed the single sin of thought. One truth we 
therefore know, that, unaccompanied with an upright heart and a 
chastened will, with the morality which springs from religion, the 
measure of man's intellect is the measure of his ruin. The pride 
of wealth inspires contempt, and the pride of place awakens re- 
sentment, — they are human follies, and are punished by human 
means; but the pride of intellect, wherein the gifted wars with 



FAITH A BLESSING. 279 

the Giver, is a crime which the dread Creator has reserved for 
special retribution. 

There is a remark of Sir H. Davy, so appropriate to this sub- 
ject, that I cannot withhold it: — "I envy no quality of the mind 
or intellect of others, — not genius, wit, nor fancy; but if I could 
choose what would be the most delightful, and, I believe, most 
useful to me, I prefer a firm rehgious belief to any other blessing ; 
for it makes discipline of good, creates new hopes when earthly 
hopes vanish, and throws over the decay, the destruction of exist- 
ence, the most gorgeous of all lights ; awakens life in death, and, 
from corruption and decay, calls up beauty and divinity; makes 
an instrument of misfortune and of shame the ladder of ascent to 
paradise, and, far above all combinations of earthly hopes, calls 
up the most delighful visions of palms and amaranths, — the gar- 
dens of the blest, and the security of everlasting joys, where the 
sensualist and the skeptic view only gloom, decay, annihilation, 
and despair." 

My apology for touching on this subject, which is without my 
sphere and above my capacity, is the pain I have felt, with others, 
in witnessing the effects of the cavilling spirit of those who plume 
themselves on being considered the most literary of modern tra- 
vellers to the Holy Land. For their peace of mind here, I hope 
that they may never know how much they have injured a cause, 
of which some of them are the professed champions ; and, for 
their future welfare, every true Christian will pray that the evil has 
not been premeditated. I have not meant to reflect upon those 
who honestly doubt ; for faith is not a product of reason, but a 
gift, an inspiration from on high. I allude to those whose intel- 
lectual pride prompts them to parade their own attainments in 
opposition to, rather than in the search of, truth, — which never 
shrinks from a fair encounter. In the words of Milton, " Truth 
is strong, next to the Almighty." The mists of human prejudice 
cannot long withstand the penetrating light of truth, — which is 
the purest ray, reflected from the brightest gem in the diadem of 
the Great Jehovah. 

The present condition and future prospects of Palestine, is a 



280 THE JEWS. 

theme too copious for this work, even if it were not above the 
capacity of its author. I can only express an opinion, founded 
upon what I have seen and heard, that the fanaticism of the Turks 
is fast subsiding, with the rapid diminution of their number, while 
the Christian and Jewish jjopulation is increasing. As yet, this 
holds good only of the capital. The country traversed by noma- 
dic tribes, and cultivated but in patches, continues to be as in- 
secure as it is unproductive. But, like the swelling of the waters 
which precede the tide of the flood, there are indications of a 
favourable change. The Muhammedan rule, that political sirocco, 
which withers all before it, is fast losing the fierce energy which 
was its peculiar characteristic, and the world is being gradually 
prepared for the final dismemberment of the Ottoman empire. 

It needs but the destruction of that power which, for so many 
centuries, has rested like an incubus upon the eastern world, to 
ensure the restoration of the Jews to Palestine. The increase of 
toleration ; the assimilation of creeds ; the unanimity with which 
all works of charity are undertaken, prove, to the observing mind, 
that, ere long, with every other vestige of bigotr)-, the prejudices 
against this unhappy race will be obliterated by a noble and a 
God-like sympathy. " Many a Thor, with all his eddas, must first 
be swept into dimness;" — but the time will come. All things 
are onward ; and, in God's providence, all things are good. 

The fulfilment of the prophecy with regard to the Egyptians 
ensures the accomplishment of the numerous ones which predict 
the restoration of the tribes. Besides overwhelming Pharaoh and 
his host, the Almighty decreed, through Ezekiel, that Egypt 
should never obey a native sceptre. From Cambyses to the 
Mamelukes; from Muhammed to Ali Pasha, how wonderfully 
has this judgment been carried out! 

From the loth to the 22d of May was devoted to making as- 
tronomical observations, and reconnoitering the country for the 
most eligible route to level across to the Mediterranean. All the 
time not appropriated to duty, was spent in visiting over and over 
again the interesting localities in and around Jerusalem. Above 
all others, the spot least doubted, and very far from the least 



GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE. 281 

hallowed, was the garden of Gethsemane. It is enclosed by a 
high stone wall, and when we saw it, the trees were in blossom ; 
the clover upon the ground in bloom, and altogether, in its aspect 
and its associations, was better calculated than any place I know 
to soothe a troubled spirit. 

Eiffht venerable trees, isolated from the smaller and less ira- 
posing ones which skirt the base of the Mount of Olives, form 
a consecrated grove. High above, on either hand, towers a lofty 
mountain, with the deep, yawning chasm of Jehoshaphat between 
them. Crowning one of them is Jerusalem, a living city ; on the 
slope of the other is the great Jewish cemetery, a city of the dead. 
Each tree in this grove, cankered, and gnarled, and furrowed by 
age, yet beautiful and impressive in its decay, is a living monu- 
ment of the affecting scenes that have taken place beneath and 
around it. The olive perpetuates itself, and from the root of the 
dying parent stem, the young tree springs into existence. These 
trees are accounted 1000 years old. Under those of the preced- 
ing growth, therefore, the Saviour was wont to rest ; and one of 
the present may mark the very spot where he knelt and prayed, 
and wept. No cavilling doubts can find entrance here. The 
geographical boundaries are too distinct and clear for an instant's 
hesitation. Here the Christian, forgetful of the present, and ab- 
sorbed in the past, can resign himself to sad yet soothing medita- 
tion. The few purple and crimson flowers, growing about the 
roots of the trees, will give him ample food for contemplation, for 
they tell of the suffering life and ensanguined death of the Re- 
deemer. 

On the same slope and a little below Gethsemane, facing the 
city, are the reputed tombs of Absalom, Zachariah, St. James, 
and Jehoshaphat, the last giving its name to the valley. Some 
of them are hewn bodily from the rock, and the whole form a 
remarkable group. That of Absalom in particular, from its pecu- 
liar tint, as well as from its style of architecture, reminded us of 
the description of the sepulchral monuments of Petra. It is eight 
feet square, surmounted by a rounded pyramid, and there are 
24* 



282 THE GREAT BURIAL-PLACE. 

six semi-columns to each face, which are of the same mass with 
the body of the sepulchre. 

The tomb of Zachariah is also hewn square from the rock, and 
its four sides form a pyramid. The tomb of Jehoshaphat has 
a handsomely carved door ; and a portico with four columns 
indicates the sepulchre where St. James, the apostle, concealed 
himself. 

It was in the valley of Jehoshaphat that Melchisedec, king of 
Salem, met Abraham on his return from defeating the four kings 
in the vale of Siddim. In the depths of this ravine Moloch was 
worshipped, beneath the temple of the Most High, which crowned 
the summit of Mount IMoriah. 

In the village of Siloam, the scene of Solomon's apostasy, the 
living have ejected the dead, and there are as many dwelling in 
tombs as in houses. Beneath it, at the base of the Mount of 
Offence, is the great burial-ground, the desired final resting-place 
of Jews all over the world. The flat stones, rudely sculptured 
with Hebrew characters, lie, as the tenants beneath were laid, 
with their faces towards heaven. In the village above it and 
ill the city over against it, the silence is almost as death-like as 
in the grave-yard itself. Here the voice of hilarity or the hum 
of social intercourse is never heard, and when man meets his fel- 
low, there is no social greeting. The air here never vibrates with 
the melodious voice of woman, the nearest approach to a celestial 
sound ; but, shrouded from head to foot, she flits about, abashed 
and shrinking like some guilty thing. This profound silence is 
in keeping with the scene. Along the slope of the hill, above 
the village, the Master, on his way to Bethany, was wont to teach 
his followers the sublime truths of the gospel. On its acclivity, a 
little more to the north, he wept for the fate of Jerusalem. In 
the garden below, he was betrayed, and within those city walls 
he was crucified. Everything is calculated to inspire with awe, 
and it is fitting that, except in prayer, the human voice should 
not disturb these sepulchral solitudes. 

From the slope of the Mount of Olives projects a rock, pointed 
out by tradition as the one whereon the Saviour sat when he pre- 



VIEW FROM THE MOUNT OF OLIVES. 283 

dieted and wept over the Me of Jerusalem. It is farther alleged 
that upon this spot Titus pitched his camp when besieging the 
city. Neither the prediction nor its accomplishment required such 
a coincidence to make it impressive. The main camp of the be- 
siegers was north of the city, but as the sixth legion was posted on 
the Mount of Olives, the tradition may not be wholly erroneous. 

A little higher, were some grotto-like excavations, hypotheti- 
cally called the Tombs of the Prophets ; and above them, were 
some arches, under which, it is said, the Apostles composed the 
creed. Yet above, the spot is pointed out where the Messiah 
taught his disciples the Lord's Prayer — that beautiful compend 
of all that is necessary for man to ask, whether for time or eternity. 

On the summit of the mount are many wheat-fields, arid it is 
crowned with a paltry village, a small mosque, and the ruined 
church of the Ascension. In the naked rock, which is the floor 
of the mosque, an indentation is shown as the foot-print of the 
Messiah, when he ascended to heaven. Apart from the sites of 
the Temple, of Calvary, and of the Holy Sepulchre, the assigned 
localities within the city walls, such as the Arch of the Ecce 
Homo, and the house of the rich man before whose gate Lazarus 
lay, are unworthy of credit. But those without the walls, like 
the three first-named within them, are geographically defined, 
and of imperishable materials. While one, therefore, may not 
be convinced with regard to all, he feels that the traditions 
respecting them are not wholly improbable. 

From the summit, the view was magnificent. On the one 
hand lay Jerusalem, with its y&llow walls, its towers, its churches, 
its dome-roof houses, and its hills and valleys, covered with 
orchards and fields of green and golden grain, while beneath, 
distinct and near, the mosque of Omar, the Harem ! (the Sacred !) 
lay exposed to our infidel gaze, with its verdant carpet and groves 
of cypress, beneath whose holy shade none but the faithful can 
seek repose. On the other hand was the valley of the Jordan, a 
barren plain, with a line of verdure marking the course of the 
sacred river, imtil it was lost in an expanse of sluggish water, 
which we recognised as the familiar scene of our recent labours. 



284 



A COXCOMB OUT OF PLACE. 



The rays of the dL-scending sun shone full upon the Arabian 
shore, and we could see the castle of Kerak, perched high up in 
the country of Moab, and the black chasm of Zerka, through 
which flows the hot and sul])hureous stream of Callirohot?. 

No other spot in the world commands a view so desolate, and, 
at the same time, so interesting and impressive. The yawning 
ravine of Jehoshaphat, immediately beneath, was verdant with 
vegetation, which became less and less luxuriant, until, a few 
miles below, it was lost in a huge torrent-bed, its sides bare pre- 
cipitous rock, and its bed covered with boulders, whitened wdth 
saline deposit, and calcined by the heat of a Syrian sun. Beyond 
it, south, stretched the desert of Judea ; and to the north, was 
the continuous chain of this almost barren mountain. These 
mountains were not always thus barren and unproductive. The 
remains of terraces yet upon their slopes, prove that this country, 
now almost depopulated, once maintained a numerous and indus- 
trious people. 

North of Gethsemane, nearer the bed of the ravine and the 
one-arched bridge which spans it, is a subterranean church, in a 
grotto reputed to contain the tomb of the Virgin Mary. Having 
no faith in the tradition, which is based on an improbable legend, 
I did not visit it ; but in passing by, accoutred in a soiled and 
salt-encrusted dress, the only one I had, I saw a European fop 
ascending the flight of steps, attired in a short frock, tightly-fitting 
pants, a jockey-cap upon his head, a riding- whip in his hand, and 
the lines of his face wreathed in a smile of smirking Self-conceit, 
— not one feature of the man or Fiis dress in keeping with the 
scenes around him. 

H. B. M. Consul, Mr. Finn, as I have before said, kindly 
took charge of the money I sent to him ; and, furthermore, put 
himself to great trouble in paying the drafts which, from time to 
time, I made upon it ; and, also, in forwarding provisions to our 
depot at Ain Jidy. In all matters of business, he was as attentive 
as he could have been were he our own consular representative. 
But from none of the foreio;n residents in Jerusalem did we 
receive the slightest personal attention. This I ascribe to tlie 



CIRCUIT OF THE CITY. 285 

condition of our wardrobe. Before commencino; the descent of 
the Jordan, we had been compelled to send back from Tiberias 
everything that could possibly be dispensed with. Each one, 
officer and man, retained only the suit he wore, with a change of 
linen ; and, whenever circumstances permitted, did his own 
washing. Sometimes, when both of those garments required the 
process, we lay in the water until one of them had dried. From 
an indifferent tailor, we procured a few articles of dress a short 
time previous to our departure from Jerusalem, but had to be 
economical, in order to reserve what money remained for the 
necessary expenses of the expedition. I mention the circum- 
stance, not as a matter of complaint, but to account to any of 
those gentlemen who may see this, for our toil-worn and shabby 
appearance 

Returning from the Mount of Olives, we passed along the hill 
of Zion, and made another circuit of the city. 

A little below the gate of St. Stephen is the pool of Bethesda, 
where our Saviour healed the paralytic. It is now dry, and 
partly filled with rubbish. 

Yet farther south, in the face of the eastern wall, near the court 
of the mosque of Omar, is the Golden gate, now built up. 
Through this gate, it is supposed, the Messiah entered in triumph 
on the Sunday preceding his crucifixion. 

Some distance down, is the Fountain of the Virgin ; and yet 
farther below, the pool of Siloam, which has been mentioned be- 
fore. The water, which is hard and unpalatable to the taste, has 
no regular current, but ebbs and flows at intervals of a few 
minutes. 

North of the city, on the margin of the Damascus road, was a 
picturesque scene — hundreds of Jews, enjoying the fresh air, 
seated under enormous olive-trees — the women all in white 
shrouds, the men in various costumes— some with broad-brimrned 
black hats, and many with fur caps. There were also many 
Turks and Christians abroad. The Jewesses, while their figures 
were enveloped in loose and uncomely robes, allowed their faces 
tobe seen; and the Christian and the Turkish female exhibited. 



286 THE CITY WALLS. 

the one, perhaps, too much, the other, nothing whatever of her 
person and attire. There was also a marriage-procession, which 
was more funereal than festive. The women, as usual, clothed all 
in white, like so many spectres, chaunted unintelligibly, in a low, 
monotonous, wailing tone ; while some, apparently the most 
antique, for they tottered most, closed each bar with a scream 
like a diapason. The least natural and the most pompous feature 
of the scene, was the foreign consuls, promenading with their 
families, preceded by Janissaries, with silver-mounted batons, 
stalking solemnly along, like so many drum-majors of a marchino- 
regiment. As the sun sank behind the western hills, the pedes- 
trians walked faster, and the sitters gathered themselves up and 
hastened within the walls. 

The present walls of the city were rebuilt in the 16th century, 
and vary from thirty to sixty or seventy feet in height, according 
to the inequalities of the ground. They are about ten feet thick 
at the base, narrowing to the top. The stones are evidently of 
different eras, extending back to the period of Roman sway, if 
not to the time when Judea was an independent kingdom. Some 
massive pieces, near the south-eastern angle, bear marks of great 
antiquity. From a projecting one, the Turks have a prediction 
that Muhammed, their Prophet, will judge his followers. We 
have also a prediction respecting this vicinity which will prove as 
true as the other is fabulous. It is up the valley of Jehoshaphat 
that the prophet Joel declares the quick and the dead shall come 
to judgment. 

On the third day after our arrival, we went to Bethlehem, two 
hours distant. Going out of the Jaffa gate, and obliquely 
descending the western flank of Mount Zion, we crossed the val- 
ley of the son of Hinnom (Wady Gehenna, or valley of Hell), by 
the wall of the lower pool of Gihon. The road then turned 
southwardly, and ran mostly parallel with the aqueduct from 
Solomon's pools. This iqueduct consists of stones hollowed 
into cylinders, well cemen'od at the joints, and supported upon 
walls or terraces of rock v,r earth, and mostly concealed from 



AN OUTSIDE EXCURSION. 287 

sight. Here and there, a more than usual hixuriance of vege- 
tation indicated places where water was drawn from it to irrigate 
the olive orchards which, for much of the way, abounded on our 
left ; and, occasionally, a stone drawn aside disclosed a fracture 
in the trough beneath, where the traveller might quench his 
thirst. 

We soon came to the well of the Magi, assigned by tradition 
as the spot where the star reappeared to the wise men from the 
east. The country on our left was here broken and rough, and 
on the right was the plain of Rephaim, with the convent of John 
the Baptist, erected on the spot where the great precursor was 
born, and the grotto where the Virgin Mary pronounced that sub- 
lime hymn, beginning " My soul doth magnify the Lord." We 
next came to the tomb of Rachel, in the plain of Ramah, — a 
modern Turkish building, but the locality of which is believed to 
be correctly assigned. It is a small building, with two apartments, 
the one over the tomb being surmounted by a dome. On the 
right was the v.ilderness of St. John, wherein the Baptist practised 
his austerities. In that direction, too, is the valley of Elah, where 
David slew the giant ; and in the valley before us, it is said the 
army of Sennacherib the Assyrian was encamped, when 

''The angel of dealh. spread his wings on the blast." 

Ascending the hill from the tomb, and for the second time during 
the ride recognising the Dead Sea through gorges in the moun- 
tains, we passed some extensive olive orchards, and after turning 
aside to the left to look at a nearly dry cistern called David's 
Well, and admiring the luxuriant groves of olives and figs, and 
the many vineyards which beautify the head of the ravine of 
Ta'arairah, we entered Bethlehem, the birth-place of the Re- 
deemer; and went direct to the Franciscan convent, a large, 
massive, and ancient building. The church within it, erected 
by the Empress Helena, is in the form of a cross. It is supported 
by four rows of twelve columns each, without a ceiling,- and 
presented the appearance , of a net-work of longitudinal and 



288 BETHLEHEM. 

transverse beams of wood, with the roof above them. But this 
church, and the grotto of the Nativity within it, has been repeat- 
edly and accurately described. 

Many visitors to Bethlehem have persuaded themselves, to use 
the words of a recent one, " that the Saviour was not born in a 
subterraneous cavern like this, difficult of access to cattle, but in 
an approachable stable attached to the khan, or inn, in which the 
viri^iii motlier could not be accommodated." Without dwellino^ 
on our own observation of the frequent and almost universal 
appropriation, where practicable, of caverns and recesses in the 
rocks for sheltering man and beast from the heat and inclemency 
of the weather, and forbearing to quote from Stephens, whose 
experience was similar to our own, I extract some passages from 
Calmet's dissertation upon the habitations of the ancient Hebrews, 
to show that such places were frequently selected as desirable 
human dwellings. 

" The rocks and the caverns were not only places of retreat, 
and forts against enemies, in times of war and trouble ; they 
were also ordinary dwelling-places, both commodious and agree- 
able, in the country of the Israelites. On the coasts of the Red 
Sea and the Persian Gulf, in the mountains of Armenia, in the 
Balearic Islands, and in the isle of Malta, we learn that certain 
people had no other homes than the hollows of the rocks, scooped 
out by their own labours ; from which circumstance they took the 
name of Troglodytes, which signifies, in Greek, those who hide 
themselves in caverns. 

"In short, they were the ordinary retreat of the prophets and 
the just in times of persecution, to avoid the machinations of the 
wicked ; and in times of peace, to fly from the corruptions of the 
world, and to exercise themselves in practices of piety and 
prayer. It was this mode of life that Elias, St. John the Baptist, 
and Jesus Christ adopted. 

" The summer habitations were of various kinds, or rather, 
they had various means of protecting themselves from the extreme 
heat of the sun. Sometimes it was in places deep and hidden, 



PLEASING SCENE. 289 

where its ardour could not penetrate, under crypts, subterranean 
porticoes, &c." ^ 

To the east of Bethlehem is the hill where the shepherds heard 
the annunciation of the birth of the Messiah ; and in the plain 
below, the field where Ruth gleaned after the reapers. The 
country around was luxuriant with vegetation, and the yellow 
grain, even as we looked, was falling beneath the sickle. Varie- 
gated flint, chalk and limestone, without fossils, cropped out 
occasionally on the hill-sides ; but along the lower slopes, and in 
the bottom of the valley, were continuous groves, with a verdant 
carpet beneath them. It was the most rural and the loveliest 
spot we had seen in Palestine. From among many flowers we 
gathered a beautiful white one, free from all earthly taint, fit em- 
blem of the purity of the infant Godhead. 

In the Latin convent at Jerusalem, poor pilgrims are allowed 
to remain thirty days, with two meals a-day, free of cost; in the 
one at Bethlehem, three days ; and at Ramleh, one day. No 
Frank is permitted to hold real estate in Palestine, or, I believe, 
in any part of the Turkish dominions. In the country around 
Jerusalem, olives, figs, wheat, barley, dhoura, lentils, melons', 
cucumbers, artichokes, and many leguminous plants and Irish 
potatoes are cultivated ; the last in small, experimental patches. 
The silk-worm is also reared, and some little silk is made. 



' Those who wish to see more on the subject, are referred to Pliny, lib. 
vi. c. 29. Strabo, lib. xi. c. 26. Diodorus Siculus, lib. v. Josephus' 
Antiq., lib. xiv. c. 27, where he speaks of the caverns of Galilee. Gene- 
sis, xix. 30. Judges, xv. 8. 1 Kings, x. 11; xxiv. 4. Judges, vi. 2. 
1 Kings, xiii. 6; xviii. 4. Hebrews, xi. 38. 

25 



290 DEPARTURE FROM JERUSALEM. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

FROM JERUSALEM TO JAFFA. 

Monday, May 22. Having completed all the necessary arrange- 
ments, given the officers and men time to recruit, and to see 
Jerusalem and its vicinity, broke up the camp, and started to run 
the line of level across to the Mediterranean, thirty-three miles 
distant, in a direct line. The desert being passed, \ve substituted 
mules for camels, to transport our baggage. 

We recommenced levelling from the bench-mark we had made 
north-west of Jerusalem, and carried the line to the highest point, 
but little less than four thousand feet above the surface of the Dead 
Sea, before skirting down the Wady Liifte. 

The vegetation increased in luxuriance, and in vividness of 
colour, as we descended. The mountain-sides were cut in ter- 
races, many of them but a few yards wide, bearing olive, fig, and 
apricot trees, and numerous extensive vineyards. 

On the second day we passed a ruin, pointed out as the castle 
of the Macchabees ; and among the hills around, it is supposed 
that the Virgin visited the mother of the Baptist. In our route, 
we may have crossed the dry bed of the brook where David 
gathered the pebbles, with one of which he slew the Philistine, 
and passed the site of the village of Eramaus, on the road to 
which our Saviour conversed with two of his disciples after his 
resurrection. 

When abreast of a village, in which were the ruins of a Chris- 
tian church, an old Arab called out, " ye Muslims, come forth 
and see the Christians searching for treasures concealed by their 
forefathers in this country." Great curiosity was exhibited by 
the people with respect to our operations. All desired to look 
through the telescope, and even little children were held up for a 
peep. 



THE VALE OF SHARON. 29] 

The road led over high ridges ; the vegetation extremely luxu- 
riant, and the hill-sides terraced, with many vines and fig-trees, 
and groves of olive on each side. The olive is only picturesque 
in clusters. Individually it is an ungainly tree. With the 
appearance of greater strength than the oak, its branches are less 
graceful, and its leaves are smaller and less vivid in colour. 
The old trunks, gnarled and twisted, present to the eye vast 
bodies with disproportioned limbs. Those which are partially 
decayed are protected by stones piled up in the hollows. 

From the summit of the hicjhest rido^e, throucrh the mist which 
curtained it in the distance, we beheld the blue, the glorious 
Mediterranean. Not the soldiers of Xenophon cheered more 
heartily than we did, when we beheld its broad expanse stretching 
tov>'ards the west, where lay our country and our homes. 

The whole face of the country since leaving Jerusalem bore 
evidence of a high state of cultivation, and after the calcined 
cliffs of the Dead Sea and the utter barrenness of the desert of 
Judea, our senses were soothed by the soft and refreshing green 
of these terraced hills. 

On the fifth day descended the dreadful road which leads down 
Wady Ali, and through Bab Wady Ali, (Gate of the Ravine of 
Ali), issued out upon the vale of Sharon, covered with immense 
fields of ripened grain ; the thick, clustering stems bending to 
the breeze, and their golden surfaces chequered with the shadows 
of passing clouds. Behind us were the rugged mountains ; 
before us the lovely plain, dotted with villages, and covered with 
a whole population gathering the harvest ; and beyond, in the 
distance, the far-stretching sea, over which lay our homeward 
route. In the ravine, we saw in great profusion the corn poppy, 
its bright scarlet flowers presenting a gorgeous appearance. The 
acacia was also abundant. 

Long before sunrise, the next day, the industrious fellahin were 
at work in the fields. The scene was pastoral and picturesque. 
The herdsmen, with their flocks of black goats on the hill-sides, 
the cattle grazing below them ; the reapers among the grain, and 
the women gleaning after them ; while an armed Nubian guard sat 



292 GAZA. 

/ 

under the shadow of a tree, his ample costume setting off his jet- 
black skin. A light wind played in the loose folds of his white 
aba, and thence sweeping on, bowed down the heads of the 
unreaped barley, presenting an appearance like the surface of a 
still lake, when clouds are drifting over it. 

We soon passed the Bir Dier Ayoub, the road, which was yet 
but a bridle-path, becoming better, and the mountains receding 
on each side, and giving at once an almost uninterrupted view 
of the plain. On the summit of a lofty hill before us, was the 
village of Latrun (Thief), named by tradition as the birth-place 
of the repentant thief upon the cross. Instead of following the 
road over the hill and through the village, we skirted its southern 
base, and passing the well, struck first into the Gaza road, and 
then into the usual road to Ramleh. 

Gaza, the famous town of the Philistines, renowned for the 
feats of Samson, was in a direct line, about thirty miles distant. 
Once the residence of a king, it is now a paltry village. It was 
taken by Alexander the Great, after a siege of two months; and 
Quintus Curtius relates that, in imitation of Achilles, the un- 
generous conqueror, who was twice wounded during the siege, 
dragged twice round the walls, at his chariot-wheels, the body 
of the general who had gallantly defended it. 

Pursuing the road to Ramleh, we crossed Merj ibn 'Amir, an 
extensive plain under hig^h cultivation. The scene must have 
been similar to those of the days of Scripture. Below the village, 
and on the sides of the hill, the fields, in some spots, were yellow 
with the ripened grain ; in others, large quantities, newly reaped, 
were spread upon the threshing-floors, and the cattle, yoked in 
couples, were treading it out, and the whole population of the vil- 
lage was at work, reaping, gleaning, tossing in the sheaves, or 
raking aside the chaff. 

The small, square houses of all the villages, were of uncut 
stones, cemented and plastered with mud, and with flat, mud 
roofs. The mud floors are usually several feet below the surface 
of the ground ; and the only aperture in the walls is the low and 
narrow doorway. Through the last, a stream of smoke is ever 



R A M L E H . 293 

issuing, tainted with the foetid odour of the fuel, the sun-dried 
excrement of the camel ; which is so offensive, that the deaf and 
the blind detect with their nostrils, the impregnated atmo- 
sphere of a village. The habits of the people are as filthy as 
their dwellings are uncomfortable, and it is not surprising that, 
with all their simplicity of life, there are so few instances of lon- 
gevity. 

The town of Ramleh, seated in the plain, with its tower, its 
minarets, its ruins, and its palm-trees, looked more like an oriental 
city, than any we had seen in Palestine. In this plain, according 
to tradition, the infant Saviour, the Virgin, and St. Joseph, passed 
a night, in their flight to Egj'pt. 

Ramleh is the only place in the interior of Palestine where the 
American flag is permitted to fly. There were fine olive-groves, 
and many cypresses, around the town ; and beyond, a lovely 
plain, bounded by a range of mountains on one hand, and the 
Mediterranean on the other. 

Ramleh is supposed to have been the Rama-Ephraim of the 
Old Testament, where Samuel judged the people, and where the 
elders assembled to demand a king. It has now a large convent, 
rebuilt, it is said, by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, 

Proceeding along the plain of Beth Dagon, we passed Lyd, 
the Lydda of the New Testament, and the Diospolis of the Ro- 
mans, where St. Peter miraculouslv cured the man afflicted with 
the palsy. 

The uncultivated parts of the plain were beautified by the violet 
purple flowers of the plumbago, which grows more luxuriantly 
here than in southern Europe, the heads of the flowers being much 
longer, and the colours more vivid. 

At the village of Yazur, we turned to the left and followed the 
Frank road, the one on which Napoleon marched to and from 
Gaza. There were a number of people in the fields, but not 
many travellers on the road. Some wandering dervishes, bearing 
banners, and a few returning Christian pilgrims, passed us in the 
course of the morning. Pursuing thence nearly a due-west course, 
we came out on the sand-hills, and planted the level on the may- 
25* 



294 SUCCESS OF OUR LEVELLING. 

o-in of the Mediterranean, about one and a half miles south of 
Jaffa. The task was at length accomplished. We had carried a 
line of levels, with the spirit-level, from the chasm of the Dead 
Sea, through the Desert of Judea, over precipices and mountain- 
ridcres, and down and across yawning ravines, and for much of the 
time beneath a scorching sun. It had been considered by many 
as impracticable. It has, however, been accomplished ; and with 
as much accuracy as, I believe, it can be done. The instrument 
was a capital one of Troughton's, imported by Blunt. It was of 
the most recent construction, with staves ta be read off by the 
observer. The adjustments of the instruments were frequently 
examined, and we were careful to make the observations as nearly 
mid-way as possible. The whole credit of this is due to Lieu- 
tenant Dale, to whom, in full confidence of his zeal and capacity, 
I assigned the task of levelling. The result is confirmatory of 
the skill and extraordinary accuracy of the triangulation of Lieu- 
tenant Symonds, R. N. 

We found the difference of level, in other words, the depres- 
sion of the surface of the Dead Sea, below that of the Mediter- 
ranean, to be a little over 1300 feet. The height of Jerusalem 
above the former sea, is very nearly three times that of this differ- 
ence of level, while, at the same time, it is almost the exact mul- 
tiple of the depth of that sea, of the height of its banks, and of the 
depression of its surface. 

Our work accompUshed, we repaired to the country-house of 
Mr. Murad, our worthy consular representative, who had kindly 
placed it at our disposal. 

It was a delightful spot to recruit in, after our fatigue. A 
great many swallows were flying in and out, and twittering over 
our heads, in the open alcove we selected for our bed-chamber. 
We had been so long accustomed to camping in the open air, 
that we could not reconcile ourselves to sleeping in a room ; 
moreover, we felt more secure from insects, away from apartments 
that had recently been inhabited. 

We remained in the quarters so hospitably assigned to us until 
the 6th of June ; and found full occupation in bringing up our 



EXILED EGYPTIANS. 295 

work, particularly the astronomical and barometrical observations, 
and the measurement of the level, and rebuilding our boats by 
putting their sections together. The physical repose was truly 
grateful. 

To the north of the town, a short distance from the gate, for 
Jaffa has but one, and immediately upon the sea shore, is a vil- 
lage inhabited by Copts. These people followed Ibrahim Pasha 
from Egypt, but since the restoration of the country to Ottoman 
sway they have been driven from the town, and live in their poor 
mud village with the sea before and a graveyard behind them. 
Possessing no means of transportation over the first, along which 
they must often wistfully gaze towards their native country, the 
last remains as their only refuge from hunger, oppression, and 
unrewarded toil. Their complexions are dark, but the dress of 
the men differs in no respect from that of Arabs of the lowest 
class. The women wear a triangular piece of thin dark cloth 
suspended from the forehead, sometimes fringed with coins, and 
concealing the nose, mouth, and chin. 

In another graveyard to the left was an Egyptian woman at 
her devotions. Eastern women are rarely seen to pray by tra- 
vellers. Like the majority of their sex all over the world, they 
seem to shrink from public exhibition. Once before, in a Turkish 
burial-ground just without St. Stephen's gate, Jerusalem, I saw 
some black slaves making their prostrations before a tomb, but 
could not tell whether they were worshipping God, or paying 
homasre to the shade of their master. The real belief of Muham- 
medans with regard to the future prospects of women, I have 
never been able to ascertain. The vulgar idea that they are 
denied the possession of souls by the Koran, is, however, an 
incorrect one. Muhammed named four as worthy of Paradise. 
But it is impossible, for a Christian at least, to obtain satisfkic- 
tory information from a native on this subject. They never speak 
of their women to strangers, and consider any allusion to them 
as insulting. 'Awad, our guide, was the only one who would 
answer our questions in this matter, and he did it with perceptible 
reluctance. Indeed, all the Arabs with whom we have been 



298 THROWING TIIR DJERID. 

associated, and they were manv and of various tribes, were very 
reserved about their domestic atlairs, and more evasive even than 
our eastern brethren in their repHes to questions of a personal 
nature. I have never known them to give a direct answer to a 
question pertaining to their famiUes or themselves. When asked 
how he is, an Arab replies, "Thanks be to God!" ^Yhen the 
question is repeated, he says, " God is great!" and if asked the 
third time, his reply is, " God is bountiful !" 

On the sands of the sea, a little beyond the Coptic village, the 
Pasha of Jerusalem, willi a number of his officers and attendants, 
were jousting and throwing the djerld. They were mounted on 
spirited horses, drawn up in two lines, facing each other, about 
150 yards apart. A single horseman would leave his ranks, cross 
the intervening space, and ride leisurely along in front of the op- 
posite line, when, selecting his opponent, he quickly threw his 
djerid, or short, blunted, wooden spear, directly at him. The 
latter, generally dodging the weapon, immediately started in hot 
pursuit of his antagonist, who, now unarmed, spurred his horse 
towards his friends, and, to avoid the threatened blow, threw 
himself nearly from the steed, hanging by one leg, exactly in the 
manner of our Blackfoot Indians, and the inhabitants of the 
Pampas of South America. If the assailed were struck with the 
first cast, one of his party pursued the assailant ; and if successful 
in striking him, it became his turn to flee from an adversary. It 
is a manly and a beautiful game, and excited us as we looked 
upon it. How much more so must it have been to those who 
were enfjaored in it ! The noble black charo-er of the Pasha 
seemed to devour the wind, and not one escaped the unerring 
aim of his rider. There was no sycophancy, however ; tor, less 
successful in retreat than pursuit, the Pasha was repeatedly struck 
before he regained his place. 

Immediately in front of the gate were a number of fruit-sellers, 
some bazaars, and a new khan under construction, with a throng 
of people moving rapidly to and fro, indicating more activity of 
trade than we had seen since leaving Beirut. Just before enter- 
ing, we stopped to lot a funeral procession pass. It was quite a 



NOTICES OF JAFFA. 297 

long one, and consisted wholly of females. They were wailing 
in the same monotonous tone as those we saw in a similar pro- 
cession at Jerusalem. It is the custom for the relatives and 
friends, for three consecutive days, to repair in procession to, 
and weep over, the grave of the deceased. 

Just within the gate, on the right, is a very handsome fountain, 
with elaborate carved-work about it. Passinsr throusfh lines of 

o o 

bazaars, and by a mosque with a large court, and handsome 
fountain on the right, and thence threading narrow, unpaved 
streets, cumbered with rubbish, which seemed to have no precise 
direction, and to lead to no particular place, and twice descend- 
ing steps where Putnam might have hesitated, with a foe behind 
him, but down which our horses walked as carefully as we could 
have done ourselves, we at length reached the residence of our 
consul, immediately overlooking the harbour. There were some 
thirty or forty small polacre vessels in the port, which is protected 
by a reef of rocks to the westward. This reef is generally sup- 
posed to be the remains of a breakwater, built by the Emperor 
Adrian; but to me the reef presented a natural aspect. I codd 
detect no vestiges of an ancient mole, and have not been able to 
find any historical account of an artificial harbour being formed 
here. On the contrary, Josephus .speaks of the dangers of the 
anchorage, caused by a number of rocks off the town. 

Our worthy consular representative is a Syrian by birth and an 
Armenian in faith. He was dressed in the oriental style, and 
received us hospitably and kindly. For upwards of twenty years 
he has been in the service of our government ; in the first place 
as an assistant, and subsequently as the successor of his fiither. 

Jaffa is, perhaps, the oldest city in the world ; and Pliny calls 
it an antediluvian one. Here, in mythology, Andromeda was 
chained to a rock, and exposed to the embraces of a sea-monster. 

History fixes upon this as the landing-place of the crusaders, 
subsequently fortified by St. Louis. Within its Armenian convent 
Napoleon touched the sick infected with the plague, and without 
its. walls massacred his prisoners in cold blood; and here Ibrahim 
Pasha sought refiige from the Arab tribes, whom he had driven 



298 



AN ARMENIAN LADY, 



to desperation. According to tradition, here Noah built the ark, 
and from its port Jonas embarked ; on these shores were landed 
the cedars of Lebanon, brought for the building of the temjjle ; 
and in it was the house of Simon the tanner, with whom the first 
of the apostles dwelt. We visited the site of the last, which is 
upon the sea-side, exactly accordant with the description. There 
is a sarcophagus in the yard, used as a reservoir to the fountain. 
It is said to have belonged to the family of Simon. Quien sabe ? 
Who knows ? Wlio can believe ? and who can contradict it .? 
The population of Jaffa is now about 13,000, viz: Turks, 8000; 
Greeks, 2000 ; Armenians, 2000 ; Maronites, 700 ; and Jews, 
about 300. 

The consul's dinner was an extremely plentiful one, consisting 
of a great variety of dishes, many of them unknown to us, pre- 
pared in the Eastern style. His wife, in compliment to us, for 
the first time in her life, sat down to a table with strangers. She 
had a sweet countenance, and her profile was a beautiful one. 
She was timid, yet dignified in her manners ; the wave of her 
hand was particularly graceful, and her voice soft and gentle, — 
" an excellent thing in woman." She was dressed richly, 
according to the fashion of her country. Her head was orna- 
mented with diamonds, in clusters of leaves and flowers; and on 
her finger was a magnificent ruby encircled with brilliants. When 
she turned to address those who were waiting behind her, we 
were particularly struck with the exquisite contour and flexure 
of her head and throat. A master-artist would have painted her 
so, and called her the heroine of some historic scene. From time 
to time, she helped us to morsels from her own plate ; a marked 
compliment, founded on a custom, which, under other circum- 
stances, we should have thought " more honoured in the breach 
than the observance ;" but her manner w^as so gentle and so win- 
ning, and her smile so irresistible, that, had it been physic instead 
of palatable food, we should have swallowed it without hesitation. 
For the first time within many months, we felt the soothinf and 
refining influence of the society of the other sex. 

Members of the family acted as waiters, it being the custom 



A BRIDAL PROCESSION. 299 

when it is intended to pay the highest honour to a guest. Con- 
scious of not deserving it in that sense, we received it as a tribute 
to the exalted character of our country, and as an evidence of 
the patriotism of our worthy host ; — and a more patriotic, unas- 
suming, and truly hospitable representative of that country I have 
never seen. He stowed our boats in his warehouse, and placed 
his country-house at our disposal. His residence in town was 
our familiar resort, and we ever found a heartfelt welcome at his 
table. He spared no trouble ; hesitated at no expense ; and, at 
the settlement of the accounts, refused all compensation whatever. 
INIr. Stephens says that he is the only man he has ever known to 
declare himself happy. I can safely add that he is the only one 
whom I thought truly so. Many there are who ought to be, but 
I have never before met with one who rightly appreciated the 
blessings he enjoyed. 

While at dinner, we heard sung in the street the same song of 
the wild Ta'amirah, to which we had so often listened on the 
shores of the Dead Sea. Heretofore invariably discordant, it now 
sounded almost melodious. 

In the afternoon, there was a marriage-procession ; the bride 
being escorted to her future home by her husband and his friends. 
First came the groom, with a number of his male friends, walking 
two abreast ; then a gorgeous silken canopy, beneath which 
walked the bride, her person entirely screened. On each side 
was a man with a -drawn sword in his hand, suowstino: to the 
mind thoughts about a lamb led to the sacrifice, or of a criminal 
conducted to execution. Behind the canopy, in the same order 
as the men who preceded it, were a number of females of various 
ages. There were also many aitendants with musical instruments. 
The monotonous twanging sound of the last, mingled with the 
shouts of the men ; the whining tones and occasional screams of 
the women ; and the flourishes of the swords by those who bore 
them, presented a singular spectacle ; a most extraordinary vocal 
and instrumental concert, with a yet stranger accompaniment. 

*We learned from our Consul, that the Turks treat "their wives 
very badly. In consequence of the power vested in the husband 



300 TREATMENT OF WOMEN. 

to divorce at will, there is no community of interest between man 
and wife. The latter, not knowing at what moment the dreadful 
word may be pronounced, is ever laying by something for such a 
contingency, of which her mother is usually the depository. 
Hence, the husband, in self-defence, rarely provides groceries or 
food in any quantity, of which the wife would certainly sell a 
portion, and retain the proceeds. In the vicinity of towns, there- 
fore, and we have frequently observed it, Turks may be seen 
returning home with a little oil, and a small quantity of provisions, 
for the day's consumption. 

It is true, that if the wife be divorced for any other cause than 
infidelity, she can claim her dower, — that is, the sum paid for 
her by her husband, if it had been returned to him, which is 
rarely the case. But her youth, and with it, all her attractions, 
had probably passed away ; and what is the most severe part of 
the infliction, the children, in such an event, remain subject to 
the father's control. The wife can also obtain divorce ; and in 
Constantinople there is a singular female court to which she may 
appeal, but its jurisdiction, like the edict with regard to slavery, 
is nominal, and the rights of woman and the slave are alike dis- 
regarded. 

All over the world, civilized and savage, women are treated as 
inferior beings. In what is esteemed refined society, we hold 
them in mental thraldom, while we exempt them from bodily 
labour; and, pacing a sensual worship to their persons, treat 
them as pretty playthings. 

The law of inheritance, in the Turkish dominions, recognises 
no right whatever in the female. On the death of the father, if 
there be one son and one or more daughters, the son inherits all 
the property. If two or more sons, it is portioned equally among 
them ; but, in either case, the daughters have no share. 

On the 5th of June we dined with Dr. Kayat, H. B. M. Con- 
sul, The dishes were excellent and most abundant ; — among 
them a lamb, roasted whole — and the attendance was a miracle 
for Syrian servants. The dress of the hostess, a perfect lady in 
her manners and appearance, was a singular dovetailing of the 



A SYRIAN LADY. 301 

oriental with the European' costume. Her hair, flowing beneath 
her head-dress of cerulean silk, ornamented \vith crimson and 
sur-n:iounted by a gold-embroidered crown, was internetted with 
minute spicules of gold about the size of a spangle, and fell like 
the fabulous tiara of a mermaid upon her shoulders. Her neck, 
at least so much of it as could be seen, for the lady was not slightly 
moulded, was encircled with a string of golden ornaments in the 
forms of claws of animals, altogether reminding one of the neck- 
lace of a Tuscarora belle. Her fingers sparkled with rings of 
emerald, ruby and diamond, and an amethystine silk dress, made 
in the European style, with neat slippers upon the feet, completed 
her costume. She presided with quiet dignity and becoming 
grace, and the conversation of the husband gave an additional 
zest to the repast he had hospitably prepared for us. 

It was deliciously cool as we returned after nightfall, by the 
faint light of the young moon, with the old moon in her arms. 
Every evening, after sunset, the zodiacal lights were beautiful. 
Can they, as has been suggested, be the unabsorbed rays of the 
sun? 

I do not purpose entering into a description of Jaffa, or to give 
the statistical facts which were collected there. The first has 
been repeatedly done before ; the last w^ill, with more propriety, 
accompany the official report. Moreover, I feel that my notes 
are diminishing in interest as we recede from those mysterious 
shores, where we alone were almost the only voyagers. Since 
our departure from Jerusalem, we have been travelling a route 
repeatedly and graphically described by others. Any attempt, 
on my part, to compete with some of them, would be like one 
endeavouring to rival the lightning of heaven with the artificial 
fireworks of earth. In consideration, therefore, alike of the 
patience of the reader and my own reputation, I will henceforth 
be as brief as possible. 

26 



302 



DEPARTURE FOR ACRE, 



CHAPTER XXII. 

FROM JAFFA TO NAZARETH. 

Tuesday, June 6. A pleasant, calm morning, with a dens^ 
fog to seaward. 

When all hands were called, I was amused with the simplicity 
of an Arab's toilet. He had been sleeping beneath a trge in the 
court. When awakened, he sprang immediately to his feet, 
tightened the leathern belt around his aba, and throwing back 
the flaps of his koofeeyah, he was attired for the day. Except tlie 
elder Sherif, we never saw the Arabs wash anything but their 
feet, and they regarded our use of the tooth-brush as an absurdity. 

At 7 A. M., the land-party, under command of Mr. Dale, 
started for St. Jean d'Acre. In the evening, I embarked W'itli the 
remainder in the Arab brig:. 

The wind drawing too much ahead, we were, near sunset, 
compelled to anchor again within the outer verge of the harbor. 

The finest view of Jaffa is from the sea. The houses are 
mostly one story, with flat roofs, and being built on an acclivity, 
the roofs of those on one street form terraces to the houses on 
the one above it; hence, at sunset, when the inhabitants were 
assembled on the house-tops to enjoy the breeze, they presented 
an animated and pleasing appearance. After night-fall, the scene 
^vas beautiful ; the tow^n rising terrace above terrace, with hun- 
dreds of living and moving lights ; in front, stretched the sea, 
with a line of foam where it broke against the reef, and a young, 
but bright, unclouded moon above it. 

Sailed again at 8 P. M. ; the wind very light. When I awoke, 
at 2 A.M., the brig was gently moving, unrestrained by human 
guidance. The sheets were hauled aft ; the helm lashed alee, 
and the Reis and his crew were fast asleep. The moon had gone 
down, and the stars shone lustrous through the humid atmospliere. 

Behind us, but a few miles distant, was Jaffa, dark and still as 



NIGHT IN THE HARBOUR. 303 

a city of the dead. To the left, was the broad expanse of sea, 
arched over by an unclouded sky. On the right, was a waving 
line of coast, defined by the uncrested waves, as they lazily tum- 
bled and broke against it- with a monotonous, but refreshing 
sound. Beyond, was a line of barren sand-hills, terminated by 
clifTs in the remote distance. To the careless eye and unreflect- 
ing mind, an unattractive and a dreary scene ! But, in truth, 
how teeming with association, and with food for thought ! Over 
those barren sand-hills, were the sites of Gilgal and Antipatris ; 
and to the north, that seeming line of cliffs was Cffisarea, built 
(or rebuilt) by Herod, and named after his imperial master. 
Thence, St. Paul departed on his way to Rome. Some centuries 
later, this very shore presented another and a less quiet scene, — 
when the battle raged upon its sands, and Christian and Infidel 
hosts rent the air with shouts of defiance. To the west, across 
the sea, lay our home, the resting-place of all our earthly ties ; 
and to the east, beyond the line of hills which skirts the horizon, 
were the consecrated scenes in the life of Him, in whom should 
be centred all our future hopes. 

Early in the morning, the sea-breeze sprung up, and makings 
speedy passage, we anchored off St. Jean d'Acre, about an hour 
after the gates were closed, and had, consequently, to remain all 
night on board. 

The route of the land party was along the sea shore, with an 
occasional detour to the right. The beach was covered with a 
profusion of shells, of a yellow colour near the sea, but blanched 
w'hite a short distance up, which, whh a harsh, discordant sound, 
crushed and crumbled beneath the horses' feet. 

Passing the ruins of Apollonia and Cresarea, and the thriving 
village of Tantura, they were near Castellum Perigrinorum, when 
Charles Homer, seaman, was wounded by the accidental dis- 
charge of a gun. The load of twelve buck-shot entered the 
under part of the arm near the wrist, and came out on the upper 
side below the elbow, lacerating the arm (h-cadfully, and, as it 
afterwards proved, shattering one of the bones. The severed 
artery discharged dark arterial blood in frightful jets, and the 



304 AN A C C I D F, N T . 

wounded man sufTered excruciating agony. With great difficulty, 
Mr. Bedlow checked the bleeding, and the poor fellow was slowly 
conveyed to the ruined castle. Fortunately there were some 
feluccas in the harbour, and under charge of Mr. B. he was im- 
mediately embarked in one of them for Acre. The wind was 
fair and fresh, and in six hours they reached their destination. 
Homer was immediately taken to the consul's house, and a sur- 
geon in the Turkish army, who had been educated in Ibrahim 
Pasha's medical school in Egypt, dressed the wound. I dreaded, 
however, the heat of the climate, and felt it my duty to procure 
for the unfortunate man the most comfortable quarters and the 
very best surgical attendance. I therefore sent him, the same 
evening, to Beirut, under charge of Passed Midshipman Aulick, 
Mr. Bedlow, and three men. 

The carriage-trucks, and all our effects sent back from Tibe- 
rias, were also embarked in the brig. On their arrival, Homer 
was without delay placed under the care of the Sisters of Charity, 
and a French surgeon of eminence attended him daily. The 
only time that I have ever been addressed by an Arab female, 
was, when one inquired about the condition of the wounded 
sailor. Humanity, a lovely tenant, dwell where it may, has its 
peculiar and appropriate home in the female breast. 

At Acre, on the morning of the 9th, we had a visit from Sherif 
and 'Akil, who came in state, and we accepted an invitation to 
breakfast with them. Going into the town, we saw a man in the 
fosse of the ramparts, digging for bullets expended in various 
sieges of the place. He had found a number of them, two feet 
below the surface. 

On repairing to the Sherif 's, a little after noon, we were ushered, 
through a paved court, into a large room, with a lofty, arched 
ceiling ; Persian mats were upon the floor ; a handsome divan at 
one end, and at the other a European bedstead with chintz cur- 
tains^ and costly weapons were hanging against the walls. Nubian 
slaves were in immediate attendance, with sherbet, pipes, and 
coffee ; shortly after which, followed the repast. It consisted of 
a great many dishes, of Arab cookery, and was served up in an 



RAPID GERMINATION. 305 

immense circular brazen tray. Among other things, there was a 
lamb, roasted whole, which 'Akil tore apart and distributed with 
his hands. We had learned not to consider knives and forks as 
indispensable ; and, being hungry, made, tooth and nail, a hearty 
meal. In ten minutes, the exercises were over; and, with a 
lavation and a pipe, the entertainment concluded. 

Saturday, June 10. After taking some observations to connect 
with preceding ones, we started for Nazareth, via the Valley of 
the Winds, the first encampment of our previous march. The 
aspect of the country was far more parched and dry than when 
we first saw it ; the plain was embrowned by the sun, and the air 
filled with myriads of insects, the product of the already decaying 
vegetation. At 11.45, reached the former camping-place, and 
stopped to make renewed observations. To our deep regret, we 
here discovered the delicate boiling-water apparatus, for deter- 
mining elevations, to be broken, notwithstanding all our care. 
The horses were exceedingly restive from the heat and the bites 
of insects, coming across the wide plain of Acre, and to that I 
attributed the unfortunate accident. We here gathered a few 
flowers, which, the offspring of a more mature season, were gaudy 
in their colouring, but less redolent of fragrance, than those which 
bloomed around us on our previous visit. From the heat of the 
climate, vegetation germinates, matures, decays, and revivifies, 
with great rapidity. The poetical figure is an approximation to 

the truth : — 

" The Syrian flower 
Buds, and blooms, and withers, in an hour." 

Starting again, and, diverging from the route before pursued, 
we stopped at Sepphori to examine the ruins of a church with 
pointed arches, apparently of the time of the crusades. At 4 
P. M., came in sight of Nazareth, seated at the head of Wady 
Had) (Valley of the Pilgrims), which, through the Wady el 
Kafyeh (Ravine of the Leap), communicates with the great valley 
of Esdraelon. Leaving the Greek Church of the Annunciation 
on our left, we skirted the eastern slope of the mountain, and, 
descending through the outskirts of the town, camped, where so 
26* 



306 NAZARETH. 

many travellers had camped before, in an olive-grove, about 
eighty yards from the Fountain of the Virgin. There were a 
great many women and children around the fountain; the chil- 
dren, sprightly, with intelligent features ; and the women, the 
most cleanly in their attire, and the most courteous in their man- 
ners, of any we had seen in Syria. 

Sunday, June 11. We visited the Franciscan Convent, and its 
church, containing the grotto of the Annunciation. We were 
also taken to the reputed workshop of St. Joseph ; to the place 
where our Saviour dined with his disciples, and to the precipice 
whither he was led by the Jews. 

The feelings are inexpressible which overpower one in passing 
to and fro amid scenes which, for the greater portion of his mortal 
existence, were frequented by our Saviour. In Jerusalem, the 
theatre of his humilitations, his suflferings, and his death, the heart 
is oppressed with awe and anguish ; but in Nazareth, where he 
spent his infancy, his youth, and his early manhood, we yearn 
towards him unchilled by awe, and unstricken by horror. 

In its secluded position, with a narrow valley before it, and 
mountains in every other direction, we liked Nazareth better even 
than Bethlehem, and thought it the prettiest place we had seen 
in Palestine. The streets were perfectly quiet ; there was an air 
of comfort about the houses, and the people were better dressed, 
and far more civil, than any we had encountered. 

Nazareth contains about 5000 inhabitants, four-fifths Christians, 
the remainder Muslims. It has twenty-two villages in its district, 
which is subordinate to the Pashalic of Acre. While here, we 
paid a visit to a Turkish tax-gatherer, who, from his books, 
furnished us with much statistical information with regard to the 
tenure and the cultivation of land, and the land-tax, the poll-tax, 
and the " kharaje," or blood-tax, paid by the Christians. This 
tax-gatherer was an Egyptian, with a dark complexion, and short, 
crisp, black hair ; his wife, a native of Aleppo, in the north of 
Syria, had a white skin, and chesnut ringlets ; and their servant 
woman was a IVIaronite of Mount Lebanon, with high cheek-bones, 
a freckled face, and reddish-brown hair. 



ESDRAELON. 307 

Napoleon stopped at Nazareth after having rescued General 
Kleber in his desperate engagement with the Syrian army, in the 
plain of Esdraelon, about two hours distant. 

We found here the heliotrope, the pink, the pheasant's eye, and 
the knotty hartswort. The roots and seeds of the latter are me- 
dicinal, having similar properties to those of the carrot. The 
Turks are said to eat the young shoots as a salad. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

FROM NAZARETH TO THE SOURCE OF THE JORDAN. 

Monday, June 12. Started for Mount Tabor^ bearing about 
E. S. E., leaving Cana on the left. There were many oak-trees 
on the hill-sides and in the ravines, but no cultivation and very 
few flowers, except the purple bloom of the thorn. Bearing a 
little to the south, we soon opened the extensive and beautiful 
plain of Esdraelon. Over the plain was the village of Nain, 
where the widow's son was restored to life. Skirting along the 
northern edge of the lovely plain, nearly hemmed in by lofty hills, 
and cultivated in patches, with here and there a village ; passing 
the battle-field of the French, and the reputed spot where Deborah 
and Barak discomfited Sisera, we reached a village at the base, 
and ascended to the summit of Mount Tabor ; the sloping sides, 
two-thirds up, thickly dotted with oak-trees, and beautified by 
many white and yellow flowers. Near the top, were remains of 
ancient walls and fortifications; and on the flattened summit were 
six or eight acres in wheat, being harvested by male and female 
fellahin, whose homes were in the village below. All around 
were ruins, many of cut stone, without mortar, the loftiest frag- 
ment being part of a pedestal with sculptured plinths. There 
were several cisterns and arched vaults on the southern side of 
the flattened summit. This is the reputed Mount of Transfigura- 
tion, and one of those vaults answers annually the purpose of a 
chapel. 



308 A DESOLATE SPOT. 

From the summit was a magnificent view of the plain of Es- 
diaelon, stretching to the range of Carmel in the west, and to 
Mount Gilboain the south, with its off-shoot, the plain of Jezrael, 
reaching cast to the Jordan. To the north-west, was Nazareth, 
embosomed among the hills ; to the north-east, the Sea of Galilee, 
with Safed and the snowy peak of Mount Hermon. To the 
south-east, in the plain, was the village of Endor ; to the south- 
west, was little Mount Hermon, crowned with a ruined mosque 
which glittered in the sunlight ; and there were two streams from 
the north, and one from the southward and westward, which, 
uniting under the south-east base of the mountain, flowed along 
the plain, and fell into the Jordan near Beisan. A chapter might 
be written upon the history and associations of Mount Tabor, 
and its circumjacent plain. 

Descending the mount, the road led over rocky ridges, and 
across barren ravines, when we came upon several large encamp- 
ments of black tents, with much cultivation, and many cattle and 
sheep around them. In the fields were dhoura, wheat, (the last 
being harvested), and some patches of castor-bean, which is raised 
for lamp-oil. The uncultivated parts of the rolling plain abounded 
with the khob (wild artichoke), bearing a large, round, beautiful 
purple flower, resembling the lilac in its hue, and partaking of the 
fragrance of the thyme. 

Soon after, we passed two ruined villages. Just below the 
last one, was a deserted garden, with apricot and fig trees. No 
one reclined in the grateful shade of the fruit-trees ; and the song 
of a mother, and the mimic shouts of children, which once echoed 
around them, were no longer heard. It is not difficult to surmise 
the fate of the family — the father killed — the mother and the chil. 
dren driven forth — helpless wanderers. A few months back, and 
this was probably the seat of domestic happiness ; but now the 
plaintive cooing of the dove by day, and the mournful whooping 
of the owl at night, are the only sounds which find an echo in 
that desolate spot. 

Comino; to the summit overlooking the Sea of Galilee, and the 
Jordan, where it issued from it, we descended to the bank, and 



A DISAPPOINTMENT. 309 

halted near our first camping-place on the 'river, beside the 
ruined bridge of Semakh. Bathed, for the last time, in the lower 
Jordan, and gathered some flowers and shells, memorials of the 
consecrated stream and its lovely banks. From the want of 
wood, we went nearly supperless to bed. 

Tuesday, June 13. We had been compelled, last night, to 
pitch our tents in a field of wheat newly cut. When about to 
start, this morning, I sent to some reapers in the adjoining field 
to pay the owner of the one we had occupied for the slight 
damage we had occasioned. He came slowly and with hesita- 
tion, and appeared perfectly astonished when he understood our 
object. The idea of remuneration for waste of another's property 
never occurring to this harassed and misgoverned people. 

Our course to-day was along the western shore of the lake. 
Passing the ruins of Tarrichoea and of Kades, we stopped to 
bathe in the hot bath of Emmaus. The shore of the lake was in 
many places fringed with the pink oleander, and we saw a beau- 
tiful violet-coloured flower, as round and as large as a small 
apple, growing on a thorn-like bush. We met a Jewish silver- 
smith going from Tiberias to the Hauran, to supply the wives and 
daughters of the Arabs with trinkets ; thus combining thrift with 
the preservation of health, he will spend the sultry months of 
summer in the mountains. 

At 9.30, we passed the gate of Tiberias; a few persons on 
the crumbled walls. The ground, except a few irrigated patches, 
was parched and dry, and there was much grain being trodden 
out by cattle and mules. 

When here in April, we purchased the only boat upon the lake, 
with the condition that another should be procured by the 1st of 
June — an arrangement we were induced to make in the event of 
losing our boats or being unable to return with them. To our 
great regret, we now learned that the one being built on the sea- 
coast would not be delivered for two weeks, a delay proliibited 
by the advancing season and our enfeebled condition. Thus 
fell our hopes of thoroughly exploring this inland sea. It could 
not have been done when we were there before, without incurring 
great risk of failure in the main objects of the expedition. 



310 _ THE UPPER JORDAN. 

Resting a short while near Mejdel (Magdala), our road ran 
parallel with the sea-shore, witli the luxuriant but uncultivated 
plain of Chinnereth on our left, and the holy city of Safed and 
Mount Hermon towering before us. Upon this plain it is sup- 
posed that Chorazin and other towns mentioned in the New Tes- 
tament were situated. 

Early in the afternoon, we arrived at the debouchure of the 
upper Jordan. Flowing through an extensive and fertile plain, 
the river pours itself in a wide and shallow stream into the sea, 
nearly at its north-east extremity. 

Upon the western shore, near the mouth of the river, were 
many tents of the tribe El Batiheh. A number of these were 
constructed of wattled cane, giving free access to the air, and, 
from their diminutive size, more resembled cases for beasts than 
human habitations. Much of the plain had been under cultiva- 
tion, but the harvest was over, and the fields were blackened 
from the burning of the stubble. We encamped on the western 
bank, about half a mile up the stream, to avoid the near vicinity 
of the Arabs, this tribe having a bad reputation. Across the 
river on the first spur of the hills which bound the plain in that 
direction, is a village, the reputed site of Bethsaida. The river 
ran in front of the camp, about ten paces distant, and in the rear 
and on one side, as well as along the bank, were a great many 
oleanders in full bloom. This day there were very many olean- 
ders along the sea-shore, and in some places the road passed 
through groves of them, but we did not meet the aromatic shrub 
mentioned by Strabo. The purple flower I have before men- 
tioned was frequent. The day had been oppressively hot, and 
as soon as the observations of Polaris were taken, we retired — 
but not to sleep — for we were dreadfully tormented by mosquitoes 
and fleas. A marauding band of Arabs was reported to be in 
the neighbourhood, but we were unmolested. 

Starting early on the 14th, the road led at first through a mo- 
rass intersected by several streams and numerous ditches, and 
covered with a tangled growth of shrubbery. Bethsaida, the 
birth-place of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, in full sight to the 



MOUNT HERMON. 311 

north-east. We soon began to ascend, clambering up the western 
hills, the river becoming rapid, brawling and more contracted in 
its width — its banks fringed with the cane, the willow, and the 
oleander, the last in great profusion, its delicate pink hue con- 
trasting well with the light and dark green of the other vegetation. 
After a toilsome ascent of an hour, we reached the summit of the 
hill overlooking the plain. From it was a fine view of the Sea 
of Galilee and the Jordan, the latter rushing down in one line of 
foam fringed with willows, oleanders, and the ghurrah of the 
lower Ghor. Thence descending and ascending the sides of a 
deep ravine, we reached the highest elevation, whence the face 
of the country breaks down towards lake Huleh. Thus far from 
the head of the plain, the river had been a perfect torrent. 
Mount Hermon soon came into view, its brow seamed with lines 
of snow, which were fast disappearing beneath the sun of a Sy- 
rian summer. Passing a reservoir and a ruined khan, we came 
at noon to Jisr benat Ya'kob (Jacob's daughter's Bridge), with 
four arches. 

Above the bridge, the river, about forty yards wide, and full 
to the utmost capacity of its banks, flowed in nearly a due south 
course, through a narrow plain. Our road led parallel with the 
river, until we opened on a yet more extensive plain, with the 
lake on its eastern side. This plain was under partial cultiva- 
tion ; there were two villages (one in ruins) near the centre, and 
many Arab encampments scattered about, — the men smoking in 
the tents, while the women, with uncovered heads, were at work 
in the broiling sun. This lake is the Merom of the Bible, and 
upon this plain, Joshua overthrew the Canaanites. 

In the afternoon, our course led along the western edge of the 
plain, between the lake and the mountains. The plain seemed 
perfectly level to the eye ; and there were two streams running 
down hs northern end, which, with the numerous fountains, ren- 
der it very fertile. There were many encampments of the fel- 
lahin, who cultivate rice and dhoura. The tents were of cane 
wicker-work, with upright sides, and more comfortable than any 
we. had seen. The hills on the left formed a lofty range of swell- 



312 ANCIENT DAN. 

ing domes, terminating to the north in an abrupt perpendicular 
face of horizontal strata, — the prevailing rock, limestone. Sweep- 
ing round the head of the plain to the north-east, we ascended to 
an elevated plateau, and camped on the banks of the Golden 
Stream, a tributary of the river of Banias, one of the sources of 
the Jordan. 

Starting early on the 15th, in two hours, we crossed a fine old 
Roman bridge, with its three arches, spanning the river Husbeiya 
(the true Jordan), which, far below, swept through with great 
velocity, its rushing and tumbling waters darkened with fragments 
of rock peering above the eddying whirls of foam. 

In one hour more, we came to Tell el Kadi (Hill of the Judge), 
the site of ancient Dan, and the Laish of the Canaanites, " the 
utmost border northwards of the land of Israel," and where Jero- 
boam placed one of his golden calves. It is an oblong hill, with 
swelling sides and a flattened summit, about eighty feet above the 
plain. Over the crest is a hollow, where the fountain bubbles up. 
There was much tufa, and some quartz, and the whole hill bore 
traces of volcanic characters. 

On the west side, a short distance from the fountain, a stream, 
or rather many-streams, gushed out so copiously from the hill-side 
as, in an instant, to form a river ; the water clear, sweet, and cool. 
This was long supposed to be the highest source of the Jordan, 
and from it the name is said to have been derived. The only 
objection of many to the derivation is that is too simple. The 
Hebrew words Jor and Dan, as rendered in our language, mean 
River and Judge. Dan, in Hebrew, being the same as Kadi in 
Arabic. To this place, as related in Genesis, Abraham pursued 
the kings. 

Thence to Banias (Cesarea Philippi), the road led, in nearly 
an easterly direction, through a beautiful country, with numerous 
clumps of trees, mostly oak, and many coy flowers, peeping out 
from the tufted grass. 

Stopping to rest, a few moments, under a majestic oak, on a 
raised platform, encircled three feet high by a wall of fluted and 
chiselled blocks of marble, we proceeded to the cave, beneath 



AN IMPROVED CULTURE. 3l3 

which, it is said, flows the stream we had crossed, which finds an 
outlet farther down. The cave was dry, but, in places, bore 
marks of recent water. We were assured that, in the rainy sea- 
son, it is nearly filled. It no doubt communicates through a fis- 
sure, with one gorge or more in the mountain above. In the face 
of the rock, above and beside the cave, were niches, supposed to 
have been occupied by statues of Pan and several nymphs. There 
is a fabulous legend of the true source of this stream being Lake 
Phiala, a short distance to the south-east of the town. Josephus 
states that " Philip the Tetrarch cast straw into the lake, which 
came out again at Panion, which, till that time, was taken for the 
head of the Jordan." To this place our Saviour came from Beth- 
saida. 

From Banias we pursued a north-west course, the country roll- 
ing ; the soil, like that of yesterday, red clay, with a substratum 
of limestone, which occasionally cropped out. At first there was 
much cultivation, and a great many people harvesting; their com- 
plexions much lighter than those of the dwellers in the plain. 
The women wore petticoats and aprons ; and, when first seen, 
there was a general shout along the line — "hurrah for civiliza- 
tion !" We soon came upon stone fences, and other marks of a 
more secure tenure of property ; and the people were courteous ; 
saluting and returning the salutations of strangers. In saluting, 
Ihey placed the right hand upon the breast. We were once more 
among Christians. 

The road led over two high mountain-ridges and down into a 
rolling plain, with fields of dhoura, beans, and houma, and across 
the Hasbeiya (true Jordan), by a bridge at Khan Suleil. It me- 
andered along the valley, which narrowed as we advanced, and 
led through groves of olive and some poplars, and by fields of 
grain, in sight of several villages. Turning to the south, and 
then crossing the river again at a ford, and rounding to the 
east, we clambered the steep Wady et Teim, along a m.ost exe- 
crable road. It is said ihat the mountaineers, to increase their 
security, purposely render their roads almost impassable. We 
soon opened the town of Hasbeiya, seated far up on the crest of 
27 



314 RELIGIOUS DISCORD. 

the riMit acclivity, its castle and a minaret conspicuous, and 
camped on a ledge, in an olive-grove, about one-third up from 
the bed of the ravine. 

There were groves of olive, mulberry, and fig, and some apri- 
cot trees on each side of the ravine, from its head as far down as 
we could see. On the cliffs behind us were many scattered oaks, 
with here and there an orchard and a dwelling. The rich culti- 
vation extended from the head of the ravine far up to a village 
on the mountain-side, which was, in turn, overlooked by the 
snow-capped crest of Mount Hermon. 

From extreme weariness, we could not leave the tents the day 
after our arrival, even to visit the town, but impatiently awaited 
intelligence from our wounded comrade ; intending, if his life 
were in danger, to hasten to him. 

On the 16th, we received a great many visitors, and obtained 
much information from some of the most intelligent. There are 
1500 who pay poll-tax in the town ; and as it is only paid by 
able-bodied men, over twenty-one and under forty years of age, 
there must be near 9000 inhabitants in Hasbeiya, of whom two- 
thirds are Christians, mostly of the Greek persuasion. The Pro- 
testants number fifty-five ; the Maronites, fifty ; the Greek Catho- 
lics, thirty ; and there are a few Jews. There was great religious 
discord here : the members of the Greek church being prohibited 
from speaking to, or holding any communication with, the Pro- 
testants. The governor was under the influence of the Greeks, 
it w^as asserted, from mercenary considerations ; but the rest of 
the Muslims, as w^ell as the Druses, were free from intolerance, 
and seemed disposed to favour the persecuted. Freedom of reli- 
gious worship was denied to the Protestants, and we were indig- 
nant witnesses of the persecutions to which they were subjected. 
We are, mercifully, so framed as to depend upon association 
with each other, to relieve necessities, to enhance enjoyments, 
and to maintain security. Peace, therefore, and harmony, unity 
and benevolence, is the proper condition of the human family ; 
without which, man but cumbers the earth he should adorn ; and, 
in his abasement, deeply feels the abiding curse of Ishmael, — 



SOURCE OF THE JORDAN. 315 

" thy hand is against every man, and every man's hand against 
thee." 

Of all the embittered feelings of the human heart, there are 
none so detestable as those ^engendered by fanaticism. Of all 
the human family, there is not one so malevolent and so fiendish 
as the sour and self-sufficient bigot, who, catching a brand from 
the altar of Moloch, lights the fires of persecution, and pervert- 
ing, with infamous audacity, the mild breathings of the sacred 
volume into lessons of cruelty and proscription, becomes the foe 
of his fellow-man and the mocker of his august Creator. The 
persecuted have our w^armest sympathies. 

In the afternoon. Prince Ali called upon us. He is of the 
family of Shehab, which came in with Saladin, and is the oldest 
in Syria. We accompanied him to the source of the Jordan. 
Descending the ravine, and turning to the north, ,we passed 
through groves of olive, fig, and mulberry trees, and crossed the 
river over a one-arched bridge ; the banks lined with willow and 
plane trees, and luxuriantly fertile. Thence going east, in ten 
minutes we came suddenly to the source, a bold, perpendicular 
rock, from beneath which, the river gushed copious, translucent, 
and cool, and flow^ed in tw^o rectangular streams, one to the north- 
east, the other to the north-west. The scarp of the rock was about 
forty feet high ; and the north-east branch, being mere back-water, 
extended only a few hundred yards ; but its banks were fringed 
with the wild rose, the w^hite and pink oleander, and the clematis 
orientalis, or oriental virgin's bower. The north-w^est branch, at 
the distance of about a hundred yards, plunged over a dam, and 
went rushing through the arch of the bridge below. The hand 
of art could not have improved the scene. The gigantic rock, 
all majesty, above ; its banks, enamelled with beauty and fra- 
grance, all loveliness, beneath ; render it a fitting fountain-head 
of a stream which was destined to lave the immaculate body of 
the Redeemer of the world. 

While here, our observation confirmed the accounts given us 
of the wonderful product of terrace cultivation, but I will not 
cumber my already extended narrative with statistics. 



316 BEAUTIFUL SCENE. 

On the 17th, Mr. Dale and myself visited the valley of the 
Buk'ah, This rolling valley is hemmed in by the two parallel 
ridges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. The latter skirts it on 
the east, the former upon the west. Like the Avaving backs 
of huge monsters, whose bodies are prostrate but their heads 
erect, their summits stretch in ascending lines to the north till 
they terminate in two crowning peaks, Ghebel es Sheikh and 
Ghebel Sunnin, each capped and ribbed with snow. The Litany 
ran here close against the Lebanon range, the stream visible here 
and there, far down the steep chasm. 

Descending, with great difficulty, we came upon the river 
where it flowed impetuously beneath a natural bridge, — an arch 
excavated, by the water, through the opposing mass of rock. The 
reverberating noise beyond soon told of its reappearance ; and, 
clambering along and down the precipice, we saw it issuing 
gently, at first, from its subterranean chasm, its banks fringed 
with the willow and the plane tree, and decked with flowers of 
the richest hue. The stream thence flowed with increasing velo- 
city, for about 200 yards, between a high, naked rock on one 
side, and a luxuriant growth of overhanging plane-trees on the 
other, when, whirling suddenly to the right, and again to the left, 
it gathered its tumultuous waters, and, rushing in a narrow but 
impetuous cascade into a circular basin, it thence leaped twenty 
feet into a foaming caldron. The rays of the sun were reflected 
in rain-bow hues, as they fell upon the long line of foam, which 
sparkled and glittered among tlie trees, whose branches almost 
intertwined above, and nearly overshadowed the stream that 
rushed so madly beneath. If the site of the grove of Daphne 
were upon this stream instead of the Orontes, here, no doubt, 
M'ould have been the favoured spot. 

We here gathered the althea, the retem, or broom-plant, the 
dianthus, or pink, and the snap-dragon. 

With the exception of those of the highest class among the 
Turks, all the females of the town came indiscriminately to the 
fountain in the ravine for water. Each one carried a large jar, 
some upon the head, but most upon the back of the neck, between 



PRODUCTIONS OF THE COUNTRY. 317 

the shoulders. While here, we saw the wives and daughters of 
Christians (Protestants and Greeks), Druses and Turks, among 
them the married daughter of the richest man in town, pass, at 
all hours of the day, to and from the fountain. 

The transition from a severely active life in the plains to a 
wholly inactive one in an elevated region proved very trying, and 
we waited impatiently for intelligence from our comrade. Not 
hearing on Sunday, I, that evening, despatched a messenger to 
Beirut. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

FROM THE SOURCE OF THE JORDAN TO DAMASCUS 



A 



J 



BA'ALBEK, AND BEIRUT. 



Receiving, on Monday, the joyful intelligence that Horner was 
out of danger, and that Mr. Aulick and Mr. Bedlow were on 
the way to rejoin us, I determined to remain no longer inactive ; 
and, early on the 19th, started to lead the party over the Anti- 
Lebanon into the plain of Damascus. 

Clambering diagonally up the mountain-side, which was beau- 
tifully terraced, and clotlied with vineyards and olive and mul- 
berry orchards, we passed two Druse villages, and a silk-mill, 
near a cave, which was filled with water, and contained crypts 
and sarcophagi. 

The cultivation gradually disappeared as we ascended, and 
W'as succeeded by dwarf oaks, with some large ones in the hol- 
lows, and in sheltered places ; there were several streams triclding 
down the mountain side. Near the streams was some grass, and 
on their banks, and upon the mountain-slope, we observed the 
oleander, the convolvulus, the pink-flowered valerian, and the 
retem or broom-plant, the last covered with its straw-coloured 
and fragrant blossoms. The oak was succeeded by heath and 
fern, the last beautiful with its small, scarlet blossom ; then suc- 
27* 



318 APPROACH TO DAMASCUS. 

ceeded lichens and moss, terminating in masses of limestone-rock, 
with boulders of quartz. We crossed, in a gorge (the Wistanee), 
between Mount Hermon and the next peak to the southward. 
The two crests were covered and many clefts on both sides filled 
with snow. From the summit, the country below, which had 
seemed so mountainous to the upward view, appeared an immense 
rolling plain.^ Far to the north-west, at the verge of the seeming 
plain, were the red sands, a dazzling line of gold, separating the 
luxuriant green of the plain from the light azure of the far-stretch- 
ing sea. Upon that line of sand, like clustering dots upon a 
chart, were the cities of Tyre, Sidon. and Beirut. Another 
plain stretched, from the opposite side, south to the Hauran, and 
to the east until it was lost in the great desert. On the northern 
margin of that plain, but yet in the far distance, lay the city of 
Damascus, Es Sham ! (the Holy !) embosomed in groves and 
meadows. As we ascended, we suffered from a stricture about 
the temples, but nearer the summit, the feeling passed away, and 
was succeeded by great nervous exhilaration. 

We found snow some distance down the eastern slope ; and 
the descent was gradual ; but, from the nature of the road, very 
slow and excessively fatiguing. As we descended, the limestone 
rock disappeared, giving place to sand-stone and trap ; and, 
lower down, serpentine occasionally cropped out. Near the base 
of the mountain, there was a profusion of wild roses. 

The next day, the road led over a high, rolling plain, along 
the flank of the mountain, which, ribbed and capped with snow, 
formed a bleak barrier to the west. Ahead was a sea of verdure, 
which indicated the gardens around Damascus. There is an 
unfounded legend that Muhammed refused to enter that terrestrial 
paradise. Advancing into cultivation, there were patches of 
wheat and barley on the high ground ; and, in the ravines, groves 
of olives, figs, apricots, English walnuts, and some melons and 
cucumbers. The prevailing rock, a dark basalt, with metallic 
veins, and some quartz. As we proceeded, the number of vil- 
lages increased, each with its girdle of vegetation ; an oasis in 
the wide-spread and arid desert. Occasionally the wind, sweep- 



BEAUTIFUL GARDENS. 319 

ing down the gorges of the mountains, would whirl the dust of 
the incinerated plain in circling eddies, high in air, very much 
like our water-spouts at sea. There were some camels moving 
about in search of food ; but there were few people, and no birds 
or wild animals : — a long, dreary ride over the dry plain, under 
a burning sun. I had brought the party down from the mountain, 
where the air was too keen for our debilitated condition ; — here 
there was a prospect of the other extreme, and that the weather 
would prove hot and relaxing. 

In the heat of the day, the whole plain seemed to undulate, 
and the ascending vapour formed a perfect mirage, through which, 
like light-houses above the sea, the minarets of the villages were 
alone visible. We passed through the populous village of Kat- 
tana, and a most extensive olive orchard — and with the suburb 
town of Salihiyeh on a slope of the mountain to the left, and on 
the right a long line of vegetation indicating the course of the 
river until it was lost in the desert ; and Damascus, unseen though 
near, before us ; we pressed forward as rapidly as our strength 
and that of our steeds permitted. The road led through avenues 
of large walnut trees, the blossoms nipped by frost. For miles 
the way was lined with walls composed of sun-dried blocks of 
mud, intermixed with pebbles, each about three feet high, four 
feet long, and one foot thick, larger, but in every other respect 
very much like the adobes of Mexico. This climate is said to 
be very cold in winter. It can only be so by contrast with the 
heat of summer, for much frost would crumble these walls in a 
single season. Within the lines of walnut trees there were 
orchards of olives and apricots, and patches of wheat, barley, 
melons, and leguminous plants. The road ran winding among 
these delicious gardens, with a rapid stream always on one and 
generally on both sides, and to which, through each garden there 
flowed a brawling tributary, .'\fter the poetic Lamartine and the 
graphic Miss Martineau, it would be folly to attempt a description 
of Damascus. I therefore simply transcribe what fell under our 
observation. 

At 4 P. M., we were abreast of Bab el Karrawat (Gate of the 



320 DAMASCUS. 

Aqueduct), and turning to the left along the Grecian aqueduct, 
we came upon a beautiful green, level as a meadow, through the 
centre of which flows the far-famed Barada, formed by the union 
of two streams above, which are supposed to have been the Par- 
phar and the Abana, rivers of Damascus, mentioned by Naaman 
the Syrian. 

Crossing the bridge which spanned the Barada, we turned to 
the east, and skirting the northern wall, passed through a ceme- 
tery, many of the tombs in which were enclosed in wooden 
lattice work with bouquets of flowers suspended within, and 
many women moving about among them. We next passed a 
house enclosing the tomb of a santon, with numerous placards 
affixed to it, whither the afflicted or their friends come to pray for 
recovery from sickness. Very soon after we encountered a 
fellow- country- man, and our Vice-Consul, a Syrian Jew. By 
them w^e were conducted through Bab es Salem (Gate of Peace) 
to the quarters that had been provided for us. Before entering 
the city, we were advised to furl our flag, with the assurance that 
no foreign one had ever been tolerated within the walls ; that the 
British Consul's had been torn down on the first attempt to raise 
it, and that the appearance of ours would excite commotion, and 
perhaps lead to serious consequences. But we had carried it to 
every place we had visited, and, determining to take our chances 
with it, we kept it flying. Many angry comments were, I believe, 
made by the populace ; but, as we did jiot understand what our 
Toorgeman w^as too w^ary to interpret, we passed unmolested. 

Our quarters consisted of a bower, about eighty by twenty feet, 
a small fountain at one end, and a large reservoir at the other, 
with a miniature canal between ; a grotto-like recess, with a 
divan, which was assigned to the sailors, and a large room, with 
a dais and a jet d'eau in a circular basin — called, by the Jews, 
" a sea" — for ourselves. The last gave us the first correct idea 
of the "Brazen Sea" of Solomon. 

On our way around the walls, we had seen many light-coloured 
pigeons, with fan-tails ; and in this garden were ravens of a fawn 
colour, w-ith black head, wings, tail, and feet, — which contradicts 



A TURKISH CAf£. 321 

mythology ; for we are there told that the plumage of this bird 
\vas originally white, but that Apollo turned it all black, because 
it misinformed him of the infidelity of Coronis. 

The windows of our apartments looked upon the Barada, 
which flowed immediately beneath them, between two tiny cata- 
racts. On the opposite bank, was a large rural and crowded 
cafe, perfectly embowered in a grove of magnificent plane-trees. 
It was a lively and most attractive sight. There were Turks, 
Greeks, Arabs, and Syrians, in various costumes, supinely sip- 
ping coflfee or smoking in groups or apart, or attending to the 
recital of a tale ; and on one side a crowd was gathered, listening 
to a musician, and looking upon the feats of a tight-rope dancer, 
whose figure was at times half concealed from us by the inter- 
vening branches. As the day waned, numerous little coloured 
lamps, suspended in every direction about the trees, were lighted 
up, which shone beautifully amid the dark green foliage. 

This scene so excited our curiosity, from the idea it conveyed 
of a social hilarity which we had never before witnessed in our 
intercourse among Asiatics, that, w^earied as we were, we deter- 
mined to sally forth. On our way, through the dark, narrow, 
and crooked streets, we frequently stumbled over sleeping dogs. 
These animals were by no means vicious, but would howl when 
trodden upon, and lazily get out of the way. They were more 
numerous than in Constantinople ; and we were told that they 
perform the office of scavengers, and are, moreover, supported 
by charitable contribution. 

While making our way through a crowded bazaar, a Turk, in 
passing, elevated his hands above his head. We did not at the 
time understand it, but learned afterwards, that formerly it was 
an enforced custom for Christians to keep the centre of the street, 
which is nothing more than a gutter, while the Muslims jiassed 
along the elevated side-walk. The Turk, on this occasion, not 
being so tall as the member of our party next to him, his gesture 
was intended as a kind of assertion of superiority. 

The bazaars were covered in, and the shops in those appropri- 
ated to merchandise were closed ; but there were a great many 



322 A BATH AT DAMASCUS. 

cafes, not confined to houses, but each one embracing a consi- 
derable space of the street before it. There were lines drawn 
across, some ten feet above the pavement, to which were sus- 
pended hundreds of little lamps, under which, on broad benches 
and low stools, squatted and sat those visitors who ])referred the 
sensual indulgence of coffee and the chibouque ; while those 
whose tastes were more intellectual, listened silently within, as 
one read or related some tale of the East. The scene brouaht 
the days of our boyhood back, and we remembered the Arabian 
Nights, — Haroun al Raschid, and his excursions in disguise. 

Early the next morning, went to a bath, passing on the way 
the court of the great mosque, once the Christian church of St. 
John. Many of the streets were so narrow, that the projecting 
balconies often touched the walls of the houses opposite. The 
bath was very much like those of Constantinople, but more 
elaborate in its decorations, and the process of ablution was more 
prolonged and complex. The building was ornamented in the 
Chinese style. The interior of the dome-roof was painted sky- 
blue, and the walls were in fresco, of Chinese scenery. There 
were pagodas six stories high, with grotesque ornaments on the top, 
and trees and flowers nearly as high as the pagodas. There were 
elevated divans around the rotunda, and two recesses, fitted in 
like manner, sufficiently large to accommodate about sixty people. 
These recesses led off to apartments with dome-roofs, studded 
with circular glass-lights, and having marble floors and fountains, 
and alabaster reservoirs. We were led into one upon wooden 
clogs, three or four inches high, — for the floors were heated from 
beneath, — and made to sit down by one of the fountains which 
supplied hot and cold water in unlimited profusion, and the whole 
apartment was filled with a hot and almost stifling vapour. After 
being ^larboiled, the scarf-skin of the w-hole body was scraped 
off with horse-hair gloves, by yellow imps with shaven crowns, 
nearly as naked as ourselves. We were afterwards conducted 
into a room of yet higher temperature, where we were boiled a 
little more, lathered, and thoroughly washed ofT We were then 
enveloped in napkins, a capacious turban was wreathed around 



JEWISH DWELLINGS. 323 

our heads, and, almost exhausted and panting for a less rarefied 
air, were slowly supported to the outer room, where we reclined 
upon luxurious couches, and, at will, sipped coffee or sherbet, 
or smoked the aromatic chibouque. 

Friday, June 23. A close, warm day, but the air was much 
refreshed by the play of the fountains, which sounded like gentle 
rain, and mingling with the gush of the river, lulled us to sleep 
at ni2:ht. 

In the cool of the evening, we went without the walls. Pass- 
ing through the east gate, consisting of a large central one, and 
two side ones now blocked up, we had, from without, a fine 
view of the city and its suburbs. 

Near the Jerusalem gate, we were shown the place where St. 
Paul was let down in a basket, and, on the road beyond, the spot 
of his conversion; and, on our return, we passed through "the 
street which is called Straight." 

This country is the cradle of the human race ; and Damascus 
is certainly one of the oldest cities in the world. Its name is 
said to imply " the blood of the righteous ;" derived, it is sup- 
posed from the death of Abel, Eleazar, the steward of Abraham, 
was from Damascus : and about half an hour beyond it, is Hobah 
of the Old Testament, whither the patriarch followed to rescue 
Lot from his captors. 

The history of this city teems with vicissitudes. Persians, 
Greeks, Romans, and Saracens, have been here ; and there are 
ruins, and vestiges of ruins, which would delight an antiquarian. 

On Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath, we were taken to some 
houses of wealthy Jews. The exteriors of the dwellings were 
unpretending and semi-dilapidated ; and the entrances were un- 
cleanly, and, in some instances, almost filthy. A narrow, crooked 
way led to an open court, paved with marble, with a marble 
fountain and shrubs and flowering plants in the centre, and lofty, 
spacious, and elaborately- decorated rooms and alcoves around it. 
At the farther end of each room, was the elevated dais, with 
divans of costliest silk cushions on the three sides, and Persian 
carpets between them. From the dais to the opposite end of the 



324 DRESS OF THE FEMALES. 

room, was a floor of tessellated marble, with an ovei-flowing re- 
servoir, or "sea," supplied by a jet d'eau. The door and win- 
dows opened upon the court ; and the walls, wainscoting, door 
and window-frames, and the lofty ceiling, were of mosaic, of 
different kinds of costly wood, with rich gilt edgings and arabesque 
figures. 

There were neither tables nor chairs ; and, in the sleeping 
apartments, the beds consisted of thick cushions piled upon each 
other. The men were dressed in black turbans and gaberdines ; 
the wives and daughters, in narrow-skirted gowns, usually of 
English printed muslin ; and a silk boddice, generally yellow, 
fitting closely to the form — except that, opening and diverging in 
front, they displayed a thin, white gauze across the breast ; which, 
in consequence of the pressure beneath, protruded forth and pre- 
sented a most disgusting appearance. The married women 
sedulously concealed their own, but wore a quantity of artificial 
hair confined by a net-work cap, ornamented with gold coins, 
pearls, and precious stones. The unmarried wore their own 
hair, uncovered and unadorned. The eye-brows were shaved ; 
and over each eye w^as a black, curved line, extending from the 
outer corner and meeting in the centre, at the bridge of the nose. 
The lower eye-hd, beneath the lash, was also blackened, and gave 
to the whole countenance a fierce and repulsive aspect, and the 
nails were stained w^th henna. They wore' white stockings and 
loose, thin, yellow, morocco slippers, which, when they left the 
dais, were thrust into wooden clogs, and in which they moved 
about w'ith perfect case. These clogs were of wood, inlaid with 
pearl, consisting of one horizontal piece, shaped like the sole 
of a shoe, supported on two upright ones, eight inches high. 
They slipped their feet into them without stooping, merely half 
turning round in the evolution ; and they always left them at the 
foot of the dais when they came upon it. Their appearance and 
their movements were unbecoming and ungraceful. 

In the evening, the great Sheil^h of the 'Anazeh tribe (the ruler 
of the desert) came to see us ; and, also the Sherif of Damascus. 
The former is a fine, mild-looking man ; but his character belies 



LEAVE DAMASCUS. 325 

the expression of his features, for he was recently concerned in an 
outrage upon some English travellers. He is 'the Sheikh with 
whom those who wish to visit the ruins of Palmyra, or cross the 
great desert, must make their contract. 

The Sherif was a venerable-looking old man, with a magnifi- 
cent turban, of a fine, white material, intertwined with goldthread. 
He came in imposing state, with numerous attendants; while the 
powerful Sheikli, who holds life and death at his disposal, an- 
nounced himself. 

Sunday, June 25. The weather oppressively hot, and many- 
complaining ; which determined me to remain no longer in the 
city, but to lead the party again across the mountains. 

Starting a little before sunset, and passing through the suburb 
and a gorge in the hills, we had, from an elevation just above 
where the Barada bursts through the mountain, a full view of the 
city and the surrounding country. There were the mou»tains, 
the desert, and the forest of gardens ; the last intermingled with 
walls, and domes, and minarets, and untold > roofs, and the tops 
of trees, and the glittering sheen of running water, all forming a 
scene of beauty unparalleled and indescribable. Damascus, with 
its gardens, is a city in a grove ; and conveys the idea of art 
seated in the lap of nature, — an island of architecture in the midst 
of a sea of verdure. A little after 7 P. M., we encamped for the 
night, by the village of Damur, on the right bank of the Barada. 

On the 26th our course led along the right bank of the river, 
now an impetuous stream, winding frequently, with many grace- 
ful curves from side to side of a narrow and luxuriant valley. 
The prevailing flowers were the wild white rose ; a vine resem- 
bling the morning-glory, and a beautiful pink flower. It is strange 
that with a climate so similar to this. South America does not 
produce the white rose. 

As we approached the village of Zebdany, the winding road 
was shaded by the willow, and confined between hedges of the 
wild rose and a fragrant but unknown shrub. We camped early 
just without the village, which is embosomed amid luxuriant gar- 
dens enclosed by wattled hedges with rude gates, and beautiful, 
28 



326 TURKISH INEBRIETY. / 

shaded walks between. The enclosures, like those of Damascus, 
were a corabinafion of patches of grain, orchards, and gardens, 
with a running stream through each. Among the fruit trees we 
gladly recognized the apple and the quince. The apples are 
celebrated in the market of Damascus. 

Among these gardens, in the opinion of some writers, was the 
paradise of our first parents ; and tradition denominates a spot 
within it the tomb of Adam. 

We had reason to believe that inebriety prevailed among the 
Turks in Constantinople, but while in Syi'ia saw only one intoxi- 
cated Arab— our muleteer on the present journey — ^vho was 
rarely sober. On reaching Zebdany, he had deceived me about 
the best camping-place, and I said to him, threateningly, as he 
laid beneath a tree, " I have a great mind to pour a pint of arrack 
down your throat for telling me an untruth ;" when springing up, 
he exclaimed, " do, Howajeh, and I will kiss your feet !" 

Tuesday, June 27. The nature of the country before us ren- 
dered a long ride necessary to-day. We therefore rose at 3.45 
A. M., the moon peering over the eastern mountains, and again 
started at 4.50, just as the first beams of the sun tinged the sno\vy 
peak of Hermon. 

Passing by several villages, and a deep ravine with large blocks 
of conglomerate in its bed, we rode over the rolling, but parched 
and dreary plain of Buk'ah, with Ghebel Sunnin, crowned with 
snow, on our left. The Arabs hold that the ark rested on Sun- 
nin after the flood, and that Noah lived, and was buried, in this 
plain. Of the last, which was part of the Ccelosyria of the Ro- 
mans, we know that it was the high road along which Egyptian, 
Syrian, and Roman hosts have passed, in devastating progress. 

Early in the afternoon, we came in sight of the ruins of Heli- 
opolis, or the Great Temple of the Sun, at Ba'albek, and camped 
without the village, on the banks of the small, but rapid and clear 
stream, dignified with the name of the "river of Ba'albek." 

Thoroughly conscious of inability to convey an idea of tiiese 
ruins, even if our exhausted condition had permitted sufficient 
notes to have been taken for the purpose, I will not attempt it. 



SELF-REPROACH. 327 

Wednesday, June 28. Weather, warm and calm ; — at mid- 
day, the heat oppressive, many of the party complaining, and 
some seriously indisposed. I determined, therefore, to forego a 
thorough examination of the ruins; and, abandoning the contem- 
plated journey to the cedars of Lebanon, to hasten, with all prac- 
ticable speed, to Beirut, in the hope of meeting our ship. We 
found here a very beautiful species of the pink lark-spur, and 
also a pale, yellow honeysuckle, a native of the south of Europe, 
and naturalized as far north as Scotland, but which has not, be- 
fore, been recognised so far to the East. 

Striking across the plain towards the Lebanon range, w^e crossed 
tlie head-waters of the Litany, but were compelled to continue on 
for some time after dark. The mountains in solemn gloom, and 
lights here and there on the plain, indicated a distant village ; the 
silence unbroken, but by the tramp of the animals and the tinkling 
bells of the caravan. At length we iieard the welcome sound of 
dogs barking, succeeded by the voices of men ; and, near 10 
o'clock, camped, by starlight, near a village, where three snow- 
capped mountains overlooked the plain. 

Thursday, June 29. Two of the men sick last night, one of 
them very much so. We seemed to have imbibed the disease 
which has heretofore prostrated all who have ventured upon the 
Dead Sea, and were about to pass the ordeal. As I looked upon 
my companions drooping around me, many and bitter were my 
self-reproaches for having ever proposed the undertaking. 

Our route thence led along the flank of Lebanon towards the 
south-west. Here and there upon the plain on one side, and 
in every nook of the mountain on the other, was a village, 
through or beside which flowed a rivulet, bordered with trees 
and shrubbery, the only lines of vegetation above the plain. The 
cultivation was the same as we have heretofore seen, with the 
addition of the kersenna, a round pea with a hard shell, growing 
two or three in a pod, and resembling a very large radish seed in 
appearance. The kernel is saffron-coloured, sweet to the taste, 
and it is an article of food for oxen and camels, the last particu- 
laTly. It is broken and given in moistened balls. We saw very 



328 SICKNESS, 

few birds in tliesc mountains. We then traversed a well- watered 
and highly cultivated country, and passed through the village of 
Ma'alakah and the town of Zahley ; the first seated on a slope, 
the last in a beautiful hollow^ of the mountain ; the borders of the 
streams, tributaries of the Litany, in sight below, lined with wil- 
low and a profusion of the silver-leaved poplar. Near the town, 
we met a fellah on a donkey, travelling with all his effects ; th-y 
consisted of a mat, two cushions, a pipe and an aba. 

From this place I sent the interpreter ahead to engage quarters 
for us in the vicinity of Beirut, if the ship were not there, as 
medical attendance would be required immediately upon our 
arrival. The horse he rode, the best traveller we had, died upon 
the way. Descending and skirting along the root of Lebanon, 
we turned and clambered up again, and stopped to rest at noon 
upon a terrace overlooking the whole plain of Biik'ah — a glorious 
sight — but we were too sick to enjoy it. 

P. M., started again — two of the party scarce able to sit upon 
their horses — but we were obliged to proceed for want of accom- 
modation. The road was a most execrable one, leading over the 
summit ridges of the Lebanon— a keen, cold wind blowing from 
south-west. From the highest summit we could see the mist 
above the sea, but not the sea itself. Soon after, we were com- 
pelled to stop, and camped near a dirty khan, on a little platform 
overlooking the lovely valley of Emana, one thousand feet below. 
It was a cold night, during which Mr. Dale was attacked with 
the same symptoms as the other sick. One of the party, going 
out of the tent in the dark, nearly fell over the ledge down the 
precipice. 

Friday, June 30. A chilly morning — misty clouds sweeping 
over the mountain-tops and resting in the chasms. We were 
4000 feet above the level of the sea. The two first taken sick 
were better, but Mr. Dale was worse. In company with Mr. 
Bedlow, I sent him ahead, that he might obtain the best medical 
advice as soon as possible. 

Started at 7 A. M., the road winding over almost impassable 
mountain ridges, in some places by steps cut in the rock, and yet 



ARRIVAL AT THE SEA-SHORE. 329 

it is the high road from Beirut to Damascus — one, the principal 
sea-port, and the other, the capital of all Syria. In our weak 
condition, we travelled slowly ; the way seemed to grow longer 
as the day wore on, and the coolness of the morning was suc- 
ceeded by the scorching heat of noon. 

For a short distance we travelled along an old Roman road, 
the curb-stones distinctly perceptible. At 11, Beirut and the sea 
in sight, but the sick scarce able to keep their saddles, when 
fortunately we met our countryman. Dr. De Forest, of the Evan- 
gelical Mission, who prescribed some medicine to be adminis- 
tered as soon as possible. Soon after, stopped at a khan for that 
purpose. In an hour started again, and near the village of 
Bhamdun passed some deposites of petrified clam and oyster 
shells, with some ammonites. Just below was ferruginous sand- 
stone, which dipped towards the west, next carbonate of lime 
and calcareous limestone. At one place the crumbling sandstone 
presented a variety of hues, light brown, dark brown, maroon, 
purple, yellow, and pink. Two miles below, the sandstone 
dipped into the plain, and vegetation increased. The wheat, 
which grew so sparsely up the mountains as to be plucked up by 
the roots, was succeeded by the fig, the apricot, the vine, dhoura, 
beans, cucumbers and melons, while three-fourths of the space 
was covered with the mulberry. Along the road, just where 
the mountain sinks into the plain, w'cre many carob trees, resem- 
bling the cherry in its trunk and limbs, and the colour of its bark, 
the apple tree in its leaves, and the catalpa in its fruit — a long 
narrow bean of an insipid sweet taste. As we opened the har- 
bour of Beirut, our strained eyes sought in vain for the ship we 
so longed to see. My heart sank within me, as, after many alter- 
nations of hope and fear, the only three-masted vessel in the port 
proved not to be the Supply. The end who could foresee ! 

The luxuriant foliage of the plain intercepted the light breeze 
we had felt in the mountains, and it was excessively sultry ; but 
traversing the groves of pine, planted to arrest the encroachments 
of sand from the sea, and thence, riding through gardens that 
sisemed interminable, we at length reached our quarters upon 
28* 



330 ILLNESS OF MR. DALE. 

the shore. Some of us were unable to dismount, from sheer 
exhaustion ; Mr. Dale, two of the seamen, and myself, requiring 
immediate medical attendance. 

Saturday, July 1. All hands, nearly, sick. Dr. Suquet, a 
French physician, sent by his government to study the diseases 
of Syria, in attendance ; but, feeling uneasy about two cases, I 
sent an express for Dr. De Forest. The weather warm and 
relaxing. 

Sunday, July 2, The sick mostly better. Dr. De Forest 
arrived. He said that much care was required ; but that with 
care no danger was to be apprehended. He declined compen- 
sation. Weather warm but not oppressive. 

Monday, July 3. The sick much better, except one new case. 
Our wounded man came to see us. We were ever scanning the 
horizon for the expected ship. 

Tuesday, July 4. Sick convalescent with the exception of one 
of the seamen, attacked early in the morning. At noon, fired 
twenty-one guns in honour of the day. Weather warm. 

On Monday, the 10th, Mr. Dale, in the hope of being more 
speedily invigorated by the mountain air, rode to Bhamdiln, a 
village about twelve miles distant up the mountain. It was the 
dreadful Damascus road, which we had traA'elled eleven days 
before. He arrived thoroughly exhausted, but was the next day 
much recruited. On the second Uay, however, a sirocco set in, 
which lasted three days, and completely prostrated him. On the 
17th I received intelligence that he was very ill, and immediately 
hastened up, and found him partially delirious. He laboured 
under a low, nervous fever, the same which had carried off Cos- 
tigan and Molyneaux. He was in the house of the Rev. Mr. 
Smith, of the American Presbyterian Mission, and received from 
all its members there the kindest and most assiduous nursing. 
Dr. De Forest was in constant attendance day and night, and his 
wife was as a ministering angel to the invalid. Dr. Vandyke 
came some distance to see him, and his case received every alle- 
viation that the warmest sympathy could afford. 

My poor friend lingered until the evening of the 24th, when 



BURIAL OF MR, DALE. 331 

he expired so gently, that it was difficult to tell the moment of 
dissolution. Determined to take his remains home, if possible, I 
started immediately with them for Beirut. It was a slow, dreary 
ride down the rugged mountain by torchlight. As I followed the 
bodyof my late companion, accompanied only by swarthy Arabs, 
and thought of his young and helpless children, I could scarce 
repress the wish that I had been taken, and he been spared. At 
times, the wind, sweeping in fitful gusts, nearly extinguished the 
torches ; and again their blaze would stream up with a lurid glare, 
as we made our way through chasms and hollov/s,"enveloped in a 
dense and palpable mist. We reached the neighbourhood of the 
town at daylight, and the body was immediately placed in three 
coffins, (one metallic, and two wooden ones,) and laid in a vacant 
building. 

In the gloom, consequent on our loss, w^e waited impatiently 
for the Supply ; but in vain we hourly scanned the horizon. On 
the 30th, one month after our return, the physicians advised us to 
leave at once, as there could be no hope of the recovery of the 
sick at Beirut. I therefore chartered a small French brig, to take 
our boats and effects, the body of our friend, and ourselves, to 
Malta. An unhappy accident in the transportation of the remains 
from the shore to the vessel, and the superstitious fears of the 
French captain and his crew, compelled me most reluctantly to 
land them. About sunset, as the Turkish batteries were saluting 
the first night of the Ramedan, we escorted the body to the Frank 
cemetery, and laid it beneath a Pride of India tree. A few most 
appropriate chapters in the Bible were read, and some affecting 
remarks made by the Rev. Mr. Thompson ; after which, the 
sailors advanced, and fired three volleys over the grave ; and thus, 
amid unbidden tears and stilled sobs, closed the the obsequies of 
our lamented companion and friend. 

At 9 P. M., we embarked on board of La Perle d'Orient; and, 
after a tedious passage of thirty-eight days, during which we suf- 
fered much from sickness, debility, and scarcity of food and 
water, we reached Malta, and received every possible attention 
from our Consul, Mr. Winthrop. Coming from a sickly climate, 



LEA & JiLANCHAIlD'S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



SOMERVILLE'S PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

New Edition, much improved. Nowr Ready. 

PHYSICAL "geography. 

BY MARY SOMERVILLE, 

AUTHOR OF "the CONNECTION OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES," ETC. ETC. 

SECOND AMERICAN EDITION, 

JProm the Second and Itetiiaed L.ondon JEdilion, 

WITH AMERtCAIf NOTES, GLOSSARY, &C. 

In one neat royal 12mo. volume, extra cloth, of over 500 pages. 

The gri'nl success of this work, and its inlrodiiclion into many of tlie higher scliools 
and acadi;niies, have induced the puljlishers to prepare a new and inucli improved 
edition. In addition to tlie corrections and improvements of tlie autlior bestowed on 
the work in its passage tlirousli tlie press a second time in I,ondon, notes have been 
introduced to achipt it more fully lo the physical suography of this country ; and a 
comprehensive glossary has been added, rendering tlie volume more particularly 
suited to educational purposes. The amount of these additions may be understood 
from the fact, that not only has the size of the page been increased, but the volume 
itself enlarged by over one hundred and fifty pages. At the same lime, the price 
lias not been increased. 

While reading this work, we could not help tiiinking how interesting, as well as 
useful. geogra])hy as a branch of education might be made in our schools. In many of 
them, however, this is not accomplished. It is to be hoped that this defect will be 
remedied ; and that in all our educ.Ttioiial institutions Geography will .soon be taught 
in the proper way. Mrs. iSomerville's work may, in this respect, be pointed to as a 
model. — TaiCs Edinltirgh Magazine. 

Although there are few subjects drier and more uninteresting in their details than 
Geography, when confined to descriptions of the mere form of ilie earth, the height of 
its mountains, the length and breadth of its rivers, with the extent of its oceans, the 
whole features of this study become changed when, instead of regarding the objects 
which it embraces in their present condition orsuperficial character, we enleron their 
past history and examine their nature and relations by the light of modern science. 

Springs, rivers, inland seas, and lakes follow in their lurii the ocean ; and each is 
treated 111 the same judicious way. No more is said than is necessary to the under- 
siaiidingof these subjects ill their proper relations; whilst every fact is stated in a 
lucid and interesting manner. — The Atliena:um. 

An admirable work, full of varied information and v\-holesome philosophy.— A'eio 
Orleans Hce. 

We have thus followed Mrs. Somerville through, her intellectual journey over the 
globe, delighted and improved by her instructions, and anxious that others should de- 
rive from It the same pleasure and advantage. From the extracts which we have 
made, the reader will see that the work is written in a style always simple and per- 
spicuous, often vigorous and eleganl. orc;;sionally rising to a strain of ekxiuence, 
commensurate with the lofiy ideas which it clothes. InlMrs. Somerville's pages no 
sentiments are recorded which the Christian or philosopher disowns. In as.sociating 
life with nature— in taking cognizance of man as tenant of the earth-home which she 
describes, her aspiralionsever alter truth, secular and divine, and everywhere through- 
out her work we meet with jusi and noble sentiments, the indication and the otfspring 
of a highly cultivated and well baiaiiced mind.— AW/A Brilisk Review. 

From the information given, and the strenglli ol thought displayed, on almost every 
page, the work is eqimlly entitled to an atieiilive perusal. — .S. Literarti Mtsseiiger. 

Our praise comes lagging in the rear, and is well-nigh superfluous. liut we are 
anxious to recommend to our youth the enlarged miMliodof studying geography which 
her present work denioiistraies lo hi: as capiivating as it is instructive. Nowhere, 
except in her own previous work. The Connexion of the I'hysical r<ciences, is there 
to be found so large a store of well-selected information so lucidly set forth. In sur- 
veying and grouping together whatever has been seen by the eyes of others, or detect- 
ed by their laborious investigations, she is not surpassed by any one. We have no 
obscurities other than what the imperfect state of science itself involves her in ; no 
dissertations which are felt to interrupt or delay. She strings her beads distinct and 
close together. With quiet perspicacity she seizes at once whatever is most interest- 
ing and most capiivating in hersubjcct. Tlierelore it is we are for the book ; and we 
hold such prcseiusaslMrs. Somerville has bestowed upon the public, to be of incalcu- 
lable value, disseminating more sound information than all the literary and scientific 
iiistiluiions will accomplish in a whole cycle of their existence.— iiiaciiooorf's Mag. 



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MULLER'S PHYSICS-LATELY ISSUED. 



PRINCIPLES 



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BY PROFESSOR J. MULLER, M. D. 

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NOW READY. 

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COiVIPRISING THE ARRANGEMENTS, APPARATUS, AND MANIPULA- 
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BY FRANCIS MOHIl, Ph. D., 

Assessor Pharrnacix of the Royal Prussian College of Medicine, Coblcntz; 

AND TIIEOPIIILUS REDWOOD, 

Professor of Pharmacy in the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

EDITED, WITH EXTENSIVE ADDITIONS, 

BY PROFESSOR WILLIAM PROCTER, 

Of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

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£n JPreparalion, worha on Jtletallurg'jf, li'ood, the Steam Kng-ine, 
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ICNAPP'S CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY. 

T E C H N~0 L G Y; 

OR, CHEMISTRY APPLIED TO THE ARTS AO TO IHAMFACTURES. 
BY DR. F. KNAPP, 

Professor at the University of Giessen. 

Editkd, with numerous Notes and Additions, bt 

DR. EDMUND RONALDS, and DR. THOMAS RICHARDSON. 

First American Edition, with Notes and Additions, 

BY PROFESSOR WALTER R. JOHNSON. 

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Volume One, lately published, with two hundred and fourteen lars^e wood ensravi nee 
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One of the best works of modern times.— JV'eio York Commercial. 
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w ritten by one who has for many years studied both theoretically and practically the 
processes which he describes, the descriptions are precise, and conveyed in a sim- 
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many of them are, we believe, now for the first time presenled in a complete state to 
the English reader.— J" j-a?iA:.'t>i Institute Journal. 

WEISBACH'S MECHANICS. 

PRINCIPLES OF "the MECHANICS 

OF MACHINERY AND ENGINEERING. 

By Professor JULIUS WEISBACH. 

TRANSLATED AND EDITED 

BY PROFESSOR GORDON, OF GLASGOW. 

First American Edition, with Additions, 

Bv Prof. WALTER R. JOHNSON. 

In two Octavo Volumes, beautifully printed. 

Volume One, with five hundred and fifty illustrations, just issued. 
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This work is one of the most interesting to mathematicians that has been laid be- 
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The most valuable contribution to practical science that has yet appeared in this 
counlry. — Atlienainn. 

In every way worthy of being recommended to our readers —PranWm Imtitute 
Jourrtal. 

From Charles H. Hasxvell, Esq., Engineer in Chief, U. S. N. 
The design of the author in supplying the instructor with a guide for teaching, and 
the student with an auxiliary for the acquirement of the science of mechanics, has, 
in my opinion, been attained in a most successful manner. The illustrations, in the 
fullness of their construction, and in ly|)ographical execulion, are without a parallel. 
It will afford me much pleasure to recommend its use by the members of the pro- 
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HERVEY'S COURT OF GEORGE IL 

MEMOIRS OF THE REmiTQF GEORGE THE SECOND, 

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BY JOHN LORD HERYEY. 

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Now Ready— MACK AY'S TRAVELS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

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OUTLI^^ES OP ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

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A valuable and very interesting volume, which for various merits will gradually 
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Home Journal. 

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From the Kev. W. G. T. Shedd, Prof essor of English Literature in the University of Vt. 

Burlington, Mav IS, 1849. 
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FOSTER'S EUROPEAN LITERATURE.— Now Ready. 



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A FEW COPIES STILL ON HAND OF 

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" The publishers of the Encyclopsedia Americana conferred an obligation on the public when, 
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attention, or be the theme of conversation in the private circle. Whatever one would wish I o 
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mg to every species of information of events coimected with the plan of the work, since the pub- 
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tively narrow comp;u>!S, the substance of larger works of the same kind which had preceded it, it 
contains a vast amount of information that is not elsewhere to be found, and is distinguished, not 
less for its admirable arrangement, than for the variety of subjects of which it treats. The present 
voKime, which is edited by one of the most distinguished scholars of our country, is worthy to 
follow in the train of those which have preceded it. It is a remarkably felicitous condensation 
of the more recent imiirovemenls in science and the arts, besides forming a very important addi- 
*>3n to the department of Biography, the general progress of society, &c., &e " -Albany Argia. 



1 



LEA AND BLAN CHARD'S PUBLICATIONS. 

CAMPBELL^ S LORD CHANCELLORS. 

JUST PUBLISHED. 



LIVES OF THE LORD CHANCELLORS AND KEEPERS OF THE 
GREAT SEAL OF ENGLAND, 

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE REIGN OF KING GEORGE IV., 

BY JOHN LORD CAMPBELL, A.M., F.R.S.E. 

First Series, forming three neat volumes in demy octavo, extra cloth. 
Bringing the work to the time of Lord Jeffries. 

THE SECOND SERIES WILL SHORTLY FOLLOW IN FOUR VOLUMES TO MATCH. 

" It is sufficient for us to thank Lord Campbell for the honest industry with wlijch he lias thus far 
prosecuted his large task, the ereneral candor and liberality with which he has analyzed the lives 
and characters of a long succession of influential magistrates and miiusters, and the manly style 
of his narrative. We need hardly say that we shall expect with great interest the continuation 
of this performance. But the present series of itself is more than sufficient to give Lord Campbell 
a high station among the English authors of his age." — Quarterly Review. 

" The volimies teem with exciting incidents, abound in portraits, sketches and anecdotes, and are 
at once interesting and instructive. The work is not only historical and biographical, but it is 
anecflotal and philosophical. Many of the chapters emuody tlirilling incidents, while as a whole, 
the piibUcation may be regarded as of a high intellectual order." — Inquirer. 

"A work in three handsome octavo volumes, wliich we shall regard as both an ornament and an 
donor to our hbrary. A History of the Lord Chancellors of England from the mstitution of the 
office, is necessarily a History of the Constitution, the Court, and the Jurisprudence of the King- 
dom, and these volmnes teem with a world of collateral matter of the liveliest character for the 
general reader, as well as with much of the deepest mterest for the professional or philosophical 
mind." — Saturday Courier. 

" The brilliant success of this work in England is by no means greater than it.s merits. It is 
iiertainly the most briUiant contribution to English history made witlriu our recoUectinn ; it has 
the charm and freedom of Biography combined with the elaborate and careful comprehensiveness 
Mf History."— iV. Y. Tribune. 

MURRAY'S ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF GEOGRAPHY. 



THE ENCYCLOP/EDIA OF GEOGRAPHY, 

COMPRISINQ 

A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE EARTH, PHYSICAL, 
STATISTICAL, CIVIL AND POLITICAL. 

EXHIDITINO 

(TS RELATION TO THE HEAVENLY BODIE.S, ITS PHi'SICAL STRUCTURE, THE 

NATURAL HISTORY OF EACH COUNTRY. AND THK INDUSTRY, 

COJLMERCE, POLITICAL INS'IITUTIONS. AND CIVIL 

AND SOCIAL STATE OF ALL NATIONS. 

BY HUGH MURRAY, F.R.S.E., Sic. 

Assisted in Botany, by Professor HOOKER— Zoology, <tc., bv VI'. W. SWA INSON— Astronomy, &c. 
by Professor WALLACE— Geology, &.C., by Professor J A.MESON. 

REVISED, WITH ADDITIONS, 

BY THOMAS G. BRADFORD. 

THE WHOLE BROUGHT U P, B Y A S UPPLE.M EN T, TO 1843. 

In three large octavo volumes. 

VARIOUS STYLES OF B1NDIN«. 

This great work, furnished at u remarkably cheap rate, contains about 
Nineteen Hundred large imperial Pases, and is iUustratcd by EiniixY- 
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ner's, together with about Eleven Hundred Wood Guts executed in the 
best Style. 



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STRICKLAND'S QUEENS OF ENGLAND. 



A NEW AND ELEGANT EDITION 
LIVES OF THE Q U e'e N S OF ENGLAND, 

FROM THE NORMAN CONQUEST; 

WITH ANECDOTES OF THEIR COURTS, NOW FIRST PUBUSHED FROM OFFICIAJ 

RECORDS AND OTHER AUTHENTIC DOCUMENTS, PRIVATE AS WELL AS PUBLIC. 

NEW EDITION, WITU ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

BY AGNES STRICKLAND. 

Forming a handsome series in crown octavo, beautifully printed with large type on fine paper, done 
up in rich extra crimson cloth, and sold at a cheaper ralo than former editions. 

Volume One, of nearly seven hundred large pages, containing Volumes 
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than six hundred pages, containing Volumes Four and Five of the 12mo., 
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quent inquiries for the " Lives of the Queens of England," in better stylo^ 
larger type, and finer paper than has heretofore been accessible to readers 
in this country. Any volume of this edition sold separately. 

A few copies still on hand of the Duodecimo Edition. Ten volumes are 
now ready. Vol. L — Contains Matilda of Flanders, Matilda of Scotland, 
Adelicia of Louvaine, Matilda of Boulogne, and Eleanor of Aquitaine. 
Price 50 cents, in fancy paper. Vol. IF — Berengaria of Navarre, Isabella 
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Maria and Catharine of Braganza. Price 65 cents. Vol. IX. — Mary of 
Modena. Price 75 cents. Vol. X. — Mary of Modena (continued), and 
Mary II. Price 75 cents. 

Any volume sold sei>arately, or the whole to match in neat green clotb. 
JUST PUBLISHED 

voXii73yEz; ten: 

CONTAliMNO 

MARY OF MODENA, AND MARY II. 

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" A valuable contribution to historical knowledge, to young persons especially. It contains a 
mass of every kind of historii'al matter of interest, which industry and research could collect. We 
have derived much entertainment and instruction from the work." — Atlienmum. 

"The execution of this work is equal to the conception. Great pains have been taken to make 
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" A charming work — full of interest, at once serious and plea.sing." — iTcmsirur Gmzot. 

' A most charming biographical memoir. We conclude by expressing our unqualified opinion, 
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SCHOOL BOOKS. 



SCHMITZ AND ZUMPT'S CLASSICAL SERIES. 

VOL IT ME I. 

C. JUL.II C^SARIS 

COMMENTARII DE BELLO GALLICO. 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND A GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX IN ENGLISH, 
ALSO, A MAP OF GAUL, AND ILLUSTRATIVE ENGRAVINGS. 
In one handsome 18nio. volume, extra cloth. 
This Series has been placed under the editorial management of two eminent srholsirs 
and practical teachers. Dr. Schmitz, Rector of the High School, Edinburgh, and Dr. 
ZuMPT, Professor in the University of Berlin, and will combine the following advan- 
tages :— 

1. A gradually ascending series of School Books on a uniform plan, so as to constitute within a 
definite number, a complete Latin Curriculum. 

2. Certain arrangements in the rudimentary volumes, which will insure a t&ir amount of know- 
ledge in Roman literature to those who are not designed for professional life, and who therefore 
will not require to extend their studies to the advanced portion of the series. 

3. The te.xt of each author will be such as has been constituted bv the most recent collations of 
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be made aware of the character and peculiarities of the work they are about to study. 

4. To remove difficulties, and sustain an interest in the text, explanatory notes in English will 
be placed at the foot of each page, and such compaiisons drawn as may serve to unite the history 
of the past with the realities of modern times. 

5. The works, generally, vrill be embellished with maps and illustrative engravings, — accompani- 
ments which will greatly assist the student's comprehension of the nature of the coumnes and 
leading circumstances described. 

6. The respective volumes will be issued at a price considerably less than that usually charged ; 
and a.s the texts are from tlie most eminent sources, and the wlioie series constructed U[>on ;i de- 
terminate plan, tlie practice of issuing new and altered editions, which is complained of ahke by 
tCiiJhers and pupils, will be altogether avoided. 

From among the testimonials which the publishers have received, they append the 
following to show that the design of the series has been fully and successfully carried 

out ; — 

Centred High School, Phila., June 29, 18rt 
Gentlemen : — 

I have tieen much pleased \vith your edition of Caesar's Gallic Wars, being part of Schmitz and 
Zumpt's classical series for schools. Tlie work seems happily adapted to the wants of learners. 
The notes contain much vahialile information, concisely and accurately expressed, and on tlie points 
that really require elucidation, while at the same time the book is not rendered tiresome and ex- 
pensive by a useless array of mere learning. The text is one in high repute, and your reprint of it 
is pleasing to the eye. I take great pleasure in commending the publication to the attention of 
teachers. It will, I am persuaded, commend itself to all who give it a fair e.xaniinaiitm. 

Very KespeclluUy, YourOlit. Serve, 

JOHN S. HART, 
To Messrs. Lea & Blanchard. Principal P/iila. HUjh School. 



Gentlemen.— Jme^,lSa. 

The edition of "Caesar's Commentaries," embraced in the Classical Scctiim of Chambers's Edu- 
cational Course, and given to the world under the auspices of Drs. Schmilz and Zuinpt has re- 
ceived from me a candid examination. I have no hesitation in saying, that the design expressed in 
the notice of the pulilishers. has been successfully ac.c(miplishcd, and that the work is well calcu- 
lated to beci>me popular and useful. Tho text apiiears to be unexceptionahle. The annolntiotis 
embrace in condensed form such valuable information, as must not only facilitate the res(-:ircli of 
the scholar, but also stimulate to further inquiry, without encouraging indolence. This is an im- 
portant feature in the right prosecution of classical studies, which ought to he more generally mi- 
derstood and appreciated. H. IIAVERSTiCK, 

Prof, of Ancient Languages, Central High School, P'lila. 



VOI.UME II. 

P. VIRGiLII MARONIS CARMINA. 

NEAR L V R R ADY. 



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BIRD'S NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 

NEARLY READY. 



ELEMEJTTS OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, 

BEING AN EXPERIMENTAL INTRODUCTION TO THE PIIYSICjVL SCIENCES. 

II.I.DSTHATKD WITH OVKR THURK HUNDRED WOODCUTS. 

BY GOLDING BIRD, M.D., 

Assistant Physician to Guy's Hospital. 

FROM T H K T H 1 11 D LONDON EDITION. 

In one neat volume. 

" By the appearanre of Dr. Bird's work, tlip student ha.s now all that he ran desire in one neat, 
concise, and well-ciicpsted volume. 1'he elements of natural philosopliv are explained in very sim- 
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ARNOT T'S PH YSICS. 

ELEMENTS OF PHYSICS; OK, MATURAL PHILOSOPHY, 

GENERAL AND MEDICAL. 

WRITTEN FOR UNIVERSAL USE, IN PLAIN, OR NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE. 

BY NIEIiL ARNOTT, IVT.D, 

A NEW EDITION, BY ISAAC HAYS, M. D. 

Complete in one octavo volume, witli nearly two liiindrcd woodcuts. 

This standard work has heen long and favourably known a.s one of the best popular expesitibn* 
of the interesting scienee it treats of. It is extensively used ui many of the first seminaries. ' 

ELEMENTARY CHEIVilSTRY, THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL. 

BY GEORGE FOWNES, Ph. D., 

Chemical Lecturer in the Middlesex Hospital Jledical School, &c., ice. 

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 

EDITED, WITH ADDITIONS, 

BY ROBERT BRIDGES, M. D., 

Professor of General and Pharmaceutical Chemistry in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, &c.,&o. 

SECOND AMEniCAN EDITION. 

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toientific, it is wrilleii with great clearness and simplicity of style, renderuig it ea-sy to be compre- 
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It may be had well bound m leather, or neatly done up in strong cloth. Its low price places it 
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BREWSTER'S OPTICS. 



E !• Z: Its S IT T S OP OPTICS, 

BY SIR UAVIU BREWSTER. 

WITH NOTES AND ADIHTIONS, BY A. U. BACHE, LL.D. 

Superintendent of the Const Survey, <tc. 

In one volume, 12mo., witli numerous wood-cut«. 



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BOLMAR'S FRENCH SERIES. 

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the French language. 

A SELECTION OF ONE HUNDRED PERRIN'S FABLES, 

ACCOMPANIED BY A KEY. 

Containini; the text, a literal and free translation, arransed in such a manner a? to 

point Dili the dillerence between the French and English idiom, &c., in 1 vol., I'^nio. 

A COLLECTION OF COLLOQUIAL PHRASES, 

ON EVERY TOPIC NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN CONVERSATION, 
Arranged under difTerent heads, v\ ith numerous remarks on the peculiar pronunciation 
and uses of various words; the whole so disposed as considerably to facilitate the 
acquisition of a correct pronunciation of the French, in 1 vol., 18mo. 

LES AVENTURES DE TELE31AQUE PAR FENELON, 

In I vol., ]2nio., accompanied by a Key to the first eight hooks, in 1 vol., 12mo.,con- 
tainin«r, like the Fables, the text, a literal and free translation, intended as a sequel 
to the Fables. Either volume sold separately. 

ALL THE FRENCH VERBS, 

Both regular and irregular, in a small volume. 

NEARLY READY. 



PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICS AND METEOROLOGY. 

BY .1. MULLER, 

Professor of Physics at tlie University of Frieburg. 

UXUSTOATED WITH NEAJtLY TTVE HUNDRED AND FIFTY ENGRA VINOS ON WOOD, AND TWO 

COLORED PLATF.S. 

In one octavo volume. 

Tliis Edition is improved by the addition of various articles, and will be found in 
every respect brought np to the time of publication. 

"The Physics of JIulIer is a work, sii[ierb, complete, unique : the prrentest want known to Eng- 
lish Science could not have been better sui>plieJ. The work is of surpassing interest. The value 
of this contribution to the scientific records of this country m:iy be duly estimated by the fact, that 
ttie cost of the origiiud drawings and engravings alone has exceeded the sunt of 2000i" — Lancet, 
March, 1817. 

imijR^sTNT^ 

AN ATLAS or ANCIE^TT GSOGRAFHIT, 

BY SAMUEL li U T J, E R , D.I)., 

Late Lord Bishop of Litchfield, 

CONTAtNINO TWENTY-ONE COLOCRED MAP.'), AND A COMPLETE ACCENTDATED INDEI. 

In one octavo volume, half-faound. 

BUTLER'S AN CIENT GEOGRAPHY. 

GEOGItAPHZA OX.ASSICA, 

0R, T'lE APPLICATION OF ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY TO THE CLASSICS 

BY SAMUEL BUTLER, D.D., F.R.S. 

REVISED CY His SON. 

nrrn AMERicA:f. from tiif. last i.ondon edition, 

WITH QUE.STIONS .\ THE MAPS, Fi Y JOHN FROST. 

In one duodecimo vdiime, iKilfboiind, to inntch the Atlas. 



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WHITE'S UNI VERS AL HISTORY. 

LATF. r. Y PUBLISHED, 

EX.EMENTS OP ITNIVERSAI. HISTOR7, 

ON A NEW AND SYSTEMATIC PLAN; 

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE TREATY OF VIEXNA ; TO WinCH IS ADDED A 

SUMMARY OF THE LEADING EVENTS SINCE TIIAT PERIOD, FOR THE 

USE OF SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE STUDENTS. 

BV H. •WTHITE, B.A., 

TRINITY COLI, EOE, CAMBEIDOE. 

WITH ADDITIONS AND QUESTIONS, 

BY JOHN S. HART, A.M., 

Principal of the Philadelphia High School, and Professor of Moral and Mental Science, Ac, &c. 

In one volume, large duodecimo, neatly bound with Maroon Backs. 

This work is arranged on a new plan, which is believed to combine the 
advantages of those formerly in use. It is divided into three parts, corre- 
sponding with Ancient, Middle, and Modern History ; which parts are again 
subdivided into centuries, so that the various events are presented in the 
order of time, while it is so arranged that the annals of each country can be 
read consecutively, thus combining the advantages of both the plans hitherto 
pursued in works of this kind. To guide the researches of the student, 
there will be found numerous synoptical tables, with remarks and sketches 
of literature, antiquities, and inuiincrs, at the great chronological epochs. 

The additions of the American editor have been principally confined to 
the chapters on the history of this country. The series of questions by him 
will be found of use to those who prefer that system of instruction. For 
those who do not, the publishers have had an edition prepared without the 
questions. 

This work has already passed through several editions, and has been 
introduced into many of the higher Schools and Academies throughout the 
country. From among numerous recommendations which they have re- 
ceived, the publishers annex the following from the Deputy Superintendent 
of Common Schools for New York: 

Secretary's Office, > State of New York. 

Department of Commou Schools. 5 Albany, Oct. Uth, 1815. 

Messrs. Lea <}• Blanchard : 

Gcal!cmen:—l have examined the copy of "White's Universal History," which you were so 
obliq:in!? as to send me, and cheerfully and fully concur in the commendations of its value, as a com- 
prehensive and enlishtened survey of the Ancient and Modern World which many of the most com- 
petent judges have, as I perceive, already bestowed upon it. It appears to me to be adniiruhly 
adapted to the purposes of our public schools ; and I unhesitatingly approve of its introduction into 
those seminaries of elementary instruction. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

SAMUEL S. RANDALL, 
Deputy Superintendent Common Schools. 

Phis work is admirably calculated for District and other libraries : an edition for that pnrpose 
without questions has been prepared, done up in strong cloth. 

HERSCHELL'S ASTRONOMY. 



A TREATISE ON ASTKONOiaT, 

BV Sin JOFIN F. W. IIERSCHELL, F. R. S., &c. 

•vmn >a-MFaioi-s plates and wood-cuts. 

k NE^V EDPTION, WITH A PREFACE AND A SERIES OF QUESTIONS, 

BY S. 0. WALKER. 

In one volume. I2mo. 



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ROSCOE'S LIVES OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND. 

TO MATCH MISS STRICKLAND'S "QUEENS." 

VOLUME ONE, CONTAINING TUE 

LIFE OF WILLIAM THE CONaUEROR. 

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upon English history, every library ouglit to be provided." — Sunday Times. 

MEMOIRS OF THE LOVES OF THE POETS. 
Biographical Sketches of Women celebrated, in Ancient and 

Modern Poetry. 

BY MRS. JAMIESON. 
Ill one royal duodecimo volume, price 75 cents. 

FREDERICK THE GREAT, HIS COURT AND TIMES. 
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HISTORY OF CONGRESS. 

EXHIBITING A CT-APSIT-ICATION OF THK PROCEKDINGS OF TirE SENATE AND THE 

HOUSE OF Rlil'KESENTATIVES. FROM 1789 TO 1793, EMBR.ACING THE FIRST 

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In one large octavo volume of over 700 pages, price only $L50. 

MOOnZi'S IHEZ.AND — NOW GOlMIFZiETE. 



THE HISTORY OF IRELAND, 

FROM THE EAKLIEST KINGS OF THAT REALM DOWN TO ITS LATEST CHIEFS. 

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Mr. Moore has at length completed his History of Ireland containing the most troubled and inter- 
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HISTORY OF tSFwArITfR^^ IN 1815, 

CONTAINING MINUTE DETAILS OF THE BATTLES OF QUATRE-BRAS, LIGNY. WAVRE 

AND WATERLOO. 

BY CAPTAIN W. SIBORNE. 

In one octavo volume, with Maps and Plans of Battles, &c., viz.: 

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loo, at a. quarter past 11 o'clock, A.M. 7. Field of Waterloo, at a quarter before 8 o'clock, P. M. 
8. Field of VVaterhio, at 5 minutes past 8 o'clock, P. M. 9. Field of Wavre, at 4 o'cloc'k, P. M., Ifitli 
June. 10. Ficl<l of Wavre, at 4 o'clock, A. M., 19th June. 11. Part of France, on wliich is shown 
the advance of the Allied Armies into the Kingdom. 

TEXT BOOK OF ECCXjESIiLSTICAI. HISTORTT. 

BY J. C. 1 GIESELKR, PKOt'ESSOR OF THEOLOGY IN GOTl'INGEN. TR.VNSLATED 

FROM THE THIRD GERMAN EDITION, BY F. CUNNINGILAM. 

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BY H. WHITE, B. A. 

SIXTH AMERICAN EDITION, WITH ADDITIONS 
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GllAHAME'S COLONIAL HISTORY. 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

mom THE PLANTATION OF THE BRITISH COLONIES 

TILL THEIR ASSUMPTION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

SECOND AMERICAN EDITION, 

ENLARGED AND AMENDED, 

WITH A MEMOIR BY PRESIDENT QUINCY. 

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This work having assumed the position of a standard history of this 
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A few copies of the edition in four volumes, on e.xtra fine thick paper, 
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beautiful work for their libraries. 

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In the eoui-se of the memoir pn^fixed to it, il is vindicated from the aspersions cast on it by Mr. 
Bancroft, wno, nevertheless, has derived from it a vast amount of theinfornialum and diK-umentary 
material of his own ambitious, able and extended work, ll is issued in two volumes, .ind caimot 
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COOPER'S NAVAL HISTORY. 



HISTORY OF THE NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 

BY J. FENIMORE COOPER. 

THIRD EDITION, WITH CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS. 

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With a Portrait of the Author, Two Maps, and Portraits of P.tnt Jones, Bainbridoe, 

Dale, Preble, Decatdr, Porter, Perry, ahd McDonough. 

WRAXALL'S HISTORICAL MEMOIRS. 



HISTORICAL MEMOIRS OF MY OWN TIMES, 

BY SIR N. W. WRAXALL. 

ONE NEAT VOLUME, EXTRA CLOTH. 

This is the work for which, in consequence of too truthful a portraiture of Catherine II., the 
author was iiniirisoned and fined. Taught by tliis experience, his succeeding memoirs he sup- 
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WRAXALL'S POSTHUMOUS MEMOIRS. 



POSTHUMOUS MEMOIRS OF HIS OWN TIMES, 

BY SIR N. W. WRAXALL. 

IN ONE VOLUME, EXTRA CLOTH. 

This work contains much secret and amusing anecdote of the prominent personages of the day, 
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WALPOLE'S LET TERS AND MEMOIRS. 

THE LETTERS OF HORACE WALPOLE, EARL OF ORFORD, 

CONTAINING NEARLY THREE HUNDRED LETTERS. 
NOW FIRST PUBLISHED FROM THE ORIGINALS, AND FORMING AN UNINTER- 
RUPTED SERIES FROM 1735 TO 1797. 

In four large octavo volumes, with a portrait of the Author. 

TuTpRTs JEF miElsr 

THE LETTERS OF HORACE WALPOLE, EARL OF ORFORD, 

TO SIR HORACE MANN, FROM 1760 TO 1785. 

NOW FIRST PUBLISHED FROM THE ORIGINAL MSS. 

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w A rroT?sTmi^^ 

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LAW, AND OF THE COURSE OF PROCEDURE IN THE COURTS OF COM- 
MON LAW, WITH REGARD TO CIVIL RIGHTS: WITH AN ATTEMPT 
TO 'I'RACE THEM TO THEIR SOURCES ; AND IN WHICH 
THE VARIOUS ALTERATIONS MADE BY THE 
LEGISLATURE DOWN TO THE PRESENT 
DAY ARE NOTICED. 

BY GEORGE SPENCE, ESQ., 

Oae of her Majesty's Counsel. 

IN TWO OCTAVO VOLUMES. 

Volume 1., embracing the Principles, is now reaily. Volume II. is rapidly preparing and will 
appear early in 1^48. It is based upon the work of Mr. Maddock, brought down to the present 
tune, and embracmg so much of the practice as counsel are called on to advise upon. 

CONTAINING EXPLANATIONS OF SUCH TECHNICAL TERMS AND PHRASES AS OCCUP 

IN THE WORKS OF LEGAL AUTHORS, IN THE PRACTICE OF THE COURTS, 

AND IN THE PARLIAJIENTAKY PROCEEDINGS OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS 

AND COMMONS. TO WHICH IS ADDED, AN OUTLINE OF AN 

ACTION AT LAW AND OF A SUIT IN EQUITY. 

BY HENRY JAIMES HOLTHOUSE, ESQ., 

Of the Inner Temple, Special Pleader. 
EDITED FROM THE SECOND AND ENLARGED LONDON EDITION, 

WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS, 

BY HENRY PENINGTON, 

Of the Philadelphia Bar. 

In one large volume, royal 12ino., of about 500 pages, double columns, handsomely 

bound in law sheep. 

" This is a considerable improvement upon the former editions, being bound with the usual law 
bindms, and the general execution admirable — the paper excellent, and the printing clear and 
beautiful. Its peculiar usefulness, however, consists in the valuable additions above referred to, 
being intelligible and well devised definitions of such phrases and technicalilios as are peculiar to 
the practice m the Courts of this country. — While, therefore, we recommend it especially to the 
students of law, as a safe guide through the uitricacies of their study, it will nevertheless be found 
a valuable acquisition to the hbrary of the practitioner liimself." — Alex. Gazette. 

" This work is intended rather for the general student, than a.s a substitute for many abridgments, 
digests, and dictionaries in u.se by the professional man. Its object principally is to impress accu- 
rately and distinctly upun the mind the meaning of the technical terms of the law, and as such 
can hardly fail to be generally useful. Tliere is much curious information to be found in it in re- 
gard lo the peculiarities of the ancient Saxon law. The additions of the American edition give 
increased value to the work, and evince much accuracy and care." — Pennsylvania Law Journal. 

TAYLOR'S MEDI CAI. J URISPRTTDEITOZ!. 
A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 

BY ALFRED S. TAYLOR, 

Lecturer on Medical Jurisprudence and Chemistry at Guy's Hospital, London. 

With numerous Notes and Additions, and References to American Law, 

BY R. E. GRIFFITH, M.D. 
In one volume, octavo, neat law sheep. 

TAVLOR'S ■HHA.'NJJATm OF TOXICOZiOGir. 

IN ONE NEAT OCTAVO VOLUME. 

A Mi;W WOUK, NOW HEADY. 

TRAXZiIi'S 

OUTLINES OF A COURSE OF LKCTURKS ON MEDICAI, JURISPUUDENCE. 
IN ONK SMALL OCTAVO VOLUME. 



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REPORTS OF CASES 

ADJUDGED AND DETERMINED IN THE COURT 
OF KING'S BENCH. 

WJTH TABLES OP THE NAMES OF TIIE CASES AND PRINCIPAL MATTERS. 

BY ED^ATARD HTSE EAST, ESQ., 

Of tlio Iiuier Temple, Barrister at Law. 

EDITED, WITH NOTES AND REFERENCES, 

BY G. M. WHARTON, ESQ., 

Of the Ptiiladelpliiu Bar. 

In eight large royal octavo volumes, bound in bust law sheep, raised bands and double 
titles. Price, to subscribers, only twenty-five dollars. 

In this edition of East, the sixteen volumes of the former edition have 
been compressed into eight — two volumes in one throughout — but nothing 
has been omitted ; the entire work will he found, with the notes of Mr. 
Wharton added to those of Mr. Day. The great reduction of price, (from 
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together with the improvement in appearance, will, it is trusted, procure for 
it a ready sale. 

A NEW WORK ON COURTS-MARTIAL 



A TREATISE ON AMERICAN MILITARY LAW, 

AND THE 

PRACTICE OF COURTS. 3IARTIAL, 

WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR MPROVEMENT. 
BT JOHN O'BRIEN, 

LIEUTENANT UNITED STATES ARTU.LERT. 

In one octavo volume, extra cloth, or law sheep. 

"This work stamis relatively to American Military Law in the same position that Blackstone'a 
Commentaries stand to Common Law." — U. S. Gazette. 

CAMPBELL'S LORD CHANCELLORS. 



IJVES OF THE LORD CHANCELLORS AND KEEPERS OP 
THE GREAT SEAL OF ENGLAND, 

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE REION OF KING GEORGE IV., 

BY JOHN LORD CAMPBELL, A.M., F.R.S.E. 

FIRST SERXGS, 

In three neat demy octavo volumes, extra cloth, 
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PREPARING, 
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LEA AND BLANCHARD'S PUBLICATIONS. 

YOUATT AND SKINNER'S 

STANDARD WORK ON THE HORSE. 



THE HORSE. | 

BYWILLIAMYOUATT. 

A NEW EDITION, WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 

TOGETHER WITH A 

GENEHAZ. HISTORY OF THE HORSE; 

A DISSERTATION ON 

THE AMERICAN TROTTING HORSE; 

HOW TRAINED AND JOCKEYED. 

AN ACCOUNT OF HIS REMARKABLE PERFORMANCES; 

AND 

AUt SSSiLlT OIT THE ilSS ANO THE THUImH, 

BY J. S. SKINNER, 

Assistant Post^Master-General, and Editor of the Turf Register. 

This edition of Youatt's well-known and standard work on the Manage- 
ment, Diseases, and Treatment of the Horse, has already obtained such a 
wide circulation throughout the country, that the Publishers need say no- 
thing to attract to it the attention and confidence of all who keep Horses or 
are interested in their improvement. 

"In introducing this very neat edition of Youatt's well-known book, on 'The Horse,' to our 
readers, it is not necessary, even if we had lime, to say anythin? to convince them of its worth ; it 
has been highly spoken of, by those most cajjahle of appreciating its merits, and its appearance 
tinder the patronage of the 'Society for the Diffusion of Useful Ifnowledge,' with Lord Urougham 
at its head, affords a full guaranty for its high character. The book is a very valuable one, and we 
endorse the reconimeudatiou of the editor, that every man who owns the ' hair of a horse,' should 
have it at his elbow, to be consulted like a family physician, ' for mitigating the disorders, and pro- 
longing the life of the most interesting and useful of all domestic animals.' "—Farmer's Cabinet. 

" This celebrated work has been completely revised, and much of it almost entirely re-written 
by its able author, who, from being a practicid veterinary surgeon, and withal a great lover and 
excellent judge of the animal, is particularly well qualified to write the history of the noblest of 
quadrupeds. Messrs. Lea and Blauchard of Philadelphia have republished the above work, omitting 
a few of the first pages, and have supplied their place with matter quite as valuable, and perhaps 
more interesting to the reader in this countiy ; it being nearly 100 pages of a general history of tno 
horse, a dissertation on the American trotting horse, how trained and jockeyed, an account of liis 
remarkalile performances, and an essay on the Ass and Mule, by J. S. Skinner, Esq., Assistant Post- 
jiaster-Goneral, and late editor of t'lo Turf Register and American Farmer. Mr. Skinner is ono 
of our most pleasing writers, and lias been familiar with the subject of the horse from childhood, 
and we need not add that ho has acquitted himself well of the task. He also takes up the import- 
ant subject, to the American breeder, of the Ass, and the Mule. This he treats at length and con 
aniore. The Philadelphia edition of the Horse isa handsome octavo, with aumorotu wooU-cuta."— 
American AgricuUurist. 



LEA AND BLANCHARD'S PUBLICATIONS. 



YOUATT ON THE PIG. 



THE PZ6; 

A TREATISE ON THE BREEDS, MANAGEMENT, FEEDING, 
AND MEDICAL TREATMENT OF SWINE, 

WITH DIRECTIONS FOR SALTING PORK, AND CURING BACON AND HAMS. 

BY WILLIAM YOUATT, V.S. 

Author of " Tlio Horse," " The Dog," " Cattle," " Sheep," &c., &c. 

ILLUSTRATED WITH ENOBA VINOS DRAWN FROM LIFE BT WILLIAM HARVEY. 

In one handsome duodecimo volume, extra cloth, or in neat paper cover, price 50 cents. 
This work, on a subject comparatively neglected, must prove of much use to farmers, especially 
in this country, where the Pig is an animal of more iraportmice than elsewhere. No work has 
hitherto appeared treating fully of the various breeds of swine, their diseases and cure, breeding, 
fattening, ic., and the preparation of bacon, salt pork, haias, <tc., while the name of the author of 
"The Horse," "The Cattle Doctor," <fcc., is sufficient authority for all ho may st;»te. To render it 
more accessible to those whom it particularly interests, the publishers have prepared copies in 
neat illustrated paper covers, suitable for transmission by mail ; and wliich will be sent through 
the post-office on the receipt of fifty cents, free of postage. 

CLATER AND YOUATT'S CATTLE DOCTOR. 



EVERY MAN HIS OWN CATTLE DOCTOR: 

CONTAINING THE CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OP ALL 

DISEASES INCIDENT TO OXEN, SHEEP AND SWINE; 

AND A SKETCH OF THE 

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF NEAT CATTLE. 

BY FRANCIS CLATER. 

EDITED, REVISKD ANB ALMOST RE-WRITTEtf, BT 

WILLIAM YOUATT, AUTHOR OF " THE HORSE." 

WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS, 

EMBRACING AN ESSAY ON THE USE OF OXEN AND THE UIPROVEMENT IN THK 

BREED OF SHEEP, 
B7 J. S. SKINNER. 
WITH NUMEROUS CUTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 
In one ]2mo. volume, cloth. 
"As its title would import, it is a most valuable work, and should bo in the h;mds of every Ame- 
rican fanner; and we feel proud in saying, that the value of the work has been greatly enhanced 
try the contributions of llr. Skinner. Clater and Youatt are names treasured by the farming com- 
mimities of Europe as household-gods j nor does that of Skinner deserve to be less esteemed in 
America."— .ilOTmcan Farmer. 



CLATER'S FARRIER. 



EVERY MAN HIS OWN FARRIER: 

CONTAINING THE CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND JtOST APPROVED METHODS OF CURB 
OF THE DISEASES OF HORSES. 

Author of " Every Man his own Cattle Doctor," 

AND HIS SON, JOHN CLATER. 

FIRST AMERICAN FROM THE TWENTY-EIGHTH LONDON EDITION. 
WITH NOTES AND ADDITIONS, 

BV J. S. SKINXTBB. 

lu un« J^iio. vuluiim, cloth. 



LEA AND BLANCHARD'S PUBLICATIONS, 

HAWKER AND P ORTER ON SHOOTING. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO YOUNG SPORTS3IEN 

IN ALL THAT RELATES TO GUNS AND SHOOTING. 
B-ar LIEUT. COL. p. HA-WTKER. 

FROM THE ENLARGED AND IMPROVED NINTH LONDON EDITION, 

TO WHICH IS ADDED THE HITNTING AND SHOOTING OF NORTH AMERICA, WITH 
DESCRIPTIONS OF ANIMALS AND BIRDS, CAREFULLY COLLATED 
S FROM AUTHENTIC SOURCES. 

'' BY W. T. PORTER, ESQ,. 

EDITOR OF THE N. Y. SPIRIT OF THE TIMES. 

In one large octavo volume, rich extra cloth, with numerous Illustrations. 

" Here is a book, a hanci-book, or rather a text-linok — one that contains the whole routine of the 
science. It is the Prmier, the Lexicon, and the Homer. Everything is here, from the minutest 
portion of a g^iin-lock, to a dead Buffalo. The sportsman vv'lio reads this book understandinely, may 
pass an examinatimi. He will know the science, and may pve advice lo others. Every sportsman, 
and sportsmen are jilentiful, should omi this work. It should be a " vade mecum." He should 
he e.xaniined on its contents, and estimated by Ids abilities to answer. We have not been without 
treatises on the art, but iutherto they have not descended into all the minuti^ of equipments and 
qualifications to proceed to the completion. Tliis work supplies deficiencies, and completes the 
sportsman's hbrary." — U. S. Gazelle. 

" No man in the country that we wot of is so weU calculated as our friend of the ' Spirit' for the 
task he has undertaken, and the result of liis lubours has been that he has turned out a work which 
should be in tlie haiuls of every man in the land who owns a double-barrelled grun." — A''. O. Picayum. 

"A volume splendidly printed and bound, and embellished with numerous beautiful eneravinp, 
which will doubtless be in great demand. No sportsman, indeed, ought to be without it, while the 
general reader will find in its pages a fund of cunous and useful information." — Richmom Wliig. 



TMX: DOG, 

BY WILLIAM YOUATT, 

Author of " The Horse," &c. 
WITH NUMEROUS AND BEAUTIFUL ILLUSTRATIONS. 
EDITED BY E. J. LEWIS, M.D. &c. &c. 
In one beautifully printed volume, crown octavo. 
LIST OF PLATES. 
Head of Bloodhound— Ancient Greyhounds— The Thibei Dog— The Dingo, or New Holland Bos'— 
The Danish or Dnlmatian Dog- The Hare Indian Dog— The Greyhound- The Grecian Greyhound 
— Blenheims and Cockers— The Water Spaniel — The Poodle — The Alpine Spaniel or Bernardine 
Dog — The Newfoundland Dog — The Esquimaux Dog — TlieEnslish Sheep Doe; — The Scotch Sheep 
Dog — The Bea^'le— The Harrier — The Foxhound — Plan of Goodwood Kennel — The Southern 
Hound— The Setter— The Pointer— The Bull Dog— The Mastilf- The Terrier— Skeleton of the 
Dog — Teeth of the Dog at seven different ages. 

" Mr. Youatt's work is invaluable to the student of canine histoiy ; it is full of entertaining anJ 
in.structive matter for the general reailer. To the sportsman it commends itself by the lar^e amount 
of useful information in reference to his peculiar pursuits which it embodies — information which 
he cannot find elsewhere in so convenient and accessible a form, and with so reliable an authonty 
to entitle it to his consideration. The modest preface which Dr. Lewis has made to the American 
edition of this work scarcely does justice to the additional value he has imparted to it; and the 
pubhshers are entitled to great credit for the tiandsome mamier in winch they have got it up."— 
North Ainerican. ^ ^^ ^y^,^^^ 

THE SPORT SXfXilLXr'S Z.ZSB^R'S', 

* OR HINTS ON HUNTERS, HUNTING, HOUNDS, SHOOTING, GAME, DOGS, GUNS, 

FISHliNG, COURSING, &c., He. 

BY JOHN MILLS, ESQ.. 

Author of "The Old Knxhsh Gentleman," ic. 
In one well printed royal duodi'ciino volume, cxtr.T clotli. 

STiiBZi]S TA-ImX ANH TABI.X: TAIiK, 

OR SPECTACLES FOR YOUNG Sl'OKTS.MEN. 

BY HARRY HIEOVER. 

In one very neat diiodecimi) volume, e.xtra cloth. 

"These lively sketches answer to their title very well. Wherever Nimrod is welcome, tliera 
should be cordial greetmi; for Harry llieover. Ihs book is a very clever one, and coutauis many 
instructive hints, aa well as much light-hearted reading." — Examhicr. 

THi: I>Oa ATSfD THZ: SFORTSSXAIT, 

EMBRACING Tilt; i:si:s, BREEDING, TRAINING, DISEASES, E'l'C, OK DOG.S, AND AN 

ACCOUNT OF TlIK DIFFERENT KLNDS OF GAME, WITH TllElK HABITS. 

Also, Hints to Shooters, witli various itscTuI Recipes, <&c., dtc* 

BY J. S. SKINNER. 

With Plates In one very neat 12mo. volume, ?itra cluth. 



LEA AND BLANCHARD'S PUBLICATIONS. 

FRANCATELLI'S MO DERN FRENCH COOKERY. 

THE MODERN COOK, 

A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE CULINARY ART, IN ALL ITS BRANCHES, ADArTED AS 

WELL FOR THE LARGEST ESTABLISHMENTS AS FOR THE USE 

OK PRIVATE FAMILIES. 

BY CHARLES ELME FRANCATELLT, 

Pupil of the celebrated Careme, and lale M:ulre D'llotcl and Chief Cook to her Majesty the Queen. 
In one large octavo volume, extra clotli, with numerous illustraliovis. 

" It appears to ho the book of hooks on cookery, beini; a most comprehensive treatise on that art 
preservative and conservative. The work comprises, in one large and ele^gant octavo volume, U17 
recipes for cooking dishes and desserts, with numerous illustrations; also bills of fare and direc- 
tions for dinners for every iiioath in the year, for companies of six persons to twenty-eight. — Nat. 
IntelliycnccT. 

" The ladies who read our Magazine, will thank us for calling attention to this great work on the 
noble science of r/iokjng, in which everybody, who has any taste, feels a deep and abiding interest. 
Francatelli is the Plato, the Shaksneare, or the Napoleon of his department; or perhaps the La 
Place, for his performance beara the same relation to ordinary cook books that the Mecanique 
Celeste does to Dalioll's Aritlimetie. It is a large octavo, profusely illustrali'd, and contains every- 
thing on the philosopliyof making ilinuers, suppers, etc., that is uoiili knowmg. — Uraliam's Moj/azine. 

Tr^rTcWFTHoKlFyT 

laODSRXI- COOXEHir IN .A.Z.Z. ITS SKJIlNCIIXIS, 

REDUCED TO A SYSTEM OF EASY PRACTICE. FOR THE USE OF PRIVATE FAMILIES. 

IN A SERIES OF PRACTICAL RECEIPTS, ALL OF WHICH ARE GIVEN 

WITH THE MOST MINUTE E.YACTNESS. 

BY ElilZA ACTON. 

WITH NUMEROUS WOOD-CUT ILLUSTRATIONS. 
TO WHICH IS ADDED, A TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

THE WHOLE REVISED AND PREPARED FOR AMERICAN HOUSEKEEPERS. 

BY MRS. SARAH J. HALE. 

From the Second London Edition. In one large 12mo. volume. 

"Miss Eliza Acton may congr.itulate herself on having composed a work of great utility, and ons 
that is speedily finding its way to every 'dresser' in the kingdom. Her Cookery-book is uiujues- 
tionahly the most valuable compendium of the art that has yet been published. It strongly incul- 
cates economical pnnciples, and points out how good things may be concocted without that reck- 
less extravagance which good cooks have been wont to uiiagine the best evidence they can give of 
skill in their jirofession." — London Morning Post, 

''Th1To ¥plet eT^ 

plain and practical directions for cooking and housekeeping, 

•WITH UP"WARDS OF SEVEN HUNDRED RECEIPTS, 

Consisting of Directions for the Choice of Meat and J'oulliy, Preparations for Cooking; Making of 

Brotlis and Soups ; Boiling, Roasling, ISaking anil I'Vying of Meats, Fish, itc. ; Seasomngs, 

Colorings, Cooking Vegetables; Preparing Salads ; Clarifying; Making of Pastry, 

Puddings, Gniels, Gravies, Garnishes, itc, itc, and with general 

Directions for making Wines. 

WITH ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS. 

BY J. M. SANDERSON, 

OF TIIK FRANKUN noU.SE. 

In one small volume, paper. Price only Twenty-five Cents. 

THE COMPLETElcEFECflO?EI R^^ BAKER. 

PLAIN AND PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS 

FOR MAKING CONFECTIONAIIY AND PASTRY, AND FOR BAKING. 

•W^ITH UP-WARDS OF FIVE HUNDRED RECEIPTS, 

Consisting of Directions for making all sorts of Preserves, Sugar Boiling, Comfits, Lozenges, 

Ornamental Cakes, Ices, Liqueurs, Waters, Gum P;uste Ornaments, Syrups, Jellies, 

Marmalades, Compotes, Breail Baking, Artificial Ye;ists, Fancy 

Biscuits, Cakes, Rolls, Muffins, Tarts, Pies, 4c., etc. 

WITH ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS. 

BY PARKINSON, 

rRAOTICAL CONFECriONF.R, CIIf;sTNtIT STREET. 

In one small volume, paper. Price only Twcniy-fivc Cent*. 



LEA AND BLANCHARD'S PUBLICATIONS. 

SMALL BOOKS ON GREAT SUBJECTS. 

A SERIES OF 'WORKS 

WHICH DESERVE THE ATTENTION OF THE PUBLIC, FROM THE VARIETY AND 

BIPORTANCE OF THEIR SUBJECTS, AND THE CONCISENESS AND 

STRENGTH WITH WHICH THEY ARE WRITTEN. 

They fonn a neat ISmo. series, in paper, or strongly done up in three neat volumes, extra cloth. 

THERE ARE ALREADY PUBLISHED, 
No. 1.— PHILOSOPmCAL THEORIES AND PHILOSOPHICAL EXPERIENCE. 

2.— ON THE CONNEXION BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGY AND INTELLECTUAL SCIENCE. 
3.— ON MAN'S POWER OVER HIMSELF. TO PREVENT OR CONTROL INSANIl-Y. 
4.— AN INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, WITH REFER- 
ENCES TO THE WORKS OF DAVY, BRANDE, LIEBIG, A-c. 
6.— A BRIEF VIEW OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY UP TO THE AGE OF PERICLES. 
6.— GREEK PHILOSOPHY FROM THE AGE OF SOCRATES TO THE COMNG OP 

CHRIST. 
7.— CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE ANT) PRACTICE IN THE SECOND CENTURY. 
8.— AN EXPOSITION OF VULGAR AND COMJION ERRORS, ADAPTED TO THE YEAR 

OF GRACE MDCCCXLV. 
9.— AN INTRODUCTION TO VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY, WITH REFERENCES TO 

THE WORKS OF DE CANDOLLE, LINDLEY, &c. 
lO.-ON THE PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL LAW. 
IL— CHRISTIAN SECTS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 
12.— THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF GRAMILUI. 

" We are glad to find that Messrs. Lea & Blanchard are reprinting, for a quarter of their original 
price, this admirable series of little books, which have justly attracted so much attention in Great 
Britam."— Graham's Magazine. 

"The writers of these thoughtful treatises are not labourers for hire ; they are men who have 
stood apart from the throng, and marked tlie movements of the crowd, the tendencies of society, 
its evils and its errors, and, meditating upon them, have given their thoughts to the thoughtful." — 
London Critic. 

"A series of little volumes, whose worth is not at all to be estunated by their size or price. They 
are written in England by scholars of eminent ability, whose design is to call tlie attention of the 
pnbUc to various important topics, in a novel and accessible mode of publication." — N. Y. Morning 
Neas. 

MACKINTOSH'S DISSERTATION ON THE PROGRESS 
OF ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY, 

WITH A PREFACE BY 

THE REV. WILLIAM WHEWELL, M. A. 
In one neat 8vo. vol., extra cloth. 

OVERLAND JOURNEY ROUND THE WORLD, 

DURING THE YEARS 1841 AND 1812, 
BY SIR GEORGE SIMPSON, 

GOVEltNOR-IN-CHIEF OF THE >IUDSON'S BAY CO^a>ANY"S TERRITORIES. 

In one very neat crown octavo volume, rich extra crimson cloth, or in two 

parts, paper, price 75 cents each. 

"A more valuable or instructive work, or one more full of perilous adventure and heroic enter 
prise, we have never met witli." — Jolin Bull. 

" It abounds with details of the deepest interest, possesses all the chnrms of an exciting romano* 
and fiunisheB an immense mass of valuable information." — Inquirer. 



LEA AND BLANCHARD'S PUBLICATIONS. 

UNITED STATES EXPLOR ING EXPEDITION. 

THE NARRATIVE OP THE 

UNITED STATES EXPLORING EXPEDITION, 

DURING THE YEARS 183a, '39. '40, 41, AND '42. 
BY CHARIiES WILKES, KSQ,., U. S. N. 

COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION. ETC. 

PRICE TWENTY-FIVE DOLLAES. 

A New Edition, in Five Medium Octavo Volumes, neat E.\tra Clolh, particularly done 

, up with reference to strength and continued use: containing Twenty-Six Hon- 

PRED Pages of Letter-press. Ilhislrated with Maps, and about Three 

Hundred Si-lendid Engravings on Wood. 

PRICE ONLY TXKTO DOI1I.ARS A VOLUIVIE. 

Thouerh offereil .it a price so low, this is the complete work, containing all the letter-press of the 
edition printed for Congress, with some improvements suseested ni the course of ii:us.sina; the work 
asain throii^'h the press. All of the wiiod-cul illustrations are retained, and nearly all the maps ; 
the larRe stuel plates of the q\iarto edition bejn? onntled, and neat wood-cuts substituted for forty- 
seven steel vi^rnettes. It is printed on Jine paper, with l.-irge tvpe, bound in very neat extra cloth, 
and forms a beautiful work, with its very numerous and appropriate embellislunents. 

The attention of persons forming libraries is especially directed to this work, a.s presentins the 
novel and valuable matter accuniulaled by the Kxpedition in a cheap, convenient, and readable form. 

SCHOOL and other PUBLIC LIBRARIES should not be without it, as embodying the resulU of 
the First Scientific Expedition commissioned by our government to explore foreign regions. 

" We have no hesitation in saying that it is destined to stand among tlie most enduring monu- 
ments of our national literature. Its contributions not only to every department of science, but 
eveiy department of liistory, are immense ; and there is not on intelligent man in the community — 
no matter what may be his taste, or tiis occupation, but wiU find something here to enlighten, to 
gratify, and to profit him." — Albany lieliiitous Spectator. 



ANOTHER EDITION. 
PRICE TWENTY-FIVE DOLLARS. 

IN FIVE MAGNIFICENT IMPERIAL OCTAVO VOLUMES; 

WITH A1<S ATLAS OF LARGE AND EXTENDED MAPS. 

BEAUTIFULLY DONE UP LN EXTRA CLOTH. 

This truly great and National Work is issued in a style of stiperior magnificence 
and beauty, containing Sixty-four large and finished Line Enuiravings, embracing 
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worked among the"letter-press ; about Two Hundred and Fifty finely-executed Wood- 
cut Illustrations, Fourteen large and small Maps and Charts, and nearly Twenty-six 
Hundred pagca of Letter-press. 



ALSO, A FEW COPIES STILL ON IfAND. 

THE EDITION PRINTED FOR CONGRESS, 

IN FIVE VOLUIVIES, AND AN ATLAS. 

LARGE IMPERIAL QUARTO, STRONG EXTRA CLOTH. 

PRICE SIXTY DOLLARS. 



JUST ISSUED, 

THE ETHNOGRAPHY AND PHILOLOGY OF THE UNITED 
STATES EXPLORING EXPEDITION, 

UNDER THE COAfMAND OF CHARLES WILKES, ESQ., U. S. NAVY. 
BY HORATIO HAL.K, 

PHILOLOGIST TO THE EXPEDITION. 

In one large imperial octavo volume of nearly seven hundred pages. With two Maps, printed to 
match the Congre.ss copies of the " Tvarrative." 

Price TEN dollars, in beautiful extra cloth, done up with great strength. 

♦,* This IS the only edition printed, and but few are offered for sale. 

Tlic remainder of the scientific works of the Expedition are in a state of rapid progress. The 
volume on Corals, by J. D. Dana. Esq., with an Atlas of Plates, will be shortly reaiy, to bo fol- 
lowed by the others. 



LEA AND BLANCHARD'S PUBLICATIONS. 



DON QUIXOTE-ILLUSTRATED EDITION. 

NEARLY READY. 



DON QUIXOTE DE LA MANCHA, 

TKANSLATED FROM THE SPANISH OF 

MIGUEL DE CERVANTES SAAVEDRA 

BY CHARLES JARVIS, ESQ. 

CAREFULLY REVISED AND CORRECTED, WITH A MEMOIR OP THE AUTHOR AND 

NOTICE OF HIS WORKS. 

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS, 

BY TONY JOHANNOT. 
In two beautifully printed volumes, crown octavo, rich extra crimson clothi 




The publishers are happy in presenting; to the admirers of Don Qaixote an edition of that work 
in some degree worthy of its reputation and popularity. The want of sucli a one has long been felt 
in tliis country, and in presenting tliis, they have only to express their hope that it may meet the 
numerous demands and inquiries. The translation is that by Jarvis, which is acknowledged supe- 
rior in both force and fidelity to all others. It has in some few iniilanccs been sliglitly altered to adapt 
it better to modem readers, or occasionally to suit it to the inimitable designs of Tony .Tohannot. 
These latter are admitted to be the only successful pictorial exponents of the wit and humor ot 
Cervantes, and a choice selection of them have been engraved in the best manner. A copiou-s 
memoir of the author and his works has been added by the editor. The volumes are printed in 
argo clear type, on fine paper, and handsomely bonnd, and the whole is confidently olTered as 
'''ortnv tne approbation ot all readers of this imperishable romance. 



<* 



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PICCIOLA. 
ilIjUstrated edition. 

PICCIOLA, THE PRISONER OF FENESTRELLA; 

OR, CAPTIVITY CAPTIVE. 
BY X. B. SAINTINE. 

A NEW EDITION, WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. 

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" Perhaps the most beautiful and touching work of fiction ever written, with the exception of 
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" The same publishers have shown their patriotism, common sense, and good taste by piittine 
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i'aul and Virginia, and we believe it is destined to surpass that popular work of St. i'lerre in popu- 
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charms in which Paul and Virginia is deficient. St. Pierre's work derived its popularity from its 
bold attack on feudal prejudices; Saintine's strikes deeper, and assails the secret infidelity which 
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many for its raexit."— Lady's Book. 

"This is a little gem of its kind— a beautiful conceit, beautifully unfolded and applied. Tlie stylo 
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uT^'l" P''''^^"'- edition is got up in beautiful style, with illustrations, and reflects credit upon the 
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"A new edition of this exquisite story has recently been issued by Messrs. Lea & Blanchard, 
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eUtry."— Evening BuUetm. 

" The most charming work we have read for many a tidiy."~Jtichmond Enquirer. 



ROR7 O^HLOHJi-A XTJkTZOITiVIi HOHHAHCH. 

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BOY'S TREA SURY OF SPORTS. 

THE BOrS TREASURY OF SPORTS, PASTIMES AND RECREATIONS. 

WITH FOUR HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS, 
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PREFACE. 

This illustrated Manual of" Sports, Pastimes, and Recreations," has been prepared with especial 
regard to the Health, Exercise, and Rational Enjoyment of the young readers to whom it is ad- 
dressed. 

Every variety of commendable Recreation will be found in the following pa?es. First, you have 
the little Toys of the Nursery ; the Tops and Marbles of the Play-ground ; and the Balls of the 
Plaj'-room, or the smooth Lawn. 

'i hen, you have a number of Pastimes that serve to pladden the fireside ; to light up many faces 
right joyfully, and make the parlour re-echo with mirth. 

Next, come tlie Ext;rcisin5; Sports of the Field, the Green, and the Play-ground; followed by 
the noble and truly English eame of Cncket. 

Gymnastics are next admitted ; then, the delightful recreation of Swimming ; and the healthful 
sport of Skating. 

Archery, once the pride of England, is then detailed ; and very properly followed by Instructions 
in the graceful act'omplishment of Fencing, and the manly and enlivening exercise of Riding. 

Angling, the pastime of childhood, boyhood, manhood, and old age, is next described ; and by 
attention to the instructions here laid down, the lad vrith a stick and a string may soon become an 
expert Angler. 

Keeping Animals is a favourite pursuit of boyhood. Accordingly, we have described how to rear 
the Rabbit, the Squirrel, the Dormouse, the Guinea Pig, the Pigeon, and the Silkworm. A long 
chapter is adapted to the rearing of Song Birds ; the several varieties of which, and their respective 
cages, are ne.xt described. And here we may hint, that kindness to Animals invariably denotes an 
excellent disposition ; for, to pet a little creature one hour, and to treat it harshly the next, marks 
a capricious if not a cruel temper. Humanity is a jewel, which every boy should be proud to wear 
in his breast. 

We now approach the more sedate amusements — as Draughts and Chess ; two of the noblest 
exercises of the ingenuity of the human mind. Dominoes and Bagatelle follow. With a know- 
ledge of these four games, who would pass a dull hour in the dreariest day of winter ; or who 
would sit idly by the fire 1 

Amusements in Arithmetic, harmless Legerdemain, or sleight-of-hand, and Tricks with Canis, 
will delight many a family circle, when the busmess of the day is over, and the book is laid aside. 

Although the present volume is a book of amusements. Science has not been excluded from its 
pages. And why should it be 1 when Science is as entertaining as a fair>' tale. The changes we 
ri:iil of ill little nursery-books are not more amusing than the changes in'Chemi.stn-, Optics, Elec- 
tnrity, JIagnetism, ic. By understanding these, you may almost become a little .Magician. 

Toy Balloons and Paper Fireworks, (or Fireworks mlhoul Fire.) come next. Then follow In- 
structions for MooeUmg in Card-Boanl; so that you may liuUd for yourself a palace or a carriage, 
and, in short, make for yourself a Uttle iianer world. 

Puzzles and Paradoxes, Enigmas and Kiddles, and Tadjuig ^vith the Fingers, next make up plenty 
of exercise for '• Guess," and " Guess again." And as you have the " Keys" in your own hand, you 
may keep your friends in suspen.se. and make yourself as m>-sterious as the Sphyux. 

A chapter of Miscellanies — useful and amusing secrets — winils up the volume. 

The •' Tre.asurv'' contains upwards ol four hundred Engravings ; so that it is not only a collection 
of " secrets worth knowing," but it is a book of pictures, as full of prints as a Cluristmas pudding 
is of plums. 

It maybe as well to mention that the " Treasury " holds many new games that have never 
before been printed in a book of this kind. The old games have been described ah'esh. Thus it 
IS, altogether, a new book. 

And now we take leave, wishing yon many hours, and days, and weeks of enjoyment OTer these 
pagas ; and we hope that you may be a.s happy as tlus book is brimful of amosement. 



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LEA & BLANCHARD'S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

KENNEDY'S LIFE OP "WIRT. 
CHEAPER EDITION, NOW READY. 

MEMOIRS OF THE LIIFE OF WILLIAM WIRT. 

]}Y JOHN p. KP]NNEDY. 

SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 
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letter from John Adams. 

The whole ofMr. Wirt's Papers, Correspondence, Diaries. &c., having been placed 
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in the country. Its intrinsic interest will secure it a very general popularity. — N. Y. 
Courier and Enquirer. 

The genius of the author and the popular character of his subject insure an equally 
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This work has been looked for with much interest by the public, and will not disap- 
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Now Ready INGERSOLL'S NEW WORK. 

IIISTORICAI. SKETCH OF THE SECOXD Tf AR 

BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND GREAT BRITAIN. 

DECLARED BY ACT OF CONGRESS THE IPth OF .TUNE, 1812, AND CON- 
CLUDED BY PEACE THE 15th OF FEBRUARY, lei5. 

BY CHARLES J. INGERSOLL. 

EMBRACING THE EVENTS OF ISI4. 

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FRANCE UNDER LOUIS PHILIPPE. 

The History of Ten Years, 1830-1810; or, France niidcr Louis Phillppp. 

BY LOUIS BLANC, 
Secretary of the Provisional (Government of 1619. 

TRANSLATED BY WALTER H. KELLY. 
In iwo handsome crown Svo. volumes, extra cloth, or six parts, paper, at fifty cents. 

HISTORY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1789. 

BY LOUIS BLANC, 

Autlior of'' France under Louis Piiilippc,"&c. 

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH. 

In one volume, crown octavo. 



I 



BINDING SZCT, MAR 2 7 1967 



DS Lynch, William Francis, 

107 1801-1665 

L88 Narrative of the 

1850a United States' 

expedition to the river 

Jordan and the Dead Sea, 
New and condensed 

ed. 

Lea and 

Blanchard (l850) 



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