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[Digitized by VjOOQIC 

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The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P. 

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X < * :5»' '^ ]■ / S; 



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vi Preface to Ninth Edition 

Boer and Briton which led to the great conflict now happily 

Chapter xviii. of " The Land " is a short geography of Cape 
Colony y Basuto Land^ Orange River Colony ^ Transvaal Colony ^ 
Rhodesia^ and the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 

I have to thank Mr Chamberlain for his kindness in send- 
ing at my request a signed photograph of himself to be prefixed 
to the booh. 

R. R. 

London, M^ 1903. 

. • ••. 

•• •#• • • •»• • 

• • •• 

» •• • • 
••• • • • 

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viii Introductory 

Colonies, and it is only within the last twenty years that 
British statesmen began fully to realise their size and im- 
portance. With the appointment of Mr Chamberlain as 
Secretary of State for the Colonies a new era began for the 
Greater Britains overseas. He recognised that instead of 
being a burden to the Empire they added to its power and 
security, and he has done his utmost to further their pros- 
perity, and to strengthen the ties which, bind them to e^ch 
other and to the mother country. The Colonial subjects of 
the King are widely scattered, but loyalty to his person 
and throne, pride in the achievements of the race, and 
brotherly feeling for their kinsfolk now dominate them all. 
The readiness with which all the great Colonies sent 
soldiers to the war in South Africa is a splendid proof 
of the Imperial sentiment which prevails throughout a 
united Empire. 

t • • •«« « 

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The Land 


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Introductory . . . . 

I. Position 

II. Size . 

III. Boundaries . 

IV. General. Appearance 

V. The Coast Line . 

VI. Geology 

VII. Mountains . 

VIII. Rivers 

IX. Climate 

X. Soil and Productions 

XI. Plants 

XJl''ViLff\\i%ts\ \ J ^1:1:1 

xtii: PipfiA ./;/•. J!'* '• 

XIV. Cgij)^'5^|;AKi>* Towns 

xv.\{ltf4D^\ :;:.;;;: ; . 

XVI. 'CbAkKkti^'\'"' . 

XVII. Names of Places . 

XVIII. Neighbouring States 

Cape Colony . 

Basuto Land . 

Orange River Colonti 

Transvaal Colony 

X Rhodesia 

Bechuanaland Protec 


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The Land 


Natal is one (rf* the youngest of Britain's Oversea possessions. 
Look at a map of the world and you will see that it occupies 
only a small comer of the south-eastern part of Africa, the 
most compact and, even now, the least known and civilised 
of all the continents. 

Natal lies outside the Tropics, and about 30 deg., or rather 
more than a,ooo English miles, south of the Equator. This 
distance from the Equator, or its latitude soutky is about the 
same as that of South Australia, Norfolk Island, and the 
town of Coquimbo in Chill. Notice also that the line of 30 
deg. north latitude runs through Cairo, through the northern 
part of India, through the middle of China, and through New 
Orleans. The people in these places live therefore as far 
north of the Equator as those in Natal live south of it. 

Another line, also marked 30 deg., runs north and south 
through Natal and crosses the 30 deg. line of latitude in a 
southern part of the colony. This line is Natal's central 
meridian or line of longitude, and it is 30 deg. east of the 
similar line that runs from pole to pole through the English 
observatory at Greenwich. The general geographical 
position of Natal is thus easily remembered: — go dcg* 
south of the Equator and 30 deg. east from London. 
If we had, however, to indicate its position on the globe 
more exactly and also to give some idea of its. si2e, we 
should have to say that Natal lies between 26} deg. and 31 

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4 Size 

deg. south latitude, and between 29 deg. and 33 deg. east 

The Earth, as you know, moves from west to east, and 
places to the east of us receive the sun's light some time 
before we do. Every 15 deg. of longitude makes a differ- 
ence of one hour. If a place is 15 deg. to the east of us 
its time is one hour before ours, if 15 deg. to the west its 
time is one hour behind. As we live 30 deg. east of Lon- 
don, it is 2 o'clock in the afternoon with us when it is only 
' mid-day in London. Look again at Natal's 30 deg. line of 
longitude, and you will see that it runs through the middle 
of the Transvaal, through Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika, 
through Alexandria, through St Petersburg, and through 
the centre of Lapland. The clocks in all these places point 
therefore to the same time as ours in Natal, and they are 
all two hours in advance of London time. This meridian of 
30 deg. east — 2 hours in advance of Greenwich — has been 
fixed as the mean time for all South Africa, When, therefore, 
it is noon in London, it is 2 o'clock in the afternoon through- 
out British South Africa. 

Natal is about 6,800 nautical or geographical miles 
from London by sea and about 800 from Capetown. As. 
every 60 of these miles is about the same length as 69^ 
ordinary or English miles, it is easy to change the one kind 
of mile into the other. 


Natal is only a small country when compared with the 
British Islands, with its neighbour Cape Colony, with the 
whole of the British Empire, and with the vast continent 
of Africa. The British Islands are about three-and-a-half 
times larger; Cape Colony is ^even-and-a-half times; the 

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Boundaries 5 

British Empire is nearly 250 times; and Africa is no less than 
550 times. 

Its area, or the amount of its land surface, is 36,700 
square miles, or 23,488,000 acres* If Natal were a square 
each side would be a little more than 191 miles long. It 
would take nearly 6,000 such squares placed closely together 
to cover the surface of the globe, and 1,500 of them to cover 
all the land. Its extreme distance in a straight line, or air- 
line, from north-east to. south-west, from Oro Point to the 
mouth of the Umtamvuna — is 340 miles ; and from west 
to east— -from Mont aux Sources to Cape St Lucia — 2x5 

The addition of Zululand, and the Northern Territories has 
nearly doubled the original area of the Colony. 


On the 30th December, 1897, the province of Zululand, 
includmg Amatonga or Amaputa Land, was made part of 
Natal. The area of the Colony was further increased in 1903 
at the close of the Boer War by the cession of what is called 
tlie Northern Territories, comjMising the districts of Vryheid, 
Utrecht, and part of Wakkerstroom — ^between 7,000 and 8,000 
square miles. 

The New Natal is bounded on the west by the Drakens- 
^» which separates it from Basutoland and the Orange 
River Colony ; and on the north by the Transvaal Colony, 
the Ubombo Mountains, and the Portuguese possessions 
round Delagoa Bay. The northern boundary begins at a 
point near Volksrust and runs east to the south of the, town of 
Wakkerstroom in a fairly straight line along the course of the 
River Pongola till it meets the Ubombo Mountains : it then 

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6 Boundaries 

runs north along that lange till it meets the River Usutu, 
whence it finally runs east to the sea. The Indian Ocean 
bounds the Colony on the east Until the year iS66 the 
southern boundary was as well marked as the other boundaries. 
It ran up the Umzimkulu, the Ingwangwani, and the Little 
Ingwangwani rivers, and thence along a water-shed of ten 
miles to Bushman's Neck, a natural bridle-pass in the 

In 1866 an irregularly-shaped piece of territory, then part 
of Noman's Land, was annexed to Natal and named Alfred 
County in honour of a visit which the late Prince Alfred, 
Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, had lately paid to the South 
Afiican colonies. This county lies between the Lower Um- 
zimkulu and the river Umtamvuna, and contains an area of 
i»55o square miles. The southern boundary now runs along 
the Umtamvuna from the ocean to the Ingeli Mountains. 
It follows the ridge and then strikes off with many bends 
and angles in an easterly and north-easterly direction to the 
former boundary at the point where the Ibisi falls into the 
Umzimkulu. This boundary separates Natal from Pondo- 
land on the south, and from Griqualand East or Adam Kok's 
Country on the west and south-west. 

Look at the map and you will see that a wedge-shaped 
piece of land, belonging to Cape Colony and lying between 
the north end of the Ingeli Mountains and the Middle Um- 
zimkulu, makes our southern border run in a line as zig-zag 
as that just described. 

At a point near the extreme north-west of the Colony, the 
territories of the Orange River Colony, of the Transvaal, and 
of Natal all meet together. 

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General Appearance 


A good idea of the genend appearance of the surface of 
Natal would be obtained from a bird's eye view of it, that is, 
the view we should get if we could look down on the country 
as a bird does when flying over it high in the air. Let us 
fancy ourselves viewing the landscape on a clear day from a 
ballooao poised several thousand feet above the highest ground. 
We see lying below us what seems a huge slice of meadow- 
land, sloping south-eastwards from a grand natural rocky 
rantpart to a seemingly boundless sea. The rampart is the 
Drakensberg, and the sea is the Indian Ocean. Five 
well-defined silver streaks are seen winding from the mountains 
to the sea in a general direction at right angles to both. 
These are the Pongola, the Umfolosi, the Tugela, the 
UmkomaaSi and the Umzimkulu rivers. 

Descending nearer to the surface we find that the meadow 
is not flat, and that the silver streaks have considerably in- 
creased in number, and form a glistening network over the 
whole fiace of the country. We notice that the Drakensberg, 
besides being a continuous mountain-range, contains in places 
two or more short lines of elevation, divided by deep grassy 
valleys and wooded gorges, and abounding in romantic 
cascades, dizzy precipices, and towering peaks of fantastic 

« That like giants stand, 
To sentinel enchanted land." 

Mountain buttresses, some of them partly covered with natural 
forest, are seen to radiate in decreasing elevation from the 
parent ridge to the tangled bush and tropical vegetation 
of the coast 
The surface seems to consist almost entirely of large and 

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8 The Coast Line 

small tongues of meadow-land flanked by water-courses and 
rain-channels, of deep river-valleys surmounted by grassy 
heights and majestic kranzen, of wooded kloofs and wild 
rocky ravines, and of isolated mountains and lofty hills, 
whose "sunless pillars" are sunk "deep in earth." 


The coast line or sea-board, from the mouth of the Um- 
tamvuna to Oro Point, stretches in a north-easterly direction 
for about 376 miles— Natal, 166 : Zululand, 210. There is 
one mile of coast for every 98 miles of surfiu:e. Scotland has 
one for every 6 ; England one for every 21 ; Europe one for 
every 190 ; South Africa, from Agulhas to the Stevenson Road, 
one for every 450 ; and Africa one for every 680. The more 
sea-coast a country has in proportion to its size the easier it is 
to get into the heart of the country, and the greater are the 
facilities thus possessed by it for trading with other places. 

Low-lying sands are met with here and there along the 
Natal coast, but in most parts the beach, that battle-ground 
between sea and land, is fringed with shelving rocks and 
dangerous reefs. Thirty-five distinct rivers enter the 
sea, none of them navigable. The larger ones have sand- 
banks across their mouths and lagoons a short distance 

Hills, formed of wind-blown sand and broken shells^ are 
found on various parts of the shore. The lime in the shells, 
dissolved by the rains, permeated the unstable mass and in 
process of time cemented it together. Further protection 
was given by the covering of natural bush which gradually 
made its appearance. The sand dunes of Zululand, of the 
Back Beach at Durban, the Bluff itself, and the green cones 

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The Coast Line 9 

and domes of Alfred County, some of them 250 ft. higbi 
owe their origin in this way to the winds and belong to 
what geologists hence call the iEolian formation. 

The only break of importance in the coast-line is the 
land-locked Harbour of Durban— the water-gateway of 
the colony and of some of the districts beyond her borders. 
The wide and shallow Bay, of which the harbour is a part, 
contains, with its islands^ about 5,000 acres or neariy 8 
square miles. The entrance to the harbour and the Bay is 
formed to the north by a low sandy spit termed the Point, 
and to the south by the bold Bluff of Natal, 250 ft. high, 
surmounted by a light-house and battery, and covered with 
natural forest to the water's edge. The Bar, a shifting mass 
of sand deposited by the sea across the fairway from the ocean 
to the harbour, and the comparative shallowness of the inside 
channels, anchorages, and mooring-grounds prevent the en- 
trance at present of vessels drawing more than about 25 ft. of 
water. Powerful dredgers are supplementing engineering 
works of considerable magnitude, and it is expected that the 
largest ocean-going steam-ships will soon be able to cross the 
Bar in safety, and be moored alongside the wharves. At 
present some of them have to discharge and load their cargoes 
at the outer anchorage— an exposed natural bight lying be- 
tween the end of the Blufif and the mouth of the River 
Umgeni. Additional wharfage accommodation is being 
provided between the Point and Durban, and a floating 
dock capable of raising vessels of 8,500 tons within two 
and a half hours has been added to the equipment of the 

There is an uncertain landing-place called Port Dumford, 
between the mouths of the Umlalazi and the Umhlatuzi. 
Near the mouth of the Umfolosi is a large lagoon named St 
Lucia Lake, which is separated from the ocean by about 

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lo Geology 

3 miles of sandhflls fix»in three to five hundred feet high. 
The. lake is about 35 miles long and zo miles broad, with, a 
depth of from 9 to 10 feet. It is, however, very unhealthy 
and difficult of access. It opens to the sea at its south end 
by St' Loicia River and St Lacia Bay. Immediately to the 
north of St Lucia Bay is Sordwana Bay, an opening in the 
coast which communicates with two small and shallow lagoons. 
As a rule the openings on the coast of Zululand are Uocked 
with sand and lead only into swamps. English and Dutch 
sailors who called at the Port at the end of the seventeenth 
century, and some of whom travelled a considerable distance 
inland, describe the Bay as the '* River of Natal." It has 
been thought that the Umgeni at one time dischai|^ itself 
into the Bay, and that the Bay and the Bar axe but examples 
of the lagoons and the sand-baidcs found at the mouths of 
many South African rivers. 


"The Giant Ages heave the hill 
And break the shore, and evermore 
Make and break, and work their will." 

The physical appearance of a country, the fertility of 
its soil, and the industries of its people depend to a great 
extent on the nature of its rocks. A rock is any kind of 
natural stone. It may be hard like granite and sandstone, 
or soft like soil and clay. There are three great kinds of 
rock. One kind is called Igneous, because it has been at 
some time in a molten state beneath the crust of the earth ; 
another is called Aqueous or Sedimentary, because it is 
formed of sediment collected and deposited by water ; and 
the third is called Organic, because it consists of the remains 

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Geology 1 1 

of plants or animals. Granite is igneonsi sandstone is 
sedimentary, and coal is organic 

Natal, as we have seen, b a very " broken" country. Its 
hills and its mountains, its vaUeys and its plains, are not made 
of one kind of stone but of many kinds — all interspersed in 
orderly disorder. The more common of these rocks are 
granite, greenstone-trap or basalt, sandstone, and shale. The 
first two are igneous, the other two are aqueous. Let us try 
to understand how these rocks have become as we find them 
now — tilted, contorted, heaved-up^ broken, and tumbled to- 
gether in apparently wonderful confusion — 

** Crags, knolls, and mounds, conftisedly hurl'd, 
The fragments of an earlier world." 

A geolpgist,^ however, finds nothing in their apparent dis- 
ord^ that cannot be accounted for by the principles of his 

Countless ages ago a hug^e mass of granite, flanked 
by granite-^like rocks-^gneiss, quartz, mica-schist, clay- 
slate, and metamorphic limestone — ^lay deep down in the 
crust of the earth and formed the floor of what is now Natal. 
The floor was not even but was wavy and irregular. The 
waters, which at some far-ofi* age rolled over this granitic floor, 
gradually deposited on it immense quantities of sand. In 
process of time this sand became hardened into layers or 
sheets of various kinds of sandstone, some of them many 
hundreds of feet thick. This deposit is sometimes called 
'* Silurian '^ because of its similarity in some respects to the 
great division of rocks so named by the eminent geologist. 
Sir Roderick Murchison. Unlike these rocks, however, this 
old or primitive sandstone is, m Natal at least, entirely devoid 
of fossils of any kind. 

Powerful forces were all this time at work under the earth's 

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12 Geology 

crust, and earthquake throes heaved up huge masses of the 
granitic floor and its overlying sandstone strata, and tilted, 
cracked, and pierced them in many directions. Through the 
rents thus made molten matter persist^tly welled up from 
unknown depths, filling the rents and spreading itself abund- 
antly in the hollows and on the surfaces. This extrusive 
molten matter is greenstone-trap or basalt, and the rents 
and fissures filled up by it are termed greenstdne dykes or 

Above the sandstone we come upon a thick layer of day- 
stone porph]rry, or, as it is generally called, the ** Boulder 
Clay of Natal." This is a curious formation, and one 
closely akin in appearance to the great Scandinavian Drift. 
It consists of a bluish-grey hardened mass, in which are 
embedded boulders and fragments of every kind of pre-exist- 
ing rock. It stretches, in broken series, firom Swaziland 
through Natal into Cape Colony, which it traverses by way 
of Grahamstown, Prince Albert, and Karoo Poort Thence 
it strikes north and east to the Vaal River, near Kimberley. 
In some places this remarkable conglomerate formation is 
found no less than 250 miles wide and 1,200 feet thick. It 
is thought to be a vast moraine, deposited during thousands 
of years by the glacier-streams of some far-off epoch. This 
theory is supported by the fact that both the sandstone on 
which the boulder-day now rests and the embedded boulders 
and pebbles are striated, scored, grooved, and polished. 

Then come evidences of further internal disturbance — 
more upheavals, more cracks, and more molten trap. Above 
and alongside the boulder clay and closely connected with it, 
we have another deposit called the Pietennaritzburg: 
Shale, a rock formed by the continuous wearing -away 
action of water on the boulder clay and on the ubiquitous 

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Again come ^igns of still further convubions— •huge dii- 
placementSy enormous fissures, and overflowing and spreading 
trap. We now reach the topmost layer of all, the new 
sandstone or coal formatioa. This is composed of 
seams of light-grey sandstone, seams of coal, and seams of 
shale abounding in iron ore. These seams occur in no 
r^;ular <Mrdar, and they are of no fixed depth. The sand- 
stone and the shale, however, are far mote abundant than 
the coal. Through and among all these layers too, and 
during their sieparate deposition, the trap made its upward 
and outward way. 

The upheavals and disphcements of all these rock-beds 
from the granitic floor to the surface have been on a most 
gigantic scale. The amount of molten trap that has made 
its way to the different surfaces and that has, when cool, in 
its turn undergone upheaval and displacement, is perhaps as 
great as that of any other rock in the colony. The highest 
peaks and riches of the Drakensberg, of the Kaiidoof range, 
of Zwartkop, and of the Maritzburg Town Hill, are all formed 
of greenstone trap. Sandstone, either of the primitive or 
Silurian formation or of the more recent deposits, is found 
in every part of the country. 

Some of the table-mountains, so common in the midlands 
and uplands^ consist of huge upheaved layers of Silurian 
sandstone supported on granite or gneiss buttresses, which 
slope away to the valleys and river-beds below. Table 
Mountain near Maritzburg, Inhlazuka between Mid-Illovo 
and the Umkomaas, and Table Mountain at Capetown, are 
fine'examples of this formation. Other table-topped heights, 
such as Amajuba and the flat hills of Weenen and Klip 
River Counties, are formed of the newer sandstone deposits 
capped by layers of hard basaltic greenstone. Sometimes 
the strata from which the top of the mountain has been 

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14 Geology 

broken and tixen heaved up are found hundreds of feet 
below the summit When the granitic rocks appear on 
the surface they generally take the form of low rounded 
hills or broad massive shoulders. 

The most recent geological formation in the colony, 
except the £oliail mentioned in die chapter on the Coast 
Line, is one which is found on the sea-shore of Alfred 
County, and which corresponds to the Chalk formation of 
Europe. It rises firom 60 to 100 feet above the sea, consists 
chiefly of greenish sand and clay, and contains an abun- 
dance of fossils — ammonites of great size and of many 
varieties, bivalves 3 feet in diameter and one foot thick, 
sharks, reptiles of the turtle tribe, and trees 70 feet long 
and 2 feet in diameter. 

In the new sandstone and coal deposits we find fossils of 
several species of ferns, horsetails, and gigantic reed-like 
calamites ; roots, trunks, and branches of Lepidodendra and 
various coniferous trees; and several varieties of extinct 
fishes and saurians. The most remarkable of the saurians 
is a huge lizard with two teeth resemUing those of the 
walrus. These fossils, however, are few and uninteresting 
when compared with those found in the European coal 

But the surface of Natal has not the appearance now that 
it had at the end of the far-off period of those mighty con- 
vulsions and those enormous deposits. Since then gentler 
but yet powerful agencies have been at work moulding and 
rounding the country into its present shape. Rains, running 
water, winds, frosts, lightning, and chemical action have 
gradually but. constantly been laying bare and grinding 
into soil the hardest rocks. The softer parts of the surface 
have been hollowed into deep river-channels, chiefly by the 
erosive action of the sand and stones that were swept along 

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Mountains 15 

and rdled about bj the force of the waters as they cut their 
vay from the mountains to the sea — 

'' Streams that swift or slow 
Draw down iSonian hills, and sow 
The dust of continents to be." 

The clear-cut features and the graceful curves of fair Natal 
have been sculptured by natural forces similar in kind to 
those that in all places and in all seasons are still seen in 
ceaseless operation. 

** The hills are shadows, and they flow 

From form to form, and nothing stands ; 
They melt like mist, the solid lands, 
Like clouds they shape themselves and go." 


The Kahlamba, or Drakensberg, is the great mountain 
range of Natal. Under different names the South African 
chain, of which the Drakensberg is a part, stretches round by 
way of Capetown for 1,400 miles between the mouth of the 
Orange River and the great bend of the Limpopo, in a line 
generally parallel to the coast, and at a distance from it vary- 
ing between 50 and 150 miles. 

Between Giant's Castle and Mont aux Sources on Natal's 
western boundary, the Berg, as it is commonly called, towers 
to a height of about 12,000 feet above the level of the sea, 
and about 7,000 feet above the country at its base. The 
ridge between these two points is the highest land in South 
Africa. Further north the line of elevation becomes lower, 
and averages only between 6,000 and 7,000 feet above 
the sea. 

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1 6 • Mountains 

The most prominent pomts in the Berg are Champagne 
Castle or Cathkin Peak, about 12,000 feet high ; Giant's 
Casile, 11,000 feet: Mont aux Sources, 11,000 feet; 
the grey knob of Tintwa, 7>5oo feet; Mount Malani, 
7,500 feet; flat-topped historic Amajuba, 7,000 feet; and 
the Inkwelo Mountain, 6,872 feet 

The head-waters of the Unkomaas spring from the triple- 
£aced natural fastness oi Giant's Castle; the great Orange 
River rises on the western slopes of Cathkin Peak; and 
the Tugela, the Caledon, and several branches of the Wilge 
and Orange Rivers rush in cataracts from the sea of jagged 
peaks that form Mont aux Sources. This vast mountain 
mass, whose 

*' rocky summits, split and rent, 
Form turret, dome, and battlement," 

was named by the French missionaries in Basutoland, and 
is the point at which the boundaries of Natal, Basutoland, 
and the Orange River Colony join. 

The chief passes over the Mountain are: — Olivier's 
Hoek Pass; Bezuidenhoufs Pass; Tintwa Pass; 
Van Reenen's Pass; De Beer's Pass; Sunday's 
River Pass, near Mount Malani; Botha's Pass, near 
the sources of the River Ingogo ; and Laing^'s Nek, near 
Charlestown on the main road to the Transvaal. All these 
passes are available for wagons. Bushman's Neck, Bush- 
man River Pass, and several other tracks in the neighbour- 
hood of Giant's Castle, and in the part of the Berg north of 
the great angle, may be scaled only on horseback and on foot. 

Traces of the pygmy Bushmen have been found in many 
of the mountains of South Africa. In the parts of the 
Berg above the head-waters of the Bushman River, the 
sides, roofs, and floors of the rocky cavities in which they 

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Mountains . 17 

lived are adorned with small rude sketches in red, brown, 
whiter and black, of hunting, raiding, and battle scenes, and 
of elands, hartebeesten, wild pigs, wild dogs, and serpents.' 

From the sea to the Berg the land rises by successive 
terraces, welLknown to travellers on the main road between 
the Port and Van Reenen's Pass. The first terrace, 1,730 
feet high, rises above the village of Pinetown, 12 miles 
inland ; the second, 2,424 feet high, is at Botha's Hill ; the 
third, 3,700 feet high, begins on the Town Hill above 
Maritzburg, 45 miles froin the sea; and the fourth, 5,000 
feet high, forms the highlands between the villages of 
Weston and Estcourt. From this point the surface rises 
and falls with little variation till the Pass is reached, which 
crosses the Berg at an elevation of 5,600 feet and at a dis- 
tance of 225 miles from Durban by rail. 

The Berg itself is the rugged cliff-edge of the crowning 
tenace, the vast Central Plateau of South Africa. The 
wide undulating sweep of the Orange River Colony, broken 
by nunaerous flat-topped hSls, stretches away westward to the 
far-off plains of Southern Bechuanaland and the dreary 
expanse of the Kalahari Desert. There are indications of 
this vast Central Plateau having been at some remote age an 
immense inland sea, whose waters rushed in intermittent 
mighty cataracts over its mountain-rim as its rocky floor was 
gradually raised by a succession of volcanic disturbances. 

Four well-defined ranges of lofty hills, all belonging to the 
New Sandstone or Coal formation, spread outward from the 
Berg, like the gigantic fingers of a mighty hand. 

I. The northmost, the Biggarsberg, runs south-east 
through Klip River County from a comer of the Berg near 
Mount Malani to the junction of the Mooi River with the 
Tugela. Its most noticeable points are One Tree Hill, 
IW feet; Indumeni, 7,200 feet; and Umsinga. Indu- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 8 Mountains 

meni is probably the highest summit in Natal, outside the 

II. The Little Drakensberg stretches north from 
Champagne Castle for 13 miles through a magnificently wild 
and broken country — the Switzerland of Natal and the home 
of the largest division of the historic Amangwane tribe. 

III. The Third Range diverges from Giant's Castle and 
forms the water-shed between Bushman River and Mooi 
River. Its chief elevations are Mount Erskine ; Hlati- 
kulu, the great forest^ the head-quarters of the troops during 
the Langalibalele rebellion ; Mooi River Heights ; Urn- 
kolumbay a British heliograph station during the siege of 
Ladysmith, 5,009 feet; Umhlumba; Pakadi; and Im- 

IV. The Fourth Range also diverges from Giant's 
Castle. At Spion Kop» 7,039 feet, the source of the River 
Umgeni, it separates into two branches, one going to the 
north-east and the other to the south-east 

I. The former, again divides near Mounts Arrochar, 
5,691 feet, and West, 5,800 feet, the northerly spur running 
through Umvoti County to Fort Buckingham, and having as 
its most prominent peaks Kelly Hill, Krans Kop amid 
magnificent scenery, and Eland's Kop ; and the southerly 
spur forming the Karkloof Range with Mount Gilboa, 
5,794 feet, and ending at Hester's Hoek or Blinkwater. 

3. The south-easterly branch from Spion Kop forms the 
water-shed between the Upper Umgeni on the north and the 
Upper Umkomaas and Umsunduzi on the south. It runs to 
Otto's Bluff and conums the Impendhla, Inhluzani, 
6,483 feet, and Inhluzela Mountains; Zwart Kop, 4,757 
feet ; and the Town Hill of Mariuburg. At Inhluzela a 
subsidiary range breaks ofif to the south-eastward and forms a 
watershed, running, by way of Vaalkopi Botha's Hill| 

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Mountains 19 

Field's Hill, and Cowie's HiU, to the Berea heights, 
against which in bygone ages the Indian Ocean rolled its billows. 
The Great and Little Noodsberg, respectively 7 and 
3 miles long^ and 3,400 and 3,000 ft. high, lie south of the 
Umvoti in Victoria County, and form the longest stretch of 
Sihrian sandstone in South Africa. They merge to the 
southwards into the broken Inanda country, and have as 
tbeir most oHispicuous summit the truncated cone of 
Mount Sarg^eaunt at the source of the Umhloti. 

The Ingeli Mountains are a detached range of syenitic 
greenstone trap, 7,000 feet high, forming the western 
boundary of Alfred County. 

The Ubombo or Lebombo Mountains is a range 

running almost due north from Zululand to the Tropic of 

Capricorn, They hardly ever exceed 2,000 feet in height. 

They are precipitous on the west side, and on the south 

they slope away in undulating ground into the plain which 

surrounds St Lucia Lake. The Ubani Hills lie south of 

the Ubombo Mountains. Still further south and running 

north and south is the Nongoma Range. The Enton- 

ianeni Hills are on the frontier between Zululand and the 

Northern Territories. The Ingoye Hills are near the sea 

behind Port Dumford, between the mouths of the Umlalazi 

and Umhlatuzi Rivers. The Entumeni Hills are on the 

inland side of Eshowe and are nearly 3,000 feet high. The 

Kkandhla. Uplands are immediately behind the Entumeni 

Hills. They are 4,500 feet high, thickly wooded in parts, and 

W deep ravines and flat-topped hills with precipitous sides, 

formerly the impregnable strongholds of several native tribes. 

The Kyudeni Hills are near the junction of the Tugela 

^d Buffalo Rivers, covered with forests and nearly 5,000 

feet high. The Nqutu Range runs east and west in the 

^'^tracy of the same name. 

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20 Mountains 

The most noticeable mountains not directly connected 
with any of these ranges are : — Insikazi and Inkonjrt in 
Alexandra County; Inhlazukai between the Umkomaas 
and the lUovo; Amabehlana, 49896 feet, in the south of 
Pietermaritzburg County ; Mahwaqa, 6,834 feet high and 
the greatest isolated mountain mass in Natal, between the 
Upper Umkomaas and Ipolela Rivers; Table Mountain 
near Maritzburg; Inyamazana and Isibuyazwi in the 
north of Victoria County; Mount Allardi 14 miles north 
of Greytown ; Opisweni, in the north of Umvoti County ; 
Tabamhlope, 6,512 feet high, between Estcourt and Giant's 
Castle ; Umumba and Ilenge or Job's Kop, 5,694 feet 
high, in the south-east of Klip River County; and Leo 
Kop, in the north-west of Klip River County. Pieter's 
Hill in the rocky country north of Colenso, Spion Kop 
and Vaal Kranz to the west, and Umbulwana and other 
hills round Ladysmith all became famous during the Boer 
War. Isandhlwana near Rorke's Drift, Hlobane near 
Vryheid, Doom Berg and Vecht Kop on the Blood^River 
near Lantmann's Drift, and Balele's Berg near Utrecht, 
are historic heights in Dutch and Zulu history. 

Summats ot iDountafns 

Main Chain:— The Kahlamba or Drakensberg, con- 
taining Champagne Castle or Cathkin Peak; 
Giant^s Castle; Mont aux Sources; Tintwa; 
Mt. Malani; Amajuba; and Inkwelo. 

Secondary Chains: — 

1. The Biggarsberg, contaming One Tree 
Hill; Indumeni; and Umsinga. 

2. The Little Drakensberg. 

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Mountains 21 

3. The Third Range, containing Mt. Erskine ; 
Hlatikulu ; Mooi River Heights, Umko- 
lumba; Umhlumba; Pakadi; and Impul- 

4. The Fourth Range, containing Spion 
Kop; Mt. Airochar; Mt West; Kelly 
Hill; Krans Kop; Eland's Kop; Karkloof; 
Mt Gilboa; Bester's Hoek or Blinkwater; 
Impendhla; Inhluzani; Inhluzela; Zwart 
Kop; Town Hill; Otto's Bluflf; Vaalkop; 
Botha's Hill; Field's HUl; Cowie's Hill; 
and the Berea. 

5. The Great and Little Noodsberg with 
Mt Sargeaunt. 

6. The Ingeli Mountains. 

?• The Ubombo or Lebombo Mountains. 

8. Ubani HUls. 

9. Nongoma Range. 

10. Entonjaneni Hills. 

11. Ingoye Hills. 

12. Entumeni Hills. 

13. Nkandhfa Uplands. 
14- Kyudeni Hills. 

15. Nqutu Range. 

Isolated Peaks : — 

Insikazi; Inkonyi; Inhlazuka; Amabehlana; 
Mahwaqa ; Table Mountain ; Inyamazana ; 
Isibuyazwi; Mt AUard; Opisweni; Tabam- 
hlope; Umumba; Ilenge or Job's Kop; Leo 
Kop ; Pieter's Hill ; Spion Kop ; Vaal Kranz ; 
Umbulwana; Isandhlwana; Hlobane; Doom 
Berg; Vedht Kop; and Balele's Berg. 

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22 Rivers 


A country without rivers is barren and desolate: a 
country well-watered is productive and populous. The arid 
plains of Australia and of Central Asia form a marked con- 
trast to the humid valleys of the Ganges and the Amazon, 
both teeming with vegetable and animal life in almost end- 
less variety. Rivers are natural highways which seldom or 
never need to be repaired They carry ourselves and our 
goods from place to place easily and cheaply i they drain 
the land and irrigate the fields; they drive our machinery 
and fill our reservoirs; and they add to the landscape a 
beauty which only running water can impart Not every river, 
however, yields, or can be made to yield, all these blessings. 

The rivers of Natal are too smaU, too rapid, and too 
shaUow to allow of their being used as roads except to a very 
limited extent Owing to the steep slope of the country, the 
plain or level part of the courses of even the largest of them 
is exceedingly small when compared with the valiey and 
torrential portions. Cascades, waterfalls, and rapids are of 
firequent occurrence. Like Tennyson's "Brook," most of 
our streams "bicker down a valley,'' "hurry. down by thirty 
hills," "slip between the ridges," "chatter over stony ways," 
"fret their banks with many a curve," and "wind about with 
many a silvery water-break above the golden gravel." 

The rivers of Natal may be divided into three classes :^- 

1. Those which flow across the colony from the 

Berg to the sea; 

2. Those rising in the spurs of the Beig or in the 

higher terraces; and 

3. Those whose courses are within the coast rqpon. 

In the first class are the Tugda, the Umkomaas, and 

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the Umzimkulu. These three rivers with their affluents 
and tributaries carry off the ram that falls and the water 
that rises on the Natal slope of the Drakensberg. 

The northmost of the three, the Tugela, is the longest 
and the largest. Eveiy stream rising in the Berg between 
Amajuba and Gianfs Castle helps to swell its waters, and 
the area drained by it includes the whole of Klip River and 
Weenen Counties and the north part of Umvoti and Victoria 
Counties. The basin of this one river comprises nearly one 
quarter of the colony. The other part of the Berg, the part 
that runs almost in a straight line soutb-west between Giant's 
Castle and Bushman's Neck, is drained by the Umkomaas 
and the Umzimkulu. 

The Tugela or Siartttng river is the noblest stream in 
NataL It is 200 miles long, and near its mouth is about 
150 yards broad. It rises on the eastern side of Mont aux 
Sources in a horse-shoe curve at the great western angle of 
the Berg and leaps thence into the colony with a nearly 
perx)endicular £U1 of 1,800 feet Shortly after leaving the 
pool at the base of the rugged towering precipice, the river, 
already considerably augmented by numerous cascades and 
mountain streams, rushes through a canon two miles in 
length. The scenery throughout its whole course is always 
pleasing, and often picturesque and grand. For miles 
below its junction with the Buffalo — 60 miles from the sea 
— it chafes and foams with many a curious bend through 
deep rocky channels flanked by stupendous cliffs, lofty hills, 
and wild stony glens. The Tugela is not navigable, and, 
like most other Natal rivers, its mouth is nearly closed by 
a bar of sand thrown up by the ocean. Its chief tributaries 
are Klip River, Sundajr's River, and the Umzinyati or 
BufialOi from the north; and the Mnweni, the Umlam- 
bonja, the Little Tugela, the Blauwkrans, Bushman 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

24 Rivers 

Rhrer, Mooi River, and the Inadi, from the south. Klip 
River is joined near Ladysmith by the Sand River from 
the neighbourhood of Van Reenen's Pass ; Sunday's River 
receives the Inkunzi and the Waschbank, both of which 
traverse the southern part of the coal district ; the Bufifalo 
is augmented by the Ing^ag^ani (with its tributaries the 
Horn and the Incandu) and the historic Ingogo; the 
Little Tugela from both flanks of Cathkin Peak is joined by the 
strong current of Sterk Spruit ; and the Little Bushman 
River falls into the Bushman River near the village of Estcourt. 

Though the Umkomaas, or Gatherer of waters^ rises 
in the Berg and flows across the colony to the ocean, the 
area which it* drains is small compared with that of the 
Tugela. Its course is both wild and picturesque. In places 
its windings through grassy plains resemble the links of 
"the mazy Forth." Occasionally in the upper part of its 
course it flows through wide, deep, sheltered valleys, coast- 
Uke in climate and vegetation. Its most important tribu- 
taries are the Uzani, Eland River, and the Umkobeni 
from the north ; and the Inhlaveni or Ixopo from the south. 

The Umzimkulu or Great river ranks next in size to 
the Tugela. Its middle portion separates Natal from Griqua 
Land East. It drains the part of the Berg lying between 
the sources of the Umkomaas and Bushman's Neck, the 
extreme south of Pietermaritzburg and Alexandra Counties, 
and the northern half of Alfred County. Its scenery is 
as striking and varied as that of the two other great 
rivers. Wooded heights, green hills, gigantic fissures, quiet 
reaches, and sounding rapids are found all along its course. 
Small steamers occasionally ascend a few miles from its 
mouth, and engineering works are in progress which it is 
hoped will make their passage over the bar and through the 
channel safer and more frequent. Durban's Bluff, Point, Bar, 

Digitized by,VjOOQlC 

Rivers 25 

and harbour works are all there in miniature. The tributaries 
of the Umzimkulu are the Ipolela from the north ; and the 
Ingwangwani (with the Little Ingwangwani) and the 
Umzixnkulwana from the south. It receives another large 
tributary from the south, the Ibisi. This river flows entirely 
through Cape Colony territory, but joins the Umzimkulu at a 
point where the boundaries of the two colonies meet 

The rivers included in the second class are eight in number : 
the Pongola, the Umkuzi, the Umfolosi, the Umvoti, the 
Umgeni, the Umlaas, the lUovOy and the Umtamvuna. 

The PoQgola rises in the highlands to the east of 
Wakkerstroom, and forms a considerable part of the northern 
boundary of Natal. After crossing the Ubombo range it 
flows nearly due north until it joins the Maputa River running 
into Delagoa Bay. The Umkuzi rises some distance east 
of Vryheid and flows in a general easterly direction till close 
to the coast. It then bends to the south, and enters the north 
end of St Luda Lake. The Umfolosi is the main river of 
central Zululand, and is formed by the confluence, at a point 
30 miles from the coast, of the Black Umfolosi from the north 
and the White Umfolosi from the west. The main stream 
flows into St Lucia Bay. 

The Umvoti rises near Mt. Gilboa, in the KarUoof range, 
and drains the greater part of Umvoti County and part of 
Victoria County. It has one large tributary, the Ihlimbitwa^ 
which joins it from the north. The Umgeni is the central 
river of the colony. It rises among the bold Spion Kop hills, 
30 mfles from Giant's. Castle, flows through the pastoral 
district of Maritzburg County, foams down the wild ravines 
of the Inanda, and enters the sea four miles north of Durban. 
It has two well-known waterfalls, both within 12 miles of 
Maritzburg. The upper fall, at the village of Howick, is 
formed by the river hurling itself headlong in a single sheet 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

26 Rivers 

of foaming water oyer a precipice to the placid plain, 350 feet 
below. The lower fall is about 12 miles further down the 
river, and close to the road between Maritzburg and Grey- 
town. It is only a fifth of the height of the other, but its 
wide rocky ledge breaks the stream into numerous cascades 
which sparkle spray-laden among the bushes and the moss- 
grown rocks. The tributaries of the Umgeni are Lion's 
River, Karkloof River, the Impolweni (with Sterk 
Spruit), and the Umqeku, from the north; and the 
(Jmsunduzi from the south. The Umlaas rises in the 
highlands north of Bymetown, flows through a defile in the 
New Leeds district, is dammed to form Durban's main water- 
supply, and enters the sea 10 miles south of the Port. The 
Illovo rises in the yellow-wood forest at the head of Bjrme 
valley, and, with its tributary the Umquahumbi, drams the 
country lying between the basins of the Umlaas and the 
Umkomaas. It flows past the village of Richmond, through 
the broken country north of Inhlazuka, and enters the sea 
20 miles south of Durban. The Umtamvuna forms the 
southern boundary of the colony. 

The principal rivers included in the third class are, bom 
north to south :— the Umhlatuzi, the Umlahui, and the 
Amatikulu, all in Zululand; the Sinkwazi, Nonoti, 
Umhlali, Tongaat, Umhloti, and Umhlanga, all in 
Victoria County ; the Umbilo and Umhlatuzan, running 
into the Bay ; the Umbogintwini and Amanzamtoti, in 
Durban County; the Amahlongwa, Umpambinyoni, 
Umzinto, Ifafa, Umtwalumi, and Umzumbi, in 
Alexandra County ; and the Imbezana in Alfred County. 

Numberless rivulets or spruits abound, some of them with 
banks imposing enough for a considerable stream, and many 
of them giving their names to the districts through which they 
flow. Though almost dry in winter they are often impassable 
during heavy rains, and for hours after severe thunderstorms. 

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Snmmars of IRfvetB. 




/ Left Bank. 

Klip River - Sand River. 

BuSUoot JIn««>«"i(Hom 

Sundajr's River-! - 

/l. TUGKLA. 

2. Umkomaas. 

Right Bank. 

Little Tugela— Sterk Spruit 

Bushman River — Little Bushman 
Mooi River [River 

^ Inadi 

Left Bank. 

Eland River 

Right Bank. 
Inhlaveni or 



Left Bank. 

Right Bank. 

3. Umzimkulu. Ingwangwani — Little Ingwangwani 
^ Ibisi 

Qigitized by 




/ Right Bank. 

^ fPivaan * 



Right Bank, 

2. Umkuzi 




Umvoti - Ihlimbitwa 

Lefi Bank. 
Lion's River 
Kark]oof River 
Impolweni — Sterk Spruit 

5. Umgeni 

Right Bank. 


6. Umlaas 
Left Bank. 

7. Illovo — Umquahumbi 
V 8. Umtamvuna 

/ I. Umhlatuzi 

2. Umlalazi 

3. Amatikulu 

4. Sinkwazi 

5. Nonoti 
S I 6. Umhlali 

7. Tongaat 

O 8. Umhloti 

9. Umhlanga 

10. Umbilo 

\ii. Umhlatuzan 

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Climate 29 


'12. Umbogintwini 

13. Amanzimtoti 

14. Amahlongwa 

15. Umpambinyoni 

16. Umzinto 

17. Ifafa 

18. Umtwalumi 

19. Umzumbi 
V20. Imbezana 


The climate or weather of a place depends on its tem- 
perature, its rainfall, and its winds, and on the way in 
which they are distributed throughout the year. These 
again depend on several conditions, but chiefly on the 
distance of the place from the Equator, on its height, on its 
proximity to the sea, on the ratio between the length of its 
coast-line and its surface, on its slope, and on the direction 
of its mountain chains. 

Natal is in the South Temperate Zone, about 195 miles 
at its northmost point from the Tropic of Capricorn, and its 
climate may be described as warm-temperate and sub- 
tropical, and as continental rather than insular. The 
surface, as we have seen, rises from the level of the sea to 
two and a quarter miles above it — on the highest peaks of 
the Berg. This difference of height, in a little over a 
hundred miles in a straight line, gives, within a small 
area, several varieties of climate, well-marked but all 
perfectly healthy. Natal somewhat resembles Northern 
Italy in this respect. In both countries warm low-lying 
valleys, breezy uplands, and lofty mountains, with their 
corresponding varieties of climate and productions, rapidly 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

30 Climate 

merge each into the other. Pietermaritzburg, the capital 
of Natal, is 2,218 ft. high; Estcourt is 3,832 ft.; Dundee 
is 4,104 ft; Highlands Railway Station is 5,157 (t; and 
Charlestown is 5,386 ft The village of Leadhills, in the 
south of Scotland, is 1,280 ft above the sea, and is the 
highest inhabited place in Great Britain. Berne, the capital 
of Switzerland, is i>7oo ft high, and Madrid, the most 
elevated city in Europe, is only 2,200 ft — about the same 
height as Pietermaritzburg. The loftiest town in the world 
is the silver-mining village of Cerro de Pasco, in Peru. It 
is 13,720 ft high, is bitterly cold on account of its height, 
and has air so rarefied that visitors can breathe with 

On the coast of Natal the air is, as a rule, humid and 
warm; in the midlands it is generally dry and cool ; and 
in the uplands it may be described as bracing and cold. 
The higher parts of Zululand are bracing and healthy, but 
the low-lying districts of the Coast belt are subject to malarial 
fever. All the districts, however, have many weeks during 
the year of perfect English summer weather. There are 
two seasons, summer and winter — the one warm, cloudy, 
and rainy, and the other cool, bright, and dry. Summer 
begins in October and ends with March. At midsummer 
the sun rises at 5 o'clock and sets at seven : at midwinter it 
rises at 7 and sets at 5. There is a little twilight in winter 
but hardly any in summer. There is a very short spring and 
a very short autumn. The summer months are not all rainy, 
and the winter months are not all dry. Occasional cold days 
occur in summer and occasional hot days in winter. In up- 
country districts the summer heat is often more scorching 
than on the coast, but the nights are generally much cooler. 
Sometimes the sun's rays are felt to be oppressively hot while 
the Berg is seen covered widi snow. 

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Climate 3 1 

At Pietermaritzburg the averag^e yearly tempetature 
is about 64 degrees. It is sometimes as low as 28 degrees 
and sometimes as high as 98 degrees. At Durban the 
average is 69^ degrees, and the extremes 43 degrees and 
98 degrees. In 1901 the mean average temperature for 
Durban was 70.2 de^ees. Now and again, both in summer 
and winter, the thermometer varies as much as 35 d^ees 
during the twenty-four hours. Probably the greatest daily 
variation known in Durban occurred on the 21st September, 
1890. A very hot northerly wind raised the temperature for 
an liour or two in the middle of the day to no less than 1 10^ 
degrees in the shade. In the evening a westerly breeze 
cooled down the air to 63 degrees. The average daily 
nuige for each season does not, however, exceed 20 degrees. 
In the mid-winter months frost is sometimes seen on the 
coastlands, even at the sea-level. Snowstorms occasionally 
occur in the uplands, and sometimes for weeks the ebon mass 
of the Berg is beautifully diversified with patches of dazzling 

At Pietermariuburg the annual rainfall is about 38 
inches ; and at Durban, 40. The average number of days 
on which rain falls during the year is 117 in Maritzburg 
and 125 in Durban, An average of about 5 inches falls in 
every wet or summer month, and a little less than 2 inches 
in every dry or winter month. The rainfall for 1893 is the 
%hest ever recorded Over 70 inches fell on the coast. 
In 1901 rain fell on 184 days in Durban, and the rainfall 
for the year amounted to 55.54 inches. The average rainfall 
for the Colony is however probably only a little more than 
30 inches. Thunder-storms and hail-storms, the latter often 
destructive, occur generally in sununer and with decreas- 
ing frequency and severity as we approach the coast. In 
England about half the days in the year are rainy, and the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

32 Soil and Productions 

average annual rainM on the east coast is about 35 inches, 
and on the west coast about 35. I 

The prevailing winds on the coast are from the north- 
east and the south-west The former is a moisture-laden 
relaxing wind from the Indian Ocean; the latter, locally 
called "the doctor," is a cool and bracing wind from the 
southern seas. In summer the south-westerly wind generally 
brings rain with it. The character and direction of both 
become modified as they travel inland. A parching, hot 
wind, often accompanied by a dust-storm, blows from the 
northward for hours, sometimes even for dajrs, at a time. It 
occurs chiefly in early summer, and on an average during 
35 days in the year. It is less common on the coast than in 
the uplands, and it is often followed by the cool south- 
westerly wind and a thunder-storm or rain. 


The hills and mountains of Natal, like those of the other 
parts of South Africa, are, as we have seen, composed 
chiefly of granite, gneiss, sand-stone, clay-stone, porphyry, 
trap, and shale. Where these rocks do not stand out in 
their rugged or rounded boldness, they are covered with a 
soil composed mainly of their disintegrated particles mingled 
with vegetable mould — the accumulation of untold ages. 
Light sandy soils preponderate near the coast Further 
inland loams are met with which vary in colour from yellow 
and light brown to a deep red. On most of the hills and 
watersheds the soil is shallow and capable of nourishing only 
light crops and the natural grasses on which are reared the 
sheep, goats, cattle, and horses of the upland farmers. On 
plains and by river-banks the soil is deeper and richer, and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Soil and Productions 33 

with a little attenticm to manuritig and inrigation it will 
produce heavy oops adapted to the climate of the 

Inigation is extensively and profitably carried on in the 
United States, in India, in Australia, and in Italy, and no 
insuperable difficulty prevents many parts of Natal being 
artificially watered by some of her numerous streams. 
Pastoral lands would thus become agricultural lands, agricul- 
tural lands would become more productive, and small well- 
tilled farms would spring up among the existing stretches of 
unimproved veld. 

The soil is "patchy** or "spotted," rich and poor, but 
there is little of it that will not profitably respond to 
intelligent industry. This diversity of soil, and the marked 
diversity of climate, give a corresponding variety to the 
productions. Sugar, tea, coffee, tobacco, arrowroot, cayenne 
pepper, and nearly all kinds of tropical and sub-tropical 
fruits are grown on the coast. Maize or Indian corn, 
locally called "mealies,'' is the staple grain of the colcmy, 
and thriven firom the; sea to the Berg. Kafir-corn or atnabek^ 
a hardy kind of millet, is also widely distributed, and, 
though an excellent food plant, is used by the natives 
chiefly for making uiyucUa or native beer. Wheat, oats, and 
barley are grown in the midlands and the uplands. Nearly 
all the European flowers, fruits, and vegetables are found in 
the parts of the colony suited to their cultivation. 

The total amount of land under tillage is about 1,000,000 
acres, or about i/-23rd of the whole surface. The natives 
cultivate about 650,000 acres, the. Europeans about 300^000 
acres, and Indians, 50,000 acres. About 4-5 ths of this tilled 
land is planted with maize and kafir-com. Sugar-cane, pump- 
kins, sweet potatoes, oats, and fruit are the next most plentiful 
crops. The pastoral lands support nearly two millions, of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

34 Soil and Productions 

sheep and goats, about three<iiiarter8 of a million of cattle, 
about 80,000 horses, and nearly 70,000 pigs.* 

The eucalyptus or gum-tree, in many varieties; many 
species of conifers, especially pines and cypresses; and 
other useful and ornamental trees and shrubs, are being 
extensively planted near homesteads in all parts of the 
colony. Attention is being given to the export for tanning 
purposes of the bark of the Acacia Mollissitna or Australian 
wattle. This fast growing tree seems to thrive well in 
all localities, but especially so in the Noodsberg 
district, in Umvoti County, and in the highlands around 

As far back as June, 1839, the Secretary of State drew the 
attention of Sir George Napier, the Governor of the Cape, to 
the value of Natal's ''black diamonds." He wrote "The 
&ct stated by Captain Jervis of the discovery of coal in Natal 
lying on or near the surface of the ground would appear to 
demand careful investigation, as such a resource might prove 
of the utmost importance to steam navigation in the adjacent 
seas." Coal mining is now a settled industry. The chief 
mines lie between Ladysmith and Newcastle and round 
Dundee. The nominal capital invested in the mines is 
about 2| millions, and the annual output is about 600,000 

Marble is found near the mouth of the Umzimkulu. 
Iron ore is widely distributed, the best being found near 
the coal Copper occurs in the Tugela valley and in the 
County of Durban, and gold is being extracted from the 
quartzose veins which traverse the gneiss of the Upper 
Umzinto district Alluvial gold is found in minute quantities 
in the beds and banks of several of the south-coast streams, 
and colour more or less perceptible may be obtained from 
nearly every quartz reef in the colony. 

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Plants 35 


European and sub-tropical vegetables — flowers, fruits, 
roots, grasses, grains, shrubs, and trees — are grown in those 
parts of the colony that are severally adapted by soil and 
climate to their successful cultivation. 

Indigenous plants are very varied and very numerous. A 
belt of coast-land, extending for about twelve miles from the 
sea, was originally covered with a dense " bush," or jungle, 
of evergreen trees and flowering shrubs, interspersed with 
short stretches of flower-enamelled natural park. Clumps of 
the graceful date-palm and of the tropical simple-leaved 
Stretlitzia Augusta (wild banana) are seen growing wild all 
along these coast-lands. There, too, are found many varieties 
of the leafless, succulent tree-euphorbia and its pygmy but 
picturesque cousins, the Candelabra Spurge and the Caput 

Not many of the wild plants have edible fruits. Per* 
^ps the three best known are the Amatungulu, the Cape 
gooseberry, and the Dingaan apricot The Amatungulu or 
Natal plum is akin to the vincq, or periwinkle of the English 
shrubbery. It is found chiefly near the beach, and has glossy 
dark-green leaves, a white star-like flower, and a dark-red 
pluiQ4ike berry. As the well-known Cape gooseberry^ has 
^n naturalised from Cape Colony it can hardly be called 
indigenous. It is not really a gooseberry, but belongs to the 
same poisonous family — solanacece — as the deadly night-shade 
and the universal potato. The Dingaan apricot, or Kaw 
apple, is the fruit of a species of ebony tree. 

Heaths, so abundant in Cape Colony, are almost unknown 
in Natal. Geraniums are found, but not In great variety. 
Wild field-flowers of many kinds, bright with colour and in 

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special abundance on the edges of the forests, are seen to 
perfection in the early days of spring, as soon as the first rains 
have changed into living green the sombre brown and fire- 
blackened hues of winter. Bulbous plants are very nunaerous 
---^imaryllids, lilies, and irises — all of many varieties. The 
more common are the fire-lily, with its flame-coloured 
blossoms ; the Natal lily with its large white and pink ribbed 
bells.; the painter's-brush-like Hamanthus or "poison-root" 
of the old Dutch settlers ; the Ifafa lily, with its fuchsia-like 
clusters; several beautiful species of gladiolus; and the 
graceful ixias, or so^alled "flowering-grasses." The beautiful 
creamy-white "arum-lily," though not really a lily, is closely 
allied to the pig-lily of the English greenhouses. 

Besides these the most noticeable plants of the veld 
and the forest are the orange and crimson Leonitis, six feet 
high ; the Gazenia, something like the dandelion ; a pink 
oxalis; the large purple-flowered OsbedUa Umlaemana] 
climbing-plants innumerable — " many-hued trailers rich with 
flowers " — ; ^ider-worts ; several Acanthaceous plants 
allied to the English calceolaria and fox-glove; many dis- 
tinct species of the ComposHtB family, including several kinds 
of " everlastings " ; stapelias or carrion-flowers in the uplands; 
and cinchonaceous plants, including gardenias and numbering 
nearly one hundred species* 

Sev^al kinds of aloes, with tufted spikes of orange and 
red florets, and many thick-leaved plants akin to them, are 
widely distributed. Earth*growing orchids of several varieties 
are common. Ferns are very varied and very abimdant, no 
few^r than 126 species being indigenous to the colony. The 
graceful tree-fern is found in several localities on the coast 
and in the beds of sheltered inland streams. 

There are natural forests on the coast, in the midlands, 
and in the uplands, each with its characteristic tre^. With .the 

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Plants 37 

exception of those in the Lower Umzimkulu division, nearljr 
ail the coast forests belong to private individuals. The trees 
are generally low— from 30 to 60 feet high — ^many of them 
i^nminous eveigreens, and most of tliem bearing gay and 
bright flowers. The best known are the water*boom; the 
flat crown; the wild chestnut; the knobthom; the red and 
the white miikwoods ; red-ivory wood ; ironwood ; umsimbiti; 
and the Kafir boom, a winter-flowering species of leguminous 
" coral-tree." 

The midland forests consist chiefly of thorn bush — ^various 
species of Mimosa — ^stretcMng over a considerable space but 
not at all dense. These thorn-trees are generally flat-topped, 
small in size, and protected by strong thorns or spikes. 
Considerable patches are being cleared for firewood and for 
cultivation by the natives, and many self-sown young trees are 
destroyed every year by grass fires. 

The upland forests are found chiefly in the kloofs of the 
mountains and on their moisture-facing southern slopes. 
They are separated from the thorn bush by a clearly-defined 
belt of grass country. The best-known trees are the upright 
yellow-wood, a species of yew; sneezewood, a horse-chest- 
nut grained like satin wood; stinkwood, a laurel grained 
like French walnut ; black ironwood, an olive ; white iron- 
wood, a kind of rue; and essenwood, the South African 

The Coast Forests and the Thorn Bush cover between 
them about one-and-a-half million acreSi and the Upland 
heavy timber Forests about 150,000 acres. 

Besides the commercial value of the wood, baric, and 
other products of the trees themselves, forests are beneficial 
to a country in many difierent ways. They are indispensable 
to the beauty <rf the landscape ; they afford shelter to game ; 
they r^3ilate tl^e rainfall, and, if extensive enicrngb, probably 

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augment it ; they increase production from the soil by act- 
ing as breakwinds and by furnishing vegetable-mould ; and 
they not infrequently enhance the mildness and salubrity of 
the climate. The spreading foliage, the trunks and tangled 
roots, and the surface undergrowth are a natural protection 
to the earth from the destructive scouring action of heavy 
tropical and sub*tropical rains. Forests conserve the rain- 
fall and thus act as natural reservoirs to the springs. They 
make to filter slowly the life-sustaining water which, but 
for this restraining influence, would deeply furrow the land 
and lay bare hill and mountain side as it rushed soil-laden 
to the lower levels on its way to the ocean. 

As forests and protective herbage are destroyed, so must 
the productive-surface of our steeply-sloping and sub-tropi- 
cal rain-washed country decrease both in depth and fruitfiil- 
ness. Our valuable natural forests cannot be too carefully 
preserved; and tree-planting, adapted to soil and climate, 
cannot be too vigorously carried on in every part of the 


For ages countless numbers of wild animals of nearly 
every kind found almost undisturbed homes in the vast 
stretches of neutral uninhabited country that surrounded 
every large South African tribe. But as the land became 
peopled by the rifle-carrying white man, the need of pasture 
for his flocks and herds, the love of sport, and especially the 
gain to be made from skins, horns and ivory, gradually 
thinned out and drove inland the denizens of the veld and 
the forest. Persons now living have hunted in Natal the 
elephant, the lion, the buflalo, the quagga, the gnu or wilde- 
beest, the blesbok, the gemsbok, and the ostrich. Their 

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fathers have probably seen, in addition to these, the rhino- 
ceros, and the giraffe. 

Leopards and panthers— the ''tigers" of the Dutch— ane 
still found in thickly-wooded kloofs. " Tiger-cats "—a smaller 
variety of leopard — and wild-cats are plentiful in some 
districts. The hij^potamus or ''sea-cow" is occasionally 
found, but is gradually disappearing. There are three 
kinds of hyenas — all called "wolves" by the Dutch. The 
burrowing earth-wolf— a species of civet— has the habits of 
a fox, but is like a small hyena with a bristling ridge of 
hair down its back. There are also jackals, wild or hunting- 
dogs, wild pigs, ant-bears, porcupines, otters, pole-cats, 
weasels, squirrels, bats, moles, cane-rats, hares, rabbits, 
rock-rabbits, and field and house rats and mice. The rock- 
rabbit is not however a rabbit. It is really a daman, and 
belongs to the genus Hyrax^ of which Cuvier, the great 
naturalist, says " Excepting the horns, they are little else than 
rhinoceroses in miniature." The cony of the Old Testament 
is the species of Hyrax found in Syria and Palestine. 
Chacmas or Natal baboons are found among the cliffs that 
frown over river-valleys and ravines, and silver-grey monkeys 
abound in the bush of the coast districts. 

South Africa is noted for the number and variety of its 
antelopes. Nine different kinds are found in Natal — ^three 
large and six smaller. The large kinds are the eland, the 
hartebeest, and the boschbok.. The smaller are the ouribi, 
the duiker, the rietbok, the rooibok, the rheebok — the 
chamois of South Africa— and the beautiful little blauwbok 
or epeti, not much larger than a good-sized hare^ The eland, 
hartebeest, female boschbok or imbabala, ouribi, rietbok, and 
rooibok are " royal " game, and cannot be bunted except by 
express permission of the Governor. ~ 

The birds of Natal are very num^6us and some of them 

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40 Animals 

axe very beautiful. We find members of all the seven orders 
into which this class of vertebrate animals is divided. Some 
of these orders, such as the Rasores^ or scraping birds, 
the Ins€ssores or perching birds, and the Raptores^ or 
rapacious birds, contain two or more families of the 
order, several species of the family, and many varieties oi 
the species. 

There are two kinds of vultures. One — the large black 
and white species — ^is very common. The other — sometiines 
called the white crow — is a smaller and less common bird, 
and seems closely allied to the Alpine or E^[yptian vulture of 
North Africa and Southern Europe. The useful ^ royal" 
secretary Urd is classed by naturalists sometimes as a vulture, 
sometimes as a falcon, and sometimes it is put in a class by 
itself. It gets its name from its long head feathers, which 
look like pens stuck behind its ears; and it lives chiefly on 
snakes, heedless of their venomed fangs. There are three 
kinds of large eagles and several varieties of kites, falcons, 
hawks, and owls. 

The Grallatares order — waders or stilt bhrds — is repre- 
sented by cranes, herons, ibises, storks, snipes, and plovers ; 
and the Natatores or swimming-birds, by gulls and other sea 
birds, wild ducks and geese, pelicans and flamingoes. 

Pheasants, guinea-fowl, partridges, quails, and wild pigeons 
and doves are widely distributed. The laigest game-bird is 
the paauw — ^not a peacock as the name would imply, but a 
species of bustard or wild turkey, and a connecting link 
between this order — Rasore$ or scraping-birds*— and the 
Grallatares or wading-birds. The koraan is a smaller variety 
of the wild turkey. 

Among the Scansores or climbing-birds we have parrots, 
both in the coast thickets and in the up-country forests; 
lories, richly-tinted and mdlow-coloured ; the emerald cuckoo. 

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Animals 41 

req)]endent in green and geld; and a species of toucan, 
found abundantly in the south-coast bush. 

The order Inse$sores^ or the perching-birds, is the largest. 
It includes crows of several varieties — ^the most noticeable 
being one with a thidc and hooked beak and a white crescent 
on its back — ; swallows, martins, and swifts; shrikes or 
butcher-birds ; honey-suckers or sun-birds, that flit like living 
gems from flower to flower ; and finches, weaver-birds, king- 
fishers^ and other '< bright Inrds with starry wings " that haunt 
every bosky kloof and reed-grown spruit 

Crocodiles are found in unfirequented parts of the rivers, 
and iguana-lizards — 4 and 5 feet long — are often seen bask- 
ing on the wooded banks of die larger streams. There are 
several varieties of tortdses ; and turtles, sometimes weigh- 
ing as much as six or seven hundredw^ght, are often found 
in the lagoons and near the mouths of the larger rivers. 
Small lizards of many kinds and varying-hued chameleons are 
very common. Frogs are in great abundance in all parts of the 
colony. Snakes are very numerous and of many kinds. The 
largest is the handsome python or Natal rock-snake {Hartuiia 
NdUdens$s\ sometimes over 20 ft. long and common on the 
coast. Like aU the members of the Boa ftmily it has no 
poisonous teeth, but kills its prey by coiling round it and 
cmshing it. M^ich smaller but much more dangerous is the 
deadly poison-fanged imamba, found in three varieties — 
black, green, and blue. This snake and the <* spuugnilang " 
or spitting-snake seem to be allied to the cobras or hooded 
snakes. The sluggish, flat-headed pufi'-adder, though not 
aggressive, Intes with ahnbst certain £Eital effect There are 
many other kinds of snakes, vipers, and adders. Among them 
are night-adders, house-adders, water-snakes, f^ass-snakes, and 
tiee-snakes. Many of them, however, are non-poisonous, and 
nearly all of them seem glad to glide from obsairation. 

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4^ Animals 

Several varieties of scale-fish, eels, and a fish locally 
called the barbel, are found in most of the rivers. The 
scale-fish is probably a variety of the carp, and the barbel 
is really a species of the leather-mouthed, mud-loving sUurus. 
Trout have been successfully introduced into some of the 
cold up-country streams. EdiUe fishes of excellent quality 
abound in the sea near the coast, and in the estuaries of the 
rivers. The best-known are shad, rock-cod, mullet, mackerel, 
bream, snipefish, and soles. Sharks, stingrays, and electrical 
torpedoes are not at all uncommon. Judging from the 
abundance of their remains found on the shore, the devil- 
fish or octopus and the cuttle-fish must be plentiful off the 
coast and attractive as food to both fishes and birds. The 
jelly-fish or medusa with its umbrelia-^haped swimming-bell 
is very common. Mussels and oysters are plentiful in the 
rocky parts of the beach, and crabs, cray fish, and shrimps 
are widely distributed. Land crabs are plentiful, and are 
preyed on by otters and the larger lizards. Several hundreds 
of different kinds of shells are found all along the shore, 
and so abundantly in some places as to be regularly used 
for making lime. The rocky pools of the beach teem with 
beautiful tiny molluscs and zoophjrtes of exquisite form and 

The well-known Helix family — ^land shells or snails — ^is 
in great variety and in great abundance. The Bulimus is 
the largest species, and the Achatina is the most beautifuL 
The ground in many places is strewn with shells. 

Crickets, locusts, grasshoppers, scorpions, beetles, and fire- 
flies are commmi. So also are the pugnacious manttdx or 
''Hottentot gods," and the strange protective-resemblance 
family oiphasmida or '< srick insects." Butterflies and moths 
are in great variety — many of them very large and very 
beautiful. The handsome sea-green Queen moth often 

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People 43 

measures more than five inches from tip to tip of its out- 
spread wings. Noisy cicada^ dragon-flies, wasps and bees, 
hornets, mosquitoes, spiders, ticks, and fish-moths are all 
among the ^* common objects of the country." Ants of 
many kinds are found in all parts of the colony, and ant- 
hills, two or three feet high, are a common feature in the 
landscape. The most destructive is the white ant, which 
however is not a true ant, but belongs to the nerve-winged 
order of insects — an order which includes also dragon-flies 
and the short-lived may-flies. 


The number of people living in a country depends 
chiefly on its natural resources, Le. on its mineral wealth, 
on the nature and amount of its agricultural produce, on its 
manufactures, on its forests, and on the fiu:ilities for trade 
afforded by its geographical position. A pastoral country 
needs only a few people, an agricuhural and mining country 
needs more than a pastoral one, but a manufacturing, min- 
ing, and commercial country needs and can support many 
workers of many kinds. The county of Lanark in Scotland 
has three wards or divisions — upper, middle, and lower. 
The upper ward is hilly, pastoral, and thinly peopled; the 
middle has several villages supported by its mines and 
its welUiUed fiums; while the lower ward with its enor- 
mous shipbuilding, manufactures, mining, and commerce, is 
one of the most densely -populated parts of the United 
Kingdom. • 

Natal is mainly a pastoral and inland-transport trading 
country, and it is in consequence but sparsely peopled. 
It has 1,000^000 inhabitants, or about one-sixth of the 

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44 People 

population of London and its suburbs. The NatiTes or 
Kafirs number 850,000; the WhiteSi 75,000; and the 
Indians, 75,000. There are on an average 27 persons — 
white and black — to every square mile. The British Islands 
have 300, and Belgiumi with its mines, its manufactures, and 
its garden-tilled soil, supports no fewer than 520. 

The whites are Europeans or of European descent, and 
are chiefly British^ Dutch and German. The British 
live mostly in the towns, on the coast, and in the midlands ; 
the Dutch who number about 16,000 are South African bom, 
and are settled as sheep and cattle farmers or baers in the 
upper districts. In the Northern Territories nearly all the 
white inhabitants are Dutch farmers. The Germans who 
number about 2,000 are engaged either in trade and conmierce 
in the towns or in farming at settlements like New Germany, 
New Hanover, Kirchdorf, and Hermannsburg. About three- 
fifths of the whites are colonial born and are thus Natalians. 
Trade, transport, stock-farming, coal-mining and 
sugar and tea planting are the chief occupations. 
Dairy-farming is becoming an important industry. Two 
large creameries are in full working order — at Nd's Rust, 
near Richmond, and at Mooi River.. Manufactures are grow- 
ing, but mining, except coal-mining, is only in its infancy. 

The need of a supply of continuous labour for sugar- 
growing and manufacture and for other farming industries, 
and the unwillingness of the native to engage himself to 
work for more than a few months at a time, led to the 
introduction in i860 of indentured labourers from India. 
They are called *' coolies" from the Hindustani word 
kiUi^ 2L porter or labourer. After five years' continuous 
service they ^ure **free." If they remain in the colony for 
a second term of live years, they can, at any time during the 
subsequent three years, claim a free passage back to India. 

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People 45 

Many, however, never return to their native land but 
remain in Natal or go to the neighbonriog states as 
domestic servants, grooms, gardeners, labourers, hawkeia, 
fishermen, traders, and farmers. The " free" Indians in the 
coloDj now number half as many again as the " indentured'' 
Indians. Many hundreds of Indians of a class above the 
coolie, and locally but erroneously called " Arabs," have come 
to Natal at their own expense to push their way as shop- 
keepers and traders. All these immigrant Indians are 
subjects of the King. 

The Kafirs, unlike most other dark races when brought 
into contact with whites, are increasing in number and 
prosperity. ** Kafir " is not a national name but an Arabic 
word meaning "unbeliever," and it was applied by 
Mohammedans and Portuguese to all the natives living in 
the vast r^on between Mozambique and the Cape. They 
belong to the great Bantu race, which includes all the 
tribes south of the 6th degree of north latitude excepting 
only the Hottentots and the Bushmen. These two dying 
primeval races were gradually driven southward by the 
great Kafir wave, and are now found only in the south and 
south-west of the continent. All the other countless 
dialects spoken in this immense triangle can be traced to a 
remote mother-tongue essentially different from that spoken 
by the Negro races to the north. 

The Natal natives comprise 190 tribes living under separate 
chiefs in .26 Magisterial Divisions. There are 37 districts 
or '' locations,'' set apart for their special occupation by the 
Government mostly between the years 1847 and 1864. The 
Aggregate area of the locations is 2,198,456 acres or about 
cmeeleventh of the total surface of the cok)ny. They are 
generally more suitable for grazing lands, than for tiikd farms 
and industrial occupation, and in tiiem are to be found the 

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46 PeojJe 

grandest sceaay and the most broken country in the colony. 
The five largest locations are Umvoti, Klip River, Upper 
Tttgela, Inanda, and Lower Tugda. The larger tribes are 
divided into two or more sections, each under its own chie^ 
and occupying lands of its own not infrequently a con- 
siderable distance apart from those of the other sections 
of the tribe. 

The largest tribes are the Abatembu, with five divisions 
and about 30,000 people; the Amacunu, with three divi- 
sions and about 26,000 people ; the Amaqwabe, with seven 
divisions and about 20,000 people; the Amabomvu,^with 
five divisions and about 25,000 people; and the Amanjruswa 
with ten divisions and 38,000 people. The first two have 
their largest divisions in Weenen County, the third in the 
Lower Tugela Division, and the fourth in Umvoti County. 
The Abatembu and the Amaqwabe are known to be two 
of the 94 aboriginal tribes inhabiting Natal before its de- 
vastation by Chaka about 18 12. The other tribes entered 
Natal biefore it became a British colony — ^probably between 
1812 and 1843. 

The natives in the locations are subject to their own 
chiefs and indunas or headmen. These again are subject 
respectively to Resident Magistrates or Administrators of 
Native Law, to the Secretary for Native Affiiirs, and to the 
Governor, who is "Supreme Chief of the Native popula- 
tion." The Government may call out from the locations 
men to work for a fair wage on the public roads. Subject 
to the permission of the authorities families may move from 
one location to another. Natives who came into the colony 
subsequent to the formation o£ the locations are allowed on 
payment of an annual rent of £1 per hut to settle temporarily 
on vacant Crown Lands, if they are unable to arrange for 
living in one of the locations. Many natives live as tenants 

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People 47 

at various rates of rent on private farms. Over i77»ooo 
acres have been granted, or set apart, or are used for mission 
purposes. These mission lands are in charge of various 
rel^ous societies for the benefit of the natives. All native 
huts, wherever situated, pay an annual tax to the Government 
of fourteen shillings each. This sum is in addition to the 
rent paid for living on Crown Lands or on private farms. 
The number of the native population is estimated by reckon- 
ing four persons on an average for every hut There are 
about 7^ million acres of Crown Lands. 

The colony is ruled for the Crown and the peofde by a 
Governor appointed by the King. His Excellency is 
assisted by a Responsible Ministry consisting of not more 
than six members, all of whom must be members of Parlia- 
ment The Governor and the Ministry form the Executive 
Council. Parliament consists of two Houses, an Upper 
House or L^islative ^Council of 14 members and a Lower 
House or Legislative Assembly of 45 members. The Legis- 
lative Council is summoned by the Governor in Council : 
the Legislative Assembly is chosen by the people. Parlia- 
ment makes the laws, subject to the assent of the Governor 
"in His Majesty's name." 

A Supreme Court of four judges, a Native High Court, 
and Divisional Resident Magistrates, administer justice to 
Europeans and Natives. Native Chiefs try Civil cases among 
their people and may fine up to ^£2, for certain offences. 

The colony is defended by a garrison of about 5,000 
Imperial troops, by about 3,600 volunte^ii and members of 
Rifle Associations, and by about 1,700 police. The schools 
of the colony furnish a Cadet force 2,^0 strong. All these 
lads are armed. 

The normal ReTcnue amounts to over ^^3,000,000, 
derived chiefly from railways, customs, native taxes and rents, 

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43 Counties and Towns 

mail service, whar^ port, and harboar dues, land, sales, 
telegraphs, stamps, and excise. The Expenditure is 
about ;;^3,7So,ooo. 
The Public Debt is about ;;^i4,ooo,ooo. 


. In Natal proper there are 8 counties — 4 on the coast and 4 
inland. Those on the coast, from south to north, are Alfred, 
Alexandra, Durban, and Victoria; and those inland are 
Pietermaritzburg, Umvoti, Wcenen, and Klip River. Durban 
is the smallest county and Pietermaritzburg the largest. The 
four coast counties difi^ considerably from the four inland 
counties in appearance, climate, and productions. The 
colony is also divided into districts, each under the juris- 
diction of a magistrate or an administrator appointed by the 

Alfred Cowrrv lies between the Umtamvuna and the 
Umzimkulu. Its chief village is Harding, in the northwest, 
near the head waters of the Umzimkulwana, Cattle and 
< horses are bred in the higher parts of the county, and maize 
is grown throughout A small quantity of timber is cut from 
the once magnificent natural forests in the Ingeli Mountains. 
The coast-lands produce sugar, coffee, tea, and tropical fruits 
in small qctantities, but are. capable of considerable develop- 
ment. A village. Port Stiepstone, is laid out on both 
banks of the mouth of the Umzimkulu, but its growth awaitSB 
chiefl/ the extension of the railway to the south and t^e 
success of works for the improvement of the channel from the 
ocean to the river wharves. About eight miles up the river, 
and lying on the granitic floor of Natal, i^ a field of crystal- 
line white marble, in parts about a thousand feet thick and 

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Counties and Towns 49 

extending over a space of thirty square miles. Except for 
making lime and cement, not much use has yet been made 
of this valuable outcrop. A tract of about 7,000 acres of 
coast-land named Marburg^ is occupied by forty families 
brought from Norway by the Government in 1882. They 
tiU the land and rear cattle and appear to be prosperous. 

Alexandra County lies between the Lower Umzimkulu 
and the Lower Umkomaas. Umzinto, the chief village, is 
in the centre of a sugar-producing district South-Barrow 
at the mouth of the Umkomaas, and Scottsbui^ at the 
mouth of the Umpambinyoni, are growing sea-side resorts on 
the south coast line of railway. Tea, coffee, tobacco and rice 
are grown in small quantities. Gold is found among the 
quartz in the broken country inland from Umzinto. 

Durban County lies between the Lower Umkomaas and 
the Lower Umgeni. It contains one town, Durban, and five 
villages, Pinetown, Bellair, Umgeni, Isipingo, and Sydenham. 

Durban, the port of the colony and the natural gate-way 
of South-Eastem Africa, is a town of great trade and of 
growing importance. It is built on the north side of the Bay, 
and as a borough covers a space of about 6,000 acres. It 
includes the Point with its shipping and busy wharves, and 
the bush-covered Berea heights overlooking the town and 
the ocean, and thickly dotted with houses. The naturally 
sandy roads have been macadamized, and electric tram-cars 
connect the Point with the Berea and suburbs. The streets 
are wide, and here and there the footpaths are shaded by 
trees, some of them survivals of " the forest, primeval'' It is 
a dean, handsome town with numerous fine public buildings 
and stores, an excellent water supply, and modem drainage. 
The finest building is the Town Hall. It has beep sold to 
the Government for a Post-ofSce, and a new Hall including 
Museum, Library, and Art Gallery, will be erected in the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

50 Counties and Towns 

Town Gardens at a cost of about ;^2oo,ooo. A white 
marble statue of Queen Victoria iidoms the Public Gardens 
in die centre of the town, and tkear it is a similar memorial 
of the Right Hon. Harry Escombe. The Botanic Gardens 
and the Government observatory are on the Berea. 

The area of the borough, including town lands, i^ lo 
square miles, and its rateable valtie is ;£7,ooo,ooo. The 
population is about 61,000. Of' this number 29,000 Are 
Europeans, 19,500 natives, and 12,560 Indians. The 
population is 20,000 more than it was three years ago. 
Pinctovra, a quiet village, is on a ^an<ty plain about 13 
miles by road from Durban, and on the inland edge of the 
coast region. New Germany, about 3 miles to the north- 
east, is a settlement of thrifty Germans who came originally 
from Bremen to grow cotton. This industry failed, and 
they now find Durban and its shipping a good market for 
the farm and garden produce from their small holdings. 
About 4 n^iles to the west of Pinetown is Mariatinfaill, 
a large mission-settlement of Trappist monks. Isipingo, 11 
miles firom Durban, is the centre of a sugar district Adams, 
7 miles further south, on the Amanzimtoti, is an important 
native educational and industrial settlement belonging to the 
American Board of Missions. 

VtCTORiA County, stretching between the Umgeni and 
the Tugela, is the chief sugar-producing district in the 
colony. Tea, coffee, arrowroot, cayenne pepper, and fruit 
are also grown in small quantities on the coast, and maize 
is found throughout The two largest sugar mills in the 
colony are at Mount Edgecumbe and Tongaat, respectively 
^ 14 tOkd 29J miles north of Durban. The chief tea plantations 
lie between Utnhlali and the Tugda, the lat^est being that 
of Kearsney. Near the mouth of the Umvoti there is an 
immense ''donga'' — a fine illustration on a small scale of a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Counties and Towns? 51 

table-land being carved into peaks, ridges, ravines and vallejs 
by the levelling action of the weather. There are four 
^^iUages : — ^Verulam, with a population of about 700, prettily 
situated on the south bank of the Umhloti, and founded by 
Wesleyans from St Albans — ^whence its name ; Victoria, or 
Toogaat, near the river Tongaat ; Umhlalii with tea planta* 
tions; and Stanger, about 15 miles from the border of 
Zttkland, and the burial-pilace of the great Zulu King, Chaka. 
At LindlejTi near the Inanda hills in the southern part of 
the county, there is a large American training-school for 
native girls. A number of immigrants from Holland have 
settled at New Guelderiand and at Doesburg, a few 
miles north of Stanger. 

PiETERMARrrzBURG CouNTY coutains over 5,000 sq. miles 
or very nearly one-seventh of the total land surface. It 
occupies the south-western part of the colony, and lies 
between ttie Umzimkulu and the watershed of the Umgeni. 
Stock-farms are common all through the county, and maize, 
oats, kafir-com, potatoes, and wattle bark are the staple pro- 
ductions. Timber for wagon-making and other purposes isr 
cat from the natural bush, and building-stone is quarried to 
a small extent. The most populous centres are: — Pieter- 
maritzburg, Richmond, Byrne, Stuartstown, Howick, Lidget- 
ton, York, Camperdown, New Hanover, Kirchdorf, Edendale, 
Nottingham, and Bulwer. 

PiETERMARiTZBURG— commonly shortened to Maritzbxjro 
—the capital of the colony, and 2,zi8 feet above the sea-level, 
is named after two famous boer leaders, Pieter Retief and 
Gert Maritz. It contains as a borough about 44 square 
Diiles, with a rateable value of ;^3i 500,000, and is built 
^moQg hills on the rid^e and sides of a gentle slope which 
fomis part of the north bank of the river Umsunduzi. The 
^o^n has about 35 miles of streets, the principal being lighted VjOOQIC 

52 Counties' and Towns- 

by dectricity. It is the seat of GoTenunent, the chief station 
of the Imperial troops, and an entrepdt for up-country trade 
Its dark brown soil, its tile-covered houses, its rose hedges, 
its trees and its gardens give it the appearance of a large 
English village. The principal buildings are the Town Hall, 
Government Offices, Post-office, Government House, the 
Legislative Assembly and Council Chambers, the Court 
House, St Peter's Cathedral where Bishop Colenso is buried, 
the College, and the Mounted Police Barracks. The 
Alexandra Park and the Botanic Gardens are close to the 
city. Its population, including the garrison, is about 35,000. 
The Europeans number 20,000 : the remainder are Natives, 
Indians, and other coloured races. To the north-west of the 
city and 1,600 ft. above it is the Town Hill, an elevation in 
the third of the natural terraces rising from the coast Eilion 
Road on the top of the hill, and 11 miles from Maritzburg is 
a favourite suburb, and has extensive wattle plantations. 

Richmond, 2,890 ft high, and Bjrrne are villages on 
the Illovo, in the centre of a good agricultural and pastoral 
district Stuartstown, near the Ixopo, has large sheep- 
farms in its neighbourhood. Howick, 3,439 ft. high, is 
a health-resort on the Umgeni, and is noted for its falls. 
Lidgetton, 3,952 ft high, is a setdement in the north-west 
of the county, yet undeveloped, although 40 years ago it 
promised to rival in prosperity the other villages people 
by Byrne's immigrants. York, an agricultural settlement, 
is 21 miles north of Maritzburg. Camperdown, 15 miles 
to the south-east of Maritzburg, contains a well-tilled stretch 
of fertile plain. New Hanover and Kirchdorf are two 
German settlements — respectively 5 and 9 miles east of 
York — each with its church, school, and post-office Eden- 
dale, a native village 6 miles west of Maritzburg, is the seat 
of a large training school for natives. The Edendale natives 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Counties and Towns 53 

rendered loyal assistance during the Zulu War. Port Not- 
tingham, a thriving pastoral district near Spion Rop, owes 
its name to its having been in former times a station of the 
45th or Nottingham regiment, posted for the protection of the 
settlers against the raids of those *' children of the mist'' 
— the freebooting Bushmen from the Caves of the Berg. 
Bulwer, at the base of Mahwaqa, is in the thriving sheep- 
farming district of Polela.. 

Umvoti County, drained by the river of the same name, 
is the sheep-farming county of the Dutch, and has a soil 
and climate well adapted for tree cultivation. Large wattle 
plantations adorn the face of the county. Gold is found in 
small quantities in the broken country near the Tugela. The 
Ehlanzeni and Kranskop districts are noted for their wild 
scenery. Kranskop, about 33 miles from Grey town, is an 
inaccessible natural castle of solid rock with a sheer fall all 
round of about 300 feet and is capped with trees. A thousand 
feet below the majestic Tugela wends its way through rocky 
gorges. Hot springs, more or less sulphurous, are found in 
the northern parts of the county. One in the Tugela valley 
has a temperature of 128*"; another near the Ihlimbitwa has 
a temperature of loi*. 

Greytowny with a population of 1,400, the only village of 
importance, is the seat of a magistracy, has a municipality, is 
the terminus of the branch line from Maritzburg, and forms 
a rallying-^oint for the farmers of the district. It is the 
headquarters of the Umvoti Mounted Rifles, whose striking 
services during the Boer War prevented an incursion of the 
enemy through Umvoti County. 

Hermannsburgy 15 miles to the east, is a large Han- 
overian Mission Station. At Fort Buckingham, near 
Kranskop, a stronghold was hastily constructed in 1861 t6 
check a threatened incursion of Zulus. 

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54 Coiifltiei and Towns 

.7. Iji^fiffai CouHTY i$ triaQgulai; in shape and slopesi n^irtb^ 
east to the Tugela, which forms its northern boundary. 
The rearing of cattle, sheep, and horses is the chief occupa- 
tion of the farmers. Wheat and other grains grov well 
wherever the .^a^d is irrigated. There are four villages — 
]£$tcourt, Weenen, Colenso, and Weston. 

Estcourtt threatened by the Boers in November 1899^ 
is picturesquely situated near the junction of the Bushman 
and Little Bush;man Rivers. 

WeeneUi the nucleus of a settlement for immigrant 
farmers, lies in a deep, warm, alluvial, cup-shaped valley, 
about ten miles from the confluence of the Bushman River 
and the Tugela. The soil can be irrigated and it produces 
heavy grain crops, tobacco, and fruit of excellent quality. 
The population is mainly Dutch. During the siege of 
]Ladyamith heliographic cpmmunication was maintained with 
the defenders from Umkolumba, a mountain a few miles to 
the south-east. Colenso, a hamlet near the Tugela, was, 
prior to the erection of a bridge, a compulsory halting-place 
for northern^bound wagons when the river was in flood. It 
is now world-famed as the scene of the great disaster to the 
British Arms on the 15th December, 1899. Weston, con- 
sisting of half-a-dozen houses on the Mooi River, was better 
known in the coaching days. The chief settlement is now 
round jthe railway station of Mooi River, two miles distant 

Klip River County is an equilateral triangle lying 
north of the Tugela. It formed the northern apex of the 
colony before the annexation of Zululand and the Northern 
Territories, and was the scene of the most stirring events 
in the Boer Invasion of Natal It is bounded by the 
Drakensberg on the west and by the Buflalo River on the 
east. Coal of good quality is being vigorously mined through* 
out nearly* one-half of the county — from Job's Kop on the 

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Counties and Towns 55 

south to beyond Newcastle on tlie noit^. Stocbraising, 
hoise-breeding and wool-growing are the chief occupation^ 
of the farmeis. Fields of excellent wheat are seen in the 
western parts of the county, and maize is grown throughout 
The towns and villages are I^ysmith, Newcastle, Charles- 
town, Dundee and Pomeroy. Talana Hill, Elandslaagte, 
Spion Kop and Pieter's Hill are all in this county. 

Ladjrsmith, 3,284 ft. high, on Klip River, is the third 
town in the colony, ai^d has s^ population of 5000. It is an 
important local centre, and it also stands at the junction of 
the trade-routes to the Orange River Colony and the Trans- 
vaal. Its stubborn resistance to the Boers in 1899- 1900 was 
mainly instrumental in checking their further advance into 
the colony. ''Rigorously invested during 118 days, it 
heroically and with dogged resolve kept the flag flying, and 
resisted the attacks of the enemy, of hunger, and of disease." 
Umbulwana, Lombaard's Kop, Gun Hill, Caesar's Camp, and 
Wagon Hill are historic heights in the hills that encircle 
Ladysmith. :(>(ewcastle, 3)893 ft. high, on the River 
Incandu, with a population of a,6oo,. is supported mainly by 
the wool trade of the district and of the neighbouring states. 
Good coal is plentiful for miles round the village, which 
however does not owe its name to its mineral wealth but to 
the Duke of Newcastle, who was Secretary of State for the 
Colonies in 1852 and again in 1859. Chiarlestown, 5,386 
ft high, a new township, is 30 miles to the north and is the 
junction of the Natal line of railway with that of the Transvaal 
Colony. A few miles ta the south of Charlestown is flat- 
topped Amajuba — the scene in i88i of the. defeat of English 
troops by the Boers and of the death of their commander 
and Natal's Governor — Sir George Pomeroy Colley. Both 
Newcastle and Charlestown were seized by the Boers in October 
1899^ and remained in their possession till they were driven 

. Digitized by tiOOQlC 


Counties and Towns 

out of Natal by General BuUer in May of the following year. 
Pogwana and Alleman's Nek are heights near Charlestown, 
noted in General BuUer's campaign. Dundee, 4,104 ft. 
high, with a population of 2,400, is in the centre of an ex- 
tensive coal-field, and is rapidly increasing in size and import- 
ance. On Talana Hill overlooking the town the first battle 
of the Boer War took place on the 20th October 1899. 
Pomeroy, the seat of a magistracy, is close to a large native 
location lying in the angle formed by the Buffalo and the 
Tugela. The Gordon Memorial Mission Station is two 
miles to the eastward. Helpmakaar, a small hamlet about 
10 miles to the north, is at the head of the valley leading to 
the historic Rorke's Drift, gallantly defended by a handful of 
Englishmen against four thousand Zulus on 22nd January, 

ZuLULAND is divided into 11 Magistracies, 4 on the coast 
— Umlalazi, Umfolosi, Hlabisa and Ubombo; and 7 
inland— Eshowe, Nkandhla» Nqutu, Entonjaneni, 
Mahlabatini, Ndwandwe, and Ingwavuma. Ama- 
tonga or Amaputa Land lies to the north of the Magis- 
tracy of Ubombo, and stretches to the Portuguese possessions. 

The seat of every Magistracy is a settlement which may in 
time become a town. The largest of these settlements is 
Eshowe, which was the seat of government up to the time 
of annexation to Natal, and is now the residence of the Chief 
Commissioner for Zululand. It is a clean well-built town, 
beautifully situated on rising ground amid natural bush, and 
an attractive place of residence. It is garrisoned by Imperial 
troops and Natal Police, and is connected by wagon roads with 
all the Magistracies. Melmoth, so named from Sir Melmoth 
Osborne, a former Chief Commissioner, is the seat of the 
Entonjaneni magistracy,'and is about 30 miles north of Eshowe. 
The leading settlements are all connected by telegraph or 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Counties and Towns 57 

telephone. Hlabisa Coalfields, 100 mOes from the Tugeh, 
is the terminus of the North Coast railway extension. 

Ths Northern Terrftories, ceded to Natal in 1903, 
consist of the districts of Vryheid, Utrecht, and a portion 
of the district of Wakkerstroom. The Vryheid district 
was formerly part of Zulaland, and was taken possession of 
by the Boers after the death of Cetywayo and named the New 

The chief towns are Utrecht, about 30 miles from New- 
castle, a considerable trade and farming centre ; and Vryheid, 
formerly the capital of the New Republic, in the centre of a 
large stock-raising district. It is the present terminus of a 
branch railway line from Dundee. 

The remains of small circular stone enclosures are found 
abundantly in many parts of Weenen, Klip River, and Um- 
voti Counties, in Zululand, and in the Northern Territories. 
They were evidently kraals for cattle and goats, and they 
testify to a once teeming native population. Those in the 
Little Tugela district are generally surrounded by ditches, cut 
probably to prevent the Bushmen from making a hole in an 
unguarded part of the wall and stealthily driving off the stock. 
In the Orange River Colony unused rough stone huts and 
cattle kraals, similarly constructed to those in Natal, are 
found in many localities. Close to every hut is a grassy 
mound composed of ashes and household refuse — a veritable 
South African '' kitchen-midden." 


Coast Counties 

1. Alfred. — Harding; Port Shepstone ; Marburg. 

2. Alexandra.— Umzmto ; North Shepstone. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

58 Coj^nties and Town? 

3. Diybaii.--Purban ; Pixietown; Bellaur; Umgenij Isi- 

pingo ; Sydenham ; New Germany ; Mariann- 
hill; Adams. 

4. Victoria. — Veruliim 5 Victoria ; Umhlali ; Stanger ; 

Lindley; New Gui^lderland; Doesbuirg. ^ 

inland Counties 

5. Pietermaritzburg. — Pietermariuburg ; Richmond ; 

Byrne; Stuart$tpwn; Howick; Lidgetton ; 
York; Camperdown; New Hanover; Kirch- 
dorf; Edendale; Nottingham; Bulwer. 

6. Umvoti. — Greytown; Hermannsburg. 

7. Weenen, — Estcourt; Weenen; Colenso; Weston. 

8. Klip River. — Ladysmith ^ Newcastle ; Charlestown ; 

Dundee .^ . Pomeroy ; Gordon Memorial ; 


Coast Magistracies :--Umlalazi ; Umfolosi; Hlabisa; 

Inland Magistracies. — Eshowe, Eshowe ; Nkandhla ; 
Nqutu; Entonjaneni, Melmoth; Mahja- 
batini; Ndwandwe; Ingwavuma. 

Hmatonoa or Hmaputa lan^ 

Northern Territories 

Vryheid. — Vryheid ; Utrecht, Utrecht ; Wakker- 

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Road? 59 


In Natal traffic is carried on by railways and by roads. 
Carriage by water is the easiest and cheapest mode of 
conveyance, but Natal has no arms of the sea, no lakes, 
no navigable rivers, and no canals. At first the roads werp 
only tracks made through the veld and over the hills by the 
wagons of the settler and the trader, but now a length of 
4)6oo miles of highways is kept in repair by the Government 
road-parties, and 764 miles of railway connect the chief trade- 
centres with the Port. 

Three niain roads diverge from Durban. One follows 
the south coast, one the north coast, and the third leads 
inland through Maritzburg and the upland counties to the 
Overberg States. 

The South Coast Road leaves Durban by the Umbilo 
^oad, skirts the head of the Bay, passes through the little 
village of Isipingo> and keeps nearly parallel to the beach 
all the way to Marburg, four miles on the south «de of the 
Umzimkulu. Very few of the rivers are bridged. All, 
however, except the Umzimkulu, may be forded on horse- 
back at their ordinary level. Passengers and vehicles are 
taken over this "great" river by ferry-boats. Except for 
about 12 miles between Durban and. Isipingo, the road is a 
series of ascents to the hill-tops and descents to the streams. 
Glimpses, of the sea are obtained every few miles. The 
country between Isipingo and the Umkomaas is occupied a^ 
Native Locations and Mission Reserves^ aiid only a little 
cultivation is seen in this wide stretch of pleasing coast- 
land. A branch road passes through Adams Missbn 
Station and reaches, Maritzburg by W9y of Stony Hill and 
the farming districts of New L<eeds and Fox Hill. From 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

6o Roads 

the hills on the south side of the Umkomaas may be seen 
two lighthouses warning the mariner of the prbximity of the 
Aliwal Shoal, so named because its existence was first 
reported in 1848 by the master of the ship "AliwaL" At 
Umzinto a road strikes inland, ascends through the caneclad 
Equeefa valley, traverses several native locations, crosses the 
Hlatenkunga mountain, and reaches Ixopo by way of the 
pastoral district of Highflats. At the Umzimkulu, hill and 
forest, river and sea, are so exquisitely blended that 

''the whole might seem 
The scenery of a fairy dream." 

From Marburg the road bends in a north-westerly direction 
and runs through the middle of Alfred County to Harding, 
a distance of about 55 miles. At Harding and on the way 
thither roads branch off to Pondoland and Griqualand East. 

The North Coast Road crosses the Umgeni by a low- 
level bridge, and runs parallel to the sea through the garden 
county of Victoria to the Tugela ferry, whence it continues 
northward through picturesque scenery to the villages of 
Eshowe and Melmoth. Other roads branch off in aU 
directions and lead to Utrecht, Vryheid, and Rorke's Drift. 
This road passes through Umgeni Village, Avoca, Mount 
Edgcumbe — ^with one of the largest sugar-mills in the colcmy 
— ^Verulam, Victoria, Umhlali, Stanger, and New Guelder- 
land. Cultivated hills and valleys are seen from neatly 
every point in the road. Only one river, the Tongaat, is 
bridged. On the south bank of the Umvoti is the mission- 
station of Groutville, whence a road branches off to Maritz- 
burg by way of Noodsberg. On the north side of the river 
— ^here about 150 yards wide — sl sugar-mill was established 
by Government for the benefit of the natives. It did not 
prove a success. 

Digitized by VjQOQIC 

Roads 6 1 

The Main Road Inland crosses the Berea, passes 
through Westville, and, as it winds up Cowie's Hill, affords 
to the left a view of the reservoirs which supply Durban 
with water from the river UmbUo. Crossing Pinetown 
plain and ascending Field's Hill, a seven miles' stretch of 
comparatively flat country brings the traveller to Botha's 
HilL The road now runs among swelling heights and opens 
up some magnificent scenery. Close at hand immense 
rounded blocks of crystalline granite appear to rest so 
lightly on the grassy slopes that only a vigorous push seems 
needed to topple them into the vaUey below. They are not 
however detached masses, but only those parts of the bed- 
rock that are hard enough to withstand for a time the 
crumbling effects of the elements. A vista of hills and 
valleys, like a mountainous sea congealed, stretches to the 
right far away into the wild Inanda country. The long and 
steep Inchanga hill is next surmounted, and from its top is 
first seen Zwartkop, the Town Hill, and Otto's Bluff- 
salient points in the terrace that rises to the north-west of 
Maritzbuig. Table Mountain and rounded Spitzkop stand 
out clear to the right of the road as it crosses the well-tilled 
Camperdown flats. About nine miles from Maritzburg the 
road runs through Thomville, a district studded with 
mimosa trees and a favourite haunt of elephants when the 
Dutch laid out the streets of Maritzburg in 18319. ^^^ 
crossing a small stream and climbing the long cutting on its 
northern bank a plateau is reached overlooking the Capital, 
four miles distant The Victoria Bridge, which spans the 
Umsunduzi, gives entrance to the city. 

The Main Road on leaving Maritzburg takes a north- 
westerly direction as far as Estcourt, 60 miles distant. On 
its way thither it climbs the Town Hill, psurt, of the Kark- 
loof Kange, and the Mooi River Heights, and passes through 

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6i' I^Oids 

Howick with its waterfall, Curry's Post ith wits wooded 
slopes, and Weston with its undeveloped township and a 
bridge over the Mooi River. From Estcourt in the bridged 
valley of the Bushman River two roads branch off, one 
north-east and the other north-west. The former leads to 
fertile Weenen and "The Thorns." The other crosses the 
Blauwkrans River, the Little Tugela, Sterk Sprtiit, and the 
Tugela. At the last-named river it divides into two 
branches, both leading over the Berg into the Orange 
River Colony, that to the left by way of Olivicr^s Hoek, 
and the other by Bezuidenhout's Pass. From Estcourt 
the main road runs northerly through some thinly-wooded 
country near the Blauwkrans River and then crosses a plain 
to Colenso, 20 miles distant. Away to the west is seen a 
V-shaped summit of the Berg, close to the Tugela waterfall. 
At Colenso the river is crossed by a lofty bridge. About 1 2 
miles further on, a road goes to the left and joins one from 
Ladysmith leading over the Berg by Van Reenen's Pass to 
Harrismith. Another road from Ladysmith runs nearly 
west and parallel to the Tugda, crosses the Harrismith 
road, and joins the road leading over Olivier's Hoek Pass. 
The other part of the main road keeps on northward to 
Ladysmith, 100 miles from Maritzburg by road. The dis- 
tance between Ladysmith and Newcastle is about 70 miles. 
After leaving the stony banks of Klip River the road runs 
through a plain to Sunday's River, here crossed by a bridge. 
The ascent of the Biggarsberg now begins. Hills and short 
flats alternate till the northern neck is reached at the base 
of One Tree Hill. • The Ingagani River is crossed by a 
bridge, seven miles from Newcastle. From the township a 
road strikes north-east through the Buffalo to Utrecht. After 
crossing the Ihcandu bridge the main road keeps straight 
north for about 35 miles to Land's End, the most northeriy 

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Roarfs 6^' 

point in the colony, passing on its way Ingogo Heights, 
Mount Prospect, Amajuba, and Laing's Nek-^aU notable 
in the Boer War of i88i. 

From Maritzburg three other main roads diverge. One 
goes to Newcastle via Greytown, one to Ipolela via Eden- 
dale, and the other to Harding via Richmond. 

The Grejrtown Road runs in a north-easterly direc* 

tion for 42 miles to Greytown, by Way of Maldon, Albert, 

Sterkspruit, and Sevenoaks. A branch road leads from the 

hill above Maldon in a general easterly direction through 

Kirchdorf and over the Noodsberg to several points on the 

North Coast Road At Greytown two roads branch off, the 

one to the east to Stanger, and the other to the west through 

Riet Vlei to Weston. The former passes Hermannsburgi 

runs through numerous sheep-farms, traverses the rugged 

Mapumulo, and reaches Stanger by way of the tea-growing 

dbtrict of Kearsney. Between Greytown and Stanger several 

side roads branch Tugela-wards. The one nearest t6 

Greytown reaches the river by way of the mission station of 

Ehlanzeni, nestling " among thorns ** in a warm fertile vriiey 

abounding in mimosse and aloes. After leaving Greytown 

the main road ascends a long hill, opens up a length of about 

35 miles of magnificent " thorn country " in the wide basins 

of the Mooi and Tugela rivers, and reaches PomerojT near 

the large Umsinga native location. It then runs for nine 

miles to Helpmakaar, whence a road diverges into Znluland 

by way of Rorke^s Drift and Isandhlwana. From the heights 

of the road in this neighbourhood sweeping vi6ws are 

obtained of both Zululand and Natal. After twenty miles 

of Biggarsberg uplands Dundee is reached, the central hive 

of the coal industry. Cross-roads to the north-east and tb 

the south-west lead respectively to Zululand and the Northern 

Territories by way of Landman'^ attdthe Commando Drilflk, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



and to Ladysmith by way of Eland's Laagte. From Dundee 
to Newcastle, a distance of about 40 miles, the road passes 
through a coal-bearing but otherwise uninteresting stretch of 
comparatively flat country. 

The Edendale Road skirts the south bank of the 
Umsunduzi, crosses Eland's River and the Umkomaas, and 
gives communication to Boston — ^the district lying between 
them. From Ipolela, is miles beyond the Umkomaas, a 
road branches south-east to Ixopo, and rough tracks and 
bridle-paths lead to Bushman's Neck, and the head waters 
of the XJmzimkulu. 

The Richmond Road passes Fox Hill and Thomville 
Junction railway-stations on the main line, crosses the 
Umlaas River and reaches Richmond on the Illovo, 25 miles 
from Maritzburg. About eight miles beyond Richmond the 
road crosses the deep, wide, tropical-looking valleys of the 
Umkobeni and the Umkomaas, and then runs for about 16 
miles to Stuartstown near the Ixopo River, the seat of a 
magistracy and in the middle of a good sheep-farming 
district At the Umzimkulu, 14 miles distant, a ferry con- 
nects Natal with Cape Colony. The road now goes through 
Griqualand East for about 28 miles and enters Natal again 
about two miles from Harding. 

There are many other roads, more or less defined, leading 
to every district and to every farm-house, and bridle-tracks 
and foot-paths cross the country in all directions. 

The Railways belong to the Government The gauge is 
3 feet 6 inches, that of the lines throughout South Africa* 
The main line extends from the Point to the northern border, 
a distance of 309^ miles. The branch lines are (i) from 
Durban to the Bluff, 6^ miles ; (2) from Durban to North 
Shepstone, 72^ miles, with a short branch of 6^ miles running 
from Alexandra Junction to Umzinto; (3) from Durban to 

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Roads 65 

Hlabisa Coalfields, 169J miles ; (4) from Thomville Junction, 
on the main line, to Richmond, 17 miles ; (5) from Maritzburg 
to Greytown, 64 miles ; (6) from Ladysmith to Harrismith in 
the Orange River Colony, 59^ miles; and (7) Glencoe Jimction 
through Dundee Coalfields to Vryheid, 59^ miles. The total 
length of line open is 7 64 J miles. Several new lines have 
been surveyed. That from Maritzburg to Cape Colony by 
way of Riverside, 102^ miles, is now being constructed. 
Some of the gradients and curves on the Natal lines are very 
severe. In places the train has to ascend one yard for every 
thirty yards it travels, and sometimes it has to go round part 
of a circle 200 yards in diameter. Between Durban and 
Maritzburg it has firequently to make its steepest climb and 
go round its sharpest curve at the same time. The surface 
of the country is so wavy that only 47 miles of the main line 
are perfectly level. All the rest is either up or down, and 
every train from Durban has actually to be pulled up a total 
vertical height of 13* 3510 feet, or more than 2^ miles, before it 
reaches the station at Charlestown, 5,386 feet above the level 
of the sea. The railway is directly connected with all the 
South Afirican lines. All the Natal lines are single except 6 
miles at Durban. 

The capital invested in Railways amounts to nearly 10 

The distances by rail from Durban are : — Johannesburg, 
483 miles; Pretoria, 511; Barberton, 794; Lourengo Marques, 
860; Bloemfontein, 728; East London, 1,130; Port 
Elizabeth, 1,178; Kimberley, 1,124; Bulawayo, 1,837 > Cape 
Town, 1,478. 

The Telegraph Wire, which may be called an air- 
way, connects all the centres of the Colony with each other 
and with all parts of South Africa, Submarine cables afford 
the means of communicating in a few hours with any part 

£ Digitized by VjOO'QIC 

66 Commerce 

of the civilised world. One — the Eastern Cable — 
stretches from Durban to Aden by way of Delagoa Bay, 
Mozambique, and Zanzibar ; another — ^the Western Cable 
— ^runs from Capetown through the Atlantic by way of Port 
Nolloth, Benguela, Lagos, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Cape 
Verde, The Canaries, and Madeira. 


Durban is the water-gateway not only of Natal but of 
several important parts of the neighbouring states and ter- 
ritories. This geographical position makes Natal the natural 
carrier to these inland districts. She endeavours to maintain 
and to increase this transport-trade by means of a low 
customs tariff, harbour improvements, and a railway to the 
chief trade-routes on her northern borders. All the goods 
imported are not therefore for the use of the people of 
Natal, and all the goods exported have not been produced 
by them. 

The Imports amount to about ;;^i 3,000,000, and the 
Exports to about ;^7,ooo,ooo. An average of about 5,000 
tons of goods are daily landed at the wharves. The trade 
with the inland states accounts for a large percentage of 
these figures. England's annual exports and imports were 
together about 812 millions in 1902 — double what they were 
40 years ago. 

About four-fifths of the imports come from Great Britain. 
The rest comes chiefly from Australia, India, China, the 
Baltic ports, the United States, and South America. From 
Great Britain we get haberdashery; millinery; clothing; 
ironmongery and hardware; machinery; furniture; oilmen's 
stores; wines, spirits, and beer; saddlery;, stationery and 

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Names of Places 67 

books ; and manufactuied goods of all kinds. Flour comes 
from Australia and America; tea, rice, bags, and coolie 
oecessaries from India and China; timber from the Baltic; 
agricultural machinery, paraffin, and building materials from 
the United States ; and coffee from South America. 

The exports consist chiefly of wool, hides, Angora hair, 
skins, horns, bark, ostrich feathers, gold, sugar, tea, fruit, 
rum, and arrowroot 


History is bound up in the names of places. Just as we 
gather from a map of England that Celts, Romans, Saxons, 
and Normans have all had a hand in its making, so the 
names of places in Natal bear evidence that at various times 
the land has been visited or inhabited by native races, and 
by at least three European peoples — the Portuguese, the 
Dutch, and the English. 

Natal, the Portuguese word for " ChHstnms^ will record 
for all time the people who named the colony and the day 
of its discovery. 

The short period of Dutch dominance, as well as the 
memory of two notable Boers, are chronicled in the names 
of the capital and its streets. Many names in the uplands 
bear witness to Dutch occupation. Weenen, or the place of 
" We^ng" and Moord or ^^ Murder ^^ Spruit, commemorate 
dark scenes in the history of the early settlers, when men, 
women, and children fell beneath the ruthless assegais of 
the impis of Dingaan. 

The Biggarsberg takes its name from a common occur- 
rence of South African travel. Biggar, one of the English 
settlers at the Bay, accompanied the commando against 

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68 Names of Places 

Dingaan in November 1838. It was the rainy season, and 
his wagon was upset in a mud-hole on a hill close to the 
present line of railway a few miles south of the Junction at 
Glencoe. The farm on which the mishiq;) occurred was after- 
wards called " Biggar's Gat," and the Englishman's name was 
in time extended to the whole of the " berg." 

That counties and towns largely bear English names is 
significant of the progress of population and civilisation since 
Natal became part of Greater Britain. 

The names of Governors of the Cape, which appear in 
Durban, Gre3rtown, Ladysmith, and Fort Napier, are a 
reminder of the short period of vassalage to our older 

Loyalty to the reigning House is shown in Victoria, 
Alexandra, and Alfred counties. 

Governors of Natal have bestowed their names on Weston, 
Westville, Pinetown, Scottsburg, Keate, Bulwer, Pomeroy, and 

The memory of other colonial men of mark is preserved in 
Shepstone, Colenso, Stang^, Sutherland, Harding, Himeville, 
Lindley, Adams, and Groutviile. 

Very little is known of the countless generations of black 
men who have lived and died in Natal, but they have left 
their mark in imperishable language on river, stream, and 

Nearly all the leading features of outward nature in the 
colony bear native names — ^names given to them originally 
on account of some striking aspect of shape, or colour, or 
appearance. Some of these descriptive words are ''fossil 
poetry." He was a man gifted with imagination who gave 
its name to Tintwa, the mountain-peak first "t<mc/ted" by 
the soft rainy clouds firom the south-west ; to the Umkomaaa, 
^Uhi gatherer of waters^' \ to Mahwaqa, the ** wrinkled Jrawn- 

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Names of Places 69 

ing" mountain ; and to Indumeni, " /fe tAunderer'*— from 
the echoes which roll around it. The native mind must have 
been awed by the loftiness of Cathkin, the peak above all 
others in Natal 

" Who to the stars uncrowns his majesty, 
Making the heaven of heavens his dwelling-place.' 

Its height, "out-topping knowledge," gave it the name 
of Umdedelele, the mountain which *'must be left alone:' 
The mountain-wdl which "heaves high its forehead bare" 
along Natal's western boundary is known to the natives as ' 
Kahlamba, its jagged peaks and mighty bosses seeming as 
if they had been recklessly " tossed or hurled down " by Titanic 
hands. The loneliness and desolation of this mountain 
region so impressed the imaginations of the Dutch pioneers 
that they named it the Drakensberg or "habitation of 

The names, too, given by the Dutch colonists to up- 
country hills and streams have generally been suggested by 
some characteristic of position or appearance. 

Spion Kop is the mountain from whose summit an ex- 
tensive **vtew" is obtained: Blauw Krans is "^/«tf cltfs/* 
from the colour of the shale : Klip River is named from its 
''stony" bed and banks : Doom Kop is the "M/ of thorns'' : 
Sterk Spruit is the ^^strong*' stream : and Mooi River is the 
"^M«A>r river. 

The fitness of these names is evident enough, but there 
are many, such as Tugela, the ^^ startling'' river, and 
Noodsberg, the ^^ dangerous'* mountain, whose appropriate- 
ness cannot now be so easily discerned. The names 
remain; their significance has been lost in the mists of 

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70 The Neighbouring States 


Natal is surrounded on her landward borders by Cape 
Colony, Basutoland, the Orange River Colony, and the 
Transvaal Colony. Rhodesia and the Bechuanaland Pro- 
tectorate adjoin the Transvaal on the north and west 

CAPE COLONY— the premiier possession of England in 
the Dark Continent — is the oldest and, next to Rhodesia, the 
largest of the South African States. It extends from 2&* to 
35* S. Lat. and from 17' to 30° E. Long. — from the Kalahari 
Desert to Cape Agulhas and from the Atlantic to the Indian 
Ocean. It has an area of 277,000 square miles or 7I times 
the size of Natal. Its north-eastern provinces of Pondoland 
and Griqualand East form the south-western boundary of 
NataL The coast line is nearly 1,200 miles long and contains 
only three harbours of any importance : Cape Town, Port 
Elizabeth, and East London. Extensive harbour works 
have been constructed at all three ports. Mossel Bay between 
Cape Town and Port Elizabeth is a harbour of minor 
importance. Its small port is named Aliwal South. Simon's 
Bay, an inlet of False Bay, is a sheltered naval and coaling 
station at the south-east end of the Cape Peninsula. So few 
natural harbours and navigable rivers on the south African 
Coast helped in great measure to defer the colonisation of the 
land uptil long after its discovery. 

When the first Dutch colonists sent by the Dutch East 
India Company arrived at the Cape in 1652, the land was 
peopled by Hottentots in the south, Bushmen in the north, 
and Kafirs to the north-east An important addition to the 
numbers of the Dutch settlers was made in 168S by the 
arrival of a band of Huguenot refugees driven from France 

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The Neighbouring States 71 

by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The misgovern- 
ment of the Company and its vexatious interference with 
trade and farming caused many of the boers to trek in 1786 
as far as the Great Fish River. There for the first time they 
came into conflict with the warlike Kafirs. The Dutch East 
India Company fell to pieces in 1795, and Cape Colony was 
taken possession of by the English at the request of the 
Stadtholder when Holland was seized by the French. In 
1803 i^ was again given over to Holland, but it was finally 
seized by England in 1806 on the renewal of the war in 
Europe. It was formally ceded to England by the Treaty of 
Paris in 18 14. Tranquillity was secured on the Cape frontier 
only by frequent and sanguinary wars with the border kafirs, 
their power being ultimately crushed in the outbreak of 1877. 
The exodus of Boers from the Cape in 1834- 183 7 was an 
epoch in South African history and led to the colonization of 
Nataly the Orange Free State, and the Transvaal. A more 
detailed history of Cape Colony will be found in chap. ii. of 
"The Story." 

The Governor, who is appointed by the Queen, is aided by 
ministers responsible to the people as represented by the 
local parliament The law in force is mainly the Roman- 
Dutch law as amended by statute. The population numbers 
377,000 Europeans — mainly English in the eastern provinces 
and Dutch in the western — and about 1,150,000 natives 
and other coloured persons. The number of Europeans of 
Dutch and French origin is as 5 to 3 compared with the 
number of British. The Imperial Government maintains a 
naval station at Simon's Bay, and defends it by a garrison of 
1,600 Imperial troops stationed at Cape Town and Wynberg. 
The colonists must however depend on their own forces for 
protection against the natives. They comprise 2,000 Cape 
Police, 1,000 Cape Mounted Rifles, and 74 Volunteer corps 

Digitize.d by V^OOQIC 

72 The Neighbouring States 

numbering 10,000 men, with 12 guns. Table Bay is 
strongly fortified at the joint expense of the War Office and 
the Colonial Government 

There are 3 main Railway lines^ the Western, the Midland, 
and the Eastern, starting respectively firom Capetown, Port 
Elizabeth, and East London. The Western line runs to 
Salisbury, whence an extension is being carried on towards 
the Zambesi. The Midland line branches into two shortly 
after leaving Port Elizabeth, and joins the Western line at 
De Aar, 500 miles from Capetown. The Eastern line 
connects East London with the other two main lines. 
From Naauwport another part of the main line runs north- 
east as far as Louren^o Marques, and connects with Natal 
from Elandsfontein through Heidelberg, Standerton, and 
Volksrust. There are many branch lines, the principal 
being those to Malmesbury, Simon's Town, Caledon, 
Grahamstown, and the Indwe coal mines. 

The mineral wealth of the country consists of diamonds 
in Griqualand West, copper in Namaqualand, and coal which 
is worked at Indwe and other localities near Queenstown. 
The discovery of the great diamond-fields is described in 
chap. ix. of "The Story." Fruit culture, wine making, 
tobacco growing, fisheries, and rearing of sheep and cattle 
and of Angora goats, which yield the valuable mohair, form 
the chief industries. Valuable forests cover nearly half-a* 
million acres. Ostrich farming is not carried on so exten- 
sively as in former years. The chief imports of the colony 
are textiles, leather, hardware, explosives, machinery, sugar, 
tea, and coffee. 

The high lands of the interior include the Great Karoo 
plateau, half as large as Natal, and lying between the two 
chief mountain chains. Desolate in appearance it yet affords 
excellent pasturage for flocks and herds which feed on the 

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The Neighbouring States 73 

dwarf sheep-bush and other succulent plants of the plains. 
The lower chain runs nearest to the sea and consists of 
several short ranges from east to west cut by the kloofs and 
ravines of the coast rivers. The hig^her and inland chain 
forms the southern limit of the great basin of the Orange 
River. It contains, from west to east, the Kamiesbergen, 
over 5,000 feet, in Little Namaqualand; the Langebergen; 
the Kamiskow; the Bokkeveld Mountains; the Roggeveld 
Berg; the Komsberg; the Nieuwveld Berg; the Winter 
Beig; the Sneeuw-Bergen, with Mt. Compass, 7,800 feet 
high ; and the Storm Berg. Mt. Compass is the highest 
point in Cape Colony. This main chain unites to the east- 
ward with the southern ridges, and finally merges into the 
Drakensberg of Natal. The middle and northern parts of the 
colony are watered by the Orange River and its southern 
affluents. The Orange River is over 1,000 miles long, and with 
its tributaries drains an area of about 300,000 square miles. 
The coast districts are drained by the Umzimvubu, the 
Umtata, the Bashee, the Great Kei, the Buffalo, the Great 
Fish River, ^nday River, the Gamtoos, the Knysna, the 
Gauritz, the Breede, the Great Berg, and the Olifant. 

The climate is favourable to Europeans. The air is dry 
and bracing, the heat is seldom oppressive, and the winter 
is mild and delightful. Snow and ice occur only in the 
higher districts. Near Capetown the average summer 
temperature is 71 '2, that of winter 53-3, and the average 
rainfall is about 26^ inches. These figures vary con- 
siderably in other parts of the colony. In the eastern 
and midland divisions the chief rainfall occurs during the 
summer months (November to April), and in the western 
province during the winter months. 

Capetown, picturesquely situated on Table Bay under 
the shadow of Table Mountain, 3,582 feet high, is the capital 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

74 The Neighbouring States 

of the colony, and has with its suburbs a population of 
90,000. Half oi these are coloured, chiefly Malays, de- 
scendants of the slaves imported by the Dutch East India 
Company. Its chief suburbs are Mowbray, Rondebosch, 
Newlands, Claremont, Wynberg, Sea Point, and Camp's 
Bay, all connected by rail and electric tramway. Some 
of the narrow streets and old buildings of the town, notably 
the slave-market, are reminders of its original Dutch masters, 
but the business part is now English in appearance and has 
many handsome buildings. Of these, the Houses of Parlia- 
ment, the Post-office and the new Town Hall are the most 
imposing. A fine statue of Queen Victoria is in front of 
the Parliament Buildings, and Jan Van Riebeek in bronze, 
the founder of the city, given by Mr Rhodes, stands at the 
foot of Adderley Street £sicing the mountain. Capetown is 
the residence of the Governor, is the seat of a University, 
and has a famous Observatory. The harbour and docks 
have an area of about 75 acres with a depth of from 24 
to 36 feet at low water. Groote Schuur (''great shed"), a 
storehouse of the Dutch East India Company two miles 
from Capetown, was restored as his residence by Mr Rhodes, 
and is beautifully situated on the slopes of the mountain. 
The old rich vineyards round Constantia are within easy 
reach of the city. 

Kimberley, in the province of Griqualand West, with a 
population of 29,000, half of them whites, owes its origin 
and importance to the discovery of the great diamond mines 
in its vicinity in 1870. It is 647 miles by rail from Cape- 
town, and is now the centre of a steady diamond-producing 
industry. The climate is healthy. Kimberley was gallantly 
defended during the Boer war by volunteers under Colonel 
Kekewich. Beaconsfield (11,000) is practically a suburb 
of Kimberley. 

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The Neighbouring States 75 

Port Elizabeth on Algoa Bay, founded by a patty of 
British emigrants in iSao, is 460 miles east of Capetown, 
and has a population of 26,000, more than half of whom 
are Europeans. It is the chief commercial town of the 
Eastern Province, is connected by mil and boat with the 
chief South African centres, and in addition to its large 
shipjni^ trade, which has gained for it the name of ''th^ 
Liverpool of South Africa,^' has industries connected with 
the production of salt, confectionery, jams and tobacco. 
The town possesses a complete service of electric trams. 

Grahamstown (11,000) is pleasantly situated 1^760 feet 
above the sea, and has broad tree-shaded streets and gardens. 
It is the metropolis of the Eastern Province, and is famous 
for its schools. The climate is more bracing than on the 
coast. Stock thrives well in the district. 

The Paarl has a population of about 8,000, mainly Dutch- 
speaking, and engaged in fruit culture and vine-growing. 

Kiagf or King* William's Town, has a population of 
7,000, and is an important commercial town on the Buffalo 
River. It is 41 miles by rail from East London, and possesses 
several large wool-washing establishments. The climate is 
heahhy, and some of the best cultivated and most productive 
land in the colony is in the neighbourhood. Many of the 
settlers are German. 

East London (8,000) at the mouth of the Buffalo River, 
with an exposed roadstead, the port of King and the inland 
pastoral and agricultural districts, is 150 miles from Fort 
Elizabeth. Electric trams connect the town with its suburbs. 
Graaf Reinet, ''the gem of the Karoo," has a popula- 
tion of 6,000. Uitenhage (5,500) is an old Dutch town 
with wool-washing establishments and railway work-shops^ 
Worcester (5,500) is an important railway dep6t. Cradock 
(4,500) is about 150 miles north of Port Elizabeth on the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

76 The Neighbouring States 

eastern boundary of the Great Karoo. Oudtshoorn (4>Soo)> 
7S miles north of Mossel Bay, is a tobacco-growing and 
oiange-farming centre. Queenstown (4»ooo) is a centre 
of mission work in a good farming district and near grand 
mountain scenery. It is 154 miles from East London, 
and became famous during the Boer war as the base of 
General Gatacre's operations. Stell^lbosch, about 30 
miles from Capetown, has a population of 3,500. It is 
noted for its schools, and as being the head-quarters of the 
Dutch Reformed Church. Simon's Town, on Simon's Bay, 
is at the south end of the Cape Peninsula, and is connected 
by rail with Capetown. Mafeking, on the Molopo River, 
is in the province of British Bechuanaland, and is the seat of 
government for the Bechuanaland Proctectorate. It is re- 
nowned for its gallant and prolonged defence during the 
Boer War. Kokstad is the chief town of Griqualand 
East, a district which, like Pondoland, is more akin to 
Natal than Cape Colony. Port St John's, at the mouth 
of the Umzimvubu River, is the chief settlement and port 
of Pondoland. It was annexed to Cape Colony in 1884 ; 
the rest of Pondoland was not annexed till ten years after- 
wards. Two miles up the river is the famous mountain 
gorge with cliffs 1,200 feet high known as the Gates of 
St John's. 

BASUTOLAND, or Lesuto as the natives call it, is less 
than one-third the size of Natal, and is the Switzerland of 
South Africa. It is a land of table-topped mountains and 
deep winding valleys, of magnificent scenery and nigged 
grandeur — "geographically speaking, the key-stone of the 
South African structure, the foundation-head of its water- 
system, the summit of its surface." It forms an irr^rular 
oval about 150 miles in length. 

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The Neighbouring States 77 

It is bounded by Natal on the east; by Cape Colony on 
the sooth-easty south, and south-west; and by the Oiange 
River Colony on the west and north. Its mountains are the 
Diakensberg, the Maluti, and the MoUppo nmges, with 
numerous spurs. It is really one continuous elevated broken 
and rugged plateau. The whole of the country is drained by 
the Orange River and its laige affluents the Comet and the 
Caledon. It is well watered, has a delicious climate, is "the 
granary of South Africa," and has m^^ificent pasture-lands. 
The rainfall is about 35 inches. There is considerable 
cultivation in the valleys ; the cattle^ which are in immense 
herds, browse on the slopes of the mountains where abundant 
grass is found. Basuto ponies are noted for their hardiness 
and speed. 

It owes its position as the richest and most civilized native 
state in South Africa to its great chief Moshesh« In the 
time of Chaka's wars, the peaceful Bechuana people 
occupying its valleys were attacked by refugee tribes from 
Natal, who filled the land with murder and pillage. 
Moshesh defied and finally repulsed these robber hordes 
from north and east, and welded the scattered and miserable 
Basuto people into a strong and united nation. Crafty and 
able in council as well as strong in foray, he listened with 
attentive respect to the advice of the French missionaries 
who had settled close by his mountain fastness of Thaba 
Bosigo about the year 1830. They told him to avoid war if 
possible, but if he were attacked to defend himself, and to 
make friends with the white man. But with the Boers of 
the Free State Moshesh was never at peace. To aid the 
Boers an English force under Sir Geoige Cathcart, the 
Crimean hero, attacked the Basutos in 1852, but without 
success. The war went on till 1868, when the old chief and 
his people were taken under the protection of the Cape 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

78 The Neighbouring States 

Goveroment Moshesh died in 1869. - Leroihodi is now 
paramount chief. When the Cape Goveroment decreed a 
general disarmament of natives in 1880, the Basutos refused 
to give up their guns, and colonial troops were sent against 
them in vain. They kept their arms and their freedom, and 
are now under direct Imperial protection. The wish of 
Moshesh is fulfilled. His people ''rest and live under the 
large folds of the flag of England." 

The natives number about 263,000, and- the Europeans 
about 700. The country is governed for the Crown through 
the High Commissioner for the benefit of the natives, and 
European settlement is prohibited. The country is divided 
into 7 districts, each of which is subdivided into wards pre- 
sided over by hereditary chiefs allied to the Moshesh family. 

Its trade is almost entirely with Cape Colony and the 
Orange River Colony. It exports grain, cattle, horses, and 
wool, and imports blankets, ploughs, saddlery, clothing, and 
other manufactured goods. 

MaserUy the capital, has a population of 870, of whom 
100 are Europeans. Thaba BosigfO is the " great place '* 
of the chief. 

THE ORANGE RIVER COLONY occupies the greater 
part of the upper plateau, which lies in the huge fork formed 
by the Vaal and the Orange rivers. It is bounded on the 
east by Natal and Basutoland ; on the south by the Orange 
River, which separates it from Cape Colony; on the west 
by Griqualand West; and on the north by the Transvaal, 
from which it is separated nearly throughout by the Vaal 
River. It has an area of 50,000 square miles, is about half 
larger than Natal, and has an average elevation of nearly 
S,ooo feet. The Witte Bergen is the chief of several 
mountain ranges which run through the part of the country 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Neighbouring States 79 

nearest to the Drakensberg frontier. Nearly the whole of 
the surface, however, but more especially the western parts, 
is occupied by wide sweeping grassy plains broken here and 
there by abrupt flat-topped hills. The land slopes westward 
and southward to the Vaal and its parent stream, the 
Orangey into which ultimately all the running water in the 
country finds its way. The chief rivers are the Wilge, 
the Vet, the Modder, and the Caledon. There are 
diamond mines in the Fauresmith district and in the 
neighbourhood of Kroonstadt Coal is abundant in the 
northern part of the colony, and good building stone is 
found near Bloemfontein. 

Stock rearing and grain growing are the chief OCCUpatioilS. 
The western division is best for sheep ; the middle division 
has large tracts of grass land ; and the eastern division is 
the great wheat growing area. Fruit growing and forestry 
are being encouraged by the Government. The climate 
on the whole is dry and healthy. The heat in the middle 
and western divisions is great during December, January, 
and February. At Bloemfontein, 4,500 feet above the sea, 
the mean max. temperature is 76*7, and the mean min., 
45*8. The annual rainfall at Bloemfontein is 24 inches. 
Snow is frequently seen on the mountains in winter. 

When the emigrant farmers crossed the Orange from 
the Cape in 1834 in search of a new home, the great plains 
west of the Caledon were inhabited by various Bechuana 
tribes. The most powerful of these were the Basutos under 
Moshesh. Half-caste Hottentots and Griquas under Adam 
Kpk and Waterboer occupied the region along both sides 
of the Vaal near its junction with the Orange. The main 
body of the farmers went on into Natal, but some 
"squatted" along the Vaal, the Vet, and the Modder 
rivers. When British sovereignty was proclaimed Over 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

8o The Neighbouring States 

Natal in 1843, n^any of the farmers left and rejoined their 
countrymen over the Berg. The Boers were not long in 
coming into collision with the Bechuanas and Griquas, in 
whose land they had so unceremoniously settled themselves 
down. Might was right in those days, and scenes of con- 
fusion and bloodshed were of daily occurrence. To restore 
order and to ensure protection to both natives and farmers^ 
British rule was declared over the Orange River territory 
in 1845, ^^^ ^ British Resident stationed at Bloemfontein. 
Some discontented Boers under Andries Pretorius broke into 
open revolt in 1848 and proclaimed a republic Sir Harry 
Smith, with his usual promptitude, at once crossed the 
Orange and marched against the Dutch commando stationed 
at Boomplaats, half-way between the Orange River and 
Bloemfontein. There was a short and sharp contest, and 
the Dutchmen with their leader Pretorius retreated across 
the Vaal, and there founded the Transvaal Republic. The 
constant disputes and wars bet^veen Moshesh and the Boers 
about their boundary line involved the Cape Government 
in endless trouble, and when Sir George Cathcart under- 
took a campaign against the Basutos with indifferent success, 
the English Government resolved to give up this seemingly 
valueless and troublesome possession, much against the 
wishes of many of the residents. In 1854 the Orange Free 
State Republic was established. In consequence of a dispute 
about his land, Adam Kok, the Griqua chief, and his people 
were removed to a tract of country between Pondoland and 
the Drakensberg south of Natal, and now called Griqualand 
£ast. The Republic had almost continual wars with Moshesh 
till 1868, when the Basutos were taken under British protec- 
tion. When diamonds were discovered between the Vaal and 
the Modder rivers, the Free State claimed the territory. 
Waterboer, the Griqua chief, who lived there with his tribe, 

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The Neighbouring States 81 

also claimed the land and petitioned to be taken under 
English protection. Accordingly in 187 1, the Diamond 
Fields, afterwards called Griqualand West, were annexed and 
now form a province of Cape Colony. A solatium of ;^9o,ooo 
was given to the Free State in settlement of all its claims. 

In 1889 the Free State entered into an alliance with the 
South African Republic, which was renewed in 1897 when 
President Elruger visited President Steyn at Bloemfontein. 
In the war between Great Britain and the Transvaal the 
Free State joined its forces to those of President Kruger, 
and like the sister Republic lost its independence. It was 
annexed to the Empire in May 1900 by Lord Roberts under 
the name of the Orange River Colony. A detailed account of 
the events which led to the annexation will be found in chap, 
xiv. of "The Story." 

The Gk)vemment of the new colony is at present ad- 
ministered by a Lieutenant-Governor under Lord Milner 
as High Commissioner and Governor of both the Orange 
River and Transvaal Colonies. 

The population numbers about 78,000 Europeans and 
about 130,000 natives. The proportion of whites to natives 
is greater in the Orange River Colony than in any other part 
of South Africa. About four-fifths of the white population 
are Boers, and the Dutch language is generally spoken except 
in Bloemfontein. 

Bloemfontein, the capital of the old Free State and of 
the present Colony, is 4,500 feet high on the main railway 
line. It was the scene of the annexation of the Free State 
by Lord Roberts on the 28th May, 1900. It is an English- 
looking and English-speaking town. It has a fine climate, 
and European flowers grow in profusion. The chief build- 
ings are the Raadzaal, the Residency of the late President, 
and the Town Hall. Harrismith, 5,336 ft. high, is a 

^ Digitized by V^OOQIC 

82 The Neighbouring States 

sanatorium, and the largest trade centre in the Colony, near 
the Natal border. More than half the population is British. 
Boshoff is a health resort in a pastoral district near the 
Diamond Fields. Kroonstadt, in the north-west on the 
main railway line, has large trade and is in a bush country 
formerly the home of immense herds of blesbokken. Hoop- 
Stad in the north-west is on the Vet River. Winburg bias 
grain, sheep, and cattle farms, near the centre of the Colony. 
Bethlehem, west of Harrismith, is beautifully situated in a 
grain-producing district, with large Durban trade. Roux- 
villei with sheep and cattle farms, is healthily situated on 
the main road from Aliwal North to Basutoland. Smithfield 
is a prosperous village near the Caledon, in a good farming 
district Fauresmith is in a thriving pastoral district near 
the Jagersfontein diamond mines. Ladybrand and Ficks- 
burg are near the Basuto boundary. Thabanchu, the old 
stronghold of the Barolong tribe, is halfway between Lady- 
brand and Bloemfontein. Wepener, on the Basuto border, 
was besieged by the Boers in 1900. Paardeberg, near the 
Modder River, 50 miles north-west of Bloemfontein, was the 
scene of General Cronje's surrender in 1900. Heilbron and 
Vrede in the north-east are trading centres in horse-breeding 

The TRANSVAAL COLONY lies ''across the Vaal'' 
River and north of Natal. It stretches from Natal and 
the Orange River Colony on the south to the curving 
Limpopo on the north ; and from the Lebombo Mountains 
on the east to Bechuanaland on the west. It has an area 
of 106,000 square miles or nearly three times larger than 
NataL Swazi Land on its eastern border is a dependency 
about 8,000 square miles in extent, and has a population 
of nearly 42,000 natives and 200 whites. 

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The Neighbouring States 83 

The siir£sice has an average elevation of over 4,000 ft A 
plateau called the High Veld extends throughout the whole 
breadth of the Colony, broken here and there by low mountain 
ranges and isolated heights. Many of the towns are over 
4,000 feet high. The chief ranges are the Witwaters- 
rand, stretching between Pretoria and Johannesburg on the 
east and Mafeking on the west ; the Barberton Mountains 
and the Lydenburg Mountains, both in the district of ^ 
Lydenburgj the Murchison Range and the Zoutpans* 
beig in the district of Zoutpansberg ; and the Zand River 
Bergen in the district of Waterberg. The land slopes in 
wide plains in three directions — ^north to the Limpopo, south 
to the Vaal, and east to the sea. The High Veld forms the 
watershed between the wide basin of the Limpopo — drained 
by its tributaries, the Oliiants River, the Ingalele, the Zand 
River, and the Marico — ^and the smaller basin of the Vaal 
drained by the numerous streams that run south from the 
Witwatersrand All the streams in the south eastern part of 
the country and in Swaziland find their way into Delagoa 
Bay. The chief of these are the Sabi, the Crocodile, and 
the Komati* There are numerous small lakes or "pans'' 
throughout the country, chief of which is Lake Chrissiei 
north east of Ermelo. The climate is healthy except in the 
low country to the north and east The winter is dry, and 
the summer wet. Heavy storms are frequent in summer. 
The monthly mean temperature of summer is 65"" to 73*, and 
of winter, 59' to 65*. 

The peaceful Bechuana tribes who originally inhabited the 
land north of the Vaal were attacked and scattered about 
1830 by the warriors of Moselekatse, the renegade general of 
Chaka. Six or seven years later he in turn was forced to flee 
north of the Limpopo before a commando of Dutch Boers 
under their great leader, Hendrik Potgieter. Andries 

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84 The Neighbouring States 

Pretotius, the conqueror of Dingaan, joined the Republic 
after the battle of Boomplaats in 1848. The independence 
of the Republic established by the farmers was acknowledged 
by the British Crown in the Sand River Convention of 1852, 
and Marthinus Wessels, son of Andries Pretorius, was elected 
first President in 1855. "^^^ ^^^^ remarkable section in the 
"Grondwet" or code of laws passed in 1858 was that "the 
people will admit of no equality of persons of colour with 
white inhabitants neither in State nor Church." There was 
much internal strife among the various parties of the Boers 
themselves as well as almost continual wars with the natives 
on the northern and eastern borders, and in 1876 a com- 
mando sent to attack Sekukuni, chief of the Bapidi, living 
south of the Olifants River, was utterly routed. This humiliat- 
ing defeat, joined to an empty exchequer, a ruined credit, and 
an unpopular government, induced many of the Transvaal 
residents to look to Great Britain for help, and in April, 1877, 
the country was annexed to the British Crown by Sir Theo- 
philus Shepstone. The majority of the Boers, however, 
disliked British rule. This feeling was aggravated by the 
refusal of the English Government to grant them representative 
institutions, by their distrust of an unsympathetic governor, 
Sir Owen Lanyon, and by the appointment of English officials 
to Government posts. Hostilities broke out in x88o, when 
the 94th Regiment was attacked on the march at Bronkhorst 
Spruit, 40 miles from Pretoria. A Republic had been 
previously proclaimed with Kruger, Joubert, and Pretorius at 
the head of affairs. The Boers were everywhere victorious. 
Sir George CoUey, the Governor of Natal, marched a British 
force towards the Transvaal to relieve the beleaguered towns, 
but was defeated successively at Laing's Nek, at Ingogo, and 
on the top of Amajuba, where he fell with many of his men 
under the deadly fire of the Boers. Laige reinforcements 

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The Neighbouring States 85 

ware sent out from England, but hostilities were never re- 
newed. The independence of the Transvaal Republic, with 
the Queen as suzerain, was, for the second time, acknowledged 
by Great Britain in 1881, and a Resident was sent to represent 
the British Government at Pretoria. A sudden change in the 
fortunes of the Transvaal occurred in 1886 when gold was 
discovered to exist in payable quantities over a vast portion 
of its surface. The exchequer of the republic became full to 
repletion, and the great influx of strangers or "uitlanders" 
to the gold-fields was not looked on with favour by President 
Kruger and his advisers. 

The subsequent history of the republic — the discontent of 
the Uitlanders, the Jameson Raid, and the war with Great 
Britain which resulted in the loss of its independence, will be 
found in detail in chaps, xiii. and xiv. of ''The Story." 

The Colony is now governed by a Lieutenant-Governor 
under Lord Milner as Governor and High Commissioner. 

The population consists of, probably, 200,000 Europeans 
and 650,000 natives. More than one-half of the former are of 
British origin, and are engaged in mining and in trade. Sheep 
and cattle rearing and wheat growing form the chief occupa- 
tions of the Boers. A grant of ;£3,ooo,ooo has been made by 
the Imperial Government to the burghers of the two states 
lately in arms against us to help them to restore their homes 
and re-stock their farms. 

In 1902 the Transvaal imports were valued at over 
;^i3,ooo,ooo, an increase of ten millions on the returns for 
190 1. Imports to the value of 6^ millions came through 
Cape Colony, 5^ millions through Natal, and i^ million 
through Delagoa Bay. They consist chiefly of all kinds of 
food supplies, liquor, tobacco, machinery, furniture, clothing, 
and all kinds of manufactured goods. 

The monthly output of gold, temporarily suspended by 

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86 The Neighbouring States 

the war, is already over 200,000 ounces. It will probably be 
doubled within a year. 

The Railways of the Transvaal and Orange River Colonies 
connect directly with all the main lines of South Africa. The 
Government has decided to reckon as one system the railways 
in both colonies, and to proceed at once with the construction 
of seven branch lines 688 miles in length at a cost of five 

Pretoria is the residence of the High Commissioner. It 
is situated near the head waters of the River Aapies, a 
tributary of the Crocodile, in a hill-girdled plain 4,450 feet 
above the level of the sea. Several handsome buildings 
surround the Market Square, notably the Government build- 
ings, formerly the Raadzaal, the Law Courts, and the Dutch 
Reformed Church. Numerous trees and gardens beautify the 
town and suburbs. The population is about 15,000. 
Pretoria has been the centre of all Transvaal history since it 
was laid out in 1855 and named from Marthinus Pretonus, 
the first President of the Republic. Its final occupation by 
the British took place on the 5th June, 1900. 

Jofaannesburs^ is 28 miles south west of Pretoria by rail, 
and has a population, including its suburbs, of about 110,000 
people, half of them whites. It owes its position as the 
second town in South Africa to the magnetic influence of the 
Rand gold-fields. The gold industry is rapidly recovering 
from the ^et-back caused by the war. About twelve millions 
has been expended on gold-mining machinery and plant. 
The town is well laid out with wide streets and fine buildings, 
and there are many handsome houses and gardens in the 

Elandsfontein near Johannesburg is a busy railway centre. 

Potcfaefstroom, named after the early Boer leader 
Potgieter, the seat of government prior to 1863, is connected 

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The Neighbouring States 87 

by lail with the main highway through the Transvaal, and is 
the scene of some stirring events in its history. Bafberton, 
the business centre of the De Kaap gold-fields, and only a few 
years older thsufi Johannesburg, is connected by rail with the 
main line between Pretoria and Lourengo Marques. Kleiits- 
dorp is an old town which has acquired new life by the gold 
discoveries. Krugersdorp, formerly Paardekraal, is a new 
township 18 miles west of Johannesburg, and in the middle of 
a number of gold-bearing properties. Heidelberg, on the 
main line between Natal and Johannesburg with a population 
of 3,000, is a healthy rapidly rising town with valuable gold 
mines in its vicinity. It is built near the site of ^loselekatse's 
chief kraal. Stailderton, with a population of 1,200, is on 
the main line of railway in the middle of an agricultural and 
pastoral district. It was an important British base in the late 
war. Wakkerstroom, 6,000 feet high, is close to the 
northern boundary of Natal. Midd.elburg, about 90 miles 
east from Pretoria on the main railway line, is an important 
trading and farming centre. Lydenburg, surrounded by a 
mountainous region and 153 miles north east of Pretoria, was 
founded in 1846 by a party of emigrant Boers from Potchef- 
stroom, and is noted as being near Pilgrim's Rest, the earliest 
gold-field in the Transvaal. Ermelo and Amsterdam, 
both in the district of Ermelo, are well suited for stock- 
farming, wool growing, and grain raising. Nylstroom and 
Pietersburg in the north, and Rustenburg and Lichten- 
burg in the west, are farming and trading centres. 
Vereenig^ng on the Vaal is the border station where the 
Treaty of Peace between Great Britain and the Boers was 
arranged in 1903. Bremersdorp is the chief settlement in 

RHODESIA, so named from Mr Cecil Rhodes, is divided 

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88 The Neighbouring States 

into Northern and Southern Rhodesia by the Zambesi River. 
It is bounded on the south by the Transvaal and the 
Bechuanaland Protectorate ; on the west by the Bechuanaland 
Protectorate and Portuguese West Africa ; on the north by 
the Congo Free State and German East Africa ; and on the 
east by the British Central Africa Protectorate and the 
Portuguese possessions. Northern Rhodesia is subdivided 
into North-eastern Rhodesia and North-western Rhodesia. 
In the latter province is the native state of Barotse Land 
whose King, Lewanika, was present at the Coronation in 
1 902. Southern Rhodesia is divided into Matabeleland and 
Mashonaland. The area of Rhodesia is estimated at about 
750,000 square miles, or more than six times the size of the 
United Kingdom. 

The Rhodesian plateau is from 3,000 to 6,000 feet above 
sea level, and some of the mountain tops reach the height of 
8,000 feet. The Matoppo Mountains run from south 
west to north east for about 400 miles. This range is the 
watershed between the feeders of the Zambesi on the 
north, and those of the Limpopo and the Sabi on the 
south. Isolated kopjes and masses of huge granitic boulders 
are common features of the landscape. The Victoria Falls 
of the 2^mbesi are about 275 miles north west of Bulaii'ayo, 
and a railway from that town through the Wankie coal 
district will soon afford easy means of access. The Falls 
present a spectacle of extraordinary grandeur and beauty. 
* They are double the width of the Niagara Falls, and more 
than twice the height, being i^ mile in width and nearly 
400 feet high. 

The country on the whole is well watered, and possesses 
rich pasturage and a fertile soil. The soil and climate are 
suitable for all sorts of European grains and vegetables, and 
trees, shrubs and plants peculiar to sub-tropical regions qaxi 

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The Neighbouring States 89 

be cultivated. Cotton and tobacco growing are established 
industries. Maize or Indian com is abundantly grown all 
over the country. 

Not wholly without foundation has Rhodesia been identi- 
fied with the Land of Ophir. Many old workings for gold 
have been found, and the ruins of an old town with circular 
walls and a conical tower have been discovered at Zim- 
babjre, near Victoria. Gold Mining is being actively 
carried on. Sixteen companies are engaged in crushing 
gold, and many more are erecting machinery. There is an 
extensive Coal field with an inexhaustible supply of coal 
in the Wankie district south of the Victoria Falls, and a 
railway to the mine from Bulawayo will soon be completed. 
Copper is found in Southern Rhodesia, and at Kafue in 
Northern Rhodesia where there are also large deposits of 
lead and zinc. 

There are two seasons, the wet and the dry. The latter 
extends from May to September. The climate of the high< 
lands is very healthy and bracing. The rainfall at Salisbury 
is about 39 inches, and at Bulawayo about 23. 

The native population is estimated at about a million : 
the Eurppeans number nearly 16,000. 

Wild Animals are still numerous throughout the territory. 
The lion is found in most districts, and the elephant roams 
in large herds in North £astem Rhodesia. The rhinoceros 
frequents the bushy country, and the hippopotamus lives in 
all the swamps and rivers, and in the sheltered bays of Lake 
Tanganyika. The giraffe is occasionally seen, but is rare. 
Leopards are plentiful in the hilly districts, and hyenas, 
jackals, and wild cats abound in the thickets. The chim- 
panzee and the black ape are found in certain districts,; 
grey monkeys are common everywhere. The zebra, the 
buffaloi the eland, the hartebeeste and many varieties of 

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90 The Neighbouring States 

antelopes are in abundance. Birds are not numerous, nor 
are snakes; but insects — bees, ants, mosquitoes — are in 
plenty. In order to check the wholesale slaughter of big 
game, the Government has in some districts protected the 
elephant, the hippopotamus, the giraffe, the ostrich, and the 
larger species of antelope. 

Good roads are being constructed all through the country, 
and the postal and telegraph services are excellent. The 
length of Railways now open is about 2,200 miles, only 
slightly less than that of Cape Colony, and nearly three times 
that of Natal. These railways, with the exception of a short 
branch line, are of the standard South African gauge of 3 
feet 6 inches. The main line runs from Vryburg through 
Bulawayo to Salisbury, where it joins the Mashonaland 
Railway Company's system, connecting Salisbury with Beira. 
So many extensions and branches are now being constructed 
that within a short time every mine of importance now at 
work in Rhodesia will be within 20 miles of a railway line. 
The "Cape to Cairo" line will probably pass through the 
centre of Northern Rhodesia^ and skirt the southern shore 
of Lake Tanganyika. 

The chief towns are Salisbury, the capital, Umtali, Victoria, 
Enkeldoom, and Melsetter in Mashonaland ; and Bulawayo, 
Gwelo and Tuli in Matabele Land. Salisbury is the seat 
of government, has a European population of about 2,600, 
stands 4,700 feet above the sea, and is connected by rail with 
Capetown and Beira. Bulawayo is the commercial centre 
of Southern Rhodesia, has a European population of 6,500, 
and is 4,469 feet above sea-level. The assessed value of 
rateable property in the town is about 2^ millions. The 
town is lighted by electricity, and has a good water supply. 
Bulawayo is 298 miles from Salisbury, 1,360 from Capetown 
by rail, and 1,837 ^^^^ Durban. Mr Rhodes is buried in the 

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The Neighbouring States 91 

Matoppo Mountains near the town. An officer of the British 
South Africa Company resides at Lealui, the chief Kraal of 
King Lewanika in Barotse Land. 

By a treat3r with Lobengula, King of the Matabele, son 
and successor of Moselekatse, the vast territory now known 
as Southern Rhodesia was placed under the protection of the 
British Government in 1888. Later, an Anglo-German Agree- 
ment extended British dominion over the territory north of 
the iSambesi, now Northern Rhodesia. In 1889, a Company, 
of which Mr Cecil Rhodes was the chief director, obtained 
mining and other privileges from Lobengula, and was named 
the British South Africa Company, commonly known 
as the Chartered Company. The work of the Company in 
opening up the country was stopped for a time in 1893 by 
a raid of the warlike Matabele into Mashona Land. In 
the war which followed the Matabele were defeated, and 
Bulawayo, the native capital, was occupied by the Com- 
pany's troops. Lobengula fled, and died of fever while 
endeavouring to escape across the Zambesi. Again in 1896 
the Matabele revolted, and Imperial troops were sent to 
the aid of the Company's police and volunteers. (These 
events are more fully described in chap. xiii. of "The 
Story.") The progress of Rhodesia was necessarily again 
retarded by the Boer War, but mining, agricultural, and 
other industries are now actively resumed, and the making of 
roads, railways and telegraphs, is being vigorously prosecuted. 

The GoYernment of Rhodesia is conducted by an 
Administrator assisted by an Executive Council consisting 
of the Resident Commissioner and four members appointed 
by the British South Africa Company, and by a Legislative 
Council composed of the Administrator, the Resident Com- 
missioner and nine other members, five of whom are ap- 
pointed by the Company, and four elected by the registered 

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92 The Neighbouring States 

voters of Matabele Land and Mashona Land — ^two members 
for each province. A Resident Commissioner is appointed 
and paid by the Imperial Government, and has a seat in 
both Councils but not a vote. The military police forces 
of the territory are under the control of the High Com- 
missioner, and the Commandant-General is appointed and 
paid by the Imperial Government. 

on the south by Cape Colony, on the east by the Transvaal 
and Southern Rhodesia, and on the north and west by 
German South West Africa. It has an area of 386,000 square 
miles or over three times that of the United Kingdom, and 
includes the immense sandy tract of the Kalahari Desert. 
The climate is generally healthy, except along the Crocodile 
River, where malarial fever is prevalent during the summer 

Various tribes of natives occupy the country, the native 
population being about 130,000, engaged chiefly in stock- 
raising and agriculture. There are only about 500 Europeans. 
The principal Chief is Khama, head of the Bamangwato, 
who resides at Palachwe, or Palapye, the capital, 3,150 feet 
above the sea and 293 miles north of Mafeking. The main 
railway line to the north passes through the town. 

Like Basutoland the Protectorate is governed by a Resi- 
dent Commissioner under the High Commissioner, whose 
headquarters are just outside the territory at Mafeking, the 
most northerly town in Cape Colony in the provmce of British 
Bechuanaland. A force of European and native police main- 
tains law and order in the territory. 

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The Story 

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Chapter I. The Secret of the Cape . ' 95 

„ II. The Colonisation of the Cape . 102 

„ III. Sailors and Natives . . .113 

„ IV. Chaka . . . . .128 

„ V. The Early English Settlers . 141 

„ VI. The Dutch Farmers . . .156 

„ VII. The Republic of Natalia . .179 

„ VIII. Natal a Province of the Cape . 199 

„ IX. Twenty Years . . . .213 

„ X. ZuLULAND . . . .231 

„ XI. The First Boer War . .254 

„ XII. The Changes of a Decade . .266 

„ XIII. A New Era . . . . 276 

„ XIV. The Great Boer War . . 292 

„ XV. Domestic and National . . 320 
Ballads .... 331 

Index . . • . . 345 


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The Story 


The Christmas Land. 

The story of Natal begins on the 25th of December, 1497, 
and the first persons connected with it are some storm-tossed 
Portuguese sailors. 

On that day, more than four hundred years ago, three small 
vessels sailed slowly up the coast past the Bluff of Natal. 
They were the St Gabriel, the St Raphael, and the 
Berrio, all belonging to the kingdom of Portugal, and 
worthy of remembrance as the first ships ever known to have 
sailed into these waters. Stretched before the eyes of their 
wearied crews, under a summer sky, were the wooded mass of 
the Bluff, the lake-like Bay, and the shore and hills beyond 
adorned with verdure. It was a land of exceeding loveliness, 
but no European had ever before gazed on its beauties, or 
heard the "league-long roller thundering" on its shore. 

In honour of the day on which he sighted the land, the 
Portuguese commander, Vasco da Gama, named it Natal, 
or " Christmas." 

Whence had these mariners come, and whither were they 
bound ? 

A New Way to India. 
Before the fifteenth century, the eastern and western coasts 

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96 The Secret of the Cape 

of Africa were unknown to Europeans. Asiatic sailors traded 
in the Red Sea and for some distance down the east coast, 
but the southern limit of the Dark Continent remained a 
mystery. There is a legend that the Phoenicians, the 
ancient people whose merchants were princes, had circum- 
navigated Africa, sailing south from the Red Sea and 
returning by the Pillars of Hercules. If they ever accom- 
plished this voyage, no account of it survives except the 
vague tradition. 

The two Republics of Venice and Genoa had grown 
wealthy and powerful by their trade with India. But the 
" pearl and gold," the silks and spices, of the gorgeous East 
could be conveyed to Europe only by a toilsome and expen- 
sive journey in caravans across the Asian deserts. Another 
and easier path to India was therefore earnestly sought for, 
and it was sought for by sea. From their geographical 
position as outposts of the European continent, Spain and 
Portugal were the nations chiefly stirred by the new-bom 
spirit of enterprise. The improvements in the art of naviga- 
tion, especially the invention of the mariner's compass, 
greatly aided the cause of maritime exploration. The sailor 
could now steer boldly forth into the great deep, sure of an 
unerring guide over the waste of waters. 

The Dark Continent. 

The princes of Portugal during the fifteenth century 
were untiring in their endeavours to find a passage round 
the southern point of Africa into the Indian Ocean. Ex- 
ploring vessels sent out by them discovered successively 
Cape Nun, Madeira, Cape Bojador, Cape Blanco, Cape 
Verde, and the Gambia. In 1484, Diego Cano had 
reached as far as the River Congo. 

A voyage to the Cape nowadays does not mean hardship 

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The Secret of the Cape 97 

and adventure. The ocean highway is as well known as 
Cheapside, and the journey can be made in a steamer like a 
floating hotel. But they were brave men who first sailed 
into these unknown seas to encounter winds and waves of 
which they knew nothing. To them, with their small and 
fragile vessels and their rude appliances for navigation, the 
perils of waters were very real Such an intrepid mariner 
was Bartholomew Diaz, who in i486 wrested Uie secret of 
the water-way to India from the mysterious ocean. 

Diaz and Columbus. 

Diaz with two caravels and a store-ship succeeded in 
reaching and passing the Cape, but he did not see it. This 
brave sailor not only encountered violent storms, but had 
to contend with mutiny among his men. He coasted a 
thousand miles of land never before seen by Europeans, and 
on an islet in Algoa Bay, ever since called St Croix, he 
erected a stone cross in token of his having taken possession 
of the land in the name of the Portuguese King. There 
the sailors were clamorous for the return of the expedition 
to Portugal Diaz persuaded them to sail two or three days 
longer in the hope that he might receive some encouragement 
to proceed in an easterly course. But nothing was dis- 
covered except the mouth of a river which was named Do 
Infante from the name of the captain who leaped first on 
shore. This was probably the Great Fish River. From 
this point Diaz turned back. On his homeward voyage he 
saw the headland which forms the south-western extremity of 
Africa. From the rough weather experienced when doubling 
it, Diaz named it " Cape of all the Storms." King John II., 
with happier augury, called it the ^' Cape of Good Hope." 
Six years later, in 1492, Christopher Columbus, by 
direction of the Court of Spain, sought a western route across 

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98 The Secret of the Cape 

the Atlantic to the Indian spice-islands. .He discovered 
America instead, and threw open a New World to Spain 
and to Europe. To Portugal was left the achievement of 
opening up South Africa and India to European enterprise. 

Vasco da Gama. 

The encouraging discoveries of Diaz were not followed 
up till 1497, when another and successful attempt was made 
to find India by way of the Cape. Three vessels and a 
store-ship, each about 125 tons burden, were specially 
built for the voyage, and Vasco da Gama, a skilled 
navigator, was entrusted with the command. The small 
squadron, manned by 160 sailors, left Lisbon on the 8th of 
July, 1497. Its departure was witnessed by thousands of 
people and invested with all the pomp and dignity which 
Royalty and the Church could bestow. King Manuel 
himself presented to Da Gama the standard he was to unfurl 
on unknown shores ; and the priests sang anthems and ofifared 
up prayers for the safety and success of [the mariners. For 
the Portuguese princes wished not only to extend their com- 
merce, but also to spread the religion of the Cross in the 
far East and so check the growing power of Mohammedanism. 

Prester John. 

King Manuel gave Da Gama directions to search for 
Prester John and the King of Calicut. In the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries it was believed in Europe that a 
Christian king named Prester (or Priest) John ruled over 
a vast kingdom in the centre of Asia. But long before Da 
Gama sailed, the local habitation of this fabled monarch 
had been transferred to somewhere in Eastern Africa. The 
riches and magnificence of Prester John and the strange 
and marvellous things to be found in his dominions could 

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The Secret of the Cape 99 

have been equalled only in. Fairyland There was an under- 
ground stream whose sands were gems. Monstrous ants 
that dug for gold were found ^here, and the .salamander, a 
worai which lived in fire. In this wonderful country were 
pebbles which restored sight and conferred invisibility; a 
sea of sand ; and a river of stones. Prester John possessed 
a magic mirror in which he could see everything that 
happened in his dominions. When he went to battle, he 
had for standards thirteen great crosses of gold and jewels. 
Every cross was followed by 10,000 knights and 100,000 
footmen. It was natural that King Manuel should be 
desirous of gaining the friendship of this Christian potentate, 
in whose existence he implicitly believed. Da Gama never 
discovered Prester John. He found Calicut, but the phantom 
king eluded his qu^st. 

India by Sea. 

Da Gama, like Diaz, had to contend with rough weather 
and with discontent among his crew. It took him four 
months to reach St Helena Bay, 90 miles north of Table 
Mountain. Shortly after leaving the Bay, a terrific storm 
assailed the ships, and the sailors refused to go further. 
The mutiny was subdued, and the Cape was rounded in 
fine weather. After touching at what is now Mossel Bay, 
and burning the store-ship which had been disabled, Da 
Gama with his three vessels proceeded north-eastwards along 
the coast On Christmas Day, 170 days out from Lisbon, 
be passed the bold headland of the Bluff. The discovery of 
Natal is thus associated with one of the memorable voyages 
of the world — the voyage which opened up India and the 
East to European enterprise^ Da Gama landed at various 
places on the east coast. At Melinda he secured the 
services of an Indian pilot, who guided his small fleet across 

loo The Secret of the Cape 

the Indian Ocean. Calicut was reached on the 2oth of 
May, 1498, and the great problem of a sea-route to India 
was solved. The possessions of the Portuguese on the east 
coast of Africa all date from this period. 

The Lusiad. 

No poet sang the achievements of Diaz or Columbus. 
Da Gama was more fortunate. He is one of the chief heroes 
of the Lusiad, the national poem which recites in lofty 
language the valorous deeds of the people of Lusitania or 
Portugal. His great voyg^e round the Cape is depicted in 
charming and patriotic verse. Camoens, the writer of 
the Lusiad, himself sailed to India in 1553, and was thus 
able to describe from experience the storms and adventures 
to be met with in the world of waves. From his word- 
pictures we gather that the dangers and hardships attendant 
on doubling the '* Cape of Torments " had deeply impressed 
the imaginations of the early Portuguese navigators. The 
wrath of the elements seemed to these superstitious sail<Hs 
something more than earthly. Camoens calls ''spirits from 
the vasty deep" to guard the Secret of the Cape. The 
giant Adamastor, the Spirit of the Storm, appears to Da 
Gama, and threatens the Portuguese with "direful woes'* 
should they persist in invading his " drear domain " :— 

<* Each year thy shipwrecked sons shalt thou deplore. 
Each year thy sheeted masts shall strew my shore." 


For nearly a century after Da Gama's voyage no Portuguese 
ship visited the Land of Natal. Vessels bound to India took 
a more direct course than by sailing up the east coast of 
Africa, and those going to Sofala and Mozambique made the 
run without a break from St Helena. The Portuguese made 

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Tlie Secret of the Cape loi 

no attempt to establish any station south of Delagoa Bay, and 
their ivory traders never penetrated beyond the Lagoon of St 
Lucia. Occasionally their ships would be wrecked on the 
Natal shores; and sometimes the Portuguese Grovemment 
issued instructions to its captains to explore the coast and 
construct rough charts. 

On such an errand Perestrello visited Natal in 1576. 
He was commissioned by King Sebastian "to explore 
coasts and countries in South Africa. *' In his report to the 
king appears the first description o( the land of Natal. 
Its physical features remain unaltered. At the close of the 
sixteenth century, as now, it might ''be known by a huge 
point of rock.'' The coast lands were "covered with large 
trees/' doubtless denser then than now. The sea was deep ; 
the waters clear; and "occasional sandy spots '^ relieved the 
otherwise rockbound coast. These old sailors appear to have 
gone some way into the country. Perestrello speaks of the 
soil as rich and fit for cultivation. The natives were numerous, 
and both tame and wild animals were plentiful. What these 
natives thought of the strange men and their stranger ships 
there is no means of knowing. For more than a century no 
more is heard of Natal. Great events were happening in 
Europe. The power of Spain had been crushed by the defeat 
of the terrible Armada and by the successful revolt of the 
Netherlands. England, too, had fought for her liberty and 
gained it, only to be again subjected to a Stuart despotism. 
But these events mattered nothing to the inhabitants of Natal. 
They knew nothing of the rest of the world, and the rest of 
the world knew nothing of them. 

Diaz rounded the Cape i486 

Vasco da Gama discovered Natal .... 1497 
Perestrello, Portuguese CoMicAMDER, visited Natal 1576 

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loa The Coloiiisation of the Cape 


Decay of Portugal* 

During the hundred years in which nothing is heard of 
Natal, Holland, a nation whose history was destined to be 
closely interwoven with both that of Natal and of the 
•Cape, became one of the great European powers. From the 
time when Da Gama discovered the ocean highway round the 
Cape in 1497 to the close of the sixteenth century, Spain and 
Portugal were the only European nations that traded with 
the £ast« They had made settlements there, and they kept 
them, as they had acquired them, by the edge of the sword. 
Oriental merchants and princes were told that all Europeans 
except the Spaniards and Portuguese were savages and pirates. 
The great ocean, instead of being as now the highway of 
nations, was only ''a Spanish lake," and no one but the sul> 
jects of the Spanish King was allowed to navigate its waters. 
Lisbon in the sixteenth century was a mart of trade such as 
Venice had been before her glory departed. The silks and 
spices and precious stones of the tropics could be obtained 
only in the ports of the Peninsula. 

But this monopoly of the Indian trade was soon to cease. 
In 1580, when the succession to the crown of Portugal was 
disputed, Philip XL of Spain secured it for himself, and 
thenceforth the fortunes of Portugal were linked with those 
of Spain. Philip was the false fanatical Spaniard who 
married Mary of England, and with whom both England 
and the Netherlands battled for their freedom. In 1579, 
after a desperate struggle with tbeir gigantic enemy, the 
hardy Hollanders gained their independence. In 1588 

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The Colonisation of the Cape 103 

Philip's great Annada, sent forth to crush England and 
Protestantism at one blow, was scattered to the winds. 
In both of these contests, the new spirit of freedom and 
of progress was warring with the old order of despotism 
and superstition; and Spain and Portugal, the opponents 
of free thoi^ht and speech and action, fell never to rise 

The Dutch East India Company. 

The Dutch succeeded the Portuguese in the supremacy 
of the seas. When they freed themselves from the yoke of 
Spain, that country debarred them from sending their ships 
into the port of Lisbon or participating in the Eastern trade. 
Thereupon the Hollanders resolved to match the Dutch 
galiot against the Spanish galleon and compete with the 
Spaniard in regions which he had considered as his private 
property. In 1602, a great company of merchants called 
the Dutch East India Company was established under 
the auspices of the Government. To this Company was 
granted the sole right of trading to the East of the Cape of 
Good Hope and of sailing through the Strait of Magellan. 
The Company was empowered to make treaties with foreign 
princes, to build fortresses, and to levy troops. Its afifairs 
were managed by a Chamber of Seventeen directors at 
Amsterdam. The first fleet of fourteen vessels sailed before 
the end of the year. The sailors who manned them were the 
successors of the hardy fishermen who had wrested Holland 
itself from the ocean — the country which the Romans did 
not know whether to call land or water — and of the " Beggars 
of the Sea " who had done such signal service in the war of 
independence. The Dutch Republic was " bom of sea- 
men and fostered by the sea " — sea-bom and sea-sustained. 
Her heroic and indomitable commanders gradually ousted 

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104 The Colonisation of the Cape 

the Spaniards from their Indian possessions, and the Dutch 
flag flew where Spain had formerly held undisputed sway. 
The industry of the Dutch at home and their enterprise 
and daring abroad placed them in the front rank of nations. 
They were the ocean-carriers of the world Nearly one 
hundred thousand sailors and three, thousand ships were 
engaged in their trade, and goods from all parts of the 
world could be purchased in the warehouses of Amsterdam. 
England at that time was a poor and thinly-peopled 
country, though intellectually and morally in the first rank 
of civilisation. She too had an East India Company, and 
competed with Holland to some extent in the Indian trade, 
but her maritime power was still in the future* 

Fitzherbert and Shillinge. 

From the date of Da Gama's great voyage the Cape 
became a recognised place of call for vessels bound to 
India. Dutch, English, and Portuguese ships resorted 
thither for water and fresh meat, which they obtained from 
the natives in return for beads, brandy, and tobacco. A 
primitive post-ofiice was also established on the shores of 
Table Bay. Outward-bound vessels buried packets contain- 
ing letters and despatches under peculiarly-shaped flat stones 
engraved with the names of the ships ; and those homeward- 
bound eagerly searched the underground post-offices for news 
of country and friends. One of these stones was found while 
Adderley Street was being built, and is now shown in the 
vestibule of the post-office in Cape Town. The names of the 
ships and the dates are still legible. In 1619, the directors 
of the English East India Company proposed to the Chamber 
of Seventeen that the two companies should build a fort in 
the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope for their 
common use. The proposal was rejected, the Chamber of 

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ITie Colonisation of the Cape 105 

Seventeen notifying that it wfts their intention to efttablish a 
station there on their own account 

Next year, in 1620, two commanders of the English East 
India Company, Fit2herbert and ShilUnge, planted the 
colours of England on the hill now called the Lion's Rump, 
and took possession of the Cape and adjacent land in the 
name of King James. Nothing was done by the Company 
to follow up the action of its zealous servants, and the 
proclamation ai British authority remained an empty form. 
British ships now and again called to take in fresh water, but 
the island of St Helena gradually became the recognised 
place of refreshment and rendezvous for British East 

Jan Van Riebeek 

A homeward-bound Dutch Indiaman, the Haarlem, was 
wrecked in Table Bay in 1648. The crew spent some time 
ashore, and were so charmed with the country that on their 
return to Holland they urged on the Chamber of Seventeen 
the advisability of forming a settlement in South Africa. 
Accordingly in 1652, Jan Van Riebeek, a surgeon and 
merchant in the service of the Company, with about a 
hundred men, arrived at the Cape and, in the name of the 
Dutch East India Company, took possession of the land on 
which Capetown is now built. Mr Van Riebeek was the 
first Commander or Governor of the first settlement of 
white men in South Africa. 

The first Cape Colonists. 

The main object of the settlement was to provide supplies 
for the outward and homeward-bound ships of the Company. 
As sheep and cattle could be got only from the natives, care 
was taken to establish and maintain friendly relations with 

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To6 The Colonisation of the Cape 

them. These natives, who called themselves Khoi-Khoin 
or men of men and were styled Hottentots by the Dutch, 
were a race yellowish-brown in colour, gentle and indolent 
in disposition, and peaceful and pastoral in their habits. In 
1656, nine men who had taken their discharge from the 
Company's service settled down on land given to them, and 
became farmers or Boers. They were the first true 
colonists of the Cape. Their numbers w^e increased 
year by yeat both by immigrants from Holland and Germany 
and by the Company's freed servants. The Company gave 
these settlers as much land as they could cultivate, and at 
first supplied them with cattle and goods on credit. Slaves 
from the east coast, from Madagascar, and from Malacca 
were imported for the use of the farmers. Traffic in human 
beings was not then illegal nor considered inhuman. 

The Husruenots. 

Simon Van der Stell, who ruled at the Cape from 
1677 to 1699, was anxious that the cultivation of the land 
by free burghers should be continued. He wished to see 
the corn-fields and vineyards which already extended for 
many miles round Table Bay greatly increased. Owing to 
his solicitations the Chamber of Seventeen sent out in 
1688 a party of emigrants, including several families of 
Huguenots, or French Protestants, to the number of 
about 300. These French people had been driven from 
their own land by the intolerance and cruelty of Louis 
XIV., and had fled for refuge to Holland, in those days 
the stronghold of liberty in Europe. The Dutch Republic 
offered them a home at the Cape, where their frugal and 
industrious habits rendered them most useful settlers. In 
two or three generations the nationality of the Huguenot 
refugees became so mingled in that of their Dutch neigh- 

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The Colonisation of the Cape 107 

bours that all their distinctive characteristics disappeared. 
Such names, however, as De Villiers, Du Toit, Retief, Le 
Sueur, Naud^, Joubert, Du Plessis, and Marais still testify 
to the nationality of their descendants. The men who have 
built up Ehiropean influence in South Africa owe much of 
their patient industry, their bravery, their love of liberty, 
and their deep religious feeling to Huguenot influence and 
Huguenot ancestiy. 

Discontent of the Farmers. 

The Hottentots had to sufier the gradual appropriation 
of their land by the white men. In some cases the land 
was purchased from them at a nominal value in goods ; in 
most cases it was simply taken possession of by force. 
Many of the Hottentots lapsed into a state of serfdom to 
their white masters. They in their turn thought themselves 
little better than slaves of the Dutch East India 
Company. All the labour of the farmers went to the 
enrichment of the Company, so many were the restrictions 
imposed on them. Not only were heavy taxes levied on all 
crops raised, but the kind of crops to be grown was pre- 
scribed; the farmers could sell their produce only to the 
Company and at the Company's price; they were not per- 
mitted to buy cattle from the natives or to trade with them 
in any way ; and they were even forbidden to go on board 
vessels calling at the port. The farmers laid their grievances 
before the Company in vain. It had no interest in anything 
but the filling of its own coffers, and the colonists could get 
no redress. The grievous burdens they had to bear caused 
their discontent and indignation to grow louder and deeper. 


The rule of the Company became so obnoxious to the 

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io8 The Colonisation of the Gape 

Boers that many of them moved away with their wagons 
and flocks and herds far inland beyond its controL This 
was the origin of the habit of treAking-^moyiog from place 
to place — ^which has always characterised the Dutch fanners 
of South Africa. And it was this tendency that later on 
helped to people Natal, and that founded the Overbeig 
Republics. At first the Government tried by threats of 
severe punishment to stop the migration from the sea-board, 
but the movement was too strong to be checked. The 
farmers continued to move inland, enticed not only by the 
thought of fresh pastures for their cattle and game for 
their guns, but by a desire to be free from, the irksome 
restraints of the Government. The Company made some 
attempt to follow the migratory colonists, A magistracy 
was established at Swellendam in 1745 and at Graaff 
Reinet in 1786 ; and in 178S the Great Fish River was 
declared the boundary of the settlement 

But the arm of the Government was not long enough to 
reach every wandering Boer. Far in the veid they enjoyed 
the liberty they craved for, and knew no law but their own 
will. This isolation from their fellows and from all civilising 
influences was most injurious to their moral and social 
condition. The children grew up untaught; there were no 
schools and no churches. Had it not been for their pious 
national habit of reading the Bible night and morning to 
the assembled household, they must speedily have lapsed 
into the degraded condition of the Hottentots and other 
slaves who surrounded them. 

Bushmen and Kafirs. 

The Boers who moved northward through the Karoo 
plains found their progress barred by the Bushmen. 
Those going eastward encountered the Kafirs. Both 

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The Colonisation of the Cape 109 

these native races were very different in character from 
the Hottentots, most of whom had sunk into a state of 
slavery. The Bushmen were yellowish-brown pygmy folk 
who lived by hunting and were armed with bows and 
poisoned arrows. They were spread over all the country 
south of the Orange River. Enraged at the white man's 
invasion of their hunting grounds, they took their revenge 
by stealing his cattle, murdering his herdsmen, and some- 
times making a raid on the homestead itself. The Govern- 
ment was unable or unwilling to aid the farmers in defending 
their property. They accordingly banded themselves into 
armed parties called commandoes for defensive and aggressive 
measures against their diminutive foes. The war went on 
for about thirty years until the Bushmen were either killed 
or driven further into the wilderness. They never yielded 
to the white man. 

The Boers on the eastern frontier found the Aborigines 
there more formidable than the pygmy Bushmen. The 
Amaxosa tribe of Kafirs, having been defeated in a fight 
with the neighbouring Abatembu, turned their attention to 
the white men as more likely victims. In ''moonlight 
raid and morning fight" they plundered, and burned, and 
murdered without mercy. In return, when the settlers 
gained the advantage, they used it cruelly enough. The 
Boers were diligent readers of the Bible, but the teaching 
of the Old Testament attracted them more than that of the 
New. The more ignorant of them believed themselves to 
be the '' chosen people," and the Bushmen and Kafirs the 
Canaanites whom they had a divine command to smite and 
utterly destroy. Affairs on the border, both for natives 
and colonists, were in a most deplorable condition, and the 
Government could or would devise no means of protecting 
the settlers from the Kafir marauders. The burghers of 

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no The Colonisation of the Cape 

Swellendam and Graaff Reinet therefore assembled in arms 
in February 1795, and declared that they were '^ unwilling 
to obey the Dutch East India Company any longer, and that 
they would be independent" 

The British at the Cape. 

At this juncture there was a most unexpected change in 
the aspect. of afiairs. While the disaffection against the 
Government was at its height, a British fleet under 
Admiral Elphinstone sailed into Table Bay. Troops were 
landed under the command of General Craig, who took 
possession of the Cape Colony for his Britannic Majesty 
King George. Holland had been overrun by the armies 
of the French Republic^ and the Stadtholder had fled 
for refuge to England. At his request, the British 
Government sent out the forces to the Cape to prevent 
that valuable possession falling into the hands of the French. 

In November 1795, the Governor and officers of the 
Dutch East India Company, which had ruled the Cape for 
a century and a half, took their departure from Capetown ; 
and the general feeling of the colonists was that nothing in 
their official existence became them so well as the leaving 
it Great must have been the tyranny and misrule of a 
Company that had caused orderly law-abiding Hollanders 
and Germans to hate it with so bitter a hatred. The wrongs 
under which the colonists suffered were redressed as far as 
possible by General Craig, who assumed the government 

Governor-General Janssens. 

The first short period of British rule ^t the Cape ended 
in 1803, when the territory was again handed over to Holland 
by the Peace of Amiens. No commercial company this 
time intervened between the colonists and their Fatherlands 

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The Colonisation of the Cape 1 1 1 

In Governor-General Janssens the colony had a wise 
and liberal-minded ruler who did his utmost to inoease its 
prosperity. He visited the various districts, and his in- 
structions to the ianddrosts^ or magistrates, showed an 
intelligent foresight into its future. They were enjoined to 
give their attention to improving the breed of sheep and 
cattle ; to the raising of grain and the culture of the vine ; 
to tree planting and the preservation of forests; to the 
establishment of schools ; and to the humane treatment of 
Hottentots and slaves. Care was to be taken also that no 
cause should be given to the frontier tribes for making 
forays on the farms of the settlers. Governor Janssens was 
not permitted to see the fruit of his labours. 

Frontier Troubles. 

On the renewal of the war in Europe, Great Britain 
resolved to retake the Cape and hold it as the key to her 
Indian possessions. In 1806 Sir David Baird again and 
finally annexed the colony to Great Britain. The Earl of 
Caledoni the first Governor, pursued the good policy of 
Governor Janssens. The only cloud on the prosperity of the 
colony was the chronic feuds with the warlike kafirs beyond 
the Great Fish River, the boundary fixed in 1788 to arrest 
their westward march as the Forth was said to " bridle the 
wild Highlandman." These tribes — the Abatembu, the Gaikas, 
the Galekas — were to cause much suffering and bloodshed 
before they were finally subdued. The first great encounter 
between the kafirs and the colonial and regular troops 
occurred in 181 1. Grahamstown, at first only a military 
post, takes its name from the officer who commanded on that 
occasion. In 18 19 there was another outbreak, and again 
in 1834, in 1846, and in 1850. Not till 1877, in the sixth 
and last " Kafir war,** when Sandilli, the chief of the Gaikas, 

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Ill The Colonisation of the Cape 

was ktlledi did savagery receive its final blow on the Cape 

Port Elizabeth. 

The Eastern Province of Cape Colony, of which Port 
Elizabeth is the chief centre, has alwa3rs been more British 
and progressive than the Western Province. This is owing 
to the introduction there in 1820 of about 4000 British 
emigrants sent out by the Government to assist in the 
settlement and civilisation of the eastern border. They 
landed at Algoa Bay, and most of them settled in the 
district, thenceforth named Albany, between the Fish and 
Bushman's Rivers. The industry and endurance of these 
immigrants have made the Eastern Province what it is, and 
transformed the beach crowned with sand-dunes where they 
landed into the great seaport of Port Elizabeth. The 
town was named after the wife of the Acting Governor, 
Sir Rufane Donkin. Thomas Pringle, the poet of South 
Africa, was among the immigrants. The population of the 
Eastern Province was further augmented in 1857 when Sir 
George Grey, then Governor, brought to the Cape about 
2,300 men of the German Legion which had been formed 
during the Crimean War. These military settlers were 
placed at East London, King William's Town, and other 
centres on the frontier to aid in its defence and civilisation. 

Dutch East India Company Established 1602 


OF THE Cape . . .• . . . 1620 

First Dutch Settlement at the Cape 1652 

Arrival of Huguenots at the Cape . . 1688 

Cape Colony extended to Great Fish River 1788 

The Cape taken by the British . 1795 

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Sailors and Natives 113 

The Cape restored to the Dutch . . 1803 

The Caps finally annexed to Great Britain 1806 

Port Elizabeth founded .... 1820 

Kafir Wars on the Cape Frontier 181 i 1819 1834 

1846 1850 1877 



Ancient Mariners. 

While great ships laden with merchandise from the Indies 
sailed into Table Bay, and Capetown gradually grew under 
the shadow of Table Mountain, and the settlers trekked 
year by year northward and eastward, little was known of 
the country now called Natal except the parts bordering the 
ocean. The outer anchorage was still a silent sea, and what 
is now the busy Point and town was dense bush, cleared here 
and there for a native kraal^ and the haunt of numerous 
wild animals. Capetown is two centuries older than 
Durban- How far the land ''ran back to the west" was 
not yet ascertained, but it was all occupied by black men 
of the same race as those who opposed the eastward progress 
of the Cape settlers at the Great Fish River. 

The first Englishmen who ever set foot in Natal were 
the crew of the Johanna, wrecked near Delagoa Bay in 
1683, when Simon Van der Stell ruled at Cape Castle. 
These sailors, carrying with them the most valuable part of 
their cargo, set out to walk to Capetown and received great 
kindness from the Natal kafirs. For some trifling gifts of 
beads, knives, and looking-glasses, they guided the English- 
men south, carried their baggage, and provided them with 

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1 14 Sailors and Natives 

food. on the way. Great "civility and humanity" was 
shown to the travellers by all the tribes whose territories 
they passed through, each tribe " delivering their charge to 
others" until the long and toilsome journey to the Cape 
was accomplished. It is pleasant to remember that the 
first meeting of the Englishman and the Kafir in Natal was 
marked by friendliness on both sides, and that the nation 
which now rules these natives was, in the persons of the 
Johanna sailors, indebted to them for help in time of 

Another English ship, the Frances, visited the Natal coast 
in 1684 and purchased ivory firom the natives. Her cargo 
also comprised slaves brought from Madagascar and after- 
wards sold to the freed burghers at the Cape. Slaves could 
not be bought in Natal. Shipwrecked sailors who spent some 
time in the country tell us that the natives " would not part 
with their children or any of their connections for any- 
thing in the world, loving one another with a most remarkable 
strength of affection." So, although slavers often touched at 
the Bay of Natal for fresh meat, corn, and fruit, with which the 
natives willingly supplied them, they could do no trade there. 

Wreck of the Stavenisse. 

Somewhere between the Umzinto and the Umzimkulu, on 
the 1 6th of February 1686, a large Dutch East Indiaman, the 
Stavenisse, commanded by Captain Willem Knyff and 
laden with pepper, went ashore on the rocks. Fourteen of the 
crew were drowned in the surf; the rest, numbering about 
sixty, got safely to land. Yielding to the entreaties of the 
sailors, and leaving the surgeon and two men sick in a 
tent they had constructed from the wreckage. Captain Knyff 
set out with them to walk to the Cape. After a journey of 
nine miles up hill and down dale, he felt too weak to proceed 

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Sailors and Natives 115 

furtl^er and returned to the wreck. Two days afterwards nine 
of the sailors returned, and reported that the remaining forty- 
seven had gone on their way towards the Cape unappalled by 
the dangers before them. In the hope of reaching Capetown 
by sea, the men thus left at the Stavenisse set to work and 
repaired their broken boat. They could fortunately get provi- 
sions from the wreck, and in fourteen days the boat was 
finished. But in pushing it out, it went to pieces in the surf, 
and the men barely escaped with their lives. 

The Hnglishmen of the Good Hope. 

Thus wrecked on a savage shore, and deprived of all their 
clothes and provisions, Knyff and his men were indeed in a 
miserable plight. At first they obtained bread and millet in 
exchange for nails and bolts from the natives who flocked to 
the wreck. But when the natives found that they could get 
ironwork from the wreck for themselves with little trouble, 
the shipwrecked seamen were left without resources. They 
had abandoned themselves to despair when two Eng^lish- 
men unexpectedly made their appearance. The strangers 
proved friends in need. They also were sailors, part of the 
crew of the Good Hope, which in May of the previous year 
had been struck by a squall, while crossing the bar of Natal, 
and driven aground at the Point. These two, with three 
others, had remained behind at the Bay, when the captain 
and nine men proceeded to Mozambique in a large decked 
boat which they put together from materials on board their 
ship. The Good Hope men had abundance of beads and 
copper rings to trade with, and in the frequent journeys which 
they made inland, they invariably found the people friendly and 
hospitable. Hearing of a wreck down the coast, two of them 
had come south to offer assistance. They assured Captain 
Knyff that they had sufficient merchandise to buy food for all 

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1 16 Sailors and Natives 

the party for fifty years i and they made the Stavenisse men 
welcome to a share of all they had. 

Boat Building in z686. 

The timely aid of the English sailors was gratefully 
accepted, and the eleven men left of the Stavenisse crew 
joined the five Englishmen at the Bay* The surgeon had 
died, and the boatswain's mate was trampled to death by 
an elephant The seamen thus strangely brought together 
resolved to build a small vessel strong enough to convey 
them to the Cape of Good Hope. Out of ironwork from 
the wrecked Indiaman they made nails and bolts and also 
some rough tools. Native timber was to be had in plenty. 
The land adjoining the Bay was covered with *' tall, straight, 
and thick trees fit for house or ship timber" ; and the natives 
willingly helped the white men in their labours. The 
Amatuli tribe, who then occupied the Bluff and land round 
the Bay, have to this day a tradition of helping white men 
to build a boat. In the beginning of 1687 Kayffs party 
was increased to twenty-five by the arrival of nine English- 
men, sailors of the Bonaventura which had been wrecked 
at St Lucia Bay, and which was probably, like the Good 
Hope, engaged in the slave trade. 

With the aid of the newcomers, the boat, then or after- 
wards named the Centaur, was ready for sea in February. 
To the eye of a modem boat-builder she doubtless would 
have looked clumsy and unwieldy, but she proved a strong 
and serviceable craft. A stock of provisions — meal, fowls, 
goats, smoked beef, and pumpkins — and of fresh water 
stored in casks made of native timber, was put on board; 
and on the 17th of February, a year and a day after the 
SUvenisse was wrecked on the Umzimkulu rocks, the 
Centaur l6ft for Capetown with twenty men on board Five 

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Sailors and Natives 117 

elected to remain rather than risk the voyage. Having no 
chart, compass, or quadrant, the voyagers had to keep the 
land in sight all the way to Capetown. They airived there 
without misadventure in twelve days. The miserable ap- 
pearance of the men, their strange craft, and the tale of 
their year's sojourn in the Land of Natal must have 
been a nine days' wonder in the small town under Table 

The Centaur. 

Captain KnyfT and his men told their adventures to 
Commander Van der Stell at the Castle, and a passage 
home in one of the Company's ships was provided for them. 
Two Englishmen of the Good Hope were taken into the 
Company's service at their own request and placed in 
command of the Centaur, which was purchased from its 
crew. The little ship was again sent out in 1688 to report 
further on the country of Natal, and to search for the forty- 
seven men of the Stavenisse who had never arrived at the 
Cape. Some way north of Algoa Bay the Centaur being 
in want of wood and water sent a boat to find a suitable 
landing place. The men in the boat saw signals being 
made to them by natives with karbsses, as they thought, 
and paid no heed to them. Shortly afterwards, a raft with 
three men on it appeared near the Centaur. The men were 
picked up and found to be sailors of the Stavenisse. They 
reported that about twenty of their companions were living 
in native kraals close by. The Centaur succeeded in rescuing 
all except three who had, a day or two previously, started 
north to the wreck of the Stavenisse, and who were after- 
wards found at the Bay of Natal by the galiot Noord. 
Of the remaining Stavenisse men some had fallen victims 
to flooded rivers and beasts of prey on their way to the 


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1 1 8 Sailors and Natives 

Amaxosa country ; and twelve had left for the Cape despite 
the waminp of the natives and were never heard of more. 
It was supposed they had been murdered by Bushmen. - A 
present of beads and neck and arm rings was sent ashore 
to the chief Manama in the name of the Honourable East 
India Company as an acknowledgment of the kind treatment 
the Dutch sailors had received from the Amazosa. The 
Centaur did not go on to Natal. Finding that the one desire 
of these destitute sailors was to get back to their Fath^land, 
the captain returned to the Cape at once to put them on 
board a homeward-bound vessel. 

The Noord. 

Commander Simon Van der Stell, after hearing Captain 
KnyfT's account of the Natal coastlands, was inclined to 
think that a profitable trade might be carried on there, 
especially in ivory. Knyff's men had brought with them 
three tons of that commodity, and considering the ''great 
troops of elephants of an incredible size" which roamed 
the bush, much more was certainly forthcoming. Accord- 
ingly the galiot Noord was despatched to the Bay of Natal 
in 1690 to purchase the Bay and adjoining land from 
the natives, and to establish a settlement for the Company. 
The purchase was duly effected. Beads and copper rings 
of the value of about ^^50 were given for the land to " the 
King and Chief of those parts." Landmarks inscribed 
with the arms of the Dutch East India Company were set 
up in various places round the Bay. 

But a settlement was never formed, partly perhaps be- 
cause of the dangerous entrance to the Bay. The sand 
bar was there "at the mouth of the river," and the great 
waves leaped over it with their foaming crests just as they 
do now. None of the Company's galiots could cross that 

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Sailors and Natives 1 1 9 

dreaded sand-b^ak without danger. The Amatuli seem to 
have regardied the purchase of their land as a mere ceremony. 
When a Dutch captain visited the Bay in 1705, the chief of 
that time entirely repudiated the bargain. "My lather," 
he said, '<is dead. As to what he agreed to, it was for 
himself. I have nothing to say to it." And so Dutch 
occupation of Natal for the time being came to an end. 

The Company had a trading station at Delag^oa Bay 
for some years, but gave it up in 1730 because of its un- 
healthy climate and the consequent mortahty among the 
men. After that year the Bay of Natal was seldom visited 
by Dutch ships. 

The Hmpire of Monomotapa. 

From the narratives of the men of the Good Hope and 
the Stavenisse, from the log-book of the Noord, and from 
accounts of exploring expeditions inland, Commander Van 
der Stell was enabled to construct a more accurate chart of 
South Africa than the maps hitherto in vogue. These 
represented correctly enough the centre of Africa as a vast 
lake region whence flowed the Nile and the Congo. That 
information had been obtained from Portuguese traders who 
had made long journeys inland. Some of them indeed are 
believed to have often crossed the continent from Angola 
to Mozambique. South of the Tropic of Capricorn, the 
geographers gave full sway to their imagination. A chain 
of high mountains ran parallel with the west coast. Along 
the eastem base of the mountains a magnificent river known 
as the Camissa flowed south to the sea near Cape Agulhas. 
The Rio do Infante was marked near where the Great 
Fish River flows, and Terra de Natal was laid down south 
of a river named St Luzia. Further north a large arm 
of the sea received four rivers, the largest of which was 

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I20 Sailors and Natives 

de Spirito Sancto. The great space east of the Camissa 
River was occupied by the Empire of Monomotapa, with 
numerous towns indicated by turreted castles. The town 
nearest to the Cape was Vigiti Magna. In 1660 Com- 
mander Van Riebeek sent out an expedition to discover it — 
without success. The people of Monomotapa were reputed 
to be rich and highly civilised. The name of their land, 
which signifies Men of the Mines^ was suggestive of the 
wealth treasured up in its cities. Mr Van Riebeek had 
heard also that in that wonderful empire were to be found 
Amazons, cannibals with hair that reached the ground, and 
a race of people who tamed lions and used them in war. 
On the River de Spirito Sancto two towns were marked — 
Monomotapa, and Davagul, the treasure city of the 
Emperor. After the manner of ancient geographers, pictures 
of elephants, ostriches, lions, and rhinoceroses appeared in 
the maps to illustrate the fauna of the continent s^d fill up 
blank spaces. 

Facts and Fables. 

A party of Namaqua Hottentots, who visited Cape Castle 
in 1 68 1, disclaimed all knowledge of the fabled Camissa or 
the great town of Vigiti Magna on its banks ; but they told 
Commander Van der Stell of a mighty river, far away from 
their kraals, which flowed from east to west, and of the 
Bechuana people who lived to the north. The river was 
the Orange, never seen by any European till 17 78, when 
Colonel Gordon discovered it and named it in honour of the 
Stadtholder. Explorers who went eastward found that 
Hottentot tribes occupied all the country to the border of the 
Kafir dominion. Kafirs of the Amaxosa tribe were settled 
as far westward as the district which is now East London. 
The sailors of the Good Hope and the Stavenisse reported 

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Sailors and Natives 121 

die whole coast and the country inland, from St Lncia Bay 
to the' Buffalo, to be occupied by natives of the same race. 
The tribes from north to south were the ''Emboas'' or 
Abambo in Natal; the " Mapontemousse " or Amampon- 
domusi ; the " Maponte " or Amapondo ; the '* Matembas " 
or Abatembu ; and the *' Magossebe ** or Amaxosa. 

As a consequence of the light thus thrown, at the close of 
the seventeenth century, on this end of the Dark Continent, 
the Camissa disappeared from charts of South Africa, and the 
visionary Empire of Monomotapa, with all its gold and 
jewels, faded into the light ofxommon day. 

Native Races. 

At the beginning of last century all the country now called 
Natal was possessed by Kafirs or BantUS of various tribes. 
For how long they had dwelt in the land is not known, but 
it is probable that they were there when Da Gama sailed 
past the Bluff in 1497. They came from the north and drove 
out the Hottentots, who seem to have been their immediate 
predecessors. The Hottentots themselves had taken posses- 
sion of the country from the Bushmen who are supposed to 
have been the original people of South Africa. Successive 
waves of population from the north had thus driven first the 
Bushmen and then the Hottentots south into Cape Colony, ^ 
where the Dutch found them both on their arrival in 1652. 
The Kafirs, who were by far the most powerful and warlike 
race of the three, would soon have filled up the southern 
part of the continent had not their westward march been 
arrested at the Great Fish River by the Boer colonists. 

The Bushmen. 

This diminutive race seems closely allied to the pygmies 
found by Du Chaillu in the western Equatorial coastlands, 

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122 Sailors and Natives 

by Schweinfurth in the Upper Nile basin, and by Stanley 
in the great Aruwhimi forest. They cannot be identified by 
language or appearance with any of the nations around them, 
and it has been conjectured that they are all fragments of a 
primeval African race which has been broken up and dis- 
persed by successive immigrations of Hottentot, Bantu, and 
Negro tribes, just as the Lapps and Basques in Europe were 
driven into comers by the great wave of Aryan population. 
The earliest African traveller who mentions the pygn^ies is 
an English sailor, Andrew BattelL He lived among the 
Portuguese and Kafirs in Angola for eighteen years at the 
end of the sixteenth century, and he describes the mannikins 
as " no bigger than boys of twelve years old, but very thick, 
and live only upon flesh which they kill in the woods with 
their bows and darts." 

The Bushmen are savages, pure and simple. In colour a 
muddy yellow, they are diminutive but not dwarfish, have 
prominent cheek-bones and crafty deep-set eyes, and hair in 
woolly tufts with small spaces between. Livingstone found 
Bushmen near Lake Ngami much taller and more intelligent 
than those living on the borders of Cape Colony. Although 
in the desert they are obliged to construct rude dwellings by 
hanging reed mats on sticks, they prefer " caves and holes in 
rocks and such houses as are formed by nature.'' A wandering 
people, they sow no com and keep no cattle or goats, but 
live by hunting and are nearly as fleet of foot as the antelopes 
which they pursue with bows and poisoned arrows. The 
arrows are reeds with a barbed head of bone or tipped with 
a triangular piece of iron. The barb is coated with various 
poisonous compounds made from the juices of an amarylUs 
and a euphorbia mixed with the venom of snakes, spiders, 
and a deadly species of caterpillar. The game is eked out 
by roots which the women dig up in the desert with a graaf- 

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Sailors and Natives 123 

stock or digging-stick. This is their only agricultural imple- 
ment, and it consists simply of a pointed stick thrust through 
a bored stone. Many of these stones are found in places far 
away from the recent haunts of the Bushmen. 

Though BOW almost extinct, the Bushmen were very 
numerous when the Dutch anriyed at the Cape. They were 
then scattered over all the country from the Nieuwveld and 
Sneeuwbergen to the Orange River, and they lurked in the 
gorges of the Drakensberg long after the Kafirs took 
possession of the coastlands. Thence they sallied forth by 
night and stole the cattle of Hottentots, Kafirs, and white 
settlers alike. Each Bushman stole and fought for himself 
and he acknowledged no chief. Every man's hand was 
against them. The Hottentots called them "Obiqua," 
robbers and murderers \ the Kafir tribes knew them as 
"Abatwa," the identical name — "Batwa" — of their pygmy 
kinsmen found by Stanley near the Mountains of the Moon. 
The Stavenisse sailors relate how they fell among thieves 
before reaching the hospitable Amaxosa, the thieves being 
"Maligryghas" or Bushmen. So late as 1856, Fort 
Nottingham, near Spion Kop, was built to protect the 
farmers near the Berg from Bushmen forays. 

The Bushman language has few words and contains six 
separate clicks — sounds which more resemble those of animals 
than articulate human speech. The Hottentots, who came 
after the Bushmen, have four of these clicks, and the Kafirs, 
who came after the Hottentots, have three. The mantis 
insect occupies an important place in the Bushman mythology, 
and does many wonderful things. Though so low in the 
scale of civilisation, the Bushmen yet possess an art un- 
known to the other native races, the power of graphic illus- 
tration. In caves and on the sides of sheltering cliffs, once 
their homes in Natal, may be seen drawings executed in 

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124 Sailors and Natives 

red, brown, and black, representing scenes oi war and the 
chase, and testifying to their former occupancy of the 

The Hottentots. 

The Hottentots were the first native race seen by 
Europeans in South Africa. Da Gama had a skirmish with 
them in 1497, and in 1509 D' Almeida, the Viceroy of India, 
who had landed at Table Bay, was slain with sixty-five 
men in an attack on one of their villages. When Mr Van 
Riebeek landed at the Cape, Hottentots of various dans 
or tribes were spread over all Cape Colony. At first they 
resisted the encroachments of the Dutch on their possessions, 
but gradually yielded to the temptations of brandy and 
tobacco. For these they sold their birthright They 
bartered their flocks and herds, their land, and even their 
independence for fire-water, and speedily became children 
of Gibeon to their white masters. 

The Khoi-Khoin, as they called themselves, were much 
taller than the Bushmen, though like them they were 
tawny-coloured and had the same Mongolian type of features 
and tufted woolly hair. They owned immense flocks of 
cattle and sheep, and lived in villages or kraais under here- 
ditary chiefs. They were a dirty indol^it people, fond of 
feasting, singing, and dancing; and were armed widi bows 
and arrows, kerries or clubbed sticks, and javelins which the 
Portuguese called azagayas or assegais. Their religion was 
mainly ancestor-worship, their chief god being the traditional 
founder of the Khoi-Khoin. 

When the great measure of slave emancipation took 
efiect in the Cape Colony in 1838, the Hottentots regained 
their freedom. Since that time most of them have adopted 
the customs, language,, and pursuits of the colonists. They 

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Sailors and Natives 125 

liave, however, become so mixed with other races that hardly 
a pure Hottentot is left in the Cape. 

The Kafirs. 

The Kafirs do not know themselves by this name. It 
is a term of reproach, signifying infidel^ apphed by the 
Mohammedans to all peoples not of their own religion, and 
it was current among the Portuguese to denote the black 
races south of thdr settlements on the east coast. From 
thein it was adopted by the Dutch and English. The Kafirs 
of Natal and of Cape Colony belong to the great lingual 
Bantu family, whose numerous tribes are found all through 
South Africa from a few degrees north of the Equator. 
The Bantu traditions seem to indicate that they originally 
came from the north and north-east of Africa, and were 
driven south by Hamitic tribes from Western Asia. The royal 
salute of the Zulu Kafirs—" Bayete ! " Let them bring tribute . 
— is virtually the same word as " Mabelete ! " the exclamation 
of the men of Shoa when they pay homage to their king. 

Although now speaking different dialects, the tribes on 
the Gaboon River and in the- central lake region,- the 
Bechuanas and Basutos, the Ova-herero tribes of Damara- 
land, the Matabele and Mashonas, the Amaswazi and 
Amaxosa, all belong to the same race, and originally spoke 
the same primeval Bantu mother-tongue. The tribal prefix 
'^ama'' or "aba," belonging to the eastern Bantu group, is 
found as "ma," "ba," "be," "wa," and "ova'' in other 
dialects. The Amazulu and the Amaxosa are generally 
taken as representative of the eastern Bantus, but while 
the latter had established itself as a powerful tribe beside 
the Great Fish River in 1686, the former was unnoticed and 
insignificant until the beginning of this century. 

The Kafirs are tall handsome men, dark brown, and some- ^ 

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126 Sailors and Natives 

times almost black, in colour. While some have the fiat 
nose and thick lips of the Negro, others have regular features 
suggestive of an Asiatic origin. Each tribe is ruled by a 
hereditary chief, assisted by his indunas or headmen. Their 
huts are of a bee-hive shape, and a collection of huts is 
called a kraaL The women build the huts and cultivate the 
gardens. The Kafirs are an intelligent, talkative, laughter- 
loving people, brave and cruel in war, and kind and hospitable 
in peace, as many shipwrecked sailors could testify. Their 
religious beliefs centre in ancestor-worship. Their first 
ancestor Unkulunkulu, the Great-Great^ shook the reeds 
with a mighty wind, and a man and woman emerged from 
them who taught the people to till the ground, milk cows, 
and brew beer. The Isanusi are the priests and doctors 
of the tribe, and like the Highland seers of old owe their 
influence to their reputed gift of "second-sight" They 
have the power of communication with the unseen world 
and with the spirits of their ancestors, and they employ their 
supernatural knowledge in detecting persons guilty of evil 
practices of all kinds. Many of the Kafir nursery-tales about 
beasts and birds resemble the folk-lore of European peoples. 

Natal in zSoo. 

At the beginning of last century and up to about 1812, 
Natal was inhabited by ninety-four tribes of Kafirs 
representing about a million of people. The country was 
"incredibly populous." The remains of stone kraals with 
which the upland districts are studded at the present day 
bear witness to the immense population which must at one 
time have occupied the country. It is to be remembered 
that at the beginning of the century the name Natal applied 
only to the Bay and to the coastlands known to the early 
navigators. The country to the south and that to the north 

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Sailors and Natives 127 

of the Tugela had no distinctiye names as they have now. 
Each part of the land was known by the name of the tribe 
inhabiting it. 

We learn from the sailors of the Stavenisse that the 
Abambo were the most numerous and powerful of the 
Natal kafirs. There were several sections of this people^ 
the most important being the Amahlubi, the largest tribe 
not only in Natal but in south-eastern Africa. Their terri- 
tory was on both sides of the Buffalo River from its sources 
to its junction with the Tugela. Langalibalele, long after 
noted in Natal history, was the recognised head of the race. 
The frontier kafirs still know Natal as Embo, the traditional 
home of the Abambo. Other large tribes were the 
Amaqwabe, who occupied both banks of the Tugela ; the 
Amakunze, between the Bushman and Mooi Rivers ; and 
the Amatuli, who owned the coast country and for 35 miles 
inland between the Umgeni and the Umkomaas, including 
the Bluff and the sandy plain which is now Durban. The 
huts of the Abakwamacibise covered the land which now 
forms the borough of Maritzburg; and Greytown was the 
dwelling-place of the Amafunze. 

The country was more thickly wooded then than it is 
now, and the extensive bush-lands and the long grass and 
reeds of the river valleys were the haunts of countless wild 
animals. Immense troops of elephants roamed the coast- 
lands and the thorns; lions and panthers lurked in the 
kloofs and among broken ground ; elands, hartebeesten, and 
other antelopes swarmed in the veld; and hippopotami and 
crocodiles abounded in the rivers. The crack of the wagon 
whip and the steam whistle of the locomotive were not yet 
heard in the land. 

The natives Kved in the midst X)f plenty. They had 
cattle, sheep, goats, and fowls in abundance, fruit and vege- 

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128 Chaka 

tables, bread and com. Then as now they made " a bitter 
sort of drink from grain purposely to make merry with, and 
when they met on such occasions the men made themselves 
extraordinary fine with feathers stuck in their caps very 
thick/' Family disputes about the succession to the chief- 
tainship sometimes caused dissension and bloodshed, but 
there were no chronic feuds between the tribes. They lived 
in perfect amity. When angry passions rose, as they would 
do occasionally, the quarrel was decided by a kind of savage 
tournament between the rival chins at which the women 
were spectators. When the victory was decided, assegai 
and shield were laid aside, and "the sun that saw tribes 
fight never set till their quarrel was ended." They never 
"lifted" their neighbours' cattle, nor burned their huts, 
nor coveted their land ; and no foreign foe disturbed them. 
A century ago Natal was a black Arcadia. 

Wreck of the Johanna .... 1683 

Wreck of the Stavenisse . . . . i686 

First boat built in Natal .... 1686 

Natal visited by Dutch ships . . . 1688-1730 

Bay of Natal purchased by the Dutch . 1690 

Orange River discovered . . . . 1778 


The Umtetwa. 

Along the lower part of the Black and White Umfolosi 
Rivers, in what b now the heart of Zululand, there lived 
at that time a powerful tribe called the Umtetwa. Tribu- 
tary to it along with other small clans was the Amazulu 

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Chaka 129 

an insignificant tribe numbering about two thousand, and 
occupying the land along the upper part of the White 
Umfolosi. Senzangakona was the chief of the Amazulu. 
The adjoining tribes not owning allegiance to the Umtetwa 
were the Undwandwe under Zwide, the Amangwana 
with its chief Matiwana, the Abatembu, and the Ama* 
cunu. Further to the north and nearer Delagoa Bay were 
the Amaswazi people. These tribes, like those south of the 
Tugela, had lived for hundreds of years in peace and com- 
fort under the patriarchal rule of their separate chiefs. 
No wars or rumours of wars disturbed them. About the 
year 1812 a more turbulent phase of their history began, 
and the events which led to it arose out of dissensions in 
the family of the Umtetwa chief. These events, apparently 
unimportant, affected the welfare of all the natives from 
the Zambesi to St John's River and were ultimately the 
cause of Natal becoming a British colony. 

The Assegai Wound. 

The old Umtetwa chief, Jobe, had two sons, Tana and 
GodongHMrana. Tana was nominated by his father as his 
successor, and dwelt with his brother in one of the royal 
^^^s. Impatient to occupy his father's seat, he and 
Oodongwana plotted the murder of the old chief. The 
conspiracy was found out and the brothers' hut was 
sunoonded in the night All the inmates were slain except 
^xlongwana. He leaped the fence and escaped, but with 
a barbed assegai in his back thrown at him in the darkness. 
The wounded man concealed himself in the bush, where he 
^^ found next day by his sister. She extracted the spear- 
head, dressed his wound, and enabled him to disguise him- 
self so as to escape detection. At first he wandered about 
among the neighbouring tribes, often having hairbreadth 

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130 Chaka 

escapes from the emissaries of his father. Native traditions 
aver that his life was miraculously preserved. After some 
time he disappeared, and for ten or fifteen years nothing 
was heard of Godongwana. Old Jobe was gathered to 
his fathers, and a new chief reigned over the Umtetwa 

Return of the Wanderer. 

All at once strange stories began to find their way to 
the kraals on the Umfolosi of a young chief who was coming 
from the south, along the base of the Kahlamba, and who 
was exciting the greatest interest and astonishment among 
the tribes on his route by reason of two strange animals 
which accompanied him, and on one of which he sat 
Before that time none of the natives north of the Umzim- 
vubu had ever seen a horse. The horseman advanced by 
slow stages to the Umtetwa kraals. By the time he arrived 
it was generally believed that he was the long-exiled 
Godongwana* His wonderful escapes, his mysterious 
disappearance, and the unknown animals he brought with 
him, all favoured his being regarded with superstitious 
reverence. When he showed the scar on his back, he was 
hailed with acclamations as the rightful chief of the Umtetwa. 
" His wound is his witness,'* the people said. Godongwana no 
longer, he assumed the name of Ding^iswayo, the Wanderer. 


During his years of banishment Dingiswayo had lived 
in the Cape Colony, probably in the service of some colonist. 
He had observed there that the white men had a standing 
army properly officered and divided into regiments and 
companies. So when he returned as chief of his tribe he 
brought back with him the idea of union and organised 

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combination as opposed to petty tribal jealousies and in- 
dividual weakness. The Umtetwa people were not long in 
discovering that in Dingiswayo they had found their 
master. They listened to his counsels, and he was soon 
able to mould the various sections of the tribe into a strong 
military force. - He divided his young men into regiments, 
distinguishing each by a different name and by the colour 
of the shields. Their weapon was the long-handled spear, 
or umkonto, which was thrown at the enemy from a 

Besides r&organising his tribe and founding a military 
system, Dingiswayo cultivated the arts of peace. He opened 
a trade with the Portuguese at Delagoa Bay, and he estab- 
lished a manufactory for karosses where over a hundred 
men were constantly employed. He offered rewards for 
new and ornamental designs for pillows, snuff-spoons, milk- 
dishes, and ladles. A table and chair were sent as a gift 
to the chief from Delagoa Bay, and a model of the chair was 
made by one of his workmen from a single block of wood. 

A Clement Conqueror. 

About the year 1805 a son of the Amazulu chief Senzan- 
gakona, named Chaka, quarrelled with his family and fled 
for protection to Dingiswayo. He was only a stripling, and 
he joined Dingiswayo's army as a recruit. He found soldier- 
ing so congenial that he soon became one of that chiefs 
most trusted warriors. Dingiswayo subdued all the neigh- 
bouring tribes, one after the other, but he never conquered 
to destroy. He quartered his army in the enemy's country 
till their com was exhausted, but he seldom took their 
cattle; the dispersed people were then permitted to return 
as his vassals. Dingiswayo never allowed women and 
children, to be put to death. On one occasion he captured 

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132 Chaka 

all the women and children from the unguarded kraal of 
the Amaqwabe chief. After having a war dance performed 
in their presence, in which he himself joined, he ordered 
them home, sa]ring he fought with men, not women, and 
that when men left their homes to the enemy it was a 
sign they were beaten. Dingiswayo had many battles 
with Zwide, the Undwandwe chief. He often took Zwide 
prisoner and as often released him. He fought only 
for victory, he said, and Zwide had been the friend of 
his father. The adjoining tribes, being constantly liable to 
attack from Dingiswayo, had of necessity adopted in some 
measure the military system b^un by the Umtetwa. Tribes 
before unwarlike had thus their manner of life completely 

Dispersion of the Amahlubi. 

Chaka's father, Senzangakona, died about 18 10. Although 
Chaka was not the rightful heir he was chosen chief of 
the Amaa^llu by the influence of his patron Dingiswayo, 
who fully recognised his favourite's extraordinary military 
ability as well as his loyalty to himself. As a tributary 
chief, Chaka joined in all Dingiswayo's raids. Together 
they attacked the Amangwana under Matiwana about 
181 2 and drove them across the Buffalo. The fugitives 
forced their way with rapine and bloodshed through the 
country of the Amahlubi and settled themselves under the 
Drakensberg near the Tugela waterfall The Amahlubi 
was thus the first Natal tribe displaced and scattered by 
the warlike wave from the north. It was a tribe weakened 
by internal strife, and it presented no united front to the 
foe. Some of the Amahlubi fled across the Berg into what 
is now th^ Orange River Colony; others made their way to 
the Cape frontier ; while a feeble remnant under TrUngalt- 

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Chaka 133 

balele remained in part of their old land near the sources 
of the Umzinyati, in what is now the Utrecht division of 
Natal. They afterwards became Zulu tributaries. 

Diflgiswayo's Death. 

The great chief of the Umtetwa fell a victim to the 
vindictiveness of a woman. On cme of his forays into 
the Undwandwe country, probably about 1818, Dingiswayo 
was with the advance guard of his army and was taken 
prisoner by Zwide. Mindful of the magnanimity so often 
manifested by Dingiswayo when he was in a similar predica- 
ment, Zwide wished to liberate his captive. But his mother, 
Tombazi, bearing malice in her heart, persuaded him to 
pot his generous enemy to death. Zwide's people then 
overran Dingiswayo's country, and the Umtetwa people 
took refuge with Chaka. They have ever since formed 
part of the Amazulu nation, though keeping their distinc- 
tive tribal name. By their accession the originally small 
and despised Zulu tribe became a dreaded power in 
the hands of Chaka. 

Chaka's Aimy. 

Chaka was a merciless savage, with all Dingiswayo's 
desire for conquest but none of his generosity. His ambi* 
tion was made of sterner stuff, and he entirely disapproved 
of Dingiswayo's policy of releasing prisoners and of allow^ 
ing vanquished enemies to re-occupy their land. By the 
defeat of his powerful neighbour, Zwide, who had all 
^ong defied Dingiswayo and himself, and by the sub- 
mission of the Undwandwe tribe, he gained another 
numerous addition to his army. Chaka spared only the 
young men of the tribes he conquered. The old men, 
women, and children were invariably destroyed, sometimes 

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134 Ghaka 

with the most atrocious cruelties, as ** they only consumed 
the food which made young warriors strong/' Instead 
of the handful of lon£[ spears for throwing with which 
each soldier had hitherto been armed, only one short 
broad-bladed spear — the txwa or stabbing assegai — was 
allowed to each warrior. That ensured their coming to 
close quarters with the enemy, and any one returning 
from battle without his weapon or that of his foe 
was immediately put to death. Cowardice or suspected 
cowardice was also punished with death. The soldiers were 
not allowed to marry lest the tender ties of wife and 
children should alienate their hearts from martial pursuits. 
Military kraals were placed all over the country, and the 
time not occupied in fighting was devoted to military drill, 
singing, dancipg, and athletic games. 

Each regiment numbered about 1,500 and was distin* 
guished by the colour of the shield. The " Ironsides '' or 
tried warriors carried white shields with one or two black 
spots. A warrior in full dress was a most impressive 
figure. A thick pad of otter skin coyered his head and 
projected over the forehead, imparting a ferocious look to 
his appearance. This fillet was graced by a single long 
crane feather in front and a bunch of feathers of all kinds 
and hues at the back, while firom its sides and covering his 
ears depended pieces of jackal skin. Strips of ox skin of 
divers colours covered his body, from the neck to the waist, 
and his right arm. The left or shidd arm was bare. A 
costly sim^a or w^-kilt, made of four hundred rolls of civet 
skin, hung from the waist to the knee. The lower part of 
the leg was covered with white tails attached to a garter, 
and ruffles of skin protected the ankle. Sandals, worn 
before Chaka's time, were by him forbidden as they impeded 
the movements of his warriors. 

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Chaka 135 

Chaka had also cadet corps. All the cadet companies 
liad black shields, each company being distinguished by a 
differently shaped and ornamented head-dress. Veteran 
r^[iment5 were allowed to retire after a certain period of 
service and the warriors to marry j the cadets were then 
promoted to the regular army. When an impi or war-party 
was sent out, only the general was entrusted with the secret 
of its destination, so that the devoted victims could know 
nothing of the intended onslaught till the awful war-chant 
of the Zulus sounded in their ears. If Chaka was satisfied 
that the spears of his warriors had been bathed in blood 
and that the enemy's country had been thoroughly looted, 
then the regiments were feasted and a share of the spoil 
was allotted to them; on the other hand, the failure or 
partial failure of an expedition was the signal for the 
n^assacre of half the men with the most cold-blooded 
cradty. The Zulu soldier knew that he must either as 

'* Victor exult, or in death be laid low " 

by the spear of his foe or ignominiously on his return, as 
" a man who had dared to fly." 

Chaka ruled by terror only. Life and death depended 
on his caprice. His striking personal appearance, his iron 
will, and. the reputation which he had of being more than 
human, compelled the submission and fear of his people. 
From his relentless cruelty and ferocity he has been called 
the *' Hyena-Man.'^ His immense size gained him the 
designation of "Great Elephant," and the royal kraal on 
the Umfolosi was thence known as UmgungundhloTUi 
(he plcue of the great elephant^ a name naturally transferred 
in after years by the natives to Maritzburg^, the Umgun- 
gundhlovu or seat of goyernment of the white man. 

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Chaka's Conquests. 

The tribes sbuth of the Ttigela soon began to suffer from 
the new military power which had sprung up in the north. 
The Abatetnbu and the Amacunu, living on the Lower 
Buffalo and the only remaining check to the extension of 
Chaka's power in that direction, were speedily attacked and 
driven south. These tribes caused much misery in their 
progress southward through the western part of Natal. 
The Natal natives had hitherto only played at fighting and 
were quite unable to cope with invaders whose proximity to 
Chaka had necessitated their acquiring some knowledge of 
aggressive warfare. Their huts were burned, and their 
com and cattle seized by the passing freebooters. But 
worse days were in store for them. The tribes in the 
Tugela valley were the first exposed to Chaka's attack. 
Some fled to the south; others surrendered and were per- 
mitted to remain as vassals. When the Zulus burst upon 
the tribes in the valley of the Umvoti, the terrified people 
endeavoured to make their way south. Not strong enough 
singly, the tribes united and forced their way through, 
spreading death and desolation as they went. Self-preserva- 
tion was the first thought, and all ancient friendships dis- 
appeared. Every man's hand was against his neighbour. 
By the time the dreaded Zulu army marched through the 
land the work of destruction was easily consummated. All 
live stock was captured, huts were burned, crops destroyed, 
and the wretched people speared without mercy. Before the 
feet of Chaka's impis the land was like the garden of Eden, 
and behind them a desolate wilderness. Only those escaped 
who were able in time to flee their kraals and betake them- 
selves to secret defiles in the mountains or to recesses of 
the forest Many of the tribes which had fled before the 
Zulus were overtaken by Chaka and destroyed. , The young 

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Chaka 137 

men had the choice of death or enlistment in the anny of 
the conqueror. Thousands escaped the spear by boldly 
penetrating into the country beyond the Umziixnrubu 
and throwing themselves on the mercy of the frontier kafirs. 
Chaka at the zenith of his power had a force of nearly 
100,000 warriors, called the Zulu army, but in reality com* 
posed of men from nearly every tribe between Delagoa 
Bay and St John's River. He added half^-million of 
alien people to the Zulu nation. Only the fever-haunted 
swamps along the Maputa River and the fear of a collision 
with the Cape colonists prevented Chaka from extending 
his sway further north and south. Within these boundaries 
he was supreme. No human dwelling was allowed south 
^ the Itong^ati or Tongaat River. Only the herdsmen 
of the royal cattle could roam as far as the Umzimkulu* 
The people he permitted to live were kept under his own 
eye. By banishing the conquered natives from their ancient 
homes and by murdering their chiefs, Chaka hoped to destroy 
all their tribal associations and in time to make them Zulus in 
feeling as well as in name. During his reign of terror Chaka 
is calculated to have destroyed 300 tribes and extended his 
power 500 miles north, south, and west. He, in truth, 
"waded through slaughter to a throne, and shut the gates 
of mercy on mankind." 

Natal Desolate 

The devastation of Natal was complete about the year 
1820. Remnants of some of the tribes yet lingered in the 
country and found hiding-places in the dense bush of the 
river valleys and in the gorges of the mountains. But 
their condition was most pitiable. Most of them had 
escaped the assegai only to perish by hunger. It was 
hazardous to cultivate their mealie gardens, for there was 

' Digitized by VjOOQIC 



the danger of being sisen by a Zulu impi if they ventured 
to stay too long in the open ground. So long as their dogs, 
the only domestic animal remaining to them, were fairly 
well fed, the wretched people could still capture game. Even 
that resource, however, soon iiuled them. The dogs were 
starved, could not hunt, and were then killed and eaten. 
For years thousands of people must have subsisted on roots, 
some of them of a poisonous nature. One species*--an 
"insane root, that takes the reason prisoner "—could^ not 
be eaten with safety until it bad been boiled twenty-four 
hours. If that precaution were not observed, insanity was 
the dreadful consequence. In that state the poor creatures 
would throw themselves over precipices or become the prey 
of the hyena and the panther. Hyenas became so bold as 
to attack men and women and carry off children. The 
Aoiatuli were reduced to such straits by hunger that they 
took to eating fish, an abomination to all other kafir tribes. 
Their cattle were all taken and their crops destroyed, but, 
although the tribe dwindled down to a very small number, 
they never left their ancient residence on the Bluff. 

To add to the horrors of that unhappy period, a man of 
the Amadunge tribe named Undava began the disgusting 
practice of eating human flesh. He soon collected a band 
of natives from his own and other tribes who hunted the 
country for human beings as tigers do for their prey. They 
began it from necessity and continued it from choice. The 
Amadunge chief himself was one of their victims. Canni- 
balism continued to be practised until Dingaan drove the 
last of the man eaters from the Biggarsberg, about the time of 
the arrival of the Dutch farmers. 

Nomsimekwana's Escape. 
Nomsimekwana, the chief of the Amanyamvu, told 

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Sir Tbeophilus Shepstone many years ago how he had es- 
caped from the cannibals when he was a boy. In the absence 
of the men of the tribe, who had gone to search for food, 
Undava's band of cannibals made a raid on the Amanyamvu 
and carried oflF Nomsimekwana with some women and children. 
The cannibals drove the captives up the Umsunduzi vdley. 
They made Nomsimekwana carry a flat-shaped pot and told 
him it would serve as a lid to the one in which he should be 
cooked. As the party was passing a deep reach of the river 
swarming with hippopotami just below BishopstOwe) Nom- 
simekwana darted from his captors and dived into the water. 
The cannibals threw their assegais after him but fortunately 
missed him. He hid himself in the reeds till his pursuers 
were gone. The young chief had sad news to tell the men 
who had been away seeking for food for their wives and 
children. The desolate cave in which they took refuge was 
more desolate than ever, and the men determined to join the 
Zulu people, widi whom they would at least be sure of food. 

The Amanyamvu. 

The history of Nomsimekwana's people is the history of 
niany another Natal tribes The Amanyamvii lived on the 
right bank of the Umgeni below Table Mountain, and 
the facilities for concealment afforded by that rugged country 
enabled a remnant of the tribe to successfully defy the Zulu 
assegais. They were attacked by Chaka's army and many 
of the tribe killed. Some were driven south and scattered 
among other tribes. The numbers of those who clung to 
their old home through all vicissitudes were gradually thinned 
by the ravages of starvation, of wild beasts, and of equally fierce 
man-eaters in human form. They at length abandoned their 
country and joined a tribe in the Tugela valley tributary to 
Chaka. Many of the Amanyamvu were soldiers in the Zulu 

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140 Chaka 

army and perished from fever near Delagoa Bay. In the time 
of Dingaan, the chief Nomsimekwana made his way back to 
Table Mountain where be was joined at intervals by his 
people from the Zulu country and elsewhere. 

After all the turns of Fortune's wheel, the Amanyamvu 
are again in their ancient home near Table Mountain where 
they had lived for hundreds of years before Chaka swept 
across the land. 

The Fingoes. 

Many thousands of the Natal Kafirs of all tribes, fleeing 
before the invading hordes from the north, took refuge with 
the Amaxosa and other kafirs on the Cape frontier. They 
were starving and homeless, and the expression used by the 
first refugees when begging for food and ^Iter — *' Fenguza,'' 
we arepedIars---ohtaJned for them all the name of Amafeng^ 
or Fingoes. The Fingoes immediately passed into a state 
of servitude to the frontier kafirs resembling that of the 
Laconian helots. They did not come of a race that would 
suffer slavery gladly, and they took every opportunity of free- 
ing themselves. They have always been firm allies of the 
British. In the frontier war of 1S34 when Hintzay the 
Galeka chief, was defeated, the Fingoes remained neutral 
As an acknowledgment of their friendly attitude, 16,000 of 
them were formally released from bondage by Sir Benjamiil 
lyUrban the Governor of the Cape, and settled on land 
given them on the lower part of the Great Fish River. They 
were afterwards removed north of the Kei River to the district 
now called Fingo Land. 

Chaka bbgan his reign of terror .... 1818 

Natal devastated 1820 

Fingoes released from bondage .... 1834 

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TfTie Early English Settlers 141 


Lieutenant Farewell. 

The English flag was flying from the Castle at Capetown 
while Chaka pursued his career of conquest and all Natal 
lay prostrate at his feet But no Englishmen had penetrated 
beyond the land of the frontier Kafirs. Grahamstown, south 
of the Great Fish River, at first only a military station, 
was the outpost of civilisation in that part of South Africa. 
After the Dutch ceased to trade on the coast, the Bay of 
Natal was no longer a regular place of call Nearly a century 
had elapsed since any vessel had sailed under the Bluff when, 
in 1823, the brig Salisbury, with Lieutenant Farewell 
on board, anchored in the harbour. Farewell was an oflicer 
who had served in the Royal Marines, and had been on a* 
trading trip near Delagoa Bay. He beard that a profitable 
trade might be opened up with the Zulus, and he called at 
Natal to satisfy himself regarding the capabilities of the 
country and the friendliness of its natives. The prospects of 
the enterprise appeared encouraging, and on his return to 
Capetown. he persuaded about twenty adventurous spirits to 
join him in his expedition to the land of Natal. Lord 
Charles Somerseti the Governor of the Cape, gave his con- 
sent to the undertaking, with his wishes for its success 
in advancing trade and civilisation. In 1824 the little 
band of Englishmen came to Natal, and they came to stay. 
Lieutenant Farewell, Mr Henry Fjrnn, and Lieu- 
tenant King, were the recognised leaders. Isaacs, Cane, 
Ogle, and Biggar were also well-known names among the 

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142 The Early English Settlers 

Salisbury Island, in the Bay» commemorates the ship 
which first brought Farewell to Natal 

Chaka and the English Settlers. 

The great King of the Zulus was very gracious to the 
Enghshmen. Dingiswayo's account of the Cape and of the 
military power of the people who owned it was still fresh 
in his memory. Pynn, Farewell, and King visited him 
at his military kraal between Tongaat and UmhlalL As 
a preliminary to further negotiations, there was an inter- 
change of presents, consisting of copper and beads on the 
one side, and oxen and ivory on the other. Twelve 
thousand Zulus in war-dress surrounded the kraal when 
the Englishmen arrived. The king's cattle in thousands 
were paraded before the visitors, and a war-dance in which 
25,000 men and women took part was performed for their 
entertainment. Chaka informed them that he was the 
greatest king in existence, that his people were as the stars 
in number, and his riches in cattle incalculable. In high 
good humour, for his listeners did not dare to combat his 
arguments, he ridiculed English habits and customs, being 
especially severe on the folly of converting hides into such 
unnecessary articles as shoes when shields were much more 
handsome and useful. But he paid all respect to the trio, 
and gave them and their followers full permission to setde 
at the Bay and trade as they pleased. He formally ceded 
to them a tract of land extending 25 miles along 
the coast, including the Bay and 100 miles inland. 
The sickening scenes of cruelty which the Englishmen 
were forced to witness during subsequent visits to Chaka 
unhappily gave them many opportunities of observing the 
other and ferocious side of the character of the Zulu 

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The Early English Settlers 143 

The White Chiefs. 

A grant of land being thus made by Chaka, each of the 
leaders selected a separate station for himself and his 
followers. The ground now occupied by the Town 
Gardens of Durban was Farewell's camp ; King chose 
the part of the Bluff opposite the island; and P]rnn 
established himself on the Umbilo, at the head of the Bay. 
The Englishmen found the Bluff inhabited by a handful of 
natives of the Amatuli tribe under their chief Umnini. 
They had remained there through all the miseries of 
Chaka's invasion, barely existing on roots and shellfish. 
The newcomers were at first viewed with distrust and 
alarm by these wretched creatures. No ship or white man 
had been seen there for a generation. Two or three years 
before when a shipwrecked sailor had sought refuge among 
the Amaqwabe, the chief had put him to death, believing 
that he belonged to a family of sea-monsters who had their 
dwellings in ships and who subsisted on salt water and on 
ivory obtained from the shore. But in a short time the 
Englishmen, by their friendly demeanour and kind treat- 
ment, succeeded in gaining the confidence of the hunted 
and starving natives ; and the three camps were soon known 
far and near as havens of refuge where food and protec- 
tion could always be found. Many men under, the dis- 
pleasure of Chaka contrived to escape and fled to the 
English settlement at the Bay. Chaka was aware of these 
desertions, but he regarded them with lofty toleration. 
"They have gone to my friends," he said, "not to my 
enemies." In the course of a few years a large number of 
natives from various Natal tribes had congregated at 
the Bay and transferred their allegiance to the white 
chiefs who had succoured and protected them in their 

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144 The Early English Settlers 


The Amangwana tribe under Matiwana, which had 
been driven across the Buffalo by Dingiswayo about 1812, 
settled in the wild country south of the Upper Tugela. 
There they lived undisturbed till 1828, when a determined 
attack was made on them by Chaka. Some fled towards 
the Bushman River and became .homeless wanderers. A 
numerous section of the tribe went across the Drakensberg 
with their chief Matiwana and took to a life of lawless vio- 
lence. Joined by desperadoes like themselves, they carried 
desolation into the peaceful valleys of Lesuto, the home of 
the then unwarlike Basutos, as Chaka had done into Natal. 
Moshesh, at that time a petty Basuto chief, successfully 
resisted Matiwana and his warriors. At the height of the 
struggle he took refuge in his natural stronghold of Thaba 
Bosigo, tlu Dark Mountain^ about six miles from the Caledon 
River. He tired out Matiwana by his passive resistance, and 
that daring freebooter, re-crossing the Berg further to the 
south, sought a new field of conquest among the frontier 
kafirs of the Cape, who styled his marauding hordes Fet- 
cani or banditti. The Tembu and Galeka tribes seemed to 
be threatened with destruction, and a combined force of 
British red-coats and burghers was sent to aid the kafirs 
against Matiwana^s savages. Near the Umtata, the band 
of Fetcani was utterly routed, and Matiwana with a few 
followers fled north to throw himself on the mercy of Chaka. 
But the great Zulu King was dead when the Amangwana 
chief arrived at the royal kraal, and Matiwana fell into 
evil hands. By order of Dingaan, the murderer and 
successor of Chaka, he was cruelly put to death. 
The scattered Amangwana people, like so many others, 
gathered together in later years after the Revolt of 
Panda, and now occupy the same country along the 

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The Early English Settlers 145 

Little Berg from which they were expelled by Chaka in 


Among Chaka's generals there was one Umsilikazi| 
better known as Moselekatse, who had been a petty chief 
under Zwide. In ambition and talent for military organisa- 
tion he was second to none but his mighty chief. Chafing 
under control, and burning to found a great nation for him- 
self, he broke away from Chaka in 1826, and at the head of 
an army who had deserted with him crossed the Drakens- 
berg into what is now the Transvaal. He carried fire and 
sword among the peaceful Bechuana tribes, who either fled 
before him or were incorporated as his subjects. Moshesh, 
the Basuto chief, had hardly time to get his scattered 
people into order after Matiwana's retreat, when Thaba 
Bosigo was attacked by the hosts of Moselekatse. But the 
storm of stones and assegais with which they were met from 
the heights completely daunted the assailants, and they left 
the country of Moshesh with a clearer idea of his power. 
When they were moving away, Moshesh sent them a present 
of fat oxen, saying he supposed it was hunger which had 
brought them to Lesuto, and he sent them the cattle to eat 
on their way home. It was Moselekatse who fell on the 
Dutch farmers near the Vaal River in 1836 as they trekked 
northward to Natal. Some years later he was forced to flee 
before the muskets of the Boers when they spread themselves 
over the Transvaal. Retreating north of the Limpopo, he 
subjugated the native tribes in that region, the Mashona 
and Makalaka, and established the Matabele kingdom 
afterwards ruled over by his son and successor, Lobengula, 
and now forming part of Rhodesia. Moselekatse died in 

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146 The Early English Settlers 

Death of Lieutenant King. 

The Englishmen at the Bay succeeded in building a small 
schooner intended to ply for trading purposes between Natal 
and Port Elizabeth. She was launched in 1828, and named 
the Chaka. She sailed at once for Algoa Bay with King, 
Farewell, and Isaacs on board. With them went two of 
Chaka's indunas. That sable potentate desired to enter into 
a friendly alliance with King George, and it was hoped that 
his ambassadors would be sent on to England by the 
Governor of the Cape. The journey to Port Elizabeth was 
a disappointment to white and black alike. The Chaka was 
frowned upon by the authorities as being unregistered and 
coming from a foreign port. And the communications re- 
ceived from Capetown indicated that the views entertained 
by His Majesty's representative there with regard to an 
alliance with the King of the Zulus did not savour of en- 
thusiasm. The result was that the Chaka was confiscated 
and allowed to rot at Port Elizabeth, and the whole party was 
sent back to Natal in the war-sloop Helicon. Lieutenant 
King took seriously ill after his return, and the chagrin and 
disappointment caused by the untoward sequel to the Chaka's 
voyage did not tend to his recovery. He died at his camp 
on the Bluflf, and is buried there. The Cape Government 
had sent presents to the Zulu King, but he thought them in- 
adequate, and his self-importance was ruffled by the cold 
reception accorded to his headmen. Any serious conse- 
quences which might have befallen the English settlers from 
the despot's offended dignity were prevented by his violent 
and unexpected death. 

The End of Chaka. 

Chaka had moved one of his military kraals, Dukuza, 
to near the Lower Umvoti. There, where the village of 

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The Early English Settlers 147 

Stanger now stands, he was murdered in 1828 by his brothers 
Dingaan and Mahlangfana, with the connivance of Urn- 
bopu, his confidential servant. Shortly before his death an 
army had returned from an unsuccessful expedition against 
the Amapondo, and was at once ordered off without rest to 
punish a contumadoos chief near Delagoa Bay. In the 
absence of the men, Chaka assumed the office of a " dream- 
doctor," and three or four hundred women were brutally 
murdered to gratify his taste for bloodshed. While giving 
audience shortly afterwards to some men who had brought 
him cranes' feathers, Mahlangana crept up behind him and 
stabbed him in the back. Dingaan then rushed at him with 
his assegai, and Chaka fell covered with wounds. It is said 
that " the sunset of life gave him mystical lore,'' for as he 
felt his life-blood ebbing away he exclaimed to his mur- 
derers, ** You think you will rule this land when I am gone ; 
but I see the white man coming, and he will be your master." 
Chaka lies buried at Dukuza where he fell. He lived by 
the sword and he perished by the sword. No more merciless 
monster stains the pages of history. 


Dingaan at once assumed the chieftainship. He 

lacked much of Chaka's ability, but he was his equal in 

cruelty, and he excelled him in cunning and treachery. 

MaUangana and another brother, who were supposed to 

aim at supreme power, were put out of the way. The 

a^y which had been sent to Delagoa Bay came back in a 

miserable plight— defeated, and enfeebled by sickness and 

famine. The men were pardoned, but the general was put 

^0 death. Dingaan made his permanent residence at 

Mxngungundhlovu on the White Umfolosi, about 160 

Qiiles from the Bay. At first it seemed as if the English 

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148 The Early English Settlers 

settlement had found favour in the sight of the new despot, 
for he despatched John Cane with a message of friendship 
to the authorities at Grahamstown. On Cane's return, the 
presents he brought were forwarded by natives to the royal 
kraal. Thereupon Dingaan summoned Fynn and Cane to 
his presence. The Englishmen had by that time acquired 
considerable knowledge of native ways, and declined to 
obey the summons. They knew it was the policy of new 
chiefs to cut off the friends and supporters of their pre- 
decessors, and that Dingaan was specially incensed at the 
number of deserters from his rule whom they shielded and 
harboured. Knowing what to expect after their refusal 
to appear at Umgungundhlovu, F]rnn and Cane, with 
all their people, white and black, took flight and never 
stopped till the Umzimkulu flowed between them and 
Dingaan. The Zulu impi was close upon them. The 
Zulus captured some of the Englishmen's cattle, and on 
their way back laid waste the settlement at the Bay. 
Dingaan's wrath was short-lived. In 1831 he prevailed 
on the white traders to return, and he declared Fynn 
"Great Chief of the Natal Kafirs." 

Deserters from Dingaan. 

As early as 1827, refugees from the Zulu power had 
made their way to the Bay settlement. After the accession 
of Dingaan, desertions became more frequent. It needed 
Chaka's iron will and the terror of his name to keep 
together a people like the so-called Zulus, composed of 
every tribe from King George's River to St John's. The 
tribes and remnants of tribes not actually incorporated 
with the Zulus were allowed to occupy the land as far 
south as the Tongaat and along the coast to the Umgeni by 
paying tribute to the Zulu King. Their populations had 

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The Early English Settlers 149 

been greatly increased by the number of natives drawn to 
them by hunger and misery. Discontent and disloyalty 
soon began to show themselves among these tribes. 
Dingaan at once took measures to quell this rising spirit of 
revolt. The hereditary chiefs were put to death and officers 
of his own choosing, called ''captains of kraals," were 
placed in authority. The fiery spirits of the tribes were 
drafted into the regular army. One of the largest clans, 
the Amaqwabe, fled in a body to Amapondo Land under 
their chief Qeto. Dingaan pursued them in vain, and 
sent two spies to the Umzimvubu to watch their movements. 
Suspecting that the coast kafirs harboured runaways and 
aided them in passing on to the south, Dingaan ordered the 
depopulation of the coast belt as far north as the Tugela, 
and extending about 45 miles from its mouth. The right 
bank of that river was thus to be occupied only as far down 
as Krans Kop. Despite these precautions, homesick and 
discontented natives took every opportunity of returning to 
their own land. There, doubtless, they found help and 
sympathy from the thousands of natives who, in the natural 
strongholds and hiding-places with which the country 
abounds, defied Dingaan's edict of expatriation. 

Murder of Lieutenant Farewell. 

Though communication by sea was soon renewed with 
Algoa Bay, the loss of the schooner Chaka had meanwhile 
obliged the English traders to open up a road overland for the 
conveyance of their produce to Grahamstown. Lieutenant 
Farewell was returning by that route in 1831, when he was 
cnielly murdered by Qeto, the Amaqwabe chief who had 
fled from Dingaan. The Amapondo chief, Faku, warned 
Farewell against his intended visit to -the Amaqwabe, as Qeto 
would be sure to recognise one o^ Dingaan's spies who was 

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150 The Early English Settlers 

with the party. But Farewell disregarded the warning and 
went. Qeto detected the spy although he was disguised with 
a great-coat, and was incensed accordingly. He cast a 
covetous eye also on the merchandise of the traders, which 
he knew was going to enrich his hated enemy Dingaan. In 
the night the tent of Farewell and his companions was 
surrounded and the whole party murdered. 

The Amaqwabe chief himself met the fate he had basely 
meted out to his unsuspecting guests. He was ultimately 
driven from the Umzimvubu by Faku, and after enduring 
much misery, wandered back with some of his people into 
Natal, where he was betrayed to his ruthless enemy Dingaan 
and put to death. The tribe was dispersed. It re-assembled, 
however, after Panda's revolt, and is now in its ancient 
residence on the Lower Tugela to the number of about 
twenty thousand. 

Henry Fynn. 

By the death of King and Farewell, Mr Henry Fjtm 
was left the sole survivor of the dauntless three who had 
carried their lives in their hands as the pioneers of British 
trade and British influence in Natal. The Bay settlement 
suffered another loss when he left in 1834 to take lip an 
appointment under the Cape Government. The authorities 
there found his thorough knowledge of native language and 
customs of the greatest service. Cane and Ogle then as- 
sumed direction of affairs at the Bay. Mr Fynn afterwards 
returned to Natal, and was for many years a Resident 
Magistrate after British rule was established. 

Captain Allen Gardiner. 

In 1835 Captain Allen Gardiner, of the Royal Navy, 
joined the little colony by the Bay side. A. man ,of great 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Early English Settlers 151 

piety, he came to Natal in the hope of establishing a mission 
among the Zulus. He went to Dingaan at Umgimgundhlovu 
to obtain his consent The King and two of his indunas 
listened patiently to Captain Gardiner while he explained 
to them the blessings attendant on Christianity, but they 
were obviously not impressed with his discourse. Dingaan 
announced that his words were beyond their comprehension, 
but that he might stay if he could instruct his men in the use 
of the musket. The King had, however, no objection to his 
teaching the natives gathered round the English settlers. On 
his return from this fruitless visit to Dingaan, the residents 
at the Bay asked Captain Gardiner to begin a mission for 
"the promotion of religion and industry," and guaranteed 
him their hearty support. When the mission, church was 
built on the bush-covered heights overlooking the Bay, and 
near to where St Thomas's Church now stands. Captain 
Gardiner named the hill Berea, in gratitude for having found 
the traders "more noble than those of" Umgungundhlovu. 

Captain Gardiner entered into a treaty with Dingaan in 
which that potentate pardoned all the natives who had de- 
serted him and were with the white men, but stipulated for 
the return of all runaways who should seek refuge after the 
date of the agreement. The latter part of the treaty was 
observed once, and only once. On that occasion some 
miserable fugitives who were sent back were tortured to death 
by starvation. After that, all refugees were at once passed 
down south out of Dingaan's reach. 

In 1837 Captain Gardiner returned from a visit to England. 
Mr Owen, a clergyman sent out by the Church Missionary 
Society, came with him, and was stationed by Dingaan^s 
permission at the royal village of Umgungundhlovu. While 
in England Captain Gardiner was officially commissioned 
to exercise jurisdiction over the affairs of the trading settle- 
Digitized by vjOOQIc 

152 The Early English Settlers 

ment, but none of the residents would acknowledge his 
authority. He received no encouragement when he for- 
warded a complaint regarding their insubordination to Sir 
Benjamin D'Urban, the Governor of the Cape. The British 
Government, he was informed, had no wish to impose any 
duties on Captain Gardiner should he find that they had " no 
good practical result." At the same time the settlers at Port 
Natal were still considered subjects of the Queen. 

The brave sailor-missionary left Natal shortly afterwards. 
He perished miserably by starvation in 1852 on the in- 
hospitable shores of Patagonia, whither he and some fellow- 
workers had gone on a rash and perilous mission expedition. 


The settlement of English hunters and traders at the Bay 
was eleven years old when, in respect to their increasing 
numbers, it was resolved to lay out a township " between the 
River Avon and the Buffalo Spring." The River Avon is 
thought to be the Umbilo, and the Buffalo Spring is probably 
the natural fountain, now covered in, near the comer of 
Smith and Field Streets, where at one time ships regularly 
obtained supplies of fresh water. The site of the future town 
was a dense jungle varied by tracts of green-sward, naturally 
ornamented by large trees, and not yet cut up by traffic into 
beds of deep sand. Shy antelopes bounded from covert to 
covert, countless monkeys chattered in wooded shades and 
swung themselves from the creepers, and the huge spoor of 
the elephant was a familiar sight in the winding bush paths. 
There was only one square house in the settlement, and that 
was constructed of the handiest materials, reeds plastered 
with mud — in colonial parlance, "wattle and daub.'' This 
mansion was owned by Mr CoUis. The other inhabitants 
resided, like their native vassals, in the more modest beehive- 
Digitized by vjOOQIc 

The Early English Settlers 153 

shaped straw huts. The huts were built in secluded parts of 
the bush for safety, for the favour of Dingaan was precarious, 
and at any time the settlement might have experienced the 
fell swoop of a Zulu impi. 

With about 3,000 kaflrs at their beck and call, the settlers 
felt that they might safely give up this semi-savage way of 
living, and gradually adopt one more in accordance with the 
dignity of an English community. Accordingly, at a public 
meeting held on the 23rd June, 1835, and attended by seven- 
teen residents, one of them, Richard Kins^, afterwards 
famous, resolutions were agreed to regarding the laying-out of 
the township and the founding of a colony. The town to 
be built was named D'Urban^ in honour of His Excellency 
the Governor of the Cape. The infant colony, which they 
proposed should extend from the Tugela to the Umzimkulu, 
was in compliment to the youthful Princess called Victoria. 
Every inhabitant was to receive an allotment of land on which 
he should erect a house within eighteen months. No kafir 
hut was to be allowed within the township. Three thousand 
acres of land on the " River Avon " were set apart for Church 
lands and the endowment of a clergyman of the Church 
of England; and a site was chosen for a free school, two 
thousand acres of land on the Umkomaas being reserved for 
its support. A public hospital and a cemetery were not for- 
gotten. A town-committee was elected at the meeting, and a 
subscription list was opened for "clearing the bush and other 
necessary improvements." The members of this first Durban 
Town Council were Captain Gardiner and Messrs CoUis, 
Berkin, Cane, and Ogle. The householders forwarded a 
petition to Sir Benjamin D'Urban embodying their resolu 
tions, and praying the British Government to recognise the 
Colony of Victoria and to appoint a Governor and Council 
No official response was made to their prayer. Sir Benjamin 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

154 The Early English Settlers 

DITrban acknowledged the compliment paid to himself in the 
naming of the township by forwarding jQ^o to aid in the 
erection of a church. 

That was the beginning of Durban 70 years ago. 

When the Rev. James Archbell, of the Wesleyan 
Mission, visited Durban in 1841, little had been done to give 
effect to the resolutions passed at the public meeting six 
years before. Primeval bush was still the leading feature of 
the township. But Mr Archbell saw in its magnificent 
position, in the abundance of fuel and timber, and in its 
proximity to two large rivers, the Umgeni and the Umlaas— 
both assured sources of water supply — promises of future 
greatness ; and he felt justified in asserting that only time was 
wanting to transform Durban into " the most populous and 
delightfully-situated town on the coast of Africa." After the 
lapse of over half a century his prediction seems in a fair way 
of being fulfilled. 

The American and Weslesran Missioiraries. 

In the last month of 1834 a devoted band of mission- 
aries embarked at Boston to prosecute a mission among 
the "Zulus of South Eastern Africa." They were Mr 
Lindley, Mr Wilson, and Mr Venable ; Dr Adams, 
Mr Grout, and Mr Champion, with their wives and 
families. The first three landed at Capetown and proceeded 
far into the interior. Dr Adams and his companions were 
under orders for Port Natal, whence their operations were 
to extend among the coast tribes. These messengers of 
peace and goodwill arrived at Durban from Algoa Bay in 
December, 1835, in a small coaster with the appropriate 
name of the Dove. After a few weeks spent among the 
strange and charming scenery of the Bay, the missionaries 
proceeded by wagon to Umgungundhlovu. They found it 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Early English Settlers 155 

little else than a camp of soldiers. The making of shields 
was the chief occupation of the people; bloodshed and 
pillage the burden of their talk. Dingaan, arrayed in a 
mantle and turban of red plush, presented to him by 
Captain Gardiner, received the missionaries very graciously. 
But he told them that he preferred white men to remain 
south of the Tugela, and that he doubted their ability to 
teach his people to read and write. He, however, as an 
experiment, gave the missionaries leave to begin a school on 
the Umhlatuzi. A station was accordingly established on 
that river. In the troublous times of Dingaan's wars with 
the Dutch farmers, the missionaries came further south and 
settled in Natal. Here for over half a century they and 
their successors have, with unwearying zeal, laboured to 
leaven the mass of barbarism around them. Three pioneers 
of the mission. Grout, Lindley and Adams, are com- 
memorated in the names of large native villages founded 
hy them at Umvoti, Inanda, and Amanzimtoti, in 1844, 
1847, and 1848 respectively. 

The Rev. James Archbell returned to Durban w\th 
Captain Smith in 1842, and after the final hoisting of 
the British flag gathered a small congregation in Durban 
and thus founded the Wesleyan Mission in Natal. Mr 
Davis, Mr Richards, Mr Allison, and Mr Holden were 
also pioneers of the Mission which has done such splendid 
work in the civilisation of South Africa. The Rev. Frederick 
Mason, well known to the present generation, arrived in 
South Africa in 1858. 

First Engush settlers arrive in Natal . . 1824 


Natal kafirs begin to return .... 1827 
Death of Chaka 1828 

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156 The Dutch Farmers 

Lieutenant Farewell murdered 
Henry Fynn leaves Natal . 
Captain Allen Gardiner's arrival 
Durban first laid out 
First arrival of American missionaries 
Weslbyan Mission founded 



" To Spy out the Land." 

In 1834 Sir Benjamin D'Urban received a petition from 
a large number of merchants and others in Capetown for 
transmission to King William praying that a settlement 
might be formed at Natal. The petition stated that Natal 
was a dependency of the Cape Colony, inasmuch as it was 
purchased by the Dutch East India Company. It also set 
forth the excellence of the climate, the productiveness of 
the country, the certainty of a large trade, the peaceableness 
of the natives, the necessity of protecting the traders then 
in Natal and the frontier tribes of the Cape from attacks 
by the Zulus, and the influence such a settlement would 
have in civilising the tribes on its borders. The petition 
was not favourably entertained. The British Government 
replied that the Cape finances would not allow of the 
establishment of a new dependency. 

Although the petition was disregarded, the great interest 
taken in the unknown land under the Berg was kept up 
among both English and Dutch colonists by the glowing 
descriptions of traders and hunters. The Dutch farmers 
were at that time in a state of great discontent with the 

Digitized by VjO'OQIC 

The Dutch Farmers 157 

Government, and filled with a desire to seek a new land 
beyond its control. Natal seemed to them the Canaan of 
their hopes, and, like the Israelites of old, they sent out 
men "to search the land." Fourteen wagons started from 
Uitenhage under the charge of Uys, Maritz, De Lange, 
and Rudolph, and proceeding through Kafirland and along 
the base of the Berg arrived in due time at the Bay of 
Natal. They were cordially welcomed by the English 
traders, who, however, were somewhat surprised at their 
sudden appearance. The newcomers stayed for a time 
hunting and shooting, and then returned by the way they 
came. Their departure was hastened by the news that 
hordes of kafirs under Macomo and Hintza had invaded the 
Cape Colony. The Dutch farmers, like the Jewish ex- 
plorers, reported to their fellows that Natal was a "good" 
land, a land fair to see, of green pastures and sparkling 
streams, ''a land flowing with milk and honey." But the 
project of emigration had to wait until the confusion and 
bloodshed of the Kafir war were over. 

Causes of the Boer Exodus. 

The Kafir outbreak was quelled, chiefly by the exertions 
of Colonel Smith, afterwards Sir Harry Smith, and the 
colonial border was extended to the Kei River. Magistrates 
were appointed over the conquered territory, and 16,000 
Fingoes, remnants of fugitive Natal tribes, were formally 
liberated and located on the Fish River. Sir Theophilus 
Shepstone was present when these helots were set free by 
Sir Benjamin D'Urban. The new province was named 
Adelaide, and its chief settlement. King William's 
Town. It seemed as if civilisation had made a stride 
forward on the Cape frontier. The British Government, 
however, did not approve of Sir Benjamin D'Urban's action 

DigitEed by 


158 The Dutch Farmers 

in annexing the territoxy. Lord Glenelg, then Secretary 
of State, in a despatch dated December, 1835, accused the 
colonists of having brought on the Kafir war by their 
inhuman and unjust treatment of the natives, and peremp- 
torily ordered the conquered province to be restored to its 
original owners. The consequence was that the kafirs 
swarmed back towards the Great Fish River, and security 
of life and property in that district was again at an end. 
Lord Glenelg's despatch caused great indignation in the 
colony, and intensified the'^ feeling against English rule among 
the frontier farmers. Fifty of their number had been slain, 
their homesteads had been burned, and their cattle and 
sheep carried off by the invading savages. Their wagons 
and oxen and horses had been taken for service in the 
field. They were the sufferers, not the aggressors, and 
with the reversal of Sir Benjamin D'Urbau's policy, their 
scattered homesteads were thenceforth never safe from 

Another settled cause of discontent was the abolition 
of slavery in 1833. Ever since Van Riebeek ruled at the 
Cape, the freed burghers had been accustomed to reckon 
slaves as part of their property. Besides Hottentots and 
Bushmen, they had as slaves Malays, natives of Madagascar, 
and negroes from all parts of the coast, imported for them 
by the Government The great Slave Emancipation Law 
took effect in all British colonies in 1834, but for reasons of 
convenience the freed slaves remained with their former 
owners as apprenticed labourers until the ist of December, 
1838. Meanwhile slave-owners received money compensa- 
tion for the loss of their "property." The granting of 
liberty to the slaves gave great offence to the Boers. They 
entirely disapproved of blacks "being placed on an equal 
footing with Christians, contrary to the natural distinction 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Dutch Farmers 159 

of race and religion." And they deemed the money which 
they received in lieu of their slaves wholly inadequate. 

The want of adequate protection against the depredations 
of the frontier kafirs, and the losses sustained, and the resent- 
ment caused, by the emancipation of the slaves, were the 
chief reasons which in 1836 led to a large emigration of 
Dutch fanners beyond the borders of the Cape Colony. 
They were generally dissatisfied with English rule, and their 
imaginations were excited by the thought of finding in the 
dim interior the freedom for which they sighed. This exodus 
was mainly the outcome of long years of nomadic habits, 
begun and strongly manifested long ere the Cape had become 
a British possession. 

The Great Northward Trek. 

The Great Trek soon began. Selling their farms, often 
far below their value, and taking with them their wagons 
and oxen, their horses, their herds of cattle and flocks of 
sheepj the farmers commenced their march into the wilder- 
ness. They went in various parties and at different times. 
From 5,000 to 10,000 people are believed to have left the 
colony in 1836 and 1837. No opposition to their departure 
was made by the Government. A large detachment which 
left at the close of 1S36 chose Pieter Retief as their leader. 
He was descended from a Huguenot family, a field-com- 
mandant in the Winterberg district, and a man of great 
influence among his countrymen. Before crossing the Orange 
River, he signed a declaration in the name of the emigrants, 
detailing the reasons which moved them to forsake their 
mother country, and asserting their independence thence- 
forth of the British Government. The document avowed 
the desire of the emigrants to live in peace with the native 
tribes they might meet on their journey and in the land in 

Digitized by 


i6o The Dutch Farmers 

which they might settle. Other men of mark among the 
voortrekkers were Maritz, Uys, Potgieter, Rudolph, 
Landman, and Celliers. These Boer leaders were grave 
stem men, imbued with the spirit of the Dutch burghers 
who defeated Alva, and of the Huguenots who fought under 
Cond^. The Bible was their only literature. No ifnportant 
undertaking was ever entered upon without prayer and 
praise being offered to the Almighty. Like the Puritans, 
they had as much faith in the psalm as in the pike-point. 

The emigrants crossed the Orange partly at Aliwal 
North, partly nearer Colesberg, and the immense cavalcade 
proceeded slowly along the endless plains which slope west- 
ward from the summit of the Berg. Apprehension of attack 
from the frontier kafirs led the Boers to avoid the route 
along the base of the mountains. The monotony of the 
level country along which their wagons toiled was broken 
only by an occasional flat-topped hill rising abruptly from 
the plain and by herds of springbok and blesbok, wildebeest 
and hartebeest, eland and quagga, in such numbers as 
almost to obscure the landscape. Fiercer beasts were also 
encountered. Two hundred lions were killed during the 
trek. The Basuto chief, Moshesh, held parley with the 
white men now and then, and offered no obstruction to 
their progress. Near l^aba 'Nchu, a high rugged 
mountain, the stronghold of the Barolong chief, the emigrants 
halted. There they found some of the advance parties 
waiting for the main body. Impatient of delay, two or 
three families had gone on under the guidance of Rensburg* 
and Trichard. The former and all his followers were 
murdered by the "Knob-nosed" kafirs. Trichard's people 
found their way to Delagoa Bay, where nearly all the men 
died of fever. The survivors, mostly women and children, 
were brought to Natal in 1839 by Mr Geo. C. Cato. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Dutch Farmers i6i 

The First Fight 

South of the Vaal River, and near the present town of 

Kroonstadt, two small detached parties of emigrants were 

attacked by the fierce warriors, of Moselekatse. The 

wagons with possible booty of all kinds, and the cattle, 

sheep, and horses, seemed a rare prize to these desert robbers 

who roamed about seeking what they might devour. 

The emigrants were quite unprepared, and they were nearly 

all murdered. The few who escaped warned the scattered 

parties coming on behind of the terrible danger in front. 

Hasty preparations were made for Moselekatse's reception 

by Charl CellierSi who, like Cromwell's troopers, could 

fight as well as pray. The wagons were drawn up in square, 

and thus formed a fortified place or laager. Mimosa or 

thorn bushes were placed in the gaps under and between 

the wagons and interlaced in the the spokes of the wheels. 

The women and children were put under cover in wagons in 

the middle of the laager, but in the thick of the fight the 

women came out to help the men. Moselekatse's kafirs 

advanced on the camp in three divisions. The Dutchmen 

opened fire at about thirty yards. In spite of the deadly 

shower of bullets, the assailants threw themselves against the 

wagons in their endeavour to take the camp by storm. 

When any kafir succeeded in creeping through the thorn 

enclosure he was killed by the women, armed with knives 

and hatchets, before he could gain his feet. Men and 

women alike fought with the courage of despair. The enemy 

at last retired, leaving over four hundred of their number 

dead around the camp. Two Dutchmen were killed and 

several wounded. The canvas covers of the wagons which 

formed the outward wall of the laager were rent and torn 

with assegai stabs, and 1,172 of those weapons were found 

within the camp when the fight was over. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 62 The Dutch Farmers 

Moselekatse's Kraal. 

In January, 1837, to avenge their murdered comrades, a 
commando of over a hundred men under Maritz and Pot- 
gieter rode across the Vaal and attacked Moselekatse's 
kraal of Mos^a. They inflicted a severe defeat on that 
lawless robber. Hundreds of his warriors fell beneath the 
Boers' muskets ; and the wagons and cattle stolen from the 
murdered farmers were recovered. At Mosega the Boers 
found Mr Lindley, Mr Venable, and Mr Wilson, with their 
wives — the American missionaries who had found their way 
to that remote region from Capetown. Suffering from 
fever, and suspicious of the good faith of Moselekatse, the 
missionaries deemed it prudent to leave Mosega and return 
with the farmers to their encampment on the Sand River. 

The successive attacks by Moselekatse impressed on the 
farmers the necessity of closer unicm and measures fen* com- 
bined defence. Every camp was therefore placed under a 
commandant, and laws were made for the safety and order 
of the community. Pieter Retief was elected Governor, 
and Gert Maritz, President of the Volksraad, or 
Council of the People. 

Down the Berg. 

When the farmers started from Cape Colony, they im- 
agined that the only way down into Natal was round the 
northmost end of the great mountain range. That route 
would have brought them out near Delagoa Bay. Some 
of their leaders, desirous of finding a sh(Mter road, set out 
from Sand River to explore the part of the Berg nearest 
the encampment. They returned with the welcome is- 
telligence that at five different points a way could be found 
down the lofty mountain wall into the "meadow of Natal.'' 
Pieter Retief, with fifteen men and four wagons preceded 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Dutch Farmers 163 

the main body of the emigrants and made his way to the 
Bay, where he arrived in October, 1837. He received an 
address of welcome from the traders, and after some corre- 
spondence with DmgBzn relative to the emigrants settling 
in Natal, he proceeded on horseback to Umgungundhlovu 
with five of his own men and Halstead, an Englishman, as 
interpreter. To the Dutchmen, the whole land of Natal 
seemed unoccupied. Riding along the highlands and open 
parts of the country, they had not seen a single native from 
the Beig to the sea. Only at the Port were any of the 
aboriginal owners of the soil evident, and they were gathered 
for protection round the handful of Englishmen. Of the 
tribes and remnants of tribes dwelling in forest, ravine, and 
river valley, the Boers knew nothing. To them the land 
of Natal seemed tenantless; it belonged to Dingaan; and 
from Dingaan it must be obtained. 

Meanwhile, about a thousand wagons with the main body 
of the emigrants and their flocks and herds had come 
down the wild natural passes of the Berg. The bulk of the 
people entered by Bezuidenhout's Pass ; a few came by 
Tintwa Pass, and a few by OUvier's Hoek Pass. Thb 
colony proceeded to settle down in scattered encampments 
all along the Tugela, some to the north in the Klip River 
district, others and the larger number to the south, from the 
Little Tugela to the Mooi River. 


The royal village of Dingaan, to which Retief and his 
companions journeyed, was built on the sloping bank of a 
rocky stream, a branch of the White Umfolosi. The 
king's kraal was oval in shape and several acres in extent. 
It was completely enclosed, except for two entrances, by a 
strong bush fence, and it contained, besides cattle knuds. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

164 The Dutch Farmers 

the king's huts and about two thousand huts for his 
soldiers with a large open space in the middle for war- 
dances and parades. The huts were built within the fence 
six or eight deep, and were separated by another fence from 
the parade ground Here and there were huts raised from 
the ground, in which the shields of the warriors were pre- 
served from insects. The royal huts were built in a kind 
of labyrinth at the upper end of the town, and the ** palace " 
was merely a hut larger and grander than the others. It 
was twenty feet across and eight feet in height, and was 
supported by twenty-two pillars covered with beads of 
various colours. The floor shone like a mirror. The 
palace was surmounted by a crown, ingeniously constructed 
from twisted mats. Outside the royal kraal were several 
detached huts. In one of them lived Mr Owen, the mis- 
sionary, and his interpreter. Wood. Facing the door of 
their hut and on the further side of the kraal was a hill 
dotted with mimosa trees, the place of execution for 
Umgungundhlovu. There the victims of Dingaan's fury 
or caprice were dragged and murdered, and their bodies 
left to the hyenas and vultures. It was a hill of death. 

The Stolen Cattle. 

Not till the third day after their arrival did the Zulu 1 
monarch give audience to Retief and his companions. i 
During the first two days the greatest hospitality was j 
shown to the guests, and sham-fights and parades of the 
troops were exhibited for their amusement. Dingaan 
received Retief with a smiling countenance and said they | 
must be better acquainted. In reply to Retiefs request for 
a grant of land, Dingaan said he did not understand how 
the Dutchmen could ask for such a favour when they bad 
shot his people and stolen their cattle. A party of men 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Dutch Farmers 165 

dressed like Boers and mounted on horses had, he said, 
attacked a kraal on the border of Zululand and driven off 
300 cattle. Retief avowed his innocence of the raid and 
his belief that Sikunyela» the Mantatee Chiefi was the 
aggressor. Sikunyela's stronghold was in the Witteber« 
gen, near the site of Harrismith, and he was a noted 
freebooter — the Rob Roy of the neighbourhood. Some of 
his men were clothed and had horses and guns. Dingaan 
then asked the Dutchmen to recover the cattle that he 
might be assured of their good faith and friendly feelings. 
Off rode Retief and his party westward to Sikunyela's 
country and decoyed that chief to an interview with them. 
As he sat on the ground, Bezuidenhout showed him a pair 
of handcuffs and asked him to admire the beautiful rings. 
Thereupon he closed them on Sikunyela's wrists, and the 
robber chieftain was a prisoner. To buy his liberty he at 
once surrendered the cattle taken from the Zulus. Retief 
and his men rode back in triumph to the Boer encampment 
at Doomkop, by the Tugela. Everything now seemed 
favourable for negotiations with the Zulu King. Retief 
resolved to pay his second visit to Umgungundhlovu, with 
a hody-gviard of two hundred men, partly to impress Dingaan 
with a sense of the newcomers' power, partly to please him 
by some martial exercises. The other Boers distrusted 
Dingaan and felt uneasy at Retief putting himself a second 
time into his power. Maritz generously offered to go him- 
self, accompanied by only two or three, enough to be killed, 
he said, had Dingaan any sinister designs. At length Retief 
resolved to go, ^attended only by those who volunteered for 
the expedition. Seventy horsemen, including himself, 
with thirty servants, leading spare horses, rode forth 
from the encampment at the end of January, 1838, and 
they rode forth to their doom. 

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1 66 The Dutch Farmers 

The Stirrup Cup. 

The Boers celebrated their arrival at Umgungundhlovu 
by firing their muskets and charging each other on horse- 
back. The Zulus engaged in a war-dance on a large scale. 
These compliments over, business was proceeded with. 
The cattle were restored ; and Dingaan performed his part 
of the bargain by affixing his mark to a document drawn 
up by Mr Owen, in which he ceded to " Retief and his 
countrymen the place called Port Natal, together 
with all the land annexed, that is to say from Tugela to 
the Umzimvubu River westward, and from the sea to the 
north." This land he gave them "for their everlasting 
property." Dingaan was kindness itself to the farmers, 
but something in his maimer caused Wood, the interpreter, 
to feel uneasy, and he warned one or two of them to be on 
their guard. The morning of the 6th February arrived. The 
deed of cession was in Retief 's leather hunting-pouch, and 
the Dutchmen were preparing to saddle-up and depart, when 
an invitation came from the king to drink ufyuala with 
him in his great place. They were asked to leave their 
muskets outside as Zulu etiquette did not allow any weapon 
of war to be brought within the royal precincts. With 
that request the unsuspecting Dutchmen complied, and 
entered the parade ground to drink the stirrup-cup and to 
bid farewell to the king. Dingaan was seated at the upper 
end, and the ground was lined by two regiments armed 
with sticks. The treacherous savage wished Retief a 
pleasant journey to Natal, drank beer with him, and ordered 
his warriors to begin dancing and singing. This they did, 
gradually closing in on the doomed men. At the words 
^'^Kill the wizards!" uttered by Dingaan, the whole host 
threw themselves on the unfortunate farmers and felled 
them to the ground. Several of the' Boers had time to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Dutch Farmers 167 

draw their clasp-knives, but it was a vain resistance. They 
were dn^ged from the king's presence to the hill of 
slaughter outside the town and there done to death with 
knobbed sticks. Retief was kept alive till the end to 
witness the death of his comrades. Two Englishmen, 
Halstead and Biggar, were among the victims. 

Mr Owen, horror-stricken by this awful deed of treachery, 
which he and Wood had witnessed from the door of their hut, 
at once shook the dust of Umgungundhlovu off his feet and 
left for the Bay. The American missionaries who had been 
labouring in Dingaan's country also considered it prudent to 
retire south to the English settlement 


Fearing, perhaps, that the Dutch farmers were the white 

men whose coming had been foretold by Chaka, Dingaan 

had detemmied to crush them at one blow. As a fitting 

sequel to the work of destruction so fearfully begun, a 

laige impi at once set out from Umgungundhlovu to fall 

upon the scattered parties of emigrants encamped along the 

Tugela and Bushman Rivers. Dingaan had ample means 

of knowing their whereabouts from his captains of kraals 

in that district The people were anxiously awaiting 

Retief 's return, but ho danger was apprehended. Many of 

the men were absent buffalo-hunting. The encampments 

were at Doornkop, Blauwkrans, Moord Spruit, close 

to the present main road, Rensburg^s Spruit, and other 

places along the Bushman River. There was no laager 

formed at any of the encampments. Each family, with its 

tents and wagons and cattle, formed a station by itself, often 

miles from its nearest neighbours, and with hills and valleys 

intervening. Except Doornkop, which lay furthest to the 

west, the encampments were attacked almost simultaneously 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 68 The Dutch Farmers 

in the darkness of the night, when man and beast lay 
hushed in sleepw Men, women, and children were ruthlessly 
stabbed ere they could see the glint of the death-dealing 
spear or the hand that wielded it. The savages spared 
nothing alive except the catde. Family after family was 
butchered without mercy all through that dreadful night 
In the darkness and confusion a few escaped and hasted on 
to warn their neighbours. 

The Rensbuiig: and Pretorius families left their wagons 
and took refuge on a hill, now called Rensburg^S Kop, 
which could be attacked only on two sides. There, for 
hours, fourteen determined men kept a Zulu regiment at bay. 
Their ammunition was nearly exhausted and hope had 
almost fled when a horseman was seen on the outskirts of 
the swarming savages. Johannes Rensburg held up his gun 
reversed. At once comprehending the signal, the horseman 
at the risk of his life rode to the wagon of Pretorius, about 
a mile distant At the wagon he loaded himself up with 
powder and bullets and prepared for a dash back. Well was 
it for that gallant Dutchman that he sat his horse like a 
centaur, for his gun demanded all the resources of eye and 
hand. Dealing death right and left, he dashed through the 
mass of kafirs at the foot of the hill, and, thanks to his horse 
and his strong right arm, joined his friends unscathed with 
the welcome supply of ammunition. The Zulus were soon 
afterwards beaten off. Mr Marthinus Oosthuyse, the 
hero of that adventurous ride, died at his farm near the Little 
Tugela in 1897. 

As morning dawned, the farmers encamped by the Bush- 
man River hurriedly constructed a laager with the wagons 
and defied the swarm of Zulus bent on their destruction. 
The women carried ammunition to the men, and even the 
children cried for pistols that they might shoot Reinforced 

' Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Dutch Farmers 169 

by parties of four and five who rode in from Doornkop and 
other places, the fanners at hist routed their assailants and 
put them to flight With tears streaming down their faces for 
their murdered kindred, and with revenge burning in their 
hearts, the Boers quitted the laager and pursued the retreat- 
ing foe. Hundreds of kafirs were either drowned or shot in 
attempting to cross the Bushman River, then swollen with 
rain and flowing furiously. The village of Weenen takes 
its name not alone from the weeing of the Dutch people for 
their dead, but from the wailing and lamentation of the 
ka6rs as they were pursued by the avenging bullets of the 
Boers in that terrible chase down the Bushman River valley. 
When the survivors of that awful night visited the separate 
encampments, the sights they witnessed were heartrending. 
Beneath a heap of mangled bodies two children were found 
alive, though pierced by numberless assegai stabs. Both 
survived, but one was a cripple for life. Within a week, over 
six hundred men, women, and children fell victims to the 
treachery of the Zulu King. 

A Gallant Deed. 

Many of the Boers were still on the other side of the Berg. 
When Pieter Uys heard of the disasters which had befallen 
his friends, he and his party joined the unfortunate people in 
Natal. With this accession to their numbers the Boers raised 
a commando of 350 men, in April, 1838, to proceed against 
Dingaan. Uys and Potgieter were joint leaders of the 
force; Maritz remained with the emigrants. Uys had his 
son with him, a boy about fourteen years 0/ age. The com- 
mando, was watdied all the way by Zulu spies, and the 
Dutchmen saw nothing of the enemy until they were within 
a mile or two of Umgungundhlovu. There on each side of 
a basin between high hills and broken by dongas or gullies 

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1 7© The Dutch Farmers 

they found the Zulu aimy awaiting them. Uys and his men 
without hesitation rode to within twenty yards of one division 
and opened a steady fire. In five minutes die kafirs were in 
fiill flight The Dutchmen in pursuing them got separated 
into small parties, and several were killed by the enemy who 
had concealed thonselves in the dongas. Uys was struck 
by an assegai in his thigh. He pulled it out and then fainted 
from loss of blood. Recovering consciousness, be was borne 
on his horse for some distance. Seeing danger imminent, he 
besought his son and the others to leave him and save them- 
selves. After galloping about a hundred yards, young Uys 
looked back and saw his father lift his head while assegais 
gleamed thick around him. In an instant the boy was back 
at his side, and shot three Zulus before he too was over- 
powered and speared. Young Dirk Uys laid down his life 
for his father, and won the cross " For Valour " in that wild 

Potgieter's detachment had retreated before the Zulus 
after firing a few shots. The rest of the commando suc- 
ceeded in fighting their way back across the Buffalo with 
the loss of only one or two men. 

The Battle of the Tugela. 

Shortly after the defeat of Uys and Potgieter by the Zulus, 
the Englishmen at the Bay sent a force north in the cause of 
the Boers to attack Dingaan. The English settlers them- 
selves were few in number, and the small army was composed 
mostly of Natal natives, 400 of whom were armed with 
guns. Bigg^ar led the expedition. The American mission- 
aries pointed out to the Englishmen the hazardous and hopeless 
nature of such an attack on Dingaan, but they remonstrated 
in vain. Early one morning Biggar's men crossed the Tugela 
near its mouth, and were unexpectedly attacked by seven 

Digitized by VjOOQIC . 

The Dutch Farmers 171 

Zulu regiments, comprising al:K>ut 10,000 men. Dingaan's 
warriors were flushed with the triumph of three victories over 
the Boers, and fought in the fuU assurance of another. There 
was a desperate and sanguinary engagement ending in the 
complete defeat of the English force. Those who tried to 
escape across the river were forced by the Zulus over a cliff 
a hundred feet high with a deep pool at the bottom. Very 
few returned to tell the tale of defeat. Biggfar, Cane, and 
Stubbs were all left dead by the Tugela, and only four 
Englishmen escaped. They were pursued nearly to the Bay, 
and owed their deliverance to the darkness of night and the 
shelter of the bush. 

Dingaan was now master of the situation. He had crushed, 
as he imagined, both the Dutch and the English, and a 
force was sent down to the Bay to wipe out the settle- 
ment and all its inhabitants. The English residents were 
forewarned. They had a look-out on the hills, and when 
news reached them that the expected Zulu impi had encamped 
by the River Umgeni no time was lost in going on board 
the brig Comet anchored in the Bluff channel. The Zulus 
came and occupied the settlement for nine days. When they 
left nothing remained but the walls of some of the houses. 
Property of all kinds was utterly destroyed. 

Andries Pretorius. 

The Dutch emigrants were greatly dispirited by Dingaan's 
repeated triumphs, and Potgieter with about half their number 
left for Overberg. Those who remained suffered much 
misery during the winter of 1838 from both famine and 
disease. Many of their cattle had been captured by the 
Zulus and there had been no time to till the land. The 
want of corn-food was severely felt by the women and 
children. Another attack on the emigrants was made by 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 7a The Dutch Farmers 

Dingaan in August of that year at Vecht Laager near 
Bstcourt, when, knowing their weakened state, he anticipated 
an easy victory. But the emigrants were this time prepared, 
and the Zulus were beaten o£f with great loss. Early in the 
year three influential Boers had gone to the Cape Colony to 
appeal to their countrymen for assistance. In the month of 
November a tower of strength was added to the emigrants' 
cause in the person of . Andries PretoriuSi a farmer from 
Graaf Reinet and a man of imposing presence and of great 
shrewdness and ability. He l»'Ought some volunteers with 
him and was chosen Chief Commandant With Carl Land- 
man as second in command and a force of 460 resolute hearts, 
Pretorius started in December to take vengeance on Dingaan 
and to recover the property stolen during his attacks. 

The Laa£:er on the Blood River. 

In the new Commandant, wary as well as brave, the crafty 
Zulu at last met his match. Every precaution was taken on 
the march to avoid surprise. Scouts were sent out in 
advance; the wagons, fifty-seven in number, were nightly 
formed into a laager with all the cattle inside; and night 
patrols were appointed. Religious service was held morning 
and evening, and the Chief Commandant proposed that a 
vow should be made to the Lord — that if He vouchsafed 
them the victory, a house should be raised to His great name 
and the day observed as a holy day by them and their 
posterity. The vow was solemnly confirmed by all the 
assembly. On the evening of Saturday, the 15th December, 
the camp was pitched by a stream running into the Buffalo, 
and thereafter suggestively named the Blood River. The 
scouts reported that the Zulu army was in sight. The laager 
was formed in the usual way and was protected on the west 
by a ravine and a hill since named Vecht Kop and on the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Dutch Farmers 173 

east by a deep reach of the river. Ob the other two sides 
there was open ground. At early dawn on Sunday- the 
x6th Decembefi Dingaan's whole army fell on the laager by 
the Blood River. Four times the kafirs made a rush to 
stonn the camp, and each time the deadly fire from the 
muskets and the discharges from the cannon placed at every 
entrance drove them back with fearful loss. When the 
fighting had continued for two hours, Pretorius ordered his 
men to leave the laager and charge the enemy in the open. 
The Boers were a handful against a host, but with bravery 
equal to that of the Zulus, they had two advantages over their 
foes. They had horses and they had muskets; and they 
were fearless riders and unerring shots. The kafirs fled before 
them. Four hundred were shot in the ravine and the river 
was red with blood. On that day of slaughter over three 
thousand kafirs perished. The only casualties on the Boer 
side were three men wounded by assegais in the pursuit. 
Pretorius was one of the three. 

The vow made before the battle wzs religiously kept. 
The Dutch Reformed Church in Maritzburg— one of 
the first buildings in the town — ^was erected in fulfilment of 
the solemn pledge; and Dingaan's Day, the i6th of 
December, when Pretorius and Landman and 460 farmers 
avenged the blood of their countrymen and broke the power 
of the Zulu tyrant, is still observed by all Dutch people in 
South Africa as a holy anniversary. 

The Hill of Mimosas. 

From the Blood River the Boers moved further into Zulu- 
land. About a day's march from the Umfolosi the patrol 
saw dense smoke rising in the direction of Umgfungfun- 
dhlovu. When the commando arrived there on the 21st 
December, that dark place of the earth was found completely 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

174 The Dutch Farmers 

deserted and the royal kiaal burnt to the ground. The 
" humbled bloodhound," as Pretorius called the Zulu King, 
had retreated to the forest lowar down theUmfolosi. On the 
mimosa-covered hill near the kraal, the fanners beheld 
terrible witnesses of the massacre of February. There lay 
the skdetons of their murdered friends, most of them easily 
known by the shreds of clothes attached to the bones. The 
sticks with which they had been beaten to death lay thick 
around them. Retief was recognised by his clothes and by 
the leather hunting-bag slung round his shoulders. In it was 
found, clean and uninjured, the document by which Dingaan 
ceded Natal to Retief and his people '' for their everlasting 
fNToperty." Sadly and solemnly the bones of the murdered 
men were collected and buried in one large grave. 

An Ambuscade. 

While the Boers were encamped at Umgungundhlovu 
two of Dingaan's spies were captured. They said the Zulu 
army was completely scattered, and that countless cattle 
which they had been unable to drive away were in the 
ravines below. Looking from the heights into the wooded 
gorge of the Ipate, the Boers indeed saw what they thought 
were cattle moving among the bushes. Two hundred and 
sixty mounted men at once started to secure the prue. 
When they reached the low ground the Boers discovered 
that they had been outwitted. Dingaan's men had led them 
into an ambuscade as Dougal did the English troops into 
Rob Roy's country. The seeming cattle were kafirs crawl- 
ing on all-fours with their shields of ox-hide on their backs. 
With assegais upraised, no longer on all-fours, they swarmed 
like ants round the Dutchmen. Thanks to their horses the 
Boers fought their way through without the loss of a maa 
But they were intercepted in another gorge, and in the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Dutch Farmers 175 

bed of a craggy stream five of their number were killed 
Bigg;ar, one of the Englishmen at the Bay, had joined the 
commando with sixty or seventy coast natives of the Ama* 
cde tribe. His son was killed at Weenen, and he joined 
the Boers to avenge his loss. Biggar was mounted, and 
could easily have escaped, but he would not desert the 
Amacele vrho had faithfully followed him. His magna- 
nimity cost him his life. From him the range of the 
Biggarsbers^ takes its name. Constantly retiring and 
fightings the Boers gained their camp on the Umfolosi. 

Captain Jeiris. 

After this reverse Pretorius succeeded in capturing six 
or seven thousand head of cattle. The successful com- 
mando then returned with the spoil to the emigrants' head- 
quarters on the Tugela. There unexpected news awaited 
Pretorius. A detachment of British soldiers had arrived 
on the 6th of December and occupied the Port. The small 
force consisted of loo men of the 72nd Highlanders and 
Royal Artillery under the command of Msyor Charters. 
Mr Shepstone, afterwards Sir Theophilus Shepstone whose 
name has since been familiar as household words, accom- 
panied Major Charters. It was his first visit to the land 
with which his name was to be so intimately associated. 
Mr Shepstone was then diplomatic agent at Fort Peddie. 
He there acquired the name of Somtseu — a M'mrod, a mighty 
hunter — the designation by which he has ever since been 
known to the natives of South Africa. The soldiers were 
sent up by Sir George. Napier, the Governor of the Cape, to 
put a stop if possible to the war between the Zulus and the 
emigrant farmers. It was feared that if hostilities con- 
tinued the consequences would be most disastrous for both 
sides. As the Cape Government had not sanctioned the 

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176 The Dutch Farmers 

Boers qiutting their own country, Sir Geoi^e Napier by 
proclamation still claimed them as British subjects^ 
and declared their occupation of Natal unwarranted. Great 
indignation was aroused among the emigrants by his state- 
ment that the atrocities which had occurred had been " par- 
ticipated in, if not originated by, their acts." Major Charters 
communicated bis instructions to the Volksraad, and then, 
accompanied by Mr Shepstone, left overland for the Cape 
before the return of Pretorius and his commando. Captain 
Jervis was now in command, but he found the Dutchmen 
in no mood to submit to dictation of any kind. They were 
wroth at the harsh words in Sir George Napier's proclamation, 
and protested against the soldiers taking possession of the 
port They demanded their ammunition which had been 
seized, and assured Captain Jervis that it would be used only 
in self-defence. That officer poured oil on the troubled 
waters. He adopted the course which made for the peace 
of the settlement and restored the ammunition. By reason 
of the tact and good feeling which he showed, friendly 
relations were soon established between the Boers and the 
handful of soldiers at Fort Victoria, the fort or blockhouse 
built by Captain Jervis on a slight elevation behind the site 
of the present Custom House. The Dutch took possesskin 
of it on the departure of Captain Jervis and his men in 


The yeat 1839 was a peaceful one for the emigrants. 
Many more of their countrymen joined them from Overberg. 
A permanent camp or village, to which the name of 
Weenen was given, was formed on the Bushman River 
near the scene of the massacre. A landdrost was appointed 
for that settlement, and one also for Durban, where many 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Dutch Farmers 177 

of the Boers were residing. There were encampments also 
at Umlaas and Congella— " Kangela " or look-out The 
bulk of the people, however, in number about two thou- 
sand, had congregated at Bushman's Rand, now the city 
of Pietermaritzburg. The Volksraad, consisting of twenty- 
four members, met there every quarter in a building within 
the laager near where the Natal Bank now stands. In 1839 
a town was laid out on the "rand" and named Pieter- 
maritzburg:, in honour of Pieter Retief and Gert 
Maritz, who had both died in the preceding year. Water 
was led down the streets; the erven were surrounded by 
turf walls and planted with fruit trees and vegetables ; 
houses gradually began to fill up the long streets; and 
even in 1839 Pretorius could say it was "a large, pleasant, 
and well-watered town." The memorial church was one of 
the first buildings erected. It adjoined the Market Square, 
close to the site of the present Dutch Church. The 
Rev. Daniel Lindley, venerated by the Boers and early 
colonists for his saintly life and zealous labours, officiated 
in this church until 1847, when he returned to his work 
among the natives in connection with the American 

Mr Archbell, the Wesleyan missionary, was not so 
fortunate in his forecast of the future of Pietermaritzburg 
as he was in that of Durban. The lack of fuel, he said, 
was the great drawback to its ever becoming a centre of 
population or of trade, and the want of trees "actually 
stamped deformity on its appearance." Mr Archbell did 
not recognise the picturesque and admirably-selected sitp 
of the capital, nor did he foresee the transformation which 
would be effected on the face of bare and desolate 
Bushman's Rand by the gardening and tree-planting of 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 

178 The Dutch Farmers 

The Flag of the Dutch Republic. 

The object for which the troops had been sent to Natal 
seemed accomplished at the end of 1S39. There had been 
peace for a whole year between the Boers and Dingaan. 
The occupation of Durban had not succeeded in checking 
the emigration from the Cape which still went on, nor 
did it prevent the Dutch from obtaining firearms and 
ammunition. As the British Government was still re- 
solved not to colonise Natal, and as the 72nd was tinder 
orders for home, Captain Jervis and his force were with- 
drawn by order of Sir George Napier on the 24th December, 
1839. The Boers naturally regarded the departure of the 
soldiers as the abandonment of the country by the British 
Government It was theirs, then, by the right of conquest 
and possession ; and they had bought it with the blood of 
their bravest and dearest. Of the real owners of the land, 
thousands of whom were then living around them, they knew, 
or cared to know, nothing. As the Vectis sailed out of the 
harbour with the troops, the farmers fired a salute and hoisted 
on the flag staff the colours of the Republic of Natalia. 

For the second time the Dutch took formal possession 
of Natal. 

Dutch farmers first emigrated from Cape Colony 1834 
Boers, under Retief, entered Natal . . 1837 
Murder of Retief and his followers . . 1838 
Massacre of Dutch by Dingaan .... 1838 

Defeat of Uys 1838 

Battle of the Tugela 1838 

Dingaan's Day .... i6th December, 1838 
First occupation of Natal by British troops 1838-1839 
Pietermaritzburg founded .... 1839 
Republic of Natalia proclaimed 24TH December, 1839 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Republic of Natalia 179 


A Royal Refugee. 

Dingaan was not entirely crushed by his defeat at the 
Blood River, In the winter of 1839 he sent friendly 
messages to the Boers along with three hundred horses 
he had captured from them at various times. The farmers 
had learned caution in their dealings with the crafty Zulu, 
for they knew he could smile while cherishing murderous 
designs in his heart Some of his messengers admitted 
that they were sent as spies to ascertain whether the 
farmers were in laager or in separate unprotected companies. 
Dingaan was only waiting another opportunity of attacking 
his dreaded foes when half of his power suddenly fell 
away from him and the Dutchmen secured an unlooked-for 
ally. The Zulu King's house had' long been divided 
against itself. Many of his people were soldiers only 
on compulsion. They were tired of the ceaseless fighting 
and bloodshed, and of the cruelty and tyranny of a 
chief into whose presence even his bravest generals 
must approach ''in the cringing attitude of a dog." Such 
a malcontent was Umpande or Panda, the brother 
of the king, and a man indolent in his habits and of 
a much more peaceful disposition than either Chaka or 
Dingaan. He fell under suspicion and, to avoid the con-*^ 
sequences, fled into Natal. He was joined in his flight 
by about half the Zulu people. From the south of the 
Tongaat River where he halted with all his followers, he 
sent messages to the Dutch leaders asking their protection. 
After an interview between Panda and a deputation from 

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i8o The Republic of Natalia 

the Boers» who were much impressed by his majestic 
bearing, it was agreed that he should assist the farmers 
in the overthrow of Dingaan and be recognised as ** Prince 
of the Emigrant Zulus*" 

Panda, King of the Zulus. 

In January, 1840, after the port was evacuated by the 
British soldiers, two hostile forces simultaneously took the 
field against Dingaan. A body of 350 mounted men under 
Pretorius marched into Zululand by way of the Biggars- 
berg and the Buffalo River; Panda's force, led by Non- 
galaza, crossed the Tugela about 20 miles below Krans 
Kop. Panda himself and three of his captains accompanied 
the Boer army as sureties of good faith. Nongalaza was 
the first to encounter Dingaan. After a desperate fight, in 
which two of the king's r^ments were destroyed to a man 
and a third deserted to the enemy, Dingaan with his two 
remaining regiments fled to the Pongda River closely pur- 
sued by both the Boer and native forces. Thus hemmed in 
Dingaan sought refuge in the country of the Amaswazi, 
his hereditary foes. He was captured by their king Soboza 
and tortured to death. 

The arch enemy of the Boers was thus crushed for ever, 
and all Zululand lay at their feet. Forty thousand head of 
cattle were bestowed by Panda on his white allies as sm in- 
demnity for past losses. On the 14th of February, 1840, at 
the camp; on the Black Umfolosi, Andries Pretorius in 
the name of the " Volksraad of the South African Society " 
claimed all the land from the Umzimvubu to the 
Black Umfolosi and from the Drakensberg to the 
sea. This modern Kingmaker also formally installed Panda, 
the vassal and " great ally " of the farmers, as King of the 
Zulus. The ceremony over, a salute of 21 guns was fired 

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The Republic of Natalia 181 

in honour of the Voiksraad, while all the men as with one 
voice cried out "Thanks to the Great God who by His 
giace has given us Uie victory ! " 

Retumins^ Home. 

The breaking up of the Zulu despotism ^ich for thirty 
years had terrorised South Eastern Africa had the effect of 
considerably increasing the native population of Natal. Of 
the 94 tribes which inhalat^d the land when Chaka began 
his reign of iextOTy 39 as tribes had ceased to exist, dispersed 
and destroyed by hunger and the assegai. One of these 
was the Abakwamacibise, whose home was the site of Maritz- 
burg. Scattered members of these lost tribes collected- and 
formed new ones. There were five of such mixed com- 
munities in Natal when Retief came down the Beig. There 
were also at that time thirty-four aboriginai tribes living 
in the country. Some of them were in the Tugela valley 
under captains of kraals ; others were under their hereditary 
chiefs. The protection afforded by the presence of both 
English and Dutch settlers gave greater confidence to the 
many natives who had hitherto lurked in forest and ravine. 
Many of the tribes, though attenuated in numbers by hunger 
and misery, had never quitted the land. The Amahlubi, 
the first which suffered firom Chaka's warlike policy, per- 
sisted in remaining near the sources of the Umzioyati. The 
Amatuli never left the Bluff and adjoining lands until 1850, 
when they were removed to a location on the Umkomaas to 
make room for the white settlers at Durban. The Amafimze, 
driven from the open country of Upper Umvoti by Chaka, 
after many wanderings settled at the head of the Umlaas. 
The Amampumuza, now in the Zwartkop location, had ' 
their ancient home on the Inadi River where they were 
attacked and dispersed by Chaka. They had re-assembled 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 82 The Republic of Natalia 

at the Zwartkop before tbe Dutdmien came. It is to 
be remembered that the so-called Zulus were a composite 
people made up from nearly eveiy tribe in South Eastern 
Africa. The Natal natives seized every opportunity of 
escape from Zululand, and by twos and threes they de- 
serted from Dingaan despite the measures he took for 
checking the migration. The discontented *' Zulus'' who 
fled in thousands with Panda into Natal were not Zulus at 
all but exiles who eagerly availed themsdves of the chance 
of returning to their own land and oi rejoining their own 
people. Whole tribes such as the Amaqwabe re^assembled 
during that period of confusion, the natives coming back 
not only from Zululand but also fnnn the Amapondo countiy 
where they had taken refuge from Zulu tyranny. It is 
estimated that ov» loo^ooo natives returned to their own 
land when the overdirow of Dingaan gave them their 

A War of Words. 

Freed from the presence of the English rodhaa^'es^ or 
redcoats, and secure in the alliance of the new Zulu King, 
the Dutch farmers began to enjoy the land for which they 
had suffered so sorely and struggled so valiantly. Large 
tracts of land were alloted to each family, houses were built 
on the farms, and cultivation of the land was begun in 
earnest. The Volksraad was anxious that the '^Republic 
of Natalia** should be recognised by the British Govern- 
ment as a free and independent state, and many communi- 
cations on the subject passed between the ''Council of the 
People '' and Sir George Napier, the Governor of the Cape. 
The latter, acting on instructions from England, refused to 
recognise the emigrants as an independent pec^e and 
claimed them as British subjects ; the fcmner as strenuously 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Republic of Natalia 183 

declared that they had ceased to owe allegiance to the Qaeen 
and had l^ally acquired Natal as their own possession. The 
war of words was carried on at intervals for two years, but 
no active steps were taken by Great Britain to assume 
authority in Natal. 

Tbe Raid on the Amabaca. 

Some proceedings of the Dutch farmers, however, 
caused alarm on the Cape frontier and brought matters to 
a crisis. A cqmmando was sent out against the Amabaca 
tribe, whose chief was 'Ncapai. This was a tribe which 
originally dwelt on the Town Lands of Maritzburg, but was 
driven south in Chaka's wars to near the upper waters of 
the Umzimvubu. 'Ncapai was nominally tributary to Faku, 
the Amapondo Chief. His kraals were near the cave- 
haunts of the Bushmen, and the farmers suspected him 
of complicity with those pygmy marauders in the theft of 
some thousands of cattle. The Dutchmen attacked 'Ncapai's 
kraals, shot 150 of his people, and captured 3,000 head of 
cattle. Some women and children were also taken. Faku, 
taking alarm at this raid on a neighbouring diief, applied 
to the Cape Government for protection. His appeal was 
answered by the despatch of a detachment of troops under 
Captain Smith, a Waterloo officer, to the River Umgazi, 
a stream south of the Umzimvubu. 

The Volksraad and the Natives. 

Meanwhile the existence of natives around them in 
mcreasingly large numbers began to force itself on the 
notice of the Dutch farmers. Not knowing, and without 
the means of knowing, the history of these natives, the 
Boers imagined them, except those they had found at the 
port on their arrival to b^ interlopers from 2<ululand, with 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

184 The Republic of Natalia 

no right or claim to the country. Thej were squatting on 
the farms of the colonists, and they might in time become 
, dangerous. The Volksraad, therefore, in August, 1841, 
resolved that all the Kafirs Should be removed from 
Natal and located in the tract of coast-land between the 
Umtamvuna and the Umzimvubu. The natives were to be 
moved quietly, if possible; if not, then by force of arms. 
As the proposed location was also claimed by Faku, the 
Amapondo Chief, the British Government foresaw warfare 
and bloodshed should the scheme be attempted. Ever 
regardful of the interests of the native races, it also per- 
ceived the injustice of its "misguided and erring subjects ** 
proposing to banish a people whose homes had been in the 
land long before the advent of the Dutch themselves. Sir 
George Napier, by a proclamation of the 2nd December, 
1841, announced the intention of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment to resume military occupation of Natal. Captain 
Smith was directed in March, 1842, to proceed from the 
Umgazi to Durban with a detachment of 237 men of the 
27tb Regiment and Royal Artillery* The British Uon 
woke up at last. 

Captain Smith's March. 

In February, 1842, the Volksraad made a last pretest 
against the British "taking possession of any part" oi 
Natal. The protest was contained in a lengthy letter 
addressed to Sir George Napier, from Pietermaritzburg, 
and signed by Prinslo, the President, and Burger, the 
Secretary of the Volkeraad. The occupation of Natal had 
meanwhile been resolved upon. 

Captain Smith's march up the coast was long and 
fatiguing. It was the rainy season, and the numberless 
swollen rivers caused much delay. X^e sou|h coast To^t^ 

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The Republic of Natalia 185 

is sufficiently toilsome at the present day, but the <^ roads 
before they were made " must have aggravated considerably 
the difficulties of the constant declivities and ascents. In 
many places Captain Smith had to cut a way for the 
baggage wagons through the almost tropical vegetation of 
the river valleys. The soldiers saw hippopotami in plenty, 
and often came across the spoor of lions and elephants in 
the forest glades. The hot sun and the burning sand 
proved very trying to the men during this six week's march, 
Mr Archbell, of the Wesleyan Society, who had paid a 
flying visit to Natal in the previous year, accompanied the 
troops. He was sent to found a mission in connection with 
his society^ After the force crossed the Umk<Mnaas, every 
precaution was taken to prevent surprise on the march. 
Between that river and the Umbilo, Captain Smith and 
his men were met by four Englishmen who had ridden out 
to. welcome them. At Sea View, near Umbilo, the troops 
halted, and the English residents there expressed their 
surprise at the smallness of the force sent to ovoawe 
fifteen hundred Boers, fiiUy armed. "Some one had blun- 
dered," but Captain Smith's duty was dear. Shortly after 
leaving Umbilo, two mounted Dutchmen met the troops 
and protested in the name of their countrymen against 
Captain Smith's advance. That officer replied that he 
could not admit the right of anyone to protest against the 
march of the Queen's troops through her own territory. 
No forther opposition was made and Captain SmiUi took up 
his quarters on the flat outside Durban, near the 
road to Umgeni, and not far from the old military cemetery. 
The colours of the "Republic of Natalia,^' which floated 
from the block-house at the Point, were hauled down and 
the ensign hoisted in their stead. The Englishmen in , 
Durb^p ^t once ranged thefnselve^ on the side of their flag, 

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1 86 The Republic of Natalia 

The Mangrove Trees* 

After the arrival of the British soldiers on the 4th May, 
armed Dutchmen began to congregate at their village of 
Congella, distant about three miles from Captain Smith's 
camp. Andries Pretorius, the Commandant, was among 
the first to arrive. Two messages were sent to the British 
commander requesting him to leave Natal Of these 
Captain Smith took no notice. On die nth May the two 
leaders had an interview, and the Dutchmen promised to 
withdraw to their farms. The promise was not kept, 
mounted and armed Boers ostentatiously showing themselves 
day after day near the British camp. On the 23rd May, 
Captain Smith received a peremptory letter from Pretorius, 
enjoining him to break up his camp without dday and quit 
the Dutch territory. The letter was followed by the 
farmers seizing a number of cattle belonging to the troops. 
The British commander had orders to avoid hostilities with 
the Boers if possible, but their irritating conduct exhausted 
his forbearance and he determined to dislodge them from 
Congella. His plan was to surprise them by a ni^ht attack, 
when, with women and children to hamper their move- 
ments, they would be willing, he thought, to accept any 
terms he might dictate. 

On the night of the 23rd May, Captain Smith pat his 
scheme into execution. He left the camp at 11 o'clock with 
138 men and two field-pieces. To avoid marching through 
thick bush, the men were led from the camp down 
through what is now Aliwal Street to the beach of the Bay. 
The tide was out and it was bright moonlight. A howitzer 
was fitted into a boat, which under the charge of a sergeant 
of artillery, was to drop down the channel to within 500 
yards of Congella. The troops were to form under the 
cover of its fire and that of the two six-pounders taken with 

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The Republic of Natalia 187 

them. With the Bay on the left and a dense thicket of 
mangroves on the right, the little force made its way along 
the sands to a point near the Congella camp where the line 
of mangroves abruptly ended in an open space. It is certain 
that the British troops had been watched all the way, and 
that Pretorius knew of the intended attack a few minutes 
after they had left the camp. Just as Captain Smith's men 
reached the end of the mangrove trees the stillness of the 
night was broken by the rattle of musketry, and a deadly fire 
was poured into their ranks. Every shot had its effect. 
Twenty-five Dutchmen, hidden by the trees, lay on the 
ground levelling their long guns against the trunks and 
shooting down their antagonists as they came out into bold 
relief against the moonlit sands. The soldiers returned the 
fire, but mistaking mangroves for men they aimed too high 
and did no execution. Much confusion was caused by the 
oxen that drew the gun-carriages being maddened by wounds. 
The boat with the howitzer could not get near enough to be 
of any service. Captain Smith, seeing his men fall round 
him like withered leaves, thought it expedient to retreat 
The tide was rising, and the soldiers had to splash their 
way back through mud and sand. Many got into deep 
water and were drowned. The two six-pounders with their 
ammunition were left unspiked to the Boers. The sur- 
vivors reached the camp at two o'clock on the morning 
of the 24th. Out of the 138 men who had left three 
hours before only 87 returned from that fatal midnight 
march. The missing men were accounted for next day 
when the dead and wounded were sent to the British 
camp by Pretorius. The farmers had treated the wounded 
men with the greatest humanity, and in some cases 
had rescued them from being drowned by the rising 

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1 88 The Republic of Natalia 

Dick King's Ride. 

Captain Smith's position was now one of great danger. 
The formers demanded his surrender, and he asked for a 
trace of twenty-four hours to bury the dead. The request 
was readily granted. Captain Smith then asked for an 
armistice of seven days to enable him to consider his posi- 
tion. To this his opponents also agreed. The British 
force was reduced by neaily one-hal^ and it was evident 
that to obtain relief the Cape Government must at once be 
apprised of the perilous situation. Captain Smith took 
counsel with Mr George Cato about sending a messenger 
with despatches to Grahamstown. Mr Cato offered to go 
himself, but the commandant demurred to the absence 
of so valuable an ally. Another volunteer was soon found 
in Mr Richard King, ever gratefully remembered as 
Dick King, one of the early settlers, then farming at Isi- 
pingo. In the dusk of the evening following the disaster at 
Congella, two boats, each towing a horse, were rowed across 
the Bluff Channel, Richard King and George Cato in one 
and Joseph Cato in the other. Landed on the Bluff beach, 
Dick King, like ''Sir William of Dek>raine, good at 
need," and mounted on the "wightest steed" the garrison 
could bestow, started under cover of night on his six 
hundred miles' ride to Grahamstown. By keeping along the 
base of the Bluff and the coast hills as fax as Umlaas he 
avoided the Dutch scouts who were posted round Congella 
on the opposite side of the Bay. Before daybreak he had 
crossed the Umkomaas and was safe from pursuit. His 
track then lay through a savage country. Although King 
knew the native language and all the tracks and bye-paths 
on his route, no one but that doughty EngUshman himself 
can ever know the fotigues and perils of his adventurous 
ride. Bridges and punts were unknown in those days, and 

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The Republic of Natalia 189 

be had to swim the rivars where ford there was ncme. Once, 
neat the Umzimvuba, he was in danger of his life from a 
party of the Amabaca^ These natives had not forgotten the 
raid on 'Ncapai, and they mistook the travel-stained, horseman 
for a Dutch farmer. Their attitude changed when they 
learned his errand At the Wesleyan mission stations* in 
Kaffiraria he received every attention. King spared neither 
himself nor his horses. Ten days after leaving the Bluff he 
rode into Grahamstown more dead than alive and delivered 
his dispatches to the Resident Agent, Mr Shepstone. He 
had accomplished a feat scarcely ever equalled for pluck and 
endurance; and the "hurrying hoofs" of Dick King's steed 

** Now soft on the sand, now loud on the lec^e," 

will be heard 

'* Borne on the night-wind of the Past, 
Through all our history, to the last." 

In the Stocks. 

On the night of the 25th May, while the messenger of 
deliverance was speeding down the coast road, a hundred 
Boers left Congella and made their way to the Point along 
the base of the Berea and round by the sea-shore. They 
concealed themselves in the bush within two hundred yards of 
the blockhouse until daybreak. The population of the Point 
consisted of a. small number of civilians and a sergeant and 
guard of twenty-five men in charge of the fort and of the stores 
and ammunition landed from the Pilot and the Mazeppa, 
then lying in the Bluff Channel. At the first blush of dawn 
the Boers shot down the sentry. When the sergeant and 
the other soldiers showed themselves they were commanded 
to lay down their arms. Seeing the futility of resistance, 

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190 Th6 Republic of Natalia 

both soldiers and dyiiians surrendered diemseives prisoners. 
The Mazeppa and the Pilot were ransacked. The provisions 
for the tro<^ fell into the hands of the Boers, as well as an 
i8-poander, one of the two landed from the Pilot The 
other was in the British camp. The soldiers and ten civilians 
— Cato, Armstrong, Beningfield, Douglas, Hogg, Ogle, 
Parkins, Toohey, M'Cabe, and Schwikkard— were taken to 
Congella and kept there for a week in the stocks. They were 
then conveyed by wagon to Pietermaritzburg. The un- 
fortunate ten, being considered traitors to the Republic to 
which they had vowed allegiance before the advent of the 
troops, received much rougher treatment than the redcoats, 
who were quartered in a house at the top of Church Street 
and allowed their freedom on parole. The ten civili^uis 
were imprisoned in the jail where the Police Station now 
stands, and were chained two and two by the leg during the 
day and put in the stocks at night. Mr Wolhuter, who 
resided in Longmarket Street in an old house pulled down 
in 1903 for the erection of the General Post-office, exercised 
supervision over the prisoners of war by request of Com- 
mandant Pretorius, and as their honorary warder had to see 
that they were properly secured every night There they 
remained until Dick Kii^s ride brought relief and victory to 
the British. 

Besieged by the Boers. 

Captain Smith determined not to surrender, and during 
the seven days' armistice he strengthened his camp by 
arranging his wagons in laager fashion and throwing up 
loop-holed earthworks. The Boers took up a position near 
the foot of the Berea,. where they placed the i8-pounder 
taken at the Point and the two 6-pounder8 left on the Bay 
beach. Just before sunrise on the 31st May they beg^ t|ie 

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The Republic of Natalia 191 

si^e by sending a six-pound shot into the camp. It passed 
through the officers' mess tent, and was the signal for 
manning the trenches. All that day the Dutch fire was 
constant and well-directed. When the attack had gone on 
till noon next day, a flag of truce was sent to Captain 
Smith offering to convey the women and children on board 
the Mazeppa. The offer was gladly accepted. The siege 
was then resumed and kept up with more or less persistency 
day after day. The Dutch had no balls for the i8-pounder. 
When its brother thnnderer in the British camp was fired, 
the besiegers marked where the ball lodged, picked it up, 
and fired it back whence it came. This was done many 
times. By throwing up works near the camp the Boers 
managed to keep up a galling fire on the batteries where 
the i8-pounder and the howitzer were placed. In a sortie 
made on the night of the 8th June some of these works 
were destroyed without loss of life. Another on the i8th 
resulted in a skirmish, when both sides had men killed and 
wounded. By this time Captain Smith's provisions were 
nearly exhausted The men had been living for some time 
on half allowance of rice and biscuit-dust On the 22nd of 
June they had dried horse-flesh and ground forage served 
out to them, all that was left to sustain life. The water 
from a well sunk in the camp was bad, and the wounded, 
twenty-six in number, suffered much from want of medical 
necessaries. These hardships were endured without a mur- 
mur, and even with the greatest cheerfulness. Nearly a 
month had passed since Dick King had started on his 
perilous journey. The relief of the camp depended on his 
success. Rockets sent up from the outer anchorage on the 
night of the 24th, and again, in greater number, on the night 
of the 25th, announced to the besieged that the messenger 
had done his work, and that reinforcemeitts were at hand. 

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192 The Republic of Natalia 

The Mazeppa. 

While the 27th were cooped up in their sandy prison on 
the vlei, another gallant attempt was made on their behalf. 
The schooner Mazeppa lying in the Bay had, besides her 
crew of nine» twenty-eight people on board who had gone 
thither for safety. Among them were Mr Archbell and 
his £amily, Mrs Cato and Mrs Beningfield, whose husbands 
were prisoners of war in Pietermaritzburg, and women and 
diildren from the camp. The schooner, in charge of Mr 
Joseph Cato, only waited a chance of escaping in quest of 
aid to the beleaguered garrison. It was a risky thing to 
attempt, for the Point and the Bluff were in possession of 
the Dutch and there was a strong guard at the block-house. 
Once outside, the Mazeppa would be safe. On the afternoon 
of the loth June a south-westerly breeze favoured Mr 
Cato's design, and before the surprised Dutchmen could 
muster to oppose his movements the Mazeppa had spread 
her sails to cross the bar. Unfortunately the breeze lightened 
off the sand-spit at the point, where within a few minutes 
80 Boers were assembled with their muskets and a four- 
pounder. The tide was running in strong, the wind was 
failing, and the Mazeppa was not more than thirty yards 
from the guns of the Dutchmen. Her sails and rigging 
suffered severely, but she ran the gauntlet without loss of 
life. The breeze freshened, and carried the little schooner 
out of range of the bullets. She hove-to outside the bar 
and repaired damages. Mr Cato then steered for. Delagoa 
Bay in the hope of falling in with one of Her Majesty's 
cruisers. The gallant little schooner proceeded as far as 
Cape Corrientes without seeing a war-ship. She left Delagoa 
Bay on the i8th June after getting a supply of water and 
provisions and shaped her course to Port Elizabeth. Her 
yoryage, however, came to an end at Natal, for on the after- 
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The Republic of Natalia 193 

noon of the 27th June sh^ found the frigate Southampton 
at anchor off the Bluff. The British garrison was relieved 

The Conch and the Southampton. 

After King rode into Grahamstown with his despatches, 
no time was lost in sending reinforcements to Natal. By 
order of Colonel Hare, the Commandant of the Frontier, 
the grenadier company of the 27th Regiment, then 
stationed at Grahamstown, was embarked at Port Elizabeth 
in the schooner Conch. The master of the Conch, Mr 
William Bell, had traded to Natal and was acquainted 
with the entrance to the Bay. He was afterwards and for 
many years Port Captain at Durban. When the news 
reached Capetown Sir George Napier at once despatched 
the Admiral's flag-ship, the Southampton, with the 25th 
R^^iment under Colonel Cloete, Major D'Urban being 
second in command. The Conch made the Bluff on the 24th 
June, and as soon as she anchored the firing at the besieged 
camp could be distinctly heard. The Republican port- 
captain, Mr Morewood, and the military secretary came out 
to the Conch. Their faces lengthened when they saw the 
grenadiers "thick as bees" in the hatchways. A letter 
was sent from Captain Dumford commanding the troops to 
Commandant Pretorius, asking him to allow a surgeon from 
the Conch to go to help the doctor in the camp. A distinct 
''no'' was the reply. Rockets sent up by the schooner at 
night were answered by rockets from the camp. At dusk 
next night, the 2Sth, the Southampton was sighted, and at 
midnight she anchored, guided to the mooring-ground by 
rockets from the Conch which she answered with her 
guns. These were cheering sights and sounds for the worn- 
out men in the camp. They were an earnest of help at 

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194 The Republic of Natalia 

Over the Bar. 

On Sunday, the 26th Jane, the Conch and the South- 
ampton were anchored as near to the bar as was thought 
safe. The frigate's boats, filled with soldiers, were to be 
towed in by the schooner, also with troops on board, piloted 
by Captain Bell and protected by the guns of the Southamp- 
ton. The Boers were in force on both sides of the entrance 
with two 4-pounders pointed seaward. At three o'clock 
with a full tide and an easterly breeze the Conch with her 
train of boats sailed buoyantly over the bar and ran into 
the cross fire of the Boers. The low bulwarks of the 
schooner were heightened by planks, and by blankets hung 
on a line. The soldiers answered the fire bravely, and the 
war-ship sent shot and shell from her great guns right and 
Irft into the bush where the Dutch marksmen were concealed. 
The "adamantine lips" of the Southampton's guns, more 
than anything else, decided the movements of the Dutch- 
men. When the soldiers landed at the Point under Major 
D' Urban the surrounding bush was scoured in vain for the 
enemy. They were already in the saddle and far on their 
way to Congella. The first proceeding of the victors was 
to haul down the flag of the Republic from the block-house 
and run up the Ensig^n, never ag^ain to be lowered- 
The whole work of crossing the bar and taking possession 
of the Point was done in about twenty minutes. Two men 
were killed and six wounded during the passage. Captain 
Smith's camp was soon discovered and his sufferings were 
at an end. That same night the master of the Pilot, who 
had been a prisoner at Congella with four others, escaped 
to the Point in the confusion caused by Colonel Cloete's 
landing, and reported that Congella was being deserted by 
the Dutch farmers. They retired to Cowie's Hill near 
Pinetown on the road to Pietermaritzburg. 

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The Republic of Natalia 195 

Colonel Cloete. 

There was a difference of opinion between Colonel Cloete 
and Captain Smith aboat the futiire treatment of the Dutch 
formers. Captain Smith was eager to avenge his defeats 
and losses. The commanding officer thought that a march 
inland to attack the Boers in a country so favourable to 
surprises as Natal would probably result only in further loss. 
Pietermaritzburg, too, the head-quarters of the farmers, 
was known to be strongly defended. Colonel Cloete's more 
peaceful counsels prevailed. He offered a free pardon to 
all who "should return to their allegiance," with the excep- 
tion of five men who had taken the lead in the rebellion 
against the Queen's authority. They were Atidries 
Pretorius, Joachim Prinslo, Jacobus Burgrer, Michiel 
Van Breda, and Servaas Van Breda. At a stormy 
meeting of the Volksraad held in the church at Pietermaritz- 
bnrg, OB the 5th July, the farmers resolved to submit. 
Many of them had deluded themselves into the belief that 
the King of Holland was ready to help them against 
England. They were ignorant of the changes which had 
taken place in Europe since the settlement of the Cape and 
supposed Holland to be still one of the Great Powers. 

The submission of the farmers was followed by a treaty 
ratified on the 15th July 1843, in which they promised, 

I St, to submit to the Queen's authority ; 

2nd, to release all prisoners ; 

3rd, to give up the cannon in their possession ; and 

4th, to restore all public and private property. 
Colonel Cloete on his part agreed to grant a pardon to all 
concerned except the five leaders, to allow the farmers to 
return unmolested to their homesteads with their guns and 
horses, and to protect them from attacks of the Zulus and 
other native tribes. Until the pleasure of the British 

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196 The Republic of Natalia 

Government was known, the farmers were not to be interfere4 
with in regard to the land they had taken possession of^ and 
they wore to be ruled as before by their Volksraad. The 
natives were to remain on the lands they occupied when the 
troops came. ^^Port Natal,** however, extending from 
the Umgeni to the Umlaas and froin the ridge of the Berea 
to the ocean, was to be a distinctly British territory ruled 
over by Captain Smith. The town springing up by the Bay 
was from that time more commonly known as Durban, 
the name given to the infiuit settlement in 1835. 

As Commandant Pretorius had done his best to 
arrange matters peacefully, and had been uniformly humane 
to all prisoners, he was included in the general pardon. A 
reward of ;;£jiooo offered for the airest of the other four 
was never claimed. Servaas Van Breda was in after years 
a member of the Legislative Council of Natal. As a con- 
aequence of the treaty, the loyalists in the Pietermaritzburg 
jail were set free and sent to Durban. Colonel Cloete's 
settlement of the disturbances did not meet with general 
approval in Natal. Feeling ran high, and it was thought 
he had conceded too much to the men who had caused so 
much loss of life and property. The leniency shown by 
the commandant was approved by the British Government, 
which believed that the^ moderate measures adopted would 
change bitter opponents into faithful subjects. 

Colonel Cloete with some of the reinforcements left 
Natal on the 21st July 1842, and Major D'Urban, with a 
second detachment, on the 25 th. Captain Smith, promoted to 
the brevet*rank of Major, was left in command with 350 men. 

The Commissioner. 

In 1843 Sir George Napier sent to Natal a special com- 
missioner to report on all claims to land made by the Dutch 

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The Republic of Natalia 197 

£surmersy and to communicate to them the dedsion of the 
British Government about the future government of the 
country. The Commissioner was Mr Henry Cloetey 
brother of Colonel Cloete, and an advocate of the Supreme 
Court in Capetown. When he arrived in Pietermaritzburg 
he found the spirit of resistance to British authority still 
alive in many of the Boers. Some of them clung to the vain 
hope of help from Holland. The more ignorant and discon- 
tented among them were conspiring with their lawless and 
turbulent countrymen who had settled along the Vaal, the 
Vet and the Modder Rivers. They had designs of attack- 
ing Panda and then regaining Natal by force of arms. Six 
or seven hundred of these disaffected Boers under a leader 
named Mocke were in Pietermaritzburg when Mr Cloete 
arrived. A number of them came secretly armed to the 
meeting of the Volksraad at which the proposals of the 
British Government were considered. The friends of peace 
and order, chief among whom were PretoriuSy Stephanus 
Maritz, Poortman, Zietsman, and Boshoff, gained the 
day. The Volksraad agreed to accept the conditions then 
laid down as necessary to a Dutch occupation of Natal under 
British rule. These were : 

1. '* There shall not ia the eye of the law be any distinction of 

persons or disqualification, founded on mere distinction of 
colour, origin, language, or creed ; but that the protection of 
the law, in letter and in substance, shall be extended impartially 
to all alike. 

2. That no aggression shall be sanctioned upon the natives residing 

beyond the limits of the colony, under any plea whatever, by 
any private person or any body of men, unless acting under th i 
immediate authority and orders of the Government. 

3. That slavery in any shape or under any modification is absolutely 

unlawful, as in every other portion of Her Majesty's dominions.* 

Mr Cloete announced that Great Britain had no intention of 

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iy8 The Republic of Natalia 

extending her authority beyond the Drakensberg. There- 
upon Mocke and his followers withdrew over the mountains, 
bitterly disappointed at the failure of their schemes. In 
order to guide the Crown in making giants of land, Mr 
Cloete received from the farmers returns of the land which 
they had occupied for a period of twelve months before his 
arrival. He visited King^ Panda in Zululand and informed 
that potentate of the turn affairs had taken in Natal. A 
treaty of "peace and friendship" was signed by Mr Cloete 
and Panda on the fifth October. The boundary of Natal was 
defined to be the Tugela from, its mouth to its junction with 
the Umzinyati and thence to the sources of that river. All 
captains of kraals on the r^ht bank of the Tugela were to be 
at once removed across to the other side. On the same day 
Panda formally ceded to Her Majesty "for ever" all right 
and title to St Lucia Bay. The treaty was signed by the 
Commissioner of Natal and the King of the Zulus " with the 
view of securing both countries from being unlawfully visited 
by adventurers of any foreign countries." 

The Commissioner did not leave Natal till 1844, but the 
Republic of Natalia was formally and finally abolished 00 
the xoth of May X843. On that day Natal became a 
British Colony "for the peace, protection, and salutary 
control of all classes of men settled at and surrounding 
that important portion of South Africa." 

Death of Dingaan : Panda declared King of 

THE Zulus . 1840 

Second occupation of Natal by British troops 1842 

Battle of Congella 1842 

Captain Smith besieged by the Boers . . 1842 
Natal proclaimed a British colony loth May 1843 

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Natal a Province of the Cape 199 



Within Fourteen Days. 

More than two years had elapsed since Natal was declared 
to be a British colony^ the year 1845 had nearly passed 
away, and Major Smith still held sway in his miniature 
kingdom round the Bay, while the Volksraad managed 
aflGurs beyond the Berea. The Dutch settlers became very 
impatient at the long delay of the English authorities in 
settling their claims to land and in arranging for the per- 
manent government of the country. The farmers in remote 
homesteads were alarmed at the great and increasing number 
of natives now everywhere manifest. They dreaded that the 
scenes they had witnessed on the Cape frontier might be 
re-enacted in NataL The Boers, of course, regarded the 
natives as bloodthirsty Zulus, and not as sons of the soil, 
whose traditions were all of peace and not of war. The 
uneasiness became so great that the Volksraad resolved to 
banish all the kafirs who had come into Natal after the 
arrival of Major Smith and his men. They were to return 
whence they came within fourteen days of receiving the 
intimation, and Major Smith was requested to help the 
settlers in carrying out this sweeping measure of removal. 
That officer refused to aid them in any such scheme, one 
which, he said, was certain to cause commotion and bloodshed 
should it be attempted. He advised them to wait patiently 
until the plans of the British Government were made known. 

The First British Governor. 
At last, in December 1845, Natal was annexed to 

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200 Natal a Province of the Cape 

the Cape, and Sir Peregrine Maitland, Sir George Napier's 
successor, appointed Mr Martin West, Resident Magis- 
trate at Grahamstown, to be the first Lieutenant- 
GrOvemor of NataL He was assisted in the government 
by an Executive Council of five. There was no Legislative 
Council, all laws for Natal being made by the Cape Govem- 
ment The Lieutenant-Governor could communicate with 
the Queen's Ministers only through the Governor of the 
Cape. Natal was thus only a province of the older colony, 
and it continued to be so till 1856. 

The Government officers, who in the infancy of the 
colony were associated with Mr West as his Executive 
Council, were Colonel Bojrs, the Commandant ; Mr 
Donald Moodie, Colonial Secretary; Dr William 
Stanger, Surveyor-General; Mr John Bird, who acted 
for Dr Stanger while on leave ; Mr William Field, 
Collector of Customs ; and Mr Walter Harding, Ciown 
Prosecutor. To Mr Tfaeophilus Shepstone was given 
the important office of " Diplomatic Agent to the Native 
Tribes" or Secretary for Native Aflfairs, a post for which 
his large experience among the natives of Cape Colony and 
his intimate knowledge of their language eminently fitted 
him. Mr Henry Cloete, die Commissioner of 1843, ^''^ 
appointed Recorder or Judge. He was afterwards a Puisne 
Judge in the Cape Colony. Dr Stanger did not long hold 
the office of Surveyor-General. He died in Natal after 
returning from leave of absence and was succeeded by Dr 
Sutherland, in 1857. 

The garrison of Natal, under Major Smith, was relieved 
by the 45th Regiment, with Colonel Boys in command. 
Two companies of the Regiment had been in Natal since 
1843. Fort Napier, the headquarters of the troops in 
Natal, was built in 1845. Much enlarged since that time, it 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Natal a Province of the Cape 201 

is now a military village, crowning the once desolate Bush- 
man's Rand and commanding the city. 

In 1848 it became evident that the plan of making laws in 
Capetown for Natal would not be satisfactory. The bounds 
of freedom were then slightly widened. The Lieutenant- 
Govemor, with the Colonial Secretary, the Surveyor-General, 
and the Crown Prosecutor, were constituted a Legislative 

Another Exodus. 

Lieutenant-Governor West proceeded without delay to 
settle the land grants according to his instructions. The 
demands of the leading Boers were so exorbitant that 
they could not be entertained. Claimants of land were 
divided into two classes. In the first class were placed 
those who were occupying farms when Mr Cloete registered 
their claims. The second class comprbed those who had 
been in occupation of the land within twelve months 
(Mreceding the registration, but who from some cause had 
been obliged to quit it. Farms . of 6000 acres ware 
given to the first class and 2000 acres to the second, 
both at a nominal rent or price. Building sites in the 
towns of Pietermaritzburg, Durban and Weenen were also 
granted to the farmers who had claimed them. This liberal 
settlement by no means satisfied the " earth-hunger '' of the 
Boers. They had not received as much as they asked, 
and they considered that the British Government had 
broken faith with them. Accordingly another exodus of 
the farmers began, and continued during 1846 and 
1847. Some went over the Berg to their friends in the 
Sovereignty; a few went no further than the Klip River 
and Biggarsberg districts. Besides what^ they deemed the 
unjust settlement of the land claims, two other grievances 

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202 Natal a Province of the Cape 

excited them to wrath and discontent Their Volksraad 
was abolished. They had no voice now in the govern- 
ment of the land they had fought for; the freedom they 
had pursued after had vanished like a dream. And the 
kafirs, whom they both feared and disliked, were around 
them in countless numb^s, and were even located on thdr 
forms. The dreadful scenes of the Weenen massacre were 
still before their eyes. 

Native Locations. 

The Lieutenant-Grovemor had also the land question to 
arrange in regard to another class of settlers, much more 
numerous and possessed of stronger rights to the soil than 
either the English or the Dutch. Their fathers had lived 
on the Umvoti, or the Tugela, or the Umtwalumi, for untold 
*< moons" and long before the white man had set foot in 
South Africa. Justice, therefore, required that their dwell- 
ing-places should be firmly secured to them. The British 
Government has ever been mindful of the rights of the 
natives in this respect When Mr Cloete came to Natal 
as Commissioner, he was instructed ''to make it known to 
the emigrant fjsumers and native tribes that the claims of 
the natives to lands which they either held or occupied 
were to be scrupulously respected." Mr Cloete rer 
commended that, the natives should be placed on lands set 
apart for them in the different districts of the colony. In 
1846 Mr West appointed a commission to arrange for 
locating the natives in accordance with Mr Cloete's sugges- 
tion. The Commission consisted of Mr Shepstone, Dr 
Stanger, Lieutenant Gibb of the Royal Engineers, and Dr 
Adams and Mr Lindley of the American Mission. Large 
tracts of land were selected by these gentlemen, and the 
natives were moved into them. Each location was suitable 

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Natal a Province of the Cape 203 

for a population of from 10,000 to 12,000 people, and was 
the property of the tribe collectively. It was intended as 
part of the scheme to appoint missionaries and officers 
paid by Government to each location, so that the people 
might be led from the slough of savagery gradually up the 
path of civilisation. Money was required for this, and 
the British Government would not sanction the expense. 
The natives were accordingly left in their locations enjoying 
their own laws and customs and subject to no civilising 
influences except tiiose which the missionaries of the various 
societies could bring to bear on them. 

The native locations are generally the most barren, 
wild, and broken parts of the country. Only small portions 
here and there are adapted for cultivation, and much of the 
land is not fitted even for pasturage but only for the habita- 
tion of the eagle and the baboon. The number and extent 
of the locations have been increased since 1846, and the 
land thus set apart for the natives is about one^leventh of the 
colony. The kafirs now number about 850,000. They live 
under the sway of their chiefs as they did before Chaka 
swept over the land, but the chiefs are no longer despotic. 
They are subject to the Residesit Magistrate of the district^ 
who in his turn is responsible, through the Secretary for 
Narive Affairs, to the Governor as Supreme Chief of the 
natives. The black subjects of His Majesty in Natal have 
always been loyal, prosperous, and contented. There has 
been only one serious disturbance, Langalibalele's rebellion, 
narrated in chap, ix; 

A law passed in 1875 increased the number of magistrates; 
decreed that all native crimes, except political ones, are to 
be tried in the ordinary courts ; and established a Native 
High Court for civil cases. Mr Ayliff was the first 
Judge of this Court His successors were Mr John Bird 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

204 Natal a Province of the Cape 

and Mr John Shepstone This court was abolished in 
1895, and an additional Judge was appointed to the Supreme 
Court The Native High Court was again established, but 
with three Judges, in 1898. 

A Fruitless Errand. 

The farmers who still remained in Natal viewed, with 
undisguised indignation and alarm, the permanent settle- 
ment in locations of the people whom they looked upon as 
the murderers of their kindred. Before finally resolving to 
leave Natal they determined to lay their complaints before 
the Governor of the Cape. Andries Pretorius was selected 
as the messenger, and at the end of 1847 he rode across the 
Berg and through the Sovereignty to Grahamstown, where 
Sir Henry Pottinger, the new Governor of the Cape, then 
was. Sir Henry Pottinger refused to see him. Pretorius 
then presented in writing a statement of the fanners' 
grievances. The Governor replied that he was going to 
England at once and would leave these matters for the 
attention of his successor. Pretorius went back to his 
countrymen stung to the quick by his reception and with 
hatred of the British Government raging in his heart 
Preparations were at once made for a general trek. 

Sir Harry Smith. 

Sir Harry Smith, the new Governor and a dashing 
soldier, had meanwhile arrived at Capetown. The Cape 
colonists all knew him as the Colonel Smith who rode from 
Capetown to Grahamstown in six days on the outbreak of 
the Kafir war of 1834. Sir Harry was as active as ever. 
He visited the emigrant farmers and the native chiefs in 
the Orange River Sovereignty and then crossed the Drakens* 
berg into Natal. Near the Tug^ela he found hundreds of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Natal a, Province of the Cape 205 

Dutch people under Pretorius waiting to cross when the 
river went "down." They were going to seek a home in 
the wilderness. It was the wet season, and men, women, 
and chSdren were huddled together in tents and wagons, 
and only poorly protected from the weather. Sir Harry 
gathered the heads of families together and begged them to 
go no further. He heard all their grievances and promised 
that they should be redressed. A new kuid Commission was 
appointed of which Pretorius was made a member. Farms 
of 6000 acres were increased to 8000 ; protection' against 
the kafirs was assured to the farmers; and a native police 
was formed to check the robberies of stock by the Bushmen 
who then and for years aftarwards infested the mountains. 
Many of the farmers took advuitage of the Governor's 
liberality and settled down in the uplands where they or 
their children are to this day. 

More Discontent 

It was expected that Sir Harry Smith's tour through 
the northern districts would result in peace and contentment. 
When he left the Tugela encampment he visited Pieter- 
maritzburg and Durban and returned to Capetown by sea. 
Hardly was he back before news was received that a section 
of the settlers in the Sovereignty was as discontented a& 
ever and plotting against the English Government. Andries 
Pretorius was at the head of the malcontents. He had 
not joined the land commission of Natal nor taken any 
advantage of Sir Harry Smith's kindly offers. Many of 
his countrymen who had a rooted dislike of British rule 
had crossed the Berg with him and joined the Boers of the 
Orange River Sovereignty. Thus at the beginning of 1848 
Natel vas left with a settled though small population. The 
discontented Dutch trekked over the mountain and never 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

2o6 Natal a Province of the Cape 

returned; the natives were living peaceably in their loca- 
tions; and the English and Dutch settlers who remained 
were contented and loyal colonists. 

Musket and Assegai. 

When the first Dutch emigrants crossed the Orange 
about 1834 they found the great plains east of the Vaal 
thinly peopled by various native tribes. On both sides of 
the river near its junction with the Orange there was a 
nation of half-caste Hottentots. They called themselves 
Griquas — an abbreviation of the name of a Hottentot tribe. 
Their chiefs were Adam Kok and Waterboer. The 
former, a man of negro blood and once a slave, had gained 
his freedom, gathered a number of Hottentots and other 
coloured people round him, and left the Cape for the Bush- 
man country north of the Orange in the early part of the 
century. He was there joined by freed blacks and refugees 
of all kinds. As his people increased disputes arose. They 
resulted in two governments being established, one under 
himself, the other headed by Waterboer. The whole land 
from the Orange to the Vaal was claimed by these Griquas 
and by various tribes of Bechuanas — ^the Basutos under 
Moshesh, the Barolonss under Moroko, and the Mantatees 
under Sikunyela. When the Dutch farmers settled down on 
the lands of these natives much disorder and bloodshed 
ensued. In disputes about land the musket generally proved 
a stronger argument than the ass^^i. The numbers of 
the Boers were greatly increased by further emigration from 
the Cape and by the return of theu: countrymen from Natal 
after it was proclaimed a British colony. Every man did 
what was right in his own eyes. With, such a mixed popula- 
tion and without a settled government the territory speedily 
became a scene of violence and confusion. 

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Natal a Province of the Cape 207 

The Orange Rirer Sovereignty. 

To remedy this state of affairs, Sir Peregrine Maitland 
in 1845 proclaimed the whole country British tenritory 
under the name of the Orange River Sovereignty. A 
British Resident, Msyor Warden, with a small detachment 
of troops, was sent to Bloemfontein, and four magistrates 
were appointed for the various districts. When Sir Harry 
Smith visited the Sovereignty on his way to Natal in 1847 
he did his best to make peace between the Boers and the 
native tribes and to arrange their land disputes. He was 
everywhere hailed as '^ the £urmers' friend/' and he believed 
that loyalty and contentment would spring up in his foot- 
steps. The news, therefore, that Andries Pretorius at the 
head of 400 Boers had forced the British Resident and the 
troops to retire from Bloemfonteii^ and to cross the river 
to Colesberg came like a thunder-clap on the authorities at 
Capetown. Sir Harry Smith, with a hand for war as 
well as a heart for peace, lost no time. In a few days he 
was at the Orange with six or seven hundred men. The 
rebel Boers were encamped on the other side, but retreated 
hastily when the English force crossed the river. At 
BoomplatS, half-way to Bloemfontein, the soldiers found 
the Dutchmen strongly posted behind a ridge and among 
broken ground. There was a sharp contest of about three 
hours ending in the complete discomfiture of the farmers. 
Pretorius escaped with some others and succeeded in 
crossing the Vaal. The British Resident was once more 
installed at Bloemfontein, and fines were imposed on all 
who were known to have consfMred against the Queen's 
authority. In 1848 Sir Harry Smith confirmed Sir Peregrine 
Maitland's proclamation of sovereignty over the territory. 

The Sovereignty proved a troublesome possession. There 
were constant wars between the native chiefs, and Major 

~ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

2o8 Natal a Province of the Cape 

Warden reported that a garrison of 2000 men would be 
necessary to overawe the natives and keep peace in the 
country. It was resolved therefore to abandon the Sover- 
eignty, and Sir George Cleric, a former Governor of 
Bombay, was commanded to carry the measure into effect. 
Amid much opposition from both British and Dutch residents, 
the British flag was pulled down at Bloemfontein in 1854 and 
the Republic of the Orange Free State established. Mr 
Jacobus Boshoff was one of the first Presidents. He was a 
man of great influence among his countrymen, and when 
elected was Master of the District Court in Natal When his 
presidential term expired he returned to Natal, and was for 
many years a member of the Legislative Council. The new 
Republic had long and costly wars with the Basutos about 
boundary rights. As Moshesh's people were threatened with 
extinction, the British Government proclaimed Basutoland 
British territory in 1868, and in 1869 a definite boundary line 
was agreed to by the two states. The Orange Free State 
became, under President Stejm, as under his predecessors, 
Sir John Brand and Mr Reitz, one of the most prosperous 
territories in South Africa. 

Across the Vaal. 

When Hendrik Potgieter left his countrymen in Natal 
after the unsuccessful commando against Dingaan, he and 
the farmers with him crossed the Vaal into the country then 
terrorised by Moselekatse. As the hordes of that warlike 
chieftain had scattered the feeble B^chuanas like chaff, so did 
the Dutchmen with their horses and muskets hunt him and 
his warriors down. Moselekatse was unable to cope with 
the terrible newcomers. He speedily took refuge from their 
muskets in flight, and retreated across the Limpopo, leaving 
Potgieter and his followers in undisputed possession of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Natal a Province of the Cape 209 

vast territory between tha^t river and the Vaal. In 1839 
Potchefstroom was founded. Its name is derived partly 
from the leader, partly from the stream near which it is built 
Settlements were then successively made at Orig^taxli Zout- 
pansberg, and Lydenburg. Meanwhile Andries Pre- 
toriuSy who had escaped from Boomplats, fled over the Vaal. 
Jealousies and disputes about the leadership soon arose 
between him and Potgieter. In 1852 a treaty was concluded 
with the British Government called the Sand River Con- 
vention, by which the independence of the South African 
Republic was acknowledged. Both Pretorius and Potgieter 
died in 1853, and in 1855 Marthinus Wessels, son of 
Andries Pretorius, was chosen first President of the Republic. 
Pretoria, the capital, was then laid out and named in his 
honour. Disputes and fighting among the Boers themselves 
and almost continual wars with the natives to the north and 
north-east make up the history of the Republic until its 
annexation to Great Britain by Sir Theophilus Shepstone in 

Byrne's Immigrants. 

On the departure of the discontented Boers in 1848 Natal 
was left with a small white population. Various schemes for 
the introduction of British settlers were started. The best 
known of these was Byrne's immigration scheme. Mr 
J. C. Byrne, who had visited the colony some years before, 
arranged with the Government that, for ;;^io, each adult 
immigrant should receive a free passage to Natal and from 20 
to 50 acres of land on arrival During the years i848*49*5o-5i, 
57 vessels with about 4500 people arrived at Durban. One 
of the ships, the Minerva, parted her cable and came ashore 
under the Bluff. Not only the Minesva's passengers but those 
who landed in a more agreeable way had to endure many dis- 

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2IO Natal a Province of the Cape 

comforts and hardships. They had to live in tents and sheds 
and huts until they found means of proceeding to the land 
allotted to them. Many of those who did succeed in reaching 
their "farms" were greeted only with disappointment The 
land had been divided without any regard to the character of 
the soil, and the allotments were often only rocky hillsides, 
utterly unsuited for tillage. Numbers of the immigrants left 
Natal for Australia in 1852 and 1853, when the goldfields of 
that colony were 'beginning to come before the world. Those 
who remained brought stout hearts to bear on their dis- 
appointment, and besides farming took to trades, shopkeeping 
and other occupations. Many prosperous Natalians were 
passengers by the King William, the Aliwal, the Haidee, 
and the Minerva. The villages of Verulam, Richmond, 
B]rraetown, and York were settled by means of this im- 
migration. New Germany, near Pinetown, was founded 
in 1848 by 35 families from Bremen brought out by Mr 
Bezgtheil to grow cotton. 

Sir George Grey. 

Lieutenant-Governor West died in 1849, and was succeeded 
by Mr Pine, afterwards Sir Benjamin Pine. The new 
Governor thought that Natal with a European population 
of over 8000 was entitled to representative institutions, and 
he submitted his views to Sir George Grey, the Governor of 
the Cape. The result was that Sir George Grey visited 
the colony in 1855 to judge of its worthiness in that re- 
spect. He mixed with the people, and found among them 
many, both Dutch and British, who by virtue of knowledge 
of the country, intelligence, and education, were perfectly 
capable of legislating for the community. Sir Geotge Grey 
accordingly recommended that a representative Legislative 
Council should be granted to Natal. 

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Natal a Province of the Cape 211 


New life was infused into the settlement by the arrival 
of so many English people. Trade began to be opened up 
with the Orange Free State and the South African Republic, 
and many of the settlers found occupation as carriers. Both 
imports and exports increased rapidly. The growing trade 
of the Port was watched over- by Mr George Rutherford 
from 1853 when he succeeded Mr Field as Collector of 
Customs, until his retirement in 1889. 

It was found that the coastlands were suitable for 
growing sugar cane, and in 1852 Mr Morewood planted 
the first cane at Compensation, near Umhlali. The sugar 
industry gradually increased year by year. The cultivation 
of coffee and cotton was also introduced, but did not 
prove a success. 

The Daily News in 1850 described Durban as having 
500 inhabitants but no municipality and no police. Pieter- 
maritzburg was no better off except in regard to population, 
which was 1500 exclusive of the garrison. In 1853 the 
reproach of "no municipality" was removed. Corpora- 
tions were established in both towns. Mr David Dale 
Buchanan was the first Mayor of Pietermaritzburg ; Mr 
George Christopher Cato, of Durban. 

Schools were established in the two towns and in the 
smaller settlements by the Government and by the churches. 
Various religious societies were represented in the young 
colony. The Dutch Reformed Church, the American Board 
of Missions, and the Wesleyan Society were first in the 
field. From 1850 to 1856 churches were opened in both 
Pietermaritzburg and Durban in connection with the Roman 
Catholic, the Presbyterian, and the Congregational denomi- 
nations. The Church of England may be said to have 
begun its labours in 1850, when St Paul's in Durban 

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212 Natal a Province of the Cape 

was built and the Rev. W. H. C Lloyd appointed to 
the charge. The Rev. James Green was the first in- 
cumbent of St Peter's Cathedral in Pietermaritzburg, the 
foundation-stone of which was laid by Governor Pine in 
185 1. In 1853 Natal was created a Bishop's See by Her 
Majesty's Letters Patent. Dr Colenso» afterwards a man 
of world-wide fame, was the first Bishop of NataL He 
arrived in February 1854, and the Cathedral was opened 
in 1857. 

The establishment of agricultural shows, cricket clubs, 
and races; and of the Natal Bank, the Natal Society, 
literary societies and benevolent societies, shows that fifty 
years ago the English people in Natal were a stirring 
though small community and healthy in mind and body. It 
was not to be expected that Englishmen would sit down 
quietly in the political bondage which marked the years up 
to 1856 without a protest and an endeavour to be free. At 
public meetings and in the newspapers their voice was 
heard demanding their "unimpaired hereditary right of 

The earliest newspaper printed in Natal was the Natalier, 
a small sheet first published in Pietermaritzburg in 1843 
by Cornelius Moll. The Patriot was the successor of 
the Natalier. The Natal Witness and the Natal 
Mercury, both in vigorous existence at the present day, 
were first published respectively in Pietermaritzburg in 1847 
and in Durban in 1852. 

Natal annexed to the Cape 
Arrival of the First British Governor 
Native Locations established . 
Exodus of Boers from Natal . 
Legislative Council granted . 



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Twenty Years 213 

Four Thousand Immigrants arrive in Natal 1848-185 i 
Transvaal Republic founded by Potgieter . 1839 
Orange River Sovereignty proclaimed . . 1845 
The Sovereignty relinquished by Great Britain 1854 


A New Governor and a New Constitution. 

The recommendations of Sir George Grey were carried 
into effect in 1856. On the 15th July of that year, a 
Royal Charter was issued constituting Natal a distinct 
colony from the Cape, and creating a Legislative Council 
of 16 members — twelve elective and four non-elective. The 
latter were the Colonial Secretary, the Treasurer, the 
Attorney-General, and the Secretary for Native Affairs. Mr 
John Scott, afterwards Sir John Scott, who arrived in 
November 1856, was the first Lieutenant-Governor under 
the Charter. The new Legislative Council was opened 
in Maritzburg on the 24th March 1857, with the Hon. 
Donald Moodie as its first Speaker, in a building, now 
pulled down, at the comer of Chapel and Longmarket 

The Council made laws and voted money for the public 
service. Its decisions, however, were subject to the approval 
of the Governor, and in important matters to that of the 
Queen. The number of both the elective and non-elective 
members has varied since 1856, changes having occurred in 
1869, 1873, 1875, 1880, 1883, 1889, 1893, 1897, and 1903. 
In 1869 the number of official members was increased to five 
by the addition of the Protector of Immigrants. His 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

214 Twenty Years 

seat was afterwards taken by the Colonial Engineer. It 
was decreed also that the Executive Council should in- 
clude two elective members of the Legislative Council. 
In 1873 the number of elective members was increased from 

twelve to fifteen. 
In 187s eight non-elective members, nominated by the 
Governor, were added to the Legislative Council, which 
thus consisted of 15 elective members and 13 non- 
In 1880 the Charter of 1869 ^^ reverted to, which fixed the 

number of members as 12 elective and 5 officiaL 
In 1883 a law decreed that the Legislative Council should 
consist of 30 members, 23 of whom were elective sent by 
the ten electoral districts of the colony. The seven 
non-elective members consisted of 5 official and s 
non-official members appointed by the Governor. 
The CQunties of Alexandra and Alfred, which previously 
returned only one member between them, were in 
1889 formed into two electoral districts with separate 
representatives. That amendment of the law of 1883 
increased the number of elective members to 
In 1893 Responsible Government was granted. Details of 
this new " Constitution Act ** and of subsequent changes 
will be found in chapters xiii. and xv. 
Every man over twenty-one years of age who pbssesses im- 
movable property of the value of j£s^9 ^' ^^o >'^°** *°y ^"^ 
property of the yearly value of ;^io, is entitled to vote for 
members of the Legislative Assembly. Lodgers also possess 
this right if they have resided for three years in the colony 
and have incomes of not less than j£g6 a year. 

A law passed in 1865 debarred natives from the fianchise, 
excepting those who had been exempted from Native Law 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Twenty Years 215 

for seven years and who also possessed the usual property 

Cetywayo and Umbulazi. 

The year in which Natal became a separate colony 
witnessed serious troubles in Zululand. Panda had always 
been faithful to his Dutch allies who had crowned him 
king, and he had also loyally kept the treaty of peace and 
friendship which Mr Cloete made with him on behalf of the 
new rulers of Natal. During his long reign of thirty-two years 
no raids across the Tugela disturbed the peace of Natal 
colonists. That boundary line was always strictly respected. 
The Zulu military system was continued, but hemmed in as 
the nation was by the British to the south and by the Dutch 
in the inland territories to the west, there were no such oppor- 
tunities for fight and foray as in the "good old times" of 
Chaka and Dingaan. The chiefs kept at the royal kraal on 
military duty were often sent away empty-handed when 
their term of service was over. The feasting had departed 
with the fighting. Panda himself had little of the warlike 
spirit, and in his later years his great size effectually pre- 
vented bodily activity of any kind. When he wanted to 
get into a wagon it was necessary to take off the front 
wheels. His eldest son, CetjrwayOi was a man of a different 
stamp. His tastes were warlike and he manifested much of 
the military ability of his uncle Chaka. Cetywayo sus- 
pected his father of favouring the pretensions of his 
younger brother, Umbulazi| to the chieftainship, and he 
gathered round him many of the young men of the tribe 
who looked to him as the chief destined to restore the 
departed glory of the Zulus. Umbulazi also had a party 
attached to him, and when the two factions met for hunting 
or other purposes their enmity often assumed an alarming 

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2i6 Twenty Years 

aspect This fraternal strife troubled Panda sorely, and he 
gave Umbulazi permission to move south with his adherents 
and to build his kraals near the Tugela. At this juncture, 
Panda's chief induna, Umasipula, declared himself on the 
side of Cetywayo. Thus reinforced, Cet)n«rayo pursued his 
brother. The two forces met on the banks of the Tugela 
in December 1856, and a dreadful massacre ensued Cety- 
wayo was completely victorious. Umbulazi himself was 
slain and his unfortunate followers were speared by thou- 
sands or drowned in the flooded river. Five sons of Panda 
besides Umbulazi were killed in the battle. The towns- 
people of Durban were horror-stricken at beholding for 
days afterwards the Back Beach strewn with bodies washed 
thither from the Tugela, mute witnesses of the carnage 
which had taken place so near the quiet English settlement 

" Mayor of the Palace." 

The battle by the Tugela removed all doubts as to who 
would be Panda's successor. Umbulazi and his party thus 
put out of the way, the power of Cetywayo grew every 
day greater, and he held supreme sway in Zululand long 
before his father's death. At a great meeting of the tribe 
held in 1857, it was resolved that Panda, who was unable 
to move about, should retire from the management of 
affairs, and that Cetywayo, assisted by Umasipula, the prime 
minister, should be the actual ruler. Panda was thenceforth 
a king in name only, like the ''sluggard kings'' of the 
Merovingians, while Cetywa]ro was "Mayor of the 
Palace." About the time of Cetywayo's conflict with 
Umbulazi, two young sons of Panda, Usikota and Umkungo, 
were secretly sent into Natal and placed under the protec- 
tion of the Government. The old king feared that they 
too might fall vigtiips to their eldest brother's Jealousy 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Twenty Years 217 

should they' remain in Zululand. These lads never re- 
crossed the Tugela. Cetywayo seemed to suspect that the 
Natal Government, by affording his brothers refuge, favoured 
them as rivals to himself in the supreme power. To remove 
this feeling of distrust, Mr Shepstoney in 1861, proceeded 
to the great place in Zululand, with the object of inducing 
Panda to elect Cetywayo as his successor. The old king's 
consent was given and Cetywayo was officially announced 
as the future King. From this time until Panda's death 
in 1872, friendly relations continued to be maintained with 
the Zulus. 

Visit of Prince Alfred 

In i860 Natal was honoured by a visit from Prince 
Alfred, the second son of Queen Victoria, afterwards Duke 
of Edinburgh and Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He was 
then a lad of fifteen, serving as a midshipman in the frigate 
Euryalus. His Royal Highness spent two months in 
South Africa and, accompanied by Sir George Grey, made a 
tour by way of the inland states from Capetown to Natal. 
At both Maritzburg and Durban the townspeople gave him a 
loyal welcome. An immense kafir dance was the feature of 
the entertainments in Maritzburg, and a ball in Durban. 
Prince Alfred laid the foundation-stone of a Town Hall in 
the capital. After the lapse of thirty years the stone was 
relaid and the hall opened in May 1893. It was destroyed 
by fire in 1898, and rebuilt on a larger scale. The new hall 
was opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales in August 
190 1. 

Noman's Land, annexed to the colony in 1S66, was 
named Alfred County in remembrance of the Prince's visit. 
This " Debateable Land " between the Umtamvuna and the 
Um^imkulu was for many years under the nominal sway of 

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2i8 Twenty Years 

Faku, the Amapondo chief. He found himself unable to 
control its mixed population and handed it over to Imperial 
protection. The inland part was granted by the British 
Government to Adam Kok and his people when they left 
the Free State in i860. The coast region was constituted 
part of Natal during Colonel Bisset's administration. 

Railway and Omnibus. 

The year of the Royal visit was marked by two important 
onward movements in the path of progress. A railway, 
which was afterwards continued to Umgeni Village, was 
opened from the Point to Durban ; and an omnibus drawn 
by horses began to run weekly between Durban and 

The small railway, begun by a company of Natalians, was 
the first worked in South Africa and the forerunner of the 
line of steel which now stretches from the Indian Sea to 
Capetown and the Zambesi Before it was made all goods 
landed at the Point were conveyed by ox-wagons through the 
deep sand of what was by courtesy called the Point Road. 
Pedestrians could avoid the blazing sun and the burning sand 
by taking the shady bush-path, now numbered with the things 
that were. Few or none of the townspeople kept carriages 
in those days of sand, and horseback was the usual mode of 
getting from place to place. 

The horse wagonette or 'bus which b^an to jolt up and 
down the main road in i860 was a great improvement on 
the leisurely ox-wagon which even in good weather took three 
or four days to travel the fifty-eight miles. The 'bus per- 
formed the journey in about eleven hours, allowing the 
passengers a rest at the Hallway House. This conveyance 
ran daily in later years, and the post-cart which did the 
journey in six hours also took passengers. Coaching from 

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Twenty Years 219 

the port to the city ceased with the opening of the railway, 
and very few vehicles except an occasional ox-wagon are now 
seen on the road. 

Indian Labourers. 

The growing industries of the coastlands — sugar, coflfee, 
cotton, and arrowroot— demanded a surer supply of labour 
than could be obtained from the native tribes in the colony. 
To meet the necessities of the plantations, indentured 
labourers or " Coolies " were first brought from India in 
1 860. The immigration . has been continued ever since. 
Comparatively few of these Indian labourers return to their 
native land on the completion of their period of service. 
They remain in the colony as '^ free " Indians and become, 
market-gardeners, farmers, domestic servants,, fishermen, 
hawkers, shopmen, and traders. In 1902 there were 49,000 
" free " and 26,000 " indentured " Indians. 


In 1867 a discovery was made which brought prosperity to 
South Africa and a rush of people to its shores. A trader, 
John O'Reilly, on his way from the Orange River to 
Colesberg, halted to rest at the farm-house of one Van 
Niekerk in the Hopetown district The farmer showed 
O'Reilly some Orange River stones among which was one of 
lustrous whiteness. Van: Niekerk gave it to his visitor telling 
him it was picked up near the house by a Bushman boy. 
The stone was examined in Grahamstown and pronounced to 
be a diamond worth ;^5oo. A search was at once begun but 
met with little success for two years. In 1869 Van Niekerk 
discovered that a Hottentot was in possession of a large stone 
and purchased it for ;£4oo. This diamond, the " Star of 
South Africa" weighed 83^ carats uncut, and was estimated 

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220 Twenty Years 

in 1870 to be worth ;^25,ooo. It is now owned by the 
Countess of Dudley. There was soon an immense rush of 
diggers to the district, and the banks of the Vaal from its 
junction with the Orange as far up as Hebron were carefully 
prospected for the precious stones. In the year 1870 thirty 
or forty camps, with a population of about 10,000 were dotted 
all along the river. Klipdrift or Barkly was the chief. 

About the end of that year the discovery of diamonds 
midway between the Vaal and the Modder, near where 
Kimberley now stands, caused the river diggings to be 
almost deserted. Discomforts of all kinds — sand and blazing 
heat, dust-storms, swarms of flies, and scarcity of water- 
had to be endured in the early years by the diggers on the 
Diamond Fields. Impure water and coarse food brought on 
camp fever which swept off many of the diggers and which 
it took many years to stamp out. Thirty years have effected 
a marvellous change in the Diamond Fields, Large towns 
have risen in the arid waste. Kimberley is one of the finest 
towns in South Africa, lighted by electricity, and supplied 
with water from the Vaal River 20 miles distant. The 
great Kimberley mine, now worked by one company, opens 
close to the busy streets in the centre of the town which 
has grown up around it. The mine was at first a small 
hill, Colesberg Kopje, but has been gradually levelled 
and dug into until it is now an immense quarry over 800 
feet deep at its lowest level and about 30 acres in extent. 
In this great pit thousands of natives are employed filling 
buckets with the blue clay in which the diamonds are 

The three other large mines in which the diamond industry 
is chiefly centred are De Beer's, Dutoitspan, and Bult- 
fontein. The four mines are so near each other that a 
circle $^ miles in diameter would enclose the whole. The 

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Twenty Years 221 

jrield of diamonds from these mines has been enoniious. 
From Kimberley mine alone, about 3^ tons, worth 
;;^ao,ooo,ooo, were obtained from its discovery in 1871 
to the end of 1885. The value of the diamonds now pro- 
duced from all the mines is nearly five millions annually. 
The fabled wealth of the Empire of Monomotapa, vainly 
sought for two hundred years ago by Mr Van Riebeek, 
has at last been realised in the Golconda of the Vaal River. 

\Vaterboer and the Free State. 

The diggers on the Diamond Fields were ruled by Orange 
Free State officials till 1871. Nicholas Waterboer, the 
chief of the west Griquas, also claimed the territory. Sup- 
ported by the diggers, he petitioned the British Government 
to annex the Fields. In 1871 Sir Henry Barkly proclaimed 
Waterboer and his tribe British subjects and their territory 
British territory. The Free State disputed the right of 
Great Britain to annex the district, and it was not till 1876 
that matters were amicably settled. In that year President 
Brand visited England and agreed to give up all claim to 
Griqua Land West for the sum of ;£9o,ooo. The pro- 
vince, after being governed as a separate colony until 1880, 
was in that year incorporated with the Cape Colony. 

Changes of Governors. 

Colonel Maclean succeeded Mr Scott as Lieutenant- 
Governor of Natal in 1864. His ill-health, however, com- 
pelled him to retire and his place was taken by Colonel 
Bisset until Mr Keate arrived in 1867. Mr Keate was 
succeeded in 1872 by Mr Anthony Musgrave, who was 
shortly afterwards promoted to South Australia. Sir 
Beiyamin Pine, who, as Mr Pine, had been Governor 
before, came in 1873 and began his second term of office. 

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2 22 Twenty Years 

A Peaceful Invasion. 

King Panda died in 1872. His death was formally 
announced by Zulu messengers who came to Maritzburg in 
the beginning of 1873. Th^y brought a request from Cety- 
wayo and his people that Mr Shepstone should proceed to 
Zululand and install Cetywayo as head of the Zulu nation. 
The Natal Government consented to the request in the hope 
that the ceremony would strengthen cordial relations between 
Natal and the Zulus, and that Mr Shepstone by his pre- 
sence and influence would be able to introduce some reforms 
into the Zulu government and to prevent the bloodshed 
which always signalised the accession of a new chief. 
Accordingly, in August 1873, Mr Shepstone, attended by 
no mounted volunteers with two field pieces and 300 natives, 
went into Zululand by way of the Noodsberg and Tugela 
mouth. The band of the Maritzburg Rifles accompanied 
the expedition. The natives in Zululand were everywhere 
friendly. The party travelled past Eshowe, crossed the 
upper waters of the Umlalazi and the broad valley of the 
Umhlatuzi, and climbed to Entonjaneni, one of the highest 
points in Zululand. The wide basin of the Umfolosi, the 
cradle of the Zulu race, then lay stretched before them. 
Mr Shepstone and his escort encamped in the valley dose 
by the royal kraal of Senzangakona, the father of Chaka. 
There they were welcomed by an aged woman, one of 
Senzangakona's wives. Some of the party explored the 
ruins of UmgungundhloTU, a few miles to the west of the 
camp, and stood in the circle -where Retief and his hapless 
comrades had been fallen upon by the myrmidons of Dingaan. 

Coronation of Cetywayo. 

The coronation ceremony took place on the north side of 
the Umfolosi at a kraal named Umlambongwenya, pool 

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Twenty Years 123 

of the crocodile^ where a military marquee was erected for 
the occasion. About 10,000 Zulus armed only with sticks 
and shields were ranged round the kraal Before the 
coronation took place, Mr Shepstone proclaimed that with 
the assent of king and people certain new laws had been 
made. These were that 

(i.) Indiscriminate shedding of blood was to cease ; 
(2.) No Zulu would be condemned without open trial 
and the public examination of witnesses, and 
that he would have a right of appeal to the 
king; » 
(3.) No Zulu's life would be taken without the sanction 
of the king even after such trial had taken place ; 
(4.) For minor crimes, a fine would be substituted for the 
punishment of death. 
Cetywayo with one attendant then went into the marquee 
with Mr Shepstone and his staff. He emerged soon after- 
wards, arrayed in a crimson-and-gold mantle and a head- 
dress of crimson velvet and gold lace surmounted by ostrich 
feathers. In these robes he was presented to his brothers 
and head-men as the King of the Zulus. Cetywayo 
agreed that Amatonga natives on their way to and from 
Natal should be allowed to travel through Zululand, and 
he authorised Mr John Dunn, his chief adviser, to arrange 
for resting-places being provided for them. John Dunn, 
a son of one of the early English settlers, was then high in 
Getywayo's &ivour, although he had fought on the side of 
Umbulazi at the battle by the Tugela. The marquee, the 
coronation robes, and other presents were bestowed on 
Cetywayo, who in return presented Mr Shepstone with 
several tusks of ivory and a herd of cattle. The expedition 
recrossed the Tugela on the nth September. 

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2 24 Twenty Years 

The Amahlubi. 

Trouble bad for some time been brewing with the 
AmahlubL This tribe, under its chief Langalibalele, 
occupied the open rolling country round the sources of the 
Bushman River, from Tabamhlope to the great mountain- 
wall of the Berg, where it presents its most impenetrable 
front to Natal— between Cathkin Peak and Giant's Castle. 
After the dispersion of the tribe in the time of Chaka a 
remnant settled down near Utrecht under Langalibalele as 
tributaries to the Zulu power. There they remained until 
attacked by Panda in 1849, when they moved to the upper 
part of the Klip River by the permission of Lieutenant- 
Governor West As the land occupied by the tribe was 
claimed by some Dutch farmers, Langalibalele was removed, 
very unwillingly, to the location on the upper waters of the 
Bushman River, there to act as a kind of Warden of the 
Marches. It was thought that the presence of a large tribe 
would keep in check the Bushmen banditti who then infested 
the mountain. 

Langalibalele had great influence among the natives. Com- 
pared with him Cety wayo was an upstart of yesterday. When 
the Amazulu .were despised " tobacco-sellers," the Amahlubi 
were the most powerful tribe in south-eastern Africa, and 
Langalibalele was the recognised head of the race. Besides 
his dignity of birth he had the reputation of being a great 
sorcerer. He was a "rain-maker," and could at will com- 
mand a flood or a drought. His attitude had never been one 
of prompt compliance with the orders of the Government 

Unregistered Guns. 

Many of the young men of the Amahlubi, in common with 
other Natal natives, went to work in the diamond mines 
on the Vaal. When they returned to their kraals they 

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Twenty Years 225 

brought back with them guns which they had obtained at 
the Fields as wages, or had purchased with their savings. 
The law about natives possessing firearms is not as strict at 
the Diamond Fields as it is in Natal, where no native is 
allowed to possess a gun unless with the special permission 
of the Government. It came to the knowledge of the 
magistrate of Langalibalele's division that guns had been 
seen in his kraals, and messengers were sent to demand that 
they should be brought to the magistrate's office for registra- 
tion. Langalibalele complied with the order so far as to 
send a few, but it was known that the greater number had 
been held back. No notice was taken of subsequent and 
repeated demands for the guns by the ms^strate. The 
chief himself was then summoned to appear at Maritzburg 
before the Secretary for Native Affairs to explain his con- 
duct Twice he was summoned, and twice he failed to 
come. This happened before Mr Shepstone went into 
Zululand. When he returned a third message was sent to 
Langalibalele requiring his presence in Maritzburg, and in- 
forming him that if he did not come willingly he would be 
brought by force. The Government messengers sent on this 
errand reported that the chief grossly insulted and maltreated 
them. Langalibalele did not appear in answer to the final sum- 
mons, and accordingly a force, consisting of 200 regulars, 300 
volunteers, and about 6,000 natives, with two field pieces, moved 
up to the Amahlubi location on the 29th October. The Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, Sir Benjamin Pine, and Mr Shepstone 
accompanied the force. Hlatikulu was the headquarters of 
the troops, and detachments were posted all round the location. 

Bushman River Pass. 

Notice was then given to the Amahlubi to surrender 
their arms within three days. Langalibalele had meanwhile 

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226 Twenty Years 

escaped by the unguarded mountain-side of his location. 
With a small party of attendants he went into Basutoland 
by the Bushman River Pass. The young men of the 
tribe, undtf the guidance of Mabuhle,^ an induna, had 
orders to follow with the cattle. The old men, women, and 
children were to remain in the kraals guarded by small 
bodies of armed natives left for that purpose. It was sus- 
pected that Langalibalele would endeavour to escape by the 
mountain, and a patrol party of 37 Carbineers, under 
M^yor Dumford, of the Royal Engineers, and Captain 
Barter, was sent with native guides up by Giant's Castle 
Pass to guard the top of Bushman River Pass. The volun- 
teers had a perilous and toilsome climb of 4,000 feet up 
what was little else than a water-worn gully in the moun- 
tain. When they arrived at the top of Bushman River 
Pass early on the morning of the 4th November, faint and 
weary from want of food and want of sleep, they found 
they wete a day too late. langalibalele had passed through 
into Basutoland hours before, and all the defile was filled 
with cattle driven by a great number of natives armed with 
guns and assegais. Major Durnford attempted to stop their 
progress by dmwing his men in a line across the pass and 
calling on them to surrender. No heed was paid to him, 
and the natives forced their way on past the volunteers, 
whom they jostled and surrounded. The attitude of the 
kafirs was defiant in the extreme. They taunted and jeered 
at the white men and ostentatiously sharpened their assegais 
on the stones. Seeing the overwhelming numbers he had 
to deal with, Major Durnford commanded his men to retire. 
They had just begun to fall back at a trot when a volley was 
poured in on them by kafirs sheltered behind the rocks and 
stones of the pass. Five men were shot, three of the Natal 
Carbineers — Erskine, Bond, and Potterill — ^and two natives. 

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Twenty Years 227 

The little band of volunteers retired beyond the range of 
fire, and Mabuhle, the treacherous induna, with his people 
and cattle, went on his way. 

The three Carbineers and the two natives were buried 
some days afterwards in the desolate pass where they fell 
There is a monument in the Market Square of . Maritzburg 
erected by the Natal Carbineers and the Colonists in memory 
of Robert Henry Erdcine, Edwin Bond, and Charles 
Davie Potterill, and Elijah Kambule and Katana, 
loyal natives, who fell " in discharge of their duty " at the 
Bushman Eiver Pass on the 4th November 1873. 

End of the Rebellion. 

A strong party under Captain Allison was at once sent 
in pursuit of the fugitive chief. Lang^alibalele, joined by 
Mabuhle's party with the cattle, made his way to Leribe, 
the village of Molappo, the Basuto chief, one of the sons 
of Moshesh. There he was arrested with nine of his head- 
men by the Cape Mounted Police, who also were out in 
pursuit, and given up to Captain Allison on the 13th of 
Dec^nber. Five thousand cattle were captured at the same 
time. Mabuhle, the induna, disappeared. 

At the end of the three days' grace the troops took 
possession of the Amahlubi location. Many of the people 
fled to the caves and natural hiding-places which abound in 
the mountain. Some made a stubborn resistance to the 
efforts made to dislodge them, and loss of life to natives on 
both sides was the result. The tribe was broken up and 
proclaimed as having "ceased to exist," and all the cattle 
and horses were confiscated. A neighbouring tribe, the 
Amang^'^, under Putili, living along the Little Tugela, 
was fined 2,000 head of cattle for harbouring both people and 
cattle belonging to the rebel tribe. 

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a 28 Twenty Years 

Langalibalele was tried in Maritzburg hj a special court, 
and sentenced for *' rebellion against the Supreme Chief*' to 
banishment for life. One of his sons who had fired on the 
troops was banished for five years. Six other sons were 
imprisoned for various periods, as were also over aoo 
men of the tribe. Some of them, however, were allowed to 
serve their terms of punishment as servants in the colony. 
The old chief and one son were sent to Robben Island, off 
Table Bay, in August 1874. Owing to a plea made on their 
behalf by the Bishop of Natal their sentence was somewhat 
mitigated by the Earl of Carnarvon, who was then Secretary 
of State. Instead of being kept on Robben Island, they 
were permitted to live under strict supervision on a part 
of the mainland of Cape Colony set apart for diat 

LangaUbalele was allowed to return to Natal in 1886, 
but the light of the great sun ^hUh shines and bums was 
effectually quenched. He died in 1889. 

Sir Garaet Wolseley. 

The trouble with the Amahlubi tribe brought the native 
population of Natal prominently before the home authorities. 
As the result of a consultation which Lord Camarron held 
with Mr Shepstone, the Native High Court was established, 
and an additional number of magistrates was appointed to 
the native locations. When Sir Benjamin Pine went to 
England in 1875, ^^ famous soldier Sir Garnet Wolseleyi 
now Lord Wolseley, was sent out to Natal as temporary 
Governor. He was accompanied by Colonel Collejr, 
Major Butler, Msgor Brackenbury, and Captain Lord 
Gifford, officers who had been with him through the Ashanti 
war. Sir Garnet Wolseley's mission wias to report on the 
condition of the natives and the relations subsisting between 

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Twenty Years 229 

them and the European inhabitants, and also, in consequence 
of the native difficulty through which the colony had passed, 
to increase the power of the Executive in the Legislative 
Council by the appointment of meinbers nominated by the 
Governor. Sir Garnet and his staff, stayed five months in 
Natal. After visiting all the districts of the coiony, ** upland 
and lowland, thorn thicket and sugar field," including the 
wildest native locations, Sir Garnet Wolseley was able to 
report to Lord Carnarvon that "the natives in Natal are 
happy and pro^erous — well-off in every sense," and that they 
and their white neighbours were on the best of terms. Sir 
Garnet succeeded in passing a law by which the Legislative 
Council was made to consist of five Executive officers, eight 
nominee members, and fifteen elected members. This law 
remained in force for five years, until 1880, when the Charter 
of 1869 was again put in force. 

When Sir Garnet Wolseley left in August, 1875, Sir Henry 
Bulwer arrived as Lieutenant-Governor. He is the nephew 
of the distinguished novelist. Lord Lytton, and was governor 
of Labuan before his appointment to Natal. Mr Rider 
Haggard, the well-known novelist, came with the new 
Governor, and his stay in Natal and afterwards in the Trans- 
vaal, where he was on the staff of Sir Theophilus Shepstone, 
furnished him with material for many of his stories. In the 
same year Mr J. A. Froude, the historian, visited Natal in 
the couEse of a tour through Soutii Africa. 

Turning the First Sod. 

The need of a railway from the port to the inland states 
and to the various producing districts of the colony had long 
engaged the attention of Natalians. If Natal were to hold 
her own with the. rest of South Africa in trade and general 
progress, some quicker and more economical means of con- 

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230 Twenty Years 

▼eyance than the primitive ox-wagon had to be provided. 
The year 1875 ^^^ the beginning of the un d ertaking when 
authority was given for the construction of a railway from 
Durban to Maritsburg witii a branch line south to Isipingo 
and another from the Umgeni to Verulam. The estimated 
cost of the line, ;^i,2oo,ooo» was raised by loan. The little 
railway from the Point to the Umgeni, which had done good 
service in bygone dajrs, was bought by the Government for 
^£40,000, and made part of the Natal Government Railways. 
Sir Henry Biilwer turned the first sod at Durbaa on 
the first day of 1876 amid great rejoicing and enthusiasm. 
When the line from the p<xt to the capital was completed in 
1880, immediate steps were taken for its extension* At the 
end of 1886 it had reached Ladysmith. The Natal line of 
steel now links Durban with the whole of South Africa from 
Capetown to the Zambesi. Local lines have been constructed 
to the Bluff, Ulabisa in 2:ululand, Lower Umzimkulu, Rich- 
mond, Greytown, and Vryheid. The success of the railway 
has amply justified its construction. 

Natal constitutkd a separate colony . . . 1856 

Battle between Cetywayo and Umbulazi . « 1856 

Visit of Prince Alfred . • . . . . i860 

Point Railway opened i860 

Indian Labourers introduced . * . . i860 
Cetywayo nominated Panda's successor by Mr 

Shepstone 1 86 1 

Alfred County annexed 1866 

Diamond Fields discovered .... 1867 — 1871 

Changes in the Charter 1869 1873 1875 1880 1885 

Diamond Fields proclaimed British territory • 1871 

Rebellion of Langalibalele 1875 

Coronation OF Cetywayo BY Mr Shepstone . . 1873 

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Zululand 23 1 

First Sod of Natal Government Railways turned 1876 
Diamond Fields annexed to the Caps . . . 1880 
Railways completed to the Border • • . 1891 



The Transvaal in Trouble. 

The Republic north of the Vaal was not destined for 
many a year to enjoy the uneventful and prosperous exist> 
ence that fell to the lot of the Orange Free State. There 
was almost continual war within her gates both with native 
chiefe and among the Boer leaders themselves. When the 
Rev. Thomas Burgers was elected President in 1873 
many of the people hoped that better days had dawned for 
the Transvaal. These hopes were not fulfilled. Mr Burgers 
was a man of liberal ideas and pk>ssessed of great talents 
and eloquence, but his new-fangled notions were not accept- 
aUe to the maj(»ity of the Boers, and he never gained their 
confidence. He prohibited religious instruction in schools, 
and he introduced a new education system which was never 
carried out. He designed a new flag and coat-of-arms 
idiich the Volksraad would not accept, and he attempted to 
create a new coinage by having some gold coins struck with 
his own likeness, coins which were never used except as 
ornaments for watch chains. A railway from Delagoa Bay 
was (me of President Bui^gers' schemes, and he went to 
Europe in 1875 ^^ make a treaty with Portugal and to raise 
a loan for its construction. This project also ended in 
nothing. When he returned in 1876 the Republic was 
in difficulties with a native chief, Sikukuni^ head of a 

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232 Zululand 

Bechuana tribe named the Bapidi The tribe occupied 
the mountainous region south of Olifiant's River, and their 
country, was .claimed by the Dutch under a treaty made 
with Sikukuni's father. The chief refused to pay taxes 
and raided the farms near his location. When he was 
asked for redress he claimed nearly all the Lydenbui^ 
and Pretoria districts of the Republic. The Volksraad 
then declared war, and a commando moved into Sikukuni's 
country. Mathebi's Kop, which President Burgers called 
the "Gibraltar of South Africa," was taken, but the rest 
of the campaign was disastrous to the Dutch. A kind of 
hollow peace wa^ arranged, and Sikukuni agreed to bow 
to the Republic and pay 3,000 head of cattle. He after- 
wards repudiated the treaty and he never delivered the 

Sir Theophilus Shepstone. 

The troubles in the Transvaal alarmed the British Govern- 
ment, for the fact that the Boers found themselves unable 
to quell the rebellion of a comparatively insignificant tribe 
created much excitement in the native mind throughout 
South Africa. Believing that the general peace of the 
colonies there was in peril, the Gov^nment sent out a special 
commissioner to confer with the Transvaal authorities and 
to watch the course of events. This commissioner was Sir 
Theophilus Shepstone, who happened to be in London 
at the time. He arrived in Pretoria in January, 1877, and 
was well received by the townspeople. He found that the 
affahrs of the Republic were hopeless. All faith in the 
President was gone. The public coffers were empty, and 
the people would no longer pay taxes. Trade was entirely 
destroyed. The Government had no power either to control 
its own subjects or to defend them against their native 

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Zululand 233 

enemies, Sikukuni and Cetywayo^ who might at any moment 
overrun the Republic. In these circumstances, Sir Theo- 
philus Shepstone considered that the only way to save the 
country was to proclaim it British territory. This was 
done peacefully at Pretoria on the 12th April, 187 7» and 
t-he Boers were once more under British rule. No resist- 
ance was openly made to the annexation, it being regarded 
by the majority of the Dutch as a necessary evil at the 
time. Sir Theophilus Shepstone continued in office as 
Administrator of the new colony until March, 1879, when 
he was succeeded by Sir Owen Lansron. 

Sikukuni and Cetywayo. 

From the Republic the British Government inherited feuds 
with two native chiefs. Sikukuni defied the British as he 
had defied the Dutch, and an expedition sent against him in 
1878 failed to oust him from his rocky stronghold. A renewed 
attack with the assistance of ^he Amaswazi was made at the 
end of 1879 under Sir Garnet Wolseley's directions, and was 
successful Sikukuni was taken prisoner and conveyed to 
Pretoria. He was afterwards released, and on his return to 
his own country was murdered by one of his minor chiefs. 

Cetywi^ had a dispute of long standing with the 
Republic regarding a large tract of land between the 
Buffalo and the Pongola occupied as Transvaal territory by 
Transvaal subjects. This territory Cetywayo claimed, and, 
some months after the Transvaal had been annexed by 
Great Britain, he built military kraals in it, and gave all 
Europeans and natives therein peremptory notice to quit 
H[aving thus taken forcible possession of that part of the 
country, the Zulu King made further extravagant claims 
to the land beyond the Blood River and the Pongola. 

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234 Zululand 

Sir Theophilas aiepstane, as Administrator of the Transvaal^ 
attempted to arrange a settlement of the dispute, and with 
that intent proceeded in 1877 towards the Zulu frontier on 
the Blood River, Cetywayo did not meet these advances 
in a friendly spirit and refused to discuss the matter, 
demanding the immediate cession of the land in dispute. 
He ultimately, however, consented to a sugge^on made 
by Sir Heniy Bulwer, that a commission should make 
an inquiry into the rival claims, and that the Transvaal 
Government and the Zulus should abide by its decisioa 
The Natal Commissioners gave in their report in June 1878, 
but the whole question and the final award were left for 
the consideration of Sir Bartle Frere, the Governor of 
the Cape and High Commissioner for South Afnca, who 
arrived in Natal in Sq>tember of the same year. 

The Zulu King's Offences. 

Sir Bartle Frere considered not only the boundary 
dispute but the general relations of the Zulu King with the 
civilised states of South Africa. These relations were not 
satisfactory to the British authorities. In a Memorandum 
by Sir Bartle Frere, dated January 1879, he enumerated 
the causes of offence given by Cetywayo* 

At his coronation by Mr Shepstone in 1873, ^^ King 
made solemn promises that a better and more humane 
government should be inaugurated in Zululand, and that 
he would live at peace with his neighbours. He fulfilled 
neither of these promises. Human life had no more 
sanctity after his coronation than it had before. He caused 
a number of girls to be barbarously massacred. When 
remonstrated with by the Lieutenant-Governor of Natal, 
Cetywayo replied in insolent and defiant terms, denying 
the promises made at his coronation, and avowing his 

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Zululand 235 

intention of doing as he liked, and as Chaka and Dingaan 
had done before him. Cetywayo made Zululand a garrison 
(tf soldiers as it was in the time of his warlike uncles. All 
the young men of the country bore arms. Assegais were 
supplemented by rifles which, with ammunition, could be 
obtained without the slighest difficulty through Delagoa Bay. 
No Zulu was allowed to settle down to a quiet domestic 
Ufci to plant and sow and reap and tend his cattle. This 
military despotism was a standing menace to Cetywayo's 
neighbours, black and white, and no solid peace could be 
assured for South Africa as long as it existed. A Swan 
chief, Umbeline, living in Zululand under Cetyws^o's pro- 
tection, made a raid north of the Pongola into Transvaal 
territory and murdered many of the natives. Some were 
earned off as captives, and the cattle were seized as booty. 
In Jialy 1878, two women of the tribe of Usirayo, a chief 
whose kraals were near Rorke^s Dri(^ fled across the fiuflalo 
into the Umsinga location for protection. They were followed 
by an armed party headed by a brother and three sons of 
UsirayO) and dragged out of a police hut where they had 
takeo refuge. The women were taken into Zululand, and 
it is believed put to death. Sir Henry Bulwer demanded 
from Cetywayo l^t the chiefs who had thus violated 
British territory should be given up for trial. The Zulu 
King excused their proceedings as ''a boyish excess,'' and 
offered a sum of money as a fine for the offence. A 
repeated demand for the culprits produced no result. 
The English, German, and Norwegian, missionaries, who 
had settled in Zululand with the permission of Panda, 
were intimidated and at last obliged to leave the 
country. The missionary converts were threatened and 
three of them killed. Repeated notices to quit were sent 
in the King's name to British subjects settled north 

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of the Pongola, and these intimations were emphasised 
by constant raids. 

The High Commissioner, after consultation with . the 
Natal authcnrities, came to the conclusion that the condition 
of Zululand was a disquieting and disturbing element in 
the peace andjprogress of South Africa, and that the Govern- 
ment could not allow it to continue. It was thereforie 
decided that, when the award regarding the boundary 
should be made known to the Zulu King and people, 
certain other demands should be made upon them, 
necessary for the welfare of both themselves and their 

The Ultimatum. 

The document which contained these demands is known 
as the Ultimatum. It was delivered, along with the 
boundary award, on the nth Dec^nber 1878, to Zulu 
deputies at the Lower. Tugda by the English commissioners, 
Mr Brownlee, Mr John Shepstone, Colonel Walker, 
of the Scots Guards, and Mr H. F. Fynn. The Zulu 
King was represented by fourteen chiefs, of whom Uvu- 
mandaba was head, and forty attendants. The place of 
meeting was near to where Biggar's rash expedition was over- 
powered by Dingaan forty years before. Close by too was 
the scene of Umbulazi's defeat in 1856 when 3,000 natives 
were slain and washed down the Tugela. The two docu- 
ments containing the boundary award and the ultimatum 
were read to the chiefs by Mr Shepstone in both Zulu and 
English. The award of the Commissioners was in £3ivour 
of the Zulu claims and gave Cetywayo sovereignty over the 
disputed territory, with the condition that wliite settlers 
who had acquired farms there after 1861 should retain 

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Zululand 237 

The ultimatum demanded from Cetywayo 

I. The surrender of Umbeline ; 
3. The surrender of the sons and brother of 
Usirayo ; 

3. A fine of 500 cattle for his contempt of Sir 

Henry Bulwer's demand that the criminals 
should be given up ; and 

4. A fine of 100 cattle for the conduct of cer- 

tain Zulus in surrounding and hustling two 
surveyors of the Royal Engineers' Depart- 
ment when engaged in observations at the 
Other requirements were made in the ultimatum with 
respect to the future government of Zululand. They 
were that Cetywayo should 

1. Receive a British Resident ; 

2. Disband his regiments ; 

3. Allow his young men to marry ; 

4. Observe his coronation promises regarding unjust 

shedding of blood ; 

5. Re-admit missionaries into Zululand ; and 

6. Make war only with the consent of the British 

Resident and the national council. 
Twenty days were allowed to Cetywayo to comply with 
the first set of demands, and thirty days to comply with 
the second. The Zulu deputies looked pleased when the 
boundary award was read to them, but their faces grew 
grave when they fully realised what the ultimatum de- 
manded from their king. Compliance with its requirements 
meant the effacement of the despotism which for sixty 
years had been the unquestioned supreme power among the 
natives of South Africa, a position which its pretentious 
name of Izulu, /Ae heavens^ claimed and emphasised. 

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At the Border. 

For months before the Ultimatum was presented to 
Cetywayo active preparations were made by the Imperial 
authorities for a possible struggle. Week after week troops 
and munitions of war were landed at Durban and conveyed 
to the border. By the end of 1878 Zululand was guarded 
from the Tugela mouth to the sources of the Buffalo. All 
the corps of mounted volunteers in the colony were 
called out for the defence of the border, and the call was 
promptly and patriotically answered. Three regiments of 
Natal natives were formed and named the Natal Native 
Contingent The whole force was commanded by General 
Lord Chelmsford, who, as General Thesiger, had quelled 
the kafir rebellion under Krdi and Sandilli on the Cape 
Frontier in 1877. Besides the Native Contingent, the force 
under his command numbered about 6,600 Europeans, 1,400 
of them mounted, and comprised all branches of the 
service. The troops were massed on the border in three 
main divisions. 

Colonel Pearson of the Buffs was in command of the 
first column at the Tugela Mouth. Two camps were 
constructed near the river — Fort Pearson on the Natal side, 
and Fort Tenedos on the Zulu side. The column consisted 
of fourteen companies of the Bufi and the 99th, one company 
of Royal Engineers, 370 men of the Naval Brigade from 
H.M.S. Active and T^iedos, 200 mounted infantry, and 200 
volunteers belonging to the Durban Mounted Rifles, the 
Alexandra Mounted Rifles, the Victoria Mounted Rifles, the 
Stanger Mounted Rifles, and the Natal Hussars — numbering 
in all, with the Native Contingent, over 4,000 men. 

The main column, accompanied by the General command- 
ing, was encamped at Helpmakaar. Colonel Gljn of the 
24th was in command, and the column consisted of fifteen 

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Zululand 239 

companies of the 24th Regiment, a squadron of mounted 
infantiy, 150 Natal Mounted Police, and the Natal Carbineers, 
Buffido Border Guard, and Newcastle Mounted Rifles, besides 
4,000 natives. 

The third column bad Utrecht for its base, and was en- 
camped in the disputed Transvaal territory. It was under 
the command of Colonel Eveljrn Wood, V.C, and com- 
prised the 13th and 90th Regiments, Colonel Butter's Frontier 
Light Horse, and a force of natives. 

When the volunteers left for the border Town Guards 
were at once established in Maritzburg and Durban. 

War with Cetyvrayo. 

The first period of twenty days allowed to Cetywayo ex- 
pired on the last day of 1878, and he had not sent any 
intimation of compliance with the demands of the Ultimatum. 
Sir Bartle Frere then threw away the scabbard. Cetywayo's 
silence, he notified, could mean nothing but defiance, and he 
placed the " demands for redress and reparation in the hands 
of Lieutenant-General Lord Chelmsford." That was a 
declaration of war. 

On the loth January, 1879, just previous to the expiration 
of the thirty days, John Dunn with about 2,000 people 
crossed the Tugela into Natal. About the same time news 
came from Colonel Wood that the Zulus were gathering in 
large bodies, and that those living in the Pongola valley were 
removing their com and other possessions to caves and 
mountain fastnesses. All hope of a peaceful settlement of 
the Zulu difficulty was at an end. 

Colonel Wood's Column. 

The first actual entrance into Zululand was made by 
Colonel Wood's column, which in two divisions crossed 

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240 Zululand 

the Blood Riyer hard by Conference Hill on the 6th of 
January. It was there joined by Piet Uys, worthy scion of 
a braye race and bearer of a historic name. He was son of 
that Piet Uys who in 1838 was killed near Umgungundhlovu 
in a futile attack on Dingaan, and brother of the noble boy 
who died at his fathei;'s side. Forty Dutch burghers accom- 
panied Uys. Colonel Wood's movements were marked by 
great skill and caution. Patrols were daily sent out and 
small bodies of Zulus were seen, but no collision took place. 
The column first encamped at Bemba's Kop, the chief of 
that name surrendering at once. On the 17th of January it 
moved towards the sources of the White Umfolosi and thence 
to Kambula, where Colonel Wood entrenched liimself. 

Usirayo's Stronghold. 

The main column under Colonel Glyn and accom- 
panied by the General crossed the Buffalo at Rorke's 
Drift on the nth of January. On the following day the 
troops had their first brush with the Zulus and an easy and 
delusive success. Colonel Glyn attacked the mountain 
stronghold of Usirayo on the 'Nqutu range, and met with 
only a feeble resistance. In half-an-hour the caves and the 
cattle were in the possession of the English. About thirty 
Zulus were killed, including one of Usirayo's sons. The 
following week was occupied in trying to make the roads or 
tracks passable for the wagons, on which the force depended 
for supplies. Heavy rains had fallen and the roads were 
little better than swamps. It was the 20th of January 
before Colonel Glyn's column had advanced to the mountain 
of Isandhlwana, about ten miles from Rorke's Drift. The 
camp was pitched at its base. Very few of the enemy were 
seen, and no opposition had been made to the inward march 
of the troops. 

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Zululand 241 

The Twenty-Second of January, 1879. 

The unopposed entrance of the soldiers was only the hill 
before the storm. On the 20th of January a patrol party of 
Police, Volunteers, and Native Contingent, under the com- 
mand of Major Dartnell, went out from the camp in the 
direction of the chief Matyana's stronghold. On the 21st, 
Major Dartnell reported by message that the Zulus were 
near him in great force. At dawn on the 22nd Lord 
Chelmsford and Colcmel Glyn moved out from Isan- 
dhlwana with reinforcements, leaving a portion of the 
column under Colonel PuUeine to guard the camp. After 
the General's departure Zulus were seen as early as six o'clock 
hovering on the heights near, and a party of the Native 
Contingent was sent out to scout. Returning to camp about 
nine o'clock, the officer in charge reported that the Zulus were 
close at hand in large numbers. 

About ten o'clock Cokmel Dumford arrived from the 
camp at Kranskop with 300 mounted natives. The force 
at Colonel PuUeine's disposal then consisted of about 700 
Europeans and 600 natives. The Europeans were made 
up of about 500 men of the 24th, 80 artillerymen, 30 Natal 
Carbineers, 35 Mounted Police, 35 Mounted Infantry, and 
20 men of the Buffalo Border Guard and the Newcastle 
Rifles. No attempt was made to strengthen the camp. In- 
stead of that the small force was scattered in various direc- 
tions in the vain hope of checking the Zulu advance. A 
company of the 24th was sent to a neck of the hill a mile 
and a half distant. All these parties were obliged to retire 
gradually before the Zulu impi, which made the attack in 
its usual fashion — a mass of men in the centre, with horn- 
shaped wings thrown out from each side, and slo^y meeting 
so as to enclose the doomed camp. The number of the 
Zulus was overwhelming, and it was evident from the first 

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242 Zululand 

that an was lost Ten or eleven of Cetywayo's regi- 
ments, the flower of his army, in all about 23,000 or 24,000 
men, came on in a black resistless mass. The men of the 
crack regiment were conspicuous by scarlet feathers. 

The defenders of the camp, driven back at all points 
by the encircling foe, at last made a stand together. 
The fire of both infantry and mounted men was steady and 
rapid, and the great guns did much execution in the enemy's 
ranks. The Zulus pressed steadily forward without hesita- 
tion or excitement and with the most fearless bravery. 
Rank after rank was mown down by the rain of fire from 
the Martini-Henrys, but was immediately closed up — "each 
stepping where his comrade stood the instant that he fell." 
Our men fought as gallantly and well. In that dread hour 
with death staring them in the face, regular and volunteer 
alike fought shoulder to shoulder with cool and determined 
courage. Natal remembers her sons who fell on that fatal 
field with pride as well as sorrow. Whenever the main 
body of the Zulus saw that the wings were touching each 
other, they rushed forward with wild yells of triumph, 
brandishing their stabbing assegais. The end had come. 
It was no longer a fight; it was a butchery. Horse and 
foot, black and white, Zulus and Englishmen, were mingled 
in a scene of the wildest confusion. For the infantry there 
was no escape. Every man was killed. Even to mounted 
men escape was almost impossible, for the ground was 
covered with boulders and grooved with dongas. Those who 
attempted the ride made their way across country for a ford 
of the Buffalo since known as Fugitives' Drift, five miles 
from Isandhlwana, The wagon road was guarded by the 
enemy. Many of the fugitives were killed on the way, and 
many were drowned or shot in crossing the river. Lieu- 
tenant Melville and Lieutenant CoghiU of the 24th 

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Zululand 243 

escaped with the colours of the regiment, but were both 
shot on the way. Melville's body was found with the 
colours wrapped round him. On the bank of the river 
where they fell, overlooking Fugitives' Drift, a monument 
has been erected to their memory. The number of Euro- 
peans who escaped from Isandhlwana was about forty, 
besides natives on horseback and on foot. Colonel PuUeine 
and Colonel Dumford were among the slain. 

Two mistakes in connexion with that day of slaughter 
must ever be deplored. The General commanding had no 
trustworthy information of the movements of the enemy, 
and was thus in complete ignorance of the presence of the 
bulk of the Zulu army so close to his camp. Had the camp 
been at once laagered in Dutch fashion on the first indication 
of the enemy's presence, or even had the force been formed 
in hollow square, it may be that 

*' Another sight had seen that morn, 
From Fate's dark book a leaf been torn." 

The death-roll of Natalians alone was a long one. Twenty- 
two of the light-hearted lads who rode away from Maritz- 
burg in December 1878, as if for a holiday, lay on the 
trampled sod of Isandhlwana done to death with savage 
spears. Besides these, seven men of the Newcastle Mounted 
Rifles, three of the Buffalo Border Guard, twenty-six of 
the Natal Mounted Police, as well as officers of the irregular 
corps, many of whom had relations in the colony, were 
among the slain. Isandhlwana is the Flodden of Natal. 

Not alone in English and Natal homes was there mourn- 
ing for the youth who fell on that day of dark despair. 
The victory of the 22nd of January was a dearly-bought 
victory for the Zulus. In nearly every kraal in Zululand 
there was weeping and wailing for those who would return 

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244 Zululand 

no more. The flower of the Zulu youth lay dead in the 
shadow of Isandhlwana. 

Rorke's Drift 

The one lay of sunshine on that day of gloom was the 
defence of the commissariat and hospital post near Rorke's 
Drift on the Natal side of the Buffido. After the Zalu 
victory at Isandhlwana about 4,000 of the Undi corps at 
once pushed onward to take possession of the British camp 
at the drift. They crossed the Buffalo about four miles 
lower down. Lietttenant Chard of the Royal Engineers 
had been left in command of the post About half-past 
three in the afternoon two mounted men appeared at the 
river and shouted to be taken across. They told the terrible 
news of Isandhlwana; and they had seen the Zulus marchiug 
in the dkection of Rorke's Drift. 

No time was lost by Lieutenant Chard. In conjunction 
with Lieutenant Brotnhead of the 24th and Mr Dalton, 
a commissariat officer, he at once set about the defence of 
the thatched cottage and outhouses which formed their 
camp, and resolved to hold it at all costs. The store and 
the hospital were barricaded and loopholed, and the spaces 
between the buildings filled up with the wagons and with 
sacks of mealies. When that work was completed, a number 
of the Native Contingent who had escaped from Isandhl- 
wana and whose courage now failed them left the camp and 
made for Helpmakaar. The defences were considered too 
extended for the number of men left, which was only 104 
exclusive of .35 in hospital. An inner wail of bi^uit boxes 
was then begun. About half-past four, when the wall was 
two boxes high, 500 ox 600 Zulus came rstpidly in sight and 
rushed against the ru4e ramparts. From that hour until 
after midnight desperate assaults were made by the Zulus 

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Zultiland 245 

and splendidly repulsed by the little garrison with both 
rifle and bayonet The hospital, set on fire by the enemy, 
was defended room by room, and all the sick !men were 
brought out At four o'clock on the morning of the 23rd 
the Zulus retired leaving 350 of their number lying dead 
round the camp. Its heroic defenders lost 17 men. 

The repulse of 4,000 Zulus by^ a hundred men en- 
trenched within the slender defences of sacks of com and 
boxes of biscuits is one of the most glorious exploits in the 
records of the British army — 

" Setting Rorke's Drift, tiU now unhonoured name, 
By Plassey and Assaye, and fights of fame." 

A sad Bivouac. 

Lord Chelmsford did not learn until the afternoon of 
the same day that the camp at Isandhlwana had been 
attacked and was in the possession of the enemy. There 
was no fighting at Matyana's stronghold* The Zulus showed 
at a distance and then retreated, apparently as a ruse to 
keep the main body of our troops away from the real point 
of attack. When about six miles from Isandhlwana on his 
way back the dreadful news was brought to the General. 
He at once recalled Colonel dyn, and advanced with all 
the force against the camp which he expected to find in 
possession of the enemy. But the Zulus had quitted the 
scene of their victory and they did not renew the attack. 
Lord Chelmsford found the camp in dire confusion. The 
oxen and horses, the rifies and ammunition, were captured ; 
the tents burned; the wagons looted and destroyed. And 
dead Englishmen and dead Zulus lay side by side among 
the Imig grass. Lord Chelmsford passed the night in the 
devastated camp. No British General has ever had a more 
mournful bivouac; 

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At dawn next day the whole force moved on to Rorke's 
Drift, prepared to find that the soldiers there had shared 
the fate of their comrades at Isandhlwana. Great was the 
General's relief when he galloped up to the little fort about 
eight o'clock to find it still in our possession. In an ofiicial 
despatch he expressed his belief that the undaunted bravery 
of the defendos of Rorke's Drift had "no doubt saved 
Natal from a serious invasion." 


The main column of the invading army thus suffered 
a signal and unexpected reverse. Colonel Wood, ably 
seconded by Colonel BuUer (now Sir Redvers Buller) 
and Commandant Piet U]rs, continued from his camp 
at Kambula to harass and engage the enemy by means of 
forays conducted with great gallantry and skill Colonel 
Pearson's column which crossed at the Tugela mouth 
continued its march unopposed until the day of Isandhlwana. 
On the morning of that day the column started at five o'clock 
and at eight halted at the Inyezane Riyer for breakfast. 
There the English were attacked by about 4,000 Zulus, who 
had been lying concealed among bushes and in gullies. The 
engagement lasted an hour and a half. The Zulus fought 
and fired steadily, but rockets, shells, and musketry at last 
drove them back into the open plain across which they fled 
in every direction. The Natal Volunteers — the Victoria 
Mounted Rifles, the Stanger Mounted Rifles, and the Natal 
Hussars — stood their '< baptism of fire" calmly and well. 
The Durban Mounted Rifles were guarding the wagons and 
came up as the last shots were being fired. 

The column then resumed its march and moved up the 
steep ascent to the high land round Eshowe, which was 
reached next day. £showe was then only a Norwegian 

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Zululand 247 

mission-station — ^the oldest in Zululand, and thirty-six miles 
from the Natal border. There, six days later, Colonel Pearson 
received news of Isandhlwana. He had intended to march 
on to Cetywayo's royal kraal of Ulundi, but after hearing 
of that disaster, it only remained for him either to stay 
where he was or to retire without delay to the Tugela. He 
determined to hold the fort. To economise supplies, all the 
mounted men were at once sent back to the border, which 
they reached in safety at midnight on the 29th. Eshowe, 
which stands in a commanding position with open country 
round, was at once strongly fortified. Colonel Pearson had 
over 1,300 fighting men and a good supply of ammunition. 
Shut out from the rest of the world, he and his men held 
Eshowe for over two months in hourly expectation of an^attack 
from the whole Zulu army. The attack was never made. 

After Isandhlwansu 

The .first campaign of the Zulu war ended at Isandhl- 
wana. The Rorke's Drift column evacuated Zululand and 
encamped at Helpmakaar. The further prosecution of the 
war was deferred until the arrival of more troops from 
England. The excitement in Natal was intense. A cloud 
of woe hung over the Colony; ''the Angel of Death was 
abroad in the land;" Every precaution was taken by the 
authorities in view of the possibility of a Zulu invasion. 
In addition to the natural defence of the flooded Tugela, 
the frontier was strengthened by fortified posts, and a 
border guard was established. The farmers near the border 
went into laager, and every town and village made prepara- 
tions for defence. In Maritzburg a laager was formed 
embracing that part of the city between Commercial Road 
and Timber Street and between Longmarket Street and 
Pietermaritz Street, and captable of housing 4,000 people. 

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248 Zululand 

The windows of the buildiags were shuttered and loopholed 
and open spaces were barricaded. On the Sunday following 
Isandhlwana the citizens worshipped in churches hung with 
black. The noise of workmen erecting defaces and the 
ramble of wagons conveying ammvnition to the Court House 
disturbed the usual quiet of that day of rest Three guns 
fired from Fort Napier was the appointed signal for tiie 
townspeople to go into the laager. The laager was fortunately 
never required. The High Commissioner, Sir Bartle 
Frere, remained in Natal through that critical period. 

In England the greatest sensation was caused by the 
disaster to the British arms. All the world heard of 
Isandhlwana, of Rorke's Drift, of Eshowe. H.M.S. Shah, 
Captain Bradshaw, brought the first reniforcements to 
Natal on the 6th of March. She had touched at St 
Helena on her way home from India, and Grovemor 
Janisch, who had heard of the Isandhlwana disaster, 
despatched all the available troops in the Island — 200 men 
— ^to the help d Lord Chelmsford. The Shah contributed 
392 men of the Naval Brigade. Other vessels with troops 
from England speedily followed the Shah. They brought 
two cavalry regiments, the 17th Lancers and the ist Dragoon 
Guards with their horses, six regiments of infantry, two field 
batteries of artillery, and one company of Engineers. With 
the troops came several war-correspondents of En^ish news- 
papers. Among them was Dr William Russell, the 
distinguished Crimean correspondent of the Times. 

At the beginning of April a column of about 6,000 men 
started from Fon Tenedos for the relief of Eshowe* 

Hlobane and Kambula. 

In the meantime Colonel Wood's column had not beeo 
free from reverses. Captain Moriarty while escorting a train 

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Zululand 249 

of wagODS from Derby to Luneburg with a company of the 
80th Regiment, was surprised on the 12th March by Zulus 
under Umbeline at the Intombi River and had forty-four of 
his men killed. On the 28th of the same month Colonel 
Wood sent out a force from the Kambula camp to storm the 
Hlobane motrntain, the stronghold of Umbeline. The 
four hundred mounted men under Colonel BuUer suc- 
ceeded in reaching the top with some loss of life. They had 
been there a few hours when they saw that the mountain was 
nearly surrounded by an immense Zulu impi. Kafirs in 
great numbers were making their way up all the baboon-paths 
to cut off their retreat. The only pass by which our men 
could escape was a steep boulder-strewn descent where it was 
almost impossible to keep on horseback. Many deeds of 
bravery were performed during that terrible ride. Colonel 
Buller risked his life six times to rescue men who had lost 
their horses. Nearly half the troopers who returned to 
the camp were saved by ridmg behind gallant commdeSi 
who had stopped to pick them up at the imminent peril 
of their own lives. In the flight from Hlobane 120 men 
were killed, including two brave officers, Commandant 
Piet Ujs and Colonel Weatherley. Piet Uys was 
surrounded and stabbed when going back to save his son. 

On the next day, the 29th, the Kambula camp was 
fiercely attacked by the impi which surrounded Hlobane. It 
numbered about 20,000 men and c(»nprised the strength 
of Cetywayo's army. The Zulus advanced on the camp in 
their usual way and manifested the same indifference to 
danger and death which characterised them at Isandhlwana. 
The tremendous fire from the artillery at last proved too 
much for them and they wavered and fled. The fight lasted 
from one o'clock to six, and the cavalry pursued the retreating 

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250 Zululand 

foe till it was too daric to see. On our side thirty men 
were killed and fifty woanded. Twelve hundred Zulus 
were slain. 


The Eshowe Relief column under Lord Chelmsford was 
attacked on the morning of the 3rd April at Ging^hlovo, 
about six miles south of the Inyezane River. Taught by 
bitter experience the 'General had his force entrenched and 
propeily def^mded. At six o'dock the camp was surrounded 
by the Zulus numbering about 10,000. The fight lasted an 
hour and a half, and ended in the retreat of the enemy. They 
were pursued by the mounted men and Native Contingent for 
four miles. Masses of Zulus then appeared on the hills near, 
but dispersed on being shelled from the camp. Lord Chelms- 
ford left part of his force in laager at Ginginhlovo and hurried 
cm to Eshowe next day. The beleaguered camp was 
relieved, and Colonel Pearson and his men started im- 
mediately on their way back to the Tugela. 


No great battle was fought after Ginginhlovo until the 
4th of July, almost immediately after the arrival of Sir 
Garaet Wolseley as Commander-in-Chief and High 
Commissioner of Natal and the Transvaal. The main body 
of the British army with Lord Chelmsford in command 
slowly advanced into Zululand on the line - of Colonel 
Wood's original march from Utrecht, and laagered about 
half-a-mile from the White Umfolosi and not far distant 
from the royal kraal of Ulundi. At dawn on the 4th of July 
the column, consisting of about 3,000 infantry and 300 
cavalry, left the camp and advanced rapidly on Ulundi or 
Utldi — the high place. The troops were formed in hollow 

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Zululand 25 1 

square on the grassy plain, the Gatling guns in front and the 
field-pieces at each comer. The Zulus, who had been 
massing for some time, soon advanced in thousands, in their 
usual form and with their usual disregard of danger, to 
within a hundred yards of the British force. A deadly rain 
of shot and shell was poured into their ranks. For twenty 
minutes they bore the terrific fire, and then all at once 
turned and fled. They were followed and speared in 
hundreds by the Lancers until the broken ground prevented 
further pursuit. The deserted kraals of Ulundi were then 
burned, and the force returned to camp at six in the 

The Zulu generals in this last great battle with the British 
were Usirayo and Dabulamanzi, the King's brother. 
Cetjrwayo, who during the war manifested none of the 
personal courage which animated his ''braves," is said to 
have watched the battle of Ulundi from a hill near — ^the 
battle which gave Britain the command of Zululand and 
destroyed for ever the military despotism begun by Dingis- 
wayo and developed by Chaka. Ulundi was the end of 
the Zulu war. 

In the Court Gardens of Maritzburg stands a monu- 
ment of white marble surmounted by the figure of Victory. 
It is erected "in memory of Honour and in hope of Peace." 
On its sides are inscribed the names of the Natalians who 
fell in the great conflict with savagery in South Africa, the 
r^ments and corps which took part in the war, and the 
numbers of the slain. 

Cetywayo Captive 

The Zulu people accepted their defeat with calmness, and 
all the influential chiefs gave in their submission. But 
Cetjrwayo was yet at large, and the permanent peace of 

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252 Zululand 

the country depended on his capture. A party headed by 
Lord Gifford and Major Marter was oiganised for the 
pursuit of the fugitire King. He was closely followed from 
kraal to kraal, but he baffled his pursuers day after day and 
week after week. When the seardi for him seeaoed almost 
hopeless he was caught by Major Marter in a hut in the 
heart of the iQgome Forests north of the Black Umfolosi. 
Cetywayo was taken to Ulundi and thence to Port Dumford. 
The steamer NakU was waiting there for the last of the Zulu 
Kings, and escorted by H.M.S. F&rester conveyed him straight 
to Capetown. 

The Thirteen Kinglets. 

On the zst of September, the day after Cetywayo left 
the shores of Zululand a captive, and the sixth anniversary 
of his ccMTonation by Sir Theophilus Shepstone, Sir Garnet 
Wolselejr assembled the Zulu chiefs at Ulundi. The 
Talley of the White Umfolosi had witnessed the begiz^ 
nings of the Zulu power, and was now the scene of its end. 
Sir Garnet, interpreted by Mr John Shepstone, announced 
to the chiefs that the old order of things had passed away 
in Zululand and had yielded place to new. The dynasty of 
Chaka was for ever deposed* The country was divided 
into thirteen districts, each ruled over by a chief or kinglet. 
The chiefs were to hold office by the gift of the Queen, 
subject to certain conditions which were in effect, those 
prescribed in the Ultimatum. At the meeting the thirteen 
chiefs were nominated. John Dunn was one of them; 
Hlubi, a Basuto chief, got Usirayo's district A British 
Resident was appointed to Zululand to be the adviser 
of the chiefs and the channel of communication between 
them and the Government The boundary of Zululand was 
fixed as the Blood River, the Pemvane River, and the 

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Zululand 253 

Pongola River, the Utrecht and Luneburg districts being 
thus excluded. 

The Death of the Prince Imperial. 

One of the saddest episodes in the war with Cetywayo 
was the death of the young Prince Imperial of France, 
son of that Napoleon who was reft of his crown at Sedan, 
the hope of the Bonapartists, and the only child of his 
widowed mother. Desirous of gaining military experience 
he^ joined Lord Chelmsford's staff as a volunteer. On the 
morning of the ist of June the Prince was out with a small 
reconnoitring party which had off-saddled to rest near the 
Ityotyozi River. Just as the party was again starting, fifty 
or sixty Zulus who had been concealed in a donga rushed out 
and fired. Every one who could, ^rang on his horse and 
galloped for his life. Two of the troopers were killed. 
The Prince's horse was always restive, and the sudden 
commotion viade it so rear and plunge that it was impossible 
for the Prince to mount. Sword in hand he faced the Zulus, 
but was overpowered and stabbed. His body was brought 
down to Durban where it was embarked in H.M.S. 
Boadicea for England amidst manifestations of pro- 
found cespect and sympathy from the colonists and the 

The Empress Eugenie, mother of the Prince, came 
.to Natal in. 1 880, and made a melancholy pilgrinu^e to the 
scene of her son's death. 

Transvaal annexed to Gjibat Britain . 1877 

Ultimatum delivered to Cetywavo . . . 1878 
The Zulu War 1879 

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254 The First Boer War 


The Gathering Storm. 

The war with Cetjrwayo was followed bj another trouble 
both for Natal and for the Imperial Government The 
trouble vose from the annexation of the Transvaal in 1877. 
When that Republic was absorbed by Great Britain it was 
beset by difficulties within and by foes without, both of 
which it was helpless to combat. Even those Boers who 
hated England with a bitter hatred had to acquiesce, 
although sullenly, in the only way of escape from anarchy 
and ruin. But when prosperity began to dawn upon the 
country under the British Government there were soon 
signs of growing discont^dt The Boers expected a free 
Constitution like that of the Cape, but no representa- 
tive assembly of any kind was given to them although 
the necessity of such a privilege being granted was urged 
by Sir Theophilus Shepstone. Th^ were the descendants of 
the men who had gone out into the wilds and risked 
their lives for freedom, and they could not quietly endure 
to be blotted out from a share in the government of the 
country conquered by their fathers' strong right arms. 

Two leading burghers, Paul Kruger and Dr Jorissen, 
went to England and protested against the annexation. 
Lord Carnarvon gave them no hope that the country 
would be. restored to the Dutch. The feeling of the Boers 
against British rule grew stronger every day, and at the 
end of 1878 another appeal was made to Great Britain. 
The envoys were Mr Kruger and Mr Joubert with Mr 
Bok as their secretary. They had no more success than 

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The First Boer War 255 

had the first deputation. During the war with Cetywayo 
no assistance was volunteered to the English except by the 
Utrecht Boers under the gallant Piet Uys. Sir Theophilus 
Shepstone, who was a great favourite personally with all 
the Boers, was succeeded in the Governorship of the Trans- 
vaal by Sir Owen Lanyon in March 1879. After his 
appointment matters grew rapidly worse. There was then 
an unpopular governor added to an unpopular government. 
Sir Owen Lanyon had little sympathy with the history or 
ways of the people he was called upon to govern. His 
manners were not conciliatory, and his attitude vety much 
aggravated the feeling against* British rule. There is no 
doubt that had the political freedom recommended by Sir 
Theophilus Shepstone been given to the Dutch, and had 
that veteran statesman remained long enough at the helm 
of affairs to steer the in&nt colony into smooth water, the 
agitation would have ended with the visit of the second 
deputation to England. 

In April of the same year Sir Bartle Frere had an 
interview with the Boer leaders at Erasmus Spruit near 
Pretoria. Much was expected from the meeting, but it 
ended in nothing except the refusal of some of the people 
to pay taxes. After Sir Garnet Wolseley met the Zulu 
chiefs at Ulundi on the ist of September he proceeded to 
the Transvaal. As High Commissioner he issued a procla- 
mation to the effect that the country would "for ever'' form 
part of the Queen's dominions ; and he more than once made 
the now historic assertion that "so long as the sun shone in 
the heavens," so long would the Transvaal be British territory. 

The Triumvirate. 

Increased opposition to the authorities in all quarters 
was the result of Sir Garnet Wolseley's proclamation. Mass 

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256 The First Boer War 

meetinp of the Boers were held at which they declared their 
independence of the Queen's authority. Pretorius and Bok 
were arrested for high treason, but were soon liberated. A 
Lq;islatiTe Assembly granted at this time did not tenA to 
soothe the irritated feelings of the Boors. The l^;islature 
consisted of a number of the officials and six members 
nominated by the Governor. Such an assembly was only a 
mockery of their Volksraad. 

There was meanwhile a change of Governors in Natal. 
Sir Henry Bulwer was succeeded in July 1880' by Sir 
Geoi^ge Pomeroy Colley, who as Colonel Colley accom- 
panied Sir Garnet Wolseley to Natal after the Langalibaiele 
outbreak. A considerable number of the troops was with- 
drawn from the Transvaal after his arrival, and a£&iirs 
shortly afterwards b^an to assume a serious aspect An 
appeal for release was once mose made to the British 
Government by the Boers. Mr Gladstone, who had 
seemed while in Opposition to favour the restoration of 
their independence, returned a decided " no " to their 

A great meeting of the Boers was then held from the 
8th to the 13th of December at Paardekraal, bow 
Krugersdorp and a gold-producing centre, on the road 
from Pretoria to Potchdstroom. At that meeting they 
resolved to fight A Triumvirate was formed consisting 
oi Kruger, Joubert and Pretorius, and they issued a 
long proclamation "making it known to everybody" that 
the Republic was re-established. They declared the country 
in a state of siege, and under the provisions of martial law. 
Three commandoes were organised. One was ordered to 
prevent the 94th Regiment on the march from Lydenbuig 
from reaching Pretoria and to interoq>t Captain Eroome 
with two companies of the same regiment between Wakker- 

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The First Boer War 257 

stroom and Standerton. Another went to Potchefstroom to 
get the proclamation printed. The force was necessary to 
overawe or protect the printer. The third and largest 
marched to Heidelberg and took possession of the town 
without difficulty. There, on the historic i6th of December, 
"Dingaan's Day," the flag of the Republic was once 
more hoisted. 

Bronkhorst Spruit. 

Captain Froome of the 94th reached Standerton by a 
forced march before the Boers had time to attack him. The 
main body of his regiment on the march to Pretoria was 
not so fortunate. It consisted of 246 men with 33 wagons 
under the command of Colonel Anstruther. Before 
leaving Middelburg Colonel Anstruther was warned that 
he would be attacked on the line of march. On the 20th of 
December the troops were marching on with the band playing 
when suddenly mounted Boers appeared all round them at a 
place called Bronkhorst Spruit There was a wooded 
ravine to the right and near at hand on both sides of the 
road were farm-houses surrounded by trees under whose 
cover the horsemen had approached unobserved. The order 
was given to halt, the band stopped playing, and an effort 
was made to get the wagons to close up. A messenger 
carrying a white flag came from the Boers with a letter 
signed by Joubert asking Colonel Anstruther to stay where 
he was until Sir Owen Lanyon's intentions were known. 
If he advanced his movement would be taken as a declaration 
of war. Two minutes were allowed him to decide. Colonel 
Anstruther replied that his orders were to march to Pretoria 
and that to Pretoria he would go. He desired the messenger 
to inform his leader to that effect and to bring him a reply. 
But without further waiting or warning the Boers rode , 

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2^8 The First Boer War 

forward and opened a sharp fire on the troops. In ten 
minutes over 150 officers and men were killed or wounded 
and the order was given to surrender. The officers were 
all killed except two; Colonel Anstruther was mortally 
wounded and survived only a few days. The wife of 
Sergeant-Major Fox was dangerously wounded, and the 
Boers expressed their regret at having injured a woman. 
Mrs Smith, the bandmaster's widow, behaved heroically 
and did her utmost to help the wounded. She was after- 
wards publicly thanked by the Commandant, and, on her 
return to England, by Her Majesty Queen Victoria. 

The prisoners and wounded men received the kindest 
treatment from the Boers. Those who were not able to be 
removed to the Boer camp were taken to neighbouring farm- 
houses and supplied with whatever they required. Con- 
ductor Egerton got leave to go to Pretoria for medical 
assistance, and wounded as he was, walked the forty miles 
in eleven hours. Under his tunic he carried the regimental 
colours which had been concealed in a wagon-box during 
the attack. His melancholy news removed all doubt as 
to whether war had begun. The loyalists in Pretoria 
immediately went into laager and so did the soldiers and 
loyal inhabitants of Potchefstroom, Wakkerstroom, Lyden- 
burg, Rustenburg, Marabastad, and Standerton. The Boers 
had complete possession of Heidelberg, Middelburg, and 

The survivors of the 94th after being conveyed to 
Heidelberg were put across the Vaal into the Free State 
and allowed to shift for themselves. By the kindness of 
both Dutch and English residents they obtained food and 
clothing, and on their way through the Free State were 
overtaken by wagons which brought them on to Maritzburg. 
-The poor fellows, numbering about forty, marched up Church 

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The First Boer War 259 

Street to the Camp on the loth of January. Their helmets 
bad been taken from them by the Boers and in the diversity 
of their costume they more resembled Sir John FalstafiTs 
recruits than a regiment of British infantry. 

The Transvaal Boers. 

The Boers who thus took up arms for their independence 
were actuated by the same spirit -that incited their fathers 
forty years before to fight with the British troops, with 
Moselekatse, and with Dingaan. A generation had not 
changed their mode of life or their mode of thought. The 
young men who had grown up during that period were 
densely ignorant and prejudiced. They had only a smattmng 
of education, and they lived their lives in far-scattered 
homesteads where the affairs of the outside world never 
penetrated. They knew nothing and cared for nothing 
except the traditions, the beliefs, and the customs of their 
fathers. The Bible was still the Boers' only literature as it 
had been for two centuries; and their views of law and 
justice and government were all drawn from its pages. 
They regarded the annexation of their country as an 
unrighteous act and a direct violation of the laws of God. 
And they took up arms with the earnest conviction that the 
God of battles in whose cause they fought would be with 
them and them alone. Their training and manner of life 
gave the Boers many advantages over the British soldiers. 
They were almost from their cradles accustomed to ride and 
shoot They knew every mile of the country. In war aa 
in hunting their aim was unerring, and they took advantage 
of every boulder and scrap of cover. After receiving 
general orders each man was master of his own movements 
and did what seemed best for the common cause. No 
cumbersome wagon-train impeded a Boer force on the march. 

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26o The First Boer War 

Every num carried his own necessaries. « With his horse and 
rifle and ammonition, a blanket, a few rusks, and some 
strips of biltong or dried flesh, the Boer was ready for march, 
battle, and bivouac 

Guarding the Pass. 

The news of the Boer rising caused much excitement in 
NataL General Sir George Colleyi the Lieutenant- 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief, felt it his duty to 
proceed at once to the relief of the lo]^lists and soldiers 
beleaguered in the different towns of the Transvaal. He 
could muster only looo men. The little force comprised 
men d the 58th Regiment, 6oth Rifles, 21st Regiment, 
Naval Brigade, and Artillery. Sir George Colley in a 
general order appealed to the soldiers to vindicate the 
honour of the British arms, and spoke of the Dutch as 
**a brave and high-spirited people, though misled and 
deluded." After-events showed that he sadly underrated 
them as fighting men. 

The Boers prepared to oppose the advance of the relief 
column into the Transvaal. They entered Natal territory 
with that object and took possession of Laing's Nek, the 
lowest part of a ridge which slopes from Amajuba mountain 
to the banks of the Buffalo and over which the main road 
passes. There is a gentle slope of about five hundred yards 
from the ground below to the crest of the ridge where the 
road passes through a cutting four or five feet deep. At the 
bottom of the slope near the road is the farm-house, with 
garden and stone cattle-kraals, from whose owner the Nek 
takes its name. The Boers took up a position behind the 
ridge on both sides of the wagon road. Large stones and 
trenches afforded them effectual concealment and protection. 
Artillery was what they chiefly dreaded, and Laing's Nek 

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The First Boer War 261 

appeared to afford the desired shelter. On the 27 th of 
January 1881, the Boers with Commandant Piet Joubert 
in command lay there in wait for the British force. 

Laing's Nek. 

Sir George CoUey pitched his camp at Mount Prospect, 
four miles from the Nek, the same night on which the Boers 
took possession of that now famous pass. At six o'clock on 
the morning of the 28th, he advanced to attack the Boer 
position with the 58th Regiment commanded by Colonel 
Deane, a mounted squadron of seventy men, the 6oth Rifles, 
the Naval Brigade with three rocket tubes, and the Artillery 
with six guns. Some Boers who were stationed about Laing's 
cattle kraals were driven thence by the rocket tubes. The 
guns began to shell the Nek about ten o'clock and continued 
for twenty minutes without any of the Boers being seen on 
the ridge. Orders were then given to attack a spur of the 
ridge on the right of the road, and the mounted infantry and 
the 58th climbed up the slippery slopes at different points. 
The mounted men were the first sufferers. As soon as they 
were high enough to be seen by the enemy concealed behind 
every stone, a deadly volley laid half of them low. The 
remainder bravely returned to the charge but were forced to 
retire. It fared no better with the 58th. Colonel Deane led 
his men up the long and steep slope in one column, which 
proved simply a great target for the Boer marksmen. Colonel 
Deane himself was killed, and many of his officers. The 58th 
found it impossible to maintain their position in the face of 
the deadly fire poured into^ them, and could only retire. 
During the retreat, Lieutenant Baillie, who carried thecolours, 
was mortally wounded. Under a flag of truce the dead wete 
buried and the wounded removed to the camp. Seventy- 
three men were killed and a hundred wounded. The loss on 

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262 The First Boer War 

the Dutch side was trifling. Sir George Colley addressed the 
men in camp after the fight, and congratulated the 58th on the 
brave charge they had made. In the most noble-minded way 
he imputed the blame of the day's disaster solely to himself. 
With the weakened force at his command the General was com- 
pelled to await at Mount Prospect the arrival of reinforcements. 

The Ingoffo Heig:ht& 

On the 7th of February the post-runner and his escort on 
their way to Newcastle were fired upon by a party of Boers 
near the double drift of the Ingogo and obliged to return 
to Mount Prospect. It was easy for the enemy to take 
possession of the main road from Newcastle without going 
near the camp by simply skirting the western base of Ama- 
juba and Inkwelo and so entering the Ingogo valley. Sir 
George Colley moved out of camp on the 8th with 270 
men and 4 guns to patrol the road and escort some wagons 
he expected from Newcastle. Shortly after the force had 
crossed the double drift of the Ingogo the scouts reported 
that the Boers were in large numbers about half-a-mile 
distant. Sir G^rge Colley moved on up the Ingog^O 
Heig^hts and was there]attacked on a triangular plateau close 
to the main road. The Boers occupied the slopes of the 
plateau on all sides and, shielded by rocks and long rank 
grass, kept up a constant and galling fire. The engagement 
lasted from noon until long after nightfall. There was no 
water to be had and the wounded sufiered terribly as they 
lay on the exposed plateau under the burning sun. Rain 
fell heavily after darkness set in, and many died from the 
chill after the scorching heat of the day. Captain 
McGregor, the General's military secretary, and Mr 
Stuart, Resident Magistrate of Ixopo, interpreter on the 
staff, were both killed. The wounded were left on the field 

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The First Boer War 263 

in charge of Mr Ritchie, the miUtary chaplain, and the 
rest of the survivors moved back to Mount Prospect in the 
darkness of the night The Ingogo, knee-deep when the 
soldiers crossed in the morning, had become a raging torrent, 
and many of the men were swept down in attempting to 
ford it One hundred and fifty men were lost by the fight 
and the flooded river. Next day the dead were buried and 
the wounded removed to Newcastle. The Boers had eight 
of their number killed and nine wounded on the Ingogo 


Sir Evel]rn Wood with the 15th Hussars and the 92nd 
Highlanders had joined Sir George Colley at Newcastle. 
Further reinforcements were on the way up firom Durban. 
On the 2ist February Sir Evelyn Wood returned to Maritz- 
burg to hasten their arrival at headquarters. It was intended 
to march then round by the Wakkerstroom road and attack 
Laing's Nek in the rear. 

During Sir Evelyn Wood's absence. Sir George Colley 
planned an expedition by which he hoped to retrieve his 
two former defeats. On the evening of Saturday, the 26th 
February, the General left Mount Prospect with about 600 
men taken from the 58th, the 6oth Rifles, the 92nd High- 
landers, and the Naval Brigade. The destination of the party 
was the top of Amajuba Mountain, a position which com- 
manded the Boer camp at Laing's Nek. The force marched 
without lights and with the utmost quietness. After climbing 
half-way up the Inkwelo Mountain, a broad ridge which 
joins it to Amajuba was reached. At the Inkwelo end of the 
ridge 140 men of the 6oth were posted, and a company of 
the 92nd was left at the other or Amajuba end with orders 
to entrench themselves. The rest of the men with native 

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264 The First Boer War 

guides leading the way then climbed the almost precipitous 
side of the mountain. About 3 o'clock on Sunday morning 
the whole force, numbering nearly 400, was on the top. 

At dawn the Dutchmen at the Nek discovered that 
the mountain was held by the British. Fully expecting to be 
shelled from Amajuba and to be attacked simultaneously 
from Mount Prospect, they hastily prepared to evacuate their 
position. But as no shells came and no movement was made 
from the British camp, the first alarm passed away and 
Joubert called for volunteers to storm the mountain. The 
Boers crept up the slopes from terrace to terrace, and from 
behind rocks and bushes shot at the soldiers on, the sky-line 
as if they were stalking deer. Continuous musketry fire, 
steady and fatal on the one side, 'wild and ineffectual on 
the other, broke the quiet of that hitherto tranquil height 
Gradually the attacking Boers reached the summit and then 
poured in a deadly volley. A panic seized the soldiers. 
They broke and fled for their lives down the rugged steep up 
which they had climbed. Sir George Colley was among 
the killed. He lies in a soldier's grave in the cemetery at 
Mount Prospect surrounded by many gallant men. Few 
would have lived to tell the tale of defeat had the High- 
landers not been entrenched on the connecting ridge. The 
British loss was 92 killed and 134 wounded. The Boers had 
one man killed and five wounded. 

Commandant Joubert reported to Vice-President Kruger 
that the "troops under General Colley fought like true 
heroes, but our God gave us the true victory and protected 
us." Kruger, in the same strain, responded that " the God 
of our fathers has done great things to us and hearkened 
to our prayers." That was the Dutch view of the fight on 
Amajuba. To an Englishman the name of the mountain 
recalls only sorrow, disaster, and death. 

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The First Boer War 265 

The Beleaguered Towns. 

The war meanwhile went on at widely scattered points 
in the Transvaal. English soldiers, English men, and 
English women were shut out from the rest of the world 
and suffered the discomforts and privations of being besieged. 
All the forts held out till the close of the war except 
Potchefstroonii which was surrendered on the 19th of 
March. During the siege 25 of the defenders were killed. 
Two hundred and fifty people had been cooped up in a 
laager 25 yards square. Major Montague succeeded in 
holding Standerton with the loss of five men. Lieutenant 
Long commanded at Lydetlblirg and had three men killed. 
The fort at Rustenburg was constructed about 700 yards 
from the village and was held by Captain Auchinleck with 
60 men. Marabastad was defended by 60 men of the 
94th. The heroism and endurance displayed by both men 
and women in the beleaguered towns during the weary 
weeks of isolation form the pleasantest memories of a 
miserable war. 

O'Neill's Farm-House. 

Sir Evel]rn Wood succeeded Sir George CoUey in the 
command pending the arrival of Sir Frederick Roberts, the 
hero of Afghanistan. The feeling regarding the Amajuba 
disaster was intense. Ten thousand soldiers were in Natal 
ready and eager for the prosecution of the war. But Sir 
Evelyn Wood, acting on instructions from the British 
Government, concluded an armistice, and the war was 
never renewed. All considerations of empire and military 
reputation were thrown aside. Sir Frederick Roberts, 
now Lord Roberts, came no farther than the Cape and 
then returned to England. 

O'Neill's farm-house under Amajuba witnessed the 

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266 The Changes of a Decade 

list scene in the ever-to-be-lamented conflict between the 
two white races in South Africa. There, on the 23rd of 
March, Sir Evelyn Wood and his staff met the Boer leaders 
Kruger, Pretorius, and Joubert, and agreed to a treaty of 
peace. Complete self-government with regard to internal 
affairs was given to the Boers with the Queen as Suzerain. 
A British Resident was appointed to represent Her Majesty's 
Government at Pretoria. 

The treaty of peace created the greatest dissatisfaction, 
especially in military circles and among the besi^ed 
loyalists, who felt that their losses and sufferings in the 
cause of the Empire had been in vain. The Transvaal was 
no longer British territory and the sun still shone in the 

The Boer War 1880-1S81 


Restonitioii of Cetywa3ro. 

The thirteen kinglets appointed in 1879 ^7 Sir Garnet 
Wolseley to have dominion in Zululand soon began to fight 
with each other and with the people whom they were 
supposed to rule. A large section of the Zulu nation was 
anxious that Cetywayo should be restored, and several 
deputations visited Maritzburg to express this desire. After 
learning Sir Henry Bulwer's views, the British Government 
decided to allow Cetywayo to return to Zululand with 
limited power. Since his overthrow he had been living 
under control on a farm near Capetown. He had also at 

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The Changes of a Decade 267 

his own request been taken on a visit to England in 1882. 
He was there told of the decision as to his future, and he 
accepted the conditions laid down by the Government. 

On the 29th of January 1883, Cetywajro was again 
installed by Sir Theophilus Shepstone in the presence of 
5,000 Zulus. His new dominion consisted of Zululand 
north of the Umhlatuzi, excepting a small territory in the 
north-east which Usibepu, one of the thirteen kinglets, 
was allowed to retain. Usibepu was a scion of the royal 
Zulu house and Cetywayo's implacable foe. He was the 
son of Mapita and the grandson of Sotshiza, brother of 
Senzangakona. Zululand south of the Umhlatuzi was con- 
stituted a Reserve ruled over by a British Commissioner. 
Locations were provided in the Reserve for those Zulus who 
did not wish to be subject to Cetywayo. The restored 
monarch did not long survive his return to Zululand. 
Usibepu and his other enemies made a determined attack 
on him and ccHnpelled him to flee to the Reserve. There 
he lived under the protection of the Resident till his death 
in February 1884. 

The New Republic. 

After Cetywayo's death his adherents, the Usutu, ac- 
knowledged his young son Dinizulu as his successor. 
" Usutu " was a name given by Cetywayo to his impis, and 
it became their well-known war-cry, just as " A Home ! " or 
**A Gordon!" was the slogan of these ancient Scottish 
clans. There was almost constant fighting between the 
Usutu and the Umandhlakazi, men of great strength^ the 
rival party headed by Usibepu. The Usutu finding them- 
selves worsted, called to their aid some Boer adventurers 
chiefly from the Transvaal. With the help of these allies, 
who were led by Lucas Meyer, Usibepu was completely 

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268 The Changes of a Decade 

defeated. It was his turn then to flee to the Reserve for 
protection. In return for their successful services the Boer 
free-lances received from the Usutu a grant of land nearly 
3000 square miles in extent in the north-west of Zulu- 
land. There they set up an independent state under the 
name of "The New Republic" with Lucas Meyer as 

In consequence of these troubles and changes in Zulu- 
land, the British flag was hoisted in December 1884, at 
St Lucia Bay as a reminder that the Bay had been ceded 
to England by Panda in 1843. The independence of the 
New Republic was acknowledged by the British Govern- 
ment in 1886. The small state thus successfully established 
was in 1888 merged by mutual agreement in its great 
neighbour and kinsman, the Transvaal. 

The Annexation of Zululand. 

With the general consent of the Zulu people, who felt them- 
selves unable to preserve peace and order in their country, 
the whole of Zululand was declared to be British territory 
in May 1887, and the Governor of Natal was appointed also 
Governor of Zululand. 

In 1888 there were again serious disturbances caused by 
Dinizulu and some other Usutu chiefs rising in rebellion 
against British authority. They were brought to trial at 
Eshowe early in 1889. Dinizulu was found guilty of high 
treason, and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. Two of 
the others, Undabuko and Tshingan, were also convicted 
and sentenced to 15 and 12 years' imprisonment respectively. 
The three chiefs were banished to St Helena, the island 
prison of the great Napoleon. Zululand is now at peace as 
a province of Natal, to which it was formally joined on 
the 30th December 1897. The exiled chiefs were repatriated 

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The Changes of a Decade 269 

shortly afterwards. The province includes the territory of 
Amatongaland, added to it in November of the same 

Gold in the Transvaal. 

The Transvaal Republic was ruled for more than a year by 
the Three who had brought the Boers triumphant out of their 
contest with Great Britain. Ultimately Paul Kniger was 
elected President, Piet Joubcrt was made Commandant- * 
General, and Marthinus Pretorius retired from public life. 
Gradually the Republic once more drifted into trouble. 
Native chiefs became contumacious and rebellious. Wars 
were carried on with Mapoch and Mampoer in the north, 
and with Mankoroane and Montsioa in the west An almost 
empty treasury, caused by the expenditure on these wars and 
by the general mismanagement of the government, confronted 
the country. Trade languished, and discontent became louder 
and louder among all classes of the community. When the 
fortunes of the Transvaal were at their worst they began to 
mend. Gold was discovered in paying quantities in the 
Kaap district in 1884, and a rush of people from the neigh* 
bouring states at once took place. With the increased popu- 
lation a magical change for the better ensued. The exchequer 
was soon full to overflowing. A large town, Barberton, was 
built in the wilds; and two years later, one still larger, 
Johannesburg:, sprang up on the Witwaters Rand where 
another extensive goldfield was discovered. The growth of 
Johannesburg was like that of an American town in the Far 
West. The mines attracted thousands of people, and there 
are now nearly as many Englishmen as Dutchmen in the 
Transvaal. The goldfields brought prosperity not only to 
the Republic but to Natal and the rest of South Africa. 
The increase of inland trade benefited the colonial exchequer 

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270 The Changes of a Decade 

to an enonnons extent At no time in its history had the 
revenue of Natal been so large. 

A period of depression, not uncommon in similar circum* 
stances, followed the first eager rush for riches and was felt all 
through South Africa. Honesty and skiU in mining and man- 
agement and chei^ and expeditious transpcurt to the Fields, 
soon placed matters on a sound commercial basis, and the 
Rand took its place as one of the great gold-piodudng centres 
of the world. 

Gains and Losses. 

After the death of Sir George CoUey Sir Evelsrn Wood 
was for some time Administrator of the Government as 
well as Commander-in-Chief. When he left for England 
after the cession of the Transvaal was finally arranged, 
the Government was administered by Colonel Mitchell, 
who had come to Natal in 1878 as Colonial Secretary. 
In 1882 Sir Henry Bulwer returned with the rank of 
Governor and remained for three years. Pending the 
arrival of a successor, Sir Charles Mitchell once more 
discharged the duties of Administrator. Sir Arthur 
Havelock came in 1886 and left in 1889, before the usual 
term of five years had expired. Sir Charles Mitchell, 
who left the colony in 1886 and had meanwhile ruled 
Her Majesty's island possession of Fiji, returned as Governor 
in 1889, and was heartily welcomed by all Natalians. 

In January t88i, a genial and familiar presence was 
lost to Durban and the colony by the death of Archdeacon 
Lloyd. He had been part of Durban since 1849. In June 
1883, the head of his Church in Natal followed him 

" To where beyond these voices there is peace." 

Distinguished as a mathematician when he came to Natal 
in 1853, Bishop Colenso afterwards became famous by 

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The Changes of a Decade 271 

his works in Biblical criticism. He was also the author or 
editor of many books in the Zulu language. The natives 
knew the Bishop as Usobantu, father of the people^ and 
they lost in him a devoted friend. He died at Bishopstowe 
and was laid to rest in St Peter's Cathedral, Maritzburg. 
An honoured name in Natal for thirty-two years became a 
name only in 1890 by the death of Sir Henry Connor, 
"just and faithful Knight of God," Chief Justice of the 
Colony. He was succeeded in his high office by Sir Michael 
GaUwey, who, as Attorney-General, had been associated 
with him in the Judicial service since 1858. 

The Harbour Works. 

A Harbour Board of seven members was constituted in 
1881. Until its abolition in 1893, it worked with Mr Harry 
Hscombe as its enthusiastic chairman, for the permanent 
improvement of the sea-entrance to the colony. It sought 
to remove the sandbank or Bar which obstructs free and 
full communication with the ocean ; to deepen, straighten, 
and protect the channel which leads thence to the harbour ; 
and to provide in the harbour deep-water wharfage and 
other requirements for the growing trade of the Port. 

A marvellous change has been effected on the face of the 
Point since the Board began its labours. Instead of the 
waste of sand which everywhere met the eye about twenty 
years ago, there are now hardened roads, tramways, busy 
yards and workshops and offices, and a line of wharves 
where vessels of moderate size discharge and load their 
cargoes — the whole a scene of ceaseless activity. The 
deepening of the fairway from the ocean to the harbour is a 
work of greater difficulty and one to which the energies of 
the Government are chiefly directed. 

The bar curves from the end of the Blufif right across 

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272 The Changes of a Decade 

the entrance to the Bay. It was tba-e when the Dutch 
galiots visited the ^ River of Natal" two hundred years 
ago, and it is there still. The bar is a submarine mass of 
shifting sand deposited partly by the heavy seas that surge 
in from the north-east, the east, and the south-east, and 
partly by an ocean current which runs along the coast from 
the southward and which sweeps round on the bar-plateau 
from the direction of the Cave Rock on the Bluff. The 
sand sinks to the bottom whenever the waves or the stream 
which bear it along meet with a conflicting current or other 
obstacle to their line of travel The bottom of the channel 
consists almost entirely of the .^Eolian sand and shell con- 
glomerate noticed in the chapter on the Coast Line. The 
Government is trying to stop the deposit of sand that 
feeds the bar, is cutting deeper and straighter channels 
through the conglomerate, and is endeavouring by means 
of dredging and tidal scour to secure and maintain a safe 
and easy deep-water passage from the ocean to the wharves 
at the Point 

In 1 85 1, during Governor Pine's first term of office, works 
were begun with the object of deepening the channel and 
improving the bar. The engineer in charge, Mr John 
MilnCi built gradually and economically along the inner edge 
of the well-known Annabella Bank the solid stone training 
wall which bears his name and which has withstood unimpaired 
the wear and tear of over fifty years. Mr Scott, Governor 
Pine's successor, was of opinion that a less substantial pier 
rapidly run out would be as effectual as Mr Milne's wall of 
solid mason-work. The engineer refused at the governor's 
bidding to modify plans which he had based on persona] 
observation. The stoppage of the works followed Mr Milne's 
resignation. A special commission then considered the 
question and referred it to the Admiralty. A report based 

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The Changes of a Decade 273 

on infonnation supplied to him was sent out by Captain 
Vetch| and Governor Scott went to England to arrange for 
carrying out the plans he proposed. A new breakwater, con- 
structed of timber staging filled in with stones and known as 
Vetch's or the north breakwater, was built at enormous expense. 
It started from the Back Beach about 2300 feet to the north- 
ward of Milne's wall. A south pier or converging arm be- 
ginning from near the Cave Rock formed part of the scheme, 
but it was run out for only a short distance. Both structures 
gradually fell to pieces. They are now entirely discarded, 
and most of their material has been removed and utilised. 
The eminent marine engineer, Sir John Coode, was next 
consulted. He came to Natal in 1877 to take notes and to 
report on the best way of fighting the bar. He submitted 
several schemes so apparently conflicting and so costly that 
the colony declined to adopt any of them. 

When the Harbour Board assumed control of matters con- 
nected with the Port, new works were at once begun. Mr 
Edward Innes, who was appointed engineer, resolved, as 
the result of independent observation, to extend Milne's 
training-wall. This was done, and in addition a solidly-con- 
structed breakwater was carried seaward from the end of the 
Bluff and as a prolongation of it. It is named the Innes 
Breakwater, in compliment to the young engineer who 
died in harness in 1888. His successor, Mr C. W. Methven, 
extended these plans with slight modrfications, and both the 
north pier and the breakwater were carried into deep water. 
The breakwater is intended to prevent the. sand brought from 
the southward from settling near the entrance by deflecting 
into deep water the current which carries it, and also to pro- 
tect the channel from the injurious effects of the heavy rollers 
from the south and south-west. It is proposed to curve the 
end of the breakwater northwards in orda: to prevent reaching 

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274 Th® Changes of a Decade 

the bar the sand which is now being thrown up on it by the 
landward movements of the ocean. The object of the north 
pier is primarily to assist in guiding and in usefully concen- 
trating the scouring power possessed by the ebb tide as it 
empties the waters of die Bay. The aim of the Government b 
to give facilities (or large ocean-going steamers entering and 
leaving the harbour by day or night in any weather and at 
any state of the tide. Powerful dredgers are at work on the 
bar and in the Bay, and the wharfkge accommodation is being 
largely increased. 

The British South Africa Company. 

The year 1888 witnessed an important acquisition of 
British Territory in South Africa. President Kruger, wishing 
to extend his " sphere of influence," proposed to Lobengula, 
King of the Matabele, that he should put himself under the 
protection of the Republic The British Government 
despatched Mr John MofTat on a similar mission in 1888, 
and Lobengula concluded a treaty of friendship with Great 
Britain. The country bounded by the Zambesi on the 
north, Sofala on the east, the Transvaal and Bechuanaland 
on the souths and the 20th degree of E. Longitude on the 
west, was then formally proclaimed a ^'sphere of British 

Shortly afterw:ards in 1889, Mr Cecil Rhodes, a wealthy 
and enterprising Cape colonist and afterwards Prime Minister 
of the Cape, obtained certain mining and trading privileges 
from lobengula. A company called the ** British South 
Africa Company/' commonly known as "The Chartered 
Company," was formed and received a charter from the 
Imperial Government in the same year, conferring on it 
certain powers and ihcluding the Bechuanaland protectorate 
in its operations. By a treaty with Germany in 1890 the 

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The Changes of a Decade 275 

country north of the Zambesi as £sir as Lake Tanganyika was 
also placed under the Company's control. The whole 
territory is now known as Rhodesia. The Company began 
work in earnest A police force was raised to keep order 
in the vast dominion, a road was made through Matabele 
Land to Mashona Land, and the work of extending railway 
and telegraph lines from Kimberley northwards was begun 
with the Zambesi as the goal. 

" The Younger Day." 

The material progress of Natal between the years i88o and 
1890 was rapid and marked. The extension of the railwajT 
to the border quickened trade and bound together more 
intimately the relations between coast and up^ountry. 
Sleepy villages like Ladysmith, Dundee, and Newcastle 
became bustling towns. The development of the coal- 
fields imbued many up-country districts with life and activity. 
Agriculture, too, was not neglected. Much of the time and 
energy hitherto given to carrying goods by wagons was 
directed to the cultivation of the land. Roads were im- 
proved, and bridges constructed over dangerous drifts. In 
Durban tramlines were laid from the Point to the Berea. 
Very few of the cmginal sandy tracks remained in the town. 
The Berea was supplied with water from reservoirs on the 
Umbilo River near Pinetown, and the town and Point from 
the larger and more distant Umlaas, at a point ten miles 
from its mouth. Both in Durban and in Maritzburg stately 
Town Halls were erected, the one in 1885 and the other in 
1893. The Legislative Assanbly, which had previously met 
in the Court House, now holds its deliberations in a separate 
building opesied in 1889. In front of the new Senates- 
house stands a white marble statue of " Victoria, Queen- 
Empress/' erected in honour of Her Majesty's Jubilee, and 

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A New Era 

unveOed in 1890 by His ExceUency Sir Charles Mitchell 
The Jubilee was loyally celebrated in 1887 in Natal as 
in other parts of Her Majesty's dominions. Sir John 
Akermaiii the Speaker of the Legislative Council, 
an old and honoured colonist, received his knighthood on 
the occasion. -The townspeople of Durban framed an 
address of congratulation to Her Majesty on her Jubilee, 
and the document enclosed in a casket was presented to the 
Queen at Windsor by Mr John Robinson, a citizen of 
Durban, an eloquent senator and a representative Natalian. 
Natal was honoured in his knighthood in 1889. 

Harbour Board established . . . . 1881 

Restoration of Cetywayo 1883 

Death or Cetywayo 1884 

The New Republic founded .... 1884 
Gold discovered in the Transvaal • . 1 884-1 886 

ZULULAND annexed 1 887 

The Queen's Jubilee 1887 

The New Republic annexed to the Transvaal 1888 
British South Africa Company established . 1889 



Railway Extension. 

The prosperity of Natal depends so much on its trade with 
the inland stat^ that the extension of the railway has always 
been a question of the greatest importance. The line was 
pushed on upKX)untry from station to station with the ultimate 
object of reaching Johannesburg, the centre of the gold* 

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A New Era 277 

mining industry and the youngest and busiest dty in South 
Africa. In 1891 the iron horse steamed into Charlestown, 
the border town of the colony. On that occasion the 
President and many of the leading men of the Transvaal 
Republic were invited to Natal and feasted and entertained 
by both the Government and the citizens. A railway tunnel^ 
700 yards long, through Laing^s Nek, the " mound of 
mournful memories/' was opened in October of the same 
year. The Government of Natal asked permission from the 
Transvaal to carry on the railway to the Rand. Permission 
was given to begin the building of the line early in 1894, 
and it was completed to Johannesburg at the end of 1895. 
The Natal Government in return agreed to co-operate with 
the Transvaal Government in making a branch line from 
Dundee to Vryheid. 

Meanwhile the line to the Orange Free State had been 
steadily proceeded with, and in July 1892, it reached 
Hanismith. To celebrate the opening the Government 
of the Orange Free State entertained the Governor and 
the principal officials of Natal by a week's festivity and 

Death of Sir Theophilus Shepstone. 

In June 1893, not Natal and South Africa only, but the 
Empire, sustained a heavy loss in the death of Sir Theophilus 
Shepstone.. He entered the public service of Cape Colony 
at the age of nineteen, when he accompanied Sir Benjamin 
D'Urban on an expedition to settle some troubles with the 
native tribes round King William's Town. From that time 
he was so closely connected with all public events in South 
Africa that the history of the country for that period is 
the story of his life. He was the real ruler of the Natal 
natives from 1845 ^^ ^^7^y ^nd tribes to north and south 

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A New Era 

who had never seen him knew the name and power of 
^ '' Somtseu ** — the name 

*' Which he has worn so pure of blame. 
In praise and in dispraise the same." 

After his residence in the Transvaal he returned to Maritz- 
burg where he peacefully spent his kter years and where he 
died three months after his wife. Queen Victoria on his death 
sent a message expressing her grief at the loss of her *<old 
and loyal servant," and her appreciation of his '^lifelong 
services." Sir Theophilus Shepstone is the greatest figure in 
South African history. A statue has been erected to his 
memory in the Court Gardens of Maritzburg. 

Death of Mr Geor^fe Cato. 

Natal in 1893 lost another of her earliest settlers by the 
death of Mr Georgfe Cato. Coming to the Colony in the 
'thirties, he was a leading actor in all the stirring scenes of 
our history. He it was who started Dick King on his 
desperate ride to Grahamstown and who sat in the stocks in 
Maritzburg a prisoner in the hands of the Dutch. He was 
the first Mayor of Durban, and lived to see the town develop 
from a few huts on a bush-covered sandfiat into one of the 
finest towns on the African coast Mr Cato was for many 
years before his death Consul for the United States and was 
at one time a member of the Legislative Council 

Responsible Government 

For many years a number of the colonists had been 
anxious for a change in the form of government. They 
desired self-government or Responsible Goyemment, 
such as the Cape and several other colonies enjoy. The 
main principle in this form of government is that the 

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A New Era 279 

Ministers are chosen by the Governor from among the ranks 
of the colonists. Those chosen must all be in Parliament, and 
a majority of them must belong to the House of Assembly, 
the House which is elected by the people. In a crown or 
semi-crown colony the leading officials are generally sent out 
from England by the Imperial Government. Sir John 
Robinson was the recognised leader of this Responsible 
Government party. After much discussion and opposition 
the Legislative Council passed a Bill in 1893 ^or granting 
self-government to Natal, that is, allowing the colonists, 
under certain conditions, to manage their own affairs. The 
Imperial Government consented to the change, and the Bill 
became Law on the 20th of July. It had been passed in 
the Legislative Council on the loth of May and proclaimed 
in the Gazette of the 4th of July. These two dates were 
already historic in connection with political freedom, in that 
Natal became a British colony on the loth of May 1843, ^^<^ 
the 4th of July 1776, witnessed the Declaration of American 

The Constitution Act of 1893. 

Before this Law came into force the Governor was assisted 
by an Executive Council of 10 members, all appointed by 
the Crown, and by a liCgislative Council of 31 members, 
34 of whom were elected by the European colonists. The 
Constitution Act increases the power of the people by 
making the Ministers, who with the Governor form the 
Executive Council, responsible chiefly to the etectors for 
all their actions. Instead of one legislative body there 
are now two, a Legislative Council or Upper House and a 
Legislative Assembly or Lower House. Both together form 
the Parliament. The King, through the Governor, with 
the advice and consent of the Parliament, makes all ''laws 

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28o A New Era 

required for the peace, order, and good goTemment of the 
Colony of Natal" The combined consent of the King, of 
the Legislative Council, and of the Legislative Assembly, is 
necessary before any measure can become law. The Parlia- 
ment must meet at least once in every year. The Governor 
summons the Parliament^ and he has the power to prorogue 
it or dissolve it *' whenever he shall think fit" 

The L^gislatiye. Council. 

The Legislative Council consists of fourteen members 
chosen by the "Governor in Council," that is, by the 
Governor with the advice of the Executive Council. Every 
member must be at least 30 years of age, he must have 
resided in the Colony for ten years, and he must possess 
houses or lands of the value of ;f 500. Members are ap- 
pointed for ten years. Five of the members must belong to 
Durban, Victoria, Alexandra, and Alfred Counties, three to 
Pietermaritzburg and Umvoti Counties, three to Weenen 
and Klip River Counties, one to Zululand, and two to 
the Northern Territories. Not more than two members 
may be chosen from the same county. The Governor 
appoints one of the fourteen members as President of 
the Council. 

The Legislative Assembly. 

The Legislative Assembly consists of forty-two 
members chosen by the electors of the following electoral 
districts : — 

Pietermaritzburg City . 


Durban Borough . 


Pietermaritzburg County 

Durban County . 


Umgeni Division 


Victoria County . 


Lion's River Division 


Umvoti County . 


I^opo Divisjou , 


Weenen County , 


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A New Era 281 

Alfred County . a 

Zululand « « . 3 
Northern Territories . 6 

Klip River County 

Klip River Division . 3 

Newcastle Division • 3 

Alexandra County 2 

Any person who is a qualified elector may be chosen as a 
member of the Legislative Assembly. Electors are men 
over 31 years of age who possess houses or land of the 
value of jCS^9 ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ *°y such property of the yearly 
value of ;;^io. Lodgers who have resided for three years 
in the colony and have incomes of not less than j£g6 a year 
are also qualified electors. Every Legislative Assembly 
exists for four ]rears and no longer, but it may be prorogued 
Or dissolved at any time by the Govemon The Legislative 
Assembly elects one of its members to be its Speaker. The 
Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly frame each 
their own Standing Rules and Orders for the regulation and 
conduct of all matters connected with their proceedings and 
business. Every bill dealing with the revenue or expenditure 
of the Colony must originate in the Legislative Assembly. 
The Legislative Council may accept or reject any money-bill 
passed by the Legislative Assembly, but may not alter it. 
A sum not exceeding ;£'2 1,700 is yearly payable to His 
Majesty by the Colony. Of this sum ;^io,ooo is set apart 
"for the promotion of the welfare and education of the 
natives." The rest is for official salaries and pensions. 

The Ministry. 

The Governor names "such offices as he thinks fit, not 
being more than six in number, to be political offices" under 
the Constitution Act. The Governor appoints "Ministers" 
to hold these offices during His Majesty's pleasure, or 
until the ministry ceases to command a majority of supporters 
in the Fariiament Every minister must be a member of 

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282 A New Era 

the Legislative Council or of the Legislative Assembly, but 
not more than two Ministers may be members of the Legis- 
lative Council. A Minister may sit and speak in both Houses, 
but he may vote only in the House of which he is a member. 
His Excellency the Governor designated five offices and 
made appointments to them as follow : — 

^ . ^ ^ , . .rSir John Robinson, K.C.M.G., 

1. Pn^er and Colomall ' ^^^ ,^^ ^^^^ 

S^^^ • 1 Borough. 

2. Attorney-General (^^ Harry Escombe, Q.C, 

1^ M.L. A. for Durban Borough. 

3. Colonial Treasurer . Mr G. M. Sutton, M.L.C. 

4. Secretary for Native r Mr F. R. Moor, M.L. A. for 

Affairs . . \ Weenen County. 

5. Minister of Lands and rMr T. K. Murray, M.L. A. 

Works . . V for Pieterraaritzburg City. 

This was Natal's first Ministry under Responsible Government 

Old and New Officials. 

The officers who retired under the new Law were — 
Mr F. Seymour Haden, B.A., CM.G., Colonial Secretary; 
Mr J. T. Polkinghome, Colonial Treasurer; Mr W, B. 
Morcom, Q.C, Attorney-General; Mr H. C. Shepstone, 
Secretary for Native Affairs; and Lieut.-Colonel A. H. 
Hime, C.M.G., Colonial Engineer. 

All these gentlemen were experienced colonists and valued 
public servants. Mr Haden, who came to the Colony as 
private secretary to Sir Henry Bulwer in 1877, has several 
times acted as Administrator of the Government during his 
period of office as Colonial Secretary. Mr Polkinghome, 
an early colonist and successful planter, represented Victoria 
County in the Legislative Council from 1868 to 1879, when 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 

A New Era 283 

he was appointed Colonial Treasurer. He subsequently 
became President of the new L^slative Council. Mr 
Morcom has been all his life in the colonial service. He 
was Attorney-General of the Transvaal during its period of 
English rule, and he became Attorney-General of Natal in 
1890. Mr H. C. Shepstonei son of Sir Theophilus Shep- 
stone, had been Secretary for Native Affairs since 1884. He 
had previously seen much official service both in Natal and 
the Transvaal. Colonel Hime, now Sir Albert Hime, was 
appointed Colonial Engineer in 1875, and has frequently 
acted as Colonial Secretary. 

The Ministers appointed under the new Law have all been 
long and intimately connected with the political life of the 
Colony. The Premier, Sir John Robinson, has been in 
Natal since 1850. He became member for the Borough of 
Durban first in 1863, and he has invariably taken the leading 
part in all political and progressive movements. The 
Attorney-General, Mr Harry Escombe, came to the 
Colony in 1859, and first entered the Legislative Council in 
1872 as member for the Borough of Durban. He was 
Chairman of the Harbour Board from 1881 to 1893. Mr 
Sutton is a colonist of long standing. He was elected 
member for Pietermaritzburg County in 1875. Mr Moor 
and Mr Murray are both Natalians bom, and both entered 
the political arena in 1886, Mr Moor as member for Weenen 
County and Mr Murray for Klip River. 

Mr H. E. Stainbank, M.L.A. for Durban County, was 
elected by the Legislative Assembly to be its first Speaker. 

Church and State. 

There was a change of Governors as well as of Govern- 
ment in 1893. Sir Charles Mitchell left in July, and Mr F. 
Seymour Haden acted as Administrator until the arrival in 

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284 A New Era 

September of the new GOTcmor, Sir Walter Francis 

A divinoD took place in the Church of England about 
twenty yean before the death of Bishop Colenso. Dr 
Maciorie became the head of the new diyision in 1869. No 
successor to Bishop Colenso was appointed on his death in 
1883. Bishop Macrorie having resigned in 1892, both sections 
of the Church were left without a leader. This resignation 
paved the way for a reunion. In response to a request from 
both divisions the Archbishop of Canterbury appointed Dr 
Hamilton Baynes to be Bishop of the long-divided diocese. 
Bishop Baynes arrived in November 1893, and received 
a hearty welcome from all classes of colonists. 

Two Historic Ceremonies. 

In December 1895, ^^ impressive ceremony took place 
on the banks of the Moord Spruit, where fifty-seven years 
heSort the Dutch pioneers were murdered by the followers 
of Dingaan. The bones of these voortrekkers had been 
collected from the cairns and caves which had formed a 
hasty burial-place and were re-interred in a stone vault in 
the presence of hundreds of their descendants from Natal, 
the Orange Free State, and the South African Republic. A 
marble obelisk marks the spot In a smaller grave were laid 
the remains of Gert Maritz and Pieter Retief. Mr 
Andries Pretorius and Mr Marthinus Oosthuyse were present 
as leading Dutchmen ; Sir John Robinson and Mr Sscombe 
represented the Government of Natal ; and General Joubert, 
that of the South African Republic. 

A similar ceremony was witnessed in Durban in March 
1896, when the bodies of 109 persons were re-interred after 
being exhumed from the disused Cemetery at the Point. 
As the Point became more and more a centre of trade, the 

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A New Era 285 

lonely burial-place in the sand dunes was gnulually sur- 
roanded and encroached upon, and it was thought seemly 
that the bones of the dead should have a quieter resting- 
place. Among the remains were those of many soldiers, 
buried during the period when the British were contending 
with the Dutch for the possession of the Colony. Mr Wolhuter, 
as the oldest Colonist, was present at the re-interment. 

The Uitlanders. 

The gold industry of the Transvaal and the growing trade 
and importance of its centre, Johannesburgf, had attracted 
great numbers of people of all nationalities, but chiefly 
British subjects. These immigrants, or Uitlandtrs^ at the 
end of 1895 comprised four-fifths of the white population of 
the great mining town and contributed enormously to the 
public revenue. They were, however, by the laws of the 
Republic, denied any share in the government. They com- 
plained also of undue taxation, of the unsatisfactory adminis- 
tration of justice, and of the defective system of education. 
The Vitlanders petitioned the Volksraad to redress their 
grievances without success. Their discontent culminated at 
the end of 1895. A Reform Association was formed to 
agitate for their rights, and four thousand men were armed 
in case of possible disturbance. An appeal for aid was like- 
wise sent to Dr Jameson, the ruler of Matabele Land under 
the Chartered Company. 

Dr Jameson's Raid. 

Dr Jameson left Mafeking with about five hundred of his 
armed police and six Maxim guns with the intention of 
marching to Johannesburg. He reached Krugersdorp, 
15 miles from the town, on the first day of 1896. He was 
there encountered by a hastily raised burgher force, defeated, 

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a86 A New Era 

surrounded, and forced to surrender. Twenty-six lives were 
lost in the fight. Dr Jameson, his officers, and men were 
conveyed as prisoners to Pretoria. They were thereafter 
handed over at the border to Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson, 
the Governor of Natal, and sent to England to be tried by 
the British Government The troopers were released un- 
conditionally on their arrival either at the Cape or in 
England. Dr Jameson and his officers were tried and found 
guilty of making a hostile raid into a friendly state, and 
were sentenced to various terms of impriscmment Dr 
Jameson is now a member of the Cape Parliament 

. After the defeat of Dr Jameson, the Emperor WiUiam 
IL of Grermany sent a tel^;ram to President Kruger in 
which he congratulated him on having maintained the in- 
dependence of his country against foreign aggression. It 
was felt that this was an unfriendly mes^ge and one which 
assailed the whole position of Great Britain in South Africa. 
As a result of the warning Great Britain prepared for war. 
The crisis was averted, but it evoked a tempest of patriotic 
feeling never before experienced during this generation. 

Meanwhile the promoters of the Reform movement in the 
Transvaal, numbering sixty-four, aU men of wealth and 
influence in Johannesburg, were arrested and put in prison 
in Pretoria. They were tried in May. The four leaders, 
Mr Lionel Phillips, Mr Geoti^e Farrar^ Mr John 

Hays Hammond, and Colonel Rhodes, were sentenced 
to death. This sentence was almost immediately commuted 
to a long term of imprisonment, and finally to payment of a 
heavy fine. The sentence of imprisonment passed on the 
other Reformers was also similarly commuted. 

A Time of Trouble. 

The political disturbances in the Transvaal heralded a 

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A New Era 287 

period of disaster to Natal, in common with the rest of 
South Africa. 

On the last day of 1895 a terrible railway accident took 
place on the Natal line near Glencoe, whereby forty persons 
lost their lives and many were seriously injured. The 
passengers were mostly women and children sent away from 
possible disturbance in Johannesburg. The line had been 
opened through to Johannesburg from Durban in November. 

In February 1896, eight trucks full of dynamite 
exploded in the station of Vredendorp, a working suburb 
of Johannesburg. A hole was torn in the earth 30 feet 
deep, and 200 feet long; every house in the suburb was 
levelled ; and the loss of life was enormous. 

In June of the same yeiir, the Drummond Castle^ an ocean 
steamer of the Currie Line, carrying passengers to England 
from South African ports, struck on a reef near Ushant, 
and foundered with all on board except three. Her 
passengers and crew numbered 253. 

Clouds of locusts which had left Natal unvisited for many 
years, devastated the land. In addition to this plague the 
farmers had to contend with a long-continued droughti and 
in 1897 with rinderpest, which had been raging in the 
neighbouring states since the beginning of the previous year. 

Revolt in Rhodesia. 

At the close of 1893 the warlike Matabele made a raid 
into the Chartered Company's territory, and were defeated 
near Bulawayo. Lobeng^la fled, and afterwards died of 
fever while endeavouring to escape across the Zambesi. His 
territory was annexed, and the seat of government was 
fixed at Bulawayo, his former kraaU It was during the 
pursuit of Lobengula that Msyor Allan Wilson and a 
small party of men were^ after a heroic resistance, killed 

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288 A New Era 

to a man. They had unfortunately been separated from 
the larger force by the sudden rising of the River Shangani. 

Three of the Matabele regiments were completely destroyed 
in the rebellion, but the greater part of this nation of warriors, 
hitherto unconquered, was still left to measure their strength 
with the white man. They were treated with great considera- 
tion by the Gk>Temment No taxes were levied on them, nor 
did the white settlers interfere witK them in any way. But 
they believed that the misfortunes that fell on the land — a 
droug^ht of unusual duration and intensity, swarms of locusts 
such as had not been seen in Matabeleland for twenty- 
five years, and rinderpest, a new and unknown disease, 
which mowed down their cattle in herds, were all caused by 
the advent of the white man. Their witch doctors assured 
them that ''not until the blood of the white man be spilt" 
would these plagues cease. 

Accordingly, they again rose in revolt in March X8961 
when Dr Jameson and many of his police were absent, and 
cruelly murdered 141 of the white settlers. The Imperial 
Government sent Sir Frederick Carrington with troops to 
the aid of the Company's forces. He had the assistance 
'of Colonel Plumer and Colonel Baden-Powell, officers after- 
wards distinguished in the Great Boer War. By the beginning 
of August the rebellion was stamped out except in the 
Matoppos where the chiefs made their last stand and 
which they believed to be impregnable. The Matoppo 
Mountains "consist of a jumble of rude precipitous kopjes, 
about 60 miles long and from 10 to 20 miles broad, dotted 
throughout with huge boulders which conceal the entrance 
of innumerable caves from the recesses of which unseen 
marksmen can fire on an advancing and helpless enemy." 
On the 5th of August Colonel Plumer succeeded in driving 
five impis from their position, but as the final conquest of 

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A New Era 289 

the rebels would cause much loss of life and entail much 
suflfering on the natives themselves, Earl Grey, the 
Administrator, asked Mr Rhodes, whom the Matabele 
looked upon as ** the big White Chiefi" to conduct negotia- 
tions for their surrender. It was arranged by messages 
between the rebel chiefs and Captain Colenbrander that an 
"indaba" or conference should take place in the heart 
of the MatoppOS. Accordingly, Mr Rhodes, Captain 
Colenbrander, and four others rode unarmed at the risk of 
their lives into the rebel strongholds on the 21st of August. 
By this fearless action the confidence of the chiefs w^s 
gained, and after this interview, which lasted four hours, 
Mr Rhodes lived near them for two months in a camp oii 
the edge of the Matoppos, listening to their grievances and 
assuring them of the friendly intentions of the white men. 
At an indaba on the 13th of October, at which Earl Grey 
was present and addressed the chiefs, they finally consented 
to come out of the mountains and resume the tilling of their 
gardens. That was the end of native troubles in Rhodesia. 

Death of Mr John Bird. 

By the death of Mr John Bird, C.M.G., in 1896, 

Natal lost a patriotic and cultured public servant, who had 

shared her fortunes for nearly half a century. .Beginning 

his career as Surveyor General, he was successively Resident 

Magistrate of Maritzburg, Colonial Treasurer, and Judge of 

the Native High Court. Mr Bird was a classical scholar and 

a man of wide literary tastes. His great work, "The 

Annals of Natal," is a monumental history of the Colony. 

The citizens of Maritzburg will long miss the stately and 

gracious presence of one who for nearly fifty years in their 


..." bore without abuse 
The grand old name of gentleman." 

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290 A New Era 

The Diamond Jubilee Year. 

In the beginning of 1897, Sir John Robinson's health 
broke down and he proceeded to England for rest and 
change. Mr Escombe took his place as Premier ; Mr T. 
K« Murray became Colonial Secretary; and Mr J. H. 
Wallace, M.L.A. for Weenen County, Minister of Lands 
and Works. 

In June 1897, Her Majesty Queen Victoria com- 
pleted the sixtieth year of her reign, and this Diamond 
Jubilee was celebrated in Natal, as it was throughout the 
Empire, with the greatest loyalty and enthusiasm. In 
response to an invitation issued by the Imperial Government 
to all self-governing colonies, the Premier of Natal and his 
wife proceeded to London and took a prominent part in 
the Royal Jubilee Procession and in numerous other public 
functions and festivities. A representative contingent of 
Natal Volunteers, commanded by Captain Walter 
Shepstone, was brigaded with troops from all parts of 
the Empire. Mr Escombe was made one of Her Majesty's 
Privy Councillors, and the University of Cambridge conferred 
on him the honorary degree of LL.D. 

According to law, a general election took place near the 
end of the year, and a new Ministry was formed — ^the 
second under Responsible Government Mr Henry Binns^ 
who had for many years represented Victoria County, became 
Premier and Colonial Secretary; Mr Henry Bale, Q.C., 
member for Maritzburg and a leading lawyer, Attorney- 
General and Minister of Education; Colonel Hime, 
member for Maritzburg, who had been head of the Public 
Works Department under the old Administration, took his 
old post ; Mr William Arbuckle, a member of the 
Legislative Council, became Colonial Treasurer; Mr J. L. 
Hulett, member for Victoria County, Secretary for Native 

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A New Era 


Affairs ; and Mr F. k. Johnstone, member for Newcastle, 
Minister of Agriculture. Mr C. J. Smythe, member for 
lion's River, was elected Speaker of the new Parliament 
which met in November. 

Death of Sir Henry Binns, 

The Premier, Mr Henry Binns, was knighted in 1898, but 
he did not live long to enjoy the honour conferred on him by 
Her Majesty. He died after a lingering illness in June 1899, 
and the Colony mourned the loss of a wise and upright 
statesman. His death rendered necessary the formation of a 
new Ministry which was constituted as follows : — 

Colonel Hime 

Mr Henry Bale 

Mr C. J. Smjrthe 
MrF. R. Moor 
Mr William Arbuckle 
Mr H. D. Winter • 


Premier, Minister of Lands 
and Works, and Minister 
of Defence, 

r Attorney-General and Minister 

I of Education. 

. Colonial Secretary. 

. Secretary for Native Affairs. 

. Colonial Treasurer. 

. Minister of Agriculture. 

Railway opened to Charlestown 

Railway opened to Harrismith 

Bishop Macrorie resigned .... 

Death of Sir Theophilus Shepstone 

Death of Mr George Cato 

H.E. Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson arrived 

Responsible Government granted 

Bishop Baynes arrived .... 

Railway opened to Johannesburg 

Dr Jameson's Raid 



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293 The Great Boer War 

Rbyolt in Rhodksia ...... 1896 

Death of Mr John Bird 1896 

Death op Sir Hsnry Binns .... 1899 


Looking Back. 

In common with other parts of South Africa in the years 
1899-1902, Natal was the scene of the greatest war in 
which Great Britain has been engaged since her struggle with 

From the year 1881, when the deplorable mistake was 
made of giving the Transvaal back to the Boers, President 
Knig^r set himself steadfastly to the great design of throw- 
ing off the suzerainty of Great Britain and of establishing a 
Dutch Dominion from Capetown to the Zambesi. The 
majority of the Boers, knowing nothing of the outside world 
or of the power of the Empire which had given them back 
their country, quite believed that the surrender had been 
due to fear, and that the hated British, their hereditary 
enemies, had been finally crushed and humiliated at Ama- 
juba. Both President and people had an inborn hatred and 
distrust of the British, and the desire to oust them from 
supremacy in South Africa strengthened year by year. To 
accomplish this, however, an army was required, and 
arms and ammunition could not be procured without money. 
The Transvaal, between 1881 and 1886, was a poverty- 
stricken State fast drifting, through the incompetence of 
Kruger and his advisers, into the condition of bankruptcy 
and chaos which compelled the interference of Great Britain in 

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The Great Boer War 293 

1B76. But when the hidden wealth of the Rand came 
to light in 1886, and gold in plenty from the Uitlanden 
flowed into the public chest, it seemed as if the Fates at last 
had rewarded the Boers for all their wanderings and mis- ' 
fortunes, and had bestowed on them the means of avenging 
themselves on their enemies. 

A Dream of Dutch Dominion. 

With the money thus almost miraculously provided Pre- 
sident Kruger proceeded to prepare for the establishment 
of a great Dutch Dominion in South Africa. Every 
Boer is of course a soldier, armed and mounted and ready to 
take the field at a day's notice. The* Boers had hitherto in 
warfare depended only on their rifles. Now the President 
resolved to add artillery to their armament. This arming^ 
of the Transvaal began long before the Jameson Raid. 
In 1894 and 1895 ;£4oo,ooo was spent for artillery in 
Austria and Germany; but after the events of New Year's 
Eve, 1895, the orders were redoubled. Maxim batteries, 
Yickers-Maxims, Pom-Poms, and Creusot long-range quick- 
firers were bought in quantity. Trained artillerymen and 
gunnery instructors from Holland, France, and Germany 
were imported with the guns, and they found apt pupils 
among the Boers themselves. The magnitude of these 
armaments was kept a profound secret. Most of the 
military expenditure was put down as Public Works, and 
amounted in 1898 to ;^i,25o,ooo. 

It was necessary for President Kruger's plans that he 
should enlist the Orang^e Free State on his side, and at 
last he succeeded in forming an oflensive and defensive 
alliance with that Republic. As Great Britain was on the 
most friendly terms with the Free State, it was madness on 
the part of President Steyn thus to commit his country to 

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294 The Great Boer War 

sharing the fortunes of his northern neighboar. President 
Kroger was almost certain that in the event of war he 
would get substantial help from the Dutch in Cape 
Colony and in Natal. He was also all along buoyed up 
by the expectation that one or more of the great £ur(H>eaa 
Powers would intervene on his behalf, a delusive hope held 
before the eyes of the burghers almost to the end of the 
war. It is known that for some time previous to 1899 Boer 
agents had been both in Cape Colony and in the North of 
Natal among the Dutch fanners appealing to their race 
feelings and asking for theit sympathy and help in the 
great struggle that was approaching between Briton and 
*Boer. Glowing visions of a Dutch South Africa were held 
before their eyes. As a consequence of the visits of Kruger's 
emissaries disloyalty was openly talked amoi^ the Dutch 
colonists in both Natal and Cape Colony. 

The Transvaal Helots. 

The Transvaal was a Republic only in name. It 
was a despotism with President Kruger as its autocrat 
His will was law everywhere, even in the Volksraad, whose 
members seldom ventured to oppose him. He was sur- 
rounded by self-seeking Hollanders and Germans, who filled 
nearly all the official posts. Chief among these was the 
clever, smooth-tongued Dr Leyds, the State Secretary. 
These foreigners, hating Great Britain with a hatred bitter 
as his own, encouraged him in his defiant attitude to the 
British Government and in his unjust treatment of the - 
Uitlanders. The three years which followed the Jameson 
Raid were full of discontent and unrest President Kruger 
had promised reforms which he never carried out and which, 
he never meant to carry out Instead, the burdens laid on 
the Uitlanders were heavier than ever. Although "the 

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The Great Boer War 295 

Uitlanders constituted an absolute majority of the inhabi- 
tants of the state, possessed a very large proportion of the 
land, and represented the intellect, wealth, and energy of the 
state," they were denied the political rights which were 
freely accorded to every white man, British or Dutch, in 
every other state of South Africa. They had no share in 
making^ the laws which concerned their lives, their 
liberties, and their properties. The English language was 
tabooed in the law courts. The transport of all goods and 
machinery cost twice as much as it ought to have done over 
a railway constructed with Uitlander money. Dynamite, 
which was used in mining the quartz reefs, cost an enormous 
price. The police were not a protection but a danger to the 
Uitlander community. Of ;^63,ooo spent for education in 
i^95» only j£6^o was spent on schools for Uitlander children. 
In ten years the revenue rose from ;^2oo,ooo to ;^4,ooo,ooo, 
and that money was all contributed by the taxation of the 
Uitlanders. They were in every way made to feel that they 
wa'e an inferior race, useful only to dig gold for President 
Kruger and his burghers, and to pay money to a corrupt and 
hostile government. They were in reality " helots." 
British subjects, bom to liberty and justice with the air 
they breathe, could not long endure such usage in silence. 

Sir Alfred Milner. 

The first gleam of hope for the Uitlanders was the 
appointment of Sir Alfred Milner (now Lord Milner) in 
1897 as Governor of the Cape and High Commissioner. Con- 
troversy had been going on for years between Great Britain 
and President Kruger regarding the terms of the Convention, 
but hitherto the Imperial Government had made no attempt 
to interfere with his treatment of its Uitlander subjects. 
Sir Alfred Milner was the first High Commissioner who saw 

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296 The Great Boer War 

the danger and grappled with it. At Graaf-Reinet, in 
March 1898, he spoke out on the subject He said that 
the British Government would insist on reforms in the 
Transvaal, and warned Dutch people in Cape Colony not to 
encourage the President in his mistaken attitude. 

At the end of that year the shooting of an Englishman 
named Edgar by a policeman caused the greatest excitement 
in Johannesburg. The policeman was acquitted, and a 
public meeting held to protest against this acquittal was 
dispersed by the police. "The consideration of grievances 
once started by this police grievance, it was inevitable that 
the smouldering but profound discontent of the population 
who constantly found their affairs mismanaged, their protests 
disregarded, and their attitude misunderstood, by a Govern- 
ment on which they had absolutely no means of exercising 
any influence, should once more break into flame." 

A petition to Her Msyesty the Queen was signed 
by over 21,000 British subjects in March 1899, and was 
sent to the High Commissioner for transmission to Mr 
Chamberlain, the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The 
petition contained a statement of the chief Uitlander 
grievances and prayed that Her Majesty would protect her 
subjects and secure a reform of the abuses and a recognition 
of their rights. Sir Alfred Milner resolved that this petition 
should be accepted and acted upon by the Imperial Govern- 
ment. It was plain to him that " the panoplied hatred, the 
insensate ambition, and the invincible ignorance" which 
possessed President Kruger were fast sealing the doom of 
the South African Republic. He informed Mr Chamberiain 
in a now historical despatch that the position of the 
Uitlanders was intolerable, and that the case for inter- 
vention was overwhelming. " The spectacle of thousands 
of British subjects," he said, "kept permanently in the 

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The Great Boer War 297 

position of helots, constantly chafing under undoubted 
grievances, and calling vainly to Her Majesty's Government 
for redress, does steadily undermine the influence and 
reputation of Great Britain and the respect for the British 
Government within the Queen's dominions." 

It was fortunate for the Empire that its affairs in South 
Africa at this juncture were controlled by a High Com- 
missioner so clear-sighted and courageous as Sir Alfred 
Milner, and that his advice should have been accepted and 
acted upon with unswerving firmness by Mr ChamberlaitL 
To this happy unison of thought and action we owe the 
continuance of British dominion in South Africa. 

The Bloemfontein Conference. 

Dr Leyds was sent home as Minister to the Courts of 
Europe' in the early part of 1899, and was succeeded by 
Mr Reitz, a former President of the Free State. He 
proved even a more bitter opponent of the Uitlanders than 
his predecessor, and in a despatch to Mr Chamberlain he 
claimed that the Transvaal was *'a sovereign international 
state." As relations between the two countries were be- 
coming critical, it was thought by some of the leading 
Afrikanders in Cape Colony that a meeting between Sir 
Alfred Milner and President Kruger might lead to a better 
understanding. It was arranged accordingly, and they met 
on the 30th May at Bloemfontein, by President Steyn's 
invitation. The conference was perfectly friendly, but it 
came to nothing. Sir Alfred Milner insisted on the redress 
of the Uitlanders' grievances, especially their "political 
impotence," as that was the root of all the trouble. The 
President's concessions were unsatisfactory, and, in addition, 
he stipulated that any proposals he did make were subject 
to "the British Government accepting the principle of 

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298 The Great Boer War 

ari>itnitioii in the differences between the two countries." 
As that meant the acknowledgment of the Transvaal as an 
independent state and the withdrawal of British supremacy, 
it 18 evident that President Kruger's proposals could not be 
accepted by Sir Alfred Milner. During the critical weeks 
that followed the conference, n^otiations still continued, and 
the hopes of the President becoming more reasonable and 
so assuring peace rose and fell with each succeeding telegram 
rq^arding the situation. 

Before the War. 

Meantime the unrest, which had its centre in Johannes- 
burg, spread all over South Africa, Nearly every family in 
Natal had relations or friends among the Uitlanders, and 
the excitement increased daily. Crowded public meetings 
were held in Maritzburg and Durban and the other towns 
and villages, supporting the policy of the High Commissioner. 
In July a petition was forwarded to Mr Chamberlain 
from Natal, largely signed, urging the redress of the 
Uitlanders' grievances and expressing absolute confidence in 
Sir Alfred Milner. On the 19th of the same month, the 
Natal Legislative Assembly unanimously passed a re- 
solution, proposed by Mr Joseph Baynes and seconded by 
Mr Escombe, in the f<rflowing terms : " That the Legislative 
Assembly of Natal desires to express its sympathy with, and 
approval of, the action of the British Government in its en- 
deavour to secure equal rights and privileges for all Europeans 
in South Africa, whereby peace, prosperity, and the termina- 
tion of racial animosity in this country can alone be assured; 
and that a respectful Address be presented to His Excdlency 
the Governor praying that the above resolution be forwarded 
to Her Majesty the Queen." The Premier, Shr Albert Hime, 
who had been unable to attend the meetings owing to an 

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The Great Boer War 299 

accident/ was carried to the House that he might record 
his vote personally. In Cape Colony and Rhodesia also 
the same excitement prevailed. In Australia and Canada 
the attitude of the Transvaal was strongly condemned. The 
Government of Queensland offered to send a contingent 
in case of war, and the other Australian colonies followed its 
example. We know how nobly both Canada and Australia 
fulfilled their promises. 

All this time the Boer States were still arming:. 
The Free State Raad passed large votes for rifles and 
ammunition. The Transvaal burghers brought in their 
Martini rifles and obtained Mausers in exchange. In five 
years 200,000 of these Mausers had been imported. In the 
Transvaal no one doubted the certainty of war. Up to 
the 22nd of September despatches passed between Mr 
Chamberlain and President Kruger, but long before that 
the people of Johannesburg had begun their exodus. Day 
after day train-loads of women and children, many of them 
destitute, poured into the colonial towns and villages, and 
committees for their relief were at once organised. These 
unfortunate refugees had in some cases to travel in open 
trucks and suffiered greatly from exposure. Exiled from their 
homes, and deprived of their means of living, the majority 
of them ^were in a pitiable plight. The Lord Mayor of 
London at once opened a fund for their relief, and Natal 
colonists gave liberally to their needs. 

The end came with Mr Chamberlain's despatch ol 
the 22nd September. He informed President Kruger 
that it was useless to continue the discussion which had 
lasted for months, and that the British Government would 
now consider the matter afresh and make their own proposals 
for the settlement of the question. These proposals were to 
be given in a later despatch. That despatch was never sent. 

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300 The Great Boer War 

The Boer Ultimatum. 

President Kruger had now to decide whether to make 
a complete surrender or to fight He chose to fig^ht. 
Indeed, in the temper his burghers were in, they would not 
have allowed him to surrender. The Great War with Great 
Britain, to which they had been looking forward for 
years, had come. With the concurrence of the Free State 
an Ultimatum was handed on the afternoon of Monday, 
the 9th of October, to Mr Conyng^ham Greene, the 
British Agent at Pretoria. The reply of the British Govern- 
ment was to be given not later than five o'clock on 
Wednesday afternoon, and if not satisfactory it would be 
taken as a declaration of war. This document demanded 
(i) that all British troops near the border should be in- 
stantly withdrawn ; (2) that all recently arrived reinforcements 
should be removed from South Africa ; and (3) that the 
troops on the sea should not be landed. To this " audacious 
defiance,^' as Lord Salisbury termed it, there could be only 
one answer, Mr Conyngham Greene informed the Transvaal 
Government that it was impossible for Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment to discuss the conditions named, and quitted Pretcnria. 

On the nth Sir Alfred Milner telegraphed to President 
Steyn asking whether the Transvaal Ultimatum had his 
support, and had an affirmative reply. That same day the 
Free State burghers committed the first act of war by 
seizing a Natal train going to Harrismith on the Free State 
border. A Boer army of 10,000 men was already mobilised 
and lying at Sandspruit, ten miles from Laing's Nek, and 
at other points along the border of Natal, under the com- 
mand of General Joubert. For Natal, which they con- 
sidered had been stolen from their forefathers and was 
theirs by right, was to be attacked first and overrun from 
the Berg to the sea. There would then be a general rising 

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The Great Boer War 301 

<rf the Dutch in Cape Colony, and the way to Capetown 
would be clear. The burghers entered on the war with the 
greatest confidence. They believed that in a few weeks the 
hated and despised '' rooineks " would be completely subdued, 
and that they would be the dictators of South Africa from 
Table Bay to the Zambesi. 

The Invasion of Natal, 

Indeed at one time it seemed probable that the " Republic 
of Natalia" might be re-established in Maritzburg. Both 
in numbers and in armament the Natal garrison, including 
the Volunteers and the Natal Mounted Police, was far 
inferior to the Boers. The peril which threatened us bad 
however been foreseen by the Premier, Sir Albert HimCi 
and some time before the Ultimatum was issued he had 
sent to the Indian Government for reinforcements. The 
military authorities in India responded with the greatest 
alacrity. In the beginning of October great transports 
arrived daily at the Point with regiments equipped for 
active service in the field. Trains were in waiting for their 
arrival, and no time was lost in conveying the soldiers to 
General Sir George White at Ladysmith and to 
General Penn-Symons, who was occupying Dundee, to 
check the farther advance of the enemy. These reinforce- 
ments brought the strength of the Natal garrison up to 
nearly 14,000 men. Although the Boers were mobilised at 
Sandspruit at the end of September, they were not fully 
equipped and able to move till the Ultimatum was issued. 
By that time the Indian troops had arrived, and Natal Was 
saved. Without them, the Boers would have had an easy 
march to Durban on the one side and to Capetown on the 
other, and it would have been a difficult, if not an impossible, 
task to have re-conquered Natal and Cape Colony. 

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302 The Great Boer War 

AU the Volunteers in the Colony, about 2,500, were 
called out for its defence. They answered the summons as 
one man. From town and country, from office and wc^k- 
shop, from sheep turn and cane field, they hurried to the 
front The men left in the towns joined either Rifle 
Associations or the Town Guards. Besides the local Volun- 
teers, sereral r^ments of Irr^ulars were recruited in 
NataL The chief of these were the Imperial Light Hors^ 
the South African Light Horse, Bethune's Mounted In£uitry, 
and Thomeycroft's Mounted Infismtry. These corps were 
formed mainly of Uitlander reftigees, and brought the 
total strength oi Volunteers in Natal to over 7,000. 

The northern part of Natal was now almost vacated by 
loyalists, who left the villages and farms for Maritzburg and 
Durban. On the 12th of October all soldiers' wives and chil- 
dren were ordered to leave Ladysmith. The invasion of 
Natal had begun. On that day the Free State Boers ad- 
vanced towards Ladysmith by way of Tintwa. The Transvaal 
Boers crossed the border and took possession of Charlestown 
and Newcastle. Five da]rs later they occupied Dannhauser. 
On the 18th advance posts of the Natal Carbineers and 
Border Mounted Rifles encountered the enemy at BestePs. 
In that engagement Lieutenant Gallwey was captured by the 
Boers and conveyed to Pretoria. 

Talana HilL 

The first battle of the war was fought at Dundee. The 
Boers cut the railway line between Ladysmith and Glencoe 
on the 19th October. Next morning a commando numbering 
about 4,000, under Commandant Lucas Meyer, attacked 
General Penn-Symons at Dundee. The enemy were in 
position with six guns on the top of the rugged Talana Hill, 
which commanded the camp and the town, and opened fire 

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The Great Boer War 303 

in the early morning. After an Artillery duel of about two 
hours the Boer guns were silenced, and the Dublin Fusiliers 
and the King's Royal Rifles advanced up the hill in skirmish- 
ing order protected by our batteries. They took the ridge at 
the point of the bayonet and captured the six guns. The 
Boers fled down the hill and were pursued by some Mounted 
Infantry and a squadron of the i8th Hussars. Unfortunately 
the pursuers went too &r, and fell into the hands of another 
commando, by whom they were taken prisoners to Pretoria. 
Talana Hill was a brilliant action, but, besides the loss of the 
captured cavalry, we had 43 men killed and 200 wounded. 
Colonel Gunning, of the King's Royal Rifles, was killed in 
the fight, and General Penn-Symons, who was mortally 
wounded, died four days afterwards. He was succeeded in 
the command of the Dundee force by General Yule. 


With the object of separating Sir George White's forces 
from those at Dundee, a Boer Commando of about 1,200 
men with three guns, under the command of General Kock, 
had ensconced itself among some rocky kopjes near Elands- 
laagte Station. This Commando was attacked on the 21st 
by a force from Ladysmith under General French and 
thoroughly defeated. It was a fierce battle, in which both 
sides fought valiantly, but the Boers had to fall back at last 
before the fury of the British final assault. The Devonshires, 
the Manchesters, the Gordons, the sth Lancers, and the 
Imperial Light Horse were chief among our troops. The 
enemy's guns, their camp, their transport, and their commis- 
sariat, with hundreds of prisoners, fell into our hands. Among 
these were General Kock, who died his of wounds a week 
later, and Colonel Schiel, the commander of the German 
corps, and one of the ablest of the numerous foreign mercen- 

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304 The Great Boer War 

aries who were fighting on the Boer side. The British loss 
was heavy, and Colonel Scott-Chisfaolm, the brave Com- 
mander of the Imperial Light Horse, was killed. The Boer 
prisoners were brought to Maritzburg and thence conveyed 
to Capetown* 

The March from Dundee. 

Notwithstanding the victory of Talana Hill, Dundee had 
to be evacuated. A formidable Boer force was returning to 
the attack ; a si^e gun was placed on Impati Hill near the 
town, and the camp lay at its mercy. The British force had 
no gun of sufficient range to re{dy to its fire. Accordingly, 
during the night of the 22nd General Yule left with all his 
men, leaving the wounded behind, for a forced march to 
Ladysmith. It was a difficult and a perilous undertaking, 
and heavy rains added to the discomfort of the men. The 
veteran Commandant of the Natal Mounted Police, Colonel 
DartneU (now General Sir John Dartnell), accompanied the 
column, and it was mainly owing to his experienced guidance 
and advice that the tired and dispirited soldiers reached 
Ladysmith in safety on the 25th. On the previous day Sir 
George White had an engagement with the enemy at Riet- 
fontein, about seven miles from Ladysmith, which served to 
cover the movement of General Yule's column from Dundee. 

Ladjrsmith Surrounded. 

General Joubert's force, numbering about 20,000 men, 
slowly but surely advanced on Ladysmith and placed heavy 
siege guns pn the hills to the north aad north-east of the 
town. The great gun on Umbulwana, which carried a 96-lb. 
shell, was named by our soldiers Long Tom. By the 
ingenious arrangement of Captain Percy Scott some Naval 
guns from H.M.S. Pov^rerful were sent up from Durban, 

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The Great Boer War 305 

and were found able to cope with the heavy artillery of the 
Boer& These guns, with a brigade of bluejackets, fortu-* 
nately arrived before the town was completely surrounded, 
and during the siege proved of the greatest value' to the 
defenders. On the 30th Sir George White with all his troops 
made a sortie from the town to dislodge the enemy from 
their position on the hills, but without success. It was an 
artillery battle and served only to show how inefficient our 
guns were compared with those of the Boers. The night 
before this attack four and a half companies of the Gloucesters, 
six companies of the Royal Irish Fusiliers, and the loth 
Mountain Battery, all under Colonel Carleton, were sent 
out to turn the right flank of the enemy. This column 
met with disaster. Some falling boulders from the hillside 
fr^htened the mules, and they stampeded with the battery 
and most of the small arms ammunition. The soldiers, 
about 870 officers and men, fought till their ammunition was 
done, and then surrendered. They were at once conveyed 
as prisoners to Pretoria. This is known as the Nicholson's 
Nek disaster. On the 2nd of November the Boers com- 
pletely surrrounded Ladysmitb, and began the siege of a 
town whose name has passed into history. 

Dark Dajrs. 

The days which followed the investment of Ladysmith 
were dark days for Natal. The small force of Regulars and 
Volunteers not cooped up in Ladysmith had to retire to 
Estcourt. All Natal north of the Tugela was pro- 
claimed Dutch territory. The rocky northern bank of 
the rivar was strongly fortified by the enemy. Dutch names 
were given to Newcastle and Dundee, and Dutch magistrates 
appointed. The Jc^alty of many of the Dutch farmers in 
Natal was not strong enough to stand unshaken before the 

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306 The Great Boer War 

presence and persuasions of the Boar invaders, whose ranks 
they freely joined. These rebels not only turned against 
their lawfiil Government, but helped to destroy and plunder 
the homesteads and property of the loyalists with whom they 
bad lived in peace and amity. Being in possession of the 
railway line from Pretoria to the Tugela, the Boers were able 
to bring their l^avy si^e guns into the heart of Natal. 
Maritzbuig was in hourly danger of an attack to which it 
coiM have offered no resistance. A wave of gloom was cast 
over the city when it was known that Major Taunton, of 
the Natal Carbineers, brave citizen soldier, had been shot at 
Ladysmith. Wives and mothers throughout the colony w&re 
full of anxiety respecting the Volunteers shut up in Ladysmith. 
The British loss in killed and wounded was already consider- 
able, and the hospitab in Maritzburg and Durban were full 
The Garrison Church, the House of Parliament, and the 
College in Maritzburg had to be fitted up for the reception 
of the wounded men who daily arrived from the front The 
misaries and horrors of war were in our midst. 

The road to Maritzburg through Greytown was guarded 
by the Umvoti Mounted Rifles, under Colonel Leuchars* 
Had it not been for their ever-watchful presence in the 
Tugela Valley, Umvoti County would have been overrun, 
and the way to the capital been open. 

Sir Redvers Buller. 

The invasion of Natal, and the misfortunes which followed, 
caused the greatest excitement in Great Britain. An Army 
Corps of 50,000 men was at once got ready and despatched with 
praiseworthy promptitude. No nation had ever before been 
called upon to send such an army, with all the equipments 
for a campaign, 7,000 miles across the sea. The cxMnmand 
was given to Sir Redvers BuUer. Under him as Divisional 

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The Great Boer War 307 

Generals were lord Methuen, Sir WOliam Oatacre^ and 
Sir Francis Clery. When Sir Redvers BuUer arriyed at 
Capetown on the 31st of October, and heard of the state of 
affairs in Natal, he decided that Sir George White must be 
relieved. Accordingly, when the Eoslin Castle, with tHe 
first part of the Army Corps arrived at Capetown on the 
9th November, she was at once sent on to Durban. She 
was followed by the other vessels until Sir Francis Clery 
had about 16,000 men at his disposal ready to march on 

While these warlike preparations were proceeding the 
Boers in Natal had not been idle. Small parties were 
detached from the main body surrounding Ladysmith, and 
threatened villages, and pillaged farmhouses, south of the 
Tugela. They destroyed the railway bridges at Colenso and 
Frere, besides tearing up the railway line in many places. 
On the 15th November, an armoured train with Dublin 
Fusiliers and Durban Light Infantry on board, sent up the 
line to reconnoitre, was derailed and fired on by the Boers, 
three miles north of Frere. In the fight which ensued loo of 
our men were taken prisoners. On the iSth the Boers 
advanced to Estcourt, but a shell from a naval gun 
caused them to retire. Within the next few days they 
shelled the camp at Mooi River, and were only thirty miles 
from Maritzburg. As the result of an attack made on the 
Boers by General Hildyard, at Willow Grangey their com- 
mandoes began' gradually to move north towards Colenso. 
On the 26th, telegraph and railway communication with 
Bsteourt was restored, and a British force under Lord 
Dundonald reached the village. 

When Sir Redvers BuUer arriyed about the same time, 
he established his camp at Chievelejr, as far up the line as 
was then consistent with safety. Colenso, although not 

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3o8 The Great Boer War 

occupied by the Boers, was dominated by the guns in 
their fortress-like entrenchments on the north bank of the 

The War in the West and South. 

While General Joubert thus menaced Natal, Genera} 
Croqje carried war into the west and south. A commando 
crossed into British Bechuanaland and invested MafekiQgi 
a town which, like Ladysmith, has become historical It 
was held by Colonel Baden-Powell with 700 trained men, 
and 300 of the Town Guard. The first shot of the war was 
fired near Mafeking on the 12th of October, when an 
armoured train and two guns were captured by the Boers. 
Another commando surrounded Kimberleyi where Colonel 
Kekewich was in command, with nearly 3,000 Colonial 
Volunteers. Mr Rhodes took up his quarters there at the out- 
break of the war. Railway and telegraph communication with 
these two towns was cut off both to the north and south. 
British Bechuanaland and Griqualand West were proclaimed 
Transvaal territory. The bridges across the Orange River were 
seized, and on the i8th November, Aliwal North, Jamestown, 
and Colesberg, in the north of Cape Colony, were occupied 
by the Boers. About this time many of the Cape Dutch 
joined the ranks of the invaders, but there was no general 
rising such as President Kruger had expected. 

A few days later the British advance from the south 
began. General Gatacre was sent to Queenstown to repel 
any invasion of that part of the Colony by Free State Boers. 
With the object of reaching Kimberiey, Lord MethueUi 
with a strong force composed of the Guards, a Brigade ot 
the Line, and the Highland Brigade, pushed pn up the main 
line of railway to Belmont. There, on the 23rd, he com- 
pletely defea.ted a strong Boer force, and took their camp. 

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^he Great Boer War 309 

Two days later, at Graispaiii six miles farther on, the Boers 
were again beaten, but the Naval Brigade suffered severely. 

Lord Methuen had fiercer work before him. At Modder 
Riyefi on the 28th, his force faced S,ooo Boers entrenched 
in the village and on the island^ and lining the bushy north 
bank of the river. Our men fought for ten hours under a 
burning sun without food or water, and the fire from the 
Boers was the hottest recorded. Their gallantry was re- 
warded by another victory. The Boers withdrew at night- 
£edl, and our men occupied their camp. But we had nearly 
500 killed and wounded ; Lord Methuen himself was slightly 
wounded ; and the Boers only retired farther up the line to 
a stronger position at Magersfontein. 

A Week of Disaster. 

The week which ended on the i6th December was one of 
the most disastrous in the annals of the British Army. 
Within a few days of each other, at three different points, 
our troops suffered severe defeats, with great loss of life. 

On the morning of the loth, General Gatacre made a 
seven-hours march from Molteno to drive the Boers from the 
Stormberg^. Worn out with the march, his troops found 
themselves at daybreak close to the enemy, who were in 
an impregnable position, and in vastly superior numbers. 
General Gatacre could only lead his men back. Nearly 100 
men were killed and wounded during the retreat, and over 
600 were taken prisoners. 

On the nth. Lord Methuen made an attack on the Boer 
camp at Magersfontein. The Boers were strongly en- 
trenched on the long hill side, and the Highland Brigade, 
advancing in formation of quarter-column in the darkness of 
the early morning, were mown down in hundreds before 
they had time to extend. Their brave leader. General 

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jio The Great Boer War 

Wauchope, was killed. After a fruitless bombardment 
Lord Methaen saw that the attack was hopeless, and retired 
back to the Modder River, with the loss of nearly i,ooo 

The third disaster of the week took place cm the 15th, 
when Sir Redvers Buller made a desperate attempt to force 
the passage of the Togela at. ColensOi'and drive the Boers 
from theur rocky trenches on the north side of the river. 
The Boers had so supplemented the natural strength of their 
position by walls, and forts, and trenches, for miles along 
the bank, as to make an attack wellnigh hopeless. Our 
men had to advance across the open plain which surrounds 
Colenso under the murderous fire of an unseen enemy, and 
although no more gallant fighting has ever been recorded, 
they could not accomplish what was impossible. Colonel 
Long, who commanded the Artillery, took his guns too near 
the river, with the result that all the horses were killed, and 
despite the most heroic efforts the guns could not be with- 
drawn. With the loss of the ten guns the attack was aban- 
doned, and General Buller retired to his camp at Chieveley. 

Lord Roberts* 

These three successive disasters woke up Great Britain to 
the fact that she was engaged in a great war. Stormberg, 
Magersfontein, and Colenso, all proved that the Boen were 
armed with the deadliest modem weapons, were unemng 
marksmen, were marvellously skilful and speedy in entrench- 
ing themselves, and had leaders who were second to none in 
strategy and resource. Their minute knowledge of the 
country, and the amazing facility with which they could 
move heavy ordnance from place to place, were also in their 
favour. The simple farmers were indeed fcxmidable foes. 
But the nation, although startled and grieved, was not 

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The Great Boer War 311 

c&mayed. With the doggedness of our race it was resolved 
that, more than ever, this war must be "a fight to a finish ''j 
and preparations were at once made for its vigorous prosecu- 
tion. Field-Marshal Lord Roberts, our greatest soldier, 
was called upon to take supreme command. He was an old 
man, and his only son had been killed at Colenso after a 
gallant attempt to save the guns, which had won for him 
the Victoria Cross. But neither his age, nor his great 
sorrow, prevented him from obeying his country's call. 
Lord Kitchener of Khartoum was hastily summoned 
from the Soudan to be Chief of his Staff. Arrangements 
were made for despatching 200,000 soldiers to the scene of 
conflict. Men of all classes, firom the Queen's grandson to 
her humblest subject, volunteered for service in South Africa. 
Animated by a common feeling, the whole Empire sprang to 
arms. From Australia and New Zealand, from Canada and 
British Columbia, from India and Ceylon, men of our race 
poured in to the help of the mother-country. The Indian 
Princes were eager to send native regiments, but the offer 
was declined. The natives in South Africa were steadfastly 
loyal during the war, and obeyed orders in taking no part in 
the hostilities. 

The Surrender of Croxy e. 

Lord Roberts and his staff arrived at Capetown on the 
loth January 1900, and thencdorth the course of events was 
steadily in our favour. By the 6th February all the prepara- 
tions for the northward march of the vast army under his 
command were completed. On the 9th of the same month 
Lord Roberts reached Modder River. On the 14th he 
entered the Orange Free State with a large force. The 
greater part of the Boer commando retired from before 
Kimberl^Ti ^i^d General French was able to relieve that 

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312 The Great Boer War 

town on the igth. Genial Cronje evacuated his camp at 
Magersfontein and proceeded eastward, with the apparent 
object of preventing Lord Roberts' advance to Bloemfontein. 
His force was headed at Paardebergfi and, after making a 
brave and desperate stand for four days, he surrendered 
unconditionally (Hi the 27th February, the anniversary of 
Amajuba. The number of prisoners was 4,080, of whom 
1,150 were Free State men. Lord Roberts continued his 
victorious march to Bloemfontein, which was occupied on 
the 13th March. President Steyn fled, but the leading 
officials went out to meet the conquering army. The keys of 
the Free State Capital were handed to Lord Roberts by 
Mr Fraser, who had contested the Presidency with Mr Steyn 
and was bitterly opposed to the Free State joining in the war. 

The Relief of Ladysmith. 

Foiled in his frontal attack on the Boer position at Colenso, 
General BuUer made three more desperate efforts to clear a 
road to the beleaguered garrison and people of Ladysmith. 
He crossed the Tugela at two different points higher up. 
Spion Kop was captured on the 23rd January, but had to 
be abandoned as it was dominated by Boer fire. For a 
similar reason our forces had to retire from Vaal Krantz, 
taken on the 5th February. General BuHer's fourth and 
final attempt was successful. It began on the 14th February, 
and during the next few days Hlangwane Hill, a strong 
position of the Boers, was taken, Colenso was occupied, and 
the Boers were driven across the river. An attack on 
Grobler's Kloof failed, but the battle of Pieters Hill» on 
the 27 th, obliged the enemy to withdraw, and the way was 
clear to Ladysmith. Lord Dundonald, with a cavahy 
force headed by the Natal Carbineers, pushed on and entered 
the town on the 28th. There is no doubt that Lord Roberts' 

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The Great Boer War 313 

successful invasion of the Free State helped General BuUer 
greatly in his final attempt to reach Ladysmith. The good 
news cheered our men while it alarmed the enemy, and led 
to many of them being withdrawn from Natal. 

A Famous Siege. 

When relief reached Ladysmith the inhabitants were in 
dire straits for want of food. The town had been isolated 
from the 2nd of November, but native runners had succeeded 
occasionally in getting through the Boer lines, and heliograph 
communication could be made from Umkolumba, a high hill 
overlooking Weenen. All the besieged, women and men, 
military and civilian, went through the sufferings and horrors 
of the terrible time with heroic endurance. Shells from the 
Boer guns fell daily into the town, but fortunately did not 
cause much loss of life. Most of the deaths resulted from 
fever, occasioned by exposure and improper or insufficient 
food. During the latter part of the siege horses were killed, 
and their flesh boiled down into what was called " chevril." 
Sir George White, who commanded the garrison, was 
regarded with general respect and admiration. 

On the 8th December a sally was made by General 
Hunter, with a force of Natal Volunteers and Imperial 
Light Horse, who surprised Gun Hill and destroyed two 
guns, one a Long Tom, and captured a Maxim. On the 
loth Colonel Metcalfe, with the Rifle Brigade, destroyed a 
4.7 howitzer on Surprise Hill. On the 6th January the 
Boers, hoping to find opposed to them a garrison enfeebled 
by privation, made a resolute attempt to take Ladysmith by 
storm. There was desperate fighting on Caesar's Camp 
and Wagon Hilly the latter being thrice captured and 
re-captured. The Boers were at last repulsed with heavy 
loss. The utmost anxiety prevailed in Natal and throughout 

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314 The Great Boer War 

the Empire during the investment of the town, and its 
successful defence and relief were celebrated everywhere 
with the wildest manifestations <^ joy. 

In the words of the Heir-Apparent to the Throne, 
when he opened the Maritzburg Town Hall on the 14th 
August 1901 : — 

"Up to the latter days of 1899 the name of the little town was 
scarcely known outside the limits of your Colony, but from the 2nd 
of November of that year it became day by day the very centre of 
interest and ci anzious concern in the eyes of the whole Emjnre. 
Rigorously invested during 118 days, it heroically and with do^ed 
resolve kept the flag flying, and resisted the attacks of the enemy, of 
hunger, and of disease, while the ontside world looked on in breadiless 
stiq)en8e, at times haidly daring to hope, at the repeated gallant 
attempts to bring her relief. It was the stubborn defence of that 
outwork which stayed the advance agunst the Capital of yonr 

Colonel Ro]rston, the gallant Commandant of Natal 
Volunteers, contracted fever during the si^e, which, to the 
prpfound regret of his fellow-colonists, resulted in his death. 
The death-roll of our volunteers is a long one, and bears the 
names of ZZI Natalians who lost their lives during the 
Boer campaign. A tablet inscribed with their names has 
been placed to their memory in the Town Hall of Maritzburg. 
If sorrow and suffering, and loss of precious lives be the 
price of Empire in South Africa, then Natal has paid her 
share in full. 

Two New Colonies. 

The advancing force under Lord Roberts made a long 
but necessary halt at Bloemfontein. The men required rest 
after their arduous marching, and fresh horses had to be 
obtained for the mounted troops. The railway line behind 
them, without which the vast army could hot be led, had to 
be repaired and secured. The Boers had torn up the line 

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The Great Boer War 315 

in many places, and destroyed bridges and culyerts. This 
enforced delay resulted in the renewed activity of the Boers. 
Led by General de Wet, they ambushed a force under 
Colonel Broadwood at Satma's Post, and captured seven 
guns. Part of General Brabant's Colonial Division was isolated 
in Wepener, on the Basuto border, but succeeded in holding ' 
out until rdief arrived. The Boer leader, General Joubert, 
died at Pretoria on the 26th March^ and was succeeded by 
Louis Botha, as Commandant. He proved himself an able 
general both at Colenso and elsewhere. 

The advance from Bloemfontein began on the 3rd May. 
Lord Roberts occupied Kroonstadt on the 12th without 
opposition, President Steyn again fleeing before him. Great 
rejoicings were held throughout the Empire when it was 
known that Mafeking was relieved on the iSth May by 
Colonel MahoQ from the south and Colonel Plumer from the 
north. Colonel Baden-Powell had held the town against 
great odds ftom the 15th October 1899. He became at once 
the hero of the British people. He signalised the end of the 
siege by taking prisoner Commandant ElofT, President 
Kniger's grandson, and 100 men who had made a desperate 
attempt to take the town. 

On the Queen's Birthday the advance guard of Lord 
Roberts' force crossed the Vaal and entered Transvaal 
Territory, the Boers retiring before them. On the 28th 
May the Orange Free State was annexed by proclama- 
tion at Bloemfontein, under the title of the Orange River 
Colony. Johannesburg was occupied on the 31st, and 
Pretoria on the sth June, after a slight resistance. President 
Kruger, with Mr Reitz and other members of his Govern- 
ment, had left for Waterfall Boven, on the Delagoa Bay line 
of railway, two days before. Most of the British prisoners, 
numbering over 3,000, were found at Pretoria. General 

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3i6 The Great Boer War 

Botha with his force retired to the east, where he was 
attacked and beaten on the 12th June. It was not till 
the ist September that the Transvaal, under the name of 
die Tnmsvaal Colony, was proclaimed British territory. 

The Boers Driven from NataL 

While Lord Roberts was proceeding northwards through 
the Free State General Buller resumed active operations 
against the enemy in Natal. Beginning his movement on 
the nth May, he successively dislodged the Boers from the 
Biggarsberg, Helpmakaar, Dundee and Glencoe, Dannhauser, 
and Newcastle. They made a stand at Laing's Nek, and 
mounted heavy guns on Inkwelo and Van Wyk HilL General 
Hildyard succeeded in crossing the Berg and gaining a 
position which made Laing's Nek untenable. The Boers 
evacuated the Nek and Amajuba on the night of the nth 
June, and Natal was free from invaders. During their 
occupation the Boers destroyed private property to a great 
extent Nearly every house in Dundee was looted, and the 
machinery in nearly all the collieries was destroyed General 
Buller officially called attention to the wilful and needless 
damage that had been done everywhere. It is sad to think 
that much of this destniction of property lies at the door of 
Natal colonists, chiefly Dutch, who joined the enemy. About 
350 of these misguided men have since, at the hands of 
justice* received the punishment their disloyalty so thoroughly 

The Natal Volunteers were allowed to return to their 
homes in October. 

Dispersion of the Boer Army. 

Events moved rapidly when Lord Roberts and General 
Buller were thus enabled to join hands. Fighting still went 

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The Great Boer War 317 

on in the Orange River Colony, and on the 30th July 
General Prinsloo surrendered unconditionally to Sir 
Archibald Hunter with 4,140 men, the same number of 
horses, and three guns. Lord Roberts began a general advance 
eastward on the 23rd July, and General BuUer, moving north- 
ward from Paardekop, joined him at Belfast on the 25th 
August. There the Boers made a determined stand, but 
were again forced eastward. The proclamation annexing 
the Transvaal was issued at Belfast on the ist September. 
An advance was made on Lydenburg on the 6th, and General 
Botha took up a position on the heights overlooking the 
town. He was forced to abandon it, and was pursued 
through mountainous and difficult country. Mr Kniger 
then fled to Louren90 Marques whence he sailed for Europe 
in a warship belonging to Holland. General French seized 
Barberton on the nth, and captuiied forty-three locomotives 
with rolling-stock as well as stores and ammunition. Four 
days later he captured fifty locomotives at Avoca. The 
Boers then dispersed after destroying their guns. Three 
thousand of them crossed the Portuguese frontier and 
surrendered to the Portuguese authorities with their 
arms, ammunition and horses. On the 19th September 
Lord Roberts reported ''There is nothing now left of 
the Boer army but a few marauding bands." 

But these marauding bands were successful in delaying 
the advent of peace in South Africa. Scattered commandoes 
in the Transvaal, Orange River Colony, and Cape Colony, all 
acting independently of each other, carried on a guerilla 
warfare and caused ceaseless trouble. Chief among their 
leaders were Louis Botha, De Wet» and Delarey. These 
commandoes confined themselves to raids on the railway and 
attacks on small isolated bodies of our troops. 

General BuUer returned to England in October 1900, 

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3i8 The Great Boer War 

and Lord Roberts followed in December. Lord Kitcfaener 
wanamed as Comniaiider-iii-Cliiell 

The End of the War. 

When Loid Kitdiener assumed command, the great Bo^ 
War, as a war, was over. Mr Sln^ei's dreams of a Dutch 
dominkm had come to nan^^t; Mr Steyn was a hunted 
fogitiipe in the country which he once ruled ; 33,000 Boers 
were prisoners ; and their country, both north and soiith of 
the Vaal, was British territory. Yet for more dian a year 
longer, some thousands of Boera continued a hopeless 
struggle. Constant fighting went on both in the Orange 
River Colony and in the TnmsvaaL Numerous forts or 
blockhouses were buih all over die conquered territories, 
mosdy along the line of railway and at bridges, and were of 
great use in chedcing the movements of the enemy. In 
October i9or, an attempt was made by General Louis Botha 
to invade Natal by way of Zululand. His advance was 
stopped at Port Itala after a desperate fight with great loss 
of life on both sides. 

The wives and children of the Boer combatants were 
removed from the farms and placed in large Concentration 
Canqis established by the Imperial Government in^ several 
districts of the Orange River Colony, Transvaal, Cape Colony, 
and Natal. There they were housed, fed, and clothed, and the 
children educated, until they were able to return to their homes. 

Several attempts were made to bring about a Boer 
surrender. At last, after protracted negotiations, a meet- 
ing of Boer representatives at Vereeniging: con- 
sented to the terms embodied in the Pefllce of Pretoria, 
signed on the 31st May, 1903, by Lord Kitchener ismd 
Lord Milner for the Imperial Govemm^t, and by ten of 
the chief Boer leaders. By this document, a full pardon 

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The Great Boer War 319 

was given to all burghers in the field, and to all burgher 
prisoners of war on their recognising King Edward VII. 
as their lawful sovereign. 

The direct cost of the war to Great Britain was 
;^2 1 1,000,000. In addition, a sum of ;;^i 5,000,000 was 
given to Boer and British settlets as compensation for losses 
during the conflict, and to enable them to rebuild their homes 
and restock their farms. 

In less than a year after Peace was proclaimed, 200,000 
Boer men, women, and children were re-settled on their 
farms and provided with food, stock, building materials, and 
tools. The Dutch language is taught in public schools if the 
parents desire it, and self-government is promised to both the 
new Colonies when it is thought advisable. No nation has 
ever been so generous to a fallen foe as Great Britain has been 
to the Boers. 

In the Great Boer War the total number of British troops 
engaged, including 48,000 Colonial forces, was 458,000, but 
at no time did the combatants in the field exceed z 60,000. 
The Boer muster rolls give their numbers as 80,000 fighting 
men. The British lost 22,000 men who either were killed or 
died of disease. The Boer losses are not known. 

Amid all the sorrow and suffering which this war has 
caused, we have the consoling thought that, however de- 
fective our preparedness for such a war was at its beginning, 
the coumge of our men has never been questioned. " Proud 
England" has kept "untamed the strong hearts of her sons." 
Our soldiers and sailors, home-born and colonial, are as brave 
as they were in the days of Wellington and Nelson. Neither 
lapse of time, nor change of clime, has sapped the courage of 
the race. 

The blood shed for Freedom in South Africa by the men 
of Canada, Australia, New Zealand^ Cape Colony, and Natal, 

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320 Domestic and National 

will bind these states by stronger ties to the Empire for which 
their sons have fought so well. And when the bitter feelings 
engendered by the war are over, the Boer will learn to valae 
the freedom and the justice which are his under the sheltering 
FlBg of Great Britain, and the soul of goodness which is in 
things evil will show itself in a happy contented people, and in 
a peaceful South Africa. 

The Great Boer War 1899-1902 


Death of Two Notable Colonists. 

During the course of the Great Boer War, Natal suffered 
the loss of two notable colonists. The gloomy Christmas 
of 1899 was rendered still darker by the sudden death of 
the Right Honourable Harry Escombe> which took 
place on the morning of the 27 th December. His Igss 
was bitterly felt at such a time. Everything which conduced 
to the prosperity of Natal was a matter of the keenest interest 
to him, but the Harbour whose improvements he initiated 
will be principally associated with his name. A statue in 
white marble erected by his fellow-colonists in the Town 
Gardens of Durban perpetuates to coming generations the 
majestic form and features of a great statesman and a famous 

Dr Sutherland, who died on the 30th November 1900, 
had been connected with the official, life of the colony since 
1857, when he succeeded Dr Stanger as Surveyor-CJeneral. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Domestic and National 321 

Before coming to Natal he was surgeon with an Arctic 
expedition, and an island in the White North bears his 
name. His knowledge of the physical features of the colony 
was perfect, a knowledge acquired in the early days when 
he had to ride through its length and breadth. He always 
regarded the main road over the Inchanga as a great work * 
which he carried out in the face of many difficulties. The 
colony is poorer by the loss of a man of sterling worth and 
profound scientific attainments. 

Death of Her Majesty the Queen. 

To the great grief of the nation, and of the whole 
civilised world, Her Majesty Queen Victoria died at 
Osborne, on the 22nd January 1901. She had been in 
feeble health for some time, but there is no doubt that 
her end was hastened by the terrible anxieties of the war. 
Her grandson. Prince Christian, died at Pretoria of enteric 
fever, and she counted many dear friends among the fallen. 
Her reign of sixty-four years, the longest in our history, 
transformed the British Empire into the greatest the world 
has ever seen. Her kind heart and unwearied brain were 
constantly at work for the good of her people, and she was 
regarded with an affection never before vouchsafed to any 
English sovereign. 

" Love had been hers, 
And widowhood, glory and grief, increase 
In wisdom and power and pride, 
Dominion, honour, children, reverence ; 
So that, in peace and war 
Innumerably victorious, she lay down ' 
To die in a world renewed.*' 

She was succeeded by her eldest son, Albert Edward, Prince 
of Wales, who assumed the title of Edward VIL 

X . 

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32 2 Domestic and National 

A New Governor. 

In the beginning of 1901, Sir Alfred . Milner was appointed 
Governor of the two new Colonies, and he proceeded to 
Pretoria at the end of February. Later in the year he 
went to England for a much-needed rest after his arduous 
and anxious labours at Capetown. He was received by 
His Majesty the King immediately on his arrival, and 
was created a peer under the title of Lord Milner of 
St James's and Capetown. He returned to South Africa 
in August, where his master mind was required in the 
pacification and settlement of the new Colonies. 

Lord Milner was succeeded as Governor of the Cape by the 
Hon. Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson, who had been Governor of 
Natal since 1 893. The Government of Natal was administered 
by the Chief Justice, Sir Michael Gallwey, until the coming 
of the new Governor, Sir Henry McCalium. He arrived 
in time to open Parliament on the 17th May, and was 
heartily welcomed by all colonists. 

A Royal Visit 

In August 1 90 1, Natal was honoured by a visit from 
Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of 
Cornwall and York. It was the. wish of Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria that they should see for themselves the 
Greater Britain beyond the seas over which they should one 
day be called to rule. In accordance with that wish they 
sailed to Australia, where they opened the first Federal 
Parliament in the name of the King. New Zealand and 
Maiu-itius were the next Colonies visited. The Ophir^ 
with the Royal party, reached Durban on the 13th of 
August, where Their Royal Highnesses were greeted with 
an enthusiastic welcome. They drove from, the Point through 
gaily-decorated streets to the Park, where they were wdgomed 

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Domestic and National 323 

by the Corporation. Next day, in Maritzburg, the Duke 
and Duchess opened the New Town Hall, and unveiled 
a Tablet to the memory of the Volunteers who fell in the 
war. They received the principal Native Chiefs of Natal 
and Zululand in the Park in the afternoon. The rejoicings 
were concluded by a Reception at Government House in 
the evening. 

Several colonists received honours from the hands of His 
Royal Highness for services rendered during the war. The 
Royal Red Cross was bestowed on two Maritzburg ladies, 
Mrs P. Davis and Mrs W. J. Scott General Hildyard, 
General Dartnell, Mr B. W. Greenacre, Mr David Hunter, 
Mr Henry Bale, and the Hon. T. K. Murray, were knighted. 
Mrs Wesley Francis received the Royal Red Cross from the 
hands of His Majesty the King in 1902. 

His Royal Highness the Duke of Cornwall and York was 
created Prince of Wales on the 9th November 1901. 

Political Changes. 

A general election took place in September 1901, with the 
result that all the members of the former Government resumed 
their positions with Sir Albert Hime as Premier. Sir 
Henry Bale was shortly afterwards made Chief Justice on 
the retirement of Sir Michael Gallwey, and Mr Labistour 
became Attorney-General without being a member of the 
Ministry. At the close of the year the death of the Hon. 
J. T. Polkinghome, President of the Legislative Council, 
deprived the colony of an old settler and an able and faithful 
servant. He had for many years been Treasurer before the 
era of Responsible Government. Mr William Arbuckle was 
appointed President in his place, and Mr George Payne, 
M. L. A. for Durban, became Colonial Treasurer. Mr Payne 
resigned at the beginning of 1903, and was succeeded by Mr 

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324 Domestic and National 

Hyslop, M. L. A. for Umgeni Division. At the same time 
Mr W. B. Morcom, M. L. A. for Maritzburg, was appointed 
Minister of Justice. 

Death of Mr Rhodes. 

The Empire lost one of its greatest sons when Mr Cecil 
Rhodes died at Muizenberg near Capetown on the 26th 
March Z902. He went to Natal as a lad after leaving 
Oxford, and thence to the Diamond Fields where he amassed 
an immense fcntone. His life was tiiereafter devoted to- the 
spread of Briti^ influence in South Africa. As the chief 
director of the British South Africa Company he was mainly 
instrumental in adding the vast territory of Rhodesia to the 
King's Dominions. By his own desire he is buried in the 
Matoppo Mountains, where he met the Matabele Chiefs in 
1896, in a rock-hewn tomb on a hiU which he named "View 
of the World.'* In the words of Mr Rudyard Kipling read at 
his burial : — 

« It is his will that he look forth 
Across the lands he won — 
The granite of the ancient North, 
Great spaces washed with sun. 
There shall he patient make his seat, 

(As when the death he dared), 
And there await a people's feet 
In the paths that he prepared." 

In order to foster the union of the English-speaking 
people throughout the worid, Mr Rhodes directed in 
his will that sixty Colonial scholarships should be estab- 
lished of ;^300 a year each for three years at the University 
of Oxford. Natal receives one of the twenty-four allotted to 
South Africa. Two Oxford scholarships are to be allotted to 
each of the States and Territories of the United States 
of America — 104 in alL There are also fifteen scholarships 

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Domestic and National 325 

for Students of German birth. The students elected will 
be judged not only by their scholarship but by their " fondness 
a( and success in manly outdoor sports, qualities of manhood, 
truth, courage, devotion to duty, sympathy for and protection 
of the weak, kindliness, unselfishness and fellowship/' He left 
;;^i 00,000 to his old College of Oriel, in Oxford ; and Grroote 
Schuuri his picturesque dwelling and grounds near Capetown, 
with its furniture, is left as an official residence for the first 
Prime Minister of the Federal States of South Africa, and 
until then as a park for the people. His property near 
Bulawayo and in Mashona Land is to be " cultivated for the 
instruction of the people of Rhodesia"; and other bequests 
are made for the welfare of the land which bears his 

The Coronation. 

Their Majesties King Edward VII. and Queen 
Alexandra were crowned in Westminster Abbey on the 9th 
of August 1902. The ceremony was postponed from the 
26th of June owing to the dangerous illness of the King, 
which for a time caused intense anxiety throughout the 
Empire. In common with the Premiers of the self-governing 
colonies, Sir Albert Hime, accompanied by Miss Hime, was 
present in the Abbey to witness the Coronation, and at the 
numerous festivities held in honour of the occasion. Sir 
Albert was created a Privy Councillor, and had the degree of 
Doctor of Laws conferred on him by the principal Universities 
in the Kingdom. Mr William Arbuckle, President of the 
Legislative Council, and Mr J. Liege Hulett, Speaker of the 
Legislative Assembly, were knighted. 

The Premier of Natal along with the other Premiers 
attended a conference over which Mr Chamberlain 
presided, and at which suggestions were made regarding 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

326 Domestic and National 

preferential trade, naval defence, nuul services, Government 
contracts, and other matters interesting to the Colonies. 

Mr Chamberlain's Visit to South Africa. 

To see for himself the state c^ affairs in South Africa and 
to confer with Lord Milner, the Right Hon. Joseph 
Chamberlain, Secretaiy of State for the Colonies, 
accompanied by Mrs Chamberlain, sailed from England 
in the new war-ship the Good Hope in November 1902, 
and returned in March 1903. Mr Chamberlain visited 
Egypt and Uganda on his way, and landed at Durban at 
the end of the year. Owing to bad weather the Good Hope 
was not able to allow Mr and Mrs Chamberlain to spend their 
Christmas in the Christmas Land, but the delay in their arrival 
seemed only to increase the enthusiasm of their reception 
in Natal. The Colonial Secretary's constant care for the 
wel&re of Greater Britain and his firm attitude during the Boer 
War had gained for him the admiration and gratitude of every 
loyalist in South Africa. Crowds welcomed him in all the 
towns from Durban to Pretoria and from Pretoria to 
Capetown. He met and conversed with the representatives 
of all classes of people. To those Dutch Colonists whose 
racial sympathies had brought them perilously near rebellion 
he spoke some plain truths, and his appeal to their good sense 
was not without effect. At Middelburg Mr N. de Waal, 
the Secretary of the Bond or Dutch Party, assured him 
that the Dutch would henceforth loyally take their place as 
members of the Empire; and at Capetown, Mr Jan 
Hofmejrr, the head of the Bond, issued an appeal to hb 
countrymen to forget "the ancient strife," and work with their 
British fellow-subjects for the prosperity of their common 

When the Corporation of London honoured Mr 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Domestic and Nationd 327 

Chamberlain on his return it voiced the whole nation's 
appreciation of the service he had rendered to the Empire by 
his patriotic mission. His personal intercourse with both 
British and Dutch did much to strengthen their loyalty, and 
promote the good feelkig which is necessary for the peace and 
contentment of the King's South African Dominion. 

Spheres of Influence. 

During the last twenty years Great Britain has been 
gradually extending her sway in South Africa. Sir Bartle 
Frere was regarded as a visionary when he said that some 
day the South African Dominion would stretch to the 
Zambesi. But by a treaty which Lord Salisbury concluded 
with Germany in 1890, British South Africa now extends 
six hundred miles beyond the Zambesi to the southern 
shores of Lake Tanganyika. 

At the beginning of 1884 the countries in South Africa 
possessed or protected by Great Britain were Cape Colony, 
Natal, Pondoland, Basutoland and Zululand. Walfisch Bay 
in Great Namaqualand, one of the safest harbours in South 
Africa .and valuable as the only inlet to the interior for a 
great distance north or south, was taken possession of in 
1878 and made part of the Cape Colony territory in 1884. 
In that year the German Government seized the harbour 
of Ang^ Pequena, some disunce south of Walfisch Bay, 
and followed up their action by proclaiming a protectorate 
over Damaraland. 

The disturbances in 1884 with native chiefs on the western 
border of the Transvaal caused the British Government to 
interfere. Some white mercenaries who had aided the chiefs 
received grants of land and set up two independent states, 
Stellaland and Goshen. Fearing that disputes might arise 
with the German Government and that the trade route might 

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328 Domestic and National 

be endangered, Great Britain as Suzerain demanded that the 
Transvaal should withdraw its countenance from the Stella- 
land adventurers. Sir Charles Warren was sent out 
from England with a force to put down the two Republics. 
They were abolished without fighting, and the country was 
declared to be British territory as far north as Mafeking under 
the title of British Bechuanaland, now a province of 
Cape Colony. A British Protectorate was proclaimed over 
the rest of the country to the north as &r as 22** S. 
Latitude. In 1885 it was agreed with Germany that 
the eastern border of Damaraland should be 20"* £. Longi- 
tude. In 1887 Germany made an agreement with Portugal 
to bound their respective territories at a point on the 

It was thought desirable, in view of the formation of the 
British South Africa Company in 1889, that the limits of 
British and German ''spheres of influence" should be de- 
finitely fixed. By the Anglo-German treaty already men- 
tioned, Great Britain is acknowledged to have control as 
far north as the Stevenson Road, which runs from the 
north end of Lake Nyassa to the south end of Lake 
Tanganyika, or 8* S. Latitude. A huge territory, in 
extent about 250,000 square miles, has thus been added to 
British dominion. This new sphere of influence "possesses 
elevated plateaux as large as England and as healthy in 
climate as Natal." By the same treaty Great Britain Jias 
gained Zanzibar, the key of Eastern Africa, in exchange 
for the " sandbank of 400 acres called Heligoland.'' 

Another great English company, the British East Africa 
Company, has control over a territory with an area of 
750,000 square miles or more than eight times the size of 
Great Britain. It owns a coast line of 400 miles from 
Wanga at the mouth of the Umba River, whence German 

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Domestic and National 329 

territory stretches south, to the Juba River, where the 
Italian sphere of influence begins. The company's posses- 
sions march with those of Germany to the Congo Free 
State, which forms their western limit, and which is ruled 
by the International African Association with the King of 
Belgium as its President. The Company is hard at work 
organismg and developing. Mombassa, the capital, is 
growing marvellously, and a railway thence, 580 mites 
long, has been completed to Port Florence, at the north- 
east comer of Victoria Nyanza 

Portugal still holds the possessions acquired 400 years 
ago when her intrepid mariners rounded the Cape. She 
owns the east coast districts from Delagoa Bay to the 
Rovuma River; and also territory on the west coast, extend- 
ing 300 miles inland, from the Congo to the Cunene. Both 
Italy and France have a foothold in Africa and are striving 
to extend their influence. At all points European enterprise 
and industry are attacking the Dark Continent. The wave 
of civilisation is slowly, at times almost imperceptibly, 
advancing — the wave which will yet spread itself over Africa 
as the waters cover the sea. 

** For while the tired waves, vainly breaking, ^ . 

Seem here no painful inch to gain, 
Far back, through creeks and inlets making, 
Comes silent, flooding in, the main.'' 

Death op the Right Hon. Harry Escombe . 1899 

Death of Dr Sutherland .... 1900 

Death op Queen Victoria 1901 

Sir Henry McCallum, Governor . . 1901 

Visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales . 1901 

Death op Mr Rhodes 1903 

The Coronation 1902 

Visit of Mr and Mrs Chamberlain , , , 1902-3 

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Martin West . 



Benjamin C. C. Pine 

yj >f 


John Scott 

>» » 


J. Maclean 

» i» 


Robert W. Keate 

»» » 


Anthony Musgrave . 

i> » 


Sir Benjamin C. C. Pine 

)i ♦> 


Sir Henry E. Bulwer 

97 f> 


Sir Garnet J. Wolseley . 

Governor . 


Sir George Pomeroy Colley 



Sir Henry E. Bulwer 



Sir Arthur E. Havelock 

• »» • • 


Sir Charles B. H. Mitchell 

•,> • • 


The Hon. Sir Walter F. 

Hely-Hutchinson . 



Sir Henry McCallum 




Digitized by 




(See page i68) 

Rose the blood-red rim of Phoebus 

On a hopeless dawn — 
Horrors dread as e'en the grimmest 

Realist has drawn. 

This a day of blackest letter — 

Sons of exiles' sons 
Speared in slumber where the " weeping " 

Bushman River runs. 

Heaped by wain, and spruit, and donga, 

Lay the martyred dead > 
Pioneers, who seeking Freedom, 

Found red Death instead. 

Some escaped ; their fierce resentment 

Dried up 'vailless tei^s. 
Had their kin not fought and conquered 

When, in bygone years, 

Fair Garonne and Seine ran crimson 

With their fathers' blood- 
When the sea-bom Water-Beggars 

Stemmed dark Alva's flood ? 

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332 Ballads 

Now the scattered remnants haste to 

Rally round each post, 
Fearing, as they prime their muskets, 

All but honour lost. 

O'er the veld, with red pools gleaming 

In the pure sunshine. 
Rose a kopje— Rensburg's Kopje — 

Where a gallant line 

Tired and weakened, hemmed, unflinching, 
Faced fierce Dingaan*s horde, — 

Flushed with sweeping through the uplands 
Bearing fire and sword, — 

Held this islet with cool daring, 

Nerved by loving hearts. 
Black waves circle, foaming hoarsely, 

Hurling spray of darts. 

E'en Pandora's gift forsook them — 

Ammunition done. 
Death's pale visage all around them, — 

Life's short race seemed run. 

When a rear-shout—" Kill the wizard ! " 

Heard with glad surprise. 
Stops the yelling of the foemen 

As with wond'ring eyes 

They behold a single horseman 

Fight, as some stout craft 
'Mid a whirlpool, while the eddies 
Hissed, and jeered^ and laughed. 

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Such a scene was that by Tiber, 

As each foaming ridge 
Sought to 'whelm the hero-soldier 

When he kept the bridge. 

Well his cheek might wear a pallor, 

Well his spirit flinch, 
For Marthinus braved and grappled 

Death at every inch, 

Bearing life — the death of foemen, 

Bullets — golden lead, 
Powder — more than Midas' riches, 

Life to those nigh dead. 

Like to tongues of myriad serpents 

Hissed the hurtling steel. 
With such lethal halo round him 

Well might rider reel 

Not as some staid English farmer 

Through a Devon lane 
Ambles from the thorpe to market, 

With loose seat and rein ; 

But fierce-thrilled through every fibre 

Horse and rider go, 
Like the swallow's flight, or arrow 

From the Tartar's bow. 

Will he gain that girdled kopje? 

Will he 'scape the spear? 
Shades of his brave sires, be with him 
In this hour of fear 1 


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334 Ballads 

Death in vain chased charmed horseman. 

Spirit of the Graeme 
Sure possessed him — bore the hero 

Safe to friends and fame. 

Gained the hill-top ! — then the impi 

Yielding to its fate 
Melts as do Klahlamba's snow-drifts 

When the sun grows great. 

Life-boat to fast sinking vessel, 

Hopeless in its plight — 
Cheering day that chases headlong 

Darkest shades of night — 

Such was he, intrepid centaur, 

To the band forlorn, 
As he cleft the war-clouds bursting 

O'er that baleful mom. 

Here's to Valour and Marthinus ! 

May each coming age 
Take this patriot burgher's story 

As its heritage. 

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{Seepage 186) 

Some may say that Valour's waning 

To the verge of sad decay, 
And that England's blood ran thicker 

In Queen Bess's stirring day ; 

Now 'tis sordid self, not Empire ; 

Mammon would enthral us all, 
Make us hirelings, snap the heart-strings 

That once thrilled at Duty's calL 

Let such look, and looking, ponder 

On our wide Bay's tender blue. 
Fraught with mem'ries of the vanguard, 

Men who fell in Forty-two. 

'Neath our green coast's mounds and meadows. 

As in homeland's dim-lit naves, 
Rest the brave who won us acres 

In their sea-lulled Briton graves. 

By the Boer lines at Congella, 
Where the west wind sheds its rain. 

All the yellow sands grew crimson 
With the wounded and the slain. 

Etched upon the deadly sky-line, 
Mark for guns behind each dune. 

Flashed the silver of the bayonets 
In the lethal night's high noon. 

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Far across the Bay the booming 

Of the cannon rose and fell. 
Echoing to Bluff and Island, 

Rang this soldier's passing-bell. 

Soon the autumn of the battle 
Changed to winter's black despair, 

And lives dwindled like the red leaves 
In the rude October air. 

Blood of England shed for Empire 

At our southern Trasimene — 
Such it is that fosters heroes, 

Keeps the graves of valour green. 

All life's nobler thoughts are strengthened 

By the valiance of our sires, 
As it glows undimmed, undying, 

Like Rome's cherished vestal-fires, 

Ever-burning ! Happy omen 

For the progress of the State ; 
Patriots give their lives as incense 

On the altars reared by fate. 

Such pure light streamed o'er the cities 

Of the pulsing Punic world. 
Lit their galleys through the Pillars 

Of the West, with sails unfurled 

In wild camps it thrilled Rome's legions^ 
Stemmed the East at Marathon ; 

Bore sea-heroes through the Syrtes, 
Through strange seas and tropic dawn. 

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Diaz and Da Gama snatched it * 
From their Lusitanian pyre ; 

Bore it over hungry surges 
To the Cape of Storms and Fire ; 

And it gleamed upon our verdure 
From their storm-vexed caravel — 

Land of afternoon undying 
O'er tired visions cast its spell. 

Clear the deathless flame was glowing, 
By the wide Bay's tender blue, 

When their blood was shed for England 
By the men of Forty-Two. 

(See /age i88) 

Brave Horatius, Herv^ Riel, 

Tell, and Paul Revere— 
Shades of all who saved a nation — 

Pray you, lend an ear. 

This no tale of medalled hero, 

But a man, like you. 
Who, stout-hearted, saved the State by 

Deed of derring-do. 

Sixty years since, by the Bay side 

Where the wharves now spread, 
'Midst the mangroves, by Boer bullets 

Lay our English dead. 


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^^S Ballads 

Luckless battle ! for the foemen. 

Ambushed, saw our band 
Qear against the moonlit skyline 

Toiling through the sand. 

Fell our men like hail-swept blossoms, 

And "Retreat" rang out 
Faint with wounds the vanquished waded 

To the camp in rout 

Still the Ensign hemmed with foemen 

O'er the blue Bay streamed ; 
And disaster was to be by 

British pluck redeemed. 

Reinforcements weary leagues off! 

So the foes might boast 
He alone, the sturdy farmer, 

Knew the pathless coast. 

Go by railway ? Send by steamship ? 

Can't they telegraph? 
Why ! in wilds 'twixt here and Capetown 

Roamed the tall giraffe. 

Miles on miles and ne'er a white face. 

Sometimes not a black. 
Toilsome hill and burning valley. 

Veld without a track. 

" Will you go, Dick ? " said the Captain, 

" You have got the key 
To our safety, dare you risk it ? " 

What reply made he ? 

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None at all 1 but boot and saddle-^ 

Girt him for the course — 
Grahamstown six hundred miles off, 

And the saviour force. 

Where now masts and funnels gather 

Steed and rider raced ; 
Round the Bluff where monkeys chattered, 

And the lion paced. 

Through the heat and swirling sea sand, 

Through the forest shade ; 
Thorns may tear, and sun may blister, 

He may not be stayed. 

Never time for waxing weary, 

Just enough for breath ; 
Care was constant at his elbow, 

And behind rode Death. 

Backward where the trees are thinnest, 

Boers in hot pursuit, 
Bullets flying while he dashes 

Through the stony spruit. 

Fell the night when he was guided 

By the breakers' roar — 
Wet and cold from fording rivers 

For a week and more. 

And whene'er a mission homestead 

Broke some dreary plain, 
Mud-besprent and pale with speeding, 

Dick drew willing rein. 


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On again, with pace unflagging, 

(f&[ rock, stream, and sand ! 
Fears for that far leaguered handful 

Nerving heart and hand. 

When at last for horse and rider 

Ends the toilsome strain, 
Dick, with feeble arm uplifted. 

Strives to shout — in vain. 

Draws the missive trom his jerkin, 

Swoons upon his steed — 
Rings a cheer from English throats then 

For his doughty deed I 

Race, ye jockeys, round your courses ! 

None of you, I ween. 
Could have picked the course that he did 

For our home and Queen. 

What his*guerdon? rank and honours? 

We are debtors still 
To the loyal soul who saved us 

By his iron will. 

Richard King — ^i' faith. King Richard ! 

Gallant farmer man. 
This to you, Natalian hero. 

And the race you ran ! 

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Fox Hill, S9, 64. 

Frances, The, Z14. 

Francis, Mrs, 323. 

Fraser, Mr, 31a. 

French, Gen., 303, 311, 317. 

Frcre, 307. 

Frere, Sir Bartle, 234, 239, 248, 255, 

Froome, Capt., 256, 257. 
Froude, Mr J. A., 229. 
Fruits, Indigenous, 35. 
Fugitives' Drift, 242. 
Fynn, Henry, 141, 142, 143, 148, 150. 
Fynn, Mr H. F., 236. 

Gaboon R., 125. 

Gaikas, iii. 

Galekas, 11 1, 140, 144. 

Gallwey, Lieut., 302. 

Gallwey, Sir Michael, 271, 322, 323. 

Gama, Vasco Da, 95, 98-100, 102, 

121, 124. 
Gamtoos R. , 73. 
Gardiner, Capt. Allen, 150, 152, 153, 

Gatacre, Gen., 307, 308, 309. 

Gauritz R., 73. 

General appearance, 7, 8, 76, 78, 79, 

83, 88. 
Genoa, 96. 
Geology, 10-15. 
German Legion, 112. 
Germany in Africa, 327, 328. 
Giant's Castle, 16, 224. 
Gifford, Lord, 228, 252. 
GUboa, Mt., 18. 
Ginginhlovo, 250. 
Gladstone, Mr, 256. 
Glencoe, 65, 68, 287, 316. 
Glendg, Lord, 158. 
Glyn, Col.,238. 
Godongwana, 129, 13a 
Gold, 34, 85, 87, 89, 269. 
Good Hope, The, 115, 326. 
Gordon Memorial, 56. 
Goshen, 327. 

Government, 47, 71, 78, 81, 85, 91, 92. 
Graaff-Reinet, 75, 108, no, 172, 296. 
Grahamstown, 72, 75, in, 141. 148, 

Granitic Rocks, 11, 88. 
Graspan, 309. 
Great Berg R., 73. 
Great Britain in Africa, 327-329. 
Great Fish R., 71, 73, 97, 108, in, 

Z13, 119, 121, 125, 140, 141, 157, 158. 
Great Kei R., 73, 140, 157. 
Great Trek (see Boer Exodus). 
Green, Dean, 212. 

Greenacre, Sir B.,,323. 

Greene, Mr Conyngham, 300. 

Grey, Earl, 289. 

Grey, Sir Geo., 112, 210, 217. 

Greytown, 53, 63, 65, 68, 127. 

Gr^own Road, 63. 

Griqua Land East, 64, 70. 

Griqua Land West, 72, 81, 221, 308. 

Griquas, 79, 80, ao6. 

Grondwet, 84. 

Groote Schuur, 74, 325. 

Grout, Rev. Mr, 154, 155. 

Groutville, 59, 60, 68. 

Gun Hill, 55. 

Gunning, Col., 303. 

Gwelo, 90. 

Haarlem, The, 105. 

Haden, Mr F. S., 282. 

Haggard, Mr Rider, 229. 

Halfway House, 218. 

Harbour of Durban, 9, 141, 178, 

271-274, 320. 
Harding, 48, 60, 68. 
Harding^ Judge, aoo. 
Harrismith, 65, 81, 165, 277. 
Havelock, Sir Arthur, 270. 
Heidelberg, 72, 87, 257, 258. 
Heights, Comparative, 30, 73. 
Heilbron, 82. 

Helpmakaar, 56, 238, 244, 247, 316. 
Hely-Hutchinson, Sir Walter F., 284, 

286, 322. 
Hermannsburg, 44, 53, 63. 
High Veld, 83. 
Highflats, 60. 

Hildyard, Gen., 307, 316, 323. 
Hilton Road, 52. 
Hime, Sir Albert, 282, 283,-290, 291, 

298, 301, 323, 325. 
Himeville, 68. 
Hintza, 140, 157. 
Hlabisa, 56, 57, 65. 
Hlatenkunga, 60. 
Hlatikulu, 18. 225. 
Hlobane, 249. 
Hlubi, 252, 

Hofmeyr, Mr Jan, 326. 
Holland, loi, 102, 103, 195, 317. 
Hoopstadt, 82. 
Horn R., 24, 
Hot Springs, 53. 

Hottentots, 79, 106, 120. 121, 124. 
Howick, 25, 52. 
Huguenots, 106. 
Hulett. Sir J. L., 290, 325. 
Hunter, Sir Archibald, 313, 317. 
Hunter, Sir David, 323. 
Hjrslop, Mr, 324. 

Digitized by 




IBISI R., 6, 2$. 

Ihlimbitwa R., 95. 
Ilenge, 90. 
Hlovo R., 25, 96, 52. 
ImbeauuL Ic» 96. 
Impendhla, 18. 
Iropolweni R., a6. 
Imports, 66. 7a, 78, 85. 
Impulwana, 18. 
loadi R., 24, 181. 
Inanda, 61, 155. 
Incandu R.. 24, 55. 62. 
Inchanga, 61, 321. 
India, 95, 96, ^. 
Indian Ocean, 6. 7. 
Indians. 44, 45, 219. 
Indumeni. 17, 69. 
Industries. 44, 72, 79. 85, 89. 
Indwe, 72. 
Ingagani R.. 24, 62. 
Ingalele R., 83. 
Ingeli Mts., 6. 19. 48. 
Ingogo Heights. 63, 262. 
Ingogo R., 24. 84, 263. 
Ingome Forest, 252. 
Ingoye Hills. 19. 
Ingwangwani R., 25. 
Ingwavuma, 56. 
Inhlaveni R.. 24. 
Inhlazuka, 13, ao. 
Inhluzani. 18. 
Inhluzela, 18. 
Inkonyi, 20. 
Inkunzi R., 24. 
Inkwdo. 16, si62, 263, 316. 
Innes, Mr Edwd., 273. 
Insects, 42, 90. 
Insikasi. 20. 
Intombi R., 249. 
Injrainiazana, 90. 
Inyezane, 946, 250. 
Ipolda. 95, 53. 64. 
Irrigation. 33, 
Isaacs. N.. 141, 146. 
Isandhlwana, 90. 63, 940-244. 
Isanusi. 196. 
Isibuyazwi. 90. 
fsipingo. 49, so, 59. 
Itala Fort. 318. 
Ityotyozi R., 953. 
Ivory, loi, 114, X18, 149. 
Ixopo, 24, 59, 64. 
Izulu. 937. 


Jameson. Dr, 985. 986, 988, 993. 
Janisch, Governor, 948. 
Janssens, Gov. -General, i|o, iii. 

ervis, Capt., 34, 176, 178. 

bbe, 129, 130. 

ob's Kop, 90, 54. 

bhanna, The, 113. 

ohannesburg, 65, 86, 269, 276, 285. 
a87. 315- 
Johnstone. Mr F. R., 991. 
Jorissen, Dr. 254. 
Joubert, Piet, 84, 254. 256, 257, 961, 

964, 966. 969, 284, 300, 304, 315. 
Juba R., 329. 

Kaap, De, 87, 969. 

Kafir Wars, 109, iii, 140, 157. 

Kafirs, 44, 45-47, io8, 121, 125. 

Kafue, 89. 

Kahlamba, 15, 69, 130. 

Kalahari Desert, 17, 92. 

Kambula, 240. 246. 249. 

Kambule, Elijah, 227. 

Kamiesbergen, 73. 

Kamiskow, 73. 

Karkloof, 18, 61. 

KarkloofR., 26. 

Karoo, 72. 

Katana, 227. 

Kearsney, 50, 63. 

Keate, 68. 

Keate, Mr R., 221. 

Kekewich, Col., 308. 

Kelly Hill, 18. 

Khama, 92. 

Khoi-Khoin, 106, 124. 

Kimberley, 65, 74, 220, 308, 311. 

King Edward VII., 319, 391, 322, 

King George's River, 148. 
King. Lieut., 141. 142. 143, 146. 
King. Richard, 153. 188, 337. 
King William's Town, 75, 119, 157. 
Kipling, Rudyard, 394. 
Kirchdorf, 44, 59. 
Kitchener, Lord, 311, 318. 
Klerksdorp, 87. 
Klip R., 93, 69, 201, 994. 
Klipdrift, 920. 
Knyff, Capt., 114, 118. 
Knysna, 73. 
Kock, Gen., 303. 
Kok, Adam. 79, 80, 206, 218. 
Kokstad. 76. 
Komati R,, 83. 
Komsberg, 73. 

Krans Kop, 18, 53, 149, 180, 241. 
Kroonstadt, 89, 161, 315. 
Kruger, Paul, 81, 954, 956, 964, 966, 

969. 974, 986, 992, 993, 315, 317. 
Krugersdorp, 87, 956, 285. 
Kyudeni Hills, 19. 

Digitized by 




Labistour, Mr, 323. 

Ladybrand, 82. 

Ladysmith, 55, 62, 68, 275, 301, 302, 

304. 313. 314- 
Lagoons, 9, 10. 
Laing's Ndc, 16^ 63, 260, 261, 263, 

264. ^^771 316. 
Land Grants, 201, 205. 
Land's End, 62. 
Landman, Carl, 160, 172, 173. 
Landman's Drift, 63. 
Langalibalele, 127, 132, 224-228. 
Langebergen, 73. 
Lanyon, Sir Owen, 84, 233, 255. 
Latitude, 3, 70. 
Lealui, 91. 
Lebombo Mts., 19. 
Legislative Assembly, 47^ 214, 275, 

280, 298. 
Legislative Comicil, 47, 201, 213, 280. 
Leo Kop, 20. 
Lepidodendra, 14. 
Leribe, 227. 
Lerothodi, 78. 
Lesuto, 76, 144, 145. 
Leuchars, Col., 30(5. 
Lewanika, 88. 91. 
Leyds, Dr, 294, 297. 
Lichtenburg. 87. 
Lidgetton, 52. 

Limpopo R., 15, 83, 88, 145, 208. 
Lindley, 51, 68, 155. 
Lindloy, Rev. D., 154, 155, 162, 177, 

Lion's R., 26. 
Lisbon, 98, 102. 103. 
Little Bushman R., 24. 
Little Drakensberg, 18, 145. 
Little Tugela, 23, 227. 
Livingstone, Dr, 122. 
Lloyd, Archdeacon, 212, 270. 
Lobengula, 91. 145, 274. 287. 
Lombaard's Kop, 55. 
Longitude, 3, 4, 70. 
Louren90 Marques, 65, 72, 317. 
Lusiad, The, 100. 
Lydenburg, 83, 87. 209, 258, 265, 317. 

Mabuhle, 226, 227. 

M*Callum, Sir H., 322. 

M'Gregor, Capt., 262. 

Maclean, Col., 221. 

Macrorie, Bishop, 284. 

Mafeking, 76, 92, 285, 308, 315, 328. 

Magama, 118; 

Magersfontein, 309, 312. 

Mahlabatini, 56. 

Mahlangana, 147. 

Mahon, Col., 315. 

Mahwaqa, 20, 53, 68. 

Main Roads, 59-65, 90. 

Main Road Inland, 61. 

Maitland, Sir P.. 200, 207. 

Makalaka, 145. 

Malani, Mt., 16. 

Malays, 74, 106. 

Maldon, 63. 

Malmesbury, 72. 

Maluti Mts., 77. 

Mantatees, 165, 206. 

Manuel, King, 98, 99. 

Mazaan R., 28. 

Mapumulo, 63. 

Maputa R.. 25, 137. 

Maps, Ancient, 119, 120, 121. 

Marabastad, 258, 265. 

Marble, 34, 48. 

Marburg, 49, 59. 

Mariannhill, 5a 

Marico R., 83. 

Maritz, Gert, 157, 160, 162, 177. 284. 

Maritz, Stephanus, 197. 

Marter, Major, 252. 

Maseru, 78. 

Mashona, 125, 145. , 

Mashona Land, 88, 275, 325. 

Mason. Rev. F., 155. 

Matabele, 125, 145, 287, 288. 

Matabele I^^nd, 88, 275, 288. 

Mathebi's Kop, 232. 

Matiwana, 129, 144. 

Matoppo Mts., 88, 91, 288, 289,. 324. 

Mazeppa, The, 189, 190, 191, 192. 

Mean Time, 4. 

Melinda, 99. 

Melmoth, 56, 60. 

Melsetter, 90. 

Melville, Lieut., 242. 

Mercury, Natal, 212. 

Methuen, Lord, 307, 308, 309. 

Methven, Mr C. W., 273. 

Meyer, Lucas, 267, 302. 

Middelburg, 87, 258, 326. 

Milne, John, 272. 

Milner, Lord, 81, 85, 295, 297, 300, 

Minerals, 34, 72, 79, 85, 89. 
Minerva, Th^, 209. 
Ministry, The, 47, 71, 281. 
Mission Lands, 47. 
Mitchell, Sir Charles, 270, 276, 283. 
Mnweni R. , 23. 
Mocke, 197, 198. 
Modder R., 79, 197, 220, 309, 310. 

Moffat, Mr John, 274. 
Molappo, 227. 
Molappo Mts., 77. 

Digitized by 




Molopo R., 76. 

Mombassa, 329. 

Monomoupa, 119, iao» 121, 931. 

Mont auz Sources, 5, 15, 16. 

Moodie, Mr D., 900, 213. 

Mooi R., 24. 44, 54, 62, 69, 127, 

Mooi R. Heights, 18, 61. 

Moor, Mr F. R., 282, 283, 291. 

Moord Spruit, 67, 167, 284. 

Morcoiu, Mr W. B., 282, 283, 324. 

Morewood. Mr, 193, 211. 

Mosega, 162. 

Moselekatse, 83, 87, 91, 145, 161, 208. 

Moshesh, 77, 79, 144, 145, 160, 206. 

Mossd Bay, 70, 99. 

Mount Edgcumbe, 50, 60. 

Mount Prospect. 63, 261-2641 

Mountains, 15-21, 73, 77, 78, 83, 88. 

Mozambique, 100. 

Muixenberg. 324. 

Murchison Range, 83. 

Murray, Sir T. K., 282, 283, 290, 323. 

Musgrave, Sir A., 221. 

Naauwport, 72. 

Namaqualand, 72, 73, 120. 

Names, Meanings of, 51, 60, 67-69, 

74, 82, 86, 87. 
Napier, Sir Geo., 34, 176, 182, 184, 

Natal, 67, 95, 99, loi, 156, 198, 199, 

Natal, Devastation of, 137. 
Natal in 1800, 126-128. 
Natal I^atives, 45, 46, 113, 126-128, 

140, 170, 184, 199, 214, 238, 323. 
Natalia, Republic of, 178, 179. 182, 

185. 198. 301- 
Natalier, The, 212. 
Native High Court. 47, 203, 228. 
Native Locations, 45, 46, 203. 
Native Races, 45, 70, 78, 79, 83, 91, 

'Ncapai, 183, 189. 
Ndwandwe, 56. 
Neighbouring States, 70-92. 
Netherlands (see Holland). 
New Germany. 44, 50, 210. 
New Guelderland. 51, 60. 
New Hanover, 44, 52. 
New Leeds, 59. 
New Republic. 57, 268. 
Newcastle, 34. 55, 62, 64, 275. 302, 

'Nqutu, 19, 56. 240. 
Nicholson's Nek, 305. 
Nieuwveld Mts. , 73, 123. 
•Nkandhla, 19, 56. 

Noman's Land. 6, 217. 
Nomsimekwana. 138, 139. 
Nongalaxa, i8a 
Nongoma Range. 19. 
Nonoti R.. 26. 
Noodsberg, 19, 60, 63, 69. 
Noord, The, 117, 118. 
North Coast Road, 60. 
North Shepstone, 57, 64. 
Northern Territories, 5, 57. 
Nyassa, Lake, 328. 
Nylstroom, 87. 

Observatory. 50, 74. 

Occupations of People, 44, 72, 77, 79, 

Ogle, Henry, 141, 150, 153, 190. 
Olifants R., 83, 232. 
Oliviers' Hoek Pass, 16, 62, 163. 
Omnibus, 218. 
One Tree Hill, 17, 62. 
O'Neil's Farm, 265. 
Oosthuyse, Mr M., 168, 284, 331. 
Ophir, The, 322. 
Opisweni, 20. 
Orange Free State, 80, 81, 208. 211, 

221, 277, 293, 311. 
Orange River, 15, 73. 79, 120, 160, 

Orange River Colony, 6, 57, 78-82, 

315. 317. 
Orange R. Sovereignty, 80, 207. 
Origstad, 209. 
Oro Point, 5. 
Otto's Bluff, 18. 61. 
Oudtshoom, 76. 
Owen, Rev. Mr, 151, 164, x66, 167. 

Paardeberg, 82, 312. 

Paardekop. 317. 

Paardekraal, 87, 256. 

Paarl, The, 75. 

Pakadi. 18. 

Palapye, 92, 

Palaza R.. 28. 

Panda or Umpande, 144, 179, 180, 

198, 215, 222, 224. 
Parliament, The, 47, 71. 
Passes, 16. 
Payne, Mr Geo. , 323. 
Peace of Pretoria, 318. 
Pearson. Col., 238, 246^ 
Penn-Symons, Gen., 301, 302, 303. 
People, 43-48, 70, 71, 77, 81, 85. 89. 

Perestrello, 100, loi. 
Philip H.. X02. 
Phoenicians, 96. 

Digitized by 




Pieterraaritsborg, 51, 59, 63, xar, 135, 

t77» 183, 19s, 247, 275. 
Pietermaritzburg County, 51. 
Pieter's Hill, ao, 55, 31a. 
Pietersburf f 87. 
Pilgrim's Rest, 87. 
Pilot, The, 189, .190, X94. 
Pine, Sir B., 210, 212, 321, 925, 228. 
Pinetown, 50, 6z, 68. 
PIvaan R., 28. 
^'^SLnts, 35-38, 73, 88. 
Plumer, Colonel, 288, 315. 
Pogwana, 56. 
Point, 9, 64, 115, 189, 198, fli8, 27X, 

Point, Capture of, 189, 194. 
Polkinghome, Mr J. T., 28a, 323. 
Pomeroy, 56, 63, 68. 
Pondoland, 70, 76, 149, 327. 
Pongola R., 5, 7, 180, 233, 239. 
Poortman, Dr, 197. 
Population (see People). 
Port Dumford, 9, 252. 
Port Elizabeth, 65, 70, 72, 75, xi9, 

Port Florence, 329. 
Port Natal, 166, 196. 
Port St John's, 76. 
Port Shepstone, 48, 68. 
Portugal, 96, 98, zoo, 102, Z03, 329. 
Position, 3, 4, 70, 77, 78, 82, 88, 9s. 
Post Office Stones, 104. 
Potchefstroom, 86, 209, 257, 258, 265. 
Pbtgieter, Hendrik, 83, 86, 160, 169, 

170, 171, 208. 
Potterill, C. D., 226, 227. 
Pottinger, Sir H., 204. 
Prester John, 98^ 99. 
Pretoria, 65, 86, 209, 232, 833, 315, 

Ptetorius, Andries, 80^ 84, 172, 175, 

180, 186, 193, 19s, 196, 197, 204, 

220^1 SI07b 900* * 

Pretorius Family. x68. 

Pretorius, Maarthmus W., 84, 86, 209, 

256, 266, 2694 
Prince Imperial, 253. 
Pringle, Thos., 1x2. 
Prinslo, Joachim, 184, 195. 
Prinsloo, Gen., 317. 
Productions, 32, 72, 77, 7B, 79, 85, 

Public I>ebt, 48. 
Pulleine, Col., 241, 243. 
Putili, 227. 
Pygmies, Z2Z, Z22. 

QSTO, Z49, xsa 
Queen Alexaadra, 325. 

Queen Victoria, 50, 74. «75. 278, 29^, 

Queenstown, 72, 76, 308. 

Railway, The first, 2z8. 

Railways, 64, 72, 86, 90, 209^ 2^r 

Rainfall (see Climate). 
Reformers, Transvaal, 285, 286. 
Refugees, Z43, 148, z8z, 299. 
Regiment, 27th, X84, X93. 
Regiment, 45th, 200. 
Reitz, President, 208, 297, 3x5. 
Rensburg, z6o, Z67, z68. 
Reptiles, 4Z, 90. 
Reserve, Zulu, 267. 
Responsible Gk>vemment, 47, 2x4,278. 
Retief, Pieter, 159, x62, X74, 177, 222, 

Revenue, 47. 
Rhodes, Mr Cecil, 74, 87, 90, 91, 2^4, 

289, 308, 324. 
Rhodes Scholarships, 324. 
Rhodesia, 87-92, 145, 275, 287^ 324. 
Richmond, 44, 52, 64, 2xa 
Richmond Road, 64. 
Riebeek, Jan Van, 74, X05, X20, a»i. 
Riet Vlel; 63. 
Rietfontein, 304* 
Rio do Infante^ 97, ZZ9. 
Ritchie, Rev. St G., 263. 
'* River of Natal," za 
Rivers, 8, 22-29, 73, 77, 79, 83, 88. 
Riverside, 65. . 
Roads, 59-64, 90. 
Robben fsland, 228. 
Roberts, Lieut., 3xz. 
Roberts, Lord, 81, 265, 3ZX, 3Z7, 318. 
Robinson, Sir John, 276, 279, 282, 

283. 284, 290^ 
Rocks, zi, X2V 88. 
Roggeveld Mts., 73. 
Rorke's Drift, 56, 60, 63, 235, 240^ 

Rouxville, 82. 
Royston, Col.. 3x4. 
Russell, Dr Wm., 248. 
Rustenburg, 87, 258, 265. , 
Rutherford, Mr Geo., 2zz. 

Sabi R., 83, 88. 

St Croix, 97. 

St Gabriel, The, 95. 

St Helena, 105, 248, 968. 

St Helena Bav, 99, zoo. 

St John's R. (see UmzimvnlNi)u 

St Lucia Bay, zo, 25, zz6, zax, 198, 

St Lucia Lake, 9, 25, xox. 

Digitized by 




iR., lo. 

St Lima R., Z19. 

St Raphael, The, 95. 

Sanna a Post, 315. 

Salisbury, 7a, 90. 

Salisbmy, The, X4i» 142. 

SandR., 24, 163. 

Sand River Convention, 84, 909. 

SandiUi, iiz, 338. 

Sandspruit, 300, 30Z. 

Sandstone, 13. 

Sargeaunt, Mt., 19. 

Schiel, Col., 303. 

Schweinfiirth, 12a. 

Scott, Capt. Percy, 304. 

Scott, Mrs, 323. 

Seott, Sir John, 213, 273. 

Scott-Chis^olm, CoL, 304. 

Scottsbui^, 49, 68. 

Seasons (see Climate). 

Sebastian, King, loi. 

Senzangsdcona, 129, 223. 

Sevenoaks, 63. 

Shah, The, 248. 

Shale, 12. 

Shells, 42. 

Shepstone, Captain» 290. 

Shepstone, Mr H. C, 282, 283. 

Shepstone, Mr John, 20^ 336, 352. 

Shepstone, Sir Theophilus, 84, 139, 
157. 175. 189. 200, 902, 209, 217, 
222, 235, 228, 234, 255,. 267, 277. 

ShiUinge, Com., 105, 

Sikukuni, 84, 231, 233. 

Sikunyela, 165, 206. 

Simon's Bay, 70. 

Simon's Town, 72, 76. 

Sinkwazi R. , 26. 

Size, 4, 5. 

Slaves, 74, 106, 107, 114, Z24, 158. 

Smith, Capt., 155, 183, 184, z88, Z95, 

Smith, Sir Harry, 80, 157, 204,205,207. 

Smithfieid, 82. 

Smythe, Mr C. J., 291. 

Snsdces, 41, 90. 

Sneeuwberg, 73, 123. 

Sofala, 100, 374. 

Soil, 33. 

Somerset, Lord Chas., 141. 

Somtseu„^5, 378. 

Sordwana Bay, 10. 

South Africa, 98. 

South Barrow, 49. 

South Coast Road, 59. 

Southampton, The, 193, 194. 

Spain, 96, 98, loi, 103, 103. 

Spheres of Influence, 374, 337-339. 

Spion Kop, .18, 53, 55, 69, 313. 

Spirito Sancto, R,, de, zaa 

Spitz Kop, 61. 

Spruits, 36* 

Stainbank, Mr H. E., 383. 

Standerton, 73, 87, 357, 358, 265. 

Stanger, 51, 60, 63, 68, 147. 

Stanger, Dr, 300, 203. . 

Stanley, 133, 133. 

Stavenisse, The, 114, 133. 

Stell, Simon Van der, 106, 113,1x7,1x8. 

Stellaland, 337. 

Stellenbosch, 76. 

Sterk Spruit, 34, 36, 69. 

Stevenson Road, 338. 

Steyn, President, 81, 308, 393, 300, 

o 3"' 3J5- 
Stocks, The, 190. 
Stone Kraals, 57. 
Stony Hill, 59. 
Storm Berg, 73, 309. 
Stuart, Mr M., 363. 
Stuartstown, 52, 64. 
Stubbs, J., 171. 
Sunday's R., 33, 63, 73. 
Sunday's R. Pass, 16. 
Surface, 7, 8, 79, 83, 88. 
Surprise Hill, 313. 
Sutherland, 68. 
Sutherland, Dr, 200, 3aa 
Sutton, Mr G. M., 383, 383. 
SMrazi Land (see Ammwazi). 
Swellendam, 108, no. 
Sydenham, 49. 

Tabamhlopb, 90, 334. 

Table Bay, 105, 1x3. 

Table Mt., 13, 30, 61. 1x3, XX7, 139. 

Table Mountains, 13. 

Talana Hill, 55, 56, 30a. 

Tana, 139. 

Tanganyika, Lake, 89, 90, 375, 337, 

Taunton, Major, 306. 
Telegraphs, 6?, 9a 
Temperature (see Climate). 
"Terra de Natal," X 19, 
Terraces, 17, 

Thaba Bosigo, 77^ 78, Z44. 
Thaba 'Nchu, 83, x6a 
Third Range, 18. 
Thornville, 6x. 
Thorn ville Junction, 6$. 
Thorns, The, 63, 63. 
Tillage, 33. 
Tintwa, x6, 68, 303. 
Tintwa Pass, 16, 163. 
Tongaat R., 36, 60, 137, X48, X79. 
Town Guards, 239, 303. - 
Town Hill, X3, x8, 53, 6x. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Towns, 48-58, 73^* 7B1 8i| 82, 86, 

Trade (see Commerce). 
T^ansi^ial Colony, 82-87^ 245, 317. 
Transvaal Republic, 71, 80, 81, 84, 

85, ao9, an, 231-333,369, 377,394. 
Trap, 13. 

Trekking, 108, 159. 
Triumvirate, The, 356. 
Tshingaan, 368. 
Tugela, Battle of the, 170, 3i6. 
Ti^ela R., 7. 33, 33, 53, 60, 69, 137, 
_ 13^, 139, 163,305,338. 
Tub, 90* 

Ubani Hills, 19. 

Ubombo, 5, 56. 

Uitenhage, 75, 157. 

Uitlanders, 85, 385, 393, 994, 396, 

Ultimatum, 936, 337, 300. 
Ulundi, 350, 351. 
Umandhlakazi, 267. 
Umbeline, 335, 337, 249* 
Umbilo R., 26, 59, 61, 143, 185, 375. 
Umbogintwini R., 36. 
Umbt&zi, 315, 3i6. 
Umbulwana, 30, 55, 304. 
Umfolosi, 7, 95, 56. 138, 130^ 135, 

I47> 163, 180, 833, 353. 
Umgazi R., 283, 284. 
Umgeni R., 20, 35, 50, 60, 237. 239, 

248, 254, 272. 
Umgeni Village, 60, 328. 
Umgungundhlovu, 235, 247, 252, 254, 

263, 269, 273, 333. 
Umhlali R., 36, 52, 60, 322. 
Umhlambongwenya, 333. 
UmhlangaR., 36. 
Umhlatuzi R., 36, 255, 333, 967. 
Umblatuzan R., 36. 
Umhloti R., 36, 52. 
Umhlumba, 28. 
Umkobeni R., 34, 64. 
Umkolumba, 28, 323. 
Umkomaas R., 7, 33, 34, 64, 68, 237, 

Umkun^o, 326. 
Umkuzi R., 35. 
Umlaas R., 36, 254, 277, 375. 
Umlalazi, 36, 56, 222. 
Umlambonja K., 23. 
Umnini, 243. 
UmpambinyoniR., 26. 
Umqeku R., 26. 
Umquahumbi R., 26. 
Umsinga, 27, 63, 235. 
Umsunduzi R., 26, 52, 239. 
Umtali, 90. 

Umtamvuna R., 5, 96, 48. 
Umtata R., 73, 244. 
Umtetwa, 228,299. 
Umtwalumi R., 20. . . 
Umumha, 20. 
Umvoti County, 53, 306. 
UmvotiR.. 25, 50, 53, 60, 236, 255. 
Umzimkulu K., 7, as, 24, 34, 48, 6o» 

22^, 237, 248. 
Umzimkulwana R., 95, 48. 
Umzimvubu or St John's R., 73, 76, 

130. 237, 248, 249, 280. 283. 
Umzmto, 26, 49, 60, 64, 224. 
Umzinyati R., 2a, 233. 
Umzumbi R., 26. . 
Undabuko, 268. 
Undava, 238, 239. 
Undwandwe, 229, 233. 
Unkulunkulu, 23iS. 
Usibepu, 367. 
Usikota, 326. 

Usirayo, 335, 337, 940, 352. 
Usobantu, 372. 
Usutu, 6, 367. 

Utrecht, 5, 57, 60, 233, 334, 939, 958. 
Uvumandaba, 336. 
Uys, Dirk, 270. 
Uys, Piet, 340, 346, 349, 355. 
Uys, Pieter, 257, 260, 269, 270, 340. 
Uzai^i R., 34. 

Vaal Kop, 28. 

Vaal Kranz, 20, 322. 

Vaal R., 78, 79, 83, 262, 297, 308, 

Van Reenen's Pass, 26, 63. 
Vecht Kop, 30, 273. 
Vecht Laager, 273. 
Vectis, The, 278. 
Venable, Rev. Mr, 254, 263. 
Venice, 96, 203. 
Vereeniging, 87, 328. 
Verulam, 52, 60, 32a 
Vet River, 79, 297. 
Vetch, Capt., 373. 
Victoria, 52, 90, 253. 
Victoria Uounty, 50, 68. 
Victoria Falls, 88. 
Victoria Nyanza, Lake, 339. 
Vigiti Magna, 230. 
Volksraad, 263, 277, 282, 283, 284, 

295, 297, 302, 254, 256. 
Volksrusty 5, 72. 
Volunteers, 47, 226, 238, 239, 242, 

243, 246, 302, 306, 322, 323, 324. 

326, 323. 
Voortrekkers, The, 256-260, 284. 
Vrede, 82. 
Viyborg, 90. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Vryfaekl, 5, 57, 60, 65, gT?. 

Waal. Mr N. de. yt6. 
Wagoo Hfll, 55. 3x3. 
Wakkoatroom, 5, 57i 87t 956» 'S^- 
Wales, Prince mi Priaoeas of, 9x7, 

W^aflacOay, 3a7. 

Walker, CoL, 336. 

Wallace, Mr J. H., 090. 


Wankie. 88, 8^ 

Warden, Ms^or, 907. 

Warren, Sir Cbas., jbS. 

Waachbank R., a^ 

Waterberg. 83. 

Waterboer, 79, 80, ao6» aax. 

Waterfalls, sa, ^ 35, 88. 

Wauchope, Gen., 309, 3za 

Weatherley, CoL, 249. 

Weenen, £(, 67, 169. 176. 

Weenen County, 54. 

Wepener, 82, 315. 

Wesleyan Mission, 154, 155, 189, axx. 

West, Mr Martin, aoo^ aox, axo, 934. 

WestMt, x8. 

Western Province, 7X, 73, xxa. 

Weston, 54, 69, 68. 

Westville. 61, 68. 

White, Sir Geo.. 30X, 313. 

Wilge R., x6, 79. 

Wmaw Qranffe, 307. 

Wilson. Major, 387. 

Wilson, Rev. Mr, 154, 169. 

Winbnrgr, 83. 

Winds, 39» 

Winter, Mr H. D., 99X. 

Winter Berg, 73, XS9. 

Witness. Natal, axs. 

Witte Bergen, 78, x6s 

Witwaters Rand, 83, 369, 370, 99^ 

Wolhuter, Mr F., 190, 385. 

Wolsdqr, Lord, 338, 339, 950, 953, 

Wood. Sir Evelyn, 339, 363, 370. 
Worcester, 75. 
Wjhberg. 74. 

York, 51, 53, 3xa 
Yule, G&en., 31^, 304. 

Zambesi R., 88, 375. 337, 33B. 

Zand River Bergen. 83. 

Zanzibar. ^. 

Zietsman, R, 197. 

Zimbfl^yye, 99. 

Zoutpansberg, 83, 309. 

Zuluhmd, 5, 56. 57, X38, X73, 9x5, 

333, 33X-353, 366, 368. 337. 
Zolas {wet Anazula and ^idand). 
Zwartkop, 18. 6x, x8x. 
Zwide, 139, 13a. I33» ^5- 


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This book is under no oiroamstflnoes to be 
taken from die Building 

tuH >rtm 

•*fr>.. "^ 


■ * * - , . 1 , 

' "^ * ^ - " 







Digitized by 





{Seepage 194) 

Why the Ensign floats above us, few remain to tell, 
As 'twas told me in the Forties by old skipper Bell. 

When the grim Republic burghers fought each inch of ground, 
And our stubborn ramparts echoed with the muskets' sound ; 

When at day-fall o'er the sand dunes in Hope's fickle sky 
Rose a dim mirage of succour to each English eye ; 

Past each reef with wild surge fretted, past each smiling shoal, 
From Recife unto our Foreland striving for the goal. 

Skipper Bell, with press of canvas on each taper spar, 
Whipped the Conch — his taut sea-racer — to our harbour bar. 

Then the 'leaguered on the sand-flat saw with kindling eyes 
Signal rockets from the roadstead shoot athwart the skies. 

On her heels the English flag-ship in the deep'ning night 
Joined the little schooner, guided by the rockets' flight ; 

And a cheer burst frofti the trenches at the welcome boom 
From the cannon of the war-ship in the offing's gloom. 

Never loving words fell sweeter from a maiden's lip 
Than the sullen roar of rescue from this home-land ship. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

34^ Ballads 

Then the foemen buzzed and scurried like a hive of bees 
When Night crept from waking hillocks through the myrtle 

When beyond the foaming breakers — born at Neptune's nod — 
Dawn's red fingers shaped the body of this strange sea-god. 

With a voice of iron thunder, 'mid cerulean smoke, 
Burst its fiery ribs in anger as 'twere Heaven spoke ; 

While the Conch with waves coquetting 'neath the giant's lee, 
Tossed and rolled and at her anchor tugged right merrily. 

Then the little white-winged sea-bird slipped her restive chain 
And a cheer from tars gave answer to the leaden rain. 

Eurus swelled her piercbd canvas, sea nymphs soothed the 

As with spray-swept prow she shot it, straining every spar. 

Seemed the still blue of the Channel white with angry flecks 
From the rain of lead that pattered round her sheltered decks. 

Splintered beams on shore went crashing, clouds of smoke 

and sand. 
As the monster's guns gave cover to its storming band. 

Through the gauntlet of the foemen, 'twixt the Bluff and Spit, 
Steered our skipper Bell, unflinching, full of sea-dog grit — 

Cool, as if the cliffs of Dover lay upon his beam. 
Or a ketch it was he handled on some placid stream. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Though the cross-fire galled and riddled bulwark, sail, and 

Bell dropped anchor, furled his tatters, stormed the mounds 

of sand ; 

Plucked the banner from the Block-house, flew the Jack 

instead ! 
While hurrahs cleft bush and sand-hill — while the foemen 


Mounted while the shoreward surges broke in crests of glee — 
Sought, in saddle, hills where Freedom looks not on the sea ! 

And my blood leapt high and tingled, for it sounded well 
When I heard it in the Forties from old skipper Bell. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


AmabeUt miHet, kafir corn. 
Assegai, spear. 

Bgfrgr^ bergen, mountain, mountains. 
Biltong, strips of dried flesh. 
A)«r, farmer. 
Bok, buck, deer. 
Boom, tree. 

Commando, armed party. 

Donga, gully. 
Do^, village. 
Drtft, ford. 

Erf, erven, building plot or plots of 

Hoek, corner in mountain. 

fmpi, war party. 

Indaba, conference. 

Induna, headman. 

Ixwa, short or stabbing assegai. 

Klip, stone. 

Kloef, wooded ravine. 

ICop, kopje, rounded hill. 

Kraal, collection of huts. 
Krans, cliff, precipice. 

Laager, fortified enclosure. 
Landdrost, magistrate. 

Mealies, maize, Indian corn. 

Nek, mountain pass. 

Raadzaal, Parliament HalL 
Rand, ridge. 

Rooinek, rooibaatje, British soldier. 
Rust, rest. 

Simba^ war-kilt. 
Spruit, stream. 
Stadt, town. 

Trek,, to move from place to place 
with belongings. 

Uitlander, stranger, foreigner. 
Umkonto^ long or throwing assegai. 
Utyuala, kafir beer. 

Veld, treeless grassy plain. 
Volksraad, Council of the People. 
Voorirekker, pioneer. 

Aapies River y 86. 
Abakwamacibise, 137, x8i. 
Abambo, 121, 127. 
Abatembu, 46, 109, in, 121, 129, 

136, 144. 
Acacia MoUissima, 54. 
Adams, 50, 59, 68, 155. 
Adams, Dr, 154, 202. 
Adelaide, 157. 
i£olian Rocks, 9, 14, 272. 
Agulhas, C, 70, X19. 
Akerman, Sir John, 376. 
Albert, 63. 

Alexandra Cotmty, 49, 68. 
Alfred County, 6, 48, 60, 68, 217. 
Alfred, Prince, 6, 2x7. 

Alp:oa Bay, 97, 112, 117, 149, 1.54. 

Aliwal North, 160, 308. 

Aliwal Shoa], 60. 

Aliwal South, 70. 

Allard, Mt., 20. 

Alleman's Nek, 56. 

Allison, Capt., 227. 

Amabaca, 183, 189. 

Amabehlana, 2a 

Amabomvu, 46. 

Amacele, 175. 

Amacunu, 46, 129, 136. 

Amadunge, 138. 

Amafunze, 127, 181. 

Amahlon^wa, 26. 

Amahlubu 127, 132, 181, 224, 227. 

Digitized by 




Amajuba, i6, 55, 63, 260, 963, 364, 

312, 316. 
Amakunze, 197. 
AII^unpondomusi, xai. 
Amampumuza, x8i. 
Amangwana, 129, 133, 144. 
Amangwe, 327. 
Amanyamvu, 138-140. 
Amanyuswa, 40. 
Amanzimtoti, 26, 155. 
Amapondo, 121, 147, 149, 182, 183, 

Amaqwabe, 46, 127, 143, 149, 182. 
Amaswazi, 82, 125, 129, 180, 233. 
Amatikulu R. , 26. 
Amatongaland, 5, 56^ 223, 369. 
Ainatuli, 116, 119, 127, 138, 143, 181. 
Amaxosa, 109, 118, 190, 121, 123, 

125, 140. 
Amazulu, 125, 128, 132, 224. 
Ambuscade, an, 174. 
America, Discovery of, 98. 
American Missionaries, 154, 155, 162, 

167, 21X. 
Amiens, Peace of, no. 
Amsterdam, 87, 103, 104. 
Angola, X19, 122. 
Anppra Pequena, 327. 
Animals, 38-43, 89, 127. 
Anstruther, Col., 257, 258. 
Antelopes, 39, 90. 
Ants, 43. 

Arbuckle, Sir Wm., 290, 29X, 323, 325. 
Archbell, Rev. Ja.s., 154, X55, \tj^ 

185, X92. 
Area, 5, 70, 76, 78, 82, 88, 92. 
Arrochar, Mt., x8. 
Avoca, 60. 

"Avon River," 152, 153. 
AyliflF, Mr J., 203. 

Baden-Powell, Gen., 288, 308, 315. 

Baillie, Lieut., 26X. 

Baird, Sir David, xxx. 

Bale, Sir Henry, 290, 29X, 333. 

Balele's Berg, 20. 

Bamangwato, 92. 

Bantu, 45, X2X, 125. 

Bapidi, 232. 

Bar, 9, xo, xxs, xi8, X94, 271-274. 

Barberton, 65, 83, 87, 269, 317. 

Barolongs, 82, x6o,*2o6. 

Barotse Land, 88, 91. 

Barter, Capt., 226. 

Bashee R., 73. 

Basutoland, 76-78, 208, 226, 227, 327. 

Basutos, r?% laS. i44. 160, 206, 20a 

Battell, Andrew, 123. 

Bay of Natal, xo, 1x5, xi6, X17, xi8, 

XX9. X26, X42, xso, 151, XS4, 157. 

X63, 17X, x86. 
Baynes, Bishop, 284. 
Baynes, Mr Joseph, 298. 
Beach, 8. 
Beaconsfield, 74. 

Bechuanaland, British, 92, 308, 339. 
Bediuanaland Protectorate, 76, 92, 

Bechuanas, 80, xao, X35, X45, 306. 
Beira, 90. 
Belfast, 317. 

Bell, Mr Wm., 193, X94, 341. 
Bellair, 49. 
Belmont, 308. 
Berea, 19, 49, isx, X89. 
^^^%% 17. 33. «4. 63, X23, 132, 144, 

143, \^, x6o, 224. 
Berrio, The, 95. 
Bester's Hoek, 18. 
Bethlehem, 82. 

Bezuidenhout's Pass, x6, 62, X63. 
Biggar, 67, 14X, X70, 171, 175. 
Biggarsberg, 17, 62, 67, 175, 201. 316. 
Binns, Sir Henry, 390, 291. 
Bird, Mr John, 200, 203, 289. 
Birds, 39-41, 90. 
Bishopstowe, 139, 27X. 
Bisset, Sir John, 218, 221. 
BUtuwkrans R., 23, 62, 69, X67. 
Blinkwater, 18. 
Blockhouses, 318. 
Bloemfontein, 65, 79, 81, 207, 208, 

297. 312- 
Blood R., 173, 233, 234, 240. 
Blood R., Battle of the, X72. 
Bluff, 9, 64, 95, 99, xox, xx6, 121, 

X27, X4X, 143, X46, X92. 
Boat-building, xi6. 
Boer Exodus, 7X, X59, x6o, 201. 205. 
Boers, xo6, xo8, 109, 259, 292, 293, 

Bok, Mr, 254, 256. 
Bokkeveld, 73. 
Bonaventura, The, xi6. 
Bond, Edwin, 226, 227. 
Boomplats, 80, 207. 
Boshoff, 82. 

Boshoff, Jacobus, X97, 208. 
Boston, 64, 154. 

Botha, Gen. Louis, 315, 316, 3x7, 318. 
Botha's Hill, 18, 6x. 
Botha's Pass, 16. 
Boulder Clay, X2. 
Boundaries, 5, 6, 70, 77, 78, 82, 88, 

Boys, Col., 200. 
Brabant, Gen., 315. 
Brackenbury, Col., 328. 

Digitized by 




Bradshaw, Capt., 348. 

Brand, Sir John, ao8. 

Breda, Michiel Van, 195. 

Breda, Servaas Van, 195, 196. 


Bremersdorp, 87. 

British East Africa Co., 328. 

British South Africa Q>., 91, 374, 324, 

Bromhead, Lieut., 244. 
Brbnkhorst Spruit, 84, 357. 
Brownlee, Mr, 336. 
Buchanan, Mr D. D., 311. 
Buflfalo R., 33, 73, 131, 137, 233. 
" Buffalo Spring," 153. 
Bulawayo, 65, 90, 387, 335. 
Buller, Gen., 339, 346, 349, 306, 310, 

Bultfontein, 220. 
Bulwer, 51, 53, 68. 
Bulwer, Sir Henry, 339, 330, 334, 356, 

366, 370. 
Burger, Jacobus, 184, 195. 
Burgers, Rev. Thos., 331. 
Bushman R., 33, 34. 137, 167, 334. 
Bushman R. Pass, x6, 335, 336. 
Bushman's Neck, 6, x6. 
Bushman's Rand, 177. 
Bushmen, 16, 45, 53, 57, 108, 118, 

131, 183. 305, 334. 
Bushmen Drawings, 16, 133. 
Butler, General, 338. 
Byrne, 51, 53, 310. 
Byrne's Immigrants, 309, 310. 

Cables, 66. 

Cadets, 47. 

Caesar's Camp, 55, 313. 

Caledon, 72. 

Caledon, Earl of, xii. 

Caledon R., 16, jt^ 79. 

Calicut, 98, 99, 100. 

Qunissa R., X19, X30, 121. 

Camoens, xoo. 

Camperdown, 51, 52, 61. 

Cane, John, X4x, 148, 150, X53, X71. 

Cannibalism, X38, 139. 

Cano, Diego, 96. 

Cape Colony, 70-76, 327. 

*• Cape of Good Hope," 97. 

Cape Railways, 72. 

Cape St Lucia, 5. 

Capetown, 65, 70, 72, 73, 104, xos, 

XX3, X17, 353, 3x1. 
" Captains of Kraals," 149. 
Carbmeers, Natal, 336, 337, 339, 303, 

Carnarvon, Lord, 338, 339, 354. 
Carrington, Sir F., 388. 

Cathcarl, Sir Geo., jj, 80. 

Cathkin, 16, 69, 334. 

Cato, Geo. C, 160, x88, 190, 31 x, 

Cato, Joseph, 188, 193. 
Celliers, Charl, 160, 161. 
Centaur, The, 116, X17. 
Central Plateau, 17. 
Cetywayo, 3x5, 3x6, 3x7, 233, 223, 

334, 333, 3SX, 352, 267. 
Chaka, 13X, X42, 3x5, 333. 
Chaka, The, X46. 
Chaka's Army, X34, X35, X37. 
Chaka's Conauests, x^, X44. 
Chaka's Death, 147. 
Chamber of XVII., 103, 104, X05, xo6. 
Chamberlain, Mr, 396, 397, 299, 325, 

Champagne Castle, x6. 
Chard, Lieut., 844. 
Charlestown, 55, 65, 68, 377, 303. 
Charter, The, 313. 
Chartered Co. (see Brit. S. Africa 

Charters, Major, 175. 
Chelmsford, Lord, 238, 245, 250. 
Chieveley, 307, 310. 
Christian Victor, Prince, 3XX, 321. 
Christmas Land, 95, 326. 
Churches, 2xx. 
Qerk, Sir Geo., 208. 
Clery, Sir F., 307. 

Climate, 29-32, 73, 77, 79, 83, 89, 92. 
Cloete, Col., 193, X95, 196. 
Cloete, Mr H., X97, 200, 20X, 302. 
Coal, X3, 34, 72, 79. 89- 
Coast, 8-10, 70. 
Coghill, Lieut., 242. 
ColenbnUider, Capt., 389. 
Colenso, 54, 63, 68, 307, 3x0. 
Colenso, Bishop, 53, 3x2, 338, 370, 

Colesberg, x6o, 307, 308. 
Colesberg Kopje, 320. 
CoUey, Sir Geo., 55, 84, 328, 256, 

Colonies and Boer War, 399, 3x1, 

Columbus, Christopher, 97, xoo. 
Comet, The, 171. 
Commando Drift, 63. 
Commandoes, X09. 
Commerce, 66, 67, 73, 78, 79, 85. 
Compass, Mt., 73. 
Concentration Camps, 3x8. 
Conch, The, 193, X94, 34X. 
Conference, Colonial, 335. 
Congella. \tj, x86, 187, 189, 194, 335. 
I Congo Free State, 88, 339. 


Digitized by 




Congo R., 96, X19, 329. 
Connor, Sir Henry, 271. 
Constantia, 7^ 

Constitution Act, 213, 329, 379. 
Coode, Sir John, 373. 
" Coolies" (see Indians). 
Comet R. , t7* 
Corporations, 2x1. 
Counties, 48-58. 
Cowie's Hill, 19, 61, 194. 
Cradock, 75. 
Craig, General, 1x0. 
Crocodile R., 83, 86, 93. 
Cronje, General, 308, 312. 
Curry's Post, 62. 

Dabulamanzi. 251. 

D'Almeida, 124. 

Dalton, Mr, 244. 

Damaraland, 125, 327. 

Dannhauser, 303, 316. 

Dark Continent, 96, Z2i. 

Dartnell, Sir John, 241, 304, 323. 

Davagul, 12a 

DaviSy Mrs, 323. 

De Aar, 72. 

De Beer's, 220. 

De Beer's Pass, x6. 

De Wet, Gen., 315, 317. 

Deane, Col., 26X. 

Delagoa Bay, xoi, X13, X19, 131, 137, 

X47, 160, X92, 329. 
Delarey, Gen. , 317. 
Diamonds, 72, 74, 81, 83, 219, 234. 
Diaz, Bartholomew, 97, zoo. 
Dingaan, 144, X47, xs5, 163, x66, 179, 

•• Dingaan's Day," X73, 257. 
Din^wayo, X30, X33, 144, 251. 
Dinizulu, 267, 268. 
Doesburg, 5X. 
Doomberg, 20. 
Doomkop, 69, X65, 167. 
Drakensberg, 7, xs, x6, 69, 73, jj, 

X45. 180. 
*• Drummond Castle," 287. 
Du Chaillu, X2x. 
Dukuza, 146, X47. 
Dundee, 34, 55, 56, 63, 275, 377, 301, 

303, 3x6. 
Dundonald, Lord, 307, 313. 
Dunn, John, 333, 339, 353. 
Durban, 49, 59. 64, 68, X13, 137, 143, 

15a. 153. 176. 196, 27s 
Durban Camp, 185. 
Durban Camp, Siege of, 199. 
Durban County, 49. 
D' Urban, Major, 193, 194, 196. | 

D'Urban,SirB., 140, X53 153, 156, XS7. I 

Durnford, Col., 326, 34X, 343. 
Dutch East India Co., 70, 103, 107, 

xxo, xx8, X56. 
Dutch Reformed Church, X73. 
Dutch Republic (see Holland). 
Dutoitspan, 220. 

Eastern Province, 71, 73, 75, 1x2. 
East London, 65, 70, 72, 75, Z12, 


Edendale, ex, 52, 64. 

Edendale Road, 64. 

Ehlanzeni, 53, 63. 

Eland R., 24. 

Eland's Kop, x8. 

Eland's La^e, 64, 303. 

Elandsfontein, 72, 86. 

Elphinstone, Admiral, xxa 

Embo, X27. 

Emperor William II., 286. 

Empress Eugenie, 253. 

England, xoi, X03, X04. 

English at Cape, xxx. 

English East India Co. , 104, X05. 

English Settlers, X41, 1^2. 

Enkeldoorn, 90. 

Entonjaneni, 19, 56, 222. 

Entumeni, 19. 

Equeefa, 60. 

Ermelo, 87. 

Erskine, Mt, 18. 

Erskine, R. H., 226, 227. 

E^ombe, Right Hon. Harry, 50, 271, 

288, 283, 284, 290, 298, 320. 
E^howe, 56, 60, 222, 246, 247, 248, 

250, 268. 
Estcourt, 54, 61, 62, 305, 307. 
Expenditure, 48. 
Exports, 67. 72, 78, 79, 85, 89, 

Faku, X49, 183, X84, 2x8. 

False Bay, 70. 

Farewell, Lieut., X41, X42,X43,X46»X49. 

Fauresmith, 82. ' 

Fetcani, 144. 

Ficksburg, 82. 

Field, Mr Wm., 200, 2x1. 

Field's Hill, X9, 61. 

Fingoes, 140, X57. 

Fishes, 42. 

Fitzherbert, Com., 105. 

Flowers, 36. 

Forests, 37, 38, 72, 79, X27. 

Fort Buckingham, 53. 

Fort Napier, 68, aoo. 

Fort Nottingham, 53, X23. 

Fort Victoria, X76. 

Fossils, X4. 

Fourth Range, x8. 

Digitized by