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Harvard CoUege 

By Exchange 














Price, 25 cents net 



Copyright, l'>i;, by G. Sclilrmer 



Words by 
n-ancis Scott Key 


Venion prepared at the request of the U. S. Bureau of Education 

by the following committee: 

Will Earhart (Chairman), Walter T.Damrosch, Arnold J. Gantvoort, 

O. G. Sonnecky and John Philip Sousa. 

The Star- Spangled Banner 

A standardized version of the melody 

Music by 

John Stafford Smith 


Harmonized by 

Walter Damrosch 

jtjjiij J J If P" Mr J^J 

J J I r r r ' 

1. O say! can you see, by the dawn's ear - ly . light^What so proud-ly -we 

2.Qnthe shore djm-ly seen through the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haug^-ty 
3. O, thus be it ev - er, -^en free- men shall stand Be - - tween their lov^d 

p' J ii^ I 


J J jj J J J I f p- Mr J|J' 

hailed at the twi-Ughtls last g^eam-ing,Who8e broad stripes and bright stars^throug^ the per-i-lous 
host in dread sl-lence re - pos - es, What is that in^iich the breeze, o'er the tow-er-ing 
home and the warb des - o - la - tiodBlest with vie - t'ry and peaoe,may the heavbfescued 

fig^y Oer the ram-parts we watched were so gal - lant -ly stream-ing? And the rock-ets red 
steep As it fit - ful - ly blows, half con - ceals, half dis - clos-es? Now it catch-es the 
land Praise the power that hath made and pre - served us a na - tionl Then con-quer we 

glare, the bombs burst-ing in air. Gave, proof through the night tiiat our flag was still 
gleam of the mom-ing's first beam, In full glo - ry re - fleet - ed now shines on the 
must, when our cause it is just. And. this be our mot - to*^^ God is our 

Printed by permission of the U. S. Commissioner of Education. See ''Mtes" on p. 22 





stream. 'Tis the 
^TO TVust." And the 

say, does that 
Star - Span - gled. 
Star - Span - gled. 

Star - Span - gled 
Ban - ner~ O^ 
Ban - ner in 


Ban - ner 

long may— it 

tri -' un^h shall — 




'Tis the 
And the 

say, does that 
Star - Span - g^ed 
Star - Span - gled 

J O I J L^^ 

Star - Span - gled 

- ner. O,. 

Ban - ner yet 

long may-, it 
tri • umph shall 



'Tis the 
And the 

say, does 

Star - Span - gled. 
Star - Span - gled^ 

Star - Span - gled — 

Ban - ner— O, 

Ban - ner in 

Ban - ner 
long may 
tri - lunph 




n nn \ 


'Ti8 the 

And the 

say,-, does, that 
Star - Span - ^ed- 

Star - Span - gled. 

Star - Span - gled_ 
Ban - ners. O, 

Ban - ner— in 

Ban - ner yet. 

long, me^ it. 

tri - titnph shall— 







Oer the 
Ofer the 
Ofer the 

r n ^ 




of the 
of the 
of the 

M i r IT 

free and the home 
free and the home 
free and the home 

of the 
of the 
of the 


■ / ,. 




Ofer the 
Ofer the 
Ofer the 


J J I f ^J' J' I r' H 





of the 
of the 
of the 


free and the home 
free and the home 
free and the home 

J^ ^* 

of the 
of the 
of the 



Ofer the 
Ofer the 
Ofer the 


of the 
of the 
of the 






M I r~P ^ ^ 

free and the home 
free and the home 
free and the home 

of the 

of the 

of the— 

F F I r' p r 



Ofer the 
Ofer the 
Ofer the 


of the 
of the 
of the 

free and the- home of the 
free and the home . of the 
free and the home of the 





God Save the King 

The British National Anthem 

Words and Music by 

Unknown Author 

Though often attributed 

to Henry Carey 

Harmonized by 

Chas. Vincent, Mus. Doc, Oxon. 





1. God save our 

2. O Lord our 

gra - cious King, Long live our 
God, a - rise I Scat - ter our 


ble King, 
e - mies. 

3. Thy choic - est gifts in store On him be pleased to pour; 




God save the King! 
And make them fall I 
Long may he reign; 



P r I f r r 

Send him vie 
Con - found their 
May he de 




ri - ous. Hap - py and 
i - tics; Frus- trate their 
our laws. And ev • er 

glo - ri - ous, Long to reign o 

knav - ish tricks; On Thee our hopes 

ghre us cause To sing with. heart 

ver us: God save the 

we fix: God save us 

and voice: God save the 






Copyright, 1917, by O. Sckirmer 


La Marseillaise 

The French National Anthem 

English Words by 
Florence Attenborough 

Rouget de Tlsle 

Harmonized by 
Gustave Ferrari 

r ^ 

f. AUans, en^fants de la pa ^^ tri -' e, Le jour de gloire eat 
1. A-rise, ye chil - dren of the na - tion, The day of glo - ry 

ar-rf - 

now is 

r iJJijjn 


here I 


Oon^ire nous de la ty^ran^ ni - e Ee^ten^ dard aan • gkmt eat le 

See the hosts of dark op- - pres-sion Their blood-stained ban - ners 

'>•* j Pr i 



J J ^ r 



r > 


■Pr cL;mj 

jijii' i '-i 

Li'ten^dard aa/n,-^ giant est le - t;^/ 
Their blood - stainVi ban - ners rear I 

En-feiudeZ'Vaua dana naa cam- 
Do ye not heed? roar - ing the 

pa-gnea Mu - gir oea fS-ro ^ oea aol-data? 
ty. rants go, Scat- ter- ing homes and peace; 

Ila vien-- nentjua^fue dana pgoa 
Our sons, our-comrades face the 


Copyright, i9i7, by O. Schirmer 

J ^f>jl \ jjj ^^ 

L^w*. g^er voa fUa, hm earn - pa - gnes. 
The wounds of war in - crease. 


To armsl Ye warriors 

2. Jfou9 mUrenma dans la earrHre, 
Quand nos alMa nfjf serantplus, 
Jfous ]f h'ouverona leur poussiere. 
Ft la trace de leura vert^s/ (bis) 
Bien moinajahux de leur eurvivre. 
Que de partaker leur eercueil, 
Jfoue aurane le eublime argueU 
De lee vengw oude lee euivre. 

Aux armee, eitojfeusi etc. 

3. Amour eacrS de la Patrie, 
Oanduie, eautiene noe brae vengeure; 
Liberie, Liberte cherie, 

Oombate avec tSe d^feneeure/ (bis) 
Saue noe drapeaux que la Fictoire 
Accoure i lee mSlee accents; 
Que tee ennemis expirants 
Voient ton triomphe et notre gloiret 
Aux armee, cUogens/ etc. 

2. Within the tomb ourselves must enter, 
When all our oldest ar^ at rest; 
We shall And their dust reposing, 
Tk-ace the virtues eadi possest; (bis) 
Then, Ifaen shall we, jealous of honoui; yet 
Shrink not to share their grave, 
For pride, oWcoming vain regret. 
Avenges stiU Ihe brave! 

To arms, ye warriors all! etc. 

8. That sacred love — Ihe love of coimtry. 
Spurs on afresh our eager arms. 
And for conquest and for freedom. 
We dare the vast alarms! (bis) 
Speedily then, crowning heroic deeds, 
Triumph shall lift each head 
And our One Flag fly proudly o V 
The living and Ihe dead! 

To arms, ye warriora all! 6tc. 



La Brabanconne 

English Words tiy 
Florence Attenboroogh 

The Belgian National Anthem 

Allegro marziale 

Music by F. Campenhout 
Kiemnonized t^ 
Gustave Fbrrari 

/. A 'pr^B dea sii - elea 
LThe years of sla - ve 

d*es 'da 
ry are 




Bel ' ge aar-tani du iom-beau, 
Bel - gian re -joic - es once more; 

^' p r p r P ' 

A re ^ eon^quM par eon cou- 
Cou - rage re - stores to him at 


sou - ve-raine et fH 
his clasp will be. 


Peu 'ple dS - sor-maie in - domp - 
Keep-ing the an-cient flag un - 





ta vieil-le ban - nie - 
Tb fling its ines - sage on the watch 

- re 
ful world: 



Boi, la M, la li-ber ^ tel 
King, for Ri^t,and Li - ber - tyl 

Ota - va suT 

To fling its mes 

ta vteii- le 
sase on the 

mi - ^ re 
watdh-ful world: 

Le Roi, 
Fbr King, 

for Right, and Li - ber - ty! 

f f r ri/ 


Boi, la lot, la It -berate. 
King, for Ri^t,and Li - ber - ty! 


ber - tSL 
Sling, for Right, and Li-ber - tyl. 

O Belgigue, d mere 
A tainoa eomra, i tainos bras, 
A M notre eang, 6 Patrie, 
Nous le jturoM taus, tu vivrasf 
Tu vivras tot^fours grande et belle, 
Bt ton invincible umtS 
Aura pour devise immortelle: 


Fbr thee, dear country, cherished motherland, 

Our songs and our valour we give; 

Never from thee our hearts are banned, 

For thee alone we livel 

And thy years shall glorious be. 

Circled in Unityfa enu>race, 

Thy sons shall cherish thee in evVy place 

Fbr King, for Rig^t, and Liberty. 


Boshe Zaria Chrani! 

The Niational Anthem of Imperial Russia 

English Words 1)7 
Florence Attenborough 


Music by LwofF 

Harmonized by 
Gtistave Ferrari 






Bd ' she jgar - ia 
God save our No 

cAra ^ni/ 
ble Tsar! 

SsH - ny» der - «M<cr * mm* 
Great be his glo - ry! 








Zdrst - torn na 
Grow - ing in 

Sla - wj^ na 
pow - er and 

Sla - tMi 
ma - jes 


Eant'Wui na Strach Wira-gam, 
Tsarl May good for - tune be 


pra^wo ^ sdaw - nfi; 
ered on thee; 

Bd . 

God save thee 


jV4ir - ia €!4m - n^ 

Our No - ble Tsarl 


"^Tke Hfrnn of Free Bussia* by Gretchaniaofft bom of the Revolution of 1917 which has transformed Russia into 
a Republic, is published by G. Sekirmsr. 




The Japanese National Anthem 

English ¥fords bj 
Florenoe A t tenbofough 

Ifay our Soy* - reign 

Lord re - niain« 

Harmoitisad Iqr 
Clu&^noent» Ma& Do<x,Oko>i. 


ed for 








fa - ehi -mo 4m ja - jva - tv/ / - Mt ^ no, I - wa o to 

tfaott - sand years and then — a - gain: Un - til rocks, vast and sol - enm, 

•■'T r r m 




r r rf I 

na ^ ri ' te, Xo - ke no, Mk - tn 

rise from stone — Un - til moss nev - er - more is 

— -\ - ♦ 


. de. 

thick - ly grovml 



Srpska Narodna Himna 

Serbian National Anthem 

Words arranged by 
Florence 6. Attenborough 

Allegro maestoso 

Bo - if«_L prar <f«_ Ti »in spaa - e, 

Godl Who in t^ - gones hast saved us thy peo > pie, 

t^! ^^^^=i 

Od 'pro - pas - ti do sad— nas 

Great King of Jus - tice, hear us this day: 


While for our ooun - try, for 

nas • ^ • g'las ^ e I od sad nam hud - '« L spas 

Ser • bia's sal - va - tion. We with de - to - tion un - ceas - ing - ly pray 

Mo6 " nom ru - kom vod - i bran - i, 

On - ward! on - ward Lead us ev - er, 

Bu - due - nos - ti 
Out of shad - ow 



Brp - $keL^ brod. 
in - to light* 

i I J; J) p ' () (T _ ^ 

Jioi - e spas • f Boi - t^ irim - 
Till our ship of State be an 




Sfps • kog' krul • /a. 
Thro the mer - 07 

Srps ' ki rod: 
of Thy might: 

Bom - e spas - i, Boi - ^ 
Till our foes be spent and 

bran ^ 
scat - 


- ter'd 


iS'fytf - kog kral - /a^ 
In the fun - ness 

8rps - ki rod. 
of the Light, 

BrpS'kog kral - Ja,^^ Srps - W rod. 

Ser-bia's king, <^<!^ Ser • bia'a. land, 

Guard for ev - er 



Words by 
Luigi Mercantini 

English words by 
Florenoe 6. Attenborough 


The Garibaldi Hymn 

The Italian National Hymn 

Harmonized by 
Anthony Bernard 


^' P I r ij 


M . I'ar ' mi! 
Come, arm yel 






M - I'ar 
Come arm 



' jfj i'' Jm, 



Si SCO - /iron /^ torn - d^, i«* 
From Tine - yards of ol - ives, from 

le - va^ nqj mor - ti, I mar - ii - ri no - *^r* son tut - W rt - 

grape - man- tied bow - ers. Where land - scapes are laugh - ing in maz - es of 

sor - ti/ Le spa - de nel pu - gno, gUffl-lo - rial* le ehio-^ me, La 
flow* ers: Frommoun* tains, all light - ed by sap - phire and am - ber, From 

, giiffl-lo " rial - le ehio* me, 

Y Cf ^ ^ 





w o p^p If r p ' ^ I' t' 

Oin > J.I I 

fiam'^maifid 41 no -- me d*I - ta - lia sul eorl 
cit - ies of mar - ble, frcMn tern - pleB and marts. 

Ve - nia - niol ve - 
A - rise, all ye 

ir p »iiir 1^" p nr P p i 

9eAf> - ret Sugl ven - to per tut - #o, le 

nia - mo/ ^«i^o gio - va - nt' .^cAtV ^ ret Si^j/il ven - ro per 
Tal - iantBlyour man- hood pro - claim - ing. Whilst thun - ders are meet - ing, and 


> J , Ji Ji i J Ji Ji i r; > jj g 

no - Btre ban • if i> - ret Su tut - /i col fer - ro, ^n tut - ^t col 
sa - bres are flam - ing. For hon - our, for glo - ry, the bu - gles are 


P' p I r P" p Hf p' s I M ^ p I p ^ ^' p 

o - CO. i^n tut - #•' co/ Yieo " eo a*I -- ta ^ lia nel eor. Va 

fuo - co^ ku tut - ti eol fuo * eo i^I - ta -- lia nel eor. 
sound - ing, To quick - en your puis - es and glad-den your hearts. 


< J5i^F I 



|<|' r i i Ji| i j pir II III ip r I III 1(1 J I \\ 

fuo - ra d'l -> ta - lia, va /k&o - ra^ cHS Ibr - a, vajkicrdl-ta - Ita, vaJkard'T" 

hurl our flerce fo© - men far from us foi^ cv -- er,Th© Day is dawn - ing^the Day is 

r ^ 
If .k, 




I f ^7 I f ir !• ip^i " I ■ 

ta - Ita, va fuo - rii^o stra^ierl 
dawn - ing which shall be^ our ownl 


La Urra dei fiori, dei suoni e dei earmi 
Bitarni qual era la terra delVarmi, 
J>i oento eatene ei avvinser la mano, 
Ma anoor di Legnano sa i ferri brandir. 
Bastone tedeseo Vltalia nan doma: 
Jfon oreseon algiogo le siirpi di Bomu: 
Piik Italia non vuole stranier e tiranni, 
Oii^ troppi son gli anni ehe dura il servi 
Fa fuora d'ltalia, eoe. 


Too long cruel tyrants have trampled as under, 
The chains they hare forged us are rlren asunder : 
The Scions of Italy rise in defiance , 
Her flag nobly flutters where breezes are hind: 
To landward and seaward, the Foe shall be brohen, 
Where Heroes hsTe gathered, where Martyrs have spoken, 
And Italy's Throne shall be rooted in Freedom, 
Whilst Monarch and people are all of one mind: 
Then hurl our fierce foemen, etc. 


EngliBb Teraion by 
Dr. Th. Baker 


National Hymn 



E. A. Hiibsch 

Ift^"*^ J J | rn J.^IJ J J I J r ^ 

*^ Tra^eM^ed Be -ge-le In pa-ee si o - nor, 

In pa-ee si o - nor, De tea-ra 

Long be tby reign, O King! Loud - ly thy praise we sing; Thou to our 

i' i i~r f^'j ii 

in "H^ tar S^a-^pa-^ra ^ tar de tea^ra! Fi - e Damn Glo-ri- as Pes - te 

land Shalt bring Hon-or, peace and_ glo-ryl May our Lord bless thy sword, Bring aid to 


, J;*ff J &l r j l 

na%, Fie'n pe * ei no^rO'-eos^ In res - bai. Dam-no^ sfin - te 

alll Strive with might fi>r the right, Ntfer mayst thoo, falll Lord Gkxl, oh_ hear usi 



Ce " re-se pa-rin-te, Sus^ti-ne eua ta ma^nd Ca - rtf - iSonSd - ma - nd. 
Be Thou still near ust Fail Thou Ru - ma-nia nev-er, Guard herorown fbr ev- eri 


Poesia de 
H. Lopes de Mendon9a 

English Tersion by 
Dr. Th. Baker 


A Portuguesa 

Portuguese National Hymn 

Musiea de A. Keil 

i. Her-oe* do mmr, no . bre 
1. Sail on a • far, O ye 

^^^ ^%t.^ 

^ «^ «%il 

p\ fJ >>>Js j^ l J- liJZPpJ 

po . vo^ Jfa-fSo va^len - te^ im-mor-talj 

be - roesi Im-mor-tal fame waits on ye altt 

Ze- van-tae ho • Je de 
Onoe a - gain rise in jfrnr 

p'j^ i j j, j^> p i o^Mj> ^ j ^ 

no ' vo (fes-jden-dor^^ de Por^tu-galL 
man -hood For the glo - ryof Por-tu-gall. 

Bn^treaehrtimae da me^w^o^ria^Oh 
From the mists of by-gone a - ges, O 


iiiJJUJi (I I 

pa - tria mm- te • Ma ih^jv 

teus e - gre-gioe a - t^ot Que ha - ifo jpii^ 

men, theysumr-mon jre all, From the tomb jroor fore-fa-thers oall To arms in the 





or • - tea vie -to - 

war Free - dom wa - 

. ria! Ae or 
- gesl To arms, 

moMj as €tr ' - mae! so^ote^ 
then, to arms, theni On the 

ter - ra^ so . bre^ mar^ 
sea and shore we throng; 

As ar- - mas^^ as ar- - mas/ Pe - la 
To arms, then, to arms, thenI For the 

^^^ ® mA . 

' ''^' ' ■i f i 

* ^ #^ 

j»a - tritt fu ' otarL 
home - land oar songi 

J, ^)i^i|j j J., jMj^te 

W' traps eon 'hoes mar»eharj mar •char I ^ 
While can-non roar, we^l march a - longt. 

ji ijH i. 

%21 «^ « %1 

J. Deifralda a invieta bandeira 
A luM viva do teu eeol 
Brade a Europa a terra inteira: 
Portugal nao pereeeul 
Beija o s6lo teu/ueundo 
Oeeano^ a rugir dhmarf 
B teu hra^o veneedor 
Beu mundos novos ao mundol 


t. Saudae o sol que desponta 
Sobre um ridente porvir; 
Seja o echo de uma Oiffronta 
O signal do resurgir. 
Baios d^essa aurora forte 
8So eomo beijos de mae, 
Que nos guardam, nos sustem, 
Contra as injurias da sorts. 


«^ « 

2. Our banner wave free and fearless 
Beneath our olear, ever-smiling skies, 
Let the shout rise from the nations 
That the pride of Portugal ne'er dies I 
Ocean-waves in tones of thunder 
Cry out on our blessed shore: 
Yours the sailors who of yore 
Found new worlds for an old world\i wonderl 


8. We hail the morn brightly dawning, 
That holds a promise of day so bright I 
Let the manhood of the nation 
Show how well we defend the right I 
Like the kiss our mothers gave us, 
The rays of that rising sun 
Warm the heart of every one 
With love that shall guide and save us I 




Himno Bayames 

The Hymn of Free Cuba 

Tempo moderato di marcia 

Words* and Music by 
Pedro Figueredo 

Arranged by J. Marin Varona 


ha - te oo^rred, Ba-ya -me 
com - bat a -way, Ba-ya - me 

seSj Que la pa-triaoseantem^pla or -^ gu^ 
sesy Whom your coun • try regards with proad e - 



jM j,_ ji I J j^ ii r Ji p 


P ^ P* P 

sa} Bom - ped ya la oa -de ^ nao -mi - fU^ 
tion; Break the chain that restrains your de . vo 

sa A los 
tion, Raise of 

Note. These verses are the authentic ones, as published by their author in ''El Cubano libre" (the first sepa- 
ratist periodical in Cuba) on Oct. 27, 1868. 


Copyright f 1917 ^ by O. Schdrmer 


dos, Hel da - Hn e» - ou-chad lot so ~ w' 
ye; Hark t the trum-pet of Pree-dom doth oall 

- dot} /A ku 
yel Now to 

a^ - mas, va - lien - tes, vo - ladL 
arms, all ye bniTB, let us flyl- 

JVo fue - ladTl 
FOT no flyl_ 

Notes on the Histories of 

The National Anthems of the Allies 


The words of the Star-Spangled Banner were written by Francis Scou Key, son of John Rom Key, 
an officer in the Revolutionary army. He was bom August 1, 1779, and died Jan< 11, 1843. The words 
were written Sept. 14, 1814, under the following circumstances: After burning Washington, the British 
advanced towards Baltimore, and were met by a similar number of Americans, most of whom were captured 
and taken to the large fleet then preparing to attack Fort M cHenry. Among the prisoners taken at Biadena- 
burg was a Doctor Beanes, an intimate friend of Mr. Key. Hoping to intercede for the Doctor's rdease, 
Mr. Key, with a flag of truce, started in a sailboat for the vessel of the Admiral (Cockbum). He secured 
the Doctor's release, but was prevented from returning to Baltimore by the bombardment of Fort McHenry, 
which barred the British fleet from the capture of the dty. Mr. Key paced the deck for the residue of 
the night in painful suspense. When at length the Kght of day came, he saw that ^'our flag was still there," 
and in the fervor of the moment he wrote on the back of a letter^ which he happened to have in his pocket, 
the song which became the American national anthem. The words were first printed in the '^Baltimore 
Patriot** of September 20, 1814, at the instance of Mr. Key's brother-in-law. Judge Nicholson, to whom 
also the credit seems due for indicating the tune 'To Anacreon in Heaven" (by John Stafford Smith, an 
English composer), then very popular in America under this title and also that of ** Adams and Liberty," 
as the tune to which Mr. Key's poem was to be sung. Within a few days the song became known outside 
of Baltimore. Soon the original title gave way to that of 'The Star-Spangled Banner," and before long 
many romantic legends obscured the real history of the song. Gradually but steadily it gained its position 
as the national anthem of the United States in the minds of the American people. It has neyer been pro- 
claimed officially the national anthem of the United States by act of Congress, but a spedal regulation 
during President Roosevelt's administration made its exclusive use for official purposes obligatory on the 
army and navy. — Sommbck: 'The Star-Spangled Banner" (1914). 

NoTB.— Though BO toag or hyma has been fMdtXLj adopted at a aatioiial hynn ia the United States, there are many that 
emeu patriotic sentiment and are to popular at to, make them in fact national. But most or all of these are published in forms 
differing in words or music or both. At its meeting in St. Paul in 1913, the National Education Association adopted a resolution 
requesting the Bureau of Education to authorise an **official yersion" of **our national sonnl* lor use in schools. In response to 
this resolution, I requested Will Earhart. Arnold J. Gantvoort, Walter J. Damrosch, John rhilip Sousa and O. G. T. Sonneck to 
serve as a committee on this subject and to select or arrange and subaut to me a venion of each of these songs lor approval for 
use in the schools. This versioa of *The Sur-SpaagM Banner^ has been submitted by this committee. 

P. P. CLazioii, I^. $. C^mwdssianif 9i Simmiam 


The authonlup of thia toul-ttirring gong it atill a nutter of dispute. The first definite and unassailable 
fact is that in 1745, during the Scotch Rebellion, the song was sung at the London theatres as *'a loyal song 
or anthem," in a version substanUally similar to that now in vogue. Single phrases of the air have been 
traced as far back as the be^nning of the seventeenth century, and striking similarities have also been 
discovered in the works of Henry Purcell, the greatest of British composers; but it is still a mystery who 
gave to the world the song in its entirety. Generally Henry Carey is assumed to have written and com- 
posed the song, as we know it, about 1740, but his claims rest on insecure evidence. Lately, James Oswald, 
a Scottish musician of some prominence about that time, has been brought forward by various writers, 
without convincing data. The Mr was appropriated before the end of the century by Denmark and Prussia 
for their national anthems, and later by various other German sutes. In America it was used, of course, 
during Colonial times in the same manner as in Great Britain. In 1832 the Rev. S. F. Smith used the air 
for his poem ^My country, 'tis of thee" under the title of ''America," and it was first publicly sung at the 
Park Street Church, Boston, on July 4, 1832. ''America" is still preferred by many to '^The Star-Spanned 
Banner" as the national anthem of the United Sutes. — Cummings: "God save the King" (1902); it «/• 





The exhilarating strains of the French National Anthem, which just now are heard on every hand, were 
the inspiration of Rouget de Tlsle, a young officer who was stationed at Strassburg. Dining one night 
in the Spring of 1792 with the Mayor, the latter requested his guest, who at one time had been a teacher 
of music, to compose a song for the Volunteers who were about to leave. After a frugal repast of garrison 
bread and ham he returned to his lodgings in the ^'Grande Rue," and there, in a fit of enthusiasm, wrote in 
one night the words and music of one of the most stirring melodies the world has ever known 1 It was sung 
at a Gvic Dinner at Marseilles and met with such instant success that copies were at once printed and dis- 
tributed to the Volunteers, who sang it as they entered Paris, marching to the storming of the Tuilleries. 
In honor of them the delighted Parisians gave it the name it now bears, and almost immediately the rous- 
ing strains of ''La Marseillaise'' were heard in every comer of France* 

The authorship of both words and music have been disputed, but Rouget de I'lsle's claims were fully 
and finally established in a pamphlet which appeared in 1865, written by his nephew. 


Quite unlike the other European National Anthems is the one associated with Belgium, although this 
also sprang up in the very breath of battle. The words were written during the revolution of 1830, when 
the country obtained her freedom, and the author, Louis Dechez, sumamed Jenneval, was killed in action 
near Antwerp. The music was composed by Francois van Campenhout, who was bom at Brussels in 1779 
and who began his musical career in the orchestra at the theatre in that city. He developed a fine tenor 
voice, and for thirty years he was to be found singing in the principal towns of Holland, Belgium and France; 
during this time he also devoted himself to composition, and brought out several operas and many smaller 
works, but it is chiefly as the composer of ''La Braban^nne'' that Campenhout is known. He died at 
Brussels in 1848. 


It was as a result of hearing the English National Anthem that Tsar Nichdas commanded General 
Alexis Lwoff, a member of the suite who had accompanied him on his travels, to write something to equal 
or even surpass *'God save the Ring." The General, who was a good musician and recognized as a fine 
violinist in several of the great cities of Europe, and who had composed operas and much church music, 
set to work on words written by Joukovsky, and so in 1833 the stately anthem was given to the world. 
The Tsar was so delighted with the composition, that he gave orders that it was to be immediately adopted 
by the whole Army, and to be performed at all important concerts, and even included in presentations on 
the stage. He presented Lwoff with a magnificent gold snuff-box set with diamonds, and commanded that 
the words ''God save the Tsar*' should be introduced into the armorial bearings of the composer^s family. 
The General became Director of the Royal Court Chapel, and filled many posts of honor. He died in 1870. 


Very little information can be obtained regarding the history of the National Anthem of the Japanese, 
but it appears that at the commencement of the 10th century the Emperor Daigo commanded a collection 
of poems to be compiled under the title of the ''Kokinshu,'* and the words of "Kimigayo'' were included; 
but who wrote them is not known, neither can the composer of the music be identified, although this was 
written at a very much later date, apparently about fifty years ago. 


The Serbian national hymn is said to have been, originally, a poem written by Nicholas I of Montenegro, 
in 1867, and set to music by Davorin Jenko in 1872. The present poem, however, is ascribed to the 
Serbian poet J. GjorgjeviS, adapted to the melody by Jenko. 




The lack of political unity for many centuries probably accounts for the fact that Italy had no national 
hymn. As in Spain, the people contented themselves with a Royal March, Marcia Reale, a rather trivial 
composition written about 1834 by Gabetti. The people created a hymn for themselves during the stormy 
period around 1858. To the ardent verses of Luigi Mercantini, the military bandmaster Alessio Olivieri 
(1830-1867) set a genuine Italian melody, half operatic aria, half parade-march. The first who sang this 
hymn were the volunteers of the Alpine Chasseurs' brigade, after whom it therefore was named **Inno di 
guerra dei cacciatori delle Alpi.'' Its popularity dates from the world-famed campaign of the Thousand, 
in the year 1860; since that time, when it was universally known as the '^Garibaldi Hymn," it has become 
the popular national song, more especially when the wrath of the people toward foreign intruders finds vent. 


Rumania came into possession of a national hymn at nearly the same time as Italy. The first move 
in this direction was merely for the composition of a welcome-fanfare for Prince Alexander Johannes Cusa 
(1820-1873); in the prize-competition set on foot to this end, in 1861, the victor was Eduard A. Hubsch 
(1833-1894), military bandmaster at Jassy. The words were written later, when Rumania was raised to 
a kingdom, by Vasil Alexandri, who adapted them to apply to Karl von Hohenzollem. 


This Portuguese National Hymn, the ^Tortuguesa," was adopted when the Monarchy was overthrown 
and the Republic established, October 5, 1910. 

It was written in 1891 when Portugal was excited to the highest pitch against Great Britain, in con- 
sequence of the British ultimatum to Portugal to give up a large portion of Portuguese Central Africa, 
which the British afterwards named '^Rhodesia" (after Cecil Rhodes). Following demonstrations and dis- 
orders of all kinds, the public excitement culminated in the now historical, revolt which broke out in 
^Torto," the second largest city of Portugal, on January 31, 1891. 

The ^Tortuguesa,'* which had evidently been written for that occasion, was then for the first time sung 
by the crowds, and its stirring music played by military bands. The revolt was finally crushed by the 
forces loyal to the king, and the singing or playing of the 'Tortuguesa" was strictly forbidden, under 
penalty of imprisonment, until neariy twenty years later, when the Republic was finally established. ' It 
then automatically became the National Anthem. 


-^ 4 

HO Ji S 
The Nationil antlwim of Ihe Alia 


3 2044 040 920 654 

Date Due 

AUG 9 

AUG 2^ 1957