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282 N27 1943 

This Volume is for 





Compiled by the Franciscan Clerics of 
Holy Name College, Washington, D. C. 

Published with ecclesiastical approbation by 



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Circumcision of Our Lord 
St. Macarius, Abbot 




The Holy Name of Jesus 
Gospel: Holy Name Luke 2,21 








SS. Priscus, Priscillian and Benedicta, 
St. Telesphorus, Pope-Martyr 
Epiphany of Our Lord 
St. Lucian, Martyr 
St. Severin, Bishop 
SS. Julian and Basilissa, Martyrs 




The Holy Family 

Gospel: Finding of the Child Jesus in the Temple 
Luke 2,42-52 







St. Hyginus, Pope-Martyr 
St. Arcadius, Martyr 
St. Potitus, Martyr 
St. Hilary, Bishop-Doctor 
St. Paul, First Hermit, Confessor 
St. Marcellus I, Pope-Martyr 




Second Sunday after Epiphany 

Gospel: Marriage of Cana John 2,1-11 




St. Peter's Chair at Rome 
St. Canute, King, Martyr 
SS. Fabian and Sebastian, Martyrs 
St. Agnes, Virgin-Martyr 
SS. Vincent and Anastasius, Martyrs 
St. Raymond of Pennafort, Confessor 




Third Sunday after Epiphany 

Gospel: Cure of Leper and Centurion's Servant 
Matthew 8,1-13 





Conversion of St. Paul 
St. Polycarp, Bishop-Martyr 
St. John Chrysostom, Bishop-Doctor 
St. Peter Nolasco, Confessor 
St. Francis de Sales, Bishop-Doctor 
St. Martina, Virgin-Martyr 




Fourth Sunday after Epiphany 

Gospel: Jesus Calms the Tempest Matthew 
8, 23-27 

H. D. Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 

F. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 

years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 



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St. Ignatius, Bishop-Martyr 
Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
St. Blalse, Bishop-Martyr 
St. Andrew Corsini, Bishop-Confessor 
St. Agatha, Virgin-Martyr 
St. Dorothy, Virgin-Martyr 




Fifth Sunday after Epiphany 

Gospel: The Sower Matthew 13,24-30 




St. John Matha, Confessor 
St. Cyril of Alexandria, Bishop-Doctor 
St. Scholastica, Virgin 
Our Lady of Lourdes 
Seven Servite Founders, Confessors 
St. Benignus, Martyr 




Sixth Sunday after Epiphany 

Gospel; Mustard Seed and Leaven Matthew 
13, 31-35 





SS. Faustinus and Jo vita, Martyrs 
St. Juliana, Virgin-Martyr 
St. Fintan, Abbot 
St. Simeon, Bishop-Martyr 
St. Gabinus, Martyr 
Si. Eleutherius, Bishop-Martyr 




Septuagesima Sunday 

Gospel: Laborers in the Vineyard Matthew 
20, 1-16 





St. Peter's Chair at Antioch 
St. Peter Damien, Bishop-Doctor 
St. Matthias, Apostle 
St. Tarasius, Bishop 
St. Nestor, Bishop 
St. Gabriel, Confessor 





Sexagesima Sunday ,'A.H '<' ' ^ 
Gospel: Parable of the Sower Luke 8,4-15 

H. D. Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 

F. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 

years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 



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Day | H. D v 
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St. Albinus, Bishop-Confessor 
SS. Jovinus and Basileus, Martyrs 
St. Cunegundis, Empress 
St. Casimir, King, Confessor 
St. Adrian, Martyr 
SS. Perpetua and Felicitas, Martyrs 




Qufnquagesima Sunday 

Gospel: Christ Heals the Blind Man Luke 18, 






St. John of God, Confessor 
St. Frances of Rome, Widow 
Ash Wednesday 
St. Constantine, Confessor 
St. Gregory the Great, Pope, Doctor 
St. Christina, Virgin-Martyr 




First Sunday of Lent 

Gospel: Jesus Tempted by Satan Matthew 4, 











St. Longinus the Soldier 
St. Herbert, Bishop 
St. Patrick, Bishop-Confessor 
(Ember Day) 
St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Bishop-Doctor 
St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin 
(Ember Day) 
St. Cuthbert, Bishop-Confessor 
(Ember Day) 




Second Sunday of Lent 

Gospel: The Transfiguration Matthew 17,1-9 









St. Zachary, Pope 
SS. Victorian and Companions, Martyrs 
St. Gabriel, Archangel 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
St. Ludger, Bishop-Confessor 
St, John Damascene, Confessor-Doctor 




Third Sunday of Lent 

Gospel: Jesus Casts out a Demi Luke 11, 14-28 






SS. Jonas and Barochisius, Martyrs 
St. John Climacus, Abbot 
St. Benjamin, Deacon-Martyr 

. D. Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 
F. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 

years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 





Day | H. D. 









St. Hugh, Bishop-Confessor 
St. Francis of Paula, Confessor 
St. Richard, Bishop-Confessor 




Fourth Sunday of Lent (Laetare Sunday) 
Gospel: Miracle of Loaves and Fishes John 6, 





St. Vincent Ferrer, Confessor 
St. William, Abbot 
SS. Bpiphanius and Companions, Martyrs 
St. Perpetuus, Bishop-Confessor 
St. Mary Cleopha, Widow 
St. Ezechial, Prophet 




Passion Sunday 

Gospel: The Jews Attempt to Stone Jesus 
John 8, 46-59 





St. Julius I, Pope 
St. Hermenigild, Martyr 
St. Justin, Martyr 
SS. Basilissa and Anastasia, Martyrs 
Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
St. Anicetus, Pope-Martyr 




Palm Sunday 

Gospel: Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem 
Matthew 21,1-9 



St. Blphege, Bishop-Martyr 
St. Theotimus, Bishop 
St. Anselm, Bishop-Doctor 
Holy Thursday 
Good Friday 
Holy Saturday (p. and A. until noon) 




Easter Sunday 

Gospel: Resurrection of Christ Matthew 16, 





SS. Cletus and Marcellinus, Martyrs 
St. Peter Canisius, Confessor-Doctor 
St. Paul of the Cross, Confessor 
St. Peter of Verona, Martyr 
St. Catherine of Siena, Virgin 

H. D. Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 

F. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 

years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 

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Date 1 Day I H. D. 
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SS. Philip and James, Apostles 




First Sunday after Easter (Low Sunday) 
Gospel: Jesus- Appears to Apostles John 20, 





Finding of the Holy Cross 
St. Monica, Widow 
St. Pius V, Pope-Confessor 
St. John the Apostle before Latin Gate 
St. Stanislaus, Bishop-Martyr 
Apparition of St. Michael 




Second Sunday after Easter 
Gospel: Good Shepherd John 10,11-16 





St. Antoninus, Bishop-Confessor 
St. Francis Jerome, Confessor 
Solemnity of St. Joseph 
St. Robert Bellarmine, Bishop-Doctor 
St. Boniface, Martyr 
St. John Baptist de LaSalle, Confessor 




Third Sunday after Easter 

Gospel: Joy after Sorrow John 16,16-22 





St. Paschal Baylon, Confessor 
St. Venantius, Martyr 
St. Peter Celestine, Pope-Confessor 
St. Bernardine of Siena, Confessor 
St. Valens, Bishop-Martyr 
St. Rita, Widow 




Fourth Sunday after Easter 

Gospel: Christ Promises Comforter John 16, 







SS. Miletius and Companions, Martyrs 
St. Gregory VII, Pope-Confessor 
St. Philip Neri, Confessor 
St. Bede, the Venerable, Confessor-Doctor 
St. Augustine of Canterbury, Bishop-Con- 
St. Mary Magdalen Pazzi, Virgin 





Fifth Sunday after faster 

Gospel: Prayer in the Name of Jesus John 16, 


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j | St. Angela Merici, Virgin (Rogation Day) 

H. D. Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 

F. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 

years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 






| H. D. 












St. Juventius, Martyr (Rogation Day) 
SS. Marcellimis and Companions, Martyrs 
(Rogation Day) 
Ascension of Our Lord 
St. Francis Caracciolo, Confessor 
St. Boniface, Bishop-Martyr 




Sunday within Octave of Ascension 

Gospel: Testimony of the Holy Ghost John 15, 
26-27; 16, 1-4 






St. Robert, Abbot 
St. Medard, Bishop-Confessor 
SS. Primus and Feiician, Martyrs 
St. Margaret of Scotland, Queen, Widow 
St. Barnabas, Apostle 
St. John of St. Facundus, Confessor (Vigil) 




Pentecost Sunday 

Gospel: Christ's Instruction on the Holy Ghost 
John 14,23-31 













St. Basil the Great, Bishop-Doctor 
SS. Vitus and Companions, Martyrs 
St. Benno, Bishop 
(Ember Day) 
SS. Nicandrus and Marcian, Martyrs 
St. Ephrem, Deacon, Doctor 
(Ember Day) 
St. Juliana Falconieri, Virgin 
(Ember Day) 




Trinity Sunday 

Gospel: Jesus Commissions His Disciples to 
Preach Matthew 28, 18-20 




St. Aloysius Gonzaga, Confessor 
St. Paulinus, Bishop, Confessor 
St. Audrey, Queen, Virgin 
Corpus Christi 
St. William, Abbot 
SS. John and Paul, Martyrs 




Second Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Parable of the Supper Luke 14, 16-24 





St. Irenaeus, Bishop-Martyr 
SS. Peter and Paul, Apostles 
Commemoration of St. Paul, Apostle 

H. D. Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 

F. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 

years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 




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The Most Precious Blood 
Sacred Heart of Jesus 
St. Leo II, Pope-Confessor 




Third Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Parable of the Lost Sheep Luke 15,1-10 






St. Anthony Zaccaria, Confessor 
St. Isaias, Prophet 
SS. Cyril and Methodius, Bishops-Confessors 
St. Elizabeth of Portugal, Widow 
SS. John Fisher and Thomas More, Martyrs 
Seven Holy Brothers, Martyrs 




Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Miraculous Draught of Fishes Luke 




St. John Gualbert, Abbot 
St. Anaclete, Pope-Martyr 
St. Bonaventure, Bishop-Doctor 
St. Henry, Confessor 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel 
St. Alexius, Confessor 




Fifth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: The Justice of the Pharisees Matthew 
5, 20-24 




St. Vincent De Paul, Confessor 
St. Jerome Aemelian, Confessor 
St. Praxedes, Virgin 
St. Mary Magdalen, Penitent 
St. Apollinaris, Bishop-Martyr 
St. Christina, Virgin-Martyr 




Sixth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Jesus Feeds the Multitude Mark 8 f 1-9 







St. Anne, Mother of the Blessed Virgin 
St. Pantaleon, Martyr 
SS. Nazarius and Companions, Martyrs 
St. Martha of Bethany, Virgin 
SS. Abdon and Sinnen, Martyrs 
St. Ignatius Loyola, Confessor 

H. D. Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 

F. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 

years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 



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Day | H. D. 







Seventh Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Warning against False Prophets 
Matthew 7, 15-21 






St. Alphonsus Liguori, Confessor 
Finding of St. Stephen's Relics 
St. Dominic, Confessor 
Our Lady of the Snows 
Transfiguration of Our Lord 
St. Cajetan, Confessor 




Eighth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: The Unjust Steward Luke 16,1-9 





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St. John Baptist Vianney, Confessor 
St. Laurence, Martyr 
SS. Tiburtius and Susanna, Martyrs 
St. Clare, Virgin 
St. John Berchmans, Confessor 
St. Eusebius, Confessor (Vigil) 




Ninth Sunday after Pentecost (Assumption) 

Gospel: Jesus Weeps over Jerusalem Luke 19, 







St. Joachim, Father of the Blessed Virgin 
St. Hyacinth, Confessor 
St. Agapitus, Martyr 
St. John Eudes, Confessor 
St. Bernard, Confessor-Doctor 
St. Jane Frances, Widow 




Tenth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: The Pharisee and the Publican Luke 
18, 9-14 






St. Philip Benitius, Confessor 
St. Bartholomew, Apostle 
St. Louis of France, Confessor 
St. Zephyrin, Pope-Martyr 
St. Joseph Calasanctius, Confessor 
St. Augustine, Bishop-Doctor 




Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Jesus Cures the Deaf and Dumb Man 
Mark 7,31-37 



St. Rose of Lima, Virgin 
St. Raymond Nonnatus, Confessor 

H. ix Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 
p. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 
years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 



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' St. Giles, Abbot 
St. Stephen, King, Confessor 
St. Serapia, Virgin-Martyr 
St. Moses, Prophet 




Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: The Good Samaritan Luke 10,23-37 





St. Eleutherius, Abbot 
St. Regina, Virgin-Martyr 
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
St. Kieran, Confessor 
St. Nicholas of Tolentino, Confessor 
SS. Protus and Hyacinth, Martyrs 




Thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: The Ten Lepers Luke 17,11-19 















St. Eulogius, Bishop 
Exaltation of the Holy Cross 
Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
(Ember Day) 
SS. Cornelius and Cyprian, Martyrs 
Stigmata of St. Francis of Assisi 
(Ember Day) 
St. Joseph of Cupertino, Confessor 
(Ember Day) 




Fourteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Undivided Service of God. Matthew 
6, 24-33 




SS. Eustachius and Companions, Martyrs 
St. Matthew, Apostle, Evangelist 
St. Thomas of Villanova, Bishop-Confessor 
St. Linus, Pope-Martyr 
Our Lady of Ransom 
St. Cleophas, Martyr 




Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost 
Gospel: The Widow of Nairn Luke 7,11-16 



SS. Cosmas and Damian, Martyrs 
St. Wenceslaus, Martyr 
St. Michael, Archangel 
St. Jerome, Confessor-Doctor 

H. D. Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 

F. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 

years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 




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St. Remigius, Bishop-Confessor 
Holy Guardian Angels 




Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost 
Gospel: Jesus Heals the Dropsical Man Luke 




St. Francis of Assisi, Confessor 
SS. Placid and Companions, Martyrs 
St. Bruno, Confessor 
Most Holy Rosary 
St. Bridget of Sweden, Widow 
SS. Denis and Companions, Martyrs 




Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: The Greatest Commandment Matthew 
22, 35-46 





Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
St. Wilfred, Bishop, Confessor 
St. Edward, King, Confessor 
St. Callistus I, Pope-Martyr 
St. Theresa of Avila, Virgin 
St. Hedwig, Widow 




Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Jesus Cures the Paralytic Matthew 9, 




St. Luke, Evangelist 
St. Peter of Alcantara, Confessor 
St. John Cantius, Confessor 
SS. Ursula and Companions, Virgins-Martyrs 
St. Mary Salome, Widow 
St. Ignatius of Constantinople, Bishop- 




Nineteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Parable of Marriage Feast Matthew 
22, 2-14 





SS. Chrysanthus and Daria, Martyrs 
St. Evaristus, Pope-Martyr 
St. Florence, Martyr 
SS. Simon and Jude, Apostles 
St. Narcissus, Bishop-Confessor 
Vigil of All Saints 




Twentieth Sunday after Pentecost 
(Feast of Christ the King) 

Gospel: Christ the King John 18, 33-37 

H. D, Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 

p. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 

years old. 
A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 



' 1943 

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Day | H. D. 

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All Saints Day 
(A plenary indulgence may be gained for 
the Poor Souls by each visit to a Church 
from noon Nov. 1 until midnight Nov. 2. 
Conditions: 6 Our Fathers, 6 Hail Marys and 
6 Glorys for each visit. ) 
All Souls 
St. Hubert, Bishop 
St. Charles Borromeo, Bishop-Confessor 
SS. Zachary and Elizabeth 
St. Leonard, Confessor 




Twenty-first Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: The Unmerciful Servant Matthew 18, 






Four Crowned Martyrs 
Dedication of Lateran Basilica in Rome 
St. Andrew of Avellino, Confessor 
St. Martin of Tours, BishopOonfessor 
St. Martin I, Pope-Martyr 
St. Didacus, Confessor 




Twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Duties to God and Caesar Matthew 
22, 15-21 









St. Albert the Great, Bishop-Doctor 
St. Gertrude, Virgin 
St. Gregory the Wonderworker, Bishop- 
Dedication of Basilica of SS. Peter and 
Paul in Rome 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary, Queen, Widow 
St. Felix of Valois, Confessor 




Twenty-third Sunday after Pentecost 

Gospel: Raising of ] air us' Daughter Matthew 
9, 18-26 








St. Cecilia, Virgin-Martyr 
St. Clement I, Pope-Martyr 
St. John of the Cross, Confessor-Doctor 
St. Catherine of Alexandria, Virgin-Martyr 
St. Sylvester, Abbot 
St. Virgil, Bishop-Confessor 




First Sunday of Advent 

Gospel: Signs of Destruction of World Luke 
21, 25-53 



St. Saturninus, Bishop-Martyr 
St. Andrew, Apostle 




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St. Natalia, Widow 
St. Bibiana, Virgin-Martyr 
St. Francis Xavier, Confessor 
St. Peter Chrysologus, Bishop-Doctor 





Second Sunday of Advent 

Gospel: John Sends Disciples to Jesus 
Matthew 11,2-10 


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St. Nicholas, Bishop-Confessor 
St. Ambrose, Bishop-Doctor 
The Immaculate Conception 
St. Leocadia, Virgin-Martyr 
St. Melchiades, Pope-Martyr 
St. Damasus I, Pope-Confessor 




Third Sunday of Advent 

Gospel: John's Testimony of Christ John 1 












St. Lucy, Virgin-Martyr 
St. Nicasius, Bishop-Martyr 
St. Valerian, Bishop 
(Ember Day] 
St. Eusebius, Bishop-Martyr 
St. Lazarus, Bishop-Confessor 
(Ember Day) 
SS. Rufus and Zosimus, Martyrs 
(Ember Day) 




Fourth Sunday of Advent 

Gospel: Mission of St. John Baptist Luke 3, 





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St. Liberatus and Bajulus, Martyrs 
St. Thomas, Apostle 
St. Ischyrion, Martyr 
St. Victoria, Virgin-Martyr 
St. Delphinus, Martyr (Vigil) 
Nativity of Our Lord 




Sunday within Octave of Christmas 

Gospel: Simeon's' Prophecy Luke 2,33-40 





St. John, Apostle, Evangelist 
Holy Innocents, Martyrs 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, Bishop-Martyr 
SS, Sabinus and Companions, Martyrs 
St. Sylvester I, Pope-Confessor 

H. D. Holy Day: Attendance at Mass required. 
F. Fast Day: One full meal (with meat) for those from 21-60 
years old. 

A. Abstinence: No flesh meat allowed. 














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In order to conduct affairs properly it has always been necessary to 
keep records by employing a definite unit of measurement, and by start- 
ing from a definite date or epoch. 


The prime unit is the mean solar day, which is the average of all 
solar days, and is measured by the period of twenty-four hours within 
which the earth revolves upon its axis. The true solar day constantly 
fluctuates, hence the adoption of a mean solar day. The two coincide 
four times a year: April 15, June 14, September 1, December 24, 

Solar time, computed upon the solar day, is based on the rotation of 
the earth about the sun, a period of approximately 365 days. This unit 
of time is called a year. 


A reckoning of years has been adopted from ancient times. This was 
generally based upon a historical period, dating from an important event 
such as the accession of a great king or the founding of a city, or char- 
acterized by a certain order of things such as physical, social or intel- 
lectual conditions. The chronological eras in use in the past are as follows : 


Grecian Mundane Era. 
Civil Era of Constanti- 

Alexandrian Era .... 

Julian Period 

Mundane Era 

Jewish Mundane Era. 

Era of Abraham 

Era of the Olympiads 
Roman Era (A.U.C.). 
Era of Metonic Cycle 


Our present system of dating events according as to whether they took 
place "before Christ" (B. C.) or "after Christ," that is, "in the w year of 
our Lord" (A. D.), originated about A. D. 527 with the Abbot Dionysius 
Exiguus, who conceived the idea of making the year of Christ's birth the 
dividing point in the calendar. He took the year 754 A. U. C. (after the 
founding of the city of Rome) as the year of the Nativity of our Lord, 
but obviously erred in his calculations. 

The correct basis of calculations is the year in which Herod the Great 
died, generally accepted as 750 A. U. C. It is an indisputable fact that 
"Herod was alive at the time of the birth of Christ. Consequently Christ 
was born before 750 A. U. C., or before the year 4 B.C. It is difficult 
to determine precisely how long before this date Christ was born. The 
possibility arises that since Herod, in the slaughter of the Innocents, saw 
fit to extend the tiny victims' age to two years, Christ may have been 
born in 6 B. C. Some authors place the sacred date from 7 B. C. to 9 B. C. 


C. 5598, Sept. 1 

5508, Sept. 1 
5502, Aug. 29 
4713, Jan. 1 
4008, Oct. 1 
3761, Oct. 1 
2015, Oct. 1 
776, July 1 
753, April 24 
432, July 15 

Grecian or Syro-Mace- 
donian Era B. 


C. 312, Sept. 1 
166, Nov. 24 
125, Oct. 19 
110, Oct. 1 
45, Jan. 1 
38, Jan. 1 
27, Feb. 14 
D. 1, Jan. 1 

69, Sept. 1 
622, July 16 

Era of Maccabees . . . 
Tyrlan Era 
Sidonian Era 
Julian Era 

Spanish Era. 

Augustan Era 
Christian Era A. 
Destruction of Jeru- 

Mohammedan Era . . . 


- Julian Calendar. Even after tlie new reckoning was introduced, the 
old calendar of Julius Caesar consisting of a year of 365 days was used 
until 1582, when under Pope Gregory XIII it was corrected by a council 
of astronomers. Since the earth's journey around the sun is not com- 
pleted in exactly 365 days Caesar made each fourth year a leap year by 
inserting an additional day in February. The Julian Calendar was still 
inaccurate, however, because the earth's journe'y is made in a little less 
than 365% days. By 1582 the error amounted to ten days. 

Gregorian Calendar. Pope Gregory dropped these days from the calen- 
dar and ordered that a leap year should be observed in 1600 but not in 
1700, 1800 and 1900, and that thereafter century years would be leap 
years only when they are divisible by 400. The Gregorian Calendar is 
so nearly exact that there will be an error of one day only in 3,500 years. 
This calendar was readily accepted in all Catholic countries but did 
not come into use in Protestant countries until some time later. It was 
finally accepted in England in 1752 and in the American Colonies about 
the same time. The Julian method of reckoning was retained in the 
East. Turkey did not adopt the Gregorian Calendar until 1917, Russia 
1918, Bulgaria, Greece and the Congress of the Eastern Orthodox Church 
in 1923. With the exception of a few Ruthenian Catholics the whole 
civilized world was using the Gregorian Calendar in 1924. 

The Ecclesiastical Calendar is a lunisolar calendar for regulating the 
dates of church feasts. It corresponds in periods of time with the civil 
calendar. The beginning of the ecclesiastical year dates, however, from 
the beginning of Advent. In 1943 Advent begins on November 28. Im- 
portant and special feasts during the year are as follows: 

January 1, Circumcision. 
3, Holy Name. 
6, Epiphany. 

10, Holy Family. 
February 2, Purification. 

11, Our Lady of Lourdes. 
March 10, Ash Wednesday. 

17, St. Patrick. 

19, St. Joseph. 
25, Annunciation. 

April 11, Passion Sunday. 

18, Palm Sunday. 

22, Holy Thursday 

23, Good Friday. 

24, Holy Saturday. 

25, Easter. 

May * 3, Finding of the Cross. 

12, Solemnity of St. 

June 3, Ascension. 

13, Pentecost. 

20, Trinity Sunday. 
24, Corpus Christi. 

29, Sts. Peter and Paul. 
July 1, Most Precious Blood. 

2, Sacred Heart. 
16, Our Lady of Mt. 

26, St. Anne,. 

August 2, Portiuncula. 

6, Transfiguration. 
15, Assumption. 

September 8, Nativity of the Bless- 
ed Virgin Mary. 

14, Exaltation of the 

15, Sorrows of the Bless- 
ed Virgin Mary. 

17, Stigmata of St. 

24, Our Lady of Ransom. 
26, North American 


October 2, Holy Guardian 

3, St. Teresa of the 
Child Jesus. 

4, St. Francis of Assisi. 

7, Most Holy Rosary. 
31, Christ the King. 

November 1, All Saints. 
2, All Souls. 

December 8, Immaculate Concep- 

25, Nativity of Our Lord. 
28, Holy Innocents. 


The World Calendar 
(Courtesy of World Calendar Association) 

The year is composed, roughly, of 365% days. In our Gregorian Calen- 
dar, the extra quarter of a day is set aside until every fourth year, which 
then counts 366 days instead of 365 and becomes a "leap year.'* 

Neither 365 nor 366 is exactly divisible by 7, the number of days in 
a week. Hence, successive years begin on different days and have dif- 
ferent patterns. To remedy this, various "reforms" have been suggested. 

One general class of such suggestions would give each year 864 days, 
and instead of counting the extra day (two days in leap years) in the 
ordinary line-up of weekdays, the extra day (or days) would be se- 
questered, so to speak, and given a name of its own. Every year would 
then consist of 52 full weeks, plus one or two "supplementary," "blank, 
"special," days. This arrangement would make every year begin on the 
same day, and give every day of each month the same date in successive 

There have been' two principal varieties of this proposal. One 
would give the year 13 months of 28 days each a total again of 364. 
This plan has been traced back to an article in "Scot's Magazine for 
July, 1745, by a "Mr. Urban of Maryland." Its origin is more popularly 
attributed to Auguste Comte, who published an article on it in 1849. 
The 13 -month plan makes demands that are altogether too radical. It 
would lose all approximate correspondence with comparable dates in 
our present calendar, would introduce a new month, would be based on 
an indivisible unit of calculation (13), would offend the superstitions, etc. 
Today the 13-month calendar is hardly mentioned, since it has been 
definitely rejected by the League of Nations authorities entrusted with 
the study of calendar reform proposals. The same is true of intercalary 
week or month schemes. 

The other plan with the "supplementary day" was first proposed in its 
essential features by a Catholic priest, Marco Mastrofini, who published 
a work on it in Rome over a hundred years ago (1834). The plan is now 
widely known as "The World Calendar," due mainly to the activities of 
the World Calendar Association (630 Fifth Avenue, New York City; 
president, Miss Elisabeth Achelis). The World Calendar produces sym- 
metry by giving each quarter of the year three months with respectively 
31, 30 and 30 days. Every year begins on Sunday, as does also every 
quarter. The second month in each quarter begins on Wednesday, the 
third on Friday. The basic number 12, handily divisible by 2, 3, 4, and 6, 
is thus kept in a logical arrangement. In many cases, dates in the new 
calendar, when paralleled with the old, are the same: there is never a 
difference of more than two days. The added day in ordinary years, 
tentatively called Year-End Day, follows December 30. The second addi- 
tional day of leap years, called Leap-Year Day, follows June 30. Both 
days would be holidays. 

Easter could be fixed in the World Calendar for Sunday, April 8. While 
Easter stabilization has economic and social aspects, it is predominantly 
a religious Question and one that must be dealt with by religious authori- 
ties. The rearranging of the calendar need not, therefore, of necessity 
imply the fixing of movable ecclesiastical feasts. 

Many religious authorities, including a number of Catholic priests and 
scholars, find no basic difficulty in the idea of the supplementary day, 
since the Sunday legislation is primarily ecclesiastical and could be 
changed by Church authority. The Vatican has declared that there are 
no dogmatic objections to calendar reform. This statement seems to 
cover both fixation of movable feasts and use of the supplementary day. 



Every Catholic who has attained the age of reason, and is not pre- 
vented by sickness or other sufficient cause, is obliged to rest from 
servile work and attend Holy Mass on the following days : 

All Sundays of the year. 

The Circumcision of Our Lord, or New Year's Day, January 1. 

The Ascension of Our Lord, June 3, 1943. 

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, August 15. 

All Saints' Day, November 1. 

The Immaculate Conception of the B. V. M. (Patronal Feast of the 
United States), December 8. 

Christmas, the Nativity of Our Lord, December 25. 


The Law of Fasting affects all Catholics between the ages of 21 and 
60, unless health or other sufficient reason allows a dispensation. The law 
of fasting requires that only one full meal may be taken, although it does 
not forbid a small amount of food in the morning and evening, the quality 
and quantity of which is regulated according to local custom. Both fish 
and meat may be taken at the same meal where meat is allowed to those 
who are bound to fast. Fast days in the United States are: 

The Ember Days First week of Lent, March 17, 19, 20, 1943. 
Pentecost week, June 16, 18, 19, 1943. 
Third week in September, Sept. 15, 17, 18, 1943. 
Third week in December, Dec. 15, 17, 18, 1943. 

The Vigil of Pentecost, June 12, 1943. 

The Vigil of the Assumption, August 14. 

The Vigil of All Saints' Day, ordinarily a day of fast and abstinence, 
falls on a Sunday, Oct. 31, 1943, and though the observance of the vigil 
is kept on the preceding Saturday, there is no fast on either Saturday or 
Sunday in connection with this vigil, in this year. 

All the days of Lent, except Sundays, up to noon on Holy Saturday. 

The Law of Abstinence requires the abstaining from flesh meat and 
broth made from meat. The number of meals and amount taken remain 
unaffected. All the faithful who have completed their seventh year are 
obliged by the law of abstinence. Abstinence days for the United 
States are : 

All Fridays of the year (holydays falling on Fridays excepted). 

Wednesdays and Fridays of Lent (for Wednesday in Holy Week see 
your diocesan Lenten regulations). 

Ember days and vigils listed above under fast days. 


Rogation Days are days of solemn supplication to God for a good and 
bountiful harvest and for His protection in calamities, and to appease 
His anger at man's transgressions. Formerly they were also observed 
by fasting, but this is no longer obligatory. Where practicable a solemn 
procession is a feature of the observance. There are three Minor Roga- 
tion Days, which are the three days preceding the feast of the Ascension 
(May 31, June 1 and 2, 1943), and one Major Rogation Day, on the feast of 
St. Mark, April 25. The observance of St. Mark's Day as the day of the 
Major Litanies originated about 600 when during a plague in Rome Pope 
St. Gregory ordered a procession to be held to implore God's mercy; and 
the pestilence immediately abated. The Minor Rogation Days were 
formally instituted by the Fifth Council of Orleans, 511, and approved 
by Pope Leo III. 




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Standard time is the time commonly in use and is based on solar time. 
When the sun is on the meridian of any place, the time at that place is 
called noon or twelve o'clock. All places having the same meridian have 
noon at the same time. And this hour varies in different places according 
to their meridian. In other words, when it is noon at a given place, it is 
afternoon in places to the eastward and still forenoon in places to the 
westward, since the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. These dif- 
ferences in time led to great confusion especially in the case of railroads. 
Hence a standard of time was necessary. An international conference met 
at Washington in 1884. Most of the 26 delegates present favored the 
adoption of Greenwich as the common prime meridian to be used in 
reckoning longitude, and this is almost universally employed. On it is 
based Standard Time. 

The railroads of the United States and Canada had the previous year 
decided on the introduction of Standard Time to take effect at noon, 
Nov. 18, 1883. Its divisions depend on a mean of solar time applied to 
every meridian distant from Greenwich at exact multiples of 15. The 
time difference for each succeeding meridian is one hour. The Standard 
Time meridians of the United States and Canada are: 

Time Meridian Difference from Greenwich 

Colonial 60 4 hours slower than Greenwich 

Eastern 75 5 " 

Central 90 6 " 

Mountain 105 7 " 

Pacific 120 8 " 

On journeying from one belt to another it is necessary to change the 

time only by the whole hour on entering and leaving. 



War Time prolongs the hours of daylight by advancing the clocks of 
the nation one hour. War Time became effective for the first time in the 
nation's history on Feb. 9, 1942, at 2 a. m. and shall remain in effect 
until six months after the end of the present war. 


In the Temperate Zone there are four seasons: Spring begins at the 
vernal equinox, summer at the summer solstice, autumn at the autumnal 
equinox and winter at the winter solstice. In the North Temperate Zone 
these dates are approximately March 21, June 21, September 23 and 
December 21. 

At the vernal and autumnal equinoxes day and night are of equal 
length the world over, due to the fact that the earth's axis is then at 
right angles to the direction of the sun. Lengthening days bring in- 
creasing heat, hence the warmth of the summer season. At the summer 
solstice the day is longest. The shortest day of the year occurs at the 
winter solstice. 

Indian Summer is a period of pleasant mild weather occurring in 
October or November, or sometimes as late as December, in the Central 
and Eastern States. The origin of the term is unknown. It occurs first 
in printing in 1794 and was introduced from America into England. 
There similar weather is usually termed "All Hallow Summer" or "St. 


Martin's Summer/' In Germany it also occurs and is known as "St. Luke's 
Summer" or "Old Woman's Summer." 

The seasons of 1943 Eastern War Time begin as follows: 
Spring March 21st, at 8:03 a. m. 
Summer June 22nd, at 3:13 a. m. 
Autumn September 23rd, at 6:12 p. m. 
Winter December 22nd, at 1:30 p.m. 

The Names of Months 

January The Roman Janus presided over the beginning of every- 
thing; hence the first month of the year was named after him. 

February The Roman festival Februs was held on the fifteenth day 
of this month, in honor of Lupercus, the god of fertility. 

March Named from the Roman god of war, Mars. 

April The Latin word, Aprilis, is probably derived from aperwe, 
to open; because spring generally begins and the buds open in this month. 

May The Latin word, Mains, is probably derived from Maia, a fem- 
inine divinity worshiped at Rome on the first day of this month. 

June from Juno, a Roman divinity worshiped as the Queen of Heaven. 

July From Julius. Julius Caesar was born in this month. 

August Named by the Emperor Augustus Caesar, 30 B.C., after 
himself, as he regarded it a fortunate month, in which he had gained 
several victories. 

September From septem, meaning seven. September was the seventh 
month in the old Roman year. 

October From O cto t meaning eight. October was the eighth month 
in the old Roman year. 

November From novem, meaning nine. November was the ninth 
month in the old Roman year. 

December From decem, meaning ten. December was the tenth month 
in the old Roman year, 

Days of the Week 

Sunday From Anglo-Saxon, Sunnandaeg, day of the sun. 

Monday From Anglo-Saxon, Monadaeg, day of the moon. 

Tuesday From Anglo-Saxon, Tiwesdaeg, from Tiw, Norse god of war. 

Wednesday From Anglo-Saxon, Wodnesdaeg, day of the god Woden. 

Thursday From Anglo-Saxon, Thunresdaeg, from Thor, Danish god 
of thunder. 

Friday From Anglo-Saxon, Frigudaeg, from Frigga, Norse goddess 
of marriage. 

Saturday From Anglo-Saxon, Saeterdaeg, from Saturn, god of time. 


New Year's Day, Friday, Jan. 1, 1943. 

Washington's Birthday, Monday, Feb. 22, 1943. 

Independence Day, Sunday, July 4, 1943. 

Labor Day, first Monday in September, Sept. 6, 1943. 

Armistice Day, Thursday, Nov. 11, 1943. 

Thanksgiving Day, last Thursday in November, Nov. 25, 1943. 

Christmas Day, Saturday, December 25, 1943. 



Jan. 8 Battle of New Orleans 

(In La.). 
Jan. 17 Benjamin Franklin's 

Jan. 19 H. B. Lee's Birthday (In 

Southern States). 
Jan. 20 Inauguration Day, 1937, 

and every fourth year thereafter 

(in D. C.)- 

Jan. 29 Win. McKinley's Birth- 
day (in Ohio). 
Feb. 12 Lincoln's Birthday (in 

most States). 

Georgia Day (in Ga.). 
Pel). 14 st. Valentine's Day, 

Admission Day (in Ariz.). 
March 2 Texas Independence Day 

(in Tex.). 
March 4 Pennsylvania Day (in 


March 7 Luther Burbank's Birth- 
day (in Gal.). 
March 9 Shrove Tuesday. 

-Mardi Gras (in Ala., Fla., and 

March 22 Emancipation Day (in 

Puerto Rico). 

March 25 Maryland Day (in Md.). 
March 30 Seward Day (in Alaska). 
April 12 Anniversary Passage of 

Halifax Independence Resolu- 
tions (in N. C.). 
April 13 Thomas Jefferson r s 

Birthday (in Ala.). 
April 14 Pan-American Day. 
April 16 De Diego's Birthday (in 

Puerto Rico). 
April 19 Patriots* Day (in Mass. 

and Me.). 
April 21 Anniversary of Battle of 

San Jacinto (in Tex.). 
April 22 J. Sterling Morton's 

Birthday (in Neb.). 
April 23 Good Friday (in many 

April 24 National Wild Flowers 


April- 25 Easter Sunday. 
April 26 Confederate Memorial 

Day (in Ky. and N. C.). 
May I May Day. Child Health 


May 12 National Hospital Day 
(Florence Nightingale's Birthday). 

May 18 Peace Day. World Good- 
will Day. 

May 20 Anniversary of Signing 
of Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence (in N. C.). 

May 30 Decoration or Memorial 
Day (in most States), 

Confederate Memorial Day (in 

3 Jefferson Davis' Birthday. 
Confederate Memorial Day (in 

June 11 Kamehameha Day (in 


June 14 Flag Day. 
June 15 Pioneer Day (in Idaho). 
June 17 Bunker Hill Day. 
June 20 West Virginia Day (in 

W. Va.). 
July IS Gen. Bedford Forrest's 

Birthday (in Tenn.). 
July 17 Munoz Rivera Day (in 

Puerto Rico). 

July 24 Pioneer Day (in Utah). 
July 25 Occupation Day (in 

Puerto Rico). 
July 27 Dr. Barbosa's Birthday 

(in Puerto Rico). 
Aug. 1 Colorado Day (in Col.), 
Aug. 16 Anniversary of Battle of 

Bennington (in Vt). 
Sept. 6 -Lafayette Day (in many 


Sept. 9 Admission Day (in Cal.). 
Sept. 12 Defenders' Day (in Md.) . 
Sept. 17 Constitution Day. 
Oct. 1 Missouri Day (in Mo. 


Oct. 9 Fraternal Day (in Ala.). 
Oct. 12 Columbus Day (in most 


Oct. 18 Alaska Day (in Alaska). 
Oct. 27 Navy Day. 
Oct. 31 Hallowe'en. 

Admission Day (in Nev.). 
Nov. 2 General Election Day. 
Dec. 6 St. Nicholas Day. 

Dec. 7 Delaware Day (in Del.). 
Dec. 14 Alabama Day (in Ala.). 
Dec. 28 Woodrow Wilson's Birth- 
day (in S. C.). 


DAY 200 YEARS: 1752- TO 1952 INCLUSIVE 

(For example, to find on what day of the week November 11, 1918, fell, look in the 

table of years for 1918, and In a parallel line under November is figure 5, which directs 
to column 5, in which it will be seen that November 11 fell on Monday in that year.) 

Common Years 1753 to 1951 




























































































































































































8 If) 



































































Leap Years 1756 to 1952 













































































































































Monday 1 
Tuesday 2 
Wednesday 3 
Thursday 4 

Tuesday 1 ^ 
Wednesday 2 ' 
Thursday 3 
Friday 4 

Wednesday 1 
rhursday 2 
Friday t 
Saturday 4 

Thursday 1 
Friday 2 
Saturday 3 


Friday 1 
Saturday 2 
Monday 4 

Saturday 1 
Monday 3 
Tuesday 4 

Mtonday 2 
Tuesday 3 
Wednesday 4 

Friday 5 
Saturday 6 
Monday 8 
Tuesday 9 
Wednesday 10 

Saturday 5 
Monday 7 
Tuesday 8 " 
Wednesday 9 ' 
Thursday 10 

vlonday t 
Tuesday 7 
Wednesday ? 
rhursday 9 
Friday 10 

Monday 5 
Tuesday 6 
Wednesday 7 
Thursday 8 
Friday 9 
Saturday 10 

Tuesday 5 
Wednesday 6 

Thursday 7 
Friday 8 
Saturday 9 


Wednesday 5 
Thursday 6 
Friday 7 
Saturday 8 
Monday 10 

Thursday 5 
Friday 6 
Saturday 7 
Monday 9 
Tuesday 10 

Thursday 11 
Friday 12 
Saturday 13 
Monday 15 
Tuesday 16 
Wednesday 17 
Thursday 18 
Friday 19 

Friday 11 
Saturday 12 
Monday 14 
Tuesday 15 
Wednesday 16 
Thursday 17 
Friday 18 
Saturday 19 

Saturday 11 
Monday 13 
Tuesday 14 
Wednesday 15 
rhursday 16 
Friday 17 
Saturday 18 

Monday 12 
Tuesday 13 
Wednesday 14 
Thursday 15 
Friday 16 
Saturday 17 
Monday 19 

Monday 11 
Tuesday 12 
Wednesday 13 
Thursday 14 
Friday 15 
Saturday 16 
Monday 18 
Tuesday 19 

Tuesday 11 
Wednesday 12 
Thursday 13 
Friday 14 
Saturday 15 
Monday 17 
Tuesday 18 
Wednesday 19 

Wednesday 11 
Thursday 12 
Friday 13 
Saturday 14 
Monday 16 
Tuesday 17 
Wednesday 18 
Thursday 19 

Saturday 20 
Monday 22 
Tuesday 23 
Wednesday 24 
Thursday 25 
Friday 26 
Saturday 27 
Monday 29 
Tuesday 30 
Wednesday 31 

Monday 21 
Tuesday 22 
Wednesday 23 
Thursday 24 
Friday 25 
Saturday 26 
Monday 28 
Tuesday 29 
Wednesday 30 
Thursday 31 

Monday 20 
Tuesday 2] 
Wednesday 22 
rhursday 23 
Friday 2^ 
Saturday 25 
Monday 27 
Tuesday 2i 
Wednesday 29 
rhursday 30 
Friday 31 

Tuesday 20 
Wednesday 21 
Thursday 22 
Friday 23 
Saturday 24 
Monday 26 
Tuesday 27 
Wednesday 28 
Thursday 29 
Friday 30 
Saturday 31 

Wednesday 20 
Thursday 21 
Friday 22 
Saturday 23 
Monday 25 
Tuesday 26 
Wednesday 27 
Thursday 28 
Friday 29 
Saturday 30 

Thursday 20 
Friday 21 
Saturday 22 
Monday 24 
Tuesday 25 
Wednesday 26 
Thursday 27 
Friday 28 
Saturday 29 
Monday 31 

Friday 20 
Saturday 21 
Monday 23 
Tuesday 24 
Wednesday 25 
Thursday 26 
Friday 27 
Saturday 28 
Monday 30 
Tuesday 31 

*In Great Britain and the United States, where the Gregorian Calendar was not 
adopted till 1752: 1752 is the same as 1772 from January 1 to September 2. From 
September 14 to December 31 it is the same as 1780. September 3-13 were omitted. 


(Approximate dates are here given based on the year 4 B. C. as the date of the 
birth of Christ; of many events, such as the Flight into Egypt, His Passion and 
Death, exact dates cannot be determined. Scholars agree that Christ could not have 
been born later than 4 B. C>, as Herod, whose Massacre of the Innocents followed 
Chris ?s birth t died in that year.) 

Year Date Event 

19 B. C. Dec. 8 Conception of the Blessed Virgin. 
18 B. C. Sept. 8 Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. 

15 B. C. Nov. 21 Presentation of the Blessed Virgin at the age of three. 
7 B. C. Death of St. Joachim at eighty years of age and of St. 

Ann at seventy-nine years. 
5 B. C. Annunciation by the Angel Gabriel to Zachary that his 

wife Elizabeth would bring forth a son. 

4 B. C. Mar. 25 Annunciation by the Angel Gabriel to the Blessed Vir- 
gin that she was to be the Mother of God. 

4 B. C. The Blessed Virgin visits her cousin Elizabeth. 

4 B. C. June 24 Nativity of John the Baptist, son of Elizabeth and 


Dec. 25 Birth of Christ. 
3 B. C. Jan. 1 Circumcision of Our Lord. 
Jan. 6 Adoration of the Magi. 
Feb. 2 Presentation of Christ in the Temple. 
Plight into Egypt. 
Massacre of the Holy Innocents. 

2 B. C. Return of Joseph and the Holy Family out of Egypt. 

9 A. D. Jesus comes with His parents from Nazareth to Jerusa- 

lem for three days. 

27 A. D. John begins to preach the baptism of penance. 

28 A. D. Baptism of Christ by St. John. 

Christ retires to the desert and fasts for forty days. 
Christ changes water into wine at the marriage feast 

of Cana in Galilee. 
Christ celebrates the first Passover. 
At the command of Herod Antipas, son of Herod Agrip- 

pa, John is imprisoned. 
Christ begins publicly to preach to the Jews. 

29 A. D. Second year of Christ's preaching. 

Christ celebrates the second Passover. 
Christ chooses His twelve apostles. 

30 A. D. Third year of Christ's preaching. 

Christ celebrates the third Passover. 
Christ chooses His .seventy-two disciples. 

31 A. D. Apr. 9 Christ's triumphal entry into Jerusalem. 

Apr. 10 Christ prays daily in the Temple; returns in the eve- 
ning to Bethania to pray in the Garden of Gethsemani. 
Apr. 12 Judas agrees to deliver up Jesus to the chief priests for 

a sum of money. 
Apr. 13 The disciples prepare the Paschal Lamb which Christ 

and the Apostles eat. 
Christ washes the feet of the Apostles. 
After supper, Christ institutes the Blessed Sacrament. 
He suffers a bloody sweat in agony of spirit as He 
prays for three hours in the Garden of Gethsemani, 
is betrayed by Judas and seized by the soldiers. 
Christ is led before Annas and Caiphas. 


Apr. 14 Early in the morning He is delivered up to Pilate who 

declares Him innocent. 

Apprehensive of the emperor's displeasure, Pilate con- 
demns Him at about nine o'clock in the morning 
to death by crucifixion. 
The crucifixion of Christ at noon. 
Christ dies at three o'clock. 
He is buried on the same day. 
Apr. 16 Christ rises from the dead and appears at five different 


Apr. 23 Christ in the midst of His Apostles shows His wounds 
to Thomas who thereupon believes He is the risen 

May 25 The Ascension of Christ into heaven. 
June 4 Christ sends down the Holy Ghost upon His disciples. 


He converses with Nicodemus " Jerusalem 

He converses with the Samaritan woman Sichar 

He vindicates His disciples for not fasting Capharnaum 

He vindicates Himself and His mission Jerusalem 

He vindicates His disciples for plucking corn on the Sabbath Galilee 

He vindicates Himself for healing the withered hand on the 

Sabbath Galilee 

He preaches the Sermon on the Mount Thabor 

He denounces Corozain, refutes calumny of Jews Capharnaum 

He instructs the Apostles Galilee 

He discourses concerning the heavenly bread Capharnaum 

He discourses concerning internal purity Capharnaum 

He discourses against giving or taking scandal Capharnaum 

He 'discourses on fraternal correction Capharnaum 

He discourses at the feast of Tabernacles Jerusalem 

He discourses on the adulterous woman brought before Him Jerusalem 

He discourses on the qualities of His sheep. . . Jerusalem 

He instructs the seventy-two disciples Peraea 

He denounces the Scribes and Pharisees Peraea 

He discourses against the fear of death Peraea 

He discourses against worldly solicitude Peraea 

He discourses on self-denial Caesarea Philippi 

He discourses on matrimony, in favor of virginity Judea 

He discourses on His second coming and the destruction of 

the wicked Jerusalem 

He discourses on the salvation of the rich and the happiness 

of renouncing all for Christ Judea 

He converses with Martha Bethany 

He exhorts to faith in opposition to the credulity of the Jews. . .Jerusalem 

He discourses on the lawfulness of His mission Jerusalem 

He discourses on the first commandment Jerusalem 

He discourses on the destruction of Jerusalem Jerusalem 

He discourses on the sufferings of the Apostles Jerusalem 

He discourses concerning watchfulness .Jerusalem 

He discourses on His last coming Jerusalem 

He talks with Peter on the occasion of washing his feet Jerusalem 

He discourses on superiority Jerusalem 

He consoles His Apostles after the last supper Jerusalem 

He continues His consolation on the way to Gethsemani 

He discourses with His disciples before His Ascension Bethany 



Cana He turns water into wine. 

Cana He cures the ruler's son of Capharnaum. 

Sea of Galilee. . . He causes a miraculous draught of fishes. 

Capharnaum He delivers a man possessed with an unclean spirit. 

Capharnaum He heals Peter's mother-in-law of a fever. 

Sea of Galilee He quiets a violent storm. 

Gadara He cures the demoniacs of Gadara. 

Capharnaum He cures a man of the palsy. 

Capharnaum He cures a woman of an issue of blood. 

Capharnaum He restores the daughter of Jairus to life. 

Capharnaum He restores sight to two blind men. 

Capharnaum He heals a dumb man possessed by a devil. 

Jerusalem He cures an infirm man at the Pool of Bethsaida. 

Capharnaum He cures a man with a withered hand. 

Capharnaum He cleanses a leper. 

Nairn He heals the centurion's servant. 

Nairn He raises the widow's son to life. 

Decapolis With five loaves and two fishes He feeds 5,000 people. 

Sea of Galilee . . . He walks upon the sea, enables Peter to do the same. 
Sea of Galilee ... He calms the tempest, heals the sick. 

Near Tyre He heals the daughter of the Canaanite woman. 

Decapolis He cures the deaf and dumb and many others. 

Decapolis He feeds 4,000 people with seven loaves and a few fishes. 

Bethsaida He gives sight to a blind man. 

Thabor He cures the boy possessed with a dumb spirit. 

Samaria He cleanses ten lepers. 

Galilee He heals an infirm woman. 

Galilee He cures a man of dropsy. 

Bethania He raises Lazarus to life. 

Jericho He cures two blind men. 

Jerusalem He casts out the buyers and sellers in the Temple. 

Olivet He curses the barren fig tree. 

Gethsemani He makes the officers and people fall before Him. 

Gethsemani He heals the ear of Malchus. 

Sea of Galilee He causes a miraculous draught of fishes. 


Two Debtors Capharnaum Lost Sheep Galilee 

Sower " Lost Piece of Money 

Tares " Prodigal Son " 

Seed Sprung up Un- Dishonest Steward 

noticed " Rich Man and Lazarus 

Grain of Mustard Seed " Unjust Judge Peraea 

Leaven " Pharise'e and Publican .... " 

Found Treasure " Laborers in the Vineyard. . 

Precious Pearl " Pounds Jericho 

Net " Barren Fig Tree Jerusalem 

Hundred Sheep " Two Sons " 

Samaritans Near Jericho The Vineyard 

Rich Glutton Galilee Marriage Feast 

Servants Who Waited for " Ten Virgins 

Their Lord Talents 



1 A.D. (4 B.C.) BIrtli of our Lord Jesus Christ at Bethlehem in Judea. 

33 Crucifixion and Death of Jesus Christ on Mount Calvary. 

34 Conversion of Saul of Tarsus. 

39 Reception into the Church of the first Gentile, Cornelius the 

Centurion, by St. Peter. 
42 Spread of the Faith as a result of the persecution of Herod 

which forced the Christians to flee from Palestine, 
46- 58 The Missionary journeys of St. Paul during which he con- 
verted many Gentiles. 

50 TJm Council of Jerusalem, the first held in the Church, which 
decreed that converts from paganism were not held to the 
observance of the Jewish Law. 
67 The Martyrdom of Sts. Peter and Paul. 
70 The destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. 
64- 305 The period of the ten great persecutions of the Infant Church 

by the Roman Emperors. 
100 The death of St. John the Evangelist, the last of the Apostles. 

With his death the deposit of faith was closed. 

313 The Edict of Milan issued by Constantino the Great, by 
which Christianity received legal recognition within the 
Roman Empire. 

325 The Council of Nicea, the first ecumenical council, which 
condemned the heresiarch Arius for teaching that the Son 
is inferior to the Father. The Council also formulated the 
Nicene Creed. 

361 The revival of paganism under Julian the Apostate. 
376 The beginning of the Barbarian Invasions. 
381 The end of paganism in the Roman Empire under Theodosius. 
386 The conversion of St. Augustine by St. Ambrose. 
391- 405 Translation of the Bible into Latin by St. Jerome. 

431 Condemnation of Nestorius by the Council of Bphesus for 

teaching that Mary is not the Mother of God but only the 
Mother of Christ the Man. 

432 The arrival in Ireland of St. Patrick to complete the con- 

version of the people and to establish the hierarchy. 
476 The end of the Western Roman Empire. 
496 Conversion of Clovis, King of the Franks. Soon after, the 

whole nation embraced Catholicism. This conversion of a 

powerful Germanic people sealed the doom of Arianism. 
529 St. Benedict, the Father of Western Monasticism, began his 

great work with the foundation of the Monastery of Monte 


532 Justinian wrote his famous code of laws. 
596 St. Augustine began the conversion of the English. 
622 The Flight (Hegira) of the Mohammed from Mecca and the 

beginning of the Mohammedan conquest 
719 The beginning of the conversion of the Germans by St. 

732 The battle of Poitiers at which Charles Martel defeated the 

Moors, thus saving Europe, 
756 The beginning of the Papal States with the bequest of some 

territory to Pope Stephen by Pepin the Short. 
800 Coronation of Charlemagne by Pope Leo III. 


1041 The Truce of God. 

1054 The beginning of the Eastern Schism. 

1066 The conquest of England by the Normans. 

1077 The Emperor, Henry IV, appeared before Pope St. Gregory 

at Canossa to beg his pardon. 
1096-1271 The period of the Crusades to regain the Holy Places from 

the Saracens. 
1156 The founding of the Order of Our Lady of Mt Carmel by 

the crusader Berthold of Calabria with ten companions. 
1184 Establishment of the Inquisition by Pope Lucius III. 
1205 Foundation of the Order of Preachers by St. Dominic. 
1207 Foundation of the Order of Friars Minor by St. Francis of 


1274 Reunion of East and West for a short time. 
1309-1376 The Babylonian exile of the Papacy at Avignon. 
1378-1417 The Great Schism of the West. 
1439-1453 Temporary reunion of the Greeks and Latins. 
1480 The Spanish Inquisition. 
1492 The discovery of the New World. 
1517 The beginning of the Protestant Reformation. 
1523 Zwingli began the Reformation in Switzerland. 
1534 The foundation of the Society of Jesus by St. Ignatius Loyola 

to counteract the work of the Reformation. 
1534 The passage of the Act of Supremacy which made the King 

the head of the Church of England. 

1536 John Calvin began the work of the Reformation in Geneva. 
1545-1563 The Council of Trent was held to remedy the abuses which 

had brought on the Reformation. 
1569 On St. Bartholomew's Day a number of Catholic nobles of 

France were massacred by the Hugenots. On the same day 

in 1572 the assassins and some 700 Hugenots were killed 

by mobs. 
1571 The naval battle of Lepanto which resulted in a brilliant 

victory for the Christians and marked the beginning of 

Turkish decadence. 

1588 The defeat of the Spanish Armada. 
1598 The Edict of Nantes granting liberty of worship to the 


1608 Jansenius began work on his book, "Augustinus," in an en- 
deavor to discover the ideas of Baius in the works of St. 


1649 Cromwell lays Ireland waste. 

1743 Febronius opposed the authority of the Church of Rome. 
1780 The beginning of ecclesiastical reform by the Emperor 

Joseph II of Austria which is called "Josephinism." 
1789 The French Revolution and the rise of neo-paganism. 
1809 The annexation of the Papal States and the carrying into 

captivity of Pope Pius VII by Napoleon. 
1829 Catholic Emancipation won in the British Isles by Daniel 


1870 The seizure of Rome and the Papal States by Garibaldi. 

1871 The beginning of the "Kulturkampf* in Germany. The so- 

called "May Laws" which sought to transform bishops and 
priests into state officials were passed in 1873 and 1874. 

1903 Expulsion of religious congregations from France, followed 
by confiscation of Church property in 1906. 

1910 The Laws of Separation in Portugal. 








Beginning of the religious persecution in Mexico under Presi- 
dent Carranza. This continued under Obregon, Calies, Gil 
and Cardenas. 

Pope Benedict XV promulgated the "Code of Canon Law." 

The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and the spread of 

The Lateran Treaty and Concordat whereby the Roman 
Question was settled. The sovereignty and independence of 
the Pope were recognized. 

The proclamation of the Spanish Republic was followed by 
a bitter persecution of the Church and her religious orders. 

In Germany Hitler began persecution of the Church by the 
arrest of many priests and religious on trumped-up charges 
of immorality. Revolution in Spain was accompanied by many 
outrages against the Church: destruction and seizure of her 
institutions, slaying of bishops, priests and nuns. 

New Constitution of Eire came into force. 

Victory of Franco ended revolution and anarchy in Spain. 
Pope Pius XII called Franco the saviour of civilization. 

Outbreak of the Second World War. 


Peter, originally named Simon, son 
of Jona, called Peter (Gr., petra, 
rock) by Christ when He appointed 
him chief of the Apostles and 
head of the Church. Scourged and 
crucified head downward at Rome 
by Nero, A. D. 67. Feast, June 29. 

Andrew, brother of Peter. Cruci- 
fied on an X-shaped cross at Achaia 
by the Roman governor Aegeus, 
A. D. 60. Feast, Nov. 30. 

James the Greater, son of Zebe- 
dee, elder brother of John the 
Evangelist. Perished by the sword 
under Herod Agrippa, at Jerusalem, 
A.D. 44. Feast, July 25. 

John, brother of James the Great- 
er. Plunged into a cauldron of boil- 
ing oil at Rome, but escaped un- 
hurt and died a natural death at 
Ephesus about A. D. 100. Feast, 
Dec. 27. 

Philip, native of Bethsaida, as 
was also Peter. Said to have been 
hanged against a pillar in Phrygia. 
Feast, May 1. 

James the Less, son of Alpheus 
and Mary of Cleophas, who was 
probably the sister of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, hence a cousin, 
called "brother," of Christ. Stoned 
by the Jews and killed with a full- 
er's club about A. D. 62. Feast, 
May 1. 

Thomas. Said to have labored in 
India, where he was run through 
with a lance at Coromandel. The 
Thomas Christians trace their ori- 
gin to him. Feast, Dec. 21. 

Bartholomew, friend of Philip. 
Said to have been skinned alive in 
Armenia. Feast, Aug. 24. 

Matthew, a Galilean, son of Al- 
pheus, and originally known as 
Levi. Martyred probably by the 
sword in Ethiopia. Feast, Sept. 21. 

Matthias, chosen from among the 
disciples of Christ to replace the 
Apostle Judas. Martyred probably 
in Jerusalem, first stoned and then 
beheaded. Feast, Feb. 24. 

Jude or Thaddeus, brother of 
James the Less. Said to have been 
shot to death with arrows in Meso- 
potamia. Feast, Oct. 28. 

Simon. Said to have been cruci- 
fied in Persia. Feast, Oct. 28. 

Paul, a Jew of the tribe of Ben- 
jamin, but a Roman citizen, and 
persecutor of the Christians until 
miraculously converted by an ap- 
parition of Our Lord. He is con- 
sidered one of the Apostles with 
whom he labored to convert men 
to Christ. Beheaded outside one 
of the gates of Rome by Nero, A. D. 
67. Feast, June 29. 



Authorities differ concerning the correct list of the Popes. The follow- 
ing is the official list printed in the "Annuario Pontificio" and 4aken 
from a series of portraits in the Basilica of St. Paul near Rome. We ven- 
erate eighty-three Popes as saints, seven as blessed. One hundred and 
three Popes have been Romans; one hundred and seven were natives of 
other parts of Italy; thirteen were French, eleven Greek, seven German, 
five Asiatic, three African, three Spanish, two Dalmatian. Palestine, 
Thrace, Crete, Epirus, Galicia, Holland, Portugal and England have each 
furnished one occupant of the papal chair. 


Date of of Pon- 

Acces- Date of tt fie ate 

Name Bhth place sion Death Yr, Mo. 

1. St. Peter, Martyr* Galilee S3 67 33 11 

2. St. Linus, Martyr Volterra 67 78 11 3 

3. St. Cletus, Martyr Rome 78 90 12 1 

4. St. Clement I, Martyr Rome 90 100 9 2 

5. St. Anacletus, Martyr Athens 100 112 12 10 

6. St. Evaristus, Martyr Bethlehem 112 121 9 7 

7. St. Alexander I, Martyr .... Rome 121 132 10 7 

8. St. Sixtus I, Martyr Rome 132 142 9 3 

9. St. Telesphorus, Martyr . . . Greece 142 154 11 3 

10. St. Hyginus, Martyr Greece 154 158 4 3 

11. St. Pius I, Martyr Aquileia 158 167 8 3 

12. St. Anicetus, Martyr Emesa 175 11 4 

13. St. Soter, Martyr Campania 182 9 3 

14. St. Eleutherius, Martyr .... Epirus 193 15 4 

15. St. Victor I, Martyr Africa 193 203 10 2 

16. St. Zephyrinus, Martyr . . . '. Rome 203 221 17 2 

17. St. Calixtus I, Martyr Rome 221 227 5 2 

18. St. Urban I, Martyr Rome 227 233 6 7 

19. St. Pontian, Martyr Rome 233 238 5 2 

20. St. Anterus, Martyr Greece 238 239 1 1 

21. St. Fabian, Martyr Rome 239 253 13 1 

22. St. Cornelius, Martyr Rome 253 255 3 

23. St. Lucius I, Martyr Rome 255 257 3 3 

24. St. Stephen I, Martyr Rome 257 260 4 2 

25. St. Sixtus II, Martyr Greece 260 261 11 

26. St. Dionysius Greece 261 272 11 3 

27. St. Felix I, Martyr Rome 272 275 2 10 

28. St. Eutychian, Martyr Luni 275 283 8 10 

29. St. Caius, Martyr Dalmatia 283 296 12 4 

30. St. Marcellinus, Martyr Rome 296 304 8 2 

31. St. Marcellus I, Martyr Rome 304 309 5 7 

32. St. Eusebius Greece 309 311 2 1 

33. St. Melchiades Africa 311 313 3 7 

34. St. Sylvester I Rome 314 337 23 10 

35. St. Marcus Rome 337 340 2 8 

36. St. Julius I Rome 341 352 11 2 

37. St. Liberius Rome 352 366 10 7 

38. St. Felix II Rome 363 365 1 3 

39. St. Damasus I Spain 367 384 18 2 

40. St. Siricius Rome 384 398 15 11 

41. St. Anastasius I Rome 399 402 2 10 

42. St. Innocent I Albano 402 417 15 2 

43. St. Zozimus Greece 417 418 1 9 

*St. Peter, after his election by Christ as His vicar on earth, resided first at Antioch, His 
Roman pontificate lasted 25 years and 2" months. 


Date o 

f of Pon- 


Date of tifrcAte 








St. Boniface I 


.... 418 





St. Celestine I 


. . . . 423 





St. Sixtus III 


. . . . 432 




St. Leo I (the Great) 


. . . . 440 





St. Hilary 


. . . . 461 





St. Simplicius 


. . . . 468 




St. Felix III 


, . . . 483 





St. Gelasius I 


. . . . 492 





St. Anastasius II 


... 496 





St. Symmachus 


... 498 





St. Hormisdas 


... 514 




St. John I, Martyr 


... 523 





St. Felix IV 


... 526 





Boniface II 


... 530 




John H 


... 532 





St. Agapitus 


... 535 




St. Silverius, Martyr 


... 536 






... 538 




Pelagius I 


.. 555 





John III 


... 560 





Benedict I 


... 574 





Pelagius II 


... 578 





St. Gregory I (the Great) . . . 


... 590 







... 604 





Boniface III 


... 607 




St. Boniface IV 


... 608 





St. Adeodatus I (Deusdedit) 


... 615 




Boniface V 


... 619 





Honorius I 


... 625 







... 640 




John IV 


... 640 





Theodore I 


... 642 





St. Martin I, Martyr 


... 649 





St. Eugenius I 


... 655 





St. Vitalian 


... 657 





Adeodatus II 


... 672 





Domnus I 


... 676 





St. Agatho 


... 678 





St. Leo II 


... 682 




St. Benedict II 


... 684 




John V 


... 685 






... 686 




St. Sergius I 


... 687 





John VI 


... 701 





John VII 


... 705 







... 708 





... 708 




St. Gregory II 


... 715 





St. Gregory III 


... 731 





St. Zachary 


... 741 





Stephen II 


... 752 



St. Stephen III 


... 752 




St. Paul I 


... 757 





Stephen IV 


... 768 





Adrian I 


... 771 






Date of of Pon- 

Acces- Date of tificate 








St. Leo III 

, . Rome 

.... 795 





St. Stephen V 

. . Rome 

.... 816 




St. Paschal I 

. . Rome 





Eugenius II 

. . Rome 

.... 824 






. . Rome 





Gregory IV 

. . Rome 

.... 827 




Sergius II 

. . Rome 






St. Leo IV 

. . Rome 

.... 847 





Benedict III 

. . Rome 

.... 855 





St. Nicholas I (the Great) , 

. . Rome 

.... 858 





Adrian II 

. . Rome 






John VIII 

. . Rome 

.... 872 




Marinus I (Martin II) .... 

. . Galicia 

.... 882 





St. Adrian III 

. . Rome 

.... 884 





Stephen VI , 

. . Rome 

.... 885 





. . Ostia 

.... 891 





Stephen VII 

. . Rome 

.... 896 






. . Gaul 





Theodore II 

. . Rome 

.... 898 



John IX 

. . Tivoli 





Benedict IV 

. . Rome 






Leo V 

. . Ardea 

.... 903 





. . Rome 

.... 903 




Sergius III 

, . Rome 

.... 904 





Anastasius III 

, . Rome 

.... 911 





Landus , 

. , Sahino 

.... 913 




John X 

, . Ravenna 

.... 915 





Leo VI 

, . Rome 




Stephen VIII 

. . Rome 






John XI 

. . Rome 






Leo VII 

, . Rome 

.... 936 





Stephen IX 

, . Germany 






Marinus II (Martin III) . . , 

. . Rome 






Agapitus II 

. . Rome 






John XII 

. . Rome 

.... 956 





Benedict V 

, . Rome 






John XIII 

, . Rome 






Benedict VI 

. . Rome 






Domnus II 

. Rome 

. . . . 973 




Benedict VII 

. Rome 






John XIV 

. Pavia ... 





John XV 

. . Rome 

.... 985 





Gregory V 

. . Saxony 

.... 996 





Sylvester II 

. . France 






John XVI or XVII 

, . Rome 

.... 1003 





. . Rome 






Sergius IV 

. . Rome 






Benedict VIII 

. . Rome 






John XVIII, XIX, or XX 

. . Rome 

.... 1024 




Benedict IX (res. 1044) . . , 

. . Rome 

.... 1033 




Gregory VI (abd. 1046) . . , 

, , Rome 





Clement II 

. . Saxony 





Damasus II 

. . Germany 




St. Leo IX 

. . Germany 

.... 1049 





Victor II 

. . Bavaria 

.... 1055 





Date of 

of Pon- 


Date oj 

' tifi 









Stephen X 

Germany , 

. 1057 




Nicolas II 


. 1059 





Alexander II 


. 1061 





St. Gregory VII 


. 1073 





Bl. Victor III 


. 1087 




Bl. Urban II 


. 1088 





Paschal II 







Gelasius II 






Callistus II 


. 1119 





Honorius II 


. 1124 





Innocent II 


. 1130 





Celestine II 


. 1143 




Lucius II 


. 1144 




Bl. Eugene III 


, 1145 





Anastasius IV 


. 1153 





Adrian IV 


, 1154 





Alexander III 


. 1159 





Lucius III 


. 1181 





Urban III 


. 1185 





Gregory VIII 

Benevento , 

. 1187 




Clement III 


, 1187 





Celestine III 


. 1191 





Innocent III 


. 1198 





Honorius III 


. 1216 





Gregory IX 

Anagni , 

. 1227 





Celestine IV 


, 1241 



Innocent IV 


. 1243 





Alexander IV 


, 1254 





Urban IV 


. 1261 





Clement IV 


. 1265 





Bl. Gregory X 


, 1271 





Bl. Innocent V 


, 1276 




Adrian V 


. 1276 




John XIX, XX, or XXI 


, 1276 




Nicholas III 


, 1277 





Martin IV (or II) 


, 12&1 





Honorius IV 


. 1285 




Nicholas IV 


. 1288 





St. Celestine V (abd. 1294) . 


. 1294 




Boniface VIII 


. 1294 





Bl. Benedict X or XI 


. 1303 




Clement V (to Avignon) . . . 

Guascogna , 

. 1305 





John XX, XXI or XXII . . . 


. 1316 





Benedict XI or XII 


. 1334 





Clement VI 


. 1342 





Innocent VI 


. 1352 





Bl. Urban V 


. 1362 





Gregory XI (retd. to Rome) 


. 1370 





Urban VI 







Boniface IX 


. 1389 





Innocent VII 


. 1404 




Gregory XII (res. 1409) . . . 


. 1406 





Alexander V 

Island of Candia. 

. 1409 





(res. 1415) 


. 1410 





Date of of Pon- 

Acces- Date of tificate 








Martin V (or III) . . - 

. . . . Rome 






Eugene IV 

.... Venice . . . 






Nicholas V 






Callistus III 







Pius II 

Siena ... 






Paul II 







Sixtus IV 






Innocent VIII 







Alexander VI 






Pius III 





Julius II 







Leo X 







Adrian VI 







Clement VII 







Paul III 






Julius III 

Monte San Savino 






Marcellus II 

Montepulciano . . . 




Paul IV 

Naples - . . 






Pius IV 







St. Pius V 







Gregory XIII 







Sixtus V 

Grottammare .... 






Urban VII 





Gregory XIV 






Innocent IX 






Clement VIII 







Leo XI 





Paul V 







Gregory XV 







Urban VIII 







Innocent X 







Alexander VII 







Clement IX 







Clement X 







Innocent XI 







Alexander VIII 







Innocent XII 







Clement XI 







Innocent XIII 







Benedict XIII 







Clement XII 







Benedict XIV 







Clement XIII 







Clement XIV 

Sant' Arcangelo . . 






Pius VI 







Pius VII 







Leo XII 







Pius VIH 







Gregory XVI 







Pius IX 








, . . . . Carpineto 






Pius X 






Benedict XV 







Pius XI 






Pius XII 




Notable cases when Popes have acted as Mediators include: 

Date of Reign Name 

440- 461 ' St. Leo I 

590- 604 

715- 731 

741- 752 










St. Gregory I 

St. Gregory II 
St. Zachary 
St. Leo IX 

Victor II 
Innocent III 

Honorius III 
Innocent IV 
Nicholas III 

John XXII 
Clement VI 
Gregory XI 
Innocent VIII 

Alexander VI 
Gregory XIII 

Urban VIII 

Benedict XV 

Treaty between Attila the Hun and 


Between Agilulf, the Lombards, and 
the Romans; between the Lombards 
and the Emperor of the Orient. 

Between Luitprand, Lombard King, 
and the Romans. 

Between Luitprand and Rachis, Lom- 
bard Kings, and the Romans. 

Between Henry III, Holy Roman Em- 
peror, and King Andrew of Hungary. 

Between Henry III, Holy Roman Em- 
peror, and King Ferdinand of Spain. 

Between Richard the Lion-Hearted, 
King of England, and Philip Augustus 
of France. 

Between Louis VIII of France 
Henry III of England. 


Between the King of Portugal and his 

Between Emperor Rudolph of Haps- 
burg and Charles of Anjou, King of 

Between Edward II of England and 
Robert *of Scotland. 

Between Edward III of England and 
Philip VI, King of France. 

Between Ferdinand of Portugal and 
Henry of Castile. 

Between contending royalties in Eng- 

Between Spain and Portugal. 

Between Czar Ivan IV and King 
Bathory of Poland. 

Between France and Spain. 

Between Germany and Spain; between 
Haiti and Santo Domingo. 

Between Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, 
Turkey, and England, France, Russia, 
Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, for the 
exchange of disabled prisoners and in- 
terned civilians in the World War. 




Eugenio Pacelli was born In Rome on the second day of March, 1876, 
the second son of Filippo and Virginia Graziozi Pacelli, both descendants 
of noble Roman families. Reared in simple Catholic fashion, Eugenic 
early manifested outstanding qualities of character and scholarship. 
Feeling the call to the clerical state, he entered the Alma Collegio 
Capranica in Rome after having completed his studies in the Classical 
Secondary School. Delicate health made community life practically im- 
possible and the young student was obliged to leave Capranica College 
after a year's study. He continued his philosophical, theological and 
juridical studies at the Pontifical University of the Roman Seminary 
as a day student, being ordained to the priesthood in 1899. 

Recognizing his unusual talent, Fr. Pacelli's superiors appointed him 
substitute professor of law in the schools of the Roman Seminary, mak- 
ing him at the same time Apprendista in the offices of the Secretariate 
of State. Shortly afterwards he was made titular professor of Canon Law 
and an official in the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. 

His singular accomplishments soon drew the attention of Cardinal 
Gasparri, Secretary of the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical 
Affairs. Assured of the young priest's excellent qualities Cardinal Gas- 
parri, having consulted His Holiness and Cardinal Merry del Val, Secre- 
tary of State, persuaded Fr. Pacelli to resign his professorship and give 
himself entirely to the work of the Congregation. 

Fr. Pacelli went rapidly from one grade to the next in the Congrega- 
tion. After several years as Minutante he was appointed Undersecre- 
tary; very shortly afterwards he was made Prosecretary. This latter 
position he held during the reign of Pius X. Upon his election to the 
Papacy, Benedict XV promoted Fr. Pacelli to the position of Secretary 
of the Congregation. 

Together with Cardinal Gasparri, Papal Secretary of State, the future 
Pius XII showed himself more than capable of dealing with the situation 
created by the World War. His mastery of German language and litera- 
ture, his continued interest in all religious, political, social and intellec- 
tual phases of German life, and his readiness to assist all who sought 
his aid made for effective negotiations with the German people. These 
qualifications led to his being made Apostolic Nuncio to Bavaria in 1917. 
Through the Nunciature of Bavaria at that time passed all negotiations 
between Germany and the Vatican. In accordance with the custom of 
conferring the fulness of the priesthood upon all Nuncios of the Holy 
See, Fr. Pacelli was made Titular Archbishop of Sardes on April 23, 1917, 
being consecrated on May 13 by the Holy Father himself in the Sistine 

To his new post Archbishop Pacelli brought Benedict XV's proposal 
for peace. The Pope's proposal sought not only to bring the conflict 
to a close, but was designed also to assure lasting peace to the world% 
The Apostolic Nuncio acted as interpreter of the proposal of peace. But 
his efforts to win over the conflicting parties were in vain and the 
struggle dragged on for another year. 

After the War the Nunciature of Berlin was established, and Arch- 
bishop Pacelli was its first Nuncio. Outstanding among his accomplish- 
ments in this position was the negotiation of two Concordats one with 
Bavaria in 1924, and one with Prussia in 1929. After twelve years of 
faithful service in the German capital, Nuncio Pacelli presented his resig- 
nation to President von Hindenburg on December 9, 1929. 


On Ms return to Borne be was created cardinal by Pius XL Following 
Ms elevation to the cardinalate he was formally .appointed Accessor 
to Cardinal Gasparri as Papa! Secretary of State in February of 1930. 
His excellent work as Nuncio to Germany certainly merited this high 
position conferred upon him by the Holy Father. 

Cardinal Pacelli's years of service as Secretary of State were sig- 
nalized by important events. In 1930 he signed an agreement with the 



Italian Government concerning the interpretation and 
regulations in the Concordat. Between the years 1932 and 1935 he suc- 
cessfully negotiated concordats with the Grand Duchy of Badin (No- 
vember 10, 1932); with Germany (July 20, 1933); with Austria (June 5, 
1934); and with Yugoslavia (July 25, 1935). 

* In 1934 Cardinal Pacelli was sent by the Holy Father as Papal Legate 
to the International Eucharistic Congress in Buenos Aires, and in 1935 
to the Solemn Triduum at Lourdes ending the Holy Year which com- 
memorated the nineteenth centenary of the Redemption. In 1936 he 
inaugurated the International Congress of the Catholic Press. Haying 
given his address in Italian, Cardinal Pacelli then addressed the other 
members in English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese and Latin. 

The last noteworthy achievement of the Cardinal Secretary of State 
before Ms election as Supreme Pontiff was his visit to the United States 
of America in October, 1936, His gracious kindness and his open friend- 
liness during his visit have won for him a place in the heart of every 
true American. During his stay Cardinal Pacelli visited the nineteen 
ecclesiastical provinces and most of the dioceses in the States. 

As Camerlengo of the Holy Office he fulfilled various duties during 
the interregnum following the death of Pius S3, on Feb. 10, 1939. He 
was elected Pope on the third ballot in the conclave. March 2, and tooK 
the name of Pius XII. The coronation took place March 12. 

During the first year of his pontificate war broke out in Europe and 
has since extended to the entire world, affecting even those few nations 
who have remained neutral. To all suffering from the trials and horrors 
of war Pope Pius XII has extended his paternal solicitude. 

He has proved himself the Father of all, in his impartiality toward 
conflicting- peoples and in the relief administered to war's victims, in- 
cluding the "non-Aryans." His generosity is aided by the Bishop's Relief 
Committee of the United States which has sent him substantial sums. 
The Poles, who have endured acute distress for more than three years, 
have been, his constant care, though efforts to help those in their own 
country or, prisoners in Germany have been greatly impeded. He con- 
tributed toward an establishment for Polish refugees in Italy and has 
sent aid to those in Ireland, Portugal, Russia and elsewhere. Bishop 
Joseph Gawlina, Chaplain General of the Polish Army, has charge of 
the disbursement of papal relief among the Poles in Russia. To the 
Slovenes and Croatians and the people of Greece, England, Scandinavia, 
the Baltic countries, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and 
Malta the Pope has also sent aid and he has established an emergency 
fund for distribution when needed wherever possible. In Greece where 
thousands face starvation he had food kitchens set up, to alleviate in 
some degree the acute want. Papal Nuncios and Apostolic Delegates 
throughout the world visit internees in various countries, bringing them 
spiritual and material aid. A Bureau of Information at the Vatican re- 
ceives news concerning prisoners, refugees and missing persons and 
transmits this to families and interested inquirers. The Vatican Radio 
broadcasts lists of names daily. All this was planned through the loving 
sympathy of the Holy Father for his children. 


For peace lie incessantly labors and prays, and he has made It the 
subject of many allocutions, including Ms annual message, broadcast to 
the world, replying to the traditional good wishes of the Sacred College 
of Cardinals on Christmas eve. 

His first Christmas message, in 1939, gave five "fundamental points of 
a just and honorable peace": one, assurance of the "right to life and in- 
dependence" of all nations, large and small; two, liberation by mutual 
agreement from "the heavy slavery of armaments"; three, establishment 
of juridical institutions to guarantee the faithful carrying out of peace 
terms and to revise them if need arises; four, satisfaction of the just 
demands of ethnical minorities; five, honest and earnest interpretation 
of international undertakings in the light of the Divine law, with strict 
adherence to the counsels of justice, love and charity. These five points 
have been widely discussed and studied and have received widespread 

In Ms Christmas message of 1940 he referred again to these "essential 
presuppositions of peace which would conform to principles of justice, 
equity and honor and would thus be enduring," and said that delayed 
application had not lessened "their intrinsic truth and conformity to 
reality," nor "their force of moral obligation." He then went on to con- 
sideration of the "opinion which contends that pre-war Europe as well 
as its political structure are now undergoing a process of transformation 
of such nature as to signal the dawn of a new era," and he laid down 
five "indispensable prerequisites for the search for a new order": (1) 
triumph over hate; (2) triumph over mistrust; (3) triumph over the 
distressing principle that utility is a basis of law and right; (4) triumph 
over those germs of conflict which exist when there is no insurance of 
a proper standard of living for all; (5) triumph over the spirit of cold 

In 1941 the Holy Father broadcast to the world a message of hope and 
faith in "the star" that has never faded: "We who live with you under 
the awful incubus of a scourge which is tearing at the heart of humanity 
for still a third year, wish to speak to you from Our paternal heart on 
this vigil of the solemn Feast of Christmas, to exhort you to remain 
always strong in your faith and to share with you the comfort of that 
very real, superabundant and elevating hope and certainty which radiates 
from the Crib of the new-born Saviour." 

He extolled "many admirable demonstrations of indomitable valor in 
the defense of rights and native soil, of serenity in the sorrow of souls 
living as holocaustal flames for the triumph of truth and justice. But it 
is indeed with a depressing anguish that We recall and, as if in a dream, 
look upon the terrible armed and bloody conflict which has marked this 
year. ... It is with the same anguish that We look upon the depleted re- 
sources of nations and upon the millions of people who are being hurled 
into a state of misery and total exhaustion by this ruthless conflict and 
its brutal violence. And while the strength and health of a great part of 
youth which was in the process of maturing are being weakened through 
the privation imposed by the present scourge, the war expenditures and 
debts are rising to levels never dreamed of before. Such large-scale dis- 
bursements, giving rise as they must to a contraction of the forces of 
production in tHe civil and social field, cannot but be the basis for serious 
anxiety on the part of those who turn their thoughts with preoccupation 
towards the future." 

To meet the great responsibilities of the future, he declared: "There 
will be required broad intellects and wills, strong in their purposes; men 
of courage and enterprise, but above and before all, there must be con- 
seionces which, in their planning, in their deliberations and in their 


actions, are animated, moved and sustained by a lively sense of respon- 
sibility and wliich do not shrink from submission to the holy laws of God." 

Recapitulating what lie had expounded on other occasions he^ said: 
"We insist once again on certain fundamental conditions essential for 
an international order which will guarantee for all peoples a just and 
lasting peace and which will be a bountiful source of well-being and 
prosperity. Within the limits of a new order founded on moral principles 
there is no room for violation of the freedom, integrity and security of 
other states; no matter what may be their territorial extension or their 
capacity for defense; . , . there is no place for open or occult oppression 
of the cultural and linguistic characteristics of national minorities, for 
the hindrance or restriction of their economic resources, for the limitation 
or abolition of their natural fertility; . . . there is no place for that cold 
and calculating egoism which tends to hoard the economic resources and 
materials destined for the use of all to such an extent that the nations 
less favored by nature are not permitted access to them; ...once the 
more dangerous sources of armed conflicts have been eliminated, there 
is no place for total warfare or for a mad rush for armaments; . . . there 
is no place for the persecution of religion and of the Church." 

The daily life of the Holy Father is one of austerity, devoutness, 
penance and indefatigable labor. His work day extends generally from 
6:45 a. m. until midnight and sometimes even later, with a rest period 
of 45 minutes each afternoon. In the summer he walks in the Vatican 
Garden in the morning, but at other times permits himself this relaxation 
only in the afternoon. He studies and directs the disposition of many 
weighty matters constantly being submitted to Mm, writes discourses, 
allocutions and other documents, and gives personal and careful direction 
to current affairs of the Holy See. On certain days he receives cardinals 
and prelates who head the ecclesiastical dicasteries and there are also 
private audiences for visiting dignitaries. On Wednesdays there is a 
collective audience attended by thousands of persons and often large 
groups are received on other days. 

If the Pope intends to address an audience, he is carried into the large 
Hall of Benedictions in the gestatorial chair, and from its height blesses 
those present as he Is carried past them. When he does not speak, he 
receives visitors in the Loggia of Raphael and adjoining rooms, and 
passes among sometimes thousands of persons, extending his hand to 
each one to kiss, ready to respond with kind words when he is ad- 
dressed. Audiences without discourses sometimes last four hours. In 
these audiences, lie says, he finds relief from the heaviness of spirit oc- 
casioned by the government of the Church in such difficult times, for 
here he comes into contact with his children and can open his heart 

For the newlyweds who come in great numbers to seek his blessing, 
the Holy Father has ever a word of counsel and affection. His discourses 
at these audiences during the year were on the necessity of hearing the 
voice of God above the clash and clamor of the times, on the duties of 
women in the family, and on the minor offenses of egoism which arise 
to disturb conjugal life, urging humility and though tf illness of others 
which should characterize the lives of Christian spouses. u He spoke also 
of the dangers of what he called temporary widowhood brought about by 
the war, and advised husband and wife to strive to preserve, their mem- 
ories of each other by every means in their power, by having photo- 
graphs and by letter-writing, pointing out that handwriting alone will 
recall as nothing else the characteristics of the loved one. 

In a three-day series of audiences at the beginning of the year Pope 
Pius received the diplomats accredited to the Holy See, extending New 


Year's greetings to them and their staffs. The Roman nobility came also 
to offer their good wishes to the Sovereign Pontiff. 

On Candlemas Day, Feb. 2, reprensentatives of the Roman basilicas, 
seminaries, colleges, religious communities and other ecclesiastical bodies 
presented blessed candles to His Holiness according to traditional 
Vatican ceremonies. Later in the month the parish priests and Lenten 
preachers in the churches of Rome were received and urged to fulfill 
their office during the pentitential season with the most generous zeal. 
On Feb. 27 Raphael Guariglia, new Ambassador of Italy to the Holy See, 
presented his credentials to the Pope, solemnly professing his faith and 
that of the Italian people, and his joy in the harmonious relations be- 
tween the Catholic Church and Italy. The Holy Father expressed pleasure 
in Ms sentiments and said the conciliation between the Holy See and the 
Italian nation remains a sure foundation for the continued friendship and 
concord between the states. 

In view of the world-wide celebration planned for the silver episcopal 
jubilee of Pope Pius XII, there was not the customary ceremony marking 
the anniversary of his elevation to the papacy and his sixty-sixth birth- 
day, March 3, but many messages of felicitations were received. On the 
third anniversary of his coronation, March 12, he presided at a Mass 
celebrated in the Sistine Chapel by Cardinal Granito Pignatelli di Bel- 
monte, at which were present members of the Sacred College, papal court, 
diplomatic corps and the Sovereign Pontiff's family and many prelates. 
Following the Mass the Cardinals offered the Holy Father their best 
wishes and special prayers for himself and all the enterprises of his 
sacred ministry. Greetings and messages came to him from heads of 
nations and dignitaries all over the world. 

Early in April Harold Tittman, Charge d* Affaires of the mission estab- 
lished at the Vatican by President Roosevelt, in private audience with 
His Holiness presented to him his wife and two sons who had just 
joined him in Vatican City, where he is now in residence. The blind 
war veterans were received in audience on April 2 and the Sovereign 
Pontiff encouraged them always to be enlightened by the light of their 
souls through which they could more easily be united with God, illumin- 
ated by the light of God Himself, Whom one day they will be seeing in 
their heavenly country, and by the light of fraternity which beneficently 
supports them. He extolled them for the sacrifice they had made in full- 
filling their duty towards their country, thanked them for their dear 
presence and blessed them and all the war blind throughout the world. 

During the solemn Holy Week observances in the Vatican, Mass was 
celebrated on Holy Thursday by Cardinal Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, 
in the presence of the Pope, 14 cardinals and the full papal court and 
diplomatic corps. Members of the faculty and students of the Roman 
colleges took part in adoration 'of the Blessed Sacrament in the Pauline 
Chapel on Holy Thursday and until the Mass of the Presanctified on 
Good Friday, celebrated by Cardinal Rossi. The Holy Father had carried 
the Blessed Sacrament in procession from the Sistine Chapel to the 
Pauline Chapel on Holy Thursday and returned the Sacred Host to the 
Sistine Chapel on Good Friday for the Mass, at which he, 11 cardinals 
and members of the papal court and diplomatic corps were present 
The Apostolic Preacher, Fr. Ottavio of Alatri, preached in Latin on the 
Passion of Our Lord, and after the unveiling of the crucifix the Sovereign 
Pontiff, cardinals and papal court venerated the Cross. 

Among the students of the Latin-American College ordained priests 
on Holy Saturday and welcomed by Pope Pius in audience on April 16 
were eleven Mexicans and four others, from Argentina, Chile, El Salvador 


and Venezuela. The Holy Father bestowed his Apostolic Blessing on them, 
their dioceses and relatives and wished them a Jioly and fruitful apostolate. 
Three weeks later His Holiness received twenty Mexican Missionaries 
of the Holy Ghost who were leaving the Eternal City for their native 
land after completing their ecclesiastical studies. To each he addressed 
paternal words of rejoicing and hope for abundant fruits from their 
ecclesiastical labors, and gave them his blessing. 

An agreement modifying the Concordat of 1392 between the Holy See 
and Colombia was signed at the Vatican on April 22 by Cardinal Magiione, 
Papal Secretary of State, and Ambassador Echandia of Colombia. The 
new agreement regulates the appointment of bishops, the delineation of 
dioceses, celebration of marriage, the administration of cemeteries and 
the collaboration of the clergy in the civil census, and the Government 
of Colombia agrees to make annual grants to major seminaries for the 
training of candidates for the priesthood. 

In a letter to the Cardinal Secretary of State the Sovereign Pontiff 
asked him to communicate to the Bishops of the Catholic world ex- 
hortations to renewed prayers for peace during the month of May: 
"Supplicating with contrite and humbled soul, may ail the faithful 
especially the innocent children never tire of imploring from the Divine 
Redeemer and from His Mother, that while the sky and sea are con- 
vulsed by a storm that grows more violent every day, light from on high, 
help from Heaven, may shine before Us who are at the helm of the 
Mystical Ship. May the nutriment necessary for soul and body not be 
lacking to the poor and starving. May the exiles be given back to their 
country: health restored to the wounded and sick, and liberty returned 
to the prisoners. Finally, may human cupidity be subjected to reason and 
a renewed order of justice and charity towards God and neighbor and the 
sole real peace, namely, a Christian peace, be restored to public and 
private life." 

On May 5 the new Ambassador of Bolivia to the Holy See, Senor 
Bailon Mercado, presented his credentials to the Pope, imploring the 
Apostolic Blessing for Catholic Bolivia and her rulers, which request the 
Holy Father readily granted, with a promise of unceasing benevolence. 
On May 7 the departing Brazilian envoy to Italy, Brazilian consuls and 
12 pupils of the Brazilian College in Home came to bid farewell to the 
Sovereign Pontiff, receiving from him his blessing for themselves and 
their country, to which he wished them safe return. 

The new Japanese envoy to the Holy See was received by Pope Pius 
XII on May 9. Presenting his credentials, Minister Ken Harada said the 
Japanese Empire wished to cooperate in every way to the end that 
relations between the Holy See and Japan may ever be most cordial. 
In response His Holiness expressed his earnest desire that the disagree- 
ments afflicting the world may be resolved on a basis of justice and 
that all nations may look forward to a peaceful future. The appoint- 
ment of Ken Harada was fulfillment of a request for diplomatic recogni- 
tion made by Japan more than once since 1922 and agreed to by the 
Vatican, with final ratification. No recognition of Japanese occupation 
is involved in the relations thus established with the Holy See. These 
are for Japan proper, Korea and Formosa, areas for which the Apostolic 
Delegation in Tokyo had previously been maintained; they do not in- 
clude Manchukuo, conquered by Japan before the present World War, 
and no change is contemplated in the Holy See's Apostolic Delegation 
to the Philippines maintained in Manila since 1902. 

The entire Catholic world marked the silver jubilee of the episcopal 
consecration of Pope Pius XII on May 13 with spiritual and religious 
observances. Because of the gravity of the times the Holy Father wished 


no external manifestations but rather the union of hearts in the offering 
of prayers. In the United States a special feature was the preparation 
of a nation-wide spiritual bouquet, that from each diocese being sent to 
the Apostolic Delegation and thence they were all forwarded to His 
Holiness. Solemn pontifical Masses were celebrated by members of the 
hierarchy on May 13 or the following day, the Feast of the Ascension, 
and in some places solemn observances were held on the preceding or 
following Sunday as well and priests offered Masses for tlie intention of 
the Holy Father. Many octaves, triduums and Holy Hours were held. 
Catholic newspapers and periodicals carried special articles on the Pope, 
and radio networks broadcast his jubilee message and devoted parts of 
news programs to comment on it. A radio address by Archbishop Spell- 
man of New York over the nation-wide Blue Network paid tribute to him 
as "scholar/ hero, saint, ... a great Pope and defender of the truth and 
right," whose works, desires and prayers have ever been for peace. 
Pastoral letters issued by members of the American hierarchy all stressed 
his great work for peace and hailed his episcopal jubilee as a special 
opportunity for the faithful to sustain by united prayer the Pontiff's 
efforts for the welfare of the Church and a lasting peace. The central 
observance of the nation was a solemn pontifical Mass at the National 
Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, Washington, D. C., on May 14. The 
Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop Cicognani, pontificated and the sermon 
was preached by the Most Rev. Joseph M. Corrigan, rector of the Catholic 
University. All Latin-American countries observed the jubilee with no- 
table religious ceremonies, at which Government officials were present. 
A week of special prayer was held in Canada. England and Ireland also 
marked the anniversary, as did the Netherlands, where articles were 
carried in the press and the Bishops issued a joint pastoral, and Germany, 
where on May 10 a collective pastoral letter of the hierarchy to the faith- 
ful was read in the churches and solemn observances were held in the 
cathedrals. Celebrations were also held throughout the Holy Land. 

The heads of state of virtually every country in the world sent mes- 
sages of congratulation to the Sovereign Pontiff on his episcopal jubilee. 
Among them were the King of Belgium, the King of Bulgaria, the Presi- 
dent of China, the President of Finland, Marshal Petain, Chief of State 
of France, the King of England, Chancellor Hitler of Germany, the Queen 
of Holland, the Regent of Hungary, the President of Ireland, the King 
of Italy, Premier Mussolini, the President of Poland, the King of 
Rumania, Generalissimo Franco of Spain, the President of Slovakia, the 
President of Switzerland, the President of the United States and the 
Presidents of Latin-American countries. The Holy Father celebrated a 
solemn Mass in St. Peter's Basilica, on Ascension Thursday, attended 
by 50,000 persons. During it he pronounced a homily emphasizing the 
need of faith and concluding with an invocation to the Holy Spirit, and 
afterwards he appeared on the grand balcony of the Basilica aixd imparted 
the blessing Urbi et Orbi. 

On his name day, June 2, Pope Pius responded to greetings of the 
Cardinals with grateful appreciation of their felicitations and counsel s on 
the duty of all Princes of the Church, prelates, priests, religious and 
laymen to prepare through prayer, work and sacrifice for that future 
day when a strife-torn world will seek the light and grace of Christ 
On Corpus Christi, June 4, His Holiness and 20 members of the Sacred 
College attended Vesper services in St. Peter's, Cardinal Salotti preached 
a sermon in which he recalled that at the same moment prayers before 
the Holy Eucharist were being recited in all continents, and the Pope 
imparted the Bucharistic blessing. After a brief indisposition during 
which audiences were suspended, the Pontiff fully recovered made his 


customary visit to the Vatican Basilica on the eve of the Feast of Sts. 
Peter and Paul, 

The new Minister of Venezuela to the Holy See, Senor Jose Casa 
Briceno presented his credentials on July 5, expressing sentiments of 
dcrttoi and respect, and the Holy Father imparted Ms bless IBS to the 
Venezuelan nation. Finland's first Minister to the Holy See, George 
Achates Gripenger, in presenting his credentials, July 31, expressed the 
desire of Finland for ever cordial relations with the Vatican, and the 
Pontiff spoke of the benevolent consideration which the Holy See has 
given the Finnish people. 

To audiences of several thousand at various times during the year 
Pope Pius discoursed on relations between employers and employees, as 
servants of God, as sons of God and therefore brothers, and as members 
of the same Mystical Body of Christ, and pointed out their reciprocal 

The gold, silver and bronze medals of the Pontifical Year, the work 
of Aurelius Mlstruzzi, bear in the form of angels ascending from St. 
Peter's dome representations of the radio messages delivered by the Holy 
Father. A new series of Vatican City postage stamps commemorated the 
war relief efforts of Pope Pius XII. "Ecclesia," official organ of informa- 
tion of the Papal Secretariate of State illustrating by pictures the 
charitable mission of the Holy See, in its initial number issued in Septem- 
ber reviewed the activities of the Pope in alleviating the sufferings oc- 
casioned by war. 

To the Brazilian National Eucharistic Congress the Holy Father spoke 
over the radio in Portuguese, expressing his joy that one of its aims was 
the nourishing of priestly vocations, and terming Brazil one of the great- 
est Catholic nations of the world. At the conclusion of his broadcast he 
received the rector and students from the Brazilian. College in Rome and 
greeted them paternally giving them his blessing. 

On Sept. 13 M. Leon Thebaud, new Minister of Haiti to the Holy See, 
presented his credentials to the Pope with expression of his country's 
firm will to preserve its fidelity to the Holy See, and he was assured 
that the spiritual and material advancement of the people of Haiti was 
the earnest wish of the Church. On Sept. 19, 22 and 26 His Holiness 
received in audience President Roosevelt's personal representative, Myron 
C. Taylor, on a brief visit to the Vatican from the United States. Vatican 
officials declared no extraordinary character was to be ascribed to the 
visits. Mr. Taylor departed on Sept. 28 by plane for Madrid. The Papal 
Nuncio to France, the Most Rev. Valerio Valeri, was granted an audience 
on Sept. 28. On Oct. 7 Pope Pius received in farewell audience the re- 
tiring Spanish Ambassador, Jose de Janguas Messia. 

On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the organization the Holy 
Father received 2,500 men of Italian Catholic Action and in a discourse 
to them on a new world order called upon Catholic men everywhere to 
extend to others by example and action a share of that truly Christian 
order which must be its basis. To members of the Italian Society for 
the Progress of Science received in audience, the Pope expressed hope 
for their post-war work and said, "The Church is the friend of all truth. 
It is not and cannot be the enemy of the true progress of science." 
Delegates to the International Congress on Mathematical Sciences were 
received by the Holy Father and to them he said, "Mathematics is a 
science of peace not conflict" 

Representatives of the South American countries took up their resi- 
dence in Vatican City when their countries broke off relations with Italy, 
increasing the diplomatic colony there to 162 persons, including 17 
families. With the establishment of Vatican-China relations, an apart- 


ment was being prepared for the CMnese representative to the Holy 
See, Dr. Cheou Kang Sie. His appointment does not change the character, 
title or residence of the representative of the Holy See in China. 

A special Mission Sunday message of Pope Pius XII was "broadcast 
over Vatican City radio station voicing his esteem and solicitude for 
both the missionaries who labor for souls and the faithful who support 
them with material aid. 

In a discourse delivered to a group of Rumanian journalists in October 
His Holiness spoke of the importance, responsibility and mission of the 
press and appealed to newspapermen throughout the world to stress these 
ideals which prepare peoples for a just and moderate peace. 

The culmination of observances in Portugal marking the 25th anni- 
versary of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin at Fatima was a radio 
discourse on Oct. 31 by the Holy Father, in which he consecrated the war- 
torn world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. This solemn act created a 
profound impression and it was recalled that Pope Pius XII was consecrated 
a bishop on the very day, May 13, 1917, of the first apparition of the 
Blessed Virgin, at the Iria grotto, near the village of Fatima, to three 
children, Lucia de Jesus and her cousins, Francisco and Jacinta Marto. 
When she appeared to them the third time, July 13, she said: "To save 
souls, the Lord desires that devotion to my Immaculate Heart be estab- 
lished in the world. If what I tell you is done, many souls will be saved 
and there will be peace. The war will end; but if they do not cease to 
offend the Lord, not much time will elapse, and precisely during the 
-next pontificate another and more terrible one will commence." Ever- 
increasing crowds came to Fatima and many miraculous cures were 
claimed, but it was not until October, 1930 that the apparitions were 
declared by ecclesiastical authority as worthy of belief, and devotion to 
Our Lady of Fatima was officially authorized. It is during this second 
"more terrible" war that the present Pontiff consecrates the world to 
the Immaculate Heart and has granted indulgences for the recitation of 
the prayer which he gave during the radio discourse. In his broadcast 
he conveyed his Apostolic Benediction to the President and people of 
Portugal. President Carmona responded with a message of appreciation. 

On Nov. 5 His Holiness presided at a pontifical requiem Mass offered 
in the Sistine Chapel for Cardinals Boggiani, Baudrillart and Leme da 
Silveira Cintra who had died during the year. To one of the Spanish 
Bishops making their ad limina visits to the Vatican the Holy Father 
praised Spain as "a spiritual reservoir of the world,*' and Generalissimo 
Franco for the Catholic spirit manifested in his discourses. In an ad- 
dress broadcast by radio to the closing exercises of the First National 
Eucharistic Congress of El Salvador, he said it was fitting that the faith- 
ful of the Republic of "the Saviour/' the most beautiful of all possible 
names, should render homage at this time to the Divine Victim who 
saved the world their Divine Saviour. He stressed the intimate relation 
of the Holy Eucharist and the Mass with the Sacrifice of the Cross and 
the need of man to participate to gain immortality. He concluded by 
blessing El Salvador and praying that the blessing be extended to in- 
clude the entire universe in an embrace that will be a cordial pledge 
of peace and salvation. During the week of Nov. 29 the Pope together with 
the Cardinals and prelates of the Curia made a spiritual retreat. 

An article on "Vatican Policy in the Second World "War," appearing in 
the Swiss newspaper, "Die Tat," analyzed the enormous problems and 
difficulties faced by the Holy See in maintaining neutrality in a war- 
divided world and said, "The Holy See has not swerved from the path 
which her tradition and the genuine interests of mankind in general and 
Catholics in particular point out." Thus does the Holy Father remain 
the father of all. 



THere are 1,736 separate ecclesiastical Jurisdictions 
world under the Holy See. These are: residential patriarchates, 10, 
dentiVseesVSlS; abbeys and prelatures nullius, 54; vicanates pre- 
fectures and missions sui juris, 459. In addition to the residential prelates 
there are 4 titular patriarchs and 779 titular archbishops and bishops. 
During "his pontificate, Pope Pius XII has created 28 residential sees, 4 
abbey! and prelatures nullius, and 42 vicariates, prefectures and missions. 

In the Western Hemispheres there are 476 ecclesiastical jurisdictions. 
The distribution is: North America, 207; continental Central America, 20; 
West Indies, 20; South America, 229. The United States has 118, includ- 
ing the Vicariate Apostolic of Alaska; Brazil has 101; Canada has 50. 

There were 52 cardinals at the beginning of 1942. Three died during 
the year, so that with 49 members, the Sacred College of Cardinals is 
21 short of its full complement. 

Missionaries dependent upon the Sacred Congregation for the Propaga- 
tion of the Faith totaled 73,897 in 1941, composed of 20,578 priests, 8,514 
lay Brothers and 44,895 Sisters. The greatest number of these missionary 
priests (4,561) and Brothers (1,167) were in China, but the country having 
the largest number of these missionary Sisters (10,525) was Australia. 
The hazards of war resulted in a fluctuating number of missionaries, so 
that exact statistics are not available. 

There are a total of 835 religious orders, of which 159 are orders of 
men and 776 are orders of women. 

The Holy See has representatives in 58 countries. Of these 36 have 
diplomatic status and 22 are Apostolic Delegates. Forty countries have 
diplomatic representation at the Vatican. 


Apostolic Letter Formerly any document issued, by the Holy See; 
now principally a Brief used for lesser appointments, for erecting and 
dividing mission territory, for designating basilicas and approving re- 
ligious congregations. 

Brief Brief papal letter lacking the solemnity and formality of a 
Bull, signed with the seal of the Fisherman's ring and used for less 
important matters than a Bull. 

Bull Papal document with leaden seals used in appointing bishops 
and in canonizations. 

Constitution Papal law or grant used for dogmatic or disciplinary 
pronouncements. Since 1911 Constitutions have been used for erecting or 
dividing dioceses. They follow the old Bull form and are sub plumbo letters. 

Decree Legislative enactment taking the form of a constitution, 
apostolic letter or motu proprio, concerning faith and discipline as 
affects the general welfare of the Church, 

Decretal Papal letter containing an authoritative decision on some 
point of discipline. 

Encyclical Circular letter differing in form from a Bull or Brief, 
treating matters concerning the general welfare of the Church, addressed 
by the Pope to patriarchs, primates, archbishops and bishops in commun- 
ion with the Holy See. 

Motu Proprio -Decree following an informal method. 

Rescript Papal reply to questions or petitions of individuals. 



Communication of sound doctrine and the timely admonition Against 
current evils by means of letters is definitely of Apostolic origin. Sts. 
Peter, Paul, John and James began writing to the members of the con- 
gregations where they had established the Church. The early pastors of 
souls continued this work of instruction by letter; and it is proper that 
the Supreme Shepherds of souls, the Roman Pontiffs, should thus 
guard their flocks by direct cautioning against abuses and by exhortation 
to virtue. 

The encyclical letters of the recent Popes, who are at once pastors 
and guardians and recognized scholars of social conditions, have become 
text books to the Catholic and Christian world. A new era in encyclical 
history began with the reign of Leo XIII. Since he wrote his "Rerum 
Novarum" on the condition of the working classes, labor and capital both 
have looked to it and supplementary encyclicals for guidance and for 

Because so many of the encyclicals deal with particular and even pro- 
vincial problems, many students have been unable to find a correct index 
to these encyclicals. Thus far only one volume, "Guide to the Encyclicals," 
has appeared giving complete sources and bibliographies of the encycli- 
cals since Pope Leo XIII. With the permission of the author, Sister M. 
Claudia Carlen, I. H. M., we publish this list. Students who have the key 
to these encyclicals stand at the treasury of deep thought, loving concern 
for humanity and a careful analysis of the varied problems of men and 
their genuine Christian solution. 

Encyclicals of Pope Leo XIII 

Title Subject Date 

Ad extremas Foundation of Seminaries in the Bast 

Indies 1893 

Adiutricem Rosary 1895 

Aeterni Patris Scholastic Philosophy 1879 

Affari vos Manitoba School Question 1897 

Annum Sacrum Consecration of Mankind to the Sacred 

Heart 1899 

Arcanum Christian Marriage 1880 

Au milieu des sollicitudes . . . Church and State in France 1892 

Augustissimae Virginis 

Mariae Rosary 1897 

Auspicato concessum Third Order of St. Francis 1882 

Caritatis Conditions in Poland 1894 

Caritatis studium Magisterium of the Church in Scotland 1898 

Catholicae Ecclesiae Abolition of African Slavery 1890 

Christi nomen Society for the Propagation of the 

Faith 1894 

Constanti Hungarorum Conditions of the Church in Hungary. . 1893 

Cum multa Conditions in Spain 1882 

Custodi di quella fede Freemasonry in Italy 1892 

Dall'alto deil'Apostolico 

Seggia Conditions in Italy 1890 

Depuis le jour Ecclesiastical Education in France . . . 1899 

Diuturni temporis Rosary 1898 

Diuturnum Origin of Civil Power 1881 

Divinum illud mimus Holy Ghost 1897 

Dum multa ..,.,,,../. Marriage in Ecuador ,,,,,,.,, 


Title Subject Date 

Etsi cunctas Expression of Sympathy for the Church 

In Ireland 1888 

Etsi EOS Conditions in Italy 1882 

Exeunte iam anno Right Ordering of Christian Life 1888 

Fidentem piumque animum. .Rosary 18% 

Fin dal principio Education of the Clergy in Italy 1902 

Grande munus / Sts. Cyril and Methodius 1880 

Graves de communi re Christian Democracy 1901 

Gravissimas Religious Orders in Portugal 1901 

Humanum genus Freemasonry 1884 

lampridem Laws against the Church in Germany 1886 

Immortale Dei Christian Constitution of States 1885 

In amplissimo Church in the United States 1902 

In ipgo Episcopal Re-unions in Austria 1891 

In plurimis Abolition of African Slavery 1888 

Inimica vis Freemasonry in Italy 1892 

Inscrutabili Dei consilio Evils of Society 1878 

Insignes Hungarian Millenium 1896 

Inter graves Church in Peru 1894 

lucunda semper expectatione . Rosary 1894 

Laetitiae sanctae Rosary 1893 

Libertas Human Liberty 1888 

Licet multa Controversies among Catholics in Bel- 
gium 1881 

Litteras a vobis Formation and Influence of Clergy in 

Brazil 1894 

Longinqua Catholicity in the United States 1895 

Magnae Dei Matris Rosary 1892 

Magni nobis Authorization of the Catholic Univer- 
sity of America 1889 

MilitantiS'Eccelsiae Third Centenary of the Death of St. 

Peter Canisius 1897 

Mirae caritatis Most Holy Eucharist 1902 

Nobilissima Gallorum gens . . Religious Question in France 1884 

Non mediocri Spanish College in Rome 1893 

Octobri mense Rosary 1891 

Officio sanctissimo Condition of the Church in Bavaria . . . 1887 

Omnibus compertum Union among the Greek Melchites .... 1900 

Pastoralis Religious Union in Portugal 1891 

Pastoralis officii Duelling 1891 

Pateraa Caritas Recalling the Dissenting Armenians to 

the Faith 1888 

Paternae Ecclesiastical Education in Brazil 1899 

Pergrata Needs of the Church in Portugal 1886 

Permoti nos Social Conditions in Belgium 1895 

Providentissimus Deus Study of Holy Scripture 1893 

Quae ad nos Church in Bohemia and Moravia 1902 

Quam aerumnosa Italian Emigrants in America 1888 

Quam religiosa Civil Marriage Law in Peru 1898 

Quamauam pluries Patronage of St. Joseph and the 

Blessed Virgin Mary 1889 

Quarto abeunte saeculo Columbus Centenary 1892 

Quod anniversarius Sacerdotal Jubilee 1888 

Quod Apostolicl muneris . . . Socialism, Communism, Nihilism 1878 

Quod auctoritate Proclamation of Jubilee Year 1885 


Title Subject Date 

Quod multum Liberty of the Church in Hungary 1886 

Quod yotis Catholic University in Austria 1902 

Quum diuturnum Convoking the Latin-American Bishops 

to the First Plenary Council at Rome 1889 

Reputaatibus Language Question in Bohemia ...... 1901 

Reram novarum Condition of the Working Classes 1891 

Saepe nos Boycotting in Ireland 1888 

Sancta Dei Civitas Three French Societies 1880 

Sapientiae Christlanae Chief Duties of Christian Citizens 1890 

Satis cognitum Church Unity 1896 

Spectata fides Maintenance of Denominational 

Schools 1885 

Spesse volte Catholic Action in Italy /. 1898 

Superiore anno Recitation of the Rosary 1884 

Supremi Apostolatus Officio. . Rosary 1883 

Tametsi futura 

prospicientibus Jesus Christ Our Redeemer 1900 

Urbanitatis veteris Foundation of a Seminary in Athens . . 1901 

Vi e 'ben noto Rosary: Remedy for Evils in Italy 1887 

Encyclicals of Pope Pius X 

Ad Diem ilium laetissimum. .Jubilee of the Immaculate Conception. 1904 

Communium rerum Eighth Centenary of St. Anselm 1909 

E Supremi Restoration of all Things in Christ ... 1903 

Editae saepe Third Centenary of the Canonization 

of St. Charles Borromeo 1910 

Gravissimo officii munere . . . Forbidding French Association of Wor- 
ship 1906 

lamdudum Separation Law in Portugal 1911 

II fenno proposito Catholic Action in Italy 1905 

lucunda sane Thirteenth Centenary of St. Gregory 

the Great 1904 

Lacrimabili statu Indians of South America 1912 

Pascendi dominie gregis Modernism 1907 

Pieni Fanimo Clergy in Italy 1906 

Singular! quadam Labor organizations in Germany 1912 

Tribus circiter Condemnation of the Mariavites 1906 

Une fois encore Separation of Church and State in 

France 1907 

Vehementer nos French Separation Law 1906 

Encyclicals of Pope Benedict XV 

Ad beatissimi Apostolorum. .Appeal for Peace 1914 

Annus iam plenus Child War Victims 1920 

Fausto appetente Die Seventh Centenary of the Death of St. 

Dominic 1921 

Humani generis 

redemptionem Preaching 1917 

In hac tanta Twelfth Centenary of St. Boniface, 

Apostle of Germany 1919 

In praeclara summorum .... Sixth Centenary of Dante's Death 1921 

Pacem, Dei munus 

pulcherrimum Peace and Christian Reconciliation . . . 1920 

Paterae iam <Uu . , , , , Christian Charity for the Children of 

Central Europe ,,,,, 1919 

Title . Subject Date 

Principi Apostolorum Petro. . St. Bphrem the Syrian 1920 

Quod lam din Peace Congress, Paris 1918 

Sacra propedfem Seventh Centenary of the Third Order 

of St. Francis 1921 

Singular! quadam Labor Organizations in Germany 1912 

Encyclicals of Pope Pius XI 

Acerba animi Persecution of the Church in Mexico. . 1932 

Ad Catholic! sacerdotii .... Catholic Priesthood 1935 

Ad salutem Fifteenth Centenary of the Death of 

St. Augustine 1930 

Caritate Christi compulsi . . . Sacred Heart and World Distress 1932 

Casti connubii Christian Marriage 1930 

Dilectissima nobis Conditions in Spain 1933 

Divini illius magistri Christian Education of Youth 1929 

Divim Redemptoris Atheistic Communism 1937 

Ecclesiam Dei Third Centenary of the Death of St. 

Josaphat, Archbishop of Polotsk . . . 1923 

Firmissixnam constantiam . . Conditions in Mexico 1937 

In gravescentibus malis Rosary 1937 

Iniquis afflictisgue Persecution of the Church in Mexico . . 1926 

Lux veritatis Fifteenth Centenary of the Council of 

Ephesus 1931 

Maximam gravissimamque . . French Diocesan Associations 1924 

Mens nostra Promotion of the Practice of Spiritual 

Exercises 1929 

Miserentissimus Redemptor . Reparation Due to the Sacred Heart . . 1928 

Mlt brennender sorge Church in Germany 1937 

Mortalium animos Promotion of True Religious Unity . . . 1928 

Non abbiamo bisogno Catholic Action 1931 

Nova impendet Economic Crisis, Unemployment, and 

Increase of Armaments 1931 

Quadragesimo anno Social Reconstruction 1931 

Quas primas Feast of Christ the King 1925 

Quinguagesimo ante Sacerdotal Jubilee 1929 

Rerum ecclesiae Catholic Missions 1926 

Rerum omnium Third Centenary of the death of St. 

perturbationem Francis de Sales 1923 

Rerum Orientalium Reunion with the Eastern Churches . . 1928 

Rite expiatis Seventh Centenary of the Death of St. 

Francis of Assisi 1926 

SttidioTum ducem Sixth Centenary of the Canonization of 

St. Thomas Aquinas 1923 

Ubi arcano Dei consilio Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of 

Christ 1922 

Vigilanti cura Clean Motion Pictures 1936 

Encyclicals of Pope Pius XII 

Summi pontificatus Function of the State in the Modern 

World 1939 

Sertum laetitiae sanctae To the Church in the United States , . 1939 



A concordat is an agreement between the Holy See and a civil govern- 
ment on disputable spiritual matters. In order to secure certain neces- 
sary immunities to the Church, the Popes have often conceded the ex- 
ercise of certain rights to the State such as the nomination of bishops, 
the appointments of pastors, the number of the clergy, taxation of 
Church property, etc. 

Some famous Concordats were those between Pope Callistus II and 
Emperor Henry V of Germany in 1122, ending the dispute over the ap- 
pointment of bishops; Pope Pius VII and Napoleon in 1801, reestablish- 
ing the Church in France; Pope Pius XI and Premier Mussolini of Italy 
in 1929, settling the controversy about the holding of Church property, 
and the marriage and public school questions. 

The Holy See has concordats with the following countries: Colombia, 
1892; Poland, 1925; Italy, 1929; Rumania, 1929; Germany, 1933; Yugo- 
slavia, 1935; Portugal, 1940; and a Modus Vivendi with Ecuador, 1937. 


When the Dean of the Sacred College proclaims publicly the death of 
the Pontiff, word is sent out to all the cardinals throughout the world. 
They are convoked to solemn conclave to elect a new Pope, to be held 
within fifteen to eighteen days after the death of the Pope. Until an 
election takes place, they remain in seclusion within a part of the Vatican 
Palace specially prepared for them. 

On the fifteenth day after the death of the Pope, if all the cardinals 
are present, or if not all present then, on the eighteenth day the cardinals 
after celebrating Holy Mass go to the Sistine Chapel where voting takes 
place, on specially printed ballots, for the candidates who are found to 
have the qualifications for the ofilce. 

A two-thirds majority is required to elect. Two ballots are taken each 
morning and evening until a decision is reached. If no selection is made 
the ballots are burned with damp straw which produces a heavy black 
smoke, thereby notifying the people that no selection has been made. 
When a two-thirds majority is reached the ballots are burned without 
damp straw. The light smoke ascending from the chimney proclaims to 
the people the election of a new Pope. Acceptance of the office on the 
part of the one elected must be manifested before he is validly the new 
Pontiff. If the one elected is not already a bishop he must be consecrated. 

The Pope is elected for life, i. e., for the remaining years of his life ; 
although if he wishes he may resign. At the time he does so, a new 
Pope is elected. Any male Catholic, no matter of what race or color, 
may be elected Pope, even one who is not a priest. Should a layman 
be chosen he would have to be ordained and consecrated. 


Consistories are assemblies of Cardinals presided over by the Pope 
and called to deliberate with him. There are three lands: (1) secret 
consistories, at which only the Pope and Cardinals are present; (2) 
public consistories, attended by other prelates and lay spectators; (3) 
semi-public consistories, attended by bishops and patriarchs. 


The secret consistory Is the most important Thereat the Pope delivers 
an allocution on religious and moral conditions throughout the world. 
Sometimes the Pope seeks the opinion of the cardinals on the creation 
of new cardinals, gives the cardinal's ring to new cardinals, appoints 
bishops, archbishops and patriarchs, makes ecclesiastical transfers, di- 
vides or unites dioceses and asks for a vote on a proposed canonization. 

At the public consistory the Pope bestows the red hat on newly 
created cardinals, hears the causes of beatifications and canonizations. 

At the semi-public consistory the propriety of a proposed canonization 
is decided. 


Bishops are obliged once every five years to visit the tombs of St. 
Peter and St. Paul, have audience with the Holy Father and present 
a written report of conditions in the diocese. The visits rotate over five 
years beginning January 1, 1911: first year, the bishops of Italy, Corsica, 
Sardinia, Sicily and Malta; second year, the bishops of Spain, Portugal, 
France, Belgium, Holland, England, Scotland, Ireland; third year, bishops 
from the other countries of Europe; fourth year, the bishops of the 
American Continents; fifth year, the bishops of Africa, Asia and Australia. 


The Saered Congregation of the Consistory decreed July 25, 1916, that 
bishops should every two years send to their metropolitans a list of 
priests worthy of the episcopacy. The metropolitan forwards the re- 
sults to the Apostolic Delegate who in turn forwards the list to the Con- 
gregation of the Consistory where the names are recorded to guide the 
Holy Father in his choice of bishops to fill vacancies and newly created 


A competitive examination of applicants for the permanent rectorship 
of a parish covering knowledge of ecclesiastical affairs, age, prudence, 
integrity and past services. Qualifications: must have been a priest of 
the diocese not less than ten years, must have had three years of parish 
work and have demonstrated ability to direct the temporal and spiritual 
affairs of a parish. A permanent rector is removed only by judicial 


A Council is an assembly of the prelates of the Church, called to- 
gether by their lawful head, in order to decide questions concerning 
faith, morals, or ecclesiastical discipline. The following are the chief 
kinds of Councils: General or Ecumenical; Provincial; National or 
Plenary; and Diocesan. 


A General or Ecumenical Council is one to which the bishops of the 
whole world are lawfully summoned "by the Pope, or with his consent, 
and presided over by him or by his legates. Its decrees must also have 
the approval of the Sovereign Pontiff. General councils are infallible 
and cannot teach us anything wrong in faith or morals. 

The following are the General Councils which have been held up to 
the present time. The first eight were held in Asia, or the eastern part 
of Christendom; the remainder in Europe, or the Western part: 
Council (Place) Date Pope Doctrine \ 

1. Nicaea 1 325 Sylvester .Condemned heresy of 

Arius; defined clearly that 
the Son of God was con- 
substantial (homousios) to 
the Father; formulated 
the Nicene Creed. 

2. Constantinople I. . 381 Damasus Condemned heresy of 

Macedonius ; defined the 
divinity of the Holy Ghost; 
confirmed and extended 
the Nicene Creed. 

3. Bphesus 431 Celestine I. .. .Condemned the heresy of 

Nestorius ; defined that 
there was one person in 
Christ and defended the 
Divine Maternity of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, 

4. Chalcedon 451 Leo I Condemned heresy of 

Eutyches (Monophy sites) ; 
declared Christ had two 
natures, human and divine. 

5. Constantinople II . 553 Vigilius The so-called three Chap- 

ters, the erroneous books 
of Theodoras and the 
teachings of the three Nes- 
torian bishops, were con- 

6. Constantinople III . 680 Agatho Declared against the Mon- 

othelites, who taught one 
will in Christ, by defining 
that Christ had two wills, 
human and divine. 

7. Nicaea II 787 Adrian I Condemned the heresy of 

the image-breakers (Icono- 

8. Constantinople IV. 869 Adrian II The usurper Photius de- 

posed, the patriarch Ig- 
natius reinstated, and the 
Greek Schism suppressed. 

9. Lateran I (Rome). 1123 Callistus II... Called to confirm the 

peace between Church and 
State after the settlement 
of the Investiture Ques- 

10. Lateran II 1139 Innocent II Condemned the heresies 

of Peter of Brays and Ar- 
nold of Brescia (Petro- 

11, Lateran III 1179 Alexander III. Condemned the heresies 

of the Waldenses and Al- 
bigenses; reformed eccles- 
iastical discipline; regu- 
lated for elections of 

Council (Place) Date Pope Doctrine 

12. Lateran IV 1215 Innocent III. . .Called to condemn prevail- 

ing heresies; to obtain 
aid for the progress of 
the Crusades; and for the 
promotion of ecclesiastical 
discipline. Annual confes- 
sion and Communion pre- 
scribed for all. 

13. Lyons 1 1245 Innocent IV. .. Called in behalf of the 

Holy Land, and on ac- 
count of the hostility of 
the Emperor Frederick II 
toward the Holy See. 

14. Lyons II 1274 Gregory X For the promotion of ec- 

clesiastical discipline; for 
the union of the Greeks 
with the Latin Church. 

15. Vienne 1311 Clement V Against fanatic sectarians 

(Beghards) ; suppression 

of the Knights Templars; 
the union of soul and body 
defined; help for the Holy 

16. Constance 1414-1418 Gregory XII . . . Suppression of the West- 

Martin V ern Schism; ecclesiastical 

reform in "head and mem- 
bers"; Wyclif and Hus 

17. Florence 1431-1443 Eugene IV For the union of the 

Greeks and other Oriental 
sects with the Latin 
Church; reestablishment 
of peace among Christian 

18. Lateran V 1512-1517 Julius II The relation of Pope to 

Leo X General Councils defined; 

condemnation of some er- 
. rors regarding the nature 
of the human soul; cru- 
sade against the Turks. 

19. Trent 1545-1563 Paul III Against the heresies of 

Julius III the so-called Reformers of 

Pius IV the 16th century, viz., Lu- 
ther, Calvin, and others. 
Reformed the discipline of 
the Church and clarified 
her position in doctrinal 

20. Vatican 1869 (op'd) Pius IX Canons relating to faith 

1870 (adj'd and the Constitution of 

but not the Church; defined espe- 

closed) cially in a solemn decree 

the primacy and infalli- 
bility of the Pope. 


A Provincial Council is a meeting of the bishops of one province. The 
metropolitan of an ecclesiastical province calls and presides over a 
provincial council to consider and adopt measures for the increase of 
faith, the regulation of morals, the correction of abuses, the settling of 
controversies, the establishment and maintenance of uniform discipline. 
Acts and decrees must be approved by the Sacred Congregation of the 
Council at Rome before being promulgated. One must be held at least 
once every twenty years. 


Plenary Councils are National Councils, or meetings of the ordinaries 
of a region assembled under the presidency of the Pope's legate to de- 
termine matters of regulation and discipline. Their decrees are binding 
in the whole territory. 

In the United States the archbishops of Baltimore by right of priority 
of the see, have presided over all the Plenary Councils, which have been 
attended by the archbishops, bishops, administrators, mitred abbots, 
vicars apostolic, prefects, apostolic coadjutors, auxiliary bishops, visiting 
bishops, provincials of religious orders, rectors of major seminaries and 
experts in theology and canon law. 

The First Plenary Council of Baltimore was called May 9, 1852, with 
Archbishop Kendrick of Baltimore as Apostolic Delegate. It professed 
allegiance to the Pope and faith in the doctrines of the Church, regu- 
lated parish life, ceremonies, the administration of Church funds, and 
the teaching of Christian Doctrine. 

The Second Plenary Council was called by Archbishop Spalding of 
Baltimore, October 7-21, 1866. It condemned the heresies of the day, made 
regulations in the organization of dioceses, the education and conduct of 
the clergy, ecclesiastical property, parochial duties, general education 
and secret societies. 

The Third Plenary Council was called Nov. 9 Dec. 7, 1884, by Arch- 
bishop Gibbons. It appointed a commission for the creation of a Catholic 
University. Elementary and higher school education was discussed, a 
commission was appointed to prepare a catechism of Christian Doctrine. 
Six holy days of obligation were determined for the United States: Im- 
maculate Conception, Christmas, Circumcision, Ascension, Assumption, 
All Saints Day. It signed a petition to introduce the cause of beatification 
of the Jesuit Martyrs. 


A Diocesan Council, usually called Diocesan Synod, is a convention of 
priests of, a diocese called by the bishop to consider matters for the 
good of the clergy and people. Except in special cases, it must be held 
in the Cathedral. Those who attend include: vicar general, diocesan 
consultors, rector of the seminary, deans, a delegate from each collegiate 
church, pastors of the city in which the synod is held, abbots and one 
superior from each religious order in the diocese, all of whom merely 
consult with the bishop who alone signs synodal decrees which become 
effective at once. 


of tfie 

The hierarchy is the governing body of the Church. It consists of the 
Pope, the College of Cardinals, the Sacred Congregations, the Patriarchs, 
Archbishops and Bishops, the Apostolic Delegates, Vicars and Prefects, 
certain Abbots and other prelates, 


His Holiness the Pope is the Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, 
Successor of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of 
the Universal Church, Patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, Arch- 
bishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the tempo- 
ral dominions of the Holy Roman Church, and Sovereign of Vatican City. 


Prothonotaries Apostolic are members of the chief order of prelates 
in the Roman Curia. They are divided into four classes: 

(1) Prothonotaries Apostolic de numero partfcipantium, so called be- 
cause they share in the revenues of the papal chancery; they sign the 
Papal Bulls, aid in the work of the consistories and in the process of 
canonizations and examinations of candidates, enjoy the use of pontifi- 
cals and have many other privileges. 

(2) Prothonotaries Apostolic Supernumerary, limited to the canons of 
the Roman patriarchal Basilicas of St. Peter, the Lateran and St. Mary 
Major and the cathedral churches of Concordia, Florence, Goritz, Padua, 
Treviso, Udine, Venice, Cagliari, Malta and Strigonia, who have been 
made domestic prelates by the Pope. 

(3) Prothonotaries Apostolic ad itistar (partlcipantium),' who are ap- 
pointed by the Pope and are entitled to the same external insignia as 
Class 1. 

, (4) Prothonotaries Apostolic Titular or Honorary, who receive the dig- 
nity as a special privilege. 


Legates a latere Cardinals appointed by the Pope to represent Mm 
at specific functions usually of national importance. AH legates do not 
bear this title, as in the case of a cardinal sent as papal representative 
to a Bucharistic Congress. 

Nuncios Representatives of the Pope at a foreign government whose 
duty it is to handle the affairs between the Apostolic See and the State. 
In Catholic countries, the Nuncio is dean of the diplomatic corps. They 
are usually titular archbishops; occasionally bishops or archbishops with 
a residential see. 

internuncios Legates of lower rank than the Nuncios whose duty 
it is to foster relations between the Holy See and the State. They are 
sent to governments of lesser importance. 

Apostolic Delegates Non-diplomatic legates sent to foreign countries 
to watch over the conditions of the Church in the State. 



The College of Cardinals is the Senate of the Church. The Cardinals 
act as advisers to the Pope and elect his successor. When complete the 
Sacred College numbers 70 members of whom 6 are cardinal-bishops, 50 
are cardinal-priests and 14 are cardinal-deacons. The following is a list 
of the present College of Cardinals: 

Year of 

Year of 


Office or Dignity 
















Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di 

Bishop of Ostia and Albano ; 
Dean of the College of Car- 
dinals; Prefect of the Congre- 
gation, of Ceremonies 









Bishop of Velletri; Prefect of 
the Apostolic Signature ... . 

Bishop of Frascati ; Vicar Gen- 
eral of His Holiness; Arch- 
priest of the Patriarchal Ba- 
silica of the Lateran ; Secretary 
of the Congregation of the 
Holy Office . ... 

Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani 
Carlo Salotti 

Bishop of Palestrina; Prefect of 
the Congregation of Rites . . . 

Bishop of Sabina and Poggio 


William O'Connell 

Archbishop of Boston 

Alcssio Ascelesi 

Archbishop of Naples 

Adolf Bertram 

!Michael von Faulhaber 

Archbishop of Munich and 

Dennis J Dougherty 

Archbishop of Philadelphia . . . 
Archbishop of Tarragona 

Archbishop of Bologna 

Francisco Vidal y Barraquer. . 

Giovanni B. Nasalli-Rocca di 

Alessandro Verde 

Archpriest of Liberian Patriar- 
chal Basilica of St. Mary 

Jy a j Or 

Joseph Ernest Van Roey 
Auguste Hlond S S. 

Archbishop of G n e i s e n and 

Pedro Secura y Saenz 

Archbishop of Seville 

Justinian Seredi, O. S. B 
Ildefonso Schuster, O. S. B. 
Manuel Goncalves Cerejeira. . 
Luisi Lavitrano 

Archbishop of Strigonia 

Archbishop of Milan 

Patriarch of Lisbon ... ... 

Archbishop of Palermo 

Tosech MacRorv 

Archbishop of Armagh 


Year of 

















Year of 


Office or Dignity 

















Raffaelo Carlo Rossi, O. C. D. 
Achilles Lienart 

Secretary of the Consistorial 

Bishop of Lille 














Pietro Fumasoni-Biondi 

Prefect of the Congregation _ for 
the Propagation of the Faith ; 
Camerlengo of the College of 

Federico Tedeschini 

Archpriest of Vatican Basilica; 
Prefect of the Congregation of 
the Basilica of St. Peter; 
.Apostolic Datary . ... 

Maurflio Fossati . , 

Archbishop of Turin 

Rodrigue Villeneuve, O, M. I. 
Elias dalla Costa 
Theodore Innitzer 
Ignatius Tappouni 

Archbishop of Quebec .... 
Archbishop of Florence 

Archbishop of Vienna .... 
Syrian Patriarch of Antioch 

Prefect of the Congregation of 
the Council * 

Francesco Marmaggi 

Luigi Maglione 

Prefect of the Congregation of 
Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Af- 
fairs ; Secretary of State 

Emmanuel Suhard 

Diego Copello 

Archbishop of Buenos Aires .... 
Archbishop of Genoa 

Pietro Boetto, S. J 
Eugene Tisserant 

Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, 
O. C. D 

Secretary of the Congregation 
for the Oriental Church .... 

Patriarch of Venice 

Ermenegildo Pellegrmetti .... 
Arthur Hinsley 

Ar hbi ho of Westminster 

Giuseppe Pizzardo ... 

Prefect of the Congregation^ of 
Seminaries and Universities ; 
President of Catholic Action . . 

Archbishop of Lyons . ..... 

Pierre JvCarie Gerlier 


Nicola Canali 

Grand Penitentiary; President of 
the Commission charged with 
the Administration of Vatican 

Domenico Jorio 
Vincenzo La Puma 

Prefect of the Congregation of 
the Sacraments 

Prefect of the Congregation of 

Federico Cattani 

Massimo Massimi 
Giovanni Mercati 

President of the Commission on 
the Authentic Interpretation of 
the Code of Canon Law 
Librarian and Archivist of the 
Holy Roman Church 


The Pope Is the Supreme Head of the Church, possessing full and 
absolute jurisdiction in the governmental affairs of the Church. Since, 
however, it is practically impossible for Mm to exercise this ordinary 
authority immediately over the whole, universal Church, the Popes have 
found it necessary to establish various groups of churchmen to whom 
they delegate part of their jurisdiction to be exercised by them. These 
various bodies constitute the Roman Curia which, at present, according 
to the recent reform of Pius X, consists of twelve Congregations, three 
Tribunals, and five Offices. 

Congregation of the Holy Office 

Prefect: His Holiness, the Pope. 

Secretary: Francesco Cardinal Marchetti-Selvaggiani. 

Assessor: Msgr. Alfred Ottaviani. 

Commissary: Very Rev. John Lottini, O. P. 
Office: Palazzo del S. Officio, 

Duties: Guards the Catholic doctrine in faith and morals; judges 
heresy and those suspected of heresy; protects the dogmatic doctrine 
of the sacraments; decides in matters concerning the Eucharistic fast of 
priests celebrating Mass; in matters concerning the Pauline privilege, 
the marriage impediments of disparity of cult and mixed religion, and is 
able to grant dispensations from these two impediments; examines and 
condemns books and gives dispensations for reading condemned books; 
judges all questions pertaining to the dogmatic doctrine of indulgences, 
new prayers, and devotions. 
Consistorsal Congregation 

Prefect: His Holiness, the Pope. 

Secretary: Raffaela Charles Cardinal Rossi, O. C. D. 

Assessor: Msgr. Vincent Santoro. 

Office: Palazzo della Congregazioni, Piazza S. Callisto. 

Duties: Prepares matter to be discussed at consistories; constitutes 
new dioceses, provinces, and cathedral chapters for all territories not 
subject to the Propagation of the Faith; divides dioceses; proposes 
bishops, apostolic administrators, coadjutors, and auxiliary bishops; 
makes the canonical inquiry of those to be promoted and carefully ex- 
amines their records and tries their doctrine; all that pertains to the 
founding, preservation, and condition of dioceses belongs to this Con- 
gregation; receives and examines the reports of bishops; provides for 
apostolic visitation and examines the results; decides the competency 
of all the Congregations other than the Holy Office; provides for the 
spiritual care of emigrants. 
Congregation for the Oriental Church 

Prefect: His Holiness, the Pope. 

Secretary: Eugene Cardinal Tisserant. 

Assessor: Most Rev. Antonio Arata. 
Office: Palazzo di Convertendi. 

Duties: All matters of whatever kind which pertain to ,the discipline, 
the persons, or the rites of the Eastern Church, as also mixed questions 
either of persons or things which arise owing to the relation to the 
Latin Church, constitute the object of this Congregation's care. 
Congregation of the Sacraments 

Pr eject: Domenico Cardinal Jorio. 

Secretary: Msgr. Francis Bracci. 
Office: Palazzo della Congregazioni, Piazza S. Callisto. 


Duties: Regulates the discipline of the seven sacraments; gives de- 
crees and dispensations regarding all sacraments, except in matters 
which belong to the Congregation of the Holy Office or of Rites ; ^ probes 
reasons for dispensations; receives and answers Questions regarding the 
validity of Orders or Matrimony. 
Congregation of the Council 

Prefect; Francesco Cardinal MarmaggL 

Secretary: l&sgr. Joseph Brano. 

Office: Palazzo della Congregazioni, Piazza S. Caliisto. 

Duties: Has authority over the discipline of the secular clergy and 
laymen. Takes care that the precepts are observed and grants dispensa- 
tions when necessary. Oversees matters concerning canons and parish 
priests, pious sodalities, unions (even though these may be founded by 
religious, be under their direction, or in their parishes, or attached to 
their houses), pious legacies, work, Mass stipends, benefices, and offices, 
ecclesiastical goods, both movable and immovable, diocesan taxes, taxes 
of the Episcopal Curia, etc.; has power to dispense from the conditions 
for obtaining a benefice; to permit laymen to acquire ecclesiastical 
goods, usurped by the civil power. Deals with immunities. Prepares 
matters for the celebration of episcopal councils or conferences and 
recognizes the proceedings. 
Congregation of Religious 

Prefect: Vincenzo Cardinal La Puma. 

Secretary: Most Rev. Luke Ermenegild Pasetto, O. M. Cap., Titular Arch- 
bishop of Iconic. 
Office: Palazzo della Congregazioni, Piazza S. Caliisto. 

Duties: Has jurisdiction over the government, discipline, studies, prop- 
erty, and privileges of all religious, including lay members of Third 
Orders; gives dispensations to religious from the common law. 
Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith 

Prefect: pietro Cardinal Fumasoni-Biondi. 

Secretary: Most Rev. Celsus Constantini, X>. D., Titular Archbishop of 

Office: Palazzo di Propaganda, Piazza di Spagna. 

Duties: Entrusted with the care of all mission territory those places 
where no hierarchy is established, or if established, is still in its in- 
cipient stages; constitutes and changes priests subject to it; has the 
power to judge and to act in, all things coming within its scope and 
which it considers necessary and opportune; arranges for the celebra- 
tion of councils in districts under its jurisdiction; approves the pro- 
ceedings. Societies and .Seminaries founded to train missionaries are 
under the supervision of this Congregation. 
Congregation of Sacred Rites 

Prefect: Carlo Cardinal Salotti. 

Secretary: Msgr. Alphonse Carinci. 
Office: Palazzo della Congregazioni, Piazza S. Caliisto. 

Duties: Supervises and determines all things which pertain to cere- 
monies and rites in the Latin Church; grants dispensations in such 
matters; gives insignia and privileges of honor; treats of all business 
concerning the beatification and canonization of the Servants of God or 
concerning the relics of these same; to this Congregation are joined the 
Liturgical Commission, the Historico-Liturgical Commission, and the 
Commission for Sacred Music. 
Congregation of Ceremonies 

Prefect: Gennaro Cardinal Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, 

Secretary: Msgr. Benjamin Nardone. 
Office: Palazzo Apostolico Vaticano. 

Duties: Regulates ceremonies in the papal chapel and court and the 
sacred functions which the cardinals perform outside the papal chapel; 
decides questions of the precedence of cardinals and legates whom the 
various nations send to the Holy See. 
Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs 

Prefect: Luigi Cardinal Maglione. 

Secretary: Msgr. Dominic Tardini, 
Office: Palazzo Apostolico Vaticano. 

Duties: Constitutes and divides dioceses, promotes suitable men for 
vacant sees, whenever these affairs must be settled in conjunction with 
civil powers; handles matters referred to it by the Holy Father through 
the Cardinal Secretary of State, especially concordats and those matters 
which have a relation to the civil laws. 
Congregation of Seminaries and Universities 

Prefect: Giuseppe Cardinal Pizzardo. 

Secretary: Msgr. Ernest Ruffini. 

Office: Palazzo di S. Callisto, Rome. 

Duties: Superintends all those matters which pertain to the govern- 
ment, discipline, temporal administration, and studies of seminaries; to 
it also is committed the direction of the government and studies in 
universities depending on the authority of the Church, even those directed 
by religious; examines and approves new constitutions; confers academic 
degrees and grants the faculty and establishes norms for the con- 
ferring of these. 
Congregation of the Basilica of St. Peter 

Prefect: Federico Cardinal Tedeschini, 

Secretary: Msgr. Ludwig Kaas. 
Office: Vatican City, 

Duties: The care of business pertaining to the building and the upkeep 
of the Basilica of St. Peter. 

Sacred Penitentiary 

Grand Penitentiary: Nicola Cardinal Canali. 
Office: Palazzo del S. Officio. 

Duties: Jurisdiction to judge ail cases of conscience, non-sacramental 
as well as sacramental; also decides questions concerning the use and 
concession of indulgences, without however encroaching on the rights 
of the Holy Office as to the dogmatic doctrine involved in these or in 
new prayers and devotions. 
Sacred Roman Rota 

Dean: Msgr. Julius Grazioli. 
Office: Palazzo della Dataria. 

Duties: Handles cases demanding judicial procedure, without preju- 
dice to the rights of the Holy Office or the Congregation of Sacred Rites. 
Apostolic Signature 

Prefect: Henry Cardinal Gasparri. 

Secretary: Msgr. Francis Morano. 
Office: Palazzo della Dataria. 

Duties: Tlie supreme tribunal of the Roman Curia; handles all cases 
of appeal; settles controversies as to the jurisdiction of the inferior 


Apostolic Chancery 


Regent: Msgr. Vincent Bianchi-Cagliesi. 

Office: Palazzo della Canceilaria Apostollca. 

Duties: Sends out Apostolic Letters and Bulls concerning the provision 
of consistorial offices and benefices, the establishment of new dioceses, 
provinces, and chapters, and other affairs of major importance. 
Apostolic Datary 

Datary: Federico Cardinal Tedeschini. 

Regent: Msgr. Joseph Guerri. 
Office: Palazzo della Dataria. 

Duties: Should have knowledge of the suitability of candidates to be 
promoted to non-consistorial benefices; sends letters of appointment to 
such candidates; sends dispensations from conditions required for these 
benefices; exacts the tax imposed by the Holy Father in conferring these 
Apostolic Camera 

Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church: Pietro Fionas oni-Biondi. 

Vice-Chamberlain: Most Rev. Tito Trocchi, Titular Archbisiaop of Lace- 

Auditor: Most Rev. John Vallega, Titular Archbishop of Nicopolis in Epiro. 

Duties: Has the care and administration of the temporal goods and 
rights of the Holy See, especially when it is vacant. 
Secretariate of State 
'Secretary of Stats: Luigi Cardinal Maglione. 

Secretary for Extraordinary Affairs: Msgr. Dominic Tardini. 

Under-Secretory: Msgr. John B. Montini. 

Chancellor of Apostolic Briefs: Msgr. Dominic Spada. 
Office: Palazzo Apostolica Vaticano. 

Duties: Prepares matters to be brought up before the Congregation of 
Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Sends out Apostolic Briefs. 
Secretariate of Briefs to Princes and Latin Letters 

Secretary of Briefs to Princes: Msgr. Antony Bacci. 

Secretary of Latin Letters: Msgr. Angelus Perugmi. 
Office: Palazzo Apostolico Vaticano. 

Duties: To transcribe in Latin the acts of the Supreme Pontiff, which 
nave been committed to it by him. 


Patriarchs are the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the Pope. 
In the early Church patriarchal rights were acceded only to the Bishops 
of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch. Jerusalem rose to importance when 
pilgrims began to flock to the Holy City and the Council of Chalcedon 
(451) cut away Palestine and Arabia from Antioch and formed the 
Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Constantine having made Byzantium ' f New 
Rome/' Constantinople was also raised to patriarchal rank by the Council 
of Chalcedon. 

There are now five major patriarchates. The Pope as Bishop of Rome 
is Patriarch of all the western Church. In the eastern Church there are 
Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. The 
Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria and Antioch are now 
merely titular. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem has jurisdiction over 


Palestine and Cyprus. The Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria and the Syrian, 
Maronite and MelcMte Patriarchs of Antioch rule over Uniat Catholics 
of their respective Rites. 

Minor Patriarchs in the East are the Patriarch of Babylon for the 
Chaldees and the Patriarch of Cilicia for the Armenians, 

Minor Patriarchs in the West are merely titular. They bear the titles 
of Patriarchs of the West Indies, the East Indies, Lisbon and Venice. 

The Patriarchs are as follows: 
Patriarchate Rite Patriarch 

Date of 

^ Election 


Turkey Latin Antonio A. Rossi 1927 

Alexandria, Egypt Latin Paul de Huyn 1921 

Coptic Marco Khouzam, Bp. of Thebes, 

Apostolic Administrator . . . 1926 

Antioch, Syria Syrian Ignazio Cardinal Tappouni. . . 1929 

Maronite Anton Arida 1932 

Latin Roberto Vicentini . . ... 1925 

Melchite Cyril IX Mogabgab 1925 


Palestine Latin Luigi Barlassina 1920 

Babylon, Iraq Chaldean Joseph E. Thomas 1900 

Cilicia, Turkey Armenian Gregory Peter XV 

Agagianian 1937 

West Indies Latin Vacant 

East Indies Latin Teotonio E. R. Vieira de 

Castro, Abp. of Goa 1929 

Lisbon, Portugal . .Latin Emanuele Goncalves 

Cardinal Cerejeira 1929 

Venice, Italy Latin Adeodato Giovanni Cardinal 

Piazza, O. C. D 1935 


An Apostolic Delegate enjoys precedence over all ordinaries in Ms 
territory except cardinals. There have been six Apostolic Delegates to 
the United States: 

His Eminence Francis Cardinal Satolli 1893-1896 

His Eminence Sebastian Cardinal Martinelli, O.S.A. 1896-1902 
His Eminence Diomede Cardinal Falconio, O.F.M. 1902-1911 

His Eminence John Cardinal Bonzano 1911-1922 

His Eminence Pietro Cardinal Fumasoni-Biondi 1922-1933 

His Excellency Most Rev. Amleto Giovanni 

Cicognani, Titular Archbishop of Laodicea 1933- 

His Excellency Most Rev. Amleto Giovanni Cicognani was born in 
Brisighella, Province of Ravenna, Italy, February 24, 1883. He was or- 
dained priest at Faenza, on September 23, 1905. Appointed Under Sec- 
retary of the Consistorial Congregation, December 16, 1922, he was 
elevated to Domestic Prelate, May 19, 1923, and was successively ap- 
pointed Assessor of the Congregation for the Oriental Church, February 
16, 1928, Secretary of the Commission for the Codification of Oriental 
Law, December 2, 1929, and Apostolic Delegate to the United States, 
March 17, 1933. He was consecrated Titular Archbishop of Laodicea 
on April 23, 1933, in Rome. He resides at 3339 Massachusetts Ave., N. W., 
Washington, D. C. 



Post Name Rank 

Buenos Aires .Most Rev. Joseph Fietta Nuncio 

Brussels Most Rev. Clement Micara Nuncio 

La Paz Most Rev. Egidio Lari Nuncio 

Rio de Janeiro Most Rev. Benedict Aloisi Masella Nuncio 

Santiago Most Rev. Maurilio Silvani Nuncio 

Bogota Most Rev. Charles Serena Nuncio 

Costa Rica 
San Jose Most Rev. Luigi Centoz Nuncio 

Havana .Most Rev. George Caruana Nuncio 

Quito Most Rev. Efrem Fomi Nuncio 

Paris and Vichy Most Rev. Valerio Valeri Nuncio 

Berlin Most Rev. Caesar Orsenigo Nuncio 

Guatemala Most Rev. Joseph Beitrami Nuncio 

Port au Prince Msgr. Paolo Bertoli Charge d' Affaires 

Tegucigalpa Most Rev. Frederico Lunardi Nuncio 

Budapest Most Rev. Angelus Rotta Nuncio 

Dublin Most Rev. Paschal Robinson, O.F.M. . . .Nuncio 

Home Most Rev. Francis Borgongini-Duca . . . .Nuncio 


Monrovia Most Rev. John Collins, S. M. A Charge 


Kaunas .N Nuncio 

Brussels, Belgium Most Rev. Clement Micara Interauncio 

Th Hague Most Rev. Paul Giobbe Internuncio 

San Jose, Costa Rica Most Rev. Luigi Centoz Nuncio 

San Jose, Costa Rica Most Rev. Luigi Centoz Nuncio 

Montevideo, Uruguay Msgr. Liberato Tosti Charge d'Affaires 

Lima Most Rev. Fernando Cento Nuncio 


Post Name 

Warsaw Most Bey. Filippo Cortesi .... . . Nuncio 

Lisbon Most Rev. Peter Cirlaci Nuncio 

Bucharest Most Rev. Andrea Cassulo Nuncio 

San Salvador Most Rev. Joseph Beltrami Nuncio 

Santo Domingo 
Port au Prince, Haiti Msgr. Paolo Bertoli Charge d'Affaires 

Bratislava Most Rev. Giuseppe Burzio . . Charge d'Affaires 

Madrid Most Rev. Gaetano Cicognano Nuncio 

Berne Most Rev. Philip Bernardini Nuncio 

Montevideo, Uruguay . . . .Most Rev. Albert Levame Nuncio 

Caracas Most Rev. Giuseppe Misuraca Nuncio 

Belgrade Most Rev. Hector Felici Nuncio 

fResidence at post rendered impossible because of the European War. 

Country Name Most Rev. Resides 

Africa (for the missions) Anthony Riberi Mombasa 

Albania John Baptist Leo Nigris Scutari 

Australasia John Panico North Sidney 

Belgian Congo John Baptist Dellepiane Leopoldville 

Bulgaria** Joseph Mazzoli Sofia 

Canada and Newfoundland* . . Hildebrand Antoniutti Ottawa 

China Mario Zanin Pelping 

Egypt, Arabia, Eritrea, 

Abyssinia and Palestine**. Gustave Testa Cairo and Jerusalem 

Great Britain* William Godfrey London 

Greece** Angelo Joseph Roncalli Athens 

India : . . . Leo Peter Kierkeis Bangalore, India 

Indo-China Anthony Drapier, O. P Hue, Annam 

Iran** Alcides Marina, C. M Teheran 

Iraq (Mesopotamia, Kurdis- 
tan, and Armenia)** George De Jonghe D'Ardoye . . Bagdad, Iraq 

Italian East Africa** John M. Castellani, O. F. M. . . Addis Ababa 

Japan Paul Marella Tokio 

Mexico* Luis Martinez . . _, Mexico City 

Philippines and Guam* William Piani, S. S Manila 

South Africa Jordan Gijlswijk, 0. P Bloemfontein 

Syria** Remy Lepretre, O. F. M Beirut 

Turkey** Angelo Joseph Roncalli Istanbul 

United States* Amleto Cicognani Washington, D. C. 

Note: The Apostolic Delegates are representatives of the Holy See without diplomatic char- 
acter. *An asterisk marks the Apostolic Delegates who depend on the Congregation of 
the Consistory; **two asterisks those who depend on the Congregations for the Oriental 
Church and of the Propaganda ; the others depend solely on the Propaganda. 


The diplomatic corps of the Vatican has representatives from most of 
the countries of the world. They are as follows : 

Country Name Rank* 

Argentina Jose Manuel Llobet A. E. and P. 

Belgium M. Adrian Nieuwenhuys A. B. and P. 

Bolivia Senor Bailon Mercado A. B. and P. 

Bra2il " Senor Ildebrando Accioly Pinto A. B. and P. 

Chile . ... Dr. Luis Cruz Ocampo A. B. and P. 

China '.'!.'!! 1 .'!.'!.'. .Dr. Cheou Kang Sie B. B. and M. P. 

Colombia '.'.." Dr. Dario Echandia A. E. and P. 

Costa Rica Dr. Luis Dobles Segreda B. B. and M. P. 

Cuba Senor Nicholas Rivera y Alonso B. E. and M. F. 

Ecuador Lusimaco Guzdman E. B. and M. P. 

Finland George Achates Gripenberg E. E. and M. P. 

Prance Leon Berard A. B. and P. 

Germany Baron Diego Von Bergen A. E. and P. 

Great Britain Francis Osborne D'Arcy A. E. and P. 

Guatemala Senor Francis Figueroa E. E. and M. P. 

H aiti Leon Thebaud E. E. and M. P. 

Honduras Baron Paul Adolph de Oroote E. E. and M. P. 

Hungary Baron Gabriel Apor E. E. and M. P. 

Ireland - Mr. William J. B. Macaulay E. E. and M. P. 

Italy Raphael Guariglia A. E. and P. 

japan Ken Harada E. E. and M. P. 

Liberia Mr. Corneille Bosman Van Oudkarspel. E. B. and M. P. 

Lithuania Stanislaus G-irdvainis E. E. and M. P. 

Luxemburg N E. E. and M. P. 

Monaco M. Emile Laurent Dard E. E. and M. P. 

Nicaragua Dr. Constantine Herdocia Teran E. E. and M. P. 

Onler of Malta . . . Count Stanislaus Pecci E. E. and M. P. 

Panama General Nicanor de Obarrio E. E. and M. P. 

Peru Diomedes Arias Schreiber A. E. and P. 

Poland Casixnir Papee A. E. and P. 

Portugal Sentfor Antonio Carneiro Packeco A. B. and P. 

Rumania Gen. Daniel Papp A. E. and P. 

Salvador Senor Raoul Contreras E. E. and M. P, 

San Marino Marchese Filippo Serlupi Crescenzi E. E. and M. P. 

Santo Domingo Marquis Edward Persicnetti Ugolim 

di Castelcolbuccaro E. E. and M. P. 

Slovakia Dr. Karol Sidor E. E. and M. P. 

Spain .Senor Domingo las Barcenao A. E. and P. 

Uruguay Senor Secco Ylla E. E. and M. P. 

Venezuela Senor Jose Casas Briceno E. E. and M. P. 

Yugoslavia Mr. Nik Mirosevlc Sorgo E. E. and M. P. 

United States Myron C. Taylor, 

Personal Representative of President 

of the United States 

* A. E., Ambassador Extraordinary; P., Plenipotentiary; E. E., Envoy Extraordinary; 
M. P., Minister Plenipotentiary. 



See Formed Archbishops Consecrated 
Baltimore, Md. 1789 . . .Michael J. Curley 1914 

. . .John M. McNamara, V. G., Aux. Bp. 1928 
Boston, Mass 1808 . . .William Cardinal O'Connell 1901 

...Richard J. CusMng, Auxiliary Bp. 1939 
Chicago, 111 1843 . . . Samuel A. Stritch 1921 

. . .Bernard J. Shell, Auxiliary Bp 1928 

. . .William D. O'Brien, Auxiliary Bp.. . 1934 
Cincinnati, Ohio 1821. . .John T. McNicholas, O. P 1918 

. . .George J. Reining, Auxiliary Bp 1937 

Denver, Colo 1887. . .Urban J. Vehr 1931 

Detroit, Mich 1833. . .Edward F. Mooney 1926 

. . .Stephen S. Woznicki, Auxiliary Bp.. 1938 

Dubuque, Iowa 1837. . .Francis J. L. Beckman 1924 

Los Angeles, Cai 1922 . . .John J. Cantwell 1917 

. . .Joseph T. McGucken, Auxiliary Bp. 1941 

Louisville, Ky 1841 . . .John A. Floersh 1923 

Milwaukee, Wis 1843. . .Moses E. Kiley 1934 

Newark, N. J 1853. . .Thomas J. Walsh 1918 

. . .Thomas A. Boland, Auxiliary Bp. . . 1940 

New 'Orleans, La 1793. . .Joseph F. Rummel 1928 

New York, N. Y 1808 . . .Francis J. Spellman 1932 

...Stephen J. Donahue, Auxiliary Bp. 1934 

...J. Francis A. Mclntyre, Aux. Bp. 1941 
Philadelphia, Pa 1808 ... Dennis Cardinal Dougherty 1903 

. . .Hugh L. Lamb, Auxiliary Bp 1936 

Portland, Ore 1846. . .Edward D. Howard 1924 

St. Louis, Mo 1826 . . .John J. Glennon 1896 

. . .George J. Donnelly, Auxiliary Bp. . . 1940 

St. Paul, Minn 1850. . .John G. Murray 1920 

San Antonio, Tex 1874. . .Robert E. Lucey 1934 

San Francisco, Cal 1853. . .John J. Mitty 1926 

...Thomas A. Connolly, Auxiliary Bp. 1939 

Santa Fe, N. M 1850. . .Rudolph A. Gerken 1927 

Washington, D. C 1939. . .Michael J. Curley 1914 


Albany, N. Y 1847. . .Edmund F. Gibbons 1919 

Alexandria, La 1853. . .Daniel F. Desmond 1933 

Altoona, Pa 1901. . .Richard T. Guilfoyle 1936 

Amarillo, Tex 1926. . .Lawrence J. FitzSimon 1941 

Baker City, Ore 1903. . .Joseph F. McGrath 1919 

Belleville, 111. 1887. . .Henry Althoff 1914 

Bismarck, N. Dak 1909 . . .Vincent J. Ryan 1940 

Boise, Idaho 1893. . .Edward J, Kelly 1928 

Brooklyn, N. Y 1853. . .Thomas E. Molloy 1920 

. . .Raymond A. Kearney, Auxiliary Bp. 1935 

Buffalo, N. Y 1847. . .John A. Duffy 1933 

Burlington, Vt 1853. . .Matthew F. Brady 1938 

Camden, N. J 1937. . .Bartholomew J. Eustace 1938 

Charleston, S. C 1820. . .Emmet M. Walsh " 1927 



Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Cleveland, Ohio 

. . 1887.. 
.. 1847.. 

Columbus, Ohio 


Concordia, Kans 

Corpus Christi, Tex. . , 

Covington, Ky 
Crookston, Minn 
Dallas Tex , . . . 

. . 1887. ..: 

.. 1912...' 

.. 1853...: 
.. 1909. ... 
, . 1890.... 

Davenport, Iowa 
Des Koines, Iowa 
Duluth Minn 

, . 1881. . .: 

,. 1911.. J 
,. 1889... ' 

El Paso Tex 

.. 1914.. .1 

, . 1853. . ., 

Fall River Mass 

. 1904.. .. 

Fargo N Dak 

.. 1889..., 

Fort Wayne, Ind 
Gallup N M 

,. 1857..., 
. 1940 . .: 

Gaiveston, Tex 

Grand Island, Neb. . . . 
Grand Rapids, Mich. . 
Great Falls, Mont 
Green Bay, Wis 
Harrisburg, Pa 
Hartford Conn 

. 1847.. J 
,. 1912...! 
,. 1882..., 
.. 1904...' 
. 1868...: 
,. 1868... < 
.. 1843.. .: 

Helena Mont 

, . 1884..., 

Indianapolis Ind . . . 

,. 1834..., 

Kansas City Mo . . . . 

.. 1880.. .: 

La Cross Wis 

, . 1868.... 

Lafayette La 

, . 1918..., 

Lansing Mich 

. 1937.... 

Leaven worth, Kans. . . 
Lincoln, Neb 

.. 1877...: 
.. 1887..,: 

Little Rock, Ark 

Manchester, N. H 
Marquette, Mich 
Mobile, Ala 

Monterey-Fresno, Cal. . 
Nashville, Tenn 
Natchez, Miss 
Qgdensburg, N. Y 

,. 1843..., 

, . 1884.. .. 
,. 1857...: 
.. 1829...' 

, . 1922...: 

.. 1837... ' 
. 1837...' 
. 1872...: 

Oklahoma City and 

Tulsa, Okla 1905. 

Omaha, Neb 1885. 

Bishops Consecrated 

Patrick A. McGovern 1912 

.Joseph Schrexnbs, Archbishop-Bp. . . 1911 
Edward F. Hoftan, Coadjutor Bp. . . 1921 
James A. McFadden, Auxiliary Bp. 1932 

James J. Hartley 1904 

Edward G. Hettinger, Auxiliary Bp. 1942 

Francis A. Thill > 1938 

Emmanuel B. Ledvina 1921 

Mariano Garriga, Coadjutor Bp. . . . 1936 

Francis W. Howard 

John H. Peschges 

Joseph P. Lynch 

Augustine Danglmayr, Auxiliary Bp. 1942 

Henry P. R6hlman 1927 

Gerald T. Bergan 1934 

Thomas A. Welch ,1926 

Sidney M. Metzger 1940 

John M. Gannon 1918 

James E. Cassidy 1930 

Aloysius J. Muench 1935 

John F, Noll 1925 

Bernard T. Espelage, 0. F. M 1940 

Christopher E, Byrne 1918 

Stanislaus V. Bona 1932 

Joseph C. Plagens 1924 

William J. Condon 1939 

Paul P. Rhode 1908 

George L. Leech 1935 

Maurice F. McAnliffe 1926 

Henry J. O'Brien, Auxiliary Bp. ... 1940 

Joseph M. Gilmore 1936 

Joseph E. Ritter 1933 

Edwin V. O'Hara ' 1930 

Alexander J. McGavick 1899 

William R. Griffin, Auxiliary Bp. ... 1935 

Jules B. Jeanmaiu 1918 

Joseph H. Albers 1929 

Paul C. Schulte 1937 

Louis B. Kucera 1930 

John B. Morris 1906 

Albert L. Fletcher, Auxiliary Bp 1940 

John B. Peterson 1927 

Francis J. Magner 1941 

Thomas J. Toolen 1927 

Philip G. Scher 1933 

William L. Adrian 1936 

Richard O. Gerow 1924 

Msgr. Louis D. Berube, Administra- 

.Francis C. Kelley 1924 

.James H. Ryan 1933 


See Formed 
Owensboro, Ky 1937 . . . 
Paterson, N. J 1937. . . 
Peoria III 1875 

Pittsburgh, Pa 
Portland, Me 
Providence, R. I 
Pueblo, Colo 
Raleigh, N. C 
Rapid City, S. Dak 
Reno, Nev 
Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 
Roekford, 111 
Sacramento, Cal 
Saglnaw, Mich 

St Augustine Fla 




1868.. J 

St. Cloud, Minn 
St Joseph, Mo 

Salt Lake, Utah 
San Diego, Cal 
Savannah-Atlanta, Ga. . . 
Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 
Sioux City, Iowa 
Sioux Falls, S. Dak. . . . 
Spokane, Wash 
Springfield 111 

1936.. J 
1850... < 

1850.. J 
1913.. J 
1910.. J 

Springfield, Mass 
Superior, Wis 
Syracuse, N. Y 
Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 
Tucson, Ariz 


Wheeling, W. Va 

Wichita, Kans 
Wilmington, Del 
Winona, Minn. 

1887.. J 

Army and Nary 

Belmont, N. C. 
(Abbacy Nullius) . 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
(Ukrainian Greek 
Catholic Diocese) 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(Greek Rite) 


Bishops Consecrated 

. Francis R. Cotton 1938 

. Thomas H. McLaughlin 1935 

Joseph H. Schlarman 1930 

.Hugh G. Boyle 1921 

.Joseph E. McCarthy 1932 

. Francis P. Keougli 1^34 

.Joseph C. WHiging 1942 

.Eugene J, McGuinness 1937 

.John J. Lawler 1910 

. Thomas K. Gorman 1931 

.Andrew J. Brennan 1923 

.Peter L. Ireton, Coadjutor Bp 1935 

.James E. Kearney 1932 

.John J. Boylan 1943 

.Robert J. Armstrong 1929 

.William F. Murphy 1938 

.Joseph P, Hurley 1940 

.Joseph F. Busch 1910 

.Peter W. Bartholome, Coadjutor Bp. 1942 

Charles H. Le Blond 1933 

.Duane G. Hunt 1937 

.Charles F. Buddy 1936 

.Gerald P. O'Hara 1929 

.William J. Hafey 192* 

.Martin J. O'Connor, Auxiliary Bp. . . 1943 

.Gerald Shaugkaessy, S.M 1933 

. Edmond Heelan 1919 

.William 0. Brady 1939 

.Charles D. White 1927 

.James A. Griffin 1924 

. Thomas M. Q'Leary 1921 

.William P. O'Connor 1942 

.Walter A. Foery 1937 

Karl J. Alter 1931 

.William A. Griffin 1938 

Daniel J. Gercke 1923 

.John J. Swint 1922 

.Christian H. Winkelmann 1933 

.Edmond J. Fitzmaurice 1925 

. Francis M. Kelly 1926 

.Leo Bins, Coadjutor Bp. ' 1942 

.Francis X Spellman 1932 

.John F. O'Hara, C. S. C., Military 

Delegate 1940 

. . 1910. . .Vincent G. Taylor, O. S. B. 

1913 ... Constantine Bohachevsky 1924 

. , .Ambrose A. Senyshyn, O. S. B. M., 

Auxiliary Bp 1942 

1924. . .Basil Takach 1924 


$ee Formed Bishops Consecrated 

(Vicariate Apostolic) . 1916. 

Canal Zone 

(Pacific side under Abp. of 

.Joseph E. Crimont, S. J 1917 

.Walter J. Fitzgerald, S. X, Coadjutor 1939 

John J. Maiztegui, C. P. M 1926 

.Francis Beckmann, C. M., Aux. Bp. 1940 

(Atlantic side under Vicar 
Apostolic of Darien, R. P.) . . .Joseph M. Preciado, C. F. M 1934 

(Vicariate Apostolic) . 1911. . .Michael A. Olano, 0. F. M. Cap 1935 

Hawaiian Islands 
Diocese of Honolulu . 1941. . .James J. Sweeney 1941 

Philippine Islands 

Archdiocese of Manila 1579 . . .Michael J. O'Doherty, Archbishop. . 1911 

. . .Cesar M. Guerrero, Auxiliary Bp 1929 

Archdiocese of Cebu. . 1595. . .Gabriel M. Reyes, Archbishop 1932 

Diocese of Bacolod. . . 1932 . . .Casimiro M. Lladoc 1933 

Diocese of Cagayan. . 1933. . .James T. G. Hayes, S. J 1933 

Diocese of Caibayog. . 1910. . .Miguel P. Acebedo 1938 

Diocese of Jaro 1865. . .James P. McCloskey 1917 

Diocese of Lingayen. . 1928. . .Mariano Madriaga 1938 

Diocese of Lipa 1910. . .Alfredo Verzosa 1917 

Diocese of Nueva 

Caceres 1595. . .See Vacant 

Diocese of Nueva 

Segovia 1595. . .Santiago C. Sancho 1917 

Diocese of Palo 1937 . . .Manuel Mascarinas 1938 

Diocese of Surigao . . 1939 . . .John C. Vrakking, M. S. C 1941 

Diocese of Tagbilaran 1942 

Diocese of Tuguegarao 1910. . .Constancio Jurgens, L C. M 1928' 

Diocese of Zamboanga 1910. . .Luis del Rosario, S.J 1933 

Prefecture Apostolic of 

Mindoro 1936- ."William T. Finnemann, S. V. D., 

^ a ' , * " . Prefect Apostolic 1929 

Prefecture Apostolic of 

Mountain Province . 1932 . . .Joseph Bilttet, C. I. C. M., Prefect 

Prefecture Apostolic of 

Palawan 1910- . .Leandro Nieto Bolandiez, A. R., Pre- 

Puerto Rico feet Apostolic 

Diocese of Ponce 1924. . .Aloysius J. Willinger, C. SS. R. ... 1929 

Diocese of San Juan. . 1511. . .Edwin V. Byrne 1925 


(Vicariate Apostolic). 1929. . .Joseph Darnand, S. M 1920 


(Vicariate Apostolic) . 1941. , .Bernard J. Kevenhoerster, O. S. B. . 1933 
British Honduras 

Vicariate Apostolic of 

Belize 1893 . . .William A. Rice, S. J 1939 


(Vicariate Apostolic) . 1837. . .Thomas A. Emmet, S. J 1930 

Sierra Leone 

(Vicariate Apostolic). 1858. . .Ambrose Kelly, C. S. Sp. 1937 



For the better government of the Church, dioceses in one locality are 
grouped together under the headship of an archdiocese; such a forma- 
tion is called a province. Without special faculty from the Holy See } 
the archbishop or metropolitan has no direct jurisdiction over the dio- 
ceses or bishops in his province; he is the first among equals, a presi- 
dent This division into provinces is made in order to care more im- 
mediately for the local needs, to correct more easily local abuses, and 
to co-ordinate the work of the bishops. The following are the provinces 
in the United States proper. 

Province of Baltimore includes the states of Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, 
West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, the eastern 
part of Florida, and the District of Columbia: Archdioceses of Balti- 
more, Md., and Washington, D. C.; the dioceses of Charleston, S. C., 
Raleigh, N. C., Richmond, Va., St. Augustine, Fla., Savannah-Atlanta, 
Ga., Wheeling, W. Va., Wilmington, Del., and the Abbacy Nullius of 
Belmont, N. C. 

Province of Boston includes the New England States: Archdiocese of Bos- 
ton, Mass.; the dioceses of Burlington, Vt, Fall River, Mass., Hartford, 
Conn., Manchester, N. H., Portland, Me., Providence, R. I., Spring- 
field, Mass. 

Province of Chicago includes the state of Illinois: Archdiocese of Chicago, 
111.; the dioceses of Belleville, 111., Peoria, 111,, Rockford, 111., and Spring- 
field, m. 

Province of Cincinnati includes the states of Ohio and Indiana: Arch- 
diocese of Cincinnati, Ohio; the dioceses of Cleveland, Ohio, Columbus, 
Ohio, Fort Wayne, Ind., Indianapolis, Ind., and Toledo, Ohio. 
Province of Denver includes the states of Colorado and Wyoming: Archdio- 
cese of Denver, Colo.; the dioceses of Cheyenne, Wyo., and Pueblo, Colo. 
Province of Detroit includes the state of Michigan: Archdiocese of De- 
troit, Mich.; the dioceses of Grand Rapids, Mich., Lansing, Mich., Mar- 
que tte, Mich., and Saginaw, Mich. 

Province of Dubuque includes the states of Iowa and Nebraska: Arch- 
diocese of Dubuque, Iowa; the dioceses of Davenport, Iowa, Des, 
Iowa, Grand Island, Neb., Lincoln, Neb., Omaha, Neb., and Sioux City, 

Province of Los AngeSes includes southern California and the state of 
Arizona: Archdiocese of Los Angeles, Gal.; the dioceses of Monterey- 
Fresno, Cat, San Diego, Cal., and Tucson, Ariz. 

Province of Louisville includes the states of Kentucky and Tennessee: 
Archdiocese of Louisville, Ky.; the dioceses of Covington, Ky., Owens- 
boro, Ky., and Nashville, Tenn. 

Province of Milwaukee includes the state of Wisconsin and northern 
Michigan: Archdiocese of Milwaukee; the dioceses of Green Bay, 
Wis., La Crosse, Wis., and Superior, Wis. 

Province of Newark includes the state of New Jersey: Archdiocese of 
Newark, N. J.; the dioceses of Camden, N. J., Paterson, N. J., and 
Trenton, N. J. 

Province of New Orleans includes the states of Louisiana, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Arkansas and western Florida: Archdiocese of New Or- 
leans, La.; the dioceses of Alexandria, La., Lafayette, La., Little Rock, 
Ark., Mobile, Ala., and Natchez, Miss. 

Province of New York includes the state of New York: Archdiocese of 
New York, N. Y.; the dioceses of Albany, N. Y., Brooklyn, N. Y., Buf- 
falo, N. Y., Ogdensburg, N. Y., Rochester, N. Y., and Syracuse, N. Y. 


Province of Philadelphia includes the state of Pennsylvania: Archdiocese 
of Philadelphia, Pa.; the dioceses of Altoona, Pa., Erie, Pa., Harris- 
burg, Pa., Pittsburgh, Pa., Scraaton, Pa. 

Province of Portland In Oregon includes the states of Oregon Washing- 
ton, Idaho, Montana and Alaska Territory: Archdiocese of Portland, 
Ore.; the dioceses of Baker City, Ore., Boise, Idaho, Great Falls, Mont., 
Helena, Mont., Seattle, Wash., Spokane, Wash.; and the Vicariate- 

Apostolic of Alaska. 

Province of St. Louis includes the states of Missouri and Kansas: Arch- 
diocese of St. Louis, Mo.; the dioceses of Concordia, Kans., Kansas 
City, Mo., Leavenworth, Kans. s St. Joseph, Mo., and Wichita, Kans. 

Province of St. Paul includes the states of Minnesota, South. Dakota and 
North Dakota: Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minn.; the dioceses of Bis- 
marck, N. Dak., Crookston, Minn., Duluth, Minn., Fargo, N. D., Rapid 
City, a Dak., St. Cloud, Minn,, Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and Winona, Minn. 

Province of San Antonio includes the states of Texas (except the Diocese 

of El Paso) and Oklahoma: Archdiocese of San Antonio, Tex.; the 
dioceses of Amariilo, Tex., Corpus Christi, Tex., Dallas, Tex., Gal- 
veston, Tex., and Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Okla. 

Province of San Francisco includes northern California, the states of 
Nevada and Utah, and Hawaii: Archdiocese of San Francisco, CaL; the 
dioceses of Reno, Nev., Sacramento, CaL, Salt Lake City, Utah, and 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Province of Sante Fe includes the state of New Mexico and the diocese 
of El Paso, Tex.: Archdiocese of Santa Fe, N. M.; the dioceses of El 
Paso, Tex., and Gallup, N. M. 


Six prelates of American birth have been created Cardinals. The list 

of American princes of the Church, however, also includes those Car- 
dinals who became naturalized Americans and those of French, Irish and 
Italian birth who served the Church in the United States. 

Created Name Birthplace American Service Death 

1836 . , , . Jean Cheverus .France First Bishop of Boston 1836 

1875 John McQoskey Brooklyn Archbishop of New York 1885 

1886 James Gibbons Baltimore Archbishop of Baltimore 1921 

1886 Camillo Mazella, S. J Italy Jesuit Teacher in New York. . 1900 

1893 Ignatius Persico, O.F.M.Cap... Italy Bishop of Savannah 1895 

1895 Francesco Satolli Italy Apostolic Delegate to U, S. . . 1910 

1902 Sebastian Martinelli, O. S. A. .Italy Apostolic Delegate to U. S. . . 1918 

1911 .... John Farley Ireland Archbishop of New York .... 1918 

1911 ... DiomecJe Falconio, O F M. . .Italy Apostolic Delegate to U. S. . . 1917 

1911 William O'Connell Lowell, Mass. . .Archbishop of Boston 

1916 Donati Sbaretti Italy Auditor of the Apostolic Dele- 
gation in the U. S 1939 

1921 Dennis Dougherty Girardville, Pa. .Archbishop of Philadelphia. . . 

1922 John Bonaano Italy Apostolic Delegate to U. S. . . 1927 

1924 George Mundelein New York Archbishop of Chicago 1939 

1924 .... Patrick Hayes New York Archbishop of New York .... 1938 

1933 Pietro Fumasoni-Biondi Italy Apostolic Delegate to U. S. . . 

72 . 

Gasparri, Enrico fo. July 25, 

1871, Ussita, Italy; educ. Pontificio 
Seminario Romano; ord. 1894; 
cons. Titular Archbishop of Sebaste 
and appointed Delegate to Colom- 
bia Dec., 1915; Papal Nuncio to 
Rio de Janeiro Sept, 1920; created 
Cardinal Dec. 14, 1925; became 
Bishop of Velletri Oct., 1933; Pre- 
fect of the Supreme Tribunal of 
the Apostolic Signature. 

Granito Pignatelfi di Belmonte, 
Gennaro b. April 10, 1851, Nap- 
les; educ. Mondragone College 
(Italy), tutored by the Archbishop 
of Naples; ord. 1879; .cons. Titular 
Archbishop of Edessa and appoint- 
ed Apostolic Nuncio to Brussels 
Nov., 1899; Apostolic Nuncio to 
Vienna Jan., 1904; created Cardinal 
Nov. 27, 1911; Papal Legate at the 
International Eucharistic Congress 
of Lourdes, July, 1914; Bishop of 
Albano and Ostia, Dec., 1915; Dean 
of the College of Cardinals; Prefect 
of the Congregation of Ceremonies. 

Marchetti-Selvaggiani, Francesco 
b. Oct. 1, 1871, Rome, Italy; 
educ. Alma Collegio Capranica, 
Pontifical Gregorian University; 
ord. April 5, 1896; confidential re- 
presentative of Holy See at Berne 
1914; cons. Titular Archbishop of 
Seleucia and appointed Nuncio to 
Venezuela 1918; translated to Apos- 
tolic Nunciature at Vienna 1920; 
Secretary of the Sacred Congrega- 
tion of the Propagation of the 

Ascalesi, Alessio b. Oct. 23, 

1872, Casalnuovo, Italy; educ. Sem- 
inary of Spoleto (Umbria) ; ord. 
June 8, 1895; cons. Bishop of Muro- 
Lucano 1909; translated to See of 
St. Agata de Goti 1911; promoted 
Archbishop of Benevento 1915; 
created Cardinal Dec. 4, 1916 ; Arch- 
bishop of Naples 1924. 

Bertram, Adolph b. March 14, 
1859, Hildesheim, Germany; educ. 
Munich and Wuerzburg (Germany) 
and University at Rome; ord. July 
31, 1881; cons. Bishop" of Hilde- 
sheim 1905; translated to Archie- 
piscopal See of Breslau 1914; 


Faith 1923, laid foundation for 
Ethnological Missionary Museum 
in Lateran Palace; created Cardi- 
nal June 30, 1930, being ascribed 
in the order of Cardinal Priests; 
Vicar-General to Pope for diocese 
of Rome May, 1931; Archpriest of 
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran; 
entered order of Bishops in Con- 
sistory Jan., 1935; Secretary of the 
Congregation of the Holy Office; 
Bishop of Frascati July, 1936. 

Salotti, Carlo b. July 25, 1870, 
Grotte di Castro, Italy; educ. Dio- 
cesan Seminary of Orvieto (Italy), 
Athenaeum of the Pontificio Sem- 
inario Romano, and the Royal Uni- 
versity (Rome) ; ord. Sept. 22, 1894; 
cons. Bishop with the Archiepisco- 
pal Title of Philippopolis 1930; 
created Cardinal "in petto" March 
13, 1933; proclaimed Cardinal Dec. 
16, 1935; Bishop of Palestrlna; 
Prefect of the Congregation of 
Sacred Rites. 

Sibilia, Enrico b. Nov. 17, 1861, 
Anagni, Italy; educ. Athenaeum of 
the Pontificio Seminario Romano; 
ord. March 8, 1884; cons. Titular 
Archbishop of Side and appointed 
Apostolic Nuncio to Chile July, 
1908; Assistant at the Pontifical 
Throne 1914; appointed Vicar of the 
Basilica of St. Mary Major 1916; 
appointed Apostolic Nuncio to Aus- 
tria 1922; created Cardinal Dec. 16, 
1935; Bishop of Sabina and Poggio 


created Cardinal "in petto" Dec. 4, 
1916; proclaimed Cardinal Dec. 15, 
1919; outstanding promoter of 
Catholic Action in Germany. 

Boetto, S. J., Pietro b. May 19, 
1871, Vigone, Italy; educ. Seminary 
of Gianeno and the Jesuit Noviti- 
ate House at Chieri (Italy); ord. 
July 30, 1901; took solemn vows 
1906; Provincial of Turin Province 
1916; Procurator-General of the 
Society of Jesus 1921; Provincial 
of Roman Province 1928-30; As- 
sistant of the General Curia for 
Italy March, 1930; Consultor of the 
Sacred Congregation of Religious 


1931; created Cardinal Dec. 16, 
1935; Archbishop of Genoa 1938. 

Copello, Diego b. Jan. 7, 1880, 
San Isidoro, Argentina; educ. Col- 
lege of San Jose and Seminary of 
Buenos Aires (Argentina), Latin 
American College (Rome) ; ord. 
Oct. 28, 1902; cons. Auxiliary 
Bishop of La Plata 1919; erected 
Diocesan Seminary and its Church 
in La Plata; appointed Visitor of 
all schools in the republic directed 
by religious bodies; named Chap- 
Iain General of the Army by Ar- 
gentinian Government, 1927; ap- 
pointed Yicar-General of Archdio- 
cese of Buenos Aires and Auxiliary 
Bishop, 1928; Archbishop of Buenos 
Aires Dec., 1932; created Cardinal 
Dec. 16, 1935. 

Cremonesi, Carlo b. Nov. 4, 
1866, Rome; educ. Pontificio Sem- 
inario Romano; ord. 1890; cons. 
Archbishop of Nicomedia Jan. 8, 
1922, and appointed Secret Almon- 
er; appointed Administrator of 
Sanctuary of Pompeii and later 
made its Prelate; created Cardinal 
Dec. 16, 1935. 

Dalla Costa, Elia b. May 14, 
1872, Villaverla, Italy; educ. Sem- 
inary of Vicenza and Royal Uni- 
versity of Padua (Italy) ; ord. July 
25, 1895; cons. Bishop of Padua, 
1923; translated to the Archiepis- 
copal See of Florence Feb., 1932; 
created Cardinal March 13, 1933. 

Dougherty, Dennis b. Aug. 16, 
1865, Girardville, Pennsylvania; 
educ. St. Mary's College, Montreal 
(Canada), St. Charles Seminary 
(Overbrook, Pa.), American Col- 
lege (Rome); ord. May 31, 1890; 
cons. Bishop of Nueva Segovia 
June 10, 1903; rehabilitated the 
Seminary at Vigan, Philippine 
Islands, and refounded the diocese 
1903; made Bishop of Jaro 1908; 
Bishop of Buffalo 1915; Archbishop 
of Philadelphia 1918; created Car- 
dinal March 7, 1921; President of 
the Bureau of Catholic Indian Mis- 
sions, Commissioner for Catholic 
Missions among the Colored People 
and Indians; Trustee of the Na- 
tional Shrine of the Immaculate 
Conception, Washington, D. C.; 
member of the Board of Governors 

of the Catholic Church Extension 
Society; Grand Officer of the Crown 
of Italy; Papal Legate to the In- 
ternational Bucharistic Congress at 
Manila, P. I., 1937. 

Fossati, MaursISo b. May 24, 
1876, Arena, Italy; educ. Diocesan 
Seminary at Arona (Italy) ; ord. 
Nov. 27, 1898; entered the Oblates 
cons. Bishop of Galtelli-Nuoro April 
27, 1924; translated to the Archiepis- 
copal See of Sassari Oct. 2, 1929; 
translated to the Archiepiscopal 
See of Turin Dec. 11, 1930; created 
Cardinal March 13, 1933. 

Fumasoni-Biondi, Pietro b. Sept. 
4, 1872, Rome, Italy; educ. Roman 
Seminary (Rome); ord. April 17, 
1897; cons. Archbishop of the Titu- 
lar See of Doclea and appointed 
Apostolic Delegate to India 1916; 
first Apostolic Delegate to Japan 
1919; Secretary of the Congrega- 
tion for the Propagation of the 
Faith 1921, Prefect since 1933; 
fifth Apostolic Delegate to the Uni- 
ted States, March 2, 1923; Apostolic 
Delegate to Mexico "pro tempore" 
1926; created Cardinal March 13, 
1933; Camerlengo of the Sacred 
College of Cardinals, May 12, 1941. 

GerJier, Pierre b. Jan. 14, 1880, 
Versailles, France; educ. Seminary 
of Saint Sulpice; ord. June 29, 1921; 
named Bishop of Tarbes and 
Lourdes May 14, 1929; translated 
to the Archiepiscopal See of Lyons 
July 30, 1937; created Cardinal Dec. 
13, 1937. 

Goncalves Cerejeira, Emanue! 
b. Nov. 29, 1888, Lousado, Portugal; 
educ. National University of Coim- 
bra (Spain); ord. April 1, 1911; 
cons. Auxiliary Bishop of Lisbon 
and Titular Bishop of Mytilene 
1928; appointed Capitular Vicar of 
the Patriarchate, and promoted Pa- 
triarch of Lisbon 1929; created 
Cardinal Dec. 16, 1929. 

Hinsley, Arthur b. Aug. 25, 
1865, Selby, England; educ. Ushaw 
College (England), and English 
College (Rome); ord. 1894; cons. 
Titular Bishop of Sebastopol Aug. 
10, 1926; appointed Titular Bishop 
of Sardi and Apostolic Visitor to 
African Missions in British Terri- 
tory 1927; later Apostolic Delegate 


for British Africa; appointed Canon 
of St. Peter's (Rome) May, 1934; 
translated to the ArcMepiscopal 
See of Westminster April 1, 1935; 
created Cardinal Dec. 13, 1937. 

Hlond, S. S., Augustus b. July 
5, 1881, Brzeckowice, Poland; educ. 
Seminary of Salesian Congregation 
(Poland) and Gregorian University 
(Rome); ord. Sept. 23, 1905; Head 
of the Salesian Institute in Przem- 
ysl 1907; Inspector of New Aus- 
trian-Hungarian Salesian Province 
c. 1917; appointed Apostolic Ad- 
ministrator in Upper Silesia 1922; 
cons. Bishop of Kattowitz Jan. 3, 
1926; translated to the ArcMepisco- 
pal See of Gneisen and Posen June 
24, 1926; Primate of Poland; crea- 
ted Cardinal June 20, 1927. 

innitzer, Theodore b. Dec. 25, 
1875, Weipert-Neugeschrei, Bohe- 
mia; educ. University of Vienna; 
ord. July 25, 1902; cons. Archbish- 
op of Vienna, cons. Oct. 16, 1932; 
created Cardinal March 13, 1933. 

Lavitrano, Luigi b. March 7, 
1874, Forio, Italy; educ. Institute of 
the Province and Apostolic School, 
the Appolinare and Royal Univer- 
sity of Rome, Leonine Institute 
(Italy); ord. March 21, 1898; cons. 
Bishop of Cava and Sarno June 
21, 1914; appointed Archbishop of 
Benevento July 16, 1924; translated 
to ArcMepiscopal See of Palermo 
Sept 29, 1928; created Cardinal 
Dec. 16, 1929. 

Lienart, Achilles b. Feb. 7, 
1884, Lille, France; educ. Catholic 
Institute of Paris and at Rome; 
ord. June 29, 1907; cons. Bishop of 
Lille Oct. 6, 1928; erected Grand 
Seminary and Cathedral at Lille; 
developed Christian Labor Organi- 
zations; created Cardinal June 30, 

MacRory, Joseph b. March 19, 
1861, Ballygawley, Ireland; educ. 
St. Patrick's College (Armagh), 
St. Patrick's College (Maynooth); 
ord. Sept, 1885; cons. Bishop of 
Down and Connor Nov. 14, 1915; 
translated to the ArcMepiscopal 
See of Armagh June 22, 1928; crea- 
ted Cardinal Dec. 16, 1929. 

Maglione, Luigi b. March 2, 
1877, Casoria, Italy; educ. Almo 

Collegio Capranica and Pontifical 
Gregorian University (Italy); ord. 
July 25, 1901; cons. Bishop of Cae- 
sarea of Palestine Sept. 26, 1920; 
appointed Apostolic Nuncio to 
Paris, 1926; created Cardinal Dec. 
16, 1935; Secretary of State; Pre- 
fect of Congregation of Extraor- 
dinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. 

Marmaggi, Francesco b. Aug. 
31, 1876, Rome, Italy; educ. Ponti- 
ficio Seminario Romano; ord. April 
14, 1900; cons. Archbishop of Adri- 
anopolis and appointed Apostolic 
Nuncio to Rumania, 1920; Papal 
Legate Extraordinary at Corona- 
tion of Ferdinand I of Rumania; 
Nuncio to Prague 1923; Apostolic 
Nuncio to Warsaw 1928; created 
Cardinal Dec. 16, 1935; Legate to 
Poland to preside over the National 
Council of the Polish Episcopate 
1936; Prefect of the Congregation 
of the Council. 

Nasalli-Rocca, Giovanni Battista 
b. Aug. 27, 1872, Piacenza, Italy; 
educ. Pontifical Lombardian Col- 
lege (Rome) and Pontifical Gre- 
gorian University (Rome) ; ord. June 
8, 1895; consecrated Bishop of Gub- 
bio, 1907; Apostolic Visitor to var- 
ious dioceses of Italy; appointed 
Titular Archbishop of Thebes and 
Secret Almoner 1916; General Ec- 
clesiastical Assistant of Italian 
Catholic Youth 1921; translated to 
Bologna Nov. 21, 1921; created 
Cardinal May 23, 1923; Papal Le- 
gate at Plenary Synod of the Epis- 
copate of Emilia 1932; celebrated 
fifth Italian National Eucharistic 
Congress 1932. 

O'Connelf, William Henry b. 
Dec. 8, 1859, Lowell, Massachusetts; 
educ. Boston College (Boston), 
North American College (Rome) ; 
ord. June 8, 1884; cons. Bishop of 
Portland, Maine, May 19, 1901; 
Papal Envoy to Japan, 1905; pro- 
moted to the ArcMepiscopal Titular 
See of Tomi or Constantia and 
made Coadjutor to the Archbishop 
of Boston, 1906; Archbishop of 
Boston, 1907; created Cardinal, Nov. 
27, 1911; Senior Ranking Prelate 
and Dean of American Hierarchy; 
Senior Cardinal Priest of the Sa- 
cred College of Cardinals. 


Peliegrinetts, Ermenegildo b. 
March 27, 1876, Camaiore, Italy; 
educ. Pia Casa del Chierici Poveri 
(Lucca), Archiepiscopai Seminary 
of Lucca, Accademia Romana, Vat- 
ican School of Paleography and 
Diplomacy, Appolinare (Rome) ; 
ord. Sept 24, 1898; cons. Titular 
Archbishop of Adana and appointed 
Apostolic Nuncio to Belgrade May, 
1922; facilitated Concordat between 
the Holy See and the Government 
of Yugoslavia, 1935; created Car- 
dinal Dec. 13, 1937. 

Piazza, O. C. D., Adeodato Giovan- 
ni-.^ Sept. 30, 1884, Vigo di Ca- 
dore, Italy; educ. Episcopal Sem- 
inary, Carmelite Colleges at Tre- 
vis, Venice and Brescia; entered 
Carmelite Novitiate at Brescia 
1902; professed 1903; ord. Dec. 19, 
1908; cons. Archbishop of Bene- 
vento Jan. 29, 1930; translated to 
Patriarchate of Venice Dec. 16, 
1935; created Cardinal Dec. 13, 1937. 

Pizzardo, Giuseppe b. July 13, 
1877, Savona, Italy; educ. Diocesan 
Seminary (Savona), Lombardian 
College, University of Genoa; ord. 
Sept 19, 1903; appointed Titular 
Archbishop of Cirro March 28, 1930, 
transferred to Nice April 22; cons. 
April 27; created Cardinal Dec. 13, 
1937; Prefect of Congregation of 
Seminaries and Universities; Presi- 
dent of Catholic Action. 

Rossi, O. C. D., Raffaelo Carlo 
b. Oct. 28, 1876, Pisa, Italy; educ. 
International College (Rome), 
Scholasticate of Discalced Carmel- 
ites; ord. Dec. 21, 1901; cons. Bish- 
op of Volterra May 25, 1920; As- 
sessor of the Consistorial Congre- 
gation June 7, 1923; promoted to 
Titular Archbishop of Thessalonica 
Dec. 20, 1923; Vice-president of the 
mixed commission of the represen- 
tatives of the Vatican and the 
Italian government to effect the 
Concordat, 1929; created Cardinal 
June 30, 1930; Secretary of the 
Consistorial Congregation. 

Schuster, O. S. B., Alfredo llde- 
fonso b. Jan. 18, 1880, Rome, 
Italy; educ. Benedictine Basilica 
of St. Paul outside the Walls, In- 
ternational College of the Benedict- 
ines of St. Anselm (Aventine Hill, 

Rome); ord. March 19, 1904; ap- 
pointed Archbishop of Milan June 26, 
1929; created Cardinal July 15, 1929. 

Segura y Saenz, Pedro -b. Dec. 
4, 1880, Carazo, Spain; educ. Pon- 
tifical Seminary of Aquella (Bur- 
gos), Pontifical University of Com- 
mas (Santander); ord. May, 1906; 
cons. Titular Bishop of Appollonia 
and Auxiliary Bishop of Vallodolid, 
1916; translated to the See of 
Coria 1920; promoted to the Archi- 
episcopal See of Burgos 1926; 
translated to the Primatial See of 
Toledo 1927; created Cardinal Dec. 
19, 1927; resigned his See during 
the persecution; became Archbish- 
op of Seville, 1937. 

Seredi, O. S. B., Justinian Georg 
b. April 23, 1884, Deaki, Hung- 
ary; educ. Benedictine Abbey of 
Pannonhalma (Hungary) ; received 
habit 1901; solemnly professed 
1905; ord. July 14, 1908; appointed 
Archbishop of Gran and Primate 
of Hungary, Nov. 30, 1927; cons, 
and enthroned Jan. 1928; created 
Cardinal Dec. 19, 1927. 

Suhard, Emmanuel Celestine b. 
April 5, 1874, Brains-sur-les-Mar- 
ches, France; educ. Petit Seminary 
at Mayenne (France), French Sem- 
inary (^ome); ord. Dec. 18, 1898; 
cons. Bishop of Bayeux and Lisi- 
eux, 1928; translated to the Archi- 
episcopal See of Reims, 1930; 
created Cardinal Dec. 16, 1935; 
Archbishop of Paris, 1940. 

Tappouni, Ignatius Gabriel b. 
Nov. 3, 1879, Mossul, Irak; ord. 
Nov. 9, 1902; appointed Titular 
Bishop of Danaba Sept. 14, 1912; 
promoted to the Archiepiscopal See 
of Batnan Sarug Dec. 13, 1912; 
cons. Jan. 19, 1913; Patriarchal Vic- 
ar to the Archdiocese of Aleppo 
1919; Metropolitan of Aleppo 1921; 
Syrian Patriarch of Antioch 1929; 
created Cardinal Dec. 16, 1935; 
Representative of Eastern Catholics 
in the Consistory of the, Sacred 

Tedeschini, Federico b. Oct. 12, 
1873, Antrodoco, Italy; educ. Sem- 
inario Romano and Seminario Pio 
(Rome); ord. July 25, 1896; cons. 
Titular Archbishop of Lepanto and 
appointed Nuncio to Madrid 1921; 


created Cardinal "in petto" March 
13, 1933; proclaimed Cardinal Dec. 
16, 1935; Archpriest of Vatican 
Basilica; Prefect of the Congrega- 
tion of Basilica of St. Peter; Apo- 
stolic Datary. 

Tlsserant, Eugene b. March 24, 
1884, Nancy, France; educ. Dio- 
cesan Seminary (Nancy), Domin- 
ican Convent of St. Stephen (Jerus- 
alem), Catholic Institute of Paris; 
called to America by Carnegie 
Foundation 1927; represented Holy 
See at Orientalist Congresses at 
Oxford, Leyden and Rome, and at 
International Congress of Librari- 
ans at Warsaw; created Cardinal 
June 15, 1936; Secretary of the 
Congregation for the Oriental 

Van Roey, Joseph Ernest b. 
June 13, 1874, Vorsselaer, Belgium; 
educ. Diocesan College of Heren- 
thal (Belgium), Seminary of Ma- 
lines and the University of v Louv- 
aine (Belgium); ord. Sept. 18, 1897; 
cons. Archbishop of Malines April 
25, 1926; erected new Diocesan 
Seminary of St. Joseph; promoter 
of Catholic Action in Belgium; 
created Cardinal June 20, 1927. 

Verde, Alessandro b. March 27, 
1865, Sant' Antimo, Italy; educ. Dio- 
cesan Seminary of Aversa, Pon- 
tificio Seminario Pio (Rome) ; ord. 
March 31, 1888; entered Sacred 
Congregation of Rites as assistant 
Under-Promotor of the Faith, 1894; 

appointed Promoter of Faith and 
Consistorial Advocate; appointed 
Secretary of the Congregation of 
Rites, June, 1915; created Cardinal 
Dec. 14, 1925; Archpriest of Liber- 
ian Patriarchal Basilica of St. 
Mary Major. 

Vida! y Barraquer, Francisco 
d'Assisi b. Oct. 3, 1868, Cambrils, 
Spain; ord. Sept. 17, 1899; cons. 
Titular Bishop of Pentacomia April 
26, 1914; translated to Archiepis- 
copal See of Tarragona May 7, 
1919; created Cardinal March 7, 1921. 

VHleneuve, O. M. I., Jean-Marie 
Rodrsgue b. Nov. 2, 1883, Mon- 
treal, Canada; educ. Mont St. Louis 
(Canada), St. Joseph Scholasticate 
(Ottawa); entered Oblates of Mary 
Immaculate Aug. 14, 1901; ord. 
May 25, 1907; cons. Bishop of Gra- 
velbourg Sept. 11, 1930; erected 
Grand Seminary of Gravelbourg 
1931; translated to the Metropolitan 
See of Quebec Feb. 24, 1932; crea- 
ted Cardinal March 13, 1933. 

Von Faulhaber, Michael b. 
March 5, 1869, Klosterheidenfeld, 
Germany; educ. University of 
Wuerzburg (Germany), Rome, Ox- 
ford, Cambridge, Paris and Toledo; 
ord. Aug. 1, 1892; cons. Bishop of 
Speyer Feb. 19, 1911; chaplain of 
the Bavarian armed forces during 
World War I; translated to the 
Archiepiscopal See of Munich and 
Freising 1917; created Cardinal 
March 7, 1921. 

Cardinal Deacons 

Caccia Dominion!, Camillo b. 
February 7, 1877, Milan, Italy; educ. 
Preparatory and Great Seminary of 
Milan, Gregorian University 1 , Pon- 
tifical Academy (Rome) ; ord. Sept. 
23, 1899; Canon-Coadjutor of the 
Patriarchal Basilica of the Vatican, 
1903; Private Chamberlain to Bene- 
dict XV and Maestro de Camera 
and Majordomo under Pius XI; 
created Cardinal Dec. 16, 1935. 

Canali, Nicola b. June 7, 1874, 
Rieti, Italy; educ. Almo Collegio 
Capranico, Gregorian University, 
Pontifical Academy (Rome) ; ord. 
March 31, 1900; Minutante of the 
Secretary of State 1904; Secretary 
of the Congregation of .Ceremonies 

under Pius XI; Assessor of the 
Holy Office 1926; created Cardinal 
Dec. 16, 1935; Grand Penitentiary; 
President of the Commission 
charged with the Administration of 
Vatican City. 

Cattani, Federico b. April 17, 
1856, Maradi, Italy; educ. Diocesan 
Seminary (Modigliana), and at 
Rome; ord. Oct. 5, 1879; Apostolic 
Visitor in the Abruzzo; Consultor 
of the Congregation of the Sacra- 
ments; Judge of the College of the 
Auditors of the Rota 1909; Secre- 
tary of the Supreme Tribunal of 
the Apostolic Signatura; created 
Cardinal Dec. 16, 1935. 

Jorio, Domenico b. Oct. 7, 1867, 


Villa S. Stefano, Italy; educ. Dio- 
cesan Seminary of Ferentino and 
the Pontifical Roman Seminary 
(Rome); ord. Sept. 17, 1891; en- 
tered offices of the Apostolic Patary 
1897; became secretary of the Da- 
tary and Prefect of the Marriage 
Section of that office 1898; ap- 
pointed Under-Secretary of the Sa- 
cred Congregation of the Sacra- 
ments 1908; created Cardinal Dec. 
16, 1935; Prefect of the Congrega- 
tion of the Sacraments. 

La Puma, Vincenzo -b. Jan. 22, 
1874, Palermo, Italy; educ. Arch- 
diocesan Seminary (Palermo), Ath- 
enaeum (Rome); ord. Sept., 1896; 
entered offices of Congregation of 
Religious, 1899; Under-Secretary of 

Congregation of Religious; Secre- 
tary of Congregation of Religious: 
created Cardinal Dec. 16, 1935; Pre- 
fect of the Congregation of Re- 

Massimi, Massimo b. April 19, 
1877, Rome, Italy; educ. Pontificio 
Seminario Romano (Rome) ; ord. 
April 14, 1900; created Cardinal 
Dec. 16, 1935; President of the 
Commission on the Authentic In- 
terpretation of the Code of Canon 

IVfercati, Giovanni b. Dec. 17, 
1866, Villa Gaida, Italy; educ. Pon- 
tifical Gregorian University (Rome) 
ord. 1890; created Cardinal June 
15, 1936; Librarian and Archivist 
of the Holy Roman Church. 



Acebedo, Miguel F. b. Sept. 29, 
1901, Palo, Leyte, P. I.; educ. Sem. 
Coll. of St. Vincent de Paul (Cal- 
bayog, P. I.),*Colegio Pio Latino 
(Rome), Central Sem. of Univ. Sto. 
Tomas (Manila); ord. 1926; cons. 
Bp. of Calbayog, P. I., March, 1935. 

Adrian, William Lawrence b. 
April 16, 1883, Sigourney, Iowa; 
educ. St. Ambrose College (Daven- 
port, Iowa), North American Col- 
lege (Rome), State University of 
Iowa (Iowa City, Iowa) ; ord. April 
15, 1911; cons. Bishop of Nashville, 
April 16, 1936. 

ASbers, Joseph Henry "b. March 
18, 1891, Cincinnati, Ohio; educ. St. 
Gregory Prep. Sem. (Cincinnati, 
Ohio), Pontifical Institute of the 
Appolinaris (Rome); ord. June 17, 
1916; cons. Bee. 27, 1929; trans- 
lated to the newly erected See of 
Lansing in 1937. 

Alter, KarJ Joseph b. Aug. 18, 
1885, Toledo, Ohio; educ. St John's 
University (Toledo, Ohio), St. 
Mary's Seminary (Cleveland, 
Ohio); ord. June 4, 1910; cons. 
Bishop of Toledo, June 17, 1931. 

Althoff, Henry b. Aug. 28, 1873, 
Aviston, 111.; educ. St. Joseph's Col- 
lege (Teutopolis, 111.), St. Francis 
Solanus College (Quincy, 111.), Uni- 
versity of Innsbruck (Austria); 
ord. July 26, 1902; cons. Bishop of 
Belleville, Feb. 24, 1914. 

Armstrong, Robert John b. 
Nov. 17, 1884, San Francisco, Calif.; 
educ. Gonzaga University (Spo- 
kane, Wash.), Grand Seminary 
(Montreal, Canada); ord. Dec. 17, 
1910; cons. Bishop of Sacramento, 
Mar. 12, 1929. 

Bartholome, Peter William b. 
April 2, 1893, Bellechester, Minn.; 
educ. Campion College (Prairie du 
Chien, WJs.), St Paul Seminary (St. 
Paul, Minn.), Appollinare (Rome); 
ord. June 12, 1917; cons. Coadjutor 
Bishop of St. Cloud, March 3, 1942. 

Beckman, Francis Joseph b. 
Oct. 25, 1875, Cincinnati, Ohio; 
educ. Seminary of Mt St. Mary of 
the West (Cincinnati, Ohio), Uni- 
versity of Louvain (Belgium), the 
Gregorian University (Rome); ord. 
June 20, 1902; cons. May 1, 1924; 
app. Archbishop of Dubuque, Jan. 
17, 1930. 

Beckmann, Francis, C, M. b. 
July 23, 1883, Enschede, Nether- 
lands; educ. Minor Seminary 
( Wernhoutsburg) , Major Seminary 
of Helden-Panningen (Netherlands) ; 
ord. July 13, 1913; cons. Titular 
Bishop of Telmisso and Auxiliary 
Bishop of Panama, July 7, 1940. 

Bergan, Gerald Thomas b. Jan. 
6, 1892, Peoria, 111.; educ. St. Via- 
tor's College (Bourbonnais, 111.), 
North American College (Rome) ; 


ord. Oct. 28, 1915; cons. Bishop of 
Des Moines, June 13, 1934. 

Btnz, Leo b. Oct. 31, 1900, Stock- 
ton, 111.; educ. Loras College (Du- 
buque, la.), St. Mary's Seminary 
(Baltimore, Md.), Sulpician Sem- 
inary (Wash., D. C.), North Amer- 
ican College (Rome) ; ord. March 
15, 1924; cons. Titular Bishop of 
Pinara and Coadjutor Bishop of 
Winona, Dec. 21, 1942. 

Bohachevsky, Constant! ne b. 
June 17, 1884, Manajiw, Austria; 
educ. Greek-Ruthenian Seminary of 
Lemberg (Austria), University of 
Innsbruck (Austria), University of 
Munich (Germany); ord. Jan. 21, 
1909; cons. June 1, 1924, and ap- 
pointed Ordinary of the Catholic 
Ruthenians of the Greek Rite in 
the U. S. A. 

BoSand, Thomas A. b. Feb. 17, 
1896, Orange, N. J.; educ. Seton 
Hall College (South Orange, N. J.), 
North American College (Rome); 
ord. Dec. 23, 1922; cons, as Auxil- 
iary Bishop of Newark, July 25, 1940. 

Bona, Stanislaus Vincent b. 
Oct. 1, 1888, Chicago, 111.; educ. St. 
Stanislaus College (Chicago, 111.), 
North American College (Rome) ; 
ord. Nov. 1, 1912; cons. Bishop of 
Grand Island, Feb. 25, 1932. 

Boylan, John J. b. Oct. 7, 1889, 
New York, N. Y.; educ. Mt St. 
Mary's College (Emmitsburg, Md.), 
St. Bernard's Seminary (Rochester, 
N. Y.), Catholic University (Wash- 
ington, D. C.), Pontifical Atheneum 
of the Roman Seminary, Iowa State 
University, Harvard University ; 
ord. July 18, 1915; Bishop of Rock- 
ford, 1942. 

Boyle, Hugh Charles b. Oct. 8, 
1873, Cambria City, Pa.; educ. St. 
Vincent's College and Seminary 
(Beatty, Pa.) ; ord. July 2, 1898; cons. 
Bishop of Pittsburgh, June 29, 1929. 

^Brady, Matthew Francis b. Jan. 
15, 1893, Waterbury, Conn.; educ. 
American College (Louvain, Bel- 
gium), St. Bernard's Seminary 
(Rochester, N. Y.); ord. June 10, 
1916; cons. Bishop of Burlington, 
Oct. 26, 1938. 

Brady, William Otterwell b. 
Feb. 1, Fall River, Mass.; educ. St. 
Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, Md.), 

Catholic University (Washington, 
D. C.), Collegio Angelico (Rome); 
ord. Dec. 21, 1923; cons. Bishop of 
Sioux Falls, Aug. 21, 1939. 

Brennan, Andrew James Louis 
b. Dec. 14, 1877, Towanda, Pa.; 
educ. Holy Cross College (Worces- 
ter, Mass.), St. Bernard's Seminary 
(Rochester, N. Y.), North American 
College (Rome); ord. Dec. 17, 1904; 
cons. April 25, 1923; appointed 
Bishop of Richmond, June 21, 1926. 

Buddy, Charles Francis b. Oct. 
4, 1887, St. Joseph, Mo.; educ. St. 
Benedict's College (Atchison, 
Kans.), St. Mary's College (St. 
Mary's, Kans.), North American 
College (Rome); ord. Sept 19, 
1914; cons. Bishop of San Diego, 
Dec. 21, 1936. 

Busch, Joseph Francis b. April 
18, 1866, Red Wing, Minn.; educ. 
Sacred Heart College (Prairie du 
Chien, Wis.), University of Inns- 
bruck (Austria), Catholic Univer- 
sity (Wash., D. C.); ord. July 28, 
1899; cons. May 19, 1910; app. 
Bishop of St. Cloud, Jan. 22, 1915. 

Byrne, Christopher Edward b. 
April 21, 1867, Byrnes ville, Jeffer- 
son Co., Miss.; educ. St. Mary's 
College (St. Mary's, Kans.), St. 
Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, Md.) ; 
ord. Sept. 23, 1891; cons. Bishop of 
Galveston, Nov. 10, 1918. 

Byrne, Edwin Vincent b. Aug. 
9, 1891, Philadelphia, Pa.; educ. St. 
Charles Borromeo Seminary (Over- 
brook, Pa.); ord. May 22, 1915; 
cons, first Bishop of Ponce, Nov. 
30, 1925; translated to new See of 
San Juan, Puerto Rico, March 8,1929. 

CantwelS, John Joseph b. Dec. 
1, 1874, Limerick, Ireland; educ. 
School of the Patrician Brothers 
(Fethard, Ire.), St. Patrick's Col- 
lege (Thurles, Ire.); ord. June 18, 
1899; cons. Dec. 5, 1917; app. Arch- 
bishop of Los Angeles, July 11, 1936. 

C as sidy, James Edwin b. Aug. 
1, 1869, Woonsocket, R. I.; 'educ. 
St. Charles College (Ellicott City, 
Md.), St. Mary's Seminary (Balti- 
more, Md.), Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity (Baltimore, Md.) ; ord. Sept. 
8, 1898; cons. May 27, 1930; suc- 
ceeded as Bishop of Fall River, 
July 28, 1934. 


Condors, William Joseph b. 
April 7, 1895, Cotton, Wash.; educ. 
Gonzaga University (Spokane, 
Wash.), St. Patrick's Seminary, 
(Menlo Park, Calif.); ord. Oct. 4, 
1917; cons. Bishop of Great Fails, 
Oct. 18, 1939. 

Connolly, Thomas Arthur b. 
Oct. 5, 1899, San Francisco, Calif.; 
edue. St. Patrick's Seminary (Men- 
lo Park, Calif.), Catholic University 
(Wash., D. C.); ord. June 11, 1926; 
cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of San 
Francisco, August 24, 1039. 

Cotton, Francis RidgeSy b. Sept 
19, 1895, Bardstown, Ky.; educ. St. 
Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, Md.), 
Sulpician Seminary (Cath. IT., 
Wash., D. C.), Pontifical Institute 
of the Appolinaris (Rome); ord. 
June 17, 1920; cons. Bishop of 
Owensboro, Feb. 24, 193S. 

CHmont, S. J., Joseph Raphael 
John b. Feb. 2, 1858, Ferrieres 
(near Amiens), France; educ. Col- 
lege de la Providence (Amiens, 
France), Jesuit Scholastieate of St. 
Helier (Isle of Jersey), College of 
the Sacred Heart (Woodstock, Md.) ; 
entered the Society of Jesus Aug. 
15, 1875; ord. Aug. 26, 1888; cons. 
Bishop of Ammaedara and Vicar 
Apostolic of Alaska, July 25, 1917. 

Curley, Michael Joseph b. Oct. 
12, 1879, Athlone, Ireland; educ. 
Royal University (Dublin), Urban 
College of the Propaganda (Rome) ; 
ord. March 19, 1904; cons. June 30, 
1914; app. Archbishop of Baltimore, 
Nov. 21, 1921; title changed to Arch- 
bishop of Baltimore and Washing- 
ton, Oct., 1939, 

Cashing, Richard James b. Aug. 
24, 1895, South Boston, Mass.; educ. 
Boston College (Mass.), St, John's 
Seminary (Brighton, Mass.); ord. 
May 26, 1921; cons, as Auxiliary 
Bishop of Boston, June 28, 1939. 

Danglmayr, Augustine b. Dec* 
11, 1898, Muenster, Texas; educ. 
SuMaco College (Arkansas), St. 
Mary's Seminary (La Porte, Texas), 
Kenrick Seminary (St Louis, Mo.) ; 
ord. June 10, 1922; cons. Auxiliary 
Bishop of Dallas, Oct. 7, 1942. 

Darnand, Joseph, S. M. b. Dec. 
31, 1879, Reny, France; educ. Marist 
Scholasticates (Lyons, France, and 

Differt, Belgium); professed in So- 
ciety of Mary Dec. 20, 1903 ; ord. 1905 ; 
cons. Bishop of Polemon and Vicar 
Apostolic of Samoa, May 16, 1920. 

Del Rosario, S. J., Luis b. Sept. 
24, 1886, Manila, P. I.; educ. Ateneo 
de Manila (Manila), Seminario 
Pontificio de Comillas (Spain); ord. 
to secular clergy Dec. 17, 1910; en- 
tered Society of Jesus Aug. 14, 
1913; cons. Bishop of Zamboanga, 
P. I., June 4, 1933. 

Desmond, Daniel Francis b. 
April 4, 1884, Haverhill, Mass.; 
educ. Holy Cross College (Wor- 
cester, Mass.), Duauesne Univer- 
sity (Pittsburgh, Pa,), St. John's 
Seminary (Brighton, Mass.) ; ord. 
June 9, 1911; cons. Bishop of Alex- 
andria, Jan. 5, 1933. 

Donahue, Stephen Joseph b. 
Dec. 10, 1893, New York, N. Y.; 
educ. Cathedral College (New York, 
N. Y.), St Joseph's Seminary, (Dun- 
woodie, N. Y.), North American 
College (Rome); ord. May 25, 1918; 
cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of New 
York, May 1, 1934. 

Donnelly, George J. b. April 
23, 1889, Maplewood, Mo.; educ. 
Kenrick Seminary (Webster Groves, 
Ma); ord. June 12, 1921; cons, as 
Auxiliary Bishop of St. Louis, April 
23, 1940. 

Dougherty, Denis Joseph See 
Cardinals, (p. 74), 

Duffy, John Aloysius b. Oct. 29, 
1884, Jersey City, N. J.; educ. Seton 
Hall College (South Orange, N. J.), 
North American College (Rome); 
ord. June 13, 1908; cons. June 29, 
1933; app. Bishop of Buffalo, April 
14, 1937. 

Emmet, S. J., Thomas Addis b. 
Aug. 23, 1873, Boston, Mass.; educ. 
Boston College (Boston), Jesuit No- 
vitiate, (Frederick, Md.), College of 
the Sacred Heart (Woodstock, 
Md.); ord. July 30, 1909; cons. 
Bishop of Tuscamla and Vicar 
Apostolic of Jamaica, July 21, 1930. 

Espeiage, 0. F. M., Bernard b. 
Feb. 16, 1892, Cincinnati, Ohio; 
educ. St. Francis College (Cincin- 
nati, Ohio) ; received into the Order 
of Friars Minor, 1910; ord. May 16, 
1918; cons. Bishop of Gallup, Oct. 
9, 1940. 

Eustace, Bartholomew Joseph 


b. Oct. 9, 1887, New York, N. Y.; 
educ. College of St. Francis Xavier 
(New York City), St. Joseph's Sem- 
inary (Dunwoodie, N. Y.), North 
American College (Rome) ; ord. 
Nov. 1, 1914; cons. Bishop of Cam- 
den, March 25, 1938. 

FInnemann, S, V. D., William 
b. Dec. 18, 1882, Bueninghausen, 
Germany; educ. Divine Word Col- 
lege- of St. Gabriel (Vienna, Aus- 
tria); entered the S6ciety of the 
Divine Word April 21, 1900; ord. 
Sept. 29, 1911; cons. Titular Bishop 
of Sora and Auxiliary Bishop of 
Manila, May 21, 1929; named first 
Prefect Apostolic of Mindoro, Dec. 

4, 1936. 

Fitzgerald, S. J., Walter James 
b. Nov. 17, 1883, Peola, Wash.; 
educ. Gonzaga University (Spo- 
kane, Wash.), College of the 
Immaculate Conception (Montreal, 
Canada), Jesuit House of Studies 
(Los Gatos, Calif.) ; entered the 
Society of Jesus July 30, 1902; ord. 
May 16, 1918; cons. Bishop of 
Tymbrias and Coadjutor Vicar 
Apostolic of Alaska, Feb. 24, 1939. 

Fitzmaurice, Edmond John b. 
June 24, 1881, Torbert, Co. Kerry, 
Ireland; educ. St. Brendan's Col- 
lege (Killarney, Ire.), College of 
St. Trond (Belgium), North Amer- 
ican College (Rome) ; ord. May 20, 
1904; cons. Bishop of Wilmington, 
Nov. 30, 1925. 

FitzSImon, Laurence J. b. Jan. 
31, 1895, San Antonio, Texas; educ. 
St. Anthony's College (San An- 
tonio, Texas), North American Col- 
lege (Rome), St. Meinrad Seminary 
(St. Meinrad, Ind.); ord. May 17, 
1921; cons. Bishop of Amarillo, 
Oct. 22, 1941. 

Fletcher, Albert Louis b. Oct. 
28, 1896, Little Rock, Ark.; educ. 
Little Rock College (Little Rock, 
Ark.), St. John's Seminary (Little 
Rock, Ark.); ord. June 8, 1920; 
cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of Little 
Rock, April 25, 1940. 

Floersh, John Alexander b. Oct. 

5, 1886, Nashville, Temr; educ. Ur- 
ban College of the Propaganda 
(Rome); ord. June 10, 1911; cons. 
April 8, 1923: app. Archbishop of 
Louisville, Dec. 13, 1937. 

Foery, Walter Andrew b. July 

6, 1890, Rochester, N. Y.; educ. St. 
Andrew's Preparatory Seminary 
(Rochester, N. Y.), St. Bernard's 
Seminary (Rochester, N. Y.) ; ord. 
June 10, 1916; cons. Bishop of Syra- 
cuse, Aug. 18, 1937. 

Gannon, John Mark b. June 12, 
1877, Erie, Pa.; educ. St. Bonaven- 
ture's College (St. Bonaventure, 
N. Y.), Catholic University (Wash., 
D. C.), Pontifical Institute of the 
Appolinarls (Rome), University of 
Munich (Munich, Germany); ord, 
Dec. 21, 1901; cons. Feb. 6, 1918; 
succeeded as Bishop of Erie, Aug- 
ust 26, 1920. 

Garriga, Mariano Simon b. May 
31, 1886, Point Isabel, Tex.; educ. 
St. Mary's College (St. Mary's, 
Kans.), St. Francis Seminary (Mil- 
waukee, Wis,), St. Edward's Uni- 
versity (Austin, Texas); ord. July 

2, 1911; cons, as Coadjutor Bishop 
of Corpus Christi, Sept. 21, 1936. 

Gercke, DanieS James b. Oct. 

9, 1874, Holmsburg, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; educ. St. Joseph's College 
(Philadelphia, Pa.); St. Charles 
Borromeo Seminary (Overbrook, 
Pa.); ord. June 11, 1901; cons. 
Bishop of Tucson, Nov. 6, 1923. 

Gerken, Rudolph Aloysius b. 
March 7, 1887, Dyersville, Iowa; 
educ. St. Joseph's College (Rennse- 
laer, Ind.), University of Dallas 
(Dallas, Texas), Kenrick Seminary 
(Webster Groves, Mo.); ord. June 

10, 1917; cons. April 26, 1927; app. 
Archbishop of Santa Fe, June 2, 1933. 

Gerow, Richard Oliver b. May 

3, 1885, Mobile, Ala.; educ. McGill 
Institute (Mobile, Ala.), Mt. St. 
Mary's College (Emmitsburg, Md.), 
North American College (Rome): 
ord. June 5, 1909; cons. Bishop of 
Natchez, Oct. 15, 1924. 

Gibbons, Edmund Francis b. 
Sept 16, 1868, White Plains, N. Y.; 
educ. Niagara University (Niagara, 
N. Y.), North American College 
(Rome); ord. May 27, 1893; cons. 
Bishop of Albany, March 25, 1919. 

Gilmore, Joseph Michael b. 
Mar. 23, 1893, New York, N. Y.; 
educ. St. Joseph's College (DubtiQue, 
Iowa), Urban College of Propaganda 
(Rome); ord. July 25, 1915; cons. 
Bishop of Helena, Feb. 19, 1936. 

Glennon, John Joseph b. June 
14, 1862, Westmeath, Ireland; educ. 


St. Mary's College (Mullingar, 
Ire.), All Hallows College (Dublin, 
Ire.); ord. Dec. 20, 1884; cons. June 

29, 1896; succeeded as Archbishop 
of St. Louis, Oct. IS, 1903. 

Gorman, Thomas KieSy b. Aug. 

30, 1892, Pasadena, Calif.; educ. St. 
Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, Md.), 
Catholic University (Wash., IX C.), 
University of Louvain (Belgium); 
ord. June 23, 1917; cons. Bishop of 
Reno, July 22, 1931. 

Griffin, James Afoysius b. Feb. 
27, 1883, Chicago, 111.; educ. St. Ig- 
natius College (Chicago, 111.), North 
American College (Rome); ord. 
July 4, 1909; cons. Bishop of Spring- 
field, 111., Feb. 24, 1924. 

Griffin, William A. b. Nov. 20, 
1885, Elizabeth, N. J.; educ. Seton 
Hall College (South Orange, N. J.), 
Immaculate Conception Seminary 
(South Orange, N. J,); ord. August 
15, 1910; cons. May 1, 1938; app. 
Bishop of Trenton, May 21, 1940. 

Griffin, William Richard b. 
Sept. 1, 1883, Chicago, 111.; educ. 
St. Ignatius College (Chicago, 111.), 
De Paul University (Chicago, 111.), 
Kenrick Seminary (Webster Groves, 
Mo.); ord. May 25, 1907; cons, as 
Auxiliary Bishop of La Crosse, May 
1, 1935. 

Guerrero, Cesar Maria b. Jan. 
26, 1885, Manila, P. I; educ. Ateneo 
de Manila (Manila), Minor and 
Major Seminary (Vigan, Ilocos Sur) ; 
cons. Bishop of Lingayen May 24, 
1929; translated to See of Manila 
as Auxiliary Bishop, Jan., 1938. 

Guilfoyle, Richard Thomas b. 
Dec. 22, 1892, Adrian, Pa.; educ. 
St. Bonaventure's College and Semi- 
nary (St. Bonaventure, N. Y.) ; ord. 
June 2, 1917; cons. Bishop of Al- 
toona, Nov. 30, 1936. 

Hafey, William J.- b. June 19, 
1888, Springfield, Mass.; educ. Holy 
Cross College (Worcester, Mass.), 
Mt. St. Mary's College (Emmits- 
burg, Md.),* ord. June 16, 1914; 
cons. June 24, 1925; succeeded as 
Bishop of Scranton, Mar. 25, 1938. 

Manna, Edward Joseph b. July 
21, 1860, Rochester, N. Y.; educ. 
Urban College of the Propaganda 
(Rome), Univ. of Munich (Munich; 
Germany), Univ. of Cambridge 
(Cambridge, England); ord. May 

30, 1885; cons. Auxiliary Bishop of 
San Francisco, Dec. 4, 1912; pro- 
moted to the Metropolitan See of 
San Francisco, June 1, 1915; re- 
signed, translated to the Archi- 
episcopal Titular See of Gortyna, 
March 2, 1935. 

Hartley, James Joseph b. June 
5, 1858, Columbus, Ohio; educ. Mt. 
St. Mary of the West Seminary 
(Cincinnati, Ohio), Seminary of 
Our Lady of the Angels (Niagara, 
N. Y.); ord. July 10, 1882; cons. 
Bishop of Columbus, Feb. 25, 1904. 

Hayes, S. J., James Thomas Gib- 
bons b. Feb. 11, 1889, New York 
City; educ. St. Francis Xavier's 
College (New York City), Jesuit 
Novitiate (St. Andrew-on-the-Hud- 
son, N. Y.), Jesuit House of Studies 
(Tronchienner, Belgium); entered 
the Society of Jesus Aug. 14, 1907; 
ord. June 29, 1921; cons. Bishop of 
Cagayan, March 16, 1933. 

Hayes, Ralph Leo b. Sept. 21, 
1884, Pittsburgh, Pa.; educ. Holy 
Ghost College (Pittsburgh, Pa.), 
North American College (Rome), 
Catholic University (Wash., D. C.) ; 
ord. Sept 19, 1909; cons. Bishop of 
Helena, Sept. 21, 1933; app. Rector 
of the North American College 
(Rome), Sept, 1935; named Titular 
Bishop of Hieropolis, Oct. 26, 1935. 

Heelan, Edmond b. Feb. 5, 1868,. 
Elton, Co. Limerick, Ireland; educ. 
All Hallows College (Dublin, Ire.) ; 
ord. June 24, 1890; cons. April 8, 
1918; app. Bishop of Sioux City, 
Mar. 8, 1920. 

Hettinger, Edward Gerhard b. 
Oct. 14, 1902, Lancaster, Ohio; 
educ. St. Vincent's College (Beatty, 
Pa.); ord. June 2, 1928; cons, as 
Auxiliary Bishop of Columbus, Feb. 
24, 1942. 

Hoban, Edward Francis b. June 
17, 1878, Chicago, 111.; educ. St. 
Ignatius College (Chicago, 111.), St. 
Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, Md.), 
Gregorian University (Rome); ord. 
July 11, 1903; cons. Dec. 21, 1921; 
app. Bishop of Rockford, Feb. 10, 
1928; Coadjutor Bishop of Cleve- 
land, 1942. 

Howard, Edward Daniel b. Nov. 
5, 1877, Cresco, Iowa; educ. St. 
Joseph's College (Dubuaue, Iowa), 


St. Mary's College (St. Mary's, 
Kans.), St. Paul Seminary (St. 
Paul, Minn.); ord. June 12, 1906; 
cons. April 8, 1924; app. Archbishop 
of Oregon, April 30, 1926: title 
changed to Archbishop of Portland, 
Sept. 26, 1928. 

Howard, Francis William b. 
June 21, 1867, Columbus, Ohio; 
educ. Mt. St. Mary of the West 
Seminary (Cincinnati, Ohio); ord. 
June 16, 1891; cons. Bishop of 
Covington, July 15, 1923. 

Hunt, Duane Garrison b. Sept. 
19, 1884, Reynolds, Neb.; educ. Cor- 
nell College (Mt. Vernon, Iowa), 
University of Iowa, (Iowa City, 
Iowa) ; St. Patrick's Seminary 
(Menlo Park, Calif.); ord. Jan. 27, 
1920; cons. Bishop of Salt Lake, 
Oct. 28, 1927. 

Hurley, Joseph Patrick b. Jan. 
21, 1894, Cleveland, Ohio; educ. St. 
Ignatius College (Cleveland, Ohio), 
St. Bernard's Seminary (Rochester, 
N. Y.), St. Mary's Seminary (Cleve- 
land, Ohio); ord. May 29, 1919; 
cons. Bishop of St. Augustine, Oct. 
6, 1940. 

Ireton, Peter Leo b. Sept. 21, 
1882, Baltimore, Md.; educ. St. 
Charles College (Ellicott City, Md.), 
St. Mary's Seminary, (Baltimore, 
Md.), Catholic University (Wash., 
D. C.); ord. June 20, 1906; cons, as 
Coadjutor Bishop of Richmond, Oct. 
23, 1935. 

Jeanmard, Jules Benjamin b. 
Aug. 15, 1897, Pont-Breaux, La.; 
educ. Holy Cross Seminary (New 
Orleans, La.) ; Kenrick Seminary 
(Webster Groves, Mo.), St. Louis 
Seminary (New Orleans, La.) ; ord. 
June 10, 1903; cons. Bishop of La- 
fayette, Dec. 8, 1918. 

Jury ens, I. C. M. f Constancio b. 
Dec. 12, 1879, Oss, Brabant, N. Hol- 
land; educ. Grand Seminary (Haar- 
an); ord. 1905; cons. Bishop of Tu- 
guegarao, P. I., March 18, 1928. 

Kearney, James Edward b. Oct. 
28, 1884, Red Oak, Iowa; educ. St. 
Joseph's Seminary (Dunwoodie, N. 
Y.), Catholic University (Wash., 
D. C.); ord. Sept. 19, 1908; cons. 
Oct. 28, 1932; app. Bishop of Ro- 
chester, July 31, 1937. 

Kearney, Raymond Augustine 
b. Sept. 25, 1902, Jersey City, N. J.; 
educ. Holy. Cross College (Wor- 

cester, Mass.), North American Col- 
lege (Rome), Catholic University 
(Wash., D. C.) ; ord. March 12, 1927; 
cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of Brook- 
lyn, Feb. 25, 1935. 

Kef ley, Francis Clement b. Oct. 

23, 1870, Vernon River, Prince Ed- 
ward Island, Canada; educ. Laval 
University (Quebec, Canada), St. 
Raphael's Seminary (Chicoutimi, 
Canada), Nicolet Seminary (Nico- 
let, Canada); ord. Aug. 23, 1893; 
founded the Catholic Church Ex- 
tension Society, 1905; cons. Bishop 
of Oklahoma City, Oct. 2, 1924, 
title changed to Bishop of Okla- 
homa City and Tulsa, Nov. 14, 1930. 

Kelly, C.S. Sp., Ambrose b. June 

24, 1900, Newhaven, England; educ. 
Rockwell College (Ireland), Black- 
rock College and the National Uni- 
versity (Dublin); ord. June 17, 
1928; cons. Titular Bishop of Al- 
tava and Vicar Apostolic of Sierra 
Leone, Aug. 24, 1937. 

Kelly, Edward Joseph b. Feb. 
26, 1890, The Dalles, Ore.; educ. 
Columbia University (Portland, 
Ore.), St. Patrick's Seminary (Men- 
lo Park, Calif.), North American 
College (Rome); ord. June 2, 1917; 
cons. Bishop of Boise, March 6, 1929. 

Kelly, Francis Martin b. Nov. 
15, 1886, Houston, Minn.; educ. St. 
Paul's Seminary (St. Paul, Minn.), 
Catholic University (Wash., D. C.), 
Urban College of the Propaganda 
(Rome); ord. Nov. 11, 1912; cons. 
June 9, 1926; app. Bishop of Wi- 
nona, Feb. 10, 1928. 

Keough, Francis Patrick b. 
Dec. 30, 1890, New Britain, Conn.; 
educ. St. Thomas Preparatory Semi- 
nary (Hartford, Conn.), Seminary 
of St. Sulpice (Issy, France), St. 
Bernard's Seminary (Rochester, N. 
Y.); ord. June 10, 1916; cons. Bish- 
op of Providence, May 22, 1934. 

Kevenhoerster, O. S. B., John Ber- 
nard b. Nov. 1, 1869, Essen, 
Germany; educ. St. John's College 
and Seminary (Collegeville, Minn.), 
Univ. of Minnesota (Minneapolis); 
professed in Benedictine Order, 
1892; ord. June 24, 1896; app. Pre- 
fect Apostolic of the Bahamas, May 
22, 1931; cons. Titular Bishop of 
Camuliana, Dec. 21, 1933. 

Keyes, S. M., Michael Joseph b. 


Feb. 28, 1876, Dingle, Co. Kerry, 
Ireland; edue. Marist College and 
Seminary, Catholic University of 
America (Wash., D. C.) ; ord. June 
21, 1907; cons. Bishop of Savannah, 
Oct. 18, 1922; resigned, app. Titular 
Bishop of Areopolis, Sept 23, 1935. 

Kiley, Moses Efias b. Nov. 13, 
1876, Margaree, Nova Scotia; educ. 
St Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, 
Md.); North American College 
(Rome); ord. June 10, 1911; cons. 
March 17, 1934; app. Archbishop of 
Milwaukee, Jan. 5, 1940. 

Kucera, Louis Benedict b. Aug. 
24, 1888, Wheatland, Minn.; educ. 
St. Paul's Seminary (St. Paul, 
Minn,), Catholic University (Wash., 
D. CO, University of Minnesota 
(Minneapolis, Minn.); ord. June 8, 
1915; cons. Bishop of Lincoln, Oct. 
28, 1930. 

Lamb, Hugh Louis b. Oct. 6, 
1890, Modena, Pa.; educ. St Charles 
Borromeo Seminary (Overbrook, 
Pa.), North American College. 
(Rome) ; Catholic University 
(Wash., D. C.); ord. May 29, 1915; 
cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of Phila- 
delphia, March 19, 1936. 

Lawler, John Jeremiah b. Aug. 
4, 1862, Rochester, Minn.; educ. St. 
Francis Seminary (Milwaukee, 
Wis.), College of St. Nicholas (Bel- 
gium), University of Louvain (Bel- 
gium); ord. Dec. 19, 1885; cons. 
Feb. 8, 1910; app. Bishop of Rapid 
City, Aug. I, 1930. 

Le Blond, Charles Hubert b. 
Nov. 21, 1883, Celina, Ohio; educ. 
St, Ignatius High School (Cleve- 
land, Ohio), John Carroll Univer- 
sity (Cleveland, Ohio), St. Mary's 
Seminary (Cleveland, Ohio) ; ord. 
June 29, 1909; cons. Bishop of St. 
Joseph, Sept. 21, 1933. 

Ledvina, Emmanuel Boleslaus 
b. Oct. 28, 1868, Evansville, Ind.; 
educ. St. Meinrad's College and 
Seminary (St. Meinrad, Ind.) ; ord. 
March 18, 1893; cons. Bishop of 
Corpus Christi, June 14, 1921. 

Leech, George Leo -b. May 21, 
1890, Ashley, Pa.; educ. St. Charles 
Borromeo Seminary (Overbrook, 
Pa.), Catholic University (Wash., 
D. C.); ord. May 29, 1920; cons, Oct. 
17, 1935; succeeded as Bishop of 
Harrisburg, Dec. 19, 1935. 

Lenihan, Mathias Clement b. 

Oct. 6, 1854, Dubuque, Iowa; educ. 
St* John's College (Prairie du Chien, 
Wis.), St. Joseph's College (Du- 
buque, Iowa), Grand Seminary 
(Montreal, Canada); ord. Dec. 20, 
1879; cons, first Bishop of Great 
Falls, Sept. 21, 1904; resigned Jan. 
18, 1930, app. Titular Archbishop 
of Preslavus. 

Lladoc, Castmlro M. b. March 

4, 1893, Filar, Sorsogon; educ. Sem- 
inary College (Naga Caramines 
Sur), Univ. of Sto. Tomas (Manila) ; 
ord. March, 1918; cons. Bishop of 
Bacolod, P. I., Sept. 16, 1933. 

Lucey, Robert Emmet b. March 
16, 1891, Los Angeles, Calif.; educ. 
St. Vincent's College (Los Angeles, 
Calif.), St. Patrick's Seminary 
(Menlo Park, Calif.), North Amer- 
ican College (Rome); ord. May 14, 
1916; cons. May 1, 1934; app. Arch- 
bishop of San Antonio, Jan. 23, 1941. 

Lynch, Joseph Patrick b. Nov. 
16, 1872, St. Joseph, Mich.; educ. 
St. Charles College (Ellicott City, 
Md.), St. Mary's Seminary (Balti- 
more, Md.), Kenrick Seminary 
(Webster Groves, Mo.); ord. June 
9, 1900; cons. Bishop of Dallas, July 
12, 1911. 

MadHaga, Mariano A. b. May 

5, 1902, Agoo, La Union, P. I.; 
educ. Diocesan Seminary (Vigan, 
Ilocos Sur), St. Charles Seminary 
(Manila), Pont. Institute Utriusque 
Jur. (Rome); ord. March 15, 1930; 
cons. Bishop of Lingayen, P. L, 
March 24, 1938. 

Magner, Francis J, b. March 
18, 1887, Wilmington, 111.; educ. St 
Ignatius College (Chicago, 111.), St. 
Mary's College (St. Mary's, Kans.), 
North American College (Rome); 
ord. May 17, 1913; cons. Bishop of 
Marquette, Feb. 24, 1941. 

Maiztegui, C. M. F., John J.T-b. 
April SO, 1878, Yurreta, Province of 
Vizcaya, Spain; educ. University of 
Cervera (Vich, Sain); professed 
August 15, 1894; ord. June 22, 1902; 
cons. Titular Bishop of Tanaitana 
and Vicar Apostolic of Darien, Oct. 
27, 1926; app. Archbishop of Pan- 
ama, March 13, 1933. 

Mascarinas, Manuel b. lAnte- 
quera, Bohol, P. L; educ. Sem. Coll. 
of San Carlos (Cebu, P. L); ord. 

Jan. 14, 1924; cons. Bishop of Palo, 
P. L, March 25, 1938. 

McAulIffe, Maurice Francis b. 
June 17, 1875, Hartford, Conn.; 
educ. Mt. St. Mary's College (Em- 
mi ts burg, Md.), Seminary of St. 
Sulpice (Paris), St. Willibrord's 
Seminary (Eichstadt, Germany) ; 
ord. July 27, 1900; cons. April 28, 
1926; succeeded as Bishop of Hart- 
ford, April 23, 1934. 

McCarthy, Joseph Edward b. 
Nov. 14, 1876, Waterbury, Conn.; 
educ. Holy Cross College (Worces- 
ter, Mass.), Catholic University 
(Wash., D. C.), Seminary of St. Sul- 
pice (Paris); ord. July 4, 1903; 
cons. Bishop of Portland, Me., Aug. 
24, 1932. 

McCIoskey, James Paul b. Dec. 
9, 1870, Philadelphia, Pa.; educ. La 
Salle College (Phila., Pa.), St. 
Charles Borromeo Seminary (Over- 
brook, Pa.); ord. Dec. 17, 1898; 
cons. Bishop of Zamboanga, P. L, 
May 1, 1917; translated to the See 
of Jaro, P. I., March 8, 1920. 

McFadden, James Augustine 
b. Dec. 24, 1880, Cleveland, Ohio; 
educ. St. Ignatius College (Cleve- 
land, Ohio), St. Mary's Seminary 
(Cleveland, Ohio); ord. Jan. 17, 
1905; cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of 
Cleveland, Sept 8, 1932. 

McGavick, Alexander Joseph 
b. Aug. 22, 1863, Fox Lake, Lake 
Co., 111.; educ. St. Viator's College 
and Seminary (Bourbonnais, 111.); 
ord. June 11, 1887; cons. May 1, 
1899; app. Bishop of La Crosse, 
Nov. 1, 1921. 

McGovern, Patrick Aloysius AI- 
phonsus b. Oct. 14, 1872, Omaha, 
Neb.; educ. Creighton University 
(Omaha, Neb.), Seminary of Mt. 
St. Mary of the West (Cincinnati, 
Ohio); ord. Aug. 18, 1895; cons. 
Bishop of Cheyenne, April 11, 1912. 

McGrath, Joseph Francis b. 
Mar. 1, 1871, Kilmacow, Ireland; 
educ. St. Kieran's College (Ireland), 
Grand Seminary (Canada); ord. 
Dec. 21, 1895; cons. Bishop of Baker 
City, March 25, 1919. 

McGucken, Joseph T. b. March 
13, 1902, Los Angeles, Calif.; educ. 
St. Patrick's Seminary (Menlo Park, 
Calif,), North American College 
(Rome); ord. Jan. 15, 1928; cons. 

as Auxiliary Bishop of Los Angeles, 
March 19, 1941. 

McGuInness, Eugene Joseph b. 
Sept. 6, 1889, Hollertown, Pa.; educ. 
St. Charles Borromeo Seminary 
(Over brook, Pa.); ord. May 22, 
1915; cons. Bishop of Raleigh, Dec. 
31, 1937. 

Mclntyre, J. Francis A. b. June 
25, 1886; New York, N. Y.; educ. 
College of the City of New York, 
Cathedral College (New York, N. 
Y.), St. Joseph's Seminary (Dun- 
woodie, N. Y.); ord. May 21, 1921; 
cons. as Auxiliary Bishop of New 
York, May 8, 1941. 

McLaughlin, Thomas Henry b. 
July 25, 1881, New York, N. Y.; 
educ. St. Francis Xavier College 
(New York, N. Y.), University of 
Innsbruck (Austria); ord. July 26, 
1904; cons. July 25, 1935; app. Bish- 
op of Paterson, N. J., Dec. 16, 1937. 

McNamara, John Michael b. 
Aug. 12, 1878, Baltimore, Md.; educ. 
Loyola College (Baltimore, Md.), 
St. Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, 
Md.); ord. June 21, 1902; cons, as 
Auxiliary Bishop of Baltimore, 
March 29, 1928. 

McNScholas, O. P., John Timothy 
b. Dec. 15, 1877, Mayo, Ireland; 
educ. St. Joseph's Convent (Somer- 
set, Ohio), the Minerva University 
(Rome) ; received the Dominican 
habit Oct. 10, 1894; ord. Oct. 10, 
1901; cons. Sept. 8, 1918; app. Arch- 
bishop of Cincinnati, July 8, 1925. 

Metzger, Sidney Matthew b. 
July 11, 1902, Fredericksburg, Tex- 
as; educ. St. John's Seminary (San 
Antonio, Texas), North American 
College (Rome); ord. April 3, 1926; 
cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of Santa 
Fe, April 10, 1940; app. Coadjutor 
Bishop of El Paso and succeeded to 
the see, 1942. 

Mitty, John Joseph b. Jan. 20, 
1884, New York, N. Y.; educ. Man- 
hattan College (New York, N. Y.), 
St. Joseph's Seminary (Dunwoodie, 
N. Y.), Catholic University (Wash., 
D. C.); ord. Dec. 22, 1906; cons. 
Sept. 8, 1926; succeeded as Arch- 
bishop of San Francisco, March 5, 

MoIIoy, Thomas Edward b. 
Sept. 4, 1885, Nashua, N. H.; educ. 
St. Anselm's College (Nashua, N. 
H.), St. Francis College (Brooklyn, 


N. Y.), St. John's Seminary (Brook- 
lyn N. Y.), North American College 
(Rome); or<L Sept. 19, 1908; cons. 
Oct. 3, 1920; app. Bishop of Brook- 
lyn, Nov. 2, 1921. 

Mooraey, Edward b. May 9, 
1882, Mount Savage, Md.; educ. St. 
Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, Md.), 
North American College (Rome); 
ord. April 10, 1909; cons. Jan. 31, 
1926; app. Archbishop of Detroit, 
May 31, 1937. 

Morris, John Baptist b. June 
29, 1866, Hendfersonville, Tenn.; 
educ. St. Mary's College (Marion 
Co Ky.), North American College 
(Rome); ord. June 11, 1892; cons. 
June 11, 1906; app. Bishop of Little 
Rock, Feb. 21, 1907. 

Muench, Afoysius Joseph b. 
Feb 18, 1889, Milwaukee, Wis.; 
educ. University of Oxford (Eng- 
land), University of Cambridge 
(England), "University of Paris 
(France); ord. June 8, 1913; cons. 
Bishop of Fargo, Oct. 15, 1935. 

Murphy, William Francis b. 
May 11, 1885, Kalamazoo, Mien.; 
educ. Assumption College (Sand- 
wich, Ont, Canada), Urban College 
of the Propaganda (Rome); Pon- 
tifical Institute of the Appolinaris 
(Rome); ord. June 13, 1908; cons. 
Bishop of Saginaw, May 17, 1938. 

Murray, John Gregory b. Feb. 
26, 1877, Water bury, Conn.; educ. 
Holy Cross College (Worcester, 
Mass.), North American' College 
(Rome), University of "Louvain 
(Belgium); ord. April 14, 1900; 
cons. April 28, 1920; app. Arch- 
bishop of St. Paul, Oct. 29, 1931. 

Noll, John Francis b. Jan. 25, 
1875, Fort Wayne, Ind.; educ. St. 
Lawrence College (Mt. Calvary, 
Wis.), Seminary of Mt. St. Mary 
of the West (Cincinnati, Ohio) ; ord. 
June 4, 1898; cons. Bishop of Fort 
Wayne, June 30, 1925. 

O'Brien, Henry Joseph b. July 
21, 1896, New Haven, Conn.; educ. 
St. Thomas Seminary (Hartford, 
Conn,), St. Bernard's Seminary 
(Rochester, N. Y.), University of 
Louvain (Belgium) ; ord. July 8, 
1923; cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of 
Hartford, May 14, 1940. 

O'Brien, William David b. Aug. 
3, 1878, Chicago, 111.; educ. De Paul 
University (Chicago, III.), Kenrick 

Seminary (Webster Groves, Mo.) ; 
ord. July 11, 1903; cons, as Auxiliary 
Bishop of Chicago, April 25, 1934. 

O'ConneSi, William Henry See 
Cardinals (pp. 75-76). 

O'Connor, Martin J. b. May 10, 
1900, Scranton, Pa.; educ. St. 
Thomas College (Scranton), St. 
Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, Md.), 
North American College (Rome), 
Propaganda College (Rome), Appol- 
Inare (Rome); ord, March 15, 1924; 
Titular Bishop of Thespia and 
Auxiliary Bishop of Scranton, 1942. 

O'Connor, William Patrick b. 
Oct. 18, 1886, Milwaukee, Wis.; 
educ. St. Francis Seminary (St. 
Francis, Wis.), Marauette Univer- 
sity (Marauette, Wis.), Catholic 
University of America (Wash., 
D. C.); ord. March 10, 1912; cons. 
Bishop of Superior, March 7, 1942. 

O'Doherty, Michael James b. 
July 30, 1874, Charlestown, Co. 
Mayo, Ireland; educ. St. Nathy's 
College (Ballaghadereen, Ireland), 
St. Pat-rick's College (Maynooth, 
Ireland), Royal College of Science 
(Dublin, Ireland), Irish College 
(Salamanca, Spain), Pontifical Uni- 
versity (Salamanca, Spain); ord. 
Nov. 30, 1897; cons. Bishop of Zam- 
boanga, P. I., Sept. 3, 1911; pro- 
moted to the Metropolitan See of 
Manila, Sept. 6, 1916. 

O'Hara, Edwin Vincent b. Sept. 
6, 1881, Lanesboro, Minn.; educ. St. 
Paul's Seminary (St. Paul, Minn.), 
Catholic University (Wash., D. C.), 
Institute CatholiQue (Paris); ord. 
June 9, 1905; cons. Oct. 28, 1930; 
translated to See of Kansas City, 
April 15, 1939. 

O'Hara, Gerald Patrick Aioysius 
b. May 4, 1895, Scranton, Pa.; 
educ. St. Charles Borromeo Semi- 
nary (Overbrook, Pa.), Pontifical 
Roman Seminary (Rome), Pontifi- 
cal Institute of the Appolinaris 
(Rome); ord. April 2, 1920; cons. 
May 20, 1929; app. Bishop of Savan- 
nah, Nov. 16, 1935, title changed to 
Bishop of Savannah-Atlanta, April. 

O'Hara, John Francis, C. S. C. 
b. May 1, 1888, Ann Arbor, Mich.; 
educ. University of Notre Dame 
(South Bend, Ind.), Catholic Uni- 
versity (Wash., D. C.), University 


of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pa.) ; 
ord. Sept. 9, 1916; cons, as Auxiliary 
Bishop of Army and Navy, Jan. 15, 

OSano, O. P.M. Cap., Michael 
Angel b. Sept. 29, 1891, Alzo, 
Spain; educ. Seraphic Seminaries 
of Navarre-Cantabria-Aragon Ca- 
puchin Province (Spain) ; ord. 1915; 
cons. Titular Bishop of Lagina and 
Vicar Apostolic of Guam, May 5, 1935. 

O'Leary, Thomas IVlichaeS b. 
Aug. 16, 1875, Dover, N. H., educ. 
Mungret College (Limerick, Ire- 
land) ; Grand Seminary (Montreal, 
Canada); ord. Dec. 18, 1897; cons. 
Bishop of Springfield, Mass., Sept. 
8, 1921. 

Peschges, John Hubert b. May 
11, 1881, West Newton, Minn.; educ. 
St. John's University (Collegeville, 
Minn.), Catholic University (Wash., 
D. C.); ord. April 15, 1905; cons. 
Bishop of Crookston, Nov. 9, 1938. 

Peterson, John Bertram b. July 
15, 1871, Salem, Mass.; educ. St. 
Anselm's College (Manchester, N. 
H.), St. John's Seminary (Brighton, 
Mass.), Catholic University of Paris 
(France); ord. Sept. 15, 1899; cons. 
Nov. 10, 1927; app. Bishop of Man- 
chester, May 13, 1932. 

Pinten, Joseph Gabriel b. Oct. 
3, 1867, Rockland, Mich.; educ. 
St. Francis Seminary (Milwaukee, 
Wis.), Urban College of the Propa- 
ganda (Rome); ord. Nov. 1, 1890; 
cons. Bishop of Superior, May 3, 
1922; translated to See of Grand 
Rapids, June 25, 1926. 

Plagens, Joseph Casimir b. Jan. 
29, 1880, Poland; educ. University 
of Detroit, St. Mary's Seminary 
(Baltimore, Md.); ord. 1903; cons. 
Sept. 80, 1924; app. Bishop of Mar- 
quette, Nov. 16, 1935; trans. Grand 
Rapids, Dec. 16, 1940. 

Preciado, C. M. F v Joseph M. 
b. Sept. 23, 1885, Cadreita, Prov- 
ince of Navarra, Spain; educ. Cole- 
gio de los Misioneros (Alagon, 
Spain), University of Cervera (Vich, 
Spain), professed Aug. 15, 1904; 
ord. June 23, 1912; cons. Titular 
Bishop of Tegea and Vicar Apos- 
tolic of Darien, Colon, Panama, 
May 31, 1934. 

Rehring, George John b. June 
10, 1890, Cincinnati, Ohio; educ. 

Seminary of Mt. St. Mary of the 
West (Cincinnati, Ohio), College 
of the Angelico (Rome) ; ord. Mar. 
28, 1914; cons, as Auxiliary Bishop 
of Cincinnati, Oct. 7, 1937. 

Reyes, Gabriel Martelino b. May 
24, 1892, Kalibo, Capiz, P. L; educ. 
Seminario de San Vincente Ferrer; 
ord. March 27, 1915; cons. Bishop 
of Cebu Oct. 11, 1932; installed as 
Archbishop of Cebu, Nov. 9, 1934. 

Rhode, Paul Peter b. Sept. 18, 
1871, Wejherowo, Newstadt, Ger- 
many; St. Mary's College (Marion 
Co., Ky.), St. Ignatius College (Chi- 
cago, 111.), St. Francis Seminary 
(Milwaukee, Wis.); ord. June 17, 
1894; cons. July 29, 1908; translated 
to the See of Green Bay, July 5, 

Rice, S.J., William A. b. Oct. 
3, 1891, Framingham, Mass.; educ. 
Jesuit Novitiate (St. An'drew-on-the- 
Hudson, N. Y.), College of the Sa- 
cred Heart (Woodstock, Md.), St. 
Ignatius College (Valkenburg, Hol- 
land), Jesuit House of Studies 
(Salamanca, Spain); ord. Aug. 27, 
1925; cons. Titular Bishop of Rusi- 
cade and Vicar Apostolic of Belize, 
British Honduras, April 16, 1939. 

Rltter, Joseph Elmer b. July 20, 
1892, New Albany, Ind.; educ* St. 
Meinrad's (St. Meinrad, Ind.); ord. 
May 20, 1917; cons. Mar. 24, 1933; 
succeeded as Bishop of Indiana- 
polis, Mar. 24, 1934. 

Rohlman, Henry Patrick b. 
March 17, 1876, Appelhulsen, West- 
phalia, Germany; educ. St. Joseph's 
College (Dubuque, Iowa), Grand 
Seminary (Montreal, Canada), Cath- 
olic University (Wash., D. C.) ; ord. 
Dec. 21, 1901; cons. Bishop of 
Davenport, July 25, 1927. 

Rummel, Joseph Francis b. 
Oct. 14, 1876, Baden, Germany; 
educ. St. Anselm's College (Man- 
chester, N. H.), St. Joseph's Semi- 
nary (Yonkers, N. Y.), North Amer- 
ican College (Rome) ; ord. May 24, 
1902; cons. May 29, 1928; app. 
Archbishop of New Orleans, March 
9, 1935. 

Ryan, James Hugh b, Dec. 15, 
1886, Indianapolis, Ind.; educ. Semi- 
nary of Mount St. Mary of the 
West (Cincinnati, Ohio), North 
American College (Rome), Urban 


College of the Propaganda (Rome) ; 
ord. June 5, 1909; cons. Oct. 25, 
1933; app. Bishop of Omaha, Aug. 

6, 1935. 

Ryan, Vincent J. b. Arlington, 
Wis.; educ. St. Francis Seminary 
(Milwaukee, Wis.), St. Paul Semi- 
nary (St. Paul, Minn.); ord. June 

7, 1912; cons. Bishop of Bismarck, 
May 28, 1940. 

Sancho, Santiago C. -to. May 23, 
1890, Libmanan, Camarines Sur, 
P. I.; educ. Coll. of Nueva Caceres, 
Seminary of Nueva Caceres, Uni- 
versity of Sto. Tomas (Manila); 
cons. Bishop of Tuguegarao, P. I., 
June 29, 1917; app. Bishop of Nueva 
Segovia, P. I., April 22, 1927, 

Scher, Philip George b. Feb. 22, 
1880, Belleville, 111.; educ. Pontifical 
College of the Josephinum (Colum- 
bus, Ohio), Urban College of the 
Propaganda (Rome); ord. June 6, 
1904; cons. Bishop of Monterey- 
Fresno, June 29, 1933. 

Schlarman, Joseph Henry Leo 
b. Feb. 23, 1879, Breese Township, 
Clinton Co., 111.; educ. St Francis 
Solanus College (Quincy, 111.), Uni- 
versity of Innsbruck (Austria), Pon- 
tifical G-regorian University 
(Rome); ord. June 29, 1904; cons. 
Bishop of Peoria, June 17, 1930. 

Schrembs, Joseph b. March 12, 
1866, Wuzelhofen, Germany; educ. 
St. Vincent's College (Beatty, Pa.), 
Grand Seminary (Canada), Laval 
University (Canada); ord. June 29, 
1889; cons. Feb. 22, 1911; app. 
Bishop of Cleveland, Jan. 16, 1921; 
raised to the dignity of an Arch- 
bishop, March 25, 1939. 

Schuler, Anthony Joseph, S. J. 
b. Sept 30, 1869, St. Mary's, Elk 
Co., Pa,; educ. St. Stanislaus Novi- 
tiate and Juniorate (Florissant, 
Mo.), St. Louis University (St. 
Louis, Mo.), College of the Sacred 
Heart (Woodstock, Md.) ; ord. June 
27, 1901; cons. Bishop of El Paso, 
Oct. 28, 1915; resigned, 1942, 

Schuite, Paul Clarence b. Mar. 
18, 1890, Fredericktown, Mo.; educ. 
St. Francis Solanus College (Quin- 
cy, 111.), Kenrick Seminary (Web- 
ster Groves, Mo.) ; ord. June 11, 
1915 ; cons. Bishop of Leavenworth, 
Sept. 21, 1937. 

Senyshyn, O. S. B. fVL, Ambrose 
b. 1903, Stary Sambor, Galicia; 

educ. Monastery Colleges at Kre- 
chiev and lawriev, Dobromil and 
Crystynopol (Galicia); ord, Aug. 23, 
1931; cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of 
the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Di- 
ocese of the United States, Oct. 22, 

Shaughnessy, Gerald, S. M. b. 
May 19, 1887, Everett, Mass.; educ. 
All Hallows College (Salt Lake, 
Utah), Marist College and Seminary 
(Wash., D. C.), Catholic University 
(Wash., D. C.); ord. June 20, 1920; 
cons. Bishop of Seattle, Sept. 19, 

Shell, Bernard James b. Feb. 
18, 1888, Chicago, 111.; educ. St. Vi- 
ator's College and Seminary (Bour- 
bonnais, 111.); ord. May 21, 1910; 
cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of Chi- 
cago, May 1, 1928. 

Spellman, Francis Joseph b. May 
4, 1899, Whitman, Mass.; educ. Ford- 
ham College (New York, N. Y.), 
North American College (Rome); 
ord. May 14, 1916; cons. Sept. 8, 
1932; app. Archbishop of New York, 
April 15, 1939; Bishop Ordinary for 
the Army and Navy of the United 
States, Dec. 10, 1939. 

Stn'tch, Samuel Alphonsus b. 
August 17, 1887, Nashville, Tenn.; 
educ. St. Gregory's Preparatory 
Seminary (Cincinnati, Ohio), North 
American College (Rome); ord. 
May 21, 1909; cons. November 30, 
1921; app. Archbishop of Chicago, 
Jan. 5, 1940. 

Sweeney, James J. b. June 19, 
1898, San Francisco, Calif.; educ. 
St. Patrick's Seminary (Menlo 
Park, Calif.); ord. June 20, 1925; 
cons. Bishop of Honolulu, Hawaii, 
July 25, 1941. 

Swint, John Joseph b. Dec. 15, 
1879, Pickens, W. Va.; educ. St. 
Charles College (Ellicott City, Md.), 
St. Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, 
Md.), Catholic University (Wash., 
D. C.)* ord. June 21, 1904; cons. 
May 11, 1922; app. Bishop of Wheel- 
ing, Dec. 11, 1922. 

Takach, Basil b. Oct. 27, 1879, 
Trickovoje, Maramorisska Zupa, 
Hungary; educ. Uzhorod Gymna- 
sium (Uzhorod, Hungary), Greek 
Catholic Seminary (Uzhorod); ord. 
Dec. 12, 1902; elected to the Titular 
See of Zela, May 20, 1924, and 

named first Bishop of the Carpatho- 
Russians, Hungarians and Croa- 
tians in America; cons. June 15, 1924. 

Taylor, Vincent George b. Sept 
19, 1877, Norfolk, Va.; educ. Bel- 
mont Abbey College and Seminary 
(Belmont, N. C.); ord. May 24, 
1902; elected Abbot Ordinary of 
Belmont Abbey Nullius, Aug. 20, 
1924; confirmed Abbot Ordinary, 
Dec. 12, 1924; blessed Mar. 19, 1925. 

Thill, Francis Augustine b. Oct. 
12, 1893, Dayton, Ohio; educ. Uni- 
versity of Dayton (Dayton, Ohio), 
Seminary of Mt. St. Mary of the 
West (Cincinnati, Ohio), Collegio 
Angelico (Rome) ; ord. Feb. 28, 
1920; cons. Bishop of Concordia, 
Oct. 28, 1938. 

Ttef, Francis Joseph b. March 
7, 1881, Greenwich, Conn.; educ. 
Niagara University (Niagara, N.Y.), 
St. Bonaventure College (St. Bona- 
venture, N. Y.); ord. June 13, 1908; 
cons. Bishop of Concordia, March 
30, 1921; resigned, app. Titular 
Bishop of Nisa, June 11, 1938. 

Toolen, Thomas Joseph b. Feb. 
28, 1886, Baltimore, Md.; educ. Loy- 
ola College (Baltimore, Md.), St. 
Mary's Seminary (Baltimore, Md.), 
Catholic University (Wash., D. C.) ; 
ord. Sept. 27, 1910; cons. Bishop of 
Mobile, May 4, 1927. 

Vehr, Urban John b. May 30, 
1891, Cincinnati, Ohio; educ. Semi- 
nary of Mt. St. Mary of the West 
(Cincinnati, Ohio), Catholic Uni- 
versity (Wash., D. C.), Collegio An- 
gelico (Rome); ord. May 29, 1915; 
cons. Bishop of Denver, June 10, 
1931; app. Archbishop of Denver, 
Nov. 15, 1941. 

Verzosa, Alfredo y Florentine 
b. Dec. 9, 1879, Vigan, Ilocos Sur, 
P. I.; educ. San Juan de Letran 
Coll. (Manila), Univ. of Sto. Tomas 
(Manila); ord. 1904; cons. Bishop 
of Lipa, P. I., Jan. 20, 1917. 

Vrakking, John C., M. S. C. b. 
Dec. 27, 1886, Naarden, Nether- 
lands; educ. Mission House (Til- 
burg, Netherlands), Mission Sem- 
inary (Arnhem, Netherlands), Lou- 
vain University (Belgium) ; ord. 
Aug. 13, 1911; cons, first Bishop of 
Surteao, P. I., Sept. 21, 1941. 

Walsh, Emmet Michael b. 
March 6, 1892, Beaufort, S. C.; educ. 
Chatham Academy (Savannah, Ga.), 
St. Bernard's Seminary (Rochester, 
N. Y.); ord. Jan. 15, 1916; cons. 
Bishop of Charleston, Sept. 8, 1927. 

Walsh, Thomas Joseph b. Dec. 
6, 1873, Parker's Landing, Pa.; educ. 
St. Bonaventure's College and Semi- 
nary (St. Bonaventure, N. Y.) Pon- 
tifical Institute of the Apollinaris 
(Rome); ord. Jan. 27, 1900; cons. 
July 25, 1918; app. Archbishop of 
Newark, Dec. 13, 1937. 

Welch, Thomas Anthony b. 
Nov. 2, 1884, Faribault, Minn.; educ. 
College of St. Thomas and St. Paul's 
Seminary (St. Paul, Minn); ord. 
June 11, 1909; cons. Bishop of Du- 
luth, June 23, 1926. 

White, Charles Daniel b. June 
5, 1879, Grand Rapids, Mich.; educ. 
St. Francis Seminary (Milwaukee, 
Wis.), Urban College of the Propa- 
ganda (Rome); ord. Sept. 24, 1910; 
cons. Bishop of Spokane, Feb. 24, 

WHIging, Joseph C. b. Sept 6, 
1884, Dubuque, Iowa; educ. Loras 
College (Dubuque, Iowa), St. Mary's 
University (Baltimore, Md.), Cath- 
olic University of America (Wash., 
D. C.), Chicago University (Chicago, 
111.); ord. June 20, 1908; cons, first 
Bishop of Pueblo, Feb. 24, 1942. 

Willinger, C. SS, R., Aloyslus Jo- 
seph b. April 19, 1886, Baltimore, 
Md.; educ. St. Mary's College 
(North Bast, Pa.), Mount St. Al- 
phonsus House of Studies (Esopus, 
N. Y.); ord. July 2, 1911; cons. 
Bishop of Ponce, Puerto Rico, Oct. 
28, 1929. 

Winkelmann, Christian Herman 
b. Sept. 12, 1883, St. Louis, Mo.; 
educ. St. Francis College (Quincy, 
111.), Kenrick Seminary (Webster 
Groves, Mo.); ord. June 11, 1907; 
cons. Nov. 30, 1933; app. Bishop of 
Wichita, Jan. 6, 1940. 

Woznicki, Stephen Stanislaus 
b. August 17, 1894, Miners Falls, 
Pa.; educ. Seminary of Ss. Cyril 
and Methodius (Orchard Lake, 
Mich.), Seminary of St. Paul (St. 
Paul, Minn.); ord. Dec. 22, 1917; 
cons, as Auxiliary Bishop of De- 
troit, Jan. 25, 1938. 



Primarily an institution devoted to the salvation of souls, the Church 
nevertheless performs many secondary functions, one of which is the 
preservation of the social order. She has always thrown her full 
weight against the destruction of society. Ceaselessly has she preached 
the duty of obedience to civil authority, respect for property rights and 
respect for human dignity. 

The religious, social and political upheaval of the sixteenth century, 
known as the Reformation (1517-1648), destroyed Christian unity, and 
bitter antagonisms arose. During the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- 
turies the obvious opposition to Catholicism declined. Formerly the 
Church was reprobated for her form of worship, her sacraments and 
her credence in miracles. With the rise of the Protestant states to 
power and leadership and what was thought to be the decline of the 
Catholic countries, a more tolerant and patronizing attitude was assumed. 
The twentieth century, however, has brought many problems and difficul- 
ties, superficially blamable on the first World War but remotely traceable 
to the principles forming the basis of the anti-Catholic culture. Confused 
and bewildered at the blow struck their boasted superiority these forces 
have now been confronted with the definite Catholic political, social and 
economic philosophy which they have so long disregarded. That they 
will embrace the Catholic teaching seems too sanguine a hope. That 
there is need for a united Christian front to oppose the attacks of a 
pagan Socialism and Communism has been pointed out by Pope Pius 
XI and Pope Pius XII in their encyclicals. The Church will continue its 
opposition to these, as well as to extreme Nationalism. 

The Catholic citizen is in conscience bound to respect and obey the duly 
constituted authority provided faith and morals are thereby not endan- 
gered. Under no circumstances may the Church be subjugated by the 
State. Whatever their form may be, states are not conceded the right 
to force the observance of immoral or irreligious laws upon a people. 
That there is grave danger that certain states encroach upon the realm 
of faith and morals the following record for 1942 testifies. 


Courageously the hierarchy of 
Germany continued to denounce the 
acts of oppression of the Church 
by the Eeich. In a sermon at New 
Year's eve services in the Munich 
cathedral, Dec. 31, 1941, Cardinal 
Archbishop von Faulhaber declared 
that while Catholic soldiers at the 
front "stand shoulder to shoulder 
with other German men," and Cath- 
olic civilians share in every war 

sacrifice, still the Church "is treat- 
ed with constant distrust, is spied 
upon, and oppressed by exceptional 
restrictions, and buildings belong- 
ing to the Church and to religious 
are confiscated on a far larger scale 
than private ones." With increas- 
ing frequency the worker is faced 
with the alternative of leaving the 
Church or resigning his position, 
and insidious slogans and catch 
phrases are being used by Nazi of- 


ficialdom to induce Catholics to apos- 
tatize. Measures applying to youth 
and religious training, he declared, 
could have but one purpose: "to 
alienate the young systematically 
from the Church and thus prepare 
the way for apostasy." In the upper 
grades of secondary schools no re- 
ligious instruction at all is any 
longer given, and in lower grades 
it is consistently impeded. On the 
basis that conservation of paper is an 
urgent war need, no paper is avail- 
able for catechisms and prayer- 
books. "But controversial pamphlets 
against the Church are still per- 
mitted in gigantic editions. One 
booklet makes as its fundamental 
point the demand that our 2,000- 
year-old Christian tradition be torn 
out by the very roots; it has been 
circulated to the extent of half a 
million copies. Another book re- 
viles the Papacy in the most re- 
volting of terms, and is printed 
again and again." 

The booklet to which Cardinal 
von Faulhaber referred is "Gott 
und Volk Soldatisches Bemennt- 
nis" (God and the People A Pro- 
fession of the Soldier's Faith), 
which proclaims: "We still have a 
battle to fight for the German man, 
for the German soul. . . . The fronts 
in this battle are evident. One is 
called Christ; the other is Ger- 
many. . . . We believe in Germany. 
We cannot at the same time be- 
lieve in another kingdom above her, 
because we must live for our peo- 
ple and not for our personal hap- 
piness. . . . Nor can we give ear to 
the prating of apostles extraneous 
to the world, for whoever believes 
in Rome cannot believe in Germany. 
We cannot live two different faiths. 
There is room in our hearts for 
only one faith; namely, Germany." 

Religious booklets for German 
soldiers were banned but this anti- 
Christian credo was widely dis- 
seminated. Its sentiments were 
echoed in an official instruction to 
his subordinates issued by Reichs- 
leiter Bormann, successor to Ru- 
dolf Hess as National Socialist 
party chairman, in which he said: 

"National Socialist and Christian 
ideologies are irreconcilable." More- 
over he declared, "Nobody would 
know anything about Christianity 
if he had not been stuffed with it 
in his youth by the priests. . . . Thus 
if our youth in the future hear no 
more of Christianity, whose doc- 
trine is inferior to ours, Christianity 
will automatically cease to exist." 

This purposeful scheme of the 
Nazis is emphasized in a pastoral 
letter written by the Bishop of 
Muenster, the Most Rev. Clement 
August von Galen, who speaks of 
"the strict duty of parents to make 
every effort for the religious educa- 
tion of their children" and to send 
them to the Youth Services and 
Youth Hour now that the schools 
lack Christian instruction. 

The third anniversary of the cor- 
onation of Pope Pius XII was ob- 
served in March, on Papal Sunday, 
and Cardinal von Faulhaber took 
occasion in his sermon to condemn 
"a flood of execrations and calum- 
nies which flows through Germany 
to undermine the Pope's authority 
and to shake the fidelity of Cath- 
olics." He then convincingly sum- 
med up evidence of the authority 
of Rome, the center of Christendom, 
and the Divine institution of not 
a national, but a universal, Church. 

In a joint pastoral read in the 
churches on Passion Sunday, March 
22, the German bishops reviewed 
and publicly protested Nazi abuses 
and persecution. Those who de- 
pend on state or party positions 
must deny their religion or aban- 
don it; religious instruction is pro- 
scribed and has been punished; 
anti-Christian influence is brought 
to bear in youth organizations, hos- 
tels and labor camps; the religious 
press has been almost entirely de- 
stroyed and printing of religious 
books severely restricted; priests 
without proof of guilt are banned 
from their dioceses and homes, and 
often interned; religious orders 
have been expelled from their 
houses and their activities curtailed 
on an ever-increasing scale, and 
seminaries have been confiscated, 


so that the German people will Ibe 
In future without the pastoral ser- 
vices of priests and the sacrificing 
services of nuns ; religious property 
has been seized and even places 
of "worship confiscated and desecra- 
ted; citizens have been deprived 
of their liberty without evidence of 
crime; the insane and incurables 
are being killed; an anti-Christian 
wave of propaganda has been car- 
ried through the country "to suf- 
focate the vigor of the Catholic 
Church in German lands." 

Another joint pastoral of the hi- 
erarchy scored violations of the 
sanctity of marriage and urged the 
faithful to have recourse to the ef- 
ficacious arms of prayer and mor- 
tification to resist prevailing en- 
ticements to break the law of God. 
They declared that to assert physi- 
cal love is the supreme good is to 
attempt diabolically to unchain our 
lowest instincts and "another step 
in this direction will arrive with 
the aberration in which it is wished 
to create outside of marriage a new 
people, even systematically, super- 
men." They condemned the view 
that continence is harmful and 
criticized the movement to intro- 
duce obligatory marriage, thereby 
prohibiting chastity. 

An exceptionally brief message 
was issued by the Bishops at their 
annual meeting at Fulda, extending 
comfort to the faithful. They ex- 
pressed admiration for the "heroism 
and endurance" of German soldiers, 
and prayerful sympathy for the 
wounded, missing and prisoners, 
and for those who had lost loved 
ones. They directed their thoughts 
also to the priests at the front and 
at home who "augment and keep 
alive the courage and confidence of 
those under their care/* the nuns 
"who with admirable love and de- 
votion look after the -wounded sol- 
diers," those suffering "under ter- 
rible air attacks," and the millions 
working at home "sometimes to the 
limit of their strength." 

The burial of many victims of 
air raids, with no Christian cer- 
emony or cross, was deplored by 

Cardinal von Faulhafcer, and he told 
his people that ten minutes after 
an air-raid warning he and Ms 
clergy will give a general absolu- 
tion to "all who have prepared their 
soul by an act of .penitence." 

By every means in their power 
bishops and priests sustained the 
faith and courage of the German 


In their subjugation of Poland, 
the Nazis endeavored completely to 
denationalize the people and de- 
Christianize them. In their destruc- 
tion of the things of the Church 
they aimed a death-blow at the 
heart of the nation, for over 90 per 
cent of the Poles are Catholics. 
And this destruction is almost com- 
plete. Churches, seminaries, con- 
vents and other Catholic institu- 
tions have been confiscated and 
converted into barracks, offices, 
storehouses and stables, after they 
were stripped of their sacred ves- 
sels and art treasures, many of 
which have been carried off into 
the Reich. The closing of the 
Church of St. Therese, the "Lourdes 
of Eastern Europe," at Vilno, Po- 
land, took place in June, 1942, and 
it is feared that the miraculous 
picture of the Holy Mother of God 
of Ostra Brama has been removed 
from the country. All cultural or- 
ganizations have been liquidated 
and Catholic social and benevolent 
organizations banned by law, the 
six universities are closed and 
Catholic schools suppressed, and 
Catholic libraries no longer exist 
many valuable volumes having been 
destroyed. Even wayside crosses 
and small shrines were burned. 

Seven Polish dioceses Poznan, 
Gniezno, Wloclawek, Plock, Pelplin, 
Lodz and Katowice have been 
liquidated, their bishops deported 
and 90 per cent of the clergy im- 
prisoned, exiled or put to death. It 
was estimated that 800 priests had 
been executed or tormented to 
death. In Poznan only three 
churches and one chapel remain 
open, whereas formerly there were 
30 churches and 47 chapels serving 

300,000 people. Services are rigid- 
ly restricted. The religious share 
the fate of the clergy: some were 
killed and others imprisoned or 

In September, 1942, it was re- 
ported that 3,000 priests were still 
held in prisons or concentration 
camps, many of them suffering 
from hunger and exhaustion and 
the results of mistreatment. In a 
"village of death" set up outside 
of Warsaw 12,000 of Poland's polit- 
ical and educational leaders have 
been executed. Many are in con- 
centration camps and some have 
died of ill-treatment or have gone 
insane. Thousands have been taken 
to Germany for forced labor, among 
them monks and nuns. 

The Warthegau, or Wartheland, 
that portion of Poland annexed to 
the Reich, had before the war a 
population of 4,000,000 Catholics 
served by at least 2,000 priests. The 
Church enjoyed all the rights and 
prerogatives assured by the 1925 
Concordat between Poland and the 
Holy See. Since the German an- 
nexation all communication with 
the Holy See or with the Papal 
Nunciature at Berlin has been pro- 
hibited. In vain the Berlin Nuncia- 
ture tried to obtain permission from 
the Nazi government to send a re- 
presentative into Wartheland to at- 
tend to exclusively religious mat- 

The Catholic Church has ceased 
to have juridical status in Poland, 
being superceded by "religious as- 
sociations" with juridical personal- 
ity, subjected to police control. The 
priests in these associations must 
be men approved by the Gestapo. 


Catholic life is very strong in the 
Netherlands though only about one- 
third of the population are Catho- 
lics. Before the Nazi occupation 
there was a Catholic party in pol- 
itics, a powerful Catholic press 
with 40 dailies and some 30 semi- 
weeklies and weeklies now all sup- 
pressed, a Catholic community life 
strengthened by unions of both em- 
ployers and workers which have 

been dissolved, and a vigorous 
Catholic school system against 
which confiscation of school build- 
ings and a drastic cut in teachers' 
salaries were directed. Catholic 
teachers remaining in the schools, 
however, refuse to indoctrinate the 
students with Nazism. A staunch 
stand has been taken against all 
aggression on religious freedom, 
and many Catholic leaders have 
been interned. The Nazi press is 
boycotted. Their own charitable or- 
ganizations being abolished, the 
people refuse to contribute to the 
Nazi Winter Relief. Young men 
are forbidden by a joint pastoral of 
the hierarchy to enter the Nazi 
labor service, "without it being ab- 
solutely necessary." Archbishop de 
Jong of Utrecht urged Catholic 
physicians to boycott the Nazified 
Netherlands Union of Sickness Fund 
Physicians, intended to infiltrate 
Nazi principles into the spheres of 
medicine and public health. The 
Bishops, unable to have their pas- 
toral letters printed, have them 
stenciled and duplicated by hand, 
and Catholic boys take two copies to 
each parish, one to the pastor and 
the other to a leading layman, so 
that if one is confiscated the other 
will remain. The practice of wear- 
ing a cross had become general 
among non-Catholics as well as 
Catholics until a Nazi decree for- 
bade its display, as a "hostile dem- 
onstration." Priests and prominent 
Catholic laymen were among some 
1,500 hostages seized in the Nether- 
lands within two months. 


The Germans have refrained from 
taking direct or violent measures 
against the Church in occupied Bel- 
gium, but they have attempted to 
mould it into conformity with Nazi 
political aims, and between totalitar- 
ian theories and the Catholic faith 
there is complete incompatibility. 
Catholic social welfare institutions 
were designated as belonging ex- 
clusively to the field of politics and 
placed under direct control of the 
state. The democrat-Christian trade 
unions were compelled to join the 

U. T. M. L, "Union of Workers, Man- 
ual and Intellectual." Catholic Action 
organizations, including the J. O. C., 
J. A. C., J. E. C., were dissolved, 
and the cooperative unions, Boer- 
ebond and Agricultural Alliance, 
were suppressed. The Catholic 
press disappeared; books had to be 
submitted to the German exeaua- 
tur; notices of religious ceremonies 
could not be printed; religious lec- 
tures outside the church were for- 
bidden; sermons had to be submit- 
ted to the censor. 

The opposition of the episcopate 
and the Belgian clergy to the Ger- 
mans is vigorous and persevering 
not only as regards religious doc- 
trines, but also in the social sphere 
and in the realm of patriotic duty. 

After two years of Nazi rule in 
Luxembourg, religious life which 
flourished there among an almost 
wholly Catholic people is prostrate: 
the bishop is confined within his 
residence; scores of priests have 
been expelled from the country and 
others cast into prison or concen- 
tration camps; the Luxembourg 
Grand Seminary is closed and its 
students are either imprisoned or 
in forced labor camps; monasteries 
and convents are confiscated, ex- 
cept a few where nuns care for the 
sick; religious instruction is pro- 
hibited in the schools, which are 
used for paganizing youth; the 
Catholic press is suppressed in all 
its forms; religious organizations 
and cultural associations are ban- 
ned; and the activity of the Church 
is restricted to the interior of the 
churches. But the people maintain 
an attitude of resolute opposition 
to Nazi domination and doctrine, 
sustained in their faith by the re- 
maining clergy. 


There was received in this coun- 
try during the year a series of 
pamphlets published bi-monthly 
since November, 1941, and circu- 
lated surreptitiously in France. The 
United Front of Combat and Spir- 
itual Resistance for the Liberation 
of Prance was responsible for these 

"Cahiers du Chretien Temoignage," 
Christian documents in pamphlet 
form. They were accompanied by a 
letter from a French priest in un- 
occupied Prance which reached the 
N. C. W. C. News Service through 
highly reliable channels, its authen- 
ticity being clearly established. The 
letter was addressed to the hierar- 
chy, priests and faithful of the 
Catholic Church and to members 
of all religious bodies living in the 
United States, the British Empire 
and nations allied in the war against 
the Axis powers. The writer de- 
clared himself to be "a Frenchman, 
priest and religious, an officer of 
the French Army, a veteran of two 
wars, now militant against Hitler- 
ism in the so-called 'free' zone," 
and said: "We too are fighting for 
the cause that is yours." 

To uphold "the cause of God, of 
Christianity, of morality, of all civ- 
ilizations" these pamphlets were 
secretly printed and circulated by 
hand, as a means of keeping France 
informed on the spiritual menace 
of Nazism. The first pamphlet 
stated: "The French who present 
these cahiers to you are not making 
politics for or against this or that. 
Their one concern is to prevent 
slow asphyxiation of consciences. 
They supply you with registered 
facts and authentic documents. 
They remind you of doctrinal di- 
rections. They rely upon your in- 
genuity to amplify prudently and 
courageously the echo of these 
reports of every Christian tes- 

They declared that Hitler would 
make of patriotic French Catholics 
"criminals" not "martyrs," by the ap- 
plication of the three Nazi tactics 
seduction, compromise and per- 
version in both the occupied and 
the allegedly unoccupied sections 
of France. For this reason there 
is no "bloody persecution not at 
the start," but those who find 
"equivocation" in Hitlerian pro- 
nouncements when weighed against 
the facts, or who oppose recogni- 
tion of the spiritual principles of 
Nazism, are apt to be accused of 

"political Catholicism, opposition to 
tlie Marshal's Government, dividing 
the unity of France, or of being 
the allies of Gallicanism and Com- 

They revealed that mail censor- 
ship and telephone surveillance 
were instituted in France even as 
in Nazi Germany and cells of the 
National Revolutionary Youth were 
installed in schools and colleges. 
Priests, especially religious, and in- 
fluential Catholics became the first 
victims of espionage and a propa- 
ganda campaign based on contra- 
version of the truth. Many pastors 
and vicars were imprisoned in 
Paris. A perversion and destruction 
program was hidden under over- 
tures for collaboration and eventu- 
ally "there was a thinly veiled bid 
for apostasy an attempt to im- 
plant the anti-Christian mysticism 
of Nazism." 

The destruction work was well 
advanced in the occupied zone, 
where publishers had to adhere to 
a list of prohibited books, and 
abolition of all unions, societies and 
associations except those founded 
on the public law included all 
Catholic , Action organizations, 
among them the J. O. C., J. A. C., 
J. E. C., J. M. C., L. O. C., Scouts 
etc. It was being prepared sur- 
reptitiously in the "free" zone 
where censorship of everything sus- 
ceptible of causing umbrage to the 
"occupying authorities" made cop- 
ies of the encyclical, "Mit Bren- 
nerder Sorge" and the texts of the 
latest papal discourses unobtain- 
able and the waves of Radio-Vatican 
jumbled. "Such are the designs of 
an enemy which is convinced that 
time, guile and force are sufficient 
to pervert anything." 

With the complete occupation of 
France by the Nazis in November, 
1942, her fate hangs in the balance. 


With the German and Italian oc- 
cupation of Yugoslavia persecution 
and martyrdom followed. Commun- 
ists became active and many un- 
suspecting Catholics were drawn 
into a Liberation Front, thousands 

of innocent people being imprisoned 
or executed. Scenes of indescrib- 
able sorrow accompanied forced de- 
portation, hostages were shot and 
villages were razed. In a pastoral 
letter written in April, 1942, Bishop 
Rozman of Ljubljana said: "The 
damage done by occupation both 
spiritually and materially is incal- 
culable." Church and rectory prop- 
erty was confiscated in 148 parishes, 
198 priests were forcibly expelled 
from 148 parishes and are without 
the necessities of life, religious 
communities were evicted from 14 
monasteries and convents, the Pre- 
paratory College of St. Stanislaus 
in St. Vid was confiscated, its 350 
professors and students expelled 
and the valuable library ruined. 
Over 200,000 souls were without 
Mass and the sacraments, and the 
dying were without spiritual con- 
solation. The nine remaining priests 
celebrated Mass twice daily and 
three times Sunday, and the faith- 
ful gathered every Sunday for 
prayers in common, but they were 
without instruction. "We cannot 
continue to exist unless God gives 
us special help." 


Upon Mexico's entry into war with 
the Axis powers, Archbishop Mar- 
tinez of Mexico and Bishop Guizar y 
Valencia of Chihuahua issued state- 
ments regarding the duty of Cath- 
olics to uphold the civil govern- 
ment, and the Central Board of 
Catholic Action sounded a ringing 
appeal for total cooperation with 
the nation's war effort and the 
furthering of national unity by 
prayer, sacrifice and service. Friend- 
lier relations between, the Church, 
and State were generally apparent, 
as witnessed by a sermon in the 
metropolitan cathedral in which 
the Rev. Julio Vertis, S. J., said, 
"To President Avila Camacho is 
due in great part the spirit of tol- 
erance and charity that now reigns 
everywhere," and a statement of the 
President expressing satisfaction 
with and appreciation of the work of 
the Church whose personal forces he 
termed a "factor of national unity." 



Afghanistan Practically all the 
inhabitants are Mohammedans sub- 
ject to the law of Islam. No priest 
is allowed to enter. Population, 

Alaska Originally Christianized 
by the Franciscans and Russian 
missionaries, the territory is now 
subject to the ministrations of the 
Jesuits and secular priests from 
the United States. Population, 72,- 
524; Catholics, 12,650. 

Albania (Italian) -Friendly re_a- 
tions between the Church and Stete 
were established in 19S6. The ma- 
jority of the people are Mohamme- 
dans. Population (1938), 1,063,000; 
Catholics, 100,320. 

Algeria Most of the inhabitants 
are Mohammedans. The missionary 
work is in charge of the White Fa- 
thers. Population, 7,490,000; Catho- 
lics, 814,740. 

Andorra All the _ inhabitants 
are Catholics, living 'under the 
sovereign rale of the Bishop of 
Urgel, Spain. Population, 5,231; 
Catholics, 5,231. 

Angola (Portuguese) Mission- 
ary work is in charge of the Holy 
Ghost Fathers. Population, 4,000,- 
000; Catholics, 500,000. 

Arabia Once Catholic, the 
Arabs fell into heresy and finally 
became Mohammedans. The region 
is now a missionary territory in 
charge of the Capuchins. Popula- 
tion, 10,000,000; Catholics, 688. 

Argentina Preponderantly Cath- 
olic since the sixteenth century, 
the State supports the Church. 
Freedom of religion nevertheless is 
granted to all. To be elected to the 
office of President or Vice-Presi- 
dent the candidate rmist be a Cath- 
olic. Population, 13,318,320; Catho- 
lics, 12,018,790. 

Australia The Catholic popula- 
tion has gradually increased since 
1836 when religions freedom was 
established. Population, 7,068,689; 
Catholics, 1,244,835. 

Azores (Portuguese) Adminis- 
tration is subject to the ecclesiasti- 
cal provinces of Portugal. Popula- 
tion, 262,073; 'Catholics, 262,073. 

Bahamas, Br. W. Indies The 
islands are included in a Prefecture 
Apostolic established in 1929 and 
confided to the Benedictines. Pop- 
ulation, 68,903; Catholics, 3,801. 

Balearic Islands (Spanish) The 
islands are divided into self-gov- 
erning dioceses. Population, 381,- 
594; Catholics, 381,594. 

BasutoSand (British) Mission 
work Is confided to the Oblates of 
Mary Immaculate. Population, 562 - 
411; Catholic, 146,000. 

Bechuanaland (British) The 
outlook for Catholicism has im- 
proved since the acquisition by the 
British of the territory. Popula- 
tion, 265,756; Catholics, 25,265. 

Belgium (occupied by Germany) 
The population is mostly Catholic 
but all religions are tolerated. Popu- 
lation, 8,294,674; Catholics, 7,968,431. 

Bohemia -Moravia (German) 
Nazism persecutes the Catholic 
faith, and there is a great scarcity 
of priests. Population, 6,804,875; 
Catholics, 4,862,706. 

Bolivia The State recognizes 
and supports the Roman Catholic 
religion but permits the free ex- 
ercise of other religions. Popula- 
tion, 3,457,000; Catholics, 2,779,000. 

Borneo (Dutch) Missionary 
work is in charge of the Capuchins. 
Population, 2,168,661; Catholics,7,584. 

Brazil All religions have been 
equally recognized since 1890. Pop- 
ulation, 45,002,176; Catholics, 40,- 

Bulgaria The Bulgarian Church, 
resembling the Orthodox, sepa- 
rated from Rome for political rea- 
sons. Population, 6,720,000; Catho- 
lics, 44,240. 

Burma (British) Over 80 per 
cent of the people are Buddhists. 
Mission work is in charge of the 
Society of Foreign Missions of 
Paris. Population, 15,797,000; Cath- 
olics, 135,033. 

Cameroon (French) Mission- 
ary work is in /charge of the Holy 
Ghost Fathers and the Priests of 
the Sacred Heart. Population, 2,- 
609,000; Catholics, 263,755. 


Cameroons (British) Mission- 
ary work is in charge of St. Jos- 
eph's Society for Foreign Missions 
of Mill Hill. Population, 838,637; 
Catholics, 24,807. 

Canada Oppression of Catho- 
lics officially ceased with the Que- 
bec Act of 1774 but full religious 
freedom was not granted until 1829. 
Population, 11,419,896; Catholics, 4,- 

Canary Islands (Spanish) Dio- 
ceses are subject to the Spanish 
Province of Seville. Population 
286,154; Catholics, 200,000. 

Cape Verde Islands (Portuguese) 
The diocese is subject to the 
Province of Lisbon. Population, 
174,403; Catholics, 145,300. 

Celebes, Dutch E. Indies Mis- 
sion work is in charge of the Mis- 
sionaries of the Sacred Heart. Pop- 
ulation, 4,231,906; Catholics, 21,435. 

Ceylon (British) Mission work 
is carried on by the Oblates, Bene- 
dictines and Jesuits. Population, 
5,922,000; Catholics, 443,665. 

Chile Church and State were 
separated in 1925. Population, 5,- 
000,782; Catholics, 3,682,591. 

China Buddhism, Confucianism, 
Taoism and Mohammedanism 
claim most of the population. Pop- 
ulation, 466,785,856; Catholics, 3,- 

Colombia Catholicism is recog- 
nized as the religion of the nation. 
Other religions are granted free- 
dom of worship. Population, 9,334,- 
392; Catholics, 6,880,000. 

Congo (Belgian) Missionary 
work carried on by various reli- 
gious orders is rapidly converting 
the natives. United with the Belgian 
Congo administratively are the Bel- 
gian mandates of Ruanda and 
Urundi. Population, 10,328,400; 
Catholics, 3,000,000. 

Costa Rica Catholicism enjoys 
the support of the State. All other 
religions may He freely practised. 
Population, 639,197; Catholics, 440,- 

Crete Most of the inhabitants 
profess the Greek Orthodox faith. 
Population, 386,427; Catholics, 800. 

Croatia A kingdom was set up 
in this portion of Yugoslavia after 

occupation by Germany in 1941. 
The Croats are mainly Catholic. 
Population, 4,000,000. 

Cuba The Church is complete- 
ly separated from the State. Free- 
dom of religion is granted to all. 
Population, 4,253,000; Catholics, 2,- 

Dahomey (French) Mission 
work is carried n by the African 
Mission Society of Lyons. Popula- 
tion, 1,289,128; Catholics, 38,307. 

Denmark (occupied by Germany) 
Protestantism was forced upon 
the people shortly after the Refor- 
mation. Of recent years Catholics 
have increased in number. Popu- 
lation, 3,825,000; Catholics, 25,702. 

Dominican Republic Catholi- 
cism is the State religion, though 
other religions are tolerated. The 
See of Santo Domingo is the oldest 
bishopric in the New World. A 
serious shortage of priests is re- 
ported. Population, 1,655,779; Cath- 
olics, 1,580,000. 

Dutch East Indies (partly occupied 
by Japan) This group of islands 
comprises Java and Madura, Su- 
matra, Celebes, adjacent smaller 
islands and part of Borneo. Mis- 
sion work is carried on by sev- 
eral religious orders. Population, 
60,727,233; Catholics, 601,570. 

Dutch West Indies These is- 
lands comprise Curacao, Bonaire, 
Aruba, St. Eustatius, Saba and part 
of St. Martin. The Dominicans are 
in charge of mission work in Cu- 
racao, which has a large Catholic 
population. Population, 105,617; 
Catholics, 65,825. 

Ecuador The majority of the 
inhabitants are Catholic. Natives 
in the interior suffer from an in- 
adequate number of priests. Popula- 
tion, 2,921,688; Catholics, 1,140,639. 

Egypt The Church lost most of 
her members during the Moham- 
medan invasion. Population, 16,- 
522,000; Catholics, 156,000. 

Eire (Ireland) Most of the pop- 
ulation has been Catholic since St. 
Patrick evangelized the natives in 
432. Population, 2,987,700; Catho- 
lics, 2,751,269. 

England After various persecu- 
tions since the time of Henry Till, 


the Church is showing a rebirth. 
Population (1931), 37,794,003; Cath- 
olics, 2,206,419. 

Ethiopia Once all Catholic, the 
inhabitants fell with the Coptic 
Church into the Monophysite here- 
sy. Mission work is in charge of 
Vincentians, Capuchins and the 
Missionary Institute of the Conso- 
lata. Population, 12,000,000; Catho- 
lics, 16,450. 

Fiji Islands (British) - Mission 
work is in charge of the Marist 
Fathers. Population, 215,030; Cath- 
olics, 15,709. 

Finland -The country fell with 
Sweden to Protestantism. The gov- 
ernment is very friendly to the 
Church. Population (1938), 3,863,- 
753; Catholics, 3,000. 

Formosa (Japanese) Mission 
work is in charge of the Domini- 
cans. Population, 5,872,084; Catho- 
lics, 7,193. 

France (partly occupied by Ger- 
many) The Church was perse- 
cuted in the eighteenth century and 
Catholicity restored by the Concor- 
dat of Napoleon, 1799. There is no 
State Church. Population (1939), 
41,980,000; Catholics, 29,000,000. 
Est pop., Aug., 1940, Unoccupied 
France, 14,027,000. 

French Equatorial Africa Mis- 
sion work is in charge of the Holy 
Ghost Fathers and the Priests of 
the Sacred Heart. Population, 3,- 
42D,815; Catholics, 587,724. 

French India Mission work is 
carried on by the Paris Foreign 
Mission Society. Population, 304,- 
680; Catholics, 250,000. 

French Indo-Chtna Catholicism 
has been too closely allied to the 
French government to be popular. 
At present there is a movement 
for a native Church. Population, 
23,229,200; Catholics, 1,565,000. 

French West Africa Mission 
work is in charge of the White Fa- 
thers, the Holy Ghost Fathers and 
the African Mission Society of Ly- 
ons. Population, 14,944,830; Catho- 
lics, 200,000. 

Gambia (British) Mission worlr 
Is In charge of the Holy Ghost Fa- 
thers, Population, 205,000; Catho- 
lics, 8,000. 

Germany St. Boniface and Irish 
and Scottish monks evangelised the 
land. Since the Reformation the 
North has been Protestant; the 
South and Bast have remained for 
the most part Catholic. During the 
Naai regime the Catholic as well as 
the Protestant Ctorch has been op- 
pressed and neo-paganism is rife. 
Population, 91,584,385; Catholics, 

Gibraltar (British) The popula- 
tion is predominantly Catholic. 
Population, 20,339; Catholics, 15,410. 

Goa f India (Portuguese) Secu- 
lar clergy are In charge of mission 
work. Population, 600,000; Catho- 
lics, 346,341. 

Gold Coast (British) Mission 
work is in charge of the African 
Mission Society of Lyons. Popu- 
lation, 3,962,520; Catholics, 103,651. 

Greece (occupied "by the Axis) 
Greek Orthodox is the State reli- 
gion but other faiths are tolerated. 
Population (1938), 7,108,000; Cath- 
olics, 54,269. 

Greenland (Danish) From the 
eleventh to the sixteenth century 
the people were Catholic; since 
1721 they have been Lutheran. 
Population, 18,200. 

Guadeloupe, FT. W. Indies The 
Diocese of Guadeloupe was erected 
in 1850. Population, 310,000; Cath- 
olics, 303,851. 

Guam (U. S.) (occupied by Ja- 
pan) Capuchin Fathers are in 
charge of mission work. Population, 
23,394; Catholics, 19,045. 

Guatemala Catholicism was in- 
troduced by Spanish missionaries. 
After the revolt from -Spain re- 
ligious orders were expelled. While 
Catholicism is the prevailing re- 
ligion, freedom of worship is 
granted. Population, 3,284,269; Cath- 
olics, 1,997,560. 

Guiana, British Mission work 
is in charge of the Jesuits. Popu- 
lation, 341,237; Catholics, 33,998. 

Guiana, Dutch Mission work is 
in charge of the Redemptorists. 
Population, 177,980; Catholics, 3 0,124. 

Guiana, French Mission work 
is in charge of the Holy Ghost 
Fathers. Population, 30,906; Catho- 
lics, 23,000. 


Guinea (French) Mission work 
Is in charge of the Holy Ghost Fa- 
thers. Population, 2,065,527; Cath- 
olics, 9;925. 

Guinea (Portuguese) Mission 
work is in charge of the Missionary 
Sons of the Immaculate Heart of 
Mary. Population, 415,200; Catho- 
lics, 49,947. 

Haiti Dominicans Christianized 
the natives in the fifteenth century. 
Though the Revolution destroyed 
the missions, the government now 
supports the Catholic religion. Pop- 
ulation, 3,000,000 ; Catholics, 2,643,000. 

Hawaiian Islands (U. S.) Mis- 
sion work is in charge of the Pious 
Fathers. Population, 423,330; Cath- 
olics, 116,000. 

Honduras Franciscans intro- 
duced Catholicism which is the pre- 
vailing religion. Freedom is granted 
to all faiths. Population, 1,038,061; 
Catholics, 760,000. 

Honduras, British Religious- 
freedom is granted to all. Popula- 
tion, 57,759; Catholics, 31,350. 

Hungary While Catholicism 
has been the religion of the people 
since the eighth century, Josephin- 
ism has caused a certain apathy 
to religion during the last century. 
Priests are needed. Population, 12,- 
708,439; Catholics, 7,131,398. 

Iceland (U. S. protectorate) The 
population became Catholic in the 
tenth century; Lutheran in the six- 
teenth. Missionaries of the Com- 
pany of Mary are stationed there. 
Population, 120,000; Catholics, 300. 

India (British) The majority of 
the inhabitants are Brahmins, Mo- 
hammedans and Buddhists. Popu- 
lation, 388,800,000; Catholics, 4,249,- 

Iran (Persia) The Church be- 
came Nestorian; now most of the 
Iranians are Mohammedans. Popu- 
lation, 15,000,000; Catholics, 5,813. 

Iraq Christianized in the sec- 
ond century the inhabitants be- 
came Mohammedans in the six- 
teenth century. Population, 3,670,- 
000; Catholics, 73,144. 

Ireland, Northern In the time 
of Cromwell many Scottish immi- 
grants settled in the north of Ire- 
land, where the population was de- 

pleted by persecution; hence there 
are many Protestants in Northern 
Ireland. Population, 1,290,000; Cath- 
olics, 428,290. 

Italian East Africa (occupied by 
the British) Established by de- 
cree of June 1, 1936, uniting the 
Italian colonies of Eritrea, Ethi- 
opia and Somaliland in one admin- 
istrative unit. Mission work is in 
charge of Vincentians, Capuchins 
and Missionary Institute of the Con- 
solata. Population, 12,100,000; Cath- 
olics, 55,100. 

Italy The Italian government, 
estranged since 1870, recognized 
the Pope's claim to sovereignty in 
1929. Church and State are now 
in accord. Population, 45,354,000; 
Catholics, 43,513,329. 

Ivory Coast (French) Mission 
work is in charge of the African 
Missionary Society of Lyons, Pop- 
ulation, 3,981,459; Catholics, 44,265. 

Jamaica, Br. W. Indies Span- 
iards introduced Catholicism. The 
British government was intolerant 
of the Church until 1792 when free- 
dom of worship was extended to 
Catholics. Population, 1,173,645; 
Catholics, 54,000. 

Japan Religious liberty was 
granted in 1889. Population, 73,114,- 
308; Catholics, 283,491. 

Java and Madura, Dutch B. Indies 
Mission work has increased in 
recent years. Population, 41,718,- 
364; Catholics, 103,828. 

Kenya (British) Mission work 
is in charge of the Holy Ghost 
Fathers. Population, 3,500,352; Cath- 
olics, 76,019. 

Korea (Japanese) Mission work 
Is in charge of the Paris Foreign 
Mission Society, Benedictines of St. 
Odile, Maryknoll Fathers and the 
Columbans of Nebraska. Popula- 
tion, 24,326,327; Catholics, 200,000. 

Liberia Mission work is in 
charge of the African Mission So- 
ciety of Lyons. Population, 1,867,- 
055; Catholics, 5,805. 

Libya (Italian) Mission work 
is in charge of the Franciscans. 
Population, 888,401; Catholics, 51,- 

Luxemburg (occupied by Ger- 
many) Nearly all the people are 


Catholic. Population (1938), 301,- 
000; Catholics, 295,000. 

Macaoj China (Portuguese) A 
suffragan diocese of Goa. Popula- 
tion, 200,000; Catholics, 33,047. 

Madagascar (French) (occupied 
by British) Holy Ghost Fathers, 
Jesuits, Vincentians and La Salette 
Missionaries minister to the people. 
Population, 3,800,000; Catholics, 

Madeira (Portuguese) The Dio- 
cese of Funchai "belongs to the 
Province of Lisbon. Population, 
217,000; Catholics, 150,528. 

Malaya (British) (occupied by Ja- 
pan), comprising the Straits Settle- 
ment, Federated Malay States and 
Unfederated Malay States, is em- 
braced in the Diocese of Malacca, 
under the care of the Society of 
Foreign Missions of Paris. Popula- 
tion, 5,444,833; Catholics, 79,730. 

Malta (British) Catholicism is 
the prevailing religion. Population, 
268,668; Catholics, 160,000. 

Manchukuo Mission work is 
carried on by the Foreign Mission- 
aries of Paris, Missionaries of 
Scheut, Benedictines and Mary- 
knoll Missioners. Population, 36,- 
949,975; Catholics, 154,623. 

Martinique, Fr. W. Indies. Holy 
Ghost Fathers minister to the peo- 
ple. Population, 255,000; Catholics, 

. Mauritius (English) Mission 
work is in charge of the Holy 
Ghost Fathers. Population, 415,4$2; 
Catholics, 140,073. 

Mexico -The Church has been 
subject to the persecution of an 
atheistic government, but now en- 
joys greater freedom. Population, 
19,848,322; Catholics, 16,000,000. 

Monaco The Principality is ec- 
clesiastically administered as the 
Diocese of Monaco. Population, 23,- 
973: Catholics, 20,000. 

Morocco (French) Mission 
work is carried on by the Francis- 
cans who brought Catholicism to 
this region. Population, 6,500,000; 
Catholics, 172,000. 

Morocco (Spanish)- Mission work 
Is in charge of Spanish Francis- 
cans. Population, 750,000; Catho- 
lics, 59,669. 

Mozambique (Portuguese East 
Africa) Secular clergy are in 
charge of the missions. Population, 
4,995,750; Catholics, 516,296. 

Nepal __ Mission work is in 
charge of the Jesuits. Population, 
5,600,000; Catholics, 500. 

Netherlands (occupied by Ger- 
many) The Dutch were Chris- 
tianized in the seventh century. 
In the sixteenth century Catholi- 
cism suffered from Calvinism. Re- 
ligious liberty was granted in 1848. 
Population, 8,833,000; Catholics, 

New Caledonia Mission work 
is in charge of the Marist Fathers. 
Population, 55,000; Catholics, 28,000. 

Newfoundland The Archdiocese 
of St. John was founded in 1796. 
Population, 294,800 ; Catholics, 87,000. 

New Guinea (Australian) Mis- 
sion work is carried on "by the So- 
ciety of the Divine Word. Popu- 
lation, 633,821; Catholics, 40,000. 

New Guinea (Dutch) Mission 
work is carried on by the Mission- 
aries of the Sacred Heart. Popu- 
lation, 518,982; Catholics, 82,675. 

New Hebrides (British-French) 
Mission work is carried on by the 
Marist Fathers. Population, 43,207; 
Catholics, 3,296. 

New Zealand The Church has 
striven to convert the Maoris but 
in the race wars the missions were 
destroyed. The Marists and Mill 
Hill Fathers are restoring these 
missions. Population, 1,626,486; 
Catholics, 187,000. 

Nicaragua Catholicism was in- 
troduced by the Spaniards. Popula- 
tion, 1,133,572; Catholics, 576,608. 

Nigeria (British) Mission work 
is carried on "by the African Mis- 
sionary Society of Lyons and the 
Holy Ghost Fathers. Population, 
20,641,814; Catholics, 208,170. 

Norway (occupied by Germany) 
The country was Christianized 
in the tenth century; in the six- 
teenth century Catholicism was 
superseded "by Lutheranism. Toler- 
ation was granted in 1845. Popula- 
tion, 2,937,000; Catholics, 3,226. 

Nyasaland (British) Missions 
are in charge of the White Fathers 
and the Society of Mary of Mont- 


fort. Population, 1,679,977; Catho- 
lics, 100,390. 

The region is still a 
missionary country. The clergy 
have charge of the Holy Places. 
Population, 1,517,112; Catholics, 45,- 

Panama Catholicism is the pre- 
vailing religion. Population, 650,- 
000; Catholics, 412,467. 

Papua (Australian) Missionaries 
of the Sacred Heart are in charge. 
Population, 338,822; Catholics, 17,882. 

Paraguay The Catholic Faith 
is recognized as the chief religion 
and is partly supported by the 
State. Population, 1,000,000; Catho- 
lics, 800,000. 

Peru Liberty is granted to all 
religions but the Catholic Church 
is partly supported by the State. 
Population, 7,023,111; Catholics, 3,- 

Philippine Islands (occupied by 
Japan) Though formerly a solidly 
Catholic nation, the Philippines suf- 
fered some defections from the 
Faith when, the Spanish mission- 
aries withdrew after the revolution 
in 1896. But with the arrival of large 
numbers of missionaries, especially 
American, since 1921, Catholicism 
flourishes among 80 per cent of the 
population. Population, 16, 771,900; 
Catholics, 12,800,000. 

Poland (occupied by Germany) 
The Catholic religion prevails but 
has suffered persecution since Ger- 
man occupation in 1939. Population 
(1938), 35,090,000; Catholics, 24,300,- 

Portugal Catholicism is the 
principal religion; freedom of wor- 
ship is granted. Population, 7,539,-. 
484; Catholics, 5,612,000. 

Puerto Rico (U. S.) The Catho- 
lic religion is dominant but more 
priests and Catholic schools are 
needed to sustain the Faith. Popula- 
tion, 1,869,255; Catholics, 1,700,000. 

Reunion (French) Mission work 
is in charge of the Holy Ghost Fa- 
thers. Population, 210,000; Catho- 
lics, 189,361. 

Rhodesia (British) Jesuits and 
White Fathers are engaged in mis- 
sion work. Population, 1,379,962; 
Catholics, 118,970. 

Rumania The Greek Orthodox 
Church is the State Church. Popula- 
tion, 12,958,269; Catholics, 1,700,000 

Salvador, El Catholicism is the 
prevailing religion; other faiths are 
granted freedom of worship. There 
is a grave scarcity of priests, only 
one to every 12,000 souls. Popula- 
tion, 1,744,535; Catholics, 1,710,000. 

San Marino The Republic lo- 
cated within Italy originated as a 
religious community. Population, 
14,545; Catholics, 13,000. 

S. Thome and Principe (Portu- 
guese) Secular clergy are in 
charge of mission work. Population, 
59,000; Catholics, 21,000. 

Scotland The Church enjoys 
the same privileges as in England. 
Population, (1931), 4,842,980; Cath- 
olics, 614,469. 

Senegal (French) The Holy 
Ghost Fathers are in charge of the 
missions. ' Population, 1,666,374 ; 
Catholics, 34,807. 

SeychelSe Islands (British) 
Mission work is in charge of the 
Capuchins. Population, 31,486; Cath- 
olics, 24,995. 

Sierra Leone (British) Mission 
work is in charge of the Holy 
Ghost Fathers. Population, 1*768,- 
480; Catholics, 8,148. 

Slovakia Predominantly Catho- 
lic, cordial relations exist with the 
Holy See. Population, 2,691,000; 
Catholics, 1,500,000. 

Solomon Islands (British and 
Australian) Marist Fathers are 
in charge of the missions. Popu- 
lation, 139,976; Catholics, 28,108. 

Somaliland (British) The in- 
habitants are all Mohammedans. 
Population, 350,000. 

Somaliland (French) Mission 
work is carried on by the Capuchin 
Fathers. Population, 44,240; Cath- 
olics, 794. 

Southwest Africa (administered 
by Union of South Africa) Missions 
must contend with polygamy and 
Protestant hostility. Population, 
293,000; Catholics, 12,000. 

Spain Most of the inhabitants 
are Catholics. Church and State 
were separated in 1931. Communism 
caused great internal dissension 
and Civil War waged from 1936 to 


1939, with accompanying horrors of 
vandalism and martyrdom of priests 
and religions by the Loyalists. But 
the cause of the Spanish National- 
ists triumphed. Population, 26,000,- 
000; Catholics, 25,000,000. 

Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian) The Con- 
gregation of the Sons of the Sacred 
Heart of Jesus Is in charge of the 
missions. Population, 6,342,477; 
Catholics, 16,892. 

Sudan (French) Mission work is 
in charge of the White Fathers. Pop- 
ulation, 3,635,073; Catholics, 5,597. 

Sumatra, Dutch E. Indies Mis- 
sion work is in charge of the Priests 
of the Sacred Heart and the Cap- 
uchins. Population, 7,677,826; Cath- 
olics, 27,943. 

Swaziland (British) Servite 
Fathers COD duct the missions. Pop- 
ulation, 156,715; Catholics, 4,125. 

Sweden King Gustav Vasa ac- 
cepted the Reformation in 1527 
largely for material considerations. , 
Lutheranism is the State Church. 
The profession of the Catholic faith 
was forbidden until 1876. Religious 
orders are banned. Population, 6,- 
371,000; Catholics, 4,031. 

Switzerland Liberty of con- 
science is granted since 1884. Popu- 
lation, 4,216,000; Catholics, 1,677,317. 

Syria and Lebanon Christianity 
has suffered through continued in- 
vasions of the region. Population, 
3,349,600; Catholics, 524,984. 

Tahiti (French) The Picptis 
Fathers are In charge of the mis- 
sions. Population 9 19,029; Catholics, 

Tanganyika (British) The 
White Fathers and Benedictines are 
in charge of the missions. Popula- 
tion, 5,283,893; Catholics, 255,182. 

Thailand (Siam) Buddhism is 
the State religion. Population, 15,- 
718,000; Catholics, 62,143. 

Trinidad and Tobago, Br. W. In- 
dies Under British control, the 
State contributes to the support of 
the clergy. Population, 473,455; 
Catholics, 195,000. 

Tunisia (French.) Missionary 
work is in charge of the White 
Fathers and secular clergy. Popula- 
tion, 2,700,000; Catholics, 194,856. 

Turkey Islamism is the State 

religion. Missions are in charge of 
the secular clergy and Capuchins. 
Population, 17,869,901; Catholics, 

Uganda (British) The White 
Fathers are in charge of the mis- 
sions. Population, 3,790,869; Cath- 
olics, 477419. 

Union of South Africa (British) 

Mission work has been produc- 
ing better results in the last dec- 
ade. Population, 10,341,200; Catho- 
lics, 314,816. 

Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics The Russian Orthodox was 
the prevailing religion and the 
Church suffered persecution since 
the time of Peter the Great. After 
the Revolution and the establish- 
ment of the Soviet government all 
religious worship was forbidden. 
Persecution ensued and church 
property was appropriated in 1922. 
Anti-God propaganda is carried on. 
Population, 170,467,186; Catholics, 

United States Though perse- 
cuted under Colonial government, 
Catholics now enjoy equal rights 
with their fellow citizens as guar- 
anteed in the first amendment to 
the Constitution. Population, 131,- 
669,275; Catholics, 22,293,101. 

Uruguay Catholicism was in- 
troduced by the Franciscans. 
Church and State were separated 
in 1917. Population, 2,146,545; Cath- 
olics, 1,568,000. 

Vatican City The Holy See ex- 
ercises sovereignty over the State. 
Population, 953; Catholics, 953. 

.Venezuela Catholicism is the 
State religion but all faiths are 
granted freedom of worship. Popu- 
lation, 3,942,747; Catholics, 2,456,000. 

Wales There is great need of 

Welsh-speaking clergy. Population 

(1931), 2,158,374; Catholics, 102,921. 

Yugoslavia (occupied by Germany) 

All religions recognized by law 
have equal rights. A concordat 
signed with the Holy See in 1935 
is not yet ratified. Population, 15,- 
703,000; Catholics, 6,031,156. 

Zanzibar (British) Holy Ghost 
Fathers are in charge of the mis- 
sions. Population, 235,428; Catho- 
lics, 19,137. 



After the war of the Revolution, religious liberty was not granted by 
ail the colonies at once. The Continental Congress in 1774, however, 
recommended "that all former differences about religion . . . from hence- 
forth cease and be forever buried in oblivion." Some colonies then re- 
moved the religious restrictions on Catholics. Religious equality did not 
become universal until after the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 when 
the Constitution was adopted. 

Due largely to a memorial presented by the Rev. John Carroll, it was 
provided in the sixth article of the Constitution that religious tests as 
a qualification for any office or public trust be abolished. It likewise 
was provided in the first amendment to the Constitution that "Congress 
shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting 
the free exercise thereof." 

Still, since Catholics were not admitted to any state office unless they 
renounced both civil and ecclesiastical foreign jurisdiction, it was agreed 
to have an ecclesiastical superior In the United States through whom 
the spiritual jurisdiction of the Holy See would be retained but in whose 
office nothing might be found objectionable to national independence. 

In the second quarter of the nineteenth century Catholics found that 
the elementary school system, controlled by Protestants, constrained 
their children to participate in non-Catholic services. Due to protests, 
public education then was separated from the control of any religious 
body. In order to give a Catholic religious education to their children, 
Catholics were forced to establish their own parochial schools. 

Relations between the Church and State have been denned at the 
Plenary or National Councils at Baltimore, in 1852, in 1866 and in 1884. 

The Apostolic Delegation was established at Washington in 1898. 


1000 Lelf Ericson, a convert to Catholicism, discovered Vinland. 

1112 Vinland and Greenland became the bishopric of Bishop Gnupsson. 

1492 Christopher Columbus discovered America for Catholic Spain. 

1493 Pr. Juan Perez, O. F. M., offered Mass for the first time In the 

New World. 

1510 Bartolome de Las Casas, first priest ordained in America. Worked 

for the emancipation of the Indians. 

1511 Antonio de Montesinos, a Dominican, worked to abolish slavery 


1513 Balboa discovered the Pacific, proving America to be a New World. 
1519 By his historic cruise, Magellan proved the existence of a New 

1528 The Franciscans began to convert the natives in Florida. 

1540 Franciscans began to preach to the Indians of New Mexico. 

1541 Coronado, advised by a Franciscan friar, explored as far as Kansas. 

1542 De Soto, sailing along the Gulf of Mexico, discovered the 


1544 Fr. Juan de Padilla, O. F. M., was slain by the Quivira Indians of 
Kansas, becoming thereby the protomartyr of the United States. 

1565 The first Catholic parish was established at St. Augustine, Florida. 

1598 The first hospital in the United States was erected by the Cath- 
olics of St. Augustine, Florida. 

1600 Franciscans began to evangelize the California coast. 

1609 Mass was offered on Neutral Island, off the coast of Maine. 


Ig09 Franciscans from Mexico founded the Mission at Santa Fe. 
1815 Franciscans came to evangelize the Hurons and the Iroquois. 
1634 St. Mary's, Maryland, was founded by English and Irish Catholics. 
1634 Missionaries had converted thousands from Alabama to Virginia. 
1(846 __ A Franciscan mission station was established on the Penobscot, 

under the patronage of D'Aulney. 

1S46 The Jesuits began their missionary work in Maine. 
1665 A number of Indians in the Colony of New York were converted. 
1673 The Jesuit, Fr. Marquette, and Joliet explored the Mississippi. 
1680 Penal laws were generally adopted in the American Colonies 

against Catholics. ^ ^ ^ y 

1682 Thomas Dongan, a Catholic, was appointed Governor of New York 

by James II. .-,-*- 

1769 The Franciscan, Fr. Serra, began his missionary work in California. 


1519 Mass was offered at Mobile Bay by Spanish missionaries. 
1702 French Jesuits worked at Mobile or Old Fort Louis. 
1704 The first parish church was erected at Fort Louis. 
1709 Church was erected for Apalache Indians. 

1722 Parish of Mobile, till now under the Diocese of Quebec, was given 
over to the Order of Barefoot Carmelites. 

1829 The Diocese of Mobile was established. 

1830 Spring Hill College, Mobile, was established. 

1832 Visitation Nuns came to Mobile at request of the Bishop. 
1342 First Girls' Orphan Asylum was opened in Mobile. 
1901 Catholic College for colored was established. 
1940 Population, 2,832,961; Catholics, 55,493. 


1779 __ The Franciscans, Fr. John Riobo and Fr. Mathias, chaplains of 
Spanish men-of-war first brought Christianity to Alaska. Russian 
Orthodox priests did not arrive until 1794. 

1862 The Oblate Fathers were represented at Fort Yukon by Fr. Seguin, 
who, however, due to harsh treatment, returned to Canada. 

1872 After Americans took possession of Fort Yukon Bishop Isidore 

Clut and Fr. August Lecorre of Vancouver began active mis- 
sionary work. 

1873 Bishop Charles J. Seghers made a survey of the Southern coast. 

1874 Alaska was assigned to the jurisdiction of Vancouver Island. 

1877 The Bishop made a mission survey of the Northwest. 

1878 The Rev. John Althoff became the first resident missionary in 

1886 Archbishop Seghers was murdered by a guide. 

1886 The Sisters of St. Anne were the first nuns to come to Alaska. 

1887 Two Jesuit Fathers, P. Tosi and A. Robaut, took up the work of 

the Archbishop. 
1892 More Jesuit priests and a few nuns had joined the mission and 

had baptized 416 Eskimo children and enrolled forty-five adult 

1894 pope Leo XIII raised the territory to the rank of a Prefecture 

1900 An epidemic supposed to have been wilfully induced from Russia 

ruined many homes and hopes. 
1 1901 The Jesuits reorganized their missions and established a Churcn 

at Nome. 
1916 The territory was erected into a Vicariate Apostolic. 


1922 Alaska boasted twenty-two churches, many boarding and voca- 
tional schools for the natives, a number of day schools and eight 

1939 The number of churches had doubled since 1922, and there were 

30 missions with chapels. 

1940 Population, 72,524; Catholics, 12,650. 


1539 Fr. Marcos de Niza, O. F. M., explored Arizona. 

1629 Spanish Franciscans began missionary work among the Moki 

1699 The Jesuit, Fr. Eusebius Kino, established a mission at San 
Xavier del Bac, near the future Tucson. 

1767 The Jesuits were expelled. Franciscans took over their ten 

1781 Fr. Francisco Garces, O. F. M., was killed with several com- 
panions. A statue commemorating him has been erected at Ft. 
Yuma, California. 

1797 The famous Mission Church of San Xavier del Bac was con- 
structed by the Franciscans. 

1827 Spanish missionaries were expelled by the Mexican government. 

1859 Fr.' Joseph Macheboeuf came to Tucson. 

1863 The Jesuits took over the parish and abandoned Franciscan 
Church of San Xavier. 

1897 The Diocese of Tucson was erected. 

1940 Population, 499,261; Catholics, 100,000. 


1673 Marquette visited the Indians of East Arkansas. 

1689 Other Jesuit missionaries arrived. 

1702 Fr. Nicholas Foucault of the Foreign Seminary worked among the 


1729 Fr. Paul du Poisson, S. J., was killed by Mississippi Indians. 
1803 With the relapse of the missions few Catholics were left in the 


1843 The Diocese of Little Rock was established to serve 700 Catholics. 
1940 Population, 1,949,387; Catholics, 37,070. 


1595 The Franciscan, Fr. Francisco de la Concepcion, who accompanied 
the voyage of Cermeno, said the first Mass in California, near the 
site of San Francisco. 

1602 Carmelites accompanying Vizcaino celebrated Mass on the shore 
of California. 

1709 The Franciscan, Fr. Junipero Serra, founded the Mission San 
Diego, the first mission in what is now California. He subse- 
quently founded eight other missions. 

1770 The Mission of San Carlos de Monterey was founded near present 


1771 The Mission of San Antonio de Padua was established near pres- 

ent Jolon. 

1771 Mission San Gabriel was founded near Los Angeles. 

1772 Mission San Luis Obispo was established in the present city of 

the same name. 

1776 Mission Dolores was founded at San Francisco. 
1776 Mission San Juan Capistrano was established in the present city 

of the same name. 


1777 Mission Santa Clara was founded in present Santa Clara. 
1782 Mission San Buenaventura was established at present Ventura. 
178$ Mission Santa Barbara was founded at Santa Barbara. 
1787 Mission Purissima Concepcion was founded near present Lompoc. 
1791 Mission Santa Cruz was founded in present Santa Cruz County. 
1791 Mission Soiedad was founded near the present city of Soledad. 
1797 Mission San Jose was established near present Irvington. 
1797 Mission San Juan Bautista was founded near present Sargent 
1797 Mission San Miguel was established in the present San Miguel. 

1797 Mission San Fernando was founded in present Los Angeles County. 

1798 Mission San Luis Key was founded near present Oceanside. 

1804 Mission Santa Inez was founded in present Santa Barbara County. 

1816 Mission San Antonio de Pala was established in present Pala. 

1817 Mission San Rafael was founded in the present city of that name. 
1821 With Mexican independence of Spain, California became part of 

the Mexican Republic, which began a policy of interference and 
aggression toward the missions. 
1823 Mission San Francisco Solano was established at Sonoma. 

1835 The missions were secularized and finally confiscated. 

1836 Mexico authorized a petition to the Holy See for the creation of 

a bishopric of California, the property of the Pious Fund to be 

placed at the disposal of the bishop. 
1840 Gregory XVI created the Diocese of Upper and Lower California 

and appointed Francisco Garcia Diego, O. F. M., the first bishop. 
1842 President Santa Ana decreed that properties of the Pious Fund 

be seized and sold, the proceeds therefrom to be incorporated in 

the national treasury. 

1848 Upper California was ceded to the United States. 
1850 The Diocese of Los Angeles and San Diego was established. 
1853 The Archdiocese of San Francisco was established. 
1855 The confiscated California missions were returned to the Church 

by the United States. 

1886 The Diocese of Sacramento was established. 
1902 Diplomatic negotiations between the United States and Mexico 

resulted in appeal to the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The 

Hague for adjudication of claims to the Pious Fund. In compliance 

with provisions of The Hague award, Mexico paid the U. S. 

$1,420,682.67 in extinguishment of sums due as annuities previous 

to 1902, and was to pay a perpetual annuity for the use of Catholic 

prelates in California. Since 1912 no payments have been made. 
1922 The Diocese of Monterey-Fresno was established. 
1934 TO commemorate the sesquicentennial of Serra's death, 1934 was 

officially declared as Serra Year by the California Legislature and 

August 24 as Serra Day. 

1936 Los Angeles was erected into an archdiocese and the Diocese of 

San Diego established. 

1937 The city of San Francisco authorized the erection of a heroic 

statue of its patron, St. Francis of Assisi, on a peak overlooking 
the city. 
1940 Population, 6,907,387; Catholics, 1,222,510. 


1858 The first Catholic church was built at Los Conejos. 

1S87 The Diocese of Denver was established to cover the state. 

1940 Population, 1,123,296; Catholics, 147,217. 



1648 Jesuits were expelled and threatened with hanging if they re- 
turned to the colony. 

1818 Religious freedom was established by the new Constitution, al- 

though the Congregational Church remained in practice the State 

1819 Fanny Allen, daughter of Ethan Allen, the Revolutionary patriot, 

died as a nun in Montreal. 

Ig28 The first resident parish was founded at Hartford. 
1843 The Diocese of Hartford was established. 
1940 Population, 1,709,242; Catholics, 633,124. 


1750 Jesuit missions at Apoauinimininck were administered from Mary- 

1772 The first resident parish established in a log cabin at Coffee Run. 
1792 French Catholics from Santo Domingo settled near Wilmington. 
1816 gt. Peter's Cathedral was built at Wilmington. 
1868 The Diocese of Wilmington was established. 
1940 Population, 266,505; Catholics, 34,576. 


1521 Missionaries accompanied Ponce de Leon and other explorers to 

the region. 
1549 Fr. Luis Cancer de Barbastro, a Dominican, was slain by Indians 

near Tampa Bay. 
1565 Four secular priests accompanied Pedro Menendez de Aviles to 

the site of St. Augustine. 
1565 Fr. Martin Francisco Lopez Mendoza Grajales became first parish 

priest of St. Augustine, the first established parish in the United 

1560 ___ p r . Pedro Martinez, S. J., was slain by the Indians in northeastern 


1573 Franciscans worked in Florida until expelled by the English in 

1606 Bishop Altamirano, O.F.M., of Cuba made official visitation of 

Florida, the first episcopal visitation in the United States, and 

conferred Orders and Confirmation. 
1512 The first Franciscan Province in the United States was erected 

under the title of Santa Elena. 
Ig47 Three Franciscan missionaries were killed in western Florida. 

near the present Tallahassee. 

1574 Bishop Calderon of Cuba ordained seven priests, the first known 

ordination in the present territory of the United States. 

1593 The Franciscans, Rodrego de la Barreda and Pedro Galindes, jour- 
neyed overland from Apalache to help found Pensacola. Barreda's 
diary of the expedition is most informative. 

1857 Florida was made a Vicariate Apostolic. 

1870 The Diocese of St. Augustine was erected. 

1913 _ Convent Inspection Bill was defeated in State Legislature. 

1940 Population, 1,897,414; Catholics, 65,767. 


1597 The Franciscans, Frs. Chozas and Verascola, explored the interior 

of Georgia. . 

1597 Five Franciscan missionaries were killed in the coastal missions 
of Georgia. 


1616 First Franciscan Provincial Chapter was held in the United 
States, in San Buenaventura de Guadalquinini, in southeastern 

1655 Franciscans had nine flourishing missions among the Indians. The 
conquest by the English wiped out the missions. During colonial 
days Catholics were forbidden to settle in Georgia. 

1793 French Catholic refugees from Santo Domingo mingled with a 
few Catholics from Maryland after the Revolution. 

1810 The first church, built at Augusta, was placed in charge of an 

1850 The Diocese of Savannah was established. 

1893 - The Most Rev, Ignatius Persico, O. F. M. Cap., former Bishop of 
Savannah, was created a cardinal by Leo XIII. 

1937 Atlanta was joined to Savannah, as the Diocese of Savannah- 

1940 Population, 3,123,723; Catholics, 22,500. 


1842 Jesuits established the Sacred Heart Mission. 

1863 Secular priests were sent from Oregon City to administer to in- 
coming miners. 

1868 Idaho was made a vicariate apostolic. 

1868 School was established by the Sisters of the Holy Names at 
Idaho City. 

1870 Catholics lost most of their missions among the Indians of the 
Northwest Territory, when the Commission on Indian Affairs ap- 
pointed Protestant missionaries. 

1872 Fr. Mesplie was appointed United States Post Chaplain at Fort 

1893 The Diocese of Boise was established. 

1940 Population, 524,873; Catholics, 21,255. 


1673 Fr. James Marquette and Louis Joliet discovered and explored 

the Mississippi River. 
1675 The Mission of the Immaculate Conception was established among 

the Kaskaskia Indians. 

1679 La Salle brought with him the Franciscans, Frs. Louis Hennepin, 

Gabriel de la Ribourde and Zenobius Membre. 

1680 Fr. Ribourde was killed by the Kickapoo Indians along the Illinois 


1710 The warrior chief, Chicagou, after whom the City of Chicago was 
named, defended the Church. 

1765 British conquest of the territory resulted in the banishment of 
the Jesuits. 

1778 Rev. Pierre Gibault championed the American cause in the Revolu- 
tion and aided greatly in securing the states of Ohio, Indiana, 
* Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin for the Americans. 

1843 The Diocese of Chicago was erected. 
1877 The Diocese of Peoria was erected. 
1880 Chicago was made an archdiocese. 
1887 The Diocese of Belleville was erected. 
1908 The Diocese of Rockford was erected. 

1923 The Diocese of Quincy became the Diocese of Springfield. 

1924 Archbishop Mundelein of Chicago was created a cardinal by 

Pius XI. 

1926 The 28th International Eucharistic Congress was held in Chicago. 
1940 Population, 7,897,241; Catholics, 1,892,209. 



Ig86 Land near the present Notre Dame University at South Bend was 

given by the French Government to the Jesuits lor a mission. 
1749 The Church of St. Francis Xavier was founded at Vincennes. 
1775 Fr. Pierre Gibault aided George Rogers Clark in the campaign 

against the British in the contest for the Northwest Territory. 
1792 -r-i Col. Clark accompanied the Rev. Benedict Flaget from Louisville 

to Vincennes. 
1799 The first school in Indiana was built by the Rev. John Francis 


1834 The Diocese of Indianapolis was established. 
1842 University of Notre Dame founded by the Holy Cross Fathers. 
1857 The Diocese of Fort Wayne was established. 
1940 Population, 3,427,796; Catholics, 356,760. 


1836 The first church was founded by Fr. Samuel Mazzuchelli, O. P. 

1837 The Diocese of Dubuque was erected. 

1838 St. Joseph's Mission was founded at Council Bluffs by Pierre de 

Smet, S. J. 

1881 The Diocese of Davenport was erected. 
1893 Dubuque was made an archdiocese. 
1902 The Diocese of Sioux 1 City was erected. 
1911 The Diocese of Des Moines was erected. 
1940 Population, 2,538,268; Catholics, 301,762. 

1541 The Franciscan, Fr. Juan de Padilla, accompanied Coronado to 

the plains of Kansas where he was slain by Indians in 1544. 
1825 Jesuits ministered to eastern Indians transferred to the western 

side of the Mississippi by the United States Government. 
1836 The Mission of St. Francis Xavier was established. 
1857 Vicariate Apostolic of Kansas erected, under jurisdiction of Rt 

Rev. J. B. Miege, S. J., Titular Bishop of Messene. 
1887 The Diocese of Leavenworth was erected. 
1887 The Diocese of Concordia was erected. 
1887 The Diocese of Wichita was erected. 
1940 - Population, 1,801,028; Catholics, 179,645. 


1775 The first settlers in Kentucky were Catholics. 

1787 The first resident priest, Fr. Charles Francis Whelan, ministered 
to Catholic settlers near Bardstown. 

1808 The Diocese of Louisville was erected. 

1852 The Know-nothing Movement began to be felt in Kentucky. 

1852 The Diocese of Covington was established. 

1855 A Know-nothing mob attacked the Louisville Courier office which 
had defended Catholics and foreigners. German and Irish Catho- 
lic voters were driven from the polls on "Bloody Monday/' 

1855 Abraham Lincoln declared against Know-nothingism because it 
discriminated against negroes, foreigners and Catholics. 

1937 Louisville was made an archdiocese. The Diocese of Owensboro 
was erected. 

1940 Population, 2,845,627; Catholics, 207,177. 

1673 Fr. Joliet, S. J., a member of Marquette's expedition, offered the 

first Mass in Louisiana. 
1682 La Salle completed the discoveries of De Soto at the mouth of the 

Mississippi River. 


1699 French Catholics founded the Colony of Louisiana. 

1717 The Franciscan, Fr. Anthony Margil, established the first Indian 

mission of San Miguel de Linares. 
171g New Orleans was founded by Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de 

1721 The first chapel in New Orleans was placed in charge of the 

Capuchin, Fr. Anthony. 

1727 The Capuchins conducted a school for boys. 
1727 Ursuiine nuns from France founded their convent in New Orleans, 

the oldest convent in what is now the United States. They con- 
ducted a school, hospital and orphan asylum. 
1793 The Diocese of New Orleans was established. 
1S50 New Orleans was made an archdiocese. 
1894 Edward Douglass White, Senator from Louisiana, was appointed 

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. 

1910 Justice White became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 
1910 The Diocese of Alexandria was created from the old Diocese of 


1918 The Diocese of Lafayette was founded. 
1940 Population, 2,363,880; Catholics, 623,132. 


1604 The first Mass in the state was offered by the Rev. Nicholas 
Aubry who accompanied Sieur de Monts* French expedition. 

1613 A permanent French settlement was attempted on an island in 
the mouth of the Kennebeck. 

1633 Capuchins founded missions on the Penobscot River. 
1646 Jesuits established a mission on the Kennebeck. 

1648 The Church of St. John was built at Oldtown. This is the oldest 

church in New England. 

1704 French missions were destroyed by English soldiers. 
1724 A Puritan force attacked the French settlements and brutally 

killed Fr. Sebastian Rale, S. J. 
1853 The Diocese of Portland was established. 
1940 Population, 847,226; Catholics, 195,185. 


1634 The English Catholic Colony was established by Leonard Calvert, 

the only colony in the world granting religious liberty. 
Ig34 The first Mass was offered on the Island of St. Clement in the 

lower Potomac by Fr. Andrew White, S. J. 
1637 A permanent chapel was built at St. Mary's, twelve miles from 

the mouth of the Potomac. 

1649 The Toleration Act was passed by the Maryland Assembly. 

1650 Puritans, persecuted in Virginia, were permitted to settle at 

Providence (Annapolis). They soon took advantage of their po- 
sition, seized the government, repealed the Toleration Act and 
persecuted Catholics. 

1651 Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, gave the Jesuits 10,000 

acres for use as Indian missions. 

1658 Lord Baltimore again regained his authority and restored the 
Toleration Act. 

1673 Franciscans came to Maryland under the leadership of Fr. Mas- 
sens Massey, O. F. M. 

1689 The Protestant Revolution caused repeal of the Toleration Act. 

1692 William and Mary enforced the penal laws against Catholics but 
the practice of celebrating Mass in private houses was tolerated. 

1697 A brick chapel was erected at St. Mary's. 


1770 With, the need for concerted action in the coming Revolution, 
Catholics were again emancipated. 

1789 The Diocese of Baltimore was established. 

1790 A convent of Carmelite nuns was founded at Port Tobacco, by 

FT. Charles Neale, S. J., the first convent in territory then con- 
stituting the United States. 

1808 Baltimore was made an archdiocese. 

1868 The Diocese of Wilmington was founded, and covers a part of the 

1886 Archbishop Gibbons of Baltimore was created a cardinal by 

1934 Tercentenary of the founding of Maryland was celebrated by a 
field Mass in Baltimore Stadium. 

1939 With the erection of the Archdiocese of Washington, the adminis- 
tration of the see was entrusted to the Archbishop of Baltimore, 
The Most Rev, Michael J. Curiey became Archbishop of Washing- 
ton and Baltimore. 

1940 Population, 1,821,244; Catholics, 385,751, including District of 

1688 Ann Glover, a poor Irishwoman, became the victim of witchcraft 

1724 Pr. Sebastian Rale, S. J., was shot down by a Puritan force on 

August 23. 
1732 Although Catholics were not admitted, a few Irish families were 

found in Boston. 

1755 Acadian exiles landed in Boston. 

1756 Exiled Acadians landing in Boston were denied the services of a 

Catholic priest. 

1775 General Washington discouraged the Guy Fawkes Day procession 
in which the Pope and the devil were carried in effigy, saying he 
could not help expressing his surprise that there should be 
officers and soldiers in his army "so void of common sense as to 
insult the religious feelings of the Canadians with whom friend- 
ship and an alliance are being sought." 

1778 Despite Catholic aid in the Revolution the Puritans excluded Cath- 

olics from participation in their governments. 

1779 The Massachusetts Constitution provided for the support of pub- 

lic Protestant teachers of piety, religion and morality. 
1788 Mass was offered aboard Baron d'Estaing's fleet in Boston Harbor. 

1791 Bishop Carroll visited Boston and was honored by the presence of 

Governor John Hancock at Mass. 

1803 The Church of the Holy Cross was erected in Boston with finan- 
cial aid given by Protestants headed by John Adams. 

1808 The Diocese of Boston was established, 

1826 Irish Catholics emigrated to Worcester, Mass., and other parts of 
New England for the purpose of securing work in constructing 
the Blackstone Canal. 

Ig30 Irish Catholic labor was brought to New England 'to help construct 

Iggl Irish Catholic immigration increased with the failure of the Irish 
potato crops. 

1854 A Know-nothing State ticket was put in office. 

1855 Catholic militia companies were disbanded. The Nunneries' In- 

spection Bill was passed. 

1855 Irish and Canadian Catholic young women were sought as work- 
ers in the cotton mills. 

1860 Portuguese Catholics from the Azores settled at New Bedford. 


1870 The Diocese of Springfield was founded. 

1875 Boston was made an archdiocese. 

1904 The Diocese of Fall River was founded. 

1911 Archbishop O'Connell of Boston was created a cardinal by Pius X. 

1940 Population, 4,316,721; Catholics, 2,189,053. 


1642 Fr. Isaac Jogues and Fr. Charles Raymbaut preached to the Chip- 

pewas and gave the rapids the name, Sault Sainte Marie. 
1660 Fr. Rene Menard, S. J., was murdered by Sioux Indians near the 

village of 1'Anse. 
16$8 _ The Mission of St. Ignace was founded at Michilimakinac by Fr. 

1679 -A mission was founded at the mouth of the St. Joseph by La 

Salle and the Franciscans, Fr. Louis Hennepin, Gabriel de la Ri- 

bourde and Zenobius Membre. 

1701 Fort Pontchartrain was founded on the site of present Detroit 

and placed in command of Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac. The 

Church of St. Anne was built. 
1833 The Diocese of Detroit was established. 
1857 The Diocese of Marquette was established. 
1882 The Diocese of Grand Rapids was established. 

1937 Detroit was erected into an archdiocese, and the Diocese of 

Lansing was established. 

1938 The Diocese of Saginaw was established. 
1940 Population, 5,256,106; Catholics, 919,121. 


1680 The Falls of St. Anthony were named by Fr. Louis Hennepin, O.F.M. 
1689 Fr. Joseph J. Marest, S. J., carried on missionary work among the 
Sioux Indians. 

1727 The first chapel, that of St. Michael the Archangel, was erected 

near the town of Frontenac and placed in charge of the Jesuits. 

1732 Fort Charles was built. Jesuits ministered to the settlers. 

1736 Fr. Pierre Aulneau, S. J., was killed by Indians. 

1839 Swiss Catholics from Canada located near the American strong- 
hold, Fort Snelling. 

1841 Fr. Lucian Galtier built the Church of St. Paul, thus forming the 
nucleus of the modern city of the same name. 

1850 The Diocese of St. Paul was erected. 

1888 St. Paul was made an archdiocese. 

1889 The Diocese of Duluth was erected. 
1889 The Diocese of St. Cloud was erected. 
1889 The Diocese of Winona was erected. 
1910 The Diocese of Crookston was erected. 
1940 Population, 2,792,300; Catholics, 568,653. 


1682 The Franciscans, Frs. Zenobius Membre and Anastase Douay, 

preached to the Taensa and Natchez Indians, 
1698 Priests of the Quebec Seminary founded missions near Natchez 

and Fort Adams, 

1702 Fr. Nicholas Foucault was murdered by Indians. 
1706 Fr. St. Cosme was murdered by Indians. 

1721 The missions were practically abandoned with only Fr. Juif work- 
ing among the Yazoos. 

1725 Fr. Mathurin de Petit, S. J., carried on mission work in southern 

1728 The Capuchin, Fr. Philibert, came to Natchez. 


1729 Indians angered at French fort building tomahawked Fr. Paul du 

Poisson, S. J., near Fort Rosalie. Fr. Jean Souel was snot by 

1730 Fr. Antoine Senat, S. J., was burned at the stake by the Chicka- 


Ig37 The Diocese of Natchez was established. 
1940 Population, 2,183,796; Catholics, 38,812. 


1735 French Catholic miners and traders settled Old Mines and Sainte 

1750 Jesuits visited the French settlers. 

1762 A mission was established at St. Charles. 

1764 St. Louis was settled by Laclede. 

1767 Carondelet Mission was established. 

1770 The first church was founded in St. Louis on the site of the pres- 
ent Cathedral. 

1772 Capuchins came from New Orleans and built more churches. 

1826 The Diocese of St. Louis was erected, 

1847 St. Louis was made an archdiocese. 

1868 The Diocese of St. Joseph was erected. 

1880 The Diocese of Kansas City was erected. 

1940 Population, 3,784,664; Catholics, 545,812. 

Montana % 

1841 Fr. Pierre Jean de Smet and two others established St. Mary's 
Mission on the Bitter Root River near present Stevensville. 

1845 Fr. Antonia Ravalli, S. J., was placed in charge. His name has 
been perpetuated in Ravalli County. 

1850 The mission was temporarily abandoned. 

1859 Frs. Point and Hoecken established the Mission of St. Peter near 

the Great Falls. 
1866 St. Mary's Mission was re-established. 

1884 The Diocese of Helena was established. 
1904 The Diocese of Great Falls was established. 
1940 Population, 559,456; Catholics, 84,923. 


1855 Rev. J. F. Tracy ministered to the Catholic settlement of St. 

Patrick and to Catholic groups in Omaha. 

1856 Land donated for a church in Omaha by Gov. Alfred Gumming. 

1857 Vicariate Apostolic of Nebraska erected, under jurisdiction of 

Rt. Rev. James Michael O'Gorman, Titular Bishop of Raphanea. 

1860 German Catholics in Nebraska City were served by the Bene- 

dictine, Fr. Emanual Hartig. 

1874 Catholics from Boston settled in Holt County at O'Neill. 
1876 Catholics migrated to O'Connor County, so named in honor of 

Vicar Apostolic James O'Connor. 

1885 The Diocese of Omaha was established. 
1887 The Diocese of Lincoln was established. 
1917 The Diocese of Grand Island was established. 
1940 Population, 1,315,834; Catholics, 162,344. 


1861 The first church was built at Genoa. 
1871 A church was erected at Reno. 

1931 The Diocese of Reno was established. 
1940 . Population, 110,247; Catholics, 12,153. 


New Hampshire 

1784 The State Constitution Included a religious test which barred 
Catholics from public office. Local support was provided for the 
public Protestant teachers of religion. 

1820 The Barber family of Claremont, headed toy the father, an Epis- 
copalian minister, became converts. _ x . _. . . ^ of ^ fhft 

1822 Fr. Barber, the minister who became a Catholic priest, erected tHe 
first Catholic church and school in New Hampshire. 

1836 The Church of St. Aloysius was dedicated at Dover. 

1848 Manchester received a resident priest. % 

1877 _ Catholics obtained full civil liberty and rights. 

1884 The Diocese of Manchester was erected. 

X940 Population, 491,524; Catholics, 170,783. 

New Jersey 

1660 Early colonial history was marred by anti-Catholic bigotry. ^ 

1680 The Catholic, William Douglass, of Bergen, was refused a seat in 
the General Assembly because of Ms religion. ^ 

1682 -Two Jesuit priests visited the scattered Catholics in northern 
New Jersey. 

1701 Tolerance was granted to all hut "papists. _ 

1748 Fr. Theodore Schneider, S. J-, of Pennsylvania, visited the German 
Catholics of New Jersey. 

1758 Fr. Ferdinand Farmer and Fr. Robert Harding worked among the 
Catholics of the state, visiting them in their private dwellings. 

1776 The State Constitution tacitly excluded Catholics from office. 

1803 Augustinian missions were established at Cape May and Trenton. 

1803 A rude plank chapel served the German Catholics at Macopin. 

1314 The first church was erected at Trentoa. 

1821 St. John's Church was erected at Paterson, 

1828 St. John's Church was built at Newark. 

1844 _ Catholics obtained full civil liberty and rights. 

1853 The Diocese of Newark was erected. 

1876 Franciscans, exiled by German "May Laws," opened a monastery 

in Paterson. 

1881 The Diocese of Trenton was erected. 

1937 Newark was made an archdiocese. The Diocese of Paterson ana 
the Diocese of Camden were erected. 

1940 Population, 4,160,165; Catholics, 1,100,409. 

New Mexico 

1551 The Franciscans, Frs. Augustin Rodriguez, Juan de Santa Maria 
and Francisco Lopez, arrived from Mexico, giving the region the 
name of "New Mexico/' All three later died at the hands of the 

1597 Ten Franciscans accompanied Don Juan de Onate ana estaolisnea 
a church north of Santa Fe. 

16go The Indians revolted against Spanish rule and massacred twenty- 
one missionaries. 

1692 The missions were restored under the Governor, Antonio de 

1848 With the cession of New Mexico to the United States, the mis- 
sions began to prosper once more. 

1350 The territory comprised a Vicariate Apostolic. 

1850 The Diocese of Santa Fe was erected. 

1875 Santa Fe was made an archdiocese. 

1914 The Diocese of Ell Faso was erected, comprising seven counties of 
New Mexico, 

1940 Population, 5S1>818; Catholics, 141,201 


New York 

1524 Giovanni da Verrazano, the first white man to enter New York 
Bay, was the Catholic emissary of the French king, who named 
present Sandy Hook, Cape St. Mary, and the Hudson, St. Anthony's 
River. He landed near Rockaway Beach. 

1627 Fr. Joseph d'Aillon, a Franciscan, was the first white man to dis- 
cover oil in this country, at Seneca Springs, near Cuba, N. Y. 

1634 Fr. Isaac Jogues, S. J., and his companion, Rene Goupil, were muti- 
lated by Mohawks. Dutch Calvinists rescued Father Jogues. 

1642 Rene Goupil was killed by the Mohawks. 

1646 Fr. Isaac Jogues and Jean de Lalande were martyred by the Mo- 
hawks at Ossernenon, near Auriesviile. 

1654 The Onondagas were visited by Jesuits from Canada. 

1655 The first permanent mission was established near Syracuse. 

1656 The Church of St. Mary was erected near Lake Onondaga. 

1658 Indian uprisings destroyed the missions among the Cayugas, Sen- 

ecas and Oneidas. 
1664 The English took New Amsterdam and supplanted the French 

priests with their own missionaries. 
1667 Missions were restored under the protection of the Onondaga 

.chief, Garaconthie. 
Ig73 p r . Louis Hennepin, O.F.M., first described the cataract of Niagara. 

1679 The Franciscans founded a mission near Niagara. 

1680 Catherine Tekakwitha, the "Lily of the Mohawks," died in the 

odor of sanctity in Canada. 

1683 English Jesuits came over to New York with the Catholic Gover- 
nor, Thomas Dongan, and celebrated the first Mass on the site of 
the Customs House. 

1700 The Penal Laws were enforced against Catholics. 

1709 The Jesuit Missions were abandoned. 

1741 Because of an alleged Popish plot to burn the city of New York, 
four whites were hanged and eleven negroes burned at the stake. 

1777 ^t the framing of the State Constitution John Jay proposed an 
amendment to the section insuring religious liberty in which it 
was stated that Catholics ought not to hold lands or participate 
in civil rights unless they swear that no Pope or priest may ab- 
solve them from allegiance to the State. The amendment was 

1785 The cornerstone of St. Peter's Church, New York City, the first 
permanent structure of Catholic worship in the state, was laid. 

1806 The state test oath was repealed. 

1808 The Diocese of New York was created on April 8. 

1825 The Erie Canal brought many European Catholics to New York State. 

1825 The second Catholic weekly, "The Truth Teller," was established 
in New York. 

1828 The New York State Legislature enacted a law upholding the 
sanctity of the confessional. 

1847 The Diocese of Buffalo was established on April 23. 

1847 The Diocese of Albany was erected. 

1850 New York was made an archdiocese. 

1853 The Diocese of Brooklyn was erected. 

Ig55 Franciscans came to Buffalo diocese. 

1856 St. Bonaventure's College and Seminary founded at Allegany, N. Y. 

1868 The Diocese of Rochester was erected. 

1872 The Diocese of Ogdensburg was erected. 

1875 The Most Rev. John McCloskey, Archbishop of New York, was 
created the first American cardinal by Pius IX. 


1880 William R. Grace was the first Catholic elected Mayor of New 
York City. 

1884 The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore petitioned for the canon- 
ization of FT. Jogues. 

1886 The Diocese of Syracuse was erected. 

1911 The Most Rev. John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York, was 
created a cardinal by Pius X. 

1913 Martin H. Glynn became the first Catholic Governor of the State. 

1919 Alfred E. Smith became the first elected Catholic Governor of 
the State. 

1924 The Most Rev. Patrick Hayes, Archbishop of New York, was 
created a cardinal by Pius XI. 

1928 Alfred E. Smith became the Democratic nominee for the Presi- 

1930 The Jesuit Martyrs of New York and Canada, Fathers Isaac 
Jogues, John de Brebeuf, Gabriel Lalemant, Noel Chabanel, An- 
thony Daniel, Charles Garnier, and the Brothers, Rene Goupil and 
John de Lalande, were canonized on June 29. 

1940 Population, 13,479,142; Catholics, 3,144,533. 

North Carolina 

1776 The State Constitution denied office to "those who denied the 
truths of the Protestant religion." 

1805 The few Catholics in the state were served by visiting priests. 

1835 William Gaston succeeded in repealing the article denying re- 
ligious freedom. 

1868 Catholics obtained full civil liberty and rights. 

1910 Belmont Abbey, a Benedictine foundation, was created into an 
abbey nullius. 

1924 The Diocese of Raleigh was established. 

1932 Franciscans of the province of the Most Holy Name (New York) 
started missionary work in North Carolina, at Lenoir. 

1940 Population, 3,571,623; Catholics, 11,561. 

North Dakota 

1818 Catholics were ministered to by Canadian priests. . 

1823 The American priest, George A. Belcourt, became the resident 

pastor of Pembina. 
1864 Fr. Pierre de Smet visited the Mandans and Gros Ventres, Dakota 

1868 Fr. de Smet passed through the state on the way to Ms famous 

peace conference with Sitting Bull. 
1889 The Diocese of Fargo was established. 
1910 The Diocese of Bismarck was erected. 
1940 Population, 641,935; Catholics, 120,457. 


1749 Jesuits on the expedition of Celoron de Bienville preached to the 

1790 The Benedictine Dom Pierre Didier ministered to the French im- 

1795 The Indian mission near Fort Miami was short-lived. 

1796 The French settlement declined. 

1812 - Bishop Flaget of Bardstown visited and baptized the Catholics of 

Lancaster and Somerset Counties. 
1818 The first church was erected by the Dominican, Rev. Edward 

Fenwick, on a site donated by the Dittoes. 
1821 The Diocese of Cincinnati was erected. 


1822 Father Fenwick was consecrated Bishop of Cincinnati. 

1847 The Diocese of Cleveland was established. 

1850 Cincinnati was made an archdiocese. 

1868 The Diocese of Columbus was erected. 

1910 The Diocese of Toledo was established. 

1940 Population, 6,907,612; Catholics, 1,101,242. 

1$30 The Spanish Franciscan, Fr. Juan de Salas, labored among the 

1700 Scattered Catholic families were visited by priests from Kansas 

and Arkansas. 

1880 Dom Isidore Robot became the first Prefect for Indian Territory. 
1891 The Rt. Rev. Theophile Meerschaert, O. S. B., began active work 

as a pioneer missionary. 

1905 The Diocese of Oklahoma was established. 
1940 Population, 2,336,434; Catholics, 64,410. 

1834 Indian Missions in Northwest were entrusted to Jesuits by the 

1839 Fr. Francois Blanche offered the first Mass in the present state 

of Oregon, in Willamette Valley. 

1842 Dr. John McLaughlin, a pioneer called the "Father of Oregon," 

was received into the Church. 

1843 Fr. Modeste Demers came to Oregon City. 

1844 Fr. Pierre de Smet, S. J., established the Mission of St. Francis 

Xavier, near St. Paul. 

1846 The Archdiocese of Oregon City was created. 

1865 Rev. H. H. Spalding, a Protestant missionary, published the Whit- 
man myth to hinder the work of Catholic missionaries. 

1903 The Diocese of Baker City was established. 

1922 Anti-Private School Bill sponsored by the Scottish Rite Masons 
was passed in State Legislature. 

1928 IT. S. Supreme Court declared Oregon Anti-Private School Law 

1928 The name of the archdiocese was changed by papal decree to the 
Archdiocese of Portland in Oregon. 

1940 Population, 1,089,684; Catholics, 67,734. 


1673 Priests from Maryland ministered to the Catholics in the colony. 

1682 The Colony of William Penn granted religious toleration to alt 

1730 Fr. Joseph Greaton, S. J., became the resident missionary of 

1730 Catholics increased with German and Irish immigrations. 

1742 William Wapeler, S. J., built the Church of St. Nepomucene at 

1745 Mennonites and Moravians aided Fr. Theodore Schneider, S. J., to 
build the Chapel of St. Paul. 

1799 Prince Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin (Augustine Smith), the first 
cleric to receive all Holy Orders 'in the United States, built first 
church in western Pennsylvania, the only church between Lan- 
caster and St. Louis, Mo. 

Ig08 The Diocese of Philadelphia was established, with Rev. Michael 
Egan, O. F. M., as its first Bishop. He was consecrated in Balti- 
more by Archbishop Carroll. 

1843 The Diocese of Pittsburgh was erected. 

1844 Know-nothing riots in Philadelphia resulted in the burning of two 



1846 The first Benedictine monastery in the New World was founded 
near Latrobe by Fr. Boniface Wimmer, 0. S. B. 

1853 The Diocese of Erie was erected. 

1860 Catholic Italians, Poles, Slavs and Lithuanians began to immigrate 
to the state. 

1868 The Dioceses of Harrisburg and Scranton were erected. 

1875 Philadelphia became an archdiocese. 

1901 The Diocese of Altoona was erected. 

1913 The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Diocese was established. 

1921 Archbishop Dougherty of Philadelphia was created a cardinal by 
Benedict XV. 

1924 The Diocese of Pittsburgh, Greek Rite, was established. 

1940 Population, 9,900,180; Catholics, 2,252,820. 

Rhode Island 

1663 The Colonial Charter granted freedom of conscience. 

1719 Published laws nevertheless excepted Catholics from holding pub- 
lic office. 

1780 French chaplains offered Mass for the troops of Rochambeau's 
army at Providence and Newport. 

1783 As the result of the better feeling brought about during the Revo- 
lution, the anti-Catholic laws were repealed. 

1791 French Catholic refugees from Guadeloupe came to Newport and 

1828 1,000 Catholics were reported in the state. 

1872 The Diocese of Providence was erected. 

1940 Population, 713,346; Catholics, 347,961. 

South Carolina 
1566 St. Francis Borgia sent Fr. John Robel of Pamplona to St. Helena 

and Port Royal to minister to the settlers and Indians. 
1573 The first Franciscans arrived at Santa Elena in southeastern 

South Carolina. 
1655 Franciscans had two missions among the Indians, later destroyed 

by the English. 

1697 Religious liberty was granted to all but "papists." 
1700 Catholics were not welcomed in the Carolinas under English rule. 
1786 An Italian priest said Mass for twelve Catholics at Charleston. 
1788 Bishop Carroll sent Fr. Ryan to Charleston. 
1820 The Diocese of Charleston was established. 
1940 Population, 1,899,804; Catholics, 12,571. 

Sooth Dakota 

1841 Scattered Catholics appealed to the Bishop of Dubuque for mis- 


1842 Rev. Augustin Ravoux began to minister to the French and In- 

dians at Fort Pierre, Vermilion, and Prairie du Chien. 

1843 Fr. Augustin printed a devotional book in the Sioux language. 

1867 A parish was organized among the French Catholics at Jefferson. 

1868 Fr. de Smet visited the South Dakota Indians. 
1889 The Diocese of Sioux Falls was erected. 

1902 The Diocese of Lead was established. 

1930 The Diocese of Lead was transferred to Rapid City. 

1940 - Population, 642,961; Catholics, 104,392. 


1800 Early Tennessee Catholics were served by priests from Bards- 
town, Ky. 

1822 Non-Catholics assisted in building the church in Nashville on the 
site of the present Capitol. 


1837 The Diocese of Nashville was established for 100 families. 
1843 The Sisters of Charity opened a school for girls in Nashville. 
1940 Population, 2,915,841; Catholics, 31,343. 

1541 The Spaniard, Coronado, came into Texas with the Franciscans, 

FT. Juan de Padilla and Fr. Juan de la Cruz. 
1685 The Franciscans, Zenobius Membre and Maximus Le Ciercq., and 

the Sulpician, Fr. Chefdeville, accompanied De La Salle to Fort 

St. Louis. They were murdered after his death. 
1689 Four Franciscans accompanied Don Alonzo de Leon from Mexico 

and founded the first mission of San Francisco de Los Tejas on 

Trinity River. 
1703 The Mission San Francisco de Solano was founded on the Rio 

1717 The Franciscan Apostle, Fr. Antonio Margil, founded six missions 

in northeastern Texas. 

1721 The Franciscan Jose Pita was killed by Indians. 
1728 A Spanish colony settled present San Antonio. 
1744 San Francisco de Solano was rebuilt as the Alamo. 
1752 Fr. Jose Ganzabal, O.F.M., was killed by Indians. 
1758 The Franciscans, Frs. Alonzo Ferrares and Jose San Esteban, 

were killed by Indians. 

1793 The State of Mexico ordered the secularization of the missions. 
1813 The missions finally were suppressed. 
1830 Irish priests cared for the Irish settlements of Refugio and San 


1847 The Diocese of Galveston was erected. 
1874 The Diocese of San Antonio was erected. 

1890 The Diocese of Dallas was erected. 

1912 The Diocese of Corpus Christi was erected. 
1914 The Diocese of El Paso was erected. 
1926 The Diocese of Amarillo was erected. 
1926 San Antonio was made an archdiocese. 
1940 Population, 6,414,824; Catholics, 750,665. 


1776 Two Franciscans, Frs. Silvestre de Escalante and Atanasio Dom- 

inguez, came to the Great Salt Lake. 
1841 Fr. Pierre de Smet, S. J., traveled through the region, on his way 

to Yellowstone. 
1846 Fr. de Smet's description of the Great Salt Lake Valley influenced 

Brigham Young to settle there. 
I860 The first Mass was said in Salt Lake City in the Assembly Hall 

of the Mormons. 

1891 The Diocese of Salt Lake was established. 
1940 Population, 550,310; Catholics, 17,117. 

Iggg The Sulpician Fr. Dollier de Casson offered the first Mass for the 

French at Fort Anne. 
1710 Jesuits ministered to the Indians near Lake Champlain. 

1777 The State Bill of Rights declared that no man who professed the 

Protestant religion could be deprived of his civil rights. 
1793 The discrimination against Catholics was removed. 
1832 A church was erected at Burlington on a site donated by Col. 

Archibald Hyde, a convert. 
1853 The Diocese of Burlington was erected. 
1940 Population, 359,231; Catholics, 110,531. 



1526 Dominicans accompanied the Spanish, settlers from San Domingo 
to the James River where a settlement was made' at Guandape 
near the future Jamestown. 

1570 Spaniards accompanied by Jesuits from Florida settled Axacan on 
the Rappahannock. Bight Jesuits were put to death by the Indians. 

1641 Penal laws were enforced against Catholics under British control. 

1776 Religious freedom was granted. 

1791 Rev. Jean Dubois came t,o Richmond with letters from Lafayette. 
The House of Delegates was put at his disposal in which to cele- 
brate Mass. 

1796 A church was erected at Alexandria. 

1821 The Diocese of Richmond was established. 

1850 The Diocese of Wheeling was established, comprising eighteen 
counties of Virginia. 

1868 The Diocese of Wilmington was established, comprising two coun- 
ties of Virginia. 

1940 Population, 2,677,773; Catholics, 47,428. 


1837 French and Indian Catholics of the Hudson's Bay Co. were cared 

for by Canadian priests. 
1839 Missionaries at Cowlitz taught the Indians history by means of 

the "Catholic Ladder." 
1840 A log cabin church for Indians was built on Whidby Island in 

Puget Sound. 

1844 The Mission of St. Paul was founded at Colville. 
1846 The Diocese of Walla Walla was established. 
1850 The Diocese of Nisqually was established, with the transfer of 

Bishop Blanchet of Walla Walla to this see. 
1853 The Diocese of Walla Walla was suppressed. 
1907 The Diocese of Seattle was established, with the transfer to 

Seattle of the episcopal see of Nisqually. 
1913 The Diocese of Spokane was established. 
1940 Population, 1,736,191; Catholics, 133,547. 

Washington, D. C. (District of Columbia) 

1641 Fr. Andrew White, S. J., evangelized the Anacosta Indians. 
1774 Fr. John Carroll ministered to the Catholics. 
1789 Erection of Diocese of Baltimore, including Washington in its 

1789 Georgetown College, the first Catholic college in the United 

States, was founded. 

1790 The site of the Federal Government was established on ground 

formerly owned by the Catholic Barons of Baltimore. Daniel Car- 
roll of Duddington parted with the site of the present congres- 
sional buildings for a most mddest sum even in those days. 

1791 The French Catholic engineer, Pierre Charles L'Enfant, laid out 

the ground-plan for the Federal City of Washington. 
1791 The Catholic James Hoban became superintendent of the building 

of the city of Washington and drew plans for and supervised the 

erection of the White House. 
1794 Fr. Anthony Caffrey started to build St. Patrick's Church, the first 

parish church in the new Federal city. 

1798 Poor Clares, exiled by the French Reign of Terror, opened a 

school for girls, assisted by Alice Lalor and her companions. 

1799 The Pious Ladies' Convent of Georgetown was founded by Fr. 

Leonard Neale, S..J. They became Visitandines in 1816. 


1802 The first Mayor of Washington, appointed by President Jefferson 

was the Catholic, Judge Robert Brent. 
1806 Guiseppi Franzoni, the Italian Catholic sculptor, transformed the 

interior of the Capitol. Although most of his work was destroyed 

by the British in the War of 1812, the bronze above the Speaker's 

desk and the clock in Statuary Hall remain. 

1832 Fr. Charles C. Pise was appointed Chaplain of the U. S. Senate. 
1887 The Catholic University of America was founded. 

1939 Washington was made an archdiocese of equal rank with Balti- 

more, and under the direction of the same archbishop. This situa- 
tion is unique in the history of the Church. 

1940 Population, 663,091; Catholics (est), 100,000. 

West Virginia 
1794 Priests from Maryland ministered to the Catholics of the region. 

1833 The first church was erected at Wheeling. 

1833 The Diocese of Richmond was erected, comprising eight counties 

of West Virginia. 

1835 The first church was erected at Martinsburg. 
1838 The Sisters of Charity founded a school at Martinsburg. 

1850 The Diocese of Wheeling was erected. 
1940 - Population, 1,901,974; Catholics, 67,950. 

1660 Fr. Rene Menard, S. X, ministered to the Hurons who had fled 

to northern Wisconsin. He was murdered at a portage on the 

Wisconsin River. 
1665 Fr. Claude Allouez, S. X, founded the Mission of the Holy Ghost 

at La Pointe Chegoimegon, now Bayfield. 
1669 Fr. James Marquette, S. X, labored at La Pointe, and heard of 

the Mississippi from the Indians. 

1669 Fr. Allouez founded the Mission of St. Francis Xavier, near the 

head of Green Bay. 

1670 Frs. Allouez and Dablon established several missions. 

1673 Frs. Marquette and Joliet traveled from Green Bay down the Wis- 
consin River and down the Mississippi. Fr. Andre ministered to 
the Indians at Green Bay. 

1687 Green Bay Mission was burned by the Indians. 

1688 Green Bay Mission was restored and the Mission of St. Joseph, 

near South Bend, founded. 

1762 Suppression of the Jesuits in the French colonies closed all mis- 
sions for thirty years. 

1830 Green Bay Mission was revived. Fr. Samuel Mazzuchelli estab- 
lished a church and a school there. 

1334 F r . Theodore Van den Broek labored at Green Bay. 

1837 The first Mass was celebrated at Milwaukee. 

1843 The Diocese of Milwaukee was erected. 

1868 The Diocese of Green Bay was erected. 

1868 The Diocese of La Crosse was erected. 

1875 Milwaukee was made an archdiocese. 

1905 The Diocese of Superior was erected. 

1940 Population, 3,137,587; Catholics, 834,879. 


1840 Fr. Pierre de Smet offered the first Mass in the region near 
Green River. 

1851 Fr. de Smet held peace conferences with the Indians near Fort 


1887 The Diocese of Cheyenne was established. 
1940 - Population, 250,742; Catholics, 32,933. 


Cfje of ffje 

Jesus Christ founded the Catholic Church to which He gave certain 
revealed truths embodied in what is called the deposit of faith. This 
deposit has a twofold source, namely Sacred Scripture and Tradition 
which together are called Divine Revelation. Holy Scripture or the 
Bible is the Word of God written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. 
Tradition is likewise the Word of God, not contained in the Bible but 
handed down by word of mouth and in writing from the Apostles to us 
in an unbroken succession. 

Christ likewise endowed the Church with the authority to guard, in- 
terpret and teach these truths till the end of time. They are such that 
they can be defended by reason. Whenever the Catholic Church teaches 
any of these truths contained in the deposit of faith she uses either her 
solemn or her ordinary authority. A doctrine is solemnly taught when 
contained in one of the following: Definitions of Popes, Decrees of 
General Councils, Creeds, Professions of Faith. There are three prin- 
cipal Creeds or Symbols: the Apostles', the Nicene and the Athanasian. 
An outstanding Profession of Faith is that of Pius IV. The Church is 
also infallible in' her ordinary teaching. This is exercised especially 
when dogmas are unanimously taught by the bishops of the whole world. 

The doctrines of the Church are defined, that is, set forth in clear and 
unmistakable language, by the Pope when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, 
as the supreme pastor of the whole Church. Speaking thus about matters 
of faith and morals he cannot err. His definitions become dogmas 
matters of belief. A creed is a summary of dogmas. 


Sacred Scripture, or the Bible, is the written word of God. From the 
beginning the Church has considered the Holy Scripture a treasure en- 
trusted to her keeping, and she has the sole right to explain to us its 
meaning. Sacred Scripture consists of the sacred books of the Old and 
New Testament which the Church declares are inspired, i, e., their 
writers were moved by God to write, and, while writing, were so guided 
by Him that they wrote down precisely what He wished them to express 
and nothing more. This is known as the Canon of Scripture, 

According to Leo XIII's encyclical, "Providentissimus Deus" (transla- 
tion of paragraph 110 of the Enchiridion Biblicum, 1927) : "This is the 
ancient and unchanging faith of the Church, solemnly defined in the 
Councils of Florence and of Trent, and finally confirmed and more ex- 
pressly formulated by the Council of the Vatican. These are the words 
of the last: 'The Books of the Old and New Testament, whole and entire, 
with all their parts, as enumerated in the decree of the same Council 
(Trent) and in the ancient Latin Vulgate, are to be received as sacred 
and canonical, not because, having been composed by human industry, 
they were afterwards approved by her authority; nor only because they 
contained revelation without error; but because, having been written 
under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, they have God for their author.' 
Hence, because the Holy Ghost employed men as His instruments, we 


cannot therefore say that It was these inspired instruments who, per- 
chance, hare fallen into error, and not the primary Author. For, by 
supernatural power, He so moved and impelled them to write He "was 
so present to them that the things which He ordered, and those only, 
they first, rightly understood, then willed faithfully to write down, 
and finally expressed in apt words and with infallible truth. Otherwise, 
it could not be said that He was the Author of the entire Scripture." 

The Old Testament Canon includes all the inspired writings under the 
Old Dispensation, whether written in the current language of the Jews 
(Hebrew or Aramaic), or in Greek. For the benefit of Greek-speaking 
Jews in Egypt the books of the Old Testament in Hebrew were gradually 
translated into Greek and became known as the Septuagint After the 
destruction of Jerusalem, in a Council held at Jamnia (area 98) it was de- 
cided that all books not written in the sacred tongue (or about which 
there was some doubt due to the loss of the originals), and books written 
outside the holy precincts of Palestine were excluded from the Canon of 
the Jews, thus bringing into existence the present-day Jewish Canon. 
The motivating force behind this decision was the party spirit of the Jews. 

The terms "proto canonical" and "deuterocanonical," though not strictly 
correct, are applied to the books acknowledged, respectively, by the 
Jewish Canon of today, and the Jewish Canon of the Septuagint handed 
down by Christ and the Apostles to the Church. 

Indeed the Council of Trent in its list of canonical and inspired writings 
lists all the books that were acknowledged by all Jews the world over, 
especially in Palestine and Egypt, in the second century before Christ 
The Septuagint Greek verislon the version referred to by Christ and 
BJs Apostles testifies to this fact. 

The New Testament Canon contains the collection of inspired Apostolic 
writings. In making the selection for this Canon the Church carefully 
guarded against accepting uninspired works, apocryphal and heretical 
writings and forgeries. 

The Old Testament consists of: twenty-one Historical Books, relating 
to the history of the early ages of the world, or to that of the Jewish 
nation; seven Moral Books, consisting of prayers and holy maxims; and 
eighteen Books of Prophecies. 

The Historical Books are: the Pentateuch, or five Boobs of Moses, viz., 
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; the Book of Josue; 
the Book of Judges; the Book of Ruth; the four Books of , Kings; the two 
Books of Chronicles or of Paralipomenon; the Book of Esdras; the Book 
of Nehemias; the Book of Tobias; the Book of Judith; the Book of 
Esther; and the two Books of Machabees. 

The Moral Books are: the Book of Job, the Psalms, the Proverbs, Ec- 
clesiastes, the Canticle of Canticles, the Book of Wisdom, and Ecclesi- 

The Books of Prophecies are those of Isaias, Jeremias (Including Lam- 
entations), Baruch, Ezechiel, Daniel, Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Joaas, 
Micheas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggeus, Zacharias, and Malachy. 

The New Testament consists of: the four Gospels, or histories of the 
life of Our Saviour, by Sts. Matthew, Mark, Luke and John; the Acts of 
the Apostles, by St. Luke; the fourteen Epistles of St. Paul, viz., one to 
the Komans, two to the Corinthians, one to the Galatians, one to the 
Ephesians, one to the Philippians, one to the Colossians, two to the 
Thessalonians, two to Timothy, one to Titus, one to Philemon, and one 
to the Hebrews; one Epistle of St James; two Epistles of St. Peter; 
three Epistles of St. John; one Epistle of St. Jude; the Book of the 


Books of the Bible 

The Bible books are seventy-three, 

Whose names in order you now may 

Forty and six to the Old are given 

Leaving the New but twenty-seven. 
Genesis opens the list divine, 

Exodus follows the next in line; 
Leviticus and Numbers then arrive, 
Deuteronomy fills the mystic five. 

Josue and Judges "bring Ruth to the 

To glean the wheat escaping the 

Four Books of Kings pass quickly 

Then the two called Paralipomenon. 

Now two from Esdras the future 

For Tobias, Judith, Esther and Job. 

Psalms and Proverbs with numbers 

While good men revel in Ecclesi- 

Canticle of Canticles wondrous 

Sweet with music, lovely and long. 

Next Wisdom opens her lips so 

Ecclesiasticus lends a learned page. 
1 sal as, the prophet, draws the veil, 
Jeremlas weeps, Lamentations wail. 
Baruch and EzechteS both foretell, 
Daniel and Osee give place to Joel. 

Amos greets Abdias, Jonas sets 

To be rudely swallowed by a whale- 

SVlicheas and Nahum things hidden 

Habacuc, Sophonias take up the re- 

When Aggeus spoke the temple 

Zachanas and IVlalachSas the proph- 
ets close. 

The books of the Old will end, if 
you please, 

With two that are known as Ma- 

From Old to New we hasten on 

To Matthew, Mark f to Luke and 

The Gospels o'er, take up the Acts, 
A book replete with mighty facts. 
Fourteen Epistles, Paul indites: 
To his dear Romans first he writes, 
Two to the Corinthians were sent, 

One to Galatia, one to Ephesus 

Phslipplans and Colossians get ad- 

Thessalonians hear from him but 

To Timothy a twain with lots of 

To Titus wisdom from above. 

Philemon and Hebrews his pen en- 

Till his hand grows weary, weak 
with age. 

With lifeless finger and sightless 

'Twere hard to labor, sweet to die. 

From James a letter in language 

From Peter two that breathe the 

Three from the well-beloved John. 

While Jude comes last with only 

On eagle wings we take our flight 
To the fountain of eternal light, 

Where John with angels humbly 

The wonders of the Apocalypse. 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Thos. S. Duggan. 


Number of Books In Bible 

An easy way to remember the number of Books In the Bible is the 

following: Our Lord had 72 disciples. This is also the total number of 
Books in the Old and New Testament. If this number is reversed* we 
have 27, or the number of books in the New Testament. Subtract this 
number from the total and the remainder is the number of Books of the 
Old Testament, if we include the Book of Baruch with that of Jeremias, 

Protestantism and the BsbSe 

The difference between the Catholic and Protestant Bible arises from 
a difference in authority. The Catholic Church possesses the divinely 
appointed authority to declare which of the Sacred Writings are inspired 
and which are only human documents. Protestantism on the contrary 
which has as a fundamental principle, on this point, the right to private 
interpretation, thereby eliminates any recognized authoritative teaching 
body. Lacking such a teaching body there can be no question of its hav- 
ing a canon in the strict sense of the term. 

The Protestants rejecting Tradition and receiving only the Scriptures, 
nevertheless had to rely on the Church for the list of books which they 
did select. In the beginning the Reformers more or less adhered to this 
canon of the Church. But as private interpretation was their norm, dif- 
ferences were inevitable. The books rejected, in general, were, in the 
Old Testament: Tobias, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, the two 
books of Machabees, and portions of Esther and Daniel; in the New 
Testament: the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistle of St. James, the sec- 
ond Epistle of St. Peter, the second and third Epistles of St. John, the 
Epistle of St. Jude and the Apocalypse. 

When these bo'oks were called into question by the Reformation the 
Council of Trent on April 8, 1546, by a solemn decree drew up an official 
list of the books of the Old and New Testaments. This list was based 
on the tradition of the Church and contained exactly the same books 
as were given by Pope Damasus in a decretal of the year 374 by a synod 
held in Africa in 393, during the lifetime of St. Augustine; and by Pope 
Innocent I, in a letter to the Bishop of Toulouse, in 405. The Vatican 
Council reaffirmed this on April 24, 1870. 

Moreover, with regard to the New Testament, the Church was already 
in existence before one book of the New Testament was written. Hence, 
she, and she alone, in virtue of the authority conferred on her by Christ, 
could determine which books were inspired, and which were not. This 
the Church has done. 

With reference to the difference in wording and the use of names be- 
tween the Catholic and the Protestant Bible this is due to the craze of the 
Protestant Reformers to go back to the Hebrew texts, instead of using 
the Greek Septuagint translation. 

The American Revision of the New Testament 

To meet the danger presented by English versions of the Bible which 
altered the true meaning of the Scriptures, the Rheims version of the 
New Testament was printed at Rheims in 1582. This work of exiled 
English priests and educators remained the standard English version for 
Catholic use for 168 years. However, the English language had under- 
gone many changes during these years and there was a pressing need 
for an English version of the Bible more in keeping with the time. 


Recognizing this need, Bishop Challoner, Vicar Apostolic of the London 
District, undertook the task, and in 1750 presented a new version of the 
entire Bible in English. Up to the present we have continued to use 
editions of the English Bible which are, in language and substance, the 
text that Bishop Challoner gave us 193 years ago. Since that time many 
of the words and forms of that venerable text have become obsolete, 
while long and labored sentences and an outmoded method of punctuation 
often obscure the original message of the Scriptures. The need of a 
better vernacular version was recognized by the First Provincial Council 
of Baltimore in 1829 and again in 1858 by the Ninth Provincial Council 
of Baltimore. However, until recent times, the Church in America has 
been too much occupied with other concerns and not sufficiently equipped 
to undertake the task. 

Now in a better position, the Church in America in 1941 presented 
a newly revised English version as the answer to this need. It was pre- 
pared under the supervision of the Episcopal Committee of the Con- 
fraternity of Christian Doctrine. It is the fruit of five years of labor 
on the part of some twenty-seven Catholic biblical scholars employing 
principles approved by the Biblical Commission at Rome. The American 
revision enjoys, therefore, the authority and scholarship becoming an 
improved Catholic version of the New Testament in English. 

While embodying many improvements, this work of American biblical 
scholars is not a new version but a revision of the Challoner-Rheims 
version based upon the Latin Vulgate. While the Clementine edition of 
the Vulgate served as the main source, the readings of this edition have 
been improved by recourse to more ancient texts of the Vulgate. Chough 
adhering to the Latin text, the Semitic and Greek peculiarities and 
idioms reflected in that text have been rendered in a sense that is native 
to them, 

As an aid to reading and understanding the New Testament, the old 
verse form and paragraphing have been abandoned, and headings that 
show the main divisions of the books with marginal notes describing 
their contents have been introduced. The new text is arranged with 
one column to a page and in paragraphs instead of the former verse 
form. Verse and chapter enumerations have been placed in the margin. 

It is hoped that the new revision, while primarily made for study and 
exposition, may eventually be adopted for the liturgical use of the Church 
in this country. 

Indulgence for Reading the Bible 

An indulgence of 300 days is granted to ail the faithful who read the 
Holy Gospels at least a quarter of an hour. A plenary indulgence under 
the usual conditions is granted once a month for the daily reading 
(Leo XIH, Dec. 13, 1888). 

Prayer before Reading the Holy Scriptures 

O, King of Glory, Lord of Hosts, who didst triumphantly ascend the 
heavens, leave us not as orphans, hut send us the Promised of the Father, 
the Spirit of Truth. 

We implore Thee, O Lord, that the Consoler Who proceedeth from 
Thee, will enlighten our souls and infuse into them ail truth, as Thy Son 
hath promised. 

O God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, vouchsafe to grant' us, accord- 
ing to the riches of Thy glory, that Christ toy faith may dwell in our 
hearts, which rooted and grounded in charity, may actoowledge the love 
of Christ, surpassing all knowledge. Through the same Christ our Lord. 
Amen. (Eph., iii, xiv, acvii, six.) 


Prayer after Reading the Holy Scriptures 
(Prayer of St. Bede the Venerable; died 735.) 

Let me not, O Lord, be puffed up with worldly wisdom, which passes 
away, but grant me that love which never abates, that I may not choose 
to know anything among men but Jesus, and Him crucified. (I Cor., xiii, 
8; ii, 2.) 

I beg Thee, dear Jesus, that he upon whom Thou hast graciously be- 
stowed the sweet savor of the words of Thy Knowledge, may also pos- 
sess Thee, Fount of all Wisdom, and shine forever before Thy coun- 
tenance. Amen. 

BIbSlcaS Calendar 

The year was divided into twelve months, the names of which are: 
Abib or Nisan (April) Tishri or Ethanim (October) 

fflSa^jSie) Marhhescevan (November) 

Thammuz (July) CMsleu (December) 

Ab (August) Tebeth (January) 

Veadar-^totercaLry monthevery Sheba (February) 

three years. Adar (March) 

The month was divided into weeks of seven days, and the last day 
of each week was called the Sabbath. 

Each day was divided into watches or hours corresponding to night 
and daytime. 

Biblical Coins 

Before the Babylonian exile there is no trace of money but only of 
weights. Gold and silver were weighed in the balance by means of little 
stones, models and examples of which were preserved in the Tabernacle 
(Exodus, xxx, 13). After the exile there is frequent mention of Hebrew 
coins. Pagan coins, too, were used. 

Light shekel, silver ...... 40 cents Farthing (Matt., v, 26) ...... % cent 

Heavy shekel, silver ...... 80 cents Farthing (Matt, x, 29) ...... 1 cent 

Shekel, gold ................ $12.87 Penny (Matt, xviii, 28) ... 17 cents 

Manah, silver (Mna) ........ $20.24 Groat (Luke, xv, 8) ....... 17 cents 

Manah, gold (Mna) ........ $323.96 Drachma ................. 17 cents 

Talent, silver ............. ;!HH Didrachma (Matt,xvii,23) .30 cents 

Gerah or Oboi ........... 2% cents ....................... 32 ceilts 

As ............ from 1 to 17 cents Piece of Silver (Matt., xxvi, 15) 

Mite (Mark, xii, 42) ....... % cent ......... . ............. 51 cents 

Biblical Weights 

Light shekel ........... 160 grains Light Talent .......... 83 Ibs., 6 oz. 

Heavy shekel ........... 320 grains Heavy Talent ....... 166 Ibs., 12 oz. 

Light Manah Bekah .................. % shekel 

1 lb., 4 oz., 13 dwt, 8 grains Rebah .................. % shekel 

Heavy Manah .......... 2 Ibs., 8 oz. Gerah ................. 1-20 shekel 

Talent or Kikkar ....... 60 manahs 


Biblical Measures of Length 
The unit was a cubit (forearm) divided into: 

Barley Corn S3 in. Foot 10.66 in. 

Finger 66 in. Small cubit 13.33 in. 

f alm I'H P- Building cubit 16.00 in. 

Hand 5.33 in. v.j. icaa^ 

Span 8-OOin. Large cubit 18.66m. 

A Sabbath day's journey...! II. S. mile 

A day's journey. . .33 1-5 U. S. miles 

EzekieTs Reed 11 feet 

Biblical Dry Measure 

Log 69 pints Hln 1.04 gallons 

Cab 2.76 " Sean 2.08 " 

Omer 4.96 " Ephah 6.20 

Kor 62.00 gallons 

BibSfca! Liquid Measure 

Log 81 Pints Hin 1.40 gallons 

Cab 3.24 " Sean 2.90 

Omer 6.70 " Bath . / 8.40 

Kor 84.00 gallons 


The Bible is silent or at least is not clear on a number of matters such 
as the baptism of infants and the exact number of the sacraments, con- 
cerning which the Church follows tradition. 

Tradition consists of the truths of the Catholic Faith revealed by Jesus 
Christ to His apostles and handed down to us through the teaching of 
the Church and the writings of the holy fathers and doctors. 

The Apostolic Fathers are Christian writers of the first and second 
centuries who are known or who are considered to have had personal 
relations with the Apostles and whose writings echo genuine Apostolic 
teaching. Chief in importance are: St Clement (58-97), Bishop of Rome 
and third successor of St Peter in the Papacy; St. Ignatius (50-98), 
Bishop of Antioch and second successor of St Peter in that see, reputed 
to be a disciple of St John; St. Polycarp (69-155), Bishop of Smyrna 
and a disciple of St. John. The author of the Didache and the author of 
the Epistle of Barnabas are also numbered among the Apostolic Fathers. 

The Fathers of the Church are those "who stood at the cradle of the 
infant Church." They were writers who lived in the first eight centuries 
after the birth of Christ, who led saintly lives, propagated Christian 
doctrines, and suppressed heresy. The unanimous acceptance of a doc- 
trine by the Fathers makes it an article of faith; the unanimous re- 
jection brands it a heresy. The Church recognizes the Fathers as her 
mouthpieces. To be numbered among the Fathers, four Qualities are 
required of a writer. First, he must have lived when the Church was in 
her youth; hence St. Gregory the Great who died about 604 is re- 
garded as the last Father of the West, and St. John Damascene who 


died about 754 is considered as the last Father of the East. 
Second, he must hare led a saintly life. Third, Ms writings must not only 
be free from error, but must excel In the explanation and defense of 
Catholic doctrines. Fourth, the writings must bear the seal of the Church's 
approval. Among the Fathers of the Church not acclaimed as Doctors 
(the list of Doctors including no martyrs) are: St. Justin Martyr 
(100-165), a layman and a Christian apologist of Asia Minor and Home; 
St. Irenaeus (130-200), Bishop of Lyons, who opposed Gnosticism; and 
St. Cyprian (200-258), Bishop of Carthage, who opposed Novatianism. 
The Doctors of the Church include many Fathers of the Church. They 
are ecclesiastical writers of eminent learning, and a high degree of sanc- 
tity, who have received this title because of the great advantage the 
whole Church has derived from their doctrine. Their writings are not 
necessarily entirely free from error. The required conditions before a 
man can be proclaimed a Doctor of the Church are: first, eminent learn- 
ing; second, a high degree of sanctity; and third, proclamation by the 
Church. They are, in chronological order, as follows. 

Name Office Work Dates 

St. Hilary Bishop of Poitiers Opposed Arianism 300- 368 

St. Athanasius Bishop of Jerusalem Father of Orthodoxy 296- 373 

St. Ephraem Deacon Exegete. Liturgical poet of the 

Orient 30<5- 373 

St. Cyril 3ishop of Jerusalem Catechetical teachings 315- 386 

St. Gregory Bishop of Nazianzen Opposed Arianism 325- 389 

St. Basil the Great Archbishop of Caesarea. . . Father of Oriental Monasticism. 329- 379 

St. Ambrose Archbishop of Milan .Founded Christian Hymnology. . 340- 397 

St. Jerome Priest Father of Biblical Science 340- 420 

St. John Chrysostom Abp. of Constantinople.. Golden mouthed reformer. . . k .. 347- 407 

St. Augustine Bishop of Hippo Doctor of Grace 354- 430 

St. Cyril Bishop of Alexandria Defended the Church against 

Nestorius 376- 444 

St. Peter Chrysologus Bishop of Ravenna Opposed Monophysitism 406- 450 

St. Leo the Great Pope Unified the Church 440- 461 

St. Gregory the Great Pope Began the conversion of 

England 590- 604 

St. Isidore Bishop of Seville .Welded the Spanish people into 

a homogeneous nation 560- 636 

Ven. Bede English Historian Most learned man of his day. . . 672- 735 

St. John Damascene Last Greek Father Opposed Iconoclasm 676- 770 

St. Peter Damian Cardinal-Bp. of Ostia Reformer 1007-1072 

St. Anselm Bishop of Canterbury Defended the Church against the 

State 1033-1109 

St. Bernard Abbot of Clairvaux Opposed the errors of Abelard. .1090-1153 

St. Albertus Dominican Friar Master of Dogmatic Theology . .1206-1280 

St. Bonaventure Card. Bp. of Albano .Master of Scholastic Theology. .1221-1274 

St. Thomas Aquinas Dominican Friar Angelic Doctor; author of the 

"Summa" 1225-1272 

St. Peter Canisius Jesuit Leader of the Counter- 
reformation 1521-1597 

St. John of the Cross Co-founder of Discalced Doctor of Mystic Theology 1542-1591 


St. Robert Bellarmine Cardinal Denned the relations of Church 

and State; upheld the prin- 
ciples of democracy 1542-1621 

St. Francis de Sales Bishop of Geneva Famed for Religious 

Journalism 1567-1622 

St. Alphonsus Liguori Bp. of San Agata dei Goti. Master of Moral Theology 1696-1787 



1. That there is one God, a pure 
spirit, Maker of heaven and earth, 
without beginning or end, omni- 
present, knowing and seeing all, 
omnipotent, infinite in perfection. 

3. That there are three persons 
in God, equal, and of the same sub- 
stance: the Father, the Son, born 
of the Father, and the Holy Ghost 
proceeding eternally from the Fa- 
ther and the Son, all three eternal 
in wisdom and power, and all three 
the same Lord and the same God. 

3. That God created the angels to 
be with Him forever, that some 
of them fell and became devils; 
that God created Adam and Eve, 
th^ first parents, placed them in 
Paradise, wherefrom they were 
justly banished for eating the for- 
bidden fruit; therefore we are born 
in sin and would have been lost 
had not God sent us a Saviour. 

4. That the Saviour is Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, equal to the 
Father in all things; perfect Man 
with a body and soul like ours. 

5. That Christ was conceived in 
the womb of the Virgin Mary, by 
the power of the Holy Ghost, with- 
out any man for His father; that 
she remained a pure virgin; that 
during His life He founded the 
Christian religion and offered Him- 
self a sacrifice for the sins of the 
world by dying on the cross to gain 
mercy, grace, and salvation for us. 

6. That after His death and bur- 
ial He rose to life on the third day, 
manifested Himself to His disciples 
for forty days; ascended into 
heaven, where He continually in- 
tercedes for us; whence He sent 
down the Holy Ghost upon His 
Apostles to guide them and their 
successors in truth. 

7. That He is the head of the 
Catholic or Universal Church, His 
Spirit acting as its director; that 
He founded the Church on a rock; 
that it is always victorious against 
the powers of death and hell; that 
it is always One because its mem- 
bers profess one faith, one com- 
munion, under one pastor, the suc- 
cessor of St. Peter to whom Christ 
committed His whole flock; that it 

is always Holy because it teaches 
a holy life; that it is Catholic be- 
cause it has subsisted in all ages, 
and has taught all nations the 
truth; that it is Apostolic because 
it derives doctrines, mission, and 
succession from the Apostles. 

8. That the Scriptures, Old and 
New Testaments, were deposited 
by the Apostles with the Church, 
who is the guardian and protector, 
interpreter, and judge of all con- 
troversies concerning them; as in- 
terpreted, these Scriptures, with 
the teaching of the Church founded 
on Tradition, must be received by 
all as the practice and rule of faith. 

9. That Christ instituted seven 
sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, 
Holy Eucharist, Penance, Extreme 
Unction, Holy Orders, Matrimony. 

10. That Christ also instituted 
the sacrifice of His Body and Blood 
as a remembrance of His death and 
Passion in the Mass, where every 
day He is immolated upon the al- 
tar, being Himself both priest and 
victim; that we are united with 
Him, adore Him, give Him thanks, 
obtain His grace and pardon in the 

11. That in the Church there is a 
communion of saints by means of 
which we communicate with the 
holy ones in heaven, give thanks to 
God for His gift to them and beg a 
share in their prayers; that we 
communicate with the faithful in 
purgatory by offering prayers, alms 
and sacrifice to God for them. 

12. That without divine grace we 
cannot make even one step toward 
heaven; that all our merits are the 
gifts of God; that Christ died for 
all men; that God is not the author 
of sin; that His grace does not take 
away our free will. 

13. That Christ will come from 
heaven on the last day to judge us 
all; that the dead, good and bad, 
shall rise from their graves to be 
judged according to their works; 
that the good shall go to heaven, 
body and soul, to be happy for all 
eternity; that the wicked shall be 
condemned, body and soul, to the 
everlasting torments of hell. 



1. Worship God by faith, in hum- 
bly adoring and embracing all 
truths which God has taught, how- 
ever obscure and incomprehensible 
they may appear to us; by hope, in 
honoring the infinite power, good- 
ness and mercy of God, and the 
truth of His promises, by the ex- 
pectation of mercy, grace and sal- 
vation through the merits of 
Christ; by charity, in loving God 
wholeheartedly for His own sake, 
and neighbors for God's sake; by 
the virtues of religion, namely, 
adoration, praise, thanksgiving, 
oblation, sacrifice and prayer, daily 
if possible. Avoid all idolatry, false 
religion and superstition, including 
fortune-telling, witchcraft, charms, 
spells, dreams, observation of 
omens, all of which are heathen- 
ish, contrary to the dependence of 
the Christian soul on God. 

2. Reverence the name of God 
and His truth by the observance of 
all lawful oaths and vows, by 
avoiding all false, rash, unjust, or 
blasphemous oaths and curses. 

3. Dedicate some notable part of 
his time to divine service, 'conse- 
crate those days God has ordered 
to be kept holy. 

4. Love, reverence, and obey par- 
ents and lawful superiors, spiritual 
and temporal; observe the laws of 

the Church and State, care for 
children and others under his care 
in both their souls and bodies. 

5. Abstain from all injuries to 
his neighbor's person, by murder 
or other violence; from all hatred, 
envy, and desire of revenge; from 
spiritual murder by drawing him 
into sin by words, actions, or bad 

6. Abstain from adultery, un- 
cleanness of thought, word and 

7. Avoid stealing, cheating, or 
wronging his neighbor's goods and 
possessions; give everyone his 
own, pay debts, make restitution 
for damages he has caused. 

8. Avoid wronging his neighbor 
in character or good name, by de- 
traction or rash judgment, or by 
dishonoring him with reproaches 
or affronts, or by robbing him of 
peace of mind by scoffs and con- 
tempt, or by carrying stories back- 
ward and forward, thus robbing 
him of his friends. Restitution or 
satisfaction for any wrongs done to 
him must be made. 

9. Refrain from all desires of lust 
with regard to a neighbor's wife. 

10. Resist all irregular desires 
for the goods of a neighbor, what- 
ever they may be, and avoid even 
internal, unjust actions against him. 


The Catholic Church teaches that there are but seven sacraments, in- 
stituted by Jesus Christ Himself. They are the ordinary channels or 
means of grace for those properly disposed to receive them. The sacra- 
ments of Baptism, Confirmation and Holy Orders can be received only 
once because they imprint a character or indelible mark on the soul. 
To confer a sacrament validly, that is, to produce the effects intended by 
Christ, the one administering it, besides having the necessary power, 
must intend to do what the Church wishes. The state of grace is not a 
requirement for validity. 

Baptism By this sacrament we 
are made Christians, children of 
God and heirs of heaven. It is ab- 
solutely necessary for salvation. No 
other sacrament can be received 
before its reception. It is admin- 
istered by means of water. This is 
baptism strictly so-called. If it can- 
not be had, then baptism of blood 
or baptism of desire can suffice. 
Its effects are the removal of the 

stain of original sin, the stain of 
actual sin and the remission of the 
punishment due to sin. It can be 
validly received by infants. 

The ordinary minister of baptism 
is a priest; in case of necessity, 
anyone can baptize by using the 
formula: "I baptize thee in ttie 
name of the Father and of the Son 
and of the Holy Ghost." 


Confirmation By this sacra- 
ment we become strong and perfect 
Christians. It increases grace and 
strengthens one in the Catholic 
Faith, and cannot be neglected 
without grave sin. 

The bishop is the ordinary min- 
ister of confirmation. 

Holy Eucharist This sacrament 
is the real, true and substantial" 
Presence of the Body and Blood, 
Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ 
under the appearance of bread and 
wine. At the Consecration during 
the Mass the substance of bread 
and wine is changed into the Body 
and Blood of Christ The Holy 
Eucharist is the, true food of the 
soul. It helps one to avoid mortal 
sin and to grow in virtue by con- 
ferring and increasing grace in the 
one who receives it worthily. The 
Holy Eucharist need not be re- 
ceived under two species except by 
the priest in the Mass. 

The priest is the ordinary min- 
ister of this sacrament. 

Penance This sacrament was 
Instituted by Christ for the purpose 
of forgiving sins committed after 
baptism. All validly ordained 
priests have the power to forgive 
sins, a power had in virtue of the 
words: "Receive ye the Holy 
Ghost; whose sins you shall for- 
give, they are forgiven them; and 
whose sins you shall retain, they 
are retained" (John, xx, 22-23). To 
exercise this power, however, the 
permission of the proper authorities 
must be had. In case of necessity, 
this may be presumed. 

When receiving this sacrament 
the penitent is his own accuser 
and the priest acts as judge, giv- 
ing a penance in proportion to the 
gravity of the sins. To obtain ab- 
solution it is necessary that a per- 
son be truly sorry for his sius, 
make them known to the confessor 
and make due satisfaction, that is, 
perform the penance imposed on 
him by the priest. The penitent 
must confess all mortal sins which 
he remembers and which have not 
yet been forgiven. Sorrow for sins 
can be perfect or imperfect: per- 
fect, which arises because the 
Supreme Good, God, has been 

wronged; imperfect, which comes 
from otter motives, as hatred of 
sin, fear of hell, loss of heaven, 
This sacrament is absolutely neces- 
sary for one who has fallen into 
mortal sin after baptism. An act of 
perfect contrition outside confes- 
sion reconciles the sinner to God 
but still he must have the desire 
to confess his mortal sins. 

The minister of this sacrament 
is the priest. 

Extreme Unction This is a sac- 
rament instituted by Christ through 
which those in danger of death 
from bodily illness or infirmity are 
strengthened by grace for the good 
of the soul and often of the body, 
by the anointing with holy oil and 
the prayers of the priest. It remits all 
sin, if the sick person has remained 
in the state of sin inculpably and 
has at least attrition; and destroys 
the remains of sin. 

Extreme Unction can be admin- 
istered validly only by a priest. 

Holy Orders Instituted by 
Christ, this sacrament confers on a 
man grace and spiritual powers, 
enabling him to perform validly 
and worthily the sacred and ec- 
clesiastical functions. The three 
major orders are subdiacpnate, 
diaconate and priesthood. In Virtue 
of his ordination a* priest has the 
power to consecrate the Body and 
Blood of Christ and to forgive sins. 

The ordinary minister of Orders 
is a consecrated bishop. 

Matrimony -This sacrament, in- 
stituted by Christ, gives grace to 
sanctify the legitimate union of 
man and woman, to help them be- 
get children properly and educate 
them seriously. Marriage is indis- 
soluble. The Church alone has 
the power to constitute marriage 
impediments and to grant separa- 
tions, in which case neither party 
is free to marry again while the 
other lives. Clerics in major orders 
and religious with a solemn vow of 
chastity cannot marry validly. 

The Church teaches that the per- 
sons themselves are the ministers 
of this sacrament For Catholics 
the presence of the priest is re- 
quired for validity; he is the min- 
ister of the ceremonies. 



(It is proposed to give m the Almanac over a period of years tbe rites and 
ceremonies for the administration of the seven sacraments. This is the third in- 
stallment. See the 1941 Almanac for the rites and ceremonies of Baptism, and 
the 1942 Almanac for those of Confirmation.) 

Holy Eucharist is that sacrament priest, withdrawing slightly toward 

of the New Law, which was insti- 
tuted by Christ for the spiritual re- 
freshment of our souls, and in 
which the Body and Blood of Christ 
under the appearance of bread and 
wine are present truly, really and 
substantially. The conversion of the 
bread and wine into the Sacred 
Species, which is called Transub- 
stantiation, takes place during the 
Consecration of the Mass. By the 
act of consecration are fulfilled the 
words of Christ, "And the bread 
that I will give is My flesh for the 
life of the world" (John 6:52). 
Christ has commanded us to eat 
this Sacred Bread, for He says, 
"Unless you eat the flesh of the 
Son of Man, and drink His blood, 
you shall not have life in you." 

Catholics ordinarily receive Holy 
Communion at Mass. They may, 
however, receive Holy Communion 
outside of Mass, and in their own 
homes when sick. When Holy 
Communion is administered to those 
who are at the point of death it is 
referred to as Holy Viaticum, in 
which case the prayers of the cere- 
mony differ slightly from those 
which are ordinarily prescribed. 

Minister The ordinary minister 
of the sacrament of Holy Eucharist 
is the priest. The extraordinary 
minister is the deacon, who must, 
however, have the permission of 
the bishop or pastor to exercise 
this ministry. 

Rite: Outside of Mass The 
priest, vested with surplice and 
stole, whose color is white or the 
color of the day, approaches the 
altar preceded by the server. Hav- 
ing ascended the altar steps, the 
priest unfolds the corporal, opens 
the tabernacle, and taking out the 
ciborium which contains the Con- 
secrated Particles, places it upon 
the corporal, uncovers it and genu- 
flects. The server then says the 
Confiteor. Again genuflecting, the 

the Gospel side of the altar, turns 
toward the people and recites the 
prayers : 

V. "May almigHty God have 
mercy upon you, forgive you your 
sins, and bring you to life ever- 

R. "Amen." 

V. "May the almighty and merci- 
ful Lord grant you pardon, absolu- 
tion and remission of all your sins." 

R. "Amen." 

Upon the completion of these 
prayers the priest, again facing the 
Blessed Sacrament, genuflects. He 
now takes the ciborium with his 
left hand and with his right he lifts 
up one of the Sacred Hosts, and, 
turning toward the communicants, 

"Behold the Lamb of God, behold 
Him Who taketh away the sins of 
the world." 

The priest then says three times : 

"Lord, I am not worthy that Thou 
shouldst enter under my roof; say 
but the word and my soul shall be 

When finished, the priest ap- 
proaches those who are about to 
receive, starting on the Epistle 
side. As the priest withdraws each 
Host he makes with it the sign of 
the cross, and as he places the 
Sacred Species upon the tongue of 
the recipient he says : 

"May the Body of our Lord Jesus 
Christ preserve thy soul to life 
everlasting. Amen." 

After all have received, the priest 
returns to the altar, places the 
ciborium upon the corporal and 
genuflects. He then removes any 
fragments which may be clinging 
to his hands, or to the paten, re- 
places the ciborium in the taber- 
nacle, genuflects and locks the tab- 
ernacle. While thus engaged and 
before finishing, the priest says 
these prayers: 


"O sacred banquet, in which 
Christ is received, the memory of 
His Passion renewed, the mind 
filled with, grace, and a pledge of 
future glory given unto us." (Dur- 
ing Paschal time "Alleluia" is 

V. "Thou didst give them bread 
from heaven. (Alleluia.)" 

R. "Containing in itself all sweet- 
ness: (Alleluia.)" 

"Let us pray 

"O God, who in this wondrous 
sacrament hast left unto us a 
memorial of Thy Passion: grant us, 
we beseech Thee, so to venerate 
the sacred mysteries of Thy Body 
and Blood, that we may ever feel 
within us the fruit of Thy redemp- 
tion. Who livest and reignest with 
God the Father in the unity of the 
Holy Ghost, God, world without 

R. "Amen." 

This latter oration, however, is 
replaced, during the Paschal sea- 
son, by the following: 

"Pour forth upon us, Lord, the 
spirit of Thy love, that, by Thy 
loving kindness, Thou mayest make 
to be of one mind those whom Thou 
hast fed with the Paschal sacra- 
ments. Through our Lord, Jesus 
Christ, Thy Son, Who livest and 
reignest with Thee in the unity of 
the same Holy Spirit, God, world 
without end." 

R. "Amen." 

When the priest has finished all 
the actions mentioned above he 
turns toward the people, and, mak- 
ing the Sign of the Cross over 
them, he pronounces this blessing: 

"The blessing of God almighty, 
the Father, the Son and the Holy 
Ghost, descend upon you and abide 

R. "Amen." 

Turning back toward the altar 
the priest refolds the corporal and 
then departs, preceded, as before, 
by the server. 

Rite: For the Sick, and Viaticum 
The rites for these two cere- 
monies are, in general, the same, 
and, ordinarily, all that is pre- 
scribed should be observed. Since, 
however, Viaticum is especially for 

those at the point of death it is 
permitted, and sometimes required, 
that many of the prescribed prayers 
be omitted in order that the one 
dying can comply with the precept 
and be spiritually strengthened on 
his journey into eternity. Hence, 
Viaticum can be administered at 
any hour of the day or night, re- 
gardless of the fact that that per- 
son may have eaten after midnight. 
When time allows, the full cere- 
mony should be carried out as 
follows : 

The priest, wearing the stole, ap- 
proaches the altar upon which 
two candles have been lighted. "Un- 
folding the corporal and opening 
the tabernacle, the priest genu- 
flects, and withdrawing the Conse- 
crated Hosts, he places as many as 
will be needed into a small vessel 
called the pyx. He then purifies 
his hands, genuflects and closes the 
tabernacle. The priest now loops 
the cord attached to the pyx around 
his neck, places the pyx next to 
his breast, and, after folding the 
corporal, departs. 

Upon his entrance into the sick 
room the priest says: 

V. "Peace be to this house." 

R. "And to all who dwell 

The priest, approaching the table 
which has been properly prepared 
for the occasion (see Sick Calls), 
unfolds the corporal, places the 
pyx upon It, and genuflects. Pol- 
lowing this, he sprinkles the room 
and the sick person with holy 
water, and says: 

Antiphon: "Thou shalt sprinkle 
me with hyssop, O Lord, and I 
shall be cleansed: Thou shalt wash 
me, and I shall be made whiter 
than snow." 

Psalm: "Have mercy on me, 
God, according to Thy great mercy." 

V. "Glory be to the Father," etc. 

Repeating the antiphon, the priest 
continues with the "following versi- 
cles, responses and oration: 

V. "Our help is in the name of 
the Lord." 

R. "Who hath made heaven and 

V. "O Lord, hear my prayer." 


R. "And let my cry come unto 

V. "The Lord be with you." 

R. "And with thy spirit." 
"Let us pray 

"Hear us, O holy Lord, almighty 
Father, eternal God; and vouchsafe 
to send Thy holy angel from heav- 
en, to guard, cherish, protect, visit 
and defend all that are assembled 
in this house. Through Christ our 

R. "Amen." 

At this juncture the priest hears 
the confession of the patient if 
necessary. If, however, the sick 
person is already in the state of 
grace, and able to do so, he says 
the Confiteor. Another person may 
and should do this if the patient is 
too weak to do so. At its end, the 
priest turns toward the one about 
to receive the Blessed Sacrament 
and imparts the absolution: 

"May almighty God have mercy 
upon you," etc. 

"May the almighty and merciful 
Lord grant you pardon," etc. 

Then, as in Communion outside 
Mass, he genuflects, and, holding 
the Consecrated Host in his fingers, 
he addresses the one to receive 
with the words: 

"Behold the Lamb of God," etc. 

Following this there is said three 
times : 

"Lord, I am not worthy," etc. 

This the sick person should re- 
peat at least once. 

The sacrament is now admin- 
istered as the priest says: 

"May the Body of our Lord Jesus 
Christ," etc. 

If, however, the Sacrament is 
conferred as Viaticum, the latter 
prayer is changed to: 

"Receive, brother (or sister), the 
Viaticum of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
that He may preserve thee from 
the malignant enemy, and bring 
thee to life everlasting. Amen." 

The priest, if he finds death im- 
minent, may omit all the prayers 
except the absolution as given 
above and the prayer, "Receive, 

brother," etc. In extreme necessity, 
the latter alone suffices. 

After administering the Sacra- 
ment the priest returns to the 
table where he purifies his fingers. 
and if necessary, the pyx. He then 
prays : 

V. "The Lord be with you." 

R. "And with thy spirit" 
"Let us pray 

"O holy Lord, almighty Father, 
eternal God, we earnestly beseech 
thee, that the most sacred body of 
our Lord Jesus Christ Thy Son, 
which our brother (or sister) hath 
now received, may be to him (or 
her) an eternal remedy, both of 
body and soul: who liveth and 
reigneth with Thee, in the unity of 
. the Holy Spirit, God forever and 
ever. Amen." 

If the priest has been carrying 
more than one Host he now makes 
the Sign of the Cross over the sick 
person with the receptacle contain- 
ing the Sacred Species, saying 
nothing. If no Host remains the 
priest makes with his hand the Sign 
of the Cross over the sick person 
as he utters the blessing: 

"The blessing of God almighty," 

When Holy Communion is dis- 
tributed to many sick persons in 
the same building, but in different 
rooms, as, for example, in a hos- 
pital, all the prayers up to the ab- 
solution following the Confiteor are 
said in the plural number at the 
bedside of the first one visited. At 
the bed of each individual the 
priest imparts the absolution in the 
singular number, and says but once 
the prayer: 

"Lord, I am not worthy," etc. 

At the last bedside the priest 
says all the prayers which follow 
the administration of the Sacra- 
ment, using again the plural num- 
ber. Here, too, he raises the 
Blessed Sacrament in silent bene- 
diction if any of the Sacred Species 
remain, or bestows the blessing if 
all have been consumed. 


3te of t|e Catfjolic 

(A unified explanation of the Paith of the Catholic Church is being given in 
a four-year cycle. It is a more detailed treatment than that contained in the section 
"The Doctrines of the Church/' and is meant to integrate and co-ordinate the truths 
taught there. This is the third of four installments.) 



The previous installment has shown what Christ affirmed on God, 
creation, the angels and man; and what He taught as to man's duties 
towards his Creator, Ms neighbor, society, and himself. 

What Jesus Revealed 
A, The Holy Trinity 

There is but one God, one Su- 
preme Being; but there are at the 
same time three Divine Persons in 
God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. 
This truth cannot be explained ade- 
quately, because it is a mystery, 
the mystery of the Holy Trinity. 
A theological mystery, properly so- 
called, is a truth which, while not 
opposed to reason, cannot be dis- 
covered by unaided human reason 
nor understood in its essence even 
after its existence has been re- 

The Old Testament, while it does 
not expressly teach this mystery, 
nevertheless does allude to it. 
Isaias tells us that the Seraphim 
in heaven cry: "Holy, holy, holy, 
the Lord God of hosts" (Is. 6, 3); 
and the Jewish priests repeated the 
name of God three times when 
they blessed the people in their 
ritual (cf. Num. 6, 23-26). A more 
positive and explicit revelation of 
the mystery could be given only 
by God. This was indeed given by 
Christ. "No one has at any time 
seen God, The Only-begotten Son, 
Who is in the bosom of the Father, 
He has revealed Him" (John 1, 18). 
"All things have been delivered to 
Me by My Father; and no one 
knows the Son except the Father; 
nor does anyone know the Father 
except the Son, and him to whom 
the Son chooses to reveal Him" 
(Matt. 11, 27). Christ revealed the 
existence of the Trinity when He 
said to His Apostles before His 
ascension: "Go, therefore, and 

make disciples' of all nations, bap- 
tizing them in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Spirit" (Matt. 28, 19). 

The mystery of the Holy Trinity 
is not repugnant to reason, for in it 
no contradiction is introduced. It 
does not claim that there are at 
the same time three Persons and 
only one Person, or one nature 
which is also three natures; but 
it teaches that there is one nature 
and three Persons. After the mys- 
tery has been revealed, we can 
reason that there is some dis- 
tinction between nature and per- 
son. We find human nature only 
when we find a person; for that 
reason we come to think that the 
two must always be associated, 
and we use the two notions almost 
interchangeably. Yet reflection 
shows that the nature is the prin- 
ciple by which the individual acts, 
whereas the person is principle 
which acts and to which all the 
activities are attributed. This dis- 
tinction is perhaps more mental 
than real, but the mere fact that 
it can even be alluded to shows 
that there is, even in human be- 
ings, a suggestion of the distinc- 
tion between the divine nature and 
the Three Divine Persons which is 
a truth of revelation. 

The Three Divine Persons have 
only one nature, the nature of 
God. When we say that the three 
Divine Persons have the one na- 
ture, we speak in a different man- 
ner than when we say the same 


thing of men;, with. God the unity 
is numerical, while with men it 
is a unity of kind. All three enjoy- 
ing this numerically one nature, 
each divine Person is therefore 

The Father is God. On the day 
of His Eesurrection, Our Lord said 
to Mary Magdalen: "Do not touch 
me, for I have not- yet ascended 
to My Father; but go to My "breth- 
ren and say to them, 'I ascend to 
My Father and your Father, to 
My God and your God' " (John 20, 
17). He uses the words "Father" 
and "God" as synonyms. 

The Son is God. In the Gospel 
according to St. John we read: "In 
the beginning was the Word, and 
the Word was with God; and the 

Word was God And the Word 

was made flesh, and dwelt among 
us. And we saw His glory glory 
as of the Only-begotten of the 
Father full of grace and of truth" 
(John 1, 1, 14). St. John, after 
showing a distinction of Persons 
("the Word was with God"), says 
this Word was God. He tells us 
that the Word was made flesh or 
became -man; this is Christ. Christ 
Himself claims to be the Son of 
God the Father, and equal, to Him: 
"I and the Father are one" (John 
10, 30). 

The Holy Spirit is God, St. Peter, 
speaking to Ananias said: "Anan- 
ias, why has Satan tempted thy 
heart, that thou shouldst lie to 
the Holy Spirit and by fraud keep 
back part of the price of the land? 
. . . Thou hast not lied to men, but 
to God" (Acts 5, 3-4). The Holy 
Spirit is hereby shown to be God. 

The three divine Persons are 
distinct from one another. Al- 
though each of the three Persons 
is God, they are not for that rea- 
son all the same Person. It is 
only in substance or nature that 
they must be one; as Persons, they 
are separate and distinct. The 
Father begets the Son; the Father 
is distinct from the Son for the 
reason that the Person begetting 
and the Person begotten cannot 
be identical. The Holy Spirit pro- 
ceeds from both the Father and 
the Son; He is distinct from them 
for the reason that no one can 
proceed from himself. The genera- 
tion of the Son and the procession 
of the Holy Spirit are eternal. The 
Son and the Holy Spirit did not 
begin to exist at any given time, 
but have existed forever with the 
Father because the Son is forever 
begotten and the Holy Spirit is 
forever proceeding. 

B. The Incarnation 

The Son of God, the Second Per- 
son of the Blessed Trinity, by as- 
suming human nature, became man. 
This man, the God-man, is Jesus 
Christ. By the miraculous inter- 
vention of the Holy Spirit, He was 
conceived in the womb of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, was born an 
infant, and grew through natural 
stages to manhood. 

Jesus Christ is true God. He is 
also true and complete man, hav- 
ing a perfect human body and a 
perfect human soul with an in- 
tellect and will and sentient facul- 
ties. These two complete natures, 
namely the divine and human na- 
tures, are united in the one Person 
of the Word. The divine nature 
was not lost, neither was the as- 
sumed human nature destroyed or 

absorbed by the Divinity or mixed 
with it so as to lose its own iden- 
tity. The humanity and Divinity 
remain distinct, but nevertheless 
united in one Person. There are 
not two persons in Christ, one 
human and the other divine. By 
assuming human nature, the Son 
of God did not join Himself to a 
human person, but only to a human 
nature which was begotten at the 
very moment of His conception. 
Christ is only one person, the Son 
of God, the Second Person of the 
Blessed Trinity. 

The union of the divine and 
human natures in the one Person 
of Christ is called "the Hypostatic 
Union" (from the Greek word 
hypostasis, which is used in philoso- 
phy as a technical term for per- 


son). The Hypostatic Union is de- 
fined as the singular and marvel- 
ous union of divine nature and 
human nature in the one Person 
of the Word, resulting in Jesus 
Christ. It is more than an acci- 
dental union, such as, for example, 
exists in two parts of a machine, 
or In the mixture of two liquids. 
It Is more than a moral union, 
such as exists between members 
of an association. It is greater 
than the union between God and 
man effected through grace. It is 
a substantial union of a unique 
kind. Ordinary substantial unions 
are, for example, chemical com- 
binations, or the union of body 
and soul in the formation of man. 
But in such unions, the one sub- 
stance is united directly to the 
other. In the Hypostatic Union, 
however, the two substances, name- 
ly the divine and human natures, 
are united in and through the 

Christ is God and man. St John 
devoted his Gospel to proving the 
Divinity of Jesus and His mission. 
In the prologue of that Gospel he 
calls Jesus by the name "Word," 
and teaches His eternity and 
Divinity in the words: "In the be- 
ginning was the Word, and the 
Word was with God; and the Word 
was God." Another proof of the 
Divinity of Jesus is had from the 
words of the Angel in announcing 
His conception to Mary. The Angel 
called the Son that Mary was to 
bear the Son of the Most High: 
"And behold, thou shalt conceive 
in thy womb and shalt bring forth 

a son. He shall be great, and 

shall be called the Son of the Most 
High" (Luke 1, 31-32). God the 
Father testified to the Divinity of 
His Son when Christ, physically 
present in His manhood, was bap- 
tized in the Jordan. As Christ 
came up from the water, the 
heavens opened and the Father 
said: "This is My beloved Son, 
in Whom I am well pleased" (Matt. 
3, 17). Again on the occasion of 
the Transfiguration on the moun- 
tain, the Father spoke out of a 
cloud in the same way: "This is 

My beloved Son, in Whom I am 
well pleased; hear Him" (Matt. 
17, 5). St. Paul says of Christ in his 
Epistle to the Philippians (2, 6-8) 
that "though He was by nature 
God, He did not consider being 
equal to God a thing to be clung 
to, but emptied Himself, taking the 
nature of a slave and being made 
like unto men." 

Even while appearing in His 
humanity, our Lord Himself testi- 
fied to His Divinity, as, for instance 
when He was brought before the 
Jewish Sanhedrin. "The high priest 
said to Him, 'I adjure Thee by the 
living God that Thou tell us wheth- 
er Thou art the Christ, the Son 
of God.' Jesus said to him, 'Thou 
hast said it. Nevertheless, I say 
to you, hereafter you shall see the 
Son of Man sitting at the right 
hand of the Power and coming 
upon the clouds of heaven' " (Matt. 
26, 63-64). The high priest clearly 
understood that Jesus called Him- 
self God, for he immediately ac- 
cused Him of blasphemy. On an- 
other occasion, speaking of Him- 
self as God, Christ said: "I and 
the Father are one" (John 10, 30) ; 
while speaking of Himself as man 
He said: "The Father is greater 
than I" (John 14, 28). 

Despite the two natures, there is 
only one Person in Christ Christ 
as God, and Christ as this man, are 
the same Person. This is clear 
from what has already been shown. 
Christ was conceived in the flesh 
and born of a woman, but He was 
conceived by the Holy Spirit. He 
was baptized in the Jordan in His 
human nature, and the Father at 
the same time called Him His be- 
loved Son. St. John tells us that 
"the Word was God," and then 
tells us that "the Word was made 
flesh." St. Paul tells us that 
"though He was by nature God," 
He took on an additional nature 
and became man. In all these 
statements, qualities and actions 
proper respectively to divine and 
human nature are attributed to one 
Person. There is therefore only 
one Person In Christ to Whom we 
refer all His actions and qualities, 


whether those actions and qualities 
be human or divine. 

It follows from what has been 
said, that the Blessed Virgin Mary 
is the Mother of God. Her Son 
existed before her as God, but He 
took His human nature from her. 
She is His mother in the natural 
order. Since the Person Who is 
her Son is God, she is truly the 
Mother of God. 

Since Christ is both God and 
man, He must be adored as God. 
When we speak of some friend, 
we speak of him not as a human 
body but as a person. We say: 
"John did it," not "John's hand did 
it." So with Christ. His human 
body taken by itself is not God. 
We do not say His humanity is 
His divinity, because they are most 
certainly different. But that per- 
son, that Man, Christ, is God; and 
hence, even in His human nature, 
He must be adored as God, be- 
cause the human nature is hypo- 
statically united to the divine na- 

Since Christ was God He knew 
all things, but in His human na- 

ture He could and did acquire 
knowledge. Just as we human be- 
ings see, hear and feel, and thus 
have new experiences, in the same 
human way did Christ's psychologi- 
cal processes work. 

All these truths are embraced in 
the Mystery of the Incarnation. 
Though reason can show that there 
is no contradiction in the doctrine, 
it is beyond the powers of the 
human mind to understand the In- 
carnation itself. It is a truth re- 
vealed by God, and accepted by 
faith on the testimony of God and 
His Church. Once it has been re- 
vealed however, human reason can 
show that it was fitting, both on 
the part of God and on the part 
of man, that the Son of God be- 
come man. For by the Incarnation 
glory is rendered to God, the Son 
of God becomes the firstborn of 
men, God's goodness and love for 
men are made manifest, and a 
means is provided for redeeming 
man from his state of sin and the 
slavery of Satan, and restoring 
him to a state of friendship with 

1. Meaning of Redemption. The 
Catholic doctrine of the Redemp- 
tion teaches that Christ personally 
satisfied for our sins and merited 
grace and eternal life for us 
through His Passion and death. He 
did this principally by offering 
Himself as a victim on the cross. 
Everything which He did and suf- 
fered during His life contributed 
to our reparation, but His death 
on the cross was the chief work 
of Redemption. 

The purpose of the Redemption 
was to satisfy God's justice which 
had been outraged by Adam's sin 
and the sins of the whole human 
race; at the same time it was to 
restore mankind to the supernat- 
ural state which he had lost, and 
to the right of inheriting eternal 
life with God in heaven. In order 
to accomplish this end the Son of 
God became man; and, as Head 
of the human race, He acted as an 
official Mediator between man and 
God. By sacrificing Himself on the 

C. The Redemption 

cross He paid the penalty due to 
sin, which of ourselves we could 
never have paid; and He merited 
grace for us through which we are 
able to profit by His sacrifice and 
to secure heaven. 

God was not bound to provide 
for our redemption. He had not 
been bound in justice to give 
Adam and Eve the right to heaven 
as His adopted children in the 
first instance. By ordinary nature 
they were entitled only to an ever- 
lasting natural happiness. The 
right to heaven which He did con- 
fer on them was a pure gift, a 
supernatural gift, something above 
their nature. For that reason God 
was not bound in justice to restore 
that gift to mankind when Adam 
and Eve had lost it for them. How- 
ever, He loved his creatures so 
much that He sent His own Son 
to redeem us (cf. John 3, 16). 

Jesus Christ is the true and only 
primary Mediator between God and 
men. The Blessed Mother and the 


saints are mediators for us, but not 
in the same sense as Christ. Christ 
is the principal and indispensable 
link between God and men. The 
Council of Trent defines that we 
are saved by the merit of the one 
Mediator, our Lord Jesus Christ. 
St. Paul wrote: "There is one God, 
and one Mediator between God and 
men, Himself man, Christ Jesus, 
Who gave Himself a ransom for 
all, bearing witness in His own 
time" (Tim. 2, 5-6). St. Peter de- 
clared of Christ: "This is 'the 
stone that was rejected by you, 
the builders, which has become the 
corner stone/ Neither is there sal- 
vation in any other. For there is 
no other name under heaven given 
to men by which we must be saved" 
(Acts 4, 11-12). 

Our faith holds that the redemp- 
tion was an actual buying back, a 
satisfaction of justice through the 
payment of a price. The Council 
of Ephesus tells us that He of- 
fered Himself for us, and the 
Council of Trent says: "the meri- 
torious cause [of our justification] 
is , . . our Lord Jesus Christ, Who, 
when we were enemies, for the ex- 
ceeding charity wherewith He loved 
us, merited for us justification by 
His most holy Passion on the wood 
of the cross and made satisfaction 
for us to God the Father" (Sess. 
VI, ch. 7). St. Peter puts it thus: 
"You know that you were redeemed 
from the vain manner of life hand- 
ed down from your fathers, not 
with perishable things, with silver 
or gold, but with the precious 
blood of Christ" (1 Pet 1, 18-19); 
and again: "Unto this, indeed, you 
have been called, because Christ 
also has suffered for you, leaving 
you an example that you may fol- 
low in His steps, . . . Who Himself 
bore our sins in His body upon the 
tree;... and by His stripes you 
were, healed" (1 Pet. 2, 21-24). St. 
Paul wrote: "Christ died for our 
sins according to the Scripture's" 
(1 Cor. 15, 3)- Elsewhere he says: 
"In Him we have redemption 
through His blood, the remission 
of sins, according to the riches of 
His grace," and Christ also loved 

us and delivered Himself up for 
us an offering and a sacrifice to 
God" (Eph. 1, 7; 5, 2). 

Christ Himself showed that His 
death was to be for the redemption 
of mankind : "The Son of Man . . . 
has not come to be served but to 
serve, and to give His life as a 
ransom for many" (Mark 10, 45). 
At the Last Supper He said: "This 
is My blood of the new covenant, 
which is being shed for many" 
(Mark 14, 24). 

2. The Redemption embraces all 
sin. By His sacrifice on the cross, 
Christ offered to His heavenly 
Father adequate reparation, not 
only for original sin, but also for 
all the actual sins men have com- 
mitted or will commit, and for all 
the penalties due to sin, The fund 
of Christ's reparation is inexhaust- 
ible. No number or magnitude of 
sins is beyond the power of His 
redemptive sacrifice. "And you, 
when you were dead by reason of 
your sins and the uncircumcisipn 
of your flesh, He brought to life 
along with Him, forgiving you all 
your sins, cancelling the decree 
against us, which was hostile to 
us. Indeed, He has tafcen it com- 
pletely away, nailing it to the 
cross" (Col. 2, 13-14). Christ "gave 
Himself for us that He might re- 
deem us from all iniauity" (Tit. 
2, 14). "The blood of Jesus Christ, 
His Son, cleanses us from all sin** 
(1 John 1, 7). 

Our sins are not unconditionally 
forgiven by Christ's sacrifice. They 
are forgiven in virtue of that sacri- 
fice, but on condition that we make 
ourselves recipients of its merits 
through the means provided by our 
religion. When a person is "bap- 
tized, he is cleansed of all stain of 
sin including any actual sins he 
may have committed, and he is 
at the same time liberated from 
all penalty due to sin. If he should 
die without having committed any 
further sin, he is taken immediate- 
ly to heaven. If a man sins after 
baptism, he again incurs guilt and 
falls under penalty in proportion 
to the gravity and imputability of 
the sins. If he commits mortal sins, 


he deserves hell; if the sins are 
venial, the penalty is only temporal 
punishment. But because the Re- 
demption extends to all sins, the 
new guilt and penalties can like- 
wise be washed away. The means 
for this is grace, and its effects 
are realized by contrition, by the 
sacraments and by mortification. 

3. Redemption embraces the en- 
tire human race. The price Christ 
paid for our salvation is more than 
enough to cover the debt caused 
by original sin and all actual sins. 
It is superabundant not only to the 
extent that all men ever born and 
ever to be born can gain eternal 
life by His grace, but also to the 
extent that all who ever could 
come into existence though actually 
they will not, would not exhaust 
its atoning power. St. Paul says: 
"Not like the offense is the gift. 
For if by the offense of the one 
the many died, much more has the 
grace of God, and the gift in the 
grace of the one man Jesus Christ, 

abounded unto the many Where 

the offense has abounded, grace 
has abounded yet more" (Rom. 5, 
15, 20). Christ died for Catholics, 
non-Catholics, Jews and pagans, 
and not only for those who will 
eventually be saved, but even those 
who will refuse His grace and be 
lost. "The grace of God our Saviour 
has appeared to all men, instructing 
us, in order that, rejecting ungodli- 
ness and worldly lusts, we may 
live temperately and justly and 
piously in this world; looking for 
the blessed hope and glorious com- 
ing of our great God and Saviour, 
Jesus Christ, Who gave Himself 
for us that He might redeem us 
from all iniquity and cleanse for 
Himself an acceptable people, pur- 
suing good works" (Tit. 2, 11-14). 
Pagans are not excepted, for St. 
Paul says elsewhere: "We work and 
are reviled for this reason, that we 
hope in the living God, who is the 
Saviour of all men, especially of 
believers" (1 Tim. 4, 10). 

St. Paul shows in his Epistle to 
the Romans that the Redemption 
is intended also for those who will 

eventually be lost because of mor- 
tal sin. "Do not destroy [i. e., cause 
to be lost] him for whom Christ 
died" (Rom. 14, 15). The implica- 
tion is clear. If a soul is lost, it 
does not receive and profit by the 
fruits of the Redemption; and yet 
St. Paul clearly says that Christ 
died for that soul. 

4. The Redemption realized in in- 
dividuals. Though Christ died for 
all, all men are not necessarily 
saved. The death of Christ is the 
universal cause of salvation, but we 
are not saved without effort on our 
part. Only those who make them- 
selves partakers in the merits pro- 
vided by Christ will profit by His 
death. It is not sufficient merely 
to believe in the doctrine of the 
Redemption. We must also be bap- 
tized to become children of God. 
We must also make use of the 
other sacraments as means of fur- 
ther grace, and then cooperate 
with that grace by observing the 
commandments of God and the pre- 
cepts of the Church. If we have 
fallen into serious sin, we are 
obliged to return to the sacraments 
and begin again our Christian life. 
Christ commanded His Apostles: 
"Go, therefore, and make disciples 
of all nations, baptizing them in 
the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teach- 
ing them to observe all that I 
have commanded you" (Matt. 28, 
19-20). It is sufficient for infants 
that they be baptized, but persons 
with the use of reason, are obliged 
to an active cooperation in order 
to participate in the merits of 
Christ's death. The Council of 
Trent expressly condemns the error 
that justifying faith is nothing more 
than a confidence in divine mercy, 
which remits sins for Christ's sake; 
it likewise condemns the error that 
a man who is justified is not bound 
to observe the commandments of 
God and the Church, but only to 
believe, as if the Gospel were a 
bare and absolute promise of eter- 
nal life without the condition of ob- 
serving the commandments (Sess. 
VI, can. 12,20). 


Faith Hope Charity 

Prudence Justice Fortitude Temperance 


1. Charity, which enables us to 
love God above all things, and our 
neighbors as ourselves, for God's 

2. Joy, which helps us to serve 
God with cheerful hearts. 

3. Peace, which keeps us un- 
moved in our minds, and helps us 
to enjoy a perpetual calmness of 
conscience, in the midst of the 
storms and tempests of the world. 

4. Patience, which enables us to 
suffer willingly and with resigna- 
tion all the trials of this life for the 
love of God. 

5. Longanimity, by which we per- 
severe steadfastly in our duty; and 
never stop or grow weary, what- 
ever trials we may have to endure. 

6. Goodness, by which we avoid 
injuring others, and are always 
ready to be of service to others. 

7. Benignity, which causes us to 
conduct ourselves toward others 

with kindness and sweetness of 
temper, both in our manners and 

8. Mildness, which keeps back all 
emotions of passion and anger, and 
makes a person really amiable, and 
beloved both by God and man. 

9. Fidelity, which enables us to 
keep to our engagements and ful- 
fill our promises. 

10. Modesty, which enables us .to 
observe a becoming deportment 
and reservation in all our outward 
actions, and avoid bestowing an un- 
due amount of praise upon our- 

11. Continence, which enables us 
to restrain and resist carnal in- 
clinations, and become abstemious 
both in our meat and drink. 

12. Chastity, by which we are en- 
abled to keep a pure soul in a pure 
body, and have a great love and 
esteem for angelic purity. 


1. Wisdom, which teaches us to 
direct our whole lives and actions 
to the honor of God and the salva- 
tion of our souls. 

2. Understanding, which enables 
us to comprehend more perfectly 
the great mysteries of our faith. 

3. Counsel, which leads us to 
make a right choice in things re- 
lating to our salvation, and to avoid 
the deceits of the devil. 

4. Fortitude^ whereby we are en- 
abled to undergo and despise all 
dangers for God's sake, and to be 

firm and constant in the perform- 
ance of our Christian duties. 

5. Knowledge, by which we know 
and understand the will of God, 
learn the duties of religion, and dis- 
tinguish good from evil. 

6. PSety ? which makes us devout 
and zealous in the service of God, 
and faithful to Him in all things, 
and practise the duties of our re- 

7. Fear of the Lord, which checks 
our rashness, keeps us from sin, 
and makes us obedient to the law of 
God and dread ever offending Him. 

Prayer Fasting Almsgiving 


Poverty Chastity Obedience 


(All liturgical appurtenances are given on pp. 179-182) 

Abandonment First stage of 
the soul's union with God: by con- 
forming to His will, accepting trials 
and sufferings, surrendering nat- 
ural consolations for the purpose of 

Abbess A title commonly as- 
cribed to the superioress of a com- 
munity of nuns. The office of ab- 
bess existed as early as the sixth 
century. Since then it has had a 
Tery gradual development, and in 
the course of time, Canon Law has 
decreed the manner of election, the 
extent of powers, and the rights 
and privileges of an abbess. A 
bishop may confer the dignity of 
abbess which is regularly symbo- 
lized by a ring and staff. 

Abbey An independent canon- 
icaliy erected monastery generally 
built around a quadrangle, ruled by 
an abbot or abbess, and consisting 
of the following: almonry, calefac- 
tory, cellars, cells, chapter house, 
choir, cloister, conference room, 
dormitory, guest house, infirmary, 
kitchen, novitiate, oratory, parlor, 
refectory, workshops. 

Abbot The superior of a com- 
munity of men consecrated to God 
by the religious vows, and dwelling 
in monastic institutions. It is also 
used to designate the office of such 
a superior. The earliest abbots 
were frequently laymen, since 
among several hundred monks in 
the first ages of the Church, there 
might be only one or two priests. 
In time, however, the abbot on his 
inception was obliged to enter the 
sacerdotal state. As with the ab- 
bess, the election, duties and priv- 
ileges of an abbot have had a 
gradual development since the 
sixth century. Some abbots were 
invested with episcopal jurisdic- 
tion over their subjects, and hence 
were permitted the use of the 
mitre, crozier and ring, indicative 
of their authority. 

Abdication The renunciation of 
a benefice or dignity. It must be 
voluntary and not in any way con- 
nected with a sale. Papal abdica- 
tion must be made into- the hands 

of the College of Cardinals, which 
body must elect a successor. 

Abduction The carrying off or 
keeping of a woman against her 
will. Abduction is an impediment 
and renders a marriage with the 
one abducted invalid. 

Abjuration Renunciation of 
apostasy, heresy or schism. 

Abortion When a practitioner 
or other person intentionally re- 
moves the fetus, even in the 
earliest period of pregnancy, direct 
abortion is committed and is a 
grievous sin, amounting to homi- 
cide. When in an operation on the 
mother, the child is accidentally in- 
jured or expelled, indirect abortion 
occurs. Indirect abortion is some- 
times permitted with sufficient and 
grave reason, as, for instance, to 
save the mother's life, providing 
every precaution be taken to save 
the life of the child, and providing 
the child receive timely baptism. 
Direct abortion has always been 
condemned by the Church as a 
crime of the most heinous nature. 
According to the New Code of Can- 
on Law, those who procure abor- 
tion, not excepting the mother, if 
the abortion has actually taken 
place, incur an excommunication 
reserved to the ordinary (C. 2350). 
Those who co-operate physically or 
use moral force also incur this ex- 

Absolution Absolution is had 
when the priest using the authority 
he has received from our Lord, 
grants the remission of sins. This 
faculty, as it is called, is possessed 
by all priests, when a person is in 
danger of death. But in ordinary 
cases, priests must have the addi- 
tional faculty which is called juris- 
diction. Since a priest acts as a 
judge in the Sacrament of Penance, 
and passes sentence on the peni- 
tent, it is quite natural that he can 
only judge and pass sentence upon 
those who are subject to Mm. In 
general, a bishop has jurisdiction 
within his own diocese, which juris- 
diction he can and usually does dele- 
gate to the priests of that diocese. 

Absolution, General A blessing 
of the Church, to which a plenary 
indulgence is attached, given at 
stated times to religious and ter- 
tiaries. It also is given without 
confession of sin where confession 
Is impossible, such as to soldiers 
on the battlefield. Persons so ab- 
solved must acknowledge the sins 
from which they were absolved in 
their next confession. 

Abstinence Abstinence, in its 
restricted and special sense, de- 
notes voluntary deprivation of cer- 
tain kinds of food and drink, in a 
rational way,, and for the good of 
the soul. On a fasting-day the 
Church requires us to limit the 
quantity as well as the kind of our 
food. On an abstinence-day, the 
limit imposed affects only the na- 
ture of the food we take. 

Accessory to Another's Sin 
Ways of being accessory to an- 
other's sin are by counsel, by com- 
mand, by provocation, by consent, 
by praise or flattery, by conceal- 
ment, by partaking, by silence, by 
defense of the evil done. 

Acclamation At the Mass of 
the Coronation of the Pope, the 
people cry out three times: "Long 
life to our lord who has been ap- 
pointed Supreme Pontiff and uni- 
versal Pope," Acclamation is also 
a form of papal election, when a 
candidate is proclaimed pope with- 
out a previous consultation or 
formal election. 

Acofyte Acolyte is the highest 
of the four minor orders. It is the 
duty of an acolyte to serve the 
priest at Mass, by supplying wine 
and water, and carrying the lights. 
The functions of acolyte are now 
freely performed by laymen, though 
the order is still always received 
by those who aspire to the priest- 

Action Francaise A movement 
founded in France about 1897 by 
Charles Maurras, an atheist, who 
sought Catholic Eoyalists 1 support 
to restore the monarchy. It made 
religion subservient to politics and 
fostered hate and violence, and 
propagated paganistic doctrines 
through its review, "Action Fran- 

caise," 1 which was condemned by 
the Pope. In 19 S9 the managing 
committee of the newspaper peti- 
tioned Pius XII for revocation of 
the condemnation and professed 
veneration for the Holy See and 
the Pope. After consideration by 
the Holy Office, the ban was lifted. 

Act of God An accident that 
cannot be controlled by man, such 
as lightning, is attributed to God, 
the author of the laws of nature. 

Actual Grace A supernatural 
gift of God, enabling the intellect 
and will to elicit acts related to 
eternal life; called actual because 
it assists the faculty of the soul 
only when it is in operation. 

Actual Sins Personal acts or 
omissions contrary to the law of 
God; they may be mortal or venial, 
interior or exterior sins, due to 
weakness, ignorance or malice, 
against God, one's neighbor or one- 

Ad Best i as Lat. "to the beasts" 
referring to Christians con- 
demned to death in the arena. 

Ad Libitum Lat "at one's 
pleasure" referring to a choice of 
a prayer in the Office or in the 

Ad Lfmina Visit A pilgrimage 
to the tombs of Saints Peter and 
Paul, required of all bishops every 
three to ten years when also they 
render an account of their dioceses 
to the Pope. The term is derived 
from the Latin Ad limina apostolorum 
"to the thresholds of the Apostles." 

Administrator The priest or 
bishop appointed to administer a 
diocese or parish which is vacant. 

Adoption Act by which a per- 
son legally takes the child of an- 
other as his own. Those who are 
declared incapable of marrying by 
civil law on account of legal adop- 
tion, are likewise forbidden to con- 
tract marriage by Canon Law 
(C. 1080). 

Adoration An act of religion 
offered to God alone because of His 
infinite perfection and supreme do- 
minion. It is expressed outwardly 
in postures of reverence and 
prayers of praise. 


Adultery Carnal intercourse of 
a married person with another who 
is not the lawful spouse. The Cath- 
olic Church holds that the bond of 
marriage is not and cannot be dis- 
solved by the adultery of either 
party. Canon Law, however, allows 
separation from bed and board, 
whether permanent or temporary, 
for various causes. Of these, adul- 
tery is one of the chief. The right 
to this separation accrues to either 
party in consequence of the adul- 
tery of the other, provided that 
the guilt be certain and notori- 
ous, whether in fact or in law. 
The adultery of either party is a 
sufficient cause entitling the inno- 
cent person to claim judicial sepa- 
ration for life. According to the 
statutes of many states, adultery 
is a sufficient cause for the abso- 
lute severance of the nuptial bond. 
The Church, however, does not 
recognize these divorces. Catholics 
cannot obtain an absolute divorce 
on the ground of adultery. 

Advent The word signifies 
"coming" or "arrival."" It is applied 
to the period of waiting which pre- 
ceded the coming of the Son of 
God, and this name is given to the 
four weeks preceding Christmas to 
recall to the minds of the faithful 
this period of preparation for the 
first coming of the Saviour in His 
birth as man. It begins with the 
Sunday nearest the feast of St. An- 
drew. The reason for this is that St. 
Andrew showed his brother Simon 
Peter the way to Christ. Records 
of a liturgical period called Advent 
are found as far back as the year 
380, at the time of the Council of 

Affinity The relationship exist- 
ing between a man and his wife's 
relatives and a woman and her 
husband's relatives. Affinity invali- 
dates marriage in any degree of the 
direct line, and in the collateral 
line to the second degree inclusive- 
ly (C. 1077). 

Agape In the very first age of 
the Church the Eucharistic celebra- 
tion was preceded by an ordinary 
meal, and this was known as the 
Agape. The strictly liturgical agape 

disappeared within less than a hun- 
dred years after the preaching of 
the Gospel. Adaptations of it sur- 
vived until about the fifth century. 

Age of Reason The time of life 
when one begins to distinguish 
clearly between right and wrong, 
understands an obligation and 
takes on moral responsibility; gen- 
erally at seven years of age. 

Agnosticism A theory which 
claims that man cannot know real- 
ity because he is unable to appre- 
hend it or it is unknowable. Ap- 
plied to religion, it claims that hu- 
man reason cannot know God. The 
Church in the Vatican Council de- 
clared that with the natural light 
of human reason, God may be 

Agnus Del A disc of wax hav- 
ing on one side the impression of 
a lamb, and on the other the name 
and arms of the Pope. It is gen- 
erally covered with textile and 
worn suspended from the neck. Its 
purpose is to protect its possessor 
from evil. 

Agrapha Sayings supposed to 
have been spoken by our Lord. 

Alleluia An ejaculation derived 
from the Hebrew, meaning "Praise 
the Lord;" used in the Church dur- 
ing joyful seasons. 

Allocution An address delivered 
from the throne by the Pope to the 
cardinals in secret consistory. 

Alma Mater Lat. "nourishing 
mother" applied to universities 
and schools which are considered 
the foster mothers of students. 

Aims-deeds Material help giv- 
en to another for God's sake and 
necessary in a Christian society as 
a bond uniting all in dependence 
on God. t 

Alpha and Omega The first 
and last letters of the Greek alpha- 
bet, used to refer to Christ, the be- 
ginning and end of all things. 

Aitar A table on which the 
Sacrifice of the Mass is offered. By 
decree of Pope St. Felix I it was 
required that the Sacrifice be of- 
fered on the tombs of martyrs, in 
conformity with which relics of 
martyrs are now placed in every 
altar, and hence also the tomb-like 


structure of the modem altar. A 
portable altar consists of an altar- 
stone which must contain the relics 
of two canonized martyrs. 

Amen A Hebrew word signify- 
ing "truly," "certainly." It is an as- 
sent to a truth or an expression of 
a desire, and is equivalent to: "so 
be it." In this sense it may express 
consent to the divine will. In the 
words of Christ: "Amen, I say to 
you/' it means "of a truth." 

At the end of prayers "Amen" 
signifies a desire to obtain what we 
ask. Thus it is said by the server 
at Mass, as a sign that the faithful 
unite their petitions to those of the 

Anathema A thing given over 
to evil, so that "anathema sit" 
means "let him be accursed." St. 
Paul uses it against those who re- 
pudiate our blessed Savior. Those 
against whom it is used are ex- 
cluded from the communion of the 
Church. Those who are so con- 
demned, however, may return to 
the Church if they repent. 

AngeSSc Doctor St. Thomas 
Aquinas (1225-1274), so called be- 
cause of the sanctity of his life and 
the sublimity of his philosophical 
and theological writings. 

Angels Spiritual beings, cre- 
ated by God, but superior in na- 
ture and intelligence to man. When 
they were created is an open ques- 
tion. The angels have no body, but 
they are capable of assuming 
bodies, as we read in Scripture. 

They are purely spiritual intelli- 
gences. They do not have to rea- 
son, as we do; their knowledge is 
intuitive, depending on the images 
received from God. God put them 
on probation with the help of sanc- 
tifying grace, but Lucifer and many 
others fell through pride and were 
cast into hell without hope of par- 
don. The very greatness and per- 
fection of angelic nature, says St. 
Gregory the Great, made their sin 

The good angels. went into ever- 
lasting bliss. They are minister- 
ing spirits serving God. We offer 
veneration and inferior honor to 
these angels due to their noble na- 

ture. God alone do we adore with 
latria, or supreme adoration. 

Angefus The practice of ring- 
ing a bell for the recitation of the 
Hail Mary, Introduced by the Fran- 
ciscans in 1263, has since developed 
into the universal custom of recit- 
ing a prayer at morning, noon and 
evening, in honor of the Incarna- 
tion. During paschal time the Re- 
gina Coeli takes the place of the 

Anglican Orders Anglican Or- 
ders were declared invalid under 
Pope Leo XIII who had the ques- 
tion of their validity thoroughly in- 
vestigated and gave the decision 
September 18, 1896, in Ms bull 
"Apostolicae Curae." 

Annulment A civil or ecclesias- 
tical declaration that a supposed 
marriage never was valid owing to 
a known or hidden impediment. 

Annunciation The Angel Ga- 
briel's announcement to the Virgin 
Mary that she was to become the 
Mother of God. The event is com- 
memorated in the daily recitation 
of the Angelus during the greater 
part of the year and by a special 
feast on March 25. 

Antichrist It is the constant 
belief of the Church since the time 
of Irenaeus that before our Lord 
comes again, a great power will 
arise which will persecute the 
Church. In St. Matthew's Gospel 
we read that the false Christs and 
false prophets shall be so clever 
"as to deceive, if possible, even the 
elect." While the antichrist, prop- 
erly speaking, may be expected 
just before the end of the world, 
those who attack Christ and His 
Church should be so classified and 
avoided as antichrists. 

Ant! popes False popes who, 
while not duly elected, claimed the 
papacy and attempted to rule the 
Church. There have been thirty- 
seven antipopes. 

Apocrypha Greek "hidden" 
"writings that claim sacred origin 
supposed to have been hidden for 
generations. They lack genuine- 
ness and canonicity, and are not 
included in the Bible, 

Apologetics Science of the ex- 
planation of religious teaching ac- 
cording to reason. SS. Justin and 
Irenaeus were the first apologists. 

Apostasy A breaking away 
from religion after baptism a re- 
jection of the Faith. When mani- 
fested outwardly with conscious- 
ness of the obligation to remain in 
the Faith, apostasy involves ex- 
communication reserved to the 
Holy See. 

ApostSe One who is sent. The 
apostles were men. sent by Christ 
to spread the Gospel throughout 
the world. The apostles were bish- 
ops, and so had the power to con- 
secrate, ordain, confirm, etc. They 
received a divine commission to 
preach the Gospel to the whole 
world to be witnesses of Christ 
"even to the end of the earth." 
They had the power of founding 
churches, ordaining bishops, and 
other ecclesiastics. All these pow- 
ers, however, they exercised in sub- 
jection to St. Peter, who was the 
head of the Church. The bishops are 
successors of the apostles, but 
their power is limited to the sphere 
of their jurisdiction, whereas that 
of the apostles was universal. 

Apostolic Delegate The repre- 
sentative of the Pope who watches 
over and informs His Holiness of 
the state of the Church in a cer- 
tain territory. When countries 
have diplomatic relations with the 
Holy See he has a diplomatic char- 
acter, otherwise purely ecclesiasti- 
cal. He precedes all ordinaries in 
his territory excepting cardinals. 

Apostolic Indulgences Attached 
to crucifixes, rosaries, medals, etc., 
by the Pope or an authorized priest 
when the articles are blessed. Such 
articles must be carried on one's 
person or kept in a suitable place. 

Apparitions Remarkable ap- 
pearances or manifestations made 
by God in an extraordinary man- 
ner, either before the senses in 
flesh and blood or in luminous form. 

Archimandrite The superior of 
a monastery in an Eastern Church, 
such as among the Melchites or 
Uniate Greeks; also an honorary 
title of officials in Eastern Churches. 

ArtSculo Mortis Lat "at the 
moment of death" referring to 
indulgences granted to those about 
to die. 

Ascension Christ's ascending 
into heaven forty days after His 
Resurrection. It is commemorated 
by a special feast, which is a holy- 
day of obligation. 

Ashes Ashes were used in an- 
cient religions to express humilia- 
tion and sorrow, and their use was 
continued in the early and medie- 
val Church as a symbol of penance. 
On Ash Wednesday blessed ashes 
are placed on the foreheads of the 
faithful to remind them they are 
but dust and ashes, and that they 
should enter upon the holy season 
of Lent, of which this is the first 
day, with a humble and mortified 
s'pirit. This is a sacramental, 

Asperges The first word of the 
ninth verse of the fiftieth psalin 
"Asperges Me," meaning "Thou 
shalt sprinkle me" sung during 
the ceremony of sprinkling with 
holy water before High Mass on 

Aspiration A prayer said in a 
breath, derived from the Latin, 
Asplro, to breathe, and so contain- 
ing only a few words, as for ex- 
ample, "My Jesus, mercy." Indul- 
gences are applied to many of these 

Assumption The reception into 
heaven of the body of the Blessed 
Virgin shortly after her death. Its 
commemoration on August 15 is a 
holyday of obligation. 

Atheism A system opposed to 
theism, which denies God's exis- 
tence and refers mortality to a ma- 
terial rather than a spiritual 

Atonement The suffering of 
Christ caused by sin; the payment 
of the debt to divine justice that 
He alone could make. The atone- 
ment was an act of love because 
the complete anguish He endured 
was not absolutely necessary, 

Attributes of God Though God 
is one and simple, we form a better 
idea by applying characteristics to 
Him,, such as: almighty, eternal, 


holy, immortal, immense, immut- 
able, incomprehensible, ineffable, 
infinite, intelligent, invisible, just, 
loving, merciful, most high, most 
wise, omnipotent, omniscient, omni- 
present, patient, perfect, provident, 
self-dependent, supreme, true. 

Attrition Imperfect contrition 
based on an inferior motive such as 
the loss of heaven or the punish- 
ment of hell, not on the pure love 
of God. 

Audiences, Papal Receptions 
by the Holy Father to groups or 
individuals. Requests for audiences 
are made to the Master of the 

Aureole A symbolic oval of 
light placed over the heads of 
saints in Christian art to symbolize 
their special honor in heaven; also 
called a halo or nimbus. 

Authority The right of some to 
impose the duty of obedience on 
others. There must be authority 
everywhere as well as obedience, 
but men are not bound to live un- 
der any particular form of au- 

If a particular form of authority 
encroaches upon the rights and 
liberties of the people, a revolution 
may be justified. When the author- 
ity of the State and that of the 
Church conflict, the State is not to 
be obeyed against God. All author- 
ity comes from God. 

Auto da fe The public cere- 
mony in which those convicted of 
heresy by the Inquisition were giv- 
en their final sentence. 

Banns of Marriage Three pub- 
lications of an intended marriage 
on Sundays or holy days in the 
churches ol the parties concerned 
for the purpose of discovering any 
impediments that may invalidate 
the marriage. Ordinarily the pastor 
should not perform the marriage 
until three days after the last pub- 
lication of the banns. 

Baptism The sacrament of ini- 
tiation and regeneration. By pouring 
water on the head of the person 
to be baptized, while invoking the 
Holy Trinity, he is cleansed of orig- 
inal sin and made a disciple of 

Christ. This is baptism by water, 
which may be administered also 
by immersion or aspersion. There 
are two other kinds of baptism: 
by blood (or martyrdom) and of 
desire (perfect charity or love of 
God, and therefore implicitly the 
desire for the sacrament). 

The significance of the ceremo- 
nies of baptism is very beautiful, 
yet few people ever think of them. 
Among the ceremonies are the fol- 

The person baptized is to receive 
in baptism the name of a saint* 
that the person may profit by the 
example and patronage of that 
saint. The priest breathes thrice 
upon his face to signify the new 
spiritual life which is to be 
breathed into his soul; he puts salt 
into his mouth, as a sign that he is 
to be freed from the corruption of 
sin. Then the priest solemnly ex- 
orcises the person; anoints his 
ears and nostrils with spittle 
after our Lord's example, who re- 
stored sight to the blind man 
and asks Mm in three separate in- 
terrogations whether he renounces 
Satan, all his works and all his 

He next anoints him with the oil 
of catechumens on his breast and 
between his shoulders. The ancient 
athletes were anointed before their 
contests in the arena, and in the 
same way the young Christian is 
prepared for the "good fight" which 
lies before him. The recipient, 
through his sponsors if he be a 
child, professes his faith by recit- 
ing the Creed, and then the priest 
pours water three times on his 
head, in the form of a crqss, at the 
same time pronouncing the words, 
"I baptize thee, in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost." After baptism, chrism 
is put on the top of his head to 
signify his union with Christ, the 
head of the Church; he receives 
a white garment, and a burning 
candle in his hands, a symbol of the 
light of faith and charity. 

These rites are recommended by 
their beautiful symbolism and the 
majestic words which accompany 


them as well as by their venerable 

Basilica Originally the form of 
building used for early Christian 
churches, being an adaptation of a 
pagan edifice for Christian wor- 
ship; the ground plan resembles a 
cross; the roof is supported by pil- 
lars with arched windows in the 
clerestory; the facade faces the 
East Today the name basilica is 
applied to historic and privileged 
churches, such as those of St. Peter 
and St. John Lateran. 

Beatification A pontifical decla- 
ration that a member of the Church 
deserves to be regarded as resid- 
ing in heaven due to a saintly life 
or heroic death. An examination 
of the life, virtues and writings is 
first made in the diocese of the 
candidate, as well as by the Church 
officially, before the person is de- 
clared blessed. 

Beatific Vision The vision of 
God enjoyed by the blessed in 
heaven, called beatific because it 
is the supreme source of happiness 
in heaven. 

Beatitudes Eight blessings 
given in the Sermon on the Mount 
(Matt, v, 3-10): blessed are the 
poor in spirit, the meek, those who 
mourn, who seek justice, the merci- 
ful, peacemakers, the clean of heart 
and the persecuted. 

Be I is Sacramentals used to re- 
mind us of God and our duties to 
Him, introduced toward the close 
of the fourth century. Tower bells 
have been rung at the elevation of 
the principal Mass in a church 
since the thirteenth century. 

The power of calling the faithful 
to Church is often attributed to 
the efficacy of the bell; but, of 
course, this notion is a supersti- 
tious one. This power is due only 
to the blessing and prayer of the 

Benediction of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment A religious service which 
originated in the fourteenth cen- " 
tury with the custom of exposing 
the Blessed Sacrament. A blessing 
with the Host is given before It is 
taken from the ostensorium and re- 
placed in the tabernacle. 

Benediction with Clborium A 
less solemn form of benediction in 
which the Host remains in the ci- 
borium and is not. visible. 

Benefice Church property or 
revenue attached to spiritual offices 
for the support of the clergy. 

Benefit of Clergy The privilege 
of the clergy to be exempt from the 
jurisdiction of civil courts, once in 
effect in the American colonies, 
now abolished. 

Benevolence A disposition akin 
to charity, consisting in wishing 
well for the happiness of others. 

Betrothal A mutual agreement 
to marry. The contract to marry 
must be made in writing, signed by 
the parties and, in addition, by 
either the pastor or the ordinary of 
the place, or by at least two wit- 
nesses, if neither the pastor nor 
the ordinary sign. If either or both 
parties be unable to write, mention 
of that fact must be made in the 
document, for the validity of the 
act, and another witness must be 
added to sign the document. 
Promises of marriage made accord- 
ing to the prescribed form will be 
binding in conscience, but they do 
not give rise any more to the diri- 
ment impediment of public decency, 
nor to any canonical prohibiting 
impediment properly so called. 

Betting The backing of an is- 
sue with a sum of money, or other 
valuables, binding in conscience, if 
th object is honest, if the two 
parties have the free disposal of 
their stakes, if the bet is thorough- 
ly understood by both parties, and 
if the outcome is not known before- 
hand. Bets are often null and void 
in the eyes of the law. 

Bible, The This name was giv- 
en to the sacred books of the Jews 
and the Christians. The Catholic 
Bible is composed of a number of 
inspired books contained in the 
Vulgate translation and enumer- 
ated by the Council of Trent. 

Some few Catholic theologians 
have, indeed, maintained that the 
Scriptures may err in mintmh 
i.e., in small matters of historical 
detail which in no way affect faith 
or morals. But in doing so, they do 


not contradict any express defini- 
tion of Pope or Council, though 
such, an opinion lias never obtained 
any currency in the Church. 

Secondly, the Church affirms 
that all Scripture is the "word of 
God, but at the same time it main- 
tains that there is an unwritten 
word of God over and above the 
Scripture. The Catholic view is 
reasonable. If our Lord had meant 
His Church to be guided by a book, 
and by a book alone, He would 
have taken care that Christians 
should be at once provided with 
sacred books. As a matter of fact, 
He did nothing of the kind. He 
refers those who were to embrace 
His doctrine, not to a book, but to 
the living voice of His apostles 
and of His Church. "He who 
heareth you," He said to the apos- 
tles, "heareth Me." Scripture is a 
source, but by no means the only 
source, of Christian doctrine. We 
must also appeal to the tradition 
of the Church. The Church from 
the beginning taught by word and 

Again, it belongs to the Church, 
and to the Church alone, to deter- 
mine the true sense of the Scrip- 
ture; we cannot interpret contrary 
to the Church's decision, or to "the 
unanimous consent of the Fathers/* 
without making shipwreck of the 
Faith. The Catholic is fully Justi- 
fied in believing with perfect con- 
fidence that the Church, cannot 
teach any doctrine contrary to the 
Scriptures, for our Lord has prom- 
ised that the gates of hell shall not 
prevail against His Church. On the 
other hand, Christ has made no 
promise of infallibility to those who 
expound Scripture by the light of 
private judgment. 

It is not necessary for all Chris- 
tians to read the Bible. Many na- 
tions, without knowledge of letters, 
without a Bible in their own 
tongue, received from the Church 
teaching which was quite sufficient 
for the salvation of their souls. In- 
deed, if the study of the Bible had 
been an indispensable requisite, a 
great part of the human race would 
have been left without the means 

of grace till the invention of print- 
ing. More than this, parts of the 
Bible are evidently unsuited to the 
very young or to the ignorant, and 
hence Clement XI condemned the 
proposition that "the reading of 
Scripture is for all." 

Bible in Pyfolic Schools The 
practice of reading the Bible in the 
public schools has been opposed by 
non-Christians and Catholics, as 
generally only Protestant versions 
ar used. Catholic school teachers 
in the public schools enjoined upon 
to read the Bible may compare the 
Catholic with the Protestant ver- 
sions and read verses common to 

Bigamy The contracting of a 
marriage while a previous one is 
still binding. 

Bigotry Ignorant adherence to 
a belief, opinion, or practice, com- 
bined with intolerance of others 
holding different views. 

BInatlon The celebration of 
Mass twice in one day by the same 
priest, permitted when there are 
not enough priests to satisfy the 
needs of a community. 

BIretta A stiff sauare cap with 
a number of ridges on top worn 
by clerics when entering the sanc- 
tuary and at other times. 

Birth Control The prevention 
of pregnancy, condemned by the 
Church as intrinsically evil because 
it defeats the primary purpose of 
marriage, i. e., the procreation of 
children, and lessens the respect of 
husband and wife, fulfilling only 
the secondary and baser purpose of 
allaying concupiscence. 

Blasphemy Evil, contumelious 
or reproachful language directed at 
or concerning God. 

BoISandists Belgian Jesuits, edi- 
tors of the "Acta Sanctorum," an 
extensive collection of research in- 
to the lives of the saints. 

Breviary A book containing an 
abridgment of psalms, antiphons, 
responses, hymns, and selected 
parts of Holy Scripture. It has 
been in use from the infancy of 
the Church, though it has been sub- 
ject to many revisions. In the pres- 
ent breviary we have seven hours 


correepondiEg to Matins with 
Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, None, 
Vespers and Compline. 

Bribery An immoral act aiming 
to defeat justice by influencing 
those in office to act in a particular 
manner for a stipulated sum of 
money or other valuables. 

Brief A. letter issued by the 
Sovereign Pontiff at Rome, written 
OE fine parchment in modern char- 
acters, subscribed by the Pope's 
secretary of briefs, and sealed with 
the Pope's signet-ring, the Seal of 
the Fisherman. 

Brothers Members of religious 
congregations and orders of men 
who follow a rule of life for the 
purpose of realizing personal sane- 
tification and who perform works 
of Christian charity. 

BuSS -So named from the bulla 
(or round leaden seal, having on 
one side a representation of SS. 
Peter and Paul, and on the other 
the name of the reigning Pope), 
which is attached to the document 
(by a silken cord if it be a bull 
of grace, and by one of hemp if a 
bull of justice) and which gives 
authenticity to it. 

BulIarSum A collection of papal 
bulls. That of Cocguelines contain- 
ing the bulls of all popes from Leo 
the Great to Benedict XIII is the 
most famous. 

Burial Interment with ecclesi- 
astical rites and in consecrated 
ground granted to all baptized, con- 
verts and catechumens; denied to 
apostates, heretics, schismatics, 
Freemasons, etc., those excommuni- 
cated, deliberate suicides, duelists, 
those who have ordered their bod- 
ies cremated, and public sinners. 

Burse A square case into which 
the priest puts the corporal which 
is to be used in Mass; a fund for 
the education of poor students. 

Calendar, Ecclesiastical An ar- 
rangement founded on the Julian- 
Gregorian determinations of the 
civil year, marking the days set 
apart for particular celebration. 

Calumny Lying about one's 
neighbor. Imputing to him faults 
of which he is not guilty. 

Calvary The hill near Jeru- 
salem where Christ was crucified, 
so called from the Latin word 
ccdvarta, meaning skull, from the 
shape of the eminence. 

Candelabrum Name applied to 
a chandelier for lamps, now also 
applied to a candlestick, generally 
one holding a number of lights. 

Candles When used for liturgi- 
cal purposes, candles should be 
made of pure virgin beeswax, typi- 
fying the flesh of Christ, Who was 
born of a virgin Mother. The wick 
symbolizes the soul of Christ and 
the flanie His divinity absorbing 
and dominating both body and soul. 
Candles are blessed and distributed 
to the faithful for use in the home 
on Candlemas day, the feast of the 
Purification of the Blessed Virgin, 
celebrated on February 2. Blessed 
candles are a sacramental. Every 
Catholic home should have at least 
one, to be lighted when the Blessed 
Sacrament is brought to the sick. 

Candlestick A symbol of the 
Eucharist. Six are placed on the 
main altar, three on either side of 
the crucifix. 

Canonical Hours Times set 
apart for the recitation of the Di- 
vine Office: Prime, meaning first 
hour; Tierce, the third; Sext, the 
sixth; None, the ninth; Vespers, 
evening, and Compline, the last. 
Matins and Lauds are recited in 
the morning. 

Canonization A papal declara- 
tion that one already beatified is to 
be regarded as a saint and to be 
venerated everywhere. Proof of two 
miracles through intercession must 
first be accepted as having occurred 
after beatification. The celebration 
of canonization is solemnly held at 
St. Peter's, Rome. 

Canon Law Canon Law is the 
assemblage of rules or laws relat- 
ing to faith, morals and discipline, 
prescribed or propounded to Chris- 
tians by ecclesiastical authority. 
These are binding laws and liable 
to be enforced by penalties. In the 
early Church whenever a difficult 
case was set before a bishop, he 
had three things to guide Mm: 
Scripture, tradition and the holy 


canons. The latter were the dis- 
ciplinary rules which Church syn- 
ods, beginning with the Council of 
Jerusalem, had established. A new 
code came into use in 1918 and 
contains five books, covering gen- 
eral rules, ecclesiastical persons, 
sacred things, trials, crimes and 

Canon of Scripture The list of 
inspired books accepted "by the 
Church as books of the Bible. 

Canopy A cloth, wood, or metal 
covering for an altar or throne for 
dignitaries; also a white cloth car- 
ried over the Blessed Sacrament in 

Cantata Originally meant a 
story set to music for one or two 
voices; now generally applied to 
choral music. 

Canticle A sacred scriptural 
chant or prayer differing from the 
psalms, used in the Divine Office, 
such as the Benedictus and Magni- 

Capita! Sins Grave offenses 
which give rise to many more sins. 
They are: pride, covetousness, lust, 
anger, gluttony, envy, sloth. The 
opposite virtues are: humility, lib- 
erality, chastity, meekness, temper- 
ance, brotherly love, diligence. 

Cappa IVJagna A long garment 
with a train, lined with silk or fur, 
worn by bishops and cardinals. 

Cardinal The cardinals are 
commonly known as the princes of 
the Church, They owe their appoint- 
ment solely to the Pope and are 
chosen usually from among those 
priests and bishops notable for 
their learning, piety and prudence. 

The duties of the cardinals are 
twofold. They take an active part 
in the government of the universal 
Church; and at a vacancy of the 
Holy See, their duties are confined 
to protecting the Church and main- 
taining all things in their due or- 
der, till a conclave can be assem- 
bled for the election of a new Pope, 
who is chosen from among them. 
According to a regulation made by 
Sixtus V, their number is not to 
exceed seventy of whom six are 
cardinal bishops, residing in Home 
and administering the suburbicari- 

an sees (these number seven but 
two are frequently united), fifty 
are cardinal priests, charged with 
the spiritual ministry of the faith- 
ful, and fourteen are cardinal dea- 
cons who exercise the ministry of 
material charity: distribution of 
alms, care of hospitals, orphanages, 
etc. By Canon Law today all car- 
dinals must be priests and at least 
twenty-four years of age, and all 
are made members of one or more 
of the Roman Congregations. 

Cardinal Protector A cardinal 
entrusted with the care of a par- 
ticular religious group. 

Cardinal Virtues The four prin- 
cipal virtues of justice, prudence, 
temperance and fortitude. 

Cases of Conscience Problems 
exemplifying the application of the 
moral and canon law, such as in 
the case of a thief: in how far he 
is obliged to make restitution. 

Cassock A gown worn by cler- 
ics and priests usually black for 
priests, purple for bishops and prel- 
ates, red for cardinals, white for 
the Pope. 

Catacombs In the days of the 
early Church, the Christians were 
subject to many and vigorous per- 
secutions. It was necessary, there- 
fore, that they should bury their 
dead and hold public worship in 
places far removed from the eyes 
of their persecutors. Hence the 
catacombs, which were long subter- 
ranean passageways, whose walls 
were lined on both sides with 
niches in which the dead were 
buried. These niches were sealed 
with a slab set in mortar. There 
were places where these tunnels 
widened out so as to make room for 
a moderate assembly of the faith- 
ful, and it was in these chapels that 
Mass was celebrated upon altars of 
stone. Sometimes there were three 
or four stories to these catacombs, 
each hallowed out underneath the 
preceding one as a necessity arose. 

During the first two centuries the 
Christians used the catacombs in 
peace and safety. During this time 
the underground chambers were 
decorated with painting and sculp- 
ture. With the third century per- 


sedition became fierce and in nu- 
merous cases the Christians were 
followed to their catacombs and 
there martyred. After the third 
century they became a place of 
pilgrimage. During the seventh and 
eighth centuries the Lombard in- 
vaders desecrated, plundered and 
partly destroyed them. After this 
they were for the most part closed 
and by many forgotten, and it was 
not until the sixteenth century that 
interest in them revived. 

Catafalque An erection like a 
bier during the Masses of the dead, 
when the corpse itself is not there, 
covered with black cloth and sur- 
rounded by candles. 

Catechism A summary of Chris- 
tian doctrine usually in the form of 
question and answer for the in- 
struction of Christian people. 

Catechumen One undergoing in- 
struction before Baptism and recep- 
tion into the Church. 

Cathedra The chair throne on 
which the Bishop sits during church 
functions. The term refers to pro- 
nouncements made by the Pope 
from the Chair of Peter. 

Cathedral Official church of a 

Cathedral Schools Church 
schools introduced in the eighth 
century resembling somewhat the 
public schools of today and in use 
up to the eighteenth century. 

Cathedratlcum The annual tax 
paid by all churches and benefices 
subject to a bishop, for his support. 

Catholic Term meaning univer- 
sal. It was applied to the early 
church to distinguish it from heret- 
ical sects. It is one of the marks 
of the true Church. 

Catholic Action "The participa- 
tion of the laity in the apostolate 
of the hierarchy" (Pope Pius XI), 
by the pursuit of personal Chris- 
tian perfection and a union of all 
classes around those centers of 
sound doctrine and multiple social 
activity sustained by the authority 
of the bishops. 

Catholic Church A divinely in- 
stituted society with members in 

every land believing the same 
truths, ruled by the successors of 
St. Peter. The total membership is 
about 335,000,000. 

Catholic Encyclopedia A work 
of reference on the constitution, 
doctrine, discipline and history of 
the Catholic Church, completed in 
1914 and now being revised. 

Celibacy An ecclesiastical law 1 
of the Western Church binding all 
its clerics in major orders, in virtue 
of the dignity and the duties of the 
sacred priesthood, to refrain from 
entering the marriage state. 

Censer A metal vessel in which 
incense is burned, with a cover sus- 
pended by chains; swung before 
the Blessed Sacrament and used to 
incense priests and people. 

Censorship Examination before 
publication of religious writings by 
a priest especially appointed to the 
task. Nihil Obstat on a book means 
that it has been examined and that 
nothing hinders its publication. 

Censure A spiritual penalty 
imposed by the Church for the cor- 
rection and amendment of offend- 
ers. This is the case with those 
who have committed a crime and 
are contumacious, and are deprived 
of the use of certain spiritual ad- 
vantages. Censures are divided ac- 
cording to their nature and the 
extent of punishment they inflict. 

Ceremonies External acts, ges- 
tures or movements that accom- 
pany prayers and public worship. 
, Chained Bibles Bibles chained 
to a wall or table in the Middle 
Ages to save them from stealth. 
Contrary to a widespread and false 
opinion among Protestants, they 
were so secured to afford people 
the opportunity of reading the 
Scriptures rather than prevent 
them from doing so. Protestants 
themselves chained Bibles. 

Chalice The precious cup used 
in Mass for the wine which is to 
be consecrated. The chalice must 
be consecrated by the bishop and 
cannot be touched except by per- 
sons in Holy Orders. 

Chamberlain The title of sev- 
eral classes of palace officials of 
the Roman Court. 


Chancel Part of the choir near 
the altar. 

Chancellor Ecclesiastical notary 
of a diocese who draws up all writ- 
ten documents in the government 
of the diocese, takes care of, ar- 
ranges and indexes diocesan ar- 
chives, records of dispensations 
and Church trials. 

Chancery A branch of Church 
administration that handles all 
written documents used in the gov- 
ernment of a diocese. 

Chant is the music proper (but 
not exclusively so) to the liturgy of 
the Catholic Church. It is the "ve- 
hicle of the sacred text" which the 
Church uses when she sings her 
dogmas. It is a unisonous, diatonic, 
simple or florid melody moving 
with free rhythm in one or more 
of the eight modes. 

Chape S An Informal church of- 
tentimes attached to a larger edi- 
fice. There are many kinds, such 
as cemetery chapels, lady chapels, 
wayside chapels. 

Chaplain A priest appointed by 
the bishop to care for the spiritual 
welfare of a part of the army, re- 
ligious communities or institutions. 

' Chap let One-third of the rosary, 
or fifty-five beads on which are re- 
cited fifty Hail Marys and five Our 

Chapter A general meeting of 
delegates of certain religious or- 
ders to consider important inter- 
ests of their communities. 

Charity A supernatural, in- 
fused virtue by which God is loved 
for His own sake. This motive is 
necessary for chanty in the true 
sense of the word. 

Chastity A moral virtue, op- 
posed to lust, by which is moder- 
ated, in the case of the married, 
and excluded, in the case of the 
unmarried, the desire to indulge in 
carnal pleasure. It may also be con- 
sidered as one of the three Vows 
of Religion. 

Cherubim The second among 
the nine choirs of angels. 

Children of Mary' Sodalities of 
our Lady for women and girls; in 
existence for the past century. 

Chrism A mixture of olive oil 
and balm, blessed by the bishop 
and used in the Church in Confirma- 
tion, Baptism and other ceremonies. 
The oil signifies fullness of grace 
and the balm mixed with it signi- 
fies incorruption. 

Christ The Greek word Chnstos 
meaning "Anointed," is a transla- 
tion of the Hebrew word Messiah, 
designating the King who, for the 
Jews, was to come. Thus, when our 
Lord came, "the Christ" was His 
official title, while "Jesus" was His 
ordinary name. 

The work and office of Christ: 
Christ came chiefly to take away 
sin, to teach, to be the Head of the 
Church, to hold the supreme king- 
ly, priestly, and judicial power, and, 
finally, by His vicarious atonement 
on the cross, to suffer and die for 
us, thus effecting the remission of 
our sins, and enabling us once more 
to become heirs to the Kingdom of 

Christians A name first applied 
about the year 43 to the followers 
of Christ at Antioch, the capital of 
Syria. It was used by the pagans 
as a contemptuous term. The Jews 
did not use it, but rather chose to 
call the followers of the new re- 
ligion "Nazarenes," or "Galileans." 
Probably the term arose from a 
mistaken conception of the word 
"Christus," it being taken as a 
proper name, whereas it means 
"The Anointed." The term as used 
today designates: (1) true imita- 
tors of the life of Christ, (2) Cath- 
olics, (3) all baptized persons be- 
lieving in Christ, in counter-dis- 
tinction to Jews and heathens. 

Church From the Greek Kurla- 
kon, meaning "house," used to des- 
ignate the House of God from the 
beginning of the fourth century. 
Private houses were first used for 
this purpose, but at the beginning 
of the third century, churches, 
properly so-called, began to be 
erected. After the universal tolera- 
tion granted to the Church by the 
Emperor Constantine (in the Edict 
of Milan, 313), these assumed large 
and magnificent proportions. 
Churches, particularly the early 


ones, ordinarily had the sanctuary 
In the East end, facing the rising 
sun, and were divided into respec- 
tive parts, for the bishops and 
priests (presbyterium), and for the 
laity (the nave) . This last was again 
divided into part's for the men and 
women, and the different classes 
of the faithful, according to their 
rank in the Church. The chief 
church of the diocese is called the 

Church and State Where Cath- 
olicism is the religion of the ma- 
jority of the people, as in Italy to- 
day, the Church endeavors to work 
harmoniously with the State, since 
the two have jurisdiction over the 
same persons. In the case of a dis- 
agreement, the authority of the 
Church should prevail over the 
State or some agreement foe made 
between them. 

Churching A pious and laudable 
custom, reserved for women who 
have borne children in wedlock. 
Properly speaking, It is to be per- 
formed by the parish priest. Having 
sprinkled the woman with holy 
water in the form of a cross, the 
priest says a prayer of thanksgiv- 
ing, blesses her, and in these words 
invites her: "Come into the temple 
of God. Adore the Son of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, who has given 
thee fruitfulness in childbearing." 

Church Militant The faithful 
still living on earth as distinct from 
the Church Suffering in purgatory 
and the Church Triumphant in 

Church Unity Octave Eight 
days of prayer offered from Janu- 
ary 18 to January 25, that all lapsed 
Catholics return to the Church, and 
all those outside the Church be con- 
verted. This devotion was started 
by the Friars of the Atonement 
about 1910. 

Ciborium The vessel In which 
the Sacred Hosts are kept for dis- 
tribution at Communion. 

Circumcision A custom ob- 
served by the Jews as a sign of the 
covenant between God and Abra- 
ham. The circumcision of the Child 
Jesus out of reverence for the law 
is commemorated by the Church on 
January 1. 

Clandestinity Illegal secrecy, 
an impediment to valid marriage 
if the ceremony be performed by 
any other than the parish priest or 
bishop of the diocese or delegate of 

Clergy,, Married Oriental cler- 
ics may not licitly, and more prob- 
ably not validly, marry after the 
reception of the subdeaconship. If 
they have been married before that 
time, they may use marriage rights. 

Ciergy p Religious Clergy who 
take the vows of poverty, chastity 
and obedience and who are subject 
to a religious superior. They are 
also called "regular" clergy because 
they observe a rule of life. 

Clergy, Secular Clergy imme- 
diately subject to a bishop of a dio- 
cese, devoted to ordinary parochial 
work and the administration of the 
Church throughout the world. They 
take a vow of chastity and make a 
promise of obedience to their bish- 

Cleric One who has been as- 
signed to the Divine ministry by 
the reception of the clerical ton- 
sure, and thus rendered capable of 
obtaining the power of orders and 
jurisdiction, benefices and pen- 
sions; loosely used to designate 
also one who enjoys the clerical 
privileges of immunity and exemp- 
tion, such as a religious, a novice, 
or a member of a society having 
community life without vows. 

Clericalism Term used by Free- 
thinkers for the application of 
moral principles to economic, social 
and political matters and for what 
is termed the exaggerated claims 
of the clergy. 

Cloister The enclosure of a con- 
vent or monastery, which the en- 
closed may not freely leave or out- 
siders enter. 

Closed Times Seasons of the 
year when the nuptial blessing is 
not given, except with special per- 
mission: during Advent and Lent, 
on Christmas and Easter Sunday. 

Coadjutor Bishop A Bishop de- 
puted by the Holy See to assist the 
diocesan bishop in the administra- 
tion of a diocese or in pontifical 
functions. Also called Auxiliary. 


Code A digest of rules or regu- 
lations such, as the Code of Canon 

Coeducation Arguments In fa- 
vor of the education of both sexes 
without consideration of sex are: 
economy, better discipline, and 
beneficial social intercourse. Ob- 
jections are that boys can and 
should be subjected to a stricter 
regimen than girls and that the low- 
ering of sex tension leads to in- 
difference and graye moral evils. 
Coeducation is not generally em- 
ployed in Catholic secondary schools. 

College, Sacred The body of 

Colors, Liturgical The colors 
approved by the Church for use in 
public worship. Certain c'olors are 
prescribed for certain feasts. Dra- 
peries of the altar and vestments 
of the clergy are white, red, green, 
violet or black, according to the 
Office of the day. 

Commandments of God The 
"Decalogue" or "ten words** writ- 
ten by the finger of God on two 
tablets of stone, and given to Moses 
on Mt. Sinai. As defined by the 
Council of Trent, they bind the 
conscience of all mankind, mani- 
festing to us God's will in our be- 
half, and, by their observance, en- 
able us to attain to everlasting 
salvation. They are: 

1. I am the Lord thy God. Thou 
shalt not have strange gods before 

2. Thou shalt not take the name 
of the Lord, thy God, in vain. 

3. Remember thou keep holy the 
Sabbath day. 

4. Honor thy father and thy 

5. Thou shalt not kill. 

6. Thou shalt not commit adul- 

7. Thou shalt not steal. 

8. Thou shalt not bear false wit- 
ness against thy neighbor, 

9. Thou shalt not covet thy neigh- 
bor's wife. 

10. Thou shalt not covet thy 
neighbor's goods. 

Commandments of the Church 
The Church, being our mother, and 
having the deposit of faith to pre- 

serve and make known to us, there- 
fore has the power to make rules 
for us. Thus she commands us: 

1. To hear Mass on Sundays and 
holy days of obligation. 

2. To fast and abstain on the 
days appointed. 

3. To confess at least once a year. 

4. To receive the Holy Eucharist 
during the Easter time. 

5. To contribute to the support 
of our pastors. 

6. Not to marry persons who are 
not Catholics, or who are related 
to us within the third degree of 
kindred, nor privately without wit- 
nesses, nor to solemnize marriage 
at forbidden times. 

Commissariat of the Holy Land 
A territory assigned to the Friars 
Minor for the purpose of collecting 
alms for the holy places in Pales- 
tine. There are some forty through- 
out the world, one being located at 
Mt. St. Sepulchre, Washington, D. C. 

Communion It is a tenet of the 
Catholic faith that the Body and 
Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus 
Christ are given in the Communion, 
and that Christ is received whole 
and entire under either species, 
i. e. } under the form of bread alone, 
or wine alone. 

Communion, Frequent The 
Church exhorts the faithful to re- 
ceive daily, if possible. It is recom- 
mended to keep free from venial 
sin in order to receive more worth- 
ily. The practice of frequent Com- 
munion was introduced by Pius X. 

Communion of Saints The union 
of the faithful in heaven, on earth 
and in purgatory. Belief in the 
Communion of Saints is expressed 
in the ninth article of the Apostles' 
Creed. According to the teaching of 
the Church, it is added as an ex- 
planation of the preceding article, 
"I believe in the Holy Catholic 
Church." It embraces the Church 
Triumphant, the Church Militant, 
and the Church Suffering. The 
faithful here upon earth are In 
communication with each other by 
their good works, charity and pray- 
ers. Our communication with the 
poor souls consists in our praying 
for their liberation from the cleans- 
ing fires of purgratory. We are in 


communion with the elect in heaven 
when we ask them to intercede to 
God in our behalf, by honoring and 
imitating them and by obtaining 
their help and prayers. 

Communism A social or eco- 
nomic system founded on the com- 
munity of goods. In political prac- 
tice it involves absolute control by 
the community in all matters per- 
taining to labor, religion and social 
relations. It embodies the princi- 
ples of Karl Marx. Actually it has 
become a philosophy of life direct- 
ing men to merely material ends, 
and militantly combats religion; as 
in Russia today. Pope Pius XI on 
March" 19, 1937, Issued the encycli- 
cal, "Divini Redemptoris," on Athe- 
istic Communism. 

Concelebration In the Western 
Church this rite is now used only 
at the ordination of priests and the 
consecration of bishops when sev- 
eral priests say Mass together, all 
consecrating the same bread and 
wine. In all Eastern Churches con- 
celebration is common. 

Conclave This term is applied 
to the place where the cardinals 
assemble for the election of a new 
pope, and to the assembly itself. 
In a General Council held at the 
Lateran in 1179, it was decreed 
that the election should henceforth 
rest with the cardinals alone, and 
that, in order to be canonical, it 
must be supported by two-thirds of 
their number. After the death of a 
pope, the cardinals who are absent 
are immediately to be summoned 
to the conclave by one of the secre- 
taries of the Sacred College; the 
election is to begin on the fifteenth 
or the eighteenth day after the 
death. Originally this period was for 
ten days, but, to allow those at a 
great distance to arrive on time, the 
period was lengthened to fifteen or 
eighteen days at the most. On the 
day on which the conclave officially 
begins a solemn Mass of the Holy 
Ghost is sa|d in the Pauline Chapel, 
and after it the cardinals form a 
procession and proceed to the Sis- 
tine Chapel where the voting takes 
place. During the conclave the car- 
dinals occupy apartments in the 
Vatican Palace. After three days the 

amount of food sent in is restricted; 
if five more days elapse without an 
election being made, the rule used 
to be that the cardinals should 
from that time subsist on nothing" 
but bread, wine, and water; but 
this rigor has been modified. Morn- 
ing and evening, the cardinals meet 
in the chapel, and a secret scrutiny 
is usually instituted, in order to 
ascertain whether any candidate 
has the required majority of two- 
thirds. A cardinal coming from a 
distance can enter the conclave 
after the closure, but only if he 
claims the right of doing so within 
three days of his arrival in the 
city. There are three valid modes 
of election: by scrutiny, by com- 
promise, and by what is called 
quasi-inspiration. Compromise oc- 
curs when all the cardinals agree 
to entrust the election to a small 
committee of two or three members 
of the body. Scrutiny is the or- 
dinary mode; elections have usu- 
ally been made by this mode with 
reasonable dispatch. However, ow- 
ing to the disturbances of the times, 
the conclave of 1799, at which Pius 
VII was elected, lasted six months. 

Concordat Prom Lat. concordata, 
"things agreed upon." A treaty be- 
tween the Holy See and a secular 
state touching the conservation 
and promotion of the interests of 
religion in that state. 

Concubinage Unlawful inter- 
course between a man and wontais 
living together more or less per- 

Concupiscence A desire of the 
lower appetite contrary to reason: 
"the flesh lusteth against the 
spirit." According to the Catholic 
view, if the rational will resists 
such inordinate desires there is no 
sin. The Protestant view holds con- 
cupiscence is of itself sinful, identi- 
fying it with original sin. 

Confession Sacramental Con- 
fession consists of accusing our- 
selves of our sins to a priest who 
has received authority to give ab- 
solution. Confession must be: (1) 
entire, (2) vocal, (3) accompanied 
by supernatural sorrow and firm 
purpose of amendment, (4) humble 


and sincere. The form of Confes- 
sion Is as follows: The penitent, 
kneeling at the confessor's feet, 
says: "Pray, Father, bless me, for 
I have sinned." The priest gives 
the "blessing prescribed in the Ro- 
man ritual, "The Lord be in thy 
heart and on thy lips, that thou 
mayest truly and humbly confess 
thy sins, in the name of the Fa- 
ther, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost" The penitent then 
enumerates the sins of which he 
has been guilty since his last con- 
fession, and adds, "For these and 
all other sins which I cannot now 
remember I am heartily sorry; I 
purpose amendment for the future, 
and most humbly ask pardon of 
God, and penance and absolution of 
you, my Spiritual Father." 

Confessional This Is the seat 
which the priest uses when hear- 
ing confessions. According to the 
Roman ritual, it ought to be placed 
in an open and conspicuous part of 
the church, and to have a grating 
between the priest and the peni- 
tent. The division of the confes- 
sional into compartments does not 
appear to go bade further than the 
sixteenth century. This arrange- 
ment became general in the follow- 
ing century. 

Confessor In modern Church 
usage, this term refers to a male 
saint who did not die for the Faith. 
It also refers to a priest who has 
the necessary jurisdiction to hear 
confessions and absolve. 

Confirmation A sacrament of 
the new law by which grace is con- 
ferred on baptized persons which 
strengthens them for the profes- 
sion of the Christian faith. It is 
conferred by the bishop, who lays 
his hand on the recipients, making 
the sign of the cross with chrism 
on their foreheads, saying, "I sign 
thee with the sign of the cross and 
confirm thee with the chrism of 
salvation, in the name of the Fa- 
ther, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost." Besides conferring a 
special grace to profess the faith, 
it sets a seal or character on the 
soul, so that this sacrament cannot 
be repeated without sacrilege. 

Confraternity An association, 
generally of laymen, having some 
work of devotion, charity, or in- 
struction for its object, undertaken 
for the glory of God. When a con- 
fraternity reaches the stage of 
which affiliations, similar to itself, 
are formed in other places, and 
adopt its rules, it takes the name 
of archconfraternity, and acquires 
certain particular privileges. 

Congregation Religious A com- 
munity bound together by a com- 
mon rule, either without vows (as 
the Oratorians, the Oblates of St. 
Charles, etc.) or with vows (as 
the Passionists, the Redemptor- 
ists, etc.). 

Congregational Singing Strongly 
recommended by Pope Pius X in 
1903 and Pope Pius XI in 1929 as 
a means of aiding the piety of the 
faithful and increasing the solem- 
nity of the service. 

Conscience A knowledge of 
one's self which dictates what is 
morally right or wrong. When in 
doubt, certainty should be acquired 
before acting, or at least moral cer- 

Consent The essence of matri- 
mony: it must be voluntary, mu- 
tual, unconditional. 

Consistory A meeting of official 
persons to transact business, and 
also the place where they meet. 
Before the Reformation every Eng- 
lish bishop had his consistory, com- 
posed of some of the leading clergy 
of the diocese. In the Catholic 
Church the term is now seldom 
used except with reference to the 
papal consistory, the ecclesiastical 
senate in which the Pope, presiding 
over the College of Cardinals, de- 
liberates upon grave ecclesiastical 

Consubstantiatlon The error of 
those who hold that the Body and 
Blood of Christ exist with the sub- 
stance of the bread and wine in 
the Eucharist. % 

Continence The state of one 
who controls the sex instinct. 

Contrition Sorrow and detesta- 
tion, for past sins and determina- 
tion to sin no more. 


Cope A long cape-like vestment 
worn by the priest at Benediction 
and at other liturgical functions. 

Cornerstone A stone prominent 
in the corner of the foundation of 
a building inscribed with the date 
and having a cavity containing 
coins and other mementoes of the 
time and circumstances. 

Corporal Works of Mercy, The 
To feed the hungry, to give drink to 
the thirsty, to clothe the naked, to 
harbor the harborless, to visit the 
sick, to ransom the captive, to bury 
the dead. 

Cotta Another name for sur- 

Council An assemblage of 
churchmen, called to settle eccle- 
siastical affairs. Councils may be: 
General or Ecumenical, presided 
over by the Pope; provincial, pre- 
sided over by an archbishop; dioc- 
esan, presided over by a bishop. 

Counsels, Evangelical While 
keeping the commandments is suf- 
ficient for salvation, the counsels 
of more complete renunciation 
promise greater rewards. They are: 
poverty, chastity and obedience, 
made permanent by vows. 

Counter-Reformation The Cath- 
olic reform from 1522 to 1648 to 
restore genuine Catholic life and 
stem the tide of Protestantism. The 
Council of Trent gave the reform 
official direction. 

Court, Diocesan Officials assist- 
ing a bishop of a diocese: vicar, 
chancellor, examiners, consultors, 
"auditors, notaries, etc. 

Creation The production by 
God of something out of nothing, 
before the existence of anything. 

Creator A title belonging in a 
strict sense to God alone, since He 
is the supreme self-existing being, 
the absolute and infinite first cause 
of all things. 

Creature That which has been 
made out of nothing by God. 

Credence The table on the 
Epistle side of the altar on which 
the water, wine, and other articles 
used at Mass are placed. 

Creed A summary of the chief 
articles of faith, used by Christians 
to make a profession of their faith. 

Four creeds are at present used In 
the Catholic Church: the Apostles', 
the Nicene, the Athanasian and 
that of Pope Pius IV. The Apos- 
tles' Creed is in common use. 

Cremation A violent and unnat- 
ural destruction of the human body 
by fire, looked upon as an abomi- 
nation before God. Catholics may 
not carry out the order of one who 
desired his body cremated, nor may 
they be buried in consecrated 
ground if they order their own 
bodies cremated. 

Crib A representation of the 
manger which held the Christ Child 
in Bethlehem. The custom of erect- 
ing Cribs dates back to 1223, when 
St. Francis of Assisi obtained from 
Pope Honorius III permission to 
represent the mystery of Christmas 
in the form of a Crib. 

Crosier The bishop's staff. 

Crucifix A sacramental bearing 
the image of Christ on a cross 
placed over an altar where Mass is 
to be offered, also used with de- 
votion by the faithful. 

Cruets Small vessels for wine 
and water for the celebration of 
Mass, made of glass, gold or silver. 

Crypt A secret vault to which 
the bodies of martyrs were brought 
before burial. The term is now 
applied to a burial place for dig- 
nitaries under the altar of a church, 
or the basement of a church used 
for worship or burial. 

Cult The veneration of a per- 
son or thing. Private veneration 
may be paid to anyone of whose 
holiness we are certain, but public 
devotion may be paid only to the 
Saints of God. 

Curia The Sacred Congrega- 

Custos In the Franciscan Or- 
der, a superior presiding over a 
number of convents called collec- 
tively a custody. 

Dark Ages Term erroneously 
applied to the Middle Ages to give 
the impression that there was no 
progress during the Ages of Faith. 
The term, "dark," is now applied 
only to the first half of the period. 

Deacon The word means min- 
ister. Such an order has existed 


from the earliest times. Today, 
deacons merely assist the priest in 
the celebration of Solemn Mass 
and on certain occasions may 
preach and baptize. 

Deaconess A woman who per- 
formed certain functions, notably 
at baptism, for the female sex in 
the early Church, particularly in 
the East The office disappeared in 
the Church by the twelfth century. 
The office was not an order, as the 
Sacrament of Orders can be re- 
ceived only by a man. Some Protes- 
tant sects still have deaconesses. 

Dean AJ& ecclesiastical official; 
the head of a cathedral or collegi- 
ate chapter; a vicar forane or epis- 
copal assistant A Dean of Pecu- 
liars is one in charge of a church 
or district, exempt from the juris- 
diction of the bishop of the diocese 
in which it is situated. 

Dean of the Sacred College The 
president of the College of Cardi- 
nals, who calls the College to- 
gether, conducts its deliberations 
and represents it abroad. 

Death The cessation of mortal 
life; an experience common to all 
men. Death is an effect of sin. 

Decalogue The Ten Command- 
ments of God. (See Command- 

Decorations, Papal Given to 
laymen of exemplary character who 
have promoted the welfare of so- 
ciety, the Church or the papacy. 
The titles are: prince, baron and 
count. The papal orders of knight- 
hood are: Supreme Order of Christ, 
Order of Pius IX, Order of Gregory 
the Great, Order of St. Sylvester, 
Order of the Golden Spur, Order of 
the Holy Sepulchre. Other decora- 
tions are the medals Pro Ecclesia 
et Pontifice, Benemerenti, Holy 

Dedication of Churches This 
means the act whereby a church is 
solemnly set apart for the worship 
of God. It is a custom carried over 
from the Jewish religion and im- 
posed as a law by Pope Evaristus. 
Having once been consecrated, a 
church cannot be transferred to 
common use. The act of consecra- 
tion must be done by a bishop. 

Defin I tors Members of the gov- 
erning council of an order, each 
one having a decisive vote equal 
with the general or provincial 

Despair A deliberate yielding 
to the conviction that one's sins are 
unpardonable; a grievous offense 
against God's goodness and mercy. 

Detachment The withholding of 
affection from creatures and all 
earthly things to give it to God 

Detraction The destruction of 
a good name by the revelation, of 
" a fault or crime, whether or not 
the fact be true. Restitution must 
be made according to the damage 
done. The only time when faults 
may be revealed is to prevent evil 
by informing prudent persons. 

Devil The fallen angel, Lucifer, 
who sinned by pride but who still 
possesses the knowledge he had 
and may exercise influence over 
living and inanimate things, as in 
a case of diabolical possession. 

Devil's Advocate Popular name 
for the Promoter of the Faith who 
raises all possible objections in the 
cause of beatification. 

Devotion A pious practice in 
honor of Our Lord, the Blessed Yir- 
gin, the angels or saints. 

Dies Irae Hymn used as the 
Sequence in Requiem Masses, writ- 
ten in the thirteenth century by 
the Franciscan, Thomas of Celano. 

Diocese A section of a country 
and its population which is gov- 
erned by a bishop. The word orig- 
inally meant administration and 
was used under the Roman law. 

Discaiced Applied to religious 
who go barefoot or wear sandals. 
The practice of so doing was In- 
troduced in the Western Church by 
St. Francis of Assisi. 

Disciple A follower of our Lord 
or the apostles. Our Lord had some 
seventy disciples. 

Disciplina arcani Lat. "disci- 
pline of secret" in the Ancient 
Church the knowledge of the Trin- 
ity and of some of the sacraments 
was kept from catechumens in or- 
der to shield these teachings from 
ridicule or misinterpretation. 


Discipline Systematic training 
under authority; also punishment 
given with a view to correction. 

Dismiss! Ipso Facto Lat. jpso 
facto, by the fact itself refer- 
ring to acts which by their very 
performance carry the dismissal of 
a religious from his or her com- 
munity, such as flight with a per- 
son of the opposite sex even with- 
out the intention to marry. 

Dispensation This is the relax- 
ation of a law in a particular case. 
A law made for the general good 
may not be beneficial in a special 
instance wherefore a dispensation 
from one in authority may be ob- 
tained. Pastors, bishops, and re- 
ligious superiors may dispense. A 
dispensation is granted from fast- 
ing, abstinence, certain vows, read- 
ing the office, etc. 

Dissolution of Marriage If there 
is no intercourse after a valid mar- 
riage, it may be dissolved by an act 
of the Pope at the request of one 
or both parties, providing there is 
just cause of a private or public 

Divination Seeking to know fu- 
ture or hidden things by unlawful 
means such as dreams, necromancy, 
spiritism, examination of entrails, 
astrology, augury, omens, palmistry, 
drawing straws, dice, cards, etc. 

Divine Office The official prayer 
by which the Church through her 
clergy, daily offers adoration and 
supplication to God. It is sometimes 
recited publicly for the laity, and 
the daily recitation is observed by 
some orders of nuns, and as a de- 
votional practice by some of the 
laity. It consists of psalms, hymns, 
prayers, and readings from the 
Bible, patristic homilies and lives 
of the saints. It is also called 
Canonical Hours. 

Divine Right of Kings A claim 
to absolute authority by civil rulers, 
regardless of how they rule, ap- 
proved by Luther and Melanchthon 
but never by the Church. Author- 
ity originates in God, and resides 
in the people who entrust it to re- 
liable agents. 

Divorce A legal separation of 
married persons. There are three 
types: absolute, separating from 

the bond of matrimony, which is 
what is commonly understood by 
the term today; from the bed, 
making the denial of the mar- 
riage debt lawful ; from the bed and 
board, by which the rights of co- 
habitation are denied. The matri- 
monial bond is indissoluble but an 
annulment may be decreed. The 
State has no right to grant di- 
vorces since it has no authority to 
annul a valid marriage. 

Doctor of the Church Title giv- 
en to one who is ascribed as pos- 
sessing learning to such an eminent 
degree that he is fitted to be a doc- 
tor not only in the Church but of 
the Church. Great sanctity must al- 
so be present and finally the title 
must be conferred by the Pope or 
a General Council. 

Dogma A truth contained in 
the word of God, written or unwrit- 
ten (Scripture or Tradition), and 
proposed by the Church for univer- 
sal belief. 

Dogmas, Principal Outstanding 
defined teachings of the Church 
are: The Church has the authority 
to interpret the Scriptures upon 
which the Catholic rule of faith is 
based; the Pope is infallible when 
speaking ex cathedra; there are 
three Persons in God the Father, 
Son and Holy Ghost; through an 
act of disobedience Adam and Eve 
fell from grace and lost immunity 
from disorderly affections of the 
body and also the immortality of 
the body which punishments were 
passed on to the human race; 
Christ redeemed the human race 
from original sin; Christ was God 
as well as man; salvation is ac- 
complished through co-operation 
with divine grace; grace is dis- 
tributed by means of the Sacra- 
ments; man's present life will end 
in heaven, hell or purgatory. 

Douay Bible The name given to 
the English translation of the Vul- 
gate version of the Bible, which 
was begun at Douay, France, and 
continued at Rheims; hence called 
also, the Douay-Rheims version. It 
was revised by Bishop Challoner in 
1750. This Challoner-Rheims ver- 
sion has in turn been revised by 
Catholic scholars under the patron- 


age of the Episcopal Committee of 
the Confraternity of Christian Doc- 
trine. The New Testament was 
completed in 1941, and published in 
the United States. 

Dowry Property which a wife 
brings to her husband In marriage 
or that which a religious woman 
brings to her community to "be in- 
vested for her support until death, 
when it becomes the property of 
the community. Should the re- 
ligious leave, the property is re- 
turned without interest. 

D oxo logy The Dosology, or "as- 
cription of glory to the Trinity/' is 
usually called, from its initial 
words, the "Glory be to the Fa- 
ther." The first part of the Gloria 
dates back to the third or fourth 
century, and arose, no doubt, 
from the form of Baptism. The con- 
cluding words, "As it was in the 
beginning," are of later origin. The 
Gloria is recited after each psalm 
in the Divine Office said by the 
priests, and is also said after the 
"Judica," at the beginning of Mass. 

The Glory be to the Father is 
called the lesser Doxology. The 
greater Doxology is the Gloria in 
Excelsis Deo, which is very often 
recited at Mass. It is believed to be 
of Eastern origin and is to be found 
in the Apostolic Constitutions in a 
form substantially the same as that 
now used. The common belief is 
that St. Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers 
(A. D. 366), translated it into Latin. 

DuIIa Veneration or homage 
paid to the saints. 

Duty A moral obligation deter- 
mined by conscience or right rea- 
son. The law of God prevails over 
that of men. 

Easter Duty The obligation of 
Catholics to approach the sacra- 
ment of Penance and receive the 
Eucharist during the Easter time: 
in the United States from the first 
Sunday in Lent to Trinity Sunday. 

Easter Water Holy water 
blessed with special ceremonies 
and distributed on Holy Saturday. 

Ecstasy A state of supernatural 
contemplation in which the senses 
are suspended; conferred by God 
upon certain saints. 

Edification The giving of good 
example to one another by Chris- 

Ejaculations Short prayers, 
many of which are indulgenced. 

Elevation The Elevation of the 
Host and chalice immediately after 
Consecration was introduced in de- 
testation of the denial of transub- 
stantiatioh by Berengarius. The 
practice started about the year 
1100. The further custom of ringing 
a bell at the Elevation began in 
France during the twelfth century. 

Emancipation The abolition of 
penal laws against Catholics in 
England and Ireland. 

Ember Days Wednesday, Fri- 
day and Saturday following Decem- 
ber 13th, the first Sunday in Lent, 
Pentecost, and September 14th. 
They are days of fast and absti- 
nence instituted for the purpose 
of doing penance and thus puri- 
fying the soul at the beginning of 
each quarter of the year. 

Emblem An object or device in 
Christian art, denoting the virtues 
or actions of the saints, as, for ex- 
ample, keys for St. Peter, to whom 
Christ said: "I will give to thee 
the keys of the kingdom, of heaven." 

Encyclical A letter addressed 
by the Pope to all the bishops in 
communion with him, in which he 
condemns prevalent errors, or ex- 
plains the line of conduct which 
Christians ought to take in refer- 
ence to urgent practical questions, 
sueh as education and the relation 
between the Church and State. 

End Justifies the Means This 
principle has frequently but falsely 
been attributed to members of the 
Society of Jesus. Father Ron, S. J., 
in the year 1852 publicly offered 
1,000 guineas to anyone who in the 
judgment of the law faculty of 
Heidelberg University could prove 
that any Jesuit had ever taught 
this doctrine, or any equivalent. 
The money has never been claimed. 

Epikei Greek, "reasonable" 
a reasonable interpretation of the 
law. For instance, a mother may 
.reasonably be excused from Mass 
on Sunday if there be no one pres- 


ent to care for her infant or sick 

Episcopate The dignity and 
sacramental powers bestowed upon 
a bishop at his consecration; the 
body of bishops collectively. 

EpIstSe A selection from one of 
the letters of the apostles, read at 
Mass after the Collects; also called 
a lesson. 

Equivocation The use of phrases 
or words having more than one 
meaning in order to conceal infor- 
mation which the questioner has no 
right to seek. It is permissible to 
equivocate in answering impertin- 
ent and unjust questions. 

Eternity The perennial inter- 
minable, perfect possession of life 
in its fullest totality without begin- 
ning or end attributed to God, 
Who has no past or future. Also 
applied to man's destined state of 
eternal happiness or damnation, in 
so far as it is endless. 

Ethics The science of the mo- 
rality of human acts in the light of 
human reason. Ethics comprises 
personal, social, economic, political 
and international activities. 

Eucharist The Church regards 
the Eucharist as a sacrament and 
as a sacrifice. Considered as a sac- 
rament, the Eucharist is the true 
Body and Blood of Christ under 
the appearance of bread and wine. 
Like other sacraments, it was in- 
stituted by Christ. Considered as a 
sacrifice, it is the Mass, in which 
Christ offers Himself in an un- 
bloody manner, as He once offered 
Himself in a bloody manner on the 

Eucharlstlc Congress An inter- 
national or national assemblage of 
Catholics to honor the Blessed Sac- 
rament. The first owed its inspira- 
tion to Bishop Gaston de Segur and 
was held in Lille, France, in 1881. 

Eugenics The study of heredity 
and environment for the physical 
and mental improvement of future 
generations. Extreme eugenics is 
untenable since it uses immoral 
means to a good end, such as com- 
pulsory breeding of the select, birth 
control ainong the poor and sterili- 

zation of the unfit. Moderate eu- 
genists recommend the segregation 
of the unfit and are to be com- 
mended for that. 

Evangelists The authors of the 
four gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke 
and John. 

Evil A condition resulting from 
imperfection of constitution or ac- 
tion; an absence, defect or perver- 
sion of action called also, sin. 

Evolution The development 
from rudimentary conditions to 
more highly organized results. 
Widespread evolution has been ac- 
cepted as a fact but has not been 
proven. Catholics may be friendly 
to hypotheses but should refuse to 
accept appearances as proofs. There 
is no proof that the human organ- 
ism was generated from lower ani- 
mals, nor that the soul is generated 
by human parents. 

Examination of Conscience Self- 
examination as a preparation for 
confession of sins. 

Ex Cathedra Lat. "from the 
chair" referring to infallible de- 
crees 'of the Pope on questions of 
faith or morals when he speaks 
with supreme authority from the 
chair of St. Peter. 

Excommunication An ecclesi- 
astical censure by which a Chris- 
tian is separated from the Church. 
It is a power included in the bind- 
ing and loosing, given by Christ to 
Peter and the Apostles : "If he will 
not hear the Church, let him be to 
thee as the heathen and publican" 
(Matt, xviii, 17). Major excommuni- 
cation deprives one of all Church 
communication, is equal to ana- 
thema and is publicly pronounced. 
Minor excommunication deprives 
one of participation in the sacra- 

The effects of excommunication 
are summed up: As a man by Bap- 
tism is made a member of the 
Church in which there is a com- 
munication with all spiritual goods, 
so by excommunication he is de- 
prived of the same spiritual goods 
until he makes amends and satis- 
fies the Church. The censure may 
be removed in the Sacrament of 


Exorcism The ceremony of 
driving out demons from persons, 
places or things; based on the 
teachings of the Bible. 

Exposition of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment The Church has always 
adored Christ in the Eucharist but 
it is only in times comparatively 
modern that the Holy Sacrament 
has been publicly exposed for the 
adoration of the faithful. As early 
as 1873 we read of the bishop car- 
rying the Host in procession, the 
monstrance in which it was borne 
having sides of glass. Before that 
time the Host was generally car- 
ried in vessels which hid the Host 
from view. Later in the sixteenth 
century the Host was exposed 
more frequently, especially in times 
of public distress, generally for 
forty continuous hours. There are 
various rules with regard to the 
public exposition which cannot take 
place without the permission of the 
bishop or by apostolic indult. Twelve 
candles of wax must burn before 
the Host. 

Extreme Unction Extreme Unc- 
tion may be defined as a sacra- 
ment in which the sick, in danger 
of death, are anointed by the priest 
for the health of soul and body. St. 
James describes the nature and 
effects of this sacrament: "Is any 
man sick among you? Let him bring 
in the priests of the Church and 
let them pray over him, anointing 
him with oil in the name of the 
Lord" (v, 14). 

Faculties Powers granted by an 
ecclesiastical superior to his priests, 
to hear confessions, etc. 

Faculties of the Soul Imagina- 
tion, memory, understanding, and 

Faith A firm, unshaken belief 
based on the word of God. 

Faith, Act of Belief in the truth 
of a thing, not because it is proven 
but because God says it is true. 

Faith, Rule of For Catholics the 
Bible and tradition on the authority 
of the Church; for Protestants, the 
Bible alone. 

Faith and Reason The Church 
teaches that reason may know cer- 

tainly God's existence, His attri- 
butes, and the existence of revela- 
tion. Reason cannot understand 
however, mysteries such as the 
Blessed Trinity. Faith and reason, 
therefore, are of mutual assistance 
to each other. 

Family The foundation of soci- 
ety, consisting of husband, wife and 
children. The perfect example of 
family life is the Holy Family. Di- 
vorce, birth control, and outside in- 
terests injure the family and threat- 
en both Church and State. 

Fanaticism Extreme unreason- 
able speech or conduct. Since reli- 
gion deeply affects the mind, reli- 
gious fanatics often perpetrate mon- 
strous acts. 

Fascism A political system 
which makes the good of the state 
paramount and places control in 
the 'hands of a dictator. Fascism 
was established in 1922 in Italy tin- 
der the dictatorship of Mussolini. 

Fast Abstinence from food or 
drink before receiving the Eucha- 
rist; the taking of only one com- 
plete meal a day, with small quan- 
tities in the morning and evening 
on appointed days. The Commun- 
ion fast begins at midnight of the 
accepted time in a region. 

Fast Days limber days, the vig- 
ils of Pentecost, Assumption, All 
Saints, and Christmas, and all days 
of Lent up to noon Holy Saturday. 

Fathers of the Church Eminent 
teachers or writers who instructed 
the early Church in the teachings 
of the Apostles. 

Fear is a mental agitation or 
trepidation because of present or 
future danger. Grave fear should not 
be allowed to deter us from duty. 
Full responsibility, however, is not 
attached to evil done out of fear. 
Marriage contracted through fear 
of death or injury is invalid. 

Field Mass Mass celebrated in 
the open in time of war, or on spe- 
cial occasions with the bishop's 

First Communion First recep- 
tion of the Host, generally by chil- 
dren, who should be carefully pre- 
pared beforehand. 

Fisherman's Ring A signet ring 


engraved with the effigy of St. 
Peter fishing from a boat and en- 
circled with, the name of the reign- 
ing Pope. It is used to seal briefs. 
It is broken up after each pope's 

Five Scapulars Any five of the 
eighteen scapulars approved by the 
Church may be worn together. 

Fixed Festivals Feasts that oc- 
cur the same date every year, such 
as Christmas, December 25; Cir- 
cumcision, January 1; Purification, 
February 2; Annunciation, March 

Flectamus Genoa Lat. "Let us 
bend the knee" one of the pray- 
ers of the Mass on Ember days, 
and certain days of Lent. 

Flowers on the Altar Plants, 
cut or artificial flowers may be 
used excepting during Advent, 
when they are allowed only on the 
third Sunday, and during Lent, when 
they are allowed only on the fourth. 

Forgiveness of Sin Catholics 
believe that forgiven sins are re- 
moved from the soul. God can for- 
give sin either immediately, in an- 
swer to an act of perfect contri- 
tion, or mediately through the Sac-' 
rament of Baptism or Penance. 

Fortune Telling If indulged in 
for the purpose of seriously obtain- 
ing information it is a grievous sin 
against the first commandment. It 
should not even be indulged in for 
sport because of the danger to 

Forty Hours' Devotion Solemn 
exposition of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment for forty hours, commemorat- 
ing the forty hours during which 
the body of Christ rested in the 
tomb. These hours are interrupted 
in the United States for the con- 
venience of the faithful. A plenary 
indulgence is granted to all con- 
trite persons who have approached 
the Sacraments of Penance and the 
Eucharist, visited the church and 
prayed for the intentions of the 
Holy Father. 

Freedom of Thought There is 
no freedom in error. One is not 
free, for instance, to believe that 

the Church has erred in its beliefs 
or teachings. 

Freedom of Worship A mixture 
of religion and politics often de- 
stroys the freedom of worshiping 
God according to the dictates of 
one's conscience. 

Freemasonry A religious sect 
diametrically opposed to Christian- 
ity. It has its own altars, temples, 
priesthood, worship, ritual, ceremo- 
nies, festivals; its own creed; its 
own morality. The chief reason why 
Freemasonry was first condemned 
by Pope Clement XII was that it 
professed to represent a primitive 
religion in which all men agree. 
This is in marked contrast to the 
Catholic idea of revelation. This 
still remains one of the chief Catho- 
lic objections, since it is evident 
that apostasy frequently follows en- 
trance into a Masonic lodge. The Ma- 
sonic oath was likewise condemned 
in 1738 as immoral in principle 
since it imposes blind obedience. An- 
other reason for the Catholic atti- 
tude is found in the injuries inflicted 
on the Church by organized Ma- 
sonry. In regard to foreign countries 
this is very evident. In the United 
States, Masonry, especially the Su- 
preme Council of the Scottish Rite 
33rd degree through its official or- 
gan, "The New Age," has shown 
itself as hostile and bent upon the 
destruction of Catholicism. "The 
American Freemason" through its 
editorial pages has emphasized that 
there can be no peace, nor even 
truce, between Freemasonry and 
the official Roman Church. Many of 
the leaders of Freemasonry, Pike, 
Richardson, Buck and Stewart, have 
shown open and unmistakable an- 
tagonism to the Catholic Church. 

Bight different Popes in seven- 
teen different pronouncements, and 
at least six different local Coun- 
cils have condemned Masonry. 

The majority of American Ma- 
sons go no further than the Third 
Degree or Blue Lodge system and 
have no antagonism toward the 
Church. Many indeed are not even 
cognizant of the real aims and pur- 
poses of the organization. They 
have joined the Masons for social 


and business reasons. To these 
many and benevolent Masons, not 
interested in the history or funda- 
mental principles of Masonry, the 
attitude and position of the Cath- 
olic Church as regards Masonry is 
bewildering. They can see no justi- 
fication for such condemnation. 
However, a study of the question 
pro and con will show any fair 
mind the reasons for the action of 
the Catholic Church. A thorough 
and accurate Catholic view of Ma- 
sonry is contained in "The Catholic 
Encyclopedia" where the subject 
is discussed at length. 

Freethinker One who bases 
Ms beliefs on the findings of Ms 
reason and refuses to accept the 

Free WHS The faculty of mak- 
ing a reasonable choice among mo- 
tives. The Council of Trent solemn- 
ly condemned those who taught 
that from the sin of Adam man 
lost his free will. 

Friar ^ term originally applied 
to members of mendicant orders, 
now to monastic and military or- 
ders also: Dominicans, Francis- 
cans, Carmelites, Augustinlans, 
Senates, Minims, Third Order Reg- 
ulars of St. Francis, Capuchins, etc. 

Fruits of the Holy Ghost Chan- 
ty, joy, peace, patience, benignity, 
goodness, longanimity, mildness, 
faith, modesty, continence, chastity. 

Funeral Pall Black cloth with 
a white cross spread over a coffin 
during the last rites. 

Funeral Rites Mass for the de- 
ceased, absolution and interment 
by the priest. Black is the color 
used, except in the case of infants, 
when white is employed. 

Galilean ism A body of doc- 
trines which found particular favor 
in the French or Gallican Church, 
and limited the power and author- 
ity of the Pope in favor of the 
Bishops, and extended unduly the 
power of the State over ecclesias- 
tical affairs; condemned by Pope 
Alexander VIII in 1693. 

Gambling Staking large sums 
of money in pure chance is often 
the occasion of staking beyond 
means, risking- other people's 

money or property, or losing what 
rightfully belongs to one's family. 

Gaudete Sunday Third Sunday 
in Advent; named from the first 
word of the Introit of the day, 
Gaudete, meaning "Rejoice." 

Gehenna A Jewish name of a 
valley invariably used by Christ to 
designate hell. 

Genuflection Genuflection is a 
natural sign of adoration or rever- 
ence frequently used in the Church. 
The faithful genuflect when passing 
the tabernacle; the priest genu- 
flects many times during the Mass. 
A double genuflection, i. e. ? one on 
both knees, is made on entering or 
leaving a church where the Blessed 
Sacrament is exposed, 

Gethsemane Name in Hebrew 
meaning "oil press" a plot of 
ground on the Mount of Olives 
where the Saviour spent much time 
with His disciples. The hours He 
spent there in prayer the night be- 
fore He died are known as the 
Agony in the Garden. 

Gifts of the Holy Ghost Wis- 
dom, understanding, counsel, forti- 
tude, knowledge, piety, fear of the 

Gluttony Eating too often, too 
much, too costly food, or living to 
eat instead of eating to live. 

God In the Apostles' and Ni- 
cene Creeds we begin by profess- 
ing our belief in the one God, crea- 
tor of heaven and earth. The 
Fourth Lateran Council and the 
Vatican Council define God as "The 
one absolutely and infinitely per- 
fect spirit who is the Creator of 
all." The latter Council also adds 
that we can, by the natural light 
of reason and from the considera- 
tion of created things, attain to a 
"sure" knowledge of God. Taking 
the above definition for granted, 
we proceed to state the following 
propositions of St. Thomas proving 
from reason the existence of God. 
In brief, Ms argument from design 
is as follows: There are plain 
marks in the mechanism of created 
things which show that they are 
the work of an intelligent being. 
They display a high degree of wis- 


dom united to immense power. 
Plainly this Intelligence does not 
reside in the things themselves. 
Therefore, the world was created 
and is governed by an intelligent 
being whom we call God. 

Godparents Godfather and god- 
mother, sponsors at Baptism, who 
assume guardianship over the bap- 
tized, instruct them and see that 
they carry "out their baptismal 
vows. Godparents contract spir- 
itual relationship with the persons 
for whom they act as Godparents. 

Golden Rose An ornament 
blessed by the Pope on Laetare 
Sunday and sent to outstanding 
Catholics annually since the year 
1050. The office of Bearer of the 
Golden Rose, abolished during the 
pontificate of Leo XIII, was re- 
established by Pius XII in 1941. 

Good Friday Friday in Holy 
Week. The day on which Christ died. 

Gospel The practice of reading 
the Gospels in the Christian assem- 
blies is mentioned by Justin, Mar- 
tyr, and prescribed in all the litur- 
gies. The first Council of Orange, 
441, and that of Valencia in Spain 
ordered the Gospel to be read after 
the Epistle and before the Offer- 
tory, in order that the catechu- 
mens might listen to the words of 
Christ and hear them explained by 
the bishop. 

Grace A supernatural gift of 
God bestowed upon angels or men 
for the purpose of fitting them for 
eternal life. Since the fall of Adam 
we receive grace only through 
Christ. Without it eternal life can- 
not be obtained. 

Grace at Meals Prayers said 
before meals, asking a blessing, 
and after meals, giving thanks. 

Gregorian Chant Church music. 

Gregorian Masses A series of 
thirty Masses celebrated on thirty 
consecutive days for the soul of 
one specified deceased person. 

Gremial A cloth placed over 
the knees of the bishop during va- 
rious ceremonies. 

Guardian Angels are angels ap- 
pointed to protect and guide each 
indivi<Jual soul through life. 

Habit The disposition to do 
things easily by repetition. Also 
the dress worn by religious. 

Hagsography Writings or docu- 
ments about saints, holy persons, 

Happiness St. Thomas taught 
that happiness is unattainable in 
this life since it consists in the con- 
templation of God. Incomplete hap- 
piness may be obtained by self-re- 
straint, detachment and sacrifice of 
transitory enjoyment for future 

Heart of Jesus (Sacred Heart) 
The special and formal devotion to 
the heart of Jesus owes its origin 
to a French Visitation nun, St. Mar- 
garet Mary AlacoQue, who lived in 
the latter part of the seventeenth 
century. Our Lord Himself ap- 
peared to her and declared that 
this worship was most acceptable 
to Him. Permission to celebrate 
the Feast of the Sacred Heart on 
the Friday after the octave of 
Corpus Christi was extended to the 
whole Church in 1856. 

Heart of Mary, Immaculate 
The principles on which this devo- 
tion rests are the same as those 
which are the foundation of the 
Catholic devotion to the Sacred 
Heart. The devotion to the Im- 
maculate Heart was first propa- 
gated by John Eudes, who died in 
1680. In 1855, Pope Pius IX ex- 
tended the feast which is kept 
either on the Sunday within the 
octave of the Assumption or on the 
third Sunday after Pentecost to 
the whole Church. 

Heaven The place and state 
where God will give virtue its due 
reward, since vice often triumphs 
and virtue goes unrewarded here 
on earth. There we will see God 
face to face, be like unto Him in 
glory, and enjoy eternal happiness. 

HeSI The place and state of 
eternal punishment demanded by 
God's justice as the lot of the 

Heresy Heresy is defined in 
many places in the Old Testament. 
The accurate meaning of the term 
heretic is given by Tertullian. 
The name, he says, applies to 


those who of their own will choose 
false doctrine, either instituting 
sects themselves, or receiving the 
false doctrine of sects already 
founded. Formal heresy is a most 
grievous sin, for it involves re- 
bellion against God, Who requires 
us to submit our understandings 
to the doctrines of His Church. 

Hermits A hermit or an an- 
chorite is a dweller in the desert. 
St. Paul was the first hermit. After 
ninety years spent in solitude he 
died in the year 342. 

Heroic Act of Charity - The of- 
fering to God for the souls in pur- 
gatory all the satisfactory works 
performed during life and all suf- 
frages accruing to one after death. 
It is revocable at will. 

Hierarchy' According to its or- 
dinary signification, the word ap- 
plies to the clergy only with va- 
rieties of meaning: 1. There is 
hierarchy of divine right, consist- 
ing, under the primacy of St. Peter 
and his successors, of bishops, 
priests, and deacons. 2. In the hier- 
archy of Orders we have by divine 
institution the diaconate, the 
priesthood and the episcopate; by 
ecclesiastical institution the sub- 
diaconate and the four minor or- 
ders of porter, reader, exorcist and 
acolyte. 3, There is also the hier- 
archy of jurisdiction. This is of 
ecclesiastical institution and con- 
sists of the administrative and 
judicial authorities which, under 
the supreme pastorate of the Holy 
See, are charged with the main- 
tenance of the purity of the faith 
and of union among Christians, with 
the conservation of discipline, etc. 

Holy Ghost The Third Person 
of the Blessed Trinity Who pro- 
ceeds from the Father and the Son 
and is, in every respect, equal to 

Holy Hour Form of devotion 
taught to St. Margaret Mary Ala- 
cogue by our Lord. The hour may 
be divided into parts for prayer, re- 
flection, meditation and congrega- 
tional singing, 

Holy Orders A sacrament insti- 
tuted by Christ, by which spiritual 

power is given and grace is con- 
ferred for the performance of the 
sacred duties of the priesthood. 

Holy Saturday Vigil of Easter. 
Lent ends at noon on this day. 

Holy See The papal power, re- 
ferring to the Pope personally or 
the various papal congregations 
and tribunals; Rome, the official 
seat of the Church. 

Holy Spirit The Third Person 
of the Holy Trinity. Name in mod- 
ern usage preferred to Holy Ghost. 

Holy Thursday Thursday in 
Holy Week. The day on which 
Our Lord instituted the Holy Eu- 
charist and the priesthood. 

Holy Water Water blessed by 
the Church is a sacramental, and 
has been in constant use among 
Catholics since the time of the 
Apostles. Washing with water is 
a natural symbol of spiritual puri- 
fication. "I will pour out upon you 
clean water and you shall be clean/' 
(Bzechiel, xxvi, 25). On Holy Sat- 
urday water and salt are exorcised 
by the priest and so withdrawn 
from the power of Satan, who since 
the fall has corrupted and abused 
even inanimate things. Prayers are 
said that the water and salt may 
promote the spiritual and temporal 
health of those to whom they are 
applied and drive away the devil 
with his rebel angels. Finally the 
water and salt are mingled in the 
name of the Trinity. The water thus 
blessed becomes a means of grace. 

Holy Week The week preced- 
ing Easter in which the Church 
commemorates Christ's death and 
burial. In the East, Holy Week was 
distinguished from the rest of Lent 
by" extreme strictness of the fast. 

Hosanna Hebrew word mean- 
ing "O Lord, save, we pray." 

Host, The Christ present on 
the altar under the appearances 
both of bread and wine; Christ 
present under the form of bread 
alone; the bread before it is con- 
secrated. It is in this meaning that 
the word is employed in the ordi- 
nary language of Catholics at the 
present day, and the word in this 
sense occurs in the Offertory of the 
Roman missal, when the priest 


prays, "Receive, O Holy Father, 
this unspotted Host, etc./' taking: 
the bread, not for what it is, but 
for what it is to become at the con- 
secration of the Mass. 

Humeral Veil, The An oblong 
scarf of the same material as the 
vestments worn by the subdeacon 
at High Mass, when he holds the 
paten between the Offertory and 
Pater Noster; worn by the priest 
when he raises the monstrance to 
give benediction with the Blessed 
Sacrament, and by priests and dea- 
cons when they remove the Blessed 
Sacrament from one place to an- 
other, or carry it in procession. It 
is worn around the shoulders, and 
the paten, pyx or monstrance is 
wrapped in it. 

Humility A virtue which re- 
strains the appetite for high things, 
recognizes natural weakness and 
cheeks presumption. Through it we 
realize our dependence on God 
without Whom we are nothing. 

Hypnotism A profound artifi- 
cial sleep in which the mind is 
awake and does the bidding of the 
hypnotist. Hypnotism should not 
be practised except by reliable 
medical men because of the danger 
to body and soul. 

Hypostatic Union Two natures 
united in one person in Christ. 

Idolatry Worship of any but 
the true God. Catholic veneration 
of images is not directed towards 
the images themselves, but only as 
they represent the original. 

I H S The first three letters of 
the name of Jesus in Greek. 

SI legitimacy Condition of one 
born out of wedlock. 

Immaculate Conception Theolo- 
gians distinguish between active 
and 'passive conception. The form- 
er consists in the act of the parents 
which causes the body of the child 
to be formed and organized, and so 
prepared for the reception of the 
rational soul which is infused by 
God. The latter takes place at the 
moment when the rational soul is 
actually infused into the body by 
God. It is the passive, not the ac- 
tive conception which Catholics 
have in view when they speak of 

the Immaculate Conception. For 
there was nothing miraculous in 
Mary's generation. She was begot- 
ten like other children. The body, 
while still inanimate or without the 
soul, could not be sanctified or 
preserved from original sin, for it 
is the soul, not the body, which 
is capable of receiving either the 
gifts of grace or the stain of sin. 
And although the Blessed Virgin 
sprang from the fallen race of 
Adam, and thereby incurred the 
"debt" or liability to contract orig- 
inal sin, still in Mary's case God's 
mercy did interpose. For the sake 
of Him Who was to be born of her 
and for "His merits foreseen," grace 
was poured into her soul at the 
first instant of its being. The best 
summary of the Church's doctrine 
is very nicely contained in these 
few words: "Thou art innocent," 
says Bossuet, addressing Christ, 
"by nature, Mary only by grace; 
Thou by excellence, she only by 
privilege; Thou as Redeemer, she 
as the first of those whom Thy pre- 
cious blood has purified." 

This doctrine was defended by 
the heroic Franciscan philosopher 
and theologian, Blessed John Sco- 
tus, and it was finally defined as an 
article of faith and a truth con- 
tained in the original teachings of 
the apostles, by Pope Pius EX, on 
December 8, 1854, in the presence 
of more than 200 bishops. 

Immersion Though valid, plung- 
ing the subject in water for Bap- 
tism is no longer used by the Latin 

Immortality The survival of the 
soul after death, reasonably proven 
from the spirituality of the soul 
and man's desire for perfect happi- 

Immunity of the Clergy Exemp- 
tion from military duty and civil 
office outside the clerical state, 
such as judge, juror or magistrate. 
This exemption is generally recog- 
nized by governments. 

Impediment Condition that 
makes marriages unlawful or in- 
valid. There are two kinds of im- 
pediments: hindering and diriment 


Impotency Physical incurable 
unfitness for matrimony which ex- 
isted before marriage.* Impotency 
is a diriment impediment; sterility 
is not an impediment. 

Imprimatur - Lat. "it may be 
printed" placed at the beginning 
of a publication to show it has com- 
plied with the Church law, and been 
examined by the censor. 

Impurity Unlawful indulgence 
in sex pleasures by those married 
or unmarried. 

Incarnation The union of the 
divine and human natures in Jesus 

Incense Incense was introduced 
into the Church services when the 
persecution by the heathen ceased, 
and the splendor of churches and 
ritual began. The use of incense 
carries with it many mystical sig- 
nifications. It symbolizes the zeal 
with which the faithful should be 
consumed; the good odor of Chris- 
tian virtue; the ascent of prayer to 
God. It is used before the Introit, 
at the Gospel, Offertory and Eleva- 
tion in High Mass; at the Magnifi- 
cat in vespers; at funerals, etc. 

Incest Carnal intercourse with 
relatives; doubly sinful because of 
the irreverence to a relative. 

Index of Prohibited Books 
Books Catholics are not permitted 
to read without special permission. 

Indifference Carelessness in 
practicing the faith one believes. 

IndissolubSlity of Marriage A 
valid marriage ratified by cohabita- 
tion cannot be dissolved except by 
death. While divorce is not per- 
missible, a separation may be ob- 
tained for grave reasons. 

Indulgence The remission of 
punishment still due to sin after 
sacramental absolution. An indul- 
gence cannot be obtained for un- 
forgiven sin. The guilt of sin is for- 
given in the Sacrament of Penance. 
However, this still leaves a debt of 
temporal punishment, which is 
cleared by the granting of an indul- 
gence. A plenary indulgence remits 
all the temporal punishment due to 
sin. A partial indulgence remits a 
portion of the temporal punishment 

due to sin. To gain a plenary in- 
dulgence it is necessary to detest 
all sin and have the purpose of 
avoiding even the least venial sin. 
Confession, Communion and pray- 
ers for the Pope's intention also 
are prescribed. 

Indult A temporary or personal 
favor granted for a period of time 
by an ecclesiastical authority such 
as a dispensation from fasting. 

Infallibility The Church is pre- 
served from error in teaching faith 
or morals due to the assistance of 
the Holy Ghost, the spirit of truth. 
The Pope must speak "ex cathe- 
dra" before his teachings are to be 
accepted as infallible. 

infidel One who is not among 
the faithful of Christ. Popularly, 
the term is applied to all who re- 
ject Christianity as a divine revela- 
tion. Those who have never heard 
of Christianity are not in popular 
language called infidels, but hea- 

Infused Virtues Supernatural 
virtues like faith, hope and charity 
not acquired by repeated acts of 
our own. Natural virtues such as 
prudence and temperance are also 
considered infused when sanctify- 
ing grace is given in order to prac- 
tice them more easily. 

In SMemoriam Lat. "in memory 
of" inscription generally found 
on tombstones. 

In Partibus Infidelium Lat. "in 
heathen parts" referring to titu- 
lar sees. 

In petto Italian "in the breast," 
or "secretly" refers to the crea- 
tion of a cardinal whose name the 
Pope withholds from publication. 

Inquisition, Spanish This must 
not be identified and confused with 
the ecclesiastical Inquisition. The 
Spanish Inquisition was a mixed 
tribunal with the civil element pre- 
dominating. Ferdinand and Isabella 
of Spain established it in 1481. The 
principal purpose of this tribunal 
was to seek out the convert Mo- 
hammedans and the convert Jews 
to Christianity who were suspected 
of wishing to return to their old 
religion. The former were called 
Moriscos and the latter, Maranos. 


Many of these Mohammedan and 
Jewish converts while openly pro- 
fessing Christianity, and some even 
having become priests and bishops, 
secretly had returned to their old 
beliefs, and thus made a mockery 
of the Christianity they professed. 
It must be clearly understood that 
the purpose of this Inquisition was 
not the persecution of the Jews as 
such, or of those Jews who had 
not been converted to Christianity. 
It was directed primarily against 
those known as the converses. At 
a later date the scope of the In- 
quisition was broadened to include 
crimes of murder, immorality, smug- 
gling, usury and other offenses. 

The king appointed the Grand 
Inquisitor and the other officials, 
and also signed the decrees, and 
the penalties were inflicted in Ms 
name. Pope Sixtus IV had approved 
of this Spanish Inquisition because 
he was left under the impression 
that it was to be an ecclesiastical 
tribunal. When the true state of 
affairs was made known it was too 
late to do anything except to pro- 
test against the excesses of the 

This institution must not be 
viewed from a twentieth-century 
standpoint, but rather from the 
point of view of the times in which 
it existed. Heresy was a state of- 
fense, a crime against both Church 
and State and punished as such. 
Even during the Protestant Ref- 
ormation the same view was held. 
The Rev. John Laux in his "Church 
History" makes the following com- 
ment with regard to the Protestant 
position as to the punishment of 
heretics : "The Protestant Reforma- 
tion did nothing to change the tra- 
ditional views in regard to the per- 
secution of heretics. In Protestant 
as well as in Catholic countries 
heretics were imprisoned, tortured, 
and put to death by fire or other- 
wise. It was not until 1677 that 
the death penalty against heretics 
was removed from the statute 
books in England. Philip of Spain 
considered heresy to be no less 
dangerous to the state than Eliza- 
beth of England considered Cathol- 

icism to be; and Philip's prisons 
were no more unsavory and noi- 
some than the English prisons of 
the time, Luther, Melanchthon, Cal- 
vin and Theodore of Beza explicitly 
approved of capital punishment for 
obstinate heretics. Calvin even 
wrote a special work in defense 
of the principle that 'Heretics are 
to be coerced by the sword,' after 
he had burned Michael Servetus at 
the stake." 

I. N. R. I. The inscription placed 
atop the cross at Christ's crucifix- 
ion meaning "Jesus of Nazareth, 
King of the Jews." 

Insanity Insane suicides are 
given Christian burial since they 
are not responsible for their acts. 
Baptism and Confirmation may be 
administered to the insane and 
Communion given in saner mo- 
ments or at death when Extreme 
Unction may also be given. The 
Church opposes the sterilization 
but approves the segregation of the 

Inspiration Pope Leo XIII in 
his encyclical, "Providentissimus 
Deus," speaking on the subject of 
inspiration has the following to say 
with regard to the Holy Ghost and 
the writers of the Scriptures in- 
spired by Him: "For, by supernat- 
ural power, He so moved and im- 
pelled them to write He was so 
present to them that the things 
which He ordered, and those only, 
they first rightly understood, then 
willed faithfully to write down, and 
finally expressed in apt words and 
with infallible truth. Otherwise, it 
could not be said that He was the 
Author of the entire Scripture." 
(See section on Bible.) 

Interdict A penalty imposed 
upon a group of the faithful for 
serious violations of Church laws. 
During an interdict the faithful are 
debarred from receiving certain 
sacraments, from liturgical serv- 
ices and Christian burial. Holy 
Communion, however, is given, 
marriages may be celebrated and 
the sacraments given to the dying. 

Internuncio A papal legate to 
countries of lesser importance; 


equivalent to ministers of the sec- 
ond class. 

Intolerance We should have no 
patience with error but out of char- 
ity should be tolerant with the err- 

irregularity An impediment to 
the clerical state such as illegiti- 
macy, bigamy, bodily defect, apos- 
tasy, heresy, homicide, attempted 

Itinerary Prayers, including the 
Benedictus, and four Collects re- 
cited when clerics set out upon a 

Joys of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
Annunciation, Visitation, Nativ- 
ity of Christ, Adoration of the 
Magi, Finding in the Temple, Res- 
urrection and Assumption. 

Judgment, Last Final judgment 
by Christ after the general Resur- 
rection, when every good deed and 
every sin of every human being 
will be known to all, without em- 
barrassment however to those who 
die in the state of grace. 

Judgment, Particular Judg- 
ment immediately after death fol- 
lowed by entrance into heaven, hell 
or purgatory. 

Justice A virtue by which every 
man is given his due. God owes 
nothing ,to His creatures, but since 
He loves good and hates evil, He 
punishes evil and rewards good. 

Justification The remission of 
sin and the infusion of sanctifying 
grace at Baptism; or its recovery 
in the Sacrament of Penance when 
lost through mortal sin. 

Keys, Power of the The spir- 
itual jurisdiction of the Church, 
centered in the hands of the Pope. 

Ku Klux Klan The order of 
the Ku Klux Klan existed from 
1866 to 1869 without any semblance 
of its later lawlessness and bigotry. 
Some historians claim that in its 
early stages it was a social fra- 
ternity. However, the Klan soon 
after the Civil War, realizing the 
terror which it struck in the mind 
of the Negro began a crusade of 
violence to "protect the constitu- 

tional rights of the whites" by op- 
pression of the freed Negro slaves. 
It claimed mercy and patriotism as 
its tenets and it gained a free hand 
during the days of Reconstruction 
in the South. President Grant was 
forced to suppress it. 

As a secret fraternal organiza- 
tion, the Ku Klux Klan was reborn 
at Atlanta, Georgia, in 1915, as a 
political, religious body. This was 
pledged to uphold the Constitution 
by opposing Catholics, Jews, Ne- 
groes and the foreign born. Scan- 
dals and lawlessness caused its de- 
cline in 1926. It sprang up again in 
1928 and has been recruiting mem- 
bers in the North as well as the 
South since that time. However, it 
is now definitely marked as un- 
American and must take its place 
i beside Communism, Nazism and 
other subversive groups inimical to 
true Americanism, 

Labarum The banner of the 
cross, used by Constantine in his 

Laetare Sunday Fourth Sunday 
in Lent, also called Rose Sunday; 
named from the first word of the 
Introit of the day, Laetare, meaning 

Lalcism Church administration 
by laymen in the fields of educa- 
tion, marriage, hospitals, charity, 
maintenance of churches, convents, 
and institutions. 

Lamps Used in the Christian 
churches from earliest times for 
practical and symbolic purposes. 

Language of the Church The 
Church requires some of her clergy 
to use Greek, Syriac, Coptic, Arme- 
nian, Slavonic, in Mass, according 
to their rite just as strictly as she 
requires others to employ Latin. 

Last Things, Four Death, judg- 
ment, heaven, hell. 

Latria The honor and worship 
due to God alone. 

Law as Influenced by the Church 

, From the beginning of Christian- 
ity, churchmen have influenced law 
by framing constitutions and oppos- 
ing evils, such as usury. 


Lay Brothers Religious occu- 
pied with the secular affairs of a 
monastery, such as taking care of 
the sacristy, "buildings, farms, 
household, and visitors. Very often 
they are artists and craftsmen. 

Legate, Papal An envoy of the 
Pope sent as his representative to 
a sovereign or government or on 
some special mission. Papal Leg- 
ates are termed : legates a latere, 
nuncios, internuncios or apostolic 
delegates. Legates a latere are the 
highest form of legation and are 
sent on matters of international im- 
portance. The representative of the 
Pope on some special occasion, 
such as a Eucharistic Congress, is 
simply designated as papal legate. 

Legitimation Illegitimacy is re- 
moved if the parents marry. The 
Pope may legitimize children and 
remove irregularity for entrance in- 
to the clerical state. 

Lent The forty days fast begin- 
ning on Ash Wednesday and ending 
on Holy Saturday in memory of 
the forty days fast of our Lord in 
the desert. Sundays in Lent are 
not days of fast or abstinence. The 
name "Lent" is derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon lencten, meaning spring, 
referring to the season in which 
the fast occurs. 

Limbo The place where the 
souls of the just were detained un- 
til the ascent of Christ into heav- 
en; a place of rest and natural hap- 
piness in which unbaptized infants 
and others who die in original, but 
not in actual sin, are detained. 

Litany A prayer for private de- 
votions or public liturgical services 
in the form of responsive petition. 
There are five litanies approved for 
public devotions: Litanies of Lo- 
reto, the Holy Name, All Saints, 
the Sacred Heart, and St. Joseph. 
Others may be used privately. 

Little Office of the Blessed Vir- 
gin Consists of psalms, lessons, 
and hymns in honor of the Blessed 
Virgin, arranged in seven hours 
like the Breviary Office, but much 
shorter. It is not influenced by the 
course of the Church year, except 
that the Alleluia is omitted in 

Lent, and that a change is made in 
the Office from Advent to the Puri- 
fication. Its origin is shrouded in 
mystery, but it is believed to have 
been written about the middle of 
the eighth century. 

Liturgical Movement A move- 
ment within the Church to restore 
the full glory of the liturgy. In- 
augurated at the Council of Trent, 
it was given great impetus by the 
Motu Proprio of Pope Pius X, 1903, 
ordering universal use of the Gre- 
gorian Chant, and of recent years 
has been generally activated by 
clergy and laity. 

Liturgy The public official serv- 
ice of the Church. It is used broad- 
ly to indicate all the public rites. 
ceremonies and prayers of the 
church; also the arrangement of 
those services in set forms, as the 
Roman Liturgy, in which sense it 
has the same meaning as rite. 
Thus, liturgical services are those 
contained in any official book of 
a rite; for example, Vespers is a 
liturgical service. Specifically, lit- 
urgy signifies the chief liturgical 
service, the Sacrifice of the Mass. 

Lourdes A French town in the 
Pyrenees famous for the shrine 
built where the Immaculate Virgin 
appeared to St. Bernadette Sou- 

Lunula or Lunette A crescent- 
shaped instrument for holding the 
Sacred Host when inserted in the 

Magi Wise men who visited the 
Christ Child at Bethlehem. Their 
traditional names are MelcMor, 
Gaspar and Baltasar. 

Magic Marvelous manifestations 
through the real or pretended in- 
tervention of spirits. Magic which 
invokes evil spirits has always 
been regarded as sinful. 

Magnificat Canticle recited by 
the Blessed Virgin when she visited 
her cousin, Elizabeth. 

Mario logy A branch of theolo- 
gy treating of the life and pre- 
rogatives of the Blessed Virgin and 
the part she played in our redemp- 
tion and sanctification. 


Marks of the Church The 
Council of Trent declared the four 
marks of the church to be: One, 
Holy, Catholic and Apostolic. 

Marriage without a Priest 
When a priest will not be avail- 
able for a period of time such as 
a month, a Catholic couple may 
marry by expressing mutual con- 
sent before two witnesses. Such 
a marriage also may be transacted 
when there is danger of death. 

Martyr A martyr is a witness 
for Christ In early times the title 
was generally given to those who 
were distinguished witnesses for 
Christ; then to those who suffered 
for Him, and eventually, it became 
restricted to those who died for 
Him. Martyrdom is the voluntary 
endurance of death for the faith or 
some other act of virtue relating to 
God, Nowadays for anyone to be 
deemed a martyr, he must have 
either actually died of his suffer- 
ings or endured pains which would 
have caused his death were it not 
for miraculous intervention. 

M arty ro logy A catalogue of 
martyrs and other saints accord- 
ing to the calendar. 

Mass The Mass is the unbloody 
renewal of the Sacrifice of Our 
Lord upon the Cross. In it the 
priest, as the representative of 
Christ, offers to God the bread and 
wine, which he changes into the 
Body and Blood of Our Lord at the 
Consecration, and then consum- 
mates the sacrifice by consuming 
the Host and drinking the chalice 
at the Communion. 

The Clmrcli has prescribed cer- 
tain prayers and ceremonies for 
this Sacrifice, and these are uni- 
versally followed throughout the 
entire Church, varying only in 
Rite. The name is derived from 
Lat,, missa, as used in the phrase, 
"Ite missa est," spoken by the 
priest before the Last Gospel; this 
is the dismissal of the faithful, the 
Sacrifice being concluded, and grad- 
ually the term came to be applied 
to the entire Eucharistic Sacrifice, 

Low Mass is read or recited by 
the priest* High Mass is sung by 

the celebrant. In Solemn High 
Mass there are three celebrants: 
the priest, deacon and subdeacon. 
Pontifical Mass is said by the Pope 
or according to the rites of such 
a Mass. Mass of the Presanctified 
is said on Good Friday, with the 
Host consecrated on Holy Thurs- 
day. Nuptial Mass is said at a mar- 
riage ceremony, to ask a special 
blessing upon the married couple. 
Mass of the Dead is said at a fu- 
neral or in commemoration of the 

Master of Ceremonies He who 
directs the proceedings of a rite or 
observance, such as assisting the 
celebrant of a Mass. 

Master of Novices He who 
trains novices of a religious order 
or congregation. He must be at 
least thirty-five years of age, have 
been a religious for ten years, be 
eminent for prudence, charity, 
piety, and the observance of the 
rules of the society. 

Matrimony The conjugal union 
of man and woman, contracted be- 
tween two qualified persons, oblig- 
ing them to live together through- 
out life. The word matrimony 
means motherhood; hers is the 
thought of conceiving, of bringing 
forth, and of training her offspring. 
Marriage is a natural contract but 
Christ has raised it to the dignity 
of a sacrament. It is a union which 
gives to each party power over 
the other, forging an indissoluble 
bond of partnership. Marriage is 
not a mere donation but a mutual 
agreement, and hence the volun- 
tary consent of both contracting 
parties is essential. This consent 
must be mutual, voluntary, deliber- 
ate, and manifested by external 
signs; this consent must be given 
to actual marriage then and there, 
and not at some future time. 

Maundy Thursday Name gives 
to Holy Thursday from the Anti- 
phon "Mandatum" said at the cere- 
mony of the washing of the feet. 

May Laws Laws of the Prus 
sian diet, May, 1873, known as the 
Kulturkampf, which abolished the 


Catholic department of public wor- 
ship, persecuted tlie clergy, ex- 
pelled the religious, and took over 
control of education. The May 
Laws were modified in 1886, when 
several Religious Orders were al- 
lowed to return, and again in 1887 
when greater concessions were 
made by the Prussian government; 
the last remnant of the May Laws 
disappeared in 1915, when the 
Jesuits were allowed to return. 

Meditation Methodical mental 
prayer, or the application of mem- 
ory, understanding and will to some 
spiritual principle, event or mys- 
tery in order to arouse proper 
spiritual emotions and sanctify 
one's soul. Exchanges of sentiment 
and thought, or colloquies, with God 
or the saints are made especially 
at the end of the meditation, which 
closes with a formal prayer. 

Mercy, Divine Love and good- 
ness of God, particularly in the 
time of need, as when a soul is 
clouded with sin. 

Metropolitan In each ecclesi- 
astical province a certain episcopal 
see is constituted by the Roman 
Pontiff, the superior see, and the 
one who presides over this see is 
metropolitan of the province. He 
is also called an archbishop, though 
the two titles are not exactly syn- 

Millennium The belief based 
upon a false interpretation of the 
Apocalypse that Christ and His 
saints will rule upon earth for a 
thousand years before the end of 
the world. 

Minor Orders Orders in ad- 
vancement to the priesthood: por- 
ter, reader, exorcist, acolyte. 

Miracles St. Thomas says that 
a miracle "is beyond the order (or 
laws) of the whole of created na- 
ture." This definition makes it un- 
reasonable to deny the possibility 
of miracles, unless we also deny 
the existence of God. Nor does God 
in working miracles contradict 
Himself, for He need not be re- 
stricted by the laws of nature 
which He Himself made. 

It is also clear from this defini- 
tion that God alone can work mir- 
acles. In all cases a miracle is a 
sign of God's will, and cannot, ex- 
cept through our own perversity, 
lead us into error. True miracles, 
then, are practically distinguished 
from false ones by their moral 

Miracles did not cease with the 
Apostolic Age. The Catholic Church, 
by her constant practice in the can- 
onization of saints and through the 
teaching of her theologians, de- 
clares that the gift of miracles is 
an abiding one, manifested from 
time to time in her midst This 
belief is logical and consistent be- 
cause heathen nations have still to 
be converted and the fervor of the 
Christians must necessarily be re- 
newed from time to time. The only 
reasonable course is to examine the 
evidence for modern miracles, when 
it presents itself, and to give or 
withhold belief accordingly. This 
is just what the Church does. 

Missal The book which con- 
tains the complete service for Mass 
throughout the year. The Roman 
missal was carefully revised and 
printed under Pius V. 

Mission A course of sermons 
and spiritual exercises, conducted 
in parishes by missionary priests 
for the purpose of renewing spirit- 
ual fervor and good resolutions, 

Mitre A head-dress worn by 
bishops, abbots, and in certain 
cases by other distinguished ec- 
clesiastics. The bishop always uses 
the mitre if he carries the pastoral 
staff. Inferior prelates who are al- 
lowed a mitre must confine them- 
selves only to the mitre, unless in 
case of an express concession by 
the Pope. 

Mixed Marriages Marriages be- 
tween persons of different reli- 
gions. "Unless a dispensation has 
been obtained from the chancellor 
of the diocese, a marriage between 
a baptized and an unbaptized per- 
son is invalid; one between a Cath- 
olic and a person of another com- 
munion, e. g., a Protestant, is valid, 
but unlawful. 


Monastery A dwelling of reli- 
gious, who live in seclusion and 

who recite the office in common. 

Monstrance The sacred vessel 
in which the Blessed Sacrament is 
exposed for adoration or Benedic- 

Morality Conformity to right 
conduct. Conditions necessary for 
the growth of morality are: proper 
education of the young at home 
and at school, healthy public opin- 
ion, sound legislation. 

Mortal Sin Called mortal be- 
cause it brings death to the soul. 
Conditions necessary for mortal sin 
are: gravity of matter, sufficient 
reflection, full consent of the will. 

Mortification Hardships, aus- 
terities, and penances undergone 
for progress in virtue. 

Mosaic The Christian art of 
glass mosaic rose in the fourth cen- 
tury. The pontifical works for mo- 
saic were established in 1727. Mod- 
ern mosaics have been used in St. 
Paul's and Westminster Cathedral, 

Motu Proprio Lat. "own ac- 
cord" applied to an informal de- 
cree of the Pope. 

Mysteries Since there are 
countless mysteries in nature it is 
not surprising to find them in God. 
The three great mysteries of the 
Catholic Church are: the Trinity, 
Incarnation, and Eucharist. 

Necromancy Supposed com- 
munication with the dead. It is a 
form of black magic or sorcerous 

Neophyte A term used in the 
early Church to designate newly 
baptized converts. 

Novena Nine days of public or 
private devotion in imitation of the 
apostles who gathered for prayer 
for nine days between Ascension 
Thursday and Pentecost. 

Novice One who having en- 
tered a religious order, undergoes 
a period of probation in prepara- 
tion for the religious life. 

Nuncio The Pope's representa- 
tive at a foreign government, hand- 
ling affairs between the Holy See 
and that government. 

Nuptial Mass and Blessing A 
special Mass for marriages offered 
except during proscribed times 
(Lent and Advent). A nuptial 
blessing is given after the Pater 
Noster and before the last blessing 
at the end of Mass. 

Oath The calling upon God to 
witness the truth of a statement. 
There must be a reason for taking 
an oath as when required by law- 
ful authority. 

Obedience Submission to one 
in authority; one of the chief coun- 
sels, made the subject of a vow. 

Obligation The necessity of do- 
ing what is good and avoiding what 
is evil. It is the essence of the nat- 
ural, ecclesiastical and civil law. 

Occasions of Sin Circumstances 
which lead to sin. There is an ob- 
ligation to avoid voluntary proxi- 
mate occasions of sin. 

Octave A period of eight days 
given over to the celebration of a 
major feast, such as Easter. 

Odium Theologicum Lat. "the- 
ological hatred" a hatred due to 
differences in religious beliefs. 

Oils, Holy There are three holy 
oils consecrated by bishops on Holy 
Thursday, and sent to parish 
priests. 1. The oil of catechumens 
used in Baptism, at the ordination 
of priests and at the blessing and 
coronation of kings and queens. 2. 
Chrism, used after Baptism, in 
Confirmation, at the consecration 
of a bishop, in the consecration of 
churches, altars, altar stones, chal- 
ices, patens and in the blessing of 
bells and baptismal water. 3. Oil 
of the sick, used in Extreme Unc- 
tion. The Roman Ritual requires 
these oils to be kept in vessels of 
silver or alloyed metals, in a de- 
cent place and under lock and key. 
The 'Sacred Congregation of Rites 
strictly forbids the pastor to keep 
them in his house except in cases 
of necessity. The holy oils are all 


olive oil, except the chrism which 
is oil mixed with balsam. The oils 
of the past year must not be used, 
but common oil, in lesser quantity, 
may be added to the blessed oils 
if necessary. 

Old Catholics Swiss and Ger- 
man heretics who refused to ac- 
knowledge the authority of the 
Pope as denned in the Vatican 
Council of 1870. 

Orders, Religious Orders of 
monks did not arise so long as 
every monastery was an independ- 
ent entity managing its own affairs 
without reference to any other au- 
thority but the general law of the 
Church. It was only when, com- 
mencing in the tenth century, sep- 
arate communities such as those of 
Cluny, Citeaux and the Chartreuse 
were formed within the great Bene- 
dictine brotherhood, that the term 
"order" came into use. Early in 
the thirteenth century the mendi- 
cant orders Franciscan, Domini- 
can and Carmelite Friars were 
either founded or came into dis- 
tinct prominence; in the second 
half of the century they were 
joined by the Augustinian hermits. 
These four orders, having no 
landed property, but subsisting on 
alms, began in all parts of Europe, 
but especially in cities, where lux- 
ury and civic pride were beginning 
to show themselves, to preach the 
humbling and fortifying doctrines 
of Christ. 

Ordinary One who has the ju- 
risdiction of an office: The Pope, 
diocesan bishops, vicars general, 
prelates nullius, vicars apostolic, 
prefects apostolic, vicars capitular 
during the vacancy of a see, su- 
periors general, abbots primate, 
and provincials. 

. Ordination The creation of sa- 
cred ministers in the Church for 
divine worship and to rule the 
faithful. Minor and major orders 
precede the priesthood which is in- 
creased by the episcopacy. 

Original Sin The consequences 
of Adam's sin transmitted to the 
entire human race with the loss of 

immortality, control of the baser 
appetites, and the supernatural 
state, entailing death and concupis- 

Orthodoxy Conformity with the 
standards of truth, i.e., belief in 
and agreement with the true doc- 
trine of the Catholic Church, 

Though the schismatic Eastern or- 
thodox Church claims this title, 
they do so wrongly, as they are at 
variance with the true doctrine. 

Paganism A. natural religion 
without true knowledge of God but 
rather a belief in false gods and a 
degraded morality. Two-thirds of 
the world is still ' pagan. 

Pallium A band of white wool 
worn on the shoulders. It has two 
strings of the same material, and 
four purple crosses worked on it. 
It is worn by the Pope and sent by 
him to patriarchs, primates, arch- 
bishops and sometimes, though 
rarely, to bishops as a token that 
they possess the "fullness of the 
episcopal office." The pallia are 
made from the wool of two lambs. 

Palms Blessed palms are a sac- 
ramental. They are distributed on 
Palm Sunday in commemoration of 
the triumphant entrance of Christ 
into Jerusalem. 

Parable The fictitious narra- 
tive composed to illustrate a truth 
of comparison of religious nature 
such as the parable of the cockle. 

Paraclete A Greek word mean- 
ing advocate or consoler, applied 
to the Holy Ghost. 

Parental Duties It is the duty 
of parents to educate their children 
for God and for salvation, to direct 
them toward good and bring them 
under the guidance of the Church, 
provide for their temporal welfare 
by nourishing them and developing 
their faculties. 

Paschal Candle A large candle 
symbolic of the Risen Christ, 
blessed and lighted on Holy Satur- 
day and placed at the Gospel side 
of the altar until Ascension Day. 


Paschal Precept The Church 
law that the faithful must receive 

Holy Communion at least once a 
year. See Easter Duty. 

Passion of Christ Sufferings of 
Christ recorded in the four Gospels. 
Passion plays were developed in 
the fifteenth century, particularly 
in Germany, and there revived in 
the nineteenth and twentieth cen- 

Pater Noster The Our Father, 
or Lord's Prayer. 

Patriarch The highest office in 
the hierarchy. In the order of dig- 
nity they are as follows: major, 
Constantinople, Alexandria, Anti- 
och and Jerusalem: minor, Babylon 
Cilicia, Venice, Lisbon, West In- 
dies. The last four are merely titu- 
lar. There are patriarchs of va- 
rious rites in certain patriarchates 
as the Syrian, Maronite and Mel- 
chit e Patriarchs of Antioch, 

Patron Saint A saint to whom 
special devotion is paid by certain 
peoples in certain places; one 
whose aid is sought in special 
needs; one whose name is received 
at Baptism, Confirmation or in re- 

p ax The kiss of peace, given in 
the Mass. 

Pectoral Cross A small cross 
worn on the breast by bishops and 
abbots as a mark of their office. 

Pelican An emblem of Christ in 
the Blessed Sacrament, from the" 
ancient idea that a pelican fed her 
young with blood from her own 

Penance Penance is a sacra- 
ment instituted by Christ for the 
remission of sins committed after 
Baptism. The penitent confesses 
his sins to a priest, and if he is 
truly sorry, sincerely intends to sin 
no more, and accepts the penance 
the priest gives him, his sins are 
forgiven through the absolution of 
the priest. 

Pentateuch The first five books 
of the Old Testament, which are 
the, work of Moses. 

Perjury The taking of a false 
oath which is always a grievous sin. 

Persecutions The ten great per- 
secutions extended from about the 
year 54 to 313. The Christians were 
looked upon by the Roman officials 
as treasonable men who refused to 
honor the gods of the empire, who 
dealt in magic and, lastly, practiced 
an unlawful religion. If anything 
went adverse with the empire the 
cry was always: The Christians to 
the lions! The first persecution 
started under Nero. Domitian con- 
tinued it, and Trajan followed! in 
their footsteps. The persecutions 
continued up to Constantine's Edict 
of Toleration at Milan in 313. 

Peter's Pence A voluntary con- 
tribution raised among Catholics 
and sent to Rome for the mainte- 
nance of the Sovereign Pontiff. It 
was originally a tax of a penny on 
each house, and was collected on 
St. Peter's day, whence the name. It 
originated in England in the eighth 

Pilgrimage Pilgrimages to the 
holy places at Palestine have been 
customary since early times. Simi- 
lar journeys to celebrated shrines 
are still made to worship, ask spe- 
cial favors, or discharge obligations. 

Polyglot Bible The Bible in a 
number of languages arranged gen- 
erally in parallel columns in He- 
brew, Greek, Latin, etc. 

Poor Box The alms-box has 
been found in churches from the 
earliest days of Christianity. 

Pope Name derived from the 
Greek word Papas, meaning Father. 
The Pope is elected by the College 
of Cardinals, a two-thirds vote be- 
ing necessary. There have been 
262 popes. 

Portiuncula The little Church 
near Assisi, Italy, repaired by St. 
Francis; the annual indulgence at- 
tached to this church and later ex- 
tended to all Franciscan churches. 
It may be gained between noon of 
August 1 and midnight of August 
2 or on the Sunday following. 


Possession, Diabolical The state 
of a person inhabited by the devil. 

Poverty One of the evangelical 
counsels, a voluntary giving up of 
the right of ownership and the using 
of goods in the manner of the poor. 

Precious Blood The Blood of 

PredeSSa The platform immedi- 
ately in front of the altar. 

Prelate A churchman preferred 
above others in papal honor or ec- 
clesiastical jurisdiction. 

Priest A sacred minister with 
the power to celebrate Mass, ad- 
minister the sacraments, preach 
and bless. 

Promoter of the FaSth One 
whose duty is to insure the sanctity 
of those whose cause for canoniza- 
tion is considered. Popularly called 
"Devil's Advocate." 

Prothonotary Apostolic A mem- 
ber of the chief order of prelates 
in the Roman Curia. 

Province A territory compris- 
ing several dioceses and one arch- 
diocese; a territory in which the 
members of a religious order are 
under the jurisdiction of a provin- 
cial superior. 

Pulpit Originally, preaching 
was done from the altar. But ap- 
parently even in St. Augustine's 
time the ambo, originally meant for 
singing from, was raised and nar- 
rowed into our present form of pul- 
pit. It should be on the Gospel 
side, unless otherwise hindered, 
e. g., by the bishop's throne. 

Purgatory A place and state 
where departed souls, having died 
in the state of grace, suffer for a 
time in order to be cleansed from 
venial sin, or have still to pay the 
temporal punishment due to mortal 
sins, the guilt and the eternal pun- 
ishment of which have been re- 
mitted. The idea that purgatory is 
a place of probation, or a time of 
trial, is absolutely wrong; the peri- 
od during which the soul has to 
choose between heaven or hell ends 
with death. 

Pyx A vessel of metal, gold, or 
silver in which the Host is pre- 
served or carried. 

Quarantines A strict fast of 
forty days with only water, bread 
and salt allowed once a day. The 
indulgence of quarantines remits as 
much temporal punishment due to 
sin as would equal forty days of 
such penance. 

Quass-domscile Residence which 
is not permanent but nevertheless 
lasts for a considerable time. 

Quinquagesima The last Sunday 
before Lent, marking a period of 
fifty days before Easter. 

Rashness A vice opposed to 
prudence and counsel by which one 
acts without consideration of ac- 
tual conditions, without foresight or 

Relics The remains of holy per- 
sons, either parts of their bodies 
or possessions, entitled to venera- 

Relics of the Passion There are 
various relics of the true cross to 
be found principally in European 
cities: Brussels, Ghent, Rome, Ven- 
ice, Ragusa, Paris, Limbourg, and 
Mt. Athos. The inscription placed 
above the cross is preserved in the 
Basilica of the Holy Cross of Jeru- 
salem at Rome. The crown of 
thorns is kept at Paris. One of the 
nails was supposedly thrown into 
the Adriatic to calm a storm; an- 
other was made into the famous 
iron crown of Lombardy; another 
is in the Church of Notre Dame, 
Paris. The sponge is in Rome at 
the Basilica of St. John Lateran. 
The point of the lance is in Paris, 
the rest is in Rome. The robe is in 
the Church of Treves. The tunic is 
in the Church of Argenteuil near 
Paris. A part of the winding sheet 
is in Turin. The linen with which 
Veronica wiped Christ's face is in 
Rome. Part of the Pillar of the 
Scourging is in Rome, part in Jeru- 

Religion and Science There is 
no contradiction between religion 
and science since one deals with 


material tilings and the other with 
supernatural. Conflict arises only 
when the scientist tries to turn 
theologian or the theologian, scien- 

Reliquary A vessel for the pres- 
ervation and exposition of a relic. 

Reparation The making amends 
to God for evil done by men, such 
as rendering homage to Him in 
reparation for the irreverence done 

to the Blessed Sacrament. 

Reserved Case A sin which can- 
not he absolved except by a bishop 
or the Pope. 

Restitution The returning of 
something unjustly taken from an- 
other or its equivalent. In serious 
cases the penitent cannot obtain 
pardon for his sin unless he makes 

Resurrection The rising from 
the dead, the resumption of life. 
Christ rose from the dead by His 
own power three days after His 
Crucifixion. This great miracle is 
commemorated by the Church in 
the glorious feast of Easter. On 
the last day all men will rise from 
the dead, and their souls will be re- 
united to their bodies for all eter- 
nity. The resurrection of the body 
is a dogma, our belief in which we 
attest in the Apostles' Creed. 

Retreat A few days withdrawal 
from worldly affairs for solitude, 
meditation, self-examination and 
amendment of life. 

Ring A circular band of metal 
worn as an emblem of fidelity. A 
wedding ring, worn by the wife on 
the fourth finger, is blessed at the 
marriage ceremony. Nuns also wear 
a ring symbolic of their betrothal 
to their heavenly bridegroom. The 
pontifical ring bestowed on a bish- 
op at his consecration, or on an 
abbot, symbolizes their betrothal to 
the Church, 

Ritual A book used by priests 
with forms to be observed by them 
in the administration of the Sacra- 
ments, and in such functions as 
churching, burials, and in most of 
the blessings which they can give. 

Rogation Days April 25, and 
the three days before Ascension 
Day, when special prayers are of- 
fered to appease God's anger at 
man's transgressions, to ask His 
protection in calamities and for the 
blessing of the harvest. 

Rosary A set form of prayer re- 
cited on beads in which fifteen dec- 
ades of Hail Marys are* preceded 
by an Our Father and followed by 
a Glory Be to the Father. In say- 
ing each decade (ten beads) a mys- 
tery is contemplated. There are five 
glorious, five joyful and five sorrow- 
ful mysteries. The joyful mysteries 
are: Annunciation, Visitation, Na- 
tivity, Presentation of the Child 
Jesus in the Temple, and Finding 
of the Child Jesus in the Temple. 
The sorrowful mysteries are : Agony 
in the Garden, Scourging at the 
Pillar, Crowning with Thorns, Car- 
rying of the Cross, and Crucifixion. 
The glorious mysteries are: Resur- 
rection, Ascension, Descent of the 
Holy Ghost, Assumption, and^ Cor- 
onation of the Blessed Virgin in 

Rota A tribunal of the Roman 
Curia where cases relating to mar- 
riage, ordination and religious pro- 
fessions are heard. 

Rubrics Directions printed in 
red in liturgical books for the 
proper execution of liturgical func- 

Sabbath The Jewish day of 
rest. Under the Christian law the 
day of rest was changed to Sun- 
day in honor of the Resurrection. 

SacramentaSs Rites, actions, 
prayers and objects instituted and 
blessed by the Church, through 
which we obtain special grace 
or favor with God. They do 
not produce grace of themselves 
but by virtue of the blessing 
and prayers of the Church, and 
since they were not instituted by 
Christ but by the Church their num- 
ber may be added to. Their proper 
use can drive away evil spirits, 
bring victory over temptation, re- 
mit venial sins, and obtain an in- 
crease of piety and temporal favors. 


The sacramentais most generally 
in use are: holy water; holy oils; 
blessed candles, palms and ashes; 
blessed crucifixes, scapulars, med- 
als, rosaries, prayer-books and sta- 
tues; the blessings of these ob- 
jects; blessing's of houses and 
fields; the Confiteor recited at 
Mass, at Communion, in the Di- 
vine Office; grace before and after 
meals; public or private prayer in 
a church; papal and episcopal 
blessing ; Benediction of the 
Blessed Sacrament; almsgiving. 

Sacrantentary A book contain- 
ing the rites for the Mass 'and the 
Sacraments generally. 

Sacraments Sacraments are 
visible signs of invisible grace, in- 
stituted by Christ for our justifica- 

The Sacraments are seven in 
number. In Baptism we are born 
again; in Confirmation we grow up 
to be perfect men in Christ; the 
Holy Eucharist is the daily bread 
by which the life of the soul is 
maintained; in Penance G-od heals 
the soul which has sinned against 
Him. When death is near Extreme 
Unction conies to remove the last 
remnant of infirmity and prepare 
the soul for final victory. Matri- 
mony was instituted that the nat- 
ural impulses, which have often 
proved a source of corruption and 
crime, might become a source of 
blessing, and that children might be 
brought up in the fear and love of 
God. Holy Orders was instituted 
that the Church might be ruled by 
those whom God has set over her, 
and be guided by the Word of Life 
and be blessed with the Sacra- 

The Sacraments are meant for all 
mankind; but in order that they 
may be received with profit by- 
adults especially, certain disposi- 
tions are indispensable. To the 
Sacraments of the dead, i.e., Bap- 
tism and Penance, the recipient 
must come at least with faith, hope, 
sorrow for sin, and purpose of 
amendment. The Sacraments of the 
living, i. e., the other five, must be 
received by those who are already 

in the grace and love of God. Other- 
wise the Sacraments oaly add to 
the condemnation of those who re- 
ceive them. 

Sacred Heart The corporal 
heart of Christ united to the full- 
ness of His divinity and symbolic 
of His love, accorded supreme ad- 
oration in the Church. (See Heart 
of Jesus.) 

Sacrilege Irreverent treatment 
of sacred persons, places or things; 
a grave sin. 

Sacristy A room where vest- 
ments, church furnishings and sa- 
cred vessels are kept and where 
the clergy vest for sacred functions. 

Saints All inhabitants of 
heaven. In the strict sense, those 
who have received the official ap- 
proval of the Church for public 
veneration, this approval being 
given because of the holy and vir- 
tuous lives which these persons 
lived on earth. 

Sanctifying Grace A supernatu- 
ral gift infused into the soul at 
Baptism rendering it capable of 
acting in a way to merit eternal 
happiness. Sanctifying grace is lost 
by mortal sin; recovered by re- 

Sanctuary Space reserved for 
the high altar and the use of the 
clergy in a church; generally en- 
closed by a rail. 

Sanctuary Lamp One lamp 
must continually burn before the 
Blessed Sacrament. This lamp 
should be fed with olive oil or bees- 

Sanhedrin The Jewish supreme 
Council of Seventy at the time of 

Scandal Words or actions hay- 
ing at least the appearance of evil 
and leading others to sin. 

Scapular A sacramental con- 
sisting of two small squares of 
woolen cloth attached to a cord so 
that one is worn on the breast and 
the other on the back denoting 
that the wearer is spiritually asso- 
ciated with a religious order. There 


are eighteen kinds of scapulars ap- 
proved by the Church as follows: 

White scapular of the hearts 
of Jesus and Mary, originated by 
the Daughters of the Sacred Heart; 
scapular of the Holy Face, orig- 
inated by the Archconfraternity of 
the Holy Face; scapular of the Im- 
maculate Heart of Mary, badge of 
the Sons of the Immaculate Heart 
of Mary; scapular of the Mother of 
Good Counsel, promoted by the 
Augustinian Fathers; scapular of 
Our Lady of Ransom, badge of a 
confraternity of the Order of Our 
Lady of Mercy; scapular of the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus, approved by 
Pope Leo XIII; scapular of St. 
Dominic, fostered by the Dominican 
Order; scapular of the Most Blessed 
Trinity, badge of the Confraternity 
of the Most Blessed Trinity. 

Black scapular of the Help of 
the Sick associated with the So- 
ciety of St. Camillus; scapular of 
the Passion, badge of a confrater- 
nity associated with the Passionist 
Fathers; scapular of St. Benedict, 
badge of a confraternity affiliated 
with the Benedictine Order; scapu- 
lar of the Seven Dolors, badge of a 
confraternity established by the 
Servites of Mary. 

Red scapular of the Passion, 
promoted by Priests of the Mission; 
scapular of the Precious Blood, 
badge of the Confraternity of the. 
Precious Blood. 

Blue scapular of the Immacu- 
late Conception introduced by the 
Theatine Nuns; scapular of St. Jo- 
seph, promoted by the Capuchin 
Fathers ; scapular of St. Michael the 
Archangel, part blue, part black, 
badge of the Archconfraternity of 
St. Michael. ' 

Brown scapular of Mount Car- 
mei, badge of the Confraternity of 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, originated 
by the Carmelites. 

Scapular IVSedat Introduced by 
missionaries in Africa to replace 
the cloth scapular which became 
soiled and dirty in a very short 
time; later extended to the whole 
world. The change from wearing 
the cloth scapular to the use of 

scapular medal may be made after 
one has been received into the 
cloth scapular but the medal must 

be blessed. 

Schism Term applied by the 
Fathers and theologians to a formal 
separation from the unity of the 
Church. St. Matthew and St. Mark 
call it, "a tear or rent"; St. John, 
"a division of opinion," and again, 
"a party spirit in the Christian 

School -*- The Catholic School is 
an institution having for its aim 
the development of the mind, and, 
above all, the perfection of the 
soul. The earliest Christian school 
(of which a distinct account has 
come down to us) was established 
by Pantaenus at Alexandria in 180 
A. D. Later cathedrals and monas- 
teries became education centers. 
Modern universities and secondary 
schools were founded in the twelfth 
century. The primary or elementary 
schools had their origin in the sev- 
enteenth century. 

Scruple An unreasonable fear 
and anxiety that one's actions are 


Sea! of Confession A priest's 
obligation to keep sacred the se- 
crets of the confessional even at 
the cost of his life. 

Secret Societies The Catholic 
Church condemns and forbids Cath- 
olics to enter societies formed 
against the Church or the State, 
those that require undue secrecy 
and absolute obedience and which 
employ a ceremonial equivalent to 
religious sects. A Catholic who joins 
the Freemasons is excommunicated 
from the Church. The Catholic who 
joins the Odd Fellows, Knights of 
Pythias, etc., commits grievous sin. 
Those who join these latter groups 
in good faith, may with permission 
retain nominal membership if scan- 
dal can be removed and there is no 
danger to faith. The general rule to 
be followed is that one cannot sacri- 
fice the demands of faith for the so- 
cial advantages accruing from mem- 
bership in these societies. The same 
rule applies to secret societies of 


women such as the Eastern Star 
and the Ladles of Pythias. 

Secular Clergy Clergy not affili- 
ated with religious orders, under 
the allegiance and direction of a 

Septuagessma The ninth Sun- 
day before Easter and the third 
Sunday before Lent. 

Septuagint The chief Greek 
translation of the Old Testament. 

Servile Work Bodily as con- 
trasted with mental labor. 

Seven Last Words of Christ Af- 
ter being nailed to the cross: "Fa- 
ther, forgive them for they know 
not what they do"; to the penitent 
thief: "Amen, Amen, I say to thee, 
this day thou shall be with Me in 
Paradise"; to the Blessed Virgin 
and St. John: "Woman, behold thy 
son: son, behold thy mother"; in an 
agony of loneliness: "My God, My 
God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?"; 
parched with thirst: "I thirst"; 
when every prophecy foretold of 
Him had been fulfilled: "It is con- 
summated"; lastly: "Father, into 
Thy hands I commend My Spirit." 

Sexagesima The eighth Sunday 
before Easter and the second Sun- 
day before Lent. 

Sign of the Cross Sacred sym- 
bol used by Catholics to signify be- 
lief in the mystery of Redemption 
wrought by Christ on the Cross. 

Simony The sacrilegious vice of 
purchasing or selling ecclesiastical 
offices, benefices, and sacred objects. 

Sins against the Holy Ghost 
Despair of salvation, presumption 
of God's mercy, impugning the 
known truths of faith, envy at an- 
other's spiritual good, obstinacy 
in sin, final impenitence. Those 
guilty of such sins stubbornly re- 
sist the influence of grace and as 
long as they do so cannot be for- 

Sins That Cry to Heaven for Ven- 
geance Wilful murder; sins 
against nature; oppression of the 
poor, widows, and orphans; de- 
frauding laborers of their wages. 

Slander Attributing to another 
a fault that one knows him to be 
innocent of; doubly sinful since it 

destroys a good name and is based 
on a lie. 

Socialism A system based on 
common ownership of the means of 

Sodality An association of lay 
persons, meeting under certain 
rules for pious purposes. 

Sorcery A species of magic by 
which evil is brought on men or 
beasts with the aid of the devil 

Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary Prophecy of Simeon, flight 
into Egypt, loss of Jesus at Jeru- 
salem, meeting Jesus on the way to 
Calvary, standing at the foot of the 
Cross, descent of Jesus from the 
Cross, burial of Jesus. 

Species, Sacred The appear- 
ances of bread and wine which re- 
main after the Consecration. 

Spiritism Condemned by the 
Church as dangerous to faith and 
morals. Attempted communication 
with spirits, whether good or bad 
by means of seances, table tapping, 
the ouija board, etc., is strictly for- 

Spiritual Bouquet An offering 
to God of religious practices and 
devotions for someone living or 

Spiritualism A philosophical 
doctrine that there is a spiritual 
order of things as well as a mate- 
rial order and that the soul is a 
spiritual substance. 

Spiritual Works of Mercy, The 
To counsel the doubtful; to Instruct 
the ignorant; to admonish sinners; 
to comfort the afflicted; to forgive 
offences; to bear wrongs patiently; 
to pray for the living and the dead. 

Sponsor The godparent at Bap- 
tism or Confirmation who promises 
to safeguard the spiritual welfare 
of the person baptized or confirmed. 

State of Grace Freedom from 
mortal sin, whether actual or origi- 

Station (from the ancient mili- 
tary term, statio, that post where 
a guard kept constant watch) signi- 
fies/ the congregation of the faithful 
in a designated church where spe- 
cial Lenten services are held on a 
certain day. Thus according to 


ancient usage various churches In 
Rome have a Station Day; high 
Mass is celebrated, usually by the 
Cardinal Titular of the church, 
relics are exposed for veneration, 
and in the afternoon a procession 
takes place. 

Stations of the Cross A devo- 
tion commemorating the fourteen 
stages of Christ's passage from 
Pilate's House to Mount Calvary, 
first adopted by the Franciscans in 
1E50. The fourteen stations are: 

(1) Jesus is condemned to death; 

(2) Jesus takes up His Cross; (3) 
Jesus falls the first time; (4) Jesus 
meets His afflicted Mother; (5) 
Simon the Cyrene helps Jesus to 
carry His Cross; (6) Veronica wipes 
the Face of Jesus; (7) Jesus falls 
the second time; (8) Jesus com- 
forts the women of Jerusalem; (9) 
Jesus falls the third time; (10) 
Jesus is stripped of His garments; 

(11) Jesus is nailed to the Cross; 

(12) Jesus dies on the Cross*; (13) 
Jesus is taken down from the 
Cross; (14) Jesus is laid in the 

Stigmata The miraculous im- 
press of the five wounds of our 
Saviour on the body of a person. 
St. Francis of Assisi received this 
divine favor in 1224, two years be- 
fore his death. On September 17, 
the Feast of the Stigmata is yearly 
kept by the whole Church to com- 
memorate this fact. Other saints in 
the history of the Church have been 
known to have received the stig- 

Stole A long narrow vestment 
worn around the neck indicative of 
the priestly power. Bishops, priests 
and deacons must wear it when 
exercising their orders, administer- 
ing the sacraments, blessing per- 
sons and things, as well as at Mass. 

Stole Fees Offerings made to 
priests who administer the sacra- 

Stoup A vessel used to contain 
holy water. 

Stylites Religious men of early 
centuries who lived atop pillars, 
there performing acts of heroic 

Superstition Worship of false 
divinity, or worship unfit for the 
true God. 

Surplice A white linen garment 
worn over the cassock. It is a vest- 
ment proper to priests and clerics 
assisting in the sanctuary and in 
performing their sacred duties. Al- 
tar-boys wear it while serving Mass 
and at other Church ceremonies. 

Suspension A penalty by which 
a cleric is prohibited from exer- 
cising some or all sacred functions. 

Tabernacle The receptacle in 
which vessels containing the 
Blessed Sacrament are reserved 
above the altar. The tabernacle 
should be solidly built, gold plated 
within or lined with silk and be 
kept locked. The sacred vessels 
within should rest on a corporal. 
Flowers should not be placed on 
the altar before the tabernacle, and 
nothing should be put over it but 
the crucifix. 

Te Deum A hymn of praise and 
thanksgiving sung on solemn oc- 
casions. It is also recited daily in 
the Divine Office at the conclusion 
of Matins. 

Temperance One of the four 
cardinal virtues which imposes 
moderation and self control in the 
use of food, drink and sexual grati- 

Temporal Power The right of 
the Pope to hold and govern terri- 
tory, such as Vatican City, and to 
be recognized by the nations of the 

Tenebrae The Matins and 
Lauds of the following day which 
are usually sung on the afternoon 
or evening of Wednesday, Thurs- 
day and Friday in Holy Week. The 
extinction of the candles during 
this ceremony represents the grow- 
ing darkness of the time when 
Christ, the Light of the World, was 
taken. The last candle is hidden, 
not extinguished, to signify that 
death could not really obtain domin- 
ion over Christ, though it appeared 
to do so. The clapping made at 
the end of the office symbolizes the 
confusion consequent on Christ's 


Tertiary A member of a Third 

Theological Virtues Those vir- 
tues which have God directly for 
their object: faith, or belief in God; 
hope; charity, or love of God. 

Theology The knowledge which 
we have, or can, have, of God and 
divine things. 

Third Orders Religious associ- 
ations affiliated with the Francis- 
cans, Dominicans, Angus tinians, 
Servites, Carmelites, Premonstra- 
tensians, Benedictines, Salesians 
and Marists, for the laity and those 
who while desiring to embrace the 
religious life do not desire to enter 
first or second orders. Members 
share in the prayers and privileges 
of the order and are bnried in the 
habit of the order. 

Three Hours A devotion origi- 
nated by the Jesuits to be prac- 
tised on Good Friday from noon to 
three o'clock in remembrance of 
the three hours our Lord hung up- 
on the cross. 

Thurible The vessel in which 
incense is burned during sacred 

Tiara A cylindrical head-dress 
pointed at the top and surrounded 
with three crowns, which the Pope 
wears as a symbol of sovereignly. 
It is made up from the princely 
crown joined with the bishop's 
mitre. It has been used as far back 
as the seventh century. At the cor- 
onation ceremonies it is placed on 
the head of the Pope with these 
words, "Receive the tiara adorned 
with three crowns and know that 
thou art Father of princes and 
kings, Ruler of the world, Vicar 
of our Saviour Jesus Christ." 

Tithes Offerings of the faithful 
for the support of their pastors, 
originally the tenth part of one's 

Titular Sees Catholic bishops 
without residential sees are given 
titular sees or ancient bishoprics 
now destroyed, of which there are 
some 900. 

Tonsure A crown made by 
shaving the upper part of the head, 
distinctive of clerics and religious. 

TotSes Quotles Lat. "as often 
as" applied to indulgences signi- 
fying they may be obtained as of- 
ten as one wishes by fulfilling the 

Tradition - The oral handing 
down of information, doctrines and 
practices. Tradition is part of the 
deposit of faith, handed down by 
the apostles. It supplies certain in- 
formation which the Bible does not 
give, such as concerning the Bap- 
tism of infants. 

Transubstantiation The process 
by which the bread and wine of the 
Mass is changed into the substance 
of the Body and Blood of Christ in 
the act of Consecration. 

Treasury of the Church The 
merits of Christ and the saints from 
which the Church may draw to con- 
fer spiritual benefits such as the 
granting of indulgences. 

Trlduum A three days' prayer 
or celebration. 

Twilight Sleep A sleep in- 
duced in obstetrical cases by cer- 
tain drugs to lull the sense of pain 
and dimmish the power of recol- 
lection, without completely taking 
away consciousness. From medical 
testimony, if drugs are adminis- 
tered a competent nurse should be 
in attendance, and a doctor within 
easy call. The use of this aid to 
difficult parturition is to be de- 
cided by a physician. 

Urbl et Orbi Lat. "for the city 
and for the world" applied to the 
blessing given by the Pope after 
his election, also several times dur- 
ing the year. 

Usury A species of theft by 
which interest is unjustly exacted, 
or an unjust rate of interest is 
charged for a loan. 

Vatican City Property owned 
and ruled by the Holy See, with 
extra-territorial possessions, most- 
ly churches and palaces, amounting 
to about 160 acres. 

Veils There are two common 
veils used in the liturgy of the 
Church. The one is a small veil 
used to cover the chalice before 
the Offertory, the other is the 
humeral veil used by the sub-dea- 
con at High Mass and by the priest 


at Benediction of the Blessed Sac- 

Venerable Title given to per- 
sons found by the Sacred Congre- 
gation of Rites to have led a life 
of heroic virtue. 

Veneration The reverence paid 
to saints, relics, etc. It is of a 
different kind and degree than that 
given to God which is properly 
called worship. 

Veo la I Bin An offense against 
God deserving only temporal pun- 
ishment. Nevertheless, venial sin 
dims the intellect, weakens the 
will and leads to mortal sin. 

Veronica's Veil The cloth with 
which Veronica wiped the face of 
Jesus and on which the imprint of 
Christ's features remained, pre- 
served at St. Peter's in Rome. 

Vestments Distinctive garments 
now known as vestments have 
ever been used by the Church in 
her divine worship; however, orig- 
inally these garments did not dif- 
fer in form from the ordinary garb. 
Those worn by the priest at Mass 
are the amice, alb, girdle, maniple, 
stole, chasuble. At High Mass the 
deacon wears a dalmatic and the 
subdeacon a tunic. At Benediction, 
the priest wears a surplice, stole 
and cape, and when giving the 
Benediction, the humeral veil. 

Viaticum The word Viaticum 
means provision for a journey, and 
it is now used exclusively to de- 
note Holy Communion, given to 
those in danger of death. 

Vicar Apostolic Formerly this 
title was given to bishops, arch- 
bishops, and sometimes to ecclesi- 
astics, not necessarily bishops, who 
were commissioned by the Roman 
Pontiff to exercise episcopal juris- 
diction (except in certain special 
cases) in a diocese where the ordi- 
nary, for some reason, was unable 
to discharge his office fully. At 
present the term is generally used 
to denote titular bishops or priests 
appointed by the Holy See who are 
stationed in regions where episcopal 
sees have not yet been established. 

Vigil The day before a promi- 
nent feast set aside for preparation, 
watching, prayer and fasting. 

Vigil Light The oil light kept in 
the sanctuary to denote the pres- 
ence of the Blessed Sacrament. 

Virgin Birth of Christ The doc- 
trine that Christ, conceived by the 
Holy Ghost, was born of the Vir- 
gin Mother. The fact that St. Luke 
refers to Mary's first-born does not 
imply that she had more children, 
but rather to the law by which she 
was to offer her first-born to God 
in the Temple. 

Virtue Some stable or habitual 
element developing the human char- 
acter. The ideals of human perfec- 
tion vary. To a group of moral 
philosophies the western world owes 
its ideal of humanist virtue: pru- 
dence, justice, fortitude, temper- 
ance. Christian virtue begins with 
God, and the theological virtues 
are: faith, hope, charity. 

Visitation of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary The visit of the Blessed 
Virgin to her cousin Elizabeth be- 
fore the birth of Christ. To her 
Mary expressed her great joy. This 
canticle is known as the Magnificat. 

Vocation The disposition of 
Divine Providence in diverse ways 
whereby persons are called to serve 
God in a particular state of life. 

Votive Candles and Offerings 

Candles burned before a statue or 
shrine in honor of our Lord or the 
saints and out of devotion to them. 
Offerings are presented in thanks- 
giving for favors received, either 
in virtue' of previous promises or 
as free will offerings. 

Vows A vow is a deliberate 
promise made to God of a possible 
and greater good with the intention 
of binding oneself under pain of 
sin. The promise must be free; it 
must be made to God to vow to 
a saint means to vow to God in 
honor of a saint. The matter of 
the vow cannot be illicit, altogether 
indifferent, imperfect or impossible. 
Vows are temporal or perpetual, 
dependent upon the time of their 
duration; conditional or absolute, 
according as they are recognized 
as simple or solemn by the Church. 


Vulgate The Latin version of 
the Bible founded on the transla- 
tion of St. Jerome and authorized 
by the Church. 

Wine Pure fermented grape 
juice, unsoured, is used in the Mass 
and changed at the consecration 
into the blood of Christ. 

Witchcraft Dealing with the 
devil, either directly or through 
someone who has a compact with 

Worldling One who prefers the 
ambition and show of the world 
with its distractions and dissipa- 

tions to the serious and better 
things of life. 

Worship Homage paid to God. 
This is the highest form of rever- 
ence, and is paid to God alone. 
Veneration, or reverence in lesser 
degree, is paid to saints and relics. 

Zeal Love in action manifested 
in propagating the faith, sanctifying 
souls and making God better known. 

Zelator An active member or 
officer of a confraternity. 

Zuchetto A skull cap worn by 
clerics over the tonsure. 


Schismatics, according to the definition of Canon Law, are those bap- 
tized persons who "refuse to be subject to the Supreme Pontiff, or to 
have communication with the members of the Church subject to the 
Pope" (Canon 1325). Many heresies, e.g., Anglicanism, began as schisms. 
But separation from the Pope, the Vicar of Christ on earth and the 
custodian of Revelation, inevitably leads to errors concerning dogmatic 

Heretics are defined in Canon Law as "baptized persons who, while 
retaining the name of Christian, obstinately deny or doubt any of the 
truths proposed for belief by the divine and Catholic faith" (Canon 1325). 
The underlying idea of heresy is the selection of some truths and the 
rejection of others. Heretics arbitrarily assume the right to choose their 
beliefs, whereas only the infallible Church alone has the right to define 
dogmas and to propose to men the truths they are to believe. 

Adoptiottism (700-1177) Lead- 
ers: Elipandus of Toledo; Felix of 
Urgel. Adoptionism taught that 
Christ in His divinity was the nat- 
ural Son of God, but that in His 
humanity, He was only the Son of 
God by adoption, through grace. 
Pope Adrian I condemned these 
teachings in 785. They were again 
condemned in the decrees of the 
Council of Frankfort in 794. Abe- 
lard (1079-1142) revived Adoption- 
ism and denied the substantial 
reality of the Man Christ. This 
Neo-Adoptionism was condemned 
by Pope Alexander III in 1177. 

Albigensianism (1175-1400) is a 
revival of Manichaean dualism. The 
Albigenses asserted the co-exist- 
ence of two mutually opposed prin- 
ciples: a good spirit who created 

the spiritual world; and an evil 
spirit who created the material 
world. Because the evil spirit cre- 
ated the body, Christ the Redeemer 
could not have taken a genuine 
human body. Suicide was recom- 
mended; marriage condemned; and 
the sacraments denied. The Fourth 
Lateran Council in 1215 condemned 
this heresy. The devotion of the 
rosary, popularized particularly by 
St. Dominic, aided in repelling this 

Anabaptism (1521-1553) Ana- 
baptists proposed to reestablish 
"primitive" Christianity, using 
Scripture as the sole rule of faith. 
The State was to be reconstructed 
along the lines of early Christian 
community life. Infant baptism was 
rejected because non-scriptural. 


Anglicanism (1534- ) Lead- 
ers: Henry VIII (1491-1547); Cran- 
mer (1489-1556). The Henrician Pe- 
riod of Anglicanism (1534-1547) set 
up an independent national church 
and transferred the supreme au- 
thority from the Pope to the 
Crown. The Elizabethan Period 
(1558-1603) carried the work of 
separation much further. With logi- 
cal sequence, doctrinal and liturgi- 
cal changes quickly followed the 
denial of papal supremacy. Scrip- 
ture was declared the sole rule 
of faith. The Real Presence was 
denied, and the Mass was replaced 
"by a communion service. The rite 
of ordination was changed, all men- 
tion of the sacrificial office of the 
priesthood being rigorously ex- 
cluded. Invocation of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary and the saints was 
rejected as idolatry. The Anglican 
Church in the United States be- 
came known as the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, taking its name 
from the fact that it is governed 
by bishops. The tenets of Episco- 
palianism are the same as those of 

Arianlsm (320-380) Leader: 
Arius (280?-336). This first great 
heresy that rocked the infant 
Church was an attempt to rational- 
ize the Trinity. Concerned prin- 
cipally with the relations between 
the Father and the Son, Arius 
found it necessary to subject one 
to the other in order to formulate 
a rational explanation. He assigned 
Christ a unique place in creation 
the only one made by the Fa- 
ther yet he made Christ a mere 
creature. St. Athanasius was the 
great champion of orthodoxy 
against Arius. The heresy was con- 
demned ,at the Council of Nicea in 

Baptists (1600- ) Leaders: 
John Smythe, in England (d. 1612) ; 
Roger Williams, in America (1600- 
1683). Baptists reject infant bap- 
tism, and consider only baptism by 
immersion as valid. Baptism and 
the Eucharist, the only two sacra- 
ments they admit, they consider 
as mere symbols. Scripture is their 
sole rule of faith. They allow pri- 

vate interpretation of Scripture. 
All non-scriptural doctrines and 
duties are rejected as without au- 

Berengarlos, Heresy of (999- 
1080) The first heresy touching 
the Eucharist. Berengarius taught 
that the body and blood of Christ 
were not really present in the Holy 
Eucharist, but only figuratively. He 
was condemned at Rome in 1079. 

Calvinism (1541-1648) Leader: 
John Calvin (1509-1564). The dogma 
of absolute predestination consti- 
tutes the essence of Calvinism. 
God wills the salvation of some 
and the damnation of others by a 
direct act of His will. Original sin 
has so completely vitiated human 
nature that man is deprived of 
free will, and justification must 
come from an extrinsic principle. 
Calvinism also denied the Real 
Presence. Presbyterians today pro- 
fess Calvinistic doctrines, their 
name being derived from the 
presbyteres who, according to Calvin, 
held equal rank with the ephcopus 
or bishop. Calvinism was con- 
demned at the Council of Trent 

Catharssm (1100-1500) was the 
forerunner of Albigensianism in 
the revival of Manichaean dualism. 
The Cathari are divided into two 
groups: the absolute dualists, who 
believed in the existence of two 
eternal principles; and the miti- 
gated dualists, who considered the 
evil principle a mere fallen spirit. 
The Cathari believed in the mi- 
gration of souls, rejected matri- 
mony and sexual intercourse, de- 
nied the authority of the State, and 
approved suicide. Catharism was 
condemned by the Third Lateran 
Council in 1179. 

Christian Science (1879- ) 
Leader: Mary Baker Eddy (1821- 
1910). Christian Science rejects 
doctrine as the foundation of re- 
ligion. It claims to heal ailments 
through the scientific application 
of faith. After Mrs. Eddy declared 
herself cured of hysterical fits 
through mental cure she became in- 
terested in faith healing. In 1879 
she founded the Third Church of 


Christ Scientist with 26 members 
and herself as pastor. 

Congregationalism (1600- ) 
Leader: Robert Brown. Congrega- 
tionalism teaches the freedom of 
the individual soul and the inde- 
pendence of the local church. The 
name was adopted by the Pilgrim 

Episcopalian Ism. See Anglican- 

Eutychianism. See Monophysitism. 

Gnosticism (117-400) A 
name given to early attempts 
to create a purely rational Chris- 
tianity. Gnostics denied everything 
they could not understand. They 
attempted to find in Christianity 
a deeper meaning than the Gos- 
pels allow. Gnosticism pretended 
to be a high science replacing or- 
dinary faith. Gnostics claimed they 
perfectly understood their "belief 
and completely penetrated every 
mystery they held. 

Greek Heresy and Schism (850- 
) Leaders: Photius (c. 816- 
869) and Cerularius. Photius, by 
taking unjust possession of the See 
of Constantinople set the stage for 
the Greek Schism. It was, however, 
Cerularius who was responsible for 
the break with Rome (1054). He it 
was who rejected the supremacy of 
the Pope and established the Greek 
Church. The Greek Church teaches 
that the Holy Ghost proceeds from 
the Father alone, in opposition to 
the Catholic teaching. This error 
was condemned by the Fourth 
Council of Constantinople in 870. 

Hus, Heresy of (1400- ). See 

Iconoclasm (726-787) Leader; 
Leo the Isaurian (717-741). The 
Iconoclasts rejected all veneration 
of images of Christ, and the Blessed 
Mother; also the veneration of all 
relics. St. John Damascene wrote 
against them. The Iconoclasts "be- 
came fanatical, going about de- 
stroying pictures, statues and relics 
wherever they found them. The 
heresy was condemned at the Sec- 
ond Council of Nicea in 787. 

Jansenism (1636- ) Lead- 
ers: Jansenius (1585-1638); Ar- 
nauld (1612-1694). Jansenism is a 

rigoristic doctrine garnered from 
" Angus tinus," a posthumous work 
of Jansenius. Its basic error is 
disregard for the supernatural or- 
der. Man is not free; it is impos- 
sible to keep some of the com- 
mandments; good works of unbe- 
lievers are sinful; God will punish 
man for practising virtues not in 
Ms power to accomplish; Christ 
died not for mankind in general 
but for a privileged few. Arnauld 
proposed the insidious doctrine 
that for the worthy reception of 
Holy Communion severe penance 
for past sins and most pure love 
of God are required. It was only 
with the inauguration of ,the de- 
votion to the Sacred Heart and the 
decrees of Pius X that the rigor- 
istic tendencies of Jansenism were 

Judaizers (33-200) Convert 
Jews who adhered to the observance 
of the Old Law. They held that 
pagans must first observe the Old 
Law before becoming Christians. 
They would make Christianity a 
mere branch on. the parent tree of 
Judaism. The heresy split into sev- 
eral factions over the question of 
Christ's nature. Sts. Peter and 
Paul condemned this heresy. 

Lutheranssm (1517- ) Lead- 
ers: Martin Luther (1483-1546) and 
Melanchthon, Luther's "theologian." 
The twofold principle of invincible 
concupiscence, and justification by 
faith alone constitutes the funda- 
mental error of Lutheranism. 
Luther formulated the principle of 
private interpretation of Scripture; 
cast aside the Sacrifice of the 
Mass; ridiculed the doctrine of in- 
dulgences; taught that confession, 
fasting and mortification were not 
necessary; denied the supremacy 
of the Pope; and repudiated celi- 
bacy of the clergy. He wrote, in 
fact, against almost every article 
of Christian belief, The Council 
of Trent (1545-1563) condemned 

Macedortianism (342-381) 
Leader: Macedonius (d. 362). The 
Macedonians denied the divinity of 
the Holy Ghost. They erred in 
saying that the Holy Ghost is a 


creature; a ministering spirit who 
differs from the angels only in de- 
gree. The First Council of Con- 
stantinople in 381 condemned this 

IVtanichaenfsm (241-1600) 
Leader: Mani (216-276), Manicha- 
enisia is essentially a dualistic 
theory teaching that in the begin- 
ning there existed two sharply op- 
posed principles; one good, the 
otner evil. The creation of the 
world was the result of the struggle 
for supremacy between these two 
principles. Christ came clothed in 
an ethereal "body to teach men the 
distinction between the kingdom of 
light and that of darkness. To 
facilitate the victory of the king- 
dom of light, marriage, use of meat 
and wine, ordinary work and evil 
speech were forbidden the elect. 
Manichaenism was refuted by St. 

Methodism (1739- ) Leader: 
John Wesley (1703-1791). Meth- 
odism, a movement to infuse a 
higher life into the Anglican 
Church, drifted away from the Es- 
tablished Church and split into 
many denominations. The distinc- 
tive doctrines of Methodism are 
the "witness of the Spirit" to the 
individual soul and the consequent 
assurance of salvation, or the cer- 
tainty of present pardon. Meth- 
odists admit two sacraments, Bap- 
tism and the Eucharist They hold 
that Baptism does not produce 
sanctifying grace in. the soul but 
merely increases faith. They regard 
the Eucharist only as a memorial 
of the Passion and death of Christ. 

M onophysitism (400-700) -Lead- 
ers: Eutyches and Dioscorus. The 
Monophy sites (or EutycMans) de- 
nied the doctrine of two natures 
in Christ, stressing only His unity. 
They seem to have confused the 
notions of person and nature. In 
his "Epistola Dogmatica ad Fla- 
vianum," Pope Leo I set forth the 
Catholic teaching on the two na- 
tures in Christ. The heresy was 
condemned at the Council of Chal- 
cedon in 451. 

MonotheSltfsm (625-681) Lead- 
er: Sergius (d. 638). Monothelites 

taught that Christ had only one 
will and one energy, at ttie same 
time both human and divine. By 
destroying the human will and 
activity which is necessary for the 
complete human nature, the Mono- 
theiites implicitly denied the hu- 
manity of Christ, The Third Coun- 
cil of Constantinople in 681 con- 
demned the heresy. 

Montanism (156-400) Leader: 
Montanus. The basic error of Mon- 
tanism consists In the inaugura- 
tion of the reign of the Holy Ghost 
succeeding the time of Christ's rev- 
elation which had passed. As 
prophet of the new revelation, 
Montanus denied the divinity of 
the Church, declared that only 
Montanists could forgive sins. Mon- 
tanism would have had few follow- 
ers had not Tertullian, a leading 
light of the early Church, joined 
its ranks. 

Mormonism (18SO- ) 
Leader: Joseph Smith (1805-1844). 
He claimed to have received from 
an angel the records of the prophet 
Mormon which were later proven 
fictitious. Established at Salt Lake 
City, the new church came to re- 
semble closely Mohammedanism 
and adopted polygamy which was 
forbidden by the United States 
courts in 1871. 

Nestorlanlsm (400- ) 
Leader: Nestorius (d. 451). The 
Church teaches that there is but 
one Person in Christ. Nestorius 
implicitly denied this doctrine by 
denying the divine motherhood of 
Maty. He held that Mary is only 
the Mother of the Man Christ, not 
the Mother of God. The Council 
of Bphesus in 431 and that of Chal- 
cedon in 451 condemned Nestorian- 

Pelagtanlsm (405-529) Leaders: 
Pelagius, Caelestius, and Julian. 
Beginning with the idea that God's 
Help was unnecessary to man (ac- 
tual grace), Pelagius came to the 
conclusion that sanctifying grace 
was not necessary either. To be 
logical, he then denied the fact of 
original sin. Pelagius overstressed 
the free will of man in the prob- 
lem of grace. He forgot to distin- 


guish between the natural and 
supernatural end of man, holding 
that Adam was born to enjoy super- 
natural life as a natural reward. 
St. Augustine refuted Pelagianism. 
It was finally condemned at the 
Council of Ephesus in 431. 

Presbyterian Ism. See Calvinism. 

Quakerism (1648- ) Leader: 
George Fox (1624-1691). Quakerism, 
founded on isolated texts of Scrip- 
ture, is a sect at variance with 
every existing form of Christianity. 
Its central doctrine is that of the 
"inner light" communicated to the 
individual soul by Christ. It re- 
jects the priesthood, exterior cere- 
mony, and authority. 

Rosicriiciantsm (1600- ) 
Leader: John Andrea (1586-1654). 
The Rosicrucians are a secret so- 
ciety conceived by Andrea and 
spread by means of the fictitious 
writings of an imaginary author, 
Christian Rosenfcfeuz. Rosicrucians 
teach a pantheistic theosophy; 
have their own ideas of God, na- 
ture, morality, and the soul. 

Semtpelagianism (420-529) 
Leaders: Sts. Cassian, Victor of 
Marseilles, Gennadius, and Faus- 
tus. In refuting the Pelagians St. 
Augustine did in several instances 
overstress the divine element in 
grace. His theory of predestination 
was taken strictly by some monks 
of Marseilles. Fighting this state 
of affairs, St. Cassian and others 
again brought the factor of free 
will to the fore, and went just a 
bit too far. They were in perfectly 
good faith, and would have cor- 
rected their mistake had attention 
been brought to it. What they 
taught, however, viz., that the be- 
ginnings of faith could be merited 
by man, was wrong and was ac- 
cordingly condemned. 

Swedenborgianism (1787- ) 
Leader: Emmanuel Swedenborg. He 
professed to have received revela- 
tions, and rejected the Trinity, 
original sin, the resurrection and 
all sacraments except Baptism and 
the Eucharist. He taught that after 
death souls pass into an inter- 
mediate state preparatory to enter- 
ing heaven. 

Unftarfanism (1570- ) A 
heterogeneous sect whose bond of 
unity consists more in its anti- 
dogmatic tendency than in its uni- 
formity of belief. Its distinctive 
tenet is belief in a uni-personal 
God. Unitarians hold to private in- 
terpretation of Scripture. The local 
church is autonomous. 

Unsversalism (1750- ) The 
distinctive tenet of this sect is 
the final salvation of all souls. 
Present-day Universaiists reject 
the doctrine of the Trinity. Th 
reception of the sacraments is not 
enjoined, but Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper are administered. 

WaSdensianism (1180- ) 
Leader: Waldes. The Waldenses 
were an heretical sect claiming to 
practise Christianity in its pris- 
tine purity. Among the doctrinal 
errors are the denial of purga- 
tory, of indulgences, and of pray- 
ers for the dead. Waldensians de- 
nounced all lying as a grievous sin, 
refused to take oaths, and consid- 
ered the shedding of human blood 
unlawful. The Third Lateran Coun- 
cil In 1179 condemned this heresy. 

Wycliff, Heresy of (1350- ) 
Leader: John Wycliff (1324-1384). 
Wycliff claimed the Bible to be the 
sole truth of faith. He defended 
predestination, maintained that all 
power depends on one's state of 
grace; denied the freedom of the 
will and the doctrine of transub- 
stantiation. He rejected the divine 
institution of the hierarchy and 
taught that the Pope is not the 
head of the Church; that the bish- 
ops have no pre-eminence over 
other priests. He held that all ec- 
clesiastical powers are forfeited or 
are in abeyance when the subject 
is in mortal sin. He taught that 
confession is useless, for man can- 
not help but sin, and that God ap- 
proves sin. He thought that ec- 
clesiastics who sin should be pun- 
ished with the death penalty. 
After the death of Wycliff, John 
Hus spread his doctrines through- 
out Bohemia. The Council of Con- 
stance in 1414 condemned these 
doctrines as heretical. 




St. Anthony's Guild, 1938 



The church is a sacred building dedicated to divine worship and open 
to ail the faithful who assemble there to offer up the Holy Sacrifice of 
the Mass and there take part in other services. What distinguishes a 
Catholic church from all other sacred edifices is the fact that every 
Catholic church becomes, through the Mass, the dwelling place of God. 

During the first three centuries of Christianity there were no special 
buildings consecrated to Eucharistic worship. Services were held in 
private homes (Acts ii, 46; Rom. xvi, 5; 1 Cor. xvi, 15; Col. iv, 15). The 
persecutions of those early days made it impossible to have public places 
of worship. But when the Church came up from the catacombs, when she 
was no longer persecuted, then began the building of churches. Through 
the centuries men have used the very best that architecture can offer in 
order to make their churches fit dwelling places for God. 

The aisle of the church from the The altar is the most important 
main door to the Communion rail- part of the church. It is in fact the 

ing is called the nave. If another 
aisle cuts across the nave, forming 
a cross, the two arms of this aisle 
are called transepts. The part in- 
side the communion railing i s 
called the sanctuary. The back por- 
tion of the sanctuary, which is 
often arched, is called the apse. 

Stained glass windows, paintings 
and statues are the ordinary orna- 
ments of the church. Their pur- 
pose is to depict the main events in 
the life of Christ and the Saints. 
When the Blessed Sacrament is 
kept in the church a sanctuary 
lamp burns before the tabernacle 
day and night. At the entrance 
there are fonts containing holy 
water with which the faithful bless 
themselves when entering and leav- 
ing the church. In the rear or along 
the sides are confessionals used in 
the administration of the Sacra- 
ment of Penance. Generally on the 
Gospel side of the church there is 
a pulpit from which the priest an- 
nounces to the people the word of 
God. Inside the sanctuary are the 
sedilia, the seats used by the priest 
and ministers when they sit down 
for any part of the ceremonies. At- 
tached to the wall of the sanctuary 
is a locked box called the ambry 
which contains the holy oils used 
in the various sacraments. In the 
sanctuary on the epistle side is a 
table or shelf called the credence 
table which is used to hold the 
cruets, basin and finger towel 
which are needed in the sacrifice 
of the Mass. 

very reason why we have churches. 
The Mass is the center of Catholic 
worship and the altar is the table 
on which the Mass is offered up. 

At the Last Supper the Mass was 
offered, very probably, on a plain 
wooden table covered with linens 
according to the Jewish rite of the 
Paschal supper. In the early Church 
the Sacrifice of the Mass was of- 
fered on ordinary wooden tables. 
During the Roman persecutions 
Mass was celebrated in the cata- 
combs, on the tombs of martyrs. 
Because of this practice in the cata- 
combs every altar-stone today must 
contain the relics of martyrs. To- 
day our altar still retains the form 
of the table and the tomb. It is in 
reality a combination of the two: 
the table on which Christ offered 
the first Mass, and the coffin of the 

Because of the use of, stone in 
the catacombs, and because stone 
is far more permanent than wood, 
it became customary to erect stone 
altars. Only stone altars may be 
consecrated today. Altars of other 
material are in use, but it is re- 
quired that the altar-stone placed 
in the center of the table, contain- 
ing the relics of martyrs, and on 
which the consecration takes place, 
be of stone. Stone is durable, and 
according to St. Paul (1 Cor. x, 4) 
symbolizes Christ. 

In order to stress the importance 
of the altar and to increase rever- 
ence for it, it was covered by a 
canopy called the baldakin. Though 


not universally used, fraidakins 
are found in many of our large 
churches. Gradually ornamental 
screens containing paintings, sculp- 
tures and niches for statues were 
placed back of the altar. These 
ornamented backs of altars are 
called reredos or retables. 

The tabernacle is a box-like en- 
closure set in the center of the al- 
tar containing sacred vessels in 
which the Blessed Sacrament is 
reserved. It should be solidly built 
and gold-plated within or at least 
lined with white silk. 

A crucifix must be placed in the 
middle of the altar where it can- 
easily be seen by all. It should be 
an outstanding feature of the altar 
because its purpose is to remind 
the priest and the faithful of the 
Sacrifice of Calvary, of which the 
Mass is the unbloody renewal. 

Steps were placed before the al- 
tar as soon as it became fixed in 
the church. The obvious and prac- 
tical reason of a raised altar is 
that those who assist at Mass may 
see the priest The raised altar also 

reminds us of the hill of Calvary. 
Every altar must have at least one 

Ledges were not used in the back 
of the altar table in the early 
church. They were introduced later 
for the purpose of holding the cru- 
cifix, candles and flowers. 

Candles are a reminder of the 
Church of the catacombs, when 
candle light was a necessity. The 
Church prescribes that the candles 
used at Mass be made of beeswax. 
The pure wax symbolizes the pure 
flesh of Christ received from His 
Virgin Mother, the wick signifies 
the Soul of Christ, and the flame 
represents His divinity. 

The missal is the book contain- 
ing the Mass prayers for the en- 
tire year. 

Three a Star cards are placed upon 
the altar. They contain certain 
prayers which the priest says dur- 
ing the Mass. 

A bell is rung by the server to 
draw the attention of the faithful 
to the important parts of the Mass. 

A!tar Linens and Draperies 

Three altar-cloths of white linen 
or hemp must be placed on every 
altar. The two lower ones must 
cover the whole table of the altar. 
The top one should extend to the 
platform. Three cloths are pre- 
scribed out of reverence for the 
Precious Blood, which, if it were ac- 
cidentally spilled, would be absorbed 
by these cloths. Under the three 
altar-cloths is placed another linen 
cloth, waxed on the side next to 
the altar and called the cere-cloth. 
The altar-cloths symbolize the 
winding sheets in which the Body 
of Christ was laid in the tomb. 

Veils The tabernacle should be 
covered by a veil when the Blessed 
Sacrament is reserved there. It 
should strictly cover the entire 
tabernacle but is often merely a 
small veil hung before the door of 
the tabernacle. The tabernacle veil 
may be white or the color of the 
feast. A veil of white silk always 
covers the ciborium when it is in 
the tabernacle. The monstrance, 
when It stands upon the altar be- 

fore or after Benediction, is also 
covered with a white silk cloth. 
The missal stand may be covered 
with a veil of the color of the feast. 
The chalice veil (see illustration) 
is a piece of silk fabric of the same 
color and quality as the vestments, 
It is ornamented with a cross and 
is used to cover the chalice on the 
way to and from the altar, and dur- 
ing the earlier and later parts of 
the Mass. The antependiutn is a 
sort of veil covering the front of 
the altar. It is usually of the same 
material as the vestments. 

The burse (see illustration) is a 
sort of purse open at one end in 
which the corporal is placed. The 
top of the burse is covered with 
silk of the same material and color 
as the vestments. It is placed on 
top of the covered chalice. 

The corpora! (see illustration) 
which is carried to the altar in the 
burse is a square piece of fine 
linen or hemp. At the Offertory it 
is spread out on the altar over the 
altar-stone and should be large 


enough to contain the chalice, the 
Host and the ciborium at the cele- 
bration of Mass. 

The pa SI consists of two pieces of 
linen or hemp, between which card- 
'board- is inserted for the sake of 
stiffening it (see illustration). The 
upper side of the pall may be orna- 
mented but the lower side must be 
plain. It must be large enough to 
cover the paten completely. 

The pursficator (see illustration) 
is a linen or hemp cloth from 
twelve to eighteen inches long and 
nine or ten inches wide. It is 

folded over twice and placed be- 
tween the chalice and paten. It is 
used for cleansing the chalice be- 
fore the wine is put into it at the 
Offertory, for cleaning the paten 
after the Our Father before the 
Host is placed on it, and for dry- 
ing the priest's lips and the chalice 
after the priest's communion. 

A finger towel is used by the 
priest when he washes his hands 
at the Offertory. Finger towels are 
of varying sizes and may be of any 
suitable material, preferably linen 
or hemp. 

Sacred Vessels 

The chalice (see illustration) is 
the cup which the priest uses at 
the Mass in which to consecrate 
and from which to receive the 
Precious Blood of Our Lord. Chal- 
ices of glass, ivory, wood and even 
clay have been used at different 
times. Today only metal may be 
used. They should be of gold or 
silver; if an inferior metal is used, 
then the inside of the cup must be 
heavily plated with gold. The 
Church insists upon this use of 
gold because the Precious Blood 
comes into direct contact with the 
inside of the cup. There is a very 
special blessing for the chalice by 
which it is dedicated to the service 
of God. Lay persons may not touch 
the chalice. 

The paten (see illustration) is 
the plate upon which the priest 
puts the Host which he offers and 
consecrates in the Mass. It must 
be of the same metal as the chalice. 
Like the chalice it is consecrated 

with a special blessing and may not 
be handled by lay persons. 

The csborium (see illustration) is 
a sacred vessel used to contain the 
consecrated Hosts for the Com- 
munion of the faithful. Like the 
chalice it must be at least gold- 

The pyx is a small vessel of gold 
or silver used in carrying the Holy 
Eucharist to the sick. Its shape re- 
sembles that of the case of a watch. 
It is kept in a silk-lined leather 
case, called a burse, with a small 
purificator and corporal. 

The monstrance or ostensorlum 
is a kind of portable tabernacle 
made in such a way that the 
Blessed Sacrament may be distinct- 
ly seen by the faithful. It is used 
at Benediction and for Exposition. 

The luna or lunnette is a recep- 
tacle which holds the Sacred Host 
in an upright position in the mon- 
strance. It is removed from the 
monstrance after Benediction and 
placed in the tabernacle. 


In the early Church the liturgical 
vestments were the same as the 
ordinary civil dress. The Church 
continued to use the same style of 
clothing for sacred functions so 
that as the styles of civil attire 
changed there emerged a distinc- 
tive type of liturgical attire. There 
have been minor changes in some 
of the vestments but in general 
they have kept their distinctively 
Roman appearance. 

Many symbolical meanings have 
been attached to the different vest- 

ments by various writers. The 
prayers the priest says as he puts 
on each vestment signify the mean- 
ing the Church attaches to them. 

The amice (see illustration) 
serves the practical purpose of pro- 
tecting the rich fabric of the chasu- 
ble from perspiration. When he 
puts it on the priest says: "Place, 
O Lord, on my head the helmet of 
salvation, that I may overcome the 
attacks" of Satan." 

The alb (see illustration) is a 
survival of the long inner tunic 


worn by men in the early centuries. 
The vesting prayer reads: "Purify 
me, O Lord, from all stain and 
cleanse my heart, that washed in 
the Wood of the Lamb 1 may enjoy 
eternal delights/' 

The cincture (see illustration) 
holds the alb in place close to the 
body, allowing freedom of move- 
ment for the feet. As he puts it on 
the priest says: "Gird me, O Lord, 
with the girdle of purity, and ex- 
tinguish in me all concupiscence 
that the virtue of continence and 
chastity may remain in me." 

The maniple (see illustration) 
was originally an ornamental hand- 
kerchief held in the right hand by 
Roman officials. It is worn only in 
the Mass. It is the special badge of 
the order of subdeaconship and 
may not be worn by those in lower 
orders. The prayer: "Let me merit, 
O Lord, to bear the maniple of 
tears and sorrow so that one day I 
may come with joy into the re- 
ward of my labors." 

The stole (see illustration) was 
probably worn by Roman court of- 
ficials as a sign of their authority. 
At any rate it is the symbol of au- 
thority in the Church. Today only 
the Pope has the right to wear the 
stole everywhere as a sign of his 
universal authority. As a sign of 
the plenitude of the priestly power 
which he has, the bishop does not 
cross the stole in front. The deacon 
wears the stole diagonally from his * 
left shoulder to his right side. It 
was once the distinguishing mark 
of the priesthood but is now worn 
only when performing a religious 
function. The vesting prayer says : 
"Return to me, O Lord, that stole 
of immortality which was lost to 
me by my first parents, and though 
unworthy 1 approach Thy great 
Mystery, nevertheless, grant me to 
merit joy eternal." 

The chasuble (see illustration) 
was originally a large round mantle 
or cloak covering the whole body. 
In the Middle Ages the chasuble 
was considerably shortened and 
cut away at the sides to- secure 
freedom of movement. The vesting 
prayer: "O Lord, Who has said, 
'My yoke is sweet, My burden light/ 

grant that I may carry this yoke 
and burden in such a manner as to 
obtain Thy grace. Amen." 

The dalmatic (see illustration) is 
the outward vestment worn by the, 
deacon at High Mass, It was part 
of the clothing of the higher classep 
adapted for ecclesiastical use. 
When putting it on "the deacon 
says: "Clothe me, O Lord, with the 
garment of salvation, and cover rne 
with the vestment of joy and the 
dalmatic of justice." 

The tunic is the outward gar- 
ment worn by the sufodeacon of the 
Mass. It differs only slightly, in 
ornamentation, from the dalmatic 
of the deacon. The prayer : "May the 
Lord clothe me with the tunic of 
delight and the garments of joy." 

Color of the vestments varies 
with the feast that is being cele- 

White, the color of light, is a 
symbol of joy, purity and inno- 
cence; it is used on feasts of the 
Holy Trinity, Our Lord, the Blessed 
Virgin, the angels, confessors, holy 
women not martyrs, and 'on Sun- 
days after Easter. 

Red, the language of fire and 
blood, is a symbol of love and of 
the sacrifice of the martyrs. It is 
also a reminder of Christ's Passion. 
It is used on Pentecost Sunday, the 
feasts of Our Lord's Passion, and the 
feasts of. the Apostles and martyrs. 

Green, the symbol of hope, is 
used on the Sundays after Epiphany 
and the Sundays after Pentecost. 

Violet, the c;olor of penance, 
mortification and sorrow, is used 
during Advent and Lent, on the 
three Sundays preceding the first 
Sunday of Lent, on vigils except 
those occurring during Paschal 
time, and on Rogation Days. 

Rose, less penitential than, violet, 
is used on the Third Sunday of Ad- 
vent and the Fourth Sunday of 
Lent, because these Sundays are 
joyful in the midst of the peniten- 
tial season. 

Black, the symbol of mourning 
and death, Is used in Masses for 
the Dead and on Good Friday. 

Cloth of gold may take the place 
of white, red or green, but not of 
purple or black. 



The Council of Trent summarizes 
and defines the Church's teaching 
in reference to the Sacrifice of the 
Mass as follows: 

(1) There is in the Catholic 
Church a true Sacrifice, the Mass, 
instituted by Jesus Christ; the sacri- 
fice of His Body and Blood under 
the appearances of bread and wine. 

(2) This Sacrifice is identical 
with the Sacrifice of the Cross, in- 
asmuch as Jesus Christ is Priest 
and Victim in both; the only dif- 
ference lies in the manner of offer- 
ing, which is bloody upon the Cross 
and bloodless on our altars. 

(3) It is a propitiatory Sacrifice, 
atoning for our sins, and the sins 
of the living and of the dead in 
Christ, for whom it is offered. 

(4) Its efficacy is derived from the 
Sacrifice of the Cross, whose super- 
abundant merits it applies to us. 

(5) Although offered to God, 
alone, it may be celebrated in hon- 
or and memory of the saints. 

(6) The Mass was instituted at 
the Last Supper when Christ about 
to offer Himself on the altar of 
the Cross by His death (Heb. x, 10) 
for our redemption (Heb. ix, 12), 
wished to endow His Church with 
a visible Sacrifice, commemorative 
of His Bloody Sacrifice of the 
Cross. As High Priest, according to 
the order of Melchisedech (Ps. cix, 
4), He offered to His Father His 
own Body and Blood under the ap- 
pearances of bread and wine, and 
constituted His Apostles priests of 
the New Testament to renew this 
same offering until He came again 
(1 Cor. xi, 26) by the words, "Do 
this for a commemoration of me" 
(Lk. xxii, 19; 1 Cor. xi, 24). 

Instituted by Jesus Christ, the 
Mass is the most perfect offering 
that man can make to God, his 
Creator and Redeemer. By the 
Mass we call to mind particularly 
the Passion and death of Christ 
But around this central thought of 
Calvary is built up also the other 
events of Our Saviour's life. In the 
"Sunday Cycle" which begins with 
the first Sunday of Advent we fol- 
low the earthly life of Our Saviour 

through its every stage until we 
come finally to the last Sunday 
after Pentecost which describes the 
Last Judgment and the coming of 
Christ in power and majesty. The 
"Festal Cycle," i. e., the Masses in 
honor of the Saints, is interwoven 
with the story of Christ's earthly 
life in the liturgy of the Mass. But 
in the very center and heart of it 
all stands the Mil of Calvary with 
its Cross of Sacrifice. 

The Mass is the unbloody re- 
newal of this Sacrifice of Calvary. 
Through the Mass men of every 
generation have been brought to 
the very scene of Redemption 
and every land has become in 
reality a Holy Land. The Mass, 
then, is the perpetuation of the 
great Sacrifice. 

One of the essential characteris- 
tics of any sacrifice is immolation, 
or destruction of the thing sacri- 
ficed. In the Mass this immolation 
of the Victim takes place at the 

Briefly, the Mass is the remem- 
brance and re-enactment of the life 
of Christ; the perpetuation of the 
Sacrifice of Calvary; and the ban- 
quet by which Our Crucified Sav- 
iour comes to our souls to make us 
part of Himself. 

Jesus Christ Himself instituted 
the Mass at the Last Supper the 
night before His death. "Jesus 
took bread, and blessed, and broke: 
and gave to His disciples, and said : 
Take ye and eat. This is My Body. 
And taking the chalice, He gave 
thanks, and gave to them, saying: 
Drink ye all of this. For this is My 
Blood of the new testament, which 
shall be shed for many unto the re- 
mission of sins" (Matt, xxvi, 26-28). 
In these words of institution we 
find the three essential elements of 
the Mass, viz., Offertory, Consecra- 
tion, and Communion. Through the 
course of centuries the Church has 
added various prayers and cere- 
monies, but the essence of the Mass 
must ever be those sacred words 
of Him Who gave the Mass to us 
as a loving memorial of His death 
on Calvary. 


Where Mass is celebrated every hour of the day. 


1. From the Beginning of Mass to the Epistle 

Words of the Liturgy 

Priest: In the name of the Fa- 
ther, and of the Son and of the 
Holy Ghost Amen. 

Priest: I will go unto the altar 
of God. 

Server: To God, Who giveth joy 
to my youth. 

Psalm xlsl (said by priest and 
server) : Judge me, O God, and dis- 
tinguish my cause from the nation 
that is not holy: deliver me from 
the unjust and the deceitful man. 

For Thou, O God, art my strength: 
why hast Thou cast me off? and 
why do I go sorrowful whilst the 
enemy afflicteth me? 

Send forth Thy light and Thy 
truth: they have conducted me and 
brought me unto Thy holy mount, 
and unto Thy tabernacles. And I 
will go unto the altar of God; to 
God, Who giveth joy to my youth. 

I will praise Thee on the harp, 
O God, my God: why art thou sor- 
rowful, O my soul? and why dost 
thou disquiet me, 

Hope in God, for I will still give 
praise to Him; Who is the salva- 
tion of my countenance, and my 

Glory be to the Father, and to 
the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. 
As it was in the beginning, is now, 
and ever shall be, world without 
end. Amen. 

I will go unto the altar of God. 
To God, Who giveth joy to my 

Our help is in the name of the 

Who made heaven and earth. 

Priest: I confess to almighty God, 
to blessed Mary ever virgin, to 
blessed Michael the Archangel, to 
blessed John the Baptist, to the holy 
Apostles Peter and Paul, to all the 
saints, and to you, brethren, that 
I have sinned exceedingly, in 
thought, word, and deed, through 
my fault, through my fault, through 

Significance of the Ritual 

The Sign of the Cross is a fitting 
introduction for the renewal of the 
Sacrifice of the Cross. 

The very thought of the great un- 
told benefits derived from every 
Mass fills us with the joy of youth 
as we begin Mass with the priest. 

To understand Psalm xlii it must 
be considered in connection with 
Psalm xli because both Psalms 
form a unit and were written by 
the same author. The writer of 
these psalms is an exile from Jeru- 
salem: his ardent desire is to re- 
visit the Sanctuary; he looks for- 
ward to the day when he will be 
once more with the pilgrims wor- 
shiping at Jerusalem. 

It should be the earnest wish of 
all Catholics to "go unto the altar 
of God" (verse 4) because the altar 
on which the Sacrifice of the Mass 
is offered far surpasses the Taber- 
nacle of the Jews which was but 
a shadow and a figure. If the Jews 
found joy and hope in -the symbolic 
sacrifices of the Old Law, how 
much more should Catholics re- 
joice in the Mass which is the ful- 
filment of those symbols. 

The addition of the "Glory be to 
the Father" etc., which the Church 
adds to the Psalms when using 
them in the liturgy shows that she 
wishes to interpret these Psalms 
in a Christian sense. 

The antiphon is repeated. Its 
very repetition serves as a re- 
minder that joy is the keynote of 
the Christian preparing to assist 
at Mass. 

Making the Sign of the Cross the 
priest calls upon God for assistance. 

The priest's joy at the thought 
of the great Sacrifice which is 
about to begin is suddenly clouded 
by the remembrance that he is a 
sinful man. Bowed down with eyes 
cast to the ground he acknowledges 
his guilt to God and the whole 
court of heaven. He blames him- 
self for his sins, confessing three 


my most grievous fault. Therefore 
I beseech the blessed Mary ever 
virgin, blessed Michael the Arch- 
angel, blessed John the Baptist, the 
holy Apostles Peter and Paul, all 
the saints, and you brethren, to 
pray to the Lord our God for me. 

Server: May almighty God have 
mercy upon you, forgive you your 
sins, and bring you to life ever- 

Priest: Amen. 

Server: I confess to almighty 
God, etc. (as above). Where the 
priest said "brethren" the server 
says "father" because the priest 
confesses to the people, and they 
confess to him. 

Priest: May almighty God have 
mercy upon you, forgive you your 
sins, and bring you to life ever- 

Server: Amen. 

Priest: Thou shalt turn again, 
O God, and quicken us. 

Server: And Thy people shall re- 
joice in Thee. 

Priest: Show us, O Lord, Thy 

Server: And grant us Thy salva- 

Priest: O Lord, hear my prayer. 

Server: And let my cry come un- 
to Thee. 

Priest: The Lord be with you. 

Server: And with thy spirit. 

Priest: Let us pray: Take away 
from us our iniquities, we be- 
seech Thee, O Lord; that we may be 
worthy to enter with pure minds 
into the Holy of Holies. Through 
Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Priest: We beseech Thee, O 
Lord, by the merits of Thy saints 
whose relics are here, and of all 
the saints, that Thou wouldst 
vouchsafe to forgive me all my 
sins. Amen. 

Introit. (The Introit differs for 
each Mass. It is composed as a rule 
of an antiphon, a verse of a Psalm, 
the Glory be to the Father, and 
repetition of the antiphon. Orig- 
inally the entire Psalm was sung 
by the choir and people as the cele- 

times as lie strikes Ms breast, that 
they were committed "through my 
fault" etc. But immediately he 
takes heart and begs the Blessed 
Mother, the angels and saints of 
heaven, and the people assisting at 
Mass to ask God to pardon him. 

The server expresses the hope 
that God will deal mercifully with 
the priest. 

So be it. In other words: May 
your prayers for me be heard. 

The server in his turn says the 
Confiteor. All those assisting at 
Mass should join the altar-boy in 
his confession of guilt, saying it 
with the same sentiments with 
which the celebrant has just re- 
cited it 

The priest asks God to have mer- 
cy on the server just as the server 
asked God to pardon the sins of the 

So be it. 

Confident in God's forgiveness 
and mercy the priest and server re- 
cite these ejaculations. The 
thought of God's mercy brings back 
the joy of heaven to their hearts. 
In the Mass God will answer the 
prayer, "Grant us Thy salvation," 
by sending down from heaven the 
Saviour Himself. The prayer, "The 
Lord be with you, and with thy 
spirit/' finds its best possible ful- 
filment when, in the Mass, Christ 
comes down from heaven upon the 

As he ascends the steps of the 
altar the priest once more begs God 
to take away his sins so that he 
may offer the Sacrifice with a pure 
mind and heart. 

Kissing the altar containing the 
relics of martyrs the priest makes 
a final plea for the forgiveness of 
his sins, calling upon all the saints 
in heaven to obtain God's pardon 
for him. 

The prayers at the foot of the 
altar were preparatory. The In- 
troit begins the Mass itself. Sign- 
ing himself with the sign of the 
Cross, the priest recites this "over- 
ture of the Mass." In the Introit 
we find the theme of the Mass, the 


brant went from the sacristy to the 
altar. Today the choir chants the 
Introit when the priest begins the 
prayers at the foot of the altar.) 

Kyrte (recited by priest and 
server alternately) : 
Lord have mercy on us. 
Lord have mercy on us. 
Lord have mercy on us. 
Christ have mercy on us. 
Christ have mercy on us. 
Christ have mercy on us. 
Lord have mercy on us. 
Lord have mercy on us. 
Lord have mercy on us. 

Gloria: Glory to God in the high- 
est, and on earth peace to men of 
good- will. We praise Thee; we 
bless Thee; we adore Thee; we 
glorify Thee. We give Thee thanks 
for Thy great glory. O Lord God, 
heavenly King, God the Father al- 
mighty. O Lord Jesus Christ, the 
only-begotten Son. Lord God, 
Lamb of God, Son of the Father, 
Who takest away the sins of the 
world, have mercy upon us. Who 
takest away the sins of the world, 
receive our prayer. Who sittest at 
the right hand of the Father, have 
mercy upon us. For Thou only art 
holy, Thou only art Lord. Thou 
only, O Jesus Christ, art most high, 
together with the Holy Ghost in 
the glory of God the Father. 


Priest: The Lord be with you. 
Server: And with thy spirit. 

key to the mystery of the feast be- 
ing celebrated. Its purpose is to 
arouse in us fitting thoughts and 
sentiments; to place us, as it were, 

in the atmosphere of the feast we 
are commemorating. 

Fervently we cry to God: "Have 
mercy on us." Three times we ad- 
dress our plea to God the Father, 
three times to God the Son, three 
times to God the Holy Ghost. With 
the simplicity of children we re- 
peat the selfsame phrase, insisting 
that God have mercy upon us. God, 
surely, cannot turn a deaf ear to 
such earnest pleading. In fact, the 
prayer's very simplicity its child- 
ishness almost must delight the 
heart of Him Who allows us to ad- 
dress Him as "Our Father." 

The Gloria is the answer to the 
Kyrie. In the Kyrie we asked God 
the Father to have mercy on us; 
we now "praise, bless, worship and 
glorify" Him; we address Him as 
"God the Father Almighty," thus 
reminding Him that it is within 
His power to hear our prayer. In 
the Chrhte eleison we begged God 
the Son also to have mercy on us; 
and now, as adopted children of 
the Redeemer Who came down up- 
on earth to save us we address 
Him with those titles so dear to 
His heart: "Only begotten Son," 
"Lamb of God." He too can grant 
our request for He sits "at the 
right hand of the Father." Finally 
in the last Kyrie we implored the 
Holy Ghost to have mercy on us; 
now we address Him as God, equal 
to the Father and the Son. Real- 
izing the grandeur and power of 
the Most Blessed Trinity we feel 
confident that our plea for mercy 
will be heard. 

After kissing the altar, which is 
the symbol of Christ, the priest 
turns to the congregation with 
hands extended and says, "The 
Lord be with you." He transmits 
to the people the graces he has 
received from the altar. This same 
greeting occurs eight times during 
the Mass and each time it is a re- 
minder to those assisting at Mass 
that they are to take an active part 
in what follows. 


Collect. (The Collect or Oration 
as it is often called, is different for 
each Mass. It is a prayer of peti- 
tion. It begins with the words, "Let 
us pray," followed by a form of ad- 
dress to God, the reason for our pe- 
tition, and the petition itself; It 
closes with a formula something 
like the following: "Through our 
Lord Jesus Christ Who lives and 
reigns with the Holy Ghost, world 
without end. Amen.") 

By the words, "Let us pray/' the 
celebrant indicates that this prayer 
is not his alone but the prayer of 
all those present The priest is the 
representative of the people and 
when he prays he beseeches God to 
hearken to the common petition of 
the congregation. The prayer ends 
with an invocation to Christ. Con- 
fidently we invoke His aid Who 
said: "Whatsoever you shall ask 
the Father in My Name, that will 
I do" (Jn. xiv, 13). 

Summary. This first part of the Mass is called by some "the service of 
prayer." By the confession of sins (Confiteor) we have told God how 
sorry we are for having offended Him, how unworthy we feel to assist 
at the sublime Sacrifice; but with the thought of God's kindness and 
goodness before us we cry to heaven for mercy (Kyrie) ; almost instinc- 
tively we burst into the praises of the Most Blessed Trinity (Gloria) 
and the thought of the power and majesty of the Triune God fills us with 
the assurance that our plea for mercy will be heard; and finally we lay 
before God our special petitions (Collect). 

Thus by our prayers we have gradually ascended toward God it is 
our preparation and introduction to the Mystery of Calvary. God, Who 
is never outdone in generosity, now responds to our prayers through the 
words of Sacred Scripture. We are entering the second part of the drama 
of the Mass. 

II. From the EpSstle to the Creed 

Words of the Liturgy 

Epistle. (The Epistles of Sundays 
are always taken from the letters 
of the Apostles. In rnany of the 
ferial Masses of Lent, Ember Days, 
and many of the old Masses of the 
Saints the Lesson is taken from 
some Book of the Old Testament.) 

Server: Thanks be to God. 

Gradual. (The Gradual is made up 
generally of two verses from one 
of the psalms. It is found in all 
Masses except those during the 
Easter season.) 

Alleluia. (Two Alleluias, a verse, 
and another Alleluia follow the 
Gradual in Masses between Trinity 
Sunday and Septuagesima Sunday. 
The so-called greater Alleluia is 
the only chant between the Epistle 
and Gospel in the Masses from 
Easter Saturday until Trinity Sun- 

Tract. (The Tract replaces the 
Alleluia on days of penance and in 
Requiem Masses. It is made up of 
several verses from one of the 

Significance of the Ritual 
The Epistle is chosen with a view 
to the development of the feast be- 
ing celebrated. It is taken from 
the inspired books. Through the 
Epistle God speaks to those assist- 
ing at Mass, and man shows his 
gratitude by answering with the 
server: "Thanks be to God." 

The Gradual affords a pause for 
reflection on the Lesson that has 
been read. It may be considered as 
the echo of the reading from Sa- 
cred Scripture. 

The Alleluia is the prelude to the 
Gospel. It is the joyful anticipa- 
tion of the great privilege that is 
ours : namely, that the sublime, the 
life-giving words of Christ Himself 
are about to be read to us. 

The Tract presents thoughts con- 
ducive to quiet meditation and in- 
tensive reflection, the theme being 
always sorrowful in accordance 
with the penitential seasons in 
which it is used in the Mass. 


Sequence. (The Sequence devel- 
oped by adding words to the notes 
of the "a" of the Alleluia. These 
words were later put into metrical 
form. Sequences occur in Masses 
of Easter, Pentecost, Corpus Chris- 
ti and Seven Dolors, and Requiem 

Priest: Cleanse my heart and my 
lips, O almighty God, Who didst 
cleanse the lips of the prophet 
Isaias with a burning coal: vouch- 
safe through Thy gracious mercy 
so to cleanse me that I may worth- 
ily proclaim Thy holy Gospel 
Through Christ Our Lord. Amen. 

Gospel. (The Gospel is a reading 
selected from one of the Evange- 
lists. The particular part which is 
read has been chosen by the 
Church to fit the particular feast 
or occasion which is being cele- 

Priest: The Lord be with you. 

Server: And with thy spirit 

Priest: The continuation of the 
holy Gospel according to St. N. 
(here he mentions the name of the 
Evangelist from whose account the 
Gospel of the Mass is taken and 
then reads the Gospel) ... 

Server: Praise be to Jesus Christ. 

Priest (having finished the Gos- 
pel, kisses the book and says): By 
the words of the Gospel may our 
sins be blotted out. 

The purpose of the Sequence is 
to form a sort of meditation on the 
Alleluia verse. This purpose is ad- 
mirably carried out in the Se- 
quences for Easter and Pentecost 

Raising his eyes to the crucifix 
the priest indicates that he wishes 
the Crucified Saviour to commis- 
sion him to announce the sublime 
words of the Gospel; bowing pro- 
foundly he asks God to cleanse him, 
because only the pure may presume 
to speak the holy words of the 

The holy Gospel is worthy of the 
highest respect. This reverence is 
manifested by the congregation in 
arising to hear the sacred word. By 
the greeting, "The Lord be with 
you," the priest reminds the people 
that they are to take an active part 
in the Gospel. The priest makes 
the Sign of the Cross on the Gospel. 
Then to indicate that they wish to 
apply the blessing of God's words 
to themselves, both the priest and 
people make a small sign of the 
Cross on the forehead, lips and 
breast. "Praise be to Jesus Christ" 
is the server's expression of grati- 
tude, which all experience at the 
privilege of being allowed to hear 
the very words of God Himself. 
Finally the priest's prayer that "our 
sins be blotted out" shows what 
value we attach to the Gospel. 

Summary. This second part of the Mass from the Epistle to the Creed 
is made up entirely of passages from Holy Scripture. It is the word of 
God spoken to us in answer to our prayers of preparation that preceded. 
Both parts taken together form the Mass of the Catechumens or the Ante- 
Mass. So far the real Sacrifice has not begun, but everything is prepara- 
tory. We have come to God's holy altar, away from the noise of the 
world, to lay our cares and worries, our hopes and petitions before the 
Lord. Then God spoke to us through the words of the inspired writers. 
We listened to His teaching; and now, before we enter upon the first 
essential part of the Mass, i. e., the Offertory, we assure God that our 
faith in Him is strong. We do this by reciting the Creed: 

Creed: I believe in one God, the 
Father almighty, maker of heaven 
and earth, and of all things visible 
and invisible. And in one Lord 
Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son 
of God, born of the Father before 

In the words of this profession 
of faith we join the host of adorers 
who have paid homage to the Al- 
mighty through the ages. The very 
same words have been used by 
Catholics since the fourth century. 


all ages; God of God, light of light, 
true God of true God; begotten not 
made; consubstantiai with the 
Father; by Whom all things were 
made. Who for us men, and for our 
salvation, came down from leaven 
(the celebrant genuflects and 
adores the Word made flesh) ; and 
was Incarnate by the Holy Ghost, of 
the Virgin Mary; and was made man, 
He was crucified also for us, suf- 
fered under Pontius Pilate, and was 
buried. And the third day He arose 
again according to the Scriptures; 
and ascended into heaven. He 
sitteth at the right hand of the 
Father; and He shall come again 
with glory to judge the living and 
the dead; and His kingdom shall 
have no end. And in the Holy 
Ghost, the Lord and giver of life, 
who proceedeth from the Father 
and the Son, who together with the 
Father and the Son is adored and 
glorified; who spoke by the Proph- 
ets. And one, holy, catholic and 
apostolic Church. I confess one 
baptism for the remission of sins. 
And I await the resurrection of the 
dead, and the life of the world to 
come. Amen. 

They serve to unite us intimately 
to Catholics of all times and all 
places professing our belief in the 
essential doctrines that Out Blessed 
Saviour came to earth to teach us. 

We begin by professing our be- 
lief in God the Father. We dwell 
at length on the truths that center 
around Christ, for in Him the eyes 
of men have seen as much of the 
Divinity of God as it is permitted 
mortals to behold. Then conies 
our profession of faith in the Holy 
Ghost. Our faith in the three Di- 
vine Persons we confirm by our 
belief in the Catholic Church, for 
the Father commissioned the Son 
to establish, that Church, and the 
Son sent the Holy Ghost to guide 
and guard it. Belief in the Church 
demands faith in baptism by which 
men enter it; demands also belief 
in the resurrection and in the life 
to come which is the reward or 
punishment of man's life while a 
member of it. 

The Creed is thus seen to be a 
concise statement of the chief 
dogmas of our holy faith. 

III. From the Offertory to the Canon 

Words of the Liturgy 

Priest: The Lord "be with you. 
Server: And with thy spirit. 
Priest: Let us pray. 

Offertory. (The Offertory prayer 
is proper to each Mass, and like the 
other proper parts it changes with 
each Mass. Formerly it was a long 
prayer chanted during the proces- 
sion of the people as they brought 
their gifts to the altar. Today it is 
a short form of this processional 

Receive, O holy Father, almighty 
and eternal God, this spotless host, 
which I, Thy unworthy servant, 
offer unto Thee, my living and true 
God, for mine own countless sins, 
offenses and negligences, and for 
all here present; as also for all 
faithful Christians living and dead, 
that it may avail both me and them 

Significance of the Ritual 
Once again the priest reminds 
the people of their active part in 
the Sacrifice. The words, "Let us 
pray," are an exhortation to those 
present to join in all the prayers 
of the Offertory. 

By bringing gifts to the altar at 
this part of the Mass the early 
Christians showed their eagerness 
to take part in the Sacrifice. Though 
that early custom no longer ob- 
tains, we can and we should offer 
to God at this point the gift He 
most desires the gift of our very 

Raising the host the priest offers 
it in the name of all those present 
to God; he offers it "for mine own 
countless sins . . . and for all here 
present"; then, as it were, he looks 
beyond the present and visualizes 
this same host after it has been 
consecrated and he prays that He 
Who is to come down from heaven 


unto salvation for life everlasting. 

O God, who in a marvellous man- 
ner didst create and ennoble hu- 
man nature, and still more mar- 
vellously has renewed it, grant 
that, by the mystical union of this 
water and wine, we may be made 
partakers of His divinity who 
vouchsafed to become partaker of 
our humanity, Jesus Christ Thy 
Son, our Lord: Who liveth and 
reigneth with Thee In the unity of 
the Holy Ghost, one God, world 
without end. Amen. 

We offer unto Thee, O Lord, the 
chalice of salvation, beseeching 
Thy clemency; that it may rise up 
in the sight of Thy divine majesty 
as a sweet savour, for our own sal- 
vation and for that of the whole 
world. Amen. 

In a humble spirit and a contrite 
heart may we be received by Thee, 
O Lord, and may our sacrifice so 
be offered up in Thy sight this day 
that it may be pleasing to Thee, O 
Lord God. 

Come, Thou who makest holy, al- 
mighty and eternal God, and bless 
this sacrifice prepared for Thy 
holy name. 

Psalm xv, 6-12: I will wash my 
hands among the innocent: and 
will compass Thy altar, O Lord: 

That I may hear the voice of Thy 
praise, and tell of all Thy won- 
drous works. 

I have loved, Lord, the beauty 
of Thy house, and the place where 
Thy glory dwelleth. 

Take not away my soul, O God, 
with the wicked, nor my life with 
bloody men: 

In whose hands are iniquities: 
their right hand is filled with gifts. 

But as for me, I have walked in 
my innocence: redeem me, and 
have mercy on me. 

My foot hath stood in the direct 
way: in the churches I will bless 
Thee, O Lord. 

Glory be to the Father, etc. 

at the moment of Consecration may 
grant salvation to those who now 
offer it with him to the Eternal 

The priest, after he has poured 
the wine into the chalice, says this 
prayer while blessing the water. As 
can be seen from the prayer, the 
Church attaches a deep symbolical 
meaning to the mingling of the 
wine and water. The wine repre- 
sents Christ (hence the wine is not 
blessed), the water represents man. 
As the water is merged in the wine, 
so do we desire to be assumed into 
the nature and the very being of 
Our Lord. 

Once more the priest looks be- 
yond the present moment: as lie 
raises the chalice to offer^it to God 
he is thinking not of the wine it 
contains but of the Blood that is 
to be. The salvation of the world 
is what he asks from heaven. 

The very posture of the priest 
who bows profoundly as he says 
this prayer conveys the idea of hu- 
mility and contrition which gives 
the keynote of the prayer. Humble 
and contrite we ask God to accept 
not only the bread and wine which 
we have offered, but to receive us 

The priest raises his hands as 
though he would compel the Holy 
Ghost to come down from heaven 
to bless the offering. 

This psalm is said by the priest 
while he washes his hands. Be- 
sides the very practical purpose of 
washing of the hands, there is also 
a symbolic purpose and meaning 
attached to the ceremony. Cleanli- 
ness and innocence go hand in 
hand, and the priest who is about 
to offer the most sublime of sacri- 
fices needs to be cleansed from 
even the slightest speck of imper- 

The psalm itself is a mixture of 
praise and petition: praise of God 
in the glory and beauty of His 
house, petition for mercy from the 
realization that man is ever too sin- 
ful to offer fitting sacrifice to his 

The request to be numbered 
among the innocent has a very defi- 


Receive, O Holy Trinity, this of- 
fering which we make to Thee in 
remembrance of the Passion, Re- 
surrection and Ascension of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and in honor of 
blessed Mary ever Virgin, of blessed 
John the Baptist, of the holy Apos- 
tles Peter and Paul, of these and of 
all the saints: that it may avail to 
their honor and our salvation: and 
may they vouchsafe to intercede 
for us in heaven, whose memory we 
keep on earth. Through' the same 
Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Priest: Brethren, pray that my 
sacrifice and yours may be accep- 
table to God the Father almighty. 

Server: May the Lord receive the 
sacrifice at thy hands, to the praise 
and glory of His name, to our own 
benefit, and to that of all His holy 
Church. Amen. 

Secret. (This is another prayer 
which varies with each Mass. The 
best explanation of the term "se- 
cret" seems to be that this prayer 
was the Offertory prayer of the "se- 
cret" or "select" congregation 
which remained after the catechu- 
mens had been dismissed.) 

Priest: . . . world without end. 

Server: Amen. 

Priest: The Lord be with you. 

Server: And with thy spirit. 

Priest: Lift up your hearts. 

Server: We have lifted them up 
unto the Lord. 

Priest: Let us give thanks to the 
Lord our God. 

Server: It is meet and right. 

Preface. It is truly meet and just, 
right and availing unto salvation, 
that we should at all times and in 
all places give thanks unto Thee, 
O holy Lord, Father almighty and 
everlasting God, through Christ our 
Lord. Through whom the angels 
praise Thy majesty, the domina- 
tions worship it, the powers stand 
in awe. The heavens, and the heav- 
enly hosts and the blessed sera- 
phim Join together In celebrating 

nite objective in view, vis., to be 
able to offer God the most perfect 
sacrifice possible to sinful man. 

Man's preparation for the sacri- 
fice of the Mass needs the approba- 
tion of heaven if it is to be a wor- 
thy sacrifice. Bowing down the 
priest addresses his prayer to the 
Most Blessed Trinity (a very rare 
thing in the Liturgy), and calls up- 
on the saints of heaven to help 
make the sacrifice a fitting one. 
With the saints interceding for us 
we feel more certain that our offer- 
ing will be pleasing to the Most 

Ail are called upon to petition 
heaven to receive the sacrifice 
which the priest is about to offer 
in the name of all. 

The glory of God, our own salva- 
tion, and the salvation of the whole 
Church these form the basis of 
our claim upon the Lord for the ac- 
ceptance of our sacrifice. 

The thoughts contained in these 
secret prayers are always linked 
up with the sacrificial act which is 
soon to take place. Our offerings, 
unimportant in themselves, become 
tremendous in the light of what 
they are soon to become Christ 

These are the last words of the 
Secret which the priest says aloud. 
The responsories that follow form 
the introduction to the Preface. 
They were originally acclamations 
used by the people when meeting 
each other (see Book of Ruth ii, 4). 
Their function here is to remind 
us once again that all who assist 
at the Sacrifice of the Mass should 
take an active part in it. 

This is the Common Preface used 
throughout the year on feasts and 
ferias which have no Proper Pref- 
ace. There are fifteen Prefaces in 
the Roman Missal of today. 

The main thought of the Preface 
is praise and adoration of God. 
This praise of God is the spontane- 
ous cry of our souls as we draw 
ever closer to the central point in 
the great drama of the Mass. 


their joy. With whom we pray Thee 

join our voices also, while we say 
with lowly praise: 

Sanctus. Holy, holy, holy, Lord 
God of hosts. Heaven and earth 
are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in 
the highest. 

Be tied ictus. Blessed is He that 
cometh in the name of the Lord. 
Hosanna in the highest. 

We repeat the words of the an- 
gelic hosts who worship at the 
throne of God singing continually 
their Holy, Holy, Holy. 

He who came to Bethlehem is 
now about to come down upon our 

Summary. The Offertory is the first of the three principal parts of the 
Mass. It is the preparation for the Sacrifice. Together with the priest 
we offer to God our gifts of bread and wine; by the mingling of water 
and wine we indicate that we wish to become one with Christ so that 
we may be offered with Him at the moment of Consecration; we beg 
God's blessing upon our offerings so that they may become a pleasing 
sacrifice; we wash our hands in spirit with the priest because only the 
pure can presume to offer sacrifice to the Lord; we call upon the angels 
and saints and upon God Himself to supply what is wanting to make 
our offering a worthy sacrifice; and finally we sing a hymn of praise and 
adoration as we join that everlasting chant of the angelic choirs: "Holy, 
holy, holy, Lord God of hosts. Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. 
Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the 
Lord. Hosanna in the highest." 

IV. From the Beginning of 
Words of the Liturgy 

We therefore humbly pray and 
beseech Thee, O most merciful 
Father, through Jesus Christ Thy 
Son, our Lord, that Thou wouldst 
vouchsafe to receive and bless 
these gifts, these offerings, and 
these holy and unblemished sacri- 
fices, which in the first place, we 
offer up to Thee for Thy holy 
Catholic Church, that it may please 
Thee to grant her peace, to pro- 
tect, unite and govern her through- 
out the world, together with Thy 
servant Pius XII our Pope, (name 
of) our Bishop, and all true be- 
lievers and professors of the Catho- 
lic and Apostolic faith. 

Be mindful, O Lord, of Thy serv- 
ants and handmaids NN. (here are 
mentioned the names of the liv- 
ing) and of all here present, whose 
faith and devotion are known to 
Thee, for whom we offer, or who 
offer up to Thee, this sacrifice of 
praise for themselves and all those 
dear to them, for the redemption 
of their souls, the hope of their 
safety and salvation: who now pay 
their vows to Thee, the eternal, 
living and true God. 

In communion with, and vener- 
ating the memory in the first place 

the Canon to the Our Father 

Significance of the Ritual 
The priest bows low, kisses the 
altar, and silently prays to God, 
asking Him to receive our offer- 
ings through Jesus Christ. He 
makes three signs of the Cross 
over the oblation to show that 
Christ obtained for us the blessing 
of the Trinity by His death on Cal- 
vary. The offering is made in the 
name of the Pope and the Bishop, 
and of "all true believers and pro- 
fessors of the Catholic and Apos- 
tolic Faith." The entire Church 
thus participates in every Mass 
that is offered up to God. 

Here, in the Memento for the 
living, the priest mentions those 
living persons in particular for 
whom he wishes to pray. He like- 
wise prays for all those present at 
the Mass. He recommends their 
friends to God also. Notice that 
throughout the Canon the priest 
prays in the plural to indicate that 
the sacrifice being offered is the 
sacrifice of all. 

The two prayers above were con- 
cerned with the Church militant. 


of the glorious ever Virgin Mary, 
Mother of our God and Lord Jesus 
Christ; and also of Thy blessed 
Apostles and Martyrs Peter and 
Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thom- 
as, James, Philip, Bartholomew, 
Matthew, Simon and Thaddeus, 
Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, 
Cornelius, Cyprian, Laurence, Chry- 
sogonus, John and Paul, Cosnaas, 
and Daniian, and of all Thy saints; 
by whose merits and prayers grant 
that we may be defended In all 
things by the help of Thy protec- 
tion. Through the same Christ our 
Lord. Amen. 

This oblation, therefore, of our 
service and that of Thy whole fam- 
ily, we beseech Thee, O Lord, gra- 
ciously to accept, and to order our 
days in Thy peace and bid us to 
be delivered from eternal damna- 
tion and numbered among the flock 
of Thy elect. Through Christ our 
Lord. Amen. 

Which oblation do Thou, O God, 
vouchsafe in all things to bless, ap- 
prove, ratify, make worthy and ac- 
ceptable: that it may become for 
us the Body and Blood of Thy most 
beloved Son our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Who the day before He suffered 
took bread into His holy and ven- 
erable hands, and with His eyes 
lifted up to heaven, unto Thee, God, 
His almighty Father, giving thanks 
to Thee He blessed, broke, and 
gave it to His disciples saying: 
Take and eat ye all of this, f or this 
is my Body. 

In like manner, after He had 
supped, taking also this excellent 
chalice into His holy and vener- 
able hands, and giving thanks to 
Thee, He blessed and gave it to His 
disciples, saying: Take and drink 
ye all of this, for this is the Chalhe of 
my Blood, of the new testament: the 
mystery of faith: which shall be shed 
JOT you and for many unto the remis- 
sion of sins. 

As often as ye shall do these 
things, ye shall do them in remem- 
brance of Me. 

Wherefore, O Lord, we Thy serv- 
ants, and likewise Thy holy people, 
calling to mind the blessed Passion 
of the same Christ Thy Son our 

In this prayer the supplications of 
earth are joined with those of the 
Church triumphant in heaven. Our 
Blessed Lady, the Apostles, a num- 
ber of Popes, and a few of the mar- 
tyrs specially venerated in Rome 
are mentioned by name. They are 
the representatives of the whole 
celestial court upon whom we call. 
Here we see quite clearly the' in- 
timate connection between the 
faithful on earth and the saints in 

Spreading ' his hands over the 
chalice and host, a sign of vicari- 
ous atonement, the priest now en- 
ters upon the most solemn part of 
the Mass. He begs God to accept 
our sacrifice. Once accepted, that 
sacrifice will bring us peace and 
salvation and "number us among 
the flock of the elect" 

The priest repeats the plea for 
the acceptance of the sacrifice and 
adds a new petition: "That it may 
become for us the Body and Blood 
of Thy most beloved Son." 

The Consecration is enclosed in 
the simple Gospel narrative, Man 
fades into the background and 
Christ, the great Celebrant of the 
Sacrifice, repeats those solemn 
words which change bread and 
wine into His Body and Blood. The 
stupendous miracle of miracles 
takes place before our very eyes. 

The very simplicity of the Con- 
secration is a stumbling block to 
many. But the Church adheres 
strictly to this simple form because 
she wishes to perform this most 
solemn and sacred of human acts 
in exactly the same manner as our 
Divine Saviour performed it on 
that night before He died. 

This loving command of Our 
Lord is obeyed every time Holy 
Mass is celebrated. 

The living memorial which the 
Mass is, recalls not only Christ's 
Passion but His Resurrection and 
Ascension as well. The shadows of 


Lord, His Resurrection from hell 
and also His glorious ascension 
into heaven, offer unto Thy most 
excellent Majesty, of Thy gifts and 
presents, a pure Victim, a holy Vic- 
tim, a spotless Victim, the holy 
Bread of eternal life, and the Chal- 
ice of everlasting salvation. 

Upon which vouchsafe to look 
with a propitious and serene coun- 
tenance and to accept them as 
Thou wert pleased to accept the 
gifts of Thy just servant Abel, and 
the sacrifice of our Patriarch Abra- 
ham, and that which Thy priest 
Melchisedech offered to Thee, a 
holy sacrifice, a spotless Victim. 

We most humbly beseech Thee, 
almighty God, command these 
things to be carried up by the 
hands of Thy holy angel to Thine 
altar on high, in the sight of Thy 
divine majesty, that as many of us 
who, by participation at this altar, 
shall receive the most sacred Body 
and Blood of Thy Son may be filled 
with every heavenly blessing and 
grace. Through the same Christ 
our Lord". Amen. 

Be mindful also, O Lord, of Thy 
servants and handmaids (here are 
mentioned the names of the dead) 
who are gone before us with the 
sign of faith and repose in the 
sleep of peace. To these, O Lord, 
and to all that rest in Christ, grant, 
we beseech Thee, a place of re- 
freshment, light and peace. 
Through the same Christ our Lord. 

And to us sinners also, Thy serv- 
ants, hoping in the multitude of 
Thy mercies, vouchsafe to grant 
some part and fellowship with Thy 
holy apostles and martyrs: with 
John, Stephen, Matthias, Barnabas, 
Ignatius, Alexander, Marcellinus, 
Peter, Felicitas, Perpetua, Agatha, 
Lucy, Agnes, Cecilia, Anastasia, 
and with all Thy saints, into whose 
company admit iis, we beseech 
Thee, not considering our merits 
but pardoning our offenses. Through 
Christ our Lord, 

Through whom, O Lord, Thou 
dost always create, sanctify, quick- 

Calvary are dispersed by the glory 
of Easter morn and Ascension 
Thursday. More than a memorial 
is the Mass, it is a true sacrifice 
the holiest sacrifice ever known 
to man. Further, it is the "Bread 
of eternal life," the Bread which 
sustains us here on earth and which 
will bring us ultimately to heaven. 

The sacrifices of Abel, Abraham, 
and Melchisedech (Gen. iv, 4; xxii, 
10; xiv, 18) were types of the sacri- 
fice of the Mass. We ask God that 
as He was pleased to accept the 
sacrifices of these holy men so also 
to receive our sacrifice our sac- 
rifice which is a "holy sacrifice, a 
spotless Victim." 

But Abel, Abraham, and Mel- 
chisedech were holy men, whereas 
we are sinners. Lest our faults 
stand in the way the priest begs 
God to send down an angel from 
heaven. Carried to heaven by the 
pure hands of a spirit our sacri- 
fice must surely find favor with the 
Most High. 

Before the Consecration we 
prayed for the Church militant and 
we called to mind the Church tri- 
umphant. Now we turn our thoughts 
to the Church suffering. We re- 
member our own loved ones and 
also the entire army of souls that 
have gone "before us with the sign 
of faith." 

Finally, we pray for ourselves. 
In Christian modesty we have re- 
membered the Church, the living, 
the saints, and the dead. To this 
gathering we now join ourselves. 
Once again we become conscious 
of the communion of saints because 
our union with Christ in the Sacri- 
fice has rekindled our hope of a 
share in their happiness. In the 
list of saints before the Consecra- 
tion Our Lady was mentioned first. 
Here we give the first place to St. 
John the Baptist, the great saint of 
the Old Testament. 

In this prayer we summarize all 
that has gone before. We repeat 


en, bless, and bestow upon us all 
these Thy gifts. 

Through Him, and with Him, and 
in Him, be unto Thee, O God the 
Father almighty, in the unity of 
the Holy Ghost, all honor and glory, 
world without end. 

Server: Amen. 

our belief in Christ as the Mediator 
of all gifts, both natural and super- 

The Canon comes to a close with 
the most solemn Doxology in all 
the Liturgy. It is eminently fitting 
to pay our respects to the three 
Divine Persons at so solemn a 

By this response, the server in 
the name of the people, ratifies 
all the prayers of the Canon that 
have gone before. 

Summary. We have seen the very heart of the Mass. Christ has 
come down upon the altar. Around the central act of the Consecration 
the Church has entwined a wreath of prayers. We pray for the entire 
Church and all her members, and especially for the Pope, the Bishop 
of the diocese, and all the promoters of our holy faith; then for the 
Church in miniature which is assembled before the altar; we gaze heaven- 
ward and call to mind the Church triumphant; then after the Consecra- 
tion we are mindful of the Church suffering; then finally we pray for 
ourselves. All creation has gathered together at the altar of God in 
fulfilment of those prophetic words of Our Blessed Saviour: "And I, if 
I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all things to myself" (Jn. xii, 32). 

V. From the Our Father to the End of the Mass 

Words of the Liturgy 
Our Father. Let us pray: Taught 
by Thy saving precepts and guided 
by the divine institution, we make 
bold to say: Our Father, Who art 
in heaven, hallowed be Thy name; 
Thy kingdom come; Thy will be 
done on earth as it is in heaven. 
Give us this day our daily bread; 
and forgive us our trespasses as 
we forgive them that trespass 
against us. And lead us not into 
temptation. But deliver us from 
evil. Amen. 

Deliver us, we beseech Thee, O 
Lord, from all evils, past, present 
and to come, and by the interces- 
sion of the blessed and glorious 
ever Virgin Mary, Mother of God, 
together with Thy blessed Apostles 
Peter and Paul, and Andrew, and 
all the saints, mercifully grant 
peace in our days: that through 
the bounteous help of Thy mercy 
we may be always free from sin 
and secure from all disturbance. 
Through the same Jesus Christ 
Thy Son our Lord who liveth and 
reigneth with Thee in the unity of 
the Holy Ghost, one God, world 
without end. Amea. 

Significance of the Ritual 
The Our Father is the most per- 
fect prayer known to man. Christ 
Himself gave it to us. The first 
three petitions are directed to 
God's honor and glory, the last four 
deal with the needs of man. The 
Our Father is primarily the prayer 
of the multitude and not that of 
the individual (Our Father; give 
us; etc.). In the Mass the petitions 
of the Our Father are realized: 
God's kingdom is firmly established, 
and sin is vanquished. 

This prayer is a continuation of 
the last petition of the Our Father: 
"deliver us from evil." The thought 
of our wickedness overwhelms us 
and we insist that God come to our 
assistance. But we go farther than 
that merely negative request for 
deliverance from evil we ask for 
peace. Peace is the keynote of 
Christianity. Confidently we ask 
for this gift of peace knowing that 
Christ will say to us as He said to 
His disciples long ago: "Peace I 
leave with you, My peace I give un- 
to you: not as the world giveth do I 
give unto you" (Jn. xiv, 27), 

Priest: The peace of the Lord 
be always with you. 

Server: And with thy spirit. 

Breaking of Bread. May this 
mingling and consecration of the 
Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus 
Christ be to us who receive it ef- 
fectual to life everlasting. Amen. 

Agnus Dei. Lamb of God who 
takest away the sins of the world, 
have mercy on us (said three 

Prayer before Communion. O 
Lord Jesus Christ, who saidst to 
Thy Apostles, Peace I leave with 
you, My peace I give unto you; 
look not upon my sins, but upon 
the faith of Thy Church; and 
vouchsafe to grant her peace and 
unity according to Thy will: O God 
who livest and reignest world with- 
out end. Amen. 

Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the 
living God, who according to the 
will of the Father, through the co- 
operation of the Holy Ghost, hast 
by Thy death given life to the 
world : deliver me by this Thy most 
holy Body and Blood from all my 
transgressions and from all evils; 
make me always adhere to Thy 
commandments and never suffer 
me to be separated from Thee; 
who with the same God the Father 
and the Holy Ghost livest and 
reignest God, for ever and ever. 

Let not the partaking of Thy 
Body, O Lord Jesus Christ, which 
I, though unworthy, presume to re- 
ceive, turn to my judgment and 
condemnation: but through Thy 
goodness may it be unto me a safe- 
guard and a healing remedy both 
of soul and body; who livest and 
reignest with God the Father in 
the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, 
world without end. Amen. 

1 will take the bread of heaven, 
and call upon the name of the Lord. 
Lord, I am not worthy that Thou 
shouldst enter under my roof; say 
but the word and my soul shall be 
healed (repeated three times). 

May the Body of our Lord Jesus 
Christ preserve my soul to life 
everlasting. Amen. 

The priest as Christ's representa- 
tive wishes us that peace for which 
we have asked. 

The priest breaks off a small 

piece of the Host, and drops It into 
the Precious Blood, praying for sal- 
vation particularly for those who 
are about to receive God in Holy 


Mercy and peace are the gifts we 
beg of God. Insistently we repeat 
the petition three times. 

We are all sinful men; the priest 
himself realizes his own unworthi- 
ness; yet, relying on Christ's prom- 
ise, we ask once again for peace 
that peace which only God can give. 
Look not at our sins and failings, 
O Lord, but consider the faith of 
Thy holy Church. 

Here the priest prays that he 
may be preserved from an un- 
worthy Communion, asking, at the 
same time, for the blessed effects 
of that Body and Blood which he is 
soon to receive. Freedom from sin, 
obedience to the commandments, 
and perseverance to the end these 
are the requests of God's minister. 
He prays confidently, knowing that 
God can do all things. 

This third prayer in prepara- 
tion for Holy Communion is pri- 
marily a prayer of humility. The 
priest here prays for the real ef- 
fects of the Holy Eucharist, viz., 
protection against the dangers of 
soul and body, and the healing of 
the wounds of fallen nature. 

Here the priest uses that excel- 
lent prayer of the centurion, a 
prayer alive with humility, faith in 
God, and trust in His Omnipotence. 
Christ heard the prayer of the cen- 
turion; He will hear our prayer 
also if we say it as sincerely as did 
the centurion. 

A plea for eternal life is the 
priest's last request as he receives 
the sacred Body of Christ, 


What shall I render to the Lord 
for all the things that He hath 
rendered to me? I will take the 
chalice of salvation, and I will call 
upon the name of the Lord. 

Praising, I will call upon the 
Lord, and I shall be saved from my 

May the Blood of our Lord Jesus 
Christ preserve my soul to life 
everlasting. Amen. 

Server: I confess to almighty 
God, to hlessed Mary ever Virgin, 
etc. (as at the beginning of Mass). 

Priest: May almighty God have 
mercy upon you, forgive you your 
sins, and bring you to life everlast- 
ing. Amen. 

May the almighty and merciful 
Lord grant you pardon, absolution, 
and remission of your sins. Amen. 

Behold the Lamb of God, behold 
Him who taketh away the sins of 
the world. 

Lord I am not worthy that Thou 
shouldst enter under my roof; say 
but the word and my soul shall be 
healed (said three times). 

May the Body of our Lord Jesus 
Christ preserve thy soul to life 
everlasting. Amen. 

Grant, O Lord, that what we have 
taken with our mouth, we may re- 
ceive with a pure mind: and that 
from a temporal gift it may become 
for us an eternal remedy. 

May Thy Body, O Lord, which I 
have received, and Thy Blood 
which I have drunk, cleave to my 
inmost parts, and grant that no 
stain of sin may remain in me, 
whom these pure and holy sacra- 
ments have refreshed. Who livest 
and reignest world without end. 

Communion. (This prayer changes 
with each Mass. Originally it was 
composed of an entire psalm, but 
now it is made up of only a few 
verses taken from a psalm.) 

Priest: The Lord be with you. 

Server: And with thy spirit 

Postco mm union. (This is the last 
of the variable prayers of the Mass. 
In the Postcommunion the priest 
makes new petitions, and he makes 
them with great confidence because 
he has become one with Christ 

How can man thank God ade- 
quately for the wonderful gift of 
the Eucharist? "I will take the 
chalice of salvation," says the 
priest, realizing that the only prop- 
er way to thank God is through the 
gifts that He Himself has given us. 

Eternal life is the insistent plea 
of the priest as he reverently re- 
ceives the Precious Blood. 

In these prayers that precede the 
Communion of the faithful we find 
the same elements which are con- 
tained in the priest's preparatory 
prayers: sorrow for sin, humility. 
confidence and trust. We find like- 
wise the plea for eternal life. Here 
in the Eucharist man receives a 
foretaste of the life in heaven. 
Christ came to save men from sin; 
He came not for the men of His 
own day only but for men of all 
time; in the Eucharist the men of 
every century of time, of every na- 
tion under the sun find the answer 
to the riddle of life. Through the 
Eucharist all men can become par- 
takers of Him who said of Him- 
self: "I am the life." 

Our hearts are set on receiving 
life everlasting and we do not grow 
weary of asking this great gift 
from Christ who now resides in our 

In order to be worthy of everlast- 
ing life we must spend our pres- 
ent life in accordance with God's 
wishes. Hence the priest prays 
God to live in him and keep him 
free from every stain of sin. 

For a proper appreciation of the 
Communion Prayer it must be 
studied with the rest of the psalm 
from which it is taken. 

Once again the congregation is 
reminded of its active role in the 

With the thought of the great 
graces that have come with the re- 
ception of Holy Communion the 
priest petitions God for further 
blessings, both natural and super- 


through the reception of His Body 
and Blood.) 

Priest: The Lord be with you. 
Server: And with thy spirit. 

Priest: Go, you are dismissed. 

Server: Thanks be to God. 

May the homage of my bounden 
duty be pleasing to Thee, O holy 
Trinity; and grant that the sacri- 
fice which I, though unworthy, have 
offered in the sight of Thy majesty 
may be acceptable to Thee, and 
through Thy mercy be a propitia- 
tion for me and for all those for 
whom I have offered it. Through 
Christ our Lord. Amen. 

May almighty God bless you, the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost. Amen. 

Priest: The Lord be with you. 
Server: And with thy spirit. 

Priest: The beginning of the holy 
Gospel according to St. John. 

Server: Glory be to Thee, O 

Priest: In the beginning was the 
Word, and the Word was with God, 
and the Word was God. The same 
was in the beginning with God. All 
things were made by Him, and 
without Him was made nothing 
that was made. In Him was life, 
and the life was the light of men: 
and the light shineth in darkness, 
and the darkness did not compre- 
hend it. 

There was a man sent from God, 
whose name was John. This man 
came for a witness, to bear witness 
of the light, that all men through 
Him might believe. He was not the 
light, but was to bear witness of 
the light. 

That was the true light, which en- 
lighteneth every man that cometh 
into this world. He was in the 
world, and the world was made by 
Him, and the world knew Him not. 
He came unto His own, and His 
own received Him not. But as 
many as received Him, to them 
He gave power to become the sons 

Another admonition to the faith- 
ful to unite their prayers with 
those of the celebrant. 

The formal dismissal "Ite missa 
est" seemed so characteristic of the 
entire ceremony that the sacri- 
ficial rite came to be known as the 

The Sacrifice is completed. Again 
the priest remembers Ms sinful- 
ness and unworthiness as he sends 
a fervent prayer to the Most 
Blessed Trinity whom he asks to 
accept the sacrifice from his own 
unworthy hands, a propitiation for 
himself and for all those for whom 
he has offered it. 

The priest kisses the altar, raises 
his eyes and hands as if to receive 
the blessing from above, and then 
gives the blessing to the faithful. 

The final plea of the priest beg- 
ging those present to join him in 

This Gospel from the pen of St. 
John is filled with deep meaning. 
Briefly: St. John first tells us of 
Christ as God, as Creator, and as 
Redeemer; he then narrates the 
coming of the precursor, St. John 
the Baptist, being careful to empha- 
size the fact that John was not the 
Messias but only His herald; then 
follows the story of Christ's com- 
ing into the world He is the light 
of the world "and the world knew 
Him not"; even His chosen people 
failed to receive Him, but they who 
do receive Him will be made "sons 
of God"; finally the climax "and 
the Word was made Flesh," that 
incomprehensible mystery of God's 
goodness to sinful man. 

The Mass is truly the verification 
of St. John's words. In the most 
sublime manner possible we have 
seen that the "Word was made 
Flesh, and dwelt among us ; and we 
saw His glory, the glory as it were 
of the only-begotten of the Father, 
full of grace and truth." Sinful man 
could never have dared to ask so 
much from God had not God Him- 
self freely granted us so great a 


of God: to them that believe in "Thanks be to God" Is the re- 
His name: who are born, not of spons of our grateful hearts. We 
blood, nor of the will of the flesh, are grateful because God has for- 
nor of the will of man, but of God. given our sms, because He has sup- 
( Genuflection.) plied our un worthiness, and foe- 

And the Word was made flesh, cause in the Mass He has brought 
and dwelt among us: and we saw us not only His graces ana oiess- 
His glory, the glory as it were of ings but has given us Himself, 
the only-begotten of the Father, 
full of grace and truth. 

Server: Thanks be to God. 

Summary. This last part of the Mass is the completion of the Sacri- 
fice. We offered our gifts to God, Christ Himself changed our gifts of 
bread and wine into His Body and Blood, and now the Sacrifice is com- 
pleted by our reception of Holy Communion. We began our preparation 
for Communion with the Our Father; we begged God to keep us from 
evil, to grant us His peace; humbled by the thought of our sins we grew 
confident at the thought of God's goodness and approached His Holy 
Table to become one with Him; we asked Him to take full possession 
of our souls and bodies, to help us through every moment of our lives ; 
we received the blessing of the Most Holy Trinity from God's minister ; 
and so we go confidently to our daily tasks because God is with us. If 
God be for us, who is against us?" (Romans viii, 31). 


(Adapted from a pamphlet entitled "To Find the Place in a Missal," with 
permission of the author, Rev. Paul Bussard.) 

Mass of the Catechumens 

5. Collect 6. Epistle 

4. Gloria ?. Gradual 

3. Kyrie 8. Gospel 

2. Introit 9- Sermon 

I. Prayer at the foot of the altar. 10. Creed 

The parts of the Mass in ordinary type are called "Ordinary prayers," 

and they are the same for every Mass throughout the year; those in 

italics are also "Ordinary prayers," but they are sometimes omitted. 

The parts in heavy type are called "Proper prayers," and they vary 

with each Mass that is said. 

All that is necessary is to fit the Proper prayers into their place in the 
Ordinary prayers. Take the Mass for the first Sunday of Advent (usually 
in the beginning of the Missal) and the Ordinary of the Mass (usually 
in the center). First come the prayers at the foot of the altar (Ordinary) ; 
then the Introit (turn to the Proper); then the Kyrie (back to the 
Ordinary); then the Gloria (Ordinary); then the Collect (turn back to 
the Proper) ; then the Epistle, Gradual, and Gospel (all in the Proper) ; 
finally the Creed (hack to the Ordinary). 

Mass of the Faithful 

8. Doxology 

7. 3 Commemorations 9. Our Father 

6. Offering Prayers 10. Breaking of Bread 

5. 3 Commemorations 11. Holy Communion 

4. Preface 12- Communion Chant 

3. Secret 13. Postcommunion 

2. Offering of bread and wine 14. Blessing 

1. Offertory Chant 15. Last Gospel 


Again the Ordinary prayers are in ordinary type; the Proper prayers 
in heavy type. The Prefaces are together in one place and in some 
Missals the prayers after the Preface (Canon) follow the Preface In the 
Missal; in others they follow the Ordinary prayers of the Mass of the 

There are only four Proper prayers in this last part of the Mass. The 
Communion and Postcommunion are said after the book has been moved 
back to the Epistle side of the altar. The Offertory Chant is said im- 
mediately after the Creed. The Secret is said after the priest turns to 
the congregation and says, "Orate fratres." 

The Proper of the Saints 

Saints' days come on a certain fixed date of the month. St. Valentine's 
day is on February 14, the Assumption on August 15, St. Therese on 
Oct. 3, and so on. Accordingly there is another part of the Missal called 
the Proper of the Saints. It contains the Proper parts of the Mass for 
the feasts of saints just as the Sunday Proper does for Sunday Masses. 
The Common of the Saints 

If all the Proper parts of a Saint's Mass are not found in the Mass of 
that day, reference is made to the Common of the Saints (the Masses 
that Saints have in common, e.g., Martyrs, Confessors, etc.). 

The Ordo 

Every priest has a little book called an Ordo. It contains specific 
directions about the Mass which is to be said on a particular day. This 
Ordo is now translated for the laity. It can be had in pamphlet form, 
and is printed each week in many of the diocesan papers. 

How the Faithful Should Conduct Themselves during Church Services 

Low Mass 

According to the rubrics of the 
missal, all who assist at low Mass 
should kneel during the whole 
Mass except at the Gospel, when 
they stand. Custom, however, has 
modified this as follows: 

When the celebrant enters the 
sanctuary to begin Mass, the con- 
gregation either kneels at once or 
stands up, according to the custom 
in that particular church. When 
the priest descends from the altar 
after opening the missal, however, 
all shall kneel. 

They remain kneeling until the 
priest, having finished the prayer 
at the center of the altar, goes over 
to read the Gospel. All stand until 
the Gospel is finished. 

If the priest makes any announce- 
ments, or preaches to the congre- 
gation, they should be seated. 
When he begins the Gospel in Eng- 
lish, they should stand and listen 
reverently to the word of God. 

Should the Credo be recited, the 
people remain standing, and genu- 
flect with the priest during it. When 

he turns to them after the Credo 
is finished, and says "Domimis vo- 
biscum," they may sit down. 

At the Sanctus, when the altar 
boy rings the bell three times, all 
shall kneel. Thus they remain un- 
til after the priest's Communion, 
and also during the Communion of 
the faithful, should there be any 
regeiving at that Mass. 

After Communion, when the priest 
has closed the tabernacle door, the 
congregation may sit down while 
the celebrant purifies and covers 
the chalice. 

They should kneel again, how- 
ever, as soon as the priest goes 
to the missal. 

After the blessing, all rise and 
stand during the reading of the 
last Gospel, genuflecting with the 
priest during it. 

When the priest descends from 
the altar and kneels, they shall 
kneel with him and say the prayers 
in a loud, clear voice. 

No one should leave his place in 
the church until the priest has re- 
entered the sacristy. 


High Mass: Missa Cantata 

(The following rubrics are pre- 
ceptive for the laity in the Diocese 
of Fargo, N. D., and may be con- 
sidered as directive in other dio- 
ceses. They are the only rubrics 
preceptive for the laity in any dio- 
cese in the United States.) 

In general those present at a 
sung Mass follow, as far as pos- 
sible, the ceremonies observed by 
the clergy who may be present in 
choir at the Mass. Accordingly: 

They stand when the procession 
to the altar makes its appearance 
from the sacristy, and remain 
standing until the Mass is begun, 
even though the Asperges takes 
place. Each person bows and 
makes the Sign of the Cross when 
sprinkled at the Asperges. 

All kneel for the prayers of ^prep- 
aration (up to the "Oremus") and 
stand when the celebrant ascends 
the altar steps. 

All remain standing for the In- 
troit, Kyrie, and the Gloria, while 
they are recited by the celebrant. 
When the celebrant has sat down 
for the singing of the Gloria, all sit. 
They rise when the celebrant rises 
towards the end of this chant. 

All stand for the singing of the 
prayers , ( except at a Requiem 
Mass) and sit for the chanting 
of the Epistle and what follows. 

When "Dominus vobiscum" is 
sung before the chanting of the 
Gospel all stand. They remain 
standing during the recitation of 
the Creed, genuflecting with the 
celebrant at the words "et incarna- 
tus," etc. All sit when the cele- 
brant has sat down for the singing 
of the Creed. While the words "et 
incarnatus," etc., are sung all bow. 
(Only those who are standing at 
the time when these words are 
begun then kneel.) They rise when 
the celebrant rises towards the end 
of the Creed, remain standing while 
he sings "Dominus vobiscum" and 
"Oremus," and then sit. 

When the celebrant begins to 
sing "Per omnia saecula saeculo- 
rum" before the Preface, all rise 
and remain standing until the 
Sanctus has been recited (or sung, 
if the people sing it). Then all 

kneel. All bow down during the 
Consecration but look up for a 
moment at the Sacred Host (say- 
ing "My Lord and My God") and 
at the chalice, when they are ele- 
vated. After the Elevation all stand 
until the celebrant has drunk the 
Precious Blood. (They bow while 
the celebrant consumes the Sacred 
Host and drinks the contents of 
the chalice.) Then ail sit 

Note: If Holy Communion is 
given, those who are about to com- 
municate kneel for the Confiteor 
and other prayers that precede 
Communion, and kneel when they 
return to their places after having 
received the Eucharist. All others 
remain standing for the prayers, 
but, kneel for the distribution of 
Communion and remain kneeling 
until the Blessed Sacrament has 
been returned to the tabernacle. 

All stand for the singing of "Do- 
minus vobiscum" before the Post- 
communion prayers, and remain 
standing during these prayers (ex- 
cept at a Requiem Mass, when they 
kneel) . 

All kneel for the Blessing and 
make the Sign of the Cross. 

All stand for the last Gospel 
(genuflecting if the celebrant genu- 
flects during its recitation) and re- 
main standing until the procession 
has returned to the sacristy. 
Solemn High Mass 

The rubrics are the same as for 
a high Mass. Note, however, that 
the congregation does not stand 
while the celebrant reads the Gos- 
pel, but only when the deacon com- 
mences it, with "Dominus vobis- 
cum." And when the altar boy in- 
censes the people at the Offertory 
they should all stand. 

Masses for the Dead 

At low Masses for the dead, the 
same rubrics are to be observed as 
at other low Masses. 

At high Masses, either with or 
without the presence of the corpse 
in the church, the faithful kneel 
from the beginning of the Mass un- 
til the Epistle, during which they 
should sit down. 

They stand during the singing of 
the Gospel. 


They sit down during the Offer- 
tory, until the priest begins the 
Preface, when they stand, and re- 
main standing until the Sanctus. 

Then they kneel until after the 
priest's Communion. They may sit 
after Communion, whilst the priest 
purifies and covers the chalice. 

Should the priest or clergy sit 
down at any time during the Mass, 
as is done sometimes during the 
singing of the "Dies Irae" after the 
Epistle, the faithful should also sit. 

If the Libera (the absolution of 
the body) is performed after the 
Mass, the people should rise as the 
priest approaches the catafalque 
and stand during the ceremony. 

All should kneel when the cele- 
brant kneels at the foot of the al- 
tar and says the first prayer. They 
rise when he rises, and remain 
standing until he sits down after 
the intoning of the first psalm by 
the chanters. At the Gloria Patri, 
at the end of each psalm, all 
should bow the head. 

During the singing of the chap- 
ter, when the five psalms are fin- 
ished, all should stand up. If the 

celebrant kneels during the singing 
of a hymn the people should kneel. 

During the singing of the "Mag- 
nificat," whilst the altar is incensed 
by the celebrant, the people stand. 

When the celebrant kneels at the 
foot of the altar, before the exposi- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament, all 
kneel and remain kneeling until 
Benediction is finished and the tab- 
ernacle door is closed, when they 
rise and remain standing until the 
priest has left the sanctuary. 
Rubrics for alS Occasions 

In church all should center their 
attention on the altar and think 
only of God Who dwells there for 
them. They should avoid all man- 
ner of noise, or any distraction to 
others. They should be clean in 
their person and dress, and avoid 
the slightest appearance of indis- 

If they do not feel inclined to 
mental prayer, they should read 
their prayer-books or say the rosary. 

Going to and from the confession- 
al, or the Communion rail, the eyes 
should be cast down, the hands 
held in a respectful manner, and 
the whole person should reflect the 
utmost recollection and modesty. 


When the priest is called to administer the Sacraments in our homes 
to the sick, the following preparations should be made: 

1. The room should be clean and suitably ornamented. 

2. A small table should be conveniently placed, covered with a white 

3. A crucifix placed in the center of the table. 

4. Two blessed candles placed in candlesticks on the table. These should 
be lighted when the priest is expected. 

5. A vessel containing holy water should be provided, and a sprinkler 
if possible. 

6. A glass of fresh water placed on the table, a teaspoon and a plate 
with small crumbs of bread for cleansing the oil from the hands of 
the priest. , 

7. A white cloth or towel placed ready to be used by the sick person 
while receiving Holy Communion. 

8. Some cotton wool provided to wipe away the anointing. 

When the priest is known to be carrying the Blessed Sacrament, it is 
a very laudable custom for one of the family to meet him at the street 
door with a lighted candle and escort him to the sick room. All those 
present in the room should kneel when the priest enters with the 
Blessed Sacrament. 

During the administration of Communion and Extreme Unction the 
members of the family should assemble in the sick room and pray for 
the patient. 



Liturgy and rite are not the same thing. Liturgy is the broader term. 
It denotes the public act of worship; rite is the manner in wtrich the act 
of worship is performed. Specifically the liturgy is the Church's public 
and lawful act of worship performed and conducted by the officials whom 
the Church has designated for the post her priests. The whole collec- 
tion of services used in public worship in a certain church or group of 
churches comprises a rite. But while the indiscriminate use of the two 
terms is thus not exact, common usage as expressed by many authorities 
on the liturgical question permits the practice. 

The early history of rites is obscure. At the Last Supper the Apostles 
saw Christ institute the Holy Sacrifice. Later in their apostolic journeys 
it was natural to embellish the essentials of the Mass and the sacraments 
which they had learned from Christ with additions of their own choosing. 
The additions were the outgrowth of reverence, custom and necessity. 
According to their own temperament and the needs of their people 
in various parts of the world the Apostles and their successors devised 
appropriate ceremonies to accompany the Holy Sacrifice and the adminis- 
tration of the sacraments. During the period of persecution rites were 
numerous and diverse. After the peace of Constantine when the Church 
became better organized, local practices were combined and the rites 
became more uniform throughout ecclesiastical provinces. The patriarchs 
imposed some uniformity of rite within the regions of their jurisdiction, 
and in this way the old Patriarchates of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch 
are responsible for the foundations of all the rites used in the Church 
today. Although all Europe practically belonged to the Roman Patri- 
archate, still Gaul and Northwest Europe had special rites till the seventh 
and eighth centuries. 

The Rites of the Western Church 

Roman Rite For all practical purposes this is the one universal rite 
used in the Western Church. With an isolated exception here and there, 
Latin is the only language used. 

Gallican Rite This rite, as a separate thing, has disappeared, but it 
has not departed without having left traces of its Influence on the Roman 
Rite. Its name is derived from the country where it was principally used, 
that is, Gaul. There are, however, two extant remnants of this rite: 

Ambrosian Rite, also called Milanese, which is in use in the Archdiocese 
of Milan. 

Mozarabic Rite, which is used in the Cathedral of Toledo. 

The Rites of the Eastern Church 
(See also Uniate Eastern Churches) 

There are five principal rites which are used in their entirety or in 
modified form by the various Churches of the East. They are the Byzan- 
tine, Alexandrian, Antiochean, Armenian and Chaldean. 

Byzantine Rite This was originally proper to the Church of Con- 
stantinople. It is based on the Rite of St. James of Jerusalem and that 
of the churches of Antioch, and reached Constantinople through Caesarea. 
The rite was reformed by St. Basil and later by St. John Chrysostom. 
It is now used by the whole Orthodox Eastern Church, by many Uniates 
and is the most widely spread rite after the Roman. 

The Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is the ordinary one. The Liturgy 
of St. Basil is used for the Sundays of Lent (except Palm Sunday), 
Maundy Thursday, Holy Saturday, the Vigils of Christmas, Epiphany and 
the feast of St. Basil. 


Alexandrian Rite There are no extant records of this rite, called also 
the Liturgy of St. Mark; but existing manuscripts of the old rite, after it 
was somewhat modified by the Copts and Melkites, reveal the general 
outlines of the ancient liturgy. 

The Coptic Church uses an adaptation of the Byzantine Rite of St. Basil 
for ordinary days and Sundays; that of St. Mark and that of St. Cyril 
are used on their respective feast days; and the Liturgy of St. Gregory 
Nazianzen is used on the great feast days. 

The Ethiopian Church uses an expanded version of St. Mark's Liturgy. 
The liturgy is substantially that of the Coptic Church. 

Antsochean Rite This rite is the source of more derived rites than 
any of the other parent rites. Its origin may be traced to the Eighth 
Book of the Apostolic Constitutions and to the Liturgy of St. James of 
Jerusalem, the "brother of the Lord." This latter ultimately spread to 
the whole patriarchate, displacing the older form of the Apostolic 

Armenian Rite This liturgy is essentially the Greek Liturgy of St. 
Basil, and is considered to be an old form of the Byzantine Rite. It is 
used exclusively by all Armenians. 

Chaldean Rite By some writers this is classed under the Antiochean 
Rite. Though there is historical evidence for such a derivation, in the list 
according to the Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Church it is sepa- 
rate and considered a distinct rite.' There are two broad divisions: the 
Chaldean properly so called, used by the Chaldee Uniates, and the Mala- 
barese, employed by the Malabar Uniates. 

Liturgical Practices Common to All Eastern Rites 

Eucharistic Liturgy Among the Orientals, leavened bread is used by 
all, with the exception of the Maronites and the Armenians who use un- 
leavened bread, and the Ethiopians who may use either one or the other. 
All have Communion under both species except the Maronites. Com- 
munion under one species is usual among the Chaldeans and it is per- 
mitted among the Ethiopians. On the Vigils of Christmas and Easter the 
liturgy is celebrated in the evening by the Syrians (Western) and the 
Chaldeans. This latter body also celebrates it in the evening on the 
Vigil of Holy Thursday. 

Sacramental Liturgy Baptism by immersion is the common practice in 
the East, except among the Maronites and the Malabarese. And among all 
rites, except the Malabarese, it is immediately followed by Confirmation 
administered by a priest. The Malabar Christians separate it from Con- 
firmation, the administration of the latter being entrusted to a bishop. 

Penance is administered in the East with the deprecative form, i.e., 
"May God absolve you," etc. The Armenians are an exception here for 
they use the indicative form common to the Roman Rite, i. e., "I absolve 
you," etc. 

Holy Eucharist is explained above. 

Extreme Unction in the East requires seven priests, but ordinarily for 
all practical purposes one suffices. 

Holy Orders throughout the East has only two minor orders, lector 
and subdeacon, in addition to deaconship and the priesthood. The Ar- 
menians are to be excepted, for they have the same four minor orders 
and the three major orders as in the Western rites. 

Matrimony usually consists of two parts in the East: first a "blessing" 
of the bride and groom; and then a "crowning." The expression of the 
matrimonial consent is implicit in the Eastern Churches. The Armenian 
Church is the only one in which the consent is expressly declared. 



The division of the Catholic 
Church into two parts, the West- 
ern or Latin Church and the East- 
ern Church, is the result of political 
accidents: the division of the Ro- 
man Empire by Diocletian (284- 
305), again "by the sons of Theodo- 
sius I (Arcadius in the East, 395- 
408; Honorius in the West, 395- 
423); and finally, the breach was 
strengthened by the establishment 
of the Holy Roman Empire by 
Charles the Great (Charlemagne) 
in 800. The Western Church is that 
subject to the Bishop of Rome as 
Patriarch of the West; the Eastern 
Church is that within the bounda- 
ries of the Eastern Empire whose 
capital was Constantinople (Byzan- 

When we speak of the Eastern 
Church we must not imagine that 
it is one integral body as is the 
Church subject to the Patriarch of 
the West. Not since before the 
Council of Nicea (325) has there 
been a unified Eastern Church. At 
that Council three patriarchs were 
recognized, those of Rome, Alex- 
andria and Antioch; by 451 two 
more were added: Jerusalem and 
Constantinople. Thus four patri- 
archates constitute the Eastern 
Church, as opposed to the one West- 
ern patriarchate. 

Any Catholic who is not subject 
to the Bishop of Rome as his patri- 
arch but who does recognize him 
as the Supreme Pontiff of the Cath- 
olic Church is a Uniate. A Uniate 
Eastern Church is any Eastern 
Church in communion with Rome. 
It is a matter of little concern 
where the Uniate lives-; he may be 
in North America or Syria; he still 
belongs to the Uniate Church of 
his patriarch. It is not possible 
to assign definite geographical lim- 
its to a Uniate Church and say 
that in such a place is found this 
Church exclusively. Since the Uni- 
ate may move about, the Uniate 
Church is found wherever Uniate 
Catholics dwell. 

There are some fundamental dis- 
tinctions which when they are clar- 
ified help to dispel much of the 

'confusion concerning the Eastern 
Churches. They have to do with 
the terms, religion, patriarchate, 
rite, language and place. 

The Catholic religion, founded by 
Jesus Christ, comprises those 
truths, precepts and means of sal- 
vation by which those who profess 
it are united with God and, in vir- 
tue of this union, with one another. 
It is therefore one religion, not a 
plurality of religions. Hence one is 
a Catholic or not depending upon 
his adherence to or rejection of 
the tenets of the Catholic Church. 

The five Bishops of Rome, Alex- 
andria, Antioch, Jerusalem and Con- 
stantinople are all patriarchs by 
equal right. The patriarchate or 
geographical territory over whose 
inhabitants each rules comprises 
. many dioceses whose bishops are 
subject to the respective patriarch 
(see Patriarchs). 

A rite may be defined as the man- 
ner of performing all services for 
the public worship of God and the 
sanctification of men (see Rites). 

Language naturally is concerned 
with rite but is its least important 
note. In theory any rite may be 
celebrated in any language without 
ceasing to be the same rite, e. g., 
the Mass could be said in English 
and still remain the Mass said ac- 
cording to the Roman Rite. 

Lastly, place is of little moment 
in the Eastern Churches. At one 
"time this was otherwise. When 
there were clear-cut geographical 
divisions of patriarchates, a Uniate 
was born within the limits of a 
particular patriarchate. Now a man 
belongs to his rite wherever he 
may dwell and his children inherit 
this quality from him wheresoever 
they may travel. 

When these distinctions are clear 
it can be seen that it is not neces- 
sary to hear Mass in the Latin lan- 
guage or to receive the sacraments 
according to the Roman Ritual in 
order to be a member of the Cath- 
olic Church. Unity of religion is 
not the same thing as uniformity 
of rite. The profession of the Cath- 


olic Faith is not the same as the 
manner in which it is professed. 

Though a discussion of the schis- 
matic Eastern Churches is beyond 
the scope of this article, yet some 
consideration of them must be made 
when the Uniate Churches are clas- 
sified. The greater part of the Uni- 
ate Churches are reunited portions 
of the schismatic Churches. The 
Maronite Church, never having 
been in schism, is an exception to 
this rule. The Eastern Catholics 
who are in union with the Bishop 
of Rome as head of the Church are : 
Uniate Copts, Ethiopian Uniates, 
Syrian Uniates, Chaldee Uniates, 
Uniate Armenians, Malabar Unia- 
tes, Byzantine Uniates, and the 
Maronite Church. 

Uniate Copts are under the Patri- 
arch of Alexandria who lives at 
Cairo. They use old Coptic in their 
liturgy which is Alexandrian in 
origin. Arabic, the present-day ver- 
nacular, is becoming more promi- 
nent for liturgical functions. 

Ethiopian Uniates were converted 
from the Ethiopian National Church 
which went into schism with the 
Copts. Their rite is substantially 
Coptic (Alexandrian), with Geez, 
the classical language. Since the 
conquest of Ethiopia by Italy full 
freedom is assured Catholic mis- 

Syrian Uniates were converted 
from the Jacobites in 1781. Their 
patriarch lives at Beirut. A deriva- 
tion of the Antiochean Rite is used 
in a Syrian dialect. 

Chaldee Uniates were converted 
from Nestorianism. They use an 
adaptation of the Antiochean Rite 
with the Syriac language. Their 
immediate superior lives at Mosul 
as. minor Patriarch of Babylon. 

Uniate Armenians were converted 
from the Armenian National 
Church. The head of this group 
is the Uniate Armenian minor Pa- 
triarch of Cilicia. They are found 
principally in the Levant, Italy and 
Austria. Their liturgy is a deriva- 
tive from the Byzantine Rite but 
the Armenian tongue is used. 

Malabar Uniates were converted 

from the Malabar Christians in In- 
dia in 1599. They lack a patriarch, 
having instead three vicars apos- 
tolic. Their liturgy is fundamentally 
Antiochean but has been so altered 
that it may be called a separate 
rite. Syriac is the principal lan- 
guage with an occasional use of 

Byzantine Uniates are the Cath- 
olic counterpart of the extensive 
Orthodox Church (see Orthodoxy). 
These Uniates have no common au- 
thority other than that of the Su- 
preme Pontiff. They represent 
groups which have never been in 
schism and others which have been 
reunited to Rome in different coun- 
tries and at various times. Their 
common bond, besides union with 
the Supreme Pontiff and all it im- 
plies, is the use of the Byzantine 
Rite (that used by the Greek Ortho- 
dox, i. e., the schismatic, Church 
in Constantinople) at least in its 
fundamental notes, even though 
this rite is used in various lan- 
guages. Within this group there are 
several divisions: (1) Melkites in 
Syria and Egypt using Arabic litur- 
gically and subject to the Patriarch 
of Antiocti; (2) Greek Uniates in 
Greece and Turkey using Greek li- 
turgically; (3) Ruthenians in Aus- 
tria and Hungary, using: old Sla- 
vonic; (4) Bulgarian Uniates also 
using Old Slavonic;' (5) Rumanian 
Uniates using their own language 
liturgically; (6) Italo-Greeks in 
Italy, Sicily and Paris using Greek 
liturgically but with many Latin 
modifications in their rite; (7) Rus- 
sian Uniates using Paleoslavic in 
their liturgy. Since the Revolution 
in 1917 this Church has been prac- 
tically extinct in Russia but the 
Church has been spread throughout 
Europe and the United States. 
Rome is keeping this Church alive 
by instituting colleges for Russian 
priests (even from other nations 
and rites) in various countries of 
the Latin Rite. 

The Maronite Church is a group 
with no 'counterpart; there is no such 
thing as a schismatical Maronite. 
They are found in Lebanon, Egypt, 
Cyprus and the United States. Their 


liturgy Is basically Antiocbean with 
modifications including the use of 
the Syriac tongue. 

This completes the list of the 
Eastern Churches. In addition to 
these Uniate Eastern Churches, 
there are seven schismatical East- 
ern Churches: the great Orthodox 
Church, one formed by the Nesto- 
rian heresy and five arising from 
Monophysitism (Copts, Ethiopians, 
Jacobites, Malabar Christians and 

The attitude of Roman Catholics 
towards the Uniates varies con- 
siderably with the extent of their 
knowledge. Many do not know that 
there can be and are Catholics who 
do not pray before statues of the 
Blessed Mother of Christ and St. 
Joseph, who have never been to 
Benediction of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment, who do not genuflect in pass- 
ing before the Blessed Sacrament. 
Those who have heard only super- 
ficially about the Eastern Churches 
are inclined to consider them a 
cross between Catholicism and 
Protestantism, and this attitude un- 
fortunately has been fostered quite 
strenuously by Anglicanism. Uni- 
ates are Catholics and have ,as 
much right to be so treated as 
Latins, Regarding faith and morals 

they must be numbered with the 
Romans. Schism and heresy to the 
Uniate are as abhorrent as to the 
Roman Catholic. 

At the beginning of the fourth 
century Christendom presented a 
picture of unity in regard to faith, 
morals and obedience to the Bishop 
of Rome as the visible head of the 
Church. Uniformity of rite was not 
then and is not now the ideal of 
the Holy See. No Catholic can be 
more Catholic than the Holy See, 
and Benedict XIV in speaking of 
the schismatics and Uniates in the 
East has aptly expressed the atti- 
tude of the Church: "Eastern Chris- 
tians should be Catholics; they 
have no need to become Latins." 

Indeed the Uniate Eastern 
Churches are the living proof of 
the Church's universality. Eastern 
schisms have been largely the out- 
come of political quarrels. The Uni- 
ates in remaining loyal to the Holy 
See and preserving the bond of 
faith have cast aside their political, 
social and economic aspirations and 
come not as Greeks and Slavs and 
Russians and Armenians and Syri- 
ans but as Catholics to rally around 
the Holy Father uniting their ef- 
forts with his to "restore all things 
in Christ." 


1. I will give them all the graces necessary for their state of life. 

2. I will establish peace in their families. 

3. I will console them in all their difficulties. 

4. I will be their assured refuge in life and more especially at death. 

5. I will pour out abundant benedictions on all their undertakings. 

6. Sinners will find in My Heart a source and infinite ocean of mercy. 

7. Tepid souls shall become fervent. 

8* Fervent souls shall advance rapidly to great perfection. 

9. I will bless the houses in which the image of My Sacred Heart 
shall be exposed and honored. 

10. I will give to priests the power of moving the most hardened hearts. 

11. Persons who propagate this devotion shall have their names in- 
scribed in My Heart and they shall never be effaced from It. 

12. I promise thee in the excess of the mercy of My Heart that Its 
all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Communion on the 
First Friday of every month for 9 consecutive months the grace of final 
perseverance and that they shall not die under My displeasure nor with- 
out receiving the Sacraments and My Heart shall be their secure refuge 
at that last hour. 



Ecclesiastical chant is the music 
proper to the liturgy of the Catho- 
lic Church. Its melodies are uni- 
sonous, diatonic, simple or florid, 
moving with free rhythm in one or 
more of the eight modes. They are 
an interpretation of and a com- 
mentary on the sacred text. They 
are prayer sung. 


Plain and Gregorian chant are 
the more common names given to 
this same type of music. It is 
called plain chant because of its 
free rhythm, which definitely dis- 
tinguishes it from all measured 
music. The designation Gregorian 
is a tribute to the organizing genius 
of Pope St. Gregory the Great. 


Chant is made up of two ele- 
men t s the text and the melody. 
Of these, the text is the more im- 
portant, for without it there would 
be no liturgical chant. The texts 
are taken from Sacred Scripture 
either directly or indirectly. 

The present repertoire of litur- 
gical melodies which is the fruit of 
great musical genius was created 
under the inspiration of the sacred 
text These melodies are, in every 
sense, the property and achieve- 
ment of the Catholic Church. The 
musical structure was influenced 
mainly by three civilizations, the 
Jewish, Greek and Roman. What 
does ecclesiastical chant owe to 
each of these three? 

Jewish Influence Ecclesiastical 
chant is less indebted to the Tem- 
ple than to the synagogue. The 
sole type of singing which comes 
from the Temple is responsorial 
psalmody. To the synagogue we 
owe such musical forms as the 
jubilus (the custom of singing a 
number of notes to the final "a" of 
Alleluia} and the recitative formulas 
(such as the Gospel and Oration 

Greek Influence The Greeks 
used three tonalities: the diatonic, 
chromatic and enharmonic. The 

Church chose the diatonic its 
firmness and dignity being best 
suited for the House of God. Hand 
in hand with diatonic tonality, 
came the modal system of the same 
art. The eight modes now in use 
are basically the ancient Greek dia- 
tonic modes. However, they were 
adopted with some changes. As an 
aid in the transmission of melodies, 
the Greeks contributed a system 
of alphabetic notation. Some main- 
tain that plain chant contains a few 
pagan Greek melodies. One ex- 
ample cited is that of the "Hos an- 
na Filio David" of Palm Sunday. A 
comparison of these plain chant 
and Greek pagan melodies reveals 
only similarity, never identity. 

Roman Influence Mention has 
already been made that had there 
been no sacred text there would be 
no ecclesiastical chant. Greek was 
the liturgical language of Rome un- 
til about the middle of the third 
century. The change from Greek 
to Latin was a gradual process. 
From the end of the third century 
to that of the sixth a popular Latin 
speech arose. The popular mind 
did not retain the Greek and classi- 
cal Latin conception of quantity 
and meter. The language of the 
people became a rhythmical prose. 
The two distinguishing features of 
this rhythmic speech were the tonic 
accent and the cursus. Liturgical 
chant, still in its infancy at this 
time, could not remain unaffected. 
Dom Mocauereau asserts that plain 
chant was patterned after the prose 
of the period. 


Consecration The use of chant 
in the Catholic liturgy was in- 
augurated by Christ Himself. The 
setting was the Last Supper, the 
first Mass. St. Matthew expressly 
says : "And a hymn being said, they 
went out unto mount Olivet" (Matt., 
xxvi, 30). This hymn consisted of 
psalms. Following the custom of 
the Jews, Christ chanted the verses 
and the Apostles added "Alleluia" 
either after each verse or after 
several verses. Here we have the 


consecration of chant. Hence it 
has been rightly stated that the 
first Mass had Its first liturgical 
chant and that Christ is the first 
Chanter in the New Dispensation. 

Apostolic Era Following the 
example of Christ, the Church has 
always used plain-song in her lit- 
urgy. The very first converts were 
Jews. For a time they continued 
"daily with one accord in the 
Temple" (Acts, ii, 46). This ac- 
counts for the influence of the Jew- 
ish Temple already mentioned. 
The influence of the synagogue is 
accounted for by the fact that the 
other Christians outside of Jeru- 
salem attended services held there. 
Wherefore it is but natural that 
these first Christians should have 
retained some of the melodies long 
associated with the sacred text. 
Later on, St. Paul exhorted his 
converts to continue their former 
practice. "Let the word of Christ 
dwell in you abundantly : in all wis- 
dom, teaching and admonishing 
one another in psalms, hymns, and 
spiritual canticles, singing in grace 
in your hearts to God" (Cot, iii, 
16). "But be ye filled with the 
Holy Spirit, speaking to yourselves 
in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual 
canticles, singing and making melo- 
dy in your hearts to the Lord*' 
(Eph., v, 18-19). 

Period of Growth The period 
of persecution and the restriction 
of the liturgy of the early Church 
to private homes and to the cata- 
combs gave little opportunity for 
the development of chant. With the 
victory over paganism (313), litur- 
gy and chant were free to develop 
within the large basilicas. A new 
style of singing, that of antiphonal 
psalmody, which originated in 
Syria, was introduced into Rome 
by Pope St. Damasus I (366-84) and 
into Milan by St. Ambrose. Al- 
though the use of hymns dates 
back to apostolic times, hymns, in 
the modern sense, were introduced 
into the West by St. Hilary of 
Poitiers (d. 366). The liturgical 
hymn was popularized by St. Am- 
brose as a result of the Arian per- 
secution in Milan during the years 

385 and 386. The external develop- 
ment of the liturgy gave rise to 
three additional chants, the In- 
troit, Offertory and Communion. 
The Introit was sung while the 
Pope and his retinue proceeded 
from the sacristy to the altar. As 
the faithful approached the altar 
to offer their gifts, they sang the 
Offertory prayer. The Communion 
was sung as the faithful returned 
to the altar to receive the Body 
and Blood of Christ. The Introit is 
mentioned as early as 432; the Of- 
fertory and Communion are both 
mentioned by St. Augustine (d. 

Period of Perfection The blend- 
ing of the various characteristics 
which the Church took over from 
the three aforementioned civiliza- 
tions reached its climax with the 
dawn of the seventh century. The 
unifying genius was Pope St. Greg- 
ory the Great (590-604). Two great 
contributions toward the organiza- 
tion of Church music were his An- 
tiphonary of the Mass and the 
foundation of two new "Scholae 
Cantorum" at Rome. The Anti- 
phonary, containing about 645 melo- 
dies for the choir, was a compila- 
tion of the chants then in use. It 
appears that the Antiphonary as- 
signed to each chant its place in 
the liturgical year. 

Although originally intended for 
Rome alone, the influence of the 
"Scholae" was far-reaching. Dis- 
ciples were sent into other lands. 
There similar schools were organ- 
ized. Thus there came about the 
dissemination of the Gregorian An- 
tiphonary and a better rendition of 
the chants based on the Gregorian 
tradition. Such schools were set 
up in England after the arrival of 
St. Augustine and his associates in 
596. Two other famous schools 
were begun under Charlemagne, 
namely that of Metz and of St. 

Post-Gregorian Composition (609- 
1250) A further development of 
the liturgy called for additional 
chants. The need was supplied in 
one of three ways. In some in- 
stances new melodies were com- 


posed. The more common practice 
was either to choose a text with 
its accompanying melody from the 
Gregorian collection and assign 
it a new role, or to take the 
melody from the same collection 
and adapt it, with necessary 
changes, to a different text For 
the consecration of the Pan- 
theon to the Blessed Virgin and 
the Holy Martyrs (609) new chants 
were composed for the proper parts 
of the Mass for the dedication of 
a church. An example of the second 
method is the well-known Introit, 
"Gaudeaznus." Although formerly 
used for the feast of St. Agatha 
alone, it now occurs in several 
Masses, e. g., that of All Saints, the 
Assumption, etc. Two examples of 
adaptation are the Mass for the 
feast of the Most Holy Trinity com- 
posed by Alcuin and the Mass for> 
the feast of the Most Blessed Sacra- 
ment composed in 1246. 

During the tenth century, two 
new types of compositions made 
their appearance. They are the se- 
quence and the tropes. 

Decadence This period extended 
from about the middle of the thir- 
teenth century to the middle of the 
nineteenth. Several factors con- 
tributed to the decline of chant. At 
this time we have the development 
of polyphony and the rise of meas- 
ured music. The tendency, although 
not a general one, was to treat 
chant and measured music in the 
same manner. Moreover, copyists 
unhappily abbreviated the chant 
melodies. The Medecian Gradual 
(1614-15) was a reproduction of 
such mutilated melodies. It appeared 
again in 1848 as the Mechlin Grad- 
ual and again in 1873 with official 
approbation, not, however, without 
certain changes and additions. 

Restoration The underlying 
scientific principle of this epoch, 
which is still going on, is a return 
to the traditional melodies by a 
close examination of the ancient 
manuscripts. The first imperfect 
attempt based on this principle was 
the Reims-Cambrai Gradual (1851). 
Although failing to reproduce the 

manuscripts purely, it surpassed its 

The most scholarly and scientific 
studies based on this same princi- 
ple have been achieved, for the 
most part, by the Benedictines of 
Solesmes. Dom Gueranger (d. 1875), 
Dom Pothier (d. 1923) and Dom 
Mocquereati (d. 1930) are out- 

Mention must be made of Popes 
Pius X, to whom the movement 
chiefly owes its success, and Pius 
XL Through the "Motu Proprio" 
of Pope Pius X (Nov. 22, 1903), 
the reform was given authoritative 
approval and chant is again regain- 
ing its former high dignity in the 
liturgy. The Apostolic constitution, 
"Divini Cultus," of Pope Pius XI 
(Dec. 20, 1928) is a more detailed 
statement of the procedure to be 
followed for the accomplishment of 
the reform inaugurated by Pope 
Pius X. 

Summary of "SVlotu Proprio" 

The whole spirit and purpose of 
the "Motu Proprio" is not music in 
itself, but music in its relation to 
liturgy. It is a "reproof and con- 
demnation of all that is out of har- 
mony" with the decorum and sanc- 
tity of the House of God. It is "a 
juridical code of sacred music" to 
which the "force of law" is given. 
Its "scrupulous observance" is im- 
posed upon all. 

, The sole purpose of sacred mu- 
sic Is to clothe the text with suit- 
able melody. A suitable melody 
possesses holiness both in Itself 
and in Its presentation, "goodness 
of form" to insure Its purpose, and 
"universality" In the sense that 
native music Is subordinate to the 
"characteristics" of sacred music. 

Gregorian chant pre-eminently 
possesses these qualities. It is the 
"supreme model" upon which other 
sacred music is judged. Congrega- 
tional singing is to be fostered. 
Classic polyphony, especially that 
of the Roman School, also posses- 
ses these same qualities and is to 
be restored. Modem music, while 
admissible, must be divested of 
everything profane, particularly of 
the theatrical style. 

Latin must be used in all tbe 


"solemn liturgical functions" and 
in the "variable or common parts 
of the Mass or Office." The word 
order of the texts must not be con- 
fused and the prescribed texts 
must be sung. 

Solos, which are "melodic pro- 
jections," are moderately permitted. 
Women in choirs are expressly for- 

Organ accompaniment, subject to 
the rules of sacred music, is per- 
mitted to sustain the singing. Ex- 
pressly forbidden are the piano and 

noisy instruments, such as bells, 
drums and cymbals. Other instru- 
ments require the special permis- 
sion of the Ordinary. Orchestra- 
tion must be dignified and un- 

Sacred music is the "humble 
handmaid" of the liturgy. 

A Commission is to be estab- 
lished in each diocese to provide 
suitable music and to oversee its 
correct execution. Music schools 
are to be formed, especially in ec- 
clesiastical seminaries. 



"A need of our times," said the 
late Pope Pius XI, "is social, 
or communal prayer, to be voiced 
under the guidance of the pastors 
in enacting the functions of the 
liturgy. This alternating of prayers 
will be of the greatest assistance 
in banishing the numberless evils 
which disturb the minds of the 
faithful in our age, and especially 
in overcoming the snares and 
dangers which threaten to under- 
mine the sincerity of the faith." 

The basic object of the liturgical 
movement is the fulfilment of this 
need: to put the liturgy into the 
life of modern man, to make the 
liturgy the motivating cause of his 
actions, both as an individual and 
as a social being, to teach man how 
he can participate most fully in the 
corporate worship of the Church. 

The essence of corporate or 
liturgical worship is the offering 
of the prayers of a body of people 
through the hands of a mediator. 
Since Christ is the Mediator be- 
tween God and man, it follows that 
the Mass, His Sacrifice, is the cen- 
ter of all liturgical worship. In the 
Mass every man has an active role 
to play. That role is one of co- 
offering to God the Sacrifice with 
Christ's representative, the priest. 
Only when he has thus offered the 
Mass can man hope to partake fully 
of the benefits which Christ in- 
tended he should derive from it. 

This communal prayer or activi- 
ty on the part of priest and people 
in the liturgy does not merely mean 
the external performance of the 
liturgical functions. Rather it sig- 

nifies the interior devotion of mind 
and heart and the inner acknowl- 
edgement of God's complete do- 
minion. As it has been expressed 
by Cardinal Pizzardo, former Papal 
President of Catholic Action: " 'Ac- 
tive participation,' in short, means 
a sincere, inward acknowledgment 
of God (the interior sacrifice) ex- 
pressed by participation in the 
words, rites, chant, etc. of the ex- 
ternal sacrifice. Properly under- 
stood, therefore, the liturgy is both 
the internal homage of the soul and 
its outward bodily expression by 
means of words, chants, ceremo- 
nies, etc. in the forms ordained by 
the Church for her solemn public 

The Mass is the heart of the 
liturgical movement. The whole 
of dogmatic theology centers 
around the Mass as the Sacrifice of 
the New Law and the Blessed Sac- 
rament as the bond cementing the 
minds and hearts of Christ's peo- 
ple. Around the Mass and the 
Blessed Sacrament are centered 
the sacraments, the sacramentals 
and the Divine Office. Once the 
Mass has become the center of 
life, those other phases of the 
liturgy will follow almost auto- 
matically. The Liturgical Year be- 
comes the re-living by the mem- 
bers of the Mystical Body of Christ 
of the visible earthly life of Christ. 
The sacraments and sacramentals 
are appreciated as the channels 
through which grace flows freely to 
men. Finally, the Divine Office be- 
comes earth's counterpart of heav- 
en's ceaseless "Holy, Holy, Holy." 
Men become fully aware of their 


mystical union with one another 
through Him who is their Head. 

The liturgical movement is noth- 
ing new. It is rather a conscious 
effort to revitalize Catholicism. It 
is an attempt to bring home to men 
a more vivid realization of their 
status as members of the Mystical 
Body of Christ. The corporate wor- 
ship of God through Christ harks 
back to those words of Christ's 
first vicar on earth: "Be you your- 
selves as living stones, built there- 
on into a spiritual house, a holy 
priesthood, to offer spiritual sacri- 
fices acceptable to God through 
Jesus Christ. . . . You are a chosen 
race, a royal priesthood" (I Peter, 
2, 5-9). 

Some of the means employed to 
make men "liturgy-conscious" are 
the popularization of Gregorian 
Chant, the use of the missal and 
the dialogue Mass and the further- 
ing of true liturgical art. But these 
are merely secondary considera- 
tions. The main thing is the inner 
appreciation and application of the 
meaning of the Mystical Body of 
Christ, the carrying out of this 
doctrine in daily life. 

The works of Dom Prosper Guer- 
anger, Abbot of Solesmes, begun in 
1840, are considered generally as 
the beginning of the modern move- 
ment back to a better appreciation 
of the liturgy. Franz Stauden- 
maier of Germany was also one of 
the pioneers in the field. Official 
approval of the movement was giv- 
en in 1903 by the "Motu Proprio" 
of Pope Pius X. Since that time 
organized efforts have replaced the 
individual labors of men interested 
in the liturgy. 

The Benedictine monks of Bel- 
gium were the first to begin or- 
ganized efforts in this direction, 
several years after the publication 
of the "Motu Proprio." Their first 
national council was held in 1920. 

Holland followed closely after 
Belgium, principally under the di- 
rection of the secular clergy. Hol- 
land's liturgical work is of an es- 
sentially practical nature. It has a 
well-organized central confedera- 
tion headed by two members from 
each of the diocesan councils. 

Germany's liturgical revival dates 
back to 1915. The heart of liturgi- 
cal activity in Germany is the Ab- 
bey of Maria-Laach, well known for 
its scholarly work. Dr. Franz 
Xavier Muench, the first secretary 
general of the Association of Catho- 
lic University Graduates, died on 
October 19, 1940. Through his ef- 
forts the liturgical movement grew 
in German universities. Through 
him Karl Adam, Guardini, Jacques 
Maritain and Christopher Dawson 
were introduced to the German 
Catholic students. His death in 
political exile in Florence, Italy, 
"is symbolic of one of the greatest 
efforts of German Catholicism and 
of its final apparent failure." 

Austria's liturgical movement is 
ably represented by Dr. Pius 
Par sen, canon regular of Kloster- 
neuburg. His liturgical publica- 
tions, "Study the Mass" and "The 
Liturgy of the Mass," are daily be- 
coming more popular. 

Italy's cardinal-archbishops and 
bishops have continually fostered 
the liturgical movement by pastoral 
letters, while Abbot Caronti and 
Cardinal-Archbishop Schuster have 
done much to further the move- 
ment. "The liturgical movement 
has helped to reawaken the dulled 
religious sense, and to recall to 
the individual his intimate union 
with the Mystical Body of Christ. 
The movement was undoubtedly 
aided by the anti-individualistic 
tendencies so energetically fos- 
tered in the political sphere by 
Italian Fascism. It has endeavored 
above all to deepen the religious 
life, to nourish it out of the fonts 
of liturgical prayer, and to consoli- 
date it by means of an intense par- 
ticipation in the sacramental life." 

England's liturgical movement 
may not be as centralized as that 
of many other countries. But repre- 
sentatives like Donald Attwater and 
Fr. C. C. Martindale, S. J., are 
fostering the liturgical spirit con- 
tinually by their writings. The Eng- 
lish Benedictines began in 1940 the 
publication of a new liturgical re- 
view, "The Church and the People." 

The Co-operative Movement in 
Nova Scotia has also its liturgical 
angle. The use of the missal in 


the form of the Leaflet Missal and 
the evening services during the 
week, consisting of Vespers sung 
by the congregation, rosary, sermon 
on some aspect of Catholic worship 
and Benediction, are having a well- 
deserved effect in vitalizing the 
Church's efforts to reconstruct the 
social order in that province. 

The United States has had a well- 
organized liturgical movement 
since 1925. The "Orate Fratres," 
published by the monks of St, 
John's Abbey, Collegeville, Minn., 
is the official organ of the move- 
ment in this country. The First Na- 
tional Liturgical Day in the United 
States was held at Collegeville on 
July 25, 1929. Since then the Litur- 
gical Day has become an annual 
event in more and more dioceses. 

Under the patronage of the Most 
Rev. Samuel A. Stritch, Archbishop 
of Chicago, the First National Li- 
turgical Week was sponsored by 
the Benedictine Liturgical Confer- 
ence, October 21-25, 1940. The cen- 
tral theme was: "The Living Par- 
ish: the Active and Intelligent Par- 
ticipation of the Laity in the Lit- 

At the invitation of the Most Rev. 
John Murray, Archbishop of St. 
Paul, the Second Liturgical Week 
was held in that city, Oct. 6-10, 
1941. The theme of the Chicago 
Week was continued with one sub- 
topic: "The Living Parish: One in 
Worship, Charity and Action." 

The Third National Liturgical 
Week, Oct. 12-16, 1942, was held at 
St Meinrad's Abbey, St. Meinrad, 
Ind., under the patronage of the 
Most Rev. Joseph E. Ritter, Bishop 
of Indianapolis. The general theme 
of the conferences was: "The 
Praise of God: Its significance and 
primary importance in Catholic 

The proceedings of these Litur- 
gical Weeks have been published in 
separate volumes by the Benedic- 
tine Liturgical Conference, 528 High 
Street, Newark, N. J., and copies 
may be purchased there. 

In America, the liturgical move- 
ment is steadily growing, as evi- 
denced by the Liturgical Weeks 
and Days being held in many parts 

of the country, besides the annual 
National Conferences. In Germany 
and Belgium, the movement has 
suffered a temporary setback due 
to present conditions. Persons ac- 
quainted with conditions in Ger- 
many are of the opinion that the 
liturgical movement providentially 
prepared Catholics for the troubled 
days that lay ahead for the Church 
in Germany. 


The liturgical movement has had 
the approbation of all the Popes 
since the time of Pius X. A short 
quotation from each Pope will show 
their concern for the movement. 

Pope Pius X "The primary 
and indispensable source of the 
true Christian spirit is the active 
participation in the most holy mys- 
teries and in the solemn and public 
prayer of the Church." 

Pope Benedict XV "For spread- 
ing amongst the faithful an exact 
acquaintance with the liturgy, to 
inspire in their hearts a holy de- 
light in the prayers, rites and 
chant, by means of which in union 
with their common Mother, they 
pay their worship to God, to at- 
tract them to take an active part 
in the- sacred mysteries and in the 
ecclesiastical festivals all this can- 
not but serve admirably to bring 
the faithful into closer union with 
the priest, to lead them back to 
the Church, to nourish their piety, 
to give renewed vigor to their faith, 
to better their lives." 

Pope Pius XI "People make a 
great deal of the liturgy in our 
day but not always as they ought 
and as we would wish. Frequently 
too much importance is attached 
to its external aspect, to material 
things, whereas it is the spirit that 
is important: to pray with the spir- 
it of the praying Church." 

Pope Pius XII Acknowledging 
receipt of copies of the proceedings 
of the First National Liturgical 
Week (1940), Cardinal Maglione 
wrote to its general chairman: 
"[The Holy Father] would also 
have me assure you, dear Mon- 
signor, of His gratitude for the 
constant interest which you and 
your devoted helpers have mani- 


fested in this newest endeavor to 
bring American Catholics to a ful- 
ler understanding of the Liturgy 
of the Church and to a more in- 
telligent participation in it. That 

the movement is meeting with suc- 
cess is clearly manifested in the 
reports and discussions of this 

first Liturgical Week" 


During the Middle Age the Di- 
vine Office was recited not only by 
the clergy but by the laity as well. 
The participation of the laity in 
the official prayer of the Church 
was a universal practice: knights, 
members of guilds and confraterni- 
ties said office in choir. The liturgy 
of the laity decayed when they no 
longer went to choir to say their 
prayer. The reunion of the clergy 
and the laity in the performance of 
the liturgy is the foremost purpose 
of the whole liturgical movement 
and the revival of the layman's rec- 
itation of the Divine Office has been 
the cause for the foundation of the 
League of the Divine Office. 

The Benedictine Fathers of St. 
John's Abbey, Collegeville, Minn., 
established this organization in 
1936. The instruction of the laity 
in the use of the breviary has 
become a full-time task in educat- 
ing the laity in the actual nature 
of the Divine Office and their right 
to participate in it. 

Before the League of the Divine 
Office was started the Approved 
Workmen of Brooklyn, New York, 
already had a society called the 
Breviary Association of the Laity. 
When the Benedictine Fathers es- 
tablished the League of the Divine 
Office, the Approved Workmen with- 
drew the title of their society and 
joined the League of the Divine 
Office in order that there might be 
harmony in the liturgical move- 

The League of the Divine Office 
was established primarily to en- 
courage the laity to pray with the 
Church. It is not intended that the 
Divine Office should supplant pri- 
vate devotions. Rather, the devo- 
tions of individuals should be a 
supplement to the -official prayer 
and not the total content of the 
lay Catholic's prayer-life. The Di- 
vine Office is, as recorded by many 
laymen who recite it, a source from 
whence a new concept of private 

prayer is drawn. Personal devo- 
tions become more objective, more 
correct in dogmatic content and 
deeper in their appreciation of the 
majesty of God and the beauty of 
the Faith. 

The League is composed of men 
and women who voluntarily agree 
to recite some part of the Divine 
Office every day. It does not bind in 
conscience to recite the Office daily 
but leaves it up to the individual 
members and groups. 

Membership in the League Is di- 
vided into chapter members and 
associate members. Usually the 
chapter members form groups of 
seven, and each member is as- 
signed one of the seven hours of 
the Office, to be recited during the 
week. Each week the hours are 
changed so that after seven weeks 
each chapter member will have re- 
cited each of the hours in succes- 
sion. The associate member is 
required to recite one of the day 
hours every day. He does not make 
any agreement with any of the 
other members but is free to choose 
whatever hours he pleases. The 
Divine Office is divided into seven 
hours or parts. These are Matins 
with Lauds (forming one Hour), 
Prime, Tierce, Sext, None, Vespers 
and Compline. 

The Liturgical Press of St. John's 
Abbey, which has brought forth 
many interesting books and pam- 
phlets on the liturgical movement, 
has published an English transla- 
tion of the Hours of the Divine Of- 
fice in a single volume, entitled a 
"Short Breviary." The Press also 
publishes the "Orate Fratres" mag- 
azine which is doing much to help 
spread the liturgical movement 
throughout the country. 

For full information concerning 
the League inquiries may be sent 
to the League of the Divine Office, 
Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minn. 



The creation of religious art must 
be traced back to tlie origins of reli- 
gion. Art and religion nave always 
been companions. Tlie advent of the 
Christian religion saw the rise of an 
allied art. Throughout the history 
of the Church, art may be found 
testifying to the rise and recession 
of the Church's spiritual activity. 

Art in the Christian sense has 
two fields, or better, one field with 
two divisions. The first division is 
religious art as such. This art at- 
tempts to portray the beauty of 
supernatural things revealed to us 
by Faith. It is concerned with Ca- 
tholicism in its social and cultural 
elements. Thus religious art re- 
veals religion living among men 
and vivifying all their actions. The 
second division of Christian art 
may be called ecclesiastical or 
liturgical. This is Christian art in 
the service of the sanctuary. 

Art in general may be defined as 
the expression of the ideal through 
the medium of physical realities. 
Then it is limited in its means of 
expression to material elements as 
stone, glass, metals, color and 
paper. Obviously art is more than 
a caricature. It attempts not a mere 
representation of material objects but 
the presentation of spiritual realities 
through the physical medium. 

Liturgical art follows the general 
principles of all art; yet it finds 
itself circumscribed by exceptional 
limitations. It is bound by the de- 
crees of the Sacred Congregation 
of Kites; it must confine itself to 
the paraphernalia of the church, 
much of which is destined for a 
practical use (hence, the artistical- 
ly beautiful must be expressed in 
a form which is practically useful) ; 
the individuality of the liturgical 
artist must be subservient to the 
collective personality of the wor- 
shipers, although here the artist 
may legitimately undertake tlie of- 
fice of educator and direct the col- 
lectivity into the realm of experi- 
ence out of which he has developed 
Ms work of art. 

Liturgical art expresses the dog- 

matic and moral elements of the 
liturgy. Hence art to toe liturgical 
must present the mysteries of faith 
as revealed and elucidated by the 
Scriptures and tradition. It must 
show the beauty which is God, the 
mercy which is Christ and the love 
which is the Holy Spirit It may 
depict by painting or by stained 
glass the miracles of Christ or the 
guaranties of salvation. His Mother 
and the whole array of triumphant 
heaven are legitimate subjects. 

All liturgical art must find its 
centre in the altar which is Christ 
The focal point cannot be ego-cen- 
tric or individual; indeed it cannot 
even be the Christian community 
as such. The community of Chris- 
tians in its relations with God per- 
forms its services as a unit; there 
are men, women and children in 
the Church but they come as one 
to the Father through Christ with 
whom they are one. Hence the 
church in which they gather is 
properly adorned only when it is 
adorned for Christ This is the 
meaning of the Christo-centric art 
of the liturgy. The church to which 
men flock as to an art gallery is 
not liturgical. The liturgical church 
brings men to their knees. The art 
reveals the place as the dwelling 
of the Most High, shows the Catho- 
lic his religion. Here are Christ and 
the Sacramental life which uplift 
spirits, wash away sorrow from 
weary hearts, direct the eyes of 
the body and of the soul upwards to 
the altar which is Christ and higher 
even, to the throne of grace. The 
art of the Church should attract not 
as a caricature but as an impelling 
force which through the natural ex- 
pression of the beautiful supernat- 
ural, lifts souls up and drives them 
on to God. 

Liturgical art as we understand 
it here is not to "be considered as 
the expression of a particular tra- 
dition. It may be cast according to 
the principles of the Romanesque 
or Gothic or any other type of art. 
But if any type of art seeks ad- 
mittance into the church it must 
remove its secular garb and put 
on the seamless robe of the Chris- 


tian liturgy. This has not always 
been done and there are many ex- 
amples of the "art gallery" church 
in Europe and America. 

The widespread presence of this 
type of church has led to a serious 
problem. Generations of Catholics 
have come to regard it as the tra- 
dition which must be maintained. 
Hence the liturgical art movement 
progresses but slowly. It has to re- 
move prejudices innocently acquired 
before it can inculcate the supe- 
riority of true liturgical art. Nor 
does this tendency to cling to tra- 
dition limit itself to localities. 
There are national traditions in 
Church art. It is a tribute to the 
Catholicity of the Church that she 
has not attempted to force the 
abandonment of national traits. 
The rubrical requirements can be 
observed without affecting the 
broad principles of a national artis- 
tic expression; in America there are 
examples of the liturgically "cor- 
rect" altar and sanctuary which re- 
tain definitely foreign elements. 

In the United States the liturgi- 
cal art movement is comparatively 
young. As an integral part of the 
universal liturgical movement 
which is itself a phase of the re- 

surgent spiritual activity of Catho- 
lic Action, the liturgical art move- 
ment is a less spectacular but 
equally important subject. 

For all practical purposes the 
movement has received its momen- 
tum and direction from the Liturgi- 
cal Arts Society. This organiza- 
tion was founded in 1930 "to sup- 
ply the Catholic clergy expert ad- 
vice and guidance not merely on 
the esthetic and liturgical factors 
of their church buildings and altar 
vessels and vestments, but also, 
even more important, on the purely 
business aspects of these affairs/' 
It is a society which views the 
liturgy as fundamental in Catholic 
life and seeks to provide the best 
possible information on the correct 
expression of the liturgy through 
art. Its members are lay and cleric 
alike architects, sculptors, silver- 
smiths, painters, wood-carvers, pas- 
tors, bishops and archbishops all 
these men of the Church are de- 
voted to the effort to realize the 
potentialities of liturgical art as a 
means to renew all things in Christ, 
The society publishes a quarterly, 
"Liturgical Arts." The magazine is 
"an organized medium of education 
in artistic-liturgical matters." 


Eucharistic Congresses are gatherings of the clergy and laity for the 
purpose of glorifying the Holy Eucharist by public adoration and general 
Communions and for the discussion of means to increase devotion to 
Our Lord in the Blessed Sacrament throughout the world. They may be 
national or international. The first congress owed its inspiration to 
Bishop de Segur of Lille, France. Since then the international Eucha- 
ristic Congresses have been as follows: 

LiUe, France 1881 Metz, Lorraine 1907 

Avignon, France 1882 

Liege, Belgium 1883 

Freiburg, Switzerland 1885 

Toulouse, France 1886 

Paris, France 1888 

Antwerp, Belgium 1890 

Jerusalem, Palestine 1893 

Reims, France 1894 

Paray-le-Monial, France 1897 

Brussels, Belgium 1898 

Lourdes, France 1899 

Angers, France 1901 

Namur, Belgium 1902 

Angouleme, France 1904 

Rome, Italy 1905 

Touraai, Belgium ... - 1906 

London, .England 1908 

Cologne, Germany 1909 

Montreal, Canada 1910 

Madrid, Spain 1911 

Vienna, Austria 1912 

Malta 1913 

Lourdes, France 1914 

Rome, Italy 1922 

Amsterdam, Holland 1924 

Chicago, United States 1926 

Sydney, Australia 1928 

Carthage, Tunis 1930 

Dublin, Ireland 1932 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 1934 

Manila, Philippine Islands. . . . 193? 
Budapest, Hungary 1938 


International Eucharistic Congresses are now held approximately every 
two years. The 35th International Congress which was to have been held 
at Nice, France, in 1940, was indefinitely postponed because of the war. 

National Eucharistic Congresses are held in many nations every few 
years. In the United States, Eucharistic Congresses have been held in 
Washington, D. C. (1895), St. Louis (1901), New York (1904), Pittsburgh 
(1907), Cincinnati (1911), Omaha (1930), Cleveland (1935), New Orleans 
(1938), St. Paul and Minneapolis (1941). 

The Ninth National Eucharistic Congress of the United States was held 
in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, June 23-26, 1941. An 
estimated quarter of a million Catholics participated in the great tribute 
to "Our Eucharistic King glorified by Sacrifice." That was the theme of 
the conclave in which 113 archbishops and bishops of the United States 
took part and at which many members of the neighboring hierarchy were 
present. The host to the Congress was the Most Rev. John Gregory Mur- 
ray, Archbishop of St. Paul. 

His Holiness, Pope Pius XII, was present in the person of his Legate 
a latere, His Eminence Dennis Cardinal Dougherty, Archbishop of Phila- 
delphia. In a direct message broadcast by radio from the Vatican to the 
Congress the Holy Father stressed the importance of sacrifice as the 
sole way to escape the "current of black paganism sweeping our people 
today." On the completion of his address the Pontiff conferred the Apos- 
tolic Blessing upon the pilgrims and upon the faithful of America. Cardi- 
nal Dougherty gave three memorable addresses to the congress in the 
capacity of Papal Legate. His Eminence extolled Archbishop Murray and 
the Catholics and citizens of the Twin Cities for their hospitality, and 
reechoed the Pope's plea for individual sacrifices. 

The classical text of St. Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians (1:24) 
"I now rejoice in my sufferings and fill up those things that are wanting 
of the sufferings of Christ in my flesh for His Body which is the Church," 
and the encyclical of Pope Pius XI, "Miserentissimus Redemptor," were 
the bases of discussion in twenty-five sectional meetings. The meetings 
were divided according to occupations in life. At each of these a paper 
was presented by a member of the hierarchy devoted to a particular appli- 
cation of the life of sacrifice to the specific group. The remainder of the 
time was devoted to a discussion under the leadership of the hierarchy, 
in which a practical application of sacrifice was attained by each group. 

Seventy-five prelates participated in the sectional meetings which were 
organized for the following groups: clergy, seminarians, catechists, par- 
ents, women, Holy Name men, professional men, employers, employees, 
charity workers, nurses, enlisted men, public servants, college teachers, 
secondary school teachers, grade school teachers, journalists, rural work- 
ers, senior and junior youth groups. 

At the Congress four Pontifical High Masses were offered along with 
hundreds of low Masses, in the Maronite and Byzantine-Slavic rites as 
well as in the Roman. Eight holy hours were conducted. On June 24, 
a midnight Mass for men was celebrated by Most Rev. Amleto Cicognani, 
Apostolic Delegate, at which 100 priests distributed Holy Communion to 
75,000 men. About the same number of children received Holy Com- 
munion at the Mass of the following morning. A day later 100,000 adults 
of both sexes received the Blessed Sacrament. 

The Congress came to a fitting conclusion as 80,000 faithful accompanied 
the Blessed Sacrament in procession to the site of the final Benediction. 
In a glass-enclosed altar Cardinal Dougherty grave the Benediction, as a 
torrential downpour of rain failed to dampen the ardor of the thousands 
who knelt in the mud adoring their "Eucharistic Lord glorified by 



A cathedral is the chief church 
of a diocese, in which the bishop 
has his throne. It is the bishop's 
church wherein he presides, teaches 
and conducts worship for the whole 
Christian community. The juridical 
character of a cathedral does not 
depend upon the form, dimensions 
or magnificence of the edifice but 
upon its assignment by competent 
authority as the residence of the 
bishop in his hierarchical capacity. 
In medieval times the cathedrals 
occupied the place of first impor- 
tance in national life, and men were 
engaged in their construction from 
one generation to another. They 
were the history books of the period 
and a medium of popular education, 
taking the place in the social state 
of such modern institutions as free 
schools, libraries, museums and pic- 
ture galleries. Medieval architec- 
ture, as embodied in the cathedrals, 
is the chronicler of secular history 
in which kings, nobles, knights and 
people were represented as playing 
their parts in their days and gen- 

Types of Architecture 

Cathedral architecture may be di- 
vided into five types: 

1. Early Christian (Basilican) 
from the time of Constantine (300) 
to the death of Gregory the Great 
(604) ; but in Rome and many Ital- 
ian cities this style continued up 
until 900 A. D. It was a continua- 
tion of Roman traditions. The 
churches were modelled on Roman 
basilicas with closely spaced col- 
umns carrying the entablature or 
widely spaced columns carrying 
semicircular arches. Three or five 
aisles covered by a timber roof is 
typical. The architectural character 
was rendered impressive and digni- 
fied by the long perspective of oft- 
repeated columns which carry the 
eye along to the sanctuary; this 
treatment together with the low 
height of interiors makes these 
churches appear longer than they 
really are. An "arch of triumph" 
gave entrance to the sanctuary with 
the high altar in the center stand- 

ing free under its baldachino up- 
held by marble columns. The sanc- 
tuary was rounded off by an apse 
crowned with a semi-dome. 

2. Byzantine from the fourth 
century to the present day. Byzan- 
tine architecture was a fusion of 
the dome construction always a 
traditional feature in the East 
with the classical columnar style. 
The prevailing motif is the dome of 
which various types were placed 
over square or polygonal compart- 
ments by means of pendentives 
(triangular curved overhanging sur- 
faces to support a circular dome 
over a square or polygonal com- 
partment). Byzantine churches have 
a central space covered by a dome 
on pendentives. Short arms on each 
side form a Greek cross, and the 
filling in of the angles brings the 
plan nearly to a square. Opposite 
the entrance was the apse for the 
altar in the sanctuary which was 
screened off by the Iconostasis 
with its three doors. Because of 
the grouping of subsidiary domes 
round a central dome the Byzan- 
tine church gives a vertical impres- 
sion; the eye is gradually drawn 
upwards towards the central cul- 
minating dome. The Early Chris- 
tian church because of the vista of 
columns, entablatures and simple 
timber roof gives a horizontal im- 
pression, for the eye is led along 
these horizontal lines to the apsidal 
sanctuary which is the important 

3. Romanesque from the fall of 
the Roman Empire (475) and the 
election of Charlemagne as King 
of the Franks (799) to the end of 
the twelfth century. The term Ro- 
manesque includes the phases of 
European architecture as the style 
was developed in each country. 
Romanesque had its birth in the 
use of ruins of ancient buildings, 
these ruins necessarily determining 
the character, both of construction 
and decoration, of the new style in 
proportion to the extent to which 
old features were employed. Apart 
from its Roman origin from which 


it took its name, the Romanesque 
style owed something to Byzantine 
art which, was carried westwards 
along the great trade routes. The 
later Romanesque of the tenth to 
the twelfth century was remarkable 
for the tentative use of a new con- 
struction principle, the application 
of the principle of equilibrium to 
construction, in strong contrast to 
that of inert stability as used by 
the Romans. The general character 
is sober and dignified, while pictur- 
esqueness depends on the grouping 
of towers and the projection of 
transepts and choir. 

Early Romanesque was a contin- 
uation of the Early Christian style 
in unvaulted basilican churches, de- 
veloping the cruciform plan with 
choirs and transepts. Late Roman- 
esque became differentiated into the 
local varieties having in common 
the round arch and vault, the nar- 
rowing and heightening of the nave, 
the substitution of piers for col- 
umns, the decorative use of arcades, 
colonnettes, carved ornamentation. 
The fully developed Romanesque 
church was characterized by the 
cruciform shape, formed by tran- 
septs, on either side of the choir, 
and the apse, the unit of design 
being the square of the crossing. 
This square was repeated three 
times in the nave and once in the 
choir and in each transept. The 
narthex of the Early Christian ba- 
silica was transformed into three 
great western doors cut in the west- 
ern wall, and the open colonnade 
was moved from the front to the 
side of the church where it became 
the monastic cloister. 

The development of medieval 
architecture in England from the 
departure of the Romans to the six- 
teenth century shows a more com- 
plete sequence of styles than in 
other countries. It is usually divid- 
ed as follows: Anglo-Saxon (5th to 
llth centuries), Norman (12th cen- 
tury), Early English (13th century), 
Decorated (14th century), Perpen- 
dicular (15th century), Tudor 
(1500-50). The Norman corresponds 
to the Romanesque and is often 
called the English Romanesque, a 

bold and massive style of architec- 
ture, distinguished by semicircular 
arches, ponderous cylindrical piers, 
and flat buttresses. It is similar 
to the architecture of Normandy 
whence it, was first introduced into 
England by Edward the Confessor 
and subsequently established by 
William the Conqueror. 

4. Gothic thirteenth, fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries in Europe. 
The term, Gothic, was first em- 
ployed by Sir Christopher Wren in 
the seventeenth century as a term 
of reproach for this style of archi- 
tecture which had departed from 
the classic lines which he was in- 
strumental in re-establishing in 
England. The Gothic of the thir- 
teenth century was slowly evolved 
from the Romanesque and is mainly 
distinguished by the introduction 
and general use of the pointed arch 
whose original home was probably 
Assyria. This feature in conjunc- 
tion with buttresses and lofty pin- 
nacles gives to this style the aspir- 
ing tendency regarded as symbolic 
of the religious aspirations of the 

Romanesque architects had al- 
ready begun to substitute elasticity 
and equilibrium for the inert stabil- 
ity practised by the Romans, and 
Gothic architects still further ex- 
tended the application of these 
static laws by employing small 
stones laid in shallow courses with 
thick mortar joints, so as to secure 
the greatest amount of elasticity 
compatible with stability. The sta- 
bility of the Gothic depends upon 
the proper adjustment of thrust and 
counter-thrust. Vault pressures are 
downwards by the weight of the 
stone and outwards by the pressure 
of the arch vaussoirs (truncated 
wedge-shaped blocks forming the 
arch). The ribs of the arch col- 
lected both pressures by their meet- 
ing at the angles of vault compart- 
ments, and the resulting oblique 
pressure was counteracted and 
transmitted to the ground by but- 
tresses and flying buttresses 
weighted by pinnacles. 

As a result of the development 
of the Gothic system of buttresses, 


walls became unnecessary as sup- 
ports but continued to enclose the 
building and protect it against the 
elements. Windows became larger; 
in the north of Europe they 
stretched from buttress to buttress. 
It followed that the walls were left 
uniformly flat internally so that the 
colored windows might be seen by 
all; accordingly structural features, 
such as buttresses and pinnacles, 
were placed externally. 

The plan of a Gothic church is 
generally in the form of a Latin 
cross whose short arms form the 
north and south transepts. The 
main body of the church stretches 
westward, and the choir and sanc- 
tuary eastward, from the crossing 
of the nave and transepts, which is 
often marked externally, especially 
in England, by a tower, sometimes 
tapering into a spire. These main 
divisions east and west, and the 
transepts north and south, are often 
further divided into a central nave 
with side aisles, separated by col- 
umns or piers. These columns or 
piers support the nave arcades and 
the walls which rise above the aisle 
roofs. Above is the triforium or 
blind story, the space beneath the 
sloping roof over the aisle vault and 
enclosed on the nave side by a 
series of arches. Above the trifori- 
um is a range of windows to light 
the nave, called the clerestory. By 
means of cross vaults these cleres- 
tory windows generally rise to the 
level of the ridge of the nave vault 
which is covered by a high-pitched 
wooden roof. 

English cathedrals are conspicu- 
ous for great length in comparison 
to their width; continental cathe- 
drals are short, lofty, with less 
sharply defined outlines. German 
Gothic churches are characterized 
by the absence of triforium and 
clerestory, a result of building nave 
and aisles of approximately the 
same height. Italian Gothic churches 
are remarkable for flat roofs, cir- 
cular windows in the west front, 
absence of pinnacles and of flying 
buttresses, small windows without 
tracery, projecting porches. This 

style has a somber effect. Spanish 
Gothic reveals Moorish influence in 
such features as the horseshoe arch, 
pierced stone tracery and rich sur- 
face ornamentation without regard 
to its constructive character. 

5. Renaissance This movement 
in architecture, which began in Italy 
in the early fifteenth century, cre- 
ated a break in the continuous 
evolution of European architecture 
which, springing from Roman and 
proceeding through Early Christian 
and Romanesque, had during the 
Middle Ages developed into Gothic 
in each country on national lines. 
The Italians preferred the flat roof, 
the blank walls and horizontal lines 
of the familiar basilica and failed 
to cultivate the taste for the clus- 
tered piers and pointed arches of 
the Gothic manner. Feeling instinc- 
tively that space was wanted, the 
Italian builders widened their naves 
and depressed the vertical lines of 
their designs, searching for the 
serenity which belongs to Greek 
lintel architecture, or the round 
arch of Rome, rather than to the 
upsprmging, unresting arch *of the 
Gothic style. This new style devel- 
oped in Italy was the Renaissance, 
the architecture of humanism. It 
was based upon the art of Greece 
and Rome. Its creator was Brunei- 
leschi, a scholar versed in classical 
tradition, a student of Dante and 
familiar with the science of his age, 
a master of perspective and geom- 
etry. He grasped the underlying 
principles of the Graeco-Roman 
style so well that his designs have 
an organic vitality of their own. 
Hence the style that he developed 
is more than a re-copying of classi- 
cal detail. 

As distinguished from the Gothic, 
Renaissance architecture is charac- 
terized by symmetry of plan pro- 
duced by similarity of parts on 
either side of central axial lines, 
square bays in interiors covered 
with barrel or cross vaults and with 
a central dome, a small number of 
large divisions to obtain grandeur, 
and the sparing use of towers. The 
dome is a predominant feature ex- 


ternally. Windows follow classic 
lines and remain small, unbroken 
by mullions. Roofs were built of 
semicircular vaulting 1 , flat and hid- 
den behind balustrades in Italy, 
high in England, Germany and 
France, lined internally with plaster 
ceilings. The use of horizontal cor- 
nices and balustrades and the ab- 
sence of rising towers, spires and 
numerous pinnacles give simplicity 
of outline to skylines. 

Famous Cathedrals of Europe 
The most famous cathedrals of 
Europe are located as follows: Bel- 
gium Antwerp; England Can- 
terbury, Durham, Exeter, Lincoln, 
Norwich, Oxford, Peterborough, Sal- 
isbury; France Amiens, Angou- 
leme, Autun, Beauvais, Bourges, 
Chartres, Laon, Notre Dame de 
Paris, Reims, Strassbourg, Tournai ; 
Germany Aix-la-Chapelle, Co- 
logne, Treves, Worms; Italy 
Florence, Milan, Monreale, Paler- 
mo, Pisa, St. John Lateran in Rome, 
St. Mark in Venice, Siena, Syra- 
cuse; Scotland Glasgow; Spain 
Burgos, Granada, Santiago de Com- 
postella, Seville, Toledo, Vallado- 
lid; Turkey Sancta Sophia in Is- 
tanbul (Constantinople). A brief 
description of them is given below, 
alphabetically arranged according 
to the towns in which they are 

Aix-!a-ChapefSe Cathedral (Aach- 
en), 796-804, German Romanesque. 
Built under the direction of Master 
Odo of Metz by the Emperor Char- 
lemagne for his royal tomb, the 
prototype of other similar churches 
in Germany, and the place of cor- 
onation of the Holy Roman Emper- 
ors, The entrance, flanked by stair- 
case turrets, leads into a polygon 
of sixteen sides, 105 ft. in diameter. 
Every two angles of this polygon 
converge on to one pier and thus 
form an internal octagon whose 
eight piers support a dome 47% ft. 
in diameter. A Gothic choir was 
added in 1353-1413, the surrounding 
chapels are of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, and the western 
steeple has recently been, added. 
Over the spot supposed to be 
Charlemagne's grave hangs an 

enormous corona of lamps, the gift 
of the Emperor Frederick I Bar- 
barossa; in the choir of the octagon 
stands Charlemagne's throne, made 
of great slabs of white marble, 
where, after their coronation, the 
German Emperors received the 
homage of their nobles. Among the 
treasures of the choir are the fam- 
ous Gospel-pulpit, enriched with 
gold plates, the gift of the Emperor 
Henry II, the throne canopy of the 
fifteenth century, and the Gothic 
high altar of 1876. The Hungarian 
chapel contains the minster treas- 
ury which includes a large number 
of relics, vessels and vestments, 
the most important being the "Four 
Great Relics," namely, the cloak of 
the Blessed Virgin, the swaddling 
clothes of the Infant Jesus, the loin- 
cloth worn by Our Lord on the 
Cross, and the cloth on which lay 
the head of John the Baptist after 
his beheading. They are exposed 
every seven years and venerated 
by thousands of pilgrims. 

Amiens Cathedral, Notre Dame, 
1220-88, French Gothic. A typical 
French cathedral, 450 ft. long and 
150 ft. wide, begun by Robert de 
Luzarches. The nave is considered 
a type of the ideal Gothic. The 
great glory of this building is the 
"Bible of Amiens," a wonder of 
carved woodwork in the choir stalls, 
which breaks away from studied 
lines and soars above like the 
branches of living trees. Other 
cathedrals are glorious without in 
sculptured stone, but Amiens is 
also lovely within in carved wood. 
The central western doors are sep- 
arated by one of the noblest of 
sculptured figures in the world, the 
"Beau Dieu d'Amiens." Here is en- 
shrined one of the most sacred 
relics in Christendom, the head of 
John the Baptist. The cathedral 
originally rose around a tiny chapel 
built above the grave of St. Firmin. 

Angouleme Cathedral, St. Peter's, 
1105-28, South French Romanesque. 
The plan is a Latin cross, the long 
aisleless nave being 150 ft wide. 
The transepts have lateral chapels, 
and the choir is in the apse with 
four chapels. The nave is covered 


with three stone domes on penden- 
tives and a double dome over the 
crossing raised on a drum. Both 
transepts originally had towers, but 
the southern one was destroyed in 
1568. Two western towers flank the 
entrance. The facade is Romano- 

Antwerp Cathedral, Notre Dame, 
1352-1411, Belgian Gothic. The most 
impressive church in Belgium, re- 
markable for nave and triple aisles, 
narrow transepts, and a lofty clere- 
story containing huge windows of 
stained glass. The vaults are sup- 
ported by a forest of 125 columns. 
The single immense tower on the 
west front, 400 ft. high, is graceful 
in the florid taste of the period and 
almost dwarfs the body of the 
cathedral itself. Napoleon Bona- 
parte compared this tower to Mech- 
lin lace held aloft in mid-air. The 
curious bulbous turret over the 
crossing of nave and transepts is 
a feature due to the Spanish oc- 
cupation. Among the famous art 
treasures of the cathedral are the 
"Descent from the Cross" and the 
"Assumption" by Rubens. The 
building was much damaged by the 
Calvinists in 1566 and by the 
French in 1794-98. 

Autun Cathedral, 1090-1132, South 
French Romanesque. The nave is 
covered with a pointed barrel vault 
on transverse arches which spring 
so low down that they seem to 
squeeze out the clerestory windows. 
There are three apses at the east 
end. This cathedral was formerly 
the chapel of the Dukes of Bur- 
gundy and their palace was the 
actual episcopal residence. 

Beauvais Cathedral, 1225-1568, 
French Gothic. Never completed 
west of the choir and transepts, and 
the site of the proposed nave is 
partly occupied by the Romanesque 
church known as the "Basse Oeu- 
vre." There was an open-work spire, 
500 ft. high, over the crossing, 
which collapsed in 1573, partly be- 
cause there was no nave to but- 
tress it on the west. Designed by 
Eudes of Montreuil, architect to St. 
Louis, the building is of extreme 
height, 175 ft. 6 in. to the vault, the 

loftiest in Europe, and about three 
and one-half times its span the 
most daring achievement in Gothic 
architecture and one of the won- 
ders of medieval France. The struc- 
ture is held together internally only 
by a network of iron tie-rods, which 
suggests that the ambitious build- 
ers had attempted more than they 
could achieve. The carved wooden 
doors are masterpieces of Gothic 
and Renaissance workmanship. It 
was at this cathedral during the 
Middle Ages that the Feast of Ass- 
es was held on January 14th of 
each year to commemorate the 
flight of the Virgin into Egypt. 

Bourges Cathedral, 1190-1275, 
French Gothic. Remarkable for ab- 
sence of transepts and for short- 
ness in proportion to width. Its 
plan bears a general resemblance 
to Notre Dame de Paris. The nave 
is 125 ft. high, the aisles in differ- 
ent heights are unique; their dec- 
oration suggests wondrous profu- 
sion of effort and exalting spiritual 
fervor. An elaborately sculptured 
"Last Judgment" is on the tympa- 
num, the stained-glass windows are 
the finest in France. The unity of 
design at Bourges is unique even 
among the the cathedrals of North- 
ern France. 

Burgos Cathedral, Santa Maria la 
Mayor, 1221, Spanish Gothic. Com- 
menced by Bishop Mauritius; one 
of the most poetic of all Spanish 
cathedrals. The plan is irregular. 
The two western towers with open- 
work spires are similar to those 
of Cologne. A richly treated cen- 
tral lantern is a marked feature of 
the exterior. The three-storied fa- 
cade is finished with a balustrade 
of letters carved in stone and form- 
ing the inscription, "Pulchra es et 
decora," in the center of which Is 
a statue of the Blessed Virgin. The 
interior has elaborate triforium 
tracery, massive piers to support 
the lantern and fine circular win- 
dows in the transepts. The side 
chapels are of extraordinary size, 
the octagonal "Capilla del Conde- 
stable," remarkable for the beauty 
and magnificence of its late Gothic 
detail, being 50 ft. in diameter. The 


chapel of St. Anne has an altar- 
piece which * is a miracle of rich- 

Canterbury Cathedral, 1140. The 
nave and central tower are late 
Perpendicular. The choir was erect- 
ed by William of Sens on the model 
of Sens Cathedral after the de- 
struction of Anselm's Norman 
choir. The width of the choir is 
contracted to preserve two earlier 
Norman chapels. Has double tran- 
septs with a tower over the cross- 
ing of the western transept. In 
1378 Longfranc's nave was pulled 
down and the present nave begun 
by Prior Chillendon. The cathedral 
was completed about 1495 by the 
erection of the great central tower, 
235 ft. high. In 1538 Cranmer al- 
lowed the pillaging of the shrine 
of St. Thomas, and in 1541 he or- 
dered the tombs of all the canon- 
ized archbishops to be destroyed. 
When the death of Cardinal Pole 
in 1558 brought to a close the line 
of Catholic archbishops of the See 
of Canterbury, the cathedral passed 
out of Catholic hands. 

Chartres Cathedral, Notre Dame, 
1194-1260, French Gothic. Begun in 
1020 by Bishop Fulbert, but three 
fires interfered with the progress 
of the work. The finished cathedral 
was consecrated In 1260 and St. 
Louis is supposed to have attended 
the ceremony. The extensive and 
interesting crypt, enclosing a well 
and a vault, is a remnant of an 
earlier church and is still used for 
pilgrimages to the shrine of the 
"Vierge Noir," Legend has it that 
the early Christians of the place 
found here an altar surmounted by 
a statue representing a woman 
seated with her child upon her 
knees, both the altar and the statue, 
"Virgini Pariturae," having been 
erected by the Druids. The plan 
has a short nave, strongly marked 
aisled transepts. The spire over the 
chevet built above the crypt is one 
of the most beautiful in Europe. 
The cathedral is remarkable for the 
magnificent thirteenth-century 
stained glass in its 130 windows, 
containing 3,889 figures, and for 
the profusion of sculptured figures 

in the west front doorways and in 
the triple porches of the north and 
south transepts. Though these fig- 
ures are somewhat archaic and 
stiff, they are more ambitious than 
any previous French statuary. The 
porches and windows represent in 
magnificent symbolism the Glorifi- 
cation of Mary. The flying but- 
tresses are in three arches one 
above the other. The cathedral has 
since its foundation been a very 
popular place of pilgrimage with a 
three-fold object: the statue of No- 
tre Dame sous Terre modelled after 
the old statue burned in 1793; the 
Vierge Noir de Notre Dame du 
Pilier in the upper church; and the 
veil of the Blessed Virgin, given to 
Charlemagne by Constantine and 
Irene, sovereigns of Byzantium, and 
transferred in 876 from Aix-la-Chap- 
elle (Aachen) to Chartres. 

Cologne Cathedral, 1248-1322, Ger- 
man Gothic. The largest Gothic 
church in Northern Europe and the 
greatest monument of Gothic archi- 
tecture in Germany, covering about 
91,000 sq. ft., and having a width 
out of all proportion to its length, 
468 ft. long by 275 ft. wide. Its 
cornerstone was laid by Archbishop 
Conrad of Hostaden, the sanctuary 
was dedicated in 1322, and the nave 
made ready for religious services 
in 1388. During the French Revolu- 
tion the cathedral was used as a 
hay barn. The nave is 150 ft. high, 
while the double aisles are equal in 
width to the nave. The twin towers 
are 500 ft. high. The eastern half 
of the church is a reproduction of 
Amiens in plan and dimensions. 
The building was finished accord- 
ing to the original design only in 
1824-80. The most famous of the 
works of art are the "Dombild," a 
painting by Stephen Lochner (1450) 
and the triptych over the high al- 
tar, the 96 choir seats of the sanc- 
tuary, and the shrine in which are 
kept the relics of the Three Kings. 
This last is considered the most re- 
markable medieval example of the 
goldsmith's art extant. 

Compostella Cathedral, Santiago, 
1078, Spanish Gothic. One of the 


most remarkable medieval build- 
ings in Spain, begun by Bishop 
Diego Pelaez, continued by Arch- 
bishop Diego Gelmirez, and com- 
pleted by Archbishop Pedro Munoz, 
built upon the site of two former 
churches which had in turn been 
erected above a marble grotto con- 
taining the tomb of St. James the 
Greater, discovered in the ninth 
century. The nave has a barrel 
vault and the single aisles cross- 
vaults. The Portico de la Gloria 
(1188) extends across the whole 
width of the church and is one of 
the greatest glories of Christian 
art, with its range of statues of 
the apostles and major prophets, 
its semi-circular arch with statues 
of the twenty-four elders, and tym- 
panum with sculptured representa- 
tions of the Last Judgment. The 
tombs of St. James and of two of 
his disciples, Athanasius and Theo- 
doras, are in a subterranean chapel. 
These holy relics were rediscovered 
late in the nineteenth century by 
Cardinal Paya whose declaration of 
the identity and authenticity of the 
relics was confirmed by Pope Leo 
XIII in 1884. The tomb of St. James 
was the most renowned place of 
pilgrimage in Europe from the time 
it was discovered until the Refor- 
mation. The cathedral was plun- 
dered by the French in 1809. Among 
the numerous treasures is a gold 
crucifix of exquisite workmanship, 
containing a fragment of the true 

Durham Cathedral, 1096-1133, Nor- 
man. A building of great dignity 
with few rivals. Begun by the Nor- 
man bishop, William de S. Carilef, 
completed by his successor, Ran- 
nulf Flambard, who transferred the 
shrine of St. Cuthbert in 1104 to 
the new cathedral. The Galilee 
Chapel, a unique specimen of trans- 
itional work, was added by Bishop 
Hugh de Pudsey and the "Chapel 
of the Nine Altars" by Bishop Poor 
in 1230. 

Exeter Cathedral, 1280-1350, Dec- 
orated. Begun by Bishop Quivil 
and completed by Bishop Grandis- 
son. The finest specimen of this 
style and exceptionally rich in va- 

ried tracery and carved wood and 
stone work. The twin towers over 
the north and south transepts are 
unique, recalling the plans of St. 
Stephen's in Vienna and Toledo 
Cathedral. The choir contains much 
early stained glass and a magnifi- 
cent episcopal throne and is sep- 
arated from the nave by a choir- 
screen of singular beauty. Turber- 
ville, the last Catholic bishop of 
Exeter, died in prison in 1570. 

Florence Cathedral, S. Maria del 
Fiore, 1296-1462, Italian Gothic. De- 
signed by Arnolfo di Canbio, built 
around the old church of St. Re- 
parata, consecrated by Eugene IV 
in 1436. Giotto was appointed mas- 
ter of the works in 1334, followed 
by Pisano, Talenti, and Brunelles- 
chi who added the dome in 1420-37. 
The plan is a peculiar type of 
Latin cross, remarkable for the 
large central nave, 270 ft long, 
and wide spacing of nave arcades. 
This vast nave forms an impres- 
sive though somber approach to the 
majestic octagon, 138 ft. 6 in. in 
diameter, off which are three im- 
mense apses with fifteen radiating 
chapels. The exterior is notable 
for its colored marble panelling, ab- 
sence of buttresses and pinnacles, 
the horizontal lines of the design 
and the pointed dome. 

Glasgow Cathedral, St. Mungo's, 
1181-1508, Gothic. Begun by Bishop 
Gocelyn and completed by Arch- 
bishop Blackader. The best pre- 
served Gothic edifice in Scotland 
and very uniform in appearance, 
although of different dates. It has 
an internal length of 283 ft. with 
nave and aisles, choir and aisles, 
eastern aisle with chapel beyond, 
and chapter house and sacristy. 
The vaulted crypt (1233-58) en- 
closes the shrine of St. Mungo. At 
the present time, the building as a 
national monument is administered 
by a department of the Govern- 
ment, and the chancel is used for 
the Presbyterian worship of ttie 
State Church. 

Granada Cathedral, 1529, Spanish 
Renaissance. One of the grandest 
Renaissance churches in southern 
Spain, a memorial of the conquests 


of Ferdinand and Isabella over the 
Moors. Designed and built by 
Diego de Siloe. The interior is a 
translation of Seville Cathedral 
into Renaissance style, and the 
great piers of the nave are faced 
with the Classic Orders (columns 
designed in the Graeco-Roman man- 
ner) while the radiating piers sup- 
porting the dome of the circular 
"Capilla Mayor" show an ingenious 
and novel treatment. The late 
Gothic "Capilla Real" contains the 
famous Renaissance tombs of Fer- 
dinand and Isabella and other kings 
and queens of Spain. The unfin- 
ished western facade is unusually 
imposing in design, with a north 
tower and tall massive piers to the 
cavernous arches which point the 
nave and aisles. 

Istanbul: Sancta Sophia (Hagia 
Sophia, Divine Wisdom), 532-57. 
Built by order of Justinian by 
Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus 
of Miletus on the site of two suc- 
cessive basilican churches of the 
same name, erected by Constantine 
(360) and Theodotius II (415). It 
is the masterpiece of Byzantine 
architecture, as the Parthenon is 
of Greek, and the Pantheon of 
Roman. Central space is 107 ft. sq. 
with four massive stone piers, 25 
ft. by 60 ft., pierced by arches for 
aisles and gallery, supporting four 
semicircular arches upon which 
rests the dome, 107 ft. in diameter 
and 180 ft. above the ground. East 
and west of the central area are 
great hemicycles crowned with semi- 
domes, and off these are exedrae 
(apse-like) recesses, in turn cov- 
ered with semi-domes. The whole 
area thus enclosed forms the great 
oval nave, 225 ft. by 107 ft. North 
and south of the nave are two- 
storied aisles over 50 ft. wide, the 
upper story being the Gyneceum 
or women's gallery. The interior 
givBs the impression of one vast 
id-omed space but the detailed effect 
with the great hemicycles and 
smaller exedrae is one of extreme 
intricacy. Sancta Sophia was con- 
verted into a mosque by the Mo- 
hammedans after the capture of 
Constantinople, at which time the 
lofty minarets were added. This is 

the most important mosque in 
Istanbul (Constantinople). 

Laon Cathedral, Notre Dame, 
1160-1205, French Gothic. There are 
two triforium galleries, thus divid- 
ing the nave into four stories in- 
stead of the usual three. The 
sanctuary is rectangular in En- 
glish style instead of apsidal, the 
result of the influence of an En- 
glish bishop who held . the see in 
the twelfth century. The great 
west fagade is an architectural 
masterpiece with three boldly pro- 
jecting porches emphasized by 
gables and turrets and a central 
rose window. The present cathe- 
dral replaces a former Romanesque 
one consecrated in 1114 and visited 
by Innocent II in 1132. In the 
twelfth century Herman, Abbot of 
St. Martin's of Tournai, wrote a 
volume on the miracles of Notre 
Dame de Laon. 

Lincoln Cathedral, 1185-1200, 
Early English. Built by St. Hugh, 
Bishop of Lincoln, on the founda- 
tions of an earlier Norman cathe- 
dral erected by the first Norman 
bishop, Remigius of Fecamp, and 
destroyed in the earthquake of 
1185. The nave of the new Gothic 
structure was finished by Robert 
Grosseteste. It had double tran- 
septs, western towers and the high- 
est central tower in England (271 
ft). The west front is unusual in 
having a screen wall behind which 
rise two western towers whose 
lower parts are invisible. In 1255 
St. Hugh's choir was pulled down 
to make way for the splendid Angel 
Choir which was designed to hold 
his shrine and is one of the master- 
pieces of Gothic architecture. At 
the Reformation this shrine of St. 
Hugh was destroyed (1540). The 
cathedral lost its last Catholic 
bishop when Thomas Watson, the 
last survivor on English soil of the 
ancient Catholic hierarchy, died a 
prisoner for the Faith at Wisbech 
Castle in 1584. 

Milan Cathedral, 1385-1485, Ita!' 
ian Gothic. With the exception of 
Seville, the largest medieval cathe- 
dral. It is somewhat German in 
character, as many of the fifty 
architects employed upon it were 


from north of the Alps. Begun by 
Gian Galeazzo Visconti, the first 
Duke of Milan; built on the site of 
the ancient basilica of Santa Maria 
Maggiore. The interior is vast, lofty 
and imposing, with a fine perspec- 
tive view, rendered the more im- 
pressive by the dimness and mys- 
tery which result from the lack of 
light In plan it consists of a nave, 
lofty double aisles, and transepts. 
Because of the excessive height of 
the aisles there is no triforium and 
the clerestory is small. Th,e ex- 
terior is a gleaming mass of white 
marble with lofty traceried win- 
dows, panelled buttresses, flying 
buttresses, and pinnacles crowned 
with statues, all wrought into a 
soaring design of lace-like intri- 
cacy. The flat-pitched roofs are con- 
structed of massive marble slabs 
laid on the vaulting, and over the 
crossing is a domical vault, 215 ft. 
above the ground, designed , by 
Brunelleschi (1440), finishing in a 
lantern to which in 1750 an open- 
work choir was added, rising 350 
ft. above the ground. The later 
fagade, partly built in 1550-1600, 
was completed by Napoleon at the 
beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Under the cupola is the tomb 
of St. Charles. The treasury con- 
tains among other valuable objects, 
two statues of St. Charles and St. 
Ambrose, made of silver and set 
with precious stones, the gift of 
the city. The high altar is a gift 
of Pius IV. 

Monreale Cathedral, Santa Maria 
Nuova, 1174, South Italian Roman- 
esque. The most splendid of all the 
monuments erected under Norman 
rule in Sicily, built by William II. 
The plan is a combination of an 
Early Christian basilican church in 
its western part and a Saracenic 
mosque in its eastern part,' with a 
choir raised above the nave and 
with eastern apses. The severity of 
design and colored decoration pro- 
duce a solemn interior effect. The 
high altar is covered with worked 
sheets of silver (seventeenth cen- 
tury) and in a chapel to its right 
are the -tombs of William I the 
Wicked and of William II. The 
cloisters, all that remain of the 

Benedictine monastery, are the 
finest of the style. 

Norwich Cathedral, The Blessed 
Trinity, 1096-1145, Norman. Begun 
by Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of 
Thetford, and completed by his 
successor, Bishop Eborard de Mont- 
gomery. Long narrow nave, aisle- 
less transepts and choir with apsi- 
dal chapels. The eastern apsidal 
chapel was replaced in the thir- 
teenth century by an oblong Lady 
Chapel, destroyed by the Protes- 
tant Dean Gardiner in the six- 
teenth century. Its last Catholic 
bishop was John Hopton who died 
in 1558. 

Oxford Cathedral, 1158-80. For- 
merly the Church of St. Frides- 
wide, erected by the canons regular 
who succeeded the nuns of St. 
Frideswide. Norman nave and 
choir; early English chapter house 
and Lady Chapel. The nave pillars 
support lofty Norman arches be- 
neath which is a triforium gallery 
(a gallery between the sloping roof 
over the aisle and the aisle vault- 
ing) an unusual arrangement in 
order to give height The central 
tower is Norman with Early En- 
glish upper part and short spire. 

Palermo Cathedral, 1170-85, Ital- 
ian Gothic. Commenced by King 
William the Good of Sicily, built 
on the site of an earlier ancient 
basilica which had been changed 
into a mosque during the Saracen 
domination. The open porch built 
in 1480 with slender columns sup- 
porting pointed arches of the Sara- 
cenic type is reminiscent of the 
Alhambra. The plan is basilican. 
At the west end the cathedral is 
connected across the street by two 
pointed arches to the Archbishop's 
palace. The external decoration is 
in stone of two colors. In the first 
chapel at the right are six tombs 
of kings and queens of Sicily. Other 
objects of interest in the cathedral 
are an "Assumption" by Velasquez 
and the tabulanum or archives with 
interesting Latin, Greek and Arabic 

Paris: Notre Dame, 1163-1235, 
French Gothic. Begun by Bishop 
Maurice de Sully, completed by 
Jean and Pierre de Chelles. Built 


on the site of two earlier churches 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and 
St. Stephen. The cornerstone was 
laid by Alexander III, the high 
altar consecrated by the papal le- 
gate in 1182. It has a wide nave and 
double aisles, and transepts ot 
small projection practically in line 
with the aisles. The impressive 
and somber interior has a nave ar- 
cade with cylindrical columns carry- 
ing pointed arches and shafts to 
support the lofty sexpartite vault- 
ings. The wide-spreading western 
facade is the finest and most char- 
acteristic in France and served as 
a model for many later churches. 
In 1239 the Crown of Thorns, a 
portion of the True Cross, and a 
nail of the Passion were deposited 
in the cathedral by St. Louis. The 
first States General was assembled 
here in 1302, and Mary Stuart was 
crowned here in 1560. During the 
French Revolution the treasury was 
despoiled, but the capital Crown of 
Thorns was taken to the Bibliothe- 
que Nationale and thus escaped de- 
struction. The statues of the kings, 
which adorned the porch, were de- 
stroyed in 1793 by order of the 
Paris Commune. Catholic worship 
was resumed here in 1802, and in 
1832 so strong a public sentiment 
was aroused in favor of the cathe- 
dral by Hugo's "Notre Dame de 
Paris*' that the government ten 
years later entrusted Lassus and 
LeDuc with a complete restoration. 
Notre Dame has been a minor 
basilica since 1805. 

Peterborough Cathedra!, 1117-90, 
Norman. Formerly a Benedictine 
abbey founded in 654 by Peada, 
King of the Mercians, and de- 
stroyed by the Danes in 870. It 
was rebuilt in 970 by Ethelwold, 
Bishop of Winchester, and burned 
in 1116 during the abbacy of Dom 
John of Sais. He began the pres- 
ent building which was continued 
by Martin de Bee and completed 
and consecrated by Robert Grosse- 
teste, Bishop of Lincoln, in 1237. 
The interior is second to Durham 
in fineness, with a nave of eleven 
bays, transepts and presbytery 
terminating in a circular apse. The 
timber roof of the nave is probably 

the oldest in England. The west- 
ern fagade, one of the grandest and 
most original in Europe, is Early 
English, 158 ft. wide, with a por- 
tico of three gigantic arches, the 
full height of the cathedral, sup- 
ported on triangular columns and 
enriched with a number of delicate 
shafts which open into a long nar- 
thex extending the whole width of 
the building. The monastery was 
surrendered to Henry VIII in 1541 
but the church was spared frdm 
destruction because it contained 
the remains of his first wife. It 
then became the cathedral of the 
new diocese of Peterborough and 
the last abbot, John Chambers, was 
rewarded for his compliance to the 
royal demands by being made the 
first bishop. 

Pisa Cathedral, 1063-92, Central 
Italian Romanesque. One of the 
finest of the Romanesque period, 
begun by Buschetto and conse- 
crated by Gelasius II in 1118. It 
has long rows of columns con- 
nected by arches, double aisles and 
a nave with the usual timber roof 
of the basilican type. The transepts 
have a segmental apse at each end. 
The elliptical dome over the cross- 
ing, or intersection of nave and 
transept, is of later date. Among 
the notable objects in this cathe- 
dral are the octagonal pulpit, the 
urn of St. Ranieri, and the lamp of 
Possenti da Pietrasanta under 
which Galileo studied the isochron- 
ism of the pendulum. 

Reims Cathedral, Notre Dame, 
1211-1311, French Gothic. The cor- 
onation church of the kings of 
France, the pride of France and a 
treasure house of art. Begun by 
Bishop Alberic de Humbert upon 
the site of an earlier edifice built 
by Hincmar and destroyed in 1211. 
The nave and aisles of the western 
arm are broadened out in the east- 
ern arm into a nave and double 
aisles so as to include the project- 
ing transepts and thus give space 
for coronation ceremonies. The 
western fagade has recessed por- 
tals exquisitely carved with some 
five hundred statues. The tympana 
are occupied by rose windows 
framed by five rings of statues and 


enclosed by richly ornamented 
gables of which the central one 
contains the group of the Corona- 
tion of the Virgin. The magnificent 
rose window above the central por- 
tal is 40 ft. in diameter, flanked by 
high traceried openings, while in 
the upper stage is a band of taber- 
nacled statues of the kings of 
France. The two lofty western 
towers were originally surmounted 
by spires. The interior gives an 
impression of great space and is 
grand in the extreme. In the treas- 
ury is preserved the chalice of St. 
Remigius from which the kings of 
France used to communicate under 
the species of wine at the end of 
the coronation ceremonies, and 
which, according to tradition, was 
cut from the gold of the celebrated 
vase of Soissons broken by one of 
Clovis' soldiers. In 1886 the cathe- 
dral was affiliated to the Lateran 
Basilica, thereby participating in 
the privileges of all the indulgences 
and spiritual favors attached to the 
cathedral of Rome. In 1892 a part 
of the relics of St. Petronilla was 
translated from St. Peter's at Rome 
to the cathedral of Reims. 

Rome: St. John Lateran. Cathe- 
dral of the Bishop of Rome, mother 
and head of all the churches of the 
earth. Basilican originally, but has 
been so much altered at various 
times as to have lost its Early 
Christian character. It was orig- 
inally the palace of the family of 
the Laterani and came eventually 
into the hands of Constantine. He 
gave it to Popes Melchiades and 
Sylvester I, who opened a chapel 
in it. It was plundered by the Van- 
dals in the fifth century and de- 
stroyed by fire in 1308, and again 
in 1360. The present church was 
restored by Borromini, and the 
fagade designed by Galilei in 1726. 
The plan is a Latin cross with one 
nave and four aisles. The, apse 
was enlarged in 1878 and the an- 
cient mosaics replaced successfully 
in the new setting. A transverse 
nave was introduced by Clement V. 
The high altar has no saint buried 
beneath it, and is unique among all 
the altars of the Catholic world in 
being of wood and not of stone, 

and enclosing no relics of any kind. 
The reason of this is that it is it- 
self a relic of unique interest, being 
the actual altar used by St. Peter 
in celebrating Mass during his resi- 
dence in Rome. Above the altar, 
in the upper part of the canopy, 
are preserved the heads of the 
Apostles Peter and Paul, the great 
treasure of the basilica. At the en- 
trance is an inscription commemo- 
rating the dream of Innocent III, 
when he saw the church of the 
Lateran upheld by St. Francis of 
Assisi. In the archives of the Ba- 
silica rests the tabula magna, or 
catalogue of ail the cathedral relics. 
Salisbury Cathedral, dedicated to 
Our Lady, 1220-66, Early English. 
Begun by the seventh Bishop of 
Salisbury, Richard Poore, who laid 
the foundation stones beginning 
with the Lady Chapel which was 
consecrated in 1225. Among those 
present was St. Edmund, after- 
wards Bishop of Canterbury, and at , 
this time treasurer of Salisbury. 
This characteristic English Gothic 
church has double transepts with 
the loftiest spire in England (404 
ft.) above the crossing of the more 
westerly one. Salisbury Cathedral 
stands alone among English cathe- 
drals in having been built all of a 
piece, and thus possesses an archi- 
tectural unity which is exceptional. 
Francis Mallet was named the last 
Catholic bishop of the cathedral, 
but was ejected by Elizabeth be- 
fore his consecration. 

Seville Cathedral, 1401-1520, Span- 
ish Gothic. The largest medieval 
cathedral in Europe and, with the 
exception of St. Peter's in Rome, 
the largest church in the world. It 
owes its plan and size, with nave, 
double aisles and side chapels, to 
its erection on the site of a mos- 
que built in 1171 and remodelled 
by the Catholics soon after the re- 
conquest of Seville by St. Ferdin- 
and. However this converted mos- 
que became too small, and the 
cathedral chapter resolved in 1401 
to rebuild it on so vast a scale that 
posterity should deem it the work 
of madmen. It is rectangular in 
outline, 400 ft. by 250 ft. The ca- 


thedral is about eight times the 
width of the nave in Westminster 
Abbey. The interior is impressive 
because of its great size and height; 
the exterior, because of many ad- 
ditions, has a certain shapelessness 
and absence of skyline, and bears a 
general resemblance to Milan Ca- 
thedral, although of a simpler Go- 
thic type and less fanciful in de- 
tail The slender Giralda, one of 
the most celebrated and beautiful 
towers in the world was originally 
the minaret of the mosque, and 
gives this massive group a curious- 
ly Oriental aspect. The magnificent 
reredos of the high altar was de- 
signed by Danchart in 1482 and is 
the largest in Spain. In the sac- 
risty are preserved the Alphonsine 
Tables, a reliquary left by the Wise 
King. The Chapel of San Antonio 
holds Murillo's famous picture of 
the Saint's ecstasy. The chapel 
royal contains the tombs of St. 
Ferdinand, Alphonso the Wise and 
his consort, Beatrix, and Christo- 
pher Columbus. Among the sacred 
vessels is the great silver mon- 
strance of Juan Arfe, which re- 
quires 24 men to bear it in proces- 

Siena Cathedral, 1245-1380, Ital- 
ian Gothic. One of the most stu- 
pendous undertakings after the 
building of Pisa Cathedral. Said to 
occupy the site of a temple of Mi- 
nerva. The plan, only a part of the 
intended scheme, is cruciform with 
an unusual, irregular hexagon, at 
the crossing, covered by a dome 
and lantern. Because of a slope of 
the ground, the sanctuary is built 
over the Baptistry of S. Giovanni 
which thus forms a crypt and is en- 
tered from the lower level. The in- 
terior is striking in its zebra mar- 
ble striping on wall and pier and 
the incised marble floor. The build- 
ing stands on a stepped platform 
which gives dignity to the compo- 
sition. The Chapel of San Giovanni 
contains a statue of the saint by 
Donatello, besides statues by other 
sculptors and frescoes by Pinturic- 
chio. The library of the cathedral 
possesses ancient choir books and 
other manuscripts, and is adorned 

throughout with frescoes by Pin- 
turicchio, representing scenes from 
the life of Pius II. In the center of 
the library is the celebrated group 
of the Three Graces, presented by 
Pius II. 

Strassbourg Cathedral, 1250-90, 
French Gothic and Romanesque. 
The Gothic nave was added by 
Bishop Conrad of Lichtenberg to 
the Romanesque choir and tran- 
septs built in 1179. The beautiful 
western fagade, the work of Erwin 
of Steinbach, has a recessed por- 
tal, richly carved, surmounted by 
an open-work gable and tracery in 
two planes, above which is a rose 
window, 42 ft. in diameter, flanked 
with double traceried windows and 
two western towers, one of which 
terminates in an open-work spire 
466 ft. high, erected in 1439. It is 
the outcome of four centuries of 
work. The minster is rich in stain- 
ed glass of the period from the 
twelfth to the fifteenth century. 

Syracuse Cathedral, Sicily, Early 
Christian. A pagan temple of 
Athena built in the sixth century 
B. C., converted into a Christian 
church in 640 by the construction 
of a wall between the range of col- 
umns (peristyle columns) surround- 
ing the court and by the formation 
of openings in the cella walls. The 
present cathedral is built on the 
ruins of this temple, and of the 36 
columns only 22 remain. In front 
of the cathedral are statues of St. 
Peter and St. Paul by Marabitti; 
in the interior are the famous sil- 
ver statue of St. Lucy and several 
pictures by Scilla who also painted 
the frescoes of the vault of the 
Blessed Sacrament Chapel. The 
baptismal font is made from a large 
Greek crater, resting upon seven 
small lions of bronze, found in the 
catacombs of San Giovanni. Among 
the furniture is a historiated am- 
ber chalice. 

Toledo Cathedral, 1227-1493, Span- 
ish Gothic. Commenced by King 
St. Ferdinand and Archbishop Ji- 
menez de Rada and built upon the 
site of a mosque which was former- 
ly used as a Christian church. Sim- 
ilar to Burgos Cathedral in gen- 


eral plan, with five aisles, a range 
of side chapels, and choir enclosure, 
as usual in Spain, west of the cross- 
ing. A singularly shallow sanctuary 
with immense wooden retabulo, 
flanked by tiers of arcaded statuary 
completes a most impressive in- 
terior. The Chapel of Santiago 
erected by Count de Luna in 1435 
as a mortuary chapel had doorways 
with elaborate screen work and 
great frilled arches supporting the 
octagonal vault. There are fine 
stained-glass windows, beautiful 
carved choir stalls and a treasury 
containing the famous silver-gilt 
Custodia, the flower of Spanish Go- 
thic miniature art. 

Journal Cathedral, Notre Darne, 
1066-1338. Illustrates the styles of 
three successive periods and is 
largely built of the famous black 
Tournai marble. The nave is Ro- 
manesque, the circular-ended tran- 
septs and the central lantern are 
Transitional, and the choir is fully 
developed Gothic, very light and 
elegant in character after the 
French manner. The whole is sur- 
mounted by five towers and spires. 
This cathedral contains the tomb of 
St. Fiat. 

Treves Cathedral, 101647, Ger- 
man Romanesque. This oldest 
church of a Christian Bishop on 
German soil succeeded a basilican 
church several times destroyed by 
the Franks and Normans. It has 
an eastern apse and also a western 
apse flanked by entrances. The 
cathedral contains the remains of 
twenty-five archbishops and elec- 
tors as well as those of the last four 
bishops. The most precious of its 
numerous treasures is the Holy 
Coat of Christ, given to the Church 
by St. Helena. 

VallodoIId Cathedral, 1585, Span- 
ish Renaissance. Designed and 
built by Juan de Herrera, the Span- 
ish Palliado (the greatest architect 
of the later Renaissance). It has 
a rectangular plan, 400 ft by 200 
ft., and contains some fine choir 
stalls. The imposing exterior was 
never completed. The principal fa- 
c,ade has four Doric columns sup- 

porting the entablature of the first 
story; between each column rises 
a magnificent arch overhanging a 
rectangular door over which is 
placed the figure of the Assump- 
tion, the titular of the cathedral. In 
the inter-columnar spaces are sta- 
tues of St. Peter and St. Paul. The 
tabernacle built by Juan Arfe in 
1590 and the choir stalls brought 
from the Dominican church are two 
of the precious possessions of this 

Venice: St. Mark, 1042-1071, By- 
zantine. Stands on the site of an 
original basilican church founded 
in 864 to receive the body of St. 
Mark. Between 1042 and 1071 the 
plan was completely transformed 
to resemble that of the Byzantine 
Church of the Apostles in Constan- 
tinople. Transepts were added, the 
sanctuary was extended, a long ar- 
caded perch (narthex) was built 
along the north and south sides, 
and the interior altered from the 
basilican to the Byzantine plan of 
a Greek cross surmounted by 
domes. There is a central dome 42 
ft in diameter and a dome over 
each arm of the cross. The great 
piers, 28 ft. by 21 ft., carrying the 
dome, are pierced on the ground 
and gallery levels, and arcades 
support passages "connecting the 
central piers to the extremities of 
the nave and transepts. In the 
treasury is an episcopal chair of 
the seventh century. 

Worms Cathedral, 1110-1200, Ger- 
man Romanesque. The representa- 
tive church of this period and the 
smallest and latest of the Roman- 
esque cathedrals on the upper 
Rhine. Octagonal apses at both 
ends; one vaulting bay of the nave 
^corresponds to two of the aisles 
with cross vaults used in both 
cases. Twin towers flank the east- 
ern and western apses and the 
crossing of the nave and transept 
is covered by a low octagonal tow- 
er. The entrances are in the aisles, 
a characteristic of German Roman- 
esque. This building makes a strong 
impression by the imposing force 
and richness of its exterior and its 
unity of appearance as a whole. 


Arranged In Chronological Order 

The Circumcision is a feast in 

memory of the day upon which Our 
Lord was circumcised according to 
the Jewish law and received the 
adorable name of Jesus, brought 
down from heaven and made 
known to the Blessed Virgin by the 
Angel Gabriel. It is commemorated 
on the eighth day after Christmas, 
and is a yery ancient one. In the 
sixth century the Church made it a 
solemn feast, in order to atone in 
some way for the crimes committed 
by the pagans on that day, which 
is the first in the year, and is con- 
sequently called New Year's Day. 
The Epiphany is a feast observed 
January 6, in honor of Christ's 
manifestation to the Gentiles, rep- 
resented by the Three Kings of the 
East, who guided by a miraculous 
star, came to adore Him. It al- 
so commemorates the baptism of 
Christ and the miracle of the mar- 
riage feast of Cana. It is some- 
times called Twelfth Night, as it 
comes twelve days after Christmas. 

The Purification^ on February 2, 
Is a feast in honor of (1) the Puri- 
fication of the Blessed Virgin in 
the Temple of Jerusalem, and (2) 
the Presentation of our Lord on 
the same occasion, according to the 
law of Moses. This feast is also 
called Candlemas, because candles 
are blessed before the Mass of this 
day and carried in solemn proces- 
sion by the faithful while the choir 
sings the canticle of the highpriest 
Simeon: "A light to the revelation 
of the Gentiles, and the glory of 
His people Israel." This procession 
represents the entry of Christ Who 
is the Light of the World into the 
Temple of Jerusalem. 

Ash Wednesday is a day of pub- 
lic penance, and is so called from 
the ceremony of blessing ashes on 
that day, with which the priest 
signs the people with a cross on 
their foreheads, at the same time 
saying, "Remember, man, thou art 
of dust, and to dust thou shalt re- 
turn." Lent begins with this day. 

The Annunciation, on March 25, 
is a feast in memory of the Angel 
Gabriel being sent to the Blessed 
Virgin, at Nazareth, to announce to 
her that she was to be the Mother 
of God. 

Palm Sunday is the Sunday im- 
mediately preceding Easter Sun- 
day, commemorating our Lord's 
triumphant entry into Jerusalem. 
It receives its name from the palm 
branches which the people threw 
under the feet of Jesus, crying out, 
"Hosanna to the Son of David." On 
this day palms are blessed and dis- 
tributed to the faithful. 

Maundy Thursday, or Holy Thurs- 
day, occurs in Holy Week and 
commemorates the institution of 
the Holy Eucharist by our Lord at 
the Last Supper the night before 
He died. There is only one Mass 
in each church on this day; white 
vestments are used because of the 
joyful commemoration, but at the 
same time there are certain signs 
of the mourning proper to Hol^ 
Week, such as the silencing of the 
bells. The celebrant consecrates 
two Hosts, one of which he re- 
ceives, while the other is placed in 
a chalice and carried in solemn 
procession to an altar prepared for 
Its reception called the Altar of 
Repose or Repository. Here It re- 
mains for the adoration of the 
faithful until Good Friday when It 
is taken back to the high altar and 
received by the priest at the Com- 
munion in the Mass of the Pre- 
sanctified. After the procession of 
the Blessed Sacrament on Holy 
Thursday, the altars are stripped 
to remind us of the way our Lord 
was stripped of His garments. 
Then follows the washing of the 
feet, known as the "Mandatum" 
from the first word of the antiphon 
recited during the ceremony; 
whence the name ''Maundy" Thurs- 

Good Friday commemorates the 
Passion and Crucifixion of our 
Lord. It has been a day of fasting 


and penance from the earliest ages 
of the 'Church, and the liturgy Is in 
every way of an exceptional char- 
acter, befitting the day of the Great 
Atonement. Black vestments are 
worn, the altar is covered only by 
a single linen cloth and there are 
no lights. The distinctive feature 
is the Mass of the Presanctified 
said on this day, in which there is 
no Consecration, the Host having 
been consecrated in the Mass the 
day before. The service consists of: 
(1) lessons from Holy Scripture 
and prayers, terminating with, the 
chanting of the Passion; (2) 
solemn supplication for all condi- 
tions of men; (3) veneration of the 
Holy Cross; (4) procession of the 
Blessed Sacrament from the Re- 
pository and the priest's Commun- 
ion, or the Mass of the Presancti- 
fied proper. 

Holy Saturday is the day before 
Easter. During the twelfth century 
the custom of anticipating the vigil 
Office was creeping in. Now the 
time has been changed but the 
words of the Office remain the 
same. This explains the joyous 
character of the Mass, and the fact 
that the history of the Resurrec- 
tion is sung in the Gospel. The 
ceremonies begin early in the 
morning with the blessing of the 
new fire and the Paschal Candle, 
which is followed by the reading 
of the twelve prophecies. The 
priest then goes in procession to 
bless the font, and the water is 
scattered toward the four quarters 
of the world to indicate the catho- 
licity of the Church and the world- 
wide efficacy of her sacraments. 
Solemn High Mass is then sung, 
white vestments are used, flowers 
and candles set upon the altar, 
statues unveiled, the organ is heard 
and the bells, silent since Holy 
Thursday, are joyfully rung. Lent 
ends officially at noon on this day. 

The Resurrection or Easter Sun- 
day commemorates our Lord's ris- 
ing from the dead by His own 
power on the third day after His 
Crucifixion, and occurs on the first 

Sunday after the first full moon 
after the vernal equinox, or March 
21. It is named from "Oriens," 
which signifies the "Bast" or "Ris- 
ing,'* and is one of the titles of 
Christ: "And His name shall be 
called 'Oriens.'" 

The Invention or Finding of the 
Holy Cross is a feast established 
in memory of the miraculous cross 
which appeared to Constantine A. 
D. 312, and of the finding of the 
true Cross by St. Helena A. D. 326, 
after it had been hidden and buried 
by the infidels for 180 years. This 
feast is observed on May 3. 

The Patronage of St. Joseph, on 
the third Wednesday after Easter, 
honors St. Joseph as the patron of 
the Universal Church. 

The Ascension, on the fortieth 
day after Easter, commemorates 
our Lord's Ascension into heaven 
from the top of Mount Olivet, In 
the presence of His Blessed Mother 
and His Apostles and disciples. 

Pentecost is a solemn feast on the 
fiftieth day after Easter in honor 
of the descent of the Holy Ghost 
upon the apostles, in the form of 
fiery tongues. The word "Pente- 
cost" means "fiftieth." The time 
from Easter to Trinity Sunday is 
the Paschal time, which is a joyous 
preparation for this feast. It is also 
called Whitsunday, from the white 
garb of the catechumens, who were 
admitted to baptism on the eve of 
this feast. 

Trinity Sunday is the first Sun- 
day after Pentecost, and is a day 
on which the Church honors in an 
especial manner One God in Three 
Divine Persons. 

Corpus Christi is a feast on the 
Thursday after Trinity Sunday, in 
honor of the Body and Blood of 
Christ, really present in the Most 
Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist. 
The observance of this feast was 
extended to the Universal Church 
by Urban IV in 1264. It was estab- 
lished in order to assist in making 
reparation for the sins committed 
against our Lord in the Blessed 


Sacrament and to reanimate the 
devotion of Christians toward the 
adorable Mystery. 

The Feast of the Sacred Heart, 
on the Friday after the Octave of 
Corpus Christi, is a day on which 
we honor the Heart of Jesus as a 
symbol of His love for us and ren- 
der love to Him. The feast was 
extended to the Universal Church 
in 1856 and raised to the highest 
rank in 1929. An act of reparation 
is recited in all churches on that 

The Feast of SS. Peter and Paul, 
on June 29, honors the Prince of 
the Apostles, and the great Apostle 
of the Gentiles, who were both 
martyred on this day at Rome. St. 
Peter was crucified with Ms head 
downwards, as he felt himself un- 
worthy to die in the same manner 
and posture as his Divine Master. 
St. Paul, being a Roman citizen, 
was beheaded. 

The Precious Blood is a feast 
established by Pius IX and cele- 
brated on July 1, in honor of the 
Blood of our Saviour shed for the 
redemption of mankind. 

The Visitation Is celebrated on 
July 2, in memory of the Blessed 
Virgin's visit to her cousin St. 
Elizabeth. This feast was estab- 
lished by Pope Urban VI, and was 
afterwards extended to the whole 
Church, in the fourteenth century, 
by Pope Boniface IX. 

The Assumption, on August 15, 
commemorates the Blessed Virgin's 
being taken up, soul and body, into 
heaven, after her death. 

The Nativity of the Blessed Vir- 
gin is a. feast in honor of her birth, 
and is kept on September 8. It is 
of very ancient origin. 

The Exaltation of the Holy Cross 
is a feast established in the sev- 
enth century in memory of the ex- 
altation or setting up of the Cross 
by Heraclitus the emperor, who re- 
gained it from the Persians. He 
carried it on his own shoulders to 
Mount Calvary. This feast is ob- 
served on September 14. 

Sy on September 29, is 
a feast in honor of St. Michael, 
prince of the heavenly host, who 
remained faithful to God and de- 
feated Lucifer and the apostate an- 
gels in the great battle fought in 
heaven in defense of God's honor. 

The Feast of Christ the King, 
instituted by Pius XI, is celebrated 
on the last Sunday in October to 
give public homage to Christ the 
Ruler of the World. The conse- 
cration of the world to the Sacred 
Heart is yearly renewed on this 

The Feast of AS I Saints, on No- 
vember 1, was established at Rome 
by Pope Boniface IV. On this day 
we honor all the saints, especially 
those who have no fixed festivals 
during the year. 

All Souls' Day, on November 2, 
is a day set apart by the Church 
to pray for all the faithful departed 
in purgatory. The clergy recite the 
Office of the Dead, and by a decree 
of Benedict XV all priests may say 
three Masses: one for the souls 
in Purgatory, one for the inten- 
tion of the Pope, and one for the 

The Presentation of the Blessed 
Virgin is a feast commemorating 
her presentation in the Temple of 
Jerusalem at the age of three by 
her parents St, Joachim and St. 
Anne. It is observed on Novem- 
ber 21. 

The immaculate Conception is a 
feast commemorating the preserva- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin from the 
stain of original sin' from the mo- 
ment of her conception. It is the 
patronal feast of the United States, 
observed December 8. 

The Nativity is a solemn feast 
observed December 25, commemo- 
rating the birth, of Christ. It is also 
called Christmas from the Mass of 
the birth of Christ. On this day 
priests are allowed to say three 
, Masses in honor of the three births 
of our Lord: (1) His eternal birth 
in the bosom of His Father, (2) 
His temporal birth in the stable 
at Bethlehem, (3) His spiritual 
birth in the hearts of the just. 



The Stations of the Cross is a 
devotional exercise Instituted as a 
means of helping us to meditate 
on and have sympathy for the suf- 
ferings of our Divine Lord. The 
early Christians had the deepest 
love and veneration for those 
places made sacred by the suffer- 
ings and presence of Jesus Christ. 
Devout pilgrims went to the Holy 
Land from the farthest parts of 
the earth, to visit Jerusalem, the 
Garden of Olives and Mount Cal- 
vary. To encourage the piety and 
devotion of her children, the 
Church granted many and great .in- 
dulgences to those who with true 
sorrow visited the scenes of our 
Lord's Passion. Unable, through 
various causes, to share in this de- 
votion, as well as the spiritual 
blessings attached to it, were many 
who wished to do so. Therefore, the 
Church sanctioned the establish- 
ment in churches of the Stations 
of the Cross, which represent four- 
teen scenes from the Passion of 
our Lord. To this devotion are 
granted: (a) one plenary indul- 
gence as often as one makes the 
Way of the Cross in some church 
or place where it is legitimately 
erected; (b) another plenary indul- 
gence if on the day when one 
makes the Way of the Cross one 
receives Holy Communion, or once 
a month on the day on which one 
receives Holy Communion, if one 
has made the Way of the Cross 
ten times during the month. 

The Three Hours' Agony is a de- 
votion practised on Good Friday, 
in memory of the three hours our 
Lord hung upon the Cross. It be- 
gins at twelve o'clock, the hour 
our Lord was nailed to the Cross, 
includes prayers, hymns and medi- 
tations upon His sufferings and 
His seven last words, and ends at 
three o'clock, the hour at which 
He died. 

The Sacred Heart We owe the 
Sacred Heart of our Lord the same 
worship we owe to His humanity 
for it is personally united to His 
divinity. By practising this devo- 

tion we honor the infinite love of 
the Heart of Jesus for all man- 
kind, and in some measure repair 
the outrages to which He is ex- 
posed in the Blessed Sacrament. 
This devotion was revealed to St. 
Margaret-Mary Alacoque at the Visi- 
tation monastery of Paray-le-Monial, 
France, in the seventeenth century. 
The feast is celebrated on the third 
Friday after Pentecost. The Holy 
Hour and the Communion of Repa- 
ration on the First Friday of each 
month are special manifestations of 
this devotion. Our Lord promised 
the "grace of final perseverance'* to 
those who receive Communion on 
nine consecutive First Fridays. 

The Five Wounds We honor the 
five Sacred Wounds of our Lord, 
and have devotion to them, because 
they are the channels through which 
the Precious Blood flowed for our 
redemption. This feast is observed 
on the third Friday in Lent. 

The Precious Blood We honor 
the Precious Blood of our Lord, 
and have devotion to It, because It 
is the price of our redemption, for 
our salvation is due to the merits 
of Jesus Christ Who shed His 
Blood for us. This feast is cele- 
brated on the fourth Friday in 
Lent and a second commemoration 
is on July 1. 

The Forty Hours' Adoratlop is a 
most solemn form of exposition of 
the Blessed Sacrament. This de- 
votion was first instituted in Milan 
in 1534, and received the formal 
sanction of Pope Clement VIII in 
1592. It begins and ends with a 
High Mass and procession and the 
Litany of the Saints. 

Benediction is a short exposition 
of the Blessed Sacrament which 
takes place sometimes after Mass 
but usually after Vespers or as an 
evening service. At the close of 
the exposition, following the sing- 
ing of the "Tantum Ergo/' the 
priest makes the Sign of the Cross 
with the Blessed Sacrament over 
the people. 

Vespers and Compline form a 
part of the Divine Office which all 


priests are obliged to say every 
day, and which is divided into sev- 
en hours or portions to be said at 
certain hours. Of these the evening 
hours are called Vespers, which 
means "evening," and Compline, 
which means "finishing," because it 
finishes the Office for the day, 

The order of Vespers is as fol- 
lows: (1) five psalms, with anti- 
phons; (2) the capitulum, or little 
chapter; (3) a hymn; (4) versicle 
and response; (5) the Magnificat, 
with its antiphon; (6) the prayer; 
(7) conclusion, after which comes 
an anthem to the Blessed Virgin, 
Of these anthems there are four, 
which are taken in turn according 
to the season. 

The order of Compline is as fol- 
lows: (1) three psalms with an an- 
tiphon; (2) a hymn "Te Lucis ante 
Terminum"; (3) a little chapter, 
with responses; (4) the canticle of 
Holy Simeon, the "Nunc Dixnittis"; 
(5) the prayer, "Visita, Quaesu- 
rnus"; (6) one of the four anthems 
used at Vespers. 

The Angelas is a devotion in 
honor of the Incarnation of Jesus 
Christ. It consists of three versi- 
cles or little verses, each followed 
by a "Hail Mary," and concludes 
with a special prayer. This devo- 
tion reminds us of how the mystery 
of our Lord's coming into this 
world was made known to Mary, 
and how, on her giving her assent 
to be the Mother of God, the In- 
carnation actually took place. It 
receives its name from the word 
with which it commences. 

The Rosary is a form of prayer 
in honor of our Lady made up of 
a series of ten "Hail Marys" or 
decades, each beginning with an 
"Our Father" and ending with a 
"Glory be to the Father." The 
complete rosary is made up of fif- 
teen decades and each five decades 
is devoted to meditation on certain 
mysteries: joyful, sorrowful and 
glorious. These mysteries com- 
memorate some event either in the 
life of our Lord or in that of the 
Blessed Virgin. Our Lady con- 
firmed the efficacy of this devotion 
by an appearance to St. Dominic 

in the thirteenth century when 
he was preaching to the Albigenses 
in France. Rosary beads have been 
devised to aid us in counting the 
prayers without distraction, and 
the usual form is a chaplet of five 
decades, pendant from a crucifix 
and five beads on which at the be- 
ginning of the rosary are said the 
"Apostles' Creed," one "Our Fa- 
ther," three "Hail Marys" and one 
"Glory be to the Father," and con- 
nected by a medallion usually bear- 
ing the image of the Blessed Virgin, 
on which at the completion of the 
rosary a "Hail, Holy Queen" is said. 
A plenary indulgence is granted to 
all who after confession and Holy 
Communion say five decades of the 
rosary in a church or chapel where 
the Blessed Sacrament is reserved. 
A feast has been instituted in 
honor of the Most Holy Rosary, on 
the seventh day of October, and the 
whole month is dedicated to it. 

The Scapu!ar consists of two 
square pieces of woolen stuff, 
joined to each other by two strings, 
so that one piece may hang over 
the breast and the other over the 
back of the wearer. It represents 
the habit of dress of a religious 
order. The scapular must be 
blessed and put on each person in 
due form, by those who have the 
right of investiture with it. If the 
scapular is worn out, or lost, it may 
be replaced and worn with the 
same advantages and privileges as 
the first without a new blessing. 
This does not apply to the scapu- 
lar of the Blessed Trinity Which 
must be blessed every time it is 
renewed. The scapulars are each 
made of a different colored ma- 
terial, according to the color of the 
religious habit they represent, such 
as the Brown Scapular of the Car- 
melites, or a color appropriate to 
the special devotion, as the Red 
Scapular of the Passion. There are 
eighteen kinds of scapulars in pop- 
ular use. (See page 182.) 

By regulation of the Holy Office, 
December 16, 1910, it is permitted 
to wear a medal of metal in place 
of one or more of the small scapu- 
lars. The scapular medal has on 


one side a representation of the 
Sacred Heart and on the other an 
image of the Blessed Virgin. These 
medals, now in general use, must 
be blessed by a priest who has 
power to invest with the scapular 
which the medal represents. 

Large scapulars are worn by re- 
ligious and members of the third 
orders for the laity, such as that of 
the Third Order of St. Francis. 

The Miraculous Medal devotion 
owes its origin to apparitions ac- 
corded in 1830 to Blessed Catherine 
Laboure, a Sister of the Daughters 
of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul. 
When the Blessed Virgin appeared 
to the Sister, she was standing on 
a globe, and from her hands were 
emitted rays of dazzling light: a 
"symbol of the graces I shed upon 
those who ask for them." Around 
the figure appeared an oval frame 
bearing in gold letters the inscrip- 
tion: "O Mary, conceived without 
sin, pray for us who have recourse 
to thee." The vision reversed and 
Sister Catherine beheld the letter 
M surmounted by a cross with a 
crossbar beneath it and under all 
the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and 
Mary. A command was given to 
have a medal modeled like the ap- 
parition, and great graces were 
promised to all who would wear 
such a medal. The first medal was 

struck in 1832, with ecclesiastic ap- 
probation, and the devotion spread 
rapidly. So extraordinary were the 
favors received that the medal soon 
became known as the "Miraculous 
Medal." The feast of the Miracu- 
lous Medal is celebrated on No- 
vember 27. Various indulgences 
may be gained by those who wear 
the medal, provided it be blessed 
by a priest having proper faculties ; 
other indulgences can be gained 
only by those who have been in- 
vested in the medal. Miraculous 
Medal devotions are now held in 
many parish churches throughout 
the United States. The Central As- 
sociation of the Miraculous Medal 
is located at 100 E. Price St., Ger- 
mantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mother of Sorrows devotion is a 
popular novena devotion to the Sor- 
rows of Our Lady, held in many 
churches every Friday of the year. 
It consists in the recitation of ap- 
proved prayers, a sermon on the 
Blessed Virgin, the Via Matris and 
Benediction of the Most Blessed 
Sacrament. The Via Matris, or 
Stations of the Cross of Our Sor- 
rowful Mother, represent the Seven 
Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary. Upon application to the Fa- 
ther General of the Servite Fathers 
these Stations may be canonically 
erected in any church. 


Affiliated with certain religious 
orders and sharing in their good 
works are associations of the laity 
called third orders secular and com- 
munities of religious known as 
third orders regular. Permission 
of the Holy See to establish third 
orders has been granted to the 
Augustinians, Carmelites, Domini- 
cans, Friars Minor, Marists, Mi- 
nims, Premonstratensians, Salesians, 
Servites, and Trinitarians. The mem- 
bers are called tertiaries. 

The Third Order of St. Francis 
is the largest of the nine tertiary 
bodies represented in the United 
States. These are: 

1. The Third Order of St. Francis. 

2. The Third Order of St. Dominic. 


3. The Third Order of St. Augus- 

4. The Third Order of Servites. 

5. The Third Order of Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel. 

6. The Third Order of Premonstra- 
tensians or Norbertines. 

7. The Oblates of St. Benedict. 

8. The Pious Union of Salesian Co- 

9. The Third Order of the Society 
of Mary. 

The Oblates of St. Benedict are 
not, strictly speaking, a third or- 
der, for St. Benedict wrote but one 
rule for all his children to follow. 
However, they have a rule of life 
which resembles those of the va- 
rious tertiaries, and may be classi- 
fie<J with them. 



Actors St. Genesius, Aug. 25. 

Alpinists St. Bernard of Men- 
tion, May 28. 

Altar Boys St. John Berchmana, 
Aug. 13. 

Archers St. Sebastian, Jan. 20. 

Architects St. Thomas Apostle, 
Dec. 21; St. Barbara, Dec. 4. 

Armorers St. Dunstan, May 19. 

Art St. Catherine of Bologna, 
March 9. 

Artillerymen St. Barbara, Dec. 4. 

Artists St. Luke, Oct. 18. 

Astronomers St. Dominic, Aug. 4. 

Automobilists St. Christopher, 
July 25. 

Aviators Our Lady of Loreto, Dec. 
10; St. Therese of Lisieux, Oct. 3. 

Bakers St. Elizabeth of Hungary, 
Nov. 19; St. Nicholas of Myra, 
Dec. 6. 

Bankers -St. Matthew, Sept 21. 

Barbers SS. Cosmas and Damian, 
Sept. 27. 

Barren Women St. Anthony of 
Padua, June 13. 

Basket-makers St. Anthony, Ab- 
bot, Jan. 17. 

Beggars St. Alexius, July 17. 

Belt-makers St. Alexius, July 17. 

Blacksmiths St. Dunstan, May 19. 

Bookbinders St. Peter Celestine, 
May 19. 

Booksellers St. John of God, 
March 8. 

Boy Scouts St. George, April 23. 

Brewers St. Arnuf of Metz, July 
18; St. Augustine of Hippo, Aug. 
28; St. Luke, Oct. 18; St. Nich- 
olas of Myra, Dec. 6. 

Brush-makers St. Anthony, Ab- 
bot, Jan. 17. 

Builders St. Vincent Ferrer, 
April 5. 

Butchers St. Anthony, Abbot, 
Jan. 17; St. Hadrian, Sept. 8; 
St. Luke, Oct. 18. 

Cab-drivers St. Fiacre, Aug. 30. 

Cabinet-makers St. Anne, July 26. 

Canonists St. Raymond of Pena- 
fort, Jan. 23. 

Carpenters St. Joseph, March 19. 

Catechists St. Viator, Oct. 21; 
St. Charles Borromeo, Nov. 4; 
St. Robert Bellarmine, May 13. 

Catholic Action St. Francis of 
Assist, Oct. 4. 

Chandlers St. Ambrose, Dec. 7 ; 

St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Aug. 20. 
Charcoal burners St. Alexander, 

Aug. 11; St. Mauras, Jan. 15. 
Charitable Societies St. Vincent 

de Paul, July 19. 

Clerics St. Gabriel of the Sorrow- 
ful Mother, Feb. 27. 
Cobblers SS. Crispin and Cris- 

pinian, Oct. 25. 
Confessors St. John Nepomucene, 

May 16. 

Comedians St. Vitus, June 15. 
Cooks St. Lawrence, Aug. 10; St. 

Martha, July 29. 
Coopers St. Nicholas of Myra, 

Dec. 6. 

Coppersmiths St. Maurus, Jan. 15. 
Deaf St. Francis de Sales, Jan. 29. 
Dentists - St. Apollonia, Feb. 9. 
Desperate Situations St. Gregory 

of Neocaesarea, Nov. 17; St. Jude 

Thaddeus, Oct. 28. 
Doctors St. Luke, Oct. 18; SS. 

Cosmas and Damian, Sept. 27; 

St. Rene Goupil,- Sept. 26. 
Domestic Animals St. Anthony, 

Abbot, Jan. 17. 

Druggists SS. Cosmas and Dam- 
ian, Sept. 21; St. James the Less, 

May 1. 
Dyers SS. Maurice and Lydia, 

Aug. 3. 

Engineers St. Ferdinand III, May 30. 
Eucharistic Associations and Con- 
gresses St. Pascal Baylon, 

May 17. 
Falsely Accused St. Raymond 

Nonnatus, Aug. 31. 
Farmers St. George, April 23; 

St. Isidore, May 15. 
Farriers St. John Baptist, Aug. 29. 
Fire Prevention St. Catherine of 
, Siena, April 29. 
First Communicants Bl. Imelda, 

May 12; St. Tarcisius, Aug. 15. 
Fishermen St. Andrew, Nov. 30. 
Florists St. Dorothy, Feb. 6. 
Founders St. Barbara, Dec. 4. 
Fullers St. Anastasius the Fuller, 

Sept. 7; St. James the Less, May 1. 
Funeral Directors St. Joseph of 

Arimathea, March 17. 
Gardeners St. Dorothy, Feb. 6; 

St. Adalard, Jan. 2; St. Tryphon, 

Nov. 10; St. Fiacre, Aug. 30. 
Glass-workers St. Luke, Oct. 18. 


Goldsmiths -St. Dunstan, May 19; 

St. Anastasius, Sept. 7. 
Grave-diggers and Graveyards St. 

Anthony, Abbot, Jan. 17. 
Greetings St. Valentine, Feb. 14. 
Grocers -St. Michael, Sept. 29. 
Hatters St. Severus of Ravenna, 

Feb. 1; St. James the Less, May 1. 
Haymakers SS. Gervase and Pro- 

tase, June 19. 
Hospitals St. Camillus de Lellis, 

July 18; St. John of God, March 

8; St. Jude Thaddeus, Oct. 28. 
Housewives St. Anne, July 26. 
Hunters St. Hubert, Nov. 3. 
Huntsmen St. Eustachius, Sept 20. 
Inn-keepers St. Amand, Feb. 6. 
Invalids - St. Roch, Aug. 17, 
Jewellers St. Eligius, Dec. 1. 
Journalists St. Francis de Sales, 

Jan. 29. 

Jurists St. Catherine of Alexan- 
dria, Nov. 25. 

Knights St. Michael, Sept 29. 
Laborers St. Isidore, May 10; St. 

James, July 25. 
Lawyers St.' Ivo, May 19; St. 

Genesius, Aug. 25. 
Learning St. Acca, Nov. 27. 
Librarians St. Jerome, Sept. 30. 
Locksmiths St. Dunstan, May 19. 
Lovers St. Raphael, Oct. 24. 
Maids St. Margaret, July 20; St. 
1 Zita, April 27. 
Marble- workers St. Clement I, 

Nov. 23. 
Mariners St. Michael, Sept. 29; 

St. Nicholas of Tolentino, Sept. 10. 
Merchants St. Francis of Assisi, 

Oct. 4; St. Nicholas of Myra, Dec. 6. 
Messengers St. Gabriel, March 24. 
Metal-workers St. Eligius, Dec. 1. 
Midwives St. Pantaleon, July 27 ; 

St. Raymond Nonnatus, Aug. 31. 
Millers St. Arnulph, Aug. 15; St. 

Victor, July 21. 
Missions St. Francis Xavier, Dec. 

3; St. Therese of Lisieux, Oct. 3. 
Musicians St. Cecilia, Nov. 22 ; 

St. Dunstan, May 19. 
Nail-makers St. Cloud, Sept. 7. 
Negro Missions St. Peter Claver, 

Sept. 8. 
Notaries St Luke, Oct. 18; St. 

Mark, April 25. 
Nurses St Agatha, Feb. 5; St 

Camillus de Lellis, July 18; St. 

Alexius, July 17; St. John of God, 
March 8; St. Raphael, Oct. 24. 

Old Maids St. Andrew, Nov. 30. 

Orators St. John Chrysostom, 
Jan. 27. 

Organ Builders St Cecilia, Nov. 22. 

Orphans St. Jerome Emiliani, 
July 20. 

Painters St. Luke, Oct. 18. 

Pawnbrokers St. Nicholas of My- 
ra, Dec. 6. 

Philosophers St. Catherine of 
Alexandria, Nov. 25. 

Physicians St. Pantaleon, July 
27; SS. Cosmas and Damian, 
Sept 27; St. Luke, Oct. 18; St. 
Raphael, Oct. 24. 

Pilgrims St. Alexius, July 17; St. 
James, July 25. 

Plasterers St. Bartholomew, Aug. 

Poets St. David, Dec. 29; St. Ce- 
cilia, Nov. 22. 

Poor St. Lawrence, Aug. 10; St. 
Anthony of Padua, June 13. 

Porters St. Christopher, July 25. 

Possessed St. Bruno, Oct. 6. 

Postal Employees St. Gabriel, 
March 24. 

Pregnant Women St. Margaret, 
July 20; St Raymond Nonnatus, 
Aug. 31; St Gerard Majella, Oct. 16. 

Priests St. Jean-Baptiste Vian- 
ney, Aug. 9. 

Printers St. John of God, March 
8; St Augustine of Hippo, Aug. 
28; St Genesius, Aug. 25. 

Prisoners St. Barbara, Dec. 4. 

Retreats St. Ignatius Loyola, July 

Saddlers SS. Crispin and Crispin- 
ian, Oct. 25. 

Sailors St Cuthbert, March 20; 
St Brendan, May 16; St. Eulalia, 
Feb. 12; St Nicholas of Tolen- 
tino, Sept 10; St Peter Gonzales, 
April 15; St. Erasmus, June 2. 

Scholars St. Brigid, Feb. 1. 

Schools St. Thomas Aquinas, 
March 7. 

Sculptors St. Claude, Nov. 8. 

Servants St Martha, July 29; St. 
Zita, April 27. 

Shoemakers SS. Crispin and 
Crispinian, Oct. 25. 

Sick St Michael, Sept 29; St 
John of God, March 8; St. Ca- 
millus de Lellis, July 18. 


Silversmiths St. Andronicus, Oct. 


Singers St. Gregory, March 12; 
St. Cecilia, Nov. 22. 

Soldiers St. Hadrian, Sept. 8; St. 
George, April 23; St. Ignatius, 
July 31; St. Sebastian, Jan. 20. 

Stenographers St. Genesius, Aug. 

Stone-cutters St. Clement I, Nov. 23. 

Stone-masons St. Stephen, Dec. 
26; St. Barbara, Dec. 4. 

Students St. Thomas Aquinas, 
March 7; St. Catherine of Alex- 
andria, Nov. 25. 

Surgeons SS. Cosmas and Dami- 
an, Sept. 27. 

Swordsmiths St. Maurice, Sept. 22. 

Tailors St. Homobonus, Nov. 13. 

Tanners SS. Crispin and Crispin- 
ian, Oct. 25; St. Simon, May 10. 

Tax-gatherers St. Matthew, Sept. 21. 

Teachers St. Gregory the Great, 
March 12; St. Catherine of Alex- 
andria, Nov. 25. 

Tertiaries St. Louis of France, 
Aug. 24; St. Elizabeth of Hun- 
gary, Nov. 19. 


Argentina Our Lady Immaculate 
of Lujan. 

Armenia St. Gregory the Illumi- 

Asia Minor St. John, Evangelist 

Belgium St. Joseph. 

Bohemia St. John Nepomucene; 
St. Ludmilla. 

Borneo St. Francis Xavier. 

Brazil Apparition of the Immacu- 
late Virgin Mary ("Land of the 
Holy Cross"). 

Canada St. Joseph. 

Chile St. James. 

Congo Our Lady. 

Corsica Immaculate Conception. 

England St. George. 

East Indies St. Thomas, Apostle. 

Ecuador Sacred Heart. 

Finland St. Henry. 

France Our Lady of the Assump- 
tion; St. Joan of Arc. 

Germany St. Boniface; St. Mich- 

Greece St. Nicholas of Myra. 

Holland St. Willibrord. 

Hungary St. Stephen. 

Ireland SS. Patrick, Brigid and 

Theologians St. Augustine, Aug. 28. 
Travelers St. Anthony of Padua, 

June 13; St. Nicholas of Myra, 

Dec. 6; St. Christopher, July 25; 

St. Raphael, Oct. 24. 
Universal Church St. Joseph, 

March 19. 
Universities St. Thomas Aquinas, 

March 7. 
Watchmen St. Peter of Alcantara, 

Oct. 19. 
Weavers ' St. Paul the Hermit, 

Jan. 15; St. Anastasius the Ful- 
ler, Sept. 7; St. Anastasia, Dec. 25. 
Wine-growers St. Vincent, Jan. 22. 
Wine-merchants St. Amand, Feb. 6. 
Wheelwrights St. Catherine of 

Alexandria, Nov. 25. 
Women in labor St. Anne, July 26. 
Women who wish to have children 

St. Felicitas, Nov. 23. 
Workingmen St. Joseph, March 19. 
Writers St. Francis de Sales, 

Jan. 29; St. Lucy, Dec. 13. 
Yachtsmen St. Adjutor, Sept. 1. 
Youth St. Aloysius Gonzaga, June 

21; St. John Berchmans, Aug. 13; 

St. Gabriel Possenti, Feb. 27. 


Italy St. Francis of Assisi; St. 
Catherine of Siena. 

Japan St. Peter Baptist. 

Lithuania St. Cunegunda. 

Mexico Our Lady of Guadalupe. 

Norway St. Olaf . 

Paraguay Our Lady Immaculate 
of Lujan. 

Philippines Our Lady of Guada- 

Poland St. Casimir; St. Cune- 

Portugal St. Francis Borgia; St. 
Anthony of Padua. 

Russia St. Andrew; St. Nicholas 
of Myra. 

Santo Domingo St. Dominic. 

Scotland St. Andrew; St. Columba. 

Silesia St. Hedwig. 

Slovakia Our Lady of Sorrows. 

South America St. Rose of Lima. 

Spain St. James; St. Teresa. 

Sweden St. Brigit. 

United States Immaculate Con- 

Uruguay Our Lady Immaculate of 

Wales St. David. 

West Indies St. Gertrude. 



Agaus (Africa) Louis de Azevedo. 

Alps St. Bernard of Menthon. 

Andalusia (Spain) Blessed John 
of Avila. 

Antioch St. Barnabas. 

Ardennes (France) St. Hubert. 

Armenia St. Gregory the Illumi- 
nator; St. Bartholomew. 

Artois (France) St. Vedast. 

Austria St. Severine. 

Auvergne (France) St. Austre- 

Basseia (India) Antonio de Porto. 

Bavaria St. Kiilian. 

Brabant (France) St. Willibrord. 

Brazil Jose Anthieta. 

Brittany (France) St. Paul de 

Burgundy (France) St. Benignus. 

Carinthla (Jugoslavia) St. Vigil. 

Chablais (France) St. Francis de 

Corsica St. Alexander Sauli. 

Crete St. Titus. 

Cyprus St. Barnabas. 

Denmark St. Anschar. 

East Anglia St. Felix. 

England St. Augustine of Canter- 

Ethiopia St. Frumentius. 

Finland St. Henry. 

Flanders SS. Livinus, Willibrord 
and Amand. 

Florence St. Andrew Corsini. 

France St. Martin of Tours; St. 

Friesland (Germany) St. Suitbert; 
St. Willibrord. 

Gauls St. Irenaeus. 

Gentiles St. Paul. 

Georgia (Russia) St. Nino. 

Germany St. Boniface. 

Gothland (Sweden) St. Sigfrid. 

Guelderland (Holland) St. Plech- 

Highlanders (Scotland) St. Co- 

Holland St. Willibrord. 

Indies St. Francis Xavier. 
Ireland St. Patrick. 
Iroquois - Francois Plcquit. 
Italy St. Bernardine of Siena. 
Livonia Bishop Albert of Riga. 
Magyars (Hungarians) Anastasi- 
us Astericus. 

Maryland Andrew White, S. J. 

Mechlin (Belgium) St. Runiold. 

Mecklenburg (Wends) Bishop 

Mercia (England) St. Ceadda. 

Mexico The Twelve Apostles of 
Mexico (Franciscans), headed by 
Fra. Martin de Valencia. 

Negro Slaves St. Peter Claver. 

North (Scandinavia) St. Anschar. 

North Britain (Picts) St. Ninian. 

Northumbria (Britain) Pope 
Adrian IV. 

Norway St. Olaf. 

Ohio Edward Fenwick, O. P. 

Otto was (Indians) Claude Allou- 
ez, S. J. 

Persia St. Maruthas. 

Philadelphia Felix Barbelin, S. J. 

Pomerania St. Otto. 

Portugal St. Christian. 

Provence (France) SS. Lazarus 
and Martha, 

Prussia (Slavs) St. Adalbert; St. 
Bruno of Querfurt 

Rome St. Philip Neri. 

Rouergue (South France) St. An- 

Ruthenia St. Bruno. 

Sardinia St. Ephesus. 

Saxony St. Wiilihad. 

Scotland St. Palladius. 

Slavs SS. Cyril and Methodius. 

Spain SS. Euphrasius and Felix. 

Sussex (England) St. Wilfrid. 

Sweden St. Anschar. 

Switzerland St. Andeol. 

Tournai (Belgium) St. Eloi; St, 

Tyrol St. Valentine. 

Wessex (England) St. Birinus. 

Westphalia St. Ludger. 








Adalard ..... . . Against 

Agapitus " 


Amalberga . . " 

Anastasius " 

Andrew " 

Anthony Avellino " 

Anthony of Padua For 

Apollonia Against 

Arnolph For 

Augustine Against 


Benedict Nursia " 




Catherine of Alexandria. . . 



Colomban " 

Denis *' 

Dympna " 

Elizabeth of Portugal For 

Erasmus Against 


Francis Borgia 

Genesius of Aries " 

George " 

Gervase and Protase For 

Giles Against 

Gregory of Neocaesarea ... " 

Hadrian " 



Hubert " 

James " 


Lawrence " 

Liberius " 

Lucy " 









Stanislaus Kostka . . 

Teresa of Avila 



Victor of Marseilles. 

Typhus and fevers 


Sore eyes and pestilence 

Bruises and fever 


Gout and sore throat 

Apoplexy and sudden death 

Lost things; against shipwreck 


Recovery of lost things 

Sore eyes 

Lightning, thunderstorms, fire, 
impenitence, sudden death 


Throat trpubles 

Scrofula, deafness 


Diseases of the tongue 

Storms, sudden death 

Sore eyes 





Intestinal trouble 



Chilblaines and scurf 


Discovery of thieves 

Epilepsy, insanity, sterility 



Storms, drought, inundations 




Lightning, rain, hail, pestilence 

Fire, lumbago 

Gravel, gall-stones 

Sore eyes, sore throat, hemor- 
rhages, epidemics 

Lightning, hail 

Gout, cramps 

Gout, hoarseness 


Poisonous snakes, storms 


False accusations 


Dying without the last sacraments 


Stomach trouble 


Foot diseases 

Epilepsy, nervousness 



Saints are represented in art with emblems Indicative of something 
specific in their lives or the instrument oC their martyrdom. The emblems 
of the Evangelists refer to their sacred writings. Thus a man is repre- 
sentative of St. Matthew because lie begins his Gospel with the human 
ancestry of Christ The lion of the desert is emblematic of St. Mark 
because he opens his narrative with the mission of St. John, "the voice 
of one crying in the wilderness." The sacrificial ox is the emblem of 
St. Luke whose Gospel begins with the Highpriest Zachary. The eagle 
soaring heavenward is emblematic of St. John who with the opening 
words of his Gospel carries us to heaven itself. Emblems of various 
saints are as follows: 

St. Agatha Tongs, veil. 
St. Agnes Lamb. 
St. Ambrose Bees, dove, ox, pen. 
St. Andrew Transverse cross. 
St. Augustine of Hippo Dove, 
child, shell, pen. 

St. Angela Merici Ladder, cloak. 
St. Anne, Mother of the Blessed 

Virgin A door. 
St. Anthony of Padua Infant 

Jesus, bread, book, lily. 
St. Barbara Tower, palm, chalice, 


St. Barnabas Stones, ax, lance. 
St. Bartholomew Knife, flayed 

and holding his skin. 

St. Benedict Broken cup, raven, 
bell, crozier, bush. 

St. Bernardine of Siena Chrism. 

St. Bernard of Clairvaux Pen, 

bees, instruments of Passion. 
St. Blaise Wax taper, iron comb. 

St. Boniface Oak, ax, book, fox, 
scourge, fountain, raven, sword. 

St. Bonaventure Communion, ci- 
borium, cardinal's hat. 

St. Catherine of Ricci Ring, 
crown, crucifix. 

St. Catherine of Alexandria 
Wheel, lamb, sword. 

St. Catherine of Siena Stigmata, 
cross, ring, lily. 

St. Catherine of Sweden Hind, 
lily, pilgrim's costume, cross, 
church in hand. 

St. Charles Borromeo Commun- 
ion, coat of arms bearing word 

St. Christopher Giant, torrent, 

tree, Child Jesus on Ms shoulders. 
St. Clare of Assisi Monstrance. 
St. Collette Lamb, birds. 
SS. Cosmas and Damian A phial. 
St. Cyril of Alexandria Blessed 

Virgin holding in her arms the 

Child Jesus, pen. 
St. Cyril of Jerusalem Purse, 


St. Dominic Rosary. 
St. Dorothy Flowers, fruit. 
St. Edmund the Martyr Arrow, 

St. Elizabeth of Hungary Alms, 

flowers, bread, the poor, a pitcher. 
St. Francis of Assisi Deer, wolf, 

birds, fish, the Stigmata. 
St. Francis Xavier Crucifix, bell, 

vessel, Negro. 
St. Genevieve Bread, keys, herd, 

St. Gertrude Crown, taper, lily. 

SS. Gervasius and Protasius 

Scourge, club, sword. 

St. Giles Crozier, hind, hermitage. 
St. Hilary Stick, pen. 
St. Ignatius Loyola Communion, 
chasuble, book, apparition of Our 


St. Isidore Bees, pen. 

St. James the Greater Pilgrim's 

staff, shell, key, sword. 
St. James the Lesser Square rule, 

halberd, club. 

St. Jerome Lion. 

St. John Berchmans Rule of St. 
Ignatius, cross, rosary. 


St. John Chrysostom Bees, dove, 


St. John Climacus A ladder. 
St. John of God Alms, a heart, 

crown of thorns. 
St. John the Baptist - Lamb, head 

cut off on platter, skin of an ani- 
St. John the Evangelist Eagle, 

chalice, kettle, armor. 
St. Josaphat Kuncevyc Chalice, 

crown, winged deacon. 
St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed 

Virgin Infant Jesus, lily, rod, 


St. Jude Sword, square rule, club. 
St. Justin Martyr Ax, sword. 
St. Lawrence Cross, book of the 

Gospels, gridiron. 
St. Leander of Seville A pen. 
St. Liborius Pebbles, peacock. 
St. Longinus In arms at foot of 

the cross. 
St. Louis IX of France Crown of 

thorns, nails. 
St. Lucy Cord, eyes. 
St. Luke Ox, book, brush, palette. 
St. Mark Lion, book. 
St. Martha Holy water sprinkler, 


St. Mathias Lance. 
St. Matilda Purse, alms. 
St. Matthew Winged man, purse, 


St. Mauras Scales, spade, crutch. 
St. Meinrad -Two ravens. 

St. Michael Scales, banner, sword, 


St. Monica Girdle, tears. 
St. Oswald Dove, demon, church, 

stone, ship. 
St. Patrick Cross, harp, serpent, 

baptismal font, demons, sham- 
rock, purgatory. 
St. Paul Sword. 
St. Peter Keys, boat, cock. 
St Philip, Apostle Column. 
St. PI' 'lip Neri Altar, chasuble, 


St. Roch Angel, dog, bread. 
St. Rose of Lima Crown of thorns, 

anchor, city. 

St. Sebastian Arrows, crown. 
SS. Sergius and Bacchus Military 

garb, palm. 

St. Simon Saw, cross. 
St. Simon Stock Scapular. 
St. Teresa of Avila Heart, arrow, 

St. Therese of Lisieux Roses, 


St. Thomas, Apostle Lance, ax. 
St. Thomas Aquinas Chalice, 

monstrance, dove, ox, person 

trarapeled under foot 
St. Ursula and Companions Ship, 

clock, arrow. 

St. Vincent de Paul Children. 
St. Vincent Ferrer Pulpit, cardi- 
nal's hat, trumpet, captives. 
St. Vincent, Deacon of Saragossa 

Gridiron, boat, pruning knife. 


Standard Reference works giving information on the lives of the 
saints include: 

265-340 Ecclesiastical History of 


404 Poems of Prudentius 
900 Compiled Byzantine Menolo- 


1298 Golden Legends of Jacopo 
1681 Acts of the First Martyrs by 

1617 Acts of the Saints Boi- 


1770 Lives of the Saints Butler 
1924 Biographical Dictionary of 
the Saints F. G. Holweck 
1934 The Book of Saints Mac- 
mill an 

1926-39 Butler's Lives of the 
Saints, edited by Thurston 
(12 vols.) 
1516 Saints of England Cap- 


1613 Saints of Italy Ferrari 
1615 __ Saints of Germany Rader 
1662 Saints of Spain de Sala- 


1828 Scottish Saints Dempster 
1875 Irish Saints O'Hanlon 
1885 Lives of the Saints and 
Blessed of the Three Orders 
of St. Francis Leon 
1938 The Golden Book of East- 
ern Saints D. Attwater 



This list includes the names of those within the confines of the present 
United States, who died a martyr's death or in the odor of sanctity, hav- 
ing sacrificed all in God's cause. (Subject to the decision of the Holy See 
and the decree of Pope Urban VIIL) 

St. Isaac Jogues and Companions, health was feeble. He died, worn 

eight Jesuit martyrs of North Amer- 
ica, beatified by Pope Pius XI, June 
21, 1925, and canonized by the same 
Pontiff, June 29, 1930. Feast cele- 
brated on Sept. 26. They are: Fr. 
Isaac Jogues, martyred at instiga- 
tion of Mohawk medicine men, at 
Auriesville, N. Y., Oct. 18, 1646; 
Bro. John Lalande, martyred a day 
after Fr. Jogues, Oct. 19, 1646, at 
Auriesville; Bro. Rene Goupil, mar- 
tyred at Auriesville, Sept. 29, 1642; 
and the following five who shed 
their blood for Christ when pagan 
Hurons made attacks on 15 villages 
of Christian Hurons in Canada, Fr. 
Anthony Daniel, July 4, 1648, Fr. 
Gabriel Laiemant, March 17, 1649, 
Fr. John de Brebeuf, March 16, 1649, 
Fr. Charfes Gamier, Dec. 7, 1649, 
and Fr. Noel Chabanel, Dec. 7, 1649. 

Felix de Andreis, C. M. (1778- 
1820), first Superior of the Vincen- 
tians in the U. S. and Vicar General 
of Upper Louisiana. A beautiful 
star appeared over the spot where 
his body lay after death and disap- 
peared after the funeral services. 
Many miracles were attributed to 
his intercession. His cause was in- 
troduced in 1918. 

Frederic Baraga (1797-1868), first 
Bishop of Marquette, suffered un- 
told hardship to bring the Gospel 
to the Redmen during a 37-year 
apostolate to the Indians of Michi- 
gan and Wisconsin. Preliminary 
process of beatification begun in 
Yugoslavia, his birthplace, and 
Michigan in 1933. 

Mother Mary Magdalen Bentivo- 
glio (1834-1905), foundress of the 
Poor Clares in the U. S., despite 
great discouragement. Finally the 
strict enclosure was established in 
Omaha in 1882. Her beatification 
cause is before the Roman Tribunal. 

Simon Gabriel Brute, S. S. (1779- 
1839), first Bishop of Vincennes, 
after refusing two bishoprics. His 
zeal knew no bounds, though his 

out by his labors. 

Bl. Frances Xavier Cabrini, 
M. S. C. (1850-1917), foundress of 
the Missionary Sisters of the Sa- 
cred Heart, in Italy. She established 
them in the United States, becom- 
ing a citizen in 1909. Her order 
had a remarkable growth, and tier 
work remains as her monument. 
Beatified by Pope Pius XI, Nov. 13, 
1938. Process of canonization un- 
der way. 

Luis Cancer, O. P. (c. 150049), 
labored as a missionary in Haiti, 
Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, Guatemala 
and finally Florida, where he was 
martyred near Tampa Bay, June 26, 

Magin Catala, O.F. M. (1761-1830), 
"The Holy Man of Santa Clara." 
He labored in the Santa Clara Mis- 
sion for 36 years with heroic sacri- 
fice, and lived an austere priestly 
life of prayer, fasting and discipline. 
The examination of his writings 
has been completed and the formal 
introduction of his cause is being 

BI. Rose Philippine Duchesne, 
R. S. C.J. (1769-1852), foundress of 
the Religious of the Sacred Heart 
in the U. S. Through her heroic 
zeal she made the first foundation 
at St. Charles, Mo., and helped 
establish many others, becoming a 
spiritual power house during the 
solitude of her last decade. De- 
clared Venerable by Pope Pius XI 
and beatified by Pope Pius XII, May 
12, 1940. 

Benedict Joseph Flaget, S. S. 
(1763-1850), first Bishop sent to the 
West, Bishop of Bardstown (Louis- 
ville), lived to see within his ter- 
ritory the erection of 11 dioceses, 
2 to archiepiscopal rank. He work- 
ed perseveringly and wrote volum- 

Demetrius Gallitzin (1770-1840), 
Prince-Priest, Apostle of the Alle- 
ghenies. Scion of a Russian prince- 


ly family and reared in the Greek 
Orthodox Church,, he became a 
Catholic at 17 and when 22 came 
to the U. S. Attracted to the priest- 
hood, he was ordained in 1795 and 
after four years' labor in Maryland, 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, obtain- 
ed permission to establish a Cath- 
olic colony in western Pennsyl- 
vania. There he laborer! for 41 
years, expending some $200,000 of 
his princely fortune in his priestly 
work, and suffering poverty. He 
lived a life of heroic holiness. 

Mother Theodore Guersn (1798- 
1856), foundress of the Sisters of 
Providence of Indiana. She came 
from France to establish her order 
in the TJ. S. and founded a com- 
munity in a then wild and isolated 
section of the New World, at st - 
Mary-of-the-Woods, Indiana, in 1840. 
Tribulation, poverty and persecu- 
tion were endured. Her writings 
were favorably considered by the 
Sacred Congregation of Rites, in 
1940, with a view to beatification. 

Leo Helnnchs, O. F. M. (1867- 
1908), "Martyr of the Eucharist." 
In 1907 he was appointed pastor of 
St. Elizabeth's, Denver, Colo., and 
while distributing Communion there 
on Feb. 23, 1908, he was assassi- 
nated by an anarchist, who after re- 
ceiving the Sacred Host spat It out 
and emptied his revolver into the 
heart of the priest. The process 
of investigation for beatification 
was begun in 1926 and the reports 
forwarded to Rome in 1933. 

Luss Jayme, O. F. M. (d. 1775), 
Franciscan protomartyr of Califor- 
nia. Came from Franciscan Prov- 
ince of Majorca to Upper California 
in 1770. Labored at San Diego un- 
til Indians fired the Mission, Nov. 
4, 1775, and clubbed Fr. Luis Jayme 
to death. The saintly Serra ex- 
claimed, "Thanks be to God, the 
land is now watered," and there- 
after the San Diego Mission, water- 
ed by this martyr's blood, surpassed 
all others in neophytes. 

Eusebio Francisco Kino, S. J. 
(1645-1705), the "Padre on Horse- 
back," cartographer and organizer, 

established 19 missions in the land 
of the Pimas, in. Mexico, California 
and Arizona. 

Mathlas Loras (1792-1858), first 
Bishop of Dubuque, traversed prair- 
ies, rivers and mountains of his 
diocese on horseback, foot, steam- 
boat and stage, to minister to some 
300,000 Indians and the white set- 
tlers. The "saintly Loras" died, 
worn out with his labors. In 1937 
the Archbishop of Dubuque institu- 
ted the process of his beatification. 

Pedro Martinez, S. J. (1533-66), 
Jesuit protomartyr of New World, 
was betrayed and killed by Indians 
on St. George Island, Fla., Oct. 6, 

Samuel Charles Mazzuche!!!, O. P. 
(1806-64), "Builder of the West," a 
saintly Friar. Through Ohio, Wis- 
consin, Illinois and Iowa he rode or 
walked, ministering to the faithful, 
converting, organizing, building. 
Founded the Dominican Sisters of 
the Most Holy Rosary. 

Richard Miles, O. P. (1791-1860), 
"Father of the Church in Tennes- 
see," first Bishop of Nashville. A 
native American, he tirelessly work- 
ed and built for the Church in this 

John Nepomucene Neumann, 
C. Ss. R. (1811-60), fourth Bishop of 
Philadelphia, called the "Mission- 
ary Bishop." For his work in the 
confessional he mastered 12 lan- 
guages, founded parochial school 
system and prescribed Forty Hours 
Devotion in his diocese. Pronoun- 
ced Venerable by Pope Leo XIII, 
and with a view to beatification 
Pope Benedict XV declared he prac- 
ticed virtue to a heroic degree. 

Francisco de Porras, O. F. M. 
(d. 1633), Franciscan martyr of 
Arizona. A Spaniard, he joined the 
Franciscans In Mexico, and was as- 
signed to New Mexico in 1628. 
Traveled to Hopi territory and 
there cured a deaf-mute. Jealous 
medicine men poisoned Ms food. 

Joseph Rosati, C, M. (1789-1843), 
first Bishop of St. Louis, when the 
diocese embraced Missouri, Arkan- 


sas and two-thirds of Illinois. Wrote 
many Important documents for first 
four Provincial Councils of Balti- 
more. Noted for zeal, sanctity and 
untiring labors. 

Francis Xavler Seelos, C. Ss. R. 
(1819-67), missionary in Pittsburgh, 
and finally in New Orleans where 
he was stricken with yellow fever. 
Of extraordinary holiness, he was 
chosen to important offices, and 
won many souls. In 1912 informa- 
tion was presented to the Sacred 
Congregation of Kites with a view 
to having his cause introduced. 

Junipero Serra, O. F. M. (1713-84), 
Apostle of California. Labored in 
Mexico from 1750 to 1769, and 
from then until his death in Cali- 
fornia where his labors were prodi- 
gious and he founded numerous mis- 
sions. He was father to all, and his 
love for the Indians was limitless. 
He lived and died in great sanctity. 
The cause for his beatification is 
expected to be Introduced shortly. 

Elizabeth Ann Bayfey Seton (1774- 
1821), foundress of the Sisters of 
Charity in the U. S. Mother of five 
children, widowed at an early age, 
a convert to the Church in 1805, 
she opened a school for girls in 
Baltimore and the work prospered. 
She longed to embrace religious 
life, and thus with the aid of Fr. 
Dubourg were founded the Daugh- 
ters of Chanty in the U. S. Her 
cause was formally introduced In 

Kateri Telcakwitha (d. 1680), 
"The Lily of the Mohawks." An 
Indian maid, treated as a slave and 
accused of immorality because of 
her desire for virginity, she was 
secretly baptized by Fr. de Lamber- 
ville and her virtues led great num- 
bers to the Faith. She was the 
first of her race to vow virginity 
and after her death appeared to sev- 
eral persons, protected her village 
from storms and warfare, and crea- 
ted great fervor among her people. 
Her home at Caughnawaga, Canada, 
has been a place of pilgrimage for 
almost three centuries. Her cause 
was introduced in 1926 and speedy 
completion is hoped for. 

One hundred and eleven Ameri- 
can martyrs tor whom joint beatifi- 
cation and canonization is being 
sought, are named below, with date 
and place of martyrdom, in chron- 
ological order. The list was com- 
piled under the direction of Bishop 
John Mark Gannon of Erie and was 
sent to the Sacred Congregation of 
Rites by Cardinal Archbishop 
Dougherty, of Philadelphia. Those 
with an asterisk after their names 
have already been listed above. 

Fr. Juan de Padilla, Franciscan 
(Protomartyr of the United States), 
probably 1542, in Central Kansas, 
at or near Lyons. 

Fr. Juan de la Cruz and Bro. Luis 
Descalona de Ubeda, Franciscans 
(companions of Fr. Juan de Padilla, 
protomartyr), probably in fall of 
1542. Fr. de la Cruz at Puaray, N. 
Mex.; Bro. Luis at Pecos, N. Mex. 

Fr. Luis Cancer de Barbastro* 
and companions, Fr. Diego de Pena- 
losa and Bro. Fuentes, Dominicans. 
Fr. Cancer, June 26, 1549; the other 
two, sometime before this date; 
near Tampa Bay, Fla. 

Fr. Diego de la Cruz, Fr. Hernan- 
do Mendez, Fr. Juan Ferrer and 
Bro. Juan de Mena, Dominicans, 
1553, probably in what is now the 
Diocese of Corpus Christi, Tex. 

Fr. Pedro Martinez*, Jesuit (U. S. 
Protomartyr of the Society of 
Jesus), Oct. 6, 1566, Mount Cornelia, 

Fr. Luis de Quiros and novice 
companions, Gabriel de Solis and 
Baptista Mendez, Jesuits, Feb. 5, 
1571, near St. Mary's Mission, Va. 

Fr. Juan Baptista de Segura and 
companions: Cristobal Eedondo, a 
novice; Bros. Pedro Linares, Gab- 
riel Gomez and Sancho Zeballos, 
Jesuits; Feb. 9, 1571; near St. 
Mary's Mission, Va. 

Fr. Francisco Lopez and compan- 
ions, Fr. Juan de Santa Maria and 
Bro. Augustin Rodriguez, Francis- 
cans. Fr. Juan de Santa Maria, 
Sept 10, 1581, at Chilili, N. Mex.; 
the others in the spring of 1582: 
Fr. Lopez at Puaray (Tiguex), N. 
Mex., and Bro. Kodriguez at Pueblo 
Santiago, N. Mex. 


Fr. Pedro de Corpa and compan- 
ions, Frs. Bias Rodriguez, Miguel de 
Aunon and Francisco de Verascola 
and Bro. Antonio de Badajoz, Fran- 
ciscans. Fr. Rodriguez, Sept. 13, 
1597, at Tolomato, Ga.; Fr. de Aun- 
on, Sept 16, at Tupique; Bro. Bada- 
joz, Sept 17, on Guale (probably 
St. Catherine's Island); and Fr. 
Verascola, soon after Sept. 17, on 
Asao (probably St. Simon's Island). 

Fr. Pedro de Miranda, Francis- 
can, Dec. 28, 1631, pueblo of Taos, 
N. Mex. 

Fr. Francisco Letrado and Fr. 
Martin de Arvide, Franciscans. Fr. 
Letrado, Feb. 22, 1632, at Hawikuh, 
near Zuni, N. Mex.; Fr. de Arvide, 
Feb. 27, in Northern Arizona. 

Fr. Francisco de Porras*, Francis- 
can, June 28, 1633, San Bernardo 
de Awatobi Mission, Ariz. 

Three unnamed Franciscans, 
1647, in vicinity of Tallahassee, Fla. 

Fr. Pedro de Avila y Ayala and 
Fr. Alonso Gil de Avila, Francis- 
cans. Fr. Pedro, Oct. 7, 1672, at 
Hawikuh, N. Mex.; Fr. Alonso, Jan. 
23, 1675, at Senecu, N. Mex. 

The 21 Franciscan martyrs and 
one Indian martyr of the great 
Pueblo revolt in New Mexico and 
Arizona, Aug. 10, 1680: Fr. Juan 
Bernal and companions, Frs. Do- 
mingo de Vera, Fernando de Velas- 
co and Manuel Tinoco, Galisteo, N. 
Mex.; Fr. Juan Bautista Pio, near 
pueblo of Tesuque, N. Mex. ; Fr. To- 
mas de Torres, Nambe, N. Mex.; 
Fr. Antonio de Mora and compan- 
ion, Bro. Juan de la Pedrosa, Taos, 
N. Mex.; Fr. Matias Rendon, Pi- 
curis, N. Mex.; Fr. Luis de Morales 
and companion, Bro. Antonio San- 
chez de Pro, San Ildefonso, N. Mex.; 
Fr. Francisco Antonio de Loren- 
zana and companions, Frs. Juan de 
Talaban and Jose de Montesdoca, 
Santo Domingo, N. Mex.; Fr. Juan 
de Jesus, San Diego de Jemez, N. 
Mex.; Fr. Lucas Maldonado, pueblo 
of Acoma, N. Mex.; Fr. Juan del 
Val, Halona (now Zuni), N. Mex.; 
Fr. Jose de Espeleta and compan- 
ions, Frs. Agustin de Santa Maria, 
Jose de Figueroa and Jose de Tru- 
jillo, probably Aug. 11, a day later 
than the rest, Northern Arizona; 

Bartolome Naranjo, Indian, Aug. 9, 
pueblo of San Felipe, N. Mex. 

Fr. G-abriel de la Ribourde, Fran- 
ciscan, Sept. 16, 1680, Seneca, -111. 

Fr. Zenobe Membre and Fr. Max- 
im le Clerq, Franciscans, and Fr. 
Chefdeville, Sulpician, about Jan. 
15, 1689, Fort St. Louis, Tex. 

Stephen Tegananoka, Frances Go- 
nannhatenha and Margaret Garan- 
gouas, Indians. The first in 1690; 
the others about 1692 at Onondaga 
(near Auriesville), N. Y. 

Fr. Francisco de Jesus Maria Ca- 
sanas (New World protomartyr of 
the Sacred Congregation of the 
Propagation of the Faith) and com- 
panions, Frs. Jose de Arbizu, An- 
tonio de Carbonel, Francisco Cor- 
vera and Antonio Moreno, all Fran- 
ciscans, on June 4, 1696. Fr. Casa- 
nas near Jemez, N. Mex.; Frs. de 
Arbizu and de Carbonel at San Cris- 
tobal; Frs. Corvera and Moreno at 
San Ildefonso. 

Fr. Luis Sanchez, Franciscan, Oc- 
tober, 1696, Mayaca, Fla. 

Fr. Christopher Plunkett, Capu- 
chin, 1697, probably on island in 
Chesapeake Bay, Md. 

Fr. Nicholas Foucault, diocesan 
priest, July, 1702, near Fort Adams, 

Fr. Juan Parga Arraiyo and com- 
panions, Frs. Manuel de Mendoza, 
Domingo Criado, Tiburcio de Osorio 
and Agustin Ponze de Leon, Fran- 
ciscans, and Antonio Enixa and 
Amador Cuipa Feliciano, Indians. 
Fr. Arraiyo and the two Indians on 
Jan. 25, 1704; the others about the 
same time. Fr. Arraiyo and the In- 
dians near Mission La Concepcion 
de Ayubale, Fla. ; Fr. de Mendoza at 
Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de 
Patali, Fla.; and the other three in 
the Apalache missions near Talla- 
hassee, Fla. 

Fr. Constantin Delhalle, Francis- 
can, June, 1706, Detroit, Mich. 

Fr. John Francis Buisson de St. 
Cosme, diocesan priest, December, 
1706, near Donaldsonville, La. 

Fr. James Gravier, Jesuit, April 
23, 1708, on Lisle Massacre (Dau- 
phin Island), near Mobile, Ala. 

Bro. Luis de Montesdoca, Francis- 


can, 1719, Eastern Texas or Robel- 
ine, La. 

FT. Juan Minguez, Franciscan, 
Aug. 12, 1720, probably near Col- 
umbus, Neb. 

Bro. 'Jose Pita, Franciscan, 1721, 
Carnizeria, Tex. 

Fr. Sebastien Rale, Jesuit, Aug. 
23, 1724, Madison, Me. 

Fr. Paul du Poisson, Jesuit, Nov. 
28, 1729, Natchez, Miss. 

Fr. John Souel, Jesuit, Dec. 18, 
1729, near Vicksburg, Miss. 

Fr. Gaston, diocesan priest, 1730, 
Cahokia Mission, 111. 

Fr. Anthony Senat, Jesuit, March 
25, 1736, Pontotoc (near Fulton), 

Seven French officers, Comman- 
der Pierre D'Artiquette, Capt. Fran- 
cois Marie Bissot de Vincennes, 
Capt. Louis Dailebout de Boulonge, 
Capt. Louis Charles du Tisne, Capt. 
Francois Mariauchau D'Esgly, Capt. 
Pierre Antoine de Tonty, Capt. 
Louis Groston de St. Ange, Jr., and 
13 soldiers were burned at the stake 
at the same time as Fr. Anthony 
Senat, S. J., by the Chickasaw In- 
dians, March 25, 1736, Pontotoc 
(near Fulton), Miss. 

Fr. Francisco Xavier Silva, Fran- 
ciscan, July 5, 1749, near Presidio 
del Rio Grande, Tex. 

Fr. Jose Francisco Ganzabal, 
Franciscan, May 11, 1752, Mission 
Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria, 

Fr. Alonso Giraldo de Terreros 
and Fr. Jose Santiesteban, Francis- 

cans, March 16, 1758, Mission San 
Saba, Tex. 

Fr. Luis Jayme*, Franciscan, 
Nov. 4, 1775, Mission San Diego, 

Fr. Francisco Hermenegildo Gar- 
ces and companions, Frs. Juan An- 
tonio Barreneche, Juan Marcello 
Dias and Jose Matias Moreno, Fran- 
ciscans. Frs. Garces and Barrene- 
che, July 19, 1781, at Mission La 
Purisima Concepcion, Calif.; Frs. 
Dias and Moreno, July 17, 1781, at 
Mission San Pedro y San Pablo 
de Bicuner, Calif. 

Fr. Andres Qumtana, Franciscan, 
Oct. 12, 1812, near Mission Santa 
Cruz, Calif. 

Fr. Antonio Diaz de Leon, Fran- 
ciscan, about Nov. 4, 1834, near San 
Augustine, Tex. 

Archbishop Charles John Seghers 
(martyr-apostle of Alaska), Nov. 28, 
1886, on Yukon River near Nulato, 

Fr. James Edwin Coyle, Mobile 
diocesan priest, Aug. 19, 1921, Birm- 
ingham, Ala. 

Other cases, for which satisfac- 
tory historical evidence has not yet 
been found, are as follows: 

Fr. Pedro de Ortega, Franciscan, 
1631, New Mexico or Texas. 

Fr. Rene Menard, Jesuit, about 
Aug. 15, 1661, Northeastern Wiscon- 

Bro. Marcos Delgado, Franciscan, 
1704, Ayubale, Fla. 

Fr. Leonard Vatier, Franciscan, 
1715, Wisconsin. 

Fr. Domingo de Saraoz, Francis- 
can, 1731, Santa Ana, N. Mex. 


1. Blessed are the poor in spirit, 
for theirs is the Kingdom of 

2. Blessed are the meek, for 
they shall possess the land. 

3. Blessed are they that mourn, 
for they shall be comforted. 

4. Blessed are they that hunger 
and thirst after justice, for they 
shall have their fill. 

5. Blessed are the merciful, for 
they shall obtain mercy. 

6. Blessed are the clean of heart, 
for they shall see God. 

7. Blessed are the peacemakers, 
for they shall be called the children 
of God. 

8. Blessed are they that suffer 
persecution for justice's sake for 
theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 


Canon Law defines the religious state as "a stable manner of com- 
munity life in which the faithful besides observing the common precepts 
bind themselves to the observance of the evangelical counsels by the 
vows of obedience, chastity and poverty." Religious life, then, is a 
striving after perfection through intensified love of God and of neighbor. 

Over and above the common end of religious life which makes it a 
school of perfection, the various religious communities have particular 
objects of their own which divide them into contemplative, active, and 
mixed communities. Contemplative are those which devote themselves 
to union with God in a life of solitude and retirement; active, those 
which expend their energy in doing good to men, for example, caring for 
the sick and the orphans. If their activity is spiritual in its objects and r k e- 
quires contemplation for, its attainment, they are called mixed com- 

Though the following lists comprehend all three types of religious 
bodies, they do not include all the orders and congregations in the world. 
Only those communities are included which live and work in the United 


(Figures indicate the number of processed members in the United States, 
according to the latest available information.) 

African Missions of Lyons, Con- 
gregation of the Founded in 
Lyons, France, 1856, by Msgr. Di 
Bresillac and Fr. Planque. General 
Motherhouse, Paris, France. De- 
voted to mission work. Found in 
the Archdioceses of Los Angeles, 
Newark and Washington, and the 
Dioceses of Savannah and San Diego. 
Priests, 26. 

Alexian Brothers: C. F. A. 
Founded by Tobias in France in 
the fifteenth century to nurse the 
sick and bury the dead during the 
Black Death. General Motherhouse, 
Aix-la-Chapelle, France. They have 
charge of hospitals and asylums to- 
day. Fpund in the Archdioceses 
of Chicago, Newark and St. Louis 
and the Dioceses of Green Bay and 
Nashville. Brothers, 143. 

Assumption, Augustinians of the 
(Assumption Fathers) Originated 
in the College of the Assumption, 
Nimes, France, in 1843 by the Rev. 
Emmanuel d'Alzon to combat irre- 
Ilgion and schism. General Mother- 
house, Rome, Italy. Devoted to pa- 
rochial and educational work. 
Found in the Archdiocese of New 
York and the Diocese of Spring- 

field, Mass. Priests, 36; Clerics, 20; 
Brothers, 21. 

Atonement, Society of the: S. A. 
A branch of the Third Order 
Regular of St. Francis, founded 
1899 by Fr. Paul James Francis. 
General Motherhouse, Garrison, 
N. Y. Devoted to charitable work. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Balti- 
more and New York and the Dio- 
ceses of Amarillo and Raleigh. 
Priests, 46; Clerics, 55; Brothers, 16. 

Augustine, Hermits of St. (Au- 
gustinians): O. 8. A. Founded at 
Hippo, by the union of several Mo- 
nastic Societies following the Rule 
of St. Augustine which consists in 
a great measure of extracts from 
a letter written by the Saint, in 
423, to the nuns of Hippo. Dedicated 
to educational, missionary and pa- 
rochial activities. Found through- 
out the United States. Priests, 391; 
Clerics, 118; Brothers, 17. 

AugustinSan Recollects Found- 
ed 1851. Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Los 
Angeles and the Dioceses of Con- 
cordia, El Paso, Leavenworth, Mon- 
terey-Fresno, Omaha and San Diego. 
Priests, 45; Clerics, 12; Brothers, 4. 


Basil, Congregation of the Priests 
of St. (Basilians): C. S. B. Under 
the name of Basilians are included 
all the religious who follow the Rule 
of St. Basil. At Annonay in France, 
a religious community of men was 
formed (1822) under the Rule of 
St. Basil, which has a branch at 
Toronto, Canada. Devoted* to pa- 
rochial and educational work. 
Found in the Archdiocese of De- 
troit and the Dioceses of Galves- 
ton and Rochester. Priests, 174; 
Clerics, 110. 

Basil the Great, Order of St. 
(Ukrainian) : O. S. B. M. General 
Motherhouse, Leopolis, Poland. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Chi- 
cago. Priests, 1. 

Benedict, Order of St. (Benedic- 
tines) : O. S, B. Founded 529, by 
St. Benedict of Nursia, in Italy. 
Devoted to personal sanctification 
and any other work compatible 
with community life. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Priests, 1,336; Clerics, 300; Broth- 
ers, 356. 

Benedictines, Syfvestrlne: S.O.S.B. 
Founded by Sylvester Gozzolini, 
in Italy, 1231. Followed the rule of 
St. Benedict with the strictest ob- 
servance of poverty. General 
Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. Found 
in the Archdiocese of Detroit. 
Priests, 8; Brothers, 2. 

Blood, Priests of the Most Pre- 
cious: C. Pp. S. Founded in Italy 
in 1815, by Bl. Gaspare del Bufalo. 
General Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Devoted to mission and retreat 
work. Found throughout the United 
States. Priests, 317; Clerics, 50; 
Brothers, 78. 

Borromeo, Pious Society of the 
Missionaries of St. Charles (Scala- 
brinians) Founded by Msgr. Sca- 
labrini, Piacenza; Italy, 1888. De- 
voted to the spiritual and temporal 
care of Italian emigrants to Amer- 
ica. General Motherhouse, Rome, 
Italy. Found in the Archdioceses 
of Chicago, Cincinnati and Milwau- 
kee and the Diocese of Kansas 

Camillians See: Sick, Clerks 
Regular for the Care of the. 

Capuchins See: Friars Minor 
Capuchin, Order of. 

Carme!, Order of Our Lady of 
Mt. (Carmelites) : O. Carm. The 
order claims for its founders Elias 
and Eiiseus. General Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Devoted to education 
and charitable works. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Baltimore, Chicago, 
Los Angeles, Newark and New 
York and the Dioceses of Altoona, 
Leavenworth, Pittsburgh and San 
Diego. Priests, 167; Clerics, 101; 
Brothers, 43. 

Carmelites, Order of DsscaSced: 
O. C. D. A Reform of the Order 
of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 1562. 
General Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Found throughout the United 
States. Priests, 62; Clerics, 23; 
Brothers, 26. 

Charity, Brothers of: C. F. C. 
Founded by Canon Peter J. Triest, 
in Belgium, 1807. General Mother- 
house, Ghent, Belgium. Devoted to 
charity, caring for the sick, shelter- 
ing poor workmen, teaching the 
young, caring for the aged, the in- 
sane and idiotic. Found in the 
Archdiocese of Boston. Brothers, 42. 

Charity, Congregation of the Fa- 
thers of General Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Known as the Congre- 
gation of Our Lady of the Rosary 
in the Archdiocese of Newark 
where an establishment was made 
in 1918. Priests, 1; Brothers, 1. 

Charity, Institute of (Rosmini- 
ans): S.C. Founded 1828, by An- 
tonio Rosmini-Serbati, in Italy. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. De- 
voted to contemplation and chari- 
table works. Found in the Diocese 
of Peoria. Priests, 26; Brothers, 22. 

Christian Brothers of Ireland 
Founded 1802, at Waterford, by 
Edmund Ignatius Rice. General 
Motherhouse, Dtrblin, Ireland. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago and New York and the Dio- 
ceses of Helena and Seattle. 
Brothers, 237. 

Christian Instruction, Brothers of 
(La Mennais Brothers) : S.C. 
Founded 1817, in France, by Abbe 
de la Mennais at St. Brieuc and 
by Abbe Deshayes at Auray; the 
two branches united in 1819. Gen- 


eral Motherhouse, Jersey Island, 
England. Devoted to the instruc- 
tion of the young. Found in the 
Dioceses of Fall River, Ogdensburg 
and Portland, Me. Brothers, 68. 

Christian Schools, Brothers of 
the (Christian Brothers) : F. S. C. 
Founded by St. Jean Baptiste de 
la Salle at Reims, France, 1680. 
General Motherhouse, Rome. De- 
voted to primary and secondary ed- 
ucation, and ' industrial and agri- 
cultural training; and orphans. 
Found throughout the United 
States. Brothers, 1,560. 

Cistercians of the Strict Observ- 
ance, Order of (Trappists) : O.C.S.O. 

Founded 1098 by St. Robert Re- 
formed 1664, New Constitutions 
1894. General Motherhouse, N. D. 
de Citeaux, par Nuits-Saint 
Georges, France. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Dubuqiie and Louisville, 
and the Diocese of Providence. 
Priests, $2; Clerics, 24; Brothers, SO. 

Citeaux, Order of (Cistercians) : 
O. Cist. Established in France in 
1098 by St. Robert to restore the 
gravity and simplicity of monastic 
ceremonies and the stricter observ- 
ance of the rule of St. Benedict. 
General Mothernouse in Austria. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Mil- 
waukee and the Diocese of Natchez. 
Priests, 6; Clerics, 1; Brothers, 2. 

Claretians See: Mary, Mission- 
ary Sons of the Immaculate Heart 

Clerks Regular, Congregation of 
(Theatine Fathers): C. R. Found- 
ed in Rome, 1524, by St. Gaetano 
to combat the errors of the Ref- 
ormation. General Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Found in the Diocese 
of Denver. Priests, 11. 

Coiumban, Chinese Mission So- 
ciety of St.: S. S. C. Founded 
1916, in Ireland by Rt. Rev. Edward 
J. Galvan. General Motherhouse, 
Navan, Ireland. Devoted to mission 
work. Found in the Dioceses of 
Buffalo, Omaha, Providence and 
San Diego. Priests, 49. 

Conventuals See: Friars Mi- 
nor Conventual, Order of. 

Cross, Canons Regular of the 
Holy (Crosier Fathers): O. S. C. R. 

Founded 1211 by Bl. Theodore 
Celles in Belgium. General Mother- 

house, St. Agatha, Holland, De- 
voted to mission, retreat and edu- 
cational work. Found in the Dio- 
ceses of Duluth, Fort Wayne, Lin- 
coln and St. Cloud. Priests, 27; 
Clerics, 12; Brothers, 13. 

Cross, Congregation of the Holy: 
C. S. C. r An amalgamation of the 
Brothers of St. Joseph or Joseph- 
ites and the Fathers of the Holy 
Cross or Salvatorians. Established 
in 1842, at Notre Dame, Ind. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Brookland, D. C. 
Devoted to teaching. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Priests, 327; Clerics, 59; Brothers, 

Dominicans See: Friars Preach- 
ers, Order of. 

Edmund, Society of St.: S. S. E. 

Founded 1843 In France by Fr. 
Jean Baptiste Murard, for the work 
of missions. General Motherhouse, 

. Ppntigny, France. Found in the 
Dioceses of Burlington, Mobile and 
Raleigh. Priests, 52; Clerics, 9; 
Brothers, 7. 

Family^, Congregation of the Mis- 
sionaries of the Holy: Ml. S. F. 
Founded 1895. General Mother- 
house, Grave, Holland. Found in 
the Archdioceses of St. Louis and 
San Antonio and in the Dioceses 
of Duluth and Corpus Christi. 
Priests, 34; Clerics, 1; Brothers, 8. 

Family, Sons of the Holy 
Founded 1864. General Mother- 
house, Barcelona, Spain, Found in 
the Archdiocese of Santa Fe and 
the Archdiocese of Denver. 
Priests, 9. 

Francis, Missionary Brothers of 
St.: O.S.F- Founded 192T. Mother- 
house, Eureka, Mo. Found in the 
Archdiocese of St. Louis. Broth- 
ers, 17. 

Francis, Third Order Regular of 
St.: T. O. R. General Mother- 
house, Rome, Italy. Represented in 
the Archdioceses of Baltimore and 
Newark and the Dioceses of Al- 
toona, Sioux Falls, Dallas, Galves- 
ton and Pittsburgh. Priests, 84; 
Clerics, 42; Brothers, 14. 

Franciscan Brothers of Brooklyn 

Founded in Brooklyn, 1858. De- 
voted to educational work. Broth- 
ers, 100. 


Franciscan Friars of the Atone- 
ment See: Atonement, Society 
of the. 

Franciscans See: Friars Minor, 
Order of. 

Francis de Sales, ObSates of St.: 
O. S. F. S. Founded in 1871 by 
Fr. Louis Brisson. General Mother- 
house, Home, Italy. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Baltimore and Phil- 
adelphia and the Diocese of Wil- 
mington. Priests, 100; Clerics, 65; 
Brothers, 6. 

Francis de Sales, Society of St. 
(Salesians) : S. C. Founded 1844 in 
Italy by St. John (Don) Bosco for 
the purpose of religious instruction. 
General Motherhouse, Turin, Italy. 
Found in the Archdioceses of New- 
ark, New Orleans, New York, Los 
Angeles and San Francisco and the 
Dioceses of Monterey-Fresno, Pater- 
son, San Diego and St. Augustine. 
Priests, 112; Clerics, 101; Broth- 
ers, 40. 

Francis Seraphicus, Brothers of 
the Poor of St. General Mother- 
house, Ker Krade, Holland. The 
province is represented in the Arch- 
diocese of Cincinnati and the Dio- 
cese of Little Rock. Brothers, 59. 

Francis Xavier, Brothers of St.: 
C. F. X Founded-1839 in Belgium 
by Theodore J. Ryken for the pur- 
pose of instructing youth. General 
Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. Found in 
the Archdioceses of Baltimore, Bos- 
ton, Detroit and Louisville, and the 
Dioceses of Brooklyn, Portland, Me., 
Richmond, Springfield (Mass.) and 
Syracuse. Brothers, 425. 

Friars Minor, Order of (Francis- 
cans): O. F. M. General Mother- 
house, Rome, Italy. Devoted to 
preaching, missionary work, educa- 
tion, works of charity, etc. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Priests, 1,408; Clerics, 638; Broth- 
ers, 439. 

Friars Minor Capuchin, Order of: 
O. F. M. Cap. A Reform in 1525. 
Aiming at a stricter observance of 
the Rule of St. Francis. Devoted 
to mission work and combating the 
errors of the Reformation. General 
Motherhotise, Rome, Italy. Found 
throughout the United States. The 
English province of the Capuchins 

uses the form O. S. F. C. Priests, 
399; Clerics, 137; Brothers, 139. 

Friars Minor Conventual, Order 
of: O. M. C. General Mother- 
house, Rome, Italy. Found through- 
out the United States. Priests, 440; 
Clerics, 157; Brothers, 49. 

Friars Preachers, Order of (Do- 
minicans) : 0. P. Founded 1205 
by St. Dominic in France. General 
Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. Devoted 
to preaching, literary and scientific 
pursuits. Found throughout the 
United States. Priests, 718; Clerics, 
185; Brothers, 94. 

Holy Ghost and of the immacu- 
late Heart of Mary, Congregation 
of the: C. S. Sp. Founded 1703 in 
Paris by Claude Francois Poullart 
des Places. General Motherhouse, 
Paris, France. Devoted to mission- 
ary work and education. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Priests, 205; Clerics, 88; Broth- 
ers, 28. 

Infancy and Youth of Jesus, 
Brothers of the Holy Founded 
1853 by the Rev. John Timon, Bish- 
op of Buffalo, for the care of poor 
and wayward boys and their in- 
struction in the arts and industries, 
Motherhouse, Lackawanna, N. Y. 
Found in New York State. Broth- 
ers, 36. 

Jesus, Society of (Jesuits): S. J. 

Founded 1534 in France by St. 
Ignatius Loyola. General Mother- 
house, Rome, Italy. Devoted to 
preaching, teaching, administering 
the sacraments, writing books, con- 
ducting missions, etc. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Priests, 2,870; Scholastics, 1,672; 
Brothers, 581. 

John of God, Order of St. 
Founded in Spain in the 16th cen- 
tury. Nursing Brothers devoted to 
caring for needy men. Found in the 
Archdiocese of Los Angeles. Broth- 
ers, 5. 

Joseph, Oblates of St.: O. S. J. 

Founded 1878. General Mother- 
hotise in Asti, Italy. Devoted to 
parochial and educational work. 
Found in the Dioceses of Monterey- 
Fresno and Sacramento. Priests, 15, 
Brothers, 1. 


Joseph's Society of the Sacred 
Heap^ St. (JosepMte Fathers): 
S. S. J. Originated 1871 at Balti- 
more, Md. Motherhouse, Baltimore, 
Md. Devoted to work in colored 
missions. Pound throughout the 
United States. Priests, 157; Clerics, 
68; Brothers, 1. 

La Mennals Brothers See: 
Christian Instruction, Brothers of. 

La Salette, Missionaries of: M.S. 
Founded 1852 by Msgr. de Bruil- 
lard. Motherhouse, Turin, Italy. De- 
voted to combating the crimes of 
the day. Found throughout the 
United States. Priests, 180; Clerics, 
51; Brothers, 37. 

Lazarssts See: Vincent de Paul, 
Congregation of the Mission of St. 

Marian Fathers: M. I. C. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Balti- 
more, Chicago and Milwaukee, and 
the Dioceses of Hartford and Rock- 
ford. Priests, 41; Clerics, 21; 
Brothers, 15. 

Marianhill, Congregation of the 
Missionaries of: C. M. Mh. 
Founded 1882 in Cape Colony, 
Africa, by the Rev. Francis Pfan- 
ner. General Motherhouse, Marian- 
hill, South Africa. Dedicated to mis- 
sion work. Found in the Archdio- 
cese of Detroit and the Dioceses of 
Lansing and Sioux Falls. Priests, 
31; Brothers, 21. 

Marist Brothers: F. M. S. 
Founded 1817 in France, by Ven. 
Benedict Champagnat. General 
Motherhouse, Grugliasco, Italy. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Bos- 
ton and New York and the Dioceses 
of Corpus Christi, Manchester, Sa- 
vannah and Wheeling. Brothers, 

Mary, Missionaries of the Com- 
pany of (Priests) : S. M. M. 
Founded by Blessed Louis Marie 
Grignion de Montfort, 1715. De- 
voted to the Blessed Virgin and 
missions. Found in the Diocese of 
Brooklyn. Priests, 16; Clerics, 16; 
Brothers, 3. 

Mary, Missionary Sons of the Im- 
maculate Heart of (Claretians) : 
C. M. F. Founded in Vich, Spain, 
1849 by Ven. Antonio Maria Claret. 

Devoted to mission work. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Priests, 110; Clerics, 35; Broth- 
ers, 34. 

Mary, Order of the Servants of 
(Servites): O. S. M. Founded 
1233 by seven youths of Florence. 
General Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Devoted to a special veneration of 
the Seven Dolors of Our Lady, mis- 
sionary work and teaching. Found 
in the West and Southwest. Priests, 
86; Clerics, 38; Brothers, 17. 

Mary, Society of (Marist Fa- 
thers): S. M. Founded 1816 in 
Lyons, by Jean Claude Colin. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. De- 
voted to the education of youth 
and training of clerics. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Priests, 170; Clerics, 90; Broth- 
ers, 17. 

Mary, Society of, of Paris (Mari- 
anists) : S. M. Founded 1817 in 
Bordeaux, France, by Guillaume 
Joseph Chaminade. General Mother- 
house, Bordeaux, France. Devoted 
to the education of children. Found 
throughout the United States and 
in Puerto Rico and Hawaii. Priests, 
91; Scholastics, 90; Brothers, 753. 

Marist Fathers See: Mary, So- 
ciety of. 

Mary Immaculate, ObSates of: 
O. M. I. Founded 1816 by Charles 
Joseph Eugene de Mazenod in 
France. General Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Devoted to the in- 
struction and conversion of the 
poor, missions, retreats, and cate- 
chism courses. Found throughout 
the United States. Priests, 590; 
Clerics, 207; Brothers, 84. 

Maryknoll Missionaries: M. M. 
Founded 1911 by Revs. Thomas F. 
Price and James A. Walsh. General 
Center, Maryknoll, N. Y. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Priests, 295. 

Mercy, Brothers of Founded 
1856 in Germany. General Mother- 
house, Montabaur, Germany. Found 
in the Diocese of Buffalo. Broth- 
ers, 21. 

Mercy of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, Society of Priests of (Fathers 
of Mercy): S. P. SVS. Founded 
1808 in France by Rev. Jean Bap- 


tiste Rauzan. General Moth'erhouse, 
Paris, France. Devoted to mission 
work. Found In the Archdiocese of 
New York and the Diocese of 

fVSIchaeS, Foreign Mission Broth- 
ers of St.: M. M. Branch of the 
Catholic Foreign Mission Society 
of America. Devoted to mission 
work. Found in the Archdioceses 
of Boston, Cincinnati, Detroit, Los 
Angeles and New York and the 
Dioceses of Monterey-Fresno, San 
Diego, Scranton and Seattle, and 
in Hawaii. Brothers, 81. 

Missionaries of St. Charles, Pious 
Society of the: P.S.S.C. Founded 
by Msgr. Scalabrini, Piacenza, 
Italy, 1888, for the spiritual and 
temporal care of Italian emigrants 
to America. General Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Boston, Chicago, Cin- 
cinnati, Milwaukee and New York 
and in the Dioceses of Buffalo, 
Hartford, Kansas City, Providence 
and Syracuse. Priests, 76; Broth- 
ers, 6. 

Missions, Pious Society of (Pal- 
lottines) : P. S. M. Founded 1835 
in Rome by Ven. Vincent Pallotti. 
General Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Devoted to spreading, rekindling 
and defending the Catholic faith. 
Found throughout the United 
States. Priests, 25; Clerics, 12; 
Brothers, 10. 

Oratory of St. Philip Neri y Con- 
gregation of the (Oratorian Fa- 
thers): Cong. Orat. Founded 
1575 in Rome by St. Philip Neri. 
Each house is autonomous. Dedi- 
cated to prayer, preaching and ad- 
ministration of the sacraments. 
Found in the Archdioceses of New- 
ark and New York and the Dio- 
cese of Charleston. Priests, 4; 
Clerics, 1. 

PalSottsnes See: Missions, Pious 
Society of. 

Passion, Congregation of the 
(Passionists) : C. P. Founded 
1725 by St. Paul of the Cross in 
Tuscany, Italy. General Mother- 
house, Rome, Italy. Members ob- 
serve the Evangelical Counsels and 
a fourth vow of promoting the de- 
votion to the Passion of Christ. 
Found along the Atlantic Coast and 

in the Middle West Priests, 544; 
Clerics, 113; Brothers, 66. 

Paul, Pious Society of St.: S.S.P. 
For the Apostolate of the Press. 
Motherhouse, Alba, Italy. Found in 
the Archdiocese of New York. 
Priests, 9; Brothers, 2. 

Paul the Apostle, Missionary So- 
ciety of St. (Pauiists) : C. S. P. 
Founded in New York in 1858 by 
Fr. Isaac Thomas Hecker. Devoted 
to the conversion of America. 
Motherhouse, New York City. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Priests, 117; Clerics, 60. 

Premontre, Order of the Canons 
Regular of (Premonstratensians) : 
O. Praern. Founded 1120 by St. 
Norbert at Premontre, France. De- 
voted to the Eucharist and Immacu- 
late Conception. Found in the 
Archdiocese of Philadelphia and 
the Diocese of Wilmington and the 
Middle West Priests, 94; Clerics, 
21; Brothers, 10. 

Providence, Sons of Divine: 
F. D. P. General Motherhouse, 
Tortona, Italy. Found in the Dio- 
cese of Indianapolis. Priests, 5; 
Brothers, 6. 

Redeemer, Congregation of the 
Most Holv (Redemptorists) : C.Ss.R. 
Founded 1732 by St. Alphonsus 
Mary Ldguori, in Italy. General 
Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. Devoted 
to mission work. Found through- 
out the United States. Priests, 865; 
Clerics, 188; Brothers, 166. 

Resurrection of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, Priests of the: C. R. 
Founded 1836 under the direction 
of Bogdan Janski. Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Devoted to parochial 
and educational work. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Chicago, Louisville 
and St. Louis and the Diocese of 
Albany. Priests, 79; Clerics, 63; 
Brothers, 18. 

Rosminians See: Charity, In- 
stitute of. 

Sacrament, Society of the Blessed : 
S. S. S. Founded 1865 in Paris 
by Bl. Pierre Julien Bymard. De- 
voted to the worship of the Holy 
Eucharist. General Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of New York and Chicago 
and the Diocese of Cleveland. 
Priests, 67; Brothers, 35. 


Sacred Heart, Brothers of the: 
S. F. S. C. Founded 1821 in 
France by the Rev. Andre Coindre. 
General Motherhouse, Renteria, 
Spain. Devoted to the teaching of 
boys In parochial and commercial 
schools and asylums. Found 
throughout the United States. 
Brothers, 312. 

Sacred Heart of Jesus, Mission- 
aries of the: M. S. C. Founded 
1855 by Jules Chevalier. Devoted to 
the Sacred Heart and mission work. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Phila- 
delphia and the Dioceses of La 
Crosse, Rockford and Toledo. 
Priests, 122; Clerics, 30; Broth- 
ers, 76. 

Sacred Heart of J,esus, 'Priests of 
the: P. S. C. J. Founded in 
France, 1877. G-eneral Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Devoted to education, 
preaching and mission work. Found 
in the Middle West Priests, 34; 
Brothers, 18. 

Sacred Hearts, Congregation of 
the: C. SS.CC.-~ Founded by Fr. 
Coudrin. Established on the Rue Pic- 
pus, Paris, in 1805. Devoted to mis- 
sionary and educational work. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Brain-le-Comte, 
Belgium. Found in the Archdiocese 
of Baltimore and the Dioceses of 
Fall River, Green Bay, Oklahoma 
City and Tulsa, and Rochester and 
in Hawaii. Priests, 36; Clerics, 31; 
Brothers, 9. 

Sacred Hearts, Congregation of 
the Holy Union of the Founded 
1826 in Douai, France, by Fr. Jean 
Baptiste Debrabant. General 
Motherhouse, Tournai, Belgium. De- 
voted to the education of youth. 
Found in New York, Massachu- 
setts, California and Kansas. 

Salesians See: Francis de 
Sales, Society of St. 

Saviour, Society of the Divine 
(Salvatorians) : S. D. S. Founded 
1881, in Rome, by Fr. John Baptist 
Jordan for the purpose of spread- 
ing the Faith. General Mother- 
house, Rome, Italy. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Baltimore, Milwau- 
kee and Portland, Ore., and the 
Dioceses of Green Bay, Marquette 
and Wilmington. Priests, 55; Clerics, 
20; Brothers, 54. 

Sea labrin Sans See: Borromeo, 

Pious Society of the Missionaries 
of St. Charles. 

Servites See: Mary, Order of 
the Servants of. 

Sick, Clerks Regular for the Care 
of the (Camillians): C. R. M. I, 
They are known also as the Fa- 
thers of a Good Death. Founded 
1582 in Rome by St. Camillas de 
Lellis. General Motherhouse, Rome, 
Italy. Dedicated to hospital work, 
Found in the Archdiocese of Mil- 
waukee. Priests, 9; Clerics, 2; 
Brothers, 12. 

Stigmata of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, Priests of the Holy (Stig- 
matine Fathers) : C. P. S. Found- 
ed 1816 by Ven. Gaspare Bertoni. 
General Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Devoted to parochial work. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Boston and 
New York and in the Diocese of 
Springfield. Priests, 46; Clerics, 45; 
Brothers, 10. 

Sufpsce, Society of Priests of St. 
(Suipicians) : P. S. S. Founded 
1642 in Paris by Jean Jacques 
Olier. Devoted to the education and 
perfection of ecclesiastics. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Baltimore 
and San Francisco and the Diocese 
of Seattle. Priests, 88. 

Theatine Fathers See: Clerks 
Regular, Congregation of. 

Trappists See: Cistercians of 
the Strict Observance, Order of. 

Trinity, Missionary Servants of 
the Most Holy: M. S. Ss. T. 
Founded 1929, by the Rev. Thomas 
Augustin Judge. Motherhouse, Holy 
Trinity, Ala. Devoted to the car of 
Southern missions. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Baltimore and 
Newark, the Dioceses of Cleveland, 
Mobile and Paterson, and in Puerto 
Rico. Priests, 13; Clerics, 61; 
Brothers, 90, 

Trinity, Order of the Most Holy 
(Trinitarians): 0. Ss. T. Found- 
ed in the 12th century by SS. John 
Matha and Felix of Valois for the 
ransom of captives. General Mother- 
house, Rome, Italy. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Baltimore and Phil- 
adelphia and the Diocese of Trenton. 
Priests, 16; Clerics, 8; Brothers, 6. 

Viator, Clerks of St. (Viatorian 
Fathers) : C. S. V. Founded 1835 


In France, by FT. Louis Joseph 
Querbes. Genera! Motherhouse, 
Jette-Saint-PIerre, Belgium. De- 
voted to teaching. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Chicago and Balti- 
more and the Dioceses of Peoria, 
Springfield, 111., and Winona. 
Priests, 99; Clerics, 83. 

Vincent de Paul, Congregation 
of the Mission of St. (Vincentians) : 
C. M. Founded 1625 In Paris by 
St. Vincent de Paul. General Moth- 

erhouse, Paris, Prance. Devoted to 

instructing the poor. Found through- 
out the United States. Priests, 594; 
Clerics, 179; Brothers, 22. 

Word, Society of the Divine: 
S. V. D. Founded 1875 In Holland 
by Fr. Arnold Jansen for the propa- 
gation of the Faith, General Mother- 
house, Rome, Italy. Found through- 
out the United States. Priests, 155; 
Clerics, 106; Brothers, 123. 



(Figures Indicate the number of Sisters in the United States, 
where such figures are obtainable.) 

Agnes, Sisters of the Congrega- 
tion of St. Founded in the United 
States in 1870. General Mother- 
house, Fond du Lac, WIs. Found in 
the Archdioceses of Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and New York and the Dio- 
ceses of Altoona, Concordia, Fort 
Wayne, Green Bay, Marquette, 
Pittsburgh, Superior and Toledo. 

Allegany Sisters See: Francis of 
Assist, Sisters of the Third Order 
of St., founded at Allegany, N. Y. 

Ann, Sisters of St. Founded in 
Vaudreull, P. Q., Canada, in 1850. 
General Motherhouse, Lachine, P. 
Q., Canada. Found in the Archdio- 
cese of Boston and the Dioceses 
of Albany, Providence, Seattle and 
Springfield. 366. 

Assumption, Little Sisters of the 
Founded in France in 1865. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Paris, France. 
Found in the Archdioceses of New 
York and Philadelphia and the Dio- 
cese of Providence. 1,500. 

Assumption, Religious of the 
Founded in Paris in 1839. Mother- 
house, Antheit, near Namur, Bel- 
gium. Found in the Archdioceses 
of Philadelphia and Manila, P. I. 

Assumption B. V. M., Sisters of 
the Founded in Canada in 1853. 
General Mothferhouse, Nicolet, P. 
Q., Canada. Found in the Archdio- 
cese of Boston and the Dioceses 
of Albany, Burlington, Hartford, 
Manchester, Providence and Spring- 
field, Mass. 263. 

Augustine, Missionary Cane-ness- 
es of St. Founded in British 
India, in 1837- General Mother- 

house, Heverle, Belgium. Found in 
the Archdioceses of New York and 
Philadelphia and in Puerto Rico. 20. 

Auxiliaries of the Apostolate, 
Sisters General Motherhouse, 
Monongah, W. Va. Found in the 
Diocese of Wheeling. 6. 

Basil the Great, Sisters of the 
Order of St. Founded in Cappa- 
docia in the 4th century. General 
Motherhouse, Fox Chase, Pa. Found 
in Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, 
New York, Ohio, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, and Washington, B. C., 
under jurisdiction of the Ukrainian 
Greek Catholic Diocese. 197. 

Benedict, Sisters of St. Found 
in the Archdiocese of St. Paul and 
the Dioceses of Bismarck and 
Crookston. 187. 

Benedictine Sisters Founded 
in Italy about 529. No General 
Motherhouse. Found throughout 
the United States. 5,354. 

Benedict! ne Sisters, French, 
Founded 1883 in Basses-Pyrenees, 
France. Motnerhouse, Ramsey P. 
O., La. Found in the Archdiocese 
of New Orleans and the Diocese of 
Oklahoma and Tulsa. 42. 

Benedictine Sisters, Missionary 
-Motherhouse at Tutzing, Bavaria. 
Found in the Diocese of Omaha. 45. 

Benedictine Sisters, Olivetan 
Founded in Switzerland in 1857. 
Motherhouse, Jonesboro, Ark. 
Found in the Dioceses of Dallas 
and Little Rock. 133. 

Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual 
Adoration Founded in Italy irx 
529. General Motherhouse, Clyde, 
Mo, Found in the Archdiocese of 


Chicago and the Dioceses of St. 
Joseph and Tucson. 226. 

Bernardsne Sisters of the Third 
Order (Polish) Founded in the 
United States in 1894. General 
Motherhouse, Reading, Pa. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Boston and 
Philadelphia, and the Dioceses of 
Altoona, Buffalo, Erie, Fall River, 
Harrisburg, Hartford, Pittsburgh, 
Providence, Scranton and Trenton. 

Blessed Virgin Mary, Institute of 
the Founded in Bavaria in 1609. 
General Motherhouse, Loretto Ab- 
bey, Armour Heights, Toronto, Can- 
ada. Found in the Archdiocese of 
Chicago and the Diocese of Mar- 
quette. 399. 

Blood, Sisters Adorers of the 
Most Precious Founded in Rome, 
Italy, in 1834. General Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Chicago, New York, 
Philadelphia and St. Louis and the 
Dioceses of Altoona, Belleville, Con- 
cordia, El Paso, Fort Wayne, Har- 
risburg, Lincoln, Oklahoma City 
and Tulsa, Pittsburgh, Raleigh, 
Savannah-Atlanta, Springfield, 111., 
and Wichita. 813. 

Blood, Sisters Adorers of the 
Precious Founded in Canada in 
1861. General Motherhouse, St. 
Hyacinth, P. Q., Canada. Found in 
the Archdiocese of Portland and 
the Dioceses of Brooklyn, Manches- 
ter and Portland. 648. 

Bfood, Sisters of the Most Prec- 
ious Founded 1845 in Steinberg, 
Switzerland. General Motherhouse, 
O'Fallon, Mo. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of St. Louis and the Dio- 
ceses of Denver, Omaha, Peoria, 
Lincoln, St. Joseph and Springfield. 

Blood, Sisters of the Precious 
Founded in Switzerland in 1834. 
Motherhouse, Dayton, Ohio. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Cincinnati 
and St. Louis and the Dioceses of 
Cleveland, Denver, Fort Wayne, 
Kansas City, Lincoln, Monterey- 
Fresno, Omaha, St. Joseph, Spring- 
field, 111., Toledo and Tucson. 682. 

Bon Secoursy Sisters of Found- 
ed in France in 1824. General 
Motherhouse, Paris, France. Found 

in the Archdioceses of Baltimore, 
Detroit and Philadelphia. 92. 

Bon Secours, Sisters of Found- 
ed in France in 1840. General 
Motherhouse, Troyes, France. Found 
in the Archdiocese of New York. 4. 

CarmeS ? Congregation of Our 
Lady of Mount Founded in 
France in 1825. General Mother- 
house, New Orleans, La. Found in 
the Archdiocese of New Orleans 
and the Dioceses of Lafayette and 
Natchez. 118. 

Carmelites, Cafced Founded 
in Naples, in 1536. Found in Allen- 
town, Pa. 24. 

Carmelites, Discalced Founded 
in Spain in 1562. Motherhouse, Bal- 
timore, Md. Found throughout the 
United States. 354. 

Carmelite Sisters for the Aged 
and Infirm Founded 1929 in New 
York City. Motherhouse, New York 
City. Found in the Archdioceses of 
New York and Philadelphia and the 
Diocese of Fall River. 150. 

Carmelite Sisters of Corpus 
Christs Established in England 
in 1908. General Motherhouse, Port 
of Spain, Trinidad. Found in the 
Archdiocese of New York and the 
Dioceses of Duluth, Grand Island 
and Mobile. 45. 

Carmelite Sisters of the Divine 
Heart of Jesus Founded in Ger- 
many in 1891. General Motherhouse, 
Sittard, Holland. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Detroit, Los An- 
geles, Milwaukee, St. Louis and 
San Antonio, and in the Dioceses 
of Corpus Christi, Fort Wayne, 
Mobile and San Diego. 200. 

Casimir, Sisters of St. Found- 
ed in the United States in 1907. 
General Motherhouse, Chicago, 111. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Balti- 
more, Chicago, Philadelphia 'and 
Santa Fe and the Dioceses of Fort 
Wayne, Harrisburg, Omaha, Provi- 
dence, Rockford, Sftranton, Sioux 
City and Springfield, Mass. 353. 

CenacSe, Religious of the 
Founded in France in 1826. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Paris, France. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Bos- 
ton, Chicago, New York and St. 
Louis and the Dioceses of Brook- 
lyn and Providence. 294. 


Charity, Daughters of Divine 
Founded 1868 in Chanty, Austria. 
General Motherhouse, Vienna, Aus- 
tria. American Motherhouse, Arro- 
char, Staten Island, N. Y. Pound 
throughout the United States. 194. 

Chanty, Sisters of (Grey Nuns) 

Founded in Canada in 1738. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Montreal, Can- 
ada. Found in the Archdiocese of 
Boston and the Dioceses of Fall 
River, Fargo, Manchester, Spring- 
field, Toledo and Trenton. 1,912. 

Charity, Sisters of (of Leaven- 
worth) Founded in the United 
States in 1851. General Mother- 
house, Leaven worth, Kans. Pound 
in the Archdioceses of Los Angeles 
and Santa Pe and the Dioceses of 
Cheyenne, Denver, Great Falls, 
Helena, Kansas City, Leavenworth 
and Lincoln. 604. 

Charity, Sisters of (of Nazareth) 

Founded In the United States 
in 1812. General Motherhouse, Naz- 
areth, Ky. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Baltimore, Boston and 
Louisville and the Dioceses of Co- 
lumbus, Covington, Little Rock, 
Mobile, Nashville, Natchez, Owens- 
boro and Richmond. 1,248. 

Charity, Sisters of (of Provi- 
dence) Founded in Canada in 
1843. General Motherhouse, Mon- 
treal, Canada. Found throughout 
the United States. 703. 

Charity, Sisters of (of St. Augus- 
tine) Founded in France in 1223. 
Motherhouse, Lakewood, Ohio. 
Found in the Dioceses of Charles- 
ton and Cleveland. 260. 

Charity, Sisters of (of St. Louis) 

Founded in France about 1805. 
Motherhouse, Canada. Found in the 
Diocese of Ogdensburg. 32. 

Charity, Sisters of (Tirol) 
Founded in Tirol, Austria in 1825. 
General Motherhouse, Tirol, Aus- 
tria. Found in the Archdioceses of 
St. Louis and Milwaukee. 26. 

Chanty, Sisters of Christian 
Founded in Germany in 1849. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Paderborn, Ger- 
many, Found throughout the United 
States. 1,037. 

Charity, Vincentian Sisters of- 
Founded 1902 in Braddock, Pa. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Perrysville, Pa. 
Found in the Dioceses of Altoona, 

Cleveland, Kansas City,!- Mobile, 
Pittsburgh, Springfield, 111., and 
Toledo. 296. 

Charity of Our Lady, Mother of 
Mercy, Sisters of Founded in 
Holland in 1832. General Mother- 
house, Tilburg, Holland. Found in 
the Diocese of Hartford. 97. 

Charity of Refuge, Sisters of Our 
Lady of Introduced into America 
in 1855. Found in the Archdiocese 
of San Antonio and the Dioceses 
of Buffalo, Dallas, Green Bay, El 
Paso, Little Rock, Pittsburgh, 
Rochester and Wheeling. 250. 

Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, 
Daughters of Founded in France 
in 1633. General Motherhouse in 
Paris, France. Found throughout 
the United States. 2,193. 

Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, 
Sisters of Founded in the United 
States in 1809. Pound throughout 
the "United States. 4,613. 

Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, 
Sisters of (Halifax) Founded in 
the United States in 1809. Mother- 
house, Halifax, Canada. Found in 
the Archdioceses of New York and 
Boston and the Dioceses of Brook- 
lyn, Camden, Ogdensburg, Seattle 
and Trenton. 1,223. 

Charity of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, Sisters of Founded in 
America in 1833. General Mother- 
house, Dubuque, Iowa. Found in the 
Diocese of Brooklyn and in the 
Middle West and West. 1,930. 

Charity of the Incarnate Word, 
Congregation of the Sisters of 
Founded in France in 1866. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Chicago, 
Los Angeles, New Orleans, St. 
Louis and San Antonio and the 
Dioceses of Alexandria, Amarillo, 
Corpus Christi, Dallas, El Paso, Gal- 
veston, Lafayette, Little Rock, Okla- 
homa City and Tulsa, San Diego 
and St. Joseph, and in Mexico. 727. 

Child Jesus, Society of the Holy 
Founded in England in 1846 
Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Boston, Chi- 
cago, Los Angeles, Newark, New 
York, Philadelphia and Portland, 
Ore., and the Dioceses of Cneyenne 
and San Diego. 358. 

Chretierme, Sisters of Ste. 
Founded 1807 in France, General 


Mother-house, M e t z , Lorraine, 
France. Found in the Archdiocese 
of Boston and the Dioceses of Al- 
bany, Portland and Providence. 133. 

Columban, Sisters of St, for 
Missions among the Chinese 
Founded in Ireland in 1922. Mother- 
house, Cahiracon, Ireland. Found 
in the Diocese of Buffalo. 7. 

Compassion, Sisters of Divine 
Founded in the United States in 
1873. General Motherhouse, White 
Plains, N. Y. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of New York. 94. 

Co rdi- Marian Sisters Founded 
in 1921 in Mexico City. General 
Motherhouse, San Antonio, Texas. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago and San Antonio and the Dio- 
cese of El Paso. 24. 

Cross, Daughters of the Found- 
ed in 1640 in France. Motherhouse, 
Shreveport, La. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of New Orleans and the 
Diocese of Alexandria. 80* 

Cross, Grey Nuns of the Found- 
ed in Ottawa, Canada, in 1845. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Ottawa, Canada. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Bos- 
ton and the Diocese of Ogdensburg, 

Cross, Sisters of the Holy 
Founded in Le Mans, France, 1S41. 
Motherhouse, Notre Dame, Indiana. 
Found throughout the United 
States. 1,339. 

Cross and of the Seven Dolors, 
Sisters of the Holy Founded in 
Canada in 1847. Motherhouse, St. 
Laurent, P. Q., Canada. Found in 
the Dioceses of Burlington, Fall 
River, Hartford, Manchester, Og- 
densburg and Springfield. 

Cross and Passion, Daughters of 
the Founded in Italy in 1770. 
Found in the Dioceses of Pittsburgh 
and Scranton. 62. 

Cross and Passion, Sisters of the 
(Passionist Sisters) Founded in 
1854. General Motherhouse, Bolton, 
England. Found in the Diocese of 
Providence. 25. 

Cyril and Methodius, Sisters of 
Sts.- Founded in the United States 
in 1909. General Motherhouse, Dan- 
ville, Pa. Found in the Archdioceses 
of Chicago, New York and Phila- 
delphia and the Dioceses of Fort 

Wayne, Harrisburg, Hartford, Pitts- 
burgh, Scranton, Syracuse and 
Trenton. 289. 

Daughters of Jesus, Order of the 

Founded in France in 1834. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Kermaria, Loc- 
mine, France. Found in the Diocese 
of Great Falls. 105 

Daughters of Mary of the Immac- 
ulate Conceptions Sisters (Polish) 

Motherhouse, New Britain, Conn. 
Found in the Archdioceses of New- 
ark and New York and the Dioceses 
of Brooklyn, Hartford and Spring- 
field. 167. 

Daughters of the Eucharist, Inc., 
Society of the Founded in the 
United States in 1909. Motherhouse, 
Catonsville, Md. Found in the 
Archdiocese of Baltimore. 7. 

Doctrine, Sisters of Our Lady of 
Christian Founded in New York 
in 1910. Motherhouse, Nyack, N. Y. 
Found in the Archdiocese of New 
York and in the Dioceses of Raleigh 
and St. Augustine. 55. 

Dominic, Foreign Mission Sisters 
of St. Founded in the United 
States in 1912. Motherhouse and 
Novitiate, Maryknoll, Ossining, 
N. Y. Found in the Archdioceses of 
New York, Los Angeles and San 
Francisco, the Dioceses of Scran- 
ton and Seattle and in the Philip- 
pines and Hawaii. 188. 

Dominic, Sisters of St., of the Con- 
gregation of St. Rose of Lima 
Founded in the United States in 1896. 
General Motherhouse, Hawthorne, 
N. Y. Found in the Archdioceses of 
New York and Philadelphia and the 
Dioceses of Fall River, St. Paul 
and Savannah-Atlanta. 75. 

Dominic, Sisters of the Third Order 
of St. Founded in France in 1206. 
Independent motherhouses at: 
Everett, Wash.; Grand Rapids, 
Mich.; Great Bend, Kans.; Kena- 
sha, Wash.; Newburgh, N. Y.; San 
Jose, Calif.; San Rafael, Calif.; 
Sinsinawa, Wis.; Sparkhill, N. Y.; 
Springfield, 111.; Tacoma, Wash, 
Found throughout the United States 

Dominican Nuns of the Perpetua 
Rosary Founded in France ii 
1880. Found in Maryland, Massa 
chusetts, New Jersey, New York 


Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. 180. 

Dominican Nuns of the Second 
Order of Perpetual Adoration 
Founded in France in 1206. Found 
in New York, New Jersey, Michi- 
gan, Ohio and California. 185. 

Dominican Sisters Founded in 
France In 1206. General Mother- 
house, St. Catherine, Ky. Found 
throughout the United States. 621. 

Dominican Sisters, Congregation 
of St. Catherine of Siena Found- 
ed in the United States in 1891. 
General Motherhouse, Fall Rivei, 
Mass. Found in the Dioceses of 
Fall River and Ogdensburg. 122. 

Dominican Sisters of Charity of 
the Presentation of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary Founded in France 
in 1684. Motherhouse in Tours, 
France. Found in the Diocese of 
Fall River. 27. 

Dominican Sisters of the Congre- 
gation of St. Catherine di Rices 
Founded in the United States in 
1880. General Motherhouse, Albany, 
N. Y. Found in the Archdioceses of 
Cincinnati, New York and Phila- 
delphia and the Dioceses of Albany 
and Trenton. 105. 

Dominican Sisters of the Congre- 
gation of the Perpetual Rosary 
Founded in France in 1880. General 
Motherhouse, Camden, N. J. Found 
in the Dioceses of Camden and 
Syracuse. 46. 

Dominican Sisters of the Sick 
Poor Founded in the United 
States in 1879. General Mother- 
house, New York City. Found in 
the Archdioceses of Cincinnati, De- 
troit and New York and the Di- 
oceses of Columbus, Denver and St. 
Paul. 89. 

Dorothy, Institute of the Sisters 
of St. Founded in Italy in 1834. 
General Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Found in the Archdioceses of De- 
troit, New York and Philadelphia 
and the Dioceses of Fall River and 
Providence. 58. 

Education, Religious of Christian 
Founded in France in 1817, 
Motherhouse, T o u r n a i, Belgium. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Boston 
and the Diocese of Raleigh. 95. 

Family, Congregation of the Sis- 
ters of the Holy (Colored Sisters) 

Founded in the United States 
in 1842. General Motherhouse in 
New Orleans, La. Found in the 
Archdioceses of New Orleans and 
San Antonio and the Dioceses of 
Galveston, Lafayette and Mobile. 

Family, Little Sisters of the Holy 

Founded in Canada in 1880. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Sherbrooke, 
P. Q., Canada. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Baltimore, Boston, Chi- 
cago, Philadelphia and San Fran- 
cisco and the Dioceses of Buffalo, 
Manchester and Portland. 983. 

Family, Sisters of the Holy 
Founded in the United States in 
1872. General Motherhouse, San 
Francisco, Calif. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Los Angeles and San 
Francisco and the Dioceses of Reno, 
Monterey-Fresno, Sacramento and 
San Diego. 251. 

Family of Nazareth, Sisters of 
the Holy Founded in Italy, 1873. 
General Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Found throughout the United 
States. 1,522. 

Felician Sisters (O. S. F.) 
Founded in Poland in 1855. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Cracow, Poland, 
Found throughout the United 
States. 3,149. 

FiJippini Religious Teachers 
Founded in Italy in 1692. First 
foundation in the United States in 
1910. General Motherhouse, Rome, 
Italy. American Motherhouse, Mor- 
ristown, N. J. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Baltimore, Newark and 
New York ' and the Dioceses of 
Camden, Cleveland, Hartford, Og- 
densburg, Paterson, Rochester and 
Trenton. 220. 

Francis, Hospital Sisters of St. 
'Founded in Germany in 1844. 
General Motherhouse, Muenster, 
Germany. Found in the Archdio- 
ceses of Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Louis and the Dioceses of Belle- 
ville, Green Bay, La Crosse, Peoria 
and Springfield, 111. 726. 

Francis, Institute of the Third 
Order of the Sisters of St. 
Established by Ven. John N. Neu- 
mann in Philadelphia in 1855. 
General Motherhouse, Glen Riddle, 
Pa. Under its jurisdiction are four 


provinces, with houses in eighteen 
dioceses throughout the United 
States, and one in Mallow, Ireland. 

Francis, Missionary Sisters of 
the Third Order of St. Founded in 
Italy in 1860. General Motherhouse, 
Gem on a, Italy. Motherhouse of 
American Province, Peekskill, N. Y. 
Found in the Archdioceses of New- 
ark, New York and Philadelphia. 

Francis, School Sisters of St. 
Pounded in Germany in 1857. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Pound throughout the Middle West. 

Francis, School Sisters of the 
Third Order of St. Founded in 
1888 at Slatinany, Bohemia. General 
Motherhouse, Prague, Bohemia. 
American Motherhouse, Bellevue 
Station, Pittsburgh, Pa. Found in 
the Archdioceses of Philadelphia 
and Newark and the Dioceses of 
Altoona, Erie, Paterson, Pittsburgh, 
Trenton and Wheeling. ISO. 

Francis, Sisters of St. Mary of 
the Third Order of St. Founded 
in the United States in 1872. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, St. Louis, Mo. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee and St. Louis and 
the Dioceses of Kansas City and 
La Crosse. 511. 

Francis, Sisters of the Poor of 
St. Founded in Germany in 1845. 
General Motherhouse, Aix4a-Cha- 
pelle, Germany. Motherhouse of 
Eastern Province, Warwick, N. Y. 
Motherhouse of Western Province, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Cincinnati, New- 
ark and New York and the Dio- 
ceses of Brooklyn, Columbus, Cov- 
ington, Charleston, Indianapolis, 
Lansing, Leavenworth and Spring- 
field, 111. 654. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. Founded in 1893 at 
TuQuerres, Columbia. General 
Motherhouse, Pasto, Columbia. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Sante 
Fe and in the Diocese of Amaril- 
lo. 68. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. Founded in the 
United States in 1855. Motherhouse, 
Peoria, 111. Found in the Archdio- 

cese of Chicago and the Dioceses 
of Charleston, Davenport, Mar- 
qnette, Peoria and Rockford. 378. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. Motherhouse, Mary- 
ville, Mo. Found in the Dioceses of 
Lincoln, Oklahoma and St. Joseph. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. Founded in Switzer- 
land in 1424. Motherhouse, Nevada, 
Mo. Found in the Diocese of Kan- 
sas City. 49. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. Established in Syra- 
cuse about 1860. General Mother- 
house, Syracuse, N. Y. Found in 
the Archdioceses of Baltimore and 
Newark and the Dioceses of Al- 
bany, Camden, Cleveland, Raleigh, 
Rochester, Syracuse and Trenton, 
and in Hawaii. 352. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. General Mother- 
house, Wappingers Falls, N. Y. 
Found in the Archdiocese of New 
York and the Dioceses of Brook- 
lyn and Newark. 286. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. General Mother- 
house, Williamsville, N. Y. Dioc- 
esan community of Buffalo. 425. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. General Mother- 
house, Tiffin, Ohio. Found in the 
Diocese of Toledo. 133. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. Established in Pitts- 
burgh in 1868. General Mother- 
house, Millvale, Pa. Found In the 
Dioceses of Altoona and Pittsburgh 
and in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 470. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. Motherhouse, Bay 
Settlement, Wis. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of Milwaukee and the Dio- 
cese of Green Bay. 94. 

Francis, Sisters of the Third 
Order Regular of St. Founded 
in Austria. General Motherhouse, 
Oldenburg, Ind. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Cincinnati, St. Louis 
and Santa Fe and the Dioceses of 
Covington, El Paso, Gallup, Great 
Falls, Indianapolis, Kansas City 
and Peoria. 793. 

Franciscan Missionaries of Mary 
Founded in India in 1877. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse in Rome, Italy. 


Found in the Archdioceses of Bos- 
ton, Cincinnati and New York and 
the Dioceses of Albany, Brooklyn, 
Fall River, Gallup and Providence. 

Franciscan Poor Clare Nuns 
Founded in Assisi, Italy, in 1212. 
General Motherhouse, Italy. Found 
throughout the United States. 287. 

Franciscan Sisters, Daughters of 
the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and 
IVfary Founded in Germany, 
1860. General Motherhouse, Salzkot- 
ten, Westphalia, Germany. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Chicago, 
Dubuque, Milwaukee and St. Louis, 
and the Dioceses of Belleville, Den- 
ver and Green Bay. 419. 

Franciscan Sisters of Baltimore 
City Founded in England in 
1869. General Motherhouse in Lon- 
don, England. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Baltimore and New 
York and the Dioceses .of Raleigh 
and Richmond. 87. 

Franciscan Sisters of Bl. Kune- 
gunda Founded in the United 
States in 1894. General Mother- 
house, Chicago. III. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Baltimore, Chicago 
and Milwaukee and the Dioceses of 
Altoona, Belleville, Bismarck, Cleve- 
land, Fort Wayne, Marquette, 
Omaha and Pittsburgh. 489. 

Franciscan Sisters of Christian 
Chanty Founded in the U. S. i'n 
1869. Motherhouse, Manitowoc, Wis. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago, Los Angeles and Milwaukee 
and the Dioceses of Columbus, Grand 
Rapids, Green Bay, La Crosse, Mar- 
auette, Omaha, Superior, Tucson, 
Sioux City and Wheeling. 740. 

Franciscan Sisters of Mary, Little 
Founded in the United States in 
1889. General Motherhouse, Canada. 
Found in the Dioceses of Portland 
and Springfield, Mass. 546. 

Franciscan Sisters of Our Lady 
of Perpetual Help Motherhouse, 
St. Louis, Mo. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Chicago, Cincinnati and 
St. Louis and the Dioceses of Alex- 
andria, Belleville, Kansas City, 
Leavenworth, Omaha, Sioux City 
and Wheeling. 250. 

Franciscan Sisters of Our Lady 
of the Angels -Founded in 1863 

at Neuwied, Germany. American 
Provincialate, St. Paul, Minn. Found 
in the Dioceses of La Crosse and 
St. Paul. 29. 

Franciscan Sisters of St. Joseph 
Motherhouse, Hamburg, N. Y. 
Found in*the Archdioceses of Balti- 
more, Boston, Detroit and Milwau- 
kee and the Dioceses of Brooklyn, 
Buffalo, Fall River, Harrisburg, 
Hartford, Mobile, Peoria, Rochester, 
Springfield and Trenton. 501. 

Franciscan Sisters of the Atone- 
ment, Third Order Regular of St. 
Francis Founded in the U. S. 
in 1898. General Motherhouse, Gar- 
rison, N. Y. Found throughout the 
United States. 187. 

Franciscan Sisters of the immac- 
ulate Conception Founded in 
Italy in 1866. General Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of Milwaukee and the Dio- 
ceses of Crookston, Green Bay, La 
Crosse, Peoria and St. Cloud. 212. 

Franciscan Sisters of the Immac- 
ulate Conception Founded in Ger- 
many. General Motherhouse, Brazil. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Wash- 
ington and the Dioceses of Belle- 
ville and Buffalo. 39. 

Franciscan Sisters of the immac- 
ulate Conception, Missionary 
Founded in the United States in 
1873. General Motherhouse, Rome, 
Italy. Found in the Archdioceses 
of Boston, Chicago, Newark, New 
York and Philadelphia and the 
Dioceses of Brooklyn, Pittsburgh, 
Rockford, Savannah, St. Cloud and 
Syracuse. 660. 

Franciscan Sisters of the Sacred 
Heart Founded ia Germany in 
1866. Motherhouse, Joliet, 111. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago, Los Angeles and San Fran- 
cisco, and the Dioceses of Fort 
Wayne, Peoria, Kockford, San 
Diego and Springfield, 111. 561, 

Francis of Assisi, Sisters of the 
Third Order of St. Founded at 
Allegany, N. Y., in 1859 by Fr. 
Pamphillus Magliano, O. F. M. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Allegany, N. Y. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Bos-" 
ton, Newark, and New York, and the 
Dioceses of Albany, Brooklyn, Buf- 
falo, Camden, Charleston, Hart- 


ford, Ogdensburg, Pittsburgh, Port- 
land, Me., Providence, Raleigh, 
Rochester, St. Augustine, Syracuse 
and Trenton and in Jamaica, 
B. W. I. 690. 

Francis of Assist, Sisters of the 
Third Order of St. Founded in 
the United States in 1849. General 
Motherhouse, St. Francis, Wis. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago and Milwaukee and the Dio- 
ceses of Cleveland, Davenport, 
Denver, Green Bay, La Cross e, 
Louisville, Owensboro, Peoria, Ral- 
eigh, Kockford, Sioux City, Sioux 
Falls and Superior. 726. 

Francis of Mary Immaculate, 
Congregation of the Third Order 
of St. Founded in the United 
States in 1865. General Mother- 
house, Joliet, HL Found in the 
Archdioceses of Chicago and St. 
Louis, and in the Dioceses of Al- 
toona, Cleveland, Columbus, Peoria, 
Rockford, Springfield, 111., Superior 
and Toledo. 635. 

Francis of Penance and Christian 
Charity, Sisters of St. - Founded 
in Holland in 1835. General Mother- 
house, Heythuizen, Roermond, Hol- 
land. Found throughout the United 
States. 611. 

Francis of the Congregation of 
Our Lady of Lourdes, Sisters of 
St. Founded in the United States 
in 1877. General Motherhouse, Roch- 
ester, Minn. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Chicago, Detroit and 
St. Paul and the Dioceses of Co- 
lumbus, Covington, Denver, La 
Crosse, Omaha, Sioux Falls, Toledo 
and Winona. 587. 

Francis of the Congregation of 
Our Lady of the Holy Rosary p Sis- 
ters of St. Founded in France 
in 1650. Found in the Archdioceses 
of Detroit, Los Angeles and St. 
Paul, and the Dioceses of Cleveland, 
Duluth, San Diego, Superior, To- 
ledo, Columbus, Galveston, Grand 
Island and Winona. 322. 

Francis of the Holy Family, Sis- 
ters of the Third Order of St. 
Founded in Germany in 1868. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Dubuque, Iowa, 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago, Dubuque and Portland, Ore., 
and the Dioceses of Davenport, Des 
Moines and Sioux City. 734. 

Francis of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, Sisters of St. Founded 
in the United States in 1891. Gen- 
eral Motnertiotise, Peoria, 111. Found 
in the Dioceses of Peoria and 
Springfield. 120, 

Francis of the Immaculate Con- 
ception of the B. V, M., Sisters of 
the Third Order of St. Founded 
in the United States in 1868. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Clinton, Iowa. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago and Dubuque and the Dioceses 
of Covington, Davenport, Des 
Moines, Omaha, Peoria, Rockford, 
St. Joseph and Sioux City. 272. 

Francis of the Martyr St. George, 
Sisters of St. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of St. Louis and the Dio- 
cese of Springfield. 10. 

Francis of the Perpetual Adora- 
tion, Sisters of the Third Order of 
St. Founded in the United States 
in 1849. General Motherhouse, La 
Crosse, Wis. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of Dubuque and the Dio- 
ceses of Boise, Davenport, Des 
Moines, Helena, La Crosse, Sioux 
City, Spokane and Superior. 965. 

Francis of the Sorrowful Mother, 
Sisters of the Third Order of St. 
-~ Founded in Italy in 1883. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Mil- 
waukee, Newark and Santa Fe and 
ttte Dioceses of Green Bay, La 
Crosse, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, 
Superior, Wichita and Winona. 600. 

Francis Seraph of the Perpetual 
Adoration, Poor Sisters of St. 
Founded in Germany in 1860. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Olpe, Germany. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago, Louisville, New Orleans, St. 
Louis and Santa Fe and the Dio- 
ceses of Cheyenne, Cleveland, Den- 
ver, Detroit, Fort Wayne, Grand 
Island, Indianapolis, Leavenworth, 
Lincoln, Nashville and Omaha. 985. 

Glen Riddle Sisters See: Fran- 
cis, Sisters of the Third Order of 
St. Established by Ven. John N. 
Neumann with Motherhouse at 
Glen Riddle, Pa. 

Good Shepherd, Sisters of Our 
Lady of Charity of the Founded 
in 1641. General Motherhouse, An* 


gers, France. Found throughout the 
United States. 1,324. 

Good Shepherd Sisters See: 
Heart of Mary, Sisters, Servants 
of the Immaculate, with General 
Motherhouse at Quebec, Canada. 

Greymoor Sisters - See: Fran- 
ciscan Sisters of the Atonement, 
Third Order Regular of St. Francis. 

Grey Nuns See: Charity, Sis- 
ters of, with General Motherhouse 
at Montreal, Canada. 

Handmaids of Jesus Christ, Poor 
Founded in Germany in 1851. 
General Motherhouse, Dernbach, 
Westerwald, Germany. Found in 
the Archdioceses of Chicago and 
St. Paul and the Dioceses of Belle- 
ville, Fort Wayne, Springfield and 
Superior. 664. 

Handmaids of the Most Pure 
Heart of Mary (Colored) Found- 
ed in the United States in 1916. 
General Motherhouse, New York 
City. Found in the Archdiocese of 
New York. 24. 

Heart of Mary, Sisters, Servants 
of the Holy Founded in France 
in 1860. General Motherhouse, Mont- 
geron, France. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of Chicago and the Diocese 
of Peoria. 135. 

Heart of Mary, Sisters, Servants 
of the Immaculate Founded in 
the United States in 1845. General 
Motherhouse, Monroe, Mich. Found 
throughout the United States. 984. 

Heart of Mary, Sisters, Servants 
of the immaculate (Good Shepherd 
Sisters) Founded in Canada in 
1850. General Motherhouse, Quebec, 
Canada. Found in the Archdiocese 
of Boston and the Diocese of Port- 
land. 163. 

Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
Sisters of the California Institute of 
the Most Holy and Immaculate 
Motherhouse, Hollywood, Calif. 
Found tn the Archdiocese of Los 
Angeles and the Dioceses of Mon- 
terey-Fresno and San Diego. 200. 

Helpers of the Holy Souls 
Founded in France in 1856. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse in Paris, France. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago, Los Angeles, New York, St. 
Louis and San Francisco. 111. 

Holy Ghost, Daughters of the 
Founded in France in 1706. Gen- 

eral Motherhouse, France. Found 
in the Archdiocese of Boston, and 
the Dioceses of Albany, Burling- 
ton, Fall River, Hartford, Ogdens- 
burg, Providence and Springfield. 

Holy Ghost, Social Mission Sis- 
ters of theFounded in the United 
States in 1922, by Archbishop Jos- 
eph Schrembs. Motherhouse, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Found in the Diocese of 
Cleveland. 6. 

Holy Ghost and Mary immacu- 
late, Sisters, Servants of the 
Founded in America in 1888. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, San Antonio, Tex. 
Found in the Diocese of Albany 
and in the Southwestern States. 165. 

Holy Ghost, of Perpetual Adora- 
tion, Servants of the Founded in 
Holland in 1896. General Mother- 
house, Steyl, Holland. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Philadelphia and 
St. Louis. 54. 

Hospitallers of St. Joseph, Reli- 
gious Founded in France in 1636. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Chi- 
cago and the Dioceses of Burling- 
ton and Helena. 77. 

Hum SI sty of Mary, Sisters of the 
Holy Founded in France in 1854. 
General Motherhouse, Villa Maria, 
Lawrence County, Pa. (This com- 
munity is attached by special agree- 
ment to the Diocese "of Cleveland, 
Ohio.) Found in the Archdiocese 
of Dubuque and the Dioceses of 
Cleveland, Davenport, Des Moines 
and Rapid City. 598. 

Immaculate Conception, Sisters 
of the Founded in the United 
States in 1874. General Mother- 
house, New Orleans, La. Found in 
the Archdiocese of New Orleans 
and the Diocese of Lafayette. 56. 

Immaculate Conception of the 
Mother of God, Missionary Sisters 
of the Founded in Brazil in 1910. 
First foundation in the United 
States in 1922. General Mother- 
house, St. Bonaventure, N. Y. 
Found m the Archdioceses of Bal- 
timore, Newark and New York and 
the Dioceses of Buffalo, Galveston 
and Paterson. 377. 

Immaculate Conception Sisters, 
Servants of Mary Immaculate 
Found in Michigan, Minnesota, Mis- 


souri, New Jersey, New York, 
North Dakota, Pennsylvania and 
Washington, D. C., under jurisdic- 
tion of the Ukrainian Greek Catho- 
lic Diocese. 150. ' 

incarnate Word and the Blessed 
Sacrament, Sisters of the Found- 
ed in Prance in 1625. General 
Motherhouse, Shiner, Texas. Found 
in the Archdiocese of San Antonio 
and the Dioceses of Belleville, Pitts- 
burgh and Galveston. 238. 

Infancy of Jesus, Congregation of 
the Servants of the Holy Founded 
in 1855 in Germany. General Mother- 
house, Germany. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Baltimore and Washing- 
ton and New York and the Dio- 
ceses of Albany, Indianapolis, Pitts- 
burgh, Syracuse, Toledo and Tren- 
ton. 60. 

infant Jesus, Sisters of the 
Founded in France in 1835. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Found in the Diocese of Brooklyn. 

Jesus, Sisters of the Poor Child- 
Founded in 1844 in Aix-la-Chapelle, 
Germany. General Motherhouse, 
Simpelveld, Holland. Found in the 
Archdiocese of Baltimore and the 
Diocese of Wheeling, W. Va. 40. 

Jesus, Society of the Sisters, 
Faithful Companions of Founded 
in France in 1820. General Mother- 
house, Paris, France. Found in 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 82. 

Jesus Crucified and the Sorrow- 
ful Mother, Poor Sisters of 
Founded in the United States. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Elmhurst Pa. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Bos- 
ton and Philadelphia and in the 
Diocese of Scranton. 63. 

Jesus-Mary, Religious of Found- 
ed at Lyons, France, 1818. General 
Motherhouse, Borne, Italy. Found in 
the Archdiocese of New York and 
the Dioceses of El Paso, Fall River, 
Manchester, Providence and San 
Diego. 525. 

Joan of Arc, Sisters of St. 
Founded in the United States in 
1914. General Motherhouse, Berger- 
ville, Quehec, Canada. Found in 
the Archdioceses of Boston and 
New York and the Dioceses of 
Albany, Fall River, Hartford, Man- 

chester, Portland, Providence, Roch- 
ester and Springfield. 

John the Baptist, Sisters of the 
Order of St. Founded in Italy in 
1878. General Motherhouse, Rome, 
Italy. Found in the Archdioceses of 
Newark and New York and the 
Diocese of Brooklyn. 126. 

Joseph, Sisters of St. Founded 
in 1650 in Le Puy, France, General 
Motherhouse, Le Puy, France. Found 
in the Diocese of Fall River. 107. 

Joseph, Sisters of St. Founded 
in the United States in 1901. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Stevens Point, 
Wis. Found in the Archdioceses of 
Chicago, Detroit, St. Paul and Mil- 
waukee and the Dioceses of Cleve- 
land, Crook ston, Denver, Fort 
Wayne, Grand Island, Green Bay, 
Hartford, La Crosse and Superior. 

Joseph, Sisters of St. (of Caron- 
delet)- Founded in France in 1650. 
General Motherhouse, St. Louis, Mo. 
Found throughout the "United 
States. 12,560. 

Joseph, Sisters of St. (of New- 
ark) Founded in England in 
1888. General Motherhouse, Jersey 
City, N. J. Found in the Archdio- 
ceses of Newark, Philadelphia and 
Portland and the Dioceses of Cam- 
den, Seattle and Trenton and in 
Alaska. 415. 

Little Company of SVSary, Nursing 
Sisters Founded in England in 
1877. Motherhouse in Rome, Italy. 
Found in Chicago. 39. 

Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, 
Sisters of Founded in America 
in 1812. General Motherhouse, Lo- 
retto, Marion, Ky. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Chicago, Los An- 
geles, Louisville, St. Louis and 
Santa Fe and in the Dioceses of 
Belleville, Columbus, Denver, El 
Paso, Gallup, Kansas City, Lincoln, 
Mobile, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, 
Omaha, Roekford, St. Joseph, San 
Diego and Tucson. 997. 

Mantellata Sisters, Servants of 
Mary Founded in Italy in 1285. 
General Motherhouse, Pistoia, Italy, 
Found in the Archdiocese of Chi- 
cago and the Dioceses of Belleville, 
Denver, Ogdensburg, Omaha, Rock- 
ford and Sioux City. 38. 

Marianites of Holy Cross, Con- 
gregation of the Sisters Founded 


In France in 1841. General Mother- 
house, France. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of New York and New- 
Orleans and the Dioceses of Lafay- 
ette and Natchez. 195. 

Marist Sisters These are the 
Missionary Sisters of the Society 
of Mary, St. Theresa's Convent, 
Spring Rd.," Mass. A strictly mis- 
sionary order founded in France 
in 1845 whose field of labor is the 
South Sea Islands and the British 
West Indies. 390. 

Mary, Missionary Sisters of the 
Society of Founded in 1880 at St. 
Brieuc, France. General Mother- 
house, Lyons, France. American 
Novitiate, Bedford, Mass. Found in 
the Archdiocese of Boston. 

Mary ? Servants of Founded 
in Italy in the 13th century. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Baltimore, 
Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Du- 
buque, New York, St. Paul, Santa 
Fe and St. Louis and the Dioceses 
of Belleville, Denver, La Crosse, 
Ogdensburg, Omaha, Sioux City, 
Superior, Trenton and Wheeling. 

Mary, Sisters of St. Founded 
in Oregon in 1886. General Mother- 
house, Beaverton, Oregon. Found 
in the Archdiocese of Portland. 196. 

Mary Help of Christians, Daugh- 
ters of Founded in 1854 in Italy. 
General Motherhouse, Nizza Mon- 
ferrato, Italy. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Newark, New York, 
Philadelphia and San Antonio and 
the Dioceses of Camden, Monterey- 
Fresno, Paterson, Pittsburgh, and 
St. Augustine. 133. 

Mary, of Namur, Sisters of St. 
Founded in Namur, Belgium, 1819. 
General Motherhouse, Namur, Bel- 
gium. Found in the Archdioceses 
of Baltimore and Boston and the 
Dioceses of Buffalo, Dallas, Denver, 
Galveston, Monterey-Fresno and 
Syracuse. 334. 

Mary Reparatrix, Society of 
Founded in France in 1857. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Found in the Archdioceses of De- 
troit and New York. 80. 

Medical Missionaries, Inc., So- 
ciety of Catholic Founded in the 
United States in 1925. General 
Motherhouse, Fox Chase, Pa. Found 

"in the Archdiocese of Baltimore. 24. 
Mercy, Daughters of Our Lady of 

Founded in Italy in 1837. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Savona, Italy. 
Found in the Dioceses of Harris- 
burg, Scranton and Springfield. 44. 

Mercy, Sisters of Founded in 
Ireland in 1831. Found throughout 
the United States. 9,942. 

Mercy, Sisters of Our Lady of 

Founded in America in 1829. 
General Motherhouse, Charleston, 
S. C. Found in the Diocese of 
Charleston. 87. 

Mercy of the Holy Cross, Sisters 
of Founded in Switzerland in 
1852. General Motherhouse, Ingen- 
bohl, Switzerland. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Cincinnati, Milwau- 
kee and St. Louis, and the Dio- 
ceses of Belleville, Bismarck and 
Superior. 80. 

Misericorde, Sisters of Found- 
ed in Canada in 1848. General 
Motherhouse, Montreal, Canada. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee and New York 
and in the Dioceses of Green Bay 
and Springfield. 106. 

Missionaries of St. Mary, Lady 

Founded in the United States 
in 1908. General Motherhouse, 
Omak, Wash. Found in the Diocese 
of Spokane. 

Missionary Catechists of Our 
Blessed Lady of Victory, Society 
O f Founded in the United States 
in 1918. Motherhouse, Huntington, 
Ind. Found in the Archdioceses of 
Detroit, Los Angeles and Santa Fe 
and the Dioceses of Amarillo, El 
Paso, Fort Wayne, Gallup, Mon- 
terey-Fresno, Reno, Salt Lake City 
and San Diego. 192. 

Missionary Sisters of Our Lady 
of Africa (White Sisters) Found- 
ed in Algeria in 1869. General 
Motherhouse, Algeria. Found in 
the Diocese of Trenton. 

Missionary Sisters of the Divine 
Child Founded in the United 
States in 1927. Motherhouse, Buf- 
falo, N. Y. Found in the Diocese 
of Buffalo. 33. 

Missionary Sisters of the Most 
Sacred Heart Founded in Ger- 
many in 1899. General Motherhouse, 
Hiltrup, Germany. Found in the 


Archdioceses of New York, Phila- 
delphia and Cincinnati and the Dio- 
ceses of Brooklyn, Columbus, Pe- 
oria, Rockford, Savannah-Atlanta, 
Toledo and Wheeling. 822. 

Missionary Sisters of the Sacred 
Heart Founded in Italy in 1880. 
Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Los Angeles, 
Newark, New Orleans, New York 
and Philadelphia and the Dioceses 
of Brooklyn, Denver, San Diego, 
Scranton and Seattle. 3,672. 

Missionary Sisters, Servants of 
the Holy Ghost Founded in Hol- 
land in 1889. General Motherhouse, 
Steyl, Holland. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Baltimore, Chicago, Du- 
buque, Milwaukee and St. Louis 
and the Dioceses of Erie, Little 
Rock and Natchez. 336. 

Missionary Zelatrices, Sisters of 
the Sacred Heart Founded in 
Italy in 1894. Motherhouse, Rome, 
Italy. Found in the Archdioceses 
of New York and St. Louis and 
the Dioceses of Hartford and Pitts- 
burgh. 152. 

Mission Health Sisters Found- 
ed in New York in 1935. Found in 
the Archdiocese of New York. 8. 

Mission Helpers, Servants of the 
Sacred Heart Founded in the 
United States, in 1890. General 
Motherhouse, Towson, Md. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Baltimore 
and New York and the Dioceses 
of Brooklyn, Pittsburgh and Tren- 
ton, and in Puerto Rico. 172. 

Names of Jesus and Mary, Sis- 
ters of the Holy Founded in 
Canada in 1843. General Mother- 
house, Outrement, Canada. Found 
throughout the United States. 1,068. 

Nazareth, Sisters of Founded 
in the United States in 1924. Moth- 
erhouse, Hammersmith, England. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Los 

Notre Dame, School Sisters De 

Founded in Czechoslovakia in 
1853. General Motherhouse, Ho- 
razdovice, Bohemia. Found in the 
Archdiocese of Dubuque and the 
Dioceses of Lincoln, Omaha, and 
Rapid City. 85. 

Notre Dame, School Sisters of 

Founded in Germany, 1833. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Munich, Bavaria. 

Found throughout "the United 
States. 5,610. 

Notre Dame, Sisters of Found- 
ed in Germany in 1850. General 
Motherhouse, Muelhausen, Ger- 
many. Found in the Archdioceses 
of Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, 
Los Angeles and New York and 
the Dioceses of Cleveland, Coving- 
ton, Fort Wayne, Mobile, Nash- 
ville, Portland, Rockford, San 
Diego, Superior and Toledo. 1,028. 

Notre Dame, Sisters of the Con- 
gregation of Founded in Canada 
in 1660. General Motherhouse, Mon- 
treal, P. Q., Canada. Found in the 
Archdioceses of New York and Chi- 
cago and the Dioceses of Burling- 
ton, Hartford, Portland and Provi- 
dence. 248. 

Notre Dame De Namur, Sisters of 
Founded in France, 1803. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Namur, Belgium. 
Found throughout the United 
States. 2,101. 

Notre Dame De Sion, Congrega- 
tion of Founded in France in 
1843. General Motherhouse, Paris, 
France. Found in the Diocese of 
Kansas City. 49. 

ObSate Sisters of Providence 
Founded in the United States in 
1829. General Motherhouse, Balti- 
more, Md. Found in the Archdio- 
ceses of Baltimore, Chicago and St. 
Louis, and the Dioceses of Charles- 
ton, Leavenworth and Richmond. 

Pallottlne Missionary Sisters 
Founded in Italy in 1895. General 
Motherhouse, Limburg, Germany. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Balti- 
more and Milwaukee and the Dio- 
ceses of Columbus, Omaha, Pitts- 
burgh and Wheeling. 152. 

Pallottine Sisters of Charity 
Founded in Italy, 1845. General 
Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Baltimore, 
Newark, New York and Philadel- 
phia and the Dioceses of Brooklyn 
and Providence. 152. 

Parish Visitors of Mary Immacu- 
late Founded in New York in 
1920. Motherhouse, New York City. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Chi- 
cago, New York and in the Dioceses 
of Albany, Brooklyn, Scranton, 
Syracuse and Wilmington. 110. 


Passlonist Sisters See: Cross 
and Passion, Sisters of the. 

Peeksklll Sisters See: Francis, 
Missionary Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. 

Poor, Little Sisters of the 
Founded in France in 1839. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, St. Pern, France. 
Found throughout the United 
States. 866. 

Presentation, Sisters of St. Mary 
of the Founded in France. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Broons, Cotes-du- 
Nord, France. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Baltimore, New Orleans, 
Portland and San Antonio, and the 
Dioceses of Fargo, Fort Wayne and 
Peoria. 151. 

Presentation of Mary, Sisters of 
the Founded in France in 1796. 
General Motherhouse in France. 
Found in the Dioceses of Burling- 
ton, Manchester, Portland, Provi- 
dence and Springfield. 673. 

Presentation of the B. V. M., Sis- 
ters of the Founded in Ireland 
in 1777. Found throughout the 
United States. 1,081. 

Providence, Daughters of St. 
Mary of Founded in 1881 in 
Como, Italy. General Motherhouse, 
Como, Italy. American Motherhouse, 
Chicago, 111. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of Chicago and the Diocese 
of Sioux Falls. 51. 

Providence, Sisters of Found- 
ed in Canada in 1861. General 
Motherhouse, Holyoke, Mass. Found 
in the Diocese of Springfield. 475. 

Providence, Sisters of (of St. 
Mary-of-the-Woods) Founded in 
France in 1806. General Mother- 
house, St. Mary-of-the-Woods, Ind. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Balti- 
more, Boston, Chicago and Los An- 
geles and the Dioceses of Fort 
Wayne, Indianapolis, Oklahoma City 
and Tulsa, Peoria, Raleigh, Rock- 
ford and San Diego. 1,300. 

Providence, Sisters of Divine 
Founded in France in 1762. General 
Motherhouse, San Antonio, Texas. 
Found in the Archdioceses of Balti- 
more, Los Angeles, San Antonio 
and Santa Fe and the Dioceses 
of Alexandria, Amarillo, Corpus 
Christi, Dallas, Galveston, Lafay- 
ette, Little Rock, San Diego, Okla- 
homa and Tulsa. 680. 

Providence, Sisters of Divine 
Founded in Germany. Motherhouse, 
Mayence, Germany. Found in the 
Archdiocese of St. Louis and the 
Dioceses of Altoona, Columbus, 
Erie, Kansas City, Pittsburgh, 
Springfield and Wheeling and in 
Puerto Rico. 506. 

Providence, Sisters of Divine (of 
Kentucky) Founded in France 
in 1762. General Motherhouse, Mo- 
selle, France. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Baltimore, Cincinnati 
and New York and in the Dioceses 
of Columbus, Covington, Omaha, 
Providence, Toledo and Wheeling. 

Redeemer, Daughters of the Di- 
vine Founded in 1849 in Nieder- 
bronn, Alsace-Lorraine. General 
Motherhouse, Sopron, Hungary. 
Found in the Archdiocese of Phila- 
delphia and in the Dioceses of Buf- 
falo, Cleveland and Pittsburgh.- 95. 

Redeemer, Daughters of the Most 
Holy Founded in 1847 in Wuerz- 
burg, Germany. General Mother- 
house, Wuerzburg, Germany. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Baltimore 
and Washington, Boston, New York 
and Philadelphia. 140. 

Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of 
Charity of Founded in France 
in 1641. Motherhouse, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Found throughout the United 

Reparation, Sisters of Founded 
in the United States in 1890. Moth- 
erhouse, New York City. Found in 
the Archdiocese of New York. 17. 

Resurrection, Sisters of the 
Founded in Italy in 1891. General 
Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Chicago and 
New York and the Dioceses of Al- 
bany, Fargo, Fort Wayne, La 
Crosse, Omaha and Syracuse. 322. 

Rosary, Congregation of Our 
Lady of the Holy Founded in 
Canada in 1874. General Mother- 
house in Rimouski, P. Q., Canada. 
Found in the Diocese of Portland. 

Sacrament, Sisters of Perpetual 
Adoration of the Blessed Found- 
ed in Mexico in 1879. Motherhouse, 
Mexico City. Found in the Arch- 
dioceses of Los Angeles and San 


Antonio and the Dioceses of Salt 
Lake City and San Diego. 42. 

Sacrament, Sisters of the Blessed, 
for Indians and Colored People 
Founded in the United States In 
1891, G-eneral Motherhouse, Corn- 
wells Heights, Pa. Pound through- 
out the United States. 316. 

Sacrament, Sisters of the Most 
Holy Founded in France in 1851. 
General Mother-house, Lafayette, 
La. Found in the Archdiocese of 
New Orleans and in the Dioceses 
of Lafayette, Mobile and Natchez. 

Sacrament, Nuns of the Perpet- 
ual Adoration of the Blessed 
Founded in Rome in 1807. Found 
in the Archdiocese of San Fran- 
cisco and the Diocese of El Paso. 38. 

Sacratnentine Nuns Founded 
in France in 1639. Motherhouse, 
Yonkers, N. Y. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of New Yorjfc. 29. 

Sacred Heart, Grey Nuns of the 
Founded in Canada, 1726. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Found In the Archdioceses of Bos- 
ton and Philadelphia and the Dio- 
ceses of Brooklyn, Buffalo, Ogd ens- 
burg and Savannah-Atlanta. 297. 

Sacred Heart, Society of the 
Founded in France in 1800. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. 
Pound throughout the United 
States. 1,963. 

Sacred Heart of Jesus and the 
Poor, Servants of the (Mexican) 
Founded in Mexico in 1885. Mother- 
house, El Paso, Texas. Found in 
the Dioceses of Corpus Christi and 
El Paso. 84. 

Sacred Heart of Jesus of St. Ja- 
cut, Sisters of the Founded in 
France in 1816, General Mother- 
house, St. Jacut, Brittany, France. 
Found in the Archdiocese of San 
Antonio and in the Dioceses of 
Corpus Christi aad Gaiveston. 54. 

Sacred Heart of Mary, Religious 
of the Founded in France in 
1848. General Mptherhouse, Beziers, 
France. Found In the Archdioceses 
of Los Angeles and New York and 
the Dioceses of Brooklyn and San 
Diego, 158. 

Sacred Hearts, Religious of the 
Holy Union of the Motherhouse, 

Fall River, Mass. Found in the 
Archdioceses of Baltimore and Bos- 
ton and the Dioceses of Albany, 
Brooklyn, Fall River, Mobile and 
Providence. 306. 

Sacred Hearts and of Perpetual 
Adoration, Sisters of the Found- 
ed in France in 1797. General Moth- 
erhouse, Paris, France. Found in 
the Diocese of Fall River. 44. 

Saviours, Sisters of the Divine 
Founded in Italy in 1888. General 
Motherhouse, Rome, Italy. Found 
in the Archdioceses of Chicago and 
Miivraukee and the Dioceses of 
Green Bay, La Crosse, Springfield, 
'Sioux Falls and Superior. 266. 

Service, Sisters of Social- 
Founded in 1908 in Hungary. Gen- 
eral Motherhouse, Budapest, Hun- 
gary. Found in the Archdioceses of 
Los Angeles and San Francisco and 
the Dioceses of Sacramento and 
San Diego. 300, 

Teresa of Jesus, Society of St. 
Founded in Spain in 1876. Mother- 
house, Barcelona, Spain. Found in 
the Archdioceses of New Orleans 
and San Antonio. 

Trinity, Missionary Servants of 
the Most Blessed Motherhouse, 
Holmesburg, Pa. Pound in the Arch- 
dioceses of Baltimore, Newark and 
Philadelphia and the Dioceses of 
Brooklyn, Fall River, Hartford, 
Harrisburg, Mobile, Natchez, Pater- 
son, Pittsburgh, Rochester and 
Rockford, and in Puerto Rico, 283. 

Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, So- 
- ciety of the Sisters of St. Found- 
ed in France in 1606. General Moth- 
erhouse, Bruges, Belgium. Found 
in the Archdiocese of New York. 44. 

UrsuSine Nuns Founded in 
Italy in 1535, General Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Found throughout the 
United States. 3,003. 

Ursuline Nuns of the Congrega- 
tion of Paris Founded in Italy 
in 1535. Found in the Archdiocese 
of Cincinnati and the Dioceses of 
Charleston and Pittsburgh. 151. 

Ursuline Sisters of Mount Cal- 
vary Founded in Germany, 1838. 
General Motherhouse, Calvareia- 
berg, Germany. Central house, Ken- 
mare, N. D. Found in the Dioceses of 
Belleville, Bismarck and Cheyenne. 


Venerlti! Sisters - Founded in 
Italy in 1685. Genera! Motherhouse, 
Rome, Italy. Found in the Arch- 
diocese of Boston and the Dioceses 
of Albany, Providence and Spring- 
field. 40. 

Vincent de Paul Sisters See: 
Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, Sis- 
ters of. 

Visitation Nuns Founded in 
France in 1610. Found throughout 
the United States. 713. 

White Sisters See: Missionary 
Sisters of Our Lady of Africa. 

Wisdom, Daughters of Found- 
ed in France in 1703. General 
Motherhouse, Vendee, France. 
Found in the Dioceses of Brook- 
lyn and Portland. 5,000. 


Religious Orders and Congrega- 
tions of Pontifical Rite are reli- 
gious groups which depend directly 
on the Holy Father through the Sa- 
cred Congregation of Religious, and 
not on the local diocesan authority. 
These total 874 institutions, with 
789,338 members in 1941. 

There are 61 male religious 
orders, that is, those who take sol- 
emn vows. These totaled 108,347 
members, including priests, lay 
brothers and novices. 

In this classification are the So- 
ciety of Jesus with 26,303 religious, 
divided into 50 provinces with 
1,531 houses and 66 novitiates; the 
three Franciscan families which 
included 24,148 Friars Minor, 13,510 
Capuchins and 2,757 Conventuals; 
and 14 Congregations of the Bene- 
dictines, including the Cassinese 
American Benedictine Congrega- 
tion, with 1,280 religious in 17 mon- 
asteries, and the Swiss American 
Benedictine Congregation, with 545 
religious in 5 monasteries. 

There are 97 male religious con- 
gregations, that is, those who take 
simple vows. These totaled 105,067 
members. The Brothers of the 
Christian Schools of St. John the 
Baptist of La Salle lead this cate- 
gory, with 15,303 religious. In sec- 
ond place are the Salesians, with 
11,702 members. Other well-known 
congregations are the Carissimi, 
Lazarists, Pallottines, Passionists 
and Redemptorists. 

Three of these congregations 
have their motherhouses in the 
United States: the Congregation of 
the Holy Cross, at Notre Dame, 
Ind., with 1,375 religious; the So- 
ciety of St. Joseph of the Sacred 
Heart, in Baltimore, Md., with 240 

religious; and the Paulists, in New 
York, N. Y., with 166 religious. 

Two congregations with mother- 
houses in Mexico City are the 
Missionaries of St. Joseph, with 83 
religious, and the Missionaries of 
the Holy Ghost, with 103 religious. 
Canada has one congregation, the 
Priests of St. Basil, with mother- 
house in Toronto, and 243 members. 

There are 720 female religious 
congregations with a total member- 
ship of 575,924 Sisters. Of these, 
75 congregations have mother- 
houses in the United States. 

Numerically, the Daughters of 
Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, with 
headquarters in Paris, lead the list 
with 43,325 Sisters. The Society of 
the Poor Sisters of the School of 
Our Lady, operating from the 
motherhouse at Munich, had 10,582 
members. The Sisters of the Good 
Shepherd, with the motherhouse at 
Angers, had 9,822 religious; the 
Daughters of Mary Auxiliatrix. (Sa- 
lesian), with headquarters at Turin, 
had 8,708 Sisters; the Sisters of 
the Holy Cross of Ingenbuhl, with 
the motherhouse at Coira, Switzer- 
land, 8,154; the Franciscan Mis- 
sionaries of Mary, Rome, 7,300; 
the Sisters of the Infant Mary of 
Blessed Capitanio, with the mother- 
house at Milan, 6,784; the Religious 
of the Sacred Heart of St. Madda- 
lena Sophia Barat, with mother- 
house at Rome, 6,843; the Daugh- 
ters of St. Anne, Rome, 6,659; 
the Sisters of Charity of St. An- 
tida Thouret, Rome, 6,263;, the 
Sisters of Mercy of Baltimore, 
6,192; the Little Sisters of the Poor, 
Rennes, 5,662; the Sisters of Our 
Blessed Saviour, Strasbourg, 5,604; 
and the Canossians of Rome, 4,387. 


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(Figure? taken from "A Missionary Index of Catholic Americans!') 

According to statistics compiled by the Catholic Students* Mission 
Crusade and published by them in "A Missionary Index of Catholic 
Americans," there were 5,187 Catholic Americans engaged in missionary 
work at home and abroad in May, 1942. Of these 2,313 were men and 
2,874 were women. Outside the United States there were 1,468 men and 
1,225 women, a total of 2,693, In home missions there were 845 men and 
1,649 women, a total of 2,494. 

The largest number of missionaries was reported by the Jesuits, who 
have 484 men in home and foreign missions. Mary knoll missioners num- 
bered 240 men, of whom all but 13 were abroad. The Order of Friars 
Minor ranked third, with 216. The largest group among religious orders 
of men working in a single missionary field is the Society of St. Joseph, 
with 127 engaged in the Colored missions of the United States. 

Among the Sisterhoods, the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for 
Indians and Colored People rank first, with 347. Next come the Mary- 
knoll Sisters, with 313. Various Franciscan Sisterhoods have a combined 
personnel of 441 doing missionary work. 

The distribution of priests, Sisters and Brothers doing full-time work 
in the home and foreign mission fields is as follows: 

Pl ace Men Women Total 

Africa 73 57 130 

Alaska 37 24 61 

Canada 21 44 65 

Central America 78 34 112 

China 386 265 651 

Chosen (Korea) 40 12 52 

Cyprus 4 4 

Bast Indies " 7 ... 7 

England 6 4 10 

India 171 35 206 

Ireland 1 1 

Italy 2 2 

Japan 24 18 42 

Malta 1 1 

Manchukuo S3 36 69 

Near Bast 34 ... 34 

Oceania (including Australia, Hawaii and 

other islands) 128 201 329 

Philippine Islands 177 85 262 

South America 54 108 162 

Thailand 6 6 

U. S. Indian missions 212 356 568 

U. S. Mexican missions 64 218 282 

U. S. Mexican and Negro missions 7 7 

U. S. Negro missions 346 627 973 

U. S. other missionary work 223 441 664 

Wales 1 1 

West Indies 199 287 486 


In the following lists are given the names of religious orders and com- 
munities of men and women in America and the number of their mem- 
bers engaged in full-time missionary work here and in foreign fields. 


Religious Order or Community of SVSesi Brothers 

African Missions, Society of (S. M. A.) 27 

Atonement, Franciscan Friars of the (S. A.) 14 

Augustinians (O. S. A.) 4 

Basilians (C. S. B.) 9 5 

Benedictines (O. S. B.) , * 62 

Carmelite Fathers (O. Carm.) 2 

Carmelites (Discalced), Order of (O. C. D.) 9 

Christian Brothers (F. S. C.) 14 

Christian Instruction, Brothers of 17 

Claretian Missionaries (C. M. F.) 54 

Crosier Fathers (O. S. C.) 1 

Divine Word, Society of the (S. V. D.) 30 

Dominicans (O. P.) 20 

Franciscans (Third Order Regular of St. Francis, T. O. R.) 16 

Friars Minor, Order of (O. F. M.) 216 

Friars Minor Capuchin, Order of (O. F. M. Cap.) 44 

Friars Minor Conventual, Order of (O. M. C.) 6 

Holy Cro'ss, Congregation of the (C. S. C.) 53 

Holy Ghost Fathers (C. S. Sp.) 77 

Home Missioners of America 5 

Jesuits (S. J.) 484 

Josephites (S. S. J.) 127 

La Salette Missionaries (M. S.) 24 

Marianhill Missionaries, Society of (C. M. Mh.) 2 

Marianists (S. M.) 112 

Marists (S. M.) 25 

Maryknoll Missioners (M. M.) 240 

Most Holy Trinity, Missionary Servants of the (M. S. Ss. T.) 9 

Oblates of Mary Immaculate (O. M. I.) 65 

Oratorian Fathers (Cong. Orat.) 6 

Pallottine Fathers (P. S. M.) 1 

Passionists (C. P.) 39 

Precious Blood, Society of the (C. Pp. S.) 23 

Premonstratensians (O. Praem.) 5 

Redemptorists (C. Ss. R.) 157 

Sacred Heart, Brothers of the (S. C.) 10 

Sacred Heart, Missionaries of the (M. S. C.) 1 

Sacred Hearts, Congregation of the (SS. CC.) 6 

Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of Priests of the (S. C. J.) 14 

St. Columban's Foreign Mission Society (S. S. C.) 21 

St. Edmund, Society of (S. S. E.) 13 

St. Francis* Poor Brothers of (C. F. P.) 4 

Salesians (S. C.) 1 

Salvatorians (S. D. S.) 15 

Stigmatine Fathers (C. P. S.) 5 

Vincentians (C. MO 52 


Religious Order or Community of Women Sisters 

Atonement, Franciscan Sisters of the 27 

Benedictine Sisters of Diocesan Jurisdiction 54 

Benedictine Sisters of Pontifical Jurisdiction 41 

Bernardine Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis 53 

Blessed Sacrament Sisters for Indians and Colored People 347 

Carmelites (Corpus Christi Carmelites) 8 

Carmelite Sisters of the Divine Heart of Jesus 11 

Catholic Medical Missionaries, Society of 11 

Charity, Sisters of, of Cincinnati 9 

Charity, Sisters of (Grey Nuns) 14 

Charity of Providence, Sisters of 5 

Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, Daughters of 36 

Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, Sisters of (Convent Station) 33 

Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, Sisters of (Mt. St. Vincent) 18 

Christian Charity, Sisters of 2 

Christ Our King, Society of 9 

Cordi-Marian Missionary Sisters 20 

Divine Providence, Sisters of 84 

Dominicans (Congregation of the Most Holy Rosary) 11 

Dominicans (Congregation of St. Cecilia) 7 

Dominicans (Congregation of St. Clara) 13 

Dominicans (Congregation of St. Mary of the Springs) 6 

Dominicans (Congregation of the Holy Cross) 21 

Felician Sisters (O. S. F.) 9 

Franciscan Missionaries of Mary 69 

Franciscans (Congregation of the Third Order of St. Francis of 

Mary Immaculate) 10 

Franciscans (Hospital Sisters of the Third Order) 15 

Franciscans (Missionary Sisters of the Third Order of Penance) 15 

Franciscans (Missionary Sisters of the Third Order) 4 

Franciscans (Poor Sisters of St. Francis Seraph of the Perpetual 

Adoration) 8 

Franciscans (School Sisters of St. Francis) 38 

Franciscans (Sisters of the Third Order, Millvale, Pa.) 12 

Franciscans (Sisters of the Third Order, Glen Riddle, Pa.) 30 

Franciscans (Sisters of the Third Order, Pendleton, Ore.) 4 

Franciscans (Sisters of the Third Order, Allegany, N. Y.) 52 

Franciscans (Sisters of the Third Order, Oldenburg, Ind.) 13 

Franciscans (Sisters of the Third Franciscan Order, Minor 

Conventuals) 47 

Franciscans (Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis of the 

Holy Family) 8 

Franciscans (Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and 

Christian Charity) 44 

Franciscans (Sisters of St. Francis of the Perpetual Adoration) . . 13 

Franciscan Sisters of Christian Charity 42 

Franciscan Sisters of Penance and Charity 17 

Holy Child Jesus, Society of the 6 

Holy Cross, Congregation of the Sisters of the (C. S. C.) 10 

Holy Family of Nazareth, Sisters of the 14 

Holy Ghost, Daughters of the 8 

Holy Ghost, Missionary Sisters Servants of the 109 

Holy Ghost, Social Mission Sisters of the 9 

Holy Ghost and Mary Immaculate, Sister-Servants of the 144 

Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the 30 


Immaculate Conception of the Mother of God, 

Missionary Sisters of the 9 

Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, Sisters of 12 

Marist Sisters 63 

Mary Health of the Sick, Daughters of 6 

Maryknoil Sisters 313 

Mercy of the Union, Sisters of 68 

Missionary Catechists of Our Blessed Lady of Victory, Society of 149 

Most Blessed Trinity, Missionary Sisters of the 155 

Most Holy Eucharist, Missionary Servants of the 4 

Most Precious Blood, Sisters Adorers of the 9 

Most Sacred Heart of Jesus of Hiltrup, Missionary Sisters of the 10 

Mother of Perpetual Help, Missionary Sisters of Our 6 

Nardins 1 

Notre Dame, Sisters of 11 

Notre Dame, School Sisters of 48 

Notre Dame de Namur, Sisters of 24 

Pallottine Missionary Sisters 6 

Parish Visitors of Mary Immaculate 71 

Precious Blood, Sisters of the 2 

Providence of St. Mary-of-the-Woods, Sisters of 10 

Sacred Heart, Holy Union of the 5 

Sacred Heart, Mission Helpers of the 22 

Sacred Hearts, Religious of the Holy Union of the 4 

St. Ann, Sisters of 34 

St. Casimir, Sisters of 8 

St. Columban, Missionary Sisters of the 34 

St. Joseph, Sisters of -. . . 25 

St. Joseph of Carondelet, Sisters of 19 

St. Mary of Namur, Sisters of 7 

Salvatorians (Sisters of the Divine Saviour) 15 

Ursuline Nuns (Roman Union) 67 

Ursuline Nuns of the Congregation of Paris 12 

White Sisters (Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of Africa) 11 

Wisdom, Daughters of 4 

(Courtesy of the Rev. Howard Bishop, Director} 

The Home Missioners of America are a society, organized in 1937, 
and now in process of formation under the patronage of the Most Rev- 
erend John T. McNicholas, Archbishop of Cincinnati, with the purpose of 
carrying the Faith to the rural sections of the United States. The Home 
Missioners are interested in the conversion of all of non-Catholic Ameri- 
ca, but they feel that the best place to begin such a work is in the 
rural sections: first, because it is here that the Church is least known 
and most misunderstood; and secondly, because these sections, having 
a much higher birth-rate than the cities, are the population reservoirs of 
the nation. There is also the fact that a very fine American society 
of priests, the Paulists, is already specializing in. convert work in our 

The Home Missioners aim to do for the rural sections of America 
what the Maryknoil Fathers are doing for China, and in broad general 
outline they will follow the Maryknoil pattern of organization. While 
their attention for the present is confined to the formation of a body 
of priests, they aim later on to organize also co-operating communities 
of Brothers and Sisters. 

Their quarterly publication is "The Challenge/' 



A. A. Augustinians of tlie Assump- 
tion (Assumptiomsts). 
A. B. Bachelor of Arts. 
Abp. Archbishop. 

A. D. Anno Domini (Year of Our 

A, M. Master of Arts. 

A. M. D. G. Ad Majorem Dei Gloria 
(For the Greater Glory of God). 

B. A. Bachelor of Arts. 
B. C. Before Christ 

B. C, L. Bachelor of Canon Law, 

or Bachelor of Civil Law. 
Bp. Bishop. 
Bro. Brother. 

B. V. M. Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Card. Cardinal. 

C. C. F. Congregation of the 
Brothers of Charity. 

C. C. J. Congregation of Charity 
of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

C. F. A. Alexian Brothers. 

C. F. C. Brothers of Charity. 

C. F. P. Brothers of the Poor of 
St. Francis. 

C. F. X, Brothers of St. Francis 

C. I. C. M. Congregation of the 
Immaculate Heart of Mary. 

C. J. M. Congregation of Jesus 
and Mary (Eudists). 

C. M. Congregation of the Mis- 
sion (Vincentians, or Lazarists). 

C.M. F. Missionary Sons of the 
Immaculate Heart (Claretians). 

C. M. Mh. Missionaries of Marian- 

Conf . Confessor. 

Cong. Orat. Congregation of the 
Oratory (Oratorians). 

C. P. Congregation of the Passion 

C. Pp. S. Congregation of the 
Most Precious Blood. 

C. P. S. Stigmatine Fathers. 

C. K. Congregation of the Resur- 
rection (Resurrectionist Fathers). 

C. R. Clerks Regular (Theatine 

C. R. C. S. Clerks Regular of the 

Congregation of Somaschi. 
C. R. I. C. Canons Regular of the 

Immaculate Conception. 
C. R. M. D. Clerks Regular of the 

Mother of God. 

C. R. M. I. Clerks Regular Minis- 
tering to the Infirm (Camillians). 
C. S. B. Congregation of St. Basil 

C. S. C. Congregation of the Holy 

C. S. C. B. Congregation of St. 

Charles Borromeo. 
C. S. P. Congregation of St. Paul 

C. SS. CC. Congregation of the 

Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. 
C. Ss. R. Congregation of the 

Most Holy Redeemer (Redemp- 

torists) . 
C. S. Sp. Congregation of the 

Holy Ghost (Holy Ghost Fathers). 

C. S. V. Clerks of St. Viator .(Via- 

D. C. L. Doctor of Canon Law, or 
Doctor of Civil Law. 

D. D. Doctor of Divinity. 

Doct. Doctor. 

D. O. M. Deo Optimo Maximo (To 

God, the Best and Greatest). 
D. V. Deo volente (God willing). 

F. D. P. Sons of Divine Provi- 

F. M. S. Marist Brothers. 

Fr. Father. 

F. S. C. Brothers of the Christian 
Schools (Christian Brothers). 

F. S. C. J. Congregation of the 
Sons of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

I. C. Fathers of the Institute of 

I. C. Brothers of Christian In- 
struction (La Mennais Brothers). 

I. C. Missionary Sisters of the 
Immaculate Conception. 


I. H. S. First three letters of the 
name Jesus in Greek, erroneous- 
ly interpreted as Jesus Hominum 

I. N. R. I. Jesus Nazarenus Rex 

Judaeoram (Jesus of Nazareth, 
King of the Jews). 

J. C. D. Doctor of Canon Law, or 
Doctor of Civil Law. 

J. M. J. Jesus, Mary, Joseph. 

J. U. D. Doctor of Both Laws 
(Civil and Canon). 

Lect. Glis. Phil. (Franciscan degree : 
cf. Ph.D.) Lector General of 

Lect. Glis. S. S. (Franciscan de- 
gree, cf. S. T. D.) Lector Gen- 
eral of Sacred Scripture. 

Lect. Glis. Sac. Theol. (Franciscan 
degree, cf. S. T. D.) Lector 
General of Sacred Theology. 

M. A. Master of Arts. 
M. I. C. Marian Fathers. 

MM. Martyrs. 

M. M. Catholic Foreign Mission 
Society of America, or Mary knoll 

M. M. Foreign Mission Brothers 

of St. Michael. 

M. S. Missionary Fathers of La 

M. S. C. Missionaries of the Sa- 
cred Heart. 

M. S. C. Missionaries of St. Charles. 

M. S. F. Missionaries of the Holy 

Msgr. Monsignor. 

M. S. Ss. T. Missionary Servants 
of the Most Holy Trinity. 






N.C.W.C. National 
Welfare Conference. 

N. D. Our Lady. 

N. T. New Testament. 



C. Order of Charity. 
Camald. Camaldolese Order. 
Carm. Carmelite Order. 
Cart. Carthusian Order. 

C. C. Order of Calced Carmel- 
ites (more popularly O. Carm.). 

C. D. Order of Discalced Car- 

. Cist. Cistercian Order. 

. C. R. Order -of Cistercian Re- 
form, or Trappists. 

. C. S. O. Order of the Cister- 
cians of the Strict Observance 

. D. M. Mercedarian Fathers. 

. F. M. Order of Friars Minor 

F. M. Cap. Order of Friars 
Minor Capuchin. 

. M. Order of Minims. 

. M. C. Order of Friars Minor, 

. M. I. Oblates of Mary Immac- 

. Merced. Order of Mary for the 
Redemption of Captives (Merce- 

. P. Order of Preachers (Do- 

. Praem. Order of Premonstra- 

. R. S. A. Order of Recollects of 
St. Augustine. 

, S. Order of Servites. 
, S. Old Style. 

, S. A. Order of the Hermits of 
St. Augustine (Augustinians). 

S. B. Order of St. Benedict 

. S. B. M. Order of St. Basil the 

, S. C. Oblates of St. Charles. 
, S. Cam. Order of -St. Camillus 
(Camillian Fathers). 

. S. C. R. Canons Regular of the 
Holy Cross (Crosier Fathers). 

. S. F. Missionary Brothers of 
St. Francis. 

O. S. F. C. Order of Friars Minor 
Capuchin of St. Francis. 

O. S. F. S. Oblates of St. Francis 
de Sales. 

O. S. H, Order of St. Jerome 
(Hierony mites) . 

O, S. J. Oblates of St. Joseph. 

O.S.M. Order of the Servants 
of Mary (Servites). 

0. Ss. T. Order of the Most Holy 
Trinity (Trinitarians). 

O. S. U. Order of St. Ursula 
(Ursulines) . 

O. T. Old Testament. 

P. A. Prothonotary Apostolic. 

P.O. Pax Christ! (Peace of 

Pont. Max. Pontifex Maximus 
(Supreme Pontiff). 

P. S. C. J, Society of Priests of 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

P. S. M.~ Pious Society of Mis- 
sions (Pallottine Fathers). 

P. S. S. C. Pious Society of the 
Missionaries of St. Charles. 

Rev. Reverend. 

R. I. P. Requiescat in Pace (May 
he, or she, rest in peace). 

R. M. M. Religious Missionaries 
of Marianhill, 

R. P. Reverendus Pater (Rever- 
end Father). 

R. S. C. J. Religious of the Sacred 

r Rt. Rev. Right Reverend. 

S.A. Franciscan Friars of the 

S. C. Congregation of St. Francis 
de Sales (Salesians). 

S. C. J. Society of Priests of the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

S. P. S. Society of the Divine 

Saviour (Salvatorians). 

S. F. S. C. Brothers of the Sacred 

S.J. Society of Jesus (Jesuits). 

S.M. Society of Mary (Marists). 

S. M. Society of Mary of Paris 
(Marianists) . 

S. M. A. Society of the African 

S. M. M. Fathers of the Company 
of Mary. 

S.O. S.B. - Sylvestrine Benedic- 

S. P. M. Society of the Fathers of 

Sr. Sister. 

S. S. Society of St. Sulpice (Sul- 

S. S. C. Chinese Mission Society 

of St. Columban. 

S. S. C. Society of the Holy 
Cross, an Anglican order. 

Ss. D. N. Our Most Holy Lord; 

also a title of the Pope. 
S. S. B. Society of St. Edmund. 

S.S. J. St. Joseph's Society of the 
Sacred Heart (Josephites). 

S.S. P. Pious Society of St. Paul. 

S. S. S. Society of Fathers of the 
Blessed Sacrament 

S., St.; Sts., SS. Saint; Saints. 

S. T. D. Doctor of Sacred Theol- 

S. T. M. Master of Sacred Theol- 

S. V. D. Society of Fathers of the 
Divine Word. 

T. 0. R. Third Order Regular of 

St. Francis. 

V. F. Vicar Forane. 
V. G. Vicar General. 
Virg. Virgin. 
V. Rev. Very Reverend. 
V. T. Old Testament. 

W.F. White Fathers (Mission- 
aries of Africa). 


(In order of their Importance) 

His Holiness The Pope 

His Eminence Cardinal . . 

{ Bishop 
... \ Priest 
[ Deacon 

Most Reverend Excellency Latin (Western) Patriarchs 

Most Reverend Lord Eastern Patriarchs 

[Apostolic Delegates 

Most Reverend j Archbishops 

[ Bishops 

( Archabbots 

Right Reverend <^ Protonotaries Apostolic 

Domestic Prelates (Monsignors) 

[ Vicars General 

Canons, Provosts 

Papal Chamberlains (Monsignors) 

Very Reverend < Actors of Seminaries, and Heads 

of Colleges 

Provincials of Religious Orders 
Rural Deans 

Priests of Religious Orders 

Reverend \ Secular Priests 

Clerics in Major Orders 


The Pope: 
Holiness, Pope N- 


Most Holy Father 
Addressing a letter: 

ness, Pope 

Concluding a letter 


To His Holi- 

Prostrate at 

the feet of your Holiness, I have 
the honor to profess myself, with 
the most profound respect, Your 
Holiness's most humble servant, 


Your Eminence 

His Eminence (Christian name) 

Cardinal (surname) 
My Lord Cardinal 

(Christian name) Cardinal (sur- 

Concluding a letter: I have the 
honor to be, with profound re- 
spect, Your Eminence's most 

humble servant, 

If he is an Archbishop or Bishop : 

His Eminence Cardinal Archbishop 

His Eminence Cardinal N , 

Archbishop of 

Addressing a letter: His Eminence Excellency 


Patriarchs, Apostolic Delegates 

and Nuncios: 
His Excellency, The Patriarch 

(Archbishop) of 

His Excellency, Monsignor N , 

Patriarch Archbishop of 

Most Reverend Excellency; Your 

His Beatitude, Patriarch of 

(Eastern Patriarchs) 

Your Beatitude; Most Reverend 
Lord (Eastern Patriarchs) 

Your Excellency, (or) His Excel- 
lency (Apostolic Delegates, etc.) 

Letters are addressed and con- 
cluded as for a Cardinal, with 
the exception that the title "Emi- 
nence" is not used, but in its 
place there is substituted the re- 
spective title of the individual 


Your Excellency 

My Lord Archbishop 

My Lord, (or) Your Grace 

Addressing a letter: 

The Most Reverend A B , 

D. D., Archbishop of 

Concluding a letter: I have the 
honor to be, with profound re- 
spect, Your Excellency's most 
obedient servant, 


Your Excellency 

Your Grace; My Lord Bishop; My 


Addressing a letter: 
The Most (or Right) Reverend 
B , D. D., Bishop 


Concluding a letter: I have the 
honor to be Your Excellency's 

very humble servant, 

Note: The titles "Lord" and 
"Lordship" are not in common use 
in the United States. By regulation 
both bishops and archbishops in the 
United States are now called "Your 
Excellency"; "Your Grace" is no 
longer good form. 

Titular Archbishops and Bishops: 

These are best addressed in ex- 
actly the same way as a diocesan 
prelate, but their office may be 
added, e. g. : 
The Right Reverend A- 

Vicar Apostolic of - 


The Lord Abbot of 

Lord, (or) Father Abbot 
Addressing a letter: 


The Right Reverend Dom A 

B , O. S. B. (or otherwise) 

Abbot of 

Concluding a letter: I am, Right 
Rev. Abbot (or Father), Your de- 
voted servant, 


Similarly, substituting Lady Ab- 
bess, Mother Abbess, Dame. 

Protonotaries Apostolic, Domestic 
Prelates and Vicars General: 

Right Reverend Monsignor 


The Right Reverend Monsignor 

A B , Prot. Apos. (or) 

Vic, Gen. 

Addressing a letter: Right Rever- 
end and dear Monsignor 

Concluding a letter: I am, Right 
Rev. Father (or Monsignor), 
Your devoted servant, 

Provosts and Canons: 

The Very Reverend Provost A 


The Very Reverend Canon A 

The Very Reverend A- 


Provost, Canon 

Addressing a letter: The Very Rev- 
erend Provost A ; or Dear 

Canon B 

Papal Chamberlain: 

Very Reverend Monsignor 

The Very Reverend Monsignor 

Addressing a letter: Very Rever- 
end and dear Monsignor 

Concluding a letter: I am, Very 
Rev. Father (or Monsignor), 
Your devoted servant, 

Rectors of Seminaries and 
Heads of Colleges: 

The Very Reverend A B 

(respective title) 

Addressing a letter: Very Rever- 
end and dear Father 

Concluding a letter: I am, Very 

Reverend Father, Respectfully 



'Provincials of Religious Orders: 

The Very Reverend Father Pro- 
vincial, O. F. M. 

The Very Reverend Father A 

3 1 Provincial, S. J. 

The Very Reverend Father 

Addressing a letter: Very Rever- 
end and dear Father Provincial 

Concluding a letter: I am, Very 
Reverend Father Provincial, Obe- 
diently yours 

Conventual Priors and their 

The Very Reverend, the Prior of 

The Very Reverend Father (or 

Dom) A B , O. P. (or, 

otherwise) Prior of 

The Very Reverend Father Guardi- 
an, O. F. M. 

Addressing a letter: Very Rever- 
end Father; or, Dear Father 
Prior; or, Dear Father Guardian; 
Very Reverend and dear Father 
(Prior, Guardian) 

Concluding a letter: I am, Very 
Reverend Father, Respectfully 
(obediently) yours 


Similarly, substituting Prioress, 
Mother, Dame. 

ClaustraS Priors: 

Very Reverend Father; Father 

The Very Reverend Dom A 

B , O.C. 

The Very Reverend Father, Prior, 

Letters are addressed and con- 
cluded as for Conventual Priors. 

The Venerable, 



the Archdeacon 


The Venerable A- 

deacon of 

No Archdeacons, properly 
called, in the United States. 

Rural Deans: 

Are addressed: The Very Rev- 
erend A B , R.D., or V. F. 

Preachers General: 

The Venerable and Very Reverend 

Father A B , O. P., P. G. 

Secular Priests: 


Reverend Sir; Dear Father N 


The Reverend Father A B 

Addressing a letter: Reverend and 
dear Father 

Concluding a letter: I am, Rev- 
erend Father, Respectfully yours 

Religious Priests: 

The Reverend Father A- 
O. F. M. 

Reverend Father; Dear Father 
N (religious name) 

Letters are addressed and con- 
cluded as to secular priests. 

Benedictine and Cistercian Monks 
and Canons Regular, are called 
"Father," but addressed as 
"Dom," thus: The Reverend 
Dom A B , C.R. L. 

Cistercian Monks, as the Venerable 
Father Dom A B , O. Cart. 

Clerics (below the order of 
Priesthood) : 

The Reverend A B 

Reverend Sir; or, Dear Mr. N 

The style of clerics who are 
members of religious orders is 
modified according to their status 
in the order. 



Venerable Brother 
Venerable and dear Brother 




Venerable and dear Sister 



The President: 
If speaking to Mm: Mr. President 

Addressing a letter: The President, 
Washington, D. C. 

Concluding a letter: I have the 
honor to remain, Most respect- 
fully yours 

The Vice-President: 

If speaking to him: Mr. Vice-Presi- 

Addressing a letter: The Vice-Pres- 
ident, Washington, D. C. 

Concluding a letter: I have the 
honor to remain, Most respect- 
fully yours 


If speaking to him: Governor To- 
lan: or Your Excellency 

Addressing a letter: His Excellency 
the Governor, Albany, N. Y., or 
The Honorable A. R. Tolan, Gov- 
ernor of New York. 

Concluding a letter: I have the 
honor to remain, Yours faith- 

U. S. (or State) Senator: 
If speaking to him: Senator Dungan 

Addressing a letter: (social) Sena- 
tor Frederick Dungan (home ad- 
dress); (official business) The 
Honorable Frederick Dungan, 
Senator from Louisiana, Wash., 
D. C. 

Concluding a letter: I have the 
honor to remain, Yours very 

Congressman (also Member of a 
State Legislature) : 

If speaking to him: Mr. Lincoln 
Addressing a letter: The Hon. J. B. 

Lincoln, House of Representa- 
tives, Washington, D. C. 

Concluding a letter: Believe me, 
Yours very truly 

If speaking to him: Mr. Mayor 

Addressing a letter: His Honor, the 
Mayor, City Hall, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Concluding a letter: Believe me. 
Very truly yours 


If speaking to him: Your Majesty 
Addressing a letter: His Most Gra- 
cious Majesty, the King 

Formal beginning of letter: May it 
please Your Majesty: 

Concluding a letter: I remain, Sir, 
with the greatest respect, Your 
Majesty's most obedient serv- 

Member of Royal Family: 

If speaking to him: Your Royal 

Addressing a letter: To His Royal 

Highness, the Duke of Chichester 

Concluding a letter: I remain, Sir, 
with the greatest respect, Your 
Royal Highness' most obedient 

Duke and Duchess: 

If speaking to one or the other: 
Duke (or Duchess) 

Addressing a letter: To His Grace, 
the Duke of Kilkenny (or Her 
Grace, the Duchess) 

Concluding a letter: I have the 
honor to remain, Your Grace's 

obedient servant (or a 

more intimate conclusion if there 
is a close friendship). 



The Catholic Church from its 
very beginning has carried on 
works of charity in some form or 
other. Love of God necessarily de- 
mands love of neighbor. Our Lord 
has made this very clear to us in 
His teachings, especially in the 
parable of the Good Samaritan. 
Charity and faith can never be 
separated. The stronger our faith 
is the more widespread will be our 

There are a large number of 
priests and religious, both Sisters 
and Brothers, who, being so imbued 
with Catholic teaching, are practis- 
ing works of charity in hospitals, 
schools, orphan asylums, homes for 
the aged and institutions for the 
blind and deaf all over the world. 
These men and women are follow- 
ing in the footsteps of Our Saviour, 
and without them our charities 
would be impossible. 

The early Christians gave us 
shining examples of charity. They 
were forgetful of self, because they 
realized that the human possessor 
of goods is only a distributor and 
steward for the Supreme Owner, 
who is God. Their charity even re- 
ceived praise from a Roman Gov- 
ernor who said, "See these Chris- 
tians, how they love one another." 

In the Middle Ages the monas- 
teries were centers of charity. The 
people went to the monasteries for 
relief during the times of famine 
and distress, because they knew 
that in the monasteries the re- 
ligious practised charity for love 
of God. The religious saw in every 
poor person the image of Christ 
Himself. This was particularly so 
with St. Francis of Assisi and his 
Friars, with St. Dominic and his 
followers, and also with the many 
other religious orders. 

After the so-called Reformation 
the "Council of Trent laid down 
certain regulations concerning the 
administration of hospitals and hos- 
pital funds, and reaffirmed the duty 

of the bishops not only to enforce 
these regulations, but to examine 
and oversee all measures for relief 
of the poor. In many portions of 
the Catholic world these ordinances 
soon bore considerable fruit, espe- 
cially in connection with the re- 
establishment of parish relief. The 
greatest name identified with this 
work is that of St. Charles Bor- 
romeo, Bishop of Milan" ("Catho- 
lic Encyclopedia," III, 602). 

An important feature of the pe- 
riod after the Council of Trent was 
the rise of the religious communi- 
ties and other associations to re- 
lieve various kinds of distress. 
Among these were the Brothers of 
Charity, founded by St. John of the 
Cross in Granada, 1534; the hospi- 
tal orders of the Brothers of St. 
Hippoiytus (Mexico, 1585), and the 
Bethlehemites (Guatemala, 1660) ; 
the Daughters of Charity, or Sisters 
of Charity, founded by St. Vincent 
de Paul about the year 1633. "St. 
Vincent's work on behalf of found- 
lings, galley-slaves, and the 
wretched of all descriptions, makes 
him the most remarkable worker 
in tlie field of charity that the world 
has ever known" (ibid.). The Piar- 
ists, whose object is the instruction 
and care of poor children, were in- 
stituted in 1597 by Joseph of Cala- 
sanza. The institute of the Blessed 
Virgin, the "English Ladies," 
founded by Mary Ward in 1611, was 
intended chiefly as a teaching or- 
der though it also has orphan asy- 
lums. The Sisters of the Good Shep- 
herd, devoting themselves to the 
reformation of wayward girls, were 
founded by a Frenchman, Fr. Eudes 
(1642). The Little Sisters of the 
Poor had their origin in the chari- 
table work of a French servant girl, 
Jeanne Jugan, and received the ap- 
probation of the Holy See in 1854. 

The Society of St. Vincent de 
Paul may be classified as the great- 
est lay-organization for the relief 
of the poor and the unfortunate. 


It was started in 1833 by Frederic 
Ozanam and seven other Catholic 
students in Paris. This is a society 
of laymen for the relief of their 
suffering fellowmen. The society is 
usually established in conferences 
which are attached to a parish. The 
members usually live in the neigh- 
borhood of that parish or have 
previously lived in the parish, and 
therefore are thoroughly familiar 
with the particular parish area. 
There are an the United States 
about 2,500 conferences with about 
25,000 active members and 5,000 
honorary members. The first St. 
Vincent de Paul Conference in the 
United States was established in 
the old cathedral parish in St. Louis 
in 1844. 

The founding of child-caring in- 
stitutions dates back to 1548 in 
Mexico City, when the first institu- 
tion called La Caridad was estab- 
lished through a private benefice. 
In 1721 the Ursuline nuns estab- 
lished an orphanage in New Or- 
leans. The period of greatest 
growth in the number of children's 
institutions occurred in New York 
State from 1875 to 1889. 

The care of children has occupied 
a larger place in Catholic welfare 
in the United States than any other 
type of work. Catholic agencies 
now care for 21,500 children in fos- 
ter homes, while there are 300 
child-caring institutions and 110 day 
nurseries. There are 24 homes for 
physically handicapped children and 
6 for those mentally handicapped, 
52 infant asylums and maternity 
hospitals, 50 industrial and techni- 
cal institutions for boys, and 68 
homes for delinquent girls. 

Hospitals were also founded at a 
very early date in America, the 
first one being established in Mexi- 
co City by Cortez in 1532. The first 
Catholic hospital in the United 
States was established at New Or- 
leans in 1720 by private benefice. 

There are in the United States at 
the present time some 689 Catholic 
general hospitals with 260 allied 
agencies and institutions, including 
hospitals for tubercular patients, 
convalescent homes, homes for in- 
curables, hospitals for mental and 

nervous diseases, visiting nurse 
services, etc. There are some 60 
Catholic hospitals with medical so- 
cial service departments. In 1920 
the Catholic Hospital Association 
was formed for the purpose of im- 
proving the care of the sick in hos- 
pitals and to enable the members 
to profit by the experience and 
methods of other hospitals through- 
out the country. It is a voluntary 
organization and any Catholic hos- 
pital is eligible for membership. 

There are many other Catholic 
organizations established in this 
country for carrying on particular 
phases of Catholic charity other 
than those mentioned above. Thus 
numerous Fresh Air Homes are 
maintained for the care of poor 
women and children. There are ap- 
proximately 50 Catholic settlements 
throughout the' country, also nu- 
merous institutions for crippled and 
feeble-minded children and a great 
many homes for the care of the 
deaf and the blind. 

Today you will scarcely find a 
diocese that does not have a Cen- 
tral Bureau of Charities. About 
seventeen years ago Catholic dioc- 
esan Bureaus of Charity began to 
make their appearance throughout 
the country. Each bureau is usual- 
ly under the direction of a priest 
who has had some training in so- 
cial work, and therefore has some 
understanding of the problems that 
arise in the diocese. The appoint- 
ment of the Diocesan Director of 
Catholic Charities is made by the 
bishop. In order to co-ordinate the 
work of the various dioceses 
throughout the country there is the 
National Conference of Catholic 
Charities, 1317 F Street, N. W., 
Washington, D. C. This organiza- 
tion has a membership of approxi- 
mately 3,800 individuals, and 800 
institutional agencies. It has asso- 
ciated with it 80 diocesan offices 
and 100 branch offices. Any per- 
son interested in Catholic Charities 
or anyone wishing to know the 
location of the Bureau of Charities 
in the diocese, may write or tele- 
phone to the C&ancery office of tlie 
diocese for any information con- 
cerning Catholic Charities. 


Education consists essentially in preparing man for what he must do 
and what he must be here below in order to attain the Sublime End for 
which he was created. Education includes all those experiences by which 
the intelligence is developed, knowledge acquired and character formed. 
The foundations are laid in the home, and agencies and institutions for 
that express purpose train a child so as to fit him for the activities and 
duties of life. The purposes and ideals of life as understood by the edu- 
cator are therefore important. The content of education is mankind's 
previous acquisition in various fields, the elements of which vary con- 
siderably in value, and the selection of that which is desirable as mental 
possessions and as means of culture must be subordinated directly, or at 
least indirectly, to the attainment of man's last end. There can be no 
ideally perfect education which is not Christian education. 


The following excerpts from Sec- tary school religious instruction, 

tion XXII of the Code of Canon adapted to the age of the children, 

Law issued in 1918 state the official must be given." 

position of the Catholic Church re- Carson 1374: "Catholic children 

garding education: must not attend non-Catholic, neu- 

Canon 1113: "Parents are bound tral or mixed schools, that is, such 

by a most grave obligation to pro- as are also open to non-Catholics, 

vide to the best of their ability for It is for the bishop of the place 

the religious and moral as well as alone to decide, according to the 

for the physical and civil educa- instructions of the Apostolic See, 

tion of their children, and for their in what circumstances and with 

temporal well-being.*' . what precautions attendance at 

Canon 1372: "From childhood all such schools may be tolerated, with- 

the faithful must be so educated out danger of perversion to the 

that not only are they taught noth- Pupils." 

ing contrary to faith and morals, Canon 1375: "The Church has the 

but that religious and moral train- right to establish schools of every 

ing takes the chief place." grade, not only elementary schools, 

Canon 1373: "In every elemen- but also high schools and colleges." 


1 Parents are responsible for the training of their children. 

2 Parents may be assisted by the Church, the State, private societies or 

individuals in fulfilling this duty. 

3 Teachers have their authority to teach by delegation from the parents. 

4 The Church has the right to demand of the parents that their chil- 

dren be trained in religion and morality. 

5 Since such training is not given in non-Catholic schools, parents who 

send their children to such schools are bound under pain of mortal 
sin to supply such training fully and adequately. 

g Since most parents are unable to supply full and adequate religious 
training to their children, it becomes in most cases their obligation 
to send the children to Catholic schools. 

7 Parents may send their children to non-Catholic schools only when 

such practice is tolerated by the bishop of the diocese. 

8 The State has the right to demand that the child be prepared for 

his duties as a citizen. Such training is given In parochial as well 
as public schools. 



Law Promulgated by Third 
In 1884 the following law was 
promulgated by the Third Plenary 
Council of Baltimore: 

"Near every church where there 
is no parochial school one shall be 
established within two years after 
the promulgation of this Council, 
and shall be perpetually maintain- 
ed, unless the bishop for serious 
reasons sees fit to allow delay. 
"All parents shall be bound to 

Pronouncements of Pastoral 

The following are some of the 
pronouncements of the Pastoral 
Letter issued by the Hierarchy of 
the United States in 1919: 

"The Church in our country is ob- 
liged, for the sake of principle, to 
maintain a system of education dis- 
tinct and separate from other sys- 
tems. It is supported by the volun- 
tary contributions of Catholics who, 
at the same time, contribute as re- 
quired by law to the maintenance 
of the public schools. It engages in 
the service of education a body of 
teachers who consecrate their lives 
to this high calling; and it pre- 
pares, without expense to the state, 
a considerable number of Ameri- 
cans to live worthily as citizens of 
the republic. 

"Our system is based on certain 
convictions that grow stronger as 
we observe the testing of all edu- 
cation, not simply by calm theoretic 
discussion, but by the crucial ex- 
perience of recent events. It should 
not have required the pitiless 
searching of war to determine the 
value of any theory or system, but 
since that rude test has been so 
drastically applied and with such 
unmistakable results, we judge it 
opportune to restate the principles 
which serve as the basis of Catho- 
lic education. 

"First: The right of the child to 
receive education and the correla- 
tive duty of providing it are estab- 
lished on the fact that man has a 
soul created by God and endowed 
with capacities which need to be 
developed, for the good of the in- 

Plenary Council of Baltimore 
send their children to a parochial 
school, unless it is evident that 
such children obtain a sufficient 
Christian education at home, or un- 
less they attend some other Catho- 
lic school, or unless, for sufficient 
cause approved by the Bishop, with 
proper cautions and remedies duly 
applied, they attend another school. 
It is left to the Ordinary to decide 
what constitutes a Catholic school." 

Letter of the Hierarchy in 1919 

dividual and the good of society. 
In its highest meaning, therefore, 
education is a cooperation by hu- 
man agencies with the Creator for 
the attainment of His purpose in 
regard to the individual who is to 
be educated, and in regard to the 
social order of which he is a mem- 
ber. Neither self-realization alone 
nor social service alone is the end 
of education, but rather these two 
in accordance with God's design, 
which gives to each of them its 
proportionate value. Hence it fol- 
lows that education is essentially 
and inevitably a moral activity in 
the sense that it undertakes to sat- 
isfy certain claims through the ful- 
filment of certain obligations. This 
is true independently of the manner 
and means which constitute the ac- 
tual process; and it remains true, 
whether recognized or disregarded 
in educational practice, whether 
this practice include the teaching 
of morality, or exclude it, or try to 
maintain a neutral position. 

"Second: Since the child is en- 
dowed with physical, intellectual 
and moral capacities, all these must 
be developed harmoniously. An 
education that quickens the intelli- 
gence and enriches the mind with 
knowledge, but fails to develop the 
will and direct it to the practice of 
virtue, may produce scholars, but 
it cannot produce good men. The 
exclusion of moral training from 
the educative process is more, dan- 
gerous in proportion to the thor- 
oughness with which the intellec- 
tual powers are developed, because 


it gives the impression that moral- 
ity is of little importance, and thus 
sends the pupil into life with a false 
idea which is not easily corrected. 

"Third: Since the duties we owe 
our Creator take precedence of all 
other duties, moral training must 
accord the first place to religion, 
that is, to the knowledge of God 
and His law, and must cultivate a 
spirit of obedience to His com- 
mands. The performance, sincere 
and complete, of religious duties, 
ensures the fulfilment of other ob- 

"Fourth: Moral and religious 
training is most efficacious when it 
is joined with instruction in other 
kinds of knowledge. It should so 
permeate these that its influence 
will be felt in every circumstance 
of life, and be strengthened as the 
mind advances to a fuller acquaint- 
ance with nature and a riper experi- 
ence with the realities of human 

"Fifth: An education that unites 
intellectual, moral and religious ele- 
ments is the best training for citi- 
zenship. It inculcates a sense of 
responsibility, a respect for author- 
ity and a considerateness for the 
rights of others which are the 
necessary foundations of civic vir- 
tue more necessary where, as in 
a democracy, the citizen, enjoying 
a larger freedom, has a greater ob- 
ligation to govern himself. We are 
convinced that, as religion and mor- 

ality are essential to right living 
and to the public welfare, both 
should be included in the work of 
education. . . . 

"With great wisdom our Ameri- 
can Constitution provides that ev- 
ery citizen shall be free to follow 
the dictates of his conscience in 
the matter of religious belief and 

observance And since education 

is so powerful an agency for the 
preservation of religion, equal free- 
dom should be secured to both. This 
is the more needful where the 
State refuses religious instruction 
any place in its schools. To compel 
the attendance of all children at 
these schools would be practically 
equivalent to an invasion of the 
rights of conscience, in respect of 
those parents who believe that re- 
ligion forms a necessary part of 

"Our Catholic schools are not es- 
tablished and maintained with any 
idea of holding our children apart 
from the general body and spirit 
of American citizenship. They are 
simply the concrete form in which 
we exercise our rights as free citi- 
zens, in conformity with the dic- 
tates of conscience. Their very 
existence is a great moral fact in 
American life. For while they aim, 
openly and avowedly, to preserve 
our Catholic faith, they offer to all 
people an example of the use of 
freedom for the advancement of 
morality and religion." 

History of Catholic Education In the United States 

The Catholic faith and Catholic 
education were first brought to 
America by Spanish and French 
settlers and by English colonists in 
Maryland. By the end of the six- 
teenth century Franciscan mission- 
aries had begun educational work 
in Florida; in 1606 a classical 
school was established at St. Au- 
gustine. Soon after Franciscan 
schools for Indians and Spanish 
were founded in the Southwest, in 
Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. ' 
In Maine French Capuchins were 
teaching the Indians before 1640. 
In Maryland the Jesuits established 
a grammar school in 1640, a col- 

lege at Newton in 1677, antedated 
only by Harvard, and a classical 
school at Bohemia Manor in 1744. 
About this time they extended their 
labors into Pennsylvania and the 
"mother of all the parochial schools 
in the English-speaking colonies," 
St. Mary's, was founded by the 
Jesuits at Philadelphia in 1782. 
Among those who zealously pro- 
moted education in Maryland and 
Pennsylvania were Archbishop Car- 
roll, Archbishop Neale, the Jesuits, 
Frs. White, Wapeler, Schneider, 
Farmer, Hitter and Molyneux, and 
the Sulpician, Fr. Gallitzin. 

The first missionaries on the 


California peninsula (Lower Cali- 
fornia) were Franciscans; forced 
to leave because of adverse cir- 
cumstances, they were succeeded 
by the Jesuits. Likewise the Fran- 
ciscans were the first to teach in 
what is now California proper. 
Notable among the Franciscans 
in California were Frs. Junipero 
Serra and Francis Lazuen. In 
Detroit, soon after its founding in 
1703, the Franciscans and Jesuits 
taught successively. There were 
schools in Mackinaw, Mich., and 
Kaskaskia, 111., before 1720, and by 
the end of the eighteenth century 
a complete system of Catholic 
schools was developing in Detroit. 
The Sulpician, Fr. Gabriel Richard, 
was particularly zealous in his la- 
bors in the cause of education and 
he was one of the founders in 1817 
of the University of Michigan, of 
which he and the Rev. John Mon- 
teith were the entire faculty. 

About 1780 there were French 
schools further west, at Vincennes 
and St. Louis. In the Middle West 
Fr. Gibault labored earnestly. Ca- 
tholics established the first school 
in Kentucky, where Frs. Nerinckx 
and Badin were notable for their 
zeal. The first free school in the 
District of Columbia was founded 
by Catholics. The first parish school 
in New York City was St. Peter's 
Free School established in 1800. 

The first convent of nuns in the 
United States wa