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Proceedings and Addresses, 59t 

AUGUST 1962 


All who are interested in the welfare of Catholic educational work are 
invited to become members of the National Catholic Educational Associ- 
ation. It is the desire of the Executive Board that the membership be in- 
creased so that the organization may represent a powerful influence in 
favor of religious education in America. 

Support: The expenses of the Association are raised by the annual dues 
of the members, and by contributions from those who have taken a particu- 
lar interest in the work. Membership dues are as follows: 

Sustaining Membership: Anyone desiring to receive the publications of 
many departments of the Association may become a sustaining member. 
The annual fee for such membership is $25.00. 

Major Seminary Dues: Each Seminary in the Major Seminary Depart- 
ment pays an annual fee of $25.00. 

Minor Seminary Dues: Each Minor Seminary in the Minor Seminary 
Department pays an annual fee of $25.00. 

College and University Dues: Constituent Membership — Each college or 
university with an enrollment of 1,500 or over pays an annual fee of 
$150.00; institutions with enrollment between 1,000 and 1,499 pay $125.00 
annually; institutions with enrollment between 500 and 999 pay $100.00 
annually; institutions with enrollment of less than 500 pay $75.00 annually. 
Associate Membership — Institutions holding Associate Membership pay 
$25.00 per year. 

School Superintendents Dues: Each Superintendent in the School Super- 
intendents Department pays an annual fee of $10.00. 

Secondary School Dues: Each institutional member in the Secondary 
School Department pays an annual fee of $10.00. 

Elementary School Dues: Each institutional member in the Elementary 
School Department pays an annual fee of $10.00. 

Special Education Dues: Each institutional member in the Special Educa- 
tion Department pays an annual fee of $5.00. 

Supervisors Dues: Each member of the Supervisors Section pays an 
annual fee of $10.00. 

Individual Membership: Anyone interested in the work of Catholic edu- 
cation may become a member of the Association. Individual membership, 
however, should not be a substitute for institutional membership; for 
example, staff members of Catholic educational institutions may become 
individual members, but not in place of institutional membership of their 
schools. The annual fee for individual membership in all departments, 
except Sustaining, School Superintendents and Supervisors, is $4.00. 

Publications: The Association issues a quarterly Bulletin published in 
February, May, August, and November of each year. The August Bulletin 
includes the Proceedings of the Annual Meeting. These Bulletins and 
special publications are sent to all members. 

General Office of the National Catholic Educational Association 
1785 Massachusetts Avenue, N. W., Washington 6, D. C. 

The Bulletin is published quarterly by the National Catholic Educational Association. 
Subscription price, $3.00 per year. Annual individual membership fee in the Association 
including Bulletin, $4.00. Office of the Executive Secretary, 1785 Massachusetts Ave- 
nue, N. W., Washington 6, D. C. The National Catholic Educational Association 
Bulletin is indexed in The Education Index of the H. W. Wilson Co. as well as in 
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Fostering the 
Ecumenical Spirit 






Vol. LIX August 1962 No. 1 

Nihil Obstat: 

Censor Deputatus 


is fr 




it a book or pamphlet 
ined therein that those 
?ree with the content, 


Officers for the Year 1962-63 

President General: Most Rev. John P. Cody, D.D., New Orleans, La. 

Vice Presidents General: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frank M. Schneider, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Rev. Edmond A. Fournier, Detroit, Mich. 

Very Rev. Armand H. Desautels, A.A., Worcester, Mass. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Carl J. Ryan, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Edmund J. Goebel, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Paul E. Campbell, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Sylvester J. Holbel, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Executive Secretary: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt, Washington, D.C. 

General Executive Board: 

Very Rev. Msgr. John E. Murphy, Little Rock, Ark. 

Very Rev. James A. Laubacher, S.S., Baltimore, Md. 

Very Rev. John McQuade, S.M., New Orleans, La. 

Rev. Robert C. Newbold, Warwick Neck, R.I. 

Very Rev. Herman Romoser, O.S.B., St. Meinrad, Ind. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Louis E. Riedel, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Alfred F. Horrigan, Louisville, Ky. 

Dr. William H. Conley, Notre Dame, Ind. 

Very Rev. Vincent C. Dore, O.P., Providence, R.I. 

Rev. Richard Kleiber, Green Bay, Wis. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Anthony Egging, Grand Island, Neb. 

Very Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Brother E. Anthony, F.S.C., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brother Bartholomew, C.F.X., Newton Highlands, Mass. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. T. Leo Keaveny, St. Cloud, Minn. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. William E. McManus, Chicago, 111. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Paul Haverty, New York, N.Y. 

Brother Bernard Peter, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 

Rev. Daniel Kirwin, Wheeling, W.Va. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. James E. Hoflich, St. Louis, Mo. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Felix Newton Pitt, Louisville, Ky. 


President: Very Rev. Msgr. John E. Murphy, Little Rock, Ark. 
Vice President: Rev. Thomas W. Coyle, C.Ss.R., Oconomowoc, Wis. 
Secretary: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Lawrence J. Riley, Brighton, Mass. 

General Executive Board: 

Very Rev. James A. Laubacher, S.S., Baltimore, Md. 
Very Rev. John McQuade, S.M., New Orleans, La. 


President: Rev. Robert C. Newbold, Warwick Neck, R.I. 
Vice President: Rev. Donald J. Ryan, CM., St. Louis, Mo. 
Secretary: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Ralph M. Miller, Buffalo, N.Y. 

General Executive Board: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Louis E. Riedel, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Very Rev. Herman Romoser, O.S.B., St. Meinrad, Ind. 


iv National Catholic Educational Association 


President: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Alfred F. Horrigan, Louisville, Ky. 
Vice President: Brother Gregory, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 
Secretary: Dr. Richard A. Matre, Chicago, 111. 

General Executive Board: 

Very Rev. Vincent C. Dore, O.P., Providence, R.I. 
Dr. William H. Conley, Notre Dame, Ind. 

Department Executive Committee: 
Ex officio Members: 

The President, Vice President, and Secretary 

Very Rev. Armand H. Desautels, A.A., Worcester, Mass., Vice President General 
representing College and University Department. 

Very Rev. Vincent C. Dore, O.P., Providence, R.I., Department Representative 
on General Executive Board. 

Dr. William H. Conley, Notre Dame, Ind., Past President and Department Rep- 
resentative on General Executive Board. 

Rev. Arthur A. North, S.J., New York, N.Y., Secretary of Committee on Grad- 
uate Study. 

Very Rev. Gerald E. Dupont, S.S.E., Winooski, Vt., Secretary of Committee on 

Non-voting Members: 

Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J., Washington, D.C., Associate Secretary 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Julius W. Haun, Winona, Minn. 

Rev. Cyril F. Meyer, CM., Northampton, Pa. 

Brother A. Potamian, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 

Brother Bonaventure Thomas, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 

Very Rev. Paul C. Reinert, S.J., St. Louis, Mo. 

General Members: 

Rev. Edward A. Doyle, S.J., New Orleans, La. 1 

Sister M. Rose Emmanuella, Oakland, Calif. I lacog? 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. John J. Dougherty, South Orange, N.J. 

Sister Mary Josetta, R.S.M., Chicago, 111. J 

Sister Anastasia Maria, I.H.M., Immaculata, Pa. ~\ 

Dr. C. Joseph Nuesse, Washington, D.C. I \^q_^a 

Very Rev. Paul L. O'Connor, S.J., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. James P. Shannon, St. Paul, Minn. J 

Sister M. Augustine, O.S.F., Milwaukee, Wis. "j 

Very Rev. Laurence V. Britt, S.J., Detroit, Mich. I jogigc 

Dr. James A. Hart, Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Joseph Hogan, CM., Jamaica, N.Y. J 

Very Rev. Michael P. Walsh, S.J., Chestnut Hill, Mass. 1 

Very Rev. William F. Kelley, S.J., Milwaukee, Wis. I iq62_66 

Sister Joan Marie, S.N.J.M., Oakland, Calif. 

Very Rev. Brian J. Egan, O.S.B., St. Bernard, Ala. J 

Regional Unit Members: 
Sister Ann Bartholomew, S.N.D., Boston, Mass. "1 . 

Very Rev. Vincent C Dore, O.P., Providence, R.I. / wew fcn 8 lana 

Dr. George F. Donovan, Washington, D.C. 1 _ 

Very Rev. Henry J. McAnulty, C.S.Sp., Pittsburgh, Pa. J t^K™ 

Officers: 1962-63 

Brother Raymond Fleck, C.S.C., Austin, Tex. "I . 

Sister Mary Eugene, O.P., New Orleans, La. J southern 





Brother Julius Edgar, F.S.C., Winona, Minn. 
Dr. Martin J. Lowery, Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Frank Costello, S.J., Seattle, Wash. 
Sister M. Jean Frances, O.P., Edmunds, Wash. 

Rev. Alexis Mei, S.J., Santa Clara, Calif. 
Sister M. Humiliata, I.H.M., Los Angeles, Calif. 


Chairman: Brother Louis Faerber, S.M., Dayton, Ohio 
Vice Chairman: Dr. James Donnelly, New York, N.Y. 
Secretary: Sister Rosemary Pfaff, D.C., Emmitsburg, Md. 


Chairman: Rev. Mother Mary Regina, R.S.M., Bethesda, Md. 

Vice Chairman: Rev. Mother Kathryn Marie, C.S.C., Notre Dame, Ind. 

Executive Secretary: Sister Annette, C.S.J. , Washington, D.C. 


Chairman: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Alexander Sigur, Lafayette, La. 
Vice Chairman: Rev. John F. Bradley, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Secretary: Rev. William D. Borders, Baton Rouge, La. 


President: Rev. Richard Kleiber, Green Bay, Wis. 

Vice President: Very Rev. Msgr. Bennett Applegate, Columbus, Ohio 

Secretary: Very Rev. Msgr. R. C. Ulrich, Omaha, Neb. 

General Executive Board: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Anthony Egging, Grand Island, Neb. 
Very Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Department Executive Committee: 
Ex officio Members: 
The President, Vice President, and Secretary 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Anthony Egging, Grand Island, Neb. 
Very Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. O'Neil C. D'Amour, Washington, D.C, Associate Secretary 

General Members: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Carl J. Ryan, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Rev. William B. McCartin, Tucson, Ariz. 

Very Rev. Msgr. M. F. McAuliffe, Kansas City-St. Joseph, Mo. 

Rev. William M. Roche, Rochester, N.Y. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Henry C. Bezou, New Orleans, La. 


Chairman: Sister Mary Leonella, C.S.C., Salt Lake City, Utah 
Vice Chairman: Sister Mary Philip, R.S.M., Baltimore, Md. 
Secretary: Sister Mary Celine, O.S.F., Rockford, HI. 

Advisory Board: 

Community Supervisors: Sister Hilda Marie, O.P., Chicago, 111. 
Brother Bernard Gregory, F.M.S., Bronx, N.Y. 

vi National Catholic Educational Association 

Diocesan Supervisors: Sister M. Bernard, O.L.M., Charleston, S.C. 

Sister M. Eleanor, S.S.M., Irving, Tex. 
Special Subject Supervisor: Sister M. Antonine, C.S.J., Brighton, Mass. 
Director of Education for Religious Community; Rev. Lorenzo Reed, S.J., 

New York, N.Y. 
Director of Teacher Education: Sister M. Philomene, S.L., Webster 

Groves, Mo. 
President of Department of School Superintendents: Rev. Richard Kleiber, 

Green Bay, Wis. 


President: Brother E. Anthony, F.S.C., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Vice President: Very Rev. Msgr. Henry Gardner, Kansas City, Kan. 

Secretary: Rev. John Doogan, Seattle, Wash. 

General Executive Board: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. T. Leo Keaveny, St. Cloud, Minn. 
Brother Bartholomew, C.F.X., Newton Highlands, Mass. 

Department Executive Committee: 
Ex officio Members: 

The President, Vice President, and Secretary 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Edmund J. Goebel, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. T. Leo Keaveny, St. Cloud, Minn. 

Brother Bartholomew, C.F.X., Newton Highlands, Mass. 

Rev. C. Albert Koob, O. Praem., Washington, D.C., Associate Secretary 

General Members: 

Very Rev. Msgr. Roman C. Ulrich, Omaha, Neb. 

Rev. Joseph T. O'Keefe, Yonkers, N.Y. 

Rev. Lorenzo K. Reed, S.J., New York, N.Y. 

Rev. Joseph Lynn, O.S.F.S., Wilmington, Del. 

Rev. John E. O'Connell, O.P., Oak Park, 111. 

Rev. Gerard Benson, O.Carm., Houston, Tex. 

Rev. John Sullivan, S.J., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Cuthbert Soukup, O.S.B., Collegeville, Minn. 

Brother Bernard Gregory, F.M.S., Bronx, N.Y. 

Brother Thomas More, C.F.X., Baltimore, Md. 

Brother Edwin Goerdt, S.M., St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother Alfonso Comeau, C.S.C., Gates Mills, Ohio 

Brother John Darby, S.M., Chester, Pa. 

Brother Joseph McKenna, F.S.C.H., West Roxbury, Mass. 

Brother Jude Aloysius, F.S.C., Chicago, 111. 

Brother C. O'Donnell, F.S.C.H., Butte, Mont. 

Brother J. Stephen, F.S.C., Memphis, Tenn. 

Sister M. Elaine, S.S.N.D., Houston, Tex. 

Sister M. Elizabeth, S.L., Denver, Colo. 

Sister Francis Inez, S.S.J., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sister M. Hildegardis, C.S.C., Ogden, Utah. 

Sister M. Patrice, O.S.F., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sister M. Xavier, O.P., River Forest, 111. 

Sister M. Paulita, O.S.F., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sister M. Jerome, O.S.U., Youngstown, Ohio 

Officers: 1962-63 vii 


New England 













Regional Unit Members: 

Brother Marcellus, C.F.X., Roxbury, Mass. 
Rev. Thomas E. Lawton, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Brother Benjamin Benedict, F.S.C., Lincroft, N.J. 
Sister M. Christopher, R.S.M., Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. Walter C. McCauley, S.J., Dallas, Tex. 
Brother Kerric Dever, C.S.C., Miami, Fla. 

Rev. David Murphy, O.Carm., Chicago, 111. 
Rev. Joseph A. Coyne, O.S.A., Tulsa, Okla. 

Sister Ann Dolores, F.C.S.F., Missoula, Mont. 
Rev. John Doogan, Seattle, Wash. 

Brother Eugene, F.S.C., Sacramento, Calif. 

Brother Herman J. Gerber, S.M., San Francisco, Calif. 

Prof. George Chang, Honolulu, Hawaii 
Sister M. Lucy, SS.CC, Honolulu, Hawaii 


President: Rt. Rev. Msgr. William E. McManus, Chicago, 111. 

Vice Presidents: 

Very Rev. Msgr. Ignatius A. Martin, Lafayette, La. 
Brother Arthur Philip, F.S.C., Yonkers, N.Y. 
Sister Marie Theresa, S.C., New York, N.Y. 
Sister Mary Edward, P.B.V.M., Dubuque, Iowa 
Very Rev. Msgr. James B. Clyne, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Secretary: Sister Jean Clare, O.P., Rockville Centre, N.Y. 

General Executive Board: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Paul Haverty, New York, N.Y. 
Brother Bernard Peter, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 

Department Executive Committee: 
Ex officio Members: 

The President, Vice President, and Secretary 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Paul Haverty, New York, N.Y. 

Brother Bernard Peter, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 

Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M., Washington, D.C., Associate Secretary 

Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D., Washington, D.C., Assistant Secretary 

General Members: 

Very Rev. Msgr. Leo E. Hammerl, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Rev. John Sweeney, Peoria, 111. 

Rev. Wm. O. Goedert, Chicago, 111. 

Brother Albert William, F.S.C., Bronx, N.Y. 

Sister Euphrasia, O.S.F., Tiffin, Ohio 

Sister Stanislaus Marie, S.N.J. M., Alhambra, Calif. 

Sister Leonella, C.S.C., Salt Lake City, Utah 

Sister Petrine, S.S.N.D., Irving, Tex. 

Sister Mary Esther, C.P.P.S., St. Louis, Mo. 

Sister Anne Louise, C.S.J., Los Angeles, Calif. 



National Catholic Educational Association 

Very Rev. Msgr. James B. Clyne, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Rev. Joseph Stremel, Dodge City, Kan. 
Very Rev. Msgr. H. Clinton Teacle, Alexandria, La. 
Brother Celestin George, F.S.C., Yonkers, N.Y. 
Sister Barbara, C.P.P.S., Cincinnati, Ohio 
Sister Helen Julia, S.N.D., Waltham, Mass. 
Mother Frances Theresa, C.C.V.I., San Antonio, Tex. 
Sister Jeanne Marie, F.C.S.P., Issaquah, Wash. 
Sister Mary Rose Esther, B.V.M., Chicago, 111. 
Sister Loretella, C.S.C., Boston, Mass. 
Miss Alberta Beeson, Tucson, Ariz. 

Very Rev. Msgr. J. William Lester, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Rev. Armand E. Cyr, Portland, Me. 

Rev. J. F. McManus, Charleston, S.C. 

Brother Basilian Amedy, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 

Sister Mary Edward, S.S.J., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Sister Eugene Joseph, S.S.J. , Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sister Francis de Sales, H.H.M., Cleveland, Ohio 

Sister Francis Eileen, S.L., Denver, Colo. 

Sister Jean Clare, O.P., Rockville Centre, N.Y. 

Mrs. Nancy McCormick Rambusch, Greenwich, Conn. 

Very Rev. Msgr. Thomas W. Lyons, Washington, D.C. 
Sister M. Celine, O.S.B., Miami, Fla. 
Sister Sarah, S.C.L., Helena, Mont. 
Sister M. Virgine, I.H.M., Detroit, Mich. 





President: Rev. Daniel Kirwin, Wheeling, W.Va. 

Vice President: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Sylvester J. Holbel, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Secretary: Sister Serena, New York, N.Y. 

General Executive Board: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Felix Newton Pitt, Louisville, Ky. 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. James E. Hoflich, St. Louis, Mo. 

Department Executive Committee : 
Ex officio Members: 
The President, Vice President, and Secretary 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Felix Newton Pitt, Louisville, Ky. 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. James E. Hoflich, St. Louis, Mo. 
Very Rev. Msgr. Elmer H. Behrmann, St. Louis, Mo., Associate Secretary 

General Members: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Henry C. Bezou, New Orleans, La. 

Sister Joseph Mary, S.N.D., Washington, D.C. 

Rev. Thomas J. O'Brien, Kansas City, Mo. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. John J. Voight, New York, N.Y. 

Rev. Francis R. LoBianco, Newark, N.J. 

Sister Celine, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Sister Ann Columba, Jamaica, N.Y. 

Officers: 1962-63 ix 


Chairman: Rev. Myles Colgan, O. Carm., Chicago, 111. 
Vice Chairman: Rev. William J. Martin, Toledo, Ohio 
Secretary: Brother Thomas Caffrey, S.M., Mineola, N.Y. 

Advisory Board: 

Brother Eymard Salzman, C.S.C., Notre Dame, Ind. 

Rev. Vincent Howard, Detroit, Mich. 

Rev. Michael McLaughlin, Rockville Centre, N.Y. 

Rev. Francis A. McKay, M.M., Maryknoll, N.Y. 

Sister M. Patricia, R.S.M., Omaha, Neb. 

Sister Mary Rita, C.S.J., La Grange Park, 111. 


NCEA Officers, 1962-63 iii 

Introduction xvi 


Meetings of the Executive Board of Directors, 1961-62 1 

Report of the Executive Secretary. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt 14 


Opening Meeting, April 24, 1962 

Sermon. Solemn Pontifical Mass. Rev. Edmond A. Fournier 22 

The Lay Teacher in Catholic Education. William H. Conley 25 

Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit. Most Rev. John F. Dearden 31 

Closing Meeting, April 27, 1962 

Summary of 1962 Meeting. Very Rev. Laurence V. Britt, S.J 35 

Remarks of Acceptance of Office of President General. Archbishop John Cody... 39 

General Meetings: Minutes. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt 41 


Preparation of Diocesan Priests for Teaching in High Schools and Colleges. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Robert H. Krumholtz 45 

The Nature and the Purpose of the Communications Program in the Seminary. 

Very Rev. Msgr. Leonard J. Fick 52 

Developing an Intellectual Tradition in the Seminary. Rev. Eugene M. Burke, 

C.S.P 58 

Teaching the Dogma Course: Scripture and Authority of the Church. Very 

Rev. Edward J. Hogan, S.S 65 

An Analysis and Evaluation of Seminary Administration. Very Rev. Edward 

F. Riley, CM 69 

Formation of Seminarians Toward a Diocesan Spirituality. Rev. Sergius 

Wroblewski, O.F.M 76 

Celibacy: Motivation and Some Problems. Very Rev. Edward J. Carney, O.S.F.S. 83 

Proceedings and Reports 

Minutes: 1962 Meetings 92 

Resolutions 97 

Officers, 1962-63 97 



Background and Preparation Needed for the Office of Spiritual Director. Very 

Rev. James R. Gillis, O.P 98 

Judging the Character of a Seminarian. Most Rev. John F. Whealon 103 

Today's Religious Candidate: Psychological and Emotional Considerations. Rev. 

George Hagmaier, C.S.P 110 

An Approach to Present Vocational Problems and Their Solutions. Brother 

H. Bernard, F.S.C 118 

The Spiritual Nature of Today's Religious Candidate. Rev. Thomas Murphy 123 

Seminarian Responsibility: Scope and Means. Very Rev. Donald J. Ryan, CM. 128 
A Remedial and Developmental Reading Program in the Minor Seminary. 

Rev. Hugh J. Biggar 131 

Notes on Discussion of Papers. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Ralph M. Miller 136 

Proceedings and Reports 

Resolutions 137 

Proposed Bylaws 138 

Officers, 1962-63 141 


Ecumenism as a Catholic Concern. Rev. Avery Dulles, S.J 142 

Catholic Higher Education and the Ecumenical Spirit. Raymond F. McCoy .... 150 

Christian Higher Education Faces the Future. Rev. Thurston N. Davis, S.J 154 

The Ecumenical Spirit in the Curriculum: The World Viewpoint 

Summary of Discussion. Sister Mary Agnes, R.S.M 159 

Catholic Colleges and the Emerging New Nations. Thomas P. Me lady 160 

Summary of Discussion. Sister Marie Christine, G.N.S.H 164 

College Theology and the Ecumenical Spirit: Preparation for the Dialogue. 

Rev. Bernard J. Cooke, S.J 166 

Summary of Discussion. Sister Stella Maris, O.P 170 

The Open Tradition in Catholic Scholarship. Philip Scharper 172 

Summary of Discussion. Sister Joan Marie, O.S.U 174 

Ecumenism and the Community Spirit: Preparing Students for Intelligent Lay 

Leadership. Sister M. Stephanie Stueber, C.S.J 175 

Summary of Discussion. Francis J. Donohue 180 

Newman Clubs and Ecumenism on the Secular Campus. Rev. George Garrelts 181 

Summary of Discussion. Rev. William D. Borders 184 

Sister Formation Section 

Formation of the Sister for Her Apostolic Mission in the Church. Rev. Ron- 
ald Roloff, O.S.B 185 

In-Service Formation of Sisters for Understanding Different National Groups. 

Mother Loretto Bernard 192 

Orientation and Post-Orientation for Junior Sisters from Mission Countries. 

Sister M. Charitina, F.S.P.A 198 

Scriptural Formation and Ecumenism. Mother Kathryn Sullivan, R.S.C.J 202 

Utilizing Community Educational Conferences for Fostering the Ecumenical 

Spirit. Sister Mary Magdalene, O.P 208 

An Experiment in Promoting Participation of Hospital Sisters in Professional 

Organizations. Sister Madeleine Clemence 211 

Ecumenical Significance of the Sister Formation Fellowship Project. Sister 

Margaret, S.N.D 212 

Letter from Augustine Cardinal Bea 215 

xii Contents 

International Student Program 

The Foreign Student in the United States: The Wien Program at Brandeis 

University. Jean-Pierre Barricelli 218 

Committee on Graduate Study 

The Catholic University and Ecumenism. Heinrich A. Rom men 223 

The Catholic University and Ecumenism. James P. Reilly, Jr 227 

Section on Teacher Education 

Catholic Institutions Accredited by NCATE. Urban H. Fleege 231 

NCATE Criteria, Policy, and Implications. Sister M. Camille, O.S.F 232 

NCATE and the Large University. Rev. Carl A. Hangartner, S.J 240 

Accreditation of a Small Liberal Arts College for Women. Sister M. Virginia 

Claire, S.N.J.M 241 

Experience in Securing NCATE Accreditation in a Large Liberal Arts Col- 
lege. Sister M. Cuthbert, I.H.M 244 

Joint Conference: College and University and Secondary School 

Cooperation Between College Registrars and High School Counselors and Ad- 
ministrators. Brother Lawrence McGervey, S.M 248 

Meeting for Representatives of Junior Colleges 

What the Lord Said to Israel. Very Rev. John F. Cullinan, V.F 251 

Proceedings and Reports 

Amendment to Bylaws Providing Associate Membership for Newman Clubs 257 

Report of the Committee on Membership 257 

Officers, 1962-63 258 


Supervisors Section 

The Supervisor's Role in Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit. Brother Majella 

Hegarty, C.S.C 259 

What the Supervisor Does for Public Relations. Sister Hilda Marie, O.P 266 

In-Service Help Through Professional Programs. Sister Marie Celine, F.S.P.A. 268 

The Supervisor and the Curriculum. Sister Mary Joan, S.P 270 

What Should Be Done To Prepare Students for High School with Respect to 

Study Skills? Sister Philomene, S.L 272 

Proceedings and Reports 

Program: Annual Meeting, New Orleans, October 23-26, 1961 274 

Agenda: General Meeting, Detroit, April 26, 1962 275 

Minutes of Meetings 276 

Resolutions 284 

Officers, 1962-63 285 



Developing Spiritual Maturity in Thought and Action. Most Rev. Leo C. Byrne 286 

"Mater et Magistra" — The Last Chance Encyclical. Donald J. Thorman 289 

The Chemical Bond Approach to the Teaching of Chemistry. Helen W. Crawley 299 

The BSCS Program for the Teaching of Biology. Evelyn Klinckmann 301 

BSCS: One Teacher Speaking to Another. Sister M. Ivo, B.V.M 309 

Team Teaching at Chaminade High School, Dayton, Ohio. Brother John 
Schneider, S.M.; Brother George Deinlein, S.M.; Brother James Cos- 
grove, SM.; Brother Manuel Juan Ramos, S.M 314 

Enriching the Curriculum of the Small Secondary School. Frank W. Cyr 317 

CHEM Study — An Experimental Approach to Chemistry. /. Arthur Campbell 323 
The Case for Television in the Catholic High School. Dorothy F. Patterson .... 324 
From Camera to Screen: Technical Details of Production and Reception. 

Kathleen N. Lardie 329 

The English Teacher and His Student. Floyd Rinker 332 

DEEP — Detroit Experimental English Program. Walter Appleton 339 

Proceedings and Reports 

Report of the Committee on Regional Units 344 

Report on Curriculum Advisory Committees 348 

Report on the Catholic High School Quarterly Bulletin 361 

Officers, 1962-63 361 


What Is the Catholic Church? Rev. Eugene M. Burke, C.S.P 363 

The Elementary School and the Unity of the Human Race. Rev. John J. 

Considine, M.M 370 

Catholic, Protestant, Jew — A Basis for Understanding. Philip Scharper 377 

The Pros and Cons of Modern Elementary Mathematics. Sister Mary Petronia, 

S.S.N.D 381 

National Science Foundation Institutes for Elementary Teachers. Sister M. 

Seraphim, C.SJ 382 

Social Consciousness and Global Responsibilties: The Teacher's Background. 

Sister Marion, S.C.H 389 

Social Consciousness and Global Responsibilities: The Necessary Skills. Sister 

M. Lenore, O.P 393 

Today's Child — Tomorrow's World: The Multisensory Aids. Sister Mary 

Dennis, S.S.J 394 

Successful Departmentalization. Sister Mary Ernestine, R.S.M 402 

The Successful Library Program. Sister Mary Sarah, S.C.L 405 

Successful Grouping for Teaching and Learning. Sister M. Celine, O.S.B 411 

The Catholic School's Role in Community Relations. Sister M. Licinia, O.S.F. 417 

The Catholic School Story — The Public. Jerome G. Kovalcik 423 

The Catholic School Story and the Press. Harry Salsinger 426 

Fitness for the Sixties. Fred V. Hein 428 

How Can the Elementary School Meet Its Physical Fitness Commitments? 

C. Dale Barrett, M.D 432 

How Can the Catholic Elementary School Meet Its Physical Fitness Require- 
ments? Sister Miriam Joseph, O.P 436 

Training Leaders. Lt. Comdr. James J. Killeen, USN 437 

Basic Principles in Guidance for the Elementary School. Rev. Charles A. Curran 438 


Debate: Whereas, Diocese X Does Not Have Sufficient Funds for New Schools 
on Both Elementary and Secondary Levels, Be It Resolved, That Diocese X 
Favors the Building of New Elementary Schools 

Affirmative: Mrs. John O. Riedl 439 

Negative: Sister Ann Virginia, I.H.M 444 

Kindergarten Meeting 

Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit Through Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

Rev. William J. Mountain, S.J 451 

The Role of the Teacher in Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit. Mrs. Charlotte 

Gmeiner 456 

The Role of the Parents in Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit. Charles and 

Pearl Pillon 460 

Filmslides on a Kindergarten International Unit. Sister M. Agnes Therese, l.H.M. 466 
Play Along with Rhythm Bands. Sister Mary James Louis, B.V.M 468 


Officers, 1962-63 469 


Implications of President Kennedy's Panel on Mental Retardation. 

Very Rev. Msgr. E. H. Behrmann 470 

Guiding Handicapped Youth Toward Employment. Joseph Hunt 475 

Reflections on Research in Rehabilitation. Louis J. Cantoni 476 

The Psychiatrist Views the Role of the Teacher. Aloysius S. Church, M.D., 

F.A.P.A 477 

The Impact of Emotional-Social Maladjustment on the Learning Processes of 

Children. Helmut P. Hofmann 479 

Mental Hygiene in the Classroom. Sister M. of St. Benno, R.G.S 485 

The Importance of Music Reading for the Blind Child. Sister Mary Mark, 

I.H.M 486 

Music for the Blind Child. Lenore McGuire 488 


Officers, 1962-63 491 


Vocation Section 

The Challenge of God's Call to Our Youth. Most Rev. Alexander M. Zaleski 492 
The Impact of the Ecumenical Council on the Vocational Apostolate. Most 

Rev. Nicholas T. Elko 494 

Sister Formation Ideal and Interviewing the Candidate. Sister Miriam Therese, 

M.M 496 

Clarification of the Brother Vocation. Rev. Quentin Hakenewerth, S.M. 497 

Successful Recruiting in Secondary Schools. Rev. Norbert C. Burns, S.M 500 

Report of the First International Congress on Vocations to the States of Perfec- 
tion. Rev. Godfrey Poage, C.P 503 

Report on International Congress of Vocation Specialists. Rev. Michael Mc- 
Laughlin 506 

Vocation Section: Officers, 1962-63 507 


Newman Club Chaplains Section 

The Role of Newman Club Education in American Catholicism. William J. 

Whalen 508 

National Catholic Adult Education Commission 

Adult Education for Catholics: The Necessity and the Challenge. Most Rev. 

Paul J. Hallinan 513 

Report of the Commission on Adult Education 518 


Report of the Meeting of Catholic Lay Persons. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Carl J. Ryan 519 

The Classroom and Teaching in Holiness. Rev. Paul Aronica, S.D.B 521 

Forming the Ecumenical Spirit Through Byzantine Rite and Church History. 

Rev. Patrick Paschak, O.S.B.M 522 

Effective Teaching of the Ukrainian Language in the Elementary School. 

Mother Raymond de Jesus, F.S.E 527 

Foreign Language Teaching Objectives and Methods. Sister M. Bohdonna, 

O.S.B.M 528 

Lesson Plan for Teaching Ukrainian History in Our Archdiocesan Schools. 

Sister M. Salome, O.S.B.M 529 

Lesson Plan for Teaching Ukrainian Geography in Our Archdiocesan Schools. 

Sister Michael, S.S.M.1 531 


I. The Constitution of the National Catholic Educational Association 532 

II. The Financial Report: 1961 535 

INDEX 539 


Gleaming with all the splendor of its polished marble and aluminum metal 
work, Cobo Hall, beautiful example of all that is newest among the nation's 
convention and civic centers, opened its doors April 24 to greet the 12,000 
delegates who had journeyed to the Metropolis of Mobiledom for the 1962 
NCEA convention. Had it been possible to have each one of these delegates 
state preferences beforehand for weather and convention arrangements on auto- 
matic data processing cards and then extract the qualities most desired, chances 
are the convention would have come out just as it actually did. Clear crispy 
air and a warm sun joined together to give just about ideal weather conditions 
for five full days. Spacious facilities and comfortable seating made every ses- 
sion most enjoyable. Almost nostalgically one thinks back on this convention 
as being the ideal, perhaps to be equalled in the future but probably never to 
be surpassed. Nostalgically, also, one recalls the happy faces of thousands of 
sisters strolling in the sun during break time on the landscaped quay, the wind 
tugging lightly at their veils as they gazed across the Detroit River into Canada. 
Nostalgically, too, one thinks back on the happy groups assembling twice each 
day at the Indian Monument, forming luncheon or dinner groups soon to depart 
for their favorite dining spots. 

As its theme, the fifty-ninth NCEA convention took a topic in line with the 
wishes of the reigning Pontiff when he decided to re-convene the session of the 
Vatican Council, namely "Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit." His Excellency, 
the Most Reverend John F. Dearden, our gracious host in the Archdiocese of 
Detroit, in his opening address spoke on this theme, saying in part, "the forth- 
coming Council will provide an unparalleled opportunity to have our pupils 
sense the throbbing, pulsating life of the Chuch." He envisioned each product 
of our Catholic schools as "informed, articulate, practicing what he preaches, 
able to stand as a gentle invitation to all who know not Christ and his Church." 
With such noble and challenging ideals set before them the delegates set about 
the task of exploring in depth the meaning of the ecumenical spirit and the best 
means of fostering it in our schools. 

The keynote address sounded the call to better understanding of the current 
problems in the Catholic school system by singling out one of them. Dr. 
William Conley spoke on the role of the laity. His inspiring words presented 
a challenge to the laity to give their all in the spirit of apostolic dedication, 
and a challenge to the clergy, brothers, and sisters to accept the laity as fully 
mature members of the Catholic family of teachers. 

Words of thanks and credit for a job well done must go to all who made 
this convention possible. It was obvious to the visiting delegates such a success- 
ful outcome required much advance preparation. The local committees had 
done a magnificent piece of work long before the first exhibitor arrived to set 
up his display. The Association is most grateful to Very Rev. Msgr. Vincent 
Horkan, Superintendent of Schools for the Archdiocese of Detroit, Rev. 
Edmond A. Fournier, Rev. John B. Zwers, Assistant Superintendent of Schools 
for the Archdiocese of Detroit, and Rev. Allen P. Farrell, S.J., for the wonder- 
ful service they and their committees rendered all Catholic educators by taking 
care of local arrangements. The Association is likewise grateful to the civic 
authorities, business leaders, exhibitors, and all those who helped to insure 
the success of the 1962 convention. 




Eden Roc Hotel 

Miami Beach, Florida 

June 15, 1961 

The meeting of the Executive Board of Directors was opened with prayer at 
10:20 a.m. by the Chairman, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frank M. Schneider, who pre- 
sided in the absence of the President General, Most Rev. John F. Dearden. 

Members of the Board present were: Brother Bartholomew, C.F.X., Newton 
Highlands, Mass.; Brother Bernard Peter, F.S.C., New York, N.Y.; Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. Henry C. Bezou, New Orleans, La.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Paul E. Campbell, 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; Dr. William H. Conley, Milwaukee, Wis.; Very Rev. Armand 
H. Desautels, A. A., Worcester, Mass.; Rev. Edmond A. Fournier, Detroit, 
Mich.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Paul Haverty, New York, N.Y.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
James E. Hoflich, St. Louis, Mo.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. T. Leo Keaveny, St. Cloud, 
Minn.; Rev. Daniel Kirwin, Wheeling, W.Va.; Very Rev. John McQuade, S.M., 
New Orleans, La.; Rev. John E. Murphy, Little Rock, Ark.; Rev. Robert C. 
Newbold, Warwick, R.I.; Very Rev. Msgr. Laurence J. O'Connell, East St. 
Louis, 111.; Rev. Thomas F. Reidy, O.S.F.S., Lockport, N.Y.; Very Rev. Paul 
C. Reinert, S.J., St. Louis, Mo.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Louis E. Riedel, Milwaukee, 
Wis.; Very Rev. Herman Romoser, O.S.B., St. Meinrad, Ind.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
Carl J. Ryan, Cincinnati, Ohio; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frank M. Schneider, Mil- 
waukee, Wis.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt, Washington, D.C. Mr. 
Joseph O'Donnell, Washington, D.C, was also present. 

The Chairman welcomed the group to the meeting and introduced the new 
members of the Board. 

The evaluation of the 1961 NCEA Convention was presented by Dr. Conley. 
There was general agreement among the members of the evaluating committee 
and the delegates that this was clearly the best of the NCEA conventions. 
There was not a single major criticism to be reported. The major recom- 
mendation presented to the Board was that the method of evaluating the 
convention be modified for the next year. It was proposed that the evaluating 
committee be continued with departmental representatives and generalists, 
but that the collection of delegate reactions during the convention be discon- 
tinued. About one week after the close of the convention, an appraisal sheet 
should be sent by mail to a selected sampling of registrants requesting their 
opinion by a specified date. The sheets should be returned to the chairman 
of the evaluating committee for tabulation and judgment. It was estimated 
that expenditures of from $150 to $400 would be required to cover the cost 
of duplicating, mailing, and tabulating this type of evaluation. The Board 
voted to allocate money to the evaluating committee for this project with 

2 National Catholic Educational Association 

the suggestion that the appraisal sheets be sent out, if possible, not more than 
one week after the close of the convention. The Board commended Dr. 
Conley and the committee and extended its thanks for the fine evaluation 

The Board voted to dispense with the reading of the minutes of the last 
meeting and accepted them as submitted. 

The Board next considered the recommendations of the Planning Committee 
for the Detroit Convention in 1962. Mr. O'Donnell explained that the physical 
facilities in Detroit are the best, but the concern over the labor union difficulties 
is so great that the Planning Committee discussed the problem for some time 
before expressing a vote of confidence in the selection of Detroit for 1962. 
The Board unanimously voted to continue with plans and to hold the 1962 
Convention in Detroit. 

Because of the publicity Catholic education has had this year as a result 
of discussions of federal aid to education, it has been suggested that the 
NCEA employ a year-round press clipping service on particular subjects 
or areas relating to Catholic education. However, because this would require 
a great deal of space and extra staff which the NCEA does not have at the 
present time, and because of the question of the extent of coverage Catholic 
education would get after the federal aid issue has been resolved, the Execu- 
tive Board thought that a pilot study of coverage would be the best plan to 
determine whether or not a year-round press clipping service would really 
be of value. The Board voted to appoint a subcommittee to study the matter 
of year-round press clipping service, and as the pilot study, to select ten or 
twelve of the leading newspapers throughout the country to which the NCEA 
would subscribe for a trial period. Then schools or departments of journalism 
would be approached on the possibility of a student project of clipping, 
mounting, dating, and cataloging these papers. The Chairman appointed the 
following to the subcommittee on press clipping service: Monsignor Hofiich, 
chairman; Monsignor Campbell and Monsignor Haverty. 

The Board selected as a theme for the 1962 convention, "Fostering the 
Ecumenical Spirit." The Executive Secretary agreed to prepare background 
material on the theme to be sent to department heads for their convention 
planning meetings. 

The Board approved the time schedule for the opening day as suggested by 
the Planning Committee: the opening Mass will be a Solemn Pontifical 
Mass at 9 a.m.; the opening general meeting will begin at 11 a.m. and 
conclude by 12:15 p.m.; the formal opening of exhibits will take place at 
12:30 p.m.; and the opening departmental meetings will begin at 2 p.m. De- 
partmental executive committees will meet at 4:15 p.m. in Cobo Hall. 

The Board voted to invite Archbishop John Dearden to say or preside 
at the Solemn Pontifical Mass and to give either the sermon at the Mass 
or the keynote address at the opening general meeting. Depending upon the 
choices of Archbishop Dearden, and with his approbation, Archbishop Antonio 
Samore, Secretary, Sacred Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Af- 
fairs, Rome, could be invited to give either the sermon at the Mass or the 
keynote address. The following names were submitted as possible speakers 
at the convention: Archbishop John Krol, Philadelphia, Pa.; Bishop Leo 
Byrne, Wichita, Kan.; Bishop John P. Cody, Kansas City, Mo.; Bishop James 
Griffith, New York, N.Y.; Bishop Albert R. Zuroweste, Belleville, 111.; Bishop 
Paul Hallinan, Charleston, S.C.; Monsignor Francis J. Lally, Boston, Mass.; 

Meetings of Executive Board 3 

Father Joseph Christie, London. The names will be forwarded to Arch- 
bishop Dearden for his approval. As soon as decision is made on general 
speakers, Monsignor Hochwalt will notify chairmen of departments. 

The Board accepted the suggestion that Father Laurence Britt, S.J., 
president of the University of Detroit, be invited to summarize the convention 
at the final general meeting at 9:30 a.m. Friday. 

The Board voted that the work of the subcommittee on the purchase of 
portable altars, under the chairmanship of Father Kirwin, be continued with 
instructions to investigate the matter of the most durable material (e.g., 
aluminum) for the altars and with authority to proceed with the purchase 
of twenty altars with all the appurtenances for the 1962 convention in Detroit. 
If after investigation it would be clear that it would be more practical to 
purchase 100 at one time, the subcommittee was given authority to purchase 
all 100. Monsignor Haverty agreed to contact the proper person in New York 
City to determine whether or not it will be possible for NCEA to rent altars 
from the Apostleship of the Sea office for use at the Detroit convention and 
to report to the Executive Secretary. 

The Board approved the recommendation that at the 1962 convention a few 
sessions be held on the problems of Catholic education with the participants 
to be lay persons, and appointed a subcommittee of the Board, with Monsignor 
Ryan as chairman, Monsignor McDowell and Monsignor Egging, to be 
responsible for setting up the programs and selecting the persons to attend 
and participate. 

Copies of the financial report for 1960 were presented to the Board and 
reviewed by the Executive Secretary. The annual professional audit of ac- 
counts was circulated among the members for their inspection and the 
Chairman appointed a subcommittee consisting of Monsignor Campbell, chair- 
man, Father Reinert, and Father Kirwin to review the audit. In addition, a 
complete cost accounting of NCEA expenses was presented to the Board 
and discussed at some length. It was suggested that the Board study this 
material and comment on it at the next meeting. 

The subcommittee approved the audit with the suggestion that something 
be done to consider the rules laid down by former Boards on investments 
and that ways be found to invest the NCEA money and to raise more money. 
The Board voted to appoint a subcommittee consisting of Monsignor Bezou, 
chairman, Father Reinert, and Dr. Conley to reconsider the investment policy 
of former Boards that is contained in the Constitution and minutes of Board 
meetings according to the suggestion of the audit committee of 1961. This 
subcommittee is empowered to work with the lawyer and financial staff in 
the national office. (Note: The policy on investments as contained in Arti- 
cle VII, Section 4, of the Constitution and the April 7, 1953, Minutes of the 
Board meeting is as follows: "Whenever the Executive Secretary, with the 
approval of the President General, finds that the balance in the checking ac- 
count maintained by his office is in excess of the short-term requirements of 
the account, he is authorized to deposit the excess funds in savings accounts 
of well-established banks or building and loan associations; provided only that 
the amount on deposit with any one such institution shall not exceed the 
amount covered by Federal Deposit Insurance.") 

A brief report was given on a proposal to the Carnegie Foundation by a 
group of educators who had met during a meeting of the Association for the 
Accreditation of Colleges of Teacher Education for a study of Catholic edu- 

4 National Catholic Educational Association 

cation. If the proposal is accepted by the Carnegie Foundation, there will be 
a committee to study Catholic education and the NCEA will be asked to be 
the guiding influence and co-sponsor. 

The Executive Secretary reported on the staff in the national office and 
announced that Father Richard Mulroy, O.Praem., had been recalled by his 
community to become rector of the seminary and director of studies. Abbot 
Killeen, O.Praem., has named Father C. Albert Koob, O.Praem., to succeed 
Father Mulroy as Associate Secretary of the Secondary School Department. 
The Board voted to extend its thanks and appreciation to Father Mulroy for 
his excellent work as Associate Secretary of the Secondary School Department. 
The office of the Associate Secretary for the Seminary Departments is still 

Dr. Conley reported that the fee for associate membership in the College 
and University Department was purposely left at $25. The Department hopes 
to decrease the number of associate memberships and Dr. Conley will contact 
the chairman of the membership committee, Father Dupont, to work on this. 

The Board instructed the Executive Secretary to express to the family and 
religious superiors of Father Robert Slavin, O.P., its deep regret at his un- 
timely death, and its appreciation of the tremendous contribution he made 
to the whole Association and especially to the College and University De- 

The Executive Secretary reported on meetings held with two fund-raising 
groups — Community Counseling Service and Lawson Associates — concerning 
the proposed building project for NCEA. He stated that more meetings will 
be held and that when preliminary plans for the project are ready, the infor- 
mation will be given to the Board. The Executive Secretary was given full 
authority by the Board to proceed with the plans for the expansion of the 
national office as far as the new building is concerned and to choose any Board 
members and any other people who would be helpful to him to be on a 
national committee for this project. The Board itself will suggest names of 
any persons it feels would be helpful on this committee. 

The Board extended a vote of thanks and appreciation to the Executive Secre- 
tary for his excellent presentations in the federal aid discussions and especially 
on the television show "Face the Nation." The Executive Secretary expressed 
appreciation to Dr. William Conley and Dr. Raymond McCoy who had gener- 
ously given their time to represent Catholic education in these discussions. 

The Board discussed the proposal to establish within the NCEA a section for 
lay teachers and voted to appoint a subcommittee on the Board to look into the 
organization of such a section with the purpose of better serving lay teachers 
by providing insurance, retirement benefits, etc., with NCEA membership, and 
the appointment of a full-time secretary for the section in the national office, 
who is both an educator and an administrator. The following Board members 
were appointed to this subcommittee: Monsignor Hoflich, chairman, Monsignor 
Ryan, and Monsignor Bezou. 

The Board instructed the national office to proceed with plans to hold the 
1965 convention in New York City but to retain a tentative reservation in 
Pittsburgh for a while longer. No action was taken on the proposal from the 
City of Milwaukee to hold an NCEA convention there at some future time. 

The Board examined a proposal for a small NCEA exhibit to be used at 
diocesan institutes and other meetings and voted to proceed with this small 
exhibit to be used this year wherever it may be requested and to reconsider this 
matter at the next Board meeting. 

Meetings of Executive Board 5 

The Board heard a report on the proposed Hall of Education at the World's 
Fair in New York City in 1964-65. A tentative reservation for exhibit space 
has been made for Catholic education. The Board empowered the staff of the 
national office to hold the matter open, to keep the tentative reservation if 
possible, and to explore the matter more. 

Dr. Conley presented the report of the subcommittee on adult education to 
the Executive Board. The report is as follows: 

Adult education in its broad sense encompasses all levels of education. It 
ranges from citizenship training to the most advanced professional work. In 
many cases no school credit is allowed and in other cases course work, even 
at the doctoral level, yields graduate credit. Because of the diversity of adult 
education it is difficult to assign it to any single department in the National 
Catholic Educational Association. 

Within the structure of the NCEA, the College and University Department 
has major interest in adult education. Urban universities, colleges located in 
metropolitan areas, and some of the junior colleges offer broad programs in 
adult education, many of which grant credit and some of which are in the 
noncredit category. Secondary schools in many areas offer service courses 
and courses in religion. Ordinarily, the high school programs do not carry 
regular credit. 

A significant amount of adult education is carried on by parishes, diocesan 
schools, and some independently organized groups and schools for adult edu- 
cation. None of these offers credit. 

The subcommittee of the Executive Board, after exploring the scope of 
adult education and after considering the structure of the NCEA, recommends 
the following: 

1) The Commission on Adult Education should be continued as a part of 

2) The Commission should submit its bylaws to the Executive Board of 
Directors, including the following points: 

a) Purposes of the Commission, defining adult education in its broad 
scope as indicated in the preamble to these recommendations. 

b) Procedure for the election of officers, providing representation for 
colleges and universities, diocesan programs, lay organizational pro- 
grams, and social action groups. 

c) Conditions for membership. 

d) Functions of officers. 

e) Annual institutional dues payable to NCEA. 

f) Authorization for registration fee to cover costs of meetings other 
than the annual national meeting which will be held in the regular 
NCEA convention. 

3) The Committee invites the attention of the Board to a new classification, 
i.e., Commission. There is no precedent for providing representation on the 
Executive board. 

The Board voted to accept the recommendations of the subcommittee of the 
Board on adult education. 

The Chairman reviewed the original proposal for a Commission on Problems 
and Trends prepared by the Problems and Plans Committee and the revised 
proposal to expand the present Problems and Plans Committee to include the 
major points of the original proposal. It was felt that it would be better to ex- 
pand the present committee rather than set up a new commission within NCEA. 
The Board voted to adopt the revised proposal expanding the Problems and 

6 National Catholic Educational Association 

Plans Committee as submitted by the Chairman. A copy of the revised state- 
ment on the functions and procedures of the Problems and Plans Committee is 
attached to these minutes. 

Because of some objections which had been raised, a subcommittee con- 
sisting of Monsignor Bezou, chairman, Monsignor Ryan and Monsignor Hoflich, 
was appointed by the Chairman to reword the Board's authorization for the es- 
tablishment of the Supervisors Section as contained in the minutes of the 
February 21, 1961, Board meeting. The subcommittee recommended that the 
phrase ". . . purely as an administrative device" be eliminated, and the sentence 
read, "Therefore, the Section will be attached to the Superintendents Depart- 
ment . . ." The Board accepted this recommendation as submitted by the sub- 

Father Kirwin reported that Monsignor Behrmann, Associate Secretary of 
the Special Education Department, has been able to secure a limited number of 
scholarships for special education and has sent a letter to superintendents in- 
forming them of this so that they can submit names of candidates to him for 
scholarships. The scholarship program will continue under the auspices of 
NCEA as the Board had recommended. 

The Executive Secretary agreed to give to Brother Bartholomew material 
from departmental bylaws on the terms of departmental executive committees 
for his information and use. 

The Board expressed agreement with the proposal presented by Brother 
Bartholomew to establish curriculum commissions in the Secondary School 

The next meeting of the Executive Board will take place in February, the 
actual date and place to be selected after the Executive Secretary consults with 
the President General to determine his wishes in this matter. 

The meeting adjourned at 5:15 p.m. 

Frederick G. Hochwalt 



Functions and Procedures (Revised 1961) 

I. Functions 

The functions of the Problems and Plans Committee of the National Catholic 
Educational Association include the following: 

1. To explore the field of education and its related areas in order to identify 
problems of particular significance to Catholic education. 

2. To initiate, conduct, or arrange for studies of problems and trends in 
Catholic education and to submit the findings of such reports or papers 
to the Executive Board with recommendations for appropriate action. 

3. To recommend to the Executive Board of the National Catholic Educa- 
tional Association studies of these problems to be made by: 

a) scholars, specialists, or research groups 

b) the various departments of the NCEA 

c) departmental committees 

d) inter-departmental committees 

e) inter-Catholic association committees 
/) individual Catholic institutions 

Meetings of Executive Board 7 

4. To suggest to the Executive Board of the NCEA means of publicizing 

within or without the Association the results of such studies in the form 
of statements or position papers as are thought to be of special signifi- 

5. To recommend to the Executive Board of the NCEA plans for imple- 
menting the findings of such studies. 

II. Membership 

1. The Problems and Plans Committee shall consist of nine members ap- 
pointed by the Executive Board of the NCEA and the Executive Secre- 
tary of the Association who shall be an ex officio member. 

2. It shall be the duty of the Problems and Plans Committee to suggest, 
through the Executive Secretary of the Association, names of persons to 
be considered for future appointment to membership on this committee. 

3. The term of appointment to the Problems and Plans Committee shall be 
three years, except as provided in section 5. 

4. A member who has served a full term shall not be eligible for reappoint- 
ment until after the lapse of one year. 

5. Initial appointments to the Problems and Plans Committee shall be as 
follows: three members for a term of one year, three for a term of two 
years, and three for a term of three years. 

6. The chairman of the Problems and Plans Committee shall be elected an- 
nually by the committee. 

III. Meetings 

1. The Problems and Plans Committee shall meet regularly at least twice 
a year at a place and time to be determined by the chairman in con- 
sultation with the Executive Secretary of the Association. 

IV. Minutes 

After the close of each meeting the minutes of the meeting shall be prepared. 
A copy of the minutes shall be sent by the Executive Secretary of the Associa- 
tion to each member of the committee and to each member of the Executive 

Conrad Hilton Hotel 

Chicago, Illinois 

February 14, 1962 

The meeting of the Executive Board of Directors was opened with prayer at 
10:40 a.m. by Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frank M. Schneider. His Excellency, the Most 
Rev. John F. Dearden, President General, presided at the meeting. 

Other members of the Board present were: Brother Bartholomew, C.F.X., 
Newton Highlands, Mass.; Brother Bernard Peter, F.S.C., New York, N.Y.; 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Paul E. Campbell, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Dr. William H. Conley, 
Milwaukee, Wis.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Anthony Egging, Grand Island, Neb.; Rev. 
Edmond A. Fournier, Detroit, Mich.; Rt. Rev. Edmund J. Goebel, Milwaukee, 
Wis.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Paul Haverty, New York, N.Y.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. James 
E. Hoflich, St. Louis, Mo.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. T. Leo Keaveny, St. Cloud, Minn.; 
Rev. Daniel Kirwin, Wheeling, W.Va.; Rev. Richard Kleiber, Green Bay, Wis.; 
Very Rev. James A. Laubacher, S.S., Baltimore, Md.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. John B. 

8 National Catholic Educational Association 

McDowell, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Very Rev. John McQuade, S.M., New Orleans, La.; 
Very Rev. Msgr. John E. Murphy, Little Rock, Ark.; Rev. Robert C. Newbold, 
Warwick Neck, R.I.; Very Rev. Msgr. Laurence J. O'Connell, East St. Louis, 
111.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Felix Newton Pitt, Louisville, Ky.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Louis 
E. Riedel, Milwaukee, Wis.; Very Rev. Herman Romoser, O.S.B., St. Meinrad, 
Ind.; and Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt, Washington, D.C. Very 
Rev. Msgr. Vincent Horkan, Detroit, Mich., Mr. J. Walter Kennedy, New 
York, N.Y., and Mr. Joseph O'Donnell, Washington, D.C, were also present. 

The minutes of the last meeting of the Board were accepted as submitted. 

At the June 1961 meeting of the Executive Board, a committee, consisting 
of Msgr. Henry C. Bezou, chairman, Dr. William Conley, and Father Paul 
Reinert, was appointed to reconsider the investment policy of former Boards. 
In the absence from the Board of Monsignor Bezou, Dr. Conley presented the 
report of this committee. The following recommendation was made by the 
committee: "Surplus funds of the Association should not be invested exclusively 
in savings accounts of banks or building and loan associations. Just what other 
forms of investment would be acceptable and feasible will require further study 
by the Board as a whole or by a subcommittee to be appointed by it. On the 
other hand, the higher rate of interest now paid by building and loan associa- 
tions might preclude for the time being the need for other types of investments." 
The question of how long this money will remain in reserve may determine how 
it should be invested. If it remains only a short time, it should be invested 
one way; if a long time, another type of investment would be recommended. 
It was pointed out that former Boards felt that this money should remain in 
reserve indefinitely and used only in extreme emergency. 

The Board accepted with thanks the report of the committee but postponed 
action on the report at this time. The Board voted to refer the report to the 
lawyers of the Association for study and recommendations. The Executive 
Secretary was asked to transmit their recommendations to the Board at a 
later meeting. 

A financial report for 1961 and proposed budget for 1962 totaling $214,000 
were presented to the Board by the Executive Secretary. After discussion, the 
Board added to the proposed budget a "contingent" item of $11,000 and then 
voted approval of this amended budget, totaling $225,000, and accepted the 
financial report for 1961. 

The cost accounting report which was presented at the June 1961 Board 
meeting was accepted with thanks. 

The question of payment of expenses for convention speakers was discussed. 
It is felt that the Catholic institutions to which speakers are attached should 
bear the cost of the participant's expenses as a contribution to NCEA. How- 
ever, an increasing number of other well-qualified people have been contributing 
much to the meetings and in many cases it is felt that their expenses should 
be paid by the Association. It was reported that on occasion in the past when 
requests have been made to the national office for payment of such expenses 
and these requests were considered fair, payment has been made. The Board 
decided to leave this matter in the hands of the Executive Secretary who will 
review all requests for expense reimbursements, and pay those which are con- 
sidered fair and reasonable. If the amount is considered too great or not 
reasonable, the request will be referred to the Board. 

The Executive Secretary reported that the new secretary of the International 
Exchange Section is Mrs. Ruth D'Emilio, replacing Miss Patricia Burns. The 
section is now under the direction of the Associate Secretary of the College 

Meetings of Executive Board 9 

and University Department and will be known as the International Student 
Program of the College and University Department. 

Recent new publications of the Association, Calendar of 195 Educational 
Meetings and the 1962 Directory of Catholic Elementary and Elementary 
Boarding Schools, were brought to the attention of the Board. Reprints from 
the Directory of the section on boarding schools will be made available soon. 

Dr. Conley reported that the Newman Club Chaplains Section had requested 
in 1960 that the College and University Department accept them as a section 
of that Department. Action has been taken by the executive committee of 
the College and University Department and the following resolution, which 
has been accepted by the chaplains section, will be voted on officially by the 
Department at the April meeting: 

MOVED that a Newman Club Section be set up within the College and Uni- 
versity Department; that membership in the Section be by individual clubs or 
foundations; that a special class of "Associate Membership" be established 
to accommodate such individual institutional Newman Clubs; that the flat fee 
of twenty-five dollars, which is the present annual dues for Associate Member- 
ship, be the dues for this new class of Associate Membership; and that 
chaplains of Newman Clubs be invited to take individual memberships in the 
National Catholic Educational Association. 

Archbishop Dearden suggested that provision be made for the new diocesan 
directors of Newman Clubs who will coordinate the work of Newman Clubs 
within the dioceses. Dr. Conley agreed to bring this to the attention of the execu- 
tive committee of the Department for the possible broadening of the recom- 
mendation to include this new group of Newman directors. 

The Executive Secretary reported that the International Student Program 
is limited to an annual survey of foreign students in Catholic colleges, prepara- 
tion and distribution of kits of materials for foreign students and American 
students who wish to study abroad, and reports to the colleges of events in 
this area through News Notes for the President's Desk. A matter of considerable 
concern is the inability of the Church to know where the Catholic foreign 
students are studying in the non-Catholic colleges in the United States and to 
keep in contact with them while they are in this country. The Board instructed 
the national office to take steps to obtain from such places as the Immigration 
Department of the Government, NCWC, and the Institute of International 
Education, all the information possible about Catholic students from abroad 
coming into this country to study, especially the schools where they are studying. 

A new report on staff rules and benefits was presented to the Executive 
Board. The Executive Secretary explained that most of these regulations and 
benefits have actually been in effect for some time, but that with the increase 
of staff it has been found necessary to put them in writing to insure the orderly 
procedure of office routine. The Board instructed the Executive Secretary to 
put this report into practice temporarily with the understanding that final 
action will be taken at the June meeting of the Board. 

The Executive Secretary reported that the preliminary program for the con- 
vention would be mailed within a few days and he expressed gratitude to the 
heads of departments for their fine cooperation in submitting material for the 

Father Kirwin reported that twenty portable altars will be ready for use at 
the Detroit Convention. Mr. O'Donnell informed the Board that donations 
for portable altars had been received from forty school superintendents and 

10 National Catholic Educational Association 

that donations were still being received. In addition, a letter will be sent to 
college presidents and to heads of religious communities of priests. It is expected 
that the total of one hundred altars originally suggested by the Board will be 
available by the 1963 convention. 

Monsignor Horkan reported that good progress has been made on convention 
arrangements, that fifty altars for priests will be available in the Sheraton 
Cadillac Hotel and twenty altars in the Pick-Fort Shelby Hotel. Masses for 
delegates will be provided at St. Aloysius Church, and the Solemn Pontifical 
Mass will be celebrated there by Archbishop Dearden, with Father Fournier 
as preacher. The major hotels are within walking distance of Cobo Hall, and 
the hall itself is a magnificent, new, comfortable hall. 

Mr. Kennedy stated that there should be excellent press coverage from 
Detroit. Father Battersby of the local committee will work with Mr. Kennedy. 

The Board agreed on a nominee for the office of President General for 
1962-63 and Archbishop Dearden agreed to extend the invitation in the name of 
the Board. 

Future conventions involve St. Louis in 1963; Atlantic City in 1964; New 
York in 1965 (the convention is being planned for two hotels, the Americana 
and the New Hilton in New York); and Chicago in 1966. For 1967 Boston, 
Atlantic City, and Pittsburgh are being considered. 

The Board voted to hold the summer meeting of the Convention Planning 
Committee and Executive Board on June 12 and 14, 1962. Several sites were 
suggested and the Executive Secretary was instructed to investigate the sug- 
gestions and report to the next Board meeting. 

Mr. O'Donnell explained that the small NCEA exhibit, designed to inform 
Catholic educators about NCEA, is available for teacher institutes and other 
meetings. A memorandum describing the exhibit and photograph will be sent 
to all superintendents and the exhibit will be made available to those requesting 
it for diocesan institutes or other meetings. 

It was reported that the trend toward the 4-4-4 plan for seminaries raises 
the problem of which NCEA department, Major or Minor Seminary, is the 
proper department for the middle four-year, or college, group. After much 
discussion it was decided that for the present, the college seminaries should 
decide for themselves which department is best for them to join. When the 
4-4-4 plan is more firmly established, perhaps a special department for this 
group could be set up. A committee, consisting of Father Newbold, Father 
Fournier, and Monsignor Schneider, was appointed to make a study and report 
to the Board on the subject of the classification of Major and Minor Seminary 
divisions with a view to the 4-4-4 formula which is increasing. 

The 1964-65 New York World's Fair will include a Hall of Education with 
the theme "The School of Tomorrow." Tentatively, 300 square feet of exhibit 
space have been reserved for a Catholic education display. The total cost, 
including floor space, display construction, maintenance, etc., for this exhibit 
is estimated to be $75,000. The Executive Secretary stated that approaches 
will be made to some groups and foundations to obtain a grant to finance the 
exhibit. If no encouragement along this line is apparent by April, then the 
option will probably have to be dropped. The prevailing feeling, however, 
is that Catholic education should definitely be represented in the Hall of Educa- 
tion and that some means of financing the exhibit should be found. 

In June 1961 the Board adopted the report of the special committee on the 
future of the National Catholic Adult Education Commission. This report 
was carried in the June 1961 minutes of the Executive Board meeting. A letter 

Meetings of Executive Board 11 

dated January 15, 1962, from Msgr. Francis W. Carney, president of the 
NCAEC, reported on a meeting of the executive board of the Commission 
and stated in part: 

The matter of payment of dues was tentatively settled in this manner. Catholic 
colleges affiliated as dues-paying members of NCEA would not be requested 
to pay dues or any affiliation fee. This would be true also of any other 
Catholic educational institution conducting an adult education program and 
paying dues to NCEA. A graduated scale of dues would be arranged for 
adult education programs conducted by groups not holding membership in 
NCEA, these dues payable to the National Catholic Adult Education Com- 
mission. It is this latter point that would probably cause some concern and 
debate with NCEA. 

The Commission requests some immediate financial assistance to carry on 
its business. It was suggested that five hundred or seven hundred dollars be 
given from NCEA funds. It would perhaps be well to point out in this con- 
nection, that much expense has already been assumed by individuals on the 
Executive Board, and in the future such is impossible. 

The Board authorized the Executive Secretary to grant a sum of $700 to 
the NCAEC for the current fiscal year but stated that future commitments 
on the amount that will be given to the Commission will follow after submission 
of the Bylaws of the Commission to the NCEA and their acceptance by the 
NCEA Executive Board. The Board also stated that any collections of dues 
must be done through the national office. 

The Board approved the slate of three new members of the Problems and 
Plans Committee to serve for the period 1962-64 as suggested by the Com- 
mittee in October: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Alfred Horrigan, President, Bellarmine 
College, Louisville, Ky.; Sister M. Augustine, O.S.F., President, Alverno College, 
Milwaukee, Wis.; and Very Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell, Superintendent of 
Schools, Diocese of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The Board approved the recommendation that a press clipping service be 
established as a pilot study. The newspapers selected for the study are: New 
York Times, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Washington Post, Louisville Courier- 
Journal, Chicago Tribune, Des Moines Register, San Francisco Chronicle, Miami 
Herald. The areas suggested for clipping are: editorial opinion on education, 
church-state, straight educational news. There remains the selection of the 
school of journalism which will do the clipping, dating, and mounting of articles. 

Monsignor Hoflich reported that the committee on lay teachers recommended 
that this matter be turned over to the national office with the recommendation 
that a part-time individual be employed to work out and pull together recom- 
mendations on retirement, salary, etc., and coordinate the work of the super- 
intendents committee and lay organizations working on these questions. It 
was suggested that perhaps the individual chosen for this job could also cooperate 
with the fund-raising group that is chosen for the proposed NCEA building 
project. The Board accepted this report as a progress report. 

The Executive Secretary reported on the proposed Carnegie Study of Catholic 
Schools. He stated that a few preliminary meetings to set down general dimen- 
sions of the study have been held but that the selection of a director for the 
study has not been made. The name of the director and the general dimensions 
of the study should be available by the time of the next meeting of the Board 
in April. 

The next meeting of the Executive Board will take place in the Sheraton 

12 National Catholic Educational Association 

Room of the Sheraton Cadillac Hotel, Detroit, beginning at 6:30 p.m. on 
Tuesday, April 24. 

The Executive Secretary extended grateful thanks to Archbishop Dearden 
for his excellent chairmanship of the meeting. 

The meeting adjourned at 3:30 p.m. 

Frederick G. Hochwalt 

Sheraton Cadillac Hotel 

Detroit, Michigan 

April 24, 1962 

The Executive Board of Directors convened with prayer for a dinner 
meeting in the Sheraton Cadillac Hotel at 7:15 p.m. on Tuesday, April 24, 
1962. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frank M. Schneider presided, in the absence of His 
Excellency, Most Rev. John F. Dearden, President General, at the business 
meeting, which opened at 9 p.m. 

Members of the Board present were: Brother Bartholomew, C.F.X., Newton 
Highlands, Mass.; Brother Bernard Peter, F.S.C., New York, N.Y.; Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. Paul E. Campbell, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Dr. William H. Conley, Milwaukee, 
Wis.; Very Rev. Armand H. Desautels, A. A., Worcester, Mass.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
Anthony Egging, Grand Island, Neb.; Rev. Edmond A. Fournier, Detroit, 
Mich.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Edmund J. Goebel, Milwaukee, Wis.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
John Paul Haverty, New York, N.Y.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. James E. Hoflich, St. 
Louis, Mo.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Sylvester J. Holbel, Buffalo, N.Y.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
T. Leo Keaveny, St. Cloud, Minn.; Rev. Daniel Kirwin, Wheeling, W.Va.; 
Rev. Richard Kleiber, Green Bay, Wis.; Very Rev. James A. Laubacher, S.S., 
Baltimore, Md.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Very Rev. 
John McQuade, S.M., New Orleans, La.; Very Rev. Msgr. John E. Murphy, 
Little Rock, Ark.; Rev. Robert C. Newbold, Warwick, R.I.; Very Rev. Msgr. 
Laurence J. O'Connell, East St. Louis, 111.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Felix Newton Pitt, 
Louisville, Ky.; Very Rev. Paul C. Reinert, S.J., St. Louis, Mo.; Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. Louis E. Riedel, Milwaukee, Wis.; Very Rev. Herman Romoser, O.S.B., 
St. Meinrad, Ind.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Carl J. Ryan, Cincinnati, Ohio; Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. Frank M. Schneider, Milwaukee, Wis.; Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. 
Hochwalt, Washington, D.C. Mr. J. Walter Kennedy, New York, N.Y., was 
also present. 

The Minutes of the last meeting were accepted as submitted. 

Monsignor Kirwin, chairman of the Nominating Committee, reported that 
His Excellency, Most Rev. John P. Cody, Coadjutor Archbishop of New 
Orleans, had graciously accepted the invitation of the Board to serve as Presi- 
dent General for 1962-63, and that his name would be placed on the slate of 
officers to be elected at the final general meeting on April 27. 

The Executive Secretary reported that arrangements have been made to 
hold the meetings of the Convention Planning Committee and the Executive 
Board on June 12 and June 14 at the Eden Roc Hotel in Miami Beach, 

The Executive Secretary reported that beginning May 1, 1962, Dr. Wil- 
liam Conley would devote full time to the Carnegie Study of Catholic Schools 
as director of the study. Dr. Conley stated that his staff would try to make 
the study as objective as possible and come out with some recommendations 

Meetings of Executive Board 13 

which they hope will be helpful. The assistant director of the study will be 
Mr. Reginald Neuwein, formerly Superintendent of Public Schools in Stam- 
ford, Conn., and now president of the Greater Cleveland Research Council. 
The rest of the staff will be selected after May 1. 

It is estimated that a sum of $70,000 is needed to erect and maintain a 
Catholic education exhibit at the New York World's Fair in 1964-65. The 
problem of raising these funds may present difficulty. The Executive Sec- 
retary stated that he would continue to investigate ways of raising these funds 
and hoped to have some report for the Board in June. The Board voted to 
keep open the option and to encourage the Executive Secretary to proceed 
in the best way possible in the hope of raising funds so that Catholic educa- 
tion will be recognized in the Hall of Education at the World's Fair. 

The Board tabled discussion of the question of affiliation of other groups 
with NCEA until the June meeting. 

The Board dispensed with the reading of the minutes of the Problems and 
Plans Committee meeting of October, 1961, and accepted them as submitted. 

The Board postponed discussion of school fallout shelters until the June 

Mr. Kennedy reported that because of the fact that there were no daily 
newspapers in Detroit, 1 the television stations were competing vigorously with 
each other to get coverage of the convention, with the result that the Detroit 
convention had the finest television coverage of any convention. The wire 
services, too, were giving excellent coverage to the convention. 

The Executive Secretary expressed his gratitude to the members of the 
Board for their confidence and encouragement and his deep thanks to the 
retiring members. 

A vote of grateful thanks was extended to Archbishop Dearden for his 
warm support and service to the NCEA as President General. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:35 p.m. 

Frederick G. Hochwalt 

1 They were on strike. 


To the great satisfaction of the General Executive Board, the National 
Catholic Educational Association continues to grow in numbers and in influence. 
The publications of the Association are more diversified and appeal to a wider 
audience. As a result, the contributions of the staff and the loyalty of the 
membership have ensured the continued success of regional and national 
meetings. These same elements have added to the strength and dimensions of 
the national office. The broadening interest of the Association and its member- 
ship has made it possible to cooperate with more and more of the influential 
groups in the general fields of culture and education. 


The membership of the Association increased from 13,194 to 13,467 between 
March 31, 1961, and March 31, 1962— a gain of 273 members. 

Sustaining members 45 

Institutional members 

Major Seminary Department 122 

Minor Seminary Department 144 

College and University Department 271 

Secondary School Department 2,223 

Elementary School Department 8,290 

Special Education Department 172 

School Superintendents Department 262 

Individual members 

General 1,314 

Newman Club Chaplains 20 

Special Education 136 

Supervisors 330 

Vocations 138 

Total members 13,467 

(In addition, there are 166 subscribers to our publications.) 

The steady increase in membership is a strong indication of the continuing 
support of our teachers and administrators. The whole team — superintendents, 
superiors, supervisors, principals, classroom teachers, and many devoted lay 
persons — can take credit for the growing strength of the Association. All of 
us are deeply grateful to those dioceses and religious communities which have 
achieved 100 per cent membership at the conclusion of the fiscal year 1961. 
For elementary schools these number twenty-eight dioceses: Boston, Bridgeport, 
Buffalo, Burlington, Camden, Cheyenne, Columbus, Dubuque, Grand Island, 
Hartford, La Crosse, Lansing, Marquette, Milwaukee, Ogdensburg (N.Y.), 
Peoria, Raleigh, Rochester (N.Y.), Rockford, St. Louis, Sioux City, Springfield 
(Mass.), Steubenville, Syracuse, Trenton, Wilmington, Yakima, and Youngs- 


Report of Executive Secretary 15 

For secondary schools seventy-eight dioceses — more than half the dioceses 
in the United States — have achieved 100 percent membership. They are: 
Atlanta, Austin, Baker, Belleville, Boston, Bridgeport, Brooklyn, Buffalo, 
Burlington, Camden, Charleston, Cheyenne, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, 
Columbus, Crookston, Dodge City, Dubuque, Fall River, Fort Wayne-South 
Bend, Gary, Grand Island, Greensburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Honolulu, Joliet, 
Kansas City in Kansas, La Crosse, Lafayette (Ind.), Lansing, Madison, 
Marquette, Milwaukee, Mobile-Birmingham, Monterey-Fresno, Nashville, 
Natchez-Jackson, New Ulm, Norwich, Ogdensburg, Omaha, Paterson, Peoria, 
Byzantine Rite of Philadelphia, Pueblo, Raleigh, Rapid City, Reno, Rochester, 
Rockford, Rockville Centre, Sacramento, Saginaw, St. Augustine, St. Cloud, 
St. Louis, Salina, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Sioux City, 
Springfield (111.), Springfield (Mass.), Springfield-Cape Girardeau (Mo.), 
Byzantine Rite of Stamford, Steubenville, Superior, Syracuse, Toledo, Trenton, 
Wheeling, Wilmington, Worcester, Yakima, and Youngstown. 


The Appendix, as in previous years, carries the financial report for the 
fiscal year 1961. The report sets forth the various categories carried on our 
books and shows a total of $255,851.21 of current funds administered during 

The Executive Board has asked me to extend warm thanks to the members 
of the Association for their generosity and loyalty, to the bishops of the United 
States, to Catholic publishers and corporations, and to the many friends of 
the Association who during 1961 donated to the Association an amount totaling 
$16,338.36. We are eager to point out that this continuing help is a source 
of inspiration to the staff of the national office. 


Five associate secretaries, one assistant secretary, and an office staff of 
twenty persons are now required to administer the national office. Following 
are the current major posts in the Washington office: 

Executive Secretary — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt 

Associate Secretary, Major and Minor Seminary Departments — Position 

to be filled 
Associate Secretary, College and University Department — Rev. William J. 

Dunne, S.J. 
Associate Secretary, School Superintendents Department — Rt. Rev. Msgr. 

O'Neil C. D' Amour 
Associate Secretary, Secondary School Department — Rev. C. Albert Koob, 

O. Praem. 
Associate Secretary, Elementary School Department — Sister Mary Rich- 

ardine, B.V.M. 
Assistant Secretary, Elementary School Department — Sister Mary Nora, 

Associate Secretary, Special Education Department — Very Rev. Msgr. 

Elmer H. Behrmann 
Executive Secretary, Sister Formation Section — Sister Annette, C.S.J. 
Assistant Executive Secretary, Sister Formation Section — Sister Ritamary, 

Secretary for International Exchange — Mrs. Betty Randall 

16 National Catholic Educational Association 

Administrative Assistant for Management and Personnel — Miss Nancy 

Administrative Assistant for Coordination of Program and Research — Mrs. 

Winifred R. Long 
Convention and Exhibit Manager — Mr. Joseph O'Donnell 

Committees of the Association 

In addition to the Executive Board, the chief committee activities of the 
Association revolve around the Problems and Plans Committee, the Conven- 
tion Planning Committee, the Richard Lecture Selection Committee, the Wash- 
ington Committee, and the National Catholic Adult Education Commission. 
The work of committees identified with the various departments can be found 
in the Proceedings for the respective departments. 

Relationships with Other Agencies and Associations 

From June 1961 until June 1962, the Association took part in the following 
conferences and meetings. Unless otherwise identified, the representatives 
indicated were members of the NCEA staff. 

June 8-9: National Association of Exhibit Managers, Detroit, Mich. — Mr. Joseph 

June 12: Catholic Hospital Association, Detroit, Mich. — Sister Annette, C.S.J. , and 
Mr. Joseph O'Donnell. 

June 12-16: Third Workshop for Supervisors, Loretto Heights College, Loretto, 
Colo. — Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M., and Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D. 

June 14: U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, Washington, D.C.— Mrs. Betty 

June 14-18: Conference Board of the Associated Research Councils, Committee on 
International Exchange of Persons, Conference on Higher Education for Visit- 
ing Fulbright and Smith-Mundt Scholars, Washington, D.C. — Miss Patricia 

June 15-16: National Conference on International Economic and Social Develop- 
ment, Washington, D.C. — Miss Patricia Burns. 

June 17: Scholastic Magazines, Inc., Advisory Council, New York, N.Y. — Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. O'Neil C. D'Amour. 

June 19: American Association of University Women, Washington, D.C. — Mrs. 
Winifred R. Long. 

June 20-22: Catholic Broadcasters Association, Minneapolis, Minn. — Rev. John 
Culkin, S.J. 

June 20-23 : Sixteenth National Conference of the National Commission on Teacher 
Education and Professional Standards, Universtiy City, Pa. — Sister Mary 
Richardine, B.V.M.; Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D.; Sister Annette, C.S.J.; Brother 
Adelbert James, F.S.C., Head, Education Department, Manhattan College, New 
York, N.Y; Rev. Malcolm Carron, S.J., Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, 
University of Detroit, Detroit, Mich.; Dr. James S. Donnelly, Dean, School of 
Education, Fordham University, New York, N.Y.; Dr. Urban H. Fleege, Chair- 
man, Department of Education, DePaul University, Chicago, 111.; Rev. Carl A. 
Hangartner, S.J., Coordinator of Teacher Education, Saint Louis University, 
St. Louis, Mo.; Rev. Robert F. Hoey, S.J., Assistant Dean, School of Education, 
Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass.; Rev. Philip C. Niehaus, Assistant Dean, 
School of Education, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Mr. Timothy 
O'Keefe, Professor of Education, College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minn.; Dr. 
Cyril M. Witte, Department of Education, Loyola College, Baltimore, Md. 

July 2-4: American College Public Relations Association, Denver, Colo. — Rev. 
William J. Dunne, S.J. 

Report of Executive Secretary 17 

July 12: U.S. Office of Education, Meeting of Representatives of Higher Education 

Associations, Washington, D.C. — Rev. Brian A. McGrath, S.J., Academic Vice 

President, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 
July 16-23: Sixth Congress, Union Internationale Pour La Liberte d'Enseignement, 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil — Rev. Edward B. Rooney, S.J., President, Jesuit Educa- 
tional Association, New York, N.Y. 
July 24-28: Consejo Interamericana de Educacion Catolica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil — 

Rev. Edward B. Rooney, S.J. 
July 25: U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. 

Hochwalt, Executive Secretary. 
Aug. 25-Sept. 2: National Federation of Catholic College Students, Pittsburgh, 

Pa. — Miss Patricia Burns. 
August 28-29: Manufacturers' Exhibit of Teaching Machines, New York, N.Y. — 

Rev. C. Albert Koob, O.Praem. 
Sept. 7-9: National Science Foundation, Advisory Panel, Washington, D.C. — Sister 

Annette, C.S.J. 
Sept. 8: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Evaluation of 14th Annual National 

High School Driver Education Award Program, Washington, D.C. — Rev. C. 

Albert Koob, O.Praem. 
Sept. 13: Association for Higher Education, National Education Association, Na- 
tional Conference Program Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C. — Rev. William 

J. Dunne, S.J. 
Sept. 13: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, International Teacher 

Exchange Group, Washington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. O'Neil C. D'Amour. 
Sept. 15-19: Sixteenth National Conference on Citizenship, Washington, D.C. — 

Mrs. Marguerite Campbell and Mrs. Jean Jennings. 
Sept. 18-20: Twelfth Annual Mission-Sending Societies Meeting, Washington, D.C. — 

Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M.; Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D.; Sister Annette, 

C.S.J. ; and Sister Ritamary, C.H.M. 
Sept. 20: U.S. Department of Labor, Meeting on Better Employment Services for 

College and University Graduates, Washington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick 

G. Hochwalt. 
Sept. 21-24: Fifth National Aerospace Education Seminar, Philadelphia, Pa. — Rev. 

C. Albert Koob, O.Praem. 
Sept. 22: Religious Education Association, Committee on Publications, New York, 

N.Y. — Sister Annette, C.S.J. 
Sept. 25-28: National Conference on Curriculum Experimentation, University of 

Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. — Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M., and Sister 

Mary Nora, S.S.N.D. 
Oct. 5: Educational Testing Service, Cooperative Test Division, Princeton, N.J. — Rt. 

Rev. Msgr. O'Neil C. D'Amour and Rev. C. Albert Koob, O.Praem. 
Oct. 12-13: Round Table of National Organizations, Harriman, N.Y. — Very Rev. 

Edgar P. McCarren, Secretary of Education, Diocese of Rockville Centre, N.Y. 
Oct. 13: Catholic Press Association, Washington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. O'Neil C. 

Oct. 15-20: Forty-ninth National Safety Congress and Exposition, Chicago, 111. — Rt. 

Rev. Msgr. O'Neil C. D'Amour. 
Oct. 20-21: Council on Cooperation in Teacher Education, Washington, D.C. — Sister 

Annette, C.S.J.; Sister Ritamary, C.H.M.; Rev. Charles F. Donovan, S.J., 

Academic Vice President, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass.; Dr. James S. 

Donnelly, Dean, School of Education, Fordham University, New York, N.Y. 
Oct. 20-21: Peace Corps Regional Conference, Washington, D.C. — Miss Valerie 

Price, Youth Department, National Catholic Welfare Conference, Washington, 

Oct. 20-22: Family Life Bureau, National Catholic Welfare Conference, Education 

Committee, Advisory Board, Washington, D.C. — Rev. C. Albert Koob, O.Praem. 
Oct. 22-26: Eighth National Conference, U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, 

18 National Catholic Educational Association 

Boston, Mass. — Miss Patricia Burns and Dr. William H. Conley, Educational 

Assistant to the President, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Oct. 25-27: Ontario, Canada, Conference, Catholic Hospital Association, Toronto, 

Canada — Sister Annette, C.S.J. 
Oct. 26-27: Twenty-sixth Educational Conference under auspices of Educational 

Records Bureau and American Council on Education, New York, N.Y. — Rev. 

William J. Dunne, S.J. 
Oct. 28: Educational Testing Service, Invitational Conference on Testing, New York, 

N.Y.— Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 
Oct. 28: Diocesan Councils of Catholic Nurses, Manchester, N.H. — Sister Ritamary, 

Nov. 6-7; Conference of Catholic Schools of Nursing, Kansas City, Kan. — Rev. 

William J. Dunne, S.J. 
Nov. 7: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Advisory 

Committee for Exchange of Teachers, Washington, D.C. — Miss Patricia Burns. 
Nov. 14: Higher Education Group of Washington, D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, 

Nov. 15: U.S. Office of Education, Division of Higher Education, Washington, 

D.C— Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 
Nov. 16: National Association of Exhibit Managers, Washington Chapter, Washing- 
ton D.C. — Mr. Joseph O'Donnell. 
Nov. 16-18: Invitational Conference, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., on 

"The Nature of Knowledge and Implications for the Education of Teachers" — 

Sister Ritamary, C.H.M. 
Nov. 18: Catholic Commission on Intellectual and Cultural Affairs, Executive Com- 
mittee, Washington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt. 
Nov. 20: American Council on Education, Program Planning, Washington, D.C. — 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt. 
Nov. 20: American Association of Railroads, Luncheon and Film Showing, Wash- 
ington, D.C. — Mr. Joseph O'Donnell. 
Nov. 20-21: American College Public Relations Association, Washington, D.C. — 

Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 
Nov. 23-25: National Council of Teachers of English, Philadelphia, Pa. — Sister Mary 

Richardine, B.V.M., and Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D. 
Nov. 24-25 : Middle States Accrediting Association, Atlantic City, N.J. — Rev. William 

J. Dunne, S.J., and Rev. C. Albert Koob, O.Praem. 
Nov. 29: U.S. Office of Education, Meeting of Representatives of Higher Education 

Associations, Washington, D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 
Nov. 29: Guild of Catholic Physicians, Committee on Health of Religious, St. Louis, 

Mo. — Sister Annette, C.S.J. 
Nov. 29: Illinois Conference of the Catholic Hospital Association, Springfield, 111. — 

Sister Ritamary, C.H.M. 
Nov. 30-Dec. 2: Christian Curriculm Development Tenth Annual Conference, 

Toronto, Canada — Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D. 
Dec. 5: American Council on Education, Commission on Federal Relations, Wash- 
ington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt. 
Dec. 6: National Education Association, Discussion on Education in Africa and in 

the United States, Washington, D.C. — Miss Patricia Burns. 
Dec. 8-9: President's Panel on Mental Retardation, Washington, D.C. — Very Rev. 

Msgr. Elmer H. Behrmann. 
Dec. 12: U.S. Department of Labor, Meeting on Better Employment Services for 

College and University Graduates, Washington, D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, 

Dec. 12: Higher Education Group of Washington, D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 
Dec. 15-16: Catholic Youth Encyclopedia, Editorial Advisory Board, New York, 

N.Y. — Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M.; and Sister Annette, C.S.J. 

Report of Executive Secretary 19 

Jan. 8: National Lutheran Education Conference, Cleveland, Ohio — Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
Frederick G. Hochwalt. 

Jan. 9-11: Association of American Colleges, Cleveland, Ohio — Rev. William J. 
Dunne, S.J.; Sister Annette, C.S.J. ; and Sister Ritamary, C.H.M. 

Jan. 17: National Education Association, Report on Programmed Instruction, Wash- 
ington, D.C.— Rev. C. Albert Koob, O.Praem. 

Jan. 20-21: Meeting on Carnegie Study of Catholic Schools, Notre Dame, Ind. — Rt. 
Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt. 

Jan. 23: American Council on Education, Commission on Federal Relations, Wash- 
ington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt. 

Jan. 30: Round Table of National Organizations, Harriman, N.Y. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
O'Neil C. D'Amour. 

Feb. 1: National Education Association, Movie on "The Dropout," Washington, 
D.C. — Rev. C. Albert Koob, O.Praem; Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M.; and 
Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D. 

Feb. 2: U.S. Office of Education, Project English Meeting, Washington, D.C. — Sister 
Mary Richardine, B.V.M. 

Feb. 2: Columbia Broadcasting System Film on Schools, Washington, D.C. — Rev. C. 
Alfred Koob, O.Praem. 

Feb. 6: Meeting on Carnegie Study of Catholic Schools, Chicago, 111. — Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. O'Neil C. D'Amour. 

Feb. 9-10: National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards, 
Regional Meeting, Washington, D.C. — Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M., and 
Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D. 

Feb. 14-17: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Chicago, 111. — 
Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 

Feb. 16: Keep America Beautiful, Naitonal Advisory Council, New York, N.Y. — 
Mr. Frank Casey, Department of Education, National Catholic Welfare Con- 
ference, Washington, D.C. 

Feb. 19: American Council on Education, Committee on Educational Television, 
Washington, D.C. — Sister Annette, C.S.J. 

Feb. 24-28: National Association of Secondary School Principals, St. Louis, Mo. — 
Rev. C. Albert Koob, O.Praem. 

March 4-7: Association for Higher Education, Seventeenth National Conference on 
Higher Education, Chicago, 111. — Sister Annette, C.S.J.; Sister Ritamary, C.H.M., 
Assistant Executive Secretary, Sister Formation Conference, Washington, D.C; 
Rev. Edward J. Drummond, S.J., Academic Vice President, Marquette Univer- 
sity, Milwaukee, Wis.; and Dr. William H. Conley, Marquette University. 

March 6: National Science Teachers Association, Business Industry Section, Wash- 
ington, D.C. — Mr. Joseph O'Donnell. 

March 12: National Education Association, Reception for Berlin Teachers, Wash- 
ington, D.C. — Mrs. Ruth D'Emilio. 

March 12: National Association of Exhibit Managers, Public Relations Committee, 
Washingotn, D.C. — Mr. Joseph O'Donnell. 

March 25-28: National Education Association, Department of Elementary School 
Principals, Detroit, Mich. — Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M. ; Sister Mary Nora, 
S.S.N.D.; and Mr. Joseph O'Donnell. 

March 26-28: U.S. Office of Education, Meeting on National Goals, Washington, 
D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 

March 28: North Central Accrediting Association, Chicago, 111. — Rev. C. Albert 
Koob, O.Praem. 

March 30-31: National Merit Scholarship Corporation, Advisory Board, Evanston, 
111. — Rev. C. Albert Koob, O.Praem. 

March 31 -April 2: Meeting on Carnegie Study of Catholic Schools, Notre Dame, 
Ind. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt. 

April 3: U.S. Office of Education, Meeting with Civil Service Commission, Wash- 
ington, D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 

20 National Catholic Educational Association 

April 5-7: American Red Cross, College and University Advisory Committee, Wash- 
ington, D.C.— Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 

April 9: Children's Bureau, Fiftieth Birthday Celebration, Washington, D.C. — Rev. 
C. Albert Koob, O.Praem; Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M.; Sister Mary Nora, 
S.S.N.D.; and Sister Annette, C.S.J. 

April 9-10: American Council on Education, Conference on Placement Services in 
Higher Education, Washington, D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 

April 9-10: Educational Testing Service, National Advisory Committee on the Co- 
operative Plan for Guidance and Admission, Princeton, N.J. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
O'Neil C. D'Amour. 

April 10: Higher Education Group of Washington, D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, 

April 10-13: Joint Conference on Children and Youth, Washington, D.C. — Sister 
Mary Richardine, B.V.M.; Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D.; Sister Annette, C.S.J. ; 
and Mrs. Jeanne Trott, all of the NCEA staff; and nine youth delegates from 
Catholic high schools, colleges, and universities of the Washington area. 

April 13-14: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Boston, 
Mass. — Sister Mary Nora, S.S.N.D. 

April 18: U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C— Rt. Rev. Msgr. O'Neil C. 

April 18: American Council on Education, Commission on Education and Interna- 
tional Affairs, Washington, D.C. — Mrs. Winifred R. Long. 

April 19: U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C— Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 

April 24-25: National Association of Foreign Student Advisors, Washington, D.C. — 
Mrs. Ruth D'Emilio. 

April 25: Round Table of National Organizations, Harriman, N.Y. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
Robert J. Maher, Hanover, Pa. 

May 2: American Council on Education, Reception for Visiting Robbins Committee 
on Higher Education of the United Kingdom, Washington, D.C. — Rev. C Albert 
Koob, O.Praem. 

May 4: Meeting with Representatives of Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish Seminaries, 
New York, N.Y. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt. 

May 5-7: U.S. Office of Education, Project English Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pa. — Rev. 
C Albert Koob, O.Praem. 

May 8: Higher Education Group of Washington, D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 

May 10: Third Annual Meeting of Organizations Giving Services to International 
Visitors, Washington, D.C. — Mrs. Betty Randall. 

May 15: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Executive Com- 
mittee Luncheon, Washington, D.C. — Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J. 

May 16: American Council on Education, Commission on Federal Relations, Wash- 
ington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt and Rev. William J. 
Dunne, S.J. 

May 17: National Education Association, Movie on "If These Were Your Children," 
Washington, D.C. — Sister Mary Richardine, B.V.M., and Sister Mary Nora, 

May 18: National Association of Exhibit Managers, Washington Chapter, Wash" 
ington, D.C. — Mr. Joseph O'Donnell. 

May 19: Community Leaders Conference on Equal Employment Opportunity, Wash- 
ington, D.C. — Rev. C Albert Koob, O.Praem. 

May 21: National Conference of Christians and Jews, Inc., Board of Directors, Wash- 
ington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. O'Neil C D'Amour. 

May 21-22: Catholic Hospital Association, St. Louis, Mo. — Sister Annette, C.S.J. 

May 23: Scholastic Magazines, Inc., Dinner Meeting, New York, N.Y. — Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. O'Neil C D'Amour. 

May 28-29: Foreign Policy Briefing Conference for Nongovernmental Organizations, 
Washington, D.C. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt. 

Report of Executive Secretary 21 


The General Executive Board, the staff and all of our wonderful presidents, 
deans, superintendents, and supervisors join to express their profound gratitude 
for the splendid cooperation extended to the NCEA during the past year. 
Prospects for the future are bright and challenging. All of us on the Wash- 
ington staff pledge ourselves to the present task of meeting the challenges of 
each day and each problem. We are deeply grateful for the continuing under- 
standing of the entire field. 

Frederick G. Hochwalt 



Rev. Edmond A. Fournier 


In anticipation of the formal welcome which His Excellency, the Archbishop 
of Detroit, will extend to you later this morning in his keynote address, we 
interrupt this Solemn Pontifical ceremony only long enough to give humble 
thanks to Almighty God for the great privilege of hosting the fifty-ninth an- 
nual meeting of this national body of Catholic educators. We call attention to 
the fact that this marks the third time in the history of this organization that 
it has conducted its meetings in the city of Detroit. The latter of these 
occurred in 1927, thirty-five years ago this June, and was the twenty-fourth 
annual meeting. That was the year in which the word "National" was 
added to the title of the Catholic Educational Association. The host in 
1927 was the fifth ordinary of the diocese, Bishop Michael James Gallagher; 
the President General of the Association was Bishop Thomas Joseph Shahan of 
the Catholic University. The first meeting in Detroit took place seventeen years 
earlier, in 1910, with Bishop John S. Foley as host and the then Msgr. Thomas 
Shahan as its President General. To quote the July 14 issue of The Michigan 
Catholic of that year: "The 1910 meeting was notable by reason of the splendid 
letter of approval and encouragement received from the Holy Father, Pope 
Pius X." 

A brief summary of Bishop Gallagher's sermon is contained in the 1927 
Proceedings. After praising the Association for its great work in the past, he 
spoke of the problems which it faced in the future. Among other more specific 
items, the Bishop called for the inculcating of the spirit of sacrifice in our young 
boys and girls to the end that vocations be fostered for the preservation and 
developmnt of our religious and educational institutions and for our work in the 
missions. These three and a half decades since the morning of that opening 
Pontifical Mass in the Church of the Visitation, celebrated by Auxiliary Bishop 
Joseph Plagens, have surely seen a fruition of this fervent prayer, I think, even 
beyond the dreams of the delegates of that day. But even as the concept of 
sacrifice took deep root and shot forth into the tree of vocational life which 
has carried us through the intervening time, we today are well aware of the 
exploding needs of the morrow. It is as though we have stood still, despite 
the pardonable pride we may have in the grand achievements of the Catholic 
Church and of Catholic education in our beloved country during decades of 
unparalleled growth after a paralyzing depression followed by a global war. 
How ripe are the fields for the harvest, how pitifully few the reapers and the 


Sermon at the Mass 23 

In the missions, we have won over foreign territories yet have lost countries 
to iron and bamboo barriers to religion and religious progress. 

In Detroit we have made progress, yet we dare not boast of achievement 
when the needs seem to be growing to wider and ever wider proportions: 147 
schools in 1927 — 365 in 1962; 87,000 elementary and high school pupils in 
1927 — 190,000 in 1962. A grand total of 540 students in diocesan seminaries 
in 1927 — 1,120 today. A Catholic population of half a million in 1927; almost 
triple that number today. These figures become even more meaningful when we 
realize that in 1927 the diocese comprised much of the present dioceses of 
Lansing and Saginaw as well as that of Detroit. The cold, naked truth is the 
one we all know and all wonder about. There is no human solution, no human 
way to cope with problems of such vast magnitude. What does it take to make 
us humble and dependent upon Divine Omnipotence? How better can we 
understand our role as sheep under the Divine Shepherd? How can we the 
better understand that we may indeed be the planters and the waterers, and 
those who hope after the better things and the better life, but it is Almighty 
God who will deign to give the increase under our puny ministrations. Because 
God can and will give that increase in answer to those who pray and sacrifice 
for Him, we forge ahead, taking up tasks which are superhuman, confident in 
the help of supernatural grace and strength. "I can do all things in Him who 
strengtheneth me" (Phil. 4, 13). "I live now, not I, but Christ liveth in Me" 
(Gal. 2, 20). "Power is made perfect in infirmity" (II Cor. 12, 9). And so we 
make our sacrifices, we religious, and we laymen. We take on the double yoke 
of Church support and school support, knowing full well that the yoke is 
too heavy for us individually but knowing also that Christ will make the burden 
lighter. Our faith in Him is conditioned by the love we return to Him and 
the sacrifices we are willing to make for Him. We dare to carry on because 
it is the only direction we have to travel. Retrogression will exact an even more 
terrible toll. 

Had there been other meetings in other centuries, accolades would have been 
paid indeed to the giants of yesterday and their monumental achievements. 
Who can possibly refer to the past without bowing in the direction of the gentle 
pastor of St. Anne's Church, Father Gabriel Richard, teacher extraordinary, 
founder or co-founder, promoter or instigator of almost anything and every- 
thing educational in this state, including the great University of Michigan? There 
would have been much to say in many annual meetings about the establishment 
of the teaching congregations of men and women in this area and much to 
credit to the illustrious members of the hierarchy who guided the destiny of 
Michigan's two peninsulas. The cause of education on every level was quick 
to find proponents, always brave if not always successful, willing to rise from 
defeat in securing a beachhead of learning for the cause of Christ and His 
Church. There is a value in offering even these generalities without descending 
to the specific and particular, since it points up the truth of Bishop Foley's 
injunction to this association fifty-two years ago: 

. . . there is no organization . . . that has an end and purpose so high and 
important as your convention has. . . . You do not come here to propose new 
theories or doctrines, for the Catholic Church has taught one doctrine from 
the days of Christ, and will teach that doctrine till the end of time. You do 
not come here to promote one or the other interest, but for the single purpose 
of making Christian education a living force in the nation. All our teaching 

24 General Sessions 

is founded on Christ. He came "to do and to teach." It is your mission to 
continue His work, and He is your Model. 4 

Had there been a meeting in Detroit during the years of 1937 to 1958, we 
might well imagine how the words of these two illustrious churchmen of the 
past, Bishops Foley and Gallagher, would have been repeated and reemphasized 
by Edward Cardinal Mooney, Prince of the Church and champion of its needs 
and purposes. If I have been but the voice of the past, it is because the past 
has borne a static message and a dynamic challenge. We are proceeding in 
the right order and maintaining a correct course when we bow in solemn adora- 
tion this morning before the eternal majesty of God and seek through solemn 
worship the divine benediction on the work of this convention, and on the 
cause of Catholic education in the archdiocese, in the country, and in the world. 

* Proceedings of Seventh Annual Meeting, CEA, July 4-7, 1910, pp. 30-31. 


William H. Conley 


The Second Vatican Council, which will begin in October of this year, has 
focused the attention of the Christian world on the hope of an eventual return 
to unity. The growth of the ecumenical spirit among our own is a necessary 
step in the removal of barriers to the reunion we seek. The Catholic educational 
program in the United States, extending as it does from kindergarten through 
graduate school, is unique in the whole world, and has at once an opportunity 
and an obligation to foster the spirit of ecumenism, to communicate the knowl- 
edge which is necessary to its understanding, and to develop in its students a 
motivation which will lead to prudent action. 

The 59th Annual Convention of the National Catholic Educational Asso- 
ciation in choosing as its theme "Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit" has recognized 
the challenge to our schools, and will provide during the next four days a 
forum for the discussion of educational issues which are directly, or indirectly, 
related to the task of Christians at this moment in history. 

It is my privilege this morning to discuss with you the role of the layman in 
our Catholic schools. In doing so I shall consider four points : ( 1 ) the apostolic 
mission of the layman in education; (2) the changing image of the Catholic 
lay teacher; (3) the contribution of the layman to Catholic education; (4) the 
problems of the layman in the Catholic schools. 

The Apostolic Mission of Laymen 

There have been times in the history of the Church when laymen undertook 
an active apostolate, and there have been times when they have been silent 
partners in the mission of the Church. The reasons have varied. Some were 
historical, while others were economic, social, educational, and even ecclesias- 
tical. The Catholic layman once played an unfortunate role in the breakdown 
of Christian unity. Conditions in our country appear to be such today that 
he can play, perhaps, an even more important role in the return to unity. The 
Catholic in the United States has risen above the status he held when he came 
to this country, which necessarily restricted his influence. Today he is socially 
and politically accepted and has made rapid strides in intellectual development. 
He is in a position to play a more active role in the Church's mission. 

The layman's membership in the Church carries with it an apostolic function 
in the world in which he lives. His engagement in the world is what determines 
his being a layman. Because we are living in a civilization which is more 
world-centered than at any period in Christian history, the layman has a fear- 
ful responsibility in an active apostolate. 


26 General Sessions 

One of the fields in which an apostolate can and must be carried on is 
education. The rapid expansion of education, and especially Catholic educa- 
tion, in our country and its impact on temporal life demands lay participation 
in it. The educational programs in our Catholic schools are concerned with 
intellectual development through knowledge, with an understanding of and 
an appreciation of the total of reality, and with the discovery of new knowledge. 
They are concerned with moral and spiritual development, not in a compart- 
ment, but as an integral part of the intellectual activities through knowledge 
of God and His revelation, through religious orientation, through a Christian 
climate and environment, and through regular religious practices. They are 
concerned with setting Christ as a model for students in their personal, social, 
business, and civic lives — with inculcating the principle that all acts are per- 
formed for the Greater Glory of God — with developing a set of values based 
on these fundamentals. 

The layman who lives in the world and is a part of it, who understands its 
problems through daily contact with them, who understands children and 
youth of the day because he lives among them, performs a unique function in 
the Catholic school. He interprets contemporary life to the school, and inter- 
prets the school to contemporary life. 

The Image of Catholic Lay Teachers 

With the growth of Catholic education has come a changed image of the 
Catholic lay teacher. Formerly, there was a bias against lay teachers on the 
part of both religious and clergy and of the laity themselves. Our schools had 
been largely missionary schools for the teaching of the faith at the lower levels. 
At the upper levels we were concerned primarily with the preliminary education 
of the clergy. It was considered, therefore, that the lay teacher had little place 
in any such institution. Secondly, there was a lack of qualified lay teachers. 
Most Catholic laymen who went to college did so as preparation for one of 
the professions. In this field they succeeded exceptionally well. It was only 
within recent years with the increasing interest in higher education, and the 
economic ability of Catholics to attend colleges, that there has been a supply 
of teachers who have had college education and some graduate training. 
Thirdly, our schools lacked adequate funds to employ laymen. Tuition was 
very low, and in some cases was not collected. Consequently, staffing had to 
be done by persons who had taken the vow of poverty, or lived a life of self- 
denial, and whose religious communities or diocese had some means of support 
other than tuition income. 

But times have changed. The number of Catholic students going to graduate 
schools is increasing each year, partially because of the growing interest in the 
intellectual activities but also because there are job opportunities for them in 
both Catholic and public schools. Qualified lay teachers now are employed as 
professionals to teach all fields, even in some cases religion. The lay teachers 
are acceptable today to the clergy and the religious as teachers and as scholars. 
It is interesting to note that they are also becoming acceptable to the laity 
themselves who, for many years, preferred to have their children taught only 
by clergy and religious. 

We must not give the false impression that in every situation the Catholic 
lay teacher has an ideal status in Catholic schools. The layman in some Catholic 
schools is still looked upon as a paying boarder is looked upon by some 
families. He is necessary to the welfare of the household, and the family could 

The Lay Teacher in Catholic Education 27 

not get along without him, but he is never accepted as a full member of the 
family. This condition is inherent in the concept of ownership, responsibility, 
and control of our schools either by a religious community or by a diocese. 
In matters of policy formation, and in the government of institutions, the lay- 
man has a long way to go before he is an equal partner. But Catholic laymen 
are no longer the unwanted minority in the United States. They constitute 
one of the important elements in a pluralistic society. Educationally, they are 
rapidly developing and not only are thousands teaching in our Catholic schools 
and universities but, also, many thousands are engaged in public school teach- 
ing. A few have gone into college teaching and research outside of the Catholic 
schools. Scholarship is no longer the sole possession of the clergy and the 
religious. Consequently, the apostolate of teaching is attracting increasing 
numbers of the laity. 

The Contributions of Lay Teachers 

The Catholic layman has made, is making, and will continue to make a 
significant contribution to Catholic education. The first contribution is in 
the increase of manpower. In 1948, according to the reports of the National 
Catholic Welfare Conference, there were 7,422 lay teachers in our elementary 
and secondary schools. In 1960 that number had increased more than five 
times (537 per cent). During the same period, priests and religious had 
increased only 37 per cent. This spectacular increase in lay teachers was 
necessary to staff the expanding schools. In the twelve-year period, elementary 
school enrollment had grown by 90 per cent and secondary school enrollment 
by 83 per cent. 

Today, the ratio nationally of lay to religious teachers in our elementary 
schools is 3 to 8, in our secondary schools it is 1 to 3. In Catholic colleges 
and universities there are two lay teachers to every priest or religious. An 
analysis of predictions for the future makes it safe to assert that the lay teacher 
is here to stay. Accepting this, it must be made possible for him to play an 
increasingly significant role in Catholic schools of the future. 

Great as is the contribution of the layman in providing numbers of faculty 
members to staff our schools, equally important is the educational contribution 
that is being made. The Catholic lay teacher realizes that if he is to carry 
on an apostolate in the schools he, as well as the religious, must achieve 
professional excellence. On the practical side he has another motivation in 
financial rewards which come with professional growth. As a result of the two 
forces, he strives to bring to the school academic training and experience from 
a variety of universities and situations. Because of his mobility and his oppor- 
tunities for scholarships and fellowships, he can attend institutions which might 
present difficulties to religious and clergy. 

Again, some fields of study, particularly at upper levels, are more in line 
with lay activities, for example, business and social sciences. It was in the field 
of commerce that the layman first made a breakthrough in Catholic teaching. 
Since commerce and social science are in the area of the contemporary world, 
it should be expected that the layman would bring to them special competencies 
merely because he is a layman. We have already observed that because of his 
vocation he has practical knowledge of the world and of the young people 
in the world. These two special competencies of the layman make it possible 
for him to adapt discourse to his audience most effectively. And this is of 
the essence of teaching. 

28 General Sessions 

The layman has a role to play not only in the school itself but in the intel- 
lectual and professional activities outside the school. Cooperation with peers 
in other institutions in scholarly and professional organizations is especially 
within the sphere of the layman. Perhaps the most important reason for lay 
participation in these activities is that it is frequently easier for scholars in 
the various fields to work with laymen than with religious. In the majority 
of cases there tends to be greater freedom of exchange among lay people. 

Again, laymen are free to follow the open tradition of scholarship without 
reference to the needs of a community and without reference to permissions 
and approvals of superiors. 

There is a third contribution to Catholic education that can be made by the 
layman in our Catholic schools and that is of a social nature. Pius XII stated, 
over fifteen years ago, "The laity are in the front line of the Church's life; 
through them the Church is the vital principle of human society." The layman 
who is in the world and is able to interpret the secular to the Church must 
also be able to interpret the sacred to the world. It is through this that the 
layman may be able to meet one of the objectives of education and that is the 
development of values which will influence the secular world. Bridging the 
gap between classrooms and community is definitely a role of the layman. 

Problems of the Layman 

We have attempted to discuss so far the role of the layman in the Church's 
apostolic mission, especially in the field of education; the changed image of 
the Catholic lay teacher; and the contribution of the Catholic lay teacher to 
Catholic schools. One further point remains for us to discuss, and that is the 
specific problems which confront the layman in the Catholic school. 

The first is the partial segregation of the layman which continues to exist. 
There are at least three causes of the segregation. First, lay teachers and 
religious teachers are members of different subcultures. The lay teacher is 
part of a family and after the completion of the school day returns to the 
family where demands are placed upon him, where his recreation takes place, 
and where his continuing growth goes on. The religious teacher, at the end 
of the day, returns to the religious community where one has definite respon- 
sibilities, quite different from those of the person in a family, where one's time 
is frequently regulated, and where recreation is with peers who are engaged 
in the same kind of work. Lay and religious live in different worlds. They 
converge in the school, and with all the goodwill possible, integration and 
understanding are sometimes difficult. Both lay and religious contribute to the 
problem. The lay teachers eat by themselves, discuss problems together, com- 
plain about the school to each other, and sometimes develop the historic attitude 
that the lay teacher is a second-class citizen in the Catholic school — although in 
the vast majority of cases this is not true. The religious go to their quarters 
when unassigned, discuss the problems of the school among themselves after 
hours — frequently failing to communicate with the lay teachers. The result 
is a wall of separation between religious and lay teachers which is sometimes 
low and sometimes high. The segregation is really a sociological problem but 
it must be solved. A condition necessary to the solution is the burial of the 
dead past with its inferiority complexes of lay teachers and with its attitude 
of religious that the laity were tolerated helpers until suitable religious could 
be made available. 

A second problem, and one on which we have commented, is one of tension 

The Lay Teacher in Catholic Education 29 

which grows out of the fact that the ownership or control of the schools or 
colleges, and the responsibility for their operation, is in the hands of a com- 
munity or diocese. Again, this is a reality and is not likely to change. It 
creates, however, attitudes on the part of both groups which lead to tension. 
I must hasten to observe that these are not universal attitudes but they exist in 
sufficient frequency to warrant serious attention. 

A third problem is closely related. It deals with the possibilities of advance- 
ment for the lay teacher not only in salary but in positions of leadership. If 
there is to be a career for the layman in Catholic elementary and secondary 
schools, there must be opportunities for advancement to supervisory and 
administrative positions. Restricting these positions to the clergy or to a 
member of the religious community leads to the attitude that there is no future 
for the talented layman in the system. In the colleges, laymen have been 
admitted to some major positions, but the numbers are few, and there are 
positions and titles to which the layman may not aspire in spite of his qualifica- 
tions. In the long range, this may be the most serious problem to be solved. 
If Catholic schools are to attract and retain the best talent of the laity, they 
must recognize the barrier and be willing to take positive steps to remove it. 

In addition, there are several practical problems which are worthy of con- 
sideration. We are all aware of the three major problems — salaries, fringe 
benefits, and conditions of service. 

Salaries in most of our Catholic schools have advanced rapidly in recent 
years. At the lower range, salaries compare favorably now with those in 
similar institutions. Upper levels in salaries in our Catholic schools still leave 
much to be desired, and as we attract more lay faculty members of ability it 
will be necessary to increase maximum salaries. 

Our Catholic schools in many cases have not provided adequately for fringe 
benefits. This is partially because of lack of understanding of the tax problems 
of laymen. Such provisions as total payment of annuities, health and surgical 
insurance, and free tuition for faculty children mean far more to the layman 
than an equivalent increase in contractual salary. 

Conditions of service are another practical and real problem in our Catholic 
institutions. Merely because we have improved economically does not mean 
that we have completely solved the problem of cost. Because of this, we find 
that, in general, teaching loads in our schools are somewhat higher than those 
of other institutions. Even though salaries may have kept pace, reduction of 
load has not kept pace. Heavy teaching loads make it impossible, or at least 
very difficult, for our teachers, lay or religious, to carry on the creative activity 
which is necessary both for intellectual growth, professional development, and 
the contribution we should be making to human knowledge. 

Another condition of faculty service which needs attention is the involvement 
of the faculty in the making of educational policy. There is a lack, in many 
cases, of the acceptance of the layman as a professional equal who can make 
a significant contribution to educational policymaking and to long-range 
planning. Where this exists there cannot be the true professional atmosphere 
which makes for contented, but not complacent, teachers who are a part of 
an educational team assisting in the evolving of ideal conditions for student 
learning and student intellectual growth. 

There are problems, on the other hand, which arise because laymen do not 
all accept their responsibilities. The first responsibility of the lay teacher in 
a Catholic school is to understand the Catholic philosophy of education. I do 
not want to imply that every course requires the teaching of religion in it. 

30 General Sessions 

But it does require an understanding of the objectives of Catholic education, 
the distinctive characteristics of Catholic education, and the importance of 
creating an atmosphere in which there can be the pursuit of total truth. 

Secondly, the layman has the responsibility of undertaking an apostolate 
of excellence in his chosen career. This requires that whatever he does he 
undertakes in the most excellent way possible. It involves his scholarship, his 
completion of professional training, his continuous growth in knowledge in 
his field, and the continuing improvement in the quality of his teaching. It 
requires, also, that he recognize the necessity for contributions to his own 
academic field and to the welfare of the school. 

In my discussion this morning I have tried to point out that one of the areas 
of active mission of the laity is in Catholic education; that the layman's role 
in Catholic education is changing drastically; that he is making and will 
make, because he is a part of the world which is changing at a phenomenal 
rate, significant and unique contributions in our schools. Finally, I indicated 
some of the problems which remain to be solved and which we may discuss 
in our sessions during the convention. 

Our Catholic schools have grown to their present state of excellence and 
their scope because of the dedicated service of priests, brothers, and sisters for 
more than a century. The foresight and the concern of the bishops and the 
sacrifices of the laity have made possible American Catholic education. In the 
recent past there has been a rapid expansion of a new force in these schools — 
the Catholic lay teacher. More than fifty years ago, a French bishop stated, 
"Everywhere there is discussion of the delicate question of coordinating the 
two apostleships, ours hierarchical, yours lay." 

Understandings within our schools by the clergy and religious of the laity, 
and understandings by the laity of the clergy and religious, must be brought 
about. To do so requires a positive effort on the part of each group, and of 
the two groups together, to gain this understanding. Each has an important 
role to play in building and perfecting the Mystical Body through education. 
Recognition that each is a part of the Mystical Body, and that together they 
have a common mission, is the starting point for the mutual understanding 
which will effect the unity that is necessary and permit our schools to reach 
even greater heights. Together they should communicate knowledge, develop 
understandings, and stimulate motivation which will result in the total develop- 
ment of their students, and will help to produce the conditions in which Divine 
Grace will effect a return to Christian unity. 


Most Rev. John F. Dearden 


With pleasure I welcome you to the Archdiocese of Detroit. You will 
find, I am certain, that the spaciousness of our civic center symbolizes well 
the largeness of heart that characterizes the people of Detroit. We welcome 
you to our churches and schools, to our institutions and agencies, to all our 
facilities and services. May your visit profit you professionally, and may it 
become a memory you will cherish with fondness. 

The range of this year's convention of the National Catholic Educational 
Association reflects the diversity and depth of Catholic education. Catholic 
schools are an integral part of the life of the Church in this country. The 
spiritual and intellectual vigor of the Church in the United States today can 
be credited in great part to priests, religious, and lay people who, over the 
years, have contributed their talents and energies to our educational institutions. 
Over five and a half million students are enrolled in our elementary and high 
schools and our colleges and universities. This astounding achievement testifies 
to the far-seeing vision of the bishops who at the Third Plenary Council of 
Baltimore directed that, so far as feasible, every parish should provide a school. 
From these roots grow the secondary schools, seminaries, colleges, and univer- 
sities that reach across the fifty states, giving our society the informed, con- 
scientious Catholic citizen of today. 

For all its variety, Catholic education is infused with an ideal and an 
idea that give it unity and purpose. The ideal is the man formed after the 
heart of Christ. The idea is that the development of basic skills and the 
cultivation of intellectual excellence represent the meaningful use of God-given 
talents. If Catholic education finds unity in this ideal and idea, then the same 
bond gives cohesion to this huge convention where the implications and 
problems inherent in such a noble purpose can be deliberated and in some 
measure resolved. 

A further principle of unity for the convention itself stems from the theme 
that has been selected for this meeting, "Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit." 
The theme surely has been suggested by the forthcoming Second Vatican 
Council. While this assuredly is not the central concern of the Council, it bears 
a direct relationship to what the Council hopes to achieve. 

The forthcoming Council makes this year an historic one for the Church, 
for as long as history is written 1962 will take its place with other great years 
of decision in the Church: 325 when Nicea defined the divinity of Christ; 431 
when Ephesus defined Mary's claim to be called Mother of God; 1215 when 
the Fourth Lateran Council rejected the errors of the Albigensians; 1545 when 
Trent gave further precision to a great number of doctrines and erected a 


32 General Sessions 

structure of discipline and authority that gave shape to the visible Church 
in the modern world. 

Each Ecumenical Council was history-making. The matter was stated once 
most forcefully by G. K. Chesterton: "Nobody will ever write a history of 
Europe that will make any sort of sense, unless he does justice to the Councils 
of the Church, those vast and yet subtle collaborations for thrashing out a 
thousand thoughts to find the true thought of the Church. The great religious 
Councils of the Church are far more practical and important than the great 
international treaties which are generally made the pivotal dates of history. . . . 
For in almost every case the international peace was founded on a compromise; 
the religious peace was founded on a distinction — the enunciation of a principle 
which had affected, and still does affect, the general state of mind of thousands 
from admirals to apple-women." 

Of the twenty Ecumenical Councils of the Church, I have referred to but 
a few. One great purpose distinguishes all the Councils: to invigorate the life 
of the Church by defining, clarifying, and advancing the Faith that she teaches 
and lives. Our Holy Father has reaffirmed this purpose as that which will be 
dominant in the forthcoming Council. In an address the Holy Father expressed 
it in these words: 

The Council's chief business will concern the growth of the Catholic Faith, 
the renewal along right lines of the habits of Christian people, and the adapting 
of ecclesiastical discipline to the needs and conditions of the present time. That 
event will surely be a wonderful manifestation of truth, unity and charity. 

It is only after the Holy Father has enunciated this primary purpose of 
the Second Vatican Council that he expresses the hope that those "who behold 
this manifestation (of truth, unity, and charity), but who are separated from 
this Apostolic See, will receive it as a gentle invitation to seek and find that 
unity for which Jesus Christ prayed so ardently to His Heavenly Father." 

It is clear, then, that the Council that has been summoned is ecumenical first 
in the traditional sense that every general Council of the Church has been 
ecumenical, that is, a gathering of the bishops of all the dioceses of the world, 
meeting with the Holy Father in the broad interests of the Church. Functioning 
as a solemn witness to the established truth and existing unity of the Church, 
the Second Vatican Council then serves as a "gentle invitation" to our separated 
brethren to share in the oneness of truth and charity that is Christ. 

In the historic setting that the Council provides, it is but natural that 
Catholic educators first of all will interest themselves and their pupils in this 
solemn activity of the Church. They will find it a striking opportunity to 
bring home the significance of the teaching authority of the Church. At the 
same time they will find in the Council a living expression of that warm and 
gentle charity which the Church shows to all. Surely this will be an unparalleled 
opportunity to have our pupils sense the throbbing, pulsating life of the Church 
and glory in the privilege of being a part of it. 

It is in this broad historical context that we should approach the narrower 
theme that has been set for this year's convention. It is clear that the ecumenical 
spirit of which we speak is something quite other than the Ecumenical Council. 
In our discussion on the ecumenical spirit, we are speaking rather of the 
attitude that we must adopt and inculcate toward those who, outside the unity 
of the Church, yearn for a return to it. 

The Ecumenical Movement in modern Protestantism is both a recognition of 
a unity lost and a unity sought after. In the spirit of charity which the 

Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit 33 

Church inculcates, we cannot be indifferent to the strivings of those outside 
the Church who seek after the unity for which Christ prayed. In the spirit 
of the Council, we must pray and hope that the pious aspirations of those 
separated from the Church may, in the providence of God, be realized through 
their return to their Father's house. Because we enjoy the God-given blessings 
of unity in the Church, it is our duty to pray and to work that others coming 
through the grace of God to recognize that the Catholic Church is truly the 
Church founded by Christ may be brought back to her fold. 

When we speak of fostering the ecumenical spirit, we have in mind the 
promoting in our people of a prayerful concern toward those who, bearing 
the name Christian, are nonetheless separated from the Church. Such a spirit 
is but an expression of charity. And at the same time, it is a spirit that is 
grounded in knowledge, the knowledge that comes to us through faith. In its 
fullness, therefore, it represents knowledge possessed and lived. 

While it is not my duty to develop the theme that has been set for the 
convention — this, after all, is to be the content of your discussions during the 
next few days — it is fitting to draw your attention to some of its many facets. 
At the same time what is said may serve to underscore briefly some of the 
possibilities that lie ahead. 

Knowledge and culture and wisdom are the common concern of every 
teacher. Such common concern can itself create a climate of mutual trust 
and understanding. The basic commitment to search out truth makes partners 
of all who profess the intellectual life. The trained mind can best appreciate 
the values of diversity without division, of unity without uniformity. The 
knowledgeable mind is sensitive to historical situations; it is alert to the varied 
courses that influence the making of decisions and the taking of positions. In 
all these ways, the Catholic educator has a meaningful channel of communi- 
cation open to him. Somehow he must endeavor to open it to his pupils. 

In a climate favorable to understanding, there are many ways to foster the 
ecumenical spirit. Basic to all our efforts should be the ways of faith, 
hope, and love. 

Just as the Church grows in her knowledge of God and His divine Son, so 
the individual teacher encourages the growth of faith in his students. Faith 
comes from God, but it is a responsibility of the teacher to help bring it to 
full flower. This means a clear, mature understanding of the teachings of 
the Church, the "good tidings of great joy" of her history, her liturgy, and 
the inner life of the spirit. It means, too, the ability to express the faith intel- 
ligently. Informed and articulate, practicing what he professes, the individual 
Catholic will stand as a "gentle invitation" to all who know not Christ and 
His Church. 

In the face of anxiety and pessimism, Catholic educators will foster the 
ecumenical spirit by a vibrant hope. The Resurrection is God's pledge that 
His power prevails. Political, social, and economic problems at home and 
abroad seem all but insuperable. Countless conflicts confront us and frighten- 
ing catastrophes face us. But the ecumenical spirit is a spirit of hope. It is 
the spirit of Christ saying to His apostles, "These things I have spoken to you 
that in me you may have peace. In the world you will have affliction. But 
take courage, I have overcome the world" (John 16:33). Hope will sustain 
us, too, as the obstacles to reunion seem insurmountable. But God's providence 
works in wondrous ways. If we sow, He will give the increase. 

Above all, the ecumenical spirit is one of love. "By this shall all men know 
that you are my disciples, that you have love for one another" (John 13:35). 

34 General Sessions 

A strong charity must first permeate our own lives and our own joint enter- 
prises. Then only shall we give evidence that we live with Christ. In that 
same spirit of fraternal charity, we can approach those who long for unity. 
And if we approach them with the charity of Christ in our hearts, they will 
receive us with understanding. 

The dynamism of the Church is not an abstract fancy. It is a divine 
energy proceeding from the Holy Spirit and releasing currents of grace into 
the temporal and practical order. It remains for us to be worthy witnesses 
to this vibrant life by fostering a spirit of renewal and rejuvenation in our own 
hearts and minds, in our life and work. Then shall we be worthy members 
of the Church as it renews itself in the Second Vatican Council. Then shall 
we be to our separated brethren a "gentle invitation" to share fully in the 
Church whom the poet has saluted: 

I was the desire of all times, I was the light of all times, 

I am the fullness of all times. 

I am their great union, I am their eternal oneness. 

I am the way of all their ways, in me the millenia are drawn to God. 

Gertrude von Le Fort 
Hymns to the Church 


Very Rev. Laurence V. Britt, SJ. 


My task here this morning is a very simple one — simple, that is, compared 
with the task of reuniting Christendom: in fifteen minutes I am supposed to 
summarize the proceedings of this convention, during which, I roughly 
estimate, something like 175 speeches and papers have been delivered! 
Normally, I suppose, one could summarize most conventions by simply stating 
that the air was full of speeches and vice versa. Unfortunately for my pur- 
pose, but to the profit of many, this convention appears to have been an 
exception: speeches and papers have been so thought-provoking that it would 
really be quite impossible to summarize them adequately in fifteen hours, let 
alone fifteen minutes. I feel much like the ancient historian, who set himself 
the task of writing a book, De Omni Scibili et quibusdam aliis. . . . 

To avoid wasting precious time with only semiprecious personal excuses, 
let me simply explain that I have decided to treat briefly some of the major 
points of view that have been expressed repeatedly by convention speakers. 

1. The "ecumenical spirit" 

We have heard the theme of the convention repeated often enough to be 
quite familiar with it — even though we may have been a little uneasy at the 
thought that the theme "Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit" seemed to imply 
that the spirit needed fostering. Although different speakers occasionally 
understood the theme in somewhat diverse fashion, its basic meaning was 
made abundantly clear right from the opening session. Our own beloved 
Archbishop, in the opening general session, called our attention to the Holy 
Father's statement regarding the purpose of the coming Ecumenical Council: 

The Church's chief business will concern the growth of the Catholic faith, 
the renewal along right lines of the habits of Christian people, and the adapt- 
ing of ecclesiastical discipline to the needs and conditions of the present time. 
That event will surely be a wonderful manifestation of truth, unity, and 
charity. . . . 

Archbishop Dearden then pointed out that it was only after enunciating this 
primary purpose of the Second Vatican Council that the Holy Father had 
expressed the hope that those "who behold this manifestation of truth, unity, 
and charity, but who are separated from this Apostolic See, will receive it 
as a gentle invitation to seek and find that unity for which Jesus Christ prayed 
so ardently to His Heavenly Father. . . ." 

"Ecumenical," strictly speaking, then, means a gathering of the bishops of 
all the dioceses of the world, meeting with the Holy Father in the broad 


36 General Sessions 

interests of the church. ". . . It is clear that the ecumenical spirit of which 
we speak is something quite other than the Ecumenical Council. In our dis- 
cussion of the ecumenical spirit, we are speaking of the attitude that we must 
adopt and inculcate toward those who, outside the unity of the church, yearn 
for a return to it." 

Dr. Raymond McCoy, speaking at the opening session of the College and 
University Department, went on to emphasize the fact that, while the goal 
of ecumenism is the eventual reunion of Christendom, the ecumenical spirit, 
properly speaking, has to do with attitudes: that is, with knowledge and 
understanding, touched by favorable feelings. As knowledge and favorable 
feelings fuse, they are converted into something stronger: into emotions and 
motivation to action. They then become attitudes. Both Dr. McCoy and 
Dr. Conley saw the job of education to be the complex task of providing 
opportunities for students to grow and develop the knowledge and understand- 
ing of man in relation to Christ and to all other men, together with the inner 
motivation to accept full Christian responsibility as an indispensable means to 
the removal of barriers to the unity we seek. 

In speaking to the Secondary School Department, Bishop Byrne defined 
the development of the ecumenical spirit in terms of spiritual maturity. In 
simplest terms, "we must all accept the personal responsibility of living up 
to what is expected of us as Christians and as members of one, true church. 
Protestants will then see us as the Christians we ought to be." Briefly put, 
the mature Christian is the one who is whole-heartedly devoted to Christ and 
accepts all of Christ's teaching — one who thinks, judges, and acts constantly 
and consistently in accord with right reason, illumined by faith; who loves 
all in Christ and Christ in every member of the human race. 

In speaking to the Elementary School Department, Father John Considine 
reminded us that "next to God Himself, the biggest thing in the universe is the 
human race, destined by God to serve Him through His Church." Christ 
Himself has commanded us to teach all nations, to love each of our neighbors 
as we love Him, so ecumenism is part and parcel of being a Christian. 

In summary, then, we may be said to foster the ecumenical spirit when we 
take advantage of every means at our disposal to make ourselves better 
Christians and to assist others to come to a fuller understanding of the 
knowledge and love of God and of His complete revelation; when we make it 
easier for others, and not more difficult, to find their way to Christ, Who is 
the way, the truth, and the life. 

2. Ecumenism as a Catholic Concern 

Father Dulles, after careful definition of the "ecumenical movement," in 
connection with which he emphasized the fact that today ecumenism does 
not imply any general formula of church unity but may properly be described 
as "a multilateral encounter among separate Christian bodies whose proximate 
goal is to enjoy more harmonious and fruitful relationships to one another," 
pointed out that heretofore Catholics have been rather reserved about 

Heretofore [he stated], we have lived as a rather isolated community, and 
our isolation has been, to some extent, deliberate. We have concentrated on 
preserving our own heritage from erosion, contamination, or absorption by 
alien forces. We have generally taken it for granted that we had little need 
of support from other Christians and little to learn from them. Either they 
agreed with us or they disagreed. If they agreed, we already knew what they 

Summary of 1962 Meeting 37 

were in a position to tell us. If they disagreed, they were wrong. Hence it 

seemed best to avoid contact with them or, if we did meet, to come armed 

to the teeth with polemic arguments. Our relations with non-Catholic Christians, 

therefore, fluctuated between indifference and contentiousness. In either case 

they were not ecumenical. . . . (See page 142.) 

But now all of this has changed. The whole tendency of world Catholicism 

requires us to emerge from our isolation and enter into cordial relationships 

with other Christian groups. Our Holy Father, John XXIII, has repeatedly 

summoned us to have sympathy and respect for non-Catholic Christianity. 

In his address of May, 1960, for example, he called for 

a real understanding of those brethren who, while bearing the name of Christ 
on their foreheads and indeed in their hearts, are yet separated from the 
Catholic Church. We must bestir ourselves and not rest until we have over- 
come our old habits of thought, our prejudices, and the use of expressions 
which are anything but courteous, so as to create a climate favorable to, and 
so in every way to cooperate with, the work of grace. Thus, to one and all 
will be thrown wide open the gates to the unity of the Church of our Lord 
and Savior Jesus Christ, [p. 2] 
In summary, then, ecumenism and Catholicism are in no way contradictory. 
They belong together. Catholicism is an ecumenical concern; and ecumenism 
is a Catholic concern. If Christians of different communions stand coldly 
aloof from one another while Christianity itself is gravely threatened, the 
world will not be edified. In an age when participants in every calling, whether 
they be philosophers or salesmen, historians or engineers, hold frequent meet- 
ings to exchange ideas and to thrash out differences of opinions, religious 
leaders will be expected to do likewise. Should we Christians be the only 
ones without the patience to discuss our differences amicably and to collaborate 
cordially on matters of common concern? If we refuse to do so, our reluctance 
will not be interpreted as a sign of strength, but rather of indolence, com- 
placency, jealousy, or fear. Many will take our behavior as a confession 
that we have nothing significant to say to each other, or that we do not 
dare to subject our convictions to the test of serious encounter. (Dulles, pp. 

3. Emphasis on the Church's Social Teaching 

Mr. Donald J. Thorman, speaking to the Secondary School Department on 
Wednesday, rendered a tremendous service in making explicit the connection 
between ecumenism and the Church's social apostolate, with specific refer- 
ence to Mater et Magistra, which he terms the "Last Chance Encyclical." He 
concluded with the following provocative statement: 

. . . We cannot be indifferent to men anywhere any more than we can be 
indifferent to Christ. This is not a rootless, maudlin, sentimental kind of 
humanitarianism. It is, rather, a firm reality, founded on a sublime truth and 
reality, namely, that we are living members of the Mystical Body of Christ, 
which is His Church. (Page 296.) 

4. Applications to the Curriculum 

In general, conference speakers agreed that, in our efforts to foster the 
ecumenical spirit through our educational programs, we should not be overly 
concerned with the introduction of new courses, new programs, et cetera. 
Rather, in our total program we should attempt to create an atmosphere, to 
provide inspiring example, and to emphasize the basic understandings, the 
fundamental convictions which, in the practical order, constitute the basis 

38 General Sessions 

for development of the ecumenical spirit: for example, the fact that 

1. the unity of all Christians in Christ is in today's world a more urgent 
necessity than ever; 

2. that the differences among Christians belonging to different churches are 
understandable in the light of historical facts; 

3. that persons of other churches are people of good will, honestly search- 
ing to do God's will; 

4. that within the framework of God's truth, our own church is still 
developing in the application of that truth to the current scene; 

5. that, tremendous as the obstacles to unity among Christians may be, 
the prayerful search must continue; 

6. that dialogue, conversations, contacts, and communication are necessary 
and even essential to the search for unity; 

7. that the search is not a one-way street. 

Special attention was given to the significant and possibly unique role of 
the laity in the Church's work in education. The clergy, religious, and the 
laity have major and complementary roles to play in communicating knowl- 
edge, developing understandings, and stimulating the motivation which can 
result in the total development of students, and can help to produce the 
conditions in which Divine Grace will effect a return to Christian unity. 
(Conley, p. 30.) 

In connection with curriculum, serious doubts were expressed by some in 
regard to the adequacy of programs in which civilization is equated with 
Western civilization to the almost complete disregard for the cultures of the 
greater portion of the world. Only 3 out of every 10 people in the world are 
included in that portion of mankind which we are accustomed to consider 
our world. Even after crash programs in Eastern and Asian area studies, 1 
we frequently find ourselves compelled to admit: "How little we really know 
of these people." 


For the rest, I can do no more than mention major topics that were 
seriously explored: for example, practical preparation for the dialogue in 
which Catholics must be prepared to engage if there is to be a truly coopera- 
tive striving for eventual reunion; the practical import of the open tradition 
in Catholic scholarship — a tradition that shows the Church demonstrating a 
startling capacity for assimilation and synthesis; preparation of our graduates 
for truly intelligent lay leadership in a world that takes it for granted that 
there must be a concerted and cooperative attack on major problems, whether 
economic, social, political, international, or religious; the practical procedures 
for fostering development of the ecumenical spirit, or, really, the spirit of 
Christ, in the education of seminarians and religious; practical procedures 
for governing our participation in dialogue on religious matters, obviating the 
ever-present danger of unwarranted compromise; and finally, or really first 
and foremost, how to develop in our own individual selves the spirit of 
Christ-like charity which will motivate us in all things and in every place to 
reflect the true Christ and to win others to the knowledge and love of Christ. 

In conclusion, with the noble Irishman, I can only say: I haven't summarized 
these proceedings as well as I hoped to, but then I didn't really hope to. 

1 As Father Paschak noted in speaking on the contributions of Byzantine liturgy and history 
(see pp. 522-26). 




Dear Colleagues in Catholic Education: 

It is with sentiments of humility and of appreciation that I accept the office 
of President General of the National Catholic Educational Association to 
which you have just elected me as a successor to your host the Most Rev. 
John F. Dearden, D.D., Archbishop of Detroit. 

My humility is intensified by the realization that I have been preceded in 
this post by a long line of prelates who have served with distinction through- 
out the six decades of existence of our Association. 

The honor you have bestowed on me today is reflected on the Midwest, 
specifically on the Archdiocese of St. Louis, where I was born, reared, and 
exercised the ministry of the priesthood; and on the dioceses of St. Joseph 
and of Kansas City-St. Joseph in Missouri where, until last November, I 
served as bishop. The honor you have accorded me also sheds a bright luster 
on the Deep South, the region to which I now belong, and particularly on the 
Archdiocese of New Orleans, whose venerable Archbishop has twice been your 
convention host. 

But, native Midwesterner or adopted Southerner, the President General, 
as well as the officers and members of this Association, should view education 
beyond the framework of the parish, the diocese, the region, or even the 
nation. To limit one's perspective of Catholic education would violate the 
spirit of the word "Catholic" and would be contrary to the theme of this 
fifty-ninth annual convention: "Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit." 

I am sure that throughout the three and one-half days of your convention 
in Detroit you have kept in mind the words of Pope John XXIII at the closing 
session of the Ecumenical Council Preparatory Commissions at the Vatican 
on June 20, 1961: "It is the aim of the Council that the clergy should acquire 
a new brilliance of sanctity, that the people be instructed efficaciously in the 
truths of the Faith and Christian morals, that the new generations, who are 
growing like a hope of better times, should be educated properly." The 
facets of Catholic education which you have examined, and the solutions you 
have offered for educational problems, far from being special to the United 
States of America or to any of its regions, are of interest to the whole Catholic 
world precisely because they conform with these aims of the forthcoming 
Ecumenical Council. 

Catholic education, perhaps more than ever in the long history of the 
Church, is a prime concern of the Church Universal. The Catholic school 
system, especially as we knew it in the United States, must be the chief 
solicitude of every ordinary even as it is the wisest and safest investment of 

* Delivered by Msgr. Henry Bezou, Superintendent of Schools, Archdiocese of New Orleans, 
at the closing session, Friday, April 27, 1962. 


40 General Sessions 

every diocese. The Catholic school must be the pupillus oculi — the apple of 
the eye of every pastor and must merit the full support of every loyal parishion- 
er. Indeed, this pastoral concern must be so keen, this support must be so 
generous, that no grade in a parochial school and no level in a diocesan 
system — from kindergarten to graduate school — should be considered ex- 

We must continue to devote all our resources, spiritual and material, toward 
providing an optimum Catholic education for the maximum number of 
Catholic children and youth. This is the ever-widening vision of the National 
Catholic Educational Association. It is a vision which I hope to share with 
you during the term of office which I begin today. 


Detroit, Michigan 
April 24-27, 1962 

The fifty-ninth annual convention of the National Catholic Educational 
Association was held in Detroit, Michigan, April 24—27, 1962, under the 
patronage of His Excellency, the Most Rev. John F. Dearden, D.D., Arch- 
bishop of Detroit. The Very Rev. Msgr. Vincent Horkan served as chairman 
of the Executive Committee of the Detroit Convention Committee. Other 
members of the Executive Committee were Rev. Edmond A. Fournier, Rev. 
John B. Zwers, and Rev. Allen P. Farrell, S.J. 

The convention was opened on April 24 with a Solemn Pontificial Mass in 
St. Aloysius Church at 9 a.m. This was followed by the opening general 
meeting held in the arena at Cobo Hall. The formal opening of the exhibits 
took place in Hall C of Cobo Hall at 12:30 p.m. The meetings of the depart- 
ments and sections began at 2 p.m. and continued on April 25, 26, and 27. 
The convention closed with a final general meeting held in the arena at Cobo 
Hall on Friday, April 27, at 9:30 a.m. Other associations holding meetings 
in conjunction with NCEA were: Byzantine Rite Teachers' Institute, Arche- 
parchy of Philadelphia, the Catholic Audio-Visual Educators Association, the 
Catholic Business Education Association, and the National Catholic Kinder- 
garten Association. 

Solemn Pontifical Mass 

A Solemn Pontifical Mass was celebrated for the delegates by His Excellency, 
the Most Rev. John F. Dearden, D.D., Archbishop of Detroit, in St. Nicholas 
Church at 9 a.m. on Tuesday, April 24. The sermon was delivered by the 
Rev. Edmond A. Fournier of Sacred Heart Seminary, Detroit. 

Opening General Meeting 

The opening general meeting was called to order in the ballroom of Con- 
vention Hall at 1 1 a.m. on April 24 by the chairman, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frederick 
G. Hochwalt. His Excellency, the Most Rev. John F. Dearden, President 
General of the Association, said the opening prayer. 

Cordial greetings were extended to the delegates on behalf of the school 
system of the Archdiocese of Detroit by its superintendent, the Very Rev. 
Vincent Horkan. The Sisters' Chorus of the Archdiocesan Schools, a choir 
of one hundred voices under the direction of Dr. Harry Sietz, sang for the 

Monsignor Hochwalt then introduced the first keynote speaker of the 
meeting, Dr. William H. Conley, Educational Assistant to the President of 
Marquette University, director of the Carnegie Study of Catholic Education, 


42 General Sessions 

and president of the College and University Department of NCEA, who 
spoke on "The Lay Teacher in Catholic Education." 

Archbishop Dearden then read to the delegates the following letter which 
he had received from the President of the United States: 

The Annual Convention of the National Catholic Educational Associa- 
tion serves as an eloquent tribute to the teachers who have devoted their 
lives to educating the young. Truly it can be said that they foster in 
youth that love of knowledge which is a wellspring of truth and a 
source of national strength. Equally important is the guidance they 
give the student to temper the use of that knowledge, under God, with 
a genuine love for his fellow man and an abiding concern for the needs 
of the Nation. 

Please extend to the delegates to the Convention my congratulations 
for the achievements of the past and my best wishes for greater accom- 
plishments in the future. 

John Kennedy 

Following the reading of President Kennedy's message, Archbishop Dearden 
addressed the delegates on the theme of the convention, "Fostering the Ecumeni- 
cal Spirit." 

Monsignor Hochwalt next announced the membership of the Nominations 
Committee: Rev. Daniel Kirwin, Chairman; Sister Ritamary, C.H.M., and 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Louis E. Riedel. He also introduced from the platform Rt. 
Rev. Msgr. John Paul Haverty, president of the Elementary School Depart- 
ment; and Rev. Edmond A. Fournier and Rev. John B. Zwers, members 
of the executive committee of the Detroit Convention Committee. 

The session closed at 12:20 p.m. after two final selections by the Sisters 
Chorus and a closing prayer by Archbishop Dearden. 

Formal Opening of the Exhibits 

The fifty-ninth annual NCEA Convention Exhibit was opened formally at 
12:30 p.m. on Tuesday, April 24, 1962. The ceremony took place on a 
stage overlooking the main floor of the Exhibit Hall. 

After the playing of the national anthem, Mr. Joseph O'Donnell, NCEA 
Exhibit Manager, introduced Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt, who welcomed 
the exhibitors and expressed gratitude to them for the warm interest in 
Catholic education and in the Association which they so constructively ex- 
press by coming to the annual convention regularly and bringing along such 
accomplished personnel, who by their skill and dedication are able to help 
teachers and administrators keep abreast of the newest and best in instruc- 
tional materials and facilities. 

Monsignor Hochwalt then introduced the executive chairman of the local 
convention committee, Msgr. Vincent Horkan, who warmly welcomed the 
exhibitors on behalf of the schools of his archdiocese and of the province 
of Michigan. Archbishop Dearden then extended a personal welcome to the 
exhibitors and particularly commended the six firms which with the Detroit 
meeting were completing a quarter century of participation in NCEA con- 
ventions. He presented commemorative plaques on behalf of the Association 
to the six firms, as follows: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.; Hillyard Chemical 

Minutes of General Meetings 43 

Co.; Lyons & Carnahan; McCormick-Mathers Publishing Co., Inc.; A. J. 
Nystrom & Co.; and Remington Rand Systems, Division of Sperry Rand 

Mr. Leo Flatley, sales manager for Mentzer, Bush & Co., and president 
of the National Catholic Educational Exhibitors Association, concluded the 
ceremony with an acknowledgment of the tribute paid to the exhibitors. 

Closing Session: Minutes 

The closing general meeting was declared in session at 9:30 a.m. on Friday, 
April 27, by Msgr. Frederick G. Hochwalt. The opening prayer was said by 
the Most Rev. John F. Dearden, who then read the following message which 
he had received from His Holiness, Pope John XXIII, over the signature of 
Amleto Cardinal Cicognani, Secretary of State: 

His Holiness Pope John XXIII is deeply appreciative of the dedicated, 
timely theme of the fifty-ninth annual meeting of the National Catholic 
Educational Association, "Fostering the Ecumenical Spirit" — a theme 
so close to His pastoral heart. The Pontiff sends paternal greetings and 
fervently invokes Divine enlightenment on all of the deliberations. His 
Holiness cordially imparts to Your Excellency and all of the delegates 
in attendance a special apostolic benediction. 

The Boys Choir of the Archdiocesan Schools then sang for the delegates. 
The Very Rev. Laurence V. Britt, S.J., president of the University of Detroit, 
next drew together in an over-all summary 1 the highlights of the deliberations 
held during the four days by the various departments and sections of the 

Following Father Britt's address, the Rev. Daniel Kirwin, chairman of the 
Nominating Committee, presented the following list of nominees for office for 

President General: Most Rev. John P. Cody, Coadjutor Archbishop of 

New Orleans, La. 
Vice Presidents General: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frank M. Schneider, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Rev. Edmond A. Fournier, Detroit, Mich. 

Very Rev. Armand H. Desautels, A.A., Worcester, Mass. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Carl J. Ryan, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Edmund J. Goebel, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Paul E. Campbell, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Sylvester J. Holbel, Buffalo, N.Y. 

The slate was adopted unanimously. 

Archbishop Cody, in a message read by Monsignor Bezou, 2 Superintendent 
of Schools of the Archdiocese of New Orleans, expressed warm appreciation 
of the honor the committee and the delegates had done both him and the 
Archdiocese of New Orleans, and assured them of his steadfast shepherdship 
of the affairs of the Association during the coming year. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. James E. Hoflich, Secretary for Education of the Arch- 
diocese of St. Louis, extended on behalf of His Eminence Joseph Cardinal 

1 See pages 35-38, this volume. 3 See pages 39-40. 

44 General Sessions 

Ritter, Archbishop of St. Louis, a most cordial invitation to all the delegates 
to attend the Diamond Jubilee convention of the Association next year in St. 
Louis. The invitation was accepted in the name of the Executive Board by 
Monsignor Hochwalt. 

Monsignor Hochwalt then thanked in warmest fashion the members of the 
large and very efficient local committee in Detroit which had planned so 
effectively for the success of the convention and led the delegates in an 
ovation for Monsignor Horkan, Father Fournier, and Father Zwers, who had 
guided their efforts. Finally, with expressions of the Association's deepest 
gratitude for his outstanding leadership as President General, he called upon 
Archbishop Dearden, who gave the delegates a brief message of inspiration 
and farewell and said the closing prayer. The meeting was declared ad- 
journed at 10:30 a.m. 

Frederick G. Hochwalt 



Rt. Rev. Msgr. Robert H. Krumholtz 


During the past thirty years the majority of the newly ordained Cincinnati 
archdiocesan priests have been assigned to teach in the high schools and 
seminaries of the archdiocese or in local Catholic colleges. At present, more 
than 125 of its 433 active diocesan priests carry a full-time teaching or school 
administration load in addition to their parish work. In the foreseeable future 
at least 15 per cent of the priests will have to teach from fifteen to twenty 
years after ordination. This situation has forced the authorities of the arch- 
diocese to prepare its seminarians for teaching on secondary or collegiate 
levels. The late Archbishop McNicholas initiated the teacher-training program 
in 1927 and Archbishop Alter in 1951 directed the administrative officers of 
the Athenaeum of Ohio to work out the details of the present program. 

The Athenaeum of Ohio consists of the College of Liberal Arts, the 
Graduate Program in Thomistic Philosophy, and the School of Theology. 
Classes in the lower division of the College of Liberal Arts are conducted at 
St. Gregory's Seminary. The upper division classes, as well as those in the 
Graduate Program in Thomistic Philosophy and in the School of Theology, 
are held at Mount St. Mary's Seminary of the West. The Anthenaeum of 
Ohio is empowered by the State of Ohio to grant the degrees of Bachelor and 
Master of Arts. It holds membership in the Ohio College Association. It 
is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools as an institution granting bachelor's and master's degrees. It is also 
authorized by the Ohio Department of Education to prepare students for 
certification to teach high school academic subjects. 

In recent years the Athenaeum of Ohio has made many changes in order 
to adjust its teacher-training program to present needs. No doubt it will con- 
tinue to do so in the years to come. My remarks will be confined to an ex- 
planation of its program in its present stage. 

Liberal Arts Curriculum 

As in all seminaries, the liberal arts course has been designed to offer a 
broad general education to the students, with a heavy concentration in 
philosophy as the major field. The Athenaeum of Ohio has met the need for 
a course of studies in the various high school teaching fields by summer 
school courses and by increasing the flexibility of its curricular offerings. It 


46 Major Seminary Department 

has done the latter by adding elective courses in subjects not required for the 
Bachelor of Arts degree and by making it possible for a student to earn extra 
credits in the required subjects both during his college course as well as during 
his four years of theology. The candidate for the Bachelor of Arts degree 
must earn 128 college credits, of which 96 credits must be distributed as 
follows among these subjects: 


Philosophy 32 

English 12 

History 12 

Latin 12 

Religion 8 

Modern Language or Greek 8 

Natural Sciences or Mathematics 8 

Social Sciences 4 

The following semester hours of class are offered in these and other subjects: 


Philosophy 42 

Latin 30 

English 25 

Mathematics 20 

Education 14 

Religion 8 

Natural Sciences 32 

French 27 

History 23 

German 18 

Greek 12 

Sociology 4 

By the time most of the students have completed the four-year liberal arts 
course they not only will have earned the Bachelor of Arts degree but will 
have taken most of the required courses toward a teaching major and minor 
to be completed during their graduate studies. For example, nearly all of them 
will have taken the minimum number of semester hours in the courses required 
for certification as a Latin teacher. Many of these students also will have 
fulfilled most, if not all, the minimum requirements to be certified to teach 
either English or history. 

Selection of Courses in the Lower Division 
of the College of Liberal Arts 

First year of college 

Experience has emphasized the need for the systematic, long-range planning 
of the courses of our seminarians in order to prepare them properly for 
staffing our high school and seminary faculties. In their first year of college 
all students are required to take 4 semester hours of religion and 12 semester 
hours of English equally divided between composition and literature. Al- 
though all are obliged to take 20 semester hours of Latin during the first two 
years of college only those students who averaged at least 85 in their four 

Preparation of Diocesan Priests for Teaching 47 

years of high school Latin are permitted to follow the Advanced Latin course. 
Anyone who fails to keep up with the class in this advanced course is re- 
assigned after the first quarter or semester to join the majority of his classmates 
in the regular Latin course. Most of the bright students will take Advanced 
Latin and from among them will come, later on, most of the candidates 
for a Master of Arts degree. All first-year collegians take 6 semester hours 
of a modern language. Those students who have satisfactorily completed at 
least two years of high school French or German and have had some train- 
ing in the oral use of these languages are assigned to Advanced French or 
German. Prospective teachers of these subjects would be drawn from this 
group. The others take an elementary course in either language. 

In addition to these 16 required hours of class load during the first year 
of college, the students may take from three to nine other classes. The 
elective offerings, together with the number of semester hours, are: science 10, 
mathematics 8, history 6, and Greek 6. The dean of studies counsels each 
student in regard to his choice from among the elective subjects in view of 
his over-all ability, proven aptitudes, special talents, and preference for teach- 
ing later on. The Advanced Latin students are advised to take Greek and 
one or two other 3 -hour elective courses each semester. Students who think 
they may want to teach English or a modern language are encouraged to 
take history which would be helpful for background material. Students 
who prefer the natural sciences are advised to take mathematics — and perhaps 
vice versa. 

Before they begin the second semester, the dean of studies interviews those 
students whose achievement record indicates that there should be a change in 
their original program of classes. He also confers with those students who 
wish to make any changes. At the same time he checks each student's class 
load to make sure it is neither too heavy nor too light. 

Second year of college 

At the end of the academic year, the dean of studies evaluates each first-year 
collegian's achievement record, especially in those subjects for which he had 
indicated a preference for teaching. He interviews each student before 
approving of his class schedule for the first semester of the second college 
year. At that time he advises the student whether or not he should carry on 
with his original plan of teacher preparation. While all the students in the 
second year are required to take 3 semester hours of American literature 
and history as well as to continue the other subjects required in the first 
college year, those who are capable and interested may take 3 more semester 
hours of American literature and history and 3 more of English literature. 
The same number of classes are offered in mathematics, science, and Greek 
as were offered in the first year. 

In the latter part of the second semester, the dean of studies has the 
scholastic record of each second-year collegian, together with the results 
of his ability and achievement tests, entered on separate cards. After he has 
interviewed each of them again to determine their preferences for teaching 
fields, he gives these cards to the professors of the various departments so 
that they can record their own personal observations about each student's 
fitness as a prospective teacher in the fields of his preference. These record 
cards are passed on to the dean of studies in the upper division of the College 
of Liberal Arts. 

48 Major Seminary Department 

Selection of Courses in the Upper Division 
of the College of Liberal Arts 

During the span of third and fourth college years, the students are required 
to carry 42 semester hours in philosophy, 8 in Church history, 4 in speech, 
4 in sociology, 3 in Hebrew, and 4 in religion. This rather heavy load prevents 
their taking many elective courses. As a rule they should be averaging 
a credit point ratio of about 2.5 in their required subjects before they are 
permitted to take elective courses. Only the exceptionally bright seminarians 
are allowed to carry as much as 21 hours a semester, so they may obtain at 
most from 6 to 8 credit hours each semester in elective subjects. Twelve 
credits are offered in undergraduate education which would fulfill all the 
professional education requirements for high school certification except for 
6 semester hours in student teaching. Newly ordained priests are usually able 
to obtain these credits in student teaching from the Athenaeum during their 
first year of high school teaching. It has been determined that it is not neces- 
sary to take these undergraduate courses in education before taking the 
graduate courses at Xavier University for the Master of Education degree. 
Moreover, the State of Ohio will accept these graduate courses in fulfillment 
of the requirements in professional education for a teaching certificate. Most 
of the students will be advised, therefore, to take content rather than educa- 
tional courses as electives during the third and fourth college years. Only 
those who apparently will be going on for a Master of Arts degree would be 
urged to take these undergraduate education courses at the Athenaeum — 
some or all of which they might take later on during their years in theology. 
Since these students would be above average in talent and achievement, they 
would also be advised to take 4 to 6 additional classes in elective courses 
according to their preferred teaching fields, for example, Latin, history, a 
modern language. The rest of the students who would probably be going on 
for the Master of Education degree at Xavier University would be directed 
during their last two years of college to take elective courses in the fields of 
their teaching preference. Those who would like to teach science or 
mathematics would probably have to restrict their elective courses to those 
fields in order to be ready for the advanced science and mathematics in which 
they would concentrate for the Master of Education degree. 

The dean of studies of the College of Liberal Arts is also in charge of 
the Athenaeum's teacher certification program. As he directs the students 
toward the Bachelor of Arts degree he is careful to guide into the various 
teaching fields those who are capable of preparing themselves to be certificated 
as high school teachers. He has found it most helpful to draw up a work- 
sheet listing the State of Ohio requirements for certification on the left side 
with space along the right side for entering in the credits which each student 
earns in the various required courses. This worksheet is primarily for the 
purpose of establishing finally whether or not a student is entitled to be 
recommended for certification and in which fields. It may also be used 
as a progress report on the students, enabling one to see at a glance just where 
a student stands in the way of fulfilling the requirements for certification. In 
this respect it is particularly valuable to the director of the Graduate Program 
and of Summer School Studies. 

Direction of Students in Graduate Studies 

After the completion of the third college year until their ordination to 
the priesthood, the students from the Archdiocese of Cincinnati are required 

Preparation of Diocesan Priests for Teaching 49 

to take summer school courses for six weeks during each summer vacation. 
The director of the Graduate Program of the Athenaeum of Ohio is also 
the director of Summer School Studies. In this capacity he directs the capable 
students during five summer vacations either for the Athenaeum Master of 
Arts degree or for the Master of Education or a Master of Arts degree from 
Xavier University or other universities. This service is offered to all the 
dioceses which send students to the Athenaeum of Ohio. Many students from 
these dioceses are either required or permitted by their ordinaries to take 
summer courses toward a graduate degree. 

Most of the students since 1954 have been following their graduate school 
programs at Xavier University. A dormitory building on the Xavier campus 
is set aside each summer for the Athenaeum seminarians. One of the faculty 
members of the Athenaeum acts as dean of men in this building. Those stu- 
dents whose homes are too far away to commute to Xavier reside in this 

The Graduate Program of the Athenaeum 

Only those second-year theologians who have proved their ability to follow 
profitably the Latin lecture course from the Summa of St. Thomas by a rigorous 
screening process during the previous three school years are admitted into 
the Athenaeum's graduate philosophy program. Most of these students would 
be directed to go on for the Athenaeum's Master of Arts degree in philosophy. 
During two summer sessions they have to take a course in Aristotle's Posterior 
Analytics and in two of the first four books of his Physics with St. Thomas' 
commentaries on these works. These courses are given by members of the 
Athenaeum faculty. Some of the students who take the St. Thomas course 
during the regular school year are directed to pass up the Aristotle lectures 
so that they may go on for a Master of Arts degree in another college teaching 
field for which they are especially equipped and which they prefer, such as 
Latin, English, history, or a modern language. The rest of the St. Thomas 
students go to make up what might be called "the bench" from which are 
selected priests to go on for postgraduate studies in philosophy, theology, 
Scripture, and canon law. All of these St. Thomas students are expected to 
be qualified for certification in at least one high school teaching field. They 
would probably have taken the required professional education courses while 
they were doing philosophy and theology and some content courses in one 
or the other field of concentration during the three summer school sessions 
when they were not taking philosophy. 

The Graduate Program at Xavier University 

The vast majority of those students of the Athenaeum of Ohio who take 
summer school courses enter the Master of Education program at Xavier Uni- 
versity. A minimum of 30 hours is required for this degree. They are to be 
distributed in the following manner: 

1) four general surveys in graduate education for 12 credits; 

2) a concentration for 12 credit hours. This would usually be in a teaching 
field in which they had already taken undergraduate courses: e.g., English, 
Latin, history, a modern language, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and 
physics. It might also be in educational fields such as Guidance or 

50 Major Seminary Department 

3) finally 6 credit hours in pertinent electives. These ordinarily would be 
selected so as to fill out the requirements for a minor teaching field. 
As is evident, one of the merits of this program is its flexibility. 

Xavier University also offers three of the four general survey courses, that is, 
Philosophy of Education, Educational Psychology, and Educational Research 
as an extension program at Mount St. Mary's Seminary. These are credit 
courses. The first two — the Philosophy of Education and Educational 
Psychology — are offered during the first semester of alternate years while 
Educational Research is offered during the second semester every year. 

This makes it possible for nearly all the students who are in the Xavier 
graduate program to have fulfilled the requirements for the degree of Master 
of Education before they begin their fourth year of theology. The brighter 
seminarians who have sufficient undergraduate background to go on for a 
Master of Arts in the classics, English, or history can also usually fulfill the 
requirements for that degree before starting their last year of theology, since 
only 24 hours of integrated classroom study within their chosen field, the 
successful completion of a comprehensive examination, a reading knowledge 
of a foreign language, and the production of an acceptable thesis are required 
for that degree. 

Work of the Director of the Graduate Program 
and of Summer School Studies 

Needless to say, the over-all success of this program depends greatly upon 
the director of graduate studies. He must exercise sound judgment based on a 
knowledge of the students' abilities to handle the courses required for the 
different Master of Arts degrees and for the fields of concentration in the 
Master of Education program. He must be tactful and persuasive in guiding 
the students to select the programs for which they are best fitted. He must 
plan their courses in the light of the State requirements for certification in 
the appropriate areas. At the same time he must keep in mind the different 
needs of our high schools so as to have priests prepared to teach as many of 
the required courses as possible. He must also keep a careful watch on each 
student's progress in order to suggest the proper balance of courses each 
summer, the preferable order in which to take them, and adjustments, either 
because a student does not live up to expectations in his program or because 
he wants to make a change. 

Counseling New Students in Graduate Studies 

In order to achieve his objectives, the director sets up a file on each new 
student who is to enter the graduate program. He enters a record of the 
student's previous college work on an individual worksheet. It is a form 
designed for recording under separate headings his name, diocese, and entire 
scholastic record in pertinent areas (philosophical and theological courses 
are not listed) together with all the degrees and schools from which they were 
obtained. This file is kept current during all his seminary and post-ordina- 
tion studies. Under such general headings as English, Classics, History, 
Modern Languages, Mathematics, Science, Religion, and Education, ample 
space is provided for listing the title of each course, code identification of 
college or university, year taken, catalogue numbers of courses, the number 
of credits, and the grade obtained. 

Preparation of Diocesan Priests for Teaching 51 

Before interviewing the seminarians separately, the director holds a briefing 
session with their philosophy professors to find out which students apparently 
have what is necessary for making good in the Athenaeum's graduate program 
in philosophy. If they have attended the lower division of the Athenaeum of 
Ohio, the director already has a card indicating their high school teaching 
preferences and the judgments of their professors as to their fitness in these 

In his interview with the student, the director works out with him a flexible 
program whereby if he should not be admitted to the Thomistic philosophy 
course he will take courses with credits toward a Master of Arts degree in 
a high school teaching field of his preference or toward the Master of Educa- 
tion degree. Then he interviews the rest of the collegians who will be able to 
enter the Xavier graduate program and works out schedules for each of them. 
As a rule, the students are directed to take two courses of three credits each 
during the summer session. Occasionally, during the last two summers, they 
may take one three-credit course and two courses of two credits each in spe- 
cialized educational guidance or administration courses. 

Guidance of Seminarians after Their First Year 
of Graduate Studies 

Before the beginning of the regular school year, the director of graduate 
studies will have received the grade reports of each summer school student. 
These will be entered on their individual worksheets. He will check the list 
of names of those theologians who have applied to take one of the Xavier 
Graduate Education extension courses during that semester. He will submit 
this list to the dean of the school of theology, who will check off the names 
of any students who cannot in his opinion afford the time to take any courses 
except their required theology classes, at least for the semester in question. 

The director of summer school studies makes it a point to interview as 
early as convenient during the first semester those students who did poorly in 
one or the other course in order to discuss with them the reason for this 
and to make any called-for adjustments in their prospective programs for 
the coming summers. Early each spring the director of graduate studies has 
the Xavier Summer School catalogue distributed to all those students who 
have attended summer school there the previous year. After they have had 
time to select the offerings they prefer to take, he interviews each seminarian 
and either approves of his selections or directs him to take some other course 
or courses. In this way the director is able to prevent students from en- 
rolling in courses which they are not ready to handle or which would not serve 
their best interests either toward obtaining the graduate degree or in fu lfilli ng 
the high school teacher certification requirements. Since he distributes and 
collects the course registration cards for all the seminarians attending Xavier, 
the director has a close check on all their course selections. 

Dealing with Exceptional Cases 

In guiding seminarians who are to attend other colleges and universities, 
the director of summer school studies examines the catalogues of these institu- 
tions. He checks to make sure that a student has the prerequisites for 
admittance to the graduate school in question and analyzes the requirements 
for the degree the student has in mind. If he is satisfied that the student is 
qualified, he considers the course selection which the student presents to him 

52 Major Seminary Department 

and either approves or suggests changes. The student is instructed to have 
a grade report on his summer courses sent to the director. 

Since our diocesan high schools can use to great advantage priests who are 
qualified to teach art, music, and business courses, and to be school librarians, 
the director of summer school studies keeps on the lookout for seminarians 
who have special talents, experience, and interest in any of these areas. If 
they prefer or at least are willing to take summer school courses to qualify 
themselves for certification in these fields, the director consults with their 
bishop or his representative in the matter. If it meets with approval, the 
director guides their summer school studies in these special fields. 

Each year the projected plan for the graduate work of each student is sent 
to his bishop or superior for approval. In the fall of the year, an annual 
progress report on all the graduate students is sent to the proper authorities. 

The summary of the 1961 "Progress Report on the Graduate Work of 
Athenaeum Students" gives one a pretty good idea of the extent of the pro- 
gram at the present time. "Of a total student body of two hundred and four- 
teen as of September 1, 1961, in the five-year ordination classes, 1961-1965, 
one hundred and twenty have or are expected to have graduate degrees." This 
includes forty-nine out of the fifty-one students from the Archdiocese of 
Cincinnati. Eleven of these are working toward the Master of Arts degree 
in Thomistic Philosophy from the Athenaeum of Ohio. Twenty-five are en- 
rolled in the Master of Education program and eleven in the Master of Arts 
program at Xavier University. One is working for a Master of Arts degree 
in French literature at Laval University, and another for a Master of Arts in 
classics at Ohio State University. Of the seventy-one students from other 
dioceses who are being directed toward a graduate degree, twenty-eight are 
from the diocese of Toledo and twenty-six from the Youngstown diocese. 




Very Rev. Msgr. Leonard J. Fick 


Two recent developments tend to make a reexamination of the seminary 
communications program particularly timely. The first of these is the fact that, 
in the secular area, the means of communication have never been so effective 
nor the professional communicators so thoroughly skilled in their work as 
they are today. The hidden and not-so-hidden persuaders have mastered 
their tasks so well that the American audience, at least subconsciously, judges 
the value of a product by the skill with which that product is presented to the 
public. No longer is it sufficient to manufacture a product that is the equal of 
any other on the market; equally important is it to create and to communi- 

Nature and Purpose of the Communications Program 53 

cate the image of equality, even of superiority. And habits of association, 
of judgment, formed in the course of one's daily living are not easily put aside 
when one approaches the portals of a church or the swinging doors of a parish 
meeting hall. 

In much the same way, therefore, as the technical advances made by secular 
newspapers and magazines literally forced the Catholic press to take stock 
and to concern itself with improved techniques of presentation, so, too, the 
communications program must take stock of itself, lest, even with its proverbi- 
ally captive audience, it fail to fulfill the function which may legitimately be 
demanded of it. For even in the broad areas of homiletics and catechetics, 
the superiority of the product will not, of itself, get that product the hearing 
it deserves. 

A second factor which renders a reexamination of the seminary communi- 
cations program almost mandatory is the recently issued apostolic letter 
Veterum Sapientia. This document, as every seminary teacher knows, makes 
it abundantly clear that the major theological subjects must be taught in Latin, 
from Latin textbooks. Once this directive has been fully implemented, there 
is, if not the danger, at least the possibility that the seminary graduate will 
have at his command a mass of technical terms which, however meaningful 
they may be to his confreres in the priesthood, will arouse little reaction from 
anyone else. More than ever before, therefore, it will be necessary to ac- 
centuate those courses in which the seminarian can master the skill of popu- 
larizing, of humanizing, of "concretizing" the abstract concepts and the for- 
eign phraseology in which his own knowledge has become embedded. If, as 
has been generally admitted, the problem of dissociating newly ordained 
priests from the theological jargon of the classroom has never been easy, it 
becomes even more difficult against the background of Veterum Sapientia. 
This difficulty, of course, is certainly not insuperable. But it is precisely for 
this reason that the communications program must assume a more important, 
a more definitive role in the seminary curriculum. 

Now any self-study of an already existing communications program must 
necessarily get under way with an examination of the program's purpose. 
Just what is it that such a program is supposed to accomplish? 

It would be patently unrealistic to set up a program which purports to 
mass-produce clerical Bishop Sheens, or latter-day Father Coughlins, or 
ecclesiastical Frank Sheeds. Television, radio, newspapers, and magazines 
are admittedly excellent means of communication; but no seminary program 
dare gear itself to the formation of TV, radio, and journalistic personalities. 
It is quite possible — in fact, I hope it is even to be expected — that 1 out of 
every 500 ordained priests will have the God-given talent and initiative to 
be another Bishop Sheen; but such a one will make his mark, not because of, 
but perhaps even in spite of, any communications program operative in the 
seminary in which he received his education. 

Practically speaking, therefore, the communications courses should have 
as their purpose the training of men who, by virtue of their office, have the 
ability to produce, or to supervise the production of, an interesting and in- 
formative parish bulletin, who are able to give religious instruction both to 
school children of all ages and to adult converts, and who are able effectively 
to preach to a congregation of Catholic parishioners. 

I, for one, refuse to admit that any institution has the obligation to train 
its seminarians to teach mathematics or biology or American literature, whether 
on the primary or secondary level; and the blithe assumption that ordination 

54 Major Seminary Department 

automatically qualifies priests to be English teachers, for example, is, on the 
face of it, ridiculously unrealistic. 

Nor is it to be expected that the graduates of such a communications pro- 
gram will, in every case, be superior catechists or excellent preachers; the 
most that can be expected is that all attain that degree of proficiency commonly 
characterized by the somewhat neutral adjective "adequate." 

With this purpose in mind, the communications courses can now be sub- 
jected to reexamination — and emendation. 

Normally, the freshman college English course is a writing course. During 
the six semester hours commonly allotted to it, students find themselves 
saddled with the necessity of producing personal essays, short stories, and 
research papers. There is no reason whatsoever why, toward the end of this 
course, the student should not be given, as a legitimate assignment, the produc- 
tion of an ideal parish bulletin. 

Without wishing to verge into the area of personal experience, I may say 
that, over the past ten years, I have treated the parish bulletin in the 
freshman writing course as a modern literary form. Students have been 
ordered to obtain a copy of their own parish bulletin; the various bulletins 
have then been evaluated on the basis of information, interest, and technical 
presentation; the purpose of the parish bulletin was determined, as well as 
the means available for achieving that purpose; and each student was then 
assigned the task of preparing a parish bulletin for a given Sunday of the 

The results have been gratifying. Upon occasion, the pastors of the area 
have been asked to comment on the students' efforts, and they have done so, 
I may add, with remarkable perspicacity. The better bulletins have been 
photostated, with the result that the newly ordained priests have a variety 
of norms against which their own efforts can be judged once the pastor as- 
signs them the task of getting out the parish bulletin. And the parish bulletin, 
these days, may well be as advantageous as the Sunday sermon in the forma- 
tion of the ideal Catholic parishioner. This, I would think, may well constitute 
the first stage in a seminary communications curriculum. 

The oral presentation of the results of investigations in an American literature 
course, or a sociology course, or a philosophy seminar, would provide in- 
cidental training in public speaking during the college years. So would such 
extracurricular, though strictly intramural, activities as dramatic productions, 
glee club shows, and debates. In other words, I would not revise the normal 
college curriculum in order to make room for courses in communications; 
for the most part, the college curriculum, what with the heavy stress on 
philosophy, is already overloaded; and if courses are to be added, or given 
additional stress, it would seem as though preference should be given to 
courses in the history and philosophy of education, and/ or in educational tests 
and measurements. 

The college years, therefore, would provide, for the most part incidentally, 
though nonetheless definitely, the general foundation upon which to build 
the communication skills which are to be taught in the theology department. 

On this level, also, of course, the curriculum is already course-heavy. But 
it would be the quintessence of foolishness to re-tailor the curriculum in 
such a way as to stress the how of communication to the detriment of what 
is to be communicated. The English teacher who knows all the gimmicks of 
presentation, but who doesn't know the subject he is to present, is an un- 

Nature and Purpose of the Communications Program 55 

fortunate part of the American educational scene. His kind must not be 
duplicated in those who are ordained to teach and preach the Word of God. 

Under present curricular circumstances, therefore, the course in preaching, 
or sacred eloquence, or homiletics — whatever one wishes to call it — would 
extend through the entire four years of theology. It would be a 12-semester- 
hour, non-cycle course: two hours each semester for the first three years and 
a noncredit seminar in the fourth or deacon year. 

As envisioned, therefore, each 2-semester-hour segment would have its own 
syllabus, and the syllabus would be so ordered as to meet the proximate 
goals to be ascribed to that particular segment. Such proximate goals must be 
properly subordinated to the specific purpose of the complete 1 2-semester- 
hour course, namely, to make the seminarians into effective preachers and 
teachers of the truths of the Catholic Church. 

Obviously, it is not possible to outline, even broadly, the six segments of 
such a course as is here contemplated. However, by way of general directive, 
this tentative division of material may prove serviceable. 

Segment 1, to be offered during the first semester of the student's theology 
course, would be very largely, though not exclusively, a lecture course. Topics 
to be treated, for example, would be the specific nature of homiletics as a 
branch of rhetoric possessed of its own body of principles; the qualifications 
necessary for one who would effectively present religious truth; the introduc- 
tion of taped sermons previously delivered in the seminary chapel or in 
parish churches nearby, by way of determining the presence or absence of 
those qualifications considered essential; the stage-by-stage construction of 
one sermon, preferably a homily, by the teacher himself — from its initial 
inception as an idea in the mind of the preacher, through the preliminary 
research, the tentative outline, the composition of the opening sentences 
through the body of the sermon to its conclusion. 

This particular portion of the first segment of the over-all course should 
be particularly valuable. Most freshman English courses, for example, devote 
about three semester hours to the blow-by-blow construction of the so-called 
term paper, or research paper; every stage of the project is clearly delineated 
and must be performed according to established formulas. Yet comparatively 
few parish priests are required to write even one term paper a year. Now 
if the first term paper is considered so vastly important, why should the com- 
position of the first sermon be left to mere chance, as though it could not 
conceivably benefit from the application of proper methods of research and 

This first segment of the course may well be concluded by a detailed 
examination of the pertinent Church laws concerning preaching. 

In broad outline, the second segment would be so constructed as to acquaint 
the student with the available sources of sermon material, and to make him 
aware of the existence of such material in his daily spiritual and secular 
reading as well as in his observation and experience. Evaluation of one or 
more taped sermons in the light of the use made of such materials, and the 
construction of one or more sermons properly incorporating similar ma- 
terials, would buttress theory with practice. 

The third unit, or segment, would concern itself specifically with the con- 
struction of the sermon, the various rhetorical devices available to the sermon 
writer, with particular stress upon the ways and means by which the preacher 
can appeal to the emotions of his hearers. Once again, practice in all aspects 
will be essential. 

56 Major Seminary Department 

The fourth 2-hour unit will concentrate on effective sermon delivery. 

The fifth segment will specialize in the composition and delivery of the Sun- 
day instructional sermon, or mixed homily; and the final segment, in the 
composition and delivery of the occasional sermon. 

During the deacon year, the seminarian will deliver one sermon — or pos- 
sibly two — to a bona fide, live audience. Whether this is done in the 
seminary chapel, during the Sunday High Mass or at Lenten devotions, or 
in one of the neighboring parish churches, makes little difference. I tend to 
believe that a critical audience of fellow students and faculty members may 
have some psychological advantages, but I see no reason to press the point. 
More important is the weekly seminar, or "post-mortem," in which the 
professor of homiletics meets with the deacon class to evaluate the sermon of 
the previous Sunday and to suggest specific improvements. 

Now such a unified group of courses, subject, obviously, to numerous and 
even radical variations, would tend to give the communications program of 
the seminary not only a goal but the wherewithal to attain that goal. For 
best results, the program must be put into the hands of a dedicated, trained, 
and competent teacher — someone who will have both the time and the sense 
of duty to listen to hundreds of taped sermons and to copiously annotate 
hundreds of laboriously constructed sermons. 

Nor will the goal set for the program be achieved by cycling the courses. 
The program's effectiveness rests upon its logical structuring as well as upon 
the limited class enrollment for each course. Personal attention is essential. 
In other words, the teacher of homiletics must be in the classroom six hours a 
week, not two hours a week. 

Another part of a communications program comprises what is traditionally 
known as catechetics. In this area, the structure of courses will depend to 
some extent on whether or not the seminarian has already had a course in 
the philosophy of education. On the assumption that he has had such a course, 
a two-semester 4-credit hour course in the third year of theology, supplemented 
by a noncredit seminar in the deacon year, should prove adequate. 

The first semester would be devoted to the technique of classroom in- 
struction; the second semester to the technique of convert instruction, both 
on the individual and group level. Particularly will both courses stress the 
use of such visual aids as have by this time proved their merit beyond all 

The deacons would practice-teach, under rigid supervision, high school 
freshmen, particularly in such institutions in which the minor seminary is 
located near the major seminary, or, when this is impossible, in parish grade 
schools or high schools in the vicinity, or perhaps in conjunction with already 
established Confraternity of Christian Doctrine programs. Such practice teach- 
ing, however, is completely without merit unless it is well supervised by a 
competent educator; for even better results, one additional member of the 
deacon class, besides the practice teacher, should also be in attendance, and 
should participate in the evaluative discussions between supervisor and teacher 
at the conclusion of each class period. 

Now it may be reasonably asked how the communications program which 
has just been outlined differs from the programs currently in operation in 
American seminaries. 

In summary, the differences are these: 

1. The introduction, into the freshman writing course, of one unit (to use 

Nature and Purpose of the Communications Program 57 

the educational term) centering about the production of the parish 

2. A logically structured and expanded course in homiletics, with well 
established proximate goals for each segment of the course, and with 
these proximate goals all directed to a realistic final goal; 

3. A somewhat modified catechetics course which uses modern visual aids 
and supplements theory with rigidly supervised practice. 

In the eight years of college and theology, the typical American seminary 
is presently offering no fewer than 300 semester hours. Of these 300 semester 
hours, only 10 semester hours, on the average, are professedly devoted to 
the how of communication; all the rest are subject-matter courses. Com- 
munications, then, constitute a mere 3 per cent of all the courses taught — a 
rather insignificant proportion in an age that has canonized the image and 
made it, for better or for worse, an essential part of the total life of the mid- 
twentieth century. 

The communications program, as outlined, would give the how courses a 
representation equal to approximately 6 per cent of the total courses now 
being taught — and this surely is a more realistic proportion than that which 
now prevails. 

Perhaps more than anything else, what is needed is a deep conviction on 
the part of every seminary teacher that mere knowledge does not auto- 
matically enable the student, the seminarian, to communicate that knowledge 
to others. Somehow, the knowledge that is in him must be made viable. It 
is no accident that Pope Benedict XV concludes his encyclical on preaching 
(Humani Generis) with a prayer to the Mother of the Word Incarnate that 
she ask "the merciful and everlasting Shepherd of souls" to grant "that there 
may be many who will strive eagerly to present themselves to God as approved 
workmen that need not be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth." 

Such "approved workmen . . . rightly handling the word of truth" must 
be the end result of any acceptable communications program on the college 
and theology levels of the seminary. And the average parish priest handles 
the word of truth primarily in the parish bulletin, the instruction class, and 
from the pulpit. The program, as outlined, has the merit of giving adequate 
consideration to these three facets of the priest's work. 


Rev. Eugene M. Burke, C.S.P. 

st. paul's college, the catholic university of America 

washington, d.c. 

If we look at the record of human experience that history furnishes us 
we will find again and again that the way in which great ideals and noble 
purposes become actual in the life of men is through institutional forms. It 
will show that visions that have moved men forward, received permanence, 
stability, and continuity only when they were embodied in ordered and 
purposeful groupings of men and women. In short, wherever groups of 
men and women are brought together by a common purpose and a common 
ideal it is by means of institutional forms that their vision is clothed with 
reality and enters effectively into the life of society. But it is equally true 
that the vitality of such institutions is ultimately determined by their capacity 
for true development. It must be able to bring into being its resources to 
confront new problems and to adapt itself to new demands and yet not abandon 
or distort or eviscerate the purpose that brought it into being. At the same 
time it must be able to assimilate new developments, new methods, or enrich 
the discipline that it uses so that it can keep pace with the ever widening 
demands that the effective fulfillment of its purpose requires. 

Taken from this standpoint, it seems to me the seminary as an institutional 
form for the training of priests has had both this vitality and this capacity. 
Wherever it has been allowed to function normally it has achieved its end 
and adapted itself to needs and made its own whatever best served its proper 
purpose. So in its origin with the Council of Trent it has one primary purpose 
and that is the pastoral formation of men who should be effective priests 
in the pastoral ministry. In the situation of the sixteenth century what was 
needed was a very limited development, but this was supremely urgent. The 
basic elements of a liberal education were literacy and grammar, and the 
professional knowledge that would enable them to preach and instruct the 
faithful, to conduct divine worship, and to administer the sacraments. Equally 
important was the moral formation and training in ecclesiastical discipline. 
The Tridentine Seminary presupposed the existence and operation of the 
university and legislated that the seminary professors must have received their 
theological degrees. But its primary concern was pastoral. 

The same thing is apparent in the coming into being of the seminary system 
in seventeenth century France. St. Vincent de Paul and Father Olier lay 
much emphasis on the development of philosophy and theology. Olier en- 
visages the student as taking his course at the Sorbonne and clearly distinguishes 
between the theological student and the collegian. The main emphasis, how- 


Developing an Intellectual Tradition 59 

ever, is the clearly recognized need of the time — the development of a specifi- 
cally priestly spirituality, deep, solid, and pastorally orientated. Saint Sulpice 
does this not only for seminarians but for priests already possessing theo- 
logical degrees who lived under this rule for their priestly formation — men 
such as the later Archbishop Fenelon. 

More immediately germane to our own era is the development of the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century. Here the intellectual climate that had been 
created all during the first half of the nineteenth century posed the seminary 
with certain basis intellectual demands. The coming to the fore of the critical 
and positive sciences clothed in rationalism and historicism as well as the 
need of a sound philosophical training gives a strongly apologetic orientation 
to the training, as reading the manuals makes clear. Patrology, Positive The- 
ology, Apologetics and the increasing emphasis on Thomistic Philosophy all 
begin to appear. However, before these could ever have time for any extensive 
and effective development, the critical excesses and the philosophical aberrations 
of Modernism made it necessary to protect this development by rigorously 
curtailing it. Looking back now on the American scene, I say "necessary" 
because we simply did not have a sufficiently large number of well trained 
theologians (in terms of a sound speculative development) to be able to 
make the continuing theological judgments and critiques that were necessary. 
In any case the result was a very strong emphasis on purely pastoral and 
practical Apologetics along with a practical piety and devotion. On the whole, 
there was a real hesitancy, if not opposition, to any heavy emphasis on the 
intellectual development of the seminarian. Again, from this standpoint I 
think it was good since it gave the absolutely necessary time for the philo- 
sophical and historical work and research that had to be accomplished before 
any effective and fruitful intellectual development could take place. 

It is against this background that we must view the very important de- 
velopment in the American seminary in the last twenty-five years. Here, 
having been intimately involved as a student and a teacher during all these 
years, I can testify at first hand to the striking and extraordinary changes 
that have taken place. Gradually, with much trial and error, a good many 
arguments and a good deal of controversy, the American seminaries have 
become sound and effective professional schools. From a situation such as 
I began in where our basis contact with our temporal order was the sports 
page and the "funny paper," we have seen truly immense changes: the pe- 
riodical literature, the library development, the rich foreign theological and 
philosophical literature that is easily available; the use of the Summa as a 
normal resource rather than an emergency measure under sanction is quite 
a development; the fact that it has become a basic policy with both the dioceses 
and religious communities to send their men on for graduate work in the 
field in which they teach. So much is this the normal policy that in my ex- 
perience today the exception is a rarity and a temporary one. The National 
Catholic Educational Association, the Catholic Theological Society, and the 
Biblical Association have done much to produce a real professional develop- 
ment and a good deal of extraordinarily valuable and effective interchange 
among seminary men. In all this there has been a genuine progress in terms 
of the pastoral purpose of the seminary. But I am convinced that this past 
twenty-five years has simply set the stage and formed the institutional pattern 
for the next development. It is my conviction that simply being a sound 
professional school is no longer enough. (I am using this term professional 

60 Major Seminary Department 

to describe the educational aspect of the seminary as analogous to the pro- 
fessional training of doctors and lawyers and others. Obviously the whole 
spiritual and moral formation is integral and absolutely essential, but this 
is not the field that I am concerned with this morning.) Let me then explain 
why I think that a new stage of development is called for. 

The first reason is a phenomenon that is becoming more and more evident 
in the midst of our mass education, and its correlative — mass media of educa- 
tion. It is a fact that quality education and effective leadership are being 
given more and more identification and, therefore, more importance. General 
knowledge, articulate communication, evidence of breadth in reading and a 
knowledgeable perception of the world in which we live are becoming im- 
portant if not essential prerequisites for effective leadership where moral 
issues are involved. 

A foreign writer has said, "The most significant factor of the last one 
hundred and fifty years is the urbanization of the world." This is especially 
the case here in the United States where the whole urban development is an 
ever increasing percentage of the ordinary parish, and, interestingly, in the 
ordinary parish an ever increasing percentage is college trained and many 
of our parishioners are now professional people. We thus have the prediction 
that within a generation the greater part of our parishes will be composed 
of people who have had some college education and a very good number 
will have done graduate work. This means that in our parishes and in our 
pastoral work there is a very extensive body of men and women who 
read and who read well, who ask questions, and who debate serious issues 
involving both doctrinal and moral and philosophical issues. They ask ques- 
tions as Catholics that demand real answers — or better answers — that are 
not stock ones but the fruits of an educated mind. If our priests are not 
able to give these answers, their leadership is impaired and their pastoral 
work rendered that much less effective. 

Evidence of all this is the quite remarkable success that has been enjoyed 
by the Image Books on our parish racks. Here is a body of first-rate literature, 
with many books that cannot be read lightly or in passing. Our Catholics 
have access to information programs, read such magazines as Time and 
Newsweek, and, on an increasing scale, both Catholic and secular journals 
of opinion. More and more of them read newspaper articles of considerable 
merit. And all of this is on the increase and cannot be waved away as a kind 
of lunatic fringe or as a small, shrill professional intelligentsia. We have not 
only spent money but poured enormous effort and talent into the develop- 
ment of our Catholic colleges, and the results of that I think are now begin- 
ning to be with us on a very positive and valuable scale. It is foolish not to 
recognize this as a new pastoral dimension that is not to be met with eighth- 
grade techniques. Rather, it can be as it ought to be, as it was intended to 
be, a genuine source of spiritual enrichment for the Church in the United 

Another dimension is that of politics, which is the science of running the 
community in which we live. Here one needs only to read the papers to 
realize that simple black and white answers and approaches are no longer 
compatible with the grim and complex reality we must live with. The search 
for a simple solution, or the reduction to the easy rhetoric of a stereotype 
or slogan, is not only unworthy of the educated mind but a genuine dis- 
service to the living of an authentic Catholic life in the temporal order. If, 
as modern theologians think, the function and office of the Catholic layman 

Developing an Intellectual Tradition 61 

and lay woman is to lead an authentic Christian life in the world; if that life 
is to bear witness to Christian principles and attitudes in the concrete dimen- 
sions of our temporal existence — professional, political, social — then it devolves 
upon the priest to give the guidance and the spiritual leadership by which 
Christian truth and principle are made relevant to the actualities in which 
our people live and work and share. It is through them, our Catholic people 
living in the world, that the Church is in the world, but if they are to be 
effective witnesses, promoters of the kingdom of God, it is up to the priest 
to labor to make them so in terms of the situation in which they live. 

Illustrative of this last point is the whole new environment produced by 
the almost incredible developments in science and technology. It has posed 
a series of challenges for the Christian, not only in terms of the haunting 
fact of nuclear warfare but in more directly spiritual areas. Thus, the pos- 
sibility that the rapidity of our technological development will leave all too 
many unable to withstand it, and so capable of leading only an impoverished 
spiritual life, or in some cases, rendering them incapable of leading a spiritual 
life. As one recent writer has put it: "There is an overwhelming imperative 
that our spiritual growth match the increase of this physical potentiality." 
There is an absolute need that spiritual and moral maturity be proportionate 
to the development of technical skill and power. Nor may it be argued that 
this is an academic or university problem for it is in fact a matter that bears 
directly upon the lives of all our Catholic men and women. The debates 
and developments have direct bearing on their lives and call for moral judg- 
ments on their part. Disarmament, the so-called population explosion, genetics, 
evolution, even theoretical physics are matters of direct and present concern. 
And less and less opportunity will be offered to the priest to wave them aside 
as academic or out of his field. This does not mean that the priest must 
have universal expertise. But after four years of college and four years of 
theology, the people who have made this education possible are hardly unfair 
if they expect an intelligent recognition and appreciation of these problems 
and a capacity for knowledgeable discussion proper to the educated man. In 
short, there is less and less room for those who pride themselves on being 
professional illiterates confined to the sports page and the comics. 

Lastly, I might call to your attention an element that almost certainly 
will play an increasing part in our pastoral achievement. This is the ecumenical 
spirit and movement. In the immediate future much of it will perhaps be 
on the academic level. But I believe that an ever increasing percentage will be 
on the local level and be the responsibility of the local priest. The law of 
charity and the Christian exigency for unity set up real obligations for three- 
dimensional knowledge of the issues involved, of the historical background 
of these divisions, and of the full and precise Catholic doctrinal position as 
well as that held by the various Protestant and dissident Oriental groups. In 
addition, some sympathetic interest and intelligent understanding of modern 
Protestant movements and attitudes is also becoming a prerequisite in this 
order of the ecumenical spirit. One might indicate that a sound and effective 
approach to the problems that produced Catholic-Protestant tensions — such 
as federal aid, censorship, contraception, tolerance — will be needed, not only 
in terms of the moral issues but also in view of the sociocultural implications 
that attend these moral issues. 

Such, then, is something of the development of the pastoral work of the 
future as I foresee it. Many other dimensions could be commented on, but 

62 Major Seminary Department 

these will serve as an excellent cross section bringing out my main proposition 
and emphasizing that this ought to be a felt need. I am convinced that the 
time is certainly coming, and to an extent is already here, when these issues 
cannot be referred to an expert but on an ever increasing scale will be an 
immediate pastoral problem. In the light of all this I submit the proposition 
that: The development of an intellectual tradition is a pastoral necessity 
for the future and, therefore, is a necessary element in the purpose and 
work of the seminary. 

If this thesis be sound then the question is: Where do we begin to work for 
this development? Here it seems to me that we have no choice but to begin with 
the seminary professors themselves. For there can be no intellectual tradition 
in any educational effort unless it is a living reality in the minds and wills of 
those who teach. Whether it be on the college, the seminary, or the university 
level, the basic resource for the development of an intellectual tradition is the 
faculty. The size of the library, the quality of the books in it, the quality 
of the students, sympathy on the part of the administration, all are most 
important, but they are useless if the faculty in its individual members is 
not a living witness to an intellectual tradition. For the teacher is the true 
mediator not only of a body of knowledge but of the whole order of attitudes, 
values, and perspectives which shape the mind of the student. He exercises 
(or at least is called upon to exercise) a priesthood of influence on every 
class he teaches. And in no place in this so much the case as in a seminary 
where, by the very nature of the situation, the student when ordained will 
choose and decide and guide in terms of the principles, and, above all, the 
climate in which those principles have been transmitted to him. We are 
as seminary professors in a most extraordinary way ministers of and mediators 
of God's word, whose ministerial office will be multiplied almost geometrically 
through those whom we teach. It is an awesome but magnificent vocation. 
As seminary teachers we are the living channels through which the spiritual 
and theological heritage of the faith is transmitted to future priests. We also 
are fashioners and makers of priestly souls. Into our hands has been placed 
by the Church an enormous power to influence the future life of the Church 
here in the United States. Hence any pastoral concern of the Church is a 
crucial and personal responsibility of ours. If, then, intellectual tradition is 
a necessary part of pastoral formation we must begin with ourselves. There- 
fore, I suggest that this calls for the development of certain fundamental 
attitudes which are the essence of a Catholic intellectual tradition. These 
attitudes must be transformed into personal convictions that are interwoven 
into the very fabric of our teaching. Only then can we speak of the existence 
of an intellectual tradition. 

The first of these attitudes that must become a matter of personal conviction 
is the incarnational view of the temporal order — that view which integrates 
Christian revelation and the whole order of human values into an organic 
whole. It is expressed in the majestic cadences of the Epistle to the Hebrews: 
"God who at sundry times and in divers manners spoke in times past to 
the fathers by the prophets, last of all, in these days, has spoken to us by 
His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, by whom also He made 
the world." Thus does the author unfold to us God's saving design that 
orders human history and at the same time proclaims the Christian view of 
the cosmos. It proposes that the Son of God become man is the culmination 
of history and the point where the temporal order joins in visible, historical, 
and saving union with the eternal. In the light of modern biblical theology 

Developing an Intellectual Tradition 63 

and the ever deepening Christian sense of cosmic history, it is evident that 
for the reflective Christian God's revealing word made flesh cannot be sep- 
arated from history or the temporal order. Hence our penetration of revela- 
tion will be fundamentally in proportion to our understanding of both history 
and the temporal order. For God has come to man by intervening into the 
patterns of human history. He works the redemption of man, not by isolating 
him from the stream of history nor by disengaging him from the temporal 
order. Rather, He himself has entered this temporal order and made history 
the vehicle of his saving purpose. And all these wonderful works of God 
find their meaning in His Son made man, in whom all things meet and are 

This is a view that has its roots deep in salvation history, but it is also a 
view that Catholics and especially teachers, and above all those who form 
the priests of the future must make their own on a large scale, if the body 
of Christ, the living extension of the Incarnation, is to achieve its full purposes 
in this our day. I say that this is particularly urgent for the teacher on any 
level because he deals directly with the point where the creative world finds 
its spiritual and vocal expression — the mind of man. Whatever develops this 
spiritual principle is part of the preparation for grace, and so knowledge itself, 
and its development ideally is a decisive element in the historic and human 
vocation. For the Incarnation by which a believing Christian is related to 
all history — the Incarnation is nothing else than the visible embodiment of 
that Word by which God understands himself from all eternity. Thus the 
development of knowledge, the ever deepening penetration of the temporal 
order, is a necessary part of God's design, a gradual realization of the full 
meaning of the Incarnation. 

I ask your patience for emphasizing this point, but I frankly admit that 
any Catholic intellectual tradition must be conceived in this specific and con- 
crete theological context — which is nothing else than the history of salvation. 
It seems to me personally that all too often and all too long we have lived 
in a climate (not totally through our own fault) where the whole temporal 
order has been viewed with a mistrust bordering on hostility. Far beyond 
any legitimate distinction or reasonable precaution, we have given the im- 
pression in our educational system of building little cloister-like islands of 
schooling — islands which we piously hope are moated against any problems 
raised by the world, the flesh and the devil. Thus, we have forgotten that 
however high we build the seminary walls the world, the flesh and the devil 
walk in through the front entrance with us and our students: stone and brick 
cannot keep them out, nor does the refusal to develop an incarnational view 
of the temporal order combat or confront them as we ought. In any case, 
if we are to develop an intellectual tradition we must see all things through 
the prism of the Incarnation. 

From this point of view flows a very definite attitude toward the subjects 
we teach. It seems to me that if we honestly believe that the development of 
knowledge and understanding is a genuinely spiritual process — a necessary 
part of God's design — if, I say, we believe this, then we are obliged to be 
committed to our subjects as it were from within. We cannot be dis- 
passionate spectators passing out little capsules of learning but rather we must 
be dedicated sowers of living seeds whose care and growth are our direct 
personal concern and our eternal responsibility. As Christian teachers we 
must venerate profoundly the living interaction of the human mind with 
knowledge. As Christian teachers we are called upon to see in the subject we 

64 Major Seminary Department 

are teaching an integral part of this divinely designed development. Whatever 
be the field — dogma, moral, Scripture, canon law, history, homiletics — if we 
are truly dedicated teachers, then certain consequences follow. Wherever 
man's thinking develops and any branch of knowledge begins to grow in a 
living mind we will rejoice; wherever a man abandons this effort or wherever 
any of these branches of knowledge retrogress, or find no fertile soil on which 
to grow, it will be to us a deep and personal sadness. It is this commitment 
to teaching that will make of us in Newman's words "the living voice, the 
breathing form, the expressive countenance that catechizes. Truth a subtle, 
invisible, manifold spirit is poured into the mind of the scholar by his eyes 
and ears, through the affection, imagination and reason. It is poured into 
his mind and sealed there in perpetuity by propounding and repeating it, by 
questioning and requestioning, by correcting and explaining by progressing 
and then returning to first principles." Such is the attitude of the dedicated 

In the time left to me let me call your attention to specifics with regard to 
the student or the curriculum, if you will. The first is a real overhaul of the 
Church history course. By this I mean a change from the process of names 
and dates and pure chronology to what I would call a properly cultural course. 
I submit that it ought to be changed from a kind of pragmatic secondary 
adjunct to theology to a truly effective instrument in the development of an 
intellectual tradition — an instrument of what Newman called "enlargement of 
mind." This wholeness of view, while it is of the very essence of the intellec- 
tual tradition, is basically an exercise of the reflective intelligence challenged 
by the facts of human experience. It is my conviction that integration and 
synthesis must take place in a living mind, not in a catalog nor in a curriculum- 
planning operation. It is for this reason that I suggest that one of the best 
means to bring this about is the history of Christian culture taken as an organic 
whole. In advancing this as an opinion, I am not prepared to say that this 
is the absolute answer, nor would I be willing to debate that it is the only 
possible answer. However, I am willing to defend this opinion as a truly 
effective means. The reasons for it are these: Some fifteen years of teaching 
a summer course in the history of Christian culture that year by year has 
covered the successive periods from Augustine to Pius IX; a carefully controlled 
experimental course with college seniors that has now existed for some ten 
years; and this year a two-hour a week graduate course for priests in the 
history of theology as a science. As a result of this experience, I am convinced 
that all the elements that make possible an intellectual tradition are best seen 
and understood and made personal in such a course, for all these elements 
that make for an intellectual tradition meet naturally in such a course because 
it is an organic whole. Christian culture is not something confined to theology. 
It expresses and has always expressed itself also in philosophy, literature, in 
art and music, in society and institutions. At the same time it becomes 
clear that none of these forms of expression can be understood completely 
unless they are seen in relation to all of the others and seen in relation to 
the whole. Above all in such a course, seeing the actual formation of the 
Christian culture as an organic totality makes it clear that a Christian culture, 
which itself is a wholeness of view, transcends the limitations of any particular 
age or social environment. We are able to see the distinction between what 
is of the very substance of Catholic Christianity and what has been contributed 
by the temporal order and the inter-relating order of values between the 
relativities of history and the absolutes of revelation. Finally, seeing in the 

Teaching the Dogma Course 65 

concrete the shaping of the relations between the world of social experience 
and the world of spiritual reality, the seminarian can be stimulated to that 
reflective effort by which these principles, these attitudes, these expressions 
of lessons of the past can be applied to the present. He can begin to see that 
Christian culture is a sacramental culture, and that of its very nature it looks 
to embodying religious truth in visible, palpable forms under the unity of 
faith. And is not this a Catholic intellectualism modeled on the Incarnation 
where the eternal and the temporal meet in a vivifying union? 

Very quickly I might propose for your consideration one other specific. 
It is the consideration of the establishment of a series of seminars over the 
four or six years in which the seminarians are in our charge, that might 
enable them to become effective members of what Jacques Barzun calls "the 
house of the intellect." In the concrete, I would suggest a set of seminars that 
would consider both in depth and in extent the relevant problems in political 
science, in science and technology, in history and its meaning and interpreta- 
tion, in the appreciation of the humanities as an instrument of culture and not 
simply as a philological experience, in the problems and exigencies of the 
social sciences and sociology. All these would offer a real opportunity for the 
kind of pastoral development and the new dimensions that seem necessary for 
our time. 

However, to return to my fundamental proposition and conviction, the real 
issue lies with us as seminary professors. If an intellectual tradition is to be 
developed in the seminary, it must be the result of a genuine conviction on 
the part of the seminary professors. Such a conviction must be engendered 
by enthusiasm, be controlled by intelligence, and indelibly marked by com- 
petence, and never lose sight or that noble vision expressed by Dante: 

Think of the seed from which you spring 

You were not born to live the life of the brute beast of the field 

But to follow knowledge and virtue unafraid. 


Very Rev. Edward J. Hogan, S.S. 
rector, st. John's provincial seminary, Plymouth, Michigan 

No one of us here needs to be reminded or told that we are living in a thrill- 
ing period of theological developments. Every branch of the sacred sciences — 
dogmatic, biblical, conciliar, speculative — is not only the subject of penetrating 
study and critical examination, but is the object of deeper understanding and 
appreciation. This encouraging vitality is due in part to the immediacy 
prompted by the approaching Ecumenical Council in which, of very necessity, 
the history and foundations of all our theological traditions will be major 
considerations. At the same time, we all recognize that, apart from this 
immediate impetus, there has been a new vitality imparted to all theological 

66 Major Seminary Department 

study by the ferment in biblical theology which resulted from the Divino 
Afflante Spiritu of Pius XII. 

While this new movement has opened wide horizons for the theologian as 
the scientist of divine truth, it has created great and practical problems for the 
professor of sacred theology in his everyday classroom teaching. This is 
particularly true in the presentation of scriptural material as the foundation 
of our theological doctrines. To pinpoint our problem: How should we 
theologically and pedagogically present the biblical material and at the same 
time impart the proper relationship of biblical doctrine to the authority of 
the Church? 

From the theological point of view, we must always keep in mind ourselves 
and insist with our students that the Church is the interpreter of Sacred 
Scripture and that on her authority alone rests the understanding of the content 
of divine revelation. It is to the Church that God has committed the corpus 
of divine revelation as her possession to be guarded and preserved; Sacred 
Scripture as the inspired written word of God is likewise the possession of the 
Church. Without getting into the problem of the identity or distinction of 
Scripture from tradition, we nevertheless must always recognize that the written 
word of God found in Scripture is as such a source for the Church in the ful- 
fillment of her teaching office. 

This fact, which appears so self-evident to us as theologians, must at the 
same time dominate the direction of our classroom thinking and teaching, for 
when we stand on the podium of a seminary classroom we are exercising 
an official function in the Church: we are there as ministers of the Church 
in her office of teacher, preparing the minds of those who in the name of 
the Church will stand before the faithful and impart the truth of Christ. 
This seems to dictate two fundamental principles for us as professors: 

1. This responsibility makes it incumbent upon us to transmit to our stu- 
dents a spirit of pious dependence upon the magisterium. That this is 
important in our present day is evident from the many admonitions and 
instructions which Pius XII and John XXIII have issued either personally or 
through the pertinent Roman congregations. The Holy See is vitally aware of 
the modern spirit of independence and patently concerned about the possibly 
disastrous directions which theological thinking might take. While the Church 
encourages critical investigation and deeper understanding, she also insists 
on humble dependence. It is a primary task for us as seminary professors to 
impart that spirit, and it seems to me this is nowhere so important or so 
delicate as in the handling of the biblical material in a dogma course. 

2. Coming to a more particular point of emphasis: What is the role of the 
scriptural material in a doctrinal thesis? Is it to prove a doctrine or to serve 
as a source of greater understanding and appreciation of the full meaning and 
wider implications of truths which are already accepted on the authority of 
the Church? On the answer to this question rests at least in part the funda- 
mental criticism which can be leveled against the so-called traditional use of 
the scriptural argument. 

Most of the textbooks which are in use in our seminaries first give a thesis 
or proposition which is in fact a summary of a defined doctrine of the 
Church: they then proceed to "prove" this thesis by citing documents of 
Councils or papal decrees, passages from Sacred Scripture, and sayings of 
the Fathers. The scriptural argument is either placed on an equal basis with 

Teaching the Dogma Course 67 

the definition of the Church, or it is cited as justification for the Church's 
statement. But is either of these theologically sound? 

Our manuals seem to be the products of a post-Reformation need to justify 
the definitions of the Church by demonstrating how they are in harmony 
with Sacred Scripture which to the reformers was the sole norm of faith. 
In this sense, the procedure is apologetic rather than theological. However, 
are the arguments themselves valid? On this point I need only refer to a 
paper delivered at the eleventh meeting of the Catholic Biblical Association in 
1948 by Father Edward Siegman, entitled "The Use of Sacred Scripture in 
Textbooks of Dogmatic Theology," wherein he examines several of the con- 
temporary manuals and points out how texts are either mistranslated, or torn 
out of context, or are read in such a way as to see more in them than is 
actually contained. It is certainly understandable that such misuse should 
occur when we recall the controversies which followed upon the Reformation 
and the definitions of the Council of Trent. However, should they be per- 
petuated in our classroom teaching? Certainly our task is not to convince our 
students of the correctness of the definitions of the Church; nor will such 
methods convince intelligent non-Catholics. 

In our seminary teaching, the materials of Sacred Scripture should be kept 
in their proper place, that is, as a mediate rule of faith. They are not the 
agency which proximately joins to believer with the date of revelation, for 
this is at all times the teaching Church. Rather after the authoritative doctrine 
is accepted, they support the enunciation of faith and offer a solid and un- 
impeachable witness to the fact that what one professes as of faith has always 
been an article of faith from the most ancient days of Christianity. As one 
writer has stated it: "They express in one way or another, in language which 
is the equivalent of our formularies of faith, what is affirmed by the Church 
as of faith, and by that token mark the identity of actual belief with that of 
the most ancient past." x In other words, as "proof" the materials of Scripture 
should be used to show not the truth of a doctrine (that is known from the 
Church) but rather the fact that this is a doctrine of the apostolic faith itself. 
But more important than its demonstrative value, Sacred Scripture is a well- 
spring of theology in the sense that in it we find in a living vibrant manner the 
fuller meaning of our scientifically stated dogmatic definitions. Theology is 
fides quaerens intellectum — seeking to penetrate and open up for an intelligent 
Christian life God's loving design for man. God has not revealed Himself to 
us merely that we might know Him, nor has He imparted the charisms of 
inspiration and infallibility only for the sake of the intellectual enrichment of 
men. Rather He has manifested Himself to us by His revealing acts in order 
that through knowing him we might appreciate and love Him for what He 
truly is, and in the light of this end He has inspired the sacred writers and 
guided the Church through the gift of infallibility that this knowledge so basic 
to Christian living might be free from error and filled with the light of positive 

My reason for bringing in this consideration is to lead to my principal 
point: That in our use of the materials of Scripture in seminary teaching greater 
emphasis should be given to Scripture as a source of light than as a basis of 
conviction. Perhaps this could be made clearer by a few examples. 

1. In the Tractatus de Baptismo, rather than spending a lot of time "proving" 

1 Leo G. Burke, O.M.I., "Holy Scripture as a Locus Theologicus," Catholic Biblical Quarterly 
(1949), 356. 

68 Major Seminary Department 

that baptism was instituted and ordered by Christ, it would be much more 
profitable to analyse the Joannine and Pauline doctrines about the meaning 
of baptism in the Christian life. Actually this would involve an analysis of 
St. John's concept of faith, of Christ as a source of life, and of baptism as 
the act of generation into this life of faith. Likewise, much time could be 
used profitably in the study of the fifth and sixth chapters of the Epistle to 
the Romans wherein not only the fact of the use of baptism in the Apostolic 
Church is demonstrated but its theological meaning and implications are won- 
derfully described. 

2. In the treatise on Grace, the broad outlines of the biblical notion of 
justification in Christ could be taken from a survey of the total doctrines in 
Romans, Galatians, Ephesians, and Colossians, thus giving living flesh to the 
skeletal definitions of the 6th session of the Council of Trent. 

Or in the De Deo Trino one could begin with the Old Testament doctrine 
on God, the Jewish concept of God as the father of the people, the foreshadow- 
ings of the revelation of the Holy Spirit in the ruah Jahweh which led the Jewish 
people out of the captivity of Egypt, and then the Christian revelation as found 
in St. John, St. Paul, and in the Acts of the Apostles. 

In other words, by the use of biblical theology in the modern sense of the 
term (which is really that used by the apostles and the Fathers of the Church) 
we could study the biblical material for the sake of the light it would throw 
upon the doctrines already defined and accepted on the authority of the 
Church rather than seeing in them principally arguments to defend the 
validity of the Church's teachings. 

Theologically, then, the norm of truth and of faith is the authoritative teach- 
ing of the Church; and pedagogically that teaching must form the core of our 
classroom methodology. For us as theologians, Sacred Scripture is a fons 
revelationis in the sense that it is a divinely guaranteed means given to the 
Church by which God's revealed truth can be known: its interpretation, 
likewise, is the province of the Church herself. For us as professors, however, 
Scripture can fill a twofold function: it can be used to demonstrate that what 
the Church teaches in any century has its roots in the belief of the Church 
in the apostolic age; and it can widen the horizon of understanding by opening 
up the meaning and application to positive Christian living of the dogmas 
scientifically defined by the magisterium. Pedagogically, then, Sacred Scripture 
is ancillary to the authority of the Church, not in the sense that it is inferior 
or subservient; rather that it is an enlivening and energizing force, the nutrition 
which puts living flesh upon the bones of dogma. 

Such an approach admittedly presents great difficulties for the ordinary 
seminary professor of dogmatic theology. First of all, it is not as easily 
satisfying as the traditional apologetical method. It is much easier to cite 
phrases or verses of Scripture which seem to bear upon a particular point 
of doctrine than to face what at first appears to be a vague and indefinite 
mass of material: and if this is difficult for the professor, it is doubly so for 
the student to grasp. We have a tendency to want neatly wrapped and tied 
packages which are handier to carry than a lot of apparently loose and scattered 
ideas which demand ordering and precision. Secondly, we can feel lost in 
the mass of material which seems to call for a trained Scripture scholar with 
all the apparatus of ancient languages, history, and understanding of Semitic 
and Greek ways of thought. In other words, we can have a sense of almost 
complete inadequacy in the face of such a task. 

Analysis of Seminary Administration 69 

While the problems inherent in such an approach are great, the actual 
result from effort in this direction can be extremely satisfying. Our own 
appreciation of dogma and that of our students will be immeasurably deepened; 
and, as a result, our convictions about the truth of the Church's teachings 
will be all the more strong. The Holy Spirit who is the soul of all theological 
understanding will reward us with the consolation which only He can give. 


Very Rev. Edward F. Riley, CM. 


In a former day, the administration of seminaries was a much simpler process. 
The young man was accepted into the seminary — usually a small institution — 
was put through the order of the day and the spiritual exercises, was educated 
in the classroom, and, all things being equal, was moved slowly along the 
way to ordination. Today, there are entrance examinations, standardized 
testing, character reports, psychological helps, constant upgrading of the 
academic requirements, tightening of the order of the day, strong emphasis 
on spiritual direction and guidance, and many other factors of a like nature. 
Whether there are better and more learned priests as a result of all of this 
cannot be proved one way or the other; but there can be little doubt that 
those who go through the seminaries today are subjected to a far wider 
curriculum than in previous days. 

There are many additional demands made on seminary administrators and 
instructors. They are all greatly interested in accreditation at the high school 
and college levels to prove that our institutions are the equal of lay institutions; 
they are all interested in academic degrees and in becoming subject specialists 
in various fields. Hence the instructors find themselves taking additional courses 
of study in religious and secular universities, in attending countless summer 
schools, workshops, seminars, et cetera. They are expected to keep up in 
their fields of specialization, with consequent additional reading and attendance 
at conventions: all this in addition to the necessity of keeping informed on 
their own theological studies. 

In this paper on the analysis and evaluation of seminary administration, it 
is impossible to cover all the areas of the seminary in any detail. This paper 
is an outline of the areas of concern to any seminary administrator. To some 
of these he must give a great deal of time and energy; in some areas he will 
delegate responsibilities to others. But ultimately it is the rector who is respon- 
sible and he must have the constant care and thorough knowledge of all areas. 

In attempting to make this outline, I have tried to group various activities 
under general headings. But all areas of seminary administration are so 

* This paper was delivered at a joint session of the Major Seminary and the Minor Seminary 

70 Major Seminary Department 

intimately related that there is overlapping. Some of the areas and the subject 
matter below are arbitrarily arranged as most convenient to the writer of the 

Analysis of Seminary Administration 

I. Faculty 

A. Academic qualifications 

1. Degrees — acquired or in progress 

2. Ability as teachers 

3. Ability as scholars as shown in their writings and membership in learned 

B. Human qualifications 

1. Priests — as giving good example to the students 

2. Laymen — as exemplifying Catholic principles 

3. Pleasant personalities; ability to work with others; zeal and interest in 
the work at hand 

C. Organization of the faculty 

1. Faculty meetings 

a) Number per year 

b) Content of the meetings: e.g., Are they devoted exclusively to discus- 
sion of students, to academic problems, to curriculum, grading, etc.? 

c) Are they planned in advance? Are papers read by faculty members? 

2. Faculty committees 

a) The number of these committees 

b) Areas of competency of these committees 

c) Activities of the committees 

D. Lay faculty 

1. Tenure 

2. Salaries 

3. Do they share in the faculty meetings, committees, etc.? 

E. Supervision of the faculty 

1. Orientation of the faculty members 

2. Supervision of classes of new faculty members 

II. Students 

A. Admission of students 

1. Documents required 

2. Entrance examinations. What are the norms for acceptance? 

3. Interview of potential candidates 

4. Procedures for admission: e.g., letter from chancery or ordinary. Who 
does the admitting? 

5. Orientation of new students 

a) in the summer before they enter? 

b) on the day or week of entrance? 

c) course in orientation in the seminary? 

B. Spiritual formation of the students 

1. Spiritual director: Are students free to go to anyone for direction? 

a) How many times per year must they see the spiritual director? 

b) Are there instructions for the priests of the house who are giving 
spiritual direction? 

c) Is there unity of spiritual direction? 

2. Confessors available when and where? Extraordinary confessors? 

3. Conferences: by whom? how often? 

Analysis of Seminary Administration 71 

4. Spiritual reading 

a) in common: by whom as reader? 

b) in private: who checks the books that are read? 

5. Meditation; amount of time. Who explains the process and directs the 

6. Annual retreat 

a) Number of days 

b) Order of the day 

c) Selection of the retreat master 

7. Days of Recollection: How many times per year? 

8. The content of the religion classes; teachers of religion 

9. The liturgy; Solemn and High Masses; student participation; Lauds, 
Vespers, Compline? 

10. Other spiritual exercises: times and length of time 

C. Daily living of students 

1. Order of the day: Is this periodically checked over to see if it is most 
efficient for the operation of the seminary and most beneficial to the 

2. Rules of Discipline: Are these periodically checked and reviewed by the 
Rector and faculty to see if all are necessary and are fulfilling then- 

3. Extracurriculum 

a) Organization of the program under the direction of students 

b) Types of organizations: e.g., student council, clubs, store, projects, etc. 

c) Cultural programs: e.g., lectures, assemblies 

d) Formal and informal student-initiated programs: e.g., plays, musicals, 

e) Publications: e.g., yearbooks, newspapers, quarterlies 

f) Musical activities: e.g., choirs, glee clubs, radio and TV programs 
sponsored by students 

g) Opportunities for outside activities: e.g., operas, orchestras, profes- 
sional plays 

h) Athletic program: types of participation, e.g., compulsory; types of 

games, equipment; direction of the program; injuries 
i) Records of extracurricular participation 
j) Financing the extracurricular program 

4. Student health 

a) Provisions for physical examinations before entrance and periodically 
during seminary training 

b) Doctor and nurse for seminary 

c) Facilities available 

d) Procedures in accidents 

III. Curriculum 

A. Aims and objectives of the institution are clearly spelled out 

1. These are found in the faculty and student handbooks 

2. Found also in the course syllabi 

B. Aims and objectives of each of the courses are spelled out in the syllabi 

C. Periodic analysis of the courses to see if they are the best that can be offered 
and are fulfilling the requirements of the Roman documents 

D. Periodic analysis of the content of the courses to see if there is overlapping 
of the matter of such a nature that it is a waste of time 

E. Special considerations 

1. The amount of science and mathematics in the high school and college 

72 Major Seminary Department 

2. What courses constitute a good general education in first and second years 
of college? 

3. The problem of Latin in high school, college, theology 

4. The fine arts course 

5. The number of hours that students should take in philosophy, theology, 
canon law, Scriptures, etc. Justification of the number of hours for each 
course and sequence of courses 

6. The problem of electives in high school and college 

F. Textbooks 

1. Are they recent? 

2. Catholic authors? 

3. Are instructors in search of new and better textbooks or satisfied with 
what has always been used? 

4. Policy of school relative to new textbooks 

G. Calendar of school year 

1. Number of school days; number of weeks of school 

2. Length of the semester 

3. Set number of holidays; visiting dignitaries give holidays 

H. Equipment for teaching 

1. Audio-visual equipment 

2. Language laboratories 

3. Science laboratories 

I. Scheduling of classes 

1. For convenience of the students or faculty? 

2. Class days — number of hours? 

3. Sectioning of classes; according to what method? 

4. Recreation periods; best time? 

J. Quality points 

1. What do they mean? 

2. How many necessary for graduation or degree? 

K. Testing of students 

1. Instructors tests: Are they filed in school office? 

2. Standardized tests: 

a) Number and types of tests used 

b) Graduate Record Examination 

c) Are the purposes of the tests defined? 

d) How are the results of the tests used? 

L. Academic counseling of the students 

1. Done by whom? 

2. How many times a year for all students? 

3. Examination of the time schedule of the student? 

M. Advancement to vows or orders 

1. What procedures are used? 

2. What norms are used? 

IV. The Library 

A. Budget of the library 

1. Who draws it up? What are the limitations? 

2. How closely is it followed? 

B. Library books 

1. Number of books in the library 

2. Selection of the books by whom? 

Analysis of Seminary Administration 73 

3. Are the areas of concentration in seminary studies adequately provided for 
by the selection of books in the library? 

4. Number of withdrawals per student per year 

5. Number of withdrawals per faculty member per year 

6. What courses require the most use of the library? 

7. What courses never make use of the library? 

C. Periodicals 

1. Number and selection of periodicals 

2. Newspapers, secular magazines in the library 

3. Number of bound periodicals: In what subject fields? 

4. Arrangements for getting back numbers of periodicals 

5. Use of bound periodicals by students and faculty 

D. Operation of the library 

1. Trained librarian: priest or lay person? 

2. Student help in the library: How used? How trained? 

3. Catalog system used in the library 

4. Is there a bindery connected with the library? 

E. Physical facilities 

1. Librarian's office; workroom: How much space? 

2. Seating capacity of library: Is it adequate? 

3. Capacity of library: books, periodicals, etc. 

V. Administration 

A. School office 

1. Files in use 

a) Confidential file of the Rector 

b) Dead file of previous students 

c) Active file: What does it contain? 

d) Daily file of Rector, Deans, etc. 

e) Copies of previous catalogs, catalogs from other institutions; year- 
books; instructors grade reports 

f) Semester examinations in all the subjects 

2. Forms in use 

a) Academic permanent record — is it the best? 

b) Health records and forms 

c) Extracurricular records 

d) Character records 

e) Informational records 

f) Grade sheets 

g) Registration forms 

h) Release forms for students leaving the seminary 

i) Degree requirement forms 

j) Vacation letter forms 

k) Notice to pastors on withdrawal of students 

3. Equipment in the office 

a) Reproducing machines: e.g., Thermofax, Ditto, Mimeograph 

b) Addressograph 

c) Dictating machine 

4. School secretary 

B. School publications 

1. Catalog: Is it reevaluated each year? 

2. Faculty handbook 

3. Student handbook 

4. Student prayerbooks, formularies of prayers, etc. 

5. Faculty writings: Are copies kept? 

74 Major Seminary Department 

6. Minutes of faculty meetings, committees? 

7. Reports of the Rector to the Ordinary 

8. Results and reports of internal studies of the institution 

C. Internal studies 

1. Analysis of instructors grades for each marking period 

2. Dropouts 

a) Number and percentage over a period of time 

b) Causes of dropouts 

c) What happened to dropouts? Where do they go to school? Etc. 

3. Graduates 

a) Percentage of students who graduate 

b) Success of graduates 

c) Percentage of students ordained 

4. Average IQ of students in seminary 

5. Average achievement of students on standardized tests 

6. Studies of the effectiveness of the curriculum 

7. Studies on the future growth of the seminary 

8. Studies of space usage in the seminary 

9. Time and efficiency studies made on lay workers in seminary 

D. Treasurer's office 

1. System of accounts and bookkeeping 

2. Audit of the books 

3. System of collection of tuition, fees, etc. 

4. Budget control 

5. Salaries — lay and clerical 

E. Kitchen and laundry 

1. Purchasing agent 

2. Cooks — sisters or lay? Other help 

3. Supervision — how effective? 

4. Cost control 

5. Food preparation 

6. Inventories of goods on hand 

7. Equipment replacements 

8. Procedures in the operation of laundry and kitchen 

F. Chapel 

1. Prefect or director of the chapel? 

2. Chapel budget 

3. Replacement of linens, vestments. Who decides? 

4. Who cleans the chapel? 

G. Physical plant and grounds 

1. Supervision 

2. Maintenance and repairs 

3. Lay help or brothers? 

4. Capital improvements 

H. Over-all administration 

1. Educational organizations to which the seminary belongs 

2. Educational organizations to which individual faculty members should 

3. Accreditation: state, regional 

4. Affiliation with Catholic University 

5. Dealings with the government: e.g., Selective Service, veterans 

6. Dealings with organizations: e.g., grants from foundations 

7. Expansion plans 

8. Public relations 

a) with the ordinaries 

Analysis of Seminary Administration 75 

b) with the parents of students 

c) with the students 

d) with potential candidates 

e) with pastors 

f ) with lay people, donors, etc. 
9. Financing the institution 

a) Carefully watching the monthly reports on expenditures 

b) Budget control 

c) Planning the capital improvements 

d) Gifts, legacies, etc. 

Evaluation of Seminary Administration 

As was mentioned in the beginning, it is the rector who is responsible in 
all the above areas of administration. Obviously not all the functions listed 
above are of equal importance; some can more easily be delegated to assistants 
than can others. But it is ultimately the rector who must speak for the semi- 
naries to the ordinaries and must have a knowledge of how these areas are 
controlled and how they operate. 

In some areas of administration there are routines that have been followed 
for years. A new rector hesitates to upset or change these routines. However, 
an able administrator must occasionally do just that, for it will be evident to 
him that there are better and more efficient ways of doing things; there are 
procedures that have been used in other seminaries with success that could 
be tried out here; there are modern educational procedures that have long 
passed the experimental stage and are now accepted by almost all schools. It 
is the rector who must upset the lethargy of the faculty and move in the 
direction of procedures that will benefit the seminary. Age does not canonize 

The greatest single factor for the rector and for seminary administrators 
is the ability to think, to study, to consult, and to approach problems with 
an open mind. Solutions will often come from the most unexpected places. 
Gatherings such as this, with informal discussion among the members, is often 
the key to solving problems, or sometimes to discovering problems that you 
did not know existed. 

All the parts of administration are aimed at the objective of advancing 
seminarians to the priesthood. Hence anything that can more effectively 
contribute to this goal should be evaluated, discussed, and tried out. Because 
something is relatively new, it is not necessarily wrong. All elements must be 
viewed objectively and the very best adopted for use in the seminaries. 



Rev. Sergius Wroblewski, O.F.M. 


The purpose of this paper is a practical one: to offer for your consideration 
practical observations on the formation of diocesan seminarians. It attempts 
to answer the question: How should we train a diocesan seminarian so that 
he may acquire the spirituality of a diocesan priest? 

At the beginning let us review: (1) what has been written about the nature 
of diocesan spirituality; (2) what the twentieth century popes have said about 
priestly perfection. 

In the last decade or so, European spiritual writers have debated the ques- 
tion of a spirituality for diocesan priests and seminarians (7). They have 
stressed two things: (a) the close bond between the diocesan priest and his 
bishop; (b) pastoral charity. They have concluded that the grace of the 
sacrament of orders calls and fits the priest for a share in the bishop's exercise 
of pastoral charity toward his flock and that the priest is to sanctify himself 
in and through his priestly and apostolic duties. 

These European writers reacted against certain distorted conceptions of a 
diocesan priest which had become common: namely, that a priest is a Christian 
who can celebrate Mass. The theologians of the scholastic era, for the most 
part members of religious orders, defined priesthood as a power to transubstan- 
tiate. They emphasized Christ's priestly act on Calvary and at the Last Supper 
and logically concluded that the priesthood consisted solely or essentially in 
its participated power to offer the sacrifice. The European writers dissented 
from this narrow view of Christ's priesthood. They asserted that Christ was 
a priest by virtue of His Incarnation and therefore was a priest in his every 
action: in his prayer, his teaching, healing, forgiving, and all other religious 
activities. And in passing on to His apostles a share in His priesthood, Jesus 
enabled them to participate in all phases of His apostolic and redemptive 
works, which culminated in the sacrifice of Himself represented in the Mass. 
The priest consequently may not be a "Mass priest" or a "sacristy priest." He 
must engage in pastoral activities, that is, in preaching, teaching, direction of 
souls, and so forth. He is a priest in all these activities; he is not a priest 
only during Mass. He exercises his priesthood ritually at Mass; and in another 
way the rest of the day. 

Moreover, these writers highlighted the close bond between the diocesan 
priest and his bishop. The priest is a member of the bishop's presbyterium; 
his priesthood is derived from and is subordinate to the episcopate. He is a 
collaborator with the bishop in his apostolic work. Hence, the priest is not 
to be placed in a position of intolerable isolation — as standing between Christ 
and the people, alone — but in conjunction with the bishop and the clergy of 
the diocese. He is not ordained to a certain solitary and mysterious sublimity, 
to a lonely ministry which he exercises apart from anything more than a per- 
functory union with his bishop and fellow priests. Rather, he should see himself 
as a member of the college of presbyters, collaborators with the bishop in his 
apostolic work. In this view of diocesan spirituality, the key word is charity, 


Formation of Seminarians 11 

which serves as a bond with the bishop and the members of his presbyterium 
in the exercise of pastoral charity toward the flock. 

The twentieth century popes did not engage in these speculative questions (2). 
They wrote practical exhortations in which they urged priests and seminarians 
to live holy lives and to pursue learning. They did state repeatedly, however, 
that a priest exercises the ministry not for himself but for others (5, par. 124).* 
They had reservations about action, even pastoral action. St. Pius X warned 
that the "entire merit of a priest is not in service, omitting the passive virtues" 
(3, par. 136). But all agree that a priest is ordained for others. He is ordained 
for pastoral action. Pius XII, who on the one hand condemned the heresy 
of action, added: 

At the same time we think it opportune to urge upon priests who have 
kept themselves too much aloof from external activity, to undertake 
active works of the sacred ministry; these, as if they doubted the power 
of supernatural help, do not make sufficient effort, according to their 
abilities, to bring the spirit of Christianity into ordinary life by such 
means as the times demand (3, par. 392). 

The popes, however, were quite concerned that action be an overflow of 
contemplation. Some modern authors reject all traditional means of sanctifica- 
tion and teach that the priest's perfection lies only in the specific occupations 
of his ministry, sacraments, breviary, preaching, and the direction of souls. 
They explain that the diocesan priest should find his sanctification solely in 
the duties of his state. But Piux XII called such activity of a priest who 
neglected spiritual exercises "heresy of action" (3, par. 391). Union with 
God should be cultivated separately, in itself, outside of action, through the 
spiritual exercises, of which the most important is mental prayer. This is 
the position taken by the weightier writers such as Masure and Thils (4). 
They teach that the priest needs some set of means for the constant purifica- 
tion of his intention. He has them in the spiritual exercises. 

Diocesan spirituality, then, comprises two elements: (1) fellowship with 
the bishop and his presbyterium; (2) pastoral action which is an overflow of 
contemplation. The practical question is how can seminarians be trained 
toward a diocesan spirituality. 

The popes were much taken up with the training of seminarians. They urged 
three things: (1) a holy personnel: "You should be careful above all in your 
choice of superiors and professors and more especially of a spiritual director" 
(3, par. 515); (2) atmosphere: "Piety, chastity, discipline and study should 
flourish in the seminary" (ibid.); (3) selectiveness : "Do not be afraid of ap- 
pearing unduly strict by demanding . . . such positive proofs of worthiness 
before ordination" (3, par. 529). But with the sole exception of Pius XII, 
the popes had very little to say about the dynamics of formation. 

In Menti Nostrae Pius XII specified as a distinct aim of formation "to 
develop gradually a sense of responsibility . . . and a spirit of initiative in 
action." And he asserted that to achieve this, first, it would be well not to 
overdo coercive methods: "They should free them gradually from overstrict 
control and excessively curbing restrictions" (3, par. 413). Secondly, he found 
it advisable not to isolate the seminarians too much: "Neither should the 
directors be afraid of allowing the youths entrusted to their care to have a 
knowledge of current events" (ibid.). 

* All paragraph references throughout this paper are to be found in Number 3 of References 
at end. 

78 Major Seminary Department 

In other words, too rigid control and too sheltered an existence do not help 
form a sense of responsibility. But lawful freedom of action and contact with 
the trends of the times produce a more responsible and mature seminarian. 
No doubt Pius XII took this position because sad experience has shown that 
the transition from a sheltered and orderly and passive existence of seminary 
life into the marketplace proves disastrous for too many priests. They are 
unprepared to stand on their own two feet. Mersch wrote somewhere that 
some animals have a shell because they do not have a skeleton. It may very 
well be that priests crack up because they do not have a backbone, having 
been trained in a shell where none was developed or expected. 

After leaving the seminary the priest should be able to wed action and 
contemplation, take initiative in pastoral charity as a part of a team within 
and through the diocesan community. A seminary should be a prelude to 
this way of life: certainly it is not if it is too authoritarian. 

Generally, seminary training is too authoritarian. Its style of life fails to 
achieve a synthesis of liberty and authority. It does not make sufficient effort 
to address itself to the liberty of another. The attempt is made only to obtain 
an outer conduct that is objectively correct but deprived of most human 
values because it has not been performed with love. The seminary puts 
emphasis on the instincts of passivity and submission. It is content with orders 
and commands and human tasks that have immediate tangible results. And 
what is the result? The seminary rears a man incapable of assuming his sacred 
and human commitments, a man who very soon loses his desire of using his 
liberty on the plane of personal generosity. 

St. Augustine said that too many regulations and external obligations do not 
accord with man's condition according to the Gospel, which is that of a son, 
not of a slave. Laws that are too burdensome are apt to produce rebels or 
hypocrites or the infantile. Since God is not yet "all in all," all of us stand 
in need of the discipline of an outward law. We need to look to it as a whole- 
some aid to the spiritual self. But Christian law consists primarily in the 
inward grace of the Holy Spirit. Rules as well as dogmas and rites and human 
authority are a means to achieve docility to the Spirit of Christ. But in semi- 
naries absolute value is sometimes attached to the means; in practice, every- 
thing seems to revolve around their observance. Forms tend to acquire an 
inflated value and to be mistaken for the whole of sanctity. 

To remedy moral abuses and keep human nature in check by passing 
laws has always been the Roman way. Whenever laws are brought in to 
regulate the majority who have not abused their liberty, for the sake of the 
minority who have; whenever an attempt is thus made to establish a uniform 
average, it will press hardest upon the best. One sure result is a lessening 
of generosity. 

Edith Hamilton, an international authority on the Greek and Roman classics, 
distinguishes the Greek and Roman ways of handling the moral behavior of 
human beings. The Athenian idea was that a gentleman could be left free 
and trusted. The Roman idea was that he assuredly could not be, but that he 
could and should be kept in order. Harmony, said the Athenian. Discipline, 
said the Roman. In seminaries we need more of the Athenian way. 

There are three particular ways in which the Athenian approach could be 
followed with good effect on the character formation of seminarians toward 
preparing them to achieve a diocesan spirituality. First, by centering their 
attention, through conferences and admonitions, on the law of the Gospel as 

Formation of Seminarians 79 

more important than disciplinary regulations. To this end, conferences should 
be scripturally orientated and should not consist of nagging reminders about 
discipline and endless exhortations to do one's duty. They should attempt to 
uplift more than to insist. And even greater care should be taken that discipli- 
nary regulations are not made more of than the law of charity. Take the 
instance of the seminarian who was permitted to spend a sum of money to 
procure a gift for his aunt but gave it to a beggar who pleaded with him. 
He was severely reproached for doing so without permission, instead of being 
commended for his proper sense of values. 

Second, introduce the theologians to the private practice of the spiritual 
exercises of meditation, particular examen, and spiritual reading. The liturgy 
is public in its very nature. But the spiritual exercises are personal and 
interior; there is hardly an adequate reason for "togetherness" at such times. 
They are performed in common on the assumption that they will not be per- 
formed if left to the initiative of each individual. The only result is that after 
ordination they are soon dropped because priests as seminarians never devel- 
oped a sense of responsibility about them. Seminarians should be able to work 
out for themselves a schedule and method for their performance, in conjunc- 
tion with the spiritual director who will be enough of a check on them. As 
for the liturgy, let's not make that juridical, too, by a lot of attention to the 
rubrics and little or none to the meaningfulness of the liturgy as expounded in 
Mediator Dei. 

Third, the class situation in seminaries is another area of authoritarian 
practice which needs a different approach. There are two kinds of educators: 
those who believe in objective education and see it as a passive reception of 
tradition poured in from above — well represented by the funnel. And there 
are those who emphasize the subjective side of knowledge (as a development 
of creative powers) and see it as a drawing forth of the powers of self — this 
is illustrated by the pump. In seminaries the funnel system is the usual one. 

The system is authoritarian and relies heavily on compulsion: bells, reports, 
grades, supervision, and standards. Authoritarian educators betray a lack of 
real faith in the student as a person who must develop his own unique relation 
to the truth. They do not allow the student to differ or even to express ideas 
in a way appropriate to his temperament. They monopolize initiative. They 
do all the talking. Their self-assertion divides the soul of the student into an 
obedient and a rebellious part so that he appears docile but deep down is 

A seminary professor should renounce any thought of molding the minds 
of seminarians. They have potentialities. The professor unlocks these not only 
nor primarily by instruction, by talking down to them incessantly, but through 
communion, through the fellowship between one who has found direction 
and one who is finding it. Therefore he does not impose values. He allows 
them to flower in a way appropriate to each student's personality. He does 
not mold them. Rather he discovers and nourishes in another what he has 
recognized as right in himself. He may not be a political leader who spellbinds, 
who alienates the subconscious and reduces men to automata. He should be 
like the saint who makes dormant energies gush forth. This would be the 
Athenian way. 

Aside from this Athenian approach to character formation, there remains 
the other task of the seminary to prepare the seminarian for the world, the 
future context of his pastoral charity, without occasioning worldliness. As 
for contact with the world, is it possible for a seminarian who lives a cloistered 

80 Major Seminary Department 

type of life to become incarnate in society after ordination? Pius XII thought 
not. He wrote: 

When youths ... are educated in places that are too isolated from 
ordinary human society, they will not find it easy, on going out into 
public life, to deal either with the ordinary people or with the educated 
classes; and so it will often come about that they will either act incon- 
siderately towards the faithful, or be contemptuous of the education 
they have received. Care must be taken, therefore, to acquaint students 
gradually and prudently with the ways of thought and the interests of 
the people, lest, after ordination when they have begun their sacred 
ministry, they should feel lost and suffer from indecision; for this 
would not merely cause disturbance of their own minds, but would 
injure their priestly work as well (5, par. 415). 

Before the Council of Trent there were no seminaries. Candidates for the 
priesthood got their training at the bishop's house, the monastery, or the 
university. The results were sad. The clergy were unlearned and undisciplined. 
The Council demanded the establishment of seminaries — institutions that 
combine a university and a monastery without being either. The results are 
much better. The clergy are learned and more disciplined. But the seminary is 
a closed community which makes for loss of contact with lay life. How then 
is it possible to preserve the quasi-monastic enclosure of the seminary and 
at the same time help seminarians make their own the aspirations of the man 
on the street? 

For one, the seminarian should be informed about world conditions through 
periodicals and study clubs. Secondly, lay people should be brought in as 
special lecturers on subjects in which they have competence and which are 
related to specific seminary courses (5). And, thirdly, the seminarian should 
do some apostolic work even though it may bring in some irregularity in his 
schedule. After all, he should not be given the impression that regular observance 
is more important than pastoral charity. Moreover, this will give him occasion 
to practice flexibility in his schedule. If the schedule of the diocesan priest is 
necessarily flexible, the seminarian's ought not to be too rigid. 

Furthermore, the seminarian should be helped to form proper attitudes toward 
those in the world: 

(a) toward women. If a seminarian leaves the seminary with only one 
idea about women — that they are an occasion of sin — his relations with 
them will be anxious. Bible study should give him a more positive 
view of woman's position in the world and in the Church. 

(b) toward laymen. Some one caustically defined Catholic action as "the 
interference of the laity with the inactivities of the hierarchy." This 
indicates a complete ignorance about the position and function of each 
group. A profound theology of the Church should help form the proper 
views and attitudes. 

(c) toward minority groups, such as the Negro. The issue of segregation 
is dividing the Church seriously because not enough priests and faithful 
appreciate the Christian teaching in this area. Church history and 
sociology should help explain the rise of prejudices, and the theology 
of the Mystical Body will motivate the seminarian toward universal 

(d) toward those in management and unions. Priests should work to help 
laymen "imprint the Face of Christ on industry." The cool reception 

Formation of Seminarians 81 

of Mater et Magistra is disconcerting. Pope John strongly urged that 
his encyclical "be included as an item in the required curriculum . . . 
particularly in seminaries." 

(e) toward the temporal order. It is not something to be exploited but 
consecrated. The spirit of poverty, the proper use of things — these 
should be coupled with a cosmic theology. 

(f) toward the non-Catholic, especially one of the Orthodox and Protestant 
communions. In a sermon outline, Cardinal Meyer made the following 
point: Protestants and Orthodox Christians should not be considered 
heretics and schismatics. In the majority of cases they have never 
formally rejected the Church. Rather, they belong to a church which 
is in schism or heresy. Both the Protestants and Orthodox are baptized, 
and are not excluded from every influence of the grace of Christ; and 
they are connected with the Church "by a certain unconscious desire 
and longing" (Pius XII's phrase). Such a view of the non-Catholic 
Christian generates Christian tolerance and universal zeal. 

But of all the matters in a seminary, the subject of charity should get the 
most attention. What is charity all about? It is astonishing how many semi- 
narians leave the seminary with a totally immature concept of it. And, what 
is worse, so many leave it without having achieved a true Christian fellowship 
within the seminary. Self-centered instead of altruistic, superficial in their 
communion with the Lord, they leave the seminary immature men, ambitious 
and demanding. They pass through the seminary as isolated individuals. They 
are never more than superficial participants in the seminary community. They 
do not learn to love in Christ, to share apostolic enthusiasm, to cooperate in 
intellectual projects, to feel a common concern for the whole Church, to rejoice 
with the joyful and to sorrow with the sorrowful. 

A great many novels have been written about priests in the last decade, 
both in Europe and the United States. Their theme is human relations, love 
of neighbor. A diocesan priest more than the religious is involved in society. 
He encounters human relations at every turn. The cause of Christ stands or 
falls depending on the way the priest meets men. The Edge of Sadness (by 
Edwin O'Connor) is a story about two pastors who shied away from people 
for different reasons. The Monsignor in The Devil's Advocate (by Morris L. 
West) was chaste but incapable of the warm acceptance of people. Father 
Joseph in Dobraczynski's The Greatest Love * spent himself for souls out of 
ambition which he mistook for zeal. In Be Not Angry (by Mitchelf elder) 
the young assistant married one of his sodalists and convinced himself that 
the eros which gripped him was equivalent to agape. Father Pfau in his 
autobiographical Prodigal Shepherd would not submit his apostolic zeal to 
the bishop's rightful disposal and sought relief for his abiding resentment in 
alcohol. Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory is the story of an unworthy 
priest whom the anticlericals persecuted and the faithful despised. The list of 
novels is endless, but in all of them the issue is human relations, between the 
shepherd and his sheep. 

A seminary must be a community, a fellowship, that includes faculty as well 
as seminarians. It should be a prelude to the diocesan community in which 
the seminarians will work. If it is merely an institution housing bachelors, 
it will hardly be a favorable and preliminary preparation for the more difficult 
kind of fellowship in the parish and in the diocese. 

* Jan Dobraczynski, Najwieksza Milosc. Published in Poland in the 1940's. No edition in English. 

82 Major Seminary Department 

Conclusion: An Illustration from Fiction 

If anyone were to ask for an illustration of the kind of formation this paper 
is a plea for, the answer is the novel The Tiber Was Silver written by Michael 
Novak. Like most first novels, this one is amateurish in many ways. But 
the author, a graduate of Harvard and possessed of a bachelor's degree in 
theology from the Gregorian University in Rome, knows seminary life. It 
is instructive. 

The story is about a young seminarian's life in Rome during the critical 
months before his ordination. The hero is Richard McKay, who is torn between 
two vocations: between a desire to become a truly great painter and the desire 
for priestly service. Of special influence are the two priests who are his 
immediate guides: Padre Bracciano and Padre Benedetto. The former, his 
superior, is a rigid disciplinarian. The latter, a Benedictine monk, is his 
spiritual director and a master of the Athenian way. 

Padre Bracciano sees himself as an administrator in an organization in which 
men conform, do as they are told, and do not gripe. For him, the life of the 
Church could be expressed in a word: obey. Superiors make decisions. Even 
liturgy, in his mind, lays chiefly in the dignified performance of the rubrics. 
Superiors have the grace of state, the guidance of the Holy Spirit; what need 
have they of opinion? To offer an opinion is an impertinence. Docility and 
humility forbid it; the spirit of faith obviates its necessity. 

Padre Benedetto is different, as different as the Athenian way from the 
Roman. He talks of love instead of law and discipline. He makes God seem 
close and holiness familiar. He is not interested in forcing things upon another; 
he wants to draw out. Richard McKay wept when his spiritual director died. 
He had good reason; he owed him everything. 

It seems to me Padre Benedetto had the right approach. His way is more 
adaptable to the growth of the kind of charity a priest is called to — pastoral 
within and through the diocesan community. 

References in Text 

1. J. Fenton, "Spirituality of the Diocesan Priesthood," American Ecclesiastical Re- 
view, 116 (1947), pp. 120-^0. 

2. Louis J. Secondo, T.O.R., The Twentieth Century Popes and the Priesthood. 
Rome, 1957. 

James A. O'Donohoe, "A Clerical Formation According to Two Recent Docu- 
ments," The Jurist, 22 (1962), pp. 27-38. 

3. P. Veuillot, The Catholic Priesthood According to the Teaching of the Church: 
Documents from Pius X-Pius XII. Westminster, 1958. 

(All paragraph references are to be found in this work.) 

4. G. Thtls, Nature et Spiritualite du Clerge Diocesan. Bruges, 1946. 
E. Masure, Parish Priest. Chicago, 1955, pp. 197-98. 

5. Cf. chapter 12 in Christians in a Changing World by Dennis J. Geaney, O.S.A. 
(Fides, 1959). 


Very Rev. Edward J. Carney, O.S.F.S. 


I. Motivation 

The celibacy of the Catholic priesthood, toward which the seminarian 
aims, is a virtue with both natural and supernatural aspects — natural, insofar 
as it entails the voluntary and perpetual control of a bodily faculty; supernatural, 
by reason of its purpose: "for the kingdom of heaven's sake" (Matthew 19:12). 
Thus the means of preserving it are both natural and supernatural, the latter 
of which is absolutely necessary. 

The root of the spiritual life is sanctifying grace. This finite supernatural 
quality enables the rational creature to share God's own life. The more 
perfectly it is possessed, the more man thinks and wills according to God. 
The danger of committing serious sin becomes more remote although through- 
out life the possibility remains. For this reason the seminarian should be 
intent on increasing this grace in his soul. The ordinary means of so doing 
are the use of the sacraments, the practice of prayer and of the virtues, an 
understanding of the role of actual grace in the spiritual life and a correspond- 
ence to it. 

In the life of a student preparing for the priesthood two sacraments will 
be of frequent use — Penance and the Blessed Eucharist. Penance will ordinarily 
increase rather than restore grace to his soul. The Blessed Eucharist not 
only will bring about the sacramental presence of Christ within him but will 
also effect a special spiritual union with his Master (John 6:56-57). Since 
the amount of grace derived from any sacrament depends on the actual disposi- 
tions of the recipient, the seminarian should try to be as well prepared as he 
can when approaching these two sacraments. 

He must also be given to prayer, not only in the various vocal and mental 
forms prescribed by the seminary rule or motivated by personal inclination 
but also as an expression of his own inner aspirations toward God. This 
latter entails the practice of the virtues. 

All these means increase sanctifying grace in his soul, turn him ever more 
intimately to God and away from serious sin. Indirectly they strengthen him 
in the maintenance of virtue — whether this be obedience, chastity, or some- 
thing else. For this reason, the cultivation of chastity should be looked upon 
as a facet of the spiritual life, contributing to its growth and aided in turn 
by it, rather than as an isolated struggle to control a natural faculty. This, 
of course, does not mean that the proper subject matter of this virtue is to 
be neglected. The seminarian should enter ever more deeply into the divine 
nature through sanctifying grace — into God's way of thinking, God's way of 
loving. In so doing he lessens the possibility of choosing something at variance 
with the divine will. 

The aspirant to the priesthood should also be familiar with the role of actual 
grace in the maintenance of chastity. This divine impulse influences both the 
intelligence and the will. It enlightens, strengthens, brings about action. Such 
help is often needed. There is a striving for the things of God, yet the 
world's call, either legitimate or illegitimate, is felt. The mind may be confused 


84 Major Seminary Department 

at times by the conflict welling within itself. Sometimes there are false and 
incomplete notions on matters sexual. The will may grow weary of the constant 
pursuit of virginity, the avoidance of the sinful. While much of this can be 
resolved by natural means, actual grace is also necessary, sometimes absolutely, 
sometimes morally. The most efficacious means of obtaining it is a general 
dedication to God through fulfilling one's duties of state and by prayer. 

It may be well if the seminarian's prayer of petition for such grace corre- 
sponds to the order of causality in its giving. First of all he ought to have 
a deep devotion to the Holy Spirit. While all grace comes from the Trinity, 
in the human way of reckoning things it is appropriated to the Third Person. 
He bestows all graces, among which would be that leading to continence. 
St. Augustine says: "We are led by the Spirit of God, who gives continence, 
whereby we bridle, tame and conquer concupiscence." 1 Among those prayers 
of the Roman Missal set aside for special use, the one for continence reads: 
"O Lord, burn our loins and our hearts with the fire of the Holy Spirit: so 
that we may serve you with a chaste body, and be pleasing to you with a 
clean heart." 2 

This activity of the Holy Spirit in dispensing grace in some mysterious and 
lesser way is communicated to Mary. Since Christian virginity is an imitation 
of that of her Son, she is thought to have a special predilection for those so 
aspiring or consecrated and to give them whatever help they need. Devotion 
to her not only insures the preservation of chastity but stimulates the whole 
spiritual life. Pius XII writes: 

The eminent way to protect and nourish an unsullied and perfect chastity, 
as proven by experience time and again throughout the course of the 
centuries, is solid and fervent devotion to the Virgin Mother of God. 
In a certain way all other helps are contained in this devotion; there 
is no doubt that whoever is sincerely and earnestly animated by this 
devotion is salutarily inspired to constant vigilance, to continual prayer, 
to receive the sacraments of Penance and the Holy Eucharist. There- 
fore in a paternal way we exhort all priests, religious men and women, 
to entrust themselves to the special protection of the holy Mother of 
God, who is the Virgin of virgins and the "teacher of virginity," as St. 
Ambrose says, and the most powerful Mother of those in particular 
who have vowed and consecrated themselves to the service of God .3 

Devotion to other saints and to the angels is also recommended as a means 
of obtaining divine help in the quest for virginity. 

Along with sanctifying grace, virtues are infused in the soul — theological and 
cardinal. The latter are of immediate interest. These should be cultivated 
so that they are not merely infused but also take on the character of acquired 
habits. As such they flow out from sanctifying grace, are reduced to action 
by actual grace, and have an influence on nature itself, correcting and perfecting 
it. This correction and perfection of nature is very important in allaying the 
strength of concupiscence. 

Under each of the cardinal virtues brief mention will be made of certain 
things helpful in the preservation of chastity. This classification cannot be so 
precise as to avoid overlapping and even controversy. For example, the influence 
of the emotions on chastity falls under prudence, temperance, and fortitude. 
Likewise there may be question of the matter placed under justice. 

1 De Continentia, V, 12 (PL 40, 357). z Missale Romanum, Orationes Diversae, 26. 

3 Pius XII, Sacra Virginitas, Acta Apostolicae, Sedis, 46, 187-188. 

Celibacy: Motivation and Some Problems 85 


Prudence inclines the practical intellect to propose proper means for the 
attainment of an end or purpose. Celibacy involves the complete and voluntary 
control of the sexual faculty out of love for God. This can be realized through 
methods which are imperfect, but it is more easily achieved when under 
prudence one selects suitable means. 

Among the integral parts of prudence — which are dispositions to the virtue 
rather than the virtue itself — several are of particular importance in the matter 
of celibacy. These are a recalling of past experiences, a right understanding 
of a present situation, cautious avoidance of any evil that might be intermingled 
with good, the ability to correctly estimate things by self, a willingness to learn 
from others. 

This latter point illustrates the necessity of spiritual direction, whether this 
be personal contact in the form of counseling and/ or the reading of books. 
Since the problems of chastity are at times complex, the prudent man will seek 
enlightenment from competent sources. 

Likewise there must be caution in avoiding evil. It is imprudent for a 
person aspiring to perfect continence to deliberately and without sufficient 
reason put himself in situations which are proximate occasions of sin. Ordi- 
narily he will either fail against purity or have greater difficulty keeping it. 

Prudence also requires the seminarian to form correct judgments on matters 
sexual. Thus, he should have a right understanding of the values of virginity 
and of marriage so that he may deliberately and freely embrace the greater 
good of celibacy. 4 He should also be able to handle properly past recollections. 
The following points are proposed for consideration. 

Sometimes the seminarian is troubled by the memory of previous faults 
against purity. What he thinks is a manifestation of sorrow may be actually 
remorse and discouragement. Sorrow heals and guards against future faults. 
Discouragement from this or any other source hinders progress in the spiritual 
life. It also contributes to emotional problems, makes the effort to maintain 
chastity more difficult, and at times predisposes to further sins of impurity, 
as will be shown under the virtue of fortitude. 

The simple recall of the past can take on overtones from the imagination. 
In the natural order, nothing is as important as the control of this sense for 
the preservation of virginity. The imagination, in conjunction with other psy- 
chological mechanisms, presents past experiences not so much as they were 
or are in reality but with an increased attractiveness. At least three phases 
can be distinguished: 

1. The recall of some past experience with the suppression of its unappeal- 
ing features. For example, the seminarian may think of the married life 
of his relatives or friends. This is generally presented ideally without the 
difficulties encountered in such unions. 

2. Past experiences may be rearranged and combined into a new pattern 
never before encountered. This is a function of the creative imagination. 
Thus several, separate sexual impressions can be formed into a single fantasy, 
more attractive than any one of the original components. 

3. The pleasure of the sexual appetite is to be controlled by reason. The 
more this restraining influence is removed, the more pleasurable the object 

* lnstructio De Candidatis Ad Statum Perjectionis Et Ad Sacros Ordines Sedulo Deligendis Et 
Instituendis, Sacra Congregatio Negotiis Religiosorum Sodalium Praeposita, 29c. 

86 Major Seminary Department 

seems to become. It would appear that obscenity ordinarily involves some 
escape from reason — such as God's reason manifested through the Natural 
Law, or human reason, as embodied in social customs, whether these be 
objectively correct or not. 5 

How can the seminarian be taught to control his imagination? 

1. He ought to exercise care over the external senses. An improper use 
of these can not only set up an immediate temptation but also stores away 
in the mind sensual images for the future. 

2. Activities which tend to over-stress the use of the imagination and 
develop a habitual pattern, such as excessive daydreaming, should be brought 
under the control of reason. If the subject matter of such fantasy becomes 
sexual, the habit previously formed will tend to hold on to the image. 

3. The actual thought or image — whether it be improper in itself or merely 
one drawing to the married state — must be rejected. The most commonly 
recommended way of doing this is the saying of a short prayer asking the 
aid of God's actual grace and the insertion of a counter-thought or activity 
at least equal in strength to the matter to be displaced. 

4. There may be times when a disclosure of the general nature of the tempta- 
tion to a director would be helpful. St. Francis de Sales writes: "The 
sovereign remedy against all temptations, great or small, is to open the heart, 
and to communicate the suggestions, feelings and affections which we have 
to our director." 6 

Control of the emotions also plays a very important part in the maintenance 
of chastity. An individual treatment of some of these will be given later. At 
this time a few general considerations can be mentioned. A correct evalua- 
tion of a situation is one of the requirements of prudence. The emotions 
depend on the apprehension of good or evil. While many factors enter into 
emotional problems, one always found is a false stressing of the evil or difficulty 
in life. Several consequences follow: 

1. The practical judgment is hindered in its search for truth. 7 In its search 
for reality it is not always objective. Thus in matters of purity such 
a person could find temptation where none really exists, or could exag- 
gerate what does exist. 

2. There is a tendency toward impulsive action. 8 

6 A. Terruwe, Psychopathic Personality and Neurosis (New York, 1958), p. 59. "The sexual 
psychopathic deviation may manifest itself by seeking gratification of the sexual drive through 
an object that is abnormal. Here all kinds of perversities may occur: homosexuality, narcissism, 
sadism, masochism, fetichism, paedophilia, etc. However, one should realize that the occurrence 
of one of these realities is not in itself a proof of the existence of a sexual psychopathic state. 
It may have quite different causes and may also be seen as a neurotic symptom in otherwise 
normal individuals." 

Cf. E. and P. Kronhausen, Pornography and the Law (New York, 1959), p. 243. "Obscene 
books not only have a definite structure and organization, they also contain a number of 
specific criteria which are based on psychological mechanisms serving the purpose of stimulating 
erotic fantasies and sexual arousal." 

6 F. de Sales, Oeuvres, III, "Introduction to a Devout Life," p. 305. 

7 St. Thomas, Summa Theologica, 1,2,77,2. "Passion draws reason to judge in particular against 
the knowledge it has in universal." Cf. Ibid., 2,2,47,16. "Prudence ... is corrupted through the 

8 Ibid., 2,2,156, 1 ad 2. "From the force of passion it happens that a man immediately follows 
passion before the counsel of reason." 

Celibacy: Motivation and Some Problems 87 

Imprudence and impulsiveness as habitual character traits do not contribute 
directly to a violation of purity, but they make its maintenance more difficult. 
Moreover, a person whose emotions are continually disordered generally suffers 
from obsessive ideas and fatigue, which add to the problem of resistance to 
temptation. A consideration of scrupulosity would take one too far afield. 
Yet it involves an emotional disturbance and is a good example of how 
this makes the problem of chastity more troublesome. 

Thus, the seminarian should be instructed in the principles of emotional 
control. It is presupposed that ordinarily there is no need for psychiatric or 
medical care. In general, such control is brought about by a proper attitude 
toward life, especially by a conscientious effort to focus one's attention on the 
good in things and persons. This should be done both naturally and super- 
naturally. An as example of the former, a person should strive to eliminate 
or at least to properly compensate for feelings of inferiority. Supernatural 
means would be a trust in divine providence and prayer for actual grace. 
Since the emotions also have a reaction in the body, there may be times when 
such an influence must be removed. Herein lies the value of some physical 
exercise. The seminarian who relaxes in such a way, preferably daily, is 
contributing toward emotional control and indirectly aids himself in matters 
of purity. 

The intelligence gives to the will the matter for choice. Even though there 
may be no consent the will is drawn to whatever motives are presented. All 
things being equal, the higher and more perfect these are, the greater oppor- 
tunity the will has of entering into union with God. A way of fostering such 
idealism is by spiritual reading, both in the field of virginity and in the whole 
supernatural life; by an appreciative acceptance of the virtues of the natural 
order; by spiritual direction; by listening to sermons and conferences. The 
more clearly the mind esteems these values, the greater is the possibility of 
their ratification. 


Justice inclines the will to give to others what is due to them. In render- 
ing such things to God and to the neighbor man perfects himself. 

The seminarian voluntarily undertakes certain obligations that go beyond 
those of the laity. Among other things, these are concerned with God and 
the neighbor. In the period of training these ordinarily involve only legal 
justice. Whether this pertains strictly to the cardinal virtue is debated. Yet 
it can be reduced to it at least as a potential part, and it is so treated here. 
Perhaps it might be better to consider these duties as stemming from the 
virtue of charity, from love of God and of neighbor. 

The first is obedience to superiors and to a rule of life. Through this the 
seminarian not only gives immediate satisfaction to authority, thereby giving 
an objective proof of his fitness, but he also increases sanctifying grace and 
love for God in his soul. The importance of this grace in the question of 
chastity has already been discussed. 

It is also to be noted that one interested in promoting the common good, 
in associating properly with his neighbor — a desirable trait inculcated by all 
seminary rules and certainly a necessary requirement in priestly life — not 
only develops himself socially, but avoids many of the internal difficulties 
arising from excessive seclusiveness, such as emotional problems and tempta- 

88 Major Seminary Department 

tions against chastity. Thus seminarians should be encouraged to avoid too 
great reserve in dealing with others. 

Association with the other sex, of course, must be properly regulated. The 
seminarian should try to steer a course between too great familiarity and the 
reserve or withdrawal that would make him appear ridiculous. His attitude 
should be a Christ-like one of "holy normality." Yet the necessary segregation 
of the sexes required by seminary life may produce some unrealistic attitudes, 
such as over-idealization. These may complicate temptation. Ordinarily, 
however, such difficulties are resolved in the social contacts of priestly ministry 
provided there is otherwise the proper natural and supernatural development. 


In general, fortitude embraces all those virtues which dispose a person to 
follow the good proposed by reason even in spite of opposition. It includes 
the cultivation of patience to bear a difficulty at any given moment, and of 
perseverance to withstand it for a long period of time. The man who knows 
how to be patient and to persevere ordinarily faces life with courage. 

Discouragement in temptation can be a contributing factor to consent. Too 
much effort seems required to persevere in purity. Yet this mental attitude 
from any source can indirectly lead to sexual temptation. Such a person 
looks for consolation, some pleasure to relieve the oppressive weight of the 
emotions. He must be careful not to seek it in something sexual. St. Thomas 
states the problem: "Through pleasure a remedy is had for weariness of the 
soul. . . . Nevertheless in this matter it seems three things must be avoided. 
The first and chief is that the forementioned pleasure is not sought in indecent 
or injurious actions or words." 9 Thus the seminarian should be taught to 
avoid discouragement — to be patient under the trials of life and to persevere 
under them. 

Sometimes discouragement comes from the mere fact of temptation. An 
unnatural attitude that one ought not to be tempted is assumed. In it there is 
a great deal of pride, as though one would say: "Why am / bothered by such 
things?" Such a person must learn to accept his sexual powers and not to be 
disturbed at their manifestations, either from internal or external sources. He 
must understand that all men suffer temptation, and that he himself must be 
patient under it and persevere to victory. 

Sometimes a seminarian can become convinced that his sexual imagery is 
unique, that he alone experiences such thoughts. This increases the difficulty 
of the temptation and often leads to the discouraged feeling that there is 
something perverse in him. Spiritual direction can convince him otherwise 
and bring him a certain relief on the realization that others share the same 
lot. He takes courage and more easily perseveres in purity. 

Discouragement can also be linked with fear. This latter emotion arises 
when one doubts his ability to meet a given situation. As such it is natural, 
but it can very easily become exaggerated. This may happen in matters 
sexual. One meets the case of a seminarian who worries about his ability to 
remain chaste in the years that lie ahead even though at the present mo- 
ment he is giving positive proof of his chastity. He must be taught that his 
duty is to persevere in purity at every given moment. This will be a presage 
of future fidelity. Then there is the fear of the so-called "unconquerable 
temptation." Ordinarily this is of rare occurrence, but it does present a problem 

°Ibid. 2,2,168,2. 

Celibacy: Motivation and Some Problems 89 

to a seminarian who has fallen into the habit of impurity and is struggling to 
break it. Such an idea must be dispelled. The advice of Augustine, used in 
the Council of Trent, is helpful: "God never asks the impossible. Do what 
you can. Ask for what you can't do." 


Temperance regulates the appetite in those pleasures and actions concerned 
with the conservation of the individual and the species. One of the difficulties 
connected with the use of these things is the development of necessity. A 
man may feel compelled to eat, to drink, to engage in sex. Temperance 
removes this demand. Likewise, moderation in one category, such as in food 
or drink, can contribute to restraint in another, such as in the use of sex — 
and vice versa. Thus, the element of mortification should be present in the 
life of a seminarian. Exaggeration, however, must be avoided in such practice. 

One of the potential parts of temperance is zeal for learning. Opposed to 
this by excess is curiosity; by defect, negligence. Since knowledge begins 
from the senses, the seminarian must avoid too great curiosity, especially in 
sight and hearing. This has already been discussed under the external senses 
and the imagination. The natural desire to know the process of generation and 
reproduction should, however, be satisfied by proper instruction. In matters 
intellectual, negligence must especially be avoided. This not only causes 
a defective formation of a faculty, but it also deprives the mind of those 
motives and that idealism so necessary in influencing the will, and at the same 
time leaves it open to suggestions of a lower order. 

Another potential part of temperance is mildness, which consists in the 
control of anger or impatience. This emotion seems to have some indirect 
influence on the sensual appetite. It inclines to impetuosity, which is also 
a facter found in sexual temptation. Likewise the physical effects of anger 
in the body — increase of blood pressure and adrenalin — can be an indirect oc- 
casion of sexual temptation. Perhaps the connection of anger and sexual 
temptation needs to be explored more fully, but in any case the control of this 
emotion leads to an increase of sanctifying grace and to the acquired virtue 
of temperance — both of advantage in the matter of chastity. 

II. Some Problems 

One of the problems found in the direction of seminarians is that of the 
student who sins habitually against purity. It has ever been the mind of the 
Church that her ministers be worthy, capable of fulfilling the obligations under- 
taken. Thus, she would wish the aforementioned person either to reform 
and acquire the habit of purity or cease aspiring to the priestly state. 

From various ecclesiastical documents 10 a general method of procedure 
for such a difficulty can be devised. The opinions of theologians dealing with 
a more precise application of principles are not included in the following 

10 Such teaching is clearly contained in canon law, in Pius XI's Encyclical on the Catholic Priest- 
hood, in Pius XII's Menti Nostrae, and in two more recent documents: one a Circular Letter from 
the Sacred Congregation of the Sacraments, December 27, 1955; the other, an Instruction of the 
Sacred Congregation of Religious to the Superiors of Religious Communities, Societies Without 
Vows, and Secular Institutes, on the Careful Selection and Training of Candidates, for the States 
of Perfection and Sacred Orders, February 2, 1961. 

90 Major Seminary Department 

The stages leading to the priesthood are: 

1. Period prior to enrollment in the minor seminary. 

2. Entrance into the minor seminary, which ordinarily would last for six 
years — four years of high school, two years of college. 

3. Admission into the major seminary, which also ordinarily embraces six 
years — two years of philosophy, four years of theology. 

Tonsure, minor and major orders are to be conferred in the temporal 
sequence determined by canon law. 11 

1. No one is to receive tonsure before beginning his theological studies. 

2. The time lapse between the reception of tonsure and minor orders is 
left to the prudent judgment of the bishop. Since there is to be a period 
of a year between the reception of the office of acolyte and the sub- 
diaconate, the former should be conferred no later than at the end of 
second-year theology. 

3. The subdiaconate is not to be received before the end of the third year 
of theology. 

4. The diaconate is not to be received before the beginning of the fourth 
year of theology. 

5. The priesthood should not be received before the middle of the fourth 
year of theology. 

One must keep in mind that there are exceptions to the period of time 
spent in the minor and major seminary, and that, at least in the past, it was 
possible to obtain dispensations from the schedule of ordinations proposed 
by canon law. 

Three classes of sin can be considered: thoughts; actions of self -abuse; 
relations with others, either of the same or opposite sex. As regards the first 
two the following may be noted. 

Through the various stages of preparation the candidate must give positive 
proof of his ability to practice complete continence. Ordinarily he should 
not be allowed to pass from one stage to another unless he has the habit 
of purity. There are, however, exceptions, and probation can be extended if 
the circumstances so warrant; for example, if there is a firm purpose of amend- 
ment and a reasonable hope of success. In such cases a period for proof should 
be set. This should be of length sufficient to fulfill ecclesiastical indications 
of a long trial and at the same time to give moral certitude of the candidate's 
fitness or unfitness. 12 

The period of probation may even be extended into the theological studies, 
but ordinarily it is the mind of the Church not to postpone the decision of 
withdrawal unduly. She prefers that the problem of chastity be solved by 
the end of the second year of philosophy. She also wishes greater severity 
to be used in judging the candidate the more closely he approaches ordina- 
tion. Neither tonsure nor minor orders are to be received by anyone having 
the habit of impurity, and for the reception of any major order, the person 

"Canons 976; 978, n.2. 

12 F. Connell, Sex Education and the Treatment of Sex Problems in the Training of Candidates 
for the Priesthood and the Religious Life, p. 8. "If he has not made great headway in overcoming 
a grave habit of impurity after two years at most, there is reason to fear that the evil inclinations 
he has fostered may prove a permanent obstacle to the holiness of life expected of a priest and 
religious. I suppose it could happen that a boy would retain a bad habit for four or five years, 
then reform and become a good priest and religious. But the chances to the contrary are so 
great that they must be considered as prevailing by the prudent confessor." 

Celibacy: Motivation and Some Problems 91 

must be free from it for a year. If, after the reception of the subdiaconate 
or diaconate, sins of impurity are committed but yet not of such frequency 
as to constitute a habit, the solution of the case depends on whether there is 
moral certitude that the candidate has the requisite qualities to progress fur- 
ther. If he does not, he must either postpone the reception of such an order 
or withdraw from the seminary, in accordance with the norms of canon law. 

Ordinarily the commission of a grave sin with the same or opposite sex at 
any stage of preparation indicates unfitness. The candidate should be dis- 
missed or counseled to withdraw, if the matter is evident only from the internal 
forum. Yet in individual cases there may be extenuating circumstances, which 
should be considered in reaching a decision. Two are mentioned — the case 
of a person who is seduced, or one in which the acts are incomplete. The 
other qualities of the candidate will aid in the determination of dismissal or 
continuance. 13 

Finally, in all these cases the same principles are to be employed by the 
rector, the confessor, the spiritual director in judging the fitness of the candi- 
date. However, the manner of application will be different. The superior 
ordinarily acts in the external forum; he can dismiss. The confessor and 
spiritual director are generally restricted to the interior forum. They can 
counsel withdrawal. The confessor can also refuse absolution if the case 
so demands. Any reasonable doubt is to be resolved in favor of the Church. 


1. Allers, R. "Daydreams and Sexuality," The Homiletic and Pastoral Review, 
XXXLX (February, 1939) 469-75. 

2. Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. 

3. Augustine. De Continentia. Migne, Patrologiae Latinae, Vol. XL. 

4. Circular Letter, Sacred Congregation of the Sacraments, 27 December, 1955. 
Cf. T. L. Bouscaren — J. S. O'Connor, The Canon Law Digest, (Milwaukee: The 
Bruce Publishing Company, 1958) IV, 303-15. 

5. Connell, F. J. Sex Education and the Treatment of Sex Problems in the Train- 
ing of Candidates for the Priesthood and the Religious Life. Privately published 
by the Province of St. Augustine of the Capuchin Order, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

6. de Sales, Francis. Introduction a la Vie Devote. Oeuvres, Vol. III. Annecy: 
J. Nierat, 1893. Translated by Allan Ross. Westminster, Md.: The Newman 
Press, 1948. 

13 Ibid., p. 9. "When there has been a sin with another person, a much stricter norm must be 
followed. I would not put it down as a hard and fast rule that once a student, either in the 
major or minor seminary, has been guilty of a grave sin of impurity with another he should be 
told to leave. Many factors would have to be considered — for example, whether it was a consum- 
mated sin or merely indecent touches, whether the penitent was the aggressor or victim, whether 
those involved were boys in the early years of the minor seminary or professed students. ... Of 
course, the case may occur of a boy who commits a sin with a girl while home on vacation, and I 
should be inclined to think that psychologically this would be a greater deterrent to advancement 
to the priesthood than the sin of sodomy, even though the latter is a graver transgression of God's 
laws from the theological standpoint. The nearest I should venture to a general rule would be this: 
If a candidate for the priesthood has been guilty of a mortally sinful act of impurity three or four 
times at most after beginning his studies for the priesthood — presupposing that there was repentance 
with the promise of amendment after each lapse — I would ordinarily regard it as dangerous for 
him to continue toward the priesthood, even though several years intervened between each sin. 
Even one such transgression may suffice to justify such a decision, especially on the part of the 
seminary authorities who learn of the incident outside of the confessional." 

92 Major Seminary Department 

7. lnstructio De Candidatis Ad Statum Perfectionis Et Ad Sacros Ordines Sedulo 
Deligendis Et lnstituendis, Sacra Congregatio Negotiis Religiosorum Sodalium 
Praeposita. Romae: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1961. 

8. KmscH, F. M. Sex Education and Training in Chastity. New York: Benziger 
Brothers, 1930. 

9. Kronhausen, E. and P. Pornography and the Law. New York: Ballantine 
Books, 1959. 

10. Meyer, F. Safeguards of Chastity. Cincinnati: St. Francis Bookshop, 1929. 

11. Pius XI. Ad Catholici Sacerdotii. Acta Apostolicae Sedis, Vol. XXVIIT. 
Romae: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1936. Vatican Press Translation. Wash- 
ington, D.C.: National Catholic Welfare Conference, 1936. 

12. Pius XII. Menti Nostrae. Acta Apostolicae Sedis, Vol. XLII. Romae: Typis 
Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1950. Vatican Press Translation. Washington, D.C.: Na- 
tional Catholic Welfare Conference, 1950. 

13. . Sacra Virginitas. Acta Apostolicae Sedis, Vol. XLXI. Romae: Typis 

Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1954. Unofficial Translation As Printed by Tipografia 
Poliglotta Vaticana. Washington, D.C.: National Catholic Welfare Conference, 

14. Terruwe, A. Psychopathic Personality and Neurosis. Translated by Conrad 
Baars, M.D. New York: P. J. Kenedy and Sons, 1958. 

15. Vermeersch, A. De Castitate. Romae: Universita Gregoriana, 1921. 

16. Von Hildebrand, D. In Defense of Purity. New York: Sheed and Ward, 



Detroit, Michigan 

First Session — Tuesday, April 24, 1962, 2 p.m. 

The meeting was called to order at 2 p.m. by the president, Very Rev. John 

E. Murphy, of St. John's Home Missions Seminary of Little Rock, Arkansas. 

The first paper was read by Rt. Rev. Robert Krumholtz, Vice President 
of the Athenaeum of Ohio, and Rector of St. Gregory's Seminary of Cin- 
cinnati. His topic: "Preparation of Diocesan Priests for Teaching in High 
Schools and Colleges." 

For the most part the questions which followed the reading of the paper 
centered about the program of preparation in the Cincinnati seminary, and the 
program of teaching by diocesan priests after ordination. 

In answer to a question concerning the financial side of the program, 
Monsignor Krumholtz explained that the archdiocese (rather than the in- 
dividual seminarians) meets the expenses of the summer studies and the ex- 
tension studies. In reply to another query, he stated that once a student has 
chosen a special field for concentration, the request for change to another 
field is at a minimum. When asked for suggestions as to how seminarians 

Minutes: 1962 Meetings 93 

may overcome undergraduate deficiencies in a particular field, Monsignor 
Krumholtz recommended summer school or special courses after ordination. 
It was suggested by one of the priests present that it might be more beneficial 
to work for an M.A. rather than for an M.Ed, degree. Monsignor Krumholtz 
explained that both degrees are granted in his program; that while the M.A. 
courses involve a greater amount of work on the part of the student, candidates 
for the M.Ed, degree also have a considerable number of content courses. 
Regarding preparation for teaching religion, Monsignor Krumholtz explained 
that there is a catechetics course in the seminary, and that fourth-year 
theologians teach C.C.D. classes in nearby schools. 

With regard to teaching, Monsignor Krumholtz reported that the vast ma- 
jority of priests are very happy in the work. They live in rectories, assist in 
hearing confessions on Saturday, offer public Mass on Sunday, and do 
a minimum of parish work. It has been noted that with more intensive prep- 
aration in the seminary, the enthusiasm for teaching has increased. 

The second paper was read by Very Rev. Leonard Fick, editor of The 
Josephinum Review and a member of the faculty of the Pontifical College 
Josephinum in Worthington, Ohio. His topic: "The Nature and Purpose of 
the Communications Program on the College and Theology Levels of the 

In the question period that followed, Monsignor Fick was asked about the 
inter-relation between the English department and the homiletics department in 
his seminary. He explained that the former provided the student with the 
basic training in writing, whereas the latter tailored this training to the 
preparation of sermons. 

As to the concentration on dogmatic theology and moral theology in sermon 
writing, Monsignor Fick explained that in the "mixed homily" about two-thirds 
of the sermon would be concerned with a dogmatic presentation and the 
remainder with a moral application. 

Monsignor Fick pointed out that The Josephinum Review provides an outlet 
for articles by seminarians, and many seminarians in addition have written 
for other Catholic periodicals. 

Monsignor Fick expressed the view that specialized training for radio and 
television programs should not be given in the seminary, but young priests with 
an aptitude for such work might be sent to schools devoted to this type of 

The meeting was adjourned at 3:55 p.m. 

There followed an executive meeting, at which were discussed the proposed 
bylaws. The following were in attendance: Very Rev. John E. Murphy, 
Rev. Thomas W. Coyle, C.S.S.R., Rt. Rev. Msgr. Frank M. Schneider, Very 
Rev. James A. Laubacher, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Lawrence J. Riley. 

Second Session — Wednesday, April 25, 1962, 10 a.m. 
The meeting was called to order by Monsignor Murphy at 10 a.m. The 
president appointed the following committees. Committee on Nominations: 
Rev. Robert F. Coerver, CM., Very Rev. Gerard A. Green, Very Rev. Edward 
J. Hogan, S.S. Committee on Resolutions: Rev. Gabriel W. Hafford, Very 
Rev. John J. Danagher, CM., Rev. Conrad Falk, O.S.B. 

The first paper was read by Rev. Eugene Burke, C.S.P., of The Catholic 
University of America. His topic: "Developing an Intellectual Tradition in 
the Seminary." 

94 Major Seminary Department 

In the question period that followed, Father Burke was asked about the 
possibility in the future of having seminaries affiliated with large universities 
where various special fields of study would be available to seminarians. Father 
Burke agreed that this is an ideal to be aimed at, which would contribute a 
great deal to the development of an intellectual spirit in the seminary. He 
added that the present trend toward having seminaries accredited is a step 
toward fostering a greater interest in things intellectual in the seminary. He 
advocated that theologians meet with scholars in other fields to discuss the 
theological implications in their work. It would indeed be an achievement, 
he concluded, if seminary professors could instill into the seminarians a love 
of learning for its own sake. 

The second paper was read by Very Rev. Edward J. Hogan, S.S., Rector 
of St. John's Provincial Seminary in Plymouth, Michigan. His topic: "Teach- 
ing the Dogma Course: Scripture and Authority of the Church." 

In answer to a question in the discussion period that followed, Father 
Hogan pointed out that theology rests first and foremost on the teaching of 
the Church. To minimize the teaching of the Church and to start the 
study of some doctrine of theology with an investigation into Scripture (as 
if to try to validate the teaching of the Church by seeking a justification for 
each doctrine in Scripture) is incorrect — though this seems to be the procedure 
being increasingly advocated by some exegetes. Moreover, it is the living 
magisterium of the Church that we must be concerned with — and not only 
with the definitions of the Councils. 

Asked what is the Church in the phrase "the Church as the interpreter of 
Scripture," Father Hogan stated that there is no problem as regards the 
extraordinary or solemn magisterium. But when or how the ordinary magis- 
terium is operating, it is difficult to determine. Father Burke suggested that 
the ordinary magisterium is operating in this very discussion. He went on 
to explain that inasmuch as the bishops, the official teachers, delegate 
theologians in the seminaries to propound the doctrine of the Church to 
candidates for the priesthood, the seminary professors are official witnesses 
to the work of the magisterium. They must study, evaluate, judge; and in their 
teaching the Church's ordinary magisterium is operating. 

This session was adjourned at 12 noon. 

Third Session — Thursday, April 26, 1962. 10 a.m. 
This was a joint meeting with the Minor Seminary Department at the 
Sacred Heart Seminary in Detroit. The delegates were warmly welcomed by 
the Rector, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Albert A. Matyn. The meeting was opened with 
a prayer by Most Rev. John F. Whealon, D.D., Auxiliary Bishop of Cleveland. 
The presiding officer was Rev. Robert C. Newbold, president of the Minor 
Seminary Department. 

The Very Rev. Edward F. Riley, CM., Ph.D., Rector of St. Mary's 
Seminary in Perryville, Missouri, read a paper on the topic, "An Analysis and 
Evaluation of Seminary Administration." 

Following the reading, a discussion emerged regarding spiritual direction 
in the seminary. Very Rev. Eugene Van Antwerp, S.S., described the Sulpician 
system. The point was then made that to introduce such a system into 
other seminaries might require a dispensation, inasmuch as the whole faculty 
(except those involved in administration) are spiritual directors. Another 
priest suggested that such a system might result in a lack of uniformity of 
spiritual direction; but it was pointed out in answer that rigid uniformity is 

Minutes: 1962 Meetings 95 

not essential — each priest would direct in accordance with basic Christian 
spirituality. Another expressed the view that a unified policy is a necessity — 
for example, in cases where seminarians are to be advised by their spiritual 
directors to withdraw because of apparent lack of moral qualifications. 

Some question was raised as to secular publications in the seminary. One 
priest stated that daily newspapers and weekly magazines are available in 
his seminary (college level) but not in the major seminary. 

A question was asked as to religion courses in the seminary. One priest 
suggested that after each point of dogma discussed, practical corollaries or 
applications could be made. Another suggested courses in catechetics and 
convert-making. This latter point introduced a question about C.C.D. courses 
in the seminary. It would appear, from a show of hands, that only a small 
number of seminaries have active C.C.D. programs. 

A question arose as to courses in fine arts in the seminary. It was ad- 
vocated that courses in art, painting, history of music, et cetera, are important, 
and indeed essential for accreditation. 

The discussion closed with an exchange of views as to the requirements 
made by accrediting agencies. 

When it was suggested that information regarding many of the above points 
be obtained from various seminaries and held available for reference, the 
opinion was given that this would be part of the task for the Associate Sec- 
retary of the NCEA (a position now vacant since Father Dukehart's death). 

This session came to an end at 11:45 a.m. At the dinner which followed, 
an inspiring talk was given by Most Rev. John F. Dearden, D.D., Archbishop 
of Detroit, on the implications of the Apostolic Constitution Veterum Sapientia. 
Archbishop Dearden was presented to the delegates by Very Rev. John E. 

Fourth Session — Thursday, April 26, 1962, 2 p.m. 
The afternoon meeting was called to order by Very Rev. John E. Murphy 
at 2 p.m. at the Sacred Heart Seminary. 

The first paper was read by Rev. Sergius Wroblewski, O.F.M., of Christ 
the King Seminary in West Chicago, Illinois. His topic: "Formation of 
Seminarians toward a Diocesan Spirituality." 

A spirited discussion followed the reading of the paper. Several of the 
priests felt that there need be no dichotomy between the demanding of dis- 
cipline in the seminary and the developing of initiative and responsibility — ■ 
much less between discipline and fellowship, or a spirit of charity. Military 
academies, for example, aim at developing responsibility and yet maintain 
very strict discipline. One priest stated that some of the speaker's views could 
be harmonized only with difficulty with the recent letter on St. Vincent de 
Paul issued by the Congregation of Seminaries, and indeed with Christ's own 
obedience to His Father. Father Wroblewski disclaimed any intention of 
instituting a dichotomy between discipline and fellowship (in fact, he said, 
fellowship presupposes discipline), but he re-stated his opposition to obedience 
based on fear rather than on love. 

The second paper was read by Very Rev. Edward J. Carney, O.S.F.S., 
Superior of De Sales Hall in Hyattsville, Maryland. His topic: "Celibacy: 
Motivation and Some Problems." 

Many priests participated in the discussion which followed. Great stress 
was laid upon the advantages to be derived from a positive approach to the 
question. Father Carney expressed the view that the best positive approach 

96 Major Seminary Department 

is growth in grace — fervent reception of the sacraments, prayer, and the 
practice of virtue. 

The session was adjourned at 4 p.m. 

Fifth Session— Friday, April 27, 1962, 10:30 a.m. 
The meeting was called to order at 10:30 a.m. by Monsignor Murphy. 

The paper was read by Rev. Vincent V. Herr, S.J., director of the Loyola 
University N.I.M.H. Religion and Mental Health Project in Chicago. His 
topic: "Mental Health: Programs in the Seminary and Preparation for Pastoral 

In the discussion which followed the reading of the paper, Father Herr 
stated that there is as yet no universal answer to the problem of testing in the 
major seminary, and a fortiori in the minor seminary (where personalities 
are in such a state of flux as to render testing even more difficult). As to the 
results in seminaries where testing is in effect, there is no unanimity of opinion. 
He urged faculties of seminaries to discuss these matters and to keep abreast 
of the literature which is being published. 

Father Herr mentioned that a code of ethics regarding secrecy has been 
drawn up by psychologists. It is extremely strict, not allowing the tester to give 
any information concerning the testee except with the latter's explicit per- 
mission. He urged that there be maintained in our seminaries the highest 
respect for the confidential nature of the results of psychological tests. 

Monsignor Green and Father Flynn explained the system at Dunwoodie 
where testing occurs before admission. Monsignor Schneider explained the 
system at St. Francis' Seminary in Milwaukee, where testing is used for students 
already in the seminary. He described it as eminently valuable. 

Father Herr stated that it was his hope that his studies would be valuable, 
not only for the screening of candidates, but, even more important, for help- 
ing students found to be suffering from emotional disturbances. 

As to the use of trained psychologists, Father Herr felt that best of all 
would be a priest trained in psychology; or if there is a referral outside 
the seminary, he thought the best doctor would be one with a knowledge of 
seminary life and its problems (possibly an ex-seminarian). He concluded 
that the seminary professor, with merely a little technical knowledge added to 
his already rich background of study and experience, could be of immense 
help to disturbed students; there is no need in every case to refer such 
students to doctors outside the seminary. 

In the business meeting which followed, Father Coerver, chairman of the 
nominating committee, made his report: the recommendation that all present 
officers of the department be elected for another term. The motion to accept 
the report was made, seconded, and carried. Father Hafford, chairman of 
the Resolutions Committee, made his report. The motion to accept the 
report was made, seconded, and carried. Monsignor Murphy announced that 
work was being done on the drawing up of a set of bylaws, which would be 
ready next year. 

With no other business to be transacted, the motion to adjourn was made 
at 12 noon. It was seconded and carried. 

Detroit, Michigan Rt. Rev. Msgr. Lawrence J. Riley 

April 27, 1962 Secretary 


Be it Resolved: 

First: That the Major Seminary Department of the NCEA renews its pro- 
found allegiance to our Holy Father, Pope John XXIII, and promises him 
to devote its entire energies to the end that our beloved country in the future 
as in the past may be guided by zealous pastors of the flock of Christ. It 
thanks His Holiness for his continued interest in the seminaries, as evidenced 
by his frequent addresses and messages to seminaries and seminarians. 

Second: That the Major Seminary Department of the NCEA once more 
proclaims its loyalty to the hierachy of the United States, and asks the 
blessing of the Archbishops and Bishops on the future work of our seminaries. 

Third: That the Department owes a special debt of gratitude to His 
Excellency, the Most Rev. John F. Dearden, D.D., Archbishop of Detroit, for 
his warm and gracious hospitality. To his Excellency we extend special 
thanks for his words of welcome and advice during our joint meeting. 

Fourth: That we express our thanks to Msgr. Albert A. Matyn and the 
faculty of Sacred Heart Seminary for the generous hospitality shown us. 

Fifth: That the Major Seminary Department, NCEA, expresses its deep ap- 
preciation of the thought-provoking papers that were prepared and read, and 
of the discussions which followed. 

Sixth: That the Major Seminary Department, NCEA, in cooperation with 
the Minor Seminary Department undertake a study that will lead to recom- 
mendations concerning the most effective means of implementing the provisions 
of the Apostolic Constitution Veterum Sapientia. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Gabriel Ward Hafford 
John J. Danagher, CM. 
Conrad Falk, O.S.B. 


President: Very Rev. Msgr. John E. Murphy, Little Rock, Ark. 
Vice President: Rev. Thomas W. Coyle, C.Ss.R., Oconomowoc, Wis. 
Secretary: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Lawrence J. Riley, Brighton, Mass. 

General Executive Board: 

Very Rev. James A. Laubacher, S.S., Baltimore, Md. 
Very Rev. John McQuade, S.M., New Orleans, La. 




Very Rev. James R. Gillis, O.P. 
Director, Institute of Spiritual Theology, River Forest, Illinois 

As I understand my role in this session, I am expected to open the dis- 
cussion, not close it. For this I am grateful, since there is enough divergence 
of opinion, a wide spread between theory and practice. Many of my remarks 
and comments are applicable to the role of spiritual director in general. Par- 
ticular comments on specific qualities required in the spiritual director in the 
minor seminary will be presented at the end of the paper. 

As I recall, I first became aware of a practical problem existing in the area 
of spiritual direction when I sent off a group of lay apostles to get themselves 
spiritual directors. The effort was a 100 percent failure. While various reasons 
were alleged by the confessors why they were unable to assume this responsi- 
bility, there seemed to be a basic fear that prompted their refusals. This was 
a reason for wonder that priests who seemed to be confident of their ability 
to discharge the role of confessor were afraid to accept the role of spiritual 
director. Was this reluctance due to a recognized lack of preparation for the 
role, or was it merely due to anxiety without foundation in fact? 

In reading the works of the acknowledged masters of the spiritual life, you 
can find reason for the reluctance of any priest to accept the office of spiritual 
director. The implication in their writings is that few priests, if any, are 
properly prepared for this work. St. Francis de Sales asserts that perhaps one 
in ten thousand priests properly executes the office of director. St. John of 
the Cross spends many pages in castigating inept directors who hold their 
penitents back from advancing in perfection. St. Teresa of Avila, whose ex- 
perience with directors was wide and varied, is in fundamental agreement with 
St. Francis de Sales in saying that the spiritual director must be full of charity, 
knowledge, and prudence (Introduction to the Devout Life, I, p. 43). He adds 
the warning that if the director lacks one of these qualities there is danger. 

Is there any wonder then why many priests hesitate to accept the role of 
spiritual director under any circumstances? Almost any priest will have reason 
to doubt his knowledge, experience, and certainly his holiness. Are these 
doubts merely negative, with little or no foundation in reality? May we con- 
clude that every priest who has completed his clerical studies is properly pre- 
pared for this work, and that he should not hesitate to assume the obligations 
of director whenever he is asked to do so? Considering the fact that clerical 
training in the twentieth century is certainly superior to the clerical training 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, we might arrive at such a con- 


Background and Preparation Needed 99 

elusion. This would be a happy conclusion, but I fear it does not take into 
account all the facts. Considering their improved training, we might admit 
that young priests, if faithful to all their duties, including the duty to study, 
should be guaranteed by their apostolic mission in the Church an ensemble of 
higher lights and graces which ought to fit them for the direction of souls. 
This statement assumes the adequacy of clerical training, and that the penitent 
presents a normal case of direction. Since clerical doubts tend to center about 
deficiency of knowledge, experience, or holiness required for even ordinary 
direction, we will consider them in that order. Here I would like to insist that 
general capability to assume the role of spiritual director does not include the 
ability to direct every soul in every stage of its development. 

The Formal Nature of Christian Perfection 

Since the spiritual director takes up his function in the Mystical Body, as 
the rational instrument of the Holy Spirit, the principal cause of the soul's 
sanctification, it is essential that the director clearly understand the nature of 
Christian perfection. We are all well aware that Christian perfection consists 
in the perfection of charity, in that union with God, who makes us His sons 
by adoption and raises us above ourselves, and makes us sharers of His divine 
nature {Summa Theoi, II-II, 184,1). The avoidance of sin is a negative con- 
dition to the advance of the Christian in the ways of God's friendship. 
What is further required is something positive going beyond the avoidance of 
sin. It consists in a renunciation of all that we have by nature in order to 
possess it afterward through grace. God unites Himself to the soul perfectly 
only when it has renounced all and arrived at perfect self-abnegation. This 
program of detachment must be universal at least as regards the affections. 
This is the simple, explicit doctrine of the Gospels. 

Some, however, seem to conceive the Christian life as a superior brand of 
natural morality or ethics, and quite consistently they tend to underestimate its 
divine character and sublimity. But, as St. Thomas insists, Christian perfection 
is something divine, and therefore the rule of reason, even enlightened by faith, 
does not suffice to lead the soul to spiritual perfection. To direct our acts to this 
end, a superior rule and guide is required. This higher rule and guide is the Holy 
Ghost working through His gifts (Summa Theoi, I-II, 68, 2). This points out 
the painful limitation of spiritual direction which is founded on "good old com- 
mon sense" with sinister suspicion of anything which smacks of mysticism. 

This is, however, a logical position if the ascetical life and the mystical life 
are seen not as two related phases of the one interior life, but as two unrelated 
lives. Then the ascetical life, whose rule is reason enlightened by faith, requires 
only "ascetical direction." This is the ordinary Christian way, the way of the 
many, and here common sense is the directive light of the spiritual director. 
On the other hand, the mystical life, whose rule is the Holy Ghost operating 
through the gifts, is the way of the very few, and requires "mystical direction." 
In opposition to this unnatural separation of the spiritual life, St. Thomas 
teaches that no one can practice the virtues perfectly without the help of the 
gifts of the Holy Ghost — without being moved immediately by the Divine 
Spirit (Summa Theoi., I-II, 68, 2). Moreover, St. John of the Cross condemns 
directors who use "human arguments or put forward considerations quite con- 
trary to the doctrine of Christ and His way of humility, and despise all things, 
and place obstacles in their path, or advise them to delay their decision, from 
motives of their own interest or pleasure, or because they fear where no fear 
is; or, what is still worse, they sometimes labor to remove these desires from 

100 Minor Seminary Department 

their penitents' hearts. Such directors show an undevout spirit, and are clad, 
as it were, in very worldly garb, having little of the tenderness of Christ, since 
they neither enter themselves by the narrow gate of life, nor allow others to 
enter" ("Living Flame of Love," Stanza III, 175). 

Traditionally, ascetical and mystical refer to two phases of the one interior 
life, interrelated and interdependent. This would rule out any direction which 
would claim to be exclusively ascetical. Advance in the spiritual life, at any 
level, is made in virtue of the soul's correspondence with grace and flexible 
docility to the inspirations and motions of the Holy Ghost. Indeed, the 
Christian who does not consistently strive to be faithful to these inspirations 
can never hope to make notable progress. Something may appear most reason- 
able, in no way contrary to virtue, yet the soul knows that God asks of it 
something quite contrary, something entirely different from what the soul it- 
self would select as a means of pleasing God. Such incidents are outside the 
domain of pure ascetics. A director, committed exclusively to ascetical di- 
rection, would oblige the soul to oppose such movements. Human judgment, 
even enlightened by faith, cannot plumb these subtle motions of the Holy 
Ghost. This kind of conflict can explain, to some extent at least, why so many 
good and pious persons, clerical and lay, never reach true perfection. This 
is the kind of direction which St. John of the Cross deplored. 

Knowledge of the Means of Sanctification 

The means of sanctification are treated in moral theology. In our present 
program of clerical education, moral theology is severely fragmentized. The 
manuals of moral theology tend to present an ordered preparation of the stu- 
dent for the exercise of his powers of orders and jurisdiction as the minister of 
the sacrament of penance. This is a most important function of the priest, 
and concentration on this preparation is completely warranted. But this con- 
centration has given moral theology, at least as found in manuals, a definitely 
negative overtone. This fact is often lamented, but with a feeling that nothing 
can be done about it. 

The problem which the spoliation of moral theology of its positive character, 
its ordered presentation of the means of sanctification, leaves is of no small 
moment. This deficiency is thought to be remedied by a special course in 
spiritual theology, often taught as completely divorced from moral theology, 
and of dubious stature and value. Usually it suffers the fate of a one- or two- 
hour per week course — not important enough to command study time from 
the student. I believe that this situation is the reason why many fine priests feel 
capable of the demands of the confessional for the remission of sins and at the 
same time feel incapable of directing souls toward growth in union with God. 
As Pope Pius XI pointed out, "many of the deficiencies of spiritual theology 
would be methodically eliminated if students were trained in the study of the 
2nd part of the Summa of St. Thomas" (Encyclical Studiorum Ducem, 1923). 

Every spiritual director should embellish his grasp of systematic theology 
with a steadily growing acquaintance with the great masters of the spiritual 
life, particularly St. John of the Cross, St. Teresa of Avila, St. Francis de Sales. 
Such reading will tend to manifest a constantly growing concept of prayer and 
the life of prayer. Such an expansion of his concept of prayer is imperative 
for the director. He will begin to appreciate that such communication with 
God can be verified in widely diverse circumstances, sometimes not even per- 
ceived by the soul, as in periods of progress, of aridity and desolation. The 

Background and Preparation Needed 101 

director's judgment should not be formed by acquaintance with only one tra- 
dition, or certainly not by only one method. For he will frequently come upon 
views that are apparently contradictory to what he has read, or at least differ- 
ent from it, and then he will not know how to proceed. Acquaintance with 
many traditions will provide that broad base upon which his own flexibility 
of spirit will be exactly balanced. 

Prudence and Experience in the Spiritual Director 

While all the virtues are necessary in the director, according to authorities 
on the subject prudence is absolutely indispensable. Its importance should be 
evident from its nature. Aimed at the perfecting of the practical intellect in 
the direction of human action to proper ends and in a proper manner, prudence 
is the form of the other moral virtues. So the rule of the acquired virtue of 
prudence is reason; the rule of the infused virtue of prudence is reason en- 
lightened by faith; the rule of the gift of counsel, which perfects the infused 
virtue of prudence, is the Holy Ghost. In the Mystical Body of Christ there 
is a charismatic gift of discernment of spirit, which makes the difficult judg- 
ments of the director child's play. This last grace is dispensable in the director. 

I would like to point out at this juncture that prudence receives its principles 
from moral theology. As a science, moral theology can be taught in the class- 
room; prudence, on the other hand, is a moral virtue, and is therefore depend- 
ent upon right appetite, and cannot be taught or learned as a science. Right 
appetite supposes a rectification of the appetite by the moral virtues, and this 
rectification will color the judgment. Since the director is expected to direct 
another in his pursuit of holiness, he must possess the prudence necessary to 
direct his own life and his own pursuit of holiness. Moral theology is neces- 
sary in the director for it, too, guarantees that flexibility of spirit which is so 
necessary so that he can adapt his direction to the penitent, not the penitent 
to his set formula. But direction is practical and, therefore, is the direct care 
of prudence. Prudence deals with singular, contingent things, in which moral 
certitude of judgment is the best that can be expected. Now the judgments 
of men are colored by what the men themselves are — qualis unusquisque est, 
ita finis ei videtur. So the director's prudence will forge his guidance of souls 
out of the principles and conclusions of moral theology, out of his own ex- 
perience in the practice of virtue, out of his previous experience in directing 
other souls. To the science, to the virtue of prudence there should be added 
the art of spiritual direction. Some of the art can be learned from experienced 
directors, some can be garnered from books on the subject. Courses in guid- 
ance and counseling will provide helpful material for the priest. But in the 
ultimate analysis the art will be properly acquired through actual direction. 
Each priest will slowly but surely develop his own personal approach and art 
of directing souls. In bringing to this work the fruit of his study and experi- 
ence, the personal contact of one member of the Mystical Body with another 
member in a relationship which is inspired, sustained, and crowned by charity, 
the director certainly gains the reward of charity — wisdom. 

Holiness in the Spiritual Director 

The spiritual director should be full of charity. Exactly what does that 
mean? All authorities seem to be agreed that while it is advantageous if the 
director precedes the penitent on the way of perfection, this is not absolutely 
necessary. However, what is essential is that the director be seriously and 

102 Minor Seminary Department 

unconditionally committed to the interior life. Love of God should keep him 
aware of his primary obligation — his own sanctification. Without this kind 
of commitment, whatever his theological knowledge and experience, he will 
lack the essential binding and unitive force of prudence to give coherence to 
his direction. First of all, it will insure his own avoidance of that fatal soft- 
ness which characterizes the unmortified director who is afraid to require 
sacrifice of his penitent because he requires none of himself. There is also 
a kind of penetration into souls, their likenesses and differences, which only 
introspection can provide. Not just any introspection either, but examination 
of self against the screen of divine love and mercy. 

Special Qualities of the Spiritual Director 
of the Minor Seminary 

Since the worthy exercise of orders requires not any kind of goodness, but 
excellent goodness, in order that as they who receive orders are set above the 
people in the degree of order, so may they be above them by the merit of 
holiness (St. Thomas, Suppl. 35, 1, ad 3um). Certainly it is the mind of the 
Church that those who are charged with the most responsible task of spiri- 
tual formation should be specially chosen and prepared. In the selection, 
priests who have already proven their competence and ability in the direction 
of souls should be chosen. This would be demanded by the spiritual maturity 
and experience required for the office. Certainly the director's preparation 
should embrace a study of the principles, criteria, and practical norms of cleri- 
cal training. It is significant in this regard that in the recent instruction of the 
Sacred Congregation of Religious on "The Careful Selection and Training of 
Candidates" (Rome, 1961), it is stated that throughout the whole curriculum 
of formation the supernatural sanctification of the soul must, beyond all doubt, 
occupy the first place (Sections 32-34). 

To my mind the most important quality in the seminary spiritual director 
is that he inspire confidence and respect both in the seminarians and the facul- 
ty. Without this ability, all his other qualities will be useless. At the same time 
I believe that the caricature of the spiritual director as the only friend of the 
seminarian in the midst of a hostile faculty should be methodically destroyed. 

In conclusion, I would like to say that the temptation to describe the spiri- 
tual director's background and preparation in superlative terms has been al- 
ways before me. I hope that I have successfully resisted the temptation. 
Whatever is deficient in his knowledge, the priest can remedy by further study. 
Whatever is lacking in experience can be removed by humble acceptance of 
the work of spiritual direction, realizing that he will not be able to guide every 
soul, particularly at the beginning. And that humility will help him avoid the 
danger of irresponsible judgments. Whatever is deficient in his pursuit of 
holiness can be rectified by the grace of God, his own good will, and the wise 
counsel of his own spiritual director. 

References in Text 

Francois de Sales, Saint. Introduction to the Devout Life, ed. and trans, by 
John K. Ryan. New York: Doubleday, Image Books, 1955. 

Thomas Acquinas, Saint. Summa Theologiae. New York: Benziger Bros., 1947. 

Juan de la Cruz, Saint. "The Living Flame of Love," in The Complete Works 
of St. John of the Cross, trans, and ed. by E. Allison Peers. Westminster, Md.: 
Newman Press, 1953. 


Most Rev. John F. Whealon 


For priests engaged in seminary work, one of the most important and most 
practical documents published is the letter dated September 27, 1960, sent 
from the Sacred Congregation of Seminaries and Universities to the Bishops 
of the world on the occasion of the Third Centenary Year of the Death of St. 
Vincent de Paul. This letter was a forceful reminder that a seminary is, in 
addition to being an institution for the training of soul and mind, a court of 
judgment in which the faculty, like a Supreme Court, sits in judgment con- 
cerning the fitness of each candidate for priestly studies. It said, in part: 

The Church has the strict obligation to seek the signs of a true vocation 
in all who feel themselves called to the sanctuary. She must make sure, at 
the same time, that they have the qualities which will enable them worthily 
and efficiently to fulfill their office. We know that whenever God lays on 
men such exalted duties and responsibilities, he gives to those so chosen 
sufficient graces to enable them to carry them out worthily. The candidate 
puts himself forward for the judgment of the superiors. It is for the su- 
periors to judge and act accordingly. 

This scrutiny begins from the time a student first enters the seminary. It 
ends either with his ordination or with his dismissal as soon as it becomes 
apparent that he is unsuitable. Each superior in a seminary has his own 
particular sphere, but each, by reason of his sacred trust, has a twofold 
office. He is to be an educator in the daily task of making a new man out 
of each of these entrusted to his charge: and he is to be a judge, as to 
whether they are corresponding to the graces they have received, as to their 
progress or otherwise, as to the evidence of further physical and spiritual 
development, and as to their resistance to or inability to profit by the work 
of formation. It is a task which is heavy and full of difficulties but it is a 
task which cannot be shirked. The superiors, in their actions, must be 
guided by the light of God, to Whom all hearts are open, and Whom all 
hearts obey. 

These solemn words remind us that every seminary professor, and especially 
the rector, is a judge. This obligation to render judgment on seminarians is 
shown likewise in the liturgy of ordination. In the liturgy of the priesthood 
ordination, a ritual but realistic dialogue takes place between the ordaining 
prelate and the seminary rector prior to the ordination ceremony. "Scis illos 
dignos esse?" interrogates the Bishop, fully mindful of the prohibition of St. 
Paul and of the Church that he should not "impose hands lightly" on any 
candidate. And the seminary rector, equally mindful of his responsibility and 
with a special prayer for one or two in the class, says in words that even 
the vernacular could hardly make more clear: "Quantum humana fragilitas 
nosse sinit, et scio et testificor ipsos dignos esse ad hujus onus officii." This 


104 Minor Seminary Department 

moment and this final seminary judgment constitute the terminus ad quern 
of the seminary. This is the seminary graduation; this is the commencement 
of the new priestly life. The rector speaks this final seminary judgment pri- 
marily in his own name, as (to use the descriptive phrase of Pope John XXIII) 
the "good family father." He speaks also as the spokesman of the faculty, and 
he now speaks this final judgment because in every preceding year that each 
of these ordinandi was in the seminary, the rector and the faculty tacitly or 
expressly declared that each student was "worthy" to advance closer to the 
holy priesthood. 

Pope Pius XI has stated in Ad Catholici Sacerdotii concerning the judicial 
role of the rector: 

The Head of the Seminary lovingly follows the youths entrusted to his 
care and studies the inclinations of everyone. His watchful and experienced 
eye will perceive without difficulty whether one or others have, or have not, 
a true priestly vocation. This, as you well know, Venerable Brethren, is 
not established so much by some inner feeling or devout attraction, which 
may sometimes be absent or hardly perceptible; but rather by a right in- 
tention in the aspirant, together with a combination of physical, intellectual, 
and moral qualities which make him fitted for such a state of life. 

It is possible to define the work of the seminary faculty as the "happy 
elimination of those who are unfit." A recently quoted statistic that there 
are now in the United States a total of a half million ex-seminarians has been 
urged as evidence of the failure of seminaries to keep candidates in the semi- 
nary. Only one in seminary work, perhaps, can see the complete fallacy in 
this view. The majority of those who leave our seminaries, I am convinced, 
should leave; usually they leave followed by a faculty sigh of relief. The work 
of the seminary faculty is to diagnose and to eliminate each year those who 
are judged unfit, and to preserve and train those who are judged worthy of 

Both the final and the yearly judgments should, it appears to me, have three 
characteristics: (1) They should be made by the rector after the faculty mem- 
bers have voiced their judgments (consultative or deliberative, depending on 
the seminary constitution); (2) They should be based on as thorough a knowl- 
edge of the individual seminarian as is possible to acquire; (3) They should 
be reached according to definite criteria. 

A set of criteria for the judgment of the fitness of a seminarian can be a 
most useful instrument in seminary operations. Criteria serve as an aid to 
faculty members in formulating their judgment; they assist in counseling an 
individual seminarian; and they serve as a basis for recommendations to 
another seminary or to a bishop or superior. 

That the judgment concerning a student should not be made on the basis 
of one consideration alone has been clearly stated in the Letter on the Third 
Centenary of St. Vincent de Paul: 

To evaluate a vocation properly, it is indispensable to know the student's 
whole personality. Taking qualities and abilities singly, considering weak 
points and defects in isolation, it is possible to be seriously mistaken. These 
elements must be considered under the aspect of a person's whole character — 
only thus can they be viewed in their proper light. If we are to reach a 
correct judgment on the vocation of candidates for the priesthood, we must 
not base that judgment on first impressions of a particular facet of their 
character. Rather we must strive to see the whole person and thus we can reach 
a balanced estimate of the particular elements which form the total character. 

Judging the Character of a Seminarian 105 

Submitted for your consideration today are eleven specific criteria for 
judgment of a seminarian's character and suitability for the priesthood. These 
criteria, worked out at Borromeo Seminary after faculty consultation and 
reference to available literature, are intended to list in order of decreasing 
importance the main items to be considered in the judgment of a seminarian 
in areas other than scholastic achievement and the internal forum. The eleven 
items, with their qualifying adjectives, are: 

A. General aptitude for the priesthood: (Would you want this seminarian 
as your assistant?). Under this heading are given four adjectives: (1) Excel- 
lent; (2) Average; (3) Needs development; (4) Unsatisfactory. This cri- 
terion is put in first position because it epitomizes all other criteria and calls 
upon all the powers of judgment and priestly sense of a seminary faculty. 
This criterion was most helpful to me: supponendis suppositis, if I would not 
want to have this young man as my assistant, if for a reason I would not 
want to be living in the same house with him and have him working under 
my supervision, then I adjudge him as not apt for the priesthood. 

B. Honesty and openness of character. Under this criterion are listed five 
adjectives: (1) Very straightforward; (2) Normal; (3) Self -centered; (4) 
Evasive; (5) Closed. This criterion is given high rank because it is a presup- 
position to any true faculty judgment. A seminarian who is evasive or closed 
in his dealings with the faculty is, at best, a questionable risk. A seminarian 
is expected to deal with the faculty in an open, manly, frank fashion. A story 
which I read several years ago, and which I repeat yearly to our seminarians, 
concerned a bishop, who, whenever he visited a new seminary, asked the same 
question of the rector. "Every seminary," he said, "is noted for one out- 
standing quality. For what quality is your seminary noted?" The bishop said 
that the best answer which he received to this question was the following: 
"Our seminary is outstanding because we treat our seminarians as men, and 
because they act as men." It has been known, has it not, that a seminarian 
of evasive and closed character, when ordained and separated from the re- 
straints of seminary supervision, suddenly blossoms forth as a strange wild- 

C. Generosity and spirit of charity. Three adjectives qualify this trait: (1) 
Very generous; (2) Willing; (3) Selfish. The importance of this virtue in one 
who aspires to be Another Christ is obvious, and its absence is thereby the 
more important. Too many people have in past generations been alienated 
from the Church by selfishness and imperiousness in priests. In that section 
of the Encyclical Ad Catholici Sacerdotii where Pope Pius XI talks of the 
necessary attitude of the seminarian, he says first: "He must look to the priest- 
hood solely from the noble motive of consecrating himself to the service of 
God and the salvation of souls." 

D. Respect for authority: Obedience. Under this trait are listed six adjec- 
tives: (1) Excellent; (2) Cooperative; (3) Disobedient; (4) Resents correc- 
tion; (5) Disrespectful; (6) Proud. The importance of internal and external 
obedience on the part of seminarians has been put in forceful terms in the 
recent (1959) Letter of the same Congregation of Seminaries on the Cente- 
nary of the Cure of Ars: 

Let discipline, therefore, joyously embraced, be the touchstone by which 
Superiors test the vocation of their students. Let them demand an obedience, 
not merely theoretical, but effective, singleminded, and complete in all things, 

106 Minor Seminary Department 

great and small, contained in the Seminary Rule. In requiring this obedience 
and in putting it before the students let them recall the supernatural motives 
which are its justification and its Supreme Model, Jesus Christ, who had 
only one purpose on earth: "To do Thy Will, O God" (Heb. 10: 7). Let 
them always remember that obedience primarily involves "obsequium", that 
is, a total submission of mind and heart which makes our actions pleasing 
to God. If Superiors can achieve this much they can be assured that their 
students will also acquire the other virtues proper to a priest, especially 
those, like chastity, which require manly will-power and perfect self-control. 

Seminary authorities realize the necessity for both obedience and for the more 
important spirit of obedience. Menti Nostrae expressed it succintly: "Young 
students in seminaries should learn, from their first years there, to obey their 
superiors sincerely with the devotion of sons to fathers, so that later they will 
accept the will of their bishops meekly." 

E. Mental stability and maturity. Under this consideration are subsumed 
six categories: (1) Very stable; (2) Balanced; (3) Nervous; (4) Emotional; 
(5) Easily led; (6) Effeminate. My experience in seminary work has caused 
me to be progressively more deeply concerned about this consideration in 
every student. The stresses of modern living, and a fortiori the stresses of 
priestly living in the modern world, require emotional and mental stability. 
The seminarian who, from whatever the reason, is unstable or highly nervous 
is a doubtful risk for the full seminary course and for the priesthood. 

The previously quoted Letter on the Third Centenary of the Death of St. 
Vincent de Paul gave close attention to this requirement in all seminarians: 

We would insist that superiors watch closely over unstable natures to see 
whether this weakness springs only from the youth of the students con- 
cerned. This will be especially apparent in adolescents. On the other hand, 
it may be a permanent defect of character, as in a youth who will apply 
himself to a hundred tasks without seeing one through to its completion. 
He is a person of nervous temper, always vacillating and undecided, who 
always puts one in mind of the basic neurosis underlying these symptoms. 
Such characters as these, the products of a world in ferment almost to the 
point of frenzy, cannot be blamed for their condition, but they are certainly 
not the most suitable candidates for the ranks of the priesthood. This requires 
a strong and even temperament, one ready to endure any sufferings and 
take any risks for the advancement of God's kingdom. 

And the same letter continues: 

Therefore, both the whole personality and the many individual traits must 
be thoroughly examined, with particular attention paid to his psychological 
and emotional stability. The superior is dealing with the realms of the 
spirit where the meeting of God with man is the intimate personal re- 
sponsibility of each individual; he must tread warily, making constant use 
of humble prayer, approaching God with reverence, waiting and listening 
and sensitive to the manifestations of His will. Supernatural means must 
always take the first place but the aid which the sciences of the educationalist 
and the psychologist afford, should not be forgotten. When one's own ex- 
perience does not suffice, a specialist should be called in. This, of course, 
must involve no compromise of the faith and nothing which is contrary to 
Catholic morality must be countenanced. We can never be too careful in 
such delicate matters; this is especially true because, as competent psychol- 
ogists tell us, the mental maturity of modern youth frequently lags behind 
bis physical growth — a trap for the unwary who would content themselves 
by judging from appearances. 

Judging the Character of a Seminarian 107 

F. Common sense and good judgment. Under this heading are listed four 
points: (1) Good; (2) Satisfactory; (3) Varies; (4) Poor judgment. This is 
a characteristic different from classroom achievement; this is a manifestation 
of intelligence other than that indicated by the student's grades. Here proba- 
bly lies the explanation as to why a student who goes through the seminary 
with consistently low grades can be ordained and can function successfully as 
a priest — if he has this trait of common sense and good judgment. An old 
pastor used to say: "There are two talents that count in life, brains and tact, 
and tact is more important." If a seminarian is a "vix-70" student, I would 
pay close attention to his rating here by the faculty. If he seems to have com- 
mon sense and good judgment, he deserves to be carried along as long as is 
reasonably possible; if he has no judgment, he should not be given the benefit 
of the faculty's doubt. 

G. Effort: Willingness to work. Under this criterion are placed five adjec- 
tives: (1) Excellent; (2) Normal; (3) Poor; (4) Slothful; (5) Self-indulgent. 
The Letter on the Third Centenary of St. Vincent de Paul places considerable 
stress on this characteristic. 

There is a fundamental element in every person from which all the facets 
of his character spring. It follows therefore that the superior's energy must 
be directed towards a profound study of each individual student, attaching 
maximum importance to the resourceful energy of the mind which is called 
will power. For example, some brilliant personalities at first make a very 
favorable impression — but often they are inconsistent characters who lack 
the necessary stability and will be unable to face tomorrow's temptations 
and the great trials of life ahead. They will fall victim to fatal weaknesses 
altogether too much for their defective will power. At other times, a close 
scrutiny can reveal as unjustfied the esteem held, up to then, for the piety 
or at least devotional piety of a youth who otherwise showed no great 
strength of character. We speak of that apparent piety which is the un- 
conscious refuge of the intellectual and spiritual pauper, who once his en- 
vironment is changed will stand revealed in all his weakness. 

Our indulgent age produces some seminarians whose unspoken philosophy 
is that they have come not to serve but to be served. In Humani Generis, 
Pope Benedict XV complained of priests who "wherever they go, immoder- 
ately desire the comforts of life, and provided they deliver their sermons, put 
their hand to scarcely any other work of the sacred ministry, and the result 
is that they appear to be seeking their own ease rather than the good of souls." 

At times, I fear, unrealistic vocational promotion can easily encourage this 
type of person to enter the seminary by stressing seminary facilities. It is good 
when the seminary itself does not abound in creature comforts and when hard 
work and sacrifice are a part of the seminary tradition. In the words of Pope 
Pius XII in Menti Nostrae: "It should never happen that those who ought to 
be trained to self-denial and evangelical virtue should live 'in sumptuous homes 
and amidst every refinement of pleasure and comfort.' " The soft chair and 
bland time-consuming television can suffocate priestly zeal more effectively 
than anything else. And this same consideration has been recently stressed 
by our present Holy Father, Pope John XXIII, in his address to a group of 
Italian seminary rectors on July 28, 1961. The Holy Father quoted words 
spoken by him in 1958: 

Among the laity there is a widespread impression that certain ecclesiastics 
of our times do not know how to resist the temptation of the present: temp- 

108 Minor Seminary Department 

tations involving the greater and more refined commodities of life, super- 
ficiality of studies, of judgment, of words; an exaggerated interest in that 
which impresses; uneasiness concerning daily duties which require abnega- 
tion, detachment, patience and humility. 

H. Sociability. Seven descriptions are listed under this heading: (1) Out- 
standing; (2) Mixes well; (3) Shy; (4) Unsociable; (5) Clannish; (6) Argu- 
mentative; (7) Repulsive. Because the priest must work and live with people 
— whether he is a diocesan or religious — he must be sociable and must be 
able to get along with people. His work through life will be much easier if 
he knows how to talk to old and young, male and female — if he can be truly 
"all things to all men." He must be approachable, as was his Master. As has 
been mentioned in previous papers at these conventions, seminary faculties 
can at times overlook training in the social graces. This criterion of socia- 
bility is most valuable in counseling a student: If the majority of the faculty 
finds him clannish or shy or argumentative, then he should be told this and 
should be guided toward improvement in sociability. 

I. Sense of responsibility. Under this are listed five identifications: (1) 
Assumes responsibility; (2) Dependable; (3) Usually dependable; (4) Un- 
reliable; (5) Takes things too seriously. We expect the priest to be a leader 
of men, a figure in civic life, a worthy representative in society of the Catholic 
Church. Many priests must handle large building projects, must manage large 
establishments, must supervise many employees, and must govern other priests. 
Therefore, responsibility is properly expected in every apt seminarian, and the 
seminarian who cannot do even a small assignment well shows himself to be 
of questionable aptitude for the responsibilities in spiritual and temporal affairs 
that the priesthood brings. 

J. Personal habits and appearance. Here are listed four adjectives: (1) 
Excellent; (2) Satisfactory; (3) Careless; (4) Slovenly. This criterion, as is 
evident, is useful in guiding every seminarian toward the ideal of being "a 
gentlemanly priest." 

K. Physical integrity and health (to be filled in by the Reverend Infirmar- 
ian). There are five descriptive words or phrases here: (1) Very good; (2) 
Normal; (3) Frequent illness; (4) Physical defects; (5) Hypochondria. The 
health of the students is a source of constant anxiety of any seminary rector 
and faculty. Modern parents and children expect much more medical care 
and availability of physician than did people of the last generation. The rector 
must never permit anyone to say or think that he is unconcerned over the 
health of a student, yet he must avoid such excesses as students expecting, 
without grave reason, to go to the family physician, students getting and taking 
medication without faculty knowledge, and so forth. In a boarding school, 
this presents a considerable problem. It is good if the Reverend Infirmarian 
has a record of all illnesses and of all medications, so as to have basis for 
judgment on this score. 

These have been the eleven criteria used by the college faculty of Borromeo 
Seminary in evaluating and in counseling all seminarians in nonacademic 
areas. In practice, these criteria, with their accompanying adjectives, were 
duplicated on a separate piece of paper. Because of the identifying letters 
and numbers, it was possible for a faculty member to evaluate an entire class 
on a separate single sheet of paper; it was likewise possible, after the faculty 

Judging the Character of a Seminarian 109 

evaluations were all received, to tally the judgments of the entire faculty on 
one sheet. We asked the faculty to make these ratings twice each school year, 
prior to student interviews. For counseling purposes the material was used 
by the priest-counselor alone, and then only in generic fashion: for example, 
"Several members of the faculty think that you have tendencies to be slothful 
and emotional." The rating of the entire faculty for one student was kept 
permanently in the student file; they were found to give service even in later 
years for character, job, and school references. Their main purpose, however, 
was to use objective criteria in identifying more effectively and in helping, if 
possible, those in the seminary who should be identified: the closed character, 
the selfish individual who, as a priest, would be a constant cross to others; the 
over-emotional, the lazy, the unrealistic person. 

I would like to close with two quotations. The first is from Monsignor 
Ronald Knox and was a frequent comfort to me during my years of seminary 
work. Monsignor Knox, at one stage in his career (June 1938), was offered 
by Cardinal Hinsley an appointment as seminary rector. With beautiful 
thought and style, Monsignor Knox stated why he wished not to be appointed 
the seminary rector: 

There's another defect which may or may not be connected with this, but 
it seems to me equally ineradicable and at least equally dangerous — I can- 
not take the stern life, or impress people with my dignity. To be called 
by my Christian name by second-year undergraduates may be a gift, but it 
is not the gift needed if you are to be the Awful Presence in the background 
which the Presidency of a seminary demands. ... I think I might easily 
be popular, but it is because I find it very hard to say No to people; 
and with the best will in the world, I imagine that the head of a seminary 
ought to spend a good deal of his time in saying No. You cannot ride 
everybody with a light rein, and I feel that here I have been a failure with 
most of the people who do not respond to kindness. I feel that if I went 
to Old Hall the whole discipline of the place would be subtly relaxed. 
Worst still, I think I should lack the sternness needed when it is a question 
of getting rid of somebody, boy or divine . . . and I feel terrified of what 
might be the results of overindulgence shown towards the difficult cases . . . 
Another disadvantage of being an over-complaisant President is that he is 
in danger of being too much influenced by his subordinates; and I know 
how easily this can lead to jealousies and spiteful criticisms. 

The final quotation is from Pope John XXIII, taken from his address to 
the Italian seminary rectors on last July 28th. His words apply directly to 
you and to your meeting here in Detroit: 

These . . . days, spent in .so much serious study and in the sweetness of 
brotherly meetings, will bear all the fruits expected of them. Your task, 
which is hidden and untiring, is among the most precious of the many 
duties in the life of the Church and We wish to assure you of Our esteem. 

We are close to you in Our thoughts and with Our prayers and We wish 
you much satisfaction in your work, particularly that of being able to see 
always the growth of the generations of young priests leaving the seminaries 
with shining eyes and open hearts to spread about them that light and that 
warmth which they will have drawn from you, from your faith and from 
your sacrifices. 


Rev. George Hagmaier, C.S.P., New York, N.Y. 
co-author of Counseling the Catholic 

It is dangerous and invalid to speak in detail of the "average" seminarian 
or candidate. More and more psychological studies of the religious vocation 
confirm the long-held conviction that there is no religious personality per se. 
Indeed, we find that years of religious training, while influencing certain aspects 
of personality, leave as wide individual differences among religious members 
as one would expect to find in any other group. We must, therefore, expect 
the profile of little mister seminarian to match that of the typical adolescent 

There is a vast amount of excellent professional writing on the adolescent 
available today, and it is hoped that vocation directors, superiors, and semi- 
nary staffs are sampling generous selections of this material. I will only remind 
you briefly of several undisputed characteristics peculiar to the American 
adolescent of today. He is, perhaps more so than at any other time in history, 
something of a little world unto himself. The speed with which the world 
changes around us, the ease of inter -personal communication, the availability 
of transportation, the availability of material comforts and luxuries, have 
created a "third-class citizen" — no longer an infant, not yet an adult — who has 
outstripped many of the interests and attitudes of his parents, and yet is not 
at all sure about the future into which he is being propelled. He is in many 
ways more sophisticated than his counterparts of previous generations, yet 
often also more naive. He has seen more, he knows more, he can dream 
bigger dreams, and yet he faces greater terrors. Young people today are in 
many ways far more independent and critical than in the past. They want 
straight answers to straight questions. And they are often deflected from mak- 
ing a resolute and total commitment to the religious vocation — or to any other 
vocation — because goals are presented to them in shadowy, inaccurate, and 
often downright misleading images. Our young people today are too quickly 
characterized as soft, indifferent, completely absorbed in trivialities, and in- 
capable of unselfish zeal and selfless sacrifice. However, today's adolescents 
must live with certain external pressures and many internal anxieties which 
they cannot understand, much less deal with. Typical of these modern puzzle- 
ments is the confusion of sexual roles presented by today's muddled society. 
Our young people have much more difficulty identifying unequivocally with 
masculine or feminine behavior. Another reason for the seeming indecisive- 
ness of so many youngsters is their inability to cope with the unseen demands 
which family, friends, and the culture itself seem to impose — demands for 
worldly success, for personal achievement, for material goals. Finally, the 
deterioration of predictable and cohesive family life has produced the alienated 


Today's Candidate: Psychological Considerations 111 

teenager — no longer able to achieve emotional maturity in a home which so 
often "does not understand him," and yet unable to find compensating rela- 
tionships elsewhere. 

It seems important to remind you that the aimless and frustrating aspects of 
our culture have also created a spectacular national mental health crisis which 
has not spared the Catholic adolescent. In addition to vast numbers of the 
population suffering from serious mental disturbances, there are many others, 
religious candidates among them, who suffer from varying degrees of emo- 
tional deficiency, and who must be helped to mature in the seminary or be 
persuaded that the religious life is likely to impose needless pressures upon 
an already over-burdened psyche. 

Psychologists who have been testing and counseling seminarians over some 
period of time are persuaded that where emotional problems in the candidate 
exist, they are more likely to involve certain traits rather than others. Always 
mindful of the danger of over-generalization, we can still say that the emo- 
tionally defective religious candidate is often characterized as being one or 
several of the following: sexually uninformed and immature; by temperament 
submissive, dependent, and inclined to be uncompetitive; more introspective 
and self-conscious than the average American; somewhat dissatisfied with life 
and family; tends subtly to "passive aggressiveness," difficult to define and 
hard to live with. There is also a higher rate of effeminacy — with or without 
some past overt experience — which is difficult enough to diagnose, and still 
more difficult to discuss predictively. 

In terms of both the general and pathological characteristics I have outlined, 
it might be well here to say something about the role of the juniorate in the 
formation of the mature religious. Let me make it clear from the beginning 
that I am not presenting a brief for or against the juniorate. We have for too 
long a time been debating some extremely intricate propositions in terms of 
black or white, when in reality the question "Is the minor seminary the most 
effective means of educating young American candidates" can only be 
answered "sometimes" and "sometimes not." 

The particular stress the Europeans — particularly the Latins — have placed on 
the minor seminary stems from the cultural facts of life over there. Almost 
certainly the young European is sexually far more precocious than his Amer- 
ican cousin, and is quite likely to view heterosexual experiences far more 
casually. The European junior seminary is, then, as much a protection from the 
enormous pull of the local mores as it is a spiritual formation. Most Italian 
clergy, for example, cannot believe that a young Catholic boy in America can 
go to a co-ed high school without falling into irrevocable habits of sin. How- 
ever, the sheltered existence provided by the rigidly supervised junior semi- 
naries has in many cases not fulfilled its purpose, as the distressingly high de- 
fections among the Italian clergy indicate. The fifth-year theology program was 
an attempt, also unrealistic I feel, to introduce the new priest "gradually" into a 
culture from which he was in many cases snatched too soon. 

However, the key to the ultimate maturity of any man, regardless of his vo- 
cation, is rooted in his very early years. The debate often does not take this fact 
enough into account. All the important attitudes — toward sexuality, authority, 
spirituality, independent curiosity and creativity, socialization — are pretty well 
jelled in the preschool and early school years. If the early years are healthy 
and promising, then it is very difficult for any kind of educative experience 
later on to cancel out the seeds of maturity, or prevent them from blossoming. 

112 Minor Seminary Department 

The problem, of course, concerns those who have not had too successful 
an early development. For these individuals adolescence is an extremely im- 
portant period. Psychologists refer to adolescence as a "second chance" — a new 
and final opportunity — for the immature individual who must still grow out 
of his unresolved conflicts of an earlier time. 

Unfortunately, we cannot tell beforehand who does and who does not 
possess the potentially mature personality. Even a basically healthy youngster 
goes through some remarkably puzzling and misleading phases on his way to 
adulthood. Breaking away from the family, building healthy relationships with 
the opposite sex, testing individual initiative, rejecting certain infantile beliefs 
and attitudes, ideally are done more naturally in the home, the neighborhood, 
and the community. There is a kind of "brain washing" which may take place 
in certain types of juniorates which reinforces rather than resolves certain 
negative processes which have become entrenched many years before. 

Obviously rebuking those who take a strong stand against the minor seminary 
are the many mature, superbly adjusted and highly effective priests who have 
spent up to thirteen years in a seminary previous to their ordination. If the 
adolescent lives in a home in which he is at ease, where he is developing 
happily, encouraged in his testing of the world outside, and at the same time 
bolstered by affection and confidence from within, then I am frankly reluctant 
to see a candidate leave such a family setting for an institution. However, 
as we have already indicated, many families today are too alienating, or too 
confining, or too possessive (especially mothers of future religious). In some 
cases, therefore, it might well be advantageous to have this subtle kind of 
dependency knocked out early in a good seminary which maintains a highly 
professional course of study, fosters a precise spiritual formation, enunciates 
true apostolic ideals, and provides individual direction for its student body. 
By way of parenthesis, I would like to signal out the candidate who has formu- 
lated specific vocational goals very early in his career. He makes an interesting 
contrast to the vacillating, searching, uncommitted youngster who is more typi- 
cal of our times. A boy whose eyes have long been fastened on the priesthood 
or the brotherhood may not, with such urgency, need to test the temper of his 
vocation against the disciplined rigors of seminary life. In any case, decisions to 
enter or not to enter the seminary at any given age must be made with the 
greatest sensitivity to individual needs and potentials. 

Let us look at psychological implications involving two important periods 
in the vocational history of a religious. Let us consider first the period prior 
to the young man's enrollment in a seminary. 

We know that God uses natural means for supernatural ends. And so it is 
not surprising to find that preliminary attractions to the religious life follow 
patterns characteristic of attraction to almost every human calling. For this 
reason the most significant influence effecting the rise or fall of vocations are 
exerted by those who have already chosen to lead the religious life themselves. 
The impact which the individual priest or brother makes upon the young men 
with whom he deals is the key to whether the ranks of his particular apostolate 
will be replenished with fresh and dedicated candidates. 

The image of the priesthood or the brotherhood which each religious 
projects is therefore most important. Precisely because the values and goals of 
the priesthood or the brotherhood are seen somewhat dimly, in embryo as it 
were, through the immature eyes of potential vocations means that the essence 
of this particular way of life must be sharply and clearly communicated to our 
young people. This can only be done if the religious himself clearly under- 

Today's Candidate: Psychological Considerations 113 

stands the full implications of the life which he has chosen. If he is hesitant, 
or confused, or partially uncommitted, then we can only expect hesitation and 
confusion and indecision on the part of those invited to share his life. 

The basis and essence of the religious vocation is theological. Consequently 
the theological implications of our life and work must leap out and enkindle 
the imaginations and ambitions of our young students. If, because of a personal 
shallowness, or myopia, or because of plain ignorance certain priests or 
brothers communicate goals which are short of the theological, or perhaps even 
contrary to it, their influence becomes a sham, a scandal, and perhaps a tragedy. 

If the religious does not approach his life's work in terms of personal 
sanctification (ever closer union with God) and in terms of his apostolic mis- 
sion to share and spread this divine life, then the image of his vocation is 
already muddied and distorted. The opinion of many seminary counselors 
indicates that less worthy motives for seeking the religious life are liable to 
be either a flight from sexuality and affection, or a search for power by those 
who have basically negative feelings about themselves. Let us look quickly at 
both these possibilities. 

It is a paradox that we often ask preadolescents and teen-agers to consider 
dedicating themselves to a life which renounces possessions, self-will, and the 
exercise of conjugal love precisely at a time when these basic human drives 
are at their strongest. The desire to possess goods of one's own, the desire 
to exercise independence, self-reliance, and personal judgment, the demands 
of budding sexuality, the natural need to express human affection — all acquire 
new and fresh meaning with the onset of puberty. How important it is, then, 
to present the dedication of the religious to the evangelical councils not in 
terms of "giving up something" but rather as the acquisition of something 
more perfect, more desirable, and more gratifying. 

Nowhere is this more important than in the call to chastity. The adolescent 
is in the process of developing his capacities to give and receive affection in 
their fullest meaning. To present the religious life as a flight from this vital, 
human experience is to make him less a man, and to endanger the flowering 
of that indispensable foundation of all religious values — supernatural charity. 
Here again it is important that the priest and the professed brother examine 
with a keen and ruthless eye his own response to such words as sexuality, 
affection, marriage, parenthood, children. When he discusses these important 
human states and values with a young man, does he reflect a negative, or 
fearful, or indifferent attitude? 

The new Scripture studies might support my hope that the translation of 
our Blessed Lord's words on this subject might be improved upon. When 
Our Lord declares "that some have made themselves eunuchs" for the love of 
God in order to embrace the religious life, He meant the word "celibate" for 
which at that time there was no special term. In our parlance, "eunuch" is an 
unfortunate synonym for the celibate man. Eunuch implies impotency, a 
sexless state. This is not what our Blessed Lord had in mind. (Indeed, the 
Church herself has placed an impediment to ordination in the way of those 
so afflicted.) 

And, yet, we have all known those religious who would view the sexless 
state as the ideal state. They would consider the dissection of sexuality from 
their bodies and their psyches as a blessed liberation, even though this would 
imply a deprivation of something vitally human. 

This is not what is meant by chastity and virginity. On the contrary, without 
a full realization of the meaning of sexuality and human love, marriage and 

114 Minor Seminary Department 

family life, the religious cannot make the kind of sacrificial act which his 
vocation demands. We cannot give what we do not have, or cannot ultimately 
understand. To quote Canon Jacques Leclercq: 

There is no holiness, no purity in celibacy as such; the holiness is in the 
gift, and the religious celibate is holy because he is such on account of the 
gift. Renunciation is only genuine when one is fully aware of all that it 
entails, and this awareness implies a concrete knowledge, drawn from ex- 
perience and from life. It thus happens that one finds young people, who 
have decided in favor of the religious vocation, without having faced the 
question of marriage as it really is. Or, not having discerned all the legi- 
timate joys which it offers, in the fullest sense of the word, they discover 
its beauty when they are already bound. They discover the beauty of mar- 
riage when they see married couples around them who are knowing great 
happiness and doing magnificent work. . . . These young people then say, 
"I never knew this. This is not what I renounced." This can be followed 
by very serious crises, and if they rarely lead to external dramas, they can 
sometimes leave the soul in a shattered state, with a deep sense of in- 
terior prostration. 

We want young men who have a true capacity to love, so that when they 
renounce conjugal affection with freedom and knowledge, they are better able 
to love Christ, the spouse of every religious soul. Every brother and priest 
should be eminently capable of loving a woman, and of loving her well. Every 
religious should here and there in his daily experience feel a loneliness which 
is a natural concomitant of celibacy. When he sits alone in his room of an 
evening he should not be ashamed to acknowledge an occasional wave of 
nostalgia and of heartache because he has no wife to come home to, no children 
to twine their arms about his neck and call him father. Oh, yes, the super- 
natural compensations far outweigh the natural regrets, but this does not mean 
that the regrets should be absent. 

What a tragedy to find a priest or brother unable to appreciate the joys and 
the ecstacies of the married state. If he is emotionally undeveloped and 
factually ignorant of these matters, how can he expect to prepare his young 
people for the primary vocation to which most of them are called — the married 
state. And how can he demonstrate to the potential candidate for the religious 
life the genuine meanings of both sacrifice and merit accruing to those who 
renounce the happiness of the conjugal state for the greater bliss of direct union 
with Christ? In terms of vocations, then, we must ask ourselves bluntly: Do 
many young men reject the religious life because some of us have given evi- 
dence that we have sacrificed very little? And what of the candidates who are 
attracted by the immature, emotionally impoverished religious? It seems 
likely that the unknowledgable will attract the ignorant; that the frightened 
will attract the frightened; that the suspicious who see mainly danger and evil 
in the magnetism between the sexes will attract the anxious, the timid, and the 
suspicious. We can do without such vocations. 

Poverty need detain us only briefly. This way of life is wholly intelligible 
only after its careful cultivation in the houses of formation. For let us honestly 
admit that the lives of many clerics and religious today, to the unperceptive eye 
of the layman, seem on the surface to be more comfortable and provident 
than their own. Food is plentiful, living quarters more than adequate, the 
little necessities and even some of the extras fall from heaven with little or 
no effort on the part of the individual. Indeed, where carelessly some of us 
have failed to scrutinize the impact of our standard of living upon our 

Today's Candidate: Psychological Considerations 115 

neighbors, we may have discouraged vocations among those seeking a less 
affluent way of life. 

From the psychological point of view, however, it is the relationship of 
poverty to power which may be worth examining for a moment. Money, 
as we so well know, is not everything in life. There are many demagogues 
who have lived extremely detached and even austere lives, but those com- 
pensations lay in the exercise of power. The priest and the religious teacher 
has dominion over others. How does he use it? Does he pursue the inordinate 
satisfaction of needlessly interfering in the lives of his subjects? Does he 
make lordly, unrealistic decisions? Does he arbitrarily demand conformity? 
Does he present himself as all-knowing and incapable of error? Do his stu- 
dents or parishioners fear him? Do his people see spiritual development or 
the process of education as a bore or a chore or an agony, rather than a joy? 

If you think a moment, you fill find that certain religious who have made 
a clean sweep of their earthly possessions and live in strict poverty, seem 
to approach each day by asking themselves with grim satisfaction "Whose 
lives am I going to make miserable today?" Power in place of plenty — a 
deadly substitution. Again, we must ask how many potential vocations this 
type of tragic religious discourages, and what sort of vocation he might en- 
courage? For there are those who choose the religious life only because they 
are insecure themselves. They covet the position of authority and security 
which they have failed to achieve on their own and which is falsely mirrored 
by this kind of priest or brother. 

Today's vocation director or recruiter has a difficult and specific job to do. 
He makes a mistake if he tries to do it all alone. He is wise if he tries to 
involve as many competent and interested people as possible. The more im- 
pressions he receives of the world of the candidate, and the more contacts 
he makes in that world, the better able will he be to evaluate the future 
religious, and to help him to deepen and refine his vocation in the pre-seminary 
years. The average recruiter is not a psychologist, and will therefore not 
attempt any probing analysis of the personality potential of the candidate. 
Gross misfits will almost certainly be eliminated by adequate psychological 
testing elsewhere. However, the prudent and perceptive vocation director can 
learn much from his day-to-day relationships with a boy, his family, and 
important people in the boy's life. Because of large case loads, many recruiters 
are able to give only small amounts of time to such contacts. This is un- 
fortunate. An intimate knowledge of the family relationships of a future 
priest or brother is a most important detail. Broken homes and alcoholic 
parents, or a too-possessive family environment are all genuine danger signs 
of a possibly deep psychological immaturity. 

Further, we would hope that every recruiter makes sure that the future 
priest or brother comes to know a good number of his potential confreres 
already in religion. In this sense, each priest or bother becomes a recruiting 
agent. Finally, it is most important to see that the young man receives ade- 
quate and regular spiritual direction from an appealing and qualified individual. 

Incidentally, the spiritual director need not necessarily be a priest, but can 
be a well-equipped brother or even a layman. The importance of frequent and 
detailed guidance interviews for the religious candidate cannot be minimized, 
and is all too often missing. 

Once adequate psychological testing has eliminated the obvious personality 
disorders which would constitute serious risk for both the candidate and the 
Church, the most important phase of maturation takes place in the seminary. 

116 Minor Seminary Department 

In the light of what we have already said, it should be clear that we can 
expect a great variety and degree of emotional adjustments within the semi- 
nary. It should, therefore, be consoling to seminary educators to know that 
psychologists believe that a considerable amount of change and growth can 
occur on the emotional level during the seminary years. Much depends, of 
course, on the emotional maturity of the faculty, and the manner in which 
seminary life is administered. A detailed examination of the psychological 
implications of seminary training would require another long paper. However, 
let me touch on two or three specific points which I consider to be of unique 

When a young man leaves his mother, father, sisters, and brothers for the 
religious life, it should not mean that he forsakes all the warm and gratifying 
consolations of family life. Indeed, in several senses he exchanges one family 
for another. How important it is, then, especially in terms of adolescent 
development, that the family spirit be cultivated in the houses of formation. 
A family, let me remind you, is a place where we dare to be ourselves, where 
we risk revealing to each other our hopes and anxieties, our talents and weak- 
nesses, without fear of rejection, reprisal, or ridicule. Too often there is a 
needless gulf between faculty and student body. If there is too much formalism, 
too much mistrust on both sides, too little understanding and healthy per- 
missiveness, then the seminary may indeed be a poor substitute for even a 
somewhat inadequate home. Ideally speaking, the seminary faculty should be 
made up of extraordinarily well adjusted teachers. They should be chosen, 
not just because they know an adademic subject well, but also in light of their 
own sensitive self-knowledge, and their ability to relate compassionately and 
sensitively to young people. 

It is most important that everyone in the seminary lead the common life 
together. If the faculty see the young men in their charge more as colleagues 
than as underlings they will have no difficulty in eating together, recreating 
together, and living generally in each other's company. Father Davis has said 
in this regard: 

Wherever an honest and intelligent effort has been made at as full a com- 
mon life as possible the results have always been excellent. There is no end 
of advantages in such a system. It brings about that very desirable and hard 
to achieve situation where the faculty is enabled to get to know the seminar- 
ians much better than they could in their office or in the classroom, and to 
give much better and informed advice when consulted. Quite naturally the 
scope of mutual interchange broadens, with the one party sharing with the 
other its pastoral experiences and intellectual interests. This clears away 
mutual antipathies which almost always stem from an imperfect knowledge 
of the other party. 

It is amazing how easy it is to dislike another person about whom one 
has only a distorted knowledge; and, on the other hand, how easy to be 
genuinely liked when one's real self is known. For the faculty, such 
interchange is a form of self discipline and an antidote against that pre- 
mature senescence which dogs serious people in high places; and if just 
this much were achieved, that would be quite an accomplishment. It af- 
fords an opportunity of modifying or filling out many of the simplest ideas 
seminarians get off, as well as correcting an equally large number of similar 
misconceptions one entertains about the seminarians. In a word, it estab- 
lishes between the two groups a normal man-to-man relationship, which 
transforms the community and helps both groups to develop maturity. All 
the objections raised against this system are raised out of devotion to 

Today's Candidate: Psychological Considerations 117 

routine ways or prejudice, unless it is just a case — God forbid — of their 
being too few men around willing to take on a job like this. 

In this regard, it might be well to point out one major challenge to the 
institutional education of the adolescent. It is the nature of every adolescent 
to be in some way rebellious against his elders and authority. The rejection 
of certain adult standards of his past seems an inevitable part of the growing- 
up process. The rector and faculty must understand this, and should be able 
to make patient allowances for certain "experiments in independence" on the 
part, especially, of the minor seminarian. The family circle is obviously the 
best place for such testing, but if the family spirit is transplanted into the house 
of formation, similar growth can occur. 

A particularly thorny problem in this regard is the religious rule. If it is 
too inflexibly held up as the absolute voice of God for the seminarian, then 
when he rebels, or is forced, in a sense, to cut corners, or picks and chooses 
the rules which he will and will not follow conscientiously, he is likely to 
get into some psychological hot water. The management of ordinary adolescent 
rebellion against authority, linked as it is with the spiritual development of 
the individual in the seminary, presents some problems which are not so 
easily solved. A too legalistic administration of the rule can create "the 
religious opportunist," the slightly devious "operator" not unknown in certain 
clerical circles. The management of this particular adolescent phenomenon 
requires a great deal more study. 

Finally, we cannot over-emphasize the importance of good spiritual direc- 
tion and counseling in the seminary. The administration of professional 
psychological tests to candidates has been a most helpful and significant ad- 
vancement. However, many of us have the distinct impression that some 
superiors and seminary faculties expect too much from these tests. The test 
is only a beginning. The psychologist, whether he belongs to the community, 
or is a layman living on the outside, should continue to be involved in the 
emotional formation of each candidate. With the permission of the seminarian, 
certain test results can be discussed between the spiritual director and the 
professional counselor. The psychologist can also provide a most valuable 
in-service training program for the entire faculty, helping them on a group 
level to duplicate some of the objectives of individual counseling. All too 
often there is a grand canyon between the psychologist, the superior general, 
the rector, the faculty, and the student. A real attempt should be made to 
bring all these people closer together, so that they understand each other's 
vocabulary, each other's concepts of emotional maturity, and some of the 
problems unique to this or that individual. 

How pointless and cruel it is to isolate seminarians in a needlessly insecure 
world of tension and unpredictability. Each seminarian should know exactly 
where he stands — with himself, his fellow classmates and the faculty. He 
should be helped through casual and intensive counseling over the years, to 
face the implications of his own vocation. The wise rector, counselor, or 
spiritual director, can lead each seminarian to self knowledge, making it pos- 
sible for him either to go ahead with his vocational plans, or come to the 
conclusion, comfortably and optimistically, that he would do better to seek 
a career in another field. Needless to say, the art of counseling, and especially 
spiritual direction, is woefully uncultivated, and constitutes one of the most 
serious defects of our seminary system today. 

In closing, we can only repeat what we began with. Our young people 

118 Minor Seminary Department 

today are looking, above all, for self-reliant, convinced, dedicated models. The 
best recruiter and the best guide, whether in or out of the seminary, is the 
religious who is living the full religious life. When he awakens each morning 
with a renewed and thrilling awareness of the privileges that are his as a 
specially chosen one of God, then his own personal joy and dedication will 
shine forth with a radioactive incandescence. The intelligent, holy, compas- 
sionate, and in particular, happy religious cannot help but attract young men 
who will ask "Is there something special I can do to gain eternal life?" And 
such a religious can answer with a full heart "Sell all thou hast, and come, let 
us follow Christ together." 


Brother H. Bernard, F.S.C. 


Every problem has an answer, and most of them seem to be discoverable 
to man, particularly in the sciences. However, some answers God reserves 
to Himself. One of these seems to be a permanently effective answer to the 
recurring vocational problem. There may have been a day, perhaps, when 
there were too many priests and religious. And that too would have been a 
problem. The difficulties we are experiencing today are of a different nature. 

I would like to put my comments and observations inside a definite frame- 
work. Such a framework would include my general approach to stimulate 
vocational thinking, particularly among high school students, and what the 
Christian Brother approach is in our schools. I will try to identify what I 
consider problems, and offer some partial answers. These are inadequate — no 
one seems to have discovered any one sure way to inspire youth to give — but 
in some instances these answers have borne fruit. 

It seems to me that the first conviction we want to get across is that these 
are troubled times. There is a religious and sociological crisis in civilization. 
Both are closely interrelated. To solve the one would solve the other to a 
great extent. I do think that youth today is somewhat thrilled by a sense 
of urgency, by a knowledge that they are needed and are being challenged to 
fill the need. At least, the one we would like to see become priest or religious 
is receptive to this sort of thinking. 

Once the stage is set for a challenge, I try to point out that "qualifications" do 
not constitute the barrier many like to think. In all too many cases, youth is 
prone to say "I don't have what is needed," but they have never asked those 
who make that decision. This is a blameless attitude, but it is fundamentally 
dishonest. In this sort of approach, there is little or no emphasis on the Church's 
term "calling." Stressing this phase in the development seems to place too 
great a burden on God. Being receptive and willing — and this willingness 

Approach to Present Vocational Problems 119 

becomes a desire in good time — seems to be far more important early in a 
youth's vocational thinking. Hence I try to place the young man somewhat 
on the defensive, and urge him to answer, to God and to himself, these two 
questions: "// God would be pleased at your becoming a priest or religious, 
would you do it?" And then, "What makes you so sure He would not be 

If he can make this commitment, in his will, then qualifications become 
important. Physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual — and all of these qualities 
can be measured to some extent. Basically, we all want the same man. The 
girl wants to marry him because he would be a good risk as a husband and 
father; the bishop would like to see him become a priest; we would like to 
see him become a Christian Brother. Hence, what he chooses is then his 
vocation, blessed by God, but not necessarily God's preference. 

Then doubts arise, and why shouldn't they? "How can I be sure?" There 
is no answer for this, because one cannot reach certitude at the beginning 
of one's vocation. Certitude comes with living it. There are degrees of cer- 
tainty, of course, but there is no way to give a young man the assurance he 
wants, and to the extent that he wants it. To do so would be unfair, and 
would also deprive him of some of the merit of his decision. He simply has 
to gamble — which is another way of saying that he has to have a stronger 
than ordinary faith. And I might add that the word "faith," as used here, 
is very closely identified with "generosity." 

Youth wants to be assured of happiness, but happiness comes with living 
one's vocation fully. As a brother once remarked, "You want to be happy, 
son? You want me to guarantee this? Listen. I cannot guarantee you any- 
thing except this: a sure way to grow spiritually, and souls who need you. 
All the rest of it you will have to negotiate with God, but you will find Him 
most generous." 

Thinking thus, it is obvious then that many, many young men do have 
vocations to a way of life other than marriage. All of the vocational litera- 
ture stresses average health, average intelligence, and so on. Average cer- 
tainly connotes "majority." Perhaps the priestly and religious life has been 
presented over the years as such a special way of life that the average boy — 
and he is the one we are inviting — excludes himself, and most others. To 
him, statistics make sense because they make the priest or religious members 
of a highly select group. He likes to be with the majority. It is safer. The 
average boy observes that the average boy does not become priest or religious, 
and this is somebody's fault. Is it our ineptitude or his lack of generosity? 
It could be both. 

Quite naturally, in all vocational talks I define a Christian Brother. First 
a religious, trained in the monastic tradition, then a teacher professionally 
trained. The merging of the two makes him a student of books and of boys. 
The final product is a religious teacher, so identified by the Church. His is 
an entirely separate vocation from the priesthood in its purpose, its training, 
and its apostolate. A teaching brother cannot be what a priest is nor do what 
a priest does without ordination and training; a priest cannot be what a teach- 
ing brother is without becoming a professionally trained teacher. 

Christian Brother schools have been placing great emphasis on vocational 
thinking. We try to make every brother conscious of his position as counselor 
and guide. We urge that every qualified boy, regardless of his present think- 
ing, be individually invited to consider the priestly and religious life, not 
because he is better suited to them than marriage — in reality, he is well suited 

120 Minor Seminary Department 

to all three of them or he would not be offered this invitation — but because 
the times he lives in demand more priests and more religious, not more mar- 
riages. A second phase of our program is entirely spiritual. Besides a monthly 
novena in the school, and other devotions, we have consecrated our entire 
vocational program to the Sacred Heart. This is emphasized, and strongly 
emphasized, in all schools. We have had good results from this. In contrast 
to the forties, the teaching brotherhood, whether it be the Christian Brother 
or the Xaverian Brother, the Marianist or the Holy Cross Brother, has become 
far more popular and appealing to today's youth. In contrast to the forties, 
there are many more such vocations; in terms of future needs, we are scarcely 
making an impression. 

The third phase of our plan is this: Make it possible for our students to 
be exposed to the total work of the Church, and the many needs. Hence, any 
and all representatives of other orders and congregations are most welcome 
to meet with our students. With particular reference to the Midwest, we 
like to see diocesan priests associated with our students in the school. Each 
school tries to set up a program that exposes the students to other congrega- 
tions and other needs. In principle, everyone is welcome. Any priestly or 
religious vocation in a school is a blessing. Any problems, where they exist, 
are organizational. One cannot devote all day to vocational stimuli, nor can 
a principal run the risk of undue emphasis. Each is guided by the needs of 
the Church, the opportunities that are possible, and the fundamental reason 
for the school's existence. Such a program, we feel, has brought many 
blessings to our schools, and has borne good results vocationally. 

I might add here that our Provincial is pretty well convinced that the major 
problem in today's world is getting candidates, not screening them. He insists 
that the rigors of religious life screen all too well. This is an over-simplifica- 
tion, and creates endless discussion, but his basic point has much merit. For 
instance, in our particular province, about 30 to 35 percent do not finish the 
postulancy and novitiate. Sometimes this percentage runs even higher, and 
sometimes lower. The present class, which is getting into the novitiate routine 
now, has lost only 20 percent. We are trying to cut down our losses at the 
beginning, if possible. The losses further along are much smaller. For ex- 
ample, in twenty years, there has not been a single graduating brother from St. 
Mary's College in Minnesota who did not begin his apostolate in September 
following his graduation. At this stage in his life, he has finished his pos- 
tulancy, novitiate, scholasticate, has his degree, and is usually about twenty-one 
or twenty-two years old. 

Is it as important to concentrate on screening, or should we spend our 
energies on ways and means to inspire so many vocations that screening 
follows as a matter of course? Do the needs of our times demand that we take 
another look at what we are looking for in potential priest or religious? This 
should stimulate some interesting controversy. 

It would be wonderful if today's youth saw the vocational problem in its 
true perspective, if they saw it as we do. More men and women are needed 
for specific works of the Church, and these priests, brothers, and sisters of 
the future are in our schools today. Yet, we do not seem to be able to 
convey to them the crisis of our times. At first they are impressed, but the 
personal involvement that becoming a priest or religious demands — it is at 
this point that St. Paul's reference to those starting a race becomes so true. 
In other words, this sense of urgency referred to earlier does impress them 

Approach to Present Vocational Problems 121 

momentarily, and they will discuss the needs of the Church from all angles — 
except that which involves them personally. Quite naturally, they all want to 
marry and raise a family. I suppose that the basic blockade is that of gen- 
erosity, to return to an old, old word in vocational work. Our Lord would 
certainly make it possible for the qualified young man or woman to dedicate 
his or her life to God and the things of God if this young adult were first 
of all willing, totally willing. We have no right to assume that one who is 
willing would not in good time acquire the grace of desire to do this — and 
when he has that, along with the natural talents needed, he has all that we 
can humanly measure in terms of a true vocation. 

Today's youth is not so much security conscious as he is happiness con- 
scious. He wants to be assured that he will be happy in the vocation proposed 
to him. He wants to be sure it is a right choice. And there is no way to give 
him that assurance except by evaluation of his qualifications in terms of what 
a particular vocation demands. From this point on he has to take his chances, 
just as in marriage. Marriage is supposed to make a man happy and con- 
tented, but this comes only to those who pay the price of living their voca- 
tion fully, maybe even heroically. Youth can understand this to some extent 
in marriage, but fails to see it in any other vocation. The reason is obvious. 
He can measure the good, the joys, the guarantees in marriage before he 
marries; he knows what he is getting, he is very apt to ignore what he has 
to give, and is supremely confident of all else. On the other hand, he cannot 
measure with any degree of accuracy just what Christ meant when He made 
his reference to the hundredfold. Yes, he wants to be assured of happiness, 
or he won't take the gamble. I personally find this the most frustrating aspect 
of vocational counseling. There is no way to tell him of the happiness that 
comes — nor how much it costs. 

The lay apostolate may be misunderstood by him, too. For the most part 
this, to him, means being aggressive, alert, well educated, socially conscious 
young Catholics. This, to him, is a vocation. He carries their thinking to 
this extent, too — spend a year or two or three in Latin America doing the 
work of the Church. All of this is unquestionably good and highly desirable, 
but it is not a substitute for a life of dedication, nor does it compare, in its 
present framework at least, with the good that can be done by priest or 
religious. The lay apostolate is a growing movement, highly regarded by the 
Church. It may well be another vocation and identified as such, and it may 
well be the real answer to the Church's needs, but right now the current high 
school students seems to be equating a good Catholic life, either married or 
single, but most often married, with the meaning of vocation as we understand 
the term. This is a sort of "All this and Heaven too" mentality. We would 
expect this way of life to intrigue them — and it does. It also gives them a 
very good and valid reason for not dedicating themselves as priests or reli- 
gious — but it is not the real reason. 

Having become priest or religious, we can take an objective look at our- 
selves and realize that this was a hard thing to do, that it demanded much 
more than we had of ourselves, that God played the key role all along. Youth 
today asks questions, wants honest answers. He may see more than we think 
he sees. He may not see us in the same perspective that we see ourselves. And 
he may well think that we are asking him to follow us as we imperfectly 
attempt to follow Christ. We are not asking him to be imitators of us, we 
dare not. Only Christ could say "Which of you shall convince me of sin?" 
But we may not be getting this across to them as well as we should. 

122 Minor Seminary Department 

This ties in with our personal convictions regarding the worth of our own vo- 
cation, no matter how imperfectly we live it. Certainly there are those among 
us who do not have an adequate appreciation of what they have done, and per- 
haps do not understand it fully. These are the ones who subtly convey the im- 
pression that they regret their choice and would like to change it if they could. 
Some young people want guarantees or assurances that their talents will 
be used in specific ways. Making such guarantees is rather dangerous. It 
places a man's happiness in jeopardy, because he is building on something 
beyond his control. No prospective candidate for the priesthood can be abso- 
lutely sure that he will have parish work all the time, or that he won't have 
any of it. No religious can be guaranteed that each successive superior will 
see that he will be utilized in keeping with his talents. More often than not 
this is the way it is, but there is no absolute guarantee on which a man can 
plan his life before taking the step. We can't promise any of the things the 
candidate sees as he stands on the outside looking in, but we can certainly 
assure him that further study, some travel, challenge, personal development, 
status, are part of this life — but he cannot and must not let his happiness 
or his dedication be premised on these variables. To the future Christian 
Brother we can honestly say that we offer him a built-in, assured way to 
grow spiritually, and we can promise him that he will always have youth 
to work with, boys who need him very much. Other congregations can make 
similar promises, in keeping with their particular apostolate. 

I have one more point that I would like to label a problem. Why do not 
our high school students — and college students, too — talk as freely about the 
priesthood and religious life as they discusss marriage? Even if we accept 
the fact that marriage is the vocation most of them will choose, and that it 
is more interesting to discuss because of its emotional and romantic implica- 
tions, I firmly believe that students can and should be re-trained to let the 
entire significance of vocations in general become a conversation piece during 
the lunch hour, in bull sessions, on dates. Regardless of his own personal 
choice of a vocation, he needs this information and knowledge. He needs 
an exchange of ideas; he needs to think about this because some day he, too, 
will be a priest, a religious, a single man, or a married man — and perhaps 
the father of priest or religious. Why cannot this question be discussed in 
corridor or cafeteria? Why are they so sure that marriage guarantees them 
what they are looking for, in terms of certitude, happiness, success? A think- 
ing boy will discover very soon that marriage is like any other vocation fully 
lived. It will have its dangers, its pitfalls, its uncertainties, its moments of 
greatness and futility and overwhelming beauty, its demands for heroism. 
He has to see all vocations as they really are if he is to make a calculated 
choice. It is our fault if he does not see this total picture. I do not mean 
to imply that it is just as easy to be a priest as it is to be a husband, but 
I certainly do say that today's youth has been badly over-sold on marriage, 
and under-sold on other vocations. 

It is easy to be pessimistic about the priests, brothers, sisters of tomorrow. 
However, we would be wrong, totally wrong, to sell them short. They are 
the answer to the problem, and consequently, they are adequate for the 
problem. They are not soft, indifferent, selfish, unable to keep a secret or 
live in silence, blind to the crisis of our times. If we believe this we are 
disregarding the Providence of God. These young people are waiting to be 
challenged. They are waiting to be used. They are ready for greatness. We 
simply have not reached them — yet. 


Rev. Thomas Murphy 

spiritual director, high school dp7ision, 

cathedral college, archdiocese of new york, n.y. 

We are faced with a very real problem. The shortage of vocations to the 
priesthood and the religious life is a world-wide phenomenon. Many solutions 
have been offered but, as yet, there has been no increase in the number of 
priests ordained or religious professed. Could it be that we have been ignoring 
the most important means at our disposal? In preparing this paper one solu- 
tion kept appearing in both the Roman documents and in many of the works 
on vocations. Father Albert Pie states, "When we are what we are supposed 
to be, our novitiates will be full." The Congregation of Seminaries has this 
to say, "It is well to remember that in the ordinary course of events the ap- 
pearance and development of priestly vocations derive from the personal ac- 
tion of the priest as from their instrumental cause. It is an undeniable fact 
that vocations flourish where there are real men of God." Perhaps our in- 
vestigation into the nature of today's candidate will cause us to reexamine our 
life; and aid, by our personal example, the growth of vocations in the Church. 

May I beg your indulgence and limit my treatment of the topic. I have 
been concerned with the training of minor seminarians and feel much more 
at home in the field of the priestly vocation. There is also a second reason. 
I do not think the two vocations ought be considered the same, or, without 
making proper distinctions, considered at the same time. The two are very 
different. One need only read the 538th Canon of the Code which states: 
"Any Catholic, who is free from legal impediments, has the right intention, 
and is capable of bearing the burdens of the religious life, can be admitted 
into a religious organization." The Church is much more concerned about 
the qualifications of the student for the priesthood. It is only when speaking 
of the candidate for the priesthood that the Church in her code of law uses 
the term "vocation." The call to the priesthood is a divine call, while that to 
the life of the religious is not. The priesthood is primarily directed to the 
salvation of others, whereas the primary purpose of the religious state is to 
assist the individual in his pursuit of perfect love of God. This does not mean 
that the secondary purpose of the religious state can be forgotten. It is the 
fulfillment of this secondary purpose which has staffed our schools and pro- 
vided most of us with our primary education. 

For these reasons, I would like to confine my remarks to the student for 
the priesthood. However, since this would be to avoid part of the subject 
matter, I would like to present a few thoughts concerning the religious 

The invitation to lead the life of the counsels has been the source of a 


124 Minor Seminary Department 

great many misunderstandings. The difficulties arise from a failure to under- 
stand the natuure of the vocation. In a recent work by Father Richard 
Butler, O.P., Religious Vocation: An Unnecessary Mystery, the matter receives 
a clear treatment: 

. . . the presumption is in favor of a general invitation to try such a life, 
with the assurance of the necessary grace to persevere. (P. 109.) 
. . . the religious state does not require extraordinary graces or the special 
call which brings a candidate to the priesthood. In ordinary circumstances 
the normal Christian, with the right intention and a will docile to grace 
and direction, can succeed in the practice of the evangelical counsels. 
(P. 130.) 

One is morally suitable for admission into religious life who manifests both 
natural and religious virtues to a sufficient degree and has a sincere desire 
to perfect himself in this state of life by using the means provided. The 
indispensable natural virtues required, according to Father Philippe, are: 
a right conscience, a profoundly honest character, sincerity and sociability. 
The required religious virtues are: true piety, docility for direction, a spirit 
of penance to accept the renunciations required, the practice of chastity, and 
true devotion to a way of life dedicated to the service of neighbor for the 
love of God. (P. 124-5.) 

Father Butler indicates that a great many more could be urged to give 
the life a try, after carefully investigating to see that the necessary require- 
ments are present. 

The Church, in her capacity as the dispenser of God's mysteries, exercises 
very special care over the selection and training of those who are to be the 
ordained ministers of the mysteries of Christ. 

Before evaluating today's candidate for the priesthood, it will be necessary 
to understand exactly what a vocation to the priesthood is. It is a call by a 
bishop to a man who has the desire to be a priest, with the motive of serving 
God and saving souls, and who is possessed of the necessary natural and super- 
natural gifts. 

A man has no "right" to the priesthood. He is called to that office by a 
bishop. The bishop has received from the teaching authority of the Church 
very detailed instructions as to whom he may call to this exalted office. 

The man must have the desire to become a priest for the sole purpose of 
serving God and saving souls. We cannot know the will of God with absolute 
certitude unless He has revealed that will to us. Since there is no necessity, 
according to the teaching of the Church, that there be a divine revelation of 
the vocation of an individual, we can have only moral certitude about the 
presence of a vocation. As far as the subjective element is concerned, the 
first and indispensable element is the desire to be a priest. It hardly seems 
necessary to mention this, but it will later be apparent how important it 
can be. 

Once this desire is present, the man must present himself to the proper 
authorities as a candidate for the priesthood. It is then their obligation to 
tell him whether or not he has the necessary qualifications. These qualifica- 
tions are the external signs of a vocation to the priesthood. 

What are these external signs? There are almost innumerable documents 
from the Holy See regarding this very important matter. One of the recent 
documents stands out as a succinct and clear explanation of the Church's 
teaching. It was a letter addressed to the Bishops of the world on the occa- 
sion of the Third Centenary of the death of St. Vincent de Paul. The letter 

Spiritual Nature of Today's Candidate 125 

entitled "Certain Problems of Ecclesiastical Formation" was published in the 
Review for Religious in 1961. 

In this letter, the Congregation of Seminaries insists upon the application 
of the well known Thomistic principle, that supernature is built upon nature, 
as of extreme importance in making a judgment concerning the presence of 
a priestly vocation in an individual. 

It is often repeated, and not without truth, that prior to making priests, 
the teachers in our seminaries should make it their first care to train up- 
right men. The purpose of this assertion is to emphasize the importance 
of human qualities in the full priestly personality. This is the sincere mind 
of the Church. She demands precisely the presence of notable natural gifts 
in formulating a positive judgment on the worthiness of candidates, and 
these are the foundation, the starting point of the ecclesiastical formation. A 
vocation does not involve the rejection of the human qualities of man. On 
the contrary it places the highest value on what he is by nature and grace. 
The God who gives the divine call is the same God who has bestowed the 
gifts and who waits for the day when these talents show their increase. Grace 
does not destroy nature: but according to a Thomistic principle so very fertile 
in the field of theology, it restores, purifies, elevates and transforms human 
nature. Moreover, it can even be said that, in the ordinary course of events, 
nature conditions grace inasmuch as the action of grace is facilitated where 
human qualities abound, whereas it is stultified where human qualities are 
lacking. Consequently, anything which is contrary to nature has no part in 
Christian and priestly virtues and any educational system which disdains 
natural virtues would be unreasonable and confusing and fraught with dire 
consequences. (P. 172.) 

When these human qualities are present there is a reasonable hope that, 
cooperating with the seminary training, the young man can advance to the 
priesthood. To simplify an extremely complicated subject, the natural gifts 
can be divided into those of mind and those of will. The gifts of mind re- 
quired are those necessary for the study of the humanities, as understood by 
the Church, and insisted upon anew in Veterum Sapientia, and the ability 
to learn scholastic philosophy and theology. The gifts of will are those which 
will enable the person to avoid, with the aid of God's grace, grave moral 
lapses and which will make it possible for him to do the work of the priest- 
hood. St. Vincent de Paul put it very well: 

We must be on our guard because there are many who think that when 
their exterior deportment is correct and they are filled with great sentiments 
towards God that they have fulfilled their duty; but when they are con- 
fronted with the practical work of the apostolate their inadequacy is made 
manifest. They flatter themselves with their lively imagination; they are con- 
tent to converse sweetly with God in prayer; they even talk the language of 
the angels; but outside of this when it is a case of working for God, when 
it is a case of suffering, of mortification, of instructing the poor, of going 
in search of lost sheep, of being content under privations, of accepting ill- 
ness and other misfortunes, alas! they are not to be counted on, their 
courage fails. No! No! We must not deceive ourselves: our whole job con- 
sists in working. {Review for Religious, p. 162.) 

The Congregation states that the energy of superiors must be directed toward 
a profound study of each individual student, "Attaching maximum importance 
to the resourceful energy of the mind which is called will power." 

If the natural gifts of mind and will are found to be present then there is 
reasonable hope that the spiritual qualities, which are essential, can be de- 

126 Minor Seminary Department 

veloped in the students to the extent that they become what the Church wants 
them to be: ". . . men of sound moral fiber, men of deep-rooted convictions, 
prepared for sacrifice and self-oblation. Only then does she feel confident 
in presenting them to her divine spouse for the seal of ordination." 

In order to form the seminarian into a suitable subject for the reception 
of Holy Orders, it is necessary to nourish in him a deep awareness of the 
supernatural. There is no better way of doing this than through a real knowl- 
edge of Christ as priest and victim. The man called to the priesthood must 
be prepared for sacrifice and self-oblation. He is to give himself for the 
people as Christ did. Aware of the world of which he is a part, he must 
yet be detached from the attractions, principles, methods, and facile com- 
promises of that world. This ideal personality can be achieved if by the 
practice of prayer and mortification the student gains a real knowledge of 
Christ. It must be a real knowledge, not merely a notional knowledge. This 
distinction between notional and real knowledge, a very valuable one, was 
made originally by Cardinal Newman. Notional knowledge is information 
stored in the mind. Real knowledge is that which moves a man to action, 
and is gained by a deep meditation of truths until they become a driving 
force in a man's life. Such a knowledge of Christ must be gained and it 
will enable the seminarian to fulfill the great injunction of Christ, "Deny your- 
self." The Congregation of Seminaries holds that this admonition "is at the 
root of all Christ's teaching, and it contains the key to the secret of Christian 
vocation and above all the priestly vocation" (p. 175). The student will then 
be able to say with St. Paul, "I rejoice now in the sufferings I bear for your 
sake; and what is lacking of the sufferings of Christ I fill up in my flesh for 
his body which is the Church; whose minister I have become in virtue of 
the office that God has given me in your regard" (Collosians 1:24). 

How do our seminarians measure up to this high ideal demanded by the 
Church? Father Valentine Young records in The Role and Function of the 
Spiritual Director in the Minor Seminary, the results of a questionnaire sent 
to the spiritual directors throughout the country. The 58th question asked: 
"What do you think are the main causes for boys discontinuing?" Many reasons 
were given. The author tabulates the reasons given according to their fre- 
quency. In the opinion of a great many spiritual directors throughout the 
country, the five most important causes for young men discontinuing their 
preparation for the priesthood are: a lack of mental ability, a lack of the 
spirit of sacrifice and generosity, no vocation, the attraction of the world, 
and a lack of purity. It almost seems that the question was answered by 
referring to the letter from the Congregation of Seminaries. The question- 
naire was answered more than two years before the Roman document, even 
though the answers appear to be a brief outline of the Congregation's letter. 

We can draw certain conclusions. A good many of the young men who 
leave our minor seminaries should never have been admitted in the first 
place. Surely it can be known today, with a fair degree of accuracy, the 
mental ability of the applicant. The presence or absence of a desire to be 
a priest can be ascertained with fair certainty. The young man must at least 
give a strong affirmative answer to the question, "Do you want to be a priest?" 
These are the first and third most frequent reasons for leaving the minor 
seminary. If we are careful, perhaps we can spend our time developing 
those who really have a vocation to the priesthood. 

The question is frequently asked: Are the standards too high? In the face 
of the world-wide shortage of qualified men desirous of becoming priests, 

Spiritual Nature of Today's Candidate 127 

would it not be possible for the Church to lower her standards? The Con- 
gregation has a fine answer to the objection: 

Preoccupation with numbers regardless of quality is clearly seen to be a mis- 
taken policy. The admission to the sacred ministry of men who are only 
mediocre is a corrupting influence not only on the zeal of their fellow priests 
whose apostolic effort is thereby lessened but above all on the intensity 
of the religious life of the laity. This last, of course, is a necessary condi- 
tion for the birth of good and numerous vocations . . . Let it be quite 
clear that preoccupation with numbers, whenever it tends to compromise 
quality, is self-destructive, slowly but surely drying up the sources of voca- 
tions and paralyzing the work of divine grace. Pope Pius XI quotes St. 
Thomas Aquinas, "God never abandons His Church; and so the number of 
priests will be always sufficient for the needs of the faithful, provided the 
worthy are advanced and the unworthy sent away." 

We come back, then, to the religious vocation. It is intimately connected 
with the priestly vocation. According to the teachings of the Church, we 
cannot hope to have the necessary religious vocations unless only the truly 
worthy are advanced to the priesthood. I would add that if the unworthy are 
admitted to our seminaries they will have the same demoralizing and cor- 
rupting influence which the unworthy priest will have upon the laity. 

We are all engaged in the work of Christian education. The Roman docu- 
ments have evidenced a lessening of the supernatural element in the training 
of men for the priesthood. The Church teaches us that there will be vocations 
in abundance when there are holy priests. Each teacher can instill into the minds 
of the truly suitable a desire to serve Christ perfectly in the religious state; or 
to nurture in those who have received a call from God, the seed of the 
priestly vocation. To do so many of us need a clearer understanding of 
the nature of the priestly and religious vocation. This can be gained by a 
careful and thoughtful reading of the Congregation of Seminaries' letter on 
Certain Problems of Ecclesiastical Formation and Father Butler's book 
Religious Vocation: An Unnecessary Mystery. We must also try to teach 
religion as a vital and vibrant subject. In that regard an attempt to familiarize 
ourselves with the systems presently advocated by the world's leading catechists 
would help us to bridge for our students the gap between notional and real 
knowledge. This would open to their minds the supernatural world and I 
think our vocational problems would begin to subside. 

We must always keep in mind that "When we are what we are supposed 
to be, then our novitiates will be full," and "It is an undeniable fact that 
vocations flourish where there are real men of God." 


Very Rev. Donald J. Ryan, CM. 


In the October planning meetings that preceded both the 1961 meeting 
at Atlantic City and the 1962 meeting in Detroit, one of the points emphasized 
was the desirability of sessions such as this in which a subject could be fielded, 
reviewed for fifteen or twenty minutes, and then opened to the floor for com- 
ment under the direction of previously selected discussion leaders. Per- 
sonally, I feel that this approach may well be the only approach capable of 
coming up with solid practical results with this particular subject. "Seminarian 
Responsibility" has an unenviable record and an unparalleled history as a 

I feel that I was selected — or sentenced — to this paper mainly because I 
forgot to duck! However, in common with all of you, I have had random 
thoughts on the subject but I have never had enough nerve to jot them down. 
The experience in a rather large day-school seminary has supplied me with a 
few answers, many problems, and several observations. I will be brash enough 
to proceed with these in the hope that the exposition will prompt answers 
and observations of your own that will make the whole session worth while. 

First of all, I consider the subject extremely important, more important 
today than at any time in the past, and one that will be a mounting problem 
for seminaries with the passing of each day. The reasons are rather obvious: 

1. Because the responsibility that we are striving for is not merely on-the- 
job responsibility, but responsibility that is tantamount to a way of life. 

2. Because many of the opportunities for the exercise of responsibility that 
you and I had at home are fast disappearing from the scene. If other 
opportunities have replaced them, they are, for the most part, outside 
the pale of our personal experience. Transportation to and from school 
used to be our problem; today it is the parents'. Getting to Mass and 
the sacraments was formerly up to us; today they are written into the 
school schedule. Recreation was where we made it; now leagues, pro- 
grams, and entertainment are tailor-made. Moreover, parents and fam- 
ilies themselves have become so conscious about measuring up to other 
parents and families that in many instances the smallest details of living 
are planned out for modern-day youngsters. 

3. Because in very recent years, for both academic and economic reasons, 
there has been an emphasis on size in our modern high schools. Many 
of the reasons first proposed by Dr. Conant and now being pursued by 
the various accrediting agencies are sound and valid, but the fact re- 
mains that while large seminaries may run much more economically and 
may provide for much more depth in the curriculum, that very size is 


Seminarian Responsibility 129 

an obstacle to searching out the signs of responsibility in the individual 


4. Finally, the subject is important not only because of the shortcomings 
we see in ourselves and occasionally witness in our own ranks, but 
because of what we project for the priest of the future wherein he will 
be expected to continue the role of the priest as a responsible leader 
but no longer with the advantage of a vastly superior education. 

The ability or inability, the willingness or the reluctance of seminarians to 
be answerable for their conduct has haunted all of us for many years. We 
were admonished for not evidencing it as seminarians and we have voiced the 
same criticism of our own students. Because of it we have been under fire 
from time to time by college and theologate and we have been quick to relay 
the volley in the direction of parents and grade schools. Perhaps, at the out- 
set, we can exercise responsibility in our own right by ceasing to pot-shot at 
these two for the shortcomings of incoming students. Granted that entrance 
procedures could be improved and that academic qualification and technical 
eligibility seem to have an exaggerated importance, by and large we are getting 
the best Catholic boys from the best Catholic families. I don't think there 
can be any doubt about the fact that the percentage of those who seem obvi- 
ously unqualified is inflated by unfavorable comparison with their classmates. 
This should not lessen their candidacy. It was at one of these NCEA meetings 
several years ago that I was reminded that it is no great credit to the seminary 
to present for ordination those who were obviously qualified from the very 
first day that they survived a cafeteria line. Our real worth as seminaries is 
determined by what we do for those who fall below that level. 

"Scopewise," the remarks that I have to make have as their background the 
high school years of a 4-4-4 system. As a matter of fact, one of the strongest 
arguments leading up to our adoption of 4-4-4 was the conviction on the part 
of many that it would, in the area of student responsibility, set precise limits 
to what the seminarian would be expected to evidence and to what we the 
faculty would be led to expect. I feel that this has been realized. At the end 
of four years in the seminary high school, we expect the seminarian to be 
able and willing: 

1) to do what he is told. 

2) to size up a task, and 

3) to have the nerve to confront it. 

4) to think out his ordinary problems. 

5) to seek help from available sources. 

6) to realize his limitations. 

7) to stand on his own merits. 

8) to learn from his mistakes. 

This is the type of responsibility that we are aiming for. If we don't always 
secure it — and we don't — that fact doesn't make the goal less realistic or de- 
sirable. Presuming effort and good will on the part of the seminarian, there 
is good reason to investigate the part that we play in motivation, opportunity, 
supervision, and evaluation. 

If there is a strong temptation to consign the matter of motivation to the 
spiritual director there is probably no more drastic mistake than departmenta- 
lization of this nature. In the entire area of student responsibility, what we 
the faculty members are is much more contagious than what we say. No 

130 Minor Seminary Department 

matter what the class or activity, the priestly motivation that the faculty 
members provide, subtle at some times, obvious at others, is paramount. To 
the degree that we connect seminary study and seminary activity with the 
priesthood, we keep alive the spark that inspired these young men to sacrifice 
something to come here. This takes judicious work on our part but it makes 
those eight, ten, or twelve years less like an eternity and more like a distinct 

It is certainly apparent that the exercise of responsibility presumes the 
opportunity for the same. The genius of any seminary administration will 
show up to the extent that the seminary program, precise and awesome in the 
catalog, is tooled down in every one of its areas so that there is given to every 
student as early as possible the opportunity to indicate what his present equip- 
ment is. 

This program immediately runs into trouble as we deal with various types 
in various circumstances: day-hops and boarding students, those who practi- 
cally have to be chased home at night and those who make dismissal look like 
a prison break, those who are bright and their counterparts, the exceptionally 
mature and the grade-school heroes who are rapidly losing both luster and 

Thank goodness for the traditionally tough seminary curriculum that comes 
through and performs an outstanding service. It absorbs if not the interest at 
least the time and the energy of swarms of students and gives us our first in- 
sight into them. The one drawback is that this is our first impression and one, 
particularly in these days with the emphasis on academic excellence, that is 
liable to prejudice subsequent impressions. 

Add to the curriculum the co-curriculars, the student councils, the various 
clubs and organizations, the athletic programs, the work orders, and various 
other assignments and it should be immediately obvious that the opportunities 
for divergent interests and useful occupation are manifold. 

But that is not the point. My contention is that the element that is ques- 
tionable, the one that is so often missing, is the sensitivity of the faculty to 
these as opportunities for the manifestation and development of responsibility. 
If we are on our toes and keen in our observation of what is going on around 
us, we will witness the seminarian's character, personality, and traits popping 
or sputtering as he develops in our very midst. If we get caught up in the 
big picture and lose sight of the individual student then there are important 
lessons that we will never never learn; for example, that this year's flop by 
the Dramatic Club was much more revealing and salutary than last year's 
success, that we made $5000 on this year's bazaar and lost a cool million in ill 
will, that last year's rum-dum basketball team were champions and this year's 
champs are rum-dums! 

In the practical order, sensitivity such as this involves: 

1. Interest at the sacrifice and even the theft of our own time. 

2. Independent evaluations of the student on the part of the faculty. 

3. The search for positive signs rather than negative. 

4. Systematic recording in a student's record of the impressions in various 
areas and by various professors. 

5. In almost any student venture, the opportunity to make a mistake. 

Several observations: 

1. Students reach a level where they are ripe for additional responsibility. 
To be oblivious of this or to ignore it is responsible for much in the way 

Remedial Reading Program in the Seminary 131 

of sourness, indifference, or discontent. 

2. As often as we have given a student a responsibility associated with 
a higher grade-level, we have regretted it. 

3. Unless we are careful to vary a student's opportunity to exercise re- 
sponsibility, there is every danger of confusing it with mere interest. 

4. There is a great deal of emphasis today on creativity. Many sins against 
responsibility can be committed under the pretext of being creative. 


Rev. Hugh J. Biggar 


When people are in love and are reading a love letter, they read for 
all they are worth. They read every word three ways: they read between 
the lines and in the margins; they read the whole in terms of the parts, 
and each insinuation and implication; they perceive the color of words, the 
odor of phrases, and the weight of sentences. They may even take punc- 
tuation into account. Then, if never before or after, they read. (Adler, 
How To Read a Book.) 

From Tins quotation it is obvious that Dr. Mortimer J. Adler has caught 
the real secret of successful reading — motivation and high interest factors. 
If our students would read everything as lovers devour their love letters, there 
would be no need for this paper. Unfortunately, not all motivation is quite 
so powerful. But at least we, the teachers, are convinced, and try to convince 
our students of something else Mr. Adler says: "Reading is a basic tool in 
the living of a good life." Without a competency in reading, there is not much 
hope in anyone ever experiencing the true intellectual and cultural pleasures 
reserved for those who can move from the company of Thomas a Kempis to 
that of Graham Greene; from the Utopia of St. Thomas More to the whaling 
ship of Melville's Captain Ahab. 

It is an established fact that the degree of general academic proficiency 
achieved by any student depends basically on his ability to read. By reading, 
I mean the facile comprehension of all the various written and printed symbols 
that communicate the ideas which become the foundation of his knowledge. 
It is also a fact, unfortunately, that 15 to 20 percent of all who finish the 
eighth grade suffer some degree of retardation in reading. 

The common experience of many engaged in minor seminary work is that 
each new crop of neophytes contains a number of worthy candidates, as far 
as can be determined by other external indications, but who labor under a 
crippling reading problem. It would be of no use to us to launch into a lengthy 
expose of the individuals and the system which conspire together to create 

132 Minor Seminary Department 

this situation which hampers so many. The fact is that the problem does 
exist, and probably will for some time. Our question must be and is: What 
can be done to help overcome this handicap so as to place these students on 
the road to achieving the kind of work they really should? 

Besides the retarded readers, for such are these called, we must not forget 
another group, usually smaller in number, but of great importance. I mean 
the exceptionally gifted students who not only have no reading problem but 
are already reading years in advance of their chronological level. They, too, 
must be helped on to the heights made attainable by their high scholastic 
aptitude. To hold them back to the level and speed of the average student 
is to do them a great and unjust disservice. 

Unhappily, in most seminaries, we have neither trained reading diagnosti- 
cians nor reading instructors. What then, in the field of reading improvement, 
can we do for our students? In the regular classroom situation, helping the 
quick reader to progress, the average reader to maintain his average capability, 
and the poor reader to make strides as quickly as possible to catch up with 
his classmates presents quite a formidable dilemma. Let us, therefore, con- 
sider our problem in detail. 

Given the instructions of the Holy See concerning the average ability re- 
quired for the acceptance of candidates into our seminaries, we can, I think, 
rule out the possibility of any really disabled readers being numbered among 
our students. A disabled reader is one who suffers a basic deficiency in the 
reading skills, or has some radical physical complication. People of this sort 
require clinical help. What we must contend with are average students and 
even some of superior academic potentiality afflicted by bad reading habits. 
Their problem will exist because of: a small and, therefore, crippling vocabu- 
lary; or defective reading comprehension; or too slow a reading rate; or an 
admixture of these three. 

A poor vocabulary, as Strang, McCullough, and Traxler point out so well, 
could grow out of many different causes: an indifference toward any reading 
that is not part of an assignment; a lack of new stimuli to introduce new 
experiences and new words; very narrow fields of interest or curiosity; a past 
history of being allowed to skip over hard words; no training in the use of 
contextural clues; or too strong a dependence on learning by listening to class- 
room lectures and discussions. 

It could be noted here that many of the reading difficulties springing from 
a weak vocabulary can be avoided if every teacher would take the time to 
instruct his pupils in the technical phraseology of his particular subject, con- 
necting these new words with existing points of reference and experiences of 
his students, and defining them in words already familiar to them. 

There are three basic reading comprehension problems: 

1) an inability to uncover main ideas, key points and definitions; 

2) confusion as to the author's true aim or purpose; 

3) a lack of critical principles to judge a work as good or bad, as useful 
or not. 

Those who have a comprehension problem have never learned to read with 
a definite purpose in mind. They do not know what questions to ask as they 
read, nor are they aware of the interrelationships of the parts to the whole, 
and the whole to each of its parts. Inferences and implications completely 
escape them. 

Finally, a rate, or reading speed, problem is usually a result of a bewilder- 

Remedial Reading Program in the Seminary 133 

ment concerning the meaning of words or the true content of the thing read, 
or a mixture of the two preceding problems: vocabulary and comprehension. 
A solution of the trouble in these other fields usually solves also a rate diffi- 
culty. Sometimes, they simply do not know that all kinds of reading cannot 
be read at the same speed. 

Vocabulary, comprehension, and speed — these are the three general areas 
of difficulty. But we must never lose sight of the fact that retarded readers 
do not group themselves into neat little units. There are almost as many 
levels of retardation as there are retarded readers in any given class. This 
adds a new facet to our problem, since there just isn't enough time in our 
crowded schedules, or at the disposal of our staffs, to have elaborate individual 
reading programs; nor are there trained personnel to give specific help to all 
the possible types of retardation. 

On the other hand, and crying out their demands in as loud a voice, we 
are faced with our gifted students. Here are the really talented ones, bored 
by the repetition and type of assignment required by their slower brothers. 
They quickly consume the facts and knowledge presented to them and hunger 
for more. They seem to need very little drill. If they do not receive the 
necessary challenge, they tend to gradually become disinterested, and drift 
toward laziness because of their ennui. Among them also, we find many levels 
of ability, and we suffer the same lack of time and personnel to give them 
individual attention. 

And so, we have raised the culprit, the reading problem, and exposed it 
to view. After observing its many faces, and recognizing our own limitations 
in time and apparatus, certain points stand out as being fundamental in a 
reading program for this type of institution. 

First, there must exist a definite profile of the student's potentiality, and 
this can be gained only through testing. Because of all the natural overtones 
that accompany any testing, this should be kept at a minimum. Nevertheless, 
some valid measure of each student's mental ability must be gained. There 
are many good intelligence tests on the market, but I prefer those that are 
basically nonverbal. How can a test be valid for someone with a reading 
difficulty if its scoring favors the verbal factor heavily? A retarded reader 
could not give a true representation of his capabilities on such a test. 

Both the oral and silent reading ability of the student must be determined 
through testing. A test of oral reading ability gives information on word 
recognition, sight vocabulary, word repetitions or omissions, and comprehen- 
sion. Problems of word attack become immediately evident. The test of his 
silent reading ability will reveal a wealth of information. A good test will 
measure rate, comprehension, word meaning, sentence meaning, paragraph 
comprehension, and ability to locate information. These two tests must be 
valid, yet simple to administer, since they will usually have to be given by 
the teacher in whose class the program will be placed. There are a number 
of very fine tests. Unfortunately, more stress has been placed on the means 
of discovering the specific problems of our students than has been put on 
creating programs that will help them overcome those problems. 

Once a true profile of ability is attained, then, the problem is only made 
manifest, not overcome. It is now possible to begin the actual reading pro- 
gram. In order to give effective help to the retarded reader, the material 
presented to him must approximate his level of individual deficiency so that 
he can begin to overcome his plight at the level of difficulty at which he finds 

134 Minor Seminary Department 

himself. Also, he must become ego-involved in his problem, and kept aware 
of the progress he makes. 

He must work on his reading for at least twenty to twenty-five minutes 
three times a week. He must be led to make good self -evaluations as he pro- 
gresses. It is also most evident that the program must be flexible enough to 
care for the ever-changing needs of the student as he overcomes one obstacle 
after another and thus progresses toward his true level of ability. 

The gifted pupil must also be challenged at the level of his individual 
ability. As a matter of fact, his program of development must in every way 
parallel the remedial program of his less proficient classmate, with the obvi- 
ous difference in difficulty. It must be as frequent, as comprehensive, and 
as easy to supervise. Here, also, motivation is most important. He must be 
rewarded for his proficiency by being given time for private recreational but 
challenging reading. He must be made to want to improve his reading rate. 
In this, the reading-rate machines can play a very important part — more will 
be said about them later. Still, we must consider these points not as ideal 
conditions but as minimums for a successful program. 

What Is the Solution? 

In accordance with these considerations, then, what is the solution? We 
know that we must find and establish a program that can be incorporated into 
an already crowded schedule, a program that will meet all the continuously 
changing needs of each individual student. Besides being multi-leveled, it must 
be useful not only to the retarded reader, but also to the average and the 
gifted student. And it must at the same time be something that can be effectively 
controlled by a teacher with little or no specialized training in this field. Sounds 
impossible? Perhaps, but it most certainly is not. 

There are some very good reading programs offered by various publishing 
companies that have taken a real interest in the improvement of reading for 
reasons other than benevolency. Some of these can be used by an otherwise 
untrained teacher in the regular classroom situation. These programs fall into 
two general categories. One type consists of reading texts written at various 
levels of difficulty which are accompanied by workbooks that stress the various 
skills that the reader at that level probably needs to work in. The other consists 
in a many-leveled set of reading exercises, mostly concise passages and ex- 
cerpts: this form is called the Reading Laboratory. After reading one of these 
passages, the student answers a multiple-choice test that includes questions which 
seek to find if he has comprehended the following: the important facts; the re- 
lationship between points made; implications; word recognition; word attack 
(roots, prefixes, and suffixes); contextural clues; synonyms and antonyms. This 
sort of program also includes rate builders and listening comprehension. It is ac- 
companied by a teacher's manual that is full of all the facts needed to make valid 
judgments and evaluations of each student's ability, problem, and improvement. 
There are included the most exact instructions for the use of this program. It 
takes about twenty minutes per exercise to complete the work required. 

The main difference between the two programs, basically, is that the laboratory 
can be conducted just as effectively in less time by less well-trained personnel as 
can the basal readers. Also, the laboratory is more flexible, and can care for far 
more variations in ability, yet not demanding as much personal coaching as the 
readers do. If a student is progressing rapidly, he is not held back in the lab ap- 
proach by the rate of improvement of any group, but moves up on his own. 

Remedial Reading Program in the Seminary 135 

A study has been made on the relative effectiveness of a multi-level labora- 
tory by Sister Mary Madeline, S.S.J., Ph.D. Two groups, each made up of 
three equal-ability subgroups, were trained, the one with a reading lab, the 
other with the reader-workbook approach. The results showed a startling dif- 
ference of growth and ability in the groups, favoring the lab approach. Science 
Research Associates of Chicago have the only reading labs on the market, as 
far as I can determine. They discovered, through the results of much research, 
that the following conditions are most conducive to a successful reading 

1 . The student must start where he is in independent reading and be allowed 
to master the skills of that level at his own rate. 

2. A sequence of materials must be provided of gradually increasing difficulty 
so that the student can seek and attain progressively higher reading levels. 

3. Charts and graphs for recording progress have a high motivational value 
and permit the student to compete with his own record rather than with 
other students. 

4. Procedures that are largely self -administrative give the student a feeling of 
responsibility for his own progress. 

5. Self -correction of mistakes immediately after they are made and detected 
— the feedback process — guides the student's further efforts to improve 
the reading-thinking process. 

6. Materials varied in content are necessary for growth in flexibility of rate, 
in comprehension, and in vocabulary power. {Teacher's Handbook, SRA 
Reading Laboratory, Secondary Edition, p. 1). 

There are many different labs in the SRA program, depending upon the level 
you wish to work with. For us, kit Ilia or IVa would be the basic unit. Ilia is 
useful among high school freshmen, and has a reading achievement span cover- 
ing grades three through twelve. Unit IVa has reading achievement levels of 
grades eight through fourteen, or sophomore college. Another very handy unit 
is the "Reading for Understanding" program. It trains its users in the art of 
recognizing inferences and drawing logical implications from the material read. 

Because of the span of the labs such as Ilia and IVa, all the students in a 
class, be they deficient, average, or gifted readers, can be challenged at their 
own level. But in order to further challenge and help the quick intelligent 
reader, machines such as the SRA Reading Accelerator, the Reading Rate Con- 
troller, or the Keystone Reading Pacer might be added to their program. 
They are especially helpful in getting the user to read in thought units and 
not word by word. They also break the bad habits of vocalizing and eye- 
movement regression. They motivate concentration, since a shutter is moving 
down the page at a speed that demands fewer eye fixations per line, and is 
covering the preceding lines, making it impossible to look back, a habit charac- 
teristic of poor readers. 

And so, in summary, after rather intense investigation of the opinions of 
various reading authorities, careful consideration of the reading problem as it 
might exist in our type of institution, it would seem to me that every minor 
seminary could have a basic reading program that would include: mental 
ability, oral and silent reading tests; reading laboratories of a kind described 
above; reading accelerator machines to add additional stimulus to the devel- 
opmental area of the program; and dedicated teachers who are willing to admit 
their dependence on the teacher's manual for the correct use of the program. 
The program I offer I know to be workable from my own experience. 

136 Minor Seminary Department 


Tuesday, April 24, 2 P.M. — In discussion of Father James R. Gillis' paper on 
"Background and Preparation Needed for the Office of Spiritual Director," the 
following points were brought out: 

The rector of every seminary depends on the judgment of the spiritual di- 
rector. In no way does the rector interfere with him. The spiritual director, 
however, must work in harmony with the seminary administrator. 

The spiritual director must have the ability to deal with adolescents. He must 
help them to develop spiritual maturity. 

A discussion arose about the difference between spiritual direction and guid- 
ance or counseling. No one was too clear on this point. 

Father Gillis told about the Institute of Spiritual Theology at River Forest, 
Illinois, where summer courses are given for spiritual directors. 

Wednesday, April 25, 10 A.M. — Bishop Whealon, a former rector of the minor 
seminary in Cleveland, discussed the method used in Cleveland in diagnosing 
the character of a seminarian. The analysis chart that he proposed was only for 
college seminarians. The Bishop admitted that the chart might be improved. 
However, he felt that their system worked very well. 

Thursday, April 26, 10 A.M. — At the meeting held at the Sacred Heart Semi- 
nary, Detroit, Father Edward Riley, CM., read a paper on "An Analysis and 
Evaluation of Seminary Administration." A lively discussion followed on vari- 
ous phases of seminary administration. 

1. Spiritual direction. In the Sulpician system of spiritual direction, each 
faculty member may undertake direction of individual seminarians. Father 
Van Antwerp of the Sulpician Fathers commented that in the year of solitude 
(following ordination of a Sulpician), the Sulpician Fathers are indoctrinated 
in this system. Another priest pointed out that this system is allowed, by special 
permission, in Sulpician-operated seminaries. Other seminaries must follow 
the other system with one or more spiritual directors, who are responsible for 
the spiritual direction of the seminary. 

2. What about books of individual students? In St. Louis Seminary, general 
permission is given for books published by Catholic publishing houses; for 
other books, permission of the Dean of Discipline is necessary. 

3. What about newspapers and magazines in the library? Accreditation re- 
quires that periodicals be in the library. In St. Louis, the seminarians have 
access to the daily local newspaper, Time, Newsweek, and all similar publica- 
tions. At Sacred Heart Seminary in Detroit they get 263 periodicals in the 

4. What about religion courses? Father Riley, of St. Louis, suggests ascetical 
courses in College I and II. Father Jasinski, of St. Mary's, Orchard Lake, says 
that in College I and II the courses offered are from the viewpoint of the lay 

5. What about the CCD program in the seminary? A show of hands indi- 
cated about fifteen minor seminaries have a CCD program. 

6. What about a Fine Arts course? One priest said that we should let the 
architect design our churches. One protested the atrocious taste in art of our 

Notes on Discussion of Papers 137 

priests. Sacred Heart Seminary in Detroit has programs in architecture, paint- 
ing, and music. 

7. What are the major problems of accreditation, especially in the North 
Central Association? The main thing that accrediting agencies look for is "Do 
you have the means to achieve your objectives?" In the library, you should 
have 25,000 to 30,000 volumes — with the heaviest concentration in philosophy, 
English, Latin, and the social sciences. 

8. Is there any minor seminary library list? Yes, the Catholic University puts 
out such a list. 

9. Does any seminary have a definite set of spiritual conferences? No 

Thursday, April 26, 2 P.M. — At Sacred Heart Seminary. Discussion on "Semi- 
narian Responsibility." There should be the motivation for responsibility. Some 
think that we should give special honors to those who show a sense of respon- 
sibility; for example, to sports helpers, librarians. 

Some suggested that older students — for example, college seminarians — act 
as prefects or overseers of younger students. 

There was much discussion about the faculty participating in student 
activities, such as games, "bull sessions," et cetera. Some were for it, others 
opposed it. 

The question was raised about responsibility outside the seminary, but no one 
seemed to have the complete solution. 

Friday, April 27, 10:30 A.M. — Topic: Remedial and Developmental Reading. 
Father Milton Kelly of Milwaukee was discussion leader. He said that such 
reading is not a fly-by-night problem. We must face it. 

Many different tests were mentioned: namely, Gilmour Test of Silent Read- 
ing; the Nelson test and Davis test (both published by the Psychological Cor- 
poration, 523 Fifth Avenue, New York City); Iowa Wide Range Vocabulary 
tests published by the World Book Company. 

Father Kelly suggested that someone undertake a study of tests for minor 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Ralph M. Miller 
Secretary, Minor Seminary Department 



Be it Resolved: 

1. That the officers of the Minor Seminary Department of the NCEA be 
extended the sincere vote of appreciation of the membership for their very 
successful efforts in promoting the progress of minor seminary activities and 
work, as also for their success in promoting greater friendliness and hospitality 
for the membership. 

138 Minor Seminary Department 

2. That a vote of warm thanks be given to those members who presented 
papers and led discussions at the various sessions of this 59th annual con- 

3. That the Minor Seminary Department and its member institutions give 
careful attention to means of implementing the desires of the Holy Father 
regarding the more effective teaching of Latin in our minor seminaries. 

4. That the appreciation of the department be extended to His Excellency the 
Most Reverend John Dearden for his presence and encouraging message at 
the dinner meeting of the membership. 

5. That the department express its pleasure at the continued interest and co- 
operation of His Excellency Bishop John Whealon. 

6. Be it further Resolved: That the department publicly recognize the warm 
hospitality of the Right Reverend Rector and the faculty of Sacred Heart 
Seminary, which makes the visit to this seminary eminently memorable. 

Submitted by the Resolutions Committee: 

Msgr. James O'Neill 
Father Germain Legere, C.P. 
Father John Hagerty 



Section 1. The name of this organization shall be "Minor Seminary Depart- 
ment of the National Catholic Educational Association," hereinafter referred 
to as the Department. 

Section 2. There shall be nothing in these bylaws inconsistent with the bylaws 
of the National Catholic Educational Association. 


The purposes of the Department shall be: 

a) to stimulate continuing efforts to improve seminary education in all its 

b) to provide an open forum for discussions pertinent to seminary education; 

c) to provide, wherever possible, for mutual assistance in dealing with semi- 
nary problems. 


Section 1. Members of the Department shall be those seminaries of secondary 
or college level (or any combination of secondary and college level) which 
shall have: 

a) applied to the Associate Secretary of the Seminary Departments of the 
Association for membership; 

b) paid the established annual fee to the Association. 

Proceedings and Reports 139 

Section 2. A list of member institutions, with the name of the responsible 
academic officer, shall be published annually, in advance of the national con- 
vention, by the Associate Secretary of the Seminary Departments, either in the 
Association Bulletin or in conjunction with the Seminary Newsletter. 

Section 3. Each member institution shall have one vote in the meetings of 
the Department. This restriction is not to be understood as applying to a 
merely consultative show of hands when such is called for by the presiding 

Section 4. Only those actually in the service of member institutions are eligi- 
ble to hold any office in the Department. 


Section 1. There shall be a President, a Vice President, and a Secretary of 
the Department. These officers shall be elected at the annual meeting of the De- 
partment by a majority vote of the member institutions present and voting. 

All officers shall hold office from the adjournment of the meeting at which 
they are elected until the adjournment of the meeting at which their successors 
are elected. 

Section 2. The President shall hold office for two years. He shall be respon- 
sible for all the activities of the Department, and shall enjoy such powers as 
are necessary to manage the affairs of the Department. 

Section 3. The Vice President shall hold office for two years. He shall: 

a) act as assistant to the President; 

b) serve as President in the President's absence; 

c) succeed to the office of President should it become vacant. In such a 
case he shall hold office to the end of the next regular meeting, and shall 
be eligible at that meeting to a regular two-year term as President. 

Section 4. The Secretary shall hold office for two years. He shall: 

a) record and circulate the minutes of the Department's Executive Com- 

b) keep a record of attendance at Department and committee meetings; 

c) provide for the departmental registration at the annual meetings; 

d) conduct such departmental correspondence as the President requires; 

e) preside in the absence of the President and the Vice President; 

/) succeed to the office of Vice President should it become vacant, and 

serve until the election of a Department President. He shall then be 

eligible for a full term as Vice President. 
g) succeed to the office of President should the offices of President and 

Vice President become vacant, and serve until the next annual meeting. 

He shall then be eligible for a full term as President. 


In conformity to the Constitution of the Association, the Department shall 
elect two representatives for service on the General Executive Board besides 
the President who serves ex officio. This election shall take place at the 
annual meeting of the Department, from the past presidents of the Department 
in the order of their seniority. 

These representatives shall hold office for four years, and may be re-elected 
to succeed themselves. In the event of a vacancy in one of these offices, 

140 Minor Seminary Department 

the post shall be filled by an election at the next general meeting. The repre- 
sentative so elected shall serve a full term from the time of his election. The 
President may appoint a representative to serve until such an election is 
possible. Such an appointment shall observe the above order of seniority 
among the past presidents. 


Section 1. There shall be an Executive Committee composed of the follow- 
ing: the President (Chairman), the Vice President, the Secretary, the im- 
mediate Past President, the Vice President General elected from the Depart- 
ment by the Association, the Representatives to the General Executive Board, 
and the Chairman of Standing Committees. 

Duties: The Executive Committee shall: 

a) assist the President in planning the Department activities; 

b) prepare the program for the annual meeting; 

c) pass on major issues and reports before they are submitted to the Execu- 
tive Board of the Association for final action, or to the Department. 

Section 2. There shall be a Committee on Accreditation composed of as 
many members as there are Regional Accrediting Associations. The chair- 
man of this committee shall be elected by the Executive Committee to a two- 
year term of office, and may be re-elected to succeed himself. The Chairman 
shall present to the Executive Committee for approval a list of members who, 
with himself, shall constitute the Committee on Accreditation. The list shall 
contain, if possible, one name from each of the regional accrediting areas 
other than the Chairman's own. 

Duties: The Committee on Accreditation shall: 

a) make recommendations to the Executive Committee on any matters 
pertaining to accreditation by local, regional, or professional agencies; 

b) report annually to the Executive Committee; 

c) under chairmanship of the Regional Committee member, organize 
Regional Subcommittees as needed; 

d) be of service, as individuals, to member schools seeking help in working 
out accreditation problems. To this end, each committee member shall 
compile a list of experienced seminary personnel, at both secondary and 
college levels, in his region, who are willing to help other schools by 
visit or correspondence. It is understood that schools asking such help 
will themselves meet travel and other expenses incurred. 

Section 4. Any elected member of a committee who absents himself from 
three consecutive regularly scheduled meetings of his standing committee shall 
be dropped from membership on that committee automatically, and a vacancy 
must be declared. An elected member may not be represented by an alternate. 

Section 5. Nothing in this article shall be construed as preventing the appoint- 
ment, by the President of the Executive Committee, of such special standing 
committees as are needed for the work of the Department. An ad hoc com- 
mittee may be appointed by the President on his own initiative, but it cannot 
become a standing committee without the express approval of the Executive 


Section 1. The Department shall hold its annual meeting at the time and 

Proceedings and Reports 141 

place selected for the annual meeting of the Association. 

Section 2. Each year there shall be three regularly scheduled meetings of 
the Executive Committee, to be called by the President. These shall be: 

a) one in the autumn, chiefly to plan the program for the annual Depart- 
mental meetings; 

b) one at the beginning of the annual meeting of the Department; 

c) one near the end of the annual meeting. 

Section 3. The President shall have the authority to call special meetings 
of the Executive Committee as he deems necessary. 


The Bylaws of the Department may be amended at any annual meeting 
of the Department by a majority of the institutional members present and 
voting, provided that the notice of the proposed amendment has been sent 
to member institutions at least one month in advance of the meeting. An 
amendment not thus proposed in advance may be adopted by a two-thirds 
vote of the institutional members present and voting. 


President: Rev. Robert C. Newbold, Warwick Neck, R.I. 
Vice President: Rev. Donald J. Ryan, CM., St. Louis, Mo. 
Secretary: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Ralph M. Miller, Buffalo, N.Y. 

General Executive Board: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Louis E. Riedel, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Very Rev. Herman Romoser, O.S.B., St. Meinrad, Ind. 



Rev. Avery Dulles, S.J. 


When historians come to write up the religious history of the twentieth 
century, will they be able to give it a title? Glancing over the outlines of the 
past, we find no difficulty in putting labels on certain chapters of religious 
history, such as the age of the martyrs, the conversion of the Roman Empire, 
the evangelization of Western Europe, the Crusades, the Great Schism, the 
Reformation, and the Counter Reformation. Future church historians will 
doubtless find a title for our age too — perhaps the age of the laity, or the 
age of struggle against atheistic communism, or the age of Christian tolerance. 
All these are possible titles, but there is one which seems more apt than any 
other. From what we have seen of it, the twentieth century, in its religious 
manifestations, may be called the Age of Ecumenism. 

The very word "ecumenism" is a new one. Many of us are not quite 
sure how to pronounce, let alone define, it. The adjective "ecumenical" has 
a longer history and is used in several quite different senses. But the noun 
"ecumenism" has taken on a rather narrow meaning, proper to our own time. 
It designates that widespread effort which began some fifty or seventy-five 
years ago, whereby the separate Christian bodies have been seeking to achieve 
greater mutual harmony and union. 

We American Catholics, like other Christians in most parts of the world, 
are unaccustomed to this sort of thing. The development has been too sudden 
for us to catch our breath. Heretofore we have lived as a rather isolated 
community, and our isolation has been, to some extent, deliberate. We have 
concentrated on preserving our own heritage from erosion, contamination, 
or absorption by alien forces. We have generally taken it for granted that 
we had little need of support from other Christians and little to learn from 
them. Either they agreed with us or they disagreed. If they agreed, we already 
knew what they were in a position to tell us. If they disagreed, they were 
wrong. Hence it seemed best to avoid religious contact with them or, if we 
did meet, to come armed to the teeth with polemic arguments. Our relations 
with non-Catholic Christians therefore fluctuated between indifference and 
contentiousness. In either case, they were not ecumenical. 

But now suddenly all this has changed. The whole tendency of world 
Catholicism requires us to emerge from our isolation and to enter into cordial 
relationship with other Christian groups. Pope John XXIII, in his encyclicals 
and allocutions, has repeatedly summoned us to have sympathy and respect 
for non-Catholic Christianity. In an address of May 1960, for instance, he 
called for: 


Ecumenism as a Catholic Concern 143 

a real understanding of those brethren who, while bearing the name of 
Christ on their foreheads and indeed in their hearts, are yet separated from 
the Catholic Church. We must bestir ourselves and not rest until we have 
overcome our old habits of thought, our prejudices and the use of expres- 
sions which are anything but courteous, so as to create a climate favorable 
to the reconciliation we look forward to, and so in every way cooperate with 
the work of grace. Thus to one and all will be thrown wide open the gates 
to the unity of the Church of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. 1 

Nobody can complain that the Holy Father's pleas have gone unheeded. 
In the past two or three years Catholic ecumenical organizations the world 
over have sprung into existence or been galvanized into new vitality. A vast 
literature on ecumenism is pouring from the Catholic presses. Bishops in 
many countries — including some in the United States — have set up ecumenical 
commissions and institutes. The Pope's own Secretariat for Christian Unity 
has multiplied its labors. The fact that this entire convention of the National 
Catholic Educational Association should select as its theme "Fostering the 
Ecumenical Spirit" calls for no explanation at all. The topic is an obvious one. 

But, on reflection, is it so obvious that Catholics ought to take part in 
ecumenical encounter with other Christians? Does not this enterprise — so 
novel and untried — contain hidden dangers to the purity and integrity of our 
faith? Can we not imagine the frightening possibility that Catholicism might 
soon find itself caught in the tentacles of a huge and shapeless monster going 
by the name of ecumenical Christianity? What have we here but religious 
syncretism in a new guise? 

Put in another way, the problem may be stated as a dilemma. Can we 
Catholics in conscience admit the existence of legitimate Christianity outside 
our own Church? If so, we seem to be abandoning a cardinal tenet of our 
faith. If not, how can we claim to be ecumenically minded? It looks as 
though we might have to choose between Catholicism and ecumenism. Many 
Catholics feel ill at ease on this score. It is imperative that we should clarify 
our "thinking on this matter in order to engage eagerly and effectively in 
ecumenical work. 

The words "Catholic" and "ecumenical" are closely related. Both convey 
the idea of completeness and universality. But as currently used, the terms 
are far from synonymous. In fact, they designate contrasting facets of the 
Christian phenomenon. "Ecumenical" means, most briefly, worldwide. Cathol- 
icism, on the other hand, means wholeness or integrity. Ecumenism, then, is 
Christianity in breadth; Catholicism, Christianity in depth. Like extension 
and comprehension in logic, ecumenism and catholicity vary inversely. The 
mentalities are opposite. The ecumenical (or large-minded) Christian abhors 
denominational exclusiveness. He is impatient of confessional barriers. The 
catholic mentality, on the other hand, insists on completeness. It is constantly 
on guard against the temptation to purchase unity by yielding on matters of 
principle. The catholic-minded Christian, while desirous of union, conceives 
it as a conversion by which others, individually or collectively, would embrace 
the total Christian faith as he himself, assured of his own orthodoxy, professes 
it. The ecumenical and the catholic Christian thus eye each other askance. 
The ecumenist suspects the catholic of being rigid, proud, and complacent. 
The catholic, conversely, regards the ecumenist as flabby, spineless, and senti- 
mental. The ecumenist is in danger of forgetting the demands of truth; the 
catholic, in his enthusiasm for truth, may easily offend against charity. 

1 Osservatore Romano, May 11, 1960. 

144 College and University Department 

1 have been speaking of the catholic mentality. But Catholicism is not 
merely a mentality. It is also a church, or rather, as we believe, the Church. 
Confident of belonging to the one fully authentic Church of Christ, we can- 
not but be catholic in our mentality. A certain intransigence is congenial 
to us. As Catholics we are defined not merely by the group to which we 
belong but by the very quality of our attachment to it. We are convinced, 
on a motive of supernatural divine faith, of its divine authority. We affirm 
that the Catholic Church — that is, the Roman Catholic Church — inalienably 
possesses the whole deposit of Christian revelation, including the plenitude of 
those means of grace which Christ entrused to his chosen Spouse. The Catholic 
Church, conscious of her unique privileges, can never take her place at any 
council table as one church among equals, nor can she even consider the 
possibility of retracting an iota of her faith. 

To some observers this Roman intransigence has seemed to rule out any 
genuine participation of Catholics in the Ecumenical Movement. A very 
friendly Lutheran critic, Professor Kristen Skydsgaard, once gave expression to 
this widespread sentiment. "The most difficult front in ecumenical work," he 
wrote, "is beyond all doubt the relationship to the Roman Catholic Church. 
One might be tempted to say that the differences here are so very great that 
any relationship at all is rendered impossible." 2 But another Lutheran 
scholar, Professor Ernst Kinder, has felt authorized to speak in very different 
terms. "We cannot do without the Roman Catholic Church," he writes; it 
"occupies a special, indispensable place in a truly ecumenical movement." 3 

Where does the truth lie? Is our presence impossible or indispensable? The 
answer depends on several factors, the first of which is the meaning attached 
to ecumenism itself. Some have looked on the Ecumenical Movement as if 
its essence consisted in confessional relativism. Protestant writers sometimes 
assert that the ecumenical Christian must be ready to rise above confessional 
loyalties, since it seems clear that the churches cannot unite unless they are 
prepared to die. However applicable this may be to denominations that have 
sprung into existence since apostolic times, the Catholic cannot admit this 
of his own communion. A reunited Christendom, according to Catholic con- 
ceptions, will not arise like the legendary phoenix from the ashes of its 
predecessors. It will be an extension of the unity which already exists in the 
communion Christ has founded. 

The Catholic formula for unity might appear to be unecumenical. But 
before drawing this conclusion we must raise the question whether the ecu- 
menical movement is in fact committed to a constructionist (or reconstruc- 
tionist) view of unity. The World Council of Churches debated this question 
within its own ranks for some years, and at Toronto in 1950 reached a nega- 
tive conclusion. "Membership in the World Council of Churches," the Central 
Committee declared, "does not imply that a church treats its own conception 
of the Church as merely relative." 4 A body which regards itself as the one 
true Church of Christ, as the Eastern Orthodox do, is quite welcome to join 
the World Council. Such dogmatic exclusiveness is not considered a bar to 
the practice of ecumenism. 

In its early days the Ecumenical Movement was somewhat tinged by a type 
of relativism or latitudinarianism which could not be accepted by Catholics 
or even by those non-Catholics who took their own ecclesiastical establish- 

2 Man's Disorder and God's Design (New York: Harper, 1948), I, p. 155. 
'Ecumenical Review, 7 (1955), 342. 

* Ecumenical Review, 3 (1950), 49. 

Ecumenism as a Catholic Concern 145 

ments seriously. Partly for this reason, the Holy See initially viewed the move- 
ment with great reserve. But new and better conceptions of ecumenism have 
prevailed. The movement as understood today does not imply any particular 
formula of church unity. It may be described as a multilateral encounter 
among separate Christian bodies whose proximate goal is to enjoy more 
harmonious and fruitful relationships with one another. More specifically, 
the participants are striving, through prayer and study, discussion and joint 
action, to promote among one and all, in mutually acceptable ways, a better 
understanding and a more effective heralding of the gospel. Ecumenism is 
not precisely the same thing as the apostolate of Christian unity, but the two 
movements are closely interconnected. Most participants in the Ecumenical 
Movement hope that their efforts may, with God's help, hasten the day when 
there will be, as a manifest sign of Christian charity, but one fold and one 

The most characteristic expression of ecumenism, perhaps, is the inter- 
confessional dialogue. The dialogue, like the movement itself, is hard to define. 
For present purposes, we may describe it as an earnest exchange of views on 
topics of common concern, in which each participant both criticizes and builds 
on the other's positions. A successful dialogue does not presuppose agreement 
or necessarily lead to it. Indeed, it thrives on tension. But a dialogue does 
require that each partner respect the other and be prepared to learn some- 
thing from him. 

Dialogue can take many different forms. The most dramatic form is a 
face to face encounter between authorized representatives of different con- 
fessions. This may occur in a closed theological colloquium among selected 
theologians or at an open meeting attended by the laity. Ecumenical spe- 
cialists these days often exchange ideas over the radio or television; occa- 
sionally they publish books or articles criticizing each other's views. But the 
dialogue, in a wider sense, can take place without such direct encounter. 
Whenever a Christian writes or speaks or moderates his conduct with due 
regard for the ideas and interests of other Christian groups, he is acting 
ecumenically. In ever increasing measure, the life of Christian communities 
all over the world is becoming enveloped in an atmosphere of dialogue. When 
we propose theological doctrines, or devise pastoral programs — or even when 
we formulate educational procedures as you are doing this week — we feel 
some need to take account of the moral presence of non-Catholic Christians 
as a relevant factor. 

Assuming the basic validity of these comments on ecumenism, let me 
return now to the difficulty already mentioned. It is objected that Catholics, 
by reason of their dogmatic intransigence, cannot be ecumenically minded. 
If dialogue is essential to ecumenism, this objection might seem to have some 
weight. The Church can be satisfied with nothing less than the conversion of 
others to her own faith. In her dealings with non-Catholics, she can make 
demands and entreaties; she can call upon them to submit and return — but 
can she really converse with them? She is precluded from dialogue — so runs 
the objection — because she is not genuinely interested in what other Christians 
have to say. 

This objection rests upon a rather common misunderstanding of Catholic 
doctrine. Catholics, while convinced of belonging to the only fully legitimate 
Church, do not claim to be the only Christians. They do not imagine that 
their own church contains within its visible borders the total Christian reality. 

146 College and University Department 

Authentic Christian elements are scattered far and wide through all the 
bodies that make up the spectrum of divided Christendom. No Christian 
today, Catholic or non-Catholic, is in a position to say: "My own brand 
of Christianity is the only one; all others are on a par with infidels; I can 
afford to ignore their claim to speak as Christians." 

This point perhaps requires emphasis. We Catholics find it hard to see how 
men can arrive at real Christian faith without accepting the divine authority 
of the teaching Church. But we should not deny what we find hard to under- 
stand. The fact is clear. Speaking of such non-Catholics, Pope John XXIII 
has reminded us: "They too bear the name of Christ upon their foreheads, 
they read his holy and blessed Gospel, and they are not unreceptive to the 
stirrings of religious devotion and of active, beneficent love of their neighbor." 5 
If other Christian bodies baptize in the name of the most blessed Trinity, 
adore the same Father, confess the same Lord, invoke the same Spirit; if they 
read the same Scriptures and recite many of the same creeds and liturgical 
prayers that Catholics use, can we for a moment doubt but what they too 
can have Christian faith and Christian charity? The Holy Spirit is unques- 
tionably at work in the hearts of many Christians who are not, in the accepted 
sense of the term, Catholics. It would be unjust, moreover, to speak as 
though grace and sanctification among non-Catholics resulted simply from 
the subjective ignorance and good faith of well-intentioned individuals. To a 
great extent their supernatural life is due to the objective structures of their 
own communities. 

The presence of authentic Christian elements in non-Catholic religious 
bodies is the very cornerstone on which Catholic ecumenism is based. Because 
of this momentous fact, interconfessional dialogue for Catholics is possible, 
useful, and necessary. Let me say a few words about each of these three points. 

The dialogue is possible because non-Catholic Christianity has something dis- 
tinctively Christian to say to us. Of course, all men can tell us something, if 
only by way of pointing out what kind of impression we are making on them. 
But dissident Christians can do more. They can tell us what Christ means 
to them in terms of their own religious traditions. They can tell us where 
we, in their estimation, fall short of Christian ideals. While we may not agree 
with everything they say, still we should pay special heed to their testimony 
and their criticism because it comes to us from a Christian point of view. 
And when it is our turn to speak, we can address them, not indeed as fellow 
Catholics, but as fellow Christians. They can hear our message with Christian 
ears. If we can show them that our views have a basis in the gospel, they 
can listen with sympathy and with a measure of agreement. 

Since the dialogue is possible, it is quite evidently useful. For hundreds 
of years we Catholics have taken a predominantly negative view of all that 
other Christians were saying and doing. We have paid little attention to their 
views except in order to disagree. Their theologians are not mentioned in 
our textbooks except under the rubric of adversaries. Whatever they asserted, 
we have been inclined to deny. By this narrow-mindedness we have cheated 
ourselves. Our own thinking has become somewhat sectarian by reaction. 
Since Protestantism insisted on the primacy of the word, we talked almost 
exclusively of sacraments. Because they made much of the priesthood of the 
laity, we mentioned only the ordained priesthood. Because they overem- 
phasized man's inner wretchedness, we spoke continually of his interior right- 
eousness — and often did so in a way that seemed to exclude all need of mercy. 

« Christmas Message, 1958; A.A.S. 51 (1959), 10. 

Ecumenism as a Catholic Concern 147 

All this, thank God, has been rapidly changing. The positive ecumenical 
encounter of the past few decades has somewhat restored the balance. For- 
gotten Christian truths, too long neglected in Catholic theological literature, 
have been coming back into vogue. There is no Catholic in biblical studies 
today who does not acknowledge an enormous debt of gratitude, for example, 
to German Lutheran scholarship; nor any competent patrologist who does not 
draw heavily on the work of Anglican scholars in his field. In the theology 
of revelation, Catholics are studying carefully the work of Calvinists such 
as Barth and Brunner; and our theology of the Church is being revivified by 
insights from Russian Orthodox theologians such as Khomiakov and Boulga- 
kov. It is a healthy thing for our thought to be fertilized by these influences. 
For as St. Augustine remarked long ago, "Every good and true Christian 
should understand that wherever he discovers truth it is the Lord's." 6 

In the current dialogue, we Catholics are not only on the receiving end. 
Protestants and Orthodox are anxious to learn from us. They are eager to 
absorb into their theology whatever elements of Catholic substance are com- 
patible with their basic intuitions. This process of mutual enrichment has 
by no means bridged the gulf between us — perhaps it never will; but it has 
brought us far closer together than we were half a century ago. This is a 
net gain. 

If time permitted, something should be said of ecumenism in the practical 
order. You can see for yourselves how immense the opportunities are. All 
the Christian churches are presently faced by the stupendous task of bringing 
Christian principles to bear on the burning moral and social issues of the day, 
such as nuclear warfare and interracial justice. All Christian denominations, 
moreover, feel the need of new methods for showing the relevance and 
credibility of the biblical message today. Even where we cannot reach agreed 
statements, we can assist each other in these areas. Collaboration of this sort 
has been highly recommended by Catholic religious authorities. The Holy 
Office, in an instruction of 1949, gave unqualified approval to meetings be- 
tween Catholics and non-Catholics "to take counsel together concerning joint 
action in the defense of the fundamental principles of Christianity and the 
natural law." 7 

But to say that ecumenical action is possible and useful for the Catholic 
Church is to speak too weakly. It is necessary; the total interests of Christian- 
ity demand it. If the various churches work continually against each other, 
Christianity as a whole will suffer. No Christian confession today, even 
though it be the Catholic Church, is an island. None is a mere competitor 
with the rest. Whether we like it or not, our religious destinies are inter- 
twined. Each church, in its way, contributes to the esteem in which religion 
in general, and Christianity in particular, is held in a given society. In 
countries where Catholicism is the only recognized religion, the Church is 
often faced by a large and vicious opposition which is not only anti-Catholic 
but anti-Christian and anti-God. In the United States this has not hap- 
pened. Our Protestant brethren, who make up the largest religious strand 
in the nation, have established a Christian climate of opinion. We benefit 
in part from their achievements. If Protestant ministers, for instance, add 
luster to the clergy, more Catholics are likely to feel the call to the priesthood 
or the religious life. And the influence is reciprocal. If Catholics, for ex- 
ample, are faithful to their Sunday obligation, Protestants will be inspired to 
attend church in greater numbers. Supposing that all higher motives should 

•De doctrina Christiana, Bk. II, chap. 18. * A.A.S., 42 (1950), 145. 

148 College and University Department 

fail, sheer self-interest should prevent us from hoping that Protestantism 
will go to seed. 

Can we give a theological interpretation to this solidarity among all Chris- 
tians? I shall take the risk. Non-Catholic, we know, are not in the full 
sense members of the Church. But they are intimately related to it. If 
they are consecrated to Christ by baptism, and walk by living faith in him, 
then the Holy Spirit, the soul of the Church, dwells in their souls. Hence 
they are in a very real way in communion with us. To make this clearer, 
let us suppose that a Baptist in Moscow or a Jacobite in Syria loses his faith; 
that he falls into agnosticism or atheism. As a Catholic, I cannot say that 
his defection does not touch me. The great continent of Christian believers 
has grown smaller by one soul. One less man upon this earth is adoring 
Christ and praying to Him. We Catholics have become a little more isolated 
in a religiously indifferent world. 

In summary, then, ecumenism and Catholicism are in no way contradictory. 
They belong together. Catholicism is an ecumenical concern, and ecumenism 
a Catholic concern. Ecumenism without catholicity is superficial; Catholicity 
without ecumenism, narrow. More than most other Christian groups, we 
Catholics must deliberately school ourselves in ecumenism. Otherwise our 
very confidence in the wealth of our own heritage can betray us into spiritual 
imperialism or isolationism. Unless we are vigilant we are likely to become 
more Catholic — and less ecumenical — than the pope. By a strange perver- 
sion a man striving to be fully Catholic can thereby fail to be fully Christian. 
As a corrective, let us remember that whatever is Christian has something 
Catholic about it. All Christian truth is Catholic in its source and Catholic 
in tendency. Each Catholic should be able to accept the maxim: I am a 
Christian, and nothing that touches Christ is alien to me. 

But before closing, we should deal with a final objection. To some it will 
appear scandalous that Christians should converse and collaborate across 
confessional lines. Such conduct, it may be thought, creates an impression 
that differences of belief are unimportant; it paves the way for religious 

This objection should not be lightly dismissed. Anything that would 
obscure the distinctive quality of our Catholic witness, and make the Church 
appear to be one denomination among many, must be sedulously avoided. 
To this end, Catholic bishops are charged with the responsibility of closely 
regulating ecumenical contacts. The Holy Office, in its instruction of 1949, 
laid down the pertinent norms for local ordinaries. No Catholic ecumenist 
will have any quarrel with these norms. They are important in assuring the 
Catholic quality of our ecumenical apostolate. 

But in speaking of scandal, we must not be one-sided. Scandal can come 
from several directions. If Christians or different communions stand coldly aloof 
from one another while Christianity itself is gravely threatened, the world will 
not be edified. In an age when participants in every calling, whether they 
be philosophers or salesmen, historians or engineers, hold frequent meetings 
to exchange ideas and to thrash out differences of opinion, religious leaders 
will be expected to do likewise. Should we Christians be the only ones with- 
out the patience to discuss our differences amicably and to collaborate cordially 
on matters of common concern? If we refuse to do so, our reluctance will 
not be interpreted as a sign of strength but rather of indolence, complacency, 
jealousy, or fear. Many will take our behavior as a confession that we have 

Ecumenism as a Catholic Concern 149 

nothing significant to say to each other, or that we do not dare subject our 
convictions to the test of serious encounter. 

Speaking of indifferentism, Father Leeming has aptly said: 

Surely more indifferentism is caused in a post-Christian age by contentions 
and tensions among Christians than by efforts at agreement. One very 
radical cause of indifferentism has been the hostility between Christians, 
which tended to justify the gibes of unbelievers and of non-Christians. Evi- 
dence that Christians have sincere charity toward one another will draw 
the sting from those gibes. 8 

At the opening of this talk I quoted from the present Holy Father. He 
indicates that it is no easy task to acquire the ecumenical spirit. "We must 
bestir ourselves," he says, "and not rest till we have overcome our old habits 
of thought." Indeed, the uprooting of ingrained prejudices requires hard 
work. We are wont to speak of the conversion of non-Catholics to the faith. 
But to acquire a truly ecumenical spirit, we Catholics must undergo a con- 
version of sorts — radical transformation in our hearts. 

Ecumenism, then, is not only a movement in the world; it is a virtue in 
the soul. Its opposite is sectarian partisanship. A Catholic can be sectarian 
in spirit if he allows hostility and resentment to take root within him. In 
our ecumenical examination of conscience, we shall daily have to ask our- 
selves questions such as these: Do I blame non-Catholic Christians for the 
faults of their ancestors? Am I prone to assume that they have nothing 
worthwhile to say about religion, and to dismiss their criticisms of Catholics 
without a hearing? Do I rejoice in all the spiritual treasures that they have, 
or do I harbor a secret longing for their religious decline? Is my zeal for 
Christian reunion tainted with feelings of superiority or lust for domination? 
Not every form of zeal, even though it be exercised in the name of Christ, 
is truly Christian. 

The law of ecumenism, in the last analysis, is no different from the law 
of charity. The best description of it is found in the Bible. Let me take 
my concluding sentence from St. Paul, simply substituting "ecumenism" where 
he wrote "charity": 

Ecumenism is patient, is kind; ecumenism does not envy, is not pretentious, 
is not puffed up; is not ambitious, is not self-seeking, is not provoked; thinks 
no evil, does not rejoice over wickedness, but rejoices with the truth; bears 
with all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things. 
(1 Cor. 13:4-7). 

• America, Jan. 14, 1961, p. 468. 


Raymond F. McCoy 


The subject on which I am to speak to you this afternoon is indeed a formida- 
ble one — the responsibility of colleges and universities for fostering the ecumeni- 
cal spirit. Unfortunately I am not so formidable as my subject. Unlike 
my distinguished predecessor on this platform, I am no theologian — a fact I 
fear I may only too thoroughly demonstrate to you before I am through. 
I do know something about Catholic colleges and universities; but so do you! 
Even here, therefore, I can claim no special preeminence in the present 

In discussing Catholic higher education and the ecumenical spirit, I pro- 
pose to take the subject up in two parts: first, to make some observations 
on the goal — the ecumenical spirit; and second, to make some observations 
on the role of colleges and universities in furthering that goal. 

The Goal — The Ecumenical Spirit 

It was perfectly clear that if I were going to present an address this after- 
noon, it had to be within the guidelines set by the meaning of ecumenism, 
a term which is used in several senses. In one sense, we could mean the 
spirit which underlies the whole coming council, Vatican II, with its ten 
preparatory commissions and its secretariat for modern means of communi- 
cating ideas and its Vatican Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity. But 
ecumenism is also used even more widely to describe the general search for 
Christian unity. As I speculated as to which usage of ecumenism would 
govern the development of my remarks to you, unaided by any advance 
knowledge of the incisive presentation which Father Dulles has just made, 
but aided by a few words of the Dominican theologian Father Sternimann, 
I made a discovery: the two uses of the word ecumenism are the same. For 
Father Sternimann gives the proximate end of Vatican II as "the vigorous 
renovation of the entire Church" and its final objective "to ready the Church 
for a meeting of all Christians." Thus Vatican II is the search for Christian 
unity in two great steps: renewal and rejuvenation of the Church herself, 
but with a view to achieving the internal conditions necessary for subsequent 
developments toward Christian unity. 

Now, if ecumenism is the search for unity in Christ, what is the nature 
of the spirit of ecumenism, the ecumenical spirit? I submit that the spirit 
sought lies in the realm of attitudes. And attitudes are first of all knowledge, 
the product of the intellect; but this is not all. Attitudes are knowledge 
touched by favorable feelings. As knowledge and favorable feelings fuse, 
they are converted into something stronger: into emotions, into motivations, 
into action. They become attitudes. 

If the spirit of ecumenism is attitudes, then our goal is not only knowledge 
and understandings, but knowledge and understandings transformed into 
attitudes. Conversely, the obstacles to the ecumenical spirit among Cath- 


Catholic Higher Education and the Ecumenical Spirit 151 

olics is not merely lack of knowledge, or inadequate knowledge; it is like- 
wise attitudes. It is "misknowledge" transformed by pleasant feelings into 
something which is far harder to replace than mere ignorance. Unfortunately 
this is the task ahead of all agencies concerned with fostering the ecumenical 
spirit — supplanting positively anti-ecumenical attitudes previously developed 
with new ones. 

For Catholics, the intellectual basis for the ecumenical spirit in the practi- 
cal order may be said to consist, in part at least, of such understandings or 
knowledge or convictions, as the following: 

1. That the unity of all Christians in Christ is in today's world a more 
urgent necessity than ever. In the great struggle between Christianity 
and communism there is no room for intra-Christian conflicts. 

2. That the difference among Christians belonging to different churches 
are understandable in the light of historical facts. Put another way, 
when certain new heresies sprang up and flourished, something was 
probably not functioning properly within the Church. , 

3. That persons of other churches are people of good will, honestly 
searching to do God's will. 

4. That within the framework of God's truth, our own Church is still 
developing in the application of that truth to the current scene: witness 
the Holy Father's recent encyclical Mater et Magistra, from the shock 
of which many Catholics are not yet fully recovered. 

5. That tremendous as are the obstacles to unity among Christians, the 
prayerful search must continue. 

6. That dialogue, conversation, contacts, and communications are essential 
to the search for unity. 

7. That the search is not a one-way street. It is not just for the other fellow. 

These seven understandings — and there are others — are the intellectual 
components of ecumenism; they become components of the ecumenical spirit, 
however, only when they are transformed into attitudes. And we do know 
something about this process. We know that favorable attitudes result from 
involvement. We catch attitudes from those whom we like or love or greatly 
respect. We develop favorable attitudes when understandings are associated 
with institutions we are attached to. And we transform knowledge into 
attitudes in other ways of which we yet know little. But transform them 
we must if the ecumenical spirit is to result from ecumenism. 

Perhaps the ecumenical spirit, our goal, can be seen best in some of its 
opposites. Let us construct a straw man, a straw Catholic it's true, but I 
am sure you will recognize him as not completely unreal. He has been to 
college. He has his attitudes. He is a regularly practicing Catholic. The 
thirteenth, for him, is the greatest of centuries. The Church has come down 
to us unchanged since the first century after Christ. The liturgy of the 
Mass, for example, is unchanged. He has studied Protestantism in terms 
of a syllabus of errors. He can't understand how rational human beings 
could hold such absurdities. He learned about Christian Science, for example, 
from the thesis that his freshman apologetics teacher taught him: "Christian 
Science is neither Christian nor scientific. A. It is not Christian. B. It is 
not scientific." Each half neatly proved and learned so that at the first 
encounter with a Christian Scientist he is prepared for intellectual laughter. 

152 College and University Department 

He is well armed with ad hominen, emotion-laden arguments for the ad- 
herents of Luther or Calvin. His attitude toward Protestants is hostile, 
aggressive, sometimes even pugnacious. As America's Father Abbott has 
described him, he sees no progress toward Christian unity except through 
unconditional surrender to Rome. He is an expert on distinctions between 
the role of the inquisitor and the state in the Spanish Inquisition; he knows 
that Galileo's only fault was using Scriptures to bolster the Copernican theory. 
He is an intellectual snob; he is an intellectual bigot. 

But is this Catholic we have just created all straw? Does he at all resemble 
you when you came out of college, as he does somewhat resemble me? Isn't 
he what we must work to avoid if the ecumenical spirit is to be advanced in 
our colleges and universities? 

Which brings us to the role of colleges and universities in fostering the 
ecumenical spirit, bearing in mind that ecumenism is of the intellect, but the 
ecumenical spirit is attitudes. 

• The Role of Catholic Colleges and Universities 

Colleges and universities in this country are particularly suitably organized 
for fostering the ecumenical spirit, or should be! They are devoted to knowl- 
edge, and ecumenism is understanding; they typically offer to students a range 
of extracurricular activities aimed at involvement, and as we have seen involve- 
ment is central to developing attitudes out of understanding. But when we say 
that Catholic higher education is particularly suited to fostering the ecumenical 
spirit, we have not said that it has consciously used or will direct its full re- 
sources toward this goal. 

In each college and university, as I see it, must be the conscious, institution- 
wide acceptance of responsibility for fostering the ecumenical spirit. The be- 
ginning is with the leadership — with the president and deans. For your in- 
stitution, the start may be right here in this convention. Next comes effective 
leadership toward securing institutional emphasis on the ecumenical spirit. 
Faculty symposia and colloquia, faculty discussion of the needed emphases, 
faculty plans for implementation, faculty involvement, and faculty commit- 

Once the basis for whole-institutional emphasis has been laid through your 
leadership and faculty involvement, I would feel that a more specific examina- 
tion of the contribution of the institution toward ecumenical attitudes should 
come. Our colleges and universities can make their contributions in four ways: 
through their programs of general education; through the areas of specializa- 
tion they provide; through the research they conduct; and through extracur- 
ricular activities they sponsor. 

1. The contribution through programs of general education. All Catholic 
colleges and universities have a program of general, or liberal, or core studies 
through which they claim to make the broad liberating aspect of their intel- 
lectual development. Religion or theology is always a part of this core. I 
am not suggesting that religion or theology as they have been developed should 
be replaced by ecumenism as we have defined it. But I am emphatically stating 
that ecumenism must enter into the core courses somewhere, specifically, and 
not be left to chance. And I am emphatically stating that the ecumenical 
spirit must be communicated by theology teachers who themselves have it as 
they teach theology. I am suggesting the delicacy of the task of reinforcing 
the faith of the students in the one, Catholic, holy, and apostolic church of 

Catholic Higher Education and the Ecumenical Spirit 153 

Christ while at the same time supplying the intellectual basis for participating 
in the search for unity. And I emphatically state that this task of charting 
the path between erroneous extremes is no task for teachers who are assigned 
by religious superiors to departments of theology for no other reason than 
that they can't teach anything else. 

I believe it is obvious enough that there are core areas other than theology 
where both ecumenism itself and the ecumenical spirit can be developed if 
the behavior of professors can be changed — as I like to think it can be, to 
some extent at least, and at least under some circumstances. One immediately 
thinks of history and philosophy as such areas. 

2. The contribution through areas of specialization. Remarkably few Cath- 
olic colleges and universities, other than seminaries, offer majors in theology. 
Maybe this fact calls for some study. I feel, however, that the possibilities of 
much expansion in major offerings are distinctly limited, and that consequently 
we can expect the curricular contribution of our colleges and universities to 
be chiefly in the core program. 

3. The contribution through university-sponsored research. The literature 
of ecumenism is new; the field is new; the problems are great. Research is 
needed not only in new theological approaches and facts, but we know really 
precious little about how attitudes are formed, or what techniques of communi- 
cation are helpful to the advance of Christian unity. The importance of the 
latter was recognized by John XXIII when, as part of the preparation for 
Vatican II, he established a secretariat to deal with questions concerning mod- 
ern means of communicating ideas. Regarding the possible research contribu- 
tion to our goal, I have two questions to pose for your discussion: // we are 
sponsoring research activity at our institution and if we are truly interested in 
furthering the ecumenical spirit, just how much priority should be given to 
research projects in theology, in the behavioral sciences, and in communication 
arts? Are we giving these any priority now — even any attention? 

4. The contribution through extracurricular activities. Extracurricular ac- 
tivities sponsored by Catholic colleges and universities give them a particu- 
larly rich opportunity for developing ecumenical attitudes. Through these 
activities students can get that involvement which is so fundamental if under- 
standings are to become attitudes. Here under faculty guidance is where 
dialogues and conversations and ecumenical encounters must come first as they 
must continue to come throughout the student's later life. 

Most of us have the organizations on our campus and the opportunities to 
use them. Only additional emphasis and programming are needed. Sodalities, 
participation in civic organizations, working with the National Student 
Association, participation in intergroup activities, the National Council of 
Christians and Jews, interracial action — these are some of the possibilities. All 
of you can come up with more. The press has carried accounts of notable 
examples of Catholic universities beginning the process of dialogue and con- 
frontation. Ghettos do not promote unity; maybe the dialogue won't always 
either. But it must be started! 

University-sponsored programs for the general community, events formerly 
sponsored by us for good public relations only, may themselves be raised in 
worth and dignity as they become parts of fostering the ecumenical spirit. I 
wonder if many of the same things we have been doing in the name of public 
relations might not find wider acceptance on our own staffs if they become 
genuinely ecumenical; as motives become great, so effects become greater. 

154 College and University Department 

Of course, as student activities become more dialogue-centered, more of a 
Christian search for unity, more confrontation, some strains on public relations 
will appear as some rabid contributors call to complain. Directors of develop- 
ment, even some presidents, may momentarily fail to find a positive relation- 
ship between ecumenism and financial stability. In the long-view however, I 
believe the strains will prove short-lived as the spirit grows. 


Over the years I have come to shudder at the many responsibilities which 
are allocated to colleges and universities. Like other administrators and faculty 
members, I have been subjected to, and participated in, the role of the colleges 
and universities in their responsibility for intellectual excellence, for the in- 
ternational character of world society, for knowledge of the United Nations, 
for developing international understanding, and for many other responsibilities 
highlighted in papers and conferences and annual conventions. Somehow, 
however, this one — the responsibility for fostering the ecumenical spirit is 
especially pertinent to Catholic colleges; it is especially of the essence of their 
job, it is singularly theirs. For the substance of ecumenism is intellectual, and 
Catholic colleges and universities have primary responsibility for developing 
intellectual leadership; the spirit of ecumenism is attitude, and colleges and 
universities have at least the secondary role of motivating to action. The way 
to a greater ecumenical spirit is difficult and particularly delicate to negotiate. 
Colleges and universities have great resources to help chart the path; and the 
goal itself, the ecumenical spirit, is a noble goal, worthy of the finest efforts 
of all of us here in our discussions and at home on our campuses. For it is 
the great business of the whole Catholic Church and of all the faithful that 
the face which the Catholic Church presents to the world is what it should 
be; "that the house which is adorning itself festively, which is renewing itself 
in the spring-like splendor of its previous ornaments, is the Church that invites 
all men to its bosom." x 


Rev. Thurston N. Davis, S.J., editor-in-chief, America 

As we close our discussions at this fifty-ninth annual convention, we take 
courage from the fact that this promising spring of 1962, after a fruitful sum- 
mer, is to yield place to an historic autumn. Why should we relate this NCEA 
convention to history in the making? Because 1962 is not just a year like 
any other, and because surely no congress of Christians convenes anywhere 
in the world these days without the hope and purpose that it may serve in 

1 Quoted from a translation of the address of Pope John XXIII at the closing session of 
the Ecumenical Council preparatory commissions at the Vatican on June 20, 1961. 

Christian Higher Education Faces the Future 155 

some small way to prepare and set the stage for the Second Vatican Council, 
whose momentous deliberations will mean so much for all of us. 

Today our American Catholic colleges and universities inevitably reflect 
this mood and share intimately in this historic purpose. Your work of pre- 
paring the young men and women of tomorrow, persons whose lives will — 
in many cases, we hope — stretch well into the twenty-first century, is a re- 
sponsibility that you shoulder in a spirit of tight spiritual unity with the holy 
purposes and aspirations of the Fathers of the Council who will assemble in 
Rome on October 11th. 

In the labors that it has to perform, that Council looks forward to the 
realities and the needs of the twenty-first and the thirty-first centuries — and 
on to the end of time. Thus, insofar as we pray and work in unison with the 
Council, our thoughts and deliberations here are linked with the long future 
of history. 

Today the ecumenical mood of the entire Church of Christ dominates our 
prayers and our proposals for action. At such an hour, therefore, our colleges, 
universities, and professional schools must move, like a great convoy of ships 
in wartime, on a course charted by the Spirit that broods over the waters of 
our troubled and yet profoundly challenging times. 

Here and there among the collegiate institutions that are — or should be — 
the pride of the Church in the United States, there has been a resounding 
response of fullest cooperation with the ecumenical desires of Our Holy 
Father, John XXIII. This Pope, though an old man, thinks and speaks and 
proposes as though he were in the full vigor of life. He urges on the Cyclopean 
work of building once again the mighty house of a united Christian and Catho- 
lic family. Hf asks the Church to prepare herself to live in a new age with a 
renewed spirit. 

On some American campuses this daring appeal of Pope John has called 
forth enthusiastic reactions among clergy and laity, faculty, and students. 
Elsewhere — and is this not by far the more prevalent attitude? — little or vir- 
tually nothing has been done in response to his summons. Here and there, 
and to some degree everywhere, one might gather that the thoughts and de- 
sires of the Holy Father, which he has tried in so many inspired ways to 
communicate to the entire Christian world, have not been heard or understood. 
Business as usual in the old academic routines seems to dominate the councils 
of many of our faculties and administrations. Thus the master idea of our 
Supreme Pontiff appears to be mirrored in only negligible ways in the day- 
to-day conduct of college life. 

I know at least a little about the immense pressures under which you work 
so generously and with such paltry regard for your personal comfort and even 
at times for your health. You have a thousand distractions a week and a 
hundred urgent calls on your time and energies every day of that week. And, 
as if that were not enough, there is always that solidly packed filing cabinet 
somewhere in your office filled with the as-yet-unsolved problems of last 
semester or last year. No one will deny that your burdens are great. But I 
want to insist that perhaps you might profitably shift those burdens a bit in 
such a way as to gain time and strength to carry still others. Those who 
guide the destinies of our colleges and universities in the year 1962 cannot 
allow themselves to get bogged down in a plethora of nonessentials like CEEB 
scores, percentile points, the design of a new transcript, or even that staggering 
problem of where and how to find more parking space for faculty and student 
cars. It would be a shame to be so engrossed in these and like questions that 

156 College and University Department 

we had no time to consider the meaning of our time and the special oppor- 
tunities it offers. 

The details of academic housekeeping — the mere arrangement of all our 
little academic utensils on the shelves of our academic cupboards — too often 
become the central concern of deans and presidents. These are matters which 
competent registrars would delegate to their assistants. Administrative bric-a- 
brac can exercise a most fascinating tyranny over our minds and imaginations. 
We begin to think that when we are knee-deep in such business we are en- 
gaged in education. And once knee-deep, we wade in deeper still and get lost 
irretrievably in a flood tide of the essentially trivial. I believe this sort of pre- 
occupation is one of the worst failings of the modern American educator. 

What I shall say next is an aside. I call it an aside because I have no illu- 
sions that it will be widely adopted. And yet perhaps it should. At least it 
needs to be suggested from time to time to dedicated people like yourselves. 
Lest the whole of an academic year — and the whole of your academic lives 
year after year — get sucked into this vortex of problems about fundraising, 
or plans for the new student union building, or into discussions about rules 
and regulations and procedures to be published in a faculty handbook, should 
not everyone in a college or university, who has real responsibility for cur- 
riculum and for the work of constantly revitalizing an institution of higher 
learning, be given a whole series of sabbatical weeks each year? I mean four, 
five, or even six weeks scattered throughout the year, when you have no other 
duty except to stay out of the office and even off the campus. This means 
that we have to provide those needed breathing spaces of precious time when 
we can read, pray, ponder, be lazy, do nothing, and try thus to recapture the 
vision of what Christian higher education is all about in this ecumenical age. 
Maybe this suggestion isn't practical or even possible. I am not sure. But, 
assuming that it may not be, then let's do a bit of this pondering right here 
this afternoon. 

Point One. What ecumenical efforts have been made on your campus? 
What prudent initiatives, undertaken with the knowledge and approval of 
local members of the episcopal hierarchy, have you sponsored to cultivate the 
fertile ground that has now been broken in the field of interfaith relations? 

In some colleges there have been technical discussions of theological or 
scriptural problems carried on between scholars from Catholic and non-Catho- 
lic universities or seminaries. Elsewhere there have been informal, but none 
the less real and valuable, contacts and meetings of Catholic faculty or student 
leaders with non-Catholic teachers and students. Where better than under 
the auspices of our colleges and universities can such persons meet and come 
to know and respect one another in the present fresh and warming climate 
of mutual respect that has been created by Pope John XXIII? What have you 
done to make these meetings possible? 

Point Two. The Council will undoubtedly consider the role of the laity in 
the Church of today. How does the college for which you are responsible 
view this question? What is the role of the layman or the laywoman back 
where you come from? Do they have a voice in the councils of those who 
determine policy? If not, I bluntly ask you to ask yourselves why not. There 
are a hundred things that our colleges can do to emphasize and improve 
the position of those thousands of lay partners who share the work and the 
dedications of Catholic higher education in the United States. If virtually 

Christian Higher Education Faces the Future 157 

none of these moves have been made, and made forthrightly, on your campus, 
who is to blame? 

Point Three. Let's talk about the inferiority of Catholic colleges. Rather, 
let's stop talking about it. Let's stop talking about it? Yes, because that ques- 
tion has now been booted around so badly that it no longer has any meaning. 
I consider the recent Time Magazine story on this subject a perfect example 
of what can ultimately happen to a serious discussion when it falls into the 
hands of people who do not know the facts or who are not in a position to 
get them into perspective. 

There are a dozen or more big secular universities in this country which, 
owing to their endowment and their means to increase endowment, have 
library holdings, expensive scientific equipment, and a roster of renowned 
scholars on their faculties that we cannot match, or at least presently hope 
to match, on the graduate level. In comparison with these relatively few 
institutions, and in this respect alone, our best Catholic colleges and uni- 
versities are at a disadvantage. 

But after you have ticked off the names of the richly endowed few like 
Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Stanford, and a few others, you come upon a vast 
number of other American colleges which range down the scale from Class 
One "B" to Class Five. Along with the best of these — and rated as high or 
higher than the best of them — we must in all fairness range our own better- 
endowed colleges and universities. Yes, and some of our smaller colleges 
which, with little actual endowment, make up in imagination and enterprise 
for what they lack in resources. 

Moreover, considering the number of colleges there are in the U.S.A. (375 
State institutions; 12 federal schools; 311 under city, local, county or school 
district control; 520 private nondenominational colleges; 5 Jewish colleges; 
494 Protestant institutions; and some 294 under Catholic auspices), my con- 
viction is that while we Catholics have some Grade Five colleges too, an 
objective appraisal of the relative merits of all 2,011 colleges made on purely 
objective grounds would put the vast bulk of our Catholic colleges in an above- 
average position with respect to all other American colleges. 

I can't prove this statement. But I am so convinced of it that I have no 
hesitation about making it publicly and in very unqualified terms. Further- 
more, so far as undergraduate education is concerned, I again have no hesi- 
tation in stating that, all things considered, most of our Catholic colleges are 
providing superlative undergraduate programs in an atmosphere of respect for 
things of the mind that is not surpassed on any campus. 

Point Four. We are spending too much time these days talking pointlessly 
about the so-called "liberal-conservative" split on our campuses. These "ideo- 
logical" tags (left, right; liberal, conservative) are being pinned on individuals 
and on groups in imprecise and misleading ways. The two European political 
terms "Left" and "Right" have no meaningful bearing on the realities of 
American political life, and they certainly have none at all on the realities 
of the American Catholic campus. The word conservative is currently being 
used to denote attitudes that range all the way from outright anarchy to an 
ideology identical with eighteenth- and nineteenth-century "classical liberalism." 
Meantime, the term liberal has become a kind of nasty word to denominate 
anyone from an A.D.A. sympathizer to some freshman caught reading Father 
John Cronin's Communism: Threat to Freedom, or Pope John's Mater et 

158 College and University Department 

Magistra. In other words, the discussion has gotten all muddled up with emo- 
tion, special pleading, plain ignorance, and campus politics. 

If Pope John and Father Cronin are liberals, then I am too, and I read and 
recommend what both these liberals have written. 

Politically and ideologically, I confess that I take a position in what I can 
describe only as the extreme center. As a card-carrying member of the 
extreme center, I advocate that our colleges and universities stand faithfully 
by our full Catholic heritage of reason — a very precise amalgam of ideals and 
principles that are both conservative and liberal in the best tradition of both 
those words. That program is set forth, for all who run to read, in the social 
encyclicals of the modern popes. 

Point Five. This concerns the rights of the Church herself as teacher. How 
does it come about, in this year of grace 1962, that Catholics, on Catholic 
campuses in the United States, are apparently debating whether and to what 
extent they intend to permit the Pope and the hierarchies of the world to 
continue to form consciences with respect to moral principles involved in 
social, economic, and cultural life? If that commitment to the teaching au- 
thority of the Church is "up for grabs" on our campuses — and in some 
quarters it appears to be — then I say we have a serious problem on our hands. 
It is a problem that will not be resolved by running a big klieg-lit liberal- 
conservative debate on campus, or by naming a "conservative" to be moderator 
of the Junior New Frontiersmen and a "liberal" to act as moderator of the 

Incidentally, what are we doing back on the campus about Mater et Magistra? 
To judge from reports I've heard, the Pope's letter has had rather rough going 
in certain places where campus pundits appear to think Mater et Magistra was 
written by John Cogley instead of John XXIII. Is the encyclical being taught 
in our classrooms, as the Pope explicitly directs (Sections 221-223), or is it 
just piously enshrined in the library? Has it become a part of the curriculum, 
or is that matter still under discussion in a committee that has not yet reported 
back to the dean? 

We could go on and on with our probings and our ponderings, from Point 
Six to Point Sixty, I'm sure. But this convention is now practically over, and 
your planes and trains will not wait. In conclusion, I remind you that the 
challenges of our contemporary world will not wait either. The winds of 
change surround our academic houses and roar onward from every point of 
the compass. If we fancy that life goes on as usual in the stilly peace of our 
cloistered halls, it is only because we live today, in our colleges and universities, 
in the very eye of a mighty hurricane of revolutionary forces. We must live 
with and help to guide those forces. To do so, we must be aware of them. 

The Church of Christ, whose Fathers are soon to convene in the Second 
Vatican Council, faces the future, and all the change the future may bring, 
with open eyes and with an immense courage, hope, and optimism that come 
only from her Divine Spouse and from the Spirit of His Love. We, as faithful 
Catholics and Catholic educators, can do no less. 


(Summary of Discussion) 
Sister Mary Agnes, R.S.M. 


The Ecumenical Council to convene in October, 1962, has two main pur- 
poses: the reunion of Christendom and the strengthening of the Church through 
a survey of needs. The Council of Trent called in 1562 failed as a reunion 
council. In some respects there is set up a "Maginot Line," and for four hun- 
dred years we have lived with a war psychosis, ghetto-minded and insecure. 
The war now over, a new attitude is aborning, and the Holy Father leads the 
way with the Mater et Magistra. The last four hundred years might be called 
the Age of the Clergy; we are now entering the Age of the Layman. Since the 
spirit of ecumenism lies in the realm of attitudes, the task ahead for the Catho- 
lic college is to supplant anti-ecumenical attitudes with new ones. Lay Catholics 
must be prepared to supplement the work of clergy and religious in the search 
for Christian unity. Aware of the power of priesthood in which they share, 
laymen must go into every corner of the world as bearers of the Christian mes- 
sage and as witnesses to Christ. 

In the discussion the question arose, "Where do we begin to change attitudes 
for this world apostolate?" Theology, since it is the integrating factor in the 
curriculum should be the starting point; but the whole college has to participate 
insofar as possible. The Second Vatican Council must do for the laity what 
the Council of Trent did for the clergy, that is, Catholic colleges need to be the 
training grounds for lay "priests" who can pass on the torch of truth, who can 
penetrate into fields that no religious can reach — entertainment, education, and 
government — with the same dedication as the religious. The Christian layman 
must be as committed to Christianity as the Communist is to communism. Are 
we producing such Christians in the colleges? 

To meet its responsibilities in the Ecumenical Movement the colleges must 
first demonstrate that they have the courage to face the implications of the 
ecumenical age. Clerical faculty members must show that they are not afraid 
to meet in the dialogue with other religious leaders. They must be willing to 
participate in meetings with civic and religious leaders of other faiths. The 
Catholic college must face its responsibility for positive action. As Whittaker 
Chambers once said, "What is wrong with modern American civilization is 
that the mind and heart of man resists a vacuum." Youth wants something 
significant to do with their talents, with their lives. Communism capitalizes on 
this; it fills the vacuum for too many; it gives them something to do with their 
art, their talents. Proselytizing takes place in South America because it fills 
the vacuum in the absence of Catholicism. 

To make progress in the dialogue there is need to avoid terms that are di- 
visive. A semantic problem exists in the teaching of theology, giving rise to a 
need for reappraisal in terms that can be better understood by the non-Catholic. 
Furthermore we must not use words loaded with emotion. Students must be 
prepared to instruct rather than to "hold the line"; they must take the initiative 
in spreading the Christian message. But many students lack an adequate un- 
derstanding of the spirit of Christianity; they must understand other positions 
if they would conduct the dialogue successfully. 



Thomas P. Melady 


Many American universities are ignoring the world as it is today. We have 
not integrated into our university programs a most startling fact — the rise to 
power of the nonwhite peoples. What are the implications of this historic fact? 
What is this new challenge — the challenge of the new nations — to our univer- 

The era of exclusive control of world affairs by the white peoples has come 
to an end. This era, which began in Greece and passed through periods of 
unilateral, bilateral, or multilateral monopoly by one or several nations within 
the white community — Rome, Spain, Portugal, England, France, Germany 
and most recently, the Atlantic community headed by the United States — 
saw occasional challenges to this control. But there were no moments in the 
2,400 years between the height of Greek civilization and 1960 when one or 
several members of the white community did not control the vital political and 
economic interests of the world. There were disagreements within that com- 
munity resulting in numerous wars; but white power was never successfully 
challenged by the people of color. 

The basis for the rise to power of the nonwhite peoples rests first with their 
superiority in numbers. As the following table indicates, the nonwhite peoples 
living in the two major locations of the peoples of color, Asia and Africa, make 
up slightly more than 60 percent of the world's population. With the drastic 
improvement in health and life expectancy and their higher birth rate the per- 
centage will most likely increase to 65 percent within the next five years. When 
the nonwhite peoples of the Caribbean, some South American countries and 
other areas are added to this, it is obvious that the quantitative domination by 
the peoples of color is clearly here to stay. 

Population of the World 

Area (km 2 ) Midyear 1959 

Continent (1 km z = .386 sq. mi.) est. population 

Africa i 30,289,000 236,000,000 

North America 2 24,241,000 261,000,000 

South America 17,793,000 137,000,000 

Asia s 27,149,000 1,624,000,000 

Europe* 4,930,000 421,000,000 

Oceania B 8,558,000 16,100,000 

U.S.S.R. (excluded from 

Europe and Asia) 22,403,000 210,500,000 

World 135,363,000 2,905,600,000 

1 Excluding data for Syria. 

2 Excluding Hawaii, a state of U.S.A. 

8 Including Syria and all of Turkey, but excluding U.S.S.R. 

* Excluding U.S.S.R. and European part of Turkey, all of which is included in Asia. 

6 Including Hawaii, a state of U.S.A. 

The United Nations machinery is a mirror of the sudden rise to power of the 
peoples of color. Africans now control 28 seats, 1 which combined with the 22 

1 South Africa is obviously not included in this. 


Catholic Colleges and Emerging New Nations 161 

Asian nonwhite seats means that 50 of the 104 seats are now controlled by 
these powers. With the anticipated admission of more African states within the 
next two years, control of General Assembly proceedings is within momentary 
grasp of the Afro-Asian peoples. 

Only two of the black African states, Liberia and Ethiopia, were mem- 
bers of the old League of Nations. Of the following Asian states only Afghan- 
istan, China, India, Iraq, Iran, Siam (now Thailand), and Turkey were 

Asian nations who are members of the United Nations are: Afghanistan, 
Burma, Byelorussia, Cambodia, Ceylon, China, Federation of Malaya, India, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, 
Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand, Ukraine, Yemen. It will be noted that Israel, 
Lebanon, and Turkey, though geographically part of Asia, are not included in 
this group because the political control is essentially maintained by their "white" 
peoples, who constitute the majority of their populations. These three small 
states plus Cyprus have, however, been friendly to the various overtures of the 
nonwhite states for cooperation in an attempt to bring greater recognition to 
these powers at the United Nations and in other international bodies. 

The United Nations today comes close to reflecting the real state of world 
affairs. This reality was dramatically emphasized in 1961 with the election of an 
Asian to the chief executive position in the United Nations. Could anyone 
believe that this could ever have happened in the old League of Nations or 
even with the United Nations before 1960? 

When these political facts are predicated on the economic realities of 
growing dependence of the Western industrial nations on the Afro-Asian states 
for their raw materials, and as a market for their finished products, we can 
easily understand that there are good political reasons why we, as citizens, 
should be interested in the new emerging nations. 

But we are also fellow human beings, vitally interested in these people as 
people. As people we wish to know them, to live peacefully with them, to 
share our aspirations and our problems. As people we wish to regard them as 
affectionate members of our family. Since a primary step to the development 
of friendship should be for us to know them, let us look for a moment at 
their historical backgrounds, their ethnic and cultural traditions. 

The new nations are full of historical achievements. Highly developed civili- 
zations existed in Africa and Asia before the West had established itself as a 
leading civilization. When the West reached out to Africa and Asia in the 
fifteenth century and later, however, these great civilizations had gone into 
decline. The great empires of Portugal, Spain, France, and the United 
Kingdom first engaged in trade, then colonized these areas. 

A few of our schools have been content to establish an African or Asian 
Studies program. But this is not recognition of what the phenomenon of new 
nations means to our students today and to those who tomorrow must face 
the vast social and political changes that destiny has brought to mankind at 
this point in history. 

Specifically, what is the lack of recognition? Our history courses are still 
devoted almost exclusively to Western Europe. Should not at least equal time 
be given to Africa and Asia — home of fifty nations? Our young people are 
immersed in a cultural milieu which stresses the symbols of heroes and honor 
found in their Western Literature courses. Our students are still devoting most 
of their time to the Knights of the Round Table and the Moyen Age. But 
what about the strong and honorable heroes of the Berber peoples in Mauri- 

162 College and University Department 

tania, the Christian soldiers of ancient Ethiopia, and the treasurehouse of 
cultural heritage in Madagascar? 

We are failing our young people because we are not giving them adequate 
preparation for the world of today — so different from the world of yesterday- 
Old customs, new nations; ancient languages; new power: so much is new 
and we persist in ignoring it. A real danger — for which we must accept 
responsibility — is that our young people will not be able to enter into a con- 
versation with our Afro-Asian neighbors because they do not know about 
their cultures; and since they do not know they do not understand. 

In fact, we still do not comprehend the significance of the revolution that 
has taken place before our eyes. We do not understand the political impact; 
we have been unable to embrace the people of color of these nations with any 
of the fervor that should be intrinsic to our way of life. 

Why have our institutions of higher learning ignored the peoples of color 
even though they constitute such a significant part of the world's body politic? 
Perhaps, as a philosopher has recently pointed out, it is because so many of 
us have in fact equated the West with God's civilization. Yes, it is true that 
many of us were shocked recently when a self-proclaimed Christian patriot 
spoke of the "divinely commissioned authority" of the West. But the curricu- 
lum of our universities clearly indicate that we, while rejecting the "divine 
right of kings" doctrine for our heads of state, have accorded "divine right" 
to our civilization. 

We have so little time to adjust to the realities of the world as it is. And 
the fact is that the West was never God's civilization. In commenting on this 
the Rev. Norris Clarke, S.J., in a recent edition of America said: 

The sobering possibility which we must now be willing to face is that at 
this stage of history the West may well, in God's eyes, have shown itself so 
culpably unfaithful to its God-entrusted mission to bear witness to the Judeo- 
Christian vision of man in a temporal incarnation, that God may perhaps 
be ready to leave the West to its own secular devices and ultimate destruc- 
tion. Indeed, He may be preparing to choose some newly born or newly 
awakened culture of the non-Western world to be His equally temporary 
chosen instrument for a new and perhaps spiritually richer incarnation of 
the divine image of man in a temporal society. 

Even if one takes the more optimistic view that the West is actually 
spiritually healthier than may appear on the surface, or has a good chance 
of imminent spiritual rejuvenation, it would still seem highly improbable in 
the light of history that the West has any definite God-given mission to hold 
the rest of the world in permanent master-disciple tutelage — spiritually, in- 
tellectually, economically or culturally. 

Signs point, rather, toward a new era of world culture of greater richness 
than anything that has gone before, nourished by the complementary con- 
tributions of all the great cultural blocs, either reawakened or come of age 
for the first time, each making its unique contribution as a mature mem- 
ber of the great human family, knit together around the world by indis- 
soluble links of mutual dependence and enrichment on every level. 

Let us look for a moment to the Soviet Union. How have the institutions of 
higher learning there reacted to the challenge of the new nations? 

The Soviet government has called upon its institutions of higher learning to 
prepare Soviet citizens for their work in the winning of Africa. Two months 
after the 20th Party Congress, in 1956, the Oriental Institute (Institut Vos- 
tokovedenia) of the Soviet Academy of Science shifted its emphasis to South 

Catholic Colleges and Emerging New Nations 163 

East Asia and Africa and began training additional personnel in African 
studies. The Soviet Academy of Science published an article describing its 
Five-Year Plan of Research to build up an academic tradition. This included a 
large number of new studies on "The role and significance of Africa in the 
colonial system of imperialism." A long list of these studies was published in 
the leading Soviet ethnographic journal. 

The University of Leningrad, a traditional center of Oriental studies both in 
pre-revolutionary and in Soviet times, has established a department of African 
languages with several professorships. This offers extensive coverage of several 
African tongues including Swahili, Hausa, Bantu, and Sudanic languages. The 
University of Moscow offers several African languages as do the Universities 
of Odessa, Kiev, Kharkov, Simferopol, and Tiflis. 

At least nineteen Soviet universities, representing more than half the leading 
institutions, offer some African languages, including Amharic, Arabic, and 
Egyptian. Five offer languages spoken south of the Sahara. Twelve specialized 
institutes additionally feature African languages. Arabic is also taught in several 
Russian secondary schools. No secondary school in the U.S. is known to 
have an African language in its curriculum. 

African customs and institutions provide so much material for the study 
of anthropology that it can scarcely be taught without the use of African case 
studies. The subject accordingly is emphasized by the staffing-up of Soviet 
universities with heavy anthropology faculties. Similarly, in the field of 
ethnography, a number of recent, serious textbooks have referred copiously to 
Africa. The fields of economics, geography and African Negro art specifically 
are included in the teaching programs. Russian museums now can boast con- 
siderable collections of African art. Source material is being developed. Soviet 
university libraries, judging from documentations and bibliographic references, 
already are fairly well developed. 

There is very little time. We must begin today in our institutions of higher 
learning. The facts of the world today can no longer be ignored. In addition to 
this reality there is also the fact that a delightful intellectual experience awaits 
our young people. New nations focusing onto the world stage ancient peoples 
who remained silent for centuries and who, with a breathtaking suddenness, 
have stood up. 

No one is recommending a complete change. As members of the Western 
community we want to know and to understand our own history, traditions, 
and culture. But we can no longer afford a parochial, isolated exclusion of other 

History seldom gives opportunities for greatness. Here is such an opportu- 
nity for the American universities and colleges: integrate into the curriculum 
the history, the culture, the language of the new nations. The Afro-Asian 
peoples are now our next door neighbors. We must accept the exciting challenge 
of preparing our young people for this new society. 

Some institutions will prefer to look to yesterday, ignoring the significance 
of this revolution of color that has taken place. In doing this they will dream 
about "the good old days." Our true universities will, however, look confidently 
to the realities and see in them the sunrise of tomorrow. 

The institutions with courage will recognize their opportunity — yes, their 
duty — not to mourn the sunset but rather to look with confidence on the 
new dawn that awaits us. And this dawn is a world inhabited mostly by people 
of color. It is our task now to assist our young people to know them; for then 
they will be able to understand. 


(Summary of Discussion) 
Sister Marie Christine, G.N.S.H. 


The Very Rev. A. William Crandell, S.J., president of Spring Hill College, 
Mobile, Alabama, discussion leader of group 2, introduced the analyst, Dr. 
Thomas P. Melady, whose remarks are printed in full above. This report is 
confined to the discussion which followed. 

Dr. Melady emphasized the fact that the nonwhite nations are steadily gain- 
ing control of the United Nations numerically. At the dedication of the library 
at the United Nations, the majority of those in attendance were nonwhite and 
did not wear suits. At a recent meeting, U. N. Secretary U Thant urged a 
predominantly white group to depart from Western philosophy and dedicate 
themselves to the study of oriental philosophy with its emphasis on spiritual 
values, on contemplation. 

The first question asked was "What constitutes a good curriculum in non- 
Western cultures?" A surprising number (about two-thirds) of those institu- 
tions present were doing something to incorporate studies in African, Asian, 
Latin American cultures into the curriculum. New York State certification re- 
quirements for secondary teachers of social studies now lists a one-year course 
in Non-Western Civilization. Thus, many New York institutions of higher 
learning have introduced such a course. Seton Hall in New Jersey has started 
a good program. At Catholic University, the doctoral program in higher 
education requires that one-fourth of all the courses taken must be in inter- 
national education: Asian, African, Russian. In Minnesota, under a Hill Family 
Foundation grant, an intercollegiate program, open to junior and senior stu- 
dents, in the culture and history of Russia, the Far East, the Middle East, has 
been carried on successfully and is now to be expanded to include Africa and 
Latin America. Too, an intercollegiate summer program, called "Amity among 
Nations" and financed by business men in the Twin Cities area, consists of 
travel to and residence in a foreign country and the preparation of a thesis on 
the experience. 

Dr. Melady observed that among the textbooks exhibited at the convention 
for courses in social studies only one gave the history of African and Asian 
culture. He warned us that we must not think our job done by introducing 
a course or a program offered as an elective or even a requirement to some 
members of the student body. We must strive to make these studies, or at 
least an introduction to them, an integral part of the basic or core curriculum. 

Dr. Melady warned us that the American history (and state history in many 
instances) requirement for college students constitutes a problem. It was gen- 
erally agreed that these courses should be well and thoroughly taught on the 
secondary level so that the college could devote time to developing a good 
understanding of both Western and non-Western civilization. Time, of course, 
is the great stumbling block for us. Perhaps, extracurricular emphasis on non- 
Western affairs is a solution. Too, an imaginative director of the library could 
create an interest by the attractive presentation of books, other displays, and 
programs to highlight the non-Western cultures. 

Dr. Melady reminded us that fascination with the peoples and customs of 


Catholic Colleges and Emerging New Nations 165 

foreign lands begins in the elementary schools. The study of geography in 
the grades, if conveyed with sparkle and charm, will sow seeds that will bear 
fruit later. Geography is a very important part of the training of the Peace 
Corps. Dr. Melady deplored the few Catholics who are career men in 
the State Department, on the ambassador level, for instance. Therein lies 
a great opportunity for apostolic work, for the ecumenical spirit. 

One member of the group pointed out that there is a basic misunderstand- 
ing about Western and Oriental civilization. The component parts of the 
first, while different, are basically the same. In the latter there are generic 
differences. Since it would be practically impossible to teach such a variety 
of greatly differing cultures, the goal should be rather the development of 

Dr. Melady brought with him a young student from Indonesia, Robertus 
Suhartono, a graduate of Canisius College in Indonesia, a delegate to Pax 
Romana, now a student at Wayne State University. From Robertus we 
received a view from the "other side." He pointed out an immediately 
apparent difference between American and Russian students. In the Soviet 
Union he came in contact with students who knew his country and with 
whom he could, therefore, carry on a serious discussion. (Of course he 
understood that the Soviet Union regulated his activities, as it does those of 
other foreign students, so that he met only Russians versed in the affairs 
of his country.) In America he is not asked about his own country but 
rather his impressions of America. Were the question asked seriously, it 
could serve as a basis for stimulating discussion but most of the time it is 
superficial. He felt that attitudes cannot be developed in the student unless 
he is given a broad, general background of African, Asian, Latin American 
civilization. This might lead to more serious, stimulating, world-centered 
rather than America-centered discussions between American and foreign 

Non-Western countries teach American history and civilization. Though 
it is true, as some of our group brought out, that it is to their advantage 
to study our civilization since America is a great power and excels in 
technical skills; still the fact that a broad knowledge of the Western world 
is acquired by students of non-Western countries forces us to admit that it 
seems feasible to give students an understanding of a culture or cultures other 
than their own. The final remarks Robertus made, politely and smilingly, served 
to sum up with telling effect what had been said and to link our discussion 
with the general theme of the ecumenical spirit. No country today can 
afford the luxury of isolation. It is our duty as Christians to share with 
others. This we cannot do unless we know something about them: how they 
act, how they think, how they feel. 


Rev. Bernard J. Cooke, S.J. 


The task of preparation for the "dialogue" is obviously one of the most 
crucial obligations of our Catholic institutions of higher learning. If I am 
not mistaken, the question as proposed to this group today was framed in 
terms of Catholic conversation with Orthodox and Protestants. I would 
like to extend that to include those in our American and world society 
whose "religion," if we can call it that, consists in the lack of any 
formal religious commitment and whose ideological option is directed toward 
secular pursuit of knowledge and human betterment. Experience proves, 
I believe, that this group is of great importance; and unless we learn to 
speak to them, we will fail also to address ourselves meaningfully to intelligent 
adherents of religious faiths other than our own. 

For the sake of giving orientation to the discussion that is to follow this 
paper, I will divide my remarks into two sections: first, I will mention 
what I consider some of the areas of information that fall within the domain 
of theology and that are germane to our topic; secondly, I will describe 
some of the attitudes that theology should help to develop in our students 
in preparation for their role in our religiously pluralistic society. 

1. An intelligent Catholic who will speak in a way to be heard by his 
non-Catholic fellow Americans must have a deep understanding of the true 
catholicity of the Church. By this I mean that he must see that the Church 
has within itself a limitless flexibility of expression, so that it can find itself 
at home in any period of history, in any culture or language, in the life 
experience of any and each human being. This in no way takes away 
from the unity of the Church; but the unity of the Church is a rich reality 
that finds its expression in the midst of a health diversity. It will greatly 
contribute to such an understanding of the Church to have seen it in the 
course of its historical evolution; to have discovered it as a constantly 
emergent and dynamic mystery; to have acquired a genetic understanding 
of the present situation of the Church as well as of our present unhappy 
state of Christian disunion. Such an understanding of the Church, our 
theology courses, in their historical aspects, should contribute to the edu- 
cation of our students. 

2. In order to grasp the true distinctiveness of the Catholic Church, our 
students must come to see those elements in the Church that are super- 
natural and transcendent. Lack of understanding about the whole realm of 
supernatural reality, that reality which is most essentially what we call 
sanctifying grace, seems to have been one of the most important thought 
roots of the Protestant Reformation. We cannot look forward to any deep 
reconciliation until our educated Catholics and Protestants recover such an 
understanding. Hence, it is of pivotal importance that our college-level 
teaching of theology impart an accurate knowledge of this supernatural 


College Theology and the Ecumenical Spirit 167 

transformation of man, and that it give concomitantly a precise understand- 
ing of the Church's role in the causation of this transformation. 

In the light of the fact that the Church is Christ's instrument in super- 
naturalizing man, that the Church is meant to express this life (as is each 
Christian in the Church) by continuing Christ's own salvific act of wor- 
shiping the Father, our students can then begin to discover the truly distinc- 
tive nature and role of the Church. They will then be ready for us to 
help them distinguish the elements in the Church's actual life into four 

a) that which is truly distinctive of Christianity and which is common to 
Catholics and to some of the groups separated from us; 

b) that which we believe is distinctive of Christianity and which is lacking, 
at least partially, in other groups; 

c) that which is common to ourselves and others, but which is not a dis- 
tinctive characteristic of Christianity; 

d) that which is not common to Catholics and others and which is also 
not an essential and characteristic element of Christian belief or life. 

Making such a careful distinction will not solve all the areas of misunder- 
standing and difference of belief that separate Christians; but it will clear 
the ground, will indicate the true areas of difference that we must discuss, 
and will help our students to see that some of the elements that operate most 
effectively to oppose Catholics and others are elements that are nonessential. 

3. One of the most heartening indications that Christian reunion may 
one day be achieved is the resurgence of interest in and study of Scripture. 
Obviously, the first reason we rejoice at the fact that our Catholic people 
are being brought to an understanding of the Bible is that it is the Word 
of God; it is the privileged communication to us of that revelation on which 
alone our faith can feed and grow. From our present point of view, the 
preparation of our collegians for productive religious converse with their 
non-Catholic friends and acquaintances, this recovery of the Bible is of 
utmost importance. One of the gravest problems in trying to work toward 
reunion is that of finding a basic vocabulary and set of ideas which both 
sides understand in the same way. Since the various divisions among us 
occurred some centuries ago, we have grown constantly further apart in our 
thinking and therefore in the meaning we attach to words; and it is quite 
difficult not to misunderstand one another's use of words when we try to 
initiate an ecumenical discussion. Only the Bible seems to offer us a world 
of ideas and an inspired expression of those ideas which we can all accept 
and use as our starting point. 

However, such a recourse to Scripture to find a common ground requires 
on the part of all concerned an ability to return to the Bible and to read it 
for itself. We are, Catholics and non-Catholics alike, still a long way from 
possessing adequately such an educated grasp of the objective content of 
Sacred Scripture. Nonetheless, in Catholic circles, guided by the wise pre- 
scription of "Divino Afflante Spiritu" that we seek the literal meaning of 
the Bible, we have advanced by leaps and bounds in the past couple decades; 
and in our college courses we are beginning to introduce our students to 
an educated reading of the Word of God. 

Obviously, there is at stake here something much deeper than a verbal 
acquaintance with Scripture; this is not a question of the old polemic game 

168 College and University Department 

in which religious opponents could quote Scripture passages at one another 
in order to defend their respective positions. What I am urging is that our 
educated Catholics be steeped in the way of thinking of the Bible, that they 
become accustomed to the process of what we might call (for lack of a 
better term) biblical theologizing, that they see the roots in biblical words 
and ideas and institutions of the ideas and beliefs and practices that they 
possess in the Catholic Church. Then, if our non-Catholic brethren do the 
same — and this process has definitely begun among them — we will be in- 
creasingly able to sit down with one another and discuss together the deeper 
issues of our Christian faith. 

4. Men today have been educated to be critical and analytic (which is 
good), and after two World Wars most men have become almost cynically 
sceptical of any religious position that claims to offer an ultimate solution 
to life's questions. At the same time, in his scientific and technological 
progression, contemporary man seems to be grasping more and more of the 
elements that will enable him to build a future of fulfillment and deep human 
betterment. If our Catholic college graduates are to enter into serious 
conversation with the educated men of our time, if they are to discuss the 
important issues of contemporary human existence and point to Christianity 
as the hope of mankind's deepest salvation, then these Catholic college grad- 
uates must see the true relevancy of the Church. 

If my own observations do not betray me, I think that many of us who 
have moved somewhat in non-Catholic intellectual circles have found little 
animosity for the Church or for the Catholic position. What we have found 
often is the assumption that Catholicism has little to say to our times. What 
really does the Catholic Church have to offer the ambitious, intelligent, crea- 
tive young people in our American society? With a lifetime of achievement 
and discovery and enjoyment of the "good life" before them, they find little 
reason to accept the standard religious questions as real questions; and they 
do have problems; and they do have dreams. 

We must educate our young Catholics so that they understand and take 
seriously these questions and problems and dreams of twentieth-century man. 
We must then — and this is the difficult task of our theological instruction — 
show our young Catholic collegians the true depths of the word of the Church 
and the sanctity of the Church, word and sanctity that are capable, if ex- 
pressed genuinely and authentically, to bring truth and life to our world, to 
shape a truly Christian future. The Church is not only up to date; it is the only 
human institution that is already participating in the future, because of the 
presence of the risen Lord in its midst. But, alas, how little of this dynamic 
reality of the Church shines through at times! 

5. One of the questions that stands in the forefront of any ecumenical 
discussion is that of Church authority. Granted, this is an issue that is deli- 
cate, that must be handled with careful precision; but it is an issue that 
must be met head-on if we are to claim any serious approach to under- 
standing with our separated Christian brethren. Our students must be pre- 
pared for a mature understanding and discussion of this issue; they must 
know the precise areas that are proper to ecclesiastical authority in teaching 
and in government; they must understand the spirit in which, according to 
the message of the Gospels, Church authority is to be exercised. They 
must be instructed carefully about the essential super-naturality of this au- 
thority, about its need, its origin, its limits. They must be prepared to 

College Theology and the Ecumenical Spirit 169 

understand with mature sympathy those abuses of authority in the Church 
that have occurred in past history and that occur at times in our own day. 
Yet they must be educated to see what is an abuse as an abuse, so that their 
acceptance of authority may be a dignified and mature choice which they 
can explain as such to their contemporaries. 

6. Finally, though there are areas of understanding which limits of time 
compel us to neglect, our college students must be made to grasp that role 
which is proper to the layman in the mystery of the Church. Their Catholic 
college education, above all their theological formation, should clarify for 
them the understanding of that Christian task that is genuinely theirs, a task 
in which they are to exercise initiative and responsibility that are proper to 
them and that are not just functions delegated to them because there is a 
shortage of priests and religious. With increased awareness that he is to 
participate in the apostolate of the Church, our generous Catholic student is 
eager for action; but his activity must be directed by a correct vision of the 
priestly role of the Church, by a clear knowledge of the contribution that he 
alone can bring to the fulfillment of the Church's life and work: this our 
college courses in theology should provide. 

The Attitudes That Are Needed 

These are, then, some of the areas of understanding that our college courses 
in theology should develop in our students. In addition to these rather 
clear-cut objectives, our theological instruction must also feed into the some- 
what vaguer region of attitudes that come into play in ecumenical discourse. 
Without being able to state sharply the part that theology classes should play 
in developing such attitudes, let me state simply and briefly the attitudes that 
I think our students must acquire: 

1. All those who would contribute with profit to the gradual healing of 
Christian disunity must have true openness of mind. They must be capable 
of understanding the problems and points of view of others as being true 
problems and worthwhile points of view. They must have that deep regard 
for others, that charity, which enables them to believe that others have a basis 
for their religious positions other than ignorance of truth. They must have 
an unfeigned interest in discovering the ideas of others, they must come to 
that knowledge of their fellow man that is inseparable from love. 

Such an openness to opinions opposed to Catholic belief is dangerous? 
Yes, it is for one who is poorly educated in his faith, or for one who is not 
humble enough to realize that Catholic faith has more to say than his own 
rather limited possession of knowledge about that faith. Yet we must com- 
municate to our students that courageous trust in the truth of our Catholic 
belief that will enable them to become the leaven in the midst of the intellectual 
dough of today's world. 

2. Our students must be formed so that they look at their world, at their 
Catholic faith, at the Church, honestly. Without cynicism or rancor, they 
must be mature enough to face the mistakes of the past and the present. They 
must be instructed so that they recognize the areas of Catholic opinion that 
are only opinion — even if theological opinion — and those that are of faith. 
They must be trained — particularly in our day when the need is so great to 
think through the ways in which the visible aspects of the Church can be 
made meaningful to men — to recognize those elements in the Church's life 

170 College and University Department 

that are ephemeral and due to natural cultures, and to distinguish them from 
those unchanging elements that are of the essence of the Church of Christ. 
This point I list under attitudes rather than under information, because I 
think that it is important to realize that such an objective view of the Church 
requires honesty that is somewhat rare and courage that comes only from 
the supernatural virtue of hope. 

3. Our theological instruction must help to lay the roots of an adult, Christ- 
centered spirituality. Moreover, our theology courses should gradually lead 
our students to that intelligent expression of their freedom in sacramental 
action that is the true heart of Christian sanctity. An approach to spirituality 
that is isolated and individualistic, that is mired in a multiplicity of devotional 
practices that are unrelated to the central Christian mysteries, is neither 
deeply Christian, nor in line with the trend of the Spirit's workings in the 
Church today. 

Besides — and this is the precise aspect that touches on our topic — such 
a spirituality is not attractive because it does not reveal Christ to the world. 
The function of the Church in the world is to witness to Christ; only when 
the spirituality of Catholics provides such an adult witness will the mystery 
of Christ shine through to attract men to the Church. 

4. Finally, our students must themselves grasp the pertinence of faith and 
religion in their own lives: How else can they pretend to their fellows that 
religion is of value to our world? Our students must really see that theology 
is central and essential to their entire intellectual existence; they must, as 
educated men, see their faith as the pearl of great price. Thoroughly con- 
vinced that Christianity is the hope of transforming our emerging world, they 
will be enabled with quiet yet effective words to present to educated men 
of our day the true face of God. 

Such are, as I see them, some of the tasks that challenge college theology 
today. If we be honest, we must admit that we are not completely ready 
to meet the challenge; we have been alerted to it late, and in some quarters 
the alert has not yet sounded. Yet somehow, trusting in the providence of 
God, we must face the task, knowing that the opportunity and the need are 
too great for us to take cowardly refuge in our weakness. 


(Summary of Discussion) 
Sister Stella Maris, O.P. 


The first question discussed, and the one receiving the most attention, con- 
cerned ways of providing factual information regarding non-Catholic religious 
thought for our students, especially by inviting representative Protestant and 

College Theology and the Ecumenical Spirit 111 

Jewish speakers to our campuses. This summary will note the arguments pro 
and con, the clarifications resulting from the discussion, and the all-important 
point of episcopal permission. 

This type of program has proved popular with students. They sometimes 
suspect that their instructors are not stating fairly the non-Catholic positions, 
and this program convinces them. Again, the trite summaries in textbooks 
often appear to pass off the whole body of opposition as stupid; this program 
inspires respect for the sincerity of others who are deeply concerned with the 
search for truth. It is good for our students to recognize and respect the 
problems of an agonizing search, and to become aware that the profound 
religious questions of others are our profound religious questions also. 

It was objected that the program might lead to loss of faith by some stu- 
dents, or might lead them to think that religious truth is a matter of opinion 
rather than of fact. Regarding the safeguarding of faith, it was pointed out 
that the college must select to present the Catholic position a priest who can 
communicate with the students. Regarding truth, of course there is objective 
truth, but the approach to truth, on the Catholic side as well as the non- 
Catholic, might well be a sympathetic discussion of each other's opinion. 
Catholics might look not merely for errors, but for elements of truth which 
both sides share. 

Questions were raised on openness of mind. Do our teachers have it? Can 
we give it to students? Dare we encourage mistake-making as a road to cer- 
tainty? Father Cooke's reply indicated that we should encourage not mistake- 
making but the recognition of ignorance. The Church has the answer to all 
the problems, but no individual here and now has a clear and complete under- 
standing of that answer. Some other group may be developing points which 
are providentially designed to contribute to our understanding. 

It is generally recognized that a large proportion of the more intelligent 
students go through a crisis of faith during their college years. It is well to 
mention this fact to freshmen, so that they may come to look on it as a sign 
of maturity rather than of loss of faith. 

The discussion led to a clarification of the purpose of the dialogue. We 
are trying to grow in understanding. Conversion is God's work, and no one 
knows how or when it will be accomplished. For an example of the unfor- 
seeable action of Providence in an historical fact, it was pointed out that the 
dreadful phenomenon of nazism brought Protestants and Catholics to a greater 
mutual understanding through discussion. 

The attitude of the bishops of the country was found to vary considerably, 
but a number of institutions reported that they had obtained permission for 
this dialogue with some regulations concerning the program or the audience. 
It was suggested that the Chairman of this group request the Resolutions Com- 
mittee to take action which would inform the hierarchy of the general desire 
of the colleges to engage in this type of activity. The bishops would thus be 
prepared for the requests they will receive from individual colleges, and will 
recognize them as part of a national pattern. 

One further question was raised: If suitable speakers are not available, what 
printed materials will help to fill the gap? Several titles were mentioned: 

1. Christianity Divided: Protestant and Roman Catholic Theological Issues, 
Daniel Callahan, ed., (Sheed and Ward). Five major theological issues 
are treated in turn by an outstanding Protestant and an outstanding 
Catholic theologian. 

172 College and University Department 

2. Christianity in Conflict: A Catholic View of Protestantism, by Father 
John A. Hardon (Newman Press). This book was well reviewed in both 
Protestant and Catholic media. 

3. Krull's Christian Denominations, which, though not up-to-date, is basic 
and sound. 

Question 2 on the theological course brought discussion of the relative merits 
of the biblical, historical, and doctrinal approaches. Father Cooke remarked 
that the exact sequence of courses is not of the essence, but that good theo- 
logical teaching includes all approaches. Scripture and tradition are not op- 
posed, although this unfortunate impression is sometimes conveyed. The 
purpose of theology is to make understandable to man the ways of God. 

Question 3 on apologetics raised the point that there are three understand- 
ings of this term, frequently confused by textbooks. There is need of clarifying 
the purpose of the courses given. It was pointed out that statements should 
be definitely classified as opinion, fact, or defined dogma. Many of the differ- 
ences which separate people are nonessentials wrongly regarded as essentials. 


Philip Scharper 
american editor, sheed and ward, inc., new york, n.y. 

This paper will attempt to approach the subject from the vantage point of 
both history and philosophy. It will deal first with the role of the intellectual 
in the Church as history demonstrates that role, and will then attempt to show 
why an examination of the nature of truth and man's grasp of it makes neces- 
sary the openness of mind indicated in the title. 

The Historical Survey 

History would seem to indicate that, almost from its origins, Christianity 
was deeply divided on the question of how the truths of revelation should 
color the approach of the Christians to the truths of the non-Christian world. 
Tertullian (and his many successors over the centuries) gave an emphatic 
answer in the negative. "What possible relationship can there be between 
Athens and Jerusalem?" he asked, and hundreds of sincere Christians have 
been repeating that question ever since. 

The decision of Tertullian was not, however, to prove definitely strategic 
or normative. Thinkers such as Clement, Ignatius, and Basil were to prove 
paradigmatic and, as a consequence, the startling capacity of Christianity for 
assimilation and synthesis was to be shown again and again in the Church's 
historical confrontation first with the Greek world and then with the bar- 

While other figures in this 'open tradition' could be cited, it may perhaps 

Open Tradition in Catholic Scholarship 173 

be most illuminating briefly to dwell on the example of Thomas Aquinas who, 
in his major works, was conducting a living dialogue with the world of Greek 
thought (Plato, Aristotle); of Arabian thought (Averroes, Avicenna); and 
post-biblical Hebrew thought (Maimonides), even as he himself stood within 
the center of Catholic thought. 

Philosophical Inquiry 

The historical record, interesting and illuminating though it be, is not enough 
to be finally persuasive, let alone convictive, with regard to the nature or 
seeming necessity of the open tradition in Catholic thought. The historical 
record itself would seem to demand a deeper reason for its being, and this 
deeper reason can be found, perhaps, in the very nature of truth. The human 
mind is painfully finite, and it operates, for the most part, on objects which 
are themselves finite and limited. The objects of our thought and the mind 
which thinks are alike creatures thrust into the universe by the hand of the 
same Creator. 

Given this fact, known to us by both reason and revelation, we would seem 
forced to the conclusion that we cannot exhaust the truth of even the simplest 
reality with our finite minds, although the temptation to think that we have 
exhausted the cognoscible possibilities of an object continually besets the 
scholar as well as his student. 

Further, given this relation, rooted in finitude, between the thinker and 
the object of his thought, it is also evident that the life of the mind, the pur- 
suit of truth, is actually the life of many minds; that it is, in fact, a communal 
process. Wordsworth's description of a bust of Newton as "the marble index 
of a mind/ forever voyaging on strange seas of thought alone" makes reason- 
ably nice poetry, but bad history and philosophy. Certainly Aquinas did not 
voyage alone, but was accompanied by the Fathers and doctors who had pre- 
ceded him in the Faith, by exegetes and scholars whose work was known to 
him, as well as by the non-Christian thinkers who have been cited earlier. 

If the pursuit of truth is, then, the work of a community of thinkers, we 
have no warrant, in either revelation or reason, for assuming that this com- 
munity must be a community of the religiously elect such as either the old 
or the new Israel. 

So true is this that we are forced rather to the opposite conclusion, namely, 
that we must make a constant effort to relate our theology to the spheres of 
secular knowledge — not, indeed, to elevate and bless the secular sciences, but 
to enable us more fully to interpret and possess our theology. 


(Summary of Discussion) 
Sister Joan Marie, O.S.U. 


The meeting was opened by the chairman who posed the problem, "Are 
we begging the question in Catholic scholarship?" Catholics claim to have 
an open tradition, yet people point a finger of scorn at us asking about the 
indexed books, the Inquisition, Galileo, and a ghetto mentality. Too often 
we give pat answers. Is the tradition of Catholic scholarship open or closed? 

The analyst, Mr. Philip Scharper, suggested answers to this question in his 
paper which described the open tradition from two points of view: (1) a 
brief historical survey of the open tradition as it is found in the history of 
Catholic thought, and (2) a philosophical consideration concerning the neces- 
sity of the tradition. The open tradition was defined as "an openness of mind 
and a capacity equal to that of anyone to follow the truth wherever it may 
seem to lead." This openness of mind, however, has not always been the con- 
sistent and unfailing hallmark of the Catholic mind in history. At times there 
has been ambivalence: an anti-intellectual attitude toward pagan scholarship, 
as Tertullian with his belief that "we have no need of intellectual curiosity 
after Christ," and the open mind with its love of wisdom searching from 
school to school for all knowledge and truth whose source is God, such as 
the tradition of Augustine, Thomas, and Erasmus. 

Philosophically, the open tradition is necessary since the pursuit of the true 
life of the mind is a communal effort, the life of many minds. Since the search 
for truth engages a community of thinkers, it has no warrant on revelation 
or on a body of religious-elect. Truth must be sought and it must extend to 
all that is knowable in every field where Catholic scholarship may be exer- 
cised. It has to move beyond the historical and philosophical to a theological 
insight into the open tradition. 

The discussion, which followed the presentation of Mr. Scharper's paper, 
gradually resolved itself into the two areas which he pinpointed, the historical 
and the philosophical. Some of the problems raised suggested the existence 
at present of a dilemma similar to that ambivalence which faced the medieval 
scholar. It was agreed that an openness of mind does exist and is being en- 
couraged by such performances as the inter-faith dialogues and by such recent 
publications as American Catholic Dilemma, Counter Reform and Union, and 
the Spirit and Form of Protestantism. The controversial issues faced in these 
works permit a more open dialogue with our opponents and, consequently, 
a more extensive pursuit of truth. On the other hand, the restrictions of the 
Index prove to be one of the most serious problems in scholarly pursuit in 
Catholic institutions. Unless some better method of making this type of litera- 
ture available is found, the proper advance in intellectual inquiries cannot be 
made; the Index prevents that dialogue which is at the heart of the Ecumenical 

The significance of the Index in the open tradition is closely related to the 
teaching of philosophy in our Catholic colleges and universities. Catholic 
students are poorly prepared to enter state universities because they have a 


Ecumenism and the Community Spirit 175 

serious lack of knowledge of the philosophies taught in these institutions. 
Books on the Index are like pocket books in these schools; they are assigned 
to be read, and the Catholic, incompetent to meet with such a situation, im- 
bibes their spirit and often loses his faith. 

Why are students so poorly prepared? The fault is with method not con- 
tent; there is a tendency to give immense provocative truths to our students 
in a canned form which they cannot understand because they are bound by 
precise terms and the "isms" of a mind less open than that of St. Thomas. 
Contending philosophies must be dealt with in the positive constructive man- 
ner of Thomas so that inquiry might move forward. The pursuit of truth 
must move forward in all the areas where knowledge is found: this calls for 
something of the inquiring spirit of St. Thomas and for his share of God's 
knowledge through reason. 

As educators, our own concern within the life of Catholic scholarship, how- 
ever small the contribution, is to endeavor to create the climate of the open 
tradition on our own campus and in our classrooms. This climate will serve 
to encourage the student with the creative mind, not restrict him. We have 
no choice but to embrace the open tradition, to attempt to correlate our theol- 
ogy with secular fields of knowledge. This not merely that we might bless, 
elevate, consecrate secular fields of knowledge but that we might interpret 
and possess our theology at its fullest. 

Do we dare to put the words of Terence, "I am a man and nothing which 
touches man is foreign to me," on the lips of the Incarnate Christ, on the lips 
of the Christian scholar? "I, if I be lifted up, will draw all things to Myself." 
Let us put no arbitrary provisions on the omnia which Christ is constantly, 
mysteriously drawing to Himself. 


Sister M. Stephanie Stueber, C.S.J. 


Were we this afternoon to compare the educational plans, the objectives, 
the aims of our various colleges, we undoubtedly — at least, I hope — would 
agree that a true college education is identical with the intellectual life. As 
college people we are concerned with seeing relationships, getting at basic 
principles, arriving at ultimate causes. With Newman, whose insights into 
higher education have the respect of all respectable thinkers on the subject, 
we would plead, not for mere knowledge, but for enlightenment or enlarge- 
ment of mind, intellectual culture, a real illumination, an expansion that sees 
the part in relation to the whole, effect in relation to cause. Again with New- 
man we would maintain "That only is true enlargement of mind which is 
the power of viewing many things at once as one whole, of referring them 

176 College and University Department 

severally to their true place in the universal system, of understanding their 
respective values, and determining their mutual dependence" (Idea of a Uni- 
versity, VI, 6). 

This growing intellectual expansion which enables one to relate truths, to 
see their mutual dependence, to refer them to a total cosmic vision of reality 
— this is essential not only to the nature of a real college education but also 
to ecumenism and the community spirit. There is no sense at all in talking 
about "preparing students for intelligent lay leadership" regarding ecumenism 
if we regard ecumenism only as an attempt to bring religions together in dia- 
logue apart from the whole problem of unity, the whole mystery of unity. 
Rather, it seems to me, we must increase our angles of vision regarding the 
real organic nature of unity, the implications of unity, the cosmic, total, and 
demanding aspects of unity. Educating intelligent lay leaders for this thrust 
to unity, to ecumenism — this is our Christian and professional duty, this is 
our subject for discussion today. Deeper insights into the nature of the end — 
unity — will enable us better to form the instruments, the leaders, and will 
enable us better to form ourselves, the delegated and consecrated leaders of 
the leaders. 

What I have to say today is probably not what was intended when the title 
of this talk was assigned. I have no neat rules or directives to offer. I have 
no practical suggestions to make. My own theory is that the truth when en- 
countered, when contemplated, should impel to loving, to acting. In this pas- 
sage from seeing the truth to doing the truth, from knowing to loving, from 
receiving the Word to continuing the Incarnational and Redemptive mysteries 
of the Word — in this passage is the final mystery of unity. It is in this mystery 
that we as leaders must ourselves get more and more involved, and must get 
other leaders involved. Anything less than total involvement is fragmentation. 

We shall first look at, contemplate, ruminate around in the mystery of unity. 
We shall then try to relate the mystery of unity to the college educational 
scene. Finally, we shall try to point out some of the conditions that best pre- 
pare one for "leadership to unity." Your contribution by way of discussion 
will have to supply the practical aspects of this session. 

"That they may be one, even as we are one: I in them and Thou in me; 
that they may be perfected in unity" (John 17:23). Here is unity in itself, 
in its source, in its destiny. The perfection of being called unity is eternally 
and absolutely a divine perfection identical with the very nature of God. In 
Him, distinctions between nature and activities, between activities and per- 
fections, between perfections and existence, between existence and essence 
cannot be made except intentionally. Real distinctions between the Divine 
Persons, yes, within the eternal dynamic cycle of Divine Life, of Infinite 
Knowing, of Infinite Loving. 

Through the Word dwelling in the bosom of the Father, created beings are 
brought into existence and according to their natures reflect the Divine Unity 
from Whom they proceed: the blade of grass more perfect than the stone, 
the bird more perfect than the rose, the man more perfect than the beast, 
each more perfect because of a more perfect form, a more perfect principle 
of unity. Moreover, as divinely planned, there was a cosmic unity throughout 
creation wherein there were right relationships within and among natures. 
The lower was ordered to the higher, matter to spirit, the many to the One. 

Within man himself there was a personal unity — passions ordered to reason, 

Ecumenism and the Community Spirit 177 

reason to faith, nature to grace. Through grace, man was even lifted into a 
participation in the Trinitarian Unity. 

Although sin destroyed the original order and unity created by God, the 
felix culpa evoked a new revelation of the One, the Incarnate Word of God. 
Christ came to reconcile, to restore, to unify. He Who is the Perfect Expres- 
sion of the Infinite Knowledge of the Father, He through Whom all things 
are created, touches through His Incarnation all that is created, all that has 
been eternally expressed in Him. And He touches all in order to unify all, to 
restore all. In place of the fragmentation and disorder wrought by sin, the 
Incarnation again makes unity and right relationships possible. 

Christ's work of reconciliation, restoration, unification continues today in 
His Body the Church, still another revelation of the One. And to the degree 
that His members are one with Him, Christ today — Head and members — 
answers His own prayer "that they (all things) may be perfected in unity." 

The mystery I have dared to adumbrate here is simply this: the principle 
of unity which underpins ecumenism or the community spirit must be seen 
as it is in the Trinity and in the Word; then as it evolves in creation, in the 
Incarnation, in the Redemption, in the Mystical Body; then as it gathers all 
back into the Divine Embrace and moves to its final fulfillment, its return 
and its rest in the bosom of the Three in One, the all in the All. But to 
see unity in this way requires, first, that we be able to relate one truth to 
another, see their mutual dependence, and refer them to a total, cosmic vision 
of reality; second, that we have a theological point of view wherein values 
are rightly known and chosen in terms of the Divine Mind and the Divine 
Will; third, that we be Christian existentialists who see ourselves as we really 
are — who act as we really are — incorporated into the Body of Christ through 
His death, with His Life, knowing with His Mind, loving with His Love. 

Each of these three demands spells out an indispensable approach to unity; 
each is clearly an internal condition for a subsequent vital ecumenical en- 
counter. The first condition is one of the mind, an intellectual perfection, a 
wisdom; the second condition not only involves the will but requires the action 
of the theological virtues; the third condition transforms the first two by in- 
volving us in a real but mystical union, a unity with Christ, Who as Word 
and as Redeemer is the absolute and final, the incarnate yet eternal, principle 
of unity. 

Preparing students for intelligent lay leadership in the cause of ecumenism 
means necessarily preparing them along these lines — unity of mind, unity of 
will, unity of person in Christ. 

By their very nature as colleges engaged actively and honestly and primarily 
in the intellectual life, our institutions of higher education are preparing stu- 
dents for intelligent lay leadership by forming them in unity of mind. If 
we are not so forming them, we need to question our right to exist as colleges. 
The difficulty of getting qualified teachers, the operational costs, the secular 
competition: these threaten our ability to maintain really high quality college 
education — education ordered to enlargement of mind, intellectual culture, 
real illumination, real unity of mind. 

There are more petty things, too, which threaten that goal — a rash of ac- 
tivities, projects, nonessentials which clutter the teachers' and the students' 
time, obscure or confuse values, generally enervate and dissipate. Personally, 
I think we need to take a hard look at some of the things that we approve 
or condone as typical campus activities to keep the boys and girls happy! 

There is still another threat to unity of mind — exaggerated naturalism, 

178 College and University Department 

modernism, rationalism, which are conducive to the insidious subordination 
of grace to nature, of faith to reason. Are Catholic institutions of higher edu- 
cation really different from secular institutions in this regard? Are we human- 
ists or Christian humanists? Without retracting one iota from the fact that 
truth is an end in itself, that the human mind can and must perfect itself by 
ever deeper and broader expansion and enlightment, do we consistently order 
this natural activity to the higher activity of supernatural faith — and vision — 
and mystery? To be able so to relate, to unify, requires a unity and integration 
in the college administrator and the college teacher wherein the secular and 
the religious do not run on separate tracks but are properly subordinated so 
as to produce the perfect person, unified, integrated, actively and totally in- 
corporated in Christ. 

Granted that the college student has been confronted with the truth and 
that he has seen values truly, does he get involved? Does he commit himself 
by right choices? Does he make truth practical? Does he choose within a 
theological frame of reference? Failure here reflects a fragmentation, and frag- 
mentation is opposed to ecumenism, to unity. 

For Catholic college students — whose intellectual life, as we have pointed 
out, is ordered to a unity — not to order their choices, their daily actions, 
their way of life to the unity of and in the truth known is inherent and per- 
sonal lack of unity. The result is continued and aggravated social, institu- 
tional, national, international, even cosmic fragmentation, or to be more vivid 
and precise, chaos! Let us be more concrete. 

For Catholic college students to have worldly secular standards, to com- 
promise on any moral issue, to forget the transient nature of all created things, 
to ignore the transcendency of God and the dignity of man: this is to have 
a fragmented view of life, to place obstacles to ecumenism. To live as if this 
present life — cars, clothes, clubs, comforts — were all that mattered, even 
though one says "God's kingdom is not of this world," is to have a fragmented 
view of life, to place obstacles to ecumenism. To say that one loves all men, 
yet to oppose or be indifferent to integration, social reforms, missionary efforts, 
is to have a fragmented view of life, to place obstacles to ecumenism. To be 
a Sunday Catholic, to discourse on the liturgy without getting personally in- 
volved in sacrifice, to seek God's will in ours rather than to conform our will 
to God's — this is to have a fragmented view of life, to place obstacles to 
ecumenism. To know values but not to respond to them, to know truth but 
not to do the truth — this is to be fragmented, to be a personal obstacle to 
ecumenism. Not to relate truths known to truths lived, not to relate all know- 
ing and all loving to God — this is to be fragmented. 

We are talking here, I realize, about personal and student responsibilities, 
moral responsibilities. We could say, rightly I suppose, that the college has 
fulfilled its responsibility as a college when it has touched the students' minds. 
Yet, if unity between the truth known and the truth chosen, loved, lived, is 
an essential dimension of ecumenism and, therefore, of the effective leader 
and apostle of ecumenism, does the college have the responsibility to get at 
this dimension intellectually through what is taught and concretely through 
what kind of life is lived, demanded, permitted in the institution? How and 
how far should the college go in will formation? This we leave to our dis- 

The third approach to unity is that which pertains to the incorporation of 
the person in Christ. Intelligent leadership in the cause of ecumenism requires 

Ecumenism and the Community Spirit 179 

not only an understanding of the great mystery of Christ but also a commit- 
ment to it — an active, conscious, courageous participation in it. In turn, this 
participation implies a full Christian life — interior, ecclesial, sacramental, 
sacrificial. The depths of meaning contained in Paul's mystery, in Augustine's 
recapitulation, in Pius X's restoration must be sought out through sound 
theology, prayerful meditation, liturgical participation, Christian asceticism, 
mystical death. Incorporation in Christ through baptism establishes a unique 
and terribly real unity with the Word through Whom all is contained and 
has been created, Who has re-established the unity of man with God, Whose 
redeeming and unifying death is continued in His Body the Church, Whose 
prayer for unity is repeated and realized today and yesterday and forever. 

Again the question: How and how far should the college go in furthering 
this final approach — this ecclesial and mystical approach — to ecumenism? The 
question, I think, must be asked. Should the Catholic college aim directly and 
solely at promoting unity of mind when such unity alone is only one dimension 
of ecumenism? Should the Catholic college aim at a higher, more complete 
unity — unity of will, when such unity, while it fills in another dimension, still 
allows for fragmentation? Should the Catholic college aim directly at the 
pleroma, the fullness of unity, that total unity of person achieved by incorpora- 
tion in Christ, lived out in the sacramental life of His Body the Church, 
consummated in His Cross, and glorified in His Resurrection? Does the 
Catholic college need to go this far precisely because it is Catholic? 

Regardless of the degree of unity at which it aims — unity of mind, unity 
of will, unity of person in Christ — any preparation for intelligent lay leader- 
ship in the cause of ecumenism must be solidly grounded in silence and in 
sacrifice. Silence draws a person inward so that he can become absolutely 
attentive and passive to truth, so that having received he can be, and being 
can do. Sacrifice draws a person outward so that he can give himself to the 
truth received, so that having given he can gain, and dying, live. Silence and 
sacrifice invite vision and love. 

In preparing students for intelligent lay leadership, as in everything else 
in life, the only thing that matters is vision and love. On earth we must in 
silence increase our angles of vision by working for true enlargement of mind 
and by growing in faith, so that at death the veil that hides us now from the 
face of God may be removed. On earth we must respond to, sacrifice to, the 
truth that we see. The truth that we see reflects only dimly but very really 
the Person that we love. The Person that we love is the Life that we live. 
Truth, Person, Life related in one total cosmic, ecumenical grasp of reality. 
And in that grasp "all things are ours, for we are Christ's, and Christ is God's." 


(Summary of Discussion) 
Francis J. Donohue 


An intellectual broadening which enables one better to refer truths to a 
cosmic vision of reality is essential not only to true college education but 
also to ecumenism and the community spirit. "Preparing students for intelligent 
lay leadership" requires that we consider not merely the religious dialogue, but 
the whole mystery of unity. 

The principle of unity which is basic to ecumenism requires in the individual 
a reference of all truth to this total cosmic vision of reality; a theological point 
of view wherein values are chosen in terms of the Divine Mind and the Divine 
Will; and Christian existentialism in which we see ourselves as incorporated 
into the Mystical Body. These three demands require an approach to unity 
which involves an intellectual perfection, the action of the theological virtues, 
and a real but mystical union with Christ, the absolute and final principle of 

Hence preparing students for intelligent lay leadership toward ecumenism 
means their development by unity of mind, unity of will, and unity of person 
in Christ. 

Our Catholic colleges must reappraise the activities, projects, and non- 
essentials which threaten our ability to develop intellectual unity by maintaining 
high quality in college education. We must teach our students to free them- 
selves of secular standards, of compromise on moral issues, of a fragmented 
view of life, and to relate the truths known to the truths lived. We must help 
our students to commit themselves not only to an understanding of the great 
mystery of Christ, but also to an active, conscious, courageous participation 
in it — to a full Christian life, interior, ecclesiastical, sacramental, and sacrificial. 

Though the degree of unity at which the college aims in its approach to 
ecumenism — unity of mind, of will, of person in Christ — may be subject to 
discussion, any preparation for intelligent lay leadership in the cause of 
ecumenism must be solidly grounded in silence and in sacrifice, since it is 
these that invite vision and love. Only vision and love matter, since the Person 
that we love is the Life that we live. 

A new action program being introduced at Fontbonne College, and based 
on the experience of Marymount College of Salina, emphasizes the Catholic's 
responsibility and privilege of being an apostle by requiring each student to 
spend an hour each week either in the apostolic work of the Legion of Mary or 
as a member of a discussion group on apostolic works. Basic to such a program 
is, of course, thorough training for the specific work to be done, especially 
if the students are to teach catechetics. 

At the same time we must be prepared for a quite human reaction from 
faculty members, who tend to feel that projects associated with their own 
departments tend to foster both the intellectual and the Christian life, while 
suspecting that projects associated with other departments tend to impede both. 
Hence faculty seminars are recommended as a means of integration and unity 
of mind. Even non-Catholic or nominally Catholic faculty members may make 


Newman Clubs and Ecumenism 181 

a valuable contribution, although care should be taken that attempts at integra- 
tion on the part of such persons be not too shallow, lest they disturb the 
thinking of other faculty members. 

It is important that, as an antidote to current secularistic approaches to 
education, we encourage the students to make sacrifices; participation in the 
Nocturnal Adoration Society was suggested as a specific work involving 
personal sacrifice. 

Although it might rightly be objected that we must also prepare our students 
for life in this world, enjoying the gifts of God, rather than for the religious 
life, we must not sell our students short by expecting from them less of 
Christianity than they desire. 


Rev. George Garrelts 
newman hall, university of minnesota 

The Newman Center on the secular campus occupies an unique role with 
reference to the ecumenical life of the Church, potentially. This unique role 
includes the university chaplains, campus visitors, the university, religious 
groups on campus, and the Catholic student. 

University Chaplains. The relationship that the chaplain can develop with 
the students and with chaplains of other religions is unique in that his work 
carries him directly into the relationship and he is forced to seek some solution 
of the ecumenical problem in his daily life on campus. He is usually thrust 
into some council of religious advisers, or some religious council of university 
chaplains. He is also automatically included in some student religious council 
that embraces all religions. He has to endeavor to encourage his students to 
participate with their fellow students of other religions. 

The chaplain is also in close contact with the administration of the university 
which is dominantly not Catholic, as well as the Dean's office, the student 
activities bureau, and the various dormitory counselors and various professors. 
He will have to discover how Catholicism can blend into the secular world and 
how the needs of the secular world can be served by the Church, as well as 
by Catholic students. 

Until now the chaplain has been cast in a role of generalized discussion 
with other chaplains. But the recent ecumenical developments make it possible 
for the chaplain to enter into the dialogue with members of other religious 
ministries on campus, and to bring to the campus other participants in the 
dialogue in an easy, acceptable way. 

Campus Visitors. When Father Francis Dvornik comes to the campus of 
the University of Minnesota, for example, it is easy to draw Greek Orthodox 

182 College and University Department 

and Greek Uniate priests and students into discussion with him. It fits the 
campus situation perfectly. The same holds true for biblical scholars such as 
Father Ray McKenzie and Father David Stanley. They have both demonstrated 
how well they fit the campus scene and how their scholarship can lead to a 
true ecumenism with Protestants and Jews. Father McKenzie demonstrated that 
at the University of Minnesota when he held the chair of the Theological 
Lectureship. Most of his audience and many of the discussants at his courses 
and lectures were Protestants and Jews. Father David Stanley was selected 
by the University of Iowa to be Danforth Professor in the New Testament in 
the School of Religion at the university. 

Father Martin D'Arcy is currently making a tour of Newman Centers in 
the United States, with emphasis on Minnesota and the Dakotas. His reception 
in the offices of deans, presidents, and department heads has given us ample 
evidence that the secular university is more than receptive to visitors of this 
kind. Men with academic standing and literary reputations who are broad 
enough in their outlook do not constitute any embarrassment to the people in 
the university. The ecumenism here is more academic and indirect but is 
nevertheless real. 

I would conclude from my own experience, from the actual witnessing of 
the action of such men as Father Gustave Weigel, Father Francis Dvornik, 
Father Martin D'Arcy, Father David Stanley, and from the work of Protestant 
theologians on secular campuses, men like Jaroslav Pelikan and Martin 
Marty, that they are necessary to lay the groundwork of our ecumenical future. 
There are other laymen who are also necessary, as well as clergymen, to that 
future. The present head of the Iowa School of Religion, Michaelson, is 
one of those men. He makes a profound ecumenical impact on the campus by 
way of his presentation of the Iowa School of Religion plan. That is an institu- 
tion of immense ecumenical significance. Father Robert Welch of that same 
school also makes a profound impression along these same lines. I would 
regard this school as institutionalized ecumenism, a model and a bastion both 
protecting and insuring ecumenical relations on the best possible level. 

Writers and poets, historians and scientists also have some ecumenical sig- 
nificance, if they are good enough. William Thaler is in that class, so is John 
Logan. But they must be good enough to command the interest of the academic 
community, and they must be professionally acceptable in every way. 

The University can be described as being "in readiness" for ecumenical 
concerns and discussions. The mantle of theological authority has shifted in 
the past decade from the department of the humanities to the physical sciences, 
to psychology, to the philosophy of science, to administration, and has now 
been put aside or is being extended to anyone who is strong enough to wear it. 
The burden of theological authority is very heavy and the universities seem 
more willing to receive an ecumenical or a cultural approach than one of 
direct theological teaching and authority. The university is well disposed to 
theology that can relate itself to the university curriculum and to theology 
that comes to it in a pluralistic form — that is, if the theologians of various 
faiths can come arm in arm to the universities then they will find a greater 
acceptance. If they can also speak the language of the university and the 
academy they will find even more acceptance. But matters of Original Sin, 
Salvation, Sin, Existence, will find more acceptance if they are couched in 
philosophical terms and if they are presented as "objective information" 
rather than "proselytizing procedures." 

The university is also very uneasy about the requirement of "religious tests" 

Newman Clubs and Ecumenism 183 

for faculty members, even in schools of theology. But the university is looking 
to the churches to discover if they can agree among themselves before it will 
countenance any extensive introduction of theological programs and theological 

Religious groups on campus are in strong position to practice ecumenism 
in the days ahead. They have not been outstanding in their past performance 
though they have manifested more ecumenical life in living and working 
together than any other segment of American society. Student councils of 
religious organizations meet in convention yearly, and Co-ordinators of Re- 
ligious Activities also have formed a strong association. If religious student 
groups on secular university campuses are to continue in existence and flourish 
they must find some more effective way to cooperate and to work together for 
those goals they can jointly espouse. They are not strong enough alone to affect 
the campus very markedly; on the larger campuses they are rather declasse; on 
the smaller campuses they have a tendency to form ghettoish attitudes or pres- 
sure significance. By working together they could develop an ecumenical spirit 
and enthusiasm that would bring great prestige to religion on the campus of 
the secular school. This problem has not yet come to the attention of the 
Newman chaplains in its full significance and potential. But after a few more 
years of experience in the field and the development of some ideology in these 
matters, our expectation would be that Catholic student groups would be work- 
ing in much closer harmony with groups of other religious. On most campuses 
only the Jewish and the Lutheran groups are well enough formed for joint 
effort, but great attention should be given to this effort in the future because 
of the rising obviousness of the fact that the prestige of religion on campus 
rides to a certain extent with the success or failure of the student religious 

The Catholic student will have to be prepared consciously for an ecumenical 
role on the secular campus, especially if he or she comes from a Catholic 
school. The Catholic school graduate or transfer student now comes to the 
pluralism of the secular campus with little or no preparation for an ecumenical 
role. We note, as Newman chaplains, that the Catholic high school or college 
graduate is really very eager to play this ecumenical role but does not realize it. 
Consequently, the drive that he or she possesses is usually diverted into secular 
action and association. Fraternities, sororities, student government, secular ac- 
tion of various kinds in student unions, and student programs on a purely 
secular level use up these drives. The drives are there. They need to be re- 
shaped and re-directed in earlier days. The student in the public and the secular 
secondary school will have to be reached earlier also to effect much preparation. 

The chaplains and the student will need some direction about how and how 
far to proceed in the direction of ecumenism in the setting of the secular 
university. The Catholic student can go inter-faith in a number of ways: 

by serving on joint boards made up of students of various religions; 

by working for schools of religious knowledge; 

by activities such as the Panel of Americans; 

by joint meetings and projects staged with members of other religious student 

groups, such as Religion in Life and Brotherhood Weeks, lectureships, 

movie series, etc. 
by joint discussions among students where such is permitted by the Ordinary; 
by promotion of joint religious projects on campus. 

184 College and University Department 

Prospects for the Future 

1. A stronger and more positive approach among Newman chaplains and 
Newman students in the strengthening of their ties with chaplains and students 
of other religious groups on secular campuses. Students of other religions 
and their chaplains should be in attendance at Newman provincial and national 
meetings, and they should be more in attendance at Newman meetings on the 
local scene. However, the first move should build up the prestige and member- 
ship of all religious groups on campus. 

2. Ecumenical discussions could begin successfully between chaplain and 
chaplain, following the rules of the dialogue. They might also begin between 
students who have been properly prepared and motivated, as well as schooled 
in the rules of the dialogue. 

3. More manifest interest in campus politics and campus projects could 
be shown by the religious groups as such and by the students and chaplains 
of these groups. 

4. Chaplains and students could work together jointly on projects already 
mentioned but especially on the establishment of a school of religion — prefer- 
ably along the lines of the School of Religion now in operation at the Uni- 
versity of Iowa. 

5. The community could be interested in the work of religion on campus 
in a pluralistic way, by way of lay and clerical committees who would take 
an open and manifest interest in the development of religious life on campus. 

6. One joint project of paramount importance is the introduction of ethical 
discussions and considerations into the various schools of the university. This 
project could be attempted by the religious groups on campus jointly. 

7. The shape of relationships now existing on campus will be the shape 
of the relationships parochially, that is, exchange between all the pluralistic 
elements of the community, sacred and secular. 


(Summary of Discussion) 
Rev. William D. Borders 


Father Garrelts' paper, reviewing the activities of Newman Clubs on secular 
campuses now and with seven specific suggestions for future development (see 
his paper, above) was supplemented by various ideas and emphasis brought 
out in discussion. 

Dr. John J. Meng said that a clear concept of potential dialogue should 

Formation of the Sister 185 

be attained, and that the varied condition of attitudes and cultures must be 
taken into consideration in the approach used. College administrators are 
looking for answers to basic educational needs, and good college administrators 
recognize that students as a group are looking for answers to religious ques- 
tions, objectives, and norms of morality. Men in authority and religious 
leaders must keep an open mind on all religious groups. One should recognize 
that there exists a basic backlog of good will in most college administrators 
and faculty. Students must be able to recognize that philosophic and religious 
principles are applicable in their own environment. The Catholic faculty mem- 
ber, it was suggested, is normally not oriented to organization and follows 
the pattern of other professional groups in relationship to active religious 
leadership but is willing to make a professional contribution according to his 

Father Robert Welch said that the church on the campus has a greater 
opportunity for religious education. As an example of one characterized by 
ecumenism, he quoted from the Introduction to the School of Religion of the 
University of Iowa: "The basic idea — religion theoretically and practically — 
is an integral part of education . . . and therefore should be included in the 
curriculum of a tax-supported institution." He said the graduate program 
of the University of Iowa School of Religion offers an excellent opportunity 
for a dialogue. 

The Church cannot isolate herself from the secular campus. A society is 
changed only through working in the society. 



Rev. Ronald Roloff, O.S.B. 
editor, Sponsa Regis, st. John's abbey, collegeville, Minnesota 

During the long ages of the history of the Church, women consecrated to 
God have always held an honored and influential place in the Church. As 
circumstances have changed, their role and their purpose have also changed; 
but in ages past this change was so gradual and so natural that there was never 
any uncertainty in their own minds about the part they were plaving in the 
life of the Church. 

Today we find a striking and disconcerting difference. In the world at large, 
ideas of all kinds are created and proliferated with astonishing speed, and we 
find ourselves increasingly swallowed up in a whirlpool of aspirations and 
propositions and nostrums of a dizzying variety. In the Church, new ideas about 

186 College and University Department 

renovation and adaptation, new kinds of apostolate, new concepts of spirituality 
seem to be springing up everywhere. For the first time in the history of 
religious women we find the ordinary sister asking herself: "What exactly is 
my role in the Church? Is the religious life, in its present form, really the 
providential instrument that it has been thought? Am I serving God or my 
fellow men as well here as I could in some other kind of life?" 

Perhaps of equal significance is a contrary but related problem: The in- 
dividual sister may settle upon an ideal which has no genuine reality in her 
world. Assuming that the world is not changing, and that the ideals of the 
twelfth century cloistered nun are valid for the twentieth century nurse or 
educator, she may attempt to pursue a goal that is entirely illusory. In so doing 
she will not only fail to attain her goal, but she may very well be a contributing 
factor in the gradual disintegration of the institution of which she is a part. 
If the individual sister is to retain a firm grasp upon her convictions and ideals, 
and if those ideals are to be in accord with the realities of our time, we must 
do everything possible to clarify her concept of the religious life and to 
strengthen her certitude about it. The formation of the sister for her role in 
the Church depends primarily upon the correctness and the moral certitude 
with which she is able to maintain the ideal of her religious life in her own mind. 
To help her to do so it will be necessary first of all to remove those elements 
of obscurity or unreality which may still linger in her consciousness. 

The title of this paper, "Formation of the Sister for her Apostolic Mission in 
the Church," presupposes a priori that the sister has an apostolic mission in 
the Church. But it is precisely on this point that some will disagree. Indeed, 
it may be said that a great number of religious consider that the primary purpose 
of the religious life is contemplative, and that our apostolic labors have been 
undertaken only because of the demands of our time. Much of this feeling has 
arisen because of a misunderstanding of the terminology that has been used. 
All religious orders have as their primary end the salvation of the souls of their 
members. This salvation cannot be attained unless there is some amount of 
contemplation in our lives. Ergo, the contemplative life is the essential element 
in our life and must be given precedence over every other element. 

This does not follow at all. To practice contemplation and to live a con- 
templative life are two very different things. We need only look at Thomas 
Aquinas' discussion of the contemplative life to realize this. "Theirs is said 
to be the contemplative life who are chiefly intent on the contemplation of 
truth. . . . The contemplative life terminates in delight, which is seated in 
the affective power [of the soul]" (Suppl., 180, a.l.). He quotes St. Gregory 
the Great, who says that "it belongs to the contemplative life to rest from 
external action"; and he gives nine reasons why the contemplative life is 
more excellent than the active life. Among these reasons we may note the fol- 
lowing: the contemplative life employs our intellectual faculties, whereas the 
active life is concerned with externals; the contemplative life is more delightful 
than the active: "Martha was troubled, but Mary feasted." The contemplative 
life consists in leisure and rest; the contemplative life is according to divine 
things, whereas the active life is according to human things (Suppl. 182, a.l). 
Now it is possible for us to maintain that certain aspects of this kind of life 
are available to us in some degree. But to hold that our life as a whole is con- 
templative seems to be an obvious falsehood. We are not living a life devoted 
to the intellectual consideration of the beauties of God — a life in which we are 
at leisure and rest, and in which the affective powers of our soul are the chief 
agents of our activity. On the contrary, we are living a life that is primarly con- 

Formation of the Sister 187 

cerned with human things, with externals, with action, and indeed it is a life 
which causes us to be troubled rather than at peace. That is not to deny that 
at certain times we practice contemplation, and that, indeed, we must practice 
contemplation if we are to attain personal sanctity. But the housewife who 
sits in her kitchen and recites the rosary in the morning may also be said to 
practice contemplation. No one would seriously allege that she is living a 
contemplative life. We must therefore be quite clear in our own minds on this 
point. We do practice contemplation. But our life, considered as the sum of 
all our actions and described by what is most characteristic of us, is not a con- 
templative life by any stretch of the imagination. 

The reason we are anxious to apply to the term contemplative to ourselves 
is fundamentally an idealistic one. We do not want it said that we have chosen 
the worse part. We do not want it said that our souls do not delight in the 
intellectual perception of God's beauty. We do not want to be counted among 
those who apparently have turned their backs upon what is most sublime and 
most God-like in human experience. But if we are to disentangle ourselves 
from the hopeless treadmill of semantics we must be willing to face reality. 
If a man purchases a twenty-foot sailboat and each Sunday afternoon goes for 
a cruise on Lake St. Clair, he may be a very efficient and satisfied sailor under 
those conditions; but he cannot honestly allege that his life is fundamentally 
a nautical one when he is actually spending all of the rest of the week on the 
assembly line at River Rouge. 

However, some of us become so overwhelmed with the burdens of our present 
life that we allow ourselves to enter a dream world of some kind, and the 
worker on the assembly line may actually come to think of himself in terms 
of a nautical life. This, I am sure, is a very significant element in the aspira- 
tions that religious feel toward the contemplative life. Sister Agnes and Sister 
Lucille keep insisting that we must become more contemplative, not because 
they have so great a love for contemplation in itself but because they are troubled 
and overburdened by the responsibilities they now face. The world is changing 
too rapidly. There is too much knowledge to be acquired. There are too many 
psychological and personality problems presented by the students in their class- 
rooms. There are too many demands made upon them for time-consuming 
efforts of all kinds. In their harassment, they come upon those wonderful ideas 
about the contemplative life: that it is a life of leisure and rest, of purely 
intellectual pursuit of truth; a life in which our affections and aspirations are 
given freedom and preeminence, and in which we rise above the day-to-day 
problems of this world. 

Who can blame them if this ideal seems to be a very attractive one? Who 
can say that they are wrong or misguided in striving to attain this more blessed 
state? Yet they are fundamentally wrong and misguided for they are trying to 
escape to a state of life to which they have not been called; they are trying to 
abandon a lower kind of life for a higher, not because they have fulfilled all of 
the requirements of this lower form and are therefore ready for the higher, but 
precisely because they have failed to fulfill the requirements of the lower form. 
It is a perennial temptation for a student to feel that because he has failed the 
examinations in algebra it is just possible that he should have taken trigonometry 
instead; and the temptation to pursue a higher and more difficult life when one 
feels inadequate in her present situation is a common experience which we are 
not always willing to recognize in its true character. 

188 College and University Department 

What the Secular Institutes Offer 

There are some, however, who do recognize this problem in its true light, 
and whose solution is just the opposite of the above. The secular institutes 
which have begun to appear seem to offer a tantalizing alternative for one who 
realizes that the active apostolate is her primary concern, and who feels that 
the spiritual program of such institutes is probably more in harmony with that 
apostolate than is the case in the older religious orders. Again, however, much 
of one's optimism springs from a partial knowledge of the facts. 

In the Apostolic Constitution Provida mater ecclesia, Pope Pius XII set 
down the constitutions of all secular institutes. In that constitution he estab- 
lished these fundamental requirements: that all members of these Institutes must 
take private vows of poverty, chastity and obedience; that ordinarily they will 
live alone in the world, being provided for in a central motherhouse only if 
health or some other serious reason demands it; that they must aspire to the 
perfection of Christian life by the exercises of piety and mortification common 
to all, as well as by the regulations outlined for their own Institute. 

At first glance this seems to be a very effective manner of life for those who 
wish to devote themselves exclusively to the service of their fellow men. But 
on more mature consideration it will be realized that this is a severe challenge 
which can be accepted only by specially chosen souls who have absolute personal 
integrity, full spiritual self-reliance, and the ability to persevere for a long period 
of time in the face of circumstances which are directly opposed to all that they 
are expected to hold dear. 

Perseverance: That is the key. Almost anyone can begin the pursuit of a 
noble ideal with energy and enthusiasm. It is only the stalwart soul who will 
persevere to reach the goal. In the secular institutes one must be stalwart indeed 
for one is pursuing the goal alone. 

How well would any of us practice poverty, chastity, and obedience if we 
were not members of a community which supports one another, encourages 
one another — and in which the superiors are always available to correct us if 
we wander too far from the path? Our community life enables each of us to 
continue in the path of duty simply because we are all doing the same thing 
together. Our convent provides us with the necessities of life, and it shields 
us from the many cares and distractions of the world which would create such 
serious obstacles for our primary tasks. 

But the member of a secular institute is living in that world, and she cannot 
live in it like a disembodied spirit. She must live with this family or in this 
apartment; she must have whatever is necessary for her life and work; she must 
make all those practical arrangements about hours and meals and transportation 
and equipment, and still prevent them from interrupting her spiritual and 
apostolic duties. To put the matter very baldly, the member of a secular in- 
stitute has all the obligations of our religious life and none of its advantages. 

It will be obvious, perhaps, that in the secular institutes poverty and obedience 
will depend primarily upon each one's understanding of those ideals. Since each 
one lives alone, each will have to be her own judge as to whether this act or 
this purchase is in accord with the evangelical counsel of obedience or poverty. 
How shall one be a reliable judge in such a case unless she is a person of 
absolute honesty and integrity, who never deceives herself and who always 
recognizes the implications of her present actions for her future development? 
The vow of chastity will effectively cut her off from her society, while at the 
same time she is exposed to all those elements of candor and freedom and 
broadmindedness which are so dominant in our social structure today. She must 

Formation of the Sister 189 

strive to attain the perfection of Christian life without any particular encourage- 
ment or good example, within a daily horarium which she will freely determine 
herself, without any overt punishment or loss of status if she fails to pursue 
this objective. The member of the secular institute, in short, is an individual 
entirely dependent upon her own resources, not only for her practical needs 
but much more significantly for her spiritual perfection, toward which she is 
bound by vow to strive. That this is a heroic form of life cannot be denied. 
That it is a kind of life which can be lived successfully and fruitfully by anyone 
who chances upon it is a major delusion of the most tragic sort. 
In his new book, Introduction to Spirituality, Louis Bouyer says: 

There is no sanctification by means of action alone, but only action vivified 
by prayer; and action cannot be thus vivified unless it is marked with the 
sign of the cross of Christ. . . . There can sometimes be perceived in these 
new attempts in the "religious" life the temptation to will the impossible, 
whether by deluding oneself as to the simultaneous attainability of several 
objectives which it would seem possible to achieve in this way, or by some 
misunderstanding of the normal rhythms of spiritual development. . . ." x 

In this perspective, the spirituality to be proposed to priests, to leaders 
of Catholic Action, and to all the laity as well, would be one not of separa- 
tion but of presence; not centered on contemplation but plunged in action; 
not a negative spirituality of renouncement, but a positive spirituality of 
consecration ... It must be stated plainly that all these alternatives are 
factitious. To define a spirituality . . . from such a starting-point means 
either to rest content with empty words or else (and most frequently under 
cover of such words) to fall into extremely harmful errors . . . The Chris- 
tian is not offered a possibility of choosing between an asceticism of the 
cross and an asceticism of creation. Every kind of Christian asceticism is 
an asceticism of the cross. 2 

Very well, say our protagonists, we will just become lay apostles. Perhaps the 
secular institutes are too severe for us. We will therefore concentrate upon the 
good works we are going to perform and not attempt a religious life along 
with them. 

It is at this point that this sorry litany of delusion and illusion reaches its 
nadir. For now we are no longer speaking of the religious life at all. We are 
speaking merely of good works, which may indeed be carried on for some time, 
but which differ from the work of the Peace Corps or the C A R E corporation 
only by the interior motive which, we hope, has God for its objective. Surely 
such works are good in themselves and worthy of the highest praise. But the 
religious life is a state of perfection which is as far above any specific good work 
as the status of man is above the cooperative and fruitful efforts of ants or bees. 
One may indeed admire the efforts of these small creatures of God; but no sane 
person could desire to abandon his human condition in order to join in their 
ingenious projects. 

The Fundamental Element for Apostolic Work 

We are thus brought to the fundamental element in the formation of sisters 
for their apostolic work, and that is an awareness of the profound importance 
and inherent value of the religious life itself. 

In his marvelous little book, The Salvation of the Nations, lean Danielou says: 

1 Louis Bouyer, Cong. Orat., Introduction to Spirituality. Translated by Mary Perkins Ryan. 
(New York: Desclee, 1961), p. 241. 
'Ibid., p. 219. 

190 College and University Department 

"Just as others may be signs from God for us, we also are signs from God for 
them. We are a language through which God speaks to others. ... It rests with 
us to make this language intelligible and to permit this manifestation of God to 
pass through us. . . . It is our terrible responsibility that through our silence 
we can prevent God's message from being disseminated." 3 

The apostolic mission of the Church is concerned primarily and essentially 
with the spread of the Kingdom of God. All the good works that we may 
perform in the course of that apostolate are merely means to that end. The 
Russians, after all, can give quite as adequate instruction in grammar and 
agricultural techniques in foreign lands as we can. The Salvation Army gives 
away food and clothing to the unfortunate in our cities with quite as much 
generosity and helpfulness as Catholic centers do. 

The only purpose we have in performing good works is to bring Christ to 
men. And this, ultimately, is the only thing men want. A great many of them 
do not know this specifically, but it is true. American foreign aid has done 
marvelous things in many lands, but it has been unappreciated because it does 
not make the individual more happy or more secure. New bridges and dams, 
new methods of farming or manufacturing, are all wonderful and useful; but 
they do not necessarily make the individual person more conscious of his dignity. 
They do not bring peace to the world. They do not bring up one's children in 
security and self-respect. They are, in short, superficial. They help men in 
areas of life that are very important but not crucial. It is only the realm of 
spiritual ideals and aspirations that is ultimately crucial. 

It is precisely in this area, whether in foreign lands or at home, that we re- 
ligious can make the one contribution that is necesssary, and this not for any 
purposes of aggrandizement on our part — not simply to swell the ranks and 
influence of the Catholic Church — but for the very elemental reason that all 
men are children of God, and that they will find a place in His Kingdom only by 
coming to know God and to love Him. It is by coming to know and love God 
that they will also find peace and security in this world. 

Now in Father Danielou's words, it is up to us to act as signs of God to 
these men: to be a manifestation of God to them. And this is the crucial point: 
We cannot manifest God to men unless we first possess God within ourselves. 
Danielou says that "through our silence we can prevent God's message from 
being disseminated." Our silence may not be due in any way to our lack of 
speaking. It may be due rather to the discouraging fact that after we have gone 
far abroad and traveled many weary miles and spoken many consoling words 
we have, nevertheless, failed to manifest God to men in the course of all our 
actions and speeches. If God is within us, He always shines through; but if He 
is not there, nothing that we do externally can make Him appear. 

It is this fact which gives the religious life such tremendous significance in 
the apostolate. It is this fact which explains why the apostolic works of the 
Church have been primarily the task of religious men and women throughout 
the ages. For only those who have given themselves wholeheartedly and 
irrevocably to God are sufficiently filled with the knowledge and love of God to 
permit that interior light to shine through in their daily actions. 

Our religious life gives us this ability in many ways, of which we will 
mention only the chief. 

1. By our vows we are bound irrevocably to God. This is a key concept. 
So long as one knows that her present situation can be terminated at any time 

» Jean Danielou, The Salvation of the Nations. Translated by Angeline Bouchard. (London : 
Sheed & Ward. 1949), pp. 22-23. 

Formation of the Sister 191 

if she tires or feels unsuccessful, there is always a lurking, subconscious division 
of allegiance, in which one's personal interests carry on a desultory warfare 
with one's higher aspirations. Eventually it becomes easy to compromise, and 
as one decides that certain concessions can be made to human necessities, the 
light of God within becomes ever more dim and uncertain. 

2. Not only do our vows bind us irrevocably to God: They also give us the 
means of growing to greater spiritual perfection and maturity. It is impossible 
for us to practice the vow of obedience with any amount of consistency and 
fail to become more humble, more reliant upon God, more full of faith and 
hope than we were before. It is impossible for us to observe the vow of chastity 
with any amount of interior generosity and fail to become more detached, more 
noble-minded, more spiritually alert than we were before. It is impossible for 
us to practice poverty even in a minimal degree and fail to become less anxious 
about our creature comforts and the conveniences that the world might offer. 
In short, it is impossible for us to be true religious and to fail to become more 
God-like. Oh, we may feel in our own consciences that this is not the case: 
that we are actually worse examples of religious now than we were years ago. 
But that is not true. If we are more conscious of our failings it is because we 
have advanced far enough into the light of grace to recognize them. 

3. Our religious life gives us the necessary balance between prayer and work. 
This is the essential point. It is, we might say, the one thing necessary. The first 
half of this paper was a discussion of the ways in which some of us try to simplify 
the problems of life by abandoning either prayer or work. By doing so, however, 
we do not simplify our life; we impoverish it. With all due respect for the new 
secular institutes, it is on this point that I think they will find their greatest 
difficulty. The demands of our work are many, and the unformed soul may 
find every reason in the world for devoting more and more time to her practical 
responsibilities and less and less time to her spiritual development. But if she 
does so, how long will she be able to manifest God to the world? How soon 
will she manifest nothing more than a practical efficiency and a successful 
organizational technique? The vitality of our spiritual life is a very nebulous 
and undefinable thing when we try to measure it; but its absence is always 
evident — to the onlooker if not to oneself. 

Our religious life is therefore a providential instrument for the apostolate, for 
while it opens vast opportunities to serve God and men in obedience to the 
Church, it also preserves us from sheer activism and forces us to cultivate at 
least the minimum of personal spiritual life without which our external works 
will be fruitless. 

4. Our religious life makes the service of God easy by giving us fellow sisters 
who are traveling along the same road, experiencing the same difficulties, en- 
joying the same success. It is easy to persevere when others are persevering. 
It is easy to pray when others go to prayer. It is easy to be chaste and poor and 
obedient when all of us must be that way. It is easy to love God when we see 
others loving Him. 

And this, my dear sisters, is the ultimate reason why our religious life is a 
providential instrument for the apostolate. Men are never converted to God 
by logic; they are not converted by handouts or propaganda sheets or anti- 
biotics. They are converted when they see us loving God. They are converted 
when they see us loving one another. Our religious life is in itself the best 
possible propaganda for the Gospel, so long as it is somehow made visible to 
men. It is a challenge set down in the midst of men, demanding that they lift 

192 College and University Department 

their eyes from their selfish problems and glimpse the wider horizon of true 
reality and value. It is in itself a manifestation of God to men; and we will 
silence its voice only if we fail to live it out to the full. We do indeed need 
practical training too, in whatever fields of the apostolate we are called upon 
to minister. But it is never our success as teachers or nurses or social workers 
that implants the Kingdom of God. It is our life as Children of God which 
cries out with a thousand voices, demanding to be heard, demanding to be 

But that voice will never be heard, that example will never be seen, unless 
we have gone forth and made spectacles of ourselves "to angels and to men" 
(I Cor. 4:9). "How are they to believe him whom they have not heard? And 
how are they to hear, if no one preaches?" (Romans 10:14). If we religious, 
who of all men are most in love with God, who are the best examples the world 
can provide of Christian life carried into reality — however incomplete that 
reality may sometimes be — if we religious disdain to engage ourselves in 
apostolic works, how shall the truths of faith ever become known? It is only 
through our voices that Christ can speak; it is only our hands which can do his 
work; it is only our feet which can carry him to the souls he wants to find. Oh, 
yes, we will send lay apostles and support them with our prayers. When Christ 
wanted to redeem the world did he send someone else, supported by his grace? 
He came Himself; and it is only when we who are the children of God have 
gone forth ourselves to make Him known and loved that the world will be able 
to see in us a foreshadowing of that eternal life to which they ought to aspire. 


Mother Loretto Bernard 
mother general, sisters of charity, mount st. vincent-on-hudson 

new york, n.y. 

Long before the Statue of Liberty was erected in New York Harbor as a 
symbol of America's open door, Mother Seton's daughters of New York were 
stretching out their hands to destitute immigrants from Ireland, Germany, Italy, 
and Central European countries in turn. More than a century before the words 
became common coin, they were desegregating, integrating, assimilating, with 
the long patience of those who know by experience that the handicapped minority 
groups of today father the cultural leaders of tomorrow. 

Any program of in-service formation that we have found helpful in the past, 
that we are utilizing currently, or may devise to meet future needs, must be, 
intrinsically, an interpretation or practical application of our initial commitment 
as Sisters of Charity to every service in our power for those in need. The master 
plan of our apostolate, staggering in its comprehensiveness, was skillfully inte- 
grated by St. Vincent de Paul, educator, social philosopher, and case worker 

In-Service Formation of Sisters 193 

without rival. Even in this age of specialization, each time we get absorbed in 
the curricula of our colleges and academies, in the relative merits of our 
three-year and our two-year programs of nursing education, in residencies, 
research grants, and paramedical problems, God sends us another wave of 
100,000 immigrants to remind us that, by our special vocation in the Church, we 
belong first of all to the poor. 

Within the past decade many of our city parishes, once strongholds of upper- 
and middle-income Irish-American families, have become barrios, little Puerto 
Rican towns in which incoming migrants have been shamefully exploited by 
unscrupulous tenement owners. Living six or eight in a room rented at $100 a 
month, the Puerto Ricans have retained to a remarkable degree their innate 
dignity and their deep sense of family ties. 

They are essentially a migrant population. Families that have achieved a 
degree of economic stability have moved to more desirable living areas in the 
Bronx and on Long Island. They have been immediately replaced by incoming 
Cubans and other Latin Americans from Communist-threatened countries and 
by Negro migrants newly arrived from the Deep South. Following the estab- 
lished pattern of all immigration, Latin Americans are slowly pushing westward; 
within a few years the impact will be felt in all sections of the country. Many 
Puerto Ricans return to their Island to contribute to its spiritual and social 
progress their education, acquired skills, and practical training in their faith. 
Our indirect apostolate in Puerto Rico is another challenge to our zeal. 

Work with Puerto Ricans differs in one important aspect from missionary 
efforts with other national groups. When asked whether he preferred life in 
Puerto Rico or in New York, the father of two of our school children answered 
definitively, "Whether I live on the Island or on the mainland, I am an Amer- 
ican citizen. It really doesn't matter; I like them both." And whether we 
accept the fact or not, depending upon our degree of ecumenism and sense of 
reality, it is indisputable that these Spanish-speaking people, rooted in a culture 
very different from ours, are citizens of an American Commonwealth, a unique 
kind of statehood that confers upon them, the moment they step out of a plane 
at Idlewild, all the privileges of citizenship and the right to the best that we can 
give them. 

Since Columbus landed at San Juan in 1493, during his second voyage to 
the New World, Puerto Rico has been a Catholic country. The comment is 
prevalent in New York: "The Puerto Ricans have never gone to church in their 
own country and they don't go in ours. Half of them have never been baptized, 
married in the Church, or faithful even to the natural, much less than the super- 
natural, laws that govern Catholic lives." Before accepting this interpretation, 
one should contrast the religious situation in Continental United States with that 
of the Commonwealth. In 1960 there was one priest for every 750 Catholics 
in the United States and one for every 5,100 in Puerto Rico. In country dis- 
tricts in Puerto Rico a priest may offer Mass in a family home at intervals of 
from one to six months; in the slums of the large cities, thousands are never 
reached. Formal religious instruction is minimal; love of the Sacred Heart 
and of the Mother of God, expressed in fervent vivas during a procession on a 
great feast day, constitute the whole theology of a vast majority of the Island 

Continuing this pattern in New York are 700,000 Islanders of whom an 
estimated 20 per cent attend Mass regularly. At least 250,000 are under fifteen 
years of age. In parochial elementary schools of New York and Brooklyn there 
are approximately 25,000 Spanish-speaking pupils. More than 50,000 are reg- 

194 College and University Department 

istered in released-time religious instruction classes. The Sisters of Charity of 
New York are responsible for about 5,000 Spanish-speaking children in their 
elementary schools and for an additional 6,000 in released-time classes. 

Here is a missionary field of utmost importance to the future of the Church 
in this country. There is no glamor in the grimy shabbiness of Harlem, in the 
East Bronx centers of drug addiction, in the teeming West Side ghetto that was 
once the proud parish of the Holy Name, symbol of stable Catholicity. To these 
parishes we send without hesitation or regret capable young sisters who could do 
excellent work with gifted pupils. Here they gain a missionary outlook that 
takes in the whole world, a sense of kinship with community pioneers, a sense 
of values that can face ten or more failures in every examination without losing 
heart — in a word, the maturity that is the objective of all our Sister Formation 
programs. From superiors who are truly dedicated to this apostolate they 
receive an in-service training that no educational program can replace, the 
daily, practical example of Christ-like charity. 

Until recently the preparation of our young sisters for a work that requires 
the gift of tongues as a basic prerequisite was left to the judgment of superiors 
whose preservice orientation had commenced, in most instances, in the first 
grade of one of our schools. To a native New Yorker there is nothing re- 
markable in this cosmopolitan, multilingual milieu which, to Midwesterners, is 
admittedly divine but no less disconcerting. 

Preservice training for bilingual schools now begins with courses in Spanish 
conversation for postulants and second-year novices. It is difficult to incorporate 
formal training in missiology into the novitiate program without sacrificing 
other values, but it is possible to give novices an inspiriting breadth of vision and 
realistic awareness of the contemporary needs of the Church. 

Our junior professed sisters profit by orientation sessions given by sisters who 
have had intensive training in Hispanic culture and the socioeconomic problems 
of migrants. In planning for the more than 120 hours of practice teaching 
which we give to the junior professed sisters before they enter on their first 
assignment, we arranged this year that each sister would spend half of this 
period in a school with a predominantly Spanish-speaking registration and the 
other half in a typically American suburban school. 

Last December we provided for professed sisters and second-year novices a 
stimulating panel in which the chief participants were Father Joseph Fitz- 
patrick, S.J., of the department of sociology, Fordham University, and Sister 
Thomas Marie, a Trinitarian sister. Both are specialists in inter-American cul- 
ture. Many of our professed sisters have attended courses sponsored by the 
Archdiocese of New York over a period of years for religious who work with 
the Spanish-speaking in New York. Others have participated in a program 
of the Hudson Guild, sponsored by Harvard University School of Education. 
The period of renovation which we provide for our sisters at the completion of 
fifteen years in the community is an excellent opportunity to appraise the degree 
of social conscience acquired during years of intense activity. 

Effective professional training is gained in summer sessions at the Institute 
for Inter-Cultural Communication at the Catholic University of Puerto Rico. 
Founded in 1957 under the patronage of Cardinal Spellman to prepare priests 
and religious for this apostolate in New York, the Institute has trained hundreds 
of students, priests, religious, and lay people for work "back home" with migrants 
from Latin American countries. 

To date, thirty Sisters of Charity from Mount Saint Vincent have shared this 

In-Service Formation of Sisters 195 

intensive program of study, which includes linguistics, problems of accultura- 
tion, and efficient methods of bringing the newcomers into full participation in 
the American way of life. The sessions culminate in three weeks of supervised 
field assignments in catechetical and social work. Our representatives include 
principals and teachers of elementary schools that have a high percentage of 
Puerto Rican children. Others attending are sister nurses who work with 
Islanders in our hospital wards and out-patient clinics, and sisters who are social 
workers, teachers, or group mothers in child-caring homes. They return imbued 
with missionary zeal and convinced that free schools, supported by the mother- 
houses of the sisters who staff them, are a critical need in Puerto Rico today. 

In making this judgment we are guided by the experience of seventy-three 
years of arduous missionary effort in the Bahama Islands, shared with the 
Benedictines of Collegeville, Minnesota (Father Roloff's community). A long- 
established colonial pattern had made Nassau a center of bitter religious, racial, 
and national antagonisms, perpetuated by sharply etched class distinctions. Six 
days after her arrival with four companions, Sister Marie Dolores Van 
Rensselaer, convert descendant of the land-owning Dutch patroons, opened a 
free school in the two largest rooms of the tiny four-room convent. By the end 
of the month, the free school had overflowed into two adjacent buildings and 
a small academy had been opened in the convent. With the assistance of native 
teachers who had first to be taught the three R's, the Sisters of Charity staffed 
the academy, now Xavier's College, ten free schools, several clinics, and a day 
nursery. In 1922 another foundation was made on Harbour Island. For fifteen 
years the Sisters of Charity were responsible for the native congregation of 
Blessed Martin de Porres, founded in 1937 under the guidance of one our 
sisters. After three generations of prayer and sacrifice, our first vocation from 
Nassau materialized last September when a promising young native girl 
entered our novitate at Mount Saint Vincent. 

On the fiftieth anniversary of our arrival in the Bahamas, the Nassau Daily 
Tribune commented that "apart from the Government, no other organization 
has attempted to devote this amount of time, care and money to educating poor 
people in these islands." There is general recognition in Nassau today that it 
was time, care, and money well spent. By the grace of God and the zeal of its 
missionaries from Collegeville and Mount Saint Vincent, Nassau has been 
spared the tragic fate of its neighbor, Cuba. Last summer we began to share the 
educational program in Puerto Rico with our Bahama missionaries, who found 
this integration of experience with differing cultures very helpful. 

In the home mission fields of Manhattan and the Bronx, young sisters enter- 
ing the classroom for the first time face problems that baffle the veteran Nassau 
missionaries who, on their return from the Bahamas, give invaluable leadership 
in our work with Puerto Ricans in New York. The Commandments must be 
taught with clarity and firmness, yet without undermining the respect for 
parents which is the dominant strength of Hispanic culture and the only security 
these children have. At an incredibly early age, children must be warned of 
the sickeningly sweet taste of marijuana and cautioned not to let anyone scratch 
their arms "because he might rub a little powder into it that would make you 
sick." Through the Providence of God and the power of prayer, we have not, 
to our knowledge, had a tragedy of this kind, but its proximity may be judged 
by the fact that, in one of our Bronx parishes, packages of drugs have been 
found in the confessional, behind the statue of Our Lady of Lourdes in the 

196 College and University Department 

convent grotto, and even above the lintel of the convent door, where it had been 
thrown by a "pusher" who did not want to be caught with it in his hands. 

Routine problems of the school day yield to the magic of a few words in the 
native tongue. If sister finds two Puerto Rican boys locked in a fist fight, she 
can remonstrate in English for half an hour without being heard. But if she 
whispers, "Miguel, Jose, respeto!" instantly they untangle themselves sheepishly. 
Respeto implies much more than the English word respect; it connotes dignity, 
obedience, noblesse oblige, all the qualities that Latin parents inculcate in their 
children. And to think that sister understood this all the time! It had never 
occurred to them. 

Since limitations of time make it impossible to outline for you the varied 
aspects of our work with national groups, I have committed to mimeographed 
sheets details which may be useful in initiating similar programs. Freed from 
preoccupation with facts and figures, I can share with you some basic concepts 
which we try to instill in our young sisters. 

In this work, attitudes are more important than techniques. In the security of 
our somewhat theoretical poverty, we are shocked at evidences of mutual 
resentment among minority groups that, according to our thinking, should be 
united by their common suffering. We forget that the parents of our Puerto 
Rican, Negro, and severely deprived white children "compete for a foothold on 
the first rung of the ladder," and displace each other constantly. The violence 
of the interracial war for the control of our Southern schools bears witness to 
the fact that first-graders are the best integrators in the world. Where we fail, 
they will succeed, but a sister may unconsciously retard their work by the 
flicker of an eye or an inflection of her voice. 

Since we shall inevitably work with Spanish-speaking people in increasing 
numbers within the next decade, either on their soil or on ours, an understanding 
of the Latin American temperament is essential. We have found the Puerto 
Ricans an intelligent, generous, appreciative people who, once given opportuni- 
ties for spiritual and intellectual growth, will add warmth and vitality to our 
matter-of-fact American Catholicism. But the gulf between the two cultures 
must be bridged from our side. Humiliated by rebuffs and made acutely sensi- 
tive to their position in our social structure, they will never make the first 
advance, even to attend Mass in a church to which they have not been welcomed. 

Daily experience confirms what Latin American specialists tell us about these 
people. They are intensely subjective; they can never be reached by objective 
reasoning, outright charity, or technical assistance; they are won only through 
personal acceptance, cordiality, and friendship. Fine distinctions in dogma that 
erect barricades between Christians mean nothing to them, and the discipline 
of Church legislation means less. The Commandments must be interpreted as 
infallible ways of pleasing God who loves them and is immeasurably touched by 
their fidelity. 

If a kindly woman visits a lonely Puerto Rican in her home, sits down to read 
the Bible with her in her native tongue, and invites her to services in the nearby 
Pentecostal Church, she will gladly accept the invitation. In one of the store- 
front or second-floor meeting houses that spring up overnight in Harlem, 
Brooklyn, and the Bronx, she hears the Word of God in her own language, is 
asked to lead in prayer, to join the choir. Here, in a small, protective group, 
she feels secure. We must recognize this psychological need for strong inter- 
personal relations and make very sure that Puerto Rican Catholics feel accepted 
in their own Church. 

The cumulative knowledge provided by the essential disciplines of linguistics, 

In-Service Formation of Sisters 197 

missiology, anthropology, and the social sciences can integrate, but only love 
assimilates and absorbs. Professional terminology is silenced by the overwhelm- 
ing beauty of Midnight Mass in Spanish Harlem, by the integrity of a Misa 
Commitaria sung in Spanish by an exiled congregation, by the liturgical dignity 
of a Forty Hours procession followed by High Mass offered at 7:30 in the 
evening for a parish of working men and women. The Litany of the Saints prayed 
in English by hundreds of Negro and Puerto Rican laborers becomes a heart- 
piercing cry for social justice: "Let them be confounded and ashamed that 
wish evil to me . . . for I am needy and poor, make haste to help me. Let not 
the enemy prevail against us, nor the son of inequity have any power to hurt us." 
The zealous pastors who work with these people are praying to the angels of the 
Ecumenical Council for permission to substitute for vague reference to threaten- 
ing dangers stark appeals for help against the social evils that can undermine a 
parish. "From drug addiction and drink, spare us, O Lord!" 

Statistics on the anticipated growth in population in South America during 
the next decade and the estimated current loss to the Church of 1,000,000 
baptized Catholics each year would test our faith in the future of the Church 
if we had not conclusive evidence that we are living in what Cardinal Montini 
has called a dynamic phase of her history, in which her whole organism is 
being reoriented to increasingly apostolic activity. It is of utmost importance, 
accordingly, that we see beyond the horizons of our immediate commitment 
the larger vision of a universal apostolate in which we must be prepared to 
interpret the mind of Christ to every culture and national group, as occasion 

In this context also the words of Cardinal Feltin come as marching orders: 
"The whole church must set itself in a state of missionary activity." The 
scarcity of religious available for this work makes it imperative that we train 
zealous lay apostles to labor in fields already white with harvest. Speaking to 
religious educators, Cardinal Suenens asks: 

Are we making ready a generation able and fit to suffer for the faith? 
Have we taught our young people in a practical way how to communicate 
that faith to others and how to make it fruitful, directly or indirectly, in sav- 
ing or helping souls? ... It is the task of that special elite, the religious 
... to find out and train these helpers of God in order that Christ may 
through them give Himself in full measure to the world. 

The Papal Volunteers organized at the request of our Holy Father for work 
in Latin America are an intensely apostolic group trained at the Center for 
Intercultural Formation at Cuernavaca, Mexico, under the direction of 
Monsignor Ivan Illich. On the home mission front, also, we must learn to 
tap the rich resources of the lay apostolate. Generous, dedicated lay people 
can give effective help in education, social welfare, nursing, and paramedical 
services. We have found Spanish-speaking teacher aides, librarians, and clerks, 
nurses, and volunteers invaluable in overcoming language barriers and estab- 
lishing rapport with those who speak the same tongue. 

As major superiors we are irrevocably committed to the spiritual, intellectual, 
and professional preparation of our sisters for their apostolic mission in the 
Church, so ably outlined by Father Roloff. For reappraisals and new direc- 
tions in this field we look forward to tomorrow's panel. The scope of my 
assignment this afternoon has suggested to me that I come to you, not as an 
that vast segment of humanity destined to be not only our ultimate judges 
educator nor as superior of a religious congregation, but as spokesman for 

198 College and University Department 

that vast segment of humanity destined to be not only our ultimate judges 
but more immediately the jury on which the life or death of our Western 
Civilization depends. In the final analysis, the Iron Curtain that encircles 
so much of the world today was forged by apathy that did not heed the 
evidence: "I was hungry and you did not feed Me . . . sick, and you did not 
visit Me." 

Unquestionably, the heaviest cross that we, as major superiors, carry today 
is the constant equation of the increasing demands of professional excellence 
with the overwhelming needs of our contemporary world. It is the essence 
of a cross that it should be too big for us, that it should stretch us two ways 
at once in defiance of the laws of nature. It is my conviction that we shall 
never grow to full stature spiritually or achieve intellectual breadth of vision 
until, with hands outstretched to embrace the whole world, we can no longer 
protect our insular interests, but must cry out with St. Gertrude, "Pierce my 
heart with the arrow of thy love, so that nothing human may remain therein 
and that it may be completely filled with the strength of Thy divinity." 

Confronted as we are by multiple obligations and sharing with the whole 
world the insecurities of a "bitter peace" bought at too high a price, we may 
find strength in the simple directive given by our beloved and Venerable 
Elizabeth Seton, founder of the first American religious community, to the 
handful of sisters gathered around her deathbed on a bleak January day in 1821. 
They were the first parochial school sisters, the first Catholic social workers 
in a vast missionary country that stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
through uncharted wilderness. She had given them all the in-service training 
that a mother's heart could devise. Now, saying goodbye, she summed it all 
up in a few words: "Be children of the Church." 

In the full radiance of the Lumen Christi that shines upon these memorable 
sessions of Easter week, as we await the glorious Pentecost of the approaching 
Ecumenical Council, when the Holy Spirit will speak to us one message in 
many tongues, let us think deeply of our responsibilities as children of the 
Church in what may be the most decisive hour of her history. As her loyal 
daughters, our united effort to reorient a confused world to the full implications 
of the Christian revelation can never be too little or too late. 


Sister M. Charitina, F.S.P.A. 


On august 12 of this past year, the first eager, expectant band of sisters 
destined to form the nucleus of Latin American participation in the Sister 
Formation Conference Overseas Program arrived in Washington, D.C., from 
Peru. Two days later two sisters from Brazil joined them. 

Orientation for Junior Sisters 199 

On the 16th of the same month, thirty-one sisters from India and two from 
Burma arrived in Newport to swell the number of Indian sisters who had come 
during the previous year. Immediately upon their arrival the program of 
orientation, to be followed by post-orientation, was under way. 

But before we look into this program of orientation it might be well to 
review the objectives of the mission project. In the light of these objectives, 
the program of orientation will be clarified. 

Let us briefly consider objectives outlined first by the Sister Formation 
Conference in which the idea was conceived; then the objectives by Father 
Considine, director of the Latin American Bureau of NCWC, and finally 
by His Excellency, Archbishop Carboni, Papal Nuncio to Peru. 

The Sister Formation Conference gave as the purpose of the undertaking the 
promotion of a close relationship between religious communities in this country 
and those in the mission field, particularly in India, Latin America, and Africa. 
Such a relationship was expected to develop into a strong personal and spiritual 
bond, protected and nurtured by continued interrelation which would help estab- 
lish a sound basis for further self -assistance and thus contribute to a profitable 
apostolate both in the sister's religious community as well as in the work assigned 
to her in the mission field. 

Father Considine, of the Latin America Bureau of NCWC, saw in the 
project a means of providing technical training for communities in mission 
countries. At the same time, he stressed the importance of acquainting mission 
groups with the spirit of fraternity which exists in the United States toward 
fellow religious in other parts of the world. 

His Excellency, Archbishop Carboni, Papal Nuncio to Peru, who was largely 
instrumental in sending twenty-two sisters to the States last August, asked that 
we aim to give the sisters every opportunity to observe the close relations be- 
tween American sisters and the faithful at large while at the same time teach 
them how the American sister maintains an equitable balance in her daily 
schedule of prayer, work, rest, and study. Above all, His Excellency wanted 
them to grasp the secret by which class barriers can be leveled and the inroads 
of modern indifferentism and secularism resisted. 

With these objectives in mind, the orientation planning committee determined 
on a program comprising spiritual, cultural, intellectual, and social values to be 
given at Salve Regina College in Newport, Rhode Island, for the sisters from 
India, and at the motherhouse of the Sisters of Mercy at Bethesda for the 
sisters from South America. 

Under the direction of Sister Mary Josetta, thirty-one sisters from India and 
two sisters from Burma met at Salve Regina College to begin their orientation 
program at the invitation of the dean, Sister M. Rosalia, R.S.M., who acted 
as coordinator of the center. Sister M. Timothy, R.S.M., Saint Xavier College, 
assisted by five members of the Salve Regina staff, directed the instruction in 
English. A total of five hours every day was devoted to an intensive analysis of 
the sounds, vocabulary, and syntactical patterns of English. The texts used were 
prepared by Robert Lado and Charles Fries for the English Language Institute of 
the University of Michigan. Each sister student was provided with a set of four 
texts. Tapes were available for those who needed additional drill. 

Lectures by qualified speakers enriched the spiritual and cultural phases 
of the orientation. Reverend Anthony Kurialacherry from Kerala, India, gave 

200 College and University Department 

several talks to the Indian sisters in their native Malayalam tongue on various 
aspects of life in the United States. He covered such subjects as differences 
between Indian and American educational systems, methods, and student- 
teacher relationships; spiritual and apostolic motivation; adaptation to a new 
culture; and the role of the sister student as an ambassador of the Church 
and people of India to the United States. Father Anthony spent five days at 
the college assisting with the program. 

Recreation periods with American sisters of the same age, evening enter- 
tainments, and informal receptions were a few of the features of the social 

The orientation program for the Latin American group was conducted at 
the Mercy Generalate in Bethesda. Here the proximity of the Academy of 
American Franciscan History made it possible to enrich the program with 
lectures on the Church in America, on Pan-American relations, and on 
American culture in general. The excellent contributions made by priests of 
the Academy were augmented by lectures given by Father Santiago of Mexico 
City, who shared with the sisters his own experiences as a student at the Catholic 
University of America; by Father Leonardi Rodriguez, S.J., dean of the Medical 
School at Buenos Aires; Father Fredrick McGuire, executive secretary of the 
Latin America Bureau, and Mr. Siri of NCWC. These lectures implemented 
not only the spiritual and cultural but also the intellectual needs of the program. 

For the study of the English language, Georgetown University Language 
Laboratory was opened to the sisters. Professor Frederick Bosco and four 
sisters from participating communities spent several hours each day helping the 
Latin American sisters acquire the fundamentals of the English language. 

When Mother Mary Regina, desirous of contributing to the Latin American 
project, opened her motherhouse to the sisters from Peru and Brazil, she thereby 
assumed the burden of the program. What followed took its vitality from the 
spirit displayed by Mother Mary Regina and her sisters. The Latin American 
sisters quickly felt that they belonged to the Mercy family. Together they prayed, 
worked, ate, and enjoyed varied recreations. The sisters met with Embassy 
personnel of Latin American countries and visited several places of interest, 
among which were the Pan American Building and Peruvian Embassy. 

By the close of the first orientation program, each sister, while filled with 
gratitude for the blessings which had come to her at Bethesda, was nevertheless 
ready and eager to leave for her destination. And the host communities were 
likewise anxiously looking forward to receiving these little sisters into their re- 
ligious families. How well these communities have understood their newly as- 
sumed obligations is evident now in the results of the year's work with the Latin 
American sisters and two years of work with the Indian sisters. 

While religious in this country are fully aware of the advantages which par- 
ticipation in the program has brought to their own congregations, they are in a 
position to estimate modestly the results to date, and in doing so, trust in God's 
continued blessing for the future. In checking results, the mutual love and under- 
standing which has grown up between the host community and its guests, to- 
gether with the deep appreciation on the part of the guest sisters, augurs well 
for the years ahead. This relationship is further revealed by the gratitude of 
superiors in the foreign countries, which is more encouraging since many of 

Orientation for Junior Sisters 201 

these same superiors were reluctant last August to entrust their sisters to our 

A few observations seem deserving of mention. There is the question of 
junior sisters. Those American sisters who have been working with the project 
strongly advise limiting the program to young sisters who can be incorporated 
into the juniorate of the community which receives them. The term "junior 
sister" may include young sisters even though they are no longer in temporary 
vows. The instructions of the juniorate and the companionship with the sisters 
will effectively educate the foreign sisters to a more Christ-like attitude toward 
all members of the Mystical Body, regardless of social standing. While the 
religion courses of their college program will ground them in right Christian 
principles, daily contacts with the American sisters will present these principles 
translated into practice. 

A sincere effort is being made to obtain more accurate information on the 
previous education of the sisters who came to the States. It is hoped, too, that 
in the future a better understanding can be reached with the superiors whose 
motherhouses are in mission areas as to the nature of the college work they wish 
their sisters to pursue. 

For our Latin American sisters, summer vacation begins with the Christmas 
holidays. To bring these sisters here in August has created a problem for the 
superiors. This coming year, the additional Latin American sisters will come 
to the States in January, pursue the study of English, and be prepared to begin 
their regular college courses in September. In the meantime, they are encouraged 
to begin the studv of English at home so as to have a basic understanding of it 
when thev arrive in the States. 

From time to time it will be profitable to revitalize the spirit of the group of 
foreign sisters studving in our religious communities. This will mean reorienta- 
tion periods either for the entire group or in sections. This summer one such re- 
orientation program is being provided for the Peruvian sisters at Viterbo College, 
La Crosse, Wisconsin. 

All sisters responsible for the training and education of these foreign sisters 
realize the indispensable need of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various 
phases of life in the countries from which the sisters come. Such knowledge will 
enable them the better to understand the needs of the sisters they are endeavor- 
ing to help, among whom are many who have a fine basic training in the re- 
ligious life. The timely and invaluable encvclical Mater et Magistra, prepared 
for us by His Holiness, Pope John XXIII, is recommended as a guide to those 
who bear the responsibility of the basic training. In this encyclical will be found 
information and suggestions for the best approach to the problems growing out 
of the program. 

Needless to say, each American communitv participating in this program 
is doing so at a sacrifice, which can be prompted bv nothing other than love 
for God's honor and glory. This sacrifice is an articulate expression of the 
role these communities are playing in the Mystical Body of Christ. It reveals 
something of the zeal and love which fired a St. Paul and a St. Francis Xavier, 
for it is concerned, deeply concerned, about the needs of the world, and 
knows, as an English bishop once said, "God has no other voice, no other 
hands, no other feet than yours, with which to carry the Gospel to the world." 
In warmly receiving sisters of foreign countries into the very heart of our 

202 College and University Department 

religious communities, in sharing with them the best of what we have 
spiritually, culturally, intellectually, and socially, and in this being urged on 
by nothing other than a pure love of God and the extension and perfection 
of His kingdom on earth, we are in a unique way fulfilling our role in the 
apostolate. We are sharing the spirit which gave birth to the entire ecumenical 
movement, a spirit characterized by a Christ-like zeal bora of love and mutual 


Mother Kathryn Sullivan, R.S.CJ. 


Sacred Scripture is a treasured possession of the Church. We are grateful to 
God that Jews and Christians of almost every denomination share this posses- 
sion. It is a major bond of our union with them. Perhaps it was of the Bible 
that John XXIII was thinking when last Ash Wednesday, presiding at the 
Lenten station in the Dominican church of Santa Sabina, he rejoiced that 
by the grace of God "our separated brethren have preserved the most precious 
elements of the divine foundation." x Surely never before has a Pope declared 
that what unites Christians is more important than what separates them. 
Indeed, never before has a more cogent, or a more apostolically impelling 
motive been proposed for the scriptural formation of the members of the 
Church because without this formation no progress in ecumenism is possible. 

Ecumenism and Sacred Scripture are in fact closely related. 2 Ecumenism 
is not only a biblical word, it is also a biblical concept. The roots of the word 
ecumenism are plunged deep in the Bible and draw all the richness of its 
meaning from its use by the inspired authors. Ecumenism, in the Bible, 
implies negatively the refusal of all particularism or provincialism; positively 
the accepting, the embracing, the welcoming of all legitimate forms of unity. 
St. Luke chose wisely when he inserted it in the first sentence of his kerygmatic 
announcement of the birth of Christ. The evangelist wanted to convey some 
of his own wonder that a divine decision affecting all mankind coincided with 
an imperial order affecting the whole of the then-known civilized universe, 
so he wrote: "A decree went forth from Caesar Augustus that the oikoumene, 
[the whole world] should be enrolled" (Luke 2:1). 

One oikoumene was merely a geographical term. In time it acquired a 
political and cultural meaning. Luke was using it in both these ways but he 
was also aware of the religious overtones with which the psalmists had enriched 
it; to them it stood for God's world, "the world of which Yahweh is the Lord" 

1 Osservatore Romano, March 10, 1962. 

2 G. Thils, "Pour mieux comprendre les manifestations dcumeniques," Nouvelle Revue Thiologl- 
que, January 1962, pp. 9-11, 

Scriptural Formation and Ecumenism 203 

(Ps. 24:1) or the world subject to divine power and obedient to eternal 
decrees (Ps. 9:9). This morning I would like to use it in still another sense, 
not geographical, not political, not merely religious, but with a specifically 
eschatological value, meaning "the world to come." And I ask how can 
scriptural formation best contribute to the establishment of the world for which 
the Messiah came, the world in which all will be subject to Him, the world 
in which the many will be one? 

There are three parts to my answer. I believe (1) Scriptural formation should 
be centered around biblical theology; (2) it should not be studied in isolation 
but should be related to all the ancillary sciences; (3) it should be rigidly 
scientific and orientated to theological problems of contemporary relevance. 
And I have chosen an example to illustrate each objective. 

The First Objective 

The first objective is that the study of Scripture should be centered around 
biblical theology. Obeying the directive of Pius XII in the encyclical Divino 
Afflante Spiritu, scholars since World War II have concerned themselves with 
the Bible not as with a profane document, not as evidence in the history 
of religion, not as the source of raw material for the systematic theologian, 
but as a sacred heritage in which they analyze the Christian reality as attested 
and interpreted by the various inspired writers according to the manner in 
which it was revealed to them. Then the Scripture scholars synthesize accord- 
ing to biblical thought patterns. 

This study of biblical theology will provide broad avenues along which all 
those who love the Bible can advance confidently. I have chosen to illustrate 
this first objective by a very brief thematic study of the modalities of love 
in the Old Testament and the New. A study of love in the Bible is primary 
because an understanding of the beauty of God's love for man and His desire 
for man's answering love is the only unfailing foundation for ecumenism. 
The orchestration of divine and human love begins in the book of Genesis, 
is heard in the magnificent crescendo and climax in the Apocalypse and is 
repeated in ever-changing melodies on every page in between. Creation is not 
understandable without this twofold love. The promise of a Redeemer, because 
of and in spite of man's infidelity, makes the merciful quality of this love 
luminously clear. Abraham's faith, Isaac's obedience, Jacob's suffering, Joseph's 
purity are the response of the patriarchs to the divine call and point out some 
of love's exigencies. What depths of divine love Moses must have seen in 
the mysteriously burning but never altered bush, whence he drew the courage 
to begin the formation of his people according to a pattern pleasing to God. 
Judges (like Samuel), kings (like David and Ezechias), prophets (like Isaiah 
and Osee), sages (like Ben Sirach) continued to teach through the centuries 
the importance of the exchange of love, yet men went their unheeding, unhear- 
ing way. So it was only a minority, the anawim, poor humble souls who were 
able to carry on the dialogue when His Divine Son, with the accents of a man, 
spoke to them about the love of His Father. 

Love alone can teach the authentic generosity that, far from isolating 
man from man, rather compels each one to discover on a more profound level 
something he has in common with all men. This is one of the lessons that 
biblical theology can teach. This has value in an ecumenical dialogue. But 
a knowledge of biblical theology alone is not enough. 

204 College and University Department 

The Second Objective 

The second objective is based on the belief that scriptural formation to be 
effective must include training in the ancillary sciences. Our study of Sacred 
Scripture must be serious, it can be no pious, pleasant pastime. It demands 
the best that we have to give. Ancient languages, philology, archaeology (to 
name only a few areas), have made giant strides in the past half century and 
we must study the Bible in the light that they afford. 

Let me use the history of the Graeco-Roman world as an example. The 
discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has raised many questions about the origin 
of Christianity. Similarities between the institutions and beliefs of the 
Qumranites and the early Christians do exist. Far more striking are the 
dissimilarities. The men who lived in the Dead Sea monastery were absolute 
isolationists, but the message of Jesus did not stop at the walls of Jerusalem. 
It overcame all Jewish isolationism and was carried into a Roman world 
dominated by Hellenistic culture. Under God this expansion was the result 
of three centuries of preparation. 

From the letters, recently published, of John Gustave Droysen, 3 the historian 
of the post-classical evolution of Greek culture, we learn that he was inspired 
to undertake the study of these neglected centuries because he saw that they 
were the period during which the world was being prepared for the expansion 
of the Christian religion. 

The New Testament cannot be understood apart from the Christianization 
of the Hellenistic world and the effect of Hellenistic culture upon Christianity. 
The latter part of this sentence must be clarified. The first, and obvious example, 
is the use of the Greek language, which the authors of the New Testament 
preferred to the less widely understood Aramaic. Secondly, the New Testament 
shows how the inspired writers adopted and adapted popular Greek literary 
forms. Epistles, logia, acts of famous men, Didache, diatribe, dialexis, 
apocalypse — all of these were current in Hellenistic literature and have an 
honored place in Scripture and in the writings of the Fathers. Thirdly, to 
limit ourselves to three examples, the thought patterns of the first Christian 
missionaries were those that would appeal to a cultivated Greek audience. 

When Paul reached Athens, he first preached in the synagogue, then he 
went to the Areopagus and began a diatribe that was Christian in content, 
Stoic in argument, calculated to win the interest of a philosophically inclined 
audience, and supported by a quotation from a Greek astronomical work, the 
Phaenomena of Aratus. This is the classic encounter of Greek and Christian. 
Paul's failure on that occasion was personal, but the Christian victory was 
never to be separated from the culture of which Athens was the symbol and 
center. Henceforth he preached a wisdom not of this world, but one that the 
Greek world could understand and many would accept. 

A study of the historical setting of Acts 17 makes it possible to draw many 
conclusions concerning the advance of the Gospel today. It is easy to disengage 
the essential elements of the primitive kerygma from the accidental elements 
of Greek culture in which they have come down to us, and we turn away 
from such a study with new horizons, wondering what new cultures God's 
providence may even now be fashioning in order that they may serve as 
vehicles for the good tidings in the years to come. 

8 J. G. Droysen, Briefwechsel, Berlin, 1929, I, p. 70. 

Scriptural Formation and Ecumenism 205 

The Third Objective 

There is yet a third objective that we must keep before us in our scriptural 
formation if we wish to prepare minds and hearts for progress in ecumenism. 
Unless this formation is rigidly scientific, it will never provide the solid 
foundation for an understanding of the issues that divide Christians. The third 
objective is the attainment of a serious and scientific study of the inspired word. 

What is it that divides believers? Is it a single issue? Is it a whole series 
of problems? Without attempting a complete answer to these questions, let 
us submit that it is the theological differences that are the most important. 
This is not to minimize the significance of political, social, liturgical, and 
ethical factors in the sad story of disunity, but it is probably correct to say 
that ultimately it will be on theological agreements that all other solutions 
will depend. 

Is it possible to go further and single out certain theological questions that 
are basic to all other obstacles to ecumenism? I believe it is. 

Since time is running short, may I merely point out how a solid, scientific 
understanding of the Bible throws wonderful light on some of these problems 
and without the help afforded by Sacred Scripture no solution is possible. 

1. The Church. Today the true meaning of the Church is receiving an 
attention not accorded since the Reformation. Sixteenth century ecclesiology 
was largely legalistic and juridical. Isolated proof — texts from the Bible — 
often obscured the true meaning of the inspired word. The high decibel 
quality of charge and countercharge made progress in understanding difficult. 
All this has changed. The two major concepts of Catholic ecclesiology are 
now biblical. The Kingdom of God is no longer explained in terms of a 
Montesquieu but as a scriptural category acceptable to all Christians. The 
consequences of the daring Pauline doctrine that the Church is the Mystical 
Body of Christ may prove a meeting ground for fruitful discussion. 

2. Justification is another doctrine which divides Protestants and Catholics. 
To misunderstand this teaching is to distort dangerously the Christian message. 
Only a thorough study of the New Testament will establish the legal character 
of this concept, explain its relation to divine worship, and show its connection 
with sanctification, good works, the needs of the individual and the contribution 
of the group. 

This is also true of a third theological issue. 

3. Tradition. One of the most rewarding discussions going on today among 
theologians centers around the connection between Scripture and Tradition. 
Much depends on the answer. Time prevents even a summary of the Protestant 
and Catholic positions, but it is good to report that union is now closer than 
it has ever been before. 

Surely the importance of a scientific study of Scripture is discernible in the 
three issues I have mentioned and the list could easily be extended: the 
primacy of Peter, apostolic succession, transubstantiation, sacraments, sacri- 
fice, source of Christian authority, faith. In fact, it would be hard to find a 
theological issue in which trained Scripture scholars — Protestant and Catholics 
— have not begun an encouraging and often harmonious discussion which it 
is our obligation to understand and to further, if we can. 

Before I conclude my comments on my three major points — biblical 
theology, ancillary sciences, correlation with dogma — I would like to face 
frankly some objections that may have occurred to you. 

206 College and University Department 

Not all our sisters, I know, can go on for advanced work in Sacred Scrip- 
ture. The preparation for their professional and directly apostolic work may 
allow only a minimum of time for the study of Sacred Scripture, but I would 
plead with you that whatever time can be given be devoted to the serious 
study of biblical theology based on a literal exegesis of the text, so that when 
our sisters teach the children in the primary grades about the Joseph's "rags 
to riches" adventures in Egypt, or Jonah's experiences in a whale, they will 
do so in such a way that the children will never have to unlearn anything 
that they have been taught. 

So, in that sense, it might be objected that Sacred Scripture is not an area 
where we and they may meet. Let me make my case even weaker. Appar- 
ently, there are so many people with whom we come in contact who do not 
believe in the Bible, that, it might be objected, why waste time on Sacred 
Scripture? My answer would be: It is not time wasted to prepare our sisters 
along these lines, for four reasons: 

(1) The study of Sacred Scripture can give our sisters a concrete, existential 
understanding of our faith that is singularly attractive to modern minds with 
whom thev will come in contact. 

(2) Although our study of Sacred Scripture in the light of revelation is 
transcendent and supernatural, it is also possible to study the sacred books 
as historical documents. I am sure that I have some Ph.D.'s in history in 
my audience, and they will agree with me that the merely human evidence 
in support of many of our inspired books is far superior to the evidence 
guaranteeing the authenticity of all pivotal ancient historical and literary 
works. This point I would like to stress. Many of our young people go 
through a crisis of faith. If our sisters in doctrine class are steeped in Sacred 
Scripture, they will be able to share a conviction that it is intelligent to 
accept the foundations of Christian belief. No one denies the dangers in the 
ecumenical dialogue. But Sacred Scripture can protect our students and 

(3) I would be the first to want to stress the intellectual values of a study 
of Sacred Scripture. These values are there — in abundance. But it is also 
true that a study of Sacred Scripture along the lines I would propose can 
create attitudes that are essential in any fruitful ecumenical experience. What 
are these attitudes? They are an openness of mind, charity, a hunger for truth, 
and an understanding of the wonderful patience of God. You can expand 
the list. 

(4) Lastly, we are religious women, dedicated women. We are gathered 
here because we want to find new and better ways of training those who are 
to succeed us and to do what we have done — to do it even better. Is not the 
study of Sacred Scripture a means to a better understanding of literature? 

If we give our sisters a true grounding in Sacred Scripture, we will help 
them to realize their dreams and ours. 

And so we come to the conclusion. I think I can best express the final 
thought that I would like to leave with you, if I ask you to think for a 
moment of Rembrandt's painting of Aristotle so recently acquired by the 
Metropolitan Museum in New York. 4 This picture has aroused extraordinary 
interest. Long lines of spectators stretch through the Museum, down the steps, 

* T. Rousseau, "Aristotle contemplating the bust of Homer," Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Bulletin, January 1962, pp. 149-156. 

Scriptural Formation and Ecumenism 207 

and along Fifth Avenue, waiting for a chance to examine it. Much of this 
interest can be traced to publicity — people are curious to see a picture that 
cost so much. But curiosity cannot explain the reverence, the awe with which 
they stand before this three centuries old painting. 

What explains its dynamic? What gives it such compelling force? The 
play of light is partly responsible, the mood is one of mystery, it is a powerful 
picture, but there are no sudden, dramatic contrasts. All its transitions are 
quiet and controlled. This sense of wonder is also conveyed to us by the 
measured restraint of the colors, limited almost entirely to yellows and browns, 
but so great is the wealth of tonal variety that it is easy to believe the experts 
who tell us that Rembrandt prepared a fresh combination of colors on his 
palette for every new brush stroke on his canvas. Irresistibly the half-shadows, 
the half-lights, the infinitely delicate variations of dull gold, amber, and an- 
tique bronze draw our eyes to the noble manly figure of Aristotle, whose 
strong, purposeful hand rests gently, almost affectionately on the head of the 
sculptured bust of Homer. The philosopher's dark, thoughtful eyes do not 
meet ours, they are gazing into space, into a distant world where fears and 
longings meet. With what thoughts are those deeply luminous eyes so 
eloquent? Here we have more than a picture of one man of genius paying 
tribute to another, more than a philosopher honoring a poet, more than a 
thinker remembering a predecessor. Surely some serious and deeply felt bond 
unites them both. A study of Aristotle's writings quickly suggests an answer. 
He knew Homer well, in his Poetics he devotes a whole section to the bard 
whose works were part of fourth century paideia. Aristotle, it would seem, 
found in Homer's poetry the serene balance between two extremes they both 
admired so much. Poet and philosopher were concerned throughout their 
lives with the problem of the One and the Many. Homer was able to take 
the Many — places, times, peoples, motives, situations, and combine them in 
such a way that the resulting picture of life was complete and One. 5 Aristotle 
was able to analyze the causes, the distinctions, the complexities of the rela- 
tions of the Many and the One in an attempt to achieve perfect unity. 

Is this not the same problem that we are considering this morning — that 
the many may be one? Aristotle's eyes are filled with sadness, his answers 
were only half-answers, he knew that neither Homer nor he had really found 
the goal of their desires; but our hearts can be filled with gladness because 
that goal can be ours. 

Sacred Scripture, properly taught, can provide the motive, the method, 
and the content that will help us to achieve the goal of ecumenism: "That 
all may be made one." 

B S. E. Bassett, The Poetry of Homer, Berkeley, 1938, p. 244. 


Sister Mary Magdalene, O.P. 

co-ordinator, racine dominican educational association, 

saint Catherine's convent, racine, Wisconsin 

In choosing ecumenism as our theme for the 1961 community educational 
conferences, we had no debate as to its timeliness. Rather, we were faced 
with this two-fold challenge: the imperative need to study ecumenism; the 
best approach to the subject as a community study. 

The need is as timeless as the Church herself and is discovered to be present 
in every stage of her growth. I will ask you to allow me to dip into family 
archives for a moment to quote from Father Bonaventure Schepers' article 
"Ecumenism and Dominican Discernment" in the January, 1962, issue of 
The Torch. Father Schepers looks to the life and writings of St. Catherine 
of Siena for a commitment to the needs of ecumenism and for a program to 
meet these needs. We find the program basically in her two-fold principle 
for the spiritual life: the knowledge of self; the knowledge of God — a principle 
peculiarly Augustinian in flavor! Knowledge of self in this framework means 
(and I am quoting Father Schepers now): 

knowledge of self as a member of the Church, a deeper realization of the 
significance of one's being a member of the Mystical Body of Christ. It 
means, therefore, penetrating or discerning the tragedy of a Christendom that 
is divided, and the realization that . . . this division is hurting us. It means 
questioning ourselves seriously: Are our attitudes and actions in any way 
contributing to this division? Reflecting on "the knowledge of God" we 
should become more and more convinced that whereas the Catholic Church 
is conscious of being endowed with the commission to preserve and to prop- 
agate the faith perfectly and integrally, nevertheless to each one of us, 
theologian or not, the mystery of God, and the mystery of the Church re- 
main — and will always remain — incomprehensible. 

We can approach the mystery and gain, by God's help, some discernment 
of it; yet the possibilities of penetration remain infinite. We must follow 
the lead of our present Holy Father and realize that the Church needs to 
profit from the renaissance of the study of the Bible that is being born in 
the hearts of many Catholics, to profit from the liturgical renewal. These are 
the Ecumenical Apostolates open to us all. 

The needs were imminent; the time, as always was now. We were convinced 
of the need of the study. What approach to use? These words of Pope John 
XXIII on the occasion of the canonization of St. Bertilla Boscardin, May 11, 
1961, corroborated our thinking: "The thing that we see happening on so wide 
a scale on the economic and political levels — unification and co-operation — 
has to be the distinctive note of Catholicism in our time." 


Utilizing Community Conferences 209 

We took to heart yet another admonition of His Holiness, offered to 
seminarians on April 6, 1961, "not to get into the habit of looking upon the 
apostolate as a matter of technique; rather, it is a matter of bringing your 
thinking and your life into line with the sincerity, the generosity, and the 
sacrifice that Christianity teaches, and to which we must all be completely 
committed." He also urged these young men, in approaching their apostolate: 
"1. to get a clear but calm view of present reality; 2. to aim for an apostolic 
activity that will always be prompt, willing, and generous." 

From all these words of wisdom we received our inspiration and impetus 
to make the study. We knew that "this clear but calm view" in regard to 
ecumenism would require study, alertness, soberness of mind, curiosity 
tempered by zeal, an appreciation of the past and a concern for the present. 
We knew, too, that a generous apostolic activity would flow from wills set 
on fire by the white heat of truth. 

The theme did not need further stretching to fit perfectly into the over-all 
objectives of our association, which, paraphrased somewhat, may be put thus: 
to become more completely human that we may be humanly completed by the 
Divine. I have been asked to explain how we used our meetings to implement 
the theme. 

Since the meetings are held by "repeat performances" in four different 
regions on the four Saturdays of October, practically every sister attends. 
The theme, keynote address, group discussions, and professional activities 
revolve around the same subjects; sometimes we have the same speakers or 
panels travel to all four areas to insure "unification and cooperation." Our 
Mother General's addressing all four meetings is another medium of unifi- 

We understood that there was a great need for a clarification of "ecumen- 
ism" in all its aspects in the minds of the sisters; we were certain that a solid 
growth here would spontaneously make for a professional and spiritual growth 
in each individual. Consequently, following the release of the theme in 
January, 1961, "The Religious and Ecumenical Movement," our librarians 
collaborated on a bibliography which clarified ecumenism, the attitude of 
the Church toward it, the place of the Church as a whole, and of each 
individual in it. This general subject was matter for the keynote address 
given by priests especially chosen because of their field of study and work. 
The theme was further broken down for group discussions into: 

1. Protestant-Catholic Relationships; 

2. Catholic-Oriental Rite Relationships; 

3. Origin and Purpose of the Ecumenical Councils of the Church; 

4. Origin and Purpose of the Forthcoming Council; 

5. The Responsibility of the Individual in the Movement. 

(I may say in retrospect that we would probably modify these somewhat.) 
The sisters were encouraged to choose one of the themes for concentration; 
groups held informal discussions on the missions on these topics; common 
spiritual reading was chosen around them. 

During the summer we made a community-wide effort to follow the Catholic 
Hour radio programs over NBC which included: 

"The Spiritual Basis for Christian Unity," by the Rev. John L. Hardon, S.J. 
"Christian Unity in a Changing Community," by the Rev. Thurston N. Davis, 
S.J., editor of America 

210 College and University Department 

"Basic Human Rights," by James O'Gara, editor of Commonweal 
"Christian Unity and the Image of the Church," by Gerard Sherry, editor 
of The Central California Register, Fresno, California 

Sisters on various summer assignments were encouraged to listen. These 
addresses were taped and read in the refectory during the summer retreats; 
printed copies were secured for re-reading in mission refectories. Thus we 
had some common basis for thinking and discussion. A growth in under- 
standing together the issues at stake, the mind of the Church, the articulation 
of some of her scholars, was important for our objectives. At summer school 
centers, sisters utilized opportunities for lectures and symposia on the subject, 
so that by August common interest was running high. At this time the chair- 
man of each of the four areas chose discussion leaders for the topics men- 
tioned earlier, and sisters indicated by mail the subjects of their choice. Thus 
they signified they would join a particular discussion group on the day of 
the meeting. This left about two months for specific reading and discussion. 
In the Formation Departments, too, discussions were held, scrapbooks and 
bulletin boards utilized to keep abreast of the current material constantly 
being released. 

As interest mounted, a group of sisters in Detroit visited, upon appoint- 
ment, the pastor of Saint Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and spent a 
profitable afternoon becoming acquainted with the history, attitudes, and 
convictions of Orthodox Catholics. Other groups became better acquainted 
with Catholics of the Eastern Rites, of St. Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic 
Church here, and with the Sisters of St. Basil the Great. While these groups 
are one with us, we felt even here a better understanding was needed. 
Exchanges of visits between the sisters followed and great joy and satisfaction 
were realized. One of our sisters has since developed a set of colored slides 
on the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, complemented by slides 
secured from Fordham University on Eastern art and architecture, together 
with a tape recording of the chants of the liturgy. We will make these avail- 
able to our schools. The sisters contacted both the Byzantine Seminary at 
Pittsburgh and the Monastery of Chevetogne, Chevetogne, Belgium, where 
monks of both East and West live in community, and where there is a center 
for the clergy and laity to study questions of unity. 

Coincidentally, for the first time last summer, we welcomed an Episco- 
palian sister to our summer session. Daily contacts with her on the bus, in 
the classroom and cafeteria, strengthened a mutual bond of interest and 
brought much enlightenment. It occasioned, too, an exchange of visits to 
our respective convents and deepened a growing, wholesome, Christian atti- 

At each of the four meetings in October, the keynote addresses emphasized 
admirably the strategic areas of interest in ecumenism. Speakers were: the 
Right Rev. Msgr. Joseph Emenegger of Milwaukee; the Very Rev. Msgr. 
Joseph Breitenbeck of Detroit; the Rev. Placid Jordan, O.S.B.; the Rev. Pat- 
rick Clancy, O.P., of River Forest, Illinois. Since each address differed in 
scope and emphasis, the talks were taped and made available to all the 
missions. Group discussions varied greatly, covering historical surveys of the 
Councils; evaluations of fundamental areas of agreement and disagreement 
between Catholics and those of other faiths; studies of doctrinal issues faced 
by past Councils; a look at the issues before the next Council; keen studies on 
Orthodox Catholics; animated discussions on famous converts; and above all, 

Promoting Participation of Hospital Sisters 211 

discussions on the part that is ours to play in ecumenism as a religious com- 
munity and as individual religious. 

It is needless to point out how we became professionally better equipped 
to clarify the question of ecumenism; our realizations in the intellectual and 
spiritual aspects were phrased by the sisters repeatedly in written evaluations. 
"We have learned," they said, "to listen to those of other faiths; to recognize 
the truth in what they believe; to have a profound respect for the consciences 
of others; to realize better our place in the work of the Church." Significantly, 
requests for the next year's theme included suggestions to continue with 
ecumenism, to study the Mass as a bond of unity, to study the Scriptures as 
a common ground for dialogue. While we must waive these in favor of a 
theme for our centennial year (you will excuse again a nod in the direction 
of the family), high on our list of popular discussion topics is "St. Catherine, 
Daughter of the Church." 



Sister Madeleine Clemence 
director of nursing, fall river, massachusetts 

Nursing sisters, because of their very close contacts with lay persons — 
patients, patients' families, doctors — are in an unique position to foster 
the ecumenical spirit. There is, in particular, a group of persons with whom 
they could profitably engage in dialogue: their lay colleagues. And full, 
wholehearted participation in professional organizations, where lay and 
religious nurses learn to know and respect one another, would provide sisters 
with the necessary opportunity. 

But, what is the sisters' attitude toward participation in professional organi- 
zations? In October, 1961, all the nursing sisterhoods of New England were 
represented at the convention of the New England Conference of Catholic 
Nurses. Well over one hundred sisters met and discussed their place in the 
National Council of Catholic Nurses in order to make recommendations to 
the board of directors of this organization. 

Most sisters would want to have the same privileges and responsibilities as 
the lay nurse; they would like to be judged as professional persons on their 
personal merits; just as their lay colleagues, they expect that participation in 
the professional organization will result in personal as well as professional 

On the contrary, a few sisters desire that the difference between them 
and the lay nurses be emphasized. They are willing to help these lay nurses 
from the outside, but they do not want to get really involved in the organiza- 

212 College and University Department 

Some of these sisters stated that they wanted to limit their professional 
commitment in order to live more integrally their religious life, and that they 
wanted to protect themselves from the influences of "the world." 

Could it be that these sisters lack confidence in their own professional 
worth, and are reluctant to compete with their lay colleagues? Or could it be 
that the over-protection of their convents did not equip them to discuss today's 
problems with lay persons? Or could it be that they have not learned that the 
perfection of their religious and of their professional life stand or fall to- 

If the nursing sisters are to play the role expected of them by the Church, 
they should receive an adequate professional — including liberal — education; 
the potential leaders should be helped to realize their potentialities; and they 
should be made to see that their professional activities are but the expression 
of their religious consecration. 


Sister Margaret, S.N.D. 


Living in an era which is indeed an ecumenical one, it behooves us to enter 
into its spirit, cooperating in the attitude of understanding and the desire for 
unity. There is no need to call to mind the focus of public attention on 
Catholic education, but certainly it is most important that the contribution 
of the teaching sisters be clarified and comprehended. This would add to the 
understanding. Catholic education in the United States must be known not 
only for the numbers that it teaches, but for the quality of its teaching, and 
the professional stature of its teachers. It seems to me that the Sister For- 
mation Graduate Study and Research Project can help to accomplish these 

The Sister Formation Graduate Study and Research Project has as its aim 
the solicitation of ten million dollars which will be raised in order to pre- 
pare sisters for college teaching. These sisters, it is considered, will teach in 
juniorates, thus providing truly prepared college teachers to form and edu- 
cate the young sisters who will go out to teach on all levels. It is limited, there- 
fore, to the doctoral study of sisters having only the B.A. degree, who will 
teach in Sister Formation centers, who will be given three years to spend in 
study, and who are not older than thirty-five. It is planned that this money 
will be raised through the united efforts of sisters of many congregations 
soliciting funds from people interested in building and strengthening the 
Catholic educational system in this country. The fund will provide 2,000 
fellowships, each worth $5,000. 

One of the first steps to be taken in this project will be the actual solicita- 

Ecumenical Significance of Sister Formation 213 

tion of the funds needed for the fellowships. In this process, the entire 
Catholic educational system will be brought to the attention of corporation 
and foundation executives as well as private individuals. For many of these 
people it will be the very first time that they are presented with the facts 
to refute the composite of myths. They will come to know the number and 
types of schools, the number of teachers and students. For the first time, 
perhaps, they will come to realize what the contributed services of the re- 
ligious teacher mean to the United States taxpayer in terms of dollars and 
cents. They will learn that: one out of every seven children in the United 
States attends a parochial school; one out of six hospitalized patients is treated 
in an institution staffed by sisters; one out of every two nursing students is 
educated in a Catholic school of nursing. If, as Father Weigel has said, 
"understanding is the conditio sine qua non for fertile conversation either in 
writing or in the spoken word," the ecumenical significance of just the first 
step in this project should be apparent. 

When the money has been secured and the fellowships are available, the 
recipients will have to be selected. In the selection, religious orders will 
come to know other religious orders better, their needs and their strengths. 
This will help establish greater unity among ourselves, and this, too, you 
will grant is not only necessary but vital to the continuation of Catholic edu- 
cation. Through the choice by each institute of the proper candidates for 
these fellowships, universities throughout the country will learn of the true 
caliber of the teaching sister in the United States. Donors of scholarships 
will wish to know the beneficiary, and will not only become interested in 
the progress of the individual but of the whole community of which she 
is a member. The donor will tell others, and gradually but steadily, the area 
of knowledge and interest in Catholic education will spread and esteem will 

As the result of judicious choice of the proper person to be sent on for 
graduate study, the influence of the sisters studying in the universities will be 
great. Professors and fellow students will come to respect this sister as a 
scholar, and this respect will be extended from the individual to the wider 
field of community and, in general, to Catholic education itself. These sister 
students by their seminar papers, their advanced research, their oral presenta- 
tions will impress librarians, other scholars, people who may never have 
pictured a sister outside a chapel. She will present to them the picture of a 
selfless, dedicated religious scholar who from the fund of knowledge which 
she is building up in graduate work will have much to give. Who will under- 
estimate the ecumenical significance of such religious scholars in building 
up esteem for the whole system she represents? 

Having achieved the Ph.D. degree, the sisters in this project will teach 
junior sisters. They will be eminently prepared for their work, having mastered 
a particular discipline, learned the methods of and participated in research. 
Building on their own sound preparation they will be truly preparing those 
sisters who will go out to teach or serve others on all levels. Thus the quality 
of education all along the line will be raised through the formation of teachers 
thoroughly prepared in the discipline that they teach. In the past, some of the 
criticism leveled at Catholic education has been concerned with poorly and 
inadequately prepared teachers in our schools. The Graduate Study and Re- 
search Project aims to overcome this by providing well prepared teachers for 
our junior sisters, who will benefit from good teachers and become well pre- 
pared before they themselves enter the profession. The result is, as seen, an 

214 College and University Department 

ever widening circle of benefits emanating from the central figure, the scholar- 
teacher teaching the junior sisters. 

The sisters educated to the doctoral level will also give stature to the 
whole Catholic system by meeting others in their special fields on a professional 
basis. By participating in conventions, by membership in professional societies, 
by writing for scholarly journals, they will secure respect not for their own 
scholarly worth alone, but for all of Catholic education. They will also help 
to ensure the continuance of the Catholic liberal arts college for women, 
for it is they who will prepare others for college teaching. As everyone in 
college administration today knows, the only hope for preserving the small 
liberal arts colleges is in staffing them with well trained religious, fully equipped 
and prepared for college teaching. 

This project cannot be underestimated. It is intended to fulfill a very 
practical purpose in finding financial support for the higher education of our 
sisters. There is none here who would deny that such education is necessary, 
nor are there many, I presume, who would deny that it is expensive. The project 
will be a stimulus to each community to seek out its best possible candidates for 
doctoral study, with emphasis on ability for such work rather than on avail- 
ability. It will, assuredly, make a most important contribution by bringing to 
the attention of the Catholic and non-Catholic, of the scholarly world, of the 
professional circles, of the whole public, the nature and scope and worth oi 
the Catholic educational system in the American scene. It will, as I hope it is 
evident, be of real ecumenical significance in winning greater sympathy and 
understanding, and, finally, in commanding respect for the excellence of its 
teachers and the quality of its scholarship. It will be no small achievement 
to change the dominant image of the American teaching sister from the 
affable, very human figure who can teach baseball and boxing and drive a jeep, 
or the pious, demure, ineffective but sweet nun, into the religious scholar- 
teacher, thoroughly prepared, professionally respected for the extent of her 
knowledge and the excellence of her work. 

This project is not only the logical development of the Sister Formation 
movement, but it is of ecumenical significance in that it will present the op- 
portunity of giving real information about the Catholic educational system 
to those who may have known little or nothing at all about it. It will in- 
crease understanding and appreciation of that system by the respect engendered 
by the sisters sent on to study, and by their own achievements as scholars. 
What is more, they will make financially possible the continuance of the 
liberal arts college for women. Seen over a long period it will contribute greatly 
to raising the quality of education in our schools by raising the quality of those 
who will teach in them. The Sister Formation Graduate Study and Research 
Project can truly be of significance in this ecumenical era that is ours. 


April 15, 1962 
Second Passion Sunday 


Ad Christianorum Unitatem Fovendam 

Praeparatorius Concilii Vatican! II 

National Catholic Educational Association 

59th Annual Convention 

Section: Sister Formation Conference 

Cobo Hall 

Detroit, Michigan 

I am very happy for the opportunity of offering to your Convention 
a word of congratulation, encouragement, and best wishes. First of all, 
may I congratulate you for choosing such an important and up-to-date 
theme. Unfortunately, no one can boast that all Catholics are vividly 
conscious of, and deeply penetrated by, the duty to be concerned with 
their brothers who are baptized in Christ, brothers even if separated 
from the Apostolic See. There are still countries where large strata of 
Catholics are more or less indifferent towards the growing movement 
to promote the Unity of all Christians. Some Catholics are suspicious, 
even against, this movement. Such attitudes, it seems, stem from an 
inability to overcome deeply rooted prejudices or old resentments. There 
is hope, however, that the coming Council will stimulate and awaken 
the consciences of everyone to a more zealous fervour and wider, truly 
more Catholic, openness of view. 

The selected theme is important not only in itself but particularly foi 
your Association, dedicated as it is to Catholic education. Many fruitful 
opportunities at all levels of education and in almost every subject 
taught are open to deepen our esteem and increase our understanding 
of our Separated Brethren, and thus to pave the way for that perfect 
Unity which Christ desires. I have already spoken last November about 
the promotion of Unity by scientific research and teaching, at the 
solemn opening of the academic year at the University of Fribourg in 
Switzerland. There seemed to be a lively interest and wide agreement 
in what I suggested. Indeed, the strictly religious subjects have obvious 
ecumenical dimensions. Likewise does the teaching of history, because 
it is clear how much an absolute faithfulness to truth — freed from 
prejudices, calm, objective — and a faithfulness to charity (not claiming 
judgment over moral responsibilities, which belongs to God alone) — how 


216 College and University Department 

much, I say, this teaching might contribute to a deeper mutual under- 
standing between Christian communities, even on the human level. 

Let us take another example — philosophy. There is often a lack of 
understanding among Christian brothers because each speaks a dif- 
ferent language, the result of a formation by different philosophical 
systems. One can be unaware of the differences, or if aware of them, 
powerless to overcome them. But how can we understand one another 
on the level of confessional differences, unless we first know the lan- 
guage of others, and, more important, the mentalities that are expressed 
in these languages? The study of the history of philosophy, especially 
modern systems of thought, renders a valuable service (although one 
must recognize that current manuals often do not sufficiently take this 
aspect into account, and therefore are not of great help). 

With reference to other subjects — literature, history of art, the natural 
and social sciences — it is sufficient to mention three principles, the ap- 
plications of which vary according to the subject. The very first prin- 
ciple is to seek possible collaboration among Christian communities, 
by common discussion and action, to promote the fundamental prin- 
ciples of the natural law and the Christian tradition regarding family 
life, education, public and social welfare, on the local, national, and in- 
ternational levels. The second principle is to seek in different scientific 
areas of knowledge to cooperate for the progress of theology, especially 
in the fields of dogma, Biblical exegesis, and the history of dogmas. The 
last principle is to serve truth loyally and zealously in every field of 
knowledge, and to join other Christian communities in this holy service. 
Such servants of truth draw closer to God, nearer to Christ Who is the 
Truth; moreover, they draw closer to one another because they are 
united in a loving search for truth so sublime. Imagine how the com- 
munication of these principles and the formation of students to an 
openness — a truly Catholic openness — would benefit these same students 
when they later confront the non-Catholic Christian communities and 
meet their Separated Brothers. 

Let me say a few words about the quite special obligation to work 
for unity which rises from your consecration to God in the religious 
life. If you are, in the words of St. Paul, "all concerned with God's 
claim (1 Cor. 7:32), if by this consecration you aim to acquire a perfect 
love of God in which the love of a neighbor is included, then how 
strong must be your consciousness of your duties toward your Separated 
Brothers in Christ. You have identified yourselves completely with the 
will of the Father who sent His only begotten Son, so that "those who 
believe in Him may not perish, but have eternal life" (John 3:16). You 
have given yourselves over completely to God's interests. Now, what 
interest is greater that the one for which Christ, Our High Priest, prayed 
so ardently on the vigil of His Passion and Death: "that they may be 
one in us, so that the world may come to believe that it is Thou Who 
hast sent me" (John 17:21)? 

It is clear that this promotion of Christian unity cannot be impro- 

Letter from Augustine Cardinal Bea 217 

vised. It requires from everybody a long and solid preparation and 
can only mean hard work, since it demands thorough knowledge, solid 
convictions, endless patience, delicate love, and this latter — let us say it 
— includes also the danger of misguided love. That is why the whole 
work requires prudence and the enlightened guidance of those whom 
"the Holy Spirit has placed to watch over God's Church" (Acts 20:28). 

A quite special and more profound preparation is necessary for those 
who are consecrated to God and who want to dedicate themselves to such 
a work. The religious vocation harmonizes both contemplation and action. 
This is characterized by the well known expression of St. Thomas: 
"Contemplata tradere" — to share with others the fruits of one's own 
contemplative life, of one's interior life of prayer and meditation. The 
law of every life tells us that the better the life which one possesses and 
the more abundantly he possesses it, the more a person can give life, and 
the better is the life he is giving. And on the supernatural level this 
means that one can have a greater influence on the supernatural life 
of others, the more he himself lives this same supernatural life — that is, 
the more he is united with God through every virtue and especially 
through perfect charity. Moreover, the union of these who are baptized 
in Christ has its very root and source in this union with Christ. From 
this union flows the unity of professing the same faith, sharing the same 
Sacraments, in submission to the "Holy Shepherds," the bishops, who 
are united among themselves and united with the Vicar of Christ. 

If, then, you want to utilize the immense possibilities offered to you 
by virtue of your consecration, you need a special preparation. This 
preparation gives to that knowledge, charity, and action — necessary to 
every Catholic for this work — that profound efficacy which flows from 
your religious consecration. 

I know that in various parts of the world there are non-Catholic 
Christians who sometimes ask Catholic religious for advice on how to 
deepen their own intellectual and spiritual formation. No doubt, the 
same has happened also to you. There is no reason to be surprised by 
this fact. This is simply the fruit, not of your own merits, but of the 
special graces connected with your life of consecration, graces which 
God gives us undeservedly, and which Christ desires should bear fruit 
for the others. In such cases we recognize humbly God's gift, and we 
see also the great responsibility and privilege which it requires, to serve 
Christ in His brothers and sisters. 

I do not want to dwell upon the practical side and upon the manner 
of preparing oneself for the work of promoting Christian Unity, nor 
to work it out in detail. What I have said on this subject in a conference 
to the French seminarians (and in other conferences and articles) can, 
with relative facility, be applied to your needs. 

What I wanted to explain in this letter is the absolute necessity of 
the work of promoting Christian Unity. This task is more urgent for 
those who are consecrated to God and devoted to collaborate more 

218 College and University Department 

closely in the salvific work of Christ and the Church, and is even more 
urgent because of the immense possibilities in your work of education. 
The task is complex and difficult. It requires a long and profound prep- 
aration which should never cease to develop. This is the reason why 
I congratulate you upon the providential choice of the Convention 
theme for 1962, a choice most suitable, especially in this year of the 
beginning of the Second Vatican Council. To this I add my best wishes 
and prayers that the Lord may bless your Convention and your future 

I hope you leave the Convention with a deeper conviction of how 
necessary and how urgent is your work for promoting Christian Unity. 
I pray that you may firmly intend to be dedicated apostles in this 
mission, that your teaching, and most of all your example, prayer, and 
sacrifices, will stir up many other ardent apostles for that Unity so 
much needed by the Church, desired by Christ, and expected by the 
whole of humanity. 

Yours sincerely in Christ, 

Augustine Cardinal Bea 

The above letter from Cardinal Bea was read at both of the programs of the 
Sister Formation Section, Wednesday and Thursday, April 25-26, 1962, Na- 
tional Catholic Educational Association 59th Annual Convention, Detroit. 



Jean-Pierre Barricelli 

director, wien international scholarship program at brandeis 

university, waltham, massachusetts 

The position of prominence which history has chosen to confer upon the 
United States in the twentieth century has brought upon this country an 
unprecedented series of demands which would have startled Henry James in 
his discontent with American culture and would have challenged Mark Twain 
in his confidence in it. Especially since the Second World War, our role of 
world leadership has made it imperative that we involve ourselves on a 
full educational scale with the rest of the world, and that we infuse a world 

Foreign Student: Wien Program at Brandeis 219 

point of view in all of our university programs. It is partially with this in 
mind that in 1958, Brandeis University, then only in its tenth year of ex- 
istence, launched its large international scholarship program bearing the name 
of its donor, Mr. Lawrence A. Wien, a New York philanthropist. I say 
"partially" because any foreign student program makes its contribution not 
only to international education but also to that of the sheltering institution 
itself. "To ignore the world is ignominious and practically dangerous," said 
Santayana, "because unless you understand and respect things foreign, you 
will never perceive the special character of things at home or in your own 
mind." The presence of foreign students on our campus is something we 
owe our own students as an essential part of their education in a constantly 
shrinking world and in the fearsome awareness of the disenchantment and 
incomprehension beclouding it. 

We organized the Wien International Scholarship Program mainly as an 
undergraduate program, believing in the plasticity and impressionability of 
the young mind and in its more genuine reaction to new environments than 
the often diffident, half-willing, pre-judging mind of many foreign graduates. 
I have often expressed my displeasure with our Fulbright and other com- 
missions' policies of awarding travel grants exclusively to graduate students, 
when the gifted and highly promising undergraduate is not given the slightest 
opportunity. And yet, it is the younger student whose life will reach farther 
into tomorrow's unknown, with whom we should be just as concerned as we 
are with the older graduate lest we sacrifice the future for the present. 

It was, thus, with a great sense of excitement and responsibility that, back 
in 1958, we outlined the fundamentals of our program, which was, and 
perhaps still is, the only endowed program of its kind. In a few years it 
will reach its financial goal of $360,000 annually, an amount representing the 
interest from investments which Mr. Wien has turned and will turn over to 
the University. At $3,600 per scholarship, or $3,250, if one subtracts over- 
head expenses, we expect to have 100 scholarships a year awarded on an 
internationally competitive basis to students from around the world. This 
figure would represent roughly 8 percent of our student body (not counting 
other foreign students who are not Wien Scholars and who would raise the 
percentage to around 10 or 11). Without boring you with a liturgy of 
statistics, I shall point out briefly that the individual scholarship includes: 
room, board, tuition, matriculation fees, book costs and laboratory fees, a 
linen contract, a weekly allowance of $10.00, a series of seminars on Ameri- 
can life and culture, tickets to performances of the Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra, local historical trips both within the immediate vicinity and to more 
distant points of New England, a spring recess field trip to Washington and 
points in between under the supervision of one of our professors of history 
or politics; these, together with various social events of the kind which, it 
is said, round out the American campus experience, are all covered by a 
Wien scholarship. Under normal circumstances, travel between the student's 
home country and the university is not included except in cases where it 
would be impossible for a student to accept a scholarship because he would 
not have enough money to get to the university. 

We welcome both the degree candidate and the special student whose in- 
terest lies in intensifying his knowledge of his field of concentration or in 
pursuing his subject from a different perspective. Although we insist on a 
first-rate academic background, on high English proficiency, and on a plan 
of studies which is consistent with a student's proposed career, we have started 

220 College and University Department 

to accept provisionally, a year in advance, exceptionally qualified students 
whose English may at the time be inadequate, on condition that they con- 
centrate on studying English during the one year interim period between their 
provisional acceptance and their coming on to Brandeis. 

The often discomforting prospect of selection and screening offers a per- 
petual challenge which defies the philosopher's logic as well as the psychiatrist's 
insight. We have worked harmoniously with the Institute of International 
Education, faithfully with the African Scholarship Program of American 
Universities (of which we were a pilot member), cordially with a number 
of exchange institutes abroad, and fraternally with foreign universities. And 
I should be remiss if I did not emphasize that we have gained by each of 
these associations. Yet the fact remains that it is perhaps unreasonable to 
expect many a large operation not to be undermined by its very inclusiveness, 
and also to recognize that each university has its own criteria of selection 
as determined by its curriculum, its strengths and weaknesses, and its aca- 
demic demands. We, therefore, embarked upon a project of setting up our 
own contacts or committees throughout the world. This was done largely 
through one of our agents' several trips through Europe, an extensive tour 
of mine around the world, and our President's journey to Latin America 
last summer. We have been encouraged by the results. I do not propose this 
network of private contracts or committees as a panacea to all the ills of 
screening operations. But we feel, at least, the confidence of knowing per- 
sonally the people with whom we are dealing, and we should like to believe 
that their knowledge of our own institution permits a more discriminatory 
list of recommendations, with a minimum of the irritants of nepotism, poor 
scrutiny, and judgments which reflect visceral more often than cerebral factors. 
We encourage independent applications, of course, and here have beeen 
fortunate thus far in arranging a number of personal interviews with members 
of our faculty or staff on leave. 

The final decision on the award of grants rests with a university committee 
built mainly around the director of the Wien Program as chairman, the 
Dean of Admissions, and the Dean of Students. As far as three-way mar- 
riages go, this one has proved its effectiveness and does not anticipate divorce 
or separation. The secret, of course, is that each party controls his own 
budget. The Dean of Admissions is happy because his scholarship budget 
for American students is not dented; the Dean of Students is happy because 
all administrative matters pertinent to Wien Scholars are processed through 
the Wien Office, and, it should be added, our President is more than happy 
that he does not feel called upon to justify the presence of foreign scholarship 
holders on our campus to isolationist donors. 

Before the opening of the academic year, we require as many incoming 
Wien recipients as possible to take part in a summer orientation program 
stressing chiefly English language training, a course which is complemented 
during the regular school year by noncredit courses in English as a Second 
Language. Our program absorbs this expense, but not that of a homestay 
program in which it urges our accepted students to participate. We have 
found that this particular combination of experiences best prepares a foreign 
student for his formal studies and social desires while in this country. It 
eschews the often risible indoctrinations which find telephone calling, bus 
riding, and supermarket shopping an integral part of formal, classroom prep- 
aration for what is sometimes astonishingly and grandiloquently presented 

Foreign Student: Wien Program at Brandeis 221 

under the heading of American culture. If those who advocated such in- 
clusions in our orientation curricula only knew how obliquely and demean- 
ingly foreign educators viewed them, then I am sure they would agree to 
stressing simply the English language on all levels and to including optionally 
a series of discussions on American intellectual history. We have found 
with almost unyielding consistency that our foreign students are mature and 
highly sophisticated individuals. We should treat them accordingly. Beyond 
the warm familiarity of one or two well-chosen hosting families, and the 
inviting, enriching atmosphere provided by a good course of studies, a foreign 
student who is worthy of seeking further education away from his home 
should need little. 

Throughout the academic year, Wien Scholars, undergraduate or graduate, 
are required to live on campus. What is more, they all have American room- 
mates, regardless of race, color, or creed. We dread the contrivance of 
an International House when it serves not as a haven for cross-cultural 
discussions with American students but as a refuge for the timid, or a lair 
for the angry, who wear the same badge of strangeness in an incomprehensible 
or hostile civilization. A student committee, composed largely of American 
students but with some Wein Scholars, offers all the practical day-by-day 
direction a new foreign student would require, and by organizing outings, 
panel discussions, dances, concerts, and international conventions, performs 
great services in making our foreign students a more integral part of the 
campus community. Faculty wives and women's committees, Rotary and 
church organizations, alumni and internationally minded citizens of Greater 
Boston generally provide more extra-campus wandering than our students 
sometimes have energy for. 

We point with some pride to the achievements of the Wien Scholars at 
Brandeis, not so much because of the success of the selection procedures 
which is thus reflected — for our occasionally egregious misjudgments would 
tend to prove that the road to knowledge is not only bumpy but long — but 
also because of the productive futures so many of the Wiens promise, which 
in a way, is a vindication of our belief that undergraduates are as much 
deserving of our consideration as are graduates. An average taken over 
the past three and one-half years shows that 65 to 70 percent of their aggre- 
gate grades fall in the honors category, and their graduating Latin honors 
have been multiplying commensurately. Equally attractive to those of us 
who like to observe their contributions to our communities is the manner 
in which so many of them lend themselves to extra-campus events with a 
desire to furthering our own understanding of their cultures: television and 
radio appearances which act like extensions of their talks in our classrooms 
for the purpose of bringing a first-hand point of view of some phase of 
their country's civilization; speaking engagements, often in areas quite distant 
from Massachusetts, which may broaden an idea that had found its first 
American expression in our campus newspaper or across a dining-hall table. 
And now, with the formation two years ago of a Wien Alumni Association, 
we expect their contributions to keep flowing in our direction from all corners 
of the globe in the form of short articles which we publish and, in turn, 
distribute to the whole body of alumni. 

It is of incalculable interest to follow a student's development during 
his two or three years here, especially when he brings with him on arrival 
the commonplace images of the United States, such as materialism, com- 
placency, rock-and-roll, and Coca-Cola — stereotypes which burden the minds 

222 College and University Department 

of even the most circumspect. Some of these notions are retained when 
he leaves (materialism); some are modified or placed in a more reasonable 
perspective (Coca-Cola): some, at least, are eradicated as a result of contact 
with learned American opinion (complacency), and some awaken their sensi- 
bilities of communal guilt (rock-and-roll). I feel that, despite the cynic's 
inveterate darts, the experience is healthy, and the exposure — especially at 
the undergraduate age — beneficial. Replacements and compensations are made 
early in the young, searching mind. For instance, if our charged tempo of 
existence precludes the relaxing possibilities of meditation and reflection, 
cherished and practiced in so many foreign countries, it bespeaks, on the 
other hand, the not discountable virtues of dynamism and youthful excitement. 
Quite obviously there is much to be said for the whole matter of getting onto 
common ground, of students exploring together, changing, growing, and 
ceaselessly adapting themselves to new knowledge born of the free inquiry 
a university campus encourages. The inquiry must, of course, be honest. 
If it is not, then we regress to the dangers and narrow emotions of nineteenth 
century nationalistic prides and prejudices. If it is, then the Toynbeean 
characterization that our age is the first in history to recognize the practical 
possibility of having all peoples of the world share in the fruits of civilization 
is true. Then it should somehow be possible to catapult international education 
into the position of a major determinant in the dynamics of change. 

But we should not naively be beguiled by our dreams into expecting that 
understanding between peoples grows from the simple process of throwing 
students and scholars together. First, it is much too early to assess the 
impact of international exchange, given the fact that our effort on both an 
intensive and an extensive scale began only after the Second World War 
and has but recently reached a real momentum. Secondly, sheer contact 
does not necessarily lead to understanding, much less to favorable attitudes, 
and, unfortunately, knowledge does not necessarily mean love. Yet, under 
propitious circumstances, exchanges of persons and of ideas may well con- 
tribute to greater appreciation. How much is not the point. What I am 
referring to does not lend itself to yardstick measurement. It is, at best 
0ike Dostoevsky's fear of going to the Siberian prison not because of the 
physical torture he would endure there, but because after leaving it, he would 
later always look back upon it with a certain amount of nostalgia), an in- 
tangible, even perhaps an irrational emotion, defined by its very indefinability 
something not concrete but present, not overwhelming but apparent, not 
steady but consistent. As such, it abides and permeates consciousness for 
long periods. 

I believe in this "nostalgia." I believe that if an exchange program has 
no other value, it has this one, because this is what lies at the bottom of 
every human relationship. And in the process, something of the truths about 
America rubs off onto our foreign students, unconsciously yet directly, in- 
directly yet consciously. Our country's clumsiness in specific situations, our 
trials by error, can be looked at positively, as one Wien Scholar said to me 
after being here for eight months during which he had undergone consider- 
able change. He said that the American theory assumes the participation 
of the whole people in government, and if it is a fumbling participation, 
it achieves, on the whole, a greater wisdom than a dictatorship would in 
the long run achieve. It seemed to me that this thought was impressive, 
coming as it did, from a student (Italian) whose own country had been sub- 
mitted to dictatorship, the effects of which have still not been completely 

Catholic University and Ecumenism 223 

erased. If this is in any way indicative of the ideas people can hold in com- 
mon, then these common beliefs are much more important than the issues 
which divide them. 

To the realization of this hope, we of the Wien International Scholarship 
Program are committed, fully aware of the role of the university today in 
world affairs, and — if Emerson's dictum is correct that "it is the eye which 
makes the horizon" — fully cognizant that in free societies, the university is 
the eye. We do not regard our program as a philanthropy; it is a necessity, 
a mutual fund of friendship through which every premium contributed is 
compensated by a substantial dividend. It is an enterprise which makes us 
at Brandeis feel we are sharing with all our sister institutions in the educa- 
tional duties confronting every one of us in a world overtaken by profound 
transformations. It is, finally, as is an exchange program at any university, 
a response to the challenge of educating for tomorrow with the very best 
means of today. 



Heinrich A. Rommen 


Already in their classical time the Greeks spoke of the oikumene as being 
that promontory of the Balkans, Greece itself and its many colonies on the 
islands and shores of the eastern and middle Mediterranean. In Hellenistic 
times when Rome began to control politically and militarily western Europe, 
North Africa, the Middle East, the Black Sea, half of the Balkans, the north 
up to the famous Wall, and parts of England, and at the same time assimilated 
Greek culture, the oikumene became also the Humanitas and lived somewhat 
insecurely in the Pax Romana under the Emperor. Like Jupiter ruled the 
Kosmos, so the Emperor ruled the oikumene. Romanae Spotium, said Ovid, est 
urbis et orbis idem. That was the fullness of time. Christ was born, Homo 
factus est crucifixus et resurrexit, and told his disciples to teach all nations 
first in the oikumene. So already, a few decades after St. Paul, the apostolus 
gentium, Ignatius of Antioch, speaks of the katholik Ekklesia, the Church of 
all the world — that is, in urbe et orbe, the oikumene. 

Irenaeus of Lyon before 200 A.D. stressed the ecumenical character of the 
Church and spread kat holengen, dwelling, as it were, in one house, the oiku- 
mene, of which Christ is the King. A hundred years later Eusebius, the author 
of the first history of the Church, speaks of the "oikumene of all men, young 
and old, men and women, even barbarians, slaves and free men, literates and 
illiterates" (Praep. Ev. VI, 6). 

224 College and University Department 

Thus the oikumene was known mankind itself, and the Catholic Church, 
though not identical with it nor realizing its spiritual part, lived in the oikumene. 
And the latter as a political entity was recognized as only an historical, transi- 
tory Graeco-Roman form of mankind — especially since the Trinitarian anti- 
Arian councils: the Arians had indulged in a political theology of a divine 
monarchy. But what was kept — at least in the Latin Church always — was the 
idea of the libertas of the Universal Church, coordinated not to a particular 
political form, the empire or the state, but to mankind organized in many po- 
litical forms, cultures, and civilizations. The spiritual oikumene is always en- 
dangered by false identifications with particular civilizations and political forms, 
and is thus in danger of losing its missionary ordination, namely, that the Uni- 
versal Church is intentionally and essentially coordinated to mankind, to all 
nations and not only to the Latins, the Europeans, the West. All these terms 
signify epochs in the history of the Church which brought trials and dangers 
to her perpetual mission, but the Church cannot simply be identified with any 
of them. The Latin Church is not the whole Church, said Pius XI, just as the 
Codex Juris Conanici is not the law of the Church Universal. 

If one fact is characteristic of the twentieth century after two World Wars, in 
the inchoate oikumene created by the product of the Promethean mind of 
Europe (technology), it is that today the orbis is truly becoming again ecumeni- 
cal. While in the nineteenth century the belief in progress was mixed up with 
colonialism, imperialism, and the European concert of great powers, the 
twentieth century has seen the League of Nations, the United Nations, the rise 
of a new jus gentium, admittedly all still tentative and still not wholly positive 
in juridical forms. 

Thus, the members of the various national or cultural Catholicisms — we 
speak of French and of Spanish Catholicism without hesitancy but not of the 
French or German Catholic Church — are called today to be much more con- 
cerned with the Catholic-ecumenical mission of their educational institutions 
of higher learning, just as they have become concerned with their great world- 
wide opponent — atheistic communism. Thus arises the question: Is our general 
education concept too Western and not "Catholic-ecumenical" enough not only 
in spiritualibus in relation to our fellow Christians, but also in relation to secular 
civilizations and non-Christian religions? By the way, what a strange reversal 
of pre-Protestant, nay pre-schismatic times, that what was once the generic 
term "Catholic" has become the specific term "Roman Catholic." 

In the twentieth century the old orbis Christianus of 1400, despite Marco 
Polo — a tight little spot in the soon-to-be-discovered Kopernikan orbis — has 
become the modern world. And this world again has become a tight little 
planet, its diverse culture and civilizations in principle better known than the 
parts of the orbis Christianus in the Middle Ages. Europe, India, and Asia are 
today nearer to us in space than was Cologne at the time of Aquinas to Bologna 
or Santiago. The reason? The fulfillment of the divine command in Genesis 
and of Descartes' dream that we should become Maitre et Possesseur de la 
Nature — that is, master of the technological conquest of nature. This in all 
its implications has brought the members of our less stratified, thus more 
egalitarian, industrial society to multiple choices in satisfying our wants, ma- 
terial and cultural, that would cause envy to the few of the highest strata of 
medieval society. 

This victorious conquest of nature, this technology, the application of the 
acultural, anational natural sciences which concern matter and its hidden 
powers — not spirit — have begun to create a unitary form of a technological 

Catholic University and Ecumenism 225 

civilization all through the world. The new cities in Europe, Asia, or Latin 
America look much more alike than did Corinth, Jerusalem, and Cologne at the 
times of the missionary travels of St. Paul. Thus, the venerable national 
cultures centered around Europe and the countries settled by its descendants 
in the past centuries, as well as the particular cultures of the ancient Asian 
peoples, seems to have become, as it were, overlaid and permeated by a unitary 
world civilization based on technology. A "technological Eros" seems to en- 
thrall mankind, be it in the form of Western materialism or of the Marxist dia- 
mat: the latter seems to exert an almost magical attraction for the undeveloped 
nations. This technology is in se intercultural and internationally or spiritually 
indifferent. Man has intellect and hands, says Aquinas. Once the intellect has 
discovered the laws of matter and nature, hands are enough to use — and abuse 
— the powers of matter. Technical products are in se unlimitedly imitable and 
reproducible. The works of the spirit, of theology, philosophy, and the liberal 
arts, essentially personal and culturally different, are unique. They may be 
understood mit-und nacherlebt, and it is characteristic of them that they sumpti 
non consumuntur. Thus, technology is not salvation, not happiness {Endai- 
monia), however much it contributes to this perpetual human longing. 

On the other hand, the growth of technical civilization has produced an 
orbital interdependence in the socioeconomic life of the nations (or at least 
of blocks of nations) that comes near interdependence and dense integration 
in the modern national societies, the functioning of which depends on the 
flawless cooperation of millions of highly specialized human acts marvelously 
organized and demanding certain social virtues, such as fidelity to contracts, 
consciousness of duty, pride of workmanship, civic and social friendship and 
solidarity and mutual help. Despite the competitiveness of a free society, a 
spirit of tolerance and charity permeates this network of human relations. 
Though easily forgotten, these virtues, and the habits and mores they generate, 
are at least as important as is capital equipment for the underdeveloped countries. 

Though one should not overestimate the results of the technical Eros, it seems 
clear that a new oikumene is in the state of becoming. Thus the Church Uni- 
versal and its members stand, as they have so often, before a new situation. 
In the nineteenth century, missionary activity — Christianization — was too much 
associated with "westernizing" and with politics, as we from hindsight are 
now ready to concede. But for more than fifty years that young branch of 
theology, missiology, has worked on the age-old problems of the accommodation 
of the Christian kerygma to the native cultures, as St. Paul, St. Columba, St. 
Boniface, Sts. Cyril and Methodius did, and later that generation of giants, the 
Ricci, Nobil, Schall von Bell, in China. (In parentheisis — as the Galilei affair 
resulted in grave loss to the Church, so the decision in the Rites dispute set the 
Church back for generations in the missionary field.) These giants knew and 
practiced accommodation by first mastering a deep understanding of the native 
cultures. This is again needed today for every Catholic who claims to be 
educated — that is, able and willing to leave the doubtful protection of the shell 
of his native nationalism. Though much of this education will be self-education, 
the roots must be planted in our colleges. Yet we find ourselves in a bad 

If we want to be in consonance with the Universal Church's mission, then 
we must help to strengthen the socioeconomic and legal oikumene already being 
born, the spiritual, religious oikumene that is potentially already here, actualized 
in the missionary Church and in the native hierarchies. For students in higher 
education that means enlarging their knowledge beyond what we call the West, 

226 College and University Department 

the Occident. By providential permission there is competing only one conquest- 
minded ideology which is also universal and ecumenical, just as there were two 
in the old oikumene. 

But here we approach a dilemma. Indubitably, our undergraduates are al- 
ready loaded with a many-sided curriculum necessitated by the need to absorb 
an ever increasing — in depth and in width — knowledge of history, national and 
European, of civilizations, the history of ideas, and the almost revolutionary 
expansion of knowledge in the natural sciences. And also, thank God, the 
knowledge of theology and philosophy is expanding. 

On the other hand it is a scandal that the college is still forced to provide 
what it is the duty of the high school to provide: the learning of languages 
(English included), and introductory mathematics. And now, new demands 
for ecumenical learnings? Must we now add courses in extra-European area 
studies — Asia, Africa, the Middle East; courses in the intellectual, religious, 
and cultural history of India, China, Japan, of Islamic countries, when we have 
only the scantiest acquaintance with the oriental Churches united with Rome? 
Could a year's course, according to the idea-historical method of Joseph Lortz 
and embracing missiology of the last one hundred years, be designed by the 
departments of theology and history? Certainly. But it would demand an 
ability of synthesis and synopsis for which the specialists, products of our 
graduate school training, are mostly not fit: they might even consider such a 
proposal unacademic popularization. Should the philosophy department be 
urged to give a course in some extra-Western philosophies and religions? 
Certainly. And it might broaden our own knowledge. Have not seminary 
professors in China and India pointed out that their students' minds are more 
akin to that other type of philosophizing in the philosophia perennis, Augustin- 
ianism? Or could such a course be built around the book The Love for God in 
the Non-Christian Religions, by the Austrian Benedictine Thomas Ohm, in 
connection with Dom Aelred Graham's book on Zen Buddhism? Assuredly. 
We seem to be in a curriculum crisis and we need a new economy of course 
offerings concentrated on the traditional essentials, thus creating room for the 
suggested courses. 

It would be possible to demand the private reading of some of the many 
outstanding works on the major cultures of the world in the courses in modern 
history, philosophy, international relations, and theology, and thus to encourage 
what students of our day — in contradistinction to my student days — do so 
seldom, to educate themselves by acquiring this minimum knowledge of the 
new oikumene. This would mean that the college teachers would give some 
inspiration to that self-education, but here lurks the threatening danger of the 
specialist who "knows more and more about less and less" and is under pressure 
to publish or die. But publish means all too often add a little stone of highly 
specialized knowledge or repair an almost invisible ornament in the cathedral 
of knowledge. 

Since many of our colleges are already by the presence of foreign students, 
including many from the Orient, a miniature picture of the new oikumene, 
what ways and means do we have to magnify, as it were, this miniature by 
means of the many clubs that flourish, or simply vegetate, on our campuses? 
No doubt here exist possibilities if they are subtly organized, if some members 
of the faculty are made to feel themselves responsible for this inspiration. 

There remains an ultimate means of making our students conscious of the 
new oikumene, of the spirit already in the state of becoming, and materially 

Catholic University and Ecumenism 227 

understructured by the technological World civilization — a means that has 
been pointed out indirectly: The great teacher living, by his own nonutilitarian 
reading and thinking, already in the new oikumene, ought to be and is a specialist 
in his field of scholarly endeavor, assuredly. But his mind is so full of curiosity, 
so inclined toward the totality of human existence, of the condito humana, 
spread through the civilizations and cultures horizontally and through history 
vertically, that he is enabled to see in the today all-too-much stressed differences 
that what is common by reason of the metaphysical Natura Humana to all men, 
and to recognize (in Hegel's un-Hegelian sentence) and to know the substance 
which is imminent and the eternal which is present beneath the temporal and the 
passing {Introduction to the Philosophy of Right and Law). 

The teacher is great who, with or without a Ph.D., with loving care under- 
stands the past civilizations from all its documents and at the same time has his 
mind wide open to understand the living thought and actual life of the civiliza- 
tions and cultures of the new oikumene which have become our neighbors 
corporally as well as spiritually. The Church of which he is a living member is, 
after all, called by God to teach all nations. The time of narrow national 
superiority and of Western hybris is gone. Communism offers itself as a new 
dialectical materialist oikumene. Catholic Christianity offers the other oikumene 
in spiritu et in veritate. 


James P. Reilly, Jr. 


Athens of the fifth century b.c. was jolted out of its sense of complacency 
by a self -described gadfly. His perceptive sense of irony deflated the pretensions 
of those who, echoing Pericles' Funeral Oration, claimed that Athens was the 
paradigm of the future, a real school for Hellas. 1 Though he was eventually 
to pay with his life for such effrontery to the vested interests of Athens, Socra- 
tes' legacy to mankind was not forgotten. Even revered Fathers of the Church 
were not without this saving grace. A St. Gregory the Great could assess 
his own accomplishments in the story he tells of a donkey lent to a certain 
Bishop Boniface which was never the same after a session of so great a pontiff, 
post sessionem tanti pontiftcis. 2 

1 am, therefore, happy to see that the program committee for this session 
belongs to this great tradition. The topic of today's discussion is surely an 
ironic touch. After all, none of us need to be reminded that the task of a 
Catholic university is ecumenical in character. Does not every Catholic uni- 
versity proudly insist upon its openness to all truth, whether natural or super- 
natural? I am, however, dubious of my role in this discussion. St. Gregory's 

!Cf. Thucydides, II, 37-46. 

2 Cf. St. Gregory, Dialogorum, III, 2, P.L. 77, 222. 

228 College and University Department 

anecdote troubles me. Indeed, I wonder whether at the close of my remarks 
you may not be tempted to say — to mix St. Gregory's figure slightly — never was 
a topic the same post sessionem tanti asini. 

Yet in the best and most instructive sense, the choice of today's topic is a 
reflective comment on the persistent failure of Catholic universities to implement 
their claim, that is, to make their own the universe of truth. In this failure is 
reflected their ecumenical failure. There are, it seems to me, two questions 
implicit in today's topic: (1) Why has the Catholic university failed to achieve 
its ecumenical character? And (2) Wherein should we seek a remedy for this 
failure? To these questions, then, some tentative answers must be proposed, 
mindful always, however, of the fate of those who would propose a paradigm 
for the Christian Hellas. 

The cause of the persistent failure of the Catholic university to realize its 
ecumenical character goes back to the initial encounter of the Christian with 
secular learning. Tertullian's question: "What is Athens to Jerusalem?" 3 may 
indeed be answered by St. Augustine's double injunction to the Christian: 
intellige ut credas; crede ut intelligasA Yet St. Augustine concedes to his 
fellow African that the education of the Christian intellectual is essentially the 
study of Sacred Scriptures illud quo fides gignitur, nutritur, defenditur, 
roboratur. 5 Now it was St. Augustine's answer which, for the most part, dictated 
future Christian intellectual development in the West. Other Tertullians, of 
course, occasionally arose to question the efficacy of secular learning, but the 
Augustinian reply prevailed. And neither has the Christian conscience ever 
forgotten the lesson entailed by St. Augustine's response, namely, the purely 
instrumental role of secular learning. 

Other historical forces have also contributed to the directions taken by 
Christian education. Of these historical forces, two in particular have shaped 
the direction of Catholic university education. 

The first was the Eastern Schism of 1054. This grievous rupture of the 
Christian community deprived the West of a fruitful dialogue with a theological 
tradition rooted in the Eastern Fathers of the Church. The mediaeval univer- 
sities would surely have profited, both in theology and philosophy, from such 
an exchange. Perhaps some of the problems of the thirteenth century, occa- 
sioned by the introduction of Aristotle through Arabic sources, might have 
been avoided. Certainly, the failure of the mediaeval world to develop a 
Christian philosophy is, in part, attributable to the conflict between the 
Augustinians and the Latin Averroists. This conflict resulted in the Condemna- 
tion of 1277, in the toils of which even St. Thomas Aquinas was caught. Even 
more significant, it was the fatal amour of some later mediaeval university men 
with the authority of Aristotle — contrary, it should be noted, to the spirit of 
Aristotle himself — which led to their rejection of the scientific advances then 
appearing on the educational horizon. 

But the greatest single disruptive blow to the Christian community was the 
Protestant Reformation. For the first time in its history the ecumenical char- 
acter of Christianity was in question. Nationalism and religion were about to 
be identified. Now aside from its other serious historical consequences, the 
Reformation-originated principle cujus natio, ejus religio was to have a grave 
effect on university education. As the universities became national in character, 
they became less ecumenical. Nor were any of the competing theologies, even 

3 Tertullian, De Praescriptive Haereticorum, 7, 9. 

* Cf. St. Augustine, Sermo, XLIII, 7, 9. 

6 Cf. St. Augustine, De Trinitate, TV, 1, 3, P.L. 42, 1037. 

Catholic University and Ecumenism 229 

the Catholic, able to cope successfully with the developing scientific knowledges. 
The result of this failure of the theologians, and even the philosophers I must 
regretfully add, was the rising ascendancy of secular studies. Undoubtedly it 
was necessary for secular studies to secure their own charters of independence 
in order to ensure their continued progress. Unfortunately, this occurred at the 
expense of theology and philosophy. If theology and philosophy did not imme- 
diately lose their own charters, these charters at least became increasingly 
suspect. The increasing secularization of the universities meant, of course, 
that the universities reflected a decreasing ecumenicism. And it is perhaps in 
our own time and in our own country that we witness the ultimate in seculariza- 
tion and the minimum in ecumenicism in the university. 

It is, therefore, against this background that we must assess the failure of 
the Catholic university, and in particular the American Catholic university, to 
realize its ecumenical character. Unquestionably, the American Catholic uni- 
versity arose in answer to a need, namely, to realize the demand imposed by 
our Augustinian heritage. We could not afford to neglect anything which might 
beget, nourish, defend, and strengthen our faith. At the same time we were 
becoming aware that secular studies had come into their own and must be 
explored as genuine disciplines in their own right. We attempted, therefore, to 
preserve, as it were, the best of both worlds. This attempt, however, could not 
succeed. We were still haunted by the Augustinian formula, that secular learn- 
ing has at best only an instrumental value. True, we had had the experience of 
a St. Thomas Aquinas who insisted upon the proper autonomy of reason, but 
we had not yet learned the lesson he taught. Indeed, today's topic is, in great 
measure, a commentary on our present failure to learn that lesson. 

Yet even the lesson of St. Thomas is not sufficient. The Catholic university 
must learn also to accept its own particular problematic. Although in a very 
real sense truth is timeless, no man achieves truth except in terms of the ques- 
tions he asks. Now questions arise in time. Consequently, the questions posed 
by St. Thomas in the thirteenth century, or by St. Augustine in the fifth century, 
are not adequate for the problems which confront man in the twentieth century. 
Indeed, none of us, least of all the Catholic university, can afford to ignore 
the temporal and historical character of the questions suitable to the present sit- 
uation. Yet, strangely enough, the Catholic university, for whom history should 
be most meaningful, is often anti-historical in its response to the current 
problematic. Present problems are resolved by reducing them to some unchang- 
ing categories. Atemporal answers are proposed for questions which are properly 

This anti-historical attitude, it seems to me, stems from a misunderstanding 
of the vocation of the Christian man. Yet, ironically enough, it is in the very 
history of man that we find the meaning and significance of his vocation. 

The history of man records an unparalleled event — an historical covenant 
between God and man. God made that covenant with the people of promise, 
Israel, and chose in time to seal that covenant with Himself. The Incarnation 
is that seal. Since it is in the Incarnation, as the Apostle tells us, we live, move, 
and have our being, the implications of this covenant can never be forgotten 
(Acts, XVII, 28). 

Yet there is, as it were, a prior covenant between God and man. This is the 
covenant which is identical with the very act of creation itself. In choosing to 
create man, God chose to covenant with man by calling him to a unique voca- 
tion, a vocation to freedom. In this call, which is one with the nature of man, 

230 College and University Department 

man is most like God. Freedom is the divine image impressed on man. Prior, 
therefore, to the historical covenant between God and man, in fact its very 
ground, is this vocation to freedom. Indeed, the Incarnation only assures us 
that God wills to keep His initial covenant with man by offering Himself as 
security for that bond. The Truth shall make you free (John, VIII, 32). 

But the divine economy does not propose that each man be stamped out in 
a common image. To be called to freedom means precisely to be self-determin- 
ing. But this is a temporal and historical task. Only in time and history, there- 
fore, can man, aided by the Spirit, create truth within himself. Indeed, the 
Truth shall make him free, but only if man pursues this task. 

Thus, the vocation of the Christian man is a vocation to freedom. But time 
and history are the very conditions of the realization of that vocation. And 
although Catholic education generally should concern itself with this vocation, 
the Catholic university, I believe, has a primary educational responsibility, 
namely, the formal cultivation of the conditions of this vocation. Now this 
concern with the vocation to freedom does not deny the validity of the secondary 
goals of university education. Nor does this concern refuse necessary changes 
in educational forms, curricula, or even in secondary goals. Indeed, to refuse 
such changes may well impair the university's primary task. Ortega y Gasset 
has said that the university must reflect the historical demands of society. 6 
The Catholic university, because of the Incarnation, has an even greater re- 
sponsibility to history. Only by grappling with the problematic of its own 
time, can the Catholic university foster this vocation to freedom within the 
hearts and minds of men. 

Yet it is not enough to accept the problematic. The Catholic university must 
also structure the problematic in the language of the present situation. What 
is this language? It is, in part, the claim of Sartre that man is a useless passion; 
the claim of Marx that the only truth is that which is mediated by society and 
history; the claim of physics that space-time referents are no longer absolute; 
the claim of biology that man represents a convergence of evolutionary forces. 
This is, in part, the language of the present problematic. If the Catholic uni- 
versity is to structure adequately the present problematic, it cannot ignore this 

The Catholic university must, it seems to me, properly structure the present 
problematic. Only then can it effectively structure the perennial Christian 
problematic, the vocation to freedom. If it does not, the Catholic university 
cannot begin to realize its primary educational responsibility, the formal culti- 
vation of the conditions of this vocation. If, however, it does, the Catholic 
university will not only begin to realize its primary educational responsibility, 
it will also begin to reflect its ecumenical character. 

Historically, the Catholic university is but one among many instrumentalities 
through which man may attain to the stature to which he is called. Yet, his- 
torically at least, the Catholic university has a responsibility to formally cultivate 
those disciplines and that attitude of mind and spirit which will open up to 
the student what we have already described as the universe of truth. This is the 
ecumenicism to which the Catholic university should aspire. 

But we must not be misled. The ecumenicism suggested here is not some- 
thing static, already established and only waiting to be rediscovered. On the 
contrary, true ecumenicism, like man's vocation to freedom itself, is involved 
with the very problematic which engages us. This is why no half-measures 
will succeed. Curricular changes, valuable though they may be, are not the 

• Cf. Ortega y Gassett, The Mission of the University, passim. 

Catholic Institutions Accredited by NCATE 231 

answer. An increase in dialogue, as necessary as that is, will not do. What is 
required is a genuine appreciation of the vocation of the Christian man, a 
complete acceptance of the Incarnational dimension of history. A Catholic 
university totally committed to the implications of the Incarnation will, indeed, 
be truly ecumenical. It will not pursue the phantom of a spurious universality 
divorced from the historical context. Rather, the Catholic university will pursue 
a universality, dynamic in character, which arises out of the historical situation 
of man. This is the ecumenicism to be sought by each generation of Christian 
men, and to be fostered in each generation by the Catholic university. Man's 
vocation to freedom demands this. Our true inheritance is indeed the university 
of being, but only on the condition that we fully accept the implications of our 
historical situation. 



Introductory remarks by Urban H. Fleege 


At the present time there are a total of 363 higher educational institutions 
in the United States engaged in the preparation of teachers which are accredited 
by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. 

Of these, twenty-six are Catholic institutions, five of which were accredited 
in 1960, and an additional institution, Saint John College of Cleveland, was 
reevaluated and reaccredited in 1961. 

There are thirty-four states, including Alaska and Hawaii, plus the District 
of Columbia and Puerto Rico, in which there is no Catholic higher educational 
institution with NCATE accreditation. Among these thirty-four states is 
the state of Illinois with forty-four higher educational institutions engaged in 
the preparation of teachers, fourteen of which have NCATE accreditation; 
but not a single Catholic college or university in the state has been accredited 
by NCATE. New York State has twenty-one institutions with NCATE accredi- 
tation, but not a single one is Catholic. Only one or two of the twenty-one are 
Protestant-related colleges. 

One-fourth of the NCATE accredited institutions in Wisconsin are Catholic. 
Wisconsin has four NCATE-accredited Catholic institutions out of the total 
of sixteen thus accredited in the state. 

Kansas, Ohio, and Pennsylvania have three Catholic NCATE-accredited 
institutions each. Two Catholic institutions with NCATE accreditation are 
found in Minnesota, and the same number in Texas. The following states have 
but one Catholic NCATE-accredited institution: California, Indiana, Iowa, 
Louisiana, Massachusetts, Missouri, Nebraska, Oregon, and Washington. 

232 College and University Department 

New York State and Pennsylvania are tied with twenty-one NCATE- 
accredited institutions each. Texas follows with eighteen, Wisconsin with 
sixteen, Kansas with fifteen, and Ohio, Illinois, and Massachusetts tie with 
fourteen NCATE-accredited institutions each. 

Of the twenty-six institutions appearing in the Eighth Annual List of NCATE 
accredited institutions, six were among the 284 institutions that were transferred 
from the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education to the NCATE 
on July 1, 1954. Of these six, one has since been evaluated by NCATE and 
reaccredited. The others will be evaluated between now and April 15, 1964, 
the date set for the evaluation of the remainder of the original list of AACTE- 
transferred institutions. 

Among the Catholic institutions thus accredited, nine are approved for 
offering the master's degree as the highest degree, fifteen the bachelor's, and one, 
Saint Louis University, the doctorate. 

Of the twenty-six Catholic institutions with NCATE accreditation, eight are 
predominantly or exclusively men's institutions, of which five are administered 
by the Society of Jesus. 

A number of the NCATE accredited Catholic institutions are currently 
offering advanced degrees, but their advanced-degree programs have not as 
yet been evaluated by NCATE. A significant number of Catholic higher 
educational institutions with teacher preparation programs are currently under- 
going self-evaluation for the purpose of applying for NCATE visitation and 


Sister M. Camille, O.S.F. 


During the past several years much attention has been focused on the 
National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. Educators in 
all types of colleges have manifested growing concern with the accreditation 
of programs in teacher education. Diverse criticisms have been voiced, doubts 
and fears have been expressed, but too often these criticisms have been any- 
thing but constructive in nature. Frequently, statements based on some element 
of truth have failed to explore all the factors involved. As a consequence, all 
too little has been accomplished in the way of clarifying basic issues. 

It would seem advisable that an earnest endeavor be made to become 
thoroughly informed on the philosophy, purposes, and practices of NCATE. 
It is desirable that we raise questions which need to be explored, but it is, like- 
wise, imperative that judgments be withheld until we are in full possession of the 
facts. This accomplished, we can proceed in a constructive way to improve 
our teacher education programs and offer helpful suggestions for the accredi- 
tation of these programs. 

NCATE Criteria, Policy, and Implications 233 

Before proceeding to the discussion of NCATE criteria and policies, I should 
like to call attention to a recent article in which Mr. Sterling McMurrin, United 
States Commissioner of Education, emphasizes the need for serious attention 
to the improvement of the quality of teacher education. 

Mr. McMurrin points out that there is much to be proud of in American 
education for we have countless schools of high quality with large numbers of 
talented teachers, but he insists that we are capable of far more than we now 
achieve and that we need to strengthen the academic character of our schools. 
He says: 

When we demand in our schools something less than the individual is ca- 
pable of doing, we rob him of his self-respect and deprive him, his com- 
munity and the nation of the personal and social dividends that can come 
from a full development of his talents. We will approach a general excel- 
lence in education only when we have a full appreciation of its worth to 
the individual and to society and when a full and consistent effort to up- 
grade our schools is made by everyone — administrators, teachers, students 
and the general public. If ever in the past there has been reason for asking 
less, there is none now. If the nation is to meet successfully the tasks of 
our perilous times, we must demand excellence in every facet of the educa- 
tional process. 

In expressing gratitude for the many highly qualified and dedicated teachers 
who serve our schools, Mr. McMurrin indicates that in general the quality of 
teaching is lower by far than it should be and he states: 

The blunt fact is that many of our teachers are not properly qualified to 
handle the responsibility we have placed on them. This is our basic edu- 
cational problem. Many of our teachers, for instance, lack native talent for 
teaching. It is a national scandal, moreover, that large numbers of them 
are inadequately prepared in the subject matter that they teach, as well as 
in the elements of a genuinely liberal education. This is, in my view, the 
major weakness in American education. 

Mr. McMurrin places the case before us, as he says, bluntly. 

It is my own strong conviction that as Catholic educators we should be 
alert, well informed, and stand ready to take leadership in the education of 
teachers, as area in which we have a long tradition. It is not enough to give 
lip service to intelligent leadership nor does it suffice to rest on our laurels. 
We have a role to play. 

It is needless to belabor the importance of teacher education, the need for 
more able teachers and more able leadership. It would seem, likewise, that long 
since we have given ample time to discussion of the professional versus the 
liberal arts. To realize to what extent this marriage has taken place in the 
liberal arts colleges, we need only consult the preliminary report of a survey 
of teacher education in liberal arts colleges made recently by a subcommittee on 
liberal arts and teacher education of AACTE. 

This report is based on a survey questionnaire distributed to 183 private 
liberal arts colleges holding membership in the AACTE. It is interesting to 
note that three-fourths of the colleges are 1,200 or under in enrollment. These 
colleges are represented as excellent samples of the total number of liberal arts 
colleges in the association. Sixty-six per cent returned usable replies. 

Generalizations drawn from the data include: 

1. The sample shows that 50 percent of the graduates of these liberal arts 
colleges were majors in teacher education. 

234 College and University Department 

2. Of every five students receiving degrees in teacher education, two are in 
elementary and three in secondary. 

3. The elementary education majors graduating from liberal arts colleges too 
frequently do not have a major academic concentration in their prepara- 
tion. Forty-four of the 121 colleges sampled offer an elementary educa- 
tion program with a major field of study. 

4. The median number of major fields was nine in secondary education. 

5. The liberal arts colleges are preparing a disproportionately small number 
of teacher education majors in the traditional liberal arts fields, English 
excepted. One hundred and seventeen colleges reported 1,356 graduates 
with majors in English — this is 60 percent of the English majors. Fifteen 
of the colleges sampled reported no teacher education graduates in any of 
the sciences. The number of majors graduating in mathematics ranged 
from to 14, with the median number of majors being 3. In social sci- 
ences, nine colleges reported none. In general social studies, 59 colleges 
reported 401 graduates with a median of 7, ranging from 1 to 26. Forty- 
seven colleges had no majors graduating in the foreign languages. 

6. Liberal arts colleges are investing resources for providing teachers in areas 
outside the liberal studies such as Home Economics, Business Education, 
Industrial Arts, Physical Education and School Services (Librarian, Speech 
Therapist, Teachers of Retarded Children, School Principals and Super- 

Critical problems listed by the colleges include those related to student teach- 
ing, other laboratory experiences, curriculum problems, and administrative 
problems. The majority of the institutions reported that their commitment to 
teacher education would increase in the immediate future. 

With Mr. McMurrin's statement in mind, and the comments of Gardner and 
others along with the added information supplied by the survey of teacher edu- 
cation in the liberal arts college, we can with profit turn to a brief examination 
of the criteria and policies of NCATE. 

The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education is an 
autonomous organization whose sole purpose is to improve teacher education 
through accreditation. In order to qualify for evaluation by the Council, insti- 
tutions must meet the following criteria which have been established to guide 
the Council in the accreditation process. 

1. Regional accreditation, and accreditation by the appropriate state depart- 
ment at the level for which Council accreditation is sought. 

2. Institutions seeking accreditation must be nonprofit, offering no less than 
four years of college work leading to the bachelor's degree. 

3. They must be institutions offering a four-year curricula(a) for the prepara- 
tion of elementary school teachers, or (b) for the preparation of secondary 
school teachers; or (c) be institutions offering only graduate or advanced pro- 
fessional programs for school personnel when such institutions provide graduate 
work in other fields necessary to support these programs. 

The Council regards accreditation by a regional accrediting association as 
adequate evidence of the general financial stability of the institution, the effec- 
tiveness of the administration, the adequacy of the general facilities, the quality 
of the student personnel program, the appropriateness of the over-all program 

NCATE Criteria, Policy, and Implications 235 

including general education and subject-matter majors, the general strength 
of the faculty, the faculty personnel policies of the institution, and the quality 
of instruction. 

Within this setting, 

the NCATE examines the objectives of teacher education, the organization 
of the institution for policy making, planning and administering the total 
teacher education program, the student personnel program with particular 
emphasis on standards for admission to teacher education, the number and 
qualifications of the faculty for professional education, the patterns and 
sequences of the academic and professional courses designed for each teacher 
education curriculum offered, the program of professional laboratory ex- 
periences, and the special facilities for teacher education. 

The Standards of NCATE are stated in terms of principles that should 
govern the program. Specific, quantitative standards are kept to an absolute 
minimum in order to allow for reasonable flexibility. (While there is no 
quantitative requirement concerning the size of the institution or the number 
on the professional faculty, it must be recognized that a small institution can 
seldom offer a good liberal arts program along with a proliferation of pro- 
fessional programs. Some may find it difficult to offer one strong professional 
program in addition to liberal arts. Institutions with limited resources may 
have difficulty in employing faculty for professional education, adequate in 
number and specialization to support teacher education programs.) 

The Standards state specifically: 

It is important to emphasize that in establishing its criteria, the Council 
recognizes that teacher education is and can be effectively carried on in dif- 
ferent types of colleges and universities and in a variety of patterns. In ap- 
plying the Standards, therefore, due consideration is given to differences in 
the nature of the institution, its internal organization, and its curriculum pat- 
tern. The essential requirement is that the institution have a program for 
the preparation of teachers supported by a well-qualified faculty and adequate 

It is important to keep in mind that the functions of NCATE, a professional 
accrediting body, differ from those of the regional accrediting body. A state- 
ment from the Source Book on Accreditation of Teacher Education recently 
compiled by the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education 
clarifies these differences as follows: 

Regional accreditation is oriented to the institution, its improvement, its 
wholeness, and its protection from forces without; professional accredita- 
tion is oriented, instead, primarily to interests outside the institution including 
the profession and only secondarily to that part of the institution which con- 
tributes to the quality of the professional persons being prepared. NCATE 
does have broader interest in institutional welfare than most other profes- 
sional accrediting agencies because a teacher education program draws on 
more parts of an institution than do other professional programs. The ma- 
jor function of regional accreditation is stimulation rather than regulation; 
that of professional accreditation, especially NCATE in 1962, is regula- 
tion through the application of standards. The function to be emphasized 
by an accrediting body during a given period depends largely upon the level 
of excellence of the institutions with which it deals. The quality of teacher 
education programs in institutions generally will have to be improved ma- 
terially before NCATE can shift its emphasis to stimulation. While this is 
taking place, all institutions including those reputed to be strong will have 

236 College and University Department 

to be subjected to the same rigorous examinations in terms of established 

The differences between NCATE and the regional agencies therefore are 
particularly marked because the regional agencies have already passed through 
the conventional stage of accreditation in which NCATE now finds itself. An 
institution seeking accreditation should recognize clearly that the regional 
agencies and NCATE follow different procedures in order to serve different 

Evaluation and Accreditation Procedures 

The policy in regard to procedures in requesting accreditation of NCATE 
includes completion of preliminary application materials. Careful considera- 
tion should be given to reactions to the preliminary application received from the 
central office of the Council, since the Council tries to avoid the formal evalua- 
tion of an institution unless the preliminary information available indicates 
that the program stands a good chance of being accredited. Many institutions 
have been advised to defer their requests for formal evaluation until improve- 
ments could be made. The Council urges that those persons responsible for 
institutional policy read the NCATE Standards carefully and make relatively 
certain that their program meets them before taking final steps for an evaluation. 
Institutions should keep in mind that it takes about a year for faculty to do a 
self-study and to provide a satisfactory report. The report should be clear, 
well written, and should provide the information requested. It should not be 
taken for granted that a reader or visiting team can be in possession of facts 
which are obvious and familiar to the institution but are not clearly presented. 

If accreditation is requested, the central office of NCATE selects members 
from a list of some 500 prospective team members recommended by col- 
legiate institutions, state departments of education, state education associa- 
tions, specialized groups such as music, art, home economics, English, 
mathematics, industrial arts and the like, and all other interested groups 
that care to make recommendations. The institution is given a list of persons 
considerably larger than the number to be included on the team with the 
privilege of striking out any name that for any reason is objectionable. The 
selection is made from the list cleared by the institution. 

While the resources of the NCATE do not make it possible to bring all 
evaluators together for training sessions prior to visits, the central staff 
does bring together on a regional basis the chairmen of visiting teams each 
year for one-day briefing sessions. In addition, every visiting team member 
has a set of written suggestions regarding the functions to be performed and 
some effective ways of performing them. Generally the chairman of the 
team is the head of a department or school of education though this is not 
always the case. The members of the team are selected with the particular 
nature of the program in mind. The size of the team is determined by the 
scope of the program being offered by the institution. It includes a repre- 
sentative of the state department of education and a representative of the 
state education association. 

A team has only one function which is to collect and report information 
bearing on the total teacher education program being offered. The members 
are not expected to find fault with the program or to give advice concerning it. 
The team is not expected to discourage or encourage the institution regarding 
its prospects for accreditation. The ultimate decision to accredit or not is made 
by the Council. 

It should be indicated at this point that institutions receiving requests from 

NCATE Criteria, Policy, and Implications 237 

the Council for recommendation of members of the administration and staff 
to serve on the visiting teams should give much thought and careful study to 
the selection of such representatives. Administrators of liberal arts colleges 
have a serious obligation to strengthen the corps of visiting team members by 
suggesting the most able representatives from their institutions. Liberal arts 
institutions seeking accreditation are reminded that they may request the re- 
gional association to appoint a generalist to work with the evaluation team. 

Team reports are sent to the NCATE central office where they are read 
immediately. If the information provided is obviously inadequate, the chair- 
man of the team is asked for further information. A copy of the report is 
sent back to the institution to check for accuracy and completeness of informa- 
tion. When cleared with the institution, a copy is sent to each member of the 
Visitation and Appraisal Committee with two members carrying special responsi- 
bility for making an analysis of the report in terms of the NCATE Standards. 
(The V and A Committee corresponds to higher commissions or accrediting 
committees in other associations.) 

An effort is made to strike a balance on the Committee on Visitation and 
Appraisal in the representation of different types of institutions and in different 
competencies subject-matter wise. Other than that the major qualification is 
that the member be discerning, honest and courageous. An effort is made to 
have on the V and A Committee some representation from the Council and a 
larger institution from outside the Council. At present considerably more than 
half of the V and A Committee members are from outside the Council. All 
Council committees are appointed by its Executive Committee. 

The Visitation and Appraisal Committee screens all reports from visiting 
teams and recommends action to the Council. After receiving the reports of 
the V and A Committee the Council makes the final decision in regard to the 

1. The highest level of accreditation is full accreditation for all categories 
which substantially meet all Standards. 

2. Provisional accreditation may be granted to an institution when it is 
generally strong and promising but deficient in one or more Standards. The 
maximum period of provisional status is normally three years. The institution 
files a report of progress in one of the three academic years and a person is sent 
to the institution to evaluate changes made. An institution may try only once 
to get provisional status lifted; if it fails the minimum two-year waiting period 
applies and a reevaluation is necessary. The provisional status is no longer 
indicated on the annual list compiled by the NCATE office. 

3. The Council may defer action to provide the fullest possible opportunity 
for the institution to place its true case before the Council before action is 
taken. A time and place are provided for a reapprasial of such a program by 
the Committee on Visitation and Appraisal. 

4. If an institution is denied accreditation it is extended the privilege of a 
review by the V and A Committee which makes a recommendation to the 
Council. The Council takes final action. After denial an institution may apply 
again following a two-year interval. 

Reappraisals were conducted for the first time this year in conjunction with 
the meetings of the Visitation and Appraisal Committee. This measure was well 
received by the institutions who availed themselves of this procedure. The 
members of the Visitation and Appraisal Committee, likewise, found it most 

238 College and University Department 

profitable to meet with the representatives of the institution who had the oppor- 
tunity to provide interpretations of facts already available and to respond to 
questions raised by the Visitation and Appraisal Committee. 

As a member of the Council and also as a member of the Visitation and 
Appraisal Committee it may be permissible for me to give some reactions to the 
NCATE along with some observations concerning the implications for Catholic 
colleges and universities preparing teachers. 

Many of us recall that during the early 1950's serious doubts were entertained 
regarding the advisability of recognizing NCATE as the national accrediting 
agency in the field of education. At the time that the National Commission on 
Accrediting did recognize NCATE in 1956, the two organizations agreed to 
jointly review structure, financing, policies and practices of the NCATE by the 
end of 1960. When this review took place it was agreed that another joint 
review should be undertaken before 1963. Authorization for the appointment 
of committees from the National Commission on Accrediting and NCATE was 
then granted so that sufficient time might be afforded to make careful study of 
proposed changes and to allow ample time to obtain approval for these changes. 

In view of the increasing concern on the part of colleges of all types with 
the accreditation of teacher education and complex issues involved it seemed 
imperative that a serious effort be made to clarify the issues at stake. As Dr. 
William K. Selden points out in his article, "Basic Issues in Accreditation of 
Teacher Education," which appeared in Liberal Education, December 1961, 
"almost no activity in higher education is more widely misunderstood or sub- 
jected to such diverse criticism as accreditation and in particular accreditation in 
teacher education, a field of study about which many educators, regardless of 
academic background, will often speak with more passion than judgment." 

There is need for recognition of the fact that adjustments and improvements 
are needed in accreditation whether it be regional or professional. To bring 
about these improvements there must be clear understanding of the basic 
issues along with sincere effort to cooperate with NCATE in its manifest 
desire to be a constructive influence in the education of teachers. As Dr. 
Selden indicates, this will require breadth of vision and a recognition of the 
obligations which all higher education must share in the education of our 
teachers. These obligations are not limited to the classroom and the campus 
but include the governance and maintenance of educational standards through 
our unique methods of accreditation and certification. To facilitate these im- 
provements there needs to be a further review of NCATE — its structure, its 
financing, its policies and its practices. It is to this end that discussions and 
negotiations have already been initiated among representatives of the organiza- 
tions most immediately concerned. 

We look to the joint committees of the National Commission on Accrediting 
and NCATE to review the structure of financing policies and practices of 
NCATE so that it can fulfill more adequately its stated purposes: 

The Council recognizes that accreditation can and should perform two 
major functions in the improvement of teacher education. First, it can stim- 
ulate institutional self-evaluation and provide for exchange of viewpoint and 
experience among representatives of institutions. Second, it can assure the 
quality of teacher education programs to all institutions, organizations, 
agencies, and individuals interested in the product. 

The Commission on Teacher Education of the Association of American 
Colleges has been concerned with NCATE, particularly during the past two 

NCATE Criteria, Policy, and Implications 239 

years. The commission established a fact-finding subcommittee to review the 
philosophies and procedures of NCATE with particular reference to the prepa- 
ration of elementary and secondary teachers in liberal arts colleges. 

This commission succeeded in localizing major areas of difficulty which, 
according to their report, require adjustment if the objectives of NCATE and 
the interests of the association are to be realized. 

In January, 1961, the commission recommended that the Association of 
American Colleges authorize its Commission on Teacher Education to negotiate 
through the National Commission on Accrediting and with the National Council 
for Accreditation of Teacher Education toward the end that there be more 
extensive and effective representation of the liberal arts philosophy on the 
NCATE, and that the council's policies and procedures in accreditation be 
modified in the light of the concerns expressed by the association; and, finally, 
that the Commission on Teacher Education be instructed to make a progress 
report to the board as early as possible and to the association at the annual meet- 
ing in January 1963. 

In the future the commission of the Association of American Colleges can be 
very effective in contributing to the improvement in policies and practices of 
NCATE and to the improvement of the quality of teacher preparation, in gen- 
eral. It is of interest that three members on the commission are presidents of 
Catholic liberal arts colleges with teacher education programs. Their contribu- 
tion to the work of the commission should be valuable. 

Educators are inclined to believe that NCATE is here to stay. A good 
number of Catholic colleges have received accreditation; many more are on 
the way. In my opinion, all colleges should give careful thought to "getting 
the house in order" whether or not they propose to seek accreditation. Con- 
tinuing self-evaluation and careful study of the criteria of NCATE cannot fail 
to improve the academic quality of the college for, indeed, what is good for 
the department of education can and should be of benefit to the whole institu- 

As Catholic educators we must take more responsibility for improvement 
in all areas. We need better criteria, for we must be able to recognize the true 
elements of excellence lest we fall into the category referred to by President 
Benezet of Colorado College when he said, "It is apparent that everyone talking 
about excellence isn't going there." 

We must raise the sights of the mediocre and at the same time provide for the 
superior. More imagination, more experimentation and innovation are needed. 
Above all, we must look with unprejudiced eyes on the weaknesses of our 
own institutions and our own programs of teacher education with the hope 
that, to paraphrase Stephen Vincent Benet, we may ever be "unsatisfied by 
little ways." 

With humility and with courage we must realize that as Catholic educators 
we have a responsibility for all that concerns the spread of Christian truth and 
its concrete application in all areas of teacher education. 

In the words of the late Pope Pius XII, "By the authority which your learning 
and professional competence confer upon you, you constitute both a challenge 
and a response to those around you. By virtue of your Christian vocation you 
are a light which attracts — which no one can reject without implicitly con- 
demning himself, if what he rejects is the true light of Christ. This reservation 
which human imperfection always justifies to some degree, nonetheless, mitigates 

240 College and University Department 

the total responsibility of Catholic intellectuals in the confusion of a society 
which too frequently puts aside essential questions . . ." 1 


Rev. Carl A. Hangartner, S.J. 


I will confine my remarks to those aspects of NCATE accreditation which 
are somewhat special for the large institution although such institutions have 
many of the same concerns as those listed for other types of institutions by 
other speakers. 

The first concern of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher 
Education is that the total university have a genuine commitment to teacher 
education as one of its goals, and that this commitment be implemented by 
the assignment to teacher education of an adequate share of the institution's 

The second concern of the council is for unification of organization and of 
curriculum. As far as organizational unification is concerned, the council has 
not been putting any premium on a separate School of Education, but seems 
ready to accept any reasonable pattern of organization, insisting only that the 
responsibility for teacher education be centralized at some point so that one 
person speaks for the program, and that this office be in conjunction with a 
policymaking body in which all the segments of the institution concerned with 
teacher education are represented. 

Unification in curriculum is also insisted upon, not in terms of an absolutely 
standardized program but in the expectation that responsible faculty and ad- 
ministration will agree on what the institution thinks to be desirable in the 
education of teachers, and that all prospective teachers will include these ele- 
ments in their programs. 

The third major consideration is that for identification of students in the 
teacher education program. This means that some process of identification 
and selection be set up so that only those who show positive promise of suc- 
cess as teachers are admitted to, and retained in, the program, and that records 
show the operation of this process. 

A fourth major consideration is that the teacher education program be given 
comparable status with other programs in the institution. The key points here 
are, first, faculty load, salaries, privileges, qualifications, and recognition, all 
of which should be on the same basis as those for other faculty in the institution; 
second, student quality; and third, facilities such as classrooms, teaching equip- 

1 Address of Pope Pius XII, April 25, 1957, to Eleventh General Assembly of "Pax Romana." 
Taken from: The Major Addresses of Pope Pius XII, edited by Vincent A. Yzermans, Vol. I., 
p. 405. Published by The North Central Publishing Company, 1961. 

Accreditation of Small Liberal Arts College 241 

ment, library budget, and office space, which should be comparable to those 
provided for other programs. 

A fifth concern is with the graduate programs for teachers and other school 
personnel. The graduate work is expected to be on a genuinely graduate level, 
comparable to other graduate programs in the institution. This means, at 
least, that these programs be staffed by adequate full-time faculty with advanced 
preparation in their specialties; that the classes be appropriately small; that 
there be evidence of continuing research; and that there be strong reinforcement 
on the graduate level from other areas of the institution. 

These points are not the only ones that the council will look into in a large 
institution. All of the points to be raised in connection with smaller institutions 
are also involved in the larger. 


Sister M. Virginia Claire, S.N.J.M. 


The sequence of preparation for evaluation by the National Council for 
Accreditation of Teacher Education was formally initiated by a request to the 
Northwest Association of Secondary and Higher Schools that NCATE be asked 
to join the Northwest Association in evaluating Holy Names College on March 
6-8, 1958. Dr. Earl Armstrong, Director of NCATE, answered the request and 
sent a preliminary packet of materials which included copies of the Standards 
and of the Preliminary Application. In his letter, dated September 24, 1957, 
Dr. Armstrong suggested that the members of the education department study 
the Standards carefully before filing the preliminary application to make sure 
that the program stood a reasonable chance of being accepted. 

We in the education department took this advice too literally and prepared 
the full NCATE report as part of our self-evaluation before returning the 
preliminary application on November 27, 1957. We also arranged to have a 
formal visitation by a team from the State Department of Education in order 
to benefit by their suggestions and to have their statement that they judged the 
program to have a "reasonable chance of being accepted." Much to our chagrin, 
we received a reply from Dr. Armstrong which said, in part, "We note that your 
college will be evaluated by the Northwest Association on March 6-8, 1958. 
We are sorry that there is not enough time for you to develop the kind of report 
that would make it possible for the Council to participate in this evaluation." 
We were requested to suggest a visitation date either in the fall of 1958 or the 
early spring of 1959. To defer the evaluation would have made part of our 
work on the report useless. For instance, sections on faculty and student enroll- 
ment would require considerable revision. 

242 College and University Department 

We immediately telephoned Dr. Wendell C. Allen, State Director of Teacher 
Education and Certification, and asked him to intervene on our behalf. He 
sent Dr. Armstrong a night letter with this message: 

Hope you can reconsider request of Holy Names College, Spokane, for 
NCATE visitation March 6-8. Actually they have been working on evalua- 
tion for nearly three years and had your report prepared for our staff visit 
on November 20-21. I can assure you that the college's report will be 
available in ample time for evaluation next March and that I believe Holy 
Names College will be ready for evaluation at that time. 

We sent our own letter of explanation indicating that since the previous April 
we had been preparing our report, using the 1955 Standards borrowed from 
our college at Marylhurst, Oregon. We made the necessary revisions on receipt 
of the 1957 Standards. Our request was granted. 

Dr. Allen, who assisted us in our problem, was no stranger to Holy Names 
College. Under his leadership, a new program of teacher education and certifi- 
cation had been initiated in Washington in 1950. From the inception of the 
program, members of academic and education departments from all the higher 
institutions in Washington have met annually to discuss teacher education pro- 
grams and to plan improvements. Dr. Allen has visited each institution yearly 
to discuss specific problems and plans. 

At our request, Dr. Allen and three staff members from the State Department 
of Education visited the college on November 20-21, 1957. Our complete 
report to NCATE was studied in conference. We were asked to justify the 
block of credits alloted to theology and philosophy in the program of general 
education. Were not our students deprived of needed academic work in other 
fields? The question was asked in a friendly spirit as one that would probably 
be asked by Northwest or NCATE evaluators. Our answers seemed satisfactory 
and were substantiated by comments from members of the visiting team. 
It was suggested that the evaluation and justification of these two fields of 
study be included in our NCATE report. 

During the visitation, our students in education met the staff with no faculty 
members present. This session proved to be an excellent means of making 
known both the quality of the students and the results achieved in the teacher 
education program. It was decided to schedule a like meeting for the NCATE 

The NCATE visitation occurred as scheduled. We were in a less satisfactory 
position during the visit than is ordinarily the case because the chairman of 
the team was called home by a death in his family the night before the visitation 
began. This event left us with an unprepared member of the team to act as 
chairman. The meeting with the education students seemed to be one of the 
highlights. An evaluator who indicated early in the visit that he wished to 
ask us a number of questions said that his questions to the students took care 
of all his problems. The visitors were unanimous in commending the caliber 
of the class of 1958. 

The outcome of the council deliberation on our report and that of the 
evaluators was made known to us in October. We were accorded provisional 
accreditation for a period of three years with the understanding that if improve- 
ments satisfactory to the council were made in the areas of weakness before 
the end of three years, the provisional status would be lifted earlier. The 
statement follows: 

Accreditation of Small Liberal Arts College 243 

The program in general, though small in numbers prepared, is regarded as 
of high quality. There are two aspects, however, on which reports should 
be made. 

The first relates to the subject-matter preparation of secondary school 
teachers in some of the fields. The breadth and depth of course offerings 
in mathematics and physical science are regarded as inadequate to provide 
the subject-matter background needed by teachers in these fields. The upper 
division work offered in all fields is not strong enough for fifth-year second- 
ary school teachers. 

The library is still lacking in holdings in books and periodicals on pro- 
fessional education. The budget for such materials should be increased. 

The strengths of the program as reported, in addition to those already men- 
tioned, included: careful selection and screening of education candidates, a 
well-trained and experienced faculty in the department of education, a com- 
prehensive program of laboratory experiences, and a thorough follow-up 
program for graduates for at least the first year. 

As we began preparing to have our provisional accreditation changed, we 
realized that we had failed in at least two ways to do justice to our program. 
The roster of the faculty prepared for the Northwest Association did not give 
sufficient emphasis to the fact that several faculty members on leave for higher 
studies would be returning to the campus in the fall and that new faculty 
members were to be added at that time. Detailed information was supplied 
only for faculty members on campus at the time of the evaluation. We had 
not prepared our sequences of courses for education students as they would 
be with the addition of personnel. We spelled out all course sequences and 
made a listing of the new faculty members on campus for 1958-59. 

Secondly, with the sudden death of our head librarian in September, 1958, 
we had lost a very valuable person on our faculty. Sister Rose Miriam would 
have been the key person to interpret library policies and holdings and to verify 
data concerning library use by faculty and students. Under the circumstances, 
we in the education department should have made a more careful study of 
the library in relation to teacher education. We made this study in preparation 
for a first progress report to NCATE. We discarded about one hundred pro- 
fessional books and added the same number of new ones. At the suggestion 
of Dr. Allen, we submitted a listing of all our professional books in various 
categories in three groupings according to copyright date. Our library budget 
was increased and we gave assurance of continued attention to the development 
of our professional holdings. 

We submitted our report in March, 1959. On the basis of this report our 
provisional status was removed and we were granted full accreditation for 
our undergraduate program in teacher education for a period of ten years. 

We believe that the following facts were partially responsible for our success 
in securing accreditation: 

1. Teacher education is a concern of the total college faculty. 

2. The quality of the students in teacher education is in no way inferior 
to that of other students in the college. 

3. There is general concern that teachers be well prepared academically 
as well as professionally. 

4. The members of the education department are active in significant local, 
state, and national professional and academic organizations. 

244 College and University Department 

The experience of being evaluated and of finding it necessary to wait a year 
before receiving full accreditation was a valuable one. We have since organized 
an institution-wide committee on teacher education. Formal procedures have 
replaced informal ones in certain departmental activities. We have been 
stimulated to take the first steps in developing research projects and have 
definite plans to continue improving our program of teacher preparation. 


Sister M. Cuthbert, I.H.M. 


In giving this account of our accreditation experience with the National 
Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, I would like to present first 
of all a brief survey of our background. Marywood College, Pennsylvania's 
pioneer in Catholic higher education of women, was founded in 1915 and 
chartered by the State in 1917. The power to grant three degrees — Bachelor 
of Arts, Bachelor of Music, and Bachelor of Science in home economics — 
was assured by the first charter. Amendments were later obtained giving the 
college power to grant the Master of Arts, Bachelor of Science in education, 
and Master of Science in education, in library science, and in psychology. 

In 1921 the college was accredited by the Middle States Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools, and in 1945 by the National Association of 
Schools of Music. 

Marywood, which is conducted by the Sisters Servants of the Immaculate 
Heart of Mary of Scranton, Pennsylvania, had as its original purpose the 
establishment of a center of learning and culture in an area where no such 
opportunties existed and where economic circumstances prevented a majority 
of young women from seeking educational opportunities elsewhere. As a 
liberal arts college, the curriculum is divided into a lower and upper biennium, 
giving breadth and depth to the students' education. The fields of concentra- 
tion available are English, history, languages, mathematics, psychology, science, 
social studies, speech and drama, and the special fields of art, business education, 
home economics, librarianship, and music. 

Marywood's current full-time enrollment is approximately 990, and the 
part-time, 330 students. Today her alumnae number 1,300 religious, repre- 
senting forty different communities, and over 4,088 lay women located in forty 
states and thirty-three foreign countries. Since over 75 per cent of the lay 
graduates and practically all of the religious graduates enter the teaching 
profession in Pennsylvania and as many as thirty-five other states, teacher 
education has always held a definite place in our total program. It was thus 
imperative for us from the early years to center our attention on the problem 
of teacher certification. 

Accreditation in Large Liberal Arts College 245 

NCATE naturally attracted our attention because it represents the evolution 
of an accrediting process which tends to concentrate on the evaluation of the 
general college program in a voluntary regional accrediting association and 
the evaluation of the professional program in a voluntary national accrediting 
association. It embodies two basic principles — legal approval and voluntary 

An identifiable contribution of NCATE to the profession of teaching relates 
to the free flow of teachers across state lines which results from the council 
working in cooperation with the states departments of education. The number 
of states using NCATE accreditation as the major basis for certification of 
teachers prepared by institutions located in other states has increased from 
five to twenty-three in the past three years. Thus, it seemed reasonable to 
engage in a project which would enable our students to move freely across 
practically all state lines. 

Having observed the activities of AACTE (American Association of Colleges 
for Teacher Education) and of NCATE over the past ten years and having 
noted the approval of NCATE by the National Commission on Accrediting, 
we began by applying for membership in AACTE — a national voluntary asso- 
ciation of colleges and universities dedicated to the improvement of teacher 
education in America; this we did in 1958 in order to keep alert to important 
developments in teacher education. We followed this in December, 1959, by 
a preliminary application to NCATE for accreditation. This involved a report 
on institutional enrollment and the enrollment in teacher education, the 
preparation and background of faculty, the general and professional offerings 
of the teacher education program, and an explanation of how the major 
sequence of education students differed from that of the noneducation students. 
After this experience we began to direct our attention toward formal application 
for accreditation. Since we were due for revaluation by the Middle States 
Association in 1961, we decided to apply for a joint evaluation at that time 
by both the MSA and NCATE. 

Aware that the council regards accreditation by a regional accrediting 
association as adequate insurance of the general financial stability of the 
institution, the effectiveness of the administration, the adequacy of the general 
facilities, the quality of the student personnel program, the appropriateness 
of the over-all program, the general strength of the faculty and the quality 
of instruction, we began our self-study first with parts "A" and "B" of the 
MSA questionnaire. 

Our first move was to involve the entire faculty in the study in order to 
have complete faculty awareness of our work. A special group of the faculty 
was organized and made responsible for coordinating activities in the devel- 
opment of the report. Small committees were appointed to work on problems 
of finance, administration, and library. Questions pertaining to objectives, 
programs, curricula, and outcomes were faculty responsibility. Each faculty 
member shared in gathering and assembling information which was pooled 
and summarized for the report. Weekly time schedules were set for meetings. 
This wide participation provided a strong motive toward self-improvement 
for the general welfare of the institution by all involved in the work. It also 
resulted in an appraisal of progress and a chart of future needs. 

Our immediate preparation for NCATE evaluation centered about a careful 
application of the 1960 Standards for accreditation of teacher education. 
These Standards, which contain seven divisions and focus attention on objec- 

246 College and University Department 

tives, organizational structure, and curricula, are flexible in application so that 
the distinctive character of an institution can be preserved. 

Since the first section of the NCATE report was concerned with objectives 
of the teacher education, the faculty reviewed their objectives and made clear 
the scope of the teacher education offerings. The beliefs that guided us in 
determining these objectives and the admission and graduation requirements 
were drawn up. 

The next section was concerned with the organization and administration 
of teacher education. Here we reviewed the work of the Committee on Teacher 
Education. This committee, composed of chairmen of departments with high 
enrollment in teacher education, is chaired by the head of the education de- 
partment. The members of the committee are responsible for the formation 
and execution of policies relating to teacher education. They set standards 
for admission to teacher education, review and revise curricular programs — 
academic and professional — check standards for the completion of the pro- 
gram, arrange for laboratory experience, and, in fact, guarantee a continuous 
development and improvement of the teacher education program. 

In preparing our report on the student personnel section, we mentioned our 
orientation procedures, presented our plans for admission to teacher education, 
as well as our record system for students preparing to teach. Special signals 
are placed on the folders of these students to identify them and have them 
available for interested faculty members. 

Our formal screening of students planning to enter the teaching profession 
takes place in the second semester of the sophomore year. At least three 
faculty members participate — one from the student's major study area, one 
from the education department, and a third member at large. Data sheets 
for this process are made available. 

Particular attention was given to faculty preparation showing that their 
graduate preparation was in the area of their current teaching assignments, 
and indicating that the faculty was large enough in number to cover the aspects 
of professional education necessary for the scope of our program and diverse 
enough in preparation to assure reasonable specialization in each of the major 
areas of professional education. We made clear that faculty members from the 
academic fields who were teaching methods and materials courses were 
qualified by experience and preparation to offer such courses. Faculty folders 
containing all such information, as well as other evidences of the vitality 
of the faculty, were made available. 

In reporting on curricula, a table was prepared giving the present enroll- 
ment in each teacher education curriculum and the number who completed 
each curriculum in the last academic year. The subject matter and the 
professional education sequence of courses required for completion of each 
curriculum were presented. Recent changes made in the past five years as 
well as those contemplated in the future were indicated. 

Under "professional laboratory experience," we explained that we co- 
ordinated theory and practice in such courses as psychology, methods, tests 
and measurements, and human growth and development; and that various 
experiences for observation were provided in our Psycho-Education clinic 
in the junior year. Information was provided on the number of students who 
did student teaching in the past year, where it was done, the number of schools 
used, and the number of students assigned to a teacher during a semester. 
Our committee called attention to our plan for students to be free of all 
assignments except student teaching for a period of eight weeks in the second 

Accreditation in Large Liberal Arts College 247 

semester of the senior year. This plan called for careful scheduling as well as 
the cooperation of departments. We explained that arrangements for student 
teaching are made by the chairman of the education department, who first 
confers with the department chairmen relative to suggested placement of 
student teachers. At a conference with public school personnel, proposed 
placements are discussed and final adjustments are made. The public school 
personnel include the superintendent of schools, the curriculum coordinator, 
the grade or subject supervisor, and the principal of the school involved. The 
chairman, who is director of student teaching, meets with the supervising 
teachers in each cooperating school and discusses the program of the student 
teachers with them. A subcommittee on teacher education, made up of repre- 
sentative members of departments engaged in teacher education, is responsible 
for supervising student teachers. These supervisors are chosen because of 
their training and experience in the areas of their reponsibility. The director 
holds meetings with the supervisors to set up visiting schedules and to co- 
ordinate conferences during the student-teaching period. 

The final section of the report was devoted to facilities and instructional 
materials. We described our curriculum laboratories, our audio-visual equip- 
ment, and our holdings in education in the library. We have no special 
section of the building reserved for professional education classes but have 
plans for it in the immediate future. 

The final draft of our report, which numbered approximately one hundred 
pages, was completed about eight weeks before the team was scheduled to 
arrive. Fifteen copies of the report were sent to the MSA and ten copies 
to NCATE. 

During the three-day visit of the teams, their dominant function seemed to 
be that of collecting and validating information. Each member had a special 
assignment to complete. Classes were visited, heads of departments interro- 
gated, records examined, students interviewed, facilities surveyed, and public 
school officials contacted. Our counseling program and procedures were scru- 
tinized. Some members checked to see if academic records were centralized and 
if placement and follow-up procedures were operating. One was assigned to the 
Business Office and spent the day examining books and accounts and verify- 
ing findings with the bank and business firms in the city. Another studied 
the library, its capacity and holdings in books and periodicals. All offices and 
departments were visited by different groups. A special meeting with the 
Board of Trustees was requested and members of the administration were 
questioned as to their duties and responsibilities. 

The NCATE team's major interest was in the teacher education program 
and the members sought evidence of the functioning of our admissions and 
retention policies and noted our graduation requirements. 

The individual folders of faculty members were called for and examined 
to see if records were up to date and if the preparation and the experience 
of the professors were in the area of the teaching assignments. Another item 
of special interest was the pattern of academic courses taken by students pre- 
paring to teach in the secondary schools. Some members asked how teaching 
majors differ from majors of non-teaching students. Others checked on our 
facilities for professional laboratory experience, our materials center for 
professional education, and how theory and practice are correlated. 

The chairman of NCATE inquired intensively into the amount and type of 
laboratory experience prior to student teaching, how we select supervising 

248 College and University Department 

teachers, how many times the college supervisor visits the student teacher, 
how final grades are reached, what the policy is for compensating or remunerat- 
ing supervising teachers, how cooperating schools are chosen, what particular 
duties belong to the director of student teaching, and the size of the education 

About five or six weeks after the visitation, the reports of both teams were 
returned to the institution to be checked for accuracy and completeness and to 
be sent back promptly to the agency with corrections. The chairman of the 
regional commission reported to the institution on the final action of the 
commission. The NCATE director reported by letter on the action taken by 
the council and presented their recommendations. 

In their report they recommended that we put more emphasis on standards 
for completing the program of teacher education, that we set up a separate 
set of records for education students for counseling purposes, that we reduce 
the number of part-time people in professional education, that we provide 
more observation for students in the junior year, and that we develop more 
sequential patterns in some major areas. 

On the whole, Marywood found little or no great inconsistency between 
the objectives of NCATE and those of the college. 



Brother Lawrence McGervey, S.M. 


High school graduates literally are causing a tidal wave of applications to 
colleges in the last several years — a wave which really threatens to engulf 
and swamp us all, students, counselors, and registrars, unless we take realistic 
steps to deal intelligently and drastically with the situation just as soon as 
we can. 

Readings about college admissions problems and discussions with counselors 
and registrars indicate that solutions are possible to these problems. It seems 
clear that resolving these problems will result in a lightening, at least to some 
extent, of the workload of both the counselor and the registrar; both will be 
enabled to pursue their jobs more efficiently and effectively. 

School counselors are anxious to learn as much as they can about colleges 

Cooperation Between Registrars and Counselors 249 

and, in particular, about admissions philosophies, practices, and policies. 
College registrars surely need to know all they can about the high schools 
which feed them, and about their philosophies, standards, programs, and recom- 
mendation policies. Here is a problem in communications between two groups 
of people who, as it turns out, are attempting to do the same thing — to get 
students into college. One group is sending and the other group is selecting 
and receiving. Surely intelligent people can get together on a common prob- 
lem in order to benefit all concerned. There are two facets here, each dependent 
upon the other: What the colleges should know about the high schools, and 
What the high schools should know about the colleges. 

Counselors should know, of course, that most colleges ask for a scholastic 
record which includes rank in the class, total high school average, scores on 
standardized tests; record of high school extracurricular activities; personality 
and character traits; awards and honors won during high school; a photo; 
and, finally, a recommendation from the principal or his delegate. The recom- 
mendation will ordinarily be given rather serious consideration by an ad- 
missions officer, particularly if he judges that it has been written seriously 
and conscientiously. If the written recommendation avoids generalities and 
outlines clearly the strengths and weaknesses of the student, the admissions 
officer can more readily and fairly interpret the high school grades and test 

Counselors who take the time to read publications describing the charac- 
teristics of the various colleges will be far more effective in guidance work. 
Reports on freshman classes which are quite common today do enable the 
counselor to get "in the know," so to say, concerning the advisability of 
whether or not to steer certain students in the direction of certain colleges or 
programs. Brochures distributed by colleges describing their various programs 
and their vocational implications broaden a counselor's outlook, and, in turn, 
enable him to do a better and more effective job with students. Registrars 
will often send grades of students back to their former high schools, at least 
during the freshman year. High school counselors who take pains to study 
the pattern of grades received in college as compared with high school grades 
and as compared with the counseling advice given these students when they 
were in high school and preparing for college, can learn much from the college 
experiences of their former counselees to assist them in guiding their current 
ones. Counselors, too, I believe look to the colleges to take the initiative to 
create a climate more conducive to a freer exchange of ideas between the 
admissions officers and the high school counselors. The latter can and 
ordinarily will benefit greatly from personal chats, workshops, meetings, panel 
discussions, visits, talks, as well as newspaper and magazine articles by ad- 
missions people and directed toward the high school personnel. 

The college registrar, on the other hand, perhaps sits at his desk in the 
admissions office or faces a group of parents and seniors at a College Night 
Program and wonders just how long it will be before school counselors stop 
taking college entrance procedures for granted and start doing something to 
make the job of the registrar not easier but certainly more effective. So often, 
he muses, he is not only doing his work but that of the high school counselor 
as well. He scans transcripts from high schools — large, small, academic, 
comprehensive, technical, public, private and "prep" — and is expected to 
pass judgment on seniors merely from a few documents, perhaps rather 
sketchily written at that, which cross his desk. So much could be done on 
the part of the school counselor to prevent overlapping of work. The counselor 

250 College and University Department 

could counsel students, or see to it that in his high school some solid type of 
college counseling is organized. 

Counselors could, in their own schools, help teachers to assist students to 
assess their strengths and weaknesses and then provide them with some educa- 
tional information which will fill their needs. Secondly, that much accom- 
plished, they can lead the way in their schools to provide for the students a 
stiffer academic program. They might do this by encouraging independent 
study, more and better reading, investigation of problems, a much greater 
emphasis on theme writing, the "junking" of objective examinations, the 
provision for college-type methods for juniors and seniors, the provision for 
advanced placement courses and programs for the talented. Counselors can 
ask the junior and senior teachers to assist in providing the students with 
information about forms and amounts of student aid available. The faculty, 
in general, can be encouraged to get students to understand that a college 
education is worth every bit of what it costs in terms of time, money, and 
effort. Teachers of the older students might well follow the lead of the 
counselors in getting the students to realize that they will have to come to 
grips with three basic challenges in college: (1) organization of the over- 
abundant time at their disposal; (2) learning to put in two hours of study for 
every one hour in class; (3) realizing that study is a personal responsibility — 
no one is going to check up. If counselors were to convince their charges 
that the selection of a major in a liberal arts program is purely tentative and 
a definite choice will not be required until toward the end of the second year, 
a registrar might save many a word. Furthermore, if students are warned 
beforehand that a choice of a specialized field, such as engineering, accounting, 
medicine, and so forth, will make it difficult to change over to another spe- 
cialized field without loss of credits, they will not be plaguing the registrar 
with questions along this line. Perhaps the greatest service of the counselor 
to the registrar is that of getting the students to think along broad vocational 
fines rather than highly specialized ones. 

It does seem from the above brief analysis that there are areas in which 
registrars and counselors can profitably get together, discover methods, initiate 
techniques, and implement programs which will prove to the best interests of 
both insofar as the conservation of time, the effectiveness of the work, and 
the good of the student are concerned. 

Multiple applications cause increased work for registrars and counselors. 
A thoroughgoing high school guidance program headed by alert and interested 
counselors should, in any one school, almost automatically prevent or at least 
cut down the problem of multiple applications. The registrars, on their part, 
might well see the need for presenting a solution to the problem, also, in the 
form of faster or "early decisions" to students concerning the admission or 
refusal and, perhaps, in the initiation of such a plan as Early Admissions. Un- 
der the "early decisions" plan, the registrar requests of the high school either 
at the end of the junior year or at the beginning of the senior year the ranking 
of the student in question, his standardized test scores, his grades up to that 
point, and a recommendation. Upon the receipt of the required information 
the registrar makes his decision and informs the student. Should the answer 
be in the affirmative it is, then, up to the student to remain in good standing 
for the remainder of the senior year and concentrate on his preparation for 
college without emotional stresses and strains as to whether or not he will 

What the Lord Said to Israel 251 

get into a college. No doubt, a wise college registrar will find some way of 
keeping in touch with the accepted senior so as not to "lose" him along the way. 

Under the Early Admissions plan, high school students with high grades 
are permitted to enter college before graduating from high school. 

Finally, both counselors and registrars surely need to organize to overthrow 
the "papermill" which is bogging them down. Both are engulfed in a mass 
of forms which surely can in some way be condensed to something more 
simple and efficient. A busy staff of a large and complex high school cannot 
afford to take time to fill out long and complicated forms for colleges though 
the forms do ask for information vital to the admissions staff of the college. 
Perhaps both colleges and high schools need to get together to work out com- 
mon application and transcript forms. Perhaps modern methods of duplication 
of information need to be employed so as to speed up the transition of in- 
formation from one place to another. Surely high schools and colleges in the 
same city could find quicker methods for processing students than those which 
need to be used by the college for high schools which are out of town. 

We have touched on a few problems which college registrars and high school 
counselors have in common. Benefits in terms of less work, less duplication 
of efforts, more effective use of time, and greater good to the students, as 
well as personal satisfactions at seeing students less befuddled and more pleased 
with their college choices and acceptances, are in the offing for us if we just 
get together right now in this room during the remaining fifty minutes and 
resolve some of these things. 



Very Rev. John F. Cullinan, V.F. 


Just a few weeks ago on a national television program, an interview was 
given by the director of a world-wide activity designed to teach adults to read. 
Circumstances prevented me from hearing the entire interview, but what I 
saw and heard was most interesting and stimulating. 

The principles involved seemed to be two: first, reduction of the problems 
of reading to their simplest form; second, general participation in the program, 
expressed in the slogan "Each one teach one." 

These principles seem so flexible that they can be applied to many situations. 
The attention of the educational world has been drawn to the very hopeful 
idea of the Ecumenical Movement. There have been many competent minds 
analyzing and exploring the problems and solutions of the reunion of Christian 

252 College and University Department 

forms of belief. In general they agree that there are three fields of action 
where obstacles must be overcome: in the field of theology, in the field of 
hierarchical authority, and in the field of popular understanding. Theology 
and authority are beyond our present scope; but popular understanding is in 
the field of education. 

It has been stated, and I think with reason, that in our country the greatest 
present obstacle in the Ecumenical Movement is the fact that non-Catholics 
have little or no idea of just what are the essential beliefs and practices of 
Catholics. Some progress has been made in theological and hierarchical as- 
pects but the field of enlightenment of non-Catholics is almost untouched. It 
is true that inter-faith meetings and dialogues are being held, especially in 
Europe; but always the same difficulty emerges. Because of the number of 
souls involved, it will have to be the multitude of lay people who must do the 
teaching. And no one has taught the lay people any way of explaining their 
faith simply and exactly, in ways that will make sense to non-Catholics. 

This is not a new problem. I remember the remark of a non-Catholic friend, 
now an attorney, who said, "When we were boys, I thought the Catholic 
religion was a secret religion, because when we asked any questions of Catho- 
lics they always avoided giving an answer." I did not like to tell him that 
usually we did not know how to answer. 

I can remember asking my mother, in my boyhood, "If anyone asks me 
what I believe, what do I say?" 

And Mother, who was a very intelligent and spiritual woman, answered, 
"Tell them the Apostles' Creed." 

And I remember thinking to myself: "What would be the use of that? They 
wouldn't understand that. I don't understand it myself." But it got me inter- 
ested, and ever since it has been in my mind: How can I explain to myself 
and others what I know to be the truth? But our system of explaining and 
teaching has been so cumbersome and involved it takes a professional to keep 
it in mind. 

Each one teach one. The solution of the problem will have to be along these 

The problem is classic. I am sure everyone has heard the story of the priest 
who was preaching on the Sacred Scriptures. Every time he pronounced the 
word "exegesis" the pious old lady in the front pew reverently bowed her 
head. You think this is only a story in a book. I thought so. But only recently 
a religious superior told me of one of his young priests who had the very same 
thing happen to him, and he was so shaken by the experience that he lost the 
thread of his discourse and had to leave the pulpit. He thought, "Just what am 
I getting into their heads?" 

This is a good question. And we can ask further: What is in my head? 
These questions apply at every level of education. I am intrigued by the recent 
complaint of a junior college girl who said in great seriousness, "I have been 
going to Holy Communion daily for a long time, and I can't see that I am 
any better or even any different. What is it doing for me?" 

Can we simplify our method of understanding and explaining the truth 
to the point where all can help others to understand? The air is simply filled 
with suggestions concerning reforms to be considered in the forthcoming 
General Council. Can the teaching methods be reformed? We pastors lack 
the opportunities for scholarship that we might like; but we do read, and I 
take the liberty of borrowing a term from a work with which all pastors are 
familiar, a work of the greatest conciseness, thoroughness, and exactness. I 

What the Lord Said to Israel 253 

refer to the annual financial report to the Chancery. This work does not men- 
tion the word "reform." It lists "Repairs and improvements." I do not think 
anyone will dispute the desirability of repairs and improvements in our methods 
of explaining and understanding our holy religion. There is, as a matter of 
fact, intense activity in progress along these very lines. With these you are 
undoubtedly familiar, and I am not going to review them here; but remember 
this work is only beginning, and there is so much to be done. You, who are 
among the key figures in the world of education, will be doing part of this 
very task; and I respectfully offer some suggestions today to help you in doing 
your part. 

Last year a privately issued review of a major seminary carried a sort of 
symposium-interview giving the opinions and comments of three top-flight 
theologians and philosophers of the Catholic Church. The general subject of 
the article was, "The Theology of the Future." Now, that is fascinating, isn't 
it? The treatment was interesting, and what is more important, it reached 
certain conclusions, which were these: The theology of the future will be (1) 
more religious, and (2) more biblical. 

"More religious" — now, to me that means more about God. So many of even 
the most recent treatments of our religion are man-centered rather than God- 
centered . But when there are questions to be answered, we have to go back 
to fundamentals, back to God himself. We look at things as they are, which 
means as God sees them — as far as we can do it. Then we try to articulate 
them as they are. Our trap has too often been words. We tie the truth up in 
words, and then think about the words rather than about the things. We even 
forget that the words may convey a quite different meaning to the hearers. 
I remember an episode in a religion class. The pastor was listening to Sister 
explaining the story of original sin, and he interposed. "Sister, you have to 
give the children a picture. They think in pictures. Here, let me explain it 
to them." So the good man expounded the lesson, and said to Sister, "That's 
the way to do it." Afterwards, Sister had the children draw the pictures that 
they had in their minds, and one child handed in a drawing of three people 
in a car. "Who are these people?" Sister asked the child. "That's Adam and 
Eve in the back seat. That's God in the front seat. God is driving them out 
of the Garden of Eden." 

"More biblical" — that means, told in God's way, because the Bible is God's 
own telling us what He wants us to know. St. Augustine said it far better than 
I can say it: "The story is complete when you start to catechize from the 
words, 'in the beginning God made heaven and earth' and then carry through 
to the Church of today . . . Choose, therefore, out of the whole story a few 
of the highlights which you think likely to be listened to with greater interest 
and are the most essential." 1 

Applying these considerations, I respectfully present these suggestions. 

I. More Religious — LOVE 

Malachias 1:1: "The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand 
of Malachias: I have loved you, saith the Lord." 

This statement in various forms is repeated a thousand times in the Sacred 
Scriptures. More and more we are coming to realize that God's message to 
us, the kerygma, is / love you. It is not merely the theme of the Bible and 

1 Quoted from Teaching All Nations, by Johannes Hofinger and Clifford Howell (New York: 
Herder & Herder, 1961), p. 51. 

254 College and University Department 

therefore of God's teaching: it is the content, the "burden." More and more 
this is being preached as the Word of God, and justly so. 

However, there is an obstacle in the modern mind, and especially in the 
minds of the people, and it is caused by confusion concerning the meaning 
of the word "love." There being confusion about this word, there will be con- 
fusion about the fact, about the truth. 

Some years ago, in an eastern city of this country, a young woman and 
a young man were sitting together in the front seat of a car, in a parking lot 
in the downtown section, in broad daylight. Witnesses saw the young woman 
suddenly get out of the car, close the door, and walk rapidly away. They 
then saw the young man leaning out of the car window, and noted with alarm 
that he had a gun in his hand. While they looked on in helpless horror, he 
shot the young woman in the back and she fell to the ground. He then started 
the car, swung it around and ran over her prostrate body; then he backed up 
over her. Finally he got out of the car to inspect the results of his action. 
The witnesses approached cautiously, and, of course, someone asked the ques- 
tion, "Why did you do it?" And he answered simply, "Because I loved her." 
He related afterwards that he had told her that if she did not marry him, she 
would never marry anybody, and she had refused him. 

Now, I would be willing to wager that if you told that story to people and 
asked their comments, many would say that he really loved her. Whatever the 
word love may mean, this is the kind of meaning that is often portrayed in 
popular forms of entertainment and in stories. But it is not love at all; and 
when people hear God's Word that He loves them, it is no wonder that they 
fail to understand. 

Let us look at things, not words. Love means two things. There is the love 
of desire or of attraction: We perceive that something is desirable because 
it possesses, or we think it possesses, some excellence that would contribute 
to our growth, our advancement. Then there is the love of benevolence, which 
means that we wish to give to the loved one something of ourselves that is 
good. It is mainly in this second sense that God says that He loves us. 

To love means to give. And what is it that God gives to us? He gives us 
the best thing that there is; and that is simply Himself. 

If we are asked what we as Catholics believe, we could reply with truth 
and with exactness, "I believe in Dominus vobiscum." It is said eight times 
in the Mass; even more frequently in the Divine Office. It means more than 
"May the Lord be with you." It really means, "The Lord is with you." 

God's love means that He comes into our hearts and remains there, to give 
us of Himself, to make us one with Him. He does not merely wish to do this; 
He is actually always doing it, in a thousand ways. 

"Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If any man listens to my word 
and opens the door to me, I will come in to him and will sup with him, and 
he with me" (Apoc. 3:20). 

"If anyone love me, He will keep my word, and my Father will love Him, 
and we will come to him and make our abode with him" (John 14:24). 

"In this is the love, not that we have loved God, but that he has first loved 
us" (I John 4:10). 

When Jesus in a vision asked St. Thomas Acquinas what he would have as 
a reward, Thomas is said to have answered, "Thyself, O Lord!" If there 
could remain any doubt about just what God intends in our regard, He an- 

What the Lord Said to Israel 255 

swers all questions by the very existence of the Holy Eucharist. We can not 
imagine His being within our hearts without giving us all that we can receive. 

The theologians tell us that according to our understanding, God operates 
exteriorly in three ways, the operationes ad extra: He communicates Himself 
to us by means of Creation, by means of the Redemption, and by means of 
Sanctification through the Holy Ghost. 

God's love is one act, and, in fact, it is Himself. "God is love" (I John 
4:16). He began this communication of Himself in the Creation and Elevation 
of the human being. When our first parents broke off the communication 
through original sin, He restored it through the Redemption; and once all was 
restored, though with differences, then the Sanctification was again put into 
operation. These operations all began in a point of time, as far as we are 
concerned; but once begun, they have never ceased or even faltered. All we 
learn of physical science convinces us that creation is still going on at an 
undiminished pace. The Redemption came to a climax on Calvary; it is intensi- 
fied in every Mass that is offered. Since Pentecost the Holy Ghost operates 
in countless souls to bring them into closer and closer union with God, to 
build them one by one into something like unto Himself: In the image and 
likeness of God (Cf. Gen. 1:27). 

And the more efficient this union becomes, the more we participate in the 
interior life of God, sharing in His knowing and loving Himself. 

This is the real destiny of the human being: By growing in closeness to 
God, we grow in true stature, spiritually and supernaturally. This is our 

The mind, like the body, needs food, and that food is the knowledge of 
the truth. Very often, emotional and psychological and even spiritual diffi- 
culties are only hunger pangs of a mind that is not being fed; the sufferer 
has stopped learning, and his mind is crying out for food. Let him feed the 
mind with knowledge of the things of God and the difficulties disappear as 
if by miracle. 

But the soul! Here is the real dignity of human nature, that it is designed 
to be increased by the addition of God himself. Sanctifying Grace is only 
the spark of life; it must be present before growth can take place; but it can 
do nothing without nourishment; and the nourishment is God. This is what 
we mean by God's love. Our strongest and deepest instinct is to find food 
for growth: excellence: God. That is why we are satisfied with nothing but 
the best and highest. 

We have hardly explored these truths. Like the infant, things are made 
incomplete in the beginning: God wishes us to have the privilege of coop- 
erating with Him in finishing things. So it is not incongruous that at this 
moment we have still so much to learn. 

". . . The Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my 
name, he will teach you all things" (John 14:26). We find the times especially 
demanding now. One of my priest friends recently remarked, "The lunatic 
fringe is stealing all our thunder!" The story of God's love has been entrusted 
in its entirety to the Catholic Church only. We have been blundering along 
with too little understanding, but with an absolutely fool-proof system of 
action given to us by Jesus Christ: "If you keep my commandments, you 
will abide in my love" (John 15:10). His commandments are: to keep the 
Ten Commandments, to be guided by His Church, to offer the Mass, to 
receive the sacraments. If we do these things we are loving God, and thereby 

256 College and University Department 

opening our hearts to His coming. There are here many mysteries; but it is 
not hard to give or to receive the message. Let each one teach one. 

II. More Biblical 

When we feel we need to learn something we consult the expert. The expert 
in telling us about God's love for us is God Himself; and the book is, of 
course, the Bible. 

"The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of Malachias. 
I have loved you, saith the Lord; and you have said: Wherein hast thou 
loved us? 

"Was not Esau brother to Jacob, saith the Lord, and I have loved Jacob. 
But have hated Esau? and I have made his mountains a wilderness, and given 
his inheritance to the dragons of the desert" (Mal.l:l-3). 

"Not because you surpass all nations in number, is the Lord joined unto 
you, and hath chosen you, for you are the fewest of any people. But because 
the Lord hath loved you . . . and hath brought you out with a strong hand, 
and hath redeemed you from the house of bondage, out of the hand of Pharao 
the king of Egypt" (Deut.7:7-8). 

When God wished to tell of His love, He told the story of what He had 
done for His people. This, then, is God's way of teaching us of His love. We 
shall not improve upon His method. We need to know the Bible story. 

And when we read this story with understanding of what God means, when 
we seek the burden of the Word of God on every page, then we shall under- 
stand passages that we never understood before. This is the way of the 
Church, and the way of the saints. 

We can thank God for the resurgence of interest in the Sacred Scriptures 
and for the increase of knowledge about the sacred books. We of this 
generation are more fortunate than those of the past, because resources are 
available to us that were unknown to those who have preceded us. Let us 
not waste them. Dr. George W. Crane, in his syndicated column "The 
Worry Clinic," calls the New Testament "the number one piece of educational 
equipment" and says that it is impossible to be an educated man or woman 
without knowing it well. 

The story of God's love does not end with the Sacred Scriptures. The story 
makes the most natural transition imaginable in the Acts of the Apostles 
and then goes on in the history of the Church. You may, in fact, read a new 
chapter every day in the Catholic news. 

I was once startled by a question from a devout Lutheran: "Do you 
Catholics consider the Church more important than the Bible?" I finally came 
up with the answer: The Church and the Bible are like the two wings of an 
airplane. Both wings are needed to fly; both Bible and Church are needed to 
learn about God's love for us. When we know what we are looking for, all 
the story has profound meaning, everything becomes a source of enlighten- 

Proceedings and Reports 257 



The following amendments were passed unanimously at the General Session 
of the 1962 convention at Detroit, on Friday, April 27, 1962: 

ARTICLE m. Insert new paragraph at end of SECTION 1. 

Associate members shall also be those regularly constituted Newman 
Education Centers or Foundations which are established at institutions of 
higher education and which have applied for membership and have been 
certified by the Secretary of the Committee on Membership as associate 

Insert new SECTION 6. 

A regularly established Newman Education Center or Foundation at an 
institution of higher education may become an associate member by: 

a) application to the Secretary of the Committee on Membership; 

b) payment of the established annual fee; 

c) certification of associate membership by the Secretary of the Committee 
on Membership through the Executive Committee to the Department. 

Renumber the remaining SECTIONS of ARTICLE III to read: SECTION 7, 
SECTION 8, respectively. 


The Committee on Membership has recommended to the Executive Com- 
mittee and now recommends to the membership of the Department that the 
following institutions be admitted to Senior Constituent Membership: 

Sacred Heart Dominican College, Houston, Texas 

St. John Fisher College, Rochester, New York 

University of San Diego Men's College, San Diego, California 

The Committee on Membership has recommended to the Executive Com- 
mittee and now recommends to the membership of the Department that the fol- 
lowing institutions be admitted to Junior Constituent Membership: 

Gwynedd Mercy Junior College, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania 

Marymount Junior College, Arlington, Virginia 

Respectfully submitted, 

Very Rev. Gerald E. Dupont, S.S.E. 


College and University Department 


President: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Alfred F. Horrigan, Louisville, Ky. 
Vice President: Brother Gregory, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 
Secretary: Dr. Richard A. Matre, Chicago, 111. 
General Executive Board: 

Very Rev. Vincent C. Dore, O.P., Providence, R.I. 

Dr. William H. Conley, Notre Dame, Ind. 

Department Executive Committee: 
Ex officio Members: 

The President, Vice President, and Secretary 

Very Rev. Armand H. Desautels, A.A., Worcester, Mass., Vice President General representing 

College and University Department. 
Very Rev. Vincent C. Dore, O.P., Providence, R.I., Department Representative on General 

Executive Board. 
Dr. William H. Conley, Notre Dame, Ind., Past President and Department Representative 

on General Executive Board. 
Rev. Arthur A. North, S.J., New York, N.Y., Secretary of Committee on Graduate Study. 
Very Rev. Gerald E. Dupont, S.S.E., Winooski, Vt., Secretary of Committee on Membership. 

Non-voting Members: 

Rev. William J. Dunne, S.J., Washington, D.C., Associate Secretary 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Julius W. Haun, Winona, Minn. 

Rev. Cyril F. Meyer, CM., Northampton, Pa. 

Brother A. Potamian, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 

Brother Bonaventure Thomas, F.S.C., New York, N.Y. 

Very Rev. Paul C. Reinert, S.J., St. Louis, Mo. 

General Members: 
Rev. Edward A. Doyle, S.J., New Orleans, La. 
Sister M. Rose Emmanuella, Oakland, Calif. 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. John J. Dougherty, South Orange, N.J. 
Sister Mary Josetta, R.S.M., Chicago, 111. 

Sister Anastasia Maria, I.H.M., Immaculata, Pa. 
Dr. C. Joseph Nuesse, Washington, D.C. 
Very Rev. Paul L. O'Connor, S.J., Cincinnati, Ohio 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. James P. Shannon, St. Paul, Minn. 

Sister M. Augustine, O.S.F., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Very Rev. Laurence V. Britt, S.J., Detroit, Mich. 
Dr. James A. Hart, Chicago, 111. 
Rev. Joseph Hogan, CM., Jamaica, N.Y. 

Very Rev. Michael P. Walsh, S.J., Chestnut Hill, Mass. 
Very Rev. William F. Kelley, S.J., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Sister Joan Marie, S.N.J.M., Oakland, Calif. 
Very Rev. Brian J. Egan, O.S.B., St. Bernard, Ala. 

Regional Unit Members: 

Sister Ann Bartholomew, S.N.D., Boston, Mass. 
Very Rev. Vincent C Dore, O.P., Providence, R.I. 

Dr. George F. Donovan, Washington, D.C. 

Very Rev. Henry J. McAnulty, C.S.Sp., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Brother Raymond Fleck, C.S.C, Austin, Tex. 
Sister Mary Eugene, O.P., New Orleans, La. 

Brother Julius Edgar, F.S.C, Winona, Minn. 
Dr. Martin J. Lowery, Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Frank Costello, S.J., Seattle, Wash. 
Sister M. Jean Frances, O.P., Edmunds, Wash. 

Rev. Alexis Mei, S.J., Santa Clara, Calif. 
Sister M. Humiliata, I.H.M., Los Angeles, Calif. 


Chairman Brother Louis Faerber, S.M., Dayton, Ohio 
Vice Chairman: Dr. James Donnelly, New York, N.Y. 
Secretary: Sister Rosemary Pfaff, D.C, Emmitsburg, Md. 


Chairman: Rev. Mother Mary Regina, R.S.M., Bethesda, Md. 

Vice Chairman: Rev. Mother Kathryn Marie, C.S.C, Notre Dame, Ind. 

Executive Secretary: Sister Annette, C.S.J., Washington, D.C. 


Chairman: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Alexander Sigur, Lafayette, La. 
Vice Chairman: Rev: John F. Bradley, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Secretary: Rev. William D. Borders, Baton Rouge, La. 





j- New > England 

Y Eastern 

| Southern 

|- Midwest 

r Northwestern 

> Southwestern 




Brother Majella Hegarty, C.S.C. 


The dramatic announcement of an Ecumenical Council and the subsequent 
preparations for it have roused unprecedented interest and hope not only 
among Catholics, but also among all people of good will everywhere. Within 
a few months the Second Vatican begins its solemn deliberations, and it is our 
privilege not merely to witness the event as spectators but to participate as 
well in this historic event in whatever degree we, as Catholics and educators, 
possibly can. In our various fields in education we must take full advantage of 
the opportunity and incentive the Council offers, now that it has been sum- 
moned, to renew our own dedication to objectives, to examine the principles 
which guide our work, our policies, and our practices. Now is the time, in 
short, to cultivate in ourselves and to bring alive in our work the spirit and 
ideals that will mark the Council itself. In our work as supervisors, specifically, 
we can draw implications from the ecumenical spirit for our daily tasks in the 

Leaving aside whatever else it will accomplish, the Council will certainly 
emphasize the unchanging basis of our faith — that faith contained in revelation 
and tradition and spelled out in dogmatic and moral doctrine; that faith un- 
changed since apostolic times. At the same time we know that the faith is 
one of the three essential factors that must always characterize and distinguish 
Christ's Church on earth: not only agreement in faith, but also a union under 
a hierarchically governed body, and union through participation in the same 
sacraments and sacramental life. What, therefore, can we draw from this cer- 
tain emphasis of the Council? 

A personal application for educators and a sine qua non for anyone at all 
who hopes to foster the ecumenical spirit, is to cherish the gift of faith — to 
live it — to show God living in our lives. We must be burningly aware of the 
wonder, the inspiration, and the deepening of this gift in our souls, for it is 
the soul that sets souls on fire. As we meditate, and as we examine ourselves 
and our work with others from the vantage point of our possession of this 
treasure, faith, we find questions emerging — questions we can ask ourselves 
and questions we may pose for our teachers and school officials. 

Does our faith shine from within? Does it live in our faces, our actions, our 
voice, our attitude toward our work? Does it shape our dealings with others, 
especially students? Or do we habitually look too solemn, sad, frustrated, 
worried — thus dismal, negative advertisements for our way of life and our 


260 Department of School Superintendents 

profession? Do we allow disappointments and resentments to obscure high 
purpose and perhaps introduce motives we are not proud of when we uncover 
them during the examination of conscience? 

And are the ideals and the spirit of faith apparent in our habitual level of 
spiritual and professional interests? Outside the classroom, what de we think 
about and talk about most of the time? Are we often concerned with the needs 
and potentialities and achievements of students, with the problems, too, of that 
adult world which already too much affect students' lives? Or do we waste 
time and spiritual energy on trifling matters of ephemeral interest and little 
value for our work? Are we afflicted with that immature yen to be forever 
entertained by radio, television, newspapers, mere light reading? 

Long ago a great Jewish rabbi said that to be wisdom, knowledge must be 
wrapped in reverence. Pope John XXIII has called for spiritual renewal in the 
Church and among men, and at the same time has brought a kind of "second 
spring" to the age-old hope of Christian reunion. Unthinkable as it was not 
so many years ago, the dialogue has, indeed, begun. 

The Holy Father personifies to the watching world the kind of wisdom 
growing from a steadfast faith wrapped in brotherly love whereby the reunion 
of Christendom may one day be achieved upon this earth. We, in turn, can 
examine whether in our own lives we demonstrate the union of effort and in- 
tention from which wisdom — knowledge wrapped in reverence — must result. 
What of our attitudes toward other religious communities and other re- 
ligious works within the Church? 

Do we appreciate the worth and place of each in the total activity of the 
Mystical Body? Or do we allow ourselves the use of thoughtless humor or 
disparaging expressions that can be construed as lack of appreciation, as dislike, 
or as even mistrust by our hearers? 

Again, do we find in ourselves friendly appreciation of the work of other 
members of the community or of the school staff doing work different from 
our own — nursing, maintenance, cooking, missionary work? 

Do those of us in the apostolate and other works have affirmative judg- 
ments always regarding the essential place of the contemplative orders and the 
passive virtues? 

Another area that bears examination in our schools is the relationship be- 
tween the religious and the lay teachers on the same faculty. Articles in Sign 
have highlighted both negative and affirmative aspects. (Dr. William Conley's 
classic address of yesterday also reemphasizes for us today some pertinent 
problems.) Our self -questioning here would be directed mostly, of course, to 
the religious. 

Do we religious treat the lay teachers as full-status professional colleagues? 
Or do we find we could improve: by at least knowing their names; by being 
more friendly; by inviting them to participate in faculty meetings; by consulting 
with them? 

And when our lay people feel dissatisfied about something, do they on their 
part go right to the top, where something can be done, or do they accept the 
situation with more of good-natured despair perhaps than piety? 

We are urged to protect the perfection of the faith in us by our reverence 
for holy things. We need to give the example, then to insist upon such rever- 
ence among our students. Anecdotes or humorous references involving con- 
fession, biblical quotations, and sacred persons or things should not be used 
or allowed. In this connection, I have held the opinion for many years that 
certain facile and patronizing tags or labels that surprise, or, rather, mildly 
scandalize our hearers, should be abandoned. I suggest there be a campaign 

The Supervisor's Role 261 

to bury once and for all the habit of referring to the chaplain or pastor as "the 
good father"; to nuns as "the dear sisters"; to brothers as "the holy brothers." 
Though in itself of minor importance, the use of such delicate barbs, even in 
friendly irony, is part of a spirit of taking nothing and no one seriously, of 
being always ready to laugh at others' foibles and mistakes, and to comment 
gratuitously with that air of natural infallibility assumed by the type of person 
someone once called "the invertebrate gossip." 

The Church is an organism. We are each a part of the Mystical Body. In 
the interests of that unity of each with the soul of that Mystical Body, the Holy 
Spirit of Love, we need to submerge, subdue, and eliminate as best we can the 
less noble manifestations of our individual personalities. 

In light of the essential hierarchical organization of the Church, it is im- 
pressive to consider the emphasis that the spirit of ecumenism places upon 
the participation of the laity in the life and work of the Church. In our schools 
the outward manifestation of the faith can be examined, for example, with 
regard to parish membership and the activities of our students in their various 
parishes. We should foster in our charges an ever better realization of basic 
unity between young members of the parish flock and the pastor. We can en- 
courage, and assist as occasion offers, our students' awareness of and partici- 
pation in that living parish unity which exists and speaks and acts by reason 
of the dynamism of that faith which inspires it and, in turn, needs it. We can 
draw inspiration from the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine programs, which 
continue their contribution where it is particularly necessary and fruitful. And 
alert and zealous school people find it possible to aid pastors in other ways 
in their concern for the spiritual welfare of the high percentage of Catholic 
students attending public high schools. 

Do we seek ways of aiding, or promoting, the unity of the Church in ways 
like these? Or do we ignore it, refusing to "get involved," claiming to be too 
busy to take an interest in what our students and their families do as members 
of parish or diocese or Church-at-large? And do we go so far as to criticize 
before our students, thus risking injustice or scandal along with what is al- 
ready a lack of charity? 

One knows instinctively of the need for unity within the school faculty. 
Teachers have the duty to be the kind of people they want their students to 
become as adults. (One of my teachers-in -training called this a "frightening 
responsibility.") Teachers who act according to that ideal are sure to create 
dynamic unity on a faculty. Yet, to carry out that duty requires more than 
logic, common sense, prudence, good judgment, the realistic approach, facing 
facts, and the like. Even with all these qualifications to strengthen our rela- 
tions with one another, we also need charity, tolerance, good manners, tact 
and diplomacy, and other virtues and traits, because we are dealing with human 
beings who are, like ourselves, something less than angels. 

Supervisors can often help in getting teachers and administrators to under- 
stand how, colored by emotionalism, what are mere suggestions begin to sound 
like and are accepted as "griping"; how emotionalism can make discussions 
deteriorate into arguments and even long-lasting quarrels. When supervisors 
compare notes, it is astonishing to discover what imperfections are permitted 
to exist in schools through inertia, or ignorance and blindness to facts, or loss 
of sense of purpose, direction, or the intrusion of actually false values that 
have crept in and established themselves. By mere lack of self-examination we 
seem to give aid to the devil of discord, who is sure to hate all work for souls 
and the unity of effort that it calls for. 

262 Department of School Superintendents 

Many studies have shown that among the primary causes of failure among 
teachers who leave the profession in their first year is lack of ability in class- 
room discipline or management or leadership. We all agree, I think, that a 
prime factor in poor teacher-class relationships lies within the teacher himself: 
in his having a negative attitude toward his students, a lack of unity with them. 
Trouble comes mainly from the average and below-average students. These 
need some hope of success, or they will have no motivation to work; and to 
have this hope, they need to know the teacher wishes them well, that he has 
the attitude: "Work as well as you can, and so give me an excuse for passing 

A supervisor can suggest to beginning or veteran teachers who are having 
disciplinary problems to question themselves: "Is my approach negative? Am 
I, in my own mind, suspicious of my students, obviously expecting laziness, 
copying, misbehavior, disrespect? Am I so resentful toward them that it shows 
in my dealings with them, in my tone of voice, my gestures, my facial expres- 
sion, in my rebukes or the penalties I impose? Do I have a belligerent attitude 
toward students as a general principle, making this baseless assumption: that 
the only way to make students work and to raise academic standards is to 
lower the students' grades?" 

Do we as supervisors and teachers worry about our teen-agers? Besides 
offering this worry to God, together with the prayers we should keep saying 
for our young people, we need a special kind of charity. A priest told me once, 
"Tell your teachers that unless they love their students, they don't belong in 
the classroom." As he explained it, that kind of love means that at the very 
moment a student stands before us, distrusting us, uncooperative, rebellious, 
we must stand willing to give our lives — literally — for his salvation. 

The spirit of unity in charity forestalls many a problem, to be sure. Teen- 
agers need the assurance we wish them well, hoping for the best, that we love 
their souls, even when we do not like everything about them. We must in 
turn appreciate what it means to grow up in today's world of turmoil and un- 
remitting challenge and threat. We have to be not only adult, but professional, 
in establishing rapport with young people. Do we treat each student as a 
person, as individually important, as one in whom we take the sincere personal 
interest described so well in Veaujean's wonderful little book, Your Other Self? 
We may be unhappy about our teen-agers at times, now and then even horri- 
fied. But we dare not deny them our love, individually or as a group; we dare 
not, to use that too-often-true word, "dislike" them. Perhaps to say we cannot 
really teach those we don't like is going too far; yet there's enough truth in 
the dictum to frighten the truly conscientious teacher. 

The spirit of unity, fairmindedness, and charity should influence us more 
and more in our dealings with public school people. A few years ago Dr. Carr, 
writing in America, listed several recommendations for each group. On our 
part, we can once again question ourselves: Does our language tend to wound 
rather than to persuade? Do we use emotionally tinged expressions and labels, 
tags or cliches that are certain to rebuff other educators who heretofore may 
have been friendly and interested? And are we acquainted with and actively 
interested in the work of Catholics teaching in the public schools in the area? 
Have we investigated locally the possibilities for interschool visiting and get- 
togethers with them and their public school colleagues? 

We often have the chance to help others appreciate the Catholic viewpoint 
in education. We should allow them to see the manifest Americanism, the 
democratic policies and procedures, that mark Catholic schools. For example, 
as the struggle for civil rights goes forward, in many places the leadership 

The Supervisor's Role 263 

exercised by the private and parochial schools in, say, the matter of desegre- 
gation, has benefited the communities concerned and set a heartening example 
for all — though it does take a Ritter or a Rummel sometimes to get the point 
across! This is an implementing of one of the Christian principles upon which 
our democracy is founded, principles that therefore furnish a common ground 
of agreement always among American educators. 

Not only for our own encouragement, but also for the enlightenment of 
the unaware, we should know the sociological surveys which prove that private 
schools have been found no less democratic and no less American than public 
schools. The Rossis, for instance, reported in the Harvard Educational Review 
that they found parochial-school-trained Catholics to be involved in community 
leadership as much as other people. Pfeffer, in his Creeds in Competition, 
gives evidence that the private school tends to be even more heterogeneous 
than the neighboring public school; that it draws its pupils from all races, varied 
social-cultural levels, and from no one particular neighborhood. He further 
states that this is true particularly of the Catholic school. We should use such 
documentation as a source of pride in our work and in the American Catholic 
educational system of which we are part. 

Do some of our teachers and friends sometimes use it as a weapon for battle 
and thereby do far more harm than good to the spirit of unity and that spirit 
of justice to all that we pray will bless current deliberations upon the right of 
each American child to the best education America can afford? Certainly the 
development of a genuine social psychology of religion, such as some hope for, 
would reveal how tragic disunities have resulted from such emotionalism, mis- 
information, and distortion — dissentions, heresies, schisms — that have divided 

As to civic unity, and particularly our interest in local civic affairs: Do we 
cooperate in local projects as well as in the study and fostering of local tra- 
ditions, drives, celebrations? 

Do our schools take scrupulous care to care for and display the American 
flag properly? 

Do our children know and use in school our patriotic songs and the Pledge 
of Allegiance? 

Do we vote regularly in local, state, and national elections, and do we learn 
about the issues and candidates as intelligent voters should? 

Experts in the field of ecumenism have not failed to point out that the un- 
changeable nature of the faith rules out any vain hope for a "common-denomi- 
nator Christianity" that would, through compromises, unite Christians in a 
kind of minimum creed of so-called "fundamental articles." Our very inability 
to compromise on matters of faith is a reminder to us as school supervisors 
that Catholic educators must come with conspicuously clean hands into any 
public forum of discussion on education, and particularly into interscholastic 
negotiations and agreements. 

Are we, to begin with, scrupulous in observing the regulations intended to 
keep school athletics within the purposes of education? 

Do we ever allow this extracurricular activity to seriously interfere with 
academic goals? 

Is any varsity interscholastic program pursued to the detriment of the 
intramural and health programs for the other students? 

Do we find any school authorities so intent on headlines, championships, 
and college athletic scholarships that the old dictum is lost sight of that "the 
important thing going on in a school is schoolteaching?" 

Considering the principles of truth and justice at the heart of our philosophy 

264 Department of School Superintendents 

of education, we must always in these matters be our own most scrupulous super- 
visors. What schools we should have in America if we could corral for the 
pursuit of academic excellence an amount of time, energy, money, and organ- 
ization proportionate to that given so unstintedly and enthusiastically in some 
areas to athletics! 

A footnote to the above might be added: In the interests of the preservation 
and the deepening of Christian culture and educational philosophy in our 
schools, we might take a hard look regularly at the departments and programs 
that affect most directly the Catholic thought, attitudes, and tastes of our stu- 
dents — the reading lists and periodicals used in literature classes, and the 
productions of the music and drama departments. Lapses in these areas warn 
us now and then, too often through newspaper reports first or the comments 
of parents, that censorship by school authorities is merely insistence upon good 
judgment by those in charge. Again, as in athletics, overly enthusiastic teachers 
and directors are inclined to forget their general educational obligations. Seldom 
is there real danger of major scandal; but even in minor matters we must not 
be balked by sham arguments for modernity, progress, and so forth, nor allow 
to continue without protest any program or tradition that is unsuitable to 
Christian ideals and conduct. 

Examining our schools again from the viewpoint of internal unity, we can 
build up interdepartmental and other relationships by noting, modifying, or 
eliminating divisive policies and procedures. We can commend and promote 
whatever fosters a "faculty spirit" akin to the "school spirit" we like to see in 
the student body. Are faculty meetings held regularly? Me these meetings 
really helpful? Constructive? A real aid in keeping or restoring good order 
in the administration of the school? An inspiration and practical aid in the 
improvement of instruction? Do such faculty get-togethers result in ridding 
the school of any residues of defunct policies or intellectually moribund at- 

One method of stimulating faculty members to cooperate energetically is to 
have the faculty itself, through research and committee work, draw up a 
philosophy of education for the school. During summer school classes I have 
assigned veteran teachers to write two paragraphs on the schools from which 
they have come: the first paragraph, What I am proud of in my school; the 
second, What we have in our school that does not accord with my philosophy 
of education. Some indicate what they intend to do the next term about things 
they have criticized. I have heard, too, of one courageous principal who has 
his teachers hand in during the last week of school a page or two on the topic, 
What I would do if I had my way. 

Through methods like these I have seen one school replace its woeful system 
of checking latecomers and absentees with a simple method that all the faculty 
gladly cooperated with. In my own round of supervisory work lately, I have 
been edified to see what effect the introduction of the Sodality of Our Lady 
is having in one of our boys schools; results compare more than favorably with 
those from CYO and YCS activities in our other schools. 

How often young people surprise us by what they do of themselves! The 
girls at one school agreed, quite on their own, to keep silence during their 
three-day school retreat from the time they left home each day till they re- 
turned. (A girls school!) At a coed school I heard that the students agreed 
to keep silence in the corridors between periods during November, for the in- 
tention of the souls in purgatory. 

Supervisors know that unity of purpose between parents and teachers can 
always be improved. Does the teacher discussing with parents a problem 

The Supervisor's Role 265 

student or student problem talk with the parents as a colleague, as one anxious 
to uncover real causes, as one ready to form the attitude and devise the means 
to best deal with the student? Or does the teacher skirt the issue, refuse to 
face the facts? Does he confront the parents with the one aim in mind: to 
score a victory of self-justification? We need grace, a good deal of it some- 
times, as well as adult behavior from both teacher and parent, if the single 
purpose of the interview is to be achieved: and that is, the good of the student. 

The authorities on ecumenism remind us continually these days that in 
solving external hindrances to the reunion of Christendom, the first step is 
moral rather than intellectual — a matter, first of all, of good will, sincere desire, 
and benevolent charity. In teaching our religion classes, we can likewise keep 
in mind that our faith does not mean submission of the intellect to a demon- 
stration. As the First Vatican Council, in 1870, defined faith: "We hold as 
true what God has revealed, not because we have perceived its intrinsic truth 
by our reason, but because of the authority of God." 

We must renew often, in ourselves and in those we teach, a moral sense of 
wonder and humble gratitude for this gratuitous gift of God. And always we 
must make our faith deeper, not so much primarily through study and research 
and discussion, but rather through loving more, and trusting more, and holding 
more fast to the Person of Christ — the Way, the Truth, the Light, and the Life. 

Statements like these suggest to me the danger of allowing classroom dis- 
cussions involving matters of faith to degenerate from learning situations into 
mere contests of attack and defense — a kind of junior ideological warfare too 
often sparked by some teen-ager's urge to be entertainingly irreverent and the 
teacher's concern to keep the youngster's language orthodox. One has to re- 
member at such times that young people tend to be intransigent, even violent, 
in debate. They are still formulating their views of things, still shaping what 
will be their philosophy of life; thus, they tend to question everything and 
anything before they are willing to reaffirm their ideals. Yet, even the most 
vocal among them, when they fully welcome Christ into their lives, usually 
make this reaffirmation with a generosity few adults seem capable of. Students 
in our religion classes, therefore, are there primarily to strengthen their love 
of God through clearer knowledge of what faith teaches and through more 
generous love of moral good. We must pursue that objective by every means 
possible; but allowing brash young "lay theologians" or hatless cardinals pull 
the theological nose is not the way. 

I happened to hear the correct approach used in a classroom last year. The 
instructor, a priest assigned a religion class in one of our schools, asked: "Why 
are we studying the proofs of Christ's divinity now, when we've always known 
it by faith?" The freshman's answer was, "To be able to explain to others if 
we have to." 

This is the attitude needed by students today. They need to be strong in 
faith. If we allow undirected or misdirected questions and contributions in 
discussing matters of faith, particularly from those less devout or those weak 
in Catholic belief, the faith of others in the room may suffer. Rather, we must 
lead our students in affirmative thinking, judging, and acting upon the religious 
and social problems that affect their lives now or will affect them later. From 
us they should learn to glory in possessing the faith — the victory without which 
every one of them interiorly goes down in defeat. 

In living the faith — which is, after all, the bloodstream of the ecumenical 
spirit — there is a time for hate as well as love, for intolerance and for tolerance, 
a time for fierceness as well as kindliness. These drives make our philosophy 
and our faith "operational." This is the unity we want. This is the ecumenical 

266 Department of School Superintendents 

spirit we wish to foster, that its truth and charity may unite us more and 
more among ourselves and with all others. For we give meaning to our lives 
and to the lives of others, and we give meaning to the world itself, when our 
loyalty to truth, justice, and good makes us fear and hate and fight whatever 
in ourselves or in the world is false, unjust, cruel, sinful, at odds with the 


Sister Hilda Marie, O.P. 


In conjunction with the spirit of unity and oneness which has set the 
tempo as an underlying and inspiring theme of the 1962 Supervisors meeting, 
the members of panel one will endeavor to share their experiences in effective 
developments of modern educational practices as they discuss the interesting 
topic "The Supervisor and Administration: What the Supervisor Does for Pub- 
lic Relations." 

Reverting to an interesting observation attributed to Sophocles many cen- 
turies ago, the following appropriate quotation was recorded, "for we depend 
on you . . . that a man benefit others as far as his knowledge will go is the 
most honorable of labors." Today, in this twentieth century, we aspire to 
elicit a generous sharing of ideas realizing that to successfully work together 
requires three important objectives: (1) communication among the members; 
(2) understanding of one another's role and problems; and (3) common 
appreciation of broad aims. 

To fulfill such laudable aspirations let us remember that cooperation is a 
key word to success in any endeavor. Recalling the Latin connotation, let us 
note that opera means "to work" and co means "together." Work together! 
And, as Sister Mary Jerome Corcoran, O.S.U., so aptly states in her excellent 
book The Catholic Elementary School Principal: 

The dichotomy "religious community supervision versus diocesan" supervision 
is not a good one. Rather, "religious community plus diocesan" comes closer 
to an ideal arrangement. And, when the cooperation between religious com- 
munity supervisors and diocesan supervisors is active and cordial, the Sister 
Principal's work is greatly simplified. Community and diocesan supervisors 
can do much to strengthen the principal's position, and at the same time 
assist her in her own supervision. 

In the spirit of unity and oneness, then, may we strive to work together, 
today and every day, to achieve a common understanding and to facilitate 
desirable communication. May we strive to accept and perfect with resolute 
resourcefulness the scholarly and skillful exchange of ideas presented at this 
1962 Supervisors session. 

Continuing with the theme of this meeting, it is noted that the ecumenical 
spirit of our esteemed Holy Father, Pope John XXIII, is exemplified in daily 

What the Supervisor Does for Public Relations 267 

deeds, in gestures, and pronouncements; in the spontaneity of his paternal 
charity toward all. 

The ecumenical spirit among supervisors should also be exemplified in daily 
deeds and pronouncements. It becomes both propitious and practical, there- 
fore, for supervisors to pursue their tasks in a spirit of creative leadership; to 
endeavor to mobilize the full potential of everyone with whom they deal by 
stimulating them to generate productive ideas of their own. 

In recent years more and more supervisors have become aware of the human 
relations aspect of their work, realizing that in education the term "supervision" 
no longer indicates "the overseeing for direction" or "inspection with authority" 
as defined by Webster. Supervisors realize that they must work with people 
and for people — and to do this well, they have to understand them, size them 
up, motivate them, lead them, follow them, cooperate with them, love them, 
and be loved by them. Since many teachers with whom supervisors work are 
often teeming with tension, it is necessary to develop a super or superior vision 
which encompasses many skills. Major among these skills are the following: 
(1) skill in leadership; (2) skill in human relations; (3) skill in group proc- 
ess; (4) skill in personal administration; (5) skill in evaluation. 

Stifling rules which discourage and antagonize principals and teachers alike 
must be avoided because good supervision — like good teaching — is essentially 
and intrinsically built on good public relations. We should always encourage 
true leadership rather than project the infallibility of our own authority when- 
ever we recognize it. When authority is used it should evolve from group plan- 
ning and be used only for the good of the group. We should respect the person- 
alities of individuals and their individual differences while aiming to develop 
the best expression of each. It is rather basic to understand that we cannot 
inspire others unless we ourselves are first inspired. Therefore, we should not 
be too dogmatic or dramatic, but we should endeavor to do things very, very 
well so that principals and teachers will really want to do likewise. 

Our role of leadership as Catholic supervisors carries with it a weighty 
responsibility to provide the very best instruction possible. Our every word 
to principals and teachers, whether of correction or commendation, must be 
designed toward effecting this end. We should develop a warm, sincere, and 
humble personality which gently but firmly guides subordinates to do things 
the way we want them to. If we make our report to the administrator or 
teacher and not about her we are more likely to achieve this important goal. 

Scientific methods should also be utilized to arrive at true findings — a reflec- 
tion of the divine attribute of truth. Through scientific approaches we realize: 

1. Greater precision — which is clear, concise, complete. 

2. Greater objectivity — related to the principles of Catholic education. 

3. Greater impartiality — we should be democratic. When approached with 
a problem, consult, listen, discuss. Develop a capacity for adaptability. 
Direct the ultimate decision but always in terms of the educational well- 
being and advancement of pupils and teachers alike. 

4. Greater expertness — keeping astride of modern trends — maintaining bal- 

5. More systematic organization — knowing what to do and how to do it. 
Being sensitive to ultimate values, aims and policies. 

It is quite important for the principals and the teachers alike to see us in 
the role of the very human human beings that we actually are. They recognize 

268 Department of School Superintendents 

the fact that in obedience to our major superiors we have been appointed to 
help guide and direct the destiny of the schools under our supervision toward 
higher planes of professional achievement. Let them also recognize the fact 
that we are their coworkers — activated by the highest motive of charity and 
that we will practice true considerateness toward each of them; that we are 
not a formidable character or a four-star general but a truly vigorous Catholic 
educator with Christ as the center, the heart and the life-giving feature of our 
dedicated work for Him. Since deeper significance is always achieved when 
the supernatural dimension is added to the natural, our lives ought to include 
the whole gamut of spiritual and professional qualities. 

A few years ago I ventured to prepare an original acrostic in which a few 
of the major characteristics of a good supervisor were included. Perhaps, 
in conclusion then, we might appropriately consider some of the desirable 
attributes which combine to establish and guarantee an effective public- 
relations program in our supervisory proceedings. 


S sympathetic — spiritual 
U understanding — unselfish 
P prudent — patient — personable — practical 
E enthusiastic — explicit 
R realistic — reliable 
V vigilant — vivacious 
I interested — interesting 
S sincere — selfless — sociable 
O open-minded — organized 
R respecter of personality and individuality 
respecter of feelings and opinions of others 


Sister Marie Celine, F.S.P.A. 


In-service help! What is it? What constitutes it? Whose responsibility is it? 
And, how is it provided? 

With less than a five-minute countdown, I hope to answer each of these 
questions to some degree of satisfaction and thus provide a framework of 
reference for the subsequent discussion of this resource panel. 

What is in-service help? According to current literature, it is any pro- 
fessional assistance provided for teachers while in service with the specific 
objective of upgrading the profession through improving instruction, and 
which is characterized to some extent by "clarity of purpose, carefully planned 
procedures, and built-in provision for evaluation." x 

ij. B. Hodges, "Continuing Education: Why and How," Educational Leadership, Vol. 17, 
(March, 1960) 330. 

In-Service Help through Professional Programs 269 

With this in mind, What constitutes in-service help and how widespread is 
this practice? In-service help is manifold. It may and does take the form 
of bulletins, curricula guides, research projects, intervisitations, well-planned 
faculty studies, supervisory visitation of schools, workshops, seminars, institutes, 
conferences, grade-level meetings, subject- area meetings, use of consultants, 
and for some fortunate teachers, travel and exchange assignments. 

A review of the literature on research in this field indicates that in-service 
help is considered second to none as a means of improving instruction. It 
enables teachers to keep up with and apply the findings of modern research 
to re-evaluations, revisions, and yes, even rebirths in today's instructional 

As a consequence, the national interest in providing in-service help through 
in-service programs is at an all-time high. As J. B. Hodges says in an article 
in Educational Leadership, there is hardly a [public] school system or district 
today which does not have some plan for in-service professional growth. 2 An 
oft-stated principle of the spiritual life applies here. A school cannot stand 
still. Either it will advance or it will regress. Thus it will be either an excellent 
school or it will underachieve as an educational institution with subsequent 
effects on the Catholic intellectuals of the future. 

Whose responsibility is in-service help? It is that of anyone in a position of 
leadership in the field of education — be that one who has jurisdiction over a 
system of schools on a diocesan basis, or one who has the responsibility of 
directing a large or small number of schools on a community basis, or one 
who is in immediate charge of an individual school. It is also the responsibility 
of any institution of higher learning whose avowed purpose it is to advance 
learning and share truth. 

According to Bertha Brandon, the coordinator of elementary schools in 
Waco, Texas, in-service help ". . . can be a link that ties together the far- 
flung units in a large school system or a unifying force that gives meaning to 
the efforts of a single faculty." 3 Therefore, all superintendents, supervisors, 
and elementary and secondary principals, as active and intelligent leaders, 
should consider the responsibility of providing in-service help to their teach- 
ing personnel a very important part of their work. 

How is in-service help provided? The consensus of those who have engaged 
in in-service help of any kind — be that in the form of general bulletins, study 
guides, suggestions for faculty study, themes for regional or general workshops 
or conferences, et cetera, is that one of the fatal mistakes an educational 
leader can make is to foist any program that he or she thinks is best on a 
group of teachers. 4 Cooperation does not thrive on directives, rules, and regula- 
tions imposed from without but on a thorough knowledge and conviction 
that the help provided will fit the particular need which brought it into existence. 

If a supervisor or principal can get her teachers to say honestly, "I want 
to evaluate my work and improve my teaching," then leadership is ready 
to move on to the place where teachers gladly identify their problems and 
cooperate in planning how they will work out these problems under the 
guidance of and in consultation with an experienced leader. 5 

3 Hodges, op. cit, 330-31. 

* Bertha Brandon, "In-Service Education of Elementary Teachers," Educational Leadership, 
Vol. 17, (March, 1960) 340. 

* Glen Hass, In-Service Education Today, Fifty-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the 
Study of Education, Part 1, (1957), p. 35. 

6 Noel Lawrence, "In-Service Programs for High School Teachers," Educational Leadership, 
Vol. 17, (March, 1960), 346. 

270 Department of School Superintendents 

Note well that there is no one best type of in-service help or no one best 
way to provide it. However, there are certain basic principles which govern 
this kind of assistance and educational leaders would do well to ponder them 
seriously. Such principles are the following: 

1. To create in the teaching personnel a desire for self improvement and 
a willingness to acknowledge and identify problems. 

2. To enable faculties to formulate their problems and to work out carefully 
planned objectives, procedures, and means of evaluation. 

3. To recognize and utilize the talents and professional competencies of 
faculty members. 

4. To help teachers distinguish between problems pertinent to a particular 
school and those relevant to all schools within a system. 

5. To provide or render consultative services and make cooperative action 
possible. 6 

6 Mildred E. Swearingen, "Identifying Needs for In-Service Education," Educational Leadership, 
Vol. 17, (March, 1960), 332. 


Sister Mary Joan, S.P. 


When the supervisor thinks of her responsibility for the curriculum in the 
schools under her direction, she recalls that while changes in this important 
part of the education process are not new, still in the minds of many, both 
teachers and administrators, there has been a tendency to regard curriculum 
revision as a revolutionary process. Though changes have been taking place 
since the earliest days in our educational system, the words of Harold Rugg 
thirty-five years ago are still true: "Not once in a century and a half of 
national history has the curriculum of the school caught up with the dynamic 
content of American life." 1 

The current attention to the curriculum is the result of various factors and 
developments. The interests of children are being enlarged because of tech- 
nological progress, political changes, the need for more effective human rela- 
tions, the quest for peace, the importance of understanding other cultures and 
learning other languages, the use of new media of communication to sup- 
plement book learning, and the emphasis on the fine arts. "The curriculum 
will serve the needs of children and society only if it is constantly evaluated 
and if those who are implementing it realize that as long as society changes 
there will be need for constant revision." 2 

1 Harold Rugg, "Curriculum Making," Part I, Twenty-sixth Yearbook of the National Society 
for the Study of Education, (Bloomington, 111.: Public School Publishing Company, 1926). 

2 Marie A. Mehl, Hubert L. Mills, and Harl L. Douglass, Teaching in Elementary School, (New 
York: Ronald Press Company, 1958). 

The Supervisor and the Curriculum 271 

The obvious danger of inertia in the matter of curriculum revision must 
be balanced by a sane and sensible view of change. "First, one must beware 
that in eagerness to do a better job one does not accept blindly that which 
is new simply because it is new, and, second, one must be extremely careful 
that newly accepted patterns do not solidify and crystallize under the influence 
of an attitude that holds 'This is the only way, the best way, the right way.' 
It is difficult, almost impossible to eliminate this 'hardening of the arteries' 
in education." b 

Any program for curricular development should begin in the classroom, 
since the end result will be expected to be found in the classroom. "The Cath- 
olic teacher is not satisfied with viewing the pupil merely as a physical, mental, 
emotional and social being. His philosophy of education makes him seek the 
harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, and moral capacities of 
the pupil, and to accord religion a proper place in the process." 4 This plan 
calls for making each subject in the curriculum a factor in strengthening the 
child's relationship with God, his fellow men, and with the world about him. 

An examination of the literature pertaining to research in the field of 
curriculum revision reveals these trends: 

1. A rejection of the idea that the curriculum must be either child-centered 
or subject-matter-centered. Recognition is given to the fact that both the child 
and the subject matter taught him are important. 

2. Efforts are being made to provide experiences to assist children in devel- 
oping intellectually, physically, socially, emotionally, and spiritually. 

3. There is an increasingly greater emphasis on the local approach to cur- 
riculum study. Some supervisors and other administrators responsible for 
curriculum revision start with those teachers who are interested in this improve- 
ment and gradually add others who begin to show interest in the challenging 
problem. Because teachers are the ones closest to the actual planning and 
organization of learning experiences in the classrooms, it is they who must 
help in the formulation of the proposed changes. 

4. Curriculum development is being coordinated with supervisory procedures 
and in-service activities. 

5. Efforts are being made to make interrelations in the content subjects. 

6. The creative abilities of children are given consideration and encourage- 

7. Provision is being made for enrichment, especially for the gifted child. 
Why should he be kept busy with an assignment of twenty problems while 
his companions are working just ten? 

8. Additions are constantly being made to the curriculum. Nothing is ever 
taken out. This is the one trend that causes worry to administrators and those 
responsible for curriculum revision or development. At some point we shall 
reach the limit. The voluminous growth of the curriculum cannot be fitted 
into the normal school day or year. 

The growth and development of the curriculum has brought with it many 
other problems. Financial support is necessary, textbooks that fit the new 
curriculum must be provided, the attitudes of parents may discourage cur- 

8 William C. Jordan, Elementary School Leadership, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959). 
*Paul E. Campbell, Parish School Problems, (New York: Joseph F. Wagner, Inc., 1941). 

272 Department of School Superintendents 

ricular improvement, local and state laws may prevent or retard curriculum 
experimentation and development, and the most important person of all — 
the teacher — may feel inadequately prepared to meet the new demands. 


Sister Philomene, S.L. 


A prerequisite of efficient study is mastery of the skills to be used in the 
learning situation. Effective work with books requires the use of certain spe- 
cialized abilities which will assist students in obtaining information. Howard 
E. Wilson in his book Education for Citizenship stated: "It is commonly agreed 
that schools should lead pupils to acquire useful information, but it is perhaps 
even more important that pupils be taught how to acquire information with 
efficiency both in and out of school. To attain this latter goal, the skills of 
efficient study become desirable educational objectives." 1 Some of the study 
skills should be taught in the formal reading program. Among these com- 
petencies are the utilization of the index, the selection of the proper reference 
books, the use of the dictionary, the location of information, the evaluation 
of material read, and the organization of the information obtained. The 
express purpose for teaching these skills is that they may serve as tools in 
the acquisition of knowledge. Skills should not be taught as ends in them- 
selves. The learner should use them to achieve his goals in study situations. 
William S. Gray affirmed this position by stating that one of the chief reasons 
for teaching reading is to enable the pupils to work efficiently with books and 
other printed materials in various types of learning activities. 2 

Particular items to be taught in the area of locating information are using 
the index and the table of contents in an ordinary book, using the card catalog 
and Reader's Guide; making use of specialized sources, such as World Almanac 
and the encyclopedia. There should be definite lessons on teaching these 
specific items, and provision must be made for practicing these skills. 

In evaluating material, students must be taught to select only those points 
of information which are important for the purpose in mind. Students must 
be encouraged to develop the attitude of being willing to question the validity 
of a printed statement by checking on the copyright date of the book, by deter- 
mining whether the author is a scholar in his field, and by learning to distin- 
guish between a statement of fact and a statement of opinion. 

1 Howard E. Wilson, Education for Citizenship: Report of the Regents' Inquiry (New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938), p. 58. 

2 William S. Gray, "Reading as an Aid in Learning," Reading in the Elementary School, 
Forty-Eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II (Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1949), p. 233. 

What Should Be Done to Prepare Students 273 

In the organization of information, students must be taught how to make an 
outline and how to summarize the selection read. 

All these skills should be specifically taught, and definite opportunities to 
practice the skills should be provided in the writing of reports and in prepar- 
ing panel discussions. 

The reading class does not provide training in all the skills required in 
learning the various subjects. The study of the content subjects requires the 
use of special techniques. Each field of human experience places a unique 
burden upon the study habits and skills of students. Instruction must be given 
on the particular skills required in the study of each subject. This point of 
view was supported by Cecile W. Flemming and Walter S. Monroe, who 

Though there is a great deal in common between the reading skills needed 
in content fields and reading ability in general, there is definite need for 
instruction in the reading skills peculiar to each field. Such instruction with 
practice becomes a responsibility of teachers in subject fields as an essential 
phase of directing study. 3 

Definite teaching of such skills as the interpretation of maps and the com- 
prehension of the data in graphs and tables must be provided in the social 
studies period. Incidental learning does not promote the acquisition of these 
abilities. Ernest Horn stated that special periods should be set aside for 
teaching these skills and opportunity must be provided to practice the skills 
intensively. 4 These special practice periods bring about a steady improvement 
of all of the reading involved in the social studies. The development of the 
skills is most effectively achieved through the medium of the content material 
in which the abilities will be used. Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald suggested that 
skills are learned best in meaningful situations. 5 Therefore, frequent applica- 
tion of the skills to the subject matter should follow instruction. 

Howard R. Anderson asserted that students' achievement in the social studies 
is determined to a great extent by the effective use of basic work-study skills. 6 
Mastery of these skills is essential in a country whose government and way of 
life are dependent on the ability of citizens to think for themselves and to 
reach intelligent decisions. 

The goal of the social studies is to prepare students for participation in na- 
tional and world affairs and to assist them in making wise decisions pertaining 
to economic, social, and political problems. A command of the skills necessary 
for obtaining information in these areas will be an invaluable aid in maturing 

3 Cecile W. Flemming and Walter S. Monroe, "Directing Study." Encyclopedia of Educational 
Research (Rev. ed.; New York: Macmillan Co., 1950), 323. 

4 Ernest Horn, Methods of Instruction in the Social Studies (New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1937), p. 204. 

6 James A. Fitzgerald and Patricia G. Fitzgerald. Methods and Curricula in Elementary Educa- 
tion (Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 1955), p. 437. 

•Howard R. Anderson, "Development of Basic Skills in Social Studies," Social Studies, 27:95 
(February, 1936). 

274 Department of School Superintendents 


Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, October 23-26, 1961 


Monday, October 23 



Tuesday, October 24 

Mr. Victor Schiro, Mayor 

Most Rev. Joseph F. Rummel, S.T.D., Archbishop of New Orleans 
Mr. O. Perry Walker, Superintendent, Orleans Parish School Board 
Chairman: Very Rev. Msgr. R. C. Ulrich, Superintendent of Schools, 

Archdiocese of Omaha, Nebraska 
Speaker: Mr. John Simons, Consultant, Office of University Relations, 
Peace Corps, Washington, D. C. 

12:30 P.M. LUNCHEON The Claiborne Room, The Sheraton-Charles 

(Closed Session) 

Chairman: Rev. James C. Donohue, Superintendent of Schools, Arch- 
diocese of Baltimore, Maryland 
Speakers: Rt. Rev. Msgr. William E. McManus, Superintendent of 
Schools, Archdiocese of Chicago, Illinois 
Very Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell, Superintendent of 
Schools, Diocese of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
7:00 P.M. BUFFET St. Patrick's Rectory Patio, 724 Camp Street. 

Wednesday, October 25 


Chairman: Rt. Rev. Msgr. John J. Endebrock, Superintendent of 
Schools, Diocese of Trenton, New Jersey 

Speaker: Dr. Philip R. Pitruzzello, Committee on Staff Utilization, 
National Association of Secondary School Principals, 
Washington, D.C. 


Chairman: Very Rev. Msgr. John Elsaesser, Superintendent of Schools, 
Diocese of Covington, Kentucky 

Speaker: Very Rev. Msgr. Bennett Applegate, Superintendent of 

Schools, Diocese of Columbus, Ohio, and Chairman of the 

Standing Committee on Relations with Public Authority 

12:30 P.M. LUNCHEON The Beauregard Room, The Sheraton-Charles 

Proceedings and Reports 275 


Chairman: Rev. Richard J. Burke, Superintendent of Schools, Diocese 

of Richmond, Virginia 
Speaker: Mr. Frank W. Cyr, Fund for the Advancement of Education, 
and Executive Secretary of the Catskill Area Project in 
Small School Design 

6:00 P.M. UNVEILING OF MARKER 617 St. Anne Street 

7:00 P.M. DINNER Antoine's Restaurant, 713 St. Louis Street 

Speaker: Dr. Sterling M. McMurrin, U.S. Commissioner of Education 

Thursday, October 26 


Chairman: Rev. Edward T. Hughes, Superintendent of Schools, Arch- 
diocese of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Speaker: Mr. P. Kenneth Komoski, President, Center for Programed 
Instruction, New York City, New York 
AID TO EDUCATION (Closed Session) 

Chairman: Very Rev. Msgr. Edgar P. McCarren, Secretary of Educa- 
tion, Diocese of Rockville Centre, New York 
Speaker: Mr. William R. Consedine, Director, Legal Department, 
National Catholic Welfare Conference, Washington, D.C. 

12:30 P.M. LUNCHEON The Claiborne Room, The Sheraton-Charles 

2:30 P.M. HARBOR TRIP aboard yacht Good Neighbor, courtesy of the Board of 
Commissioners of the Port of New Orleans 

Agenda: General Meeting, Detroit, April 26, 1962 

Report of Executive Committee 

Report of Committee on Continuing Relationships between Catholic 
Schools and Public Authority. Chairman: Monsignor Applegate 

Report of Committee on Uniform Statistical Reporting. Chairman: Mon- 
signor Ulrich 

Report of Committee on Problem of Moral and Spiritual Values in 
Public Education. Chairman: Monsignor McManus 

Report of Committee on Moral Problems. Chairman: Father Kenning 

Report of Committee on the Function and Status of the Diocesan Super- 
intendency of Schools. Chairman: Monsignor Haverty 

Report of Committee on Lay Teachers in Catholic Schools. Chairman: 
Monsignor Hoflich 

Report of Committee on Safety Education. Chairman: Monsignor Goebel 

Report of Committee on Accreditation. Chairman: Monsignor Pitt 

Report of Committee on Committees. Chairman: Monsignor Ryan 

Speaker: Dr. William Conley 
Subject: The Carnegie Project 

Speaker: Mrs. Katherine O'Neil 

Subject: National Home and School Office 

276 Department of School Superintendents 

Speaker: Monsignor Spence 
Subject: Washington ETV Series 

Speaker: Mother Benedict Murphy, R.S.H.M. 
Subject: New Catholic Encyclopedia 

Speaker: Mr. William Consedine 
Subject: The Federal Aid Controversy 

Note: Fall meeting, Washington, D.C., October 23-25, 1962. 


New Orleans, Louisiana 
October 23-26, 1961 
The first session of the 1961 annual meeting of the members of the Depart- 
ment of School Superintendents, NCEA, opened with a prayer at 9:45 a.m., 
October 24, in the Beauregard Room of the Sheraton-Charles Hotel, New 
Orleans, Louisiana. Preceding the business meeting, local authorities (O. Perry 
Walker, Superintendent, Orleans Parish School Board; Victor Schiro, Mayor; 
and Most Rev. Joseph F. Rummel, Archbishop of New Orleans) extended 
greetings and words of welcome to the superintendents and expressed the 
hope that their meeting in New Orleans would be both profitable and enjoy- 

It was moved, seconded, and passed that the minutes of the Atlantic 
City meeting be accepted without reading. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Henry C. Bezou, 
president of the Department, announced appointments to the Nominating, 
Program, and Resolutions Committees. 

To the Nominating Committee were appointed: Rev. John Sweeney, Peoria, 
Illinois, Chairman; Rev. James Deneen, Evansville, Indiana; Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
John J. Endebrock, Trenton, New Jersey; Very Rev. Msgr. Cornelius J. Brown, 
Belleville, Kansas; and Rev. George E. Murray, Manchester, New Hampshire. 

To the Program Committee were appointed: Rt. Rev. Msgr. J. Edwin Stuardi, 
Mobile, Alabama, Chairman; Rev. Joseph F. Sharpe, Los Angeles, California; 
Rev. John F. McGough, Bridgeport, Connecticut; Very Rev. Msgr. Leo. E. 
Hammerl, Buffalo, New York; and Rev. James A. Connelly, Hartford, Connec- 

To the Resolutions Committee were appointed: Rt. Rev. Msgr. Roger J. 
Connole, St. Paul, Minnesota, Chairman; Very Rev. Msgr. Raymond P. 
Rigney, New York, New York; Rev. John A. Elliott, Memphis, Tennessee; 
Very Rev. Msgr. Cornelius J. Brown, Belleville, Kansas; and Rev. Thomas 
J. Frain, Trenton, New Jersey. 

Following the appointment of these committees, the President asked the new 
members of the Department (both Superintendents and Supervisors) to intro- 
duce themselves. 

Under old business the following report was given: 

1. Research under the auspices of the NCEA has increased. This is partially 
due to the cooperation of the Superintendents Department. 

2. The recommendation of the Department relative to the International 
Seminar has thus far not been implemented. This will be further explained 
in the report of the Associate Secretary. 

Minutes of Meetings 277 

3. The Josephite Essay Contest which was considered in Atlantic City has 
been initiated. It was asked whether or not the Josephite Fathers fol- 
lowed the recommendation of the Department that in each diocese clear- 
ance should be secured from the local Superintendent. 

Prayers were requested for the repose of the souls of Archbishop Mitty 
and of Archbishop Brady. It was recommended that the Resolutions Com- 
mittee include in its report a resolution that the Department of School Super- 
intendents extend to the clergy and laity of the Archdioceses of St. Paul and 
San Francisco its sincere sympathy. 

Following the close of the business portion of this first session, Monsignor 
Bezou turned the session over to Very Rev. Msgr. Roman Ulrich who intro- 
duced Mr. John Simons, Consultant, Office of University Relations, Peace 
Corps, Washington, D.C. Mr. Simons spoke on the "Peace Corps and Its 
Implications for Catholic Education." Following this address, the Associate 
Secretary of the Department, Rt. Rev. Msgr. O'Neil C. D'Amour, gave his 
report. The session closed with a prayer at noon. 

The 2:15 p.m. session was devoted to reports of some of the standing com- 
mittees of the Department. Rt. Rev. Msgr. William E. McManus, chairman 
of the Committee on the Problem of Spiritual Values in Public Education, 
said that we have a responsibility for both Catholic school and public school 
children. As directed by the Department, the standing committee had invited 
Father Neil McCluskey, S.J., to prepare a study guide for the use of super- 
intendents in the area of public school education. Father McCluskey submitted 
a draft of some preliminary proposals. Superintendents are asked to comment 
upon them. 

Very Rev. Msgr. Roman Ulrich, chairman of the Uniform Statistical Report- 
ing Committee, gave the next report. This committee, formed in 1955, believes 
that its work has been completed. In 1959 it invited Brother Leo Ryan to 
develop a system of uniform accounting. The manual Brother Leo developed 
seems too complicated for use without special preparation. Hence, from June 
25-29, 1962, Brother Leo Ryan and Marquette University will conduct a 
workshop to help schools with their accounting, and the proposed manual 
will be used in a pilot study. The committee recommends that this "Project 
Dollar Flow" be turned over to the National Office for future direction. An 
appeal was made for pilot schools to attend the Marquette University work- 
shop and use the manual. Four dioceses volunteered: the Marquette Diocese 
(2); the Peoria Diocese (2); the Baltimore Archdiocese (2); and the Manchester 
Diocese (1). 

The third report was given by Father Herman H. Kenning, chairman of 
the Committee on Moral Problems. The following research topic was recom- 
mended: "Ideals and Attitudes of Catholic High School Graduates," with 
an instrument that would compare Catholic graduates of public high schools 
with those of Catholic high schools. As a preliminary, some depth studies in 
university graduate schools might be made. Such research would purportedly 
show our laity why their financial sacrifices are so worth while. Certain cautions 
concerning the above were made, e.g., inexperienced graduate students might 
conduct a harmful survey; "Project Talent" results cannot be used for com- 
parative purposes; some of the supernatural virtues might escape attention 
while the investigator concentrates on the natural virtues, etc. This matter 
was referred to the Executive Board of the NCEA. The last report of this 
session was given by Rt. Rev. Msgr. James E. Hoflich, chairman of the 
Committee on Lay Teachers in Catholic Schools. Monsignor Hoflich reported 

278 Department of School Superintendents 

that the study on Health and Retirement Insurance for lay teachers has been 
referred to the Executive Board of the NCEA. The problem of lay teachers 
guilds can be handled only on a local level but must be under the guidance 
of the Superintendent's office. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Felix Newton Pitt is to be 
thanked for his excellent report on lay teachers. Reports of lay teacher salary 
scales in Brooklyn, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh are available. 

The topic of the 3:30 p.m. session was "Shared Time — Compromise and 
Challenge." The chairman of the session, Rev. James C. Donohue, introduced 
the two speakers: Very Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell of Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Rt. Rev. Msgr. William E. McManus of Chicago, Illinois. Discussed 
were the shared-time proposals made both by Claud D. Nelson in an article 
published in The Christian Century and by Dr. Harry Stearns in an article pub- 
lished in Christianity and Crisis. 

Prior to the opening address on Wednesday, October 25, Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
Edmund Goebel, chairman of the standing Committee on Safety Education, 
gave his report. Since the Chicago fire much has been done by our schools, 
but in some cases excessive demands are being made. The superintendents 
are urged to work with local police, fire, and civil defense officials. There has 
been some criticism of our attitude toward school civil defense measures. 
There followed comments from the floor such as: some areas use radios set 
at the Conelrad band; in Louisiana at least there is partial reimbursement 
for electronic installations in schools; in New York there is discussion con- 
cerning the possibility of building shelters in all schools. 

Following this report, the chairman of the session, Rt. Rev. Msgr. John 
Endebrock, introduced Dr. Philip R. Pitruzzello of the Committee on Staff 
Utilization, National Association of Secondary School Principals, Washington, 
D.C., who spoke on "The Changing School Scene." In his introduction, 
Monsignor Endebrock summarized the increasing demands being made on 
secondary schools by social, national, and international developments and 
some implications for school construction. 

Dr. Pitruzzello reported that we have not been entirely successful in reconcil- 
ing the need for change with the existing framework of the schools. Over 
the years many changes have been taking place in areas of methods, classroom 
furniture, etc., but the classroom dimensions have remained the same. Yet 
the Gesell study in Chicago showed that there are differences in children both 
in IQ and in creativity. Do secondary schools meet the need of the creative, 
more imaginative type? Do we adjust methods to the different study disciplines? 
Do we prompt students to embark on lifelong learning? 

Schools can be criticized on the following: 

1. The self-contained classroom which lacks many of the latest instruc- 
tional aids and a variety of teachers. 

2. Rigid organization of the school day which gives the student little or 
no time to follow his own interests. All students get the same dose. 

In answer to some of these criticisms, the following observations were made: 
Team teaching whereby students receive instruction from teachers presenting 
units in their own area of strength is possible. The primary teaching unit is 
a team of two or more teachers who plan out their own blocks of instruction. 
This shifts class planning from administration to teachers where there can 
be better recognition of individual differences. The teacher need not confine 
herself to blocks of thirty students. 

However, clerical and custodial duties are lifted from the teachers. More- 

Minutes of Meetings 279 

over, during study-hall periods students should have access to instructional 
materials that permit depth study. Audio-visual materials should be used for 
more than just supplementary purposes. 

Implications in school planning. Classroom sizes should vary. Teachers in 
team will need planning areas. Custodians and clerks will need special facilities. 

Miscellaneous. Over 1,000 schools, including some Catholic schools, have 
begun such planning. Accrediting associations have accepted such changes 
in a recognized school, but not in one not approved. Ask them first. School 
costs need not go up, e.g., McPherson High School, Kansas; Jack Stone High 
School, San Diego. 

The next session was presided over by Very Rev. Msgr. John Elsaesser, who 
introduced Very Rev. Msgr. Bennett Applegate of Columbus, Ohio, speaker of 
the session. Monsignor Applegate presented excellent slides and a commentary 
on the theme, "The Catholic Schools." The purpose of this worthy production 
was to help our people to speak more intelligently about our schools. The 
superintendents were encouraged, in turn, to develop a similar project in 
their own dioceses. 

Monsignor Applegate reported that the slides have been shown before 
service groups, public agencies, and parents groups. They also serve as a 
vocational aid. 

At the conclusion of this meeting, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Carl Ryan of Cincinnati 
announced that at the Executive Board meeting in June it was recommended 
that at the 1962 national convention a few sessions be made available for out- 
standing Catholic lay people who could also attend the general meeting. The 
superintendents will soon get letters describing this project and requesting 
the names of lay leaders who would come simply as unaffiliated individuals — 
and at their own expense. 

The 2:15 p.m. session was presided over by Father Richard Burke. Father 
Burke introduced the speaker for the session, Dr. Frank W. Cyr of the Fund 
for the Advancement of Education. Dr. Cyr said that it is a myth that 
small schools should be simply small imitations of big schools. Bigger schools 
are better than small schools only when small schools attempt to organize 
in the same way as big schools with their emphasis on specialization. Small 
schools should be designed to take advantage of such features as teacher 
initiative, flexible programing, the use of noncertified aides, shared special 
teachers, student control of instructional materials, and audio-visual teaching 
equipment. The small-school teacher must be versatile and like people enough 
to work with them. Dr. Cyr then showed slides with a taped commentary 
of the Catskill Area Project in Small School Design indicating application of 
the above principles in actual practice. 

In the question and answer period he asserted that the pupils in small schools 
did as well if not better than students of large schools in so-called objective 
tests, although he personally believes tests inhibit teachers and prevent neces- 
sary experimentation. 

This address was followed by standing committee reports. Very Rev. Msgr. 
Edgar McCarren gave the report of the Committee on the Function and 
Status of the Diocesan Superintendency of Schools. He commended the 
superintendents for their 96 per cent response to the study questionnaire of 
Father De Walt on this topic. When this study is completed it should be 
helpful. He also reported that the NCEA brochure on the status of Catholic 
School Superintendents will be sent to the superintendents for their perusal 
and comments. 

280 Department of School Superintendents 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Felix Newton Pitt submitted the report of the Committee 
on Accreditation. It includes superintendents reports only from the North- 
west, California, and the South. Monsignor Pitt recommended that the existing 
committee be reorganized to include superintendents and supervisors who are 
in close contact with regional groups. Moreover, no appointments should be 
made before the prospective members have expressed their willingness to give 
time to the work of the committee. 

Presiding at the 9:30 a.m. session on Thursday, October 26, was Father 
Edward T. Hughes. Speaker for the session was Mr. P. Kenneth Komoski 
of the Center for Programed Instruction in New York City. 

Programed instruction is the antithesis of the lecture. In it, each student 
proceeds at his own pace. Moreover, the student is kept active by being 
constantly interrogated. Again, each student begins the instructional sequence 
at the point he knows and is tested at each point thereafter. 

Programed instruction uses a teaching machine — but always a machine that 
has a program. Without the latter it is only a piece of hardware. Hence, the 
main problem is the curriculum problem: what you plan to teach, and what the 
student is expected to know at the end of an instructional sequence. 

In constructing the program, the authors begin by drawing up questions 
which require answers that would prove the student's grasp of the concepts 
taught. Then the earlier part of the sequence is developed. Aims are deter- 
mined before means are developed. At every step of the sequence, questions 
are presented to determine the student's understanding at each stage. The 
teaching machine controls the questions, and it prevents the student from 
turning over a card before he understands. This pinpoints the area of weakness 
and guarantees thorough, orderly learning. Programed learning is used from 
kindergarten through college and in a wide variety of subjects. It is used 
effectively in book form, if the book is programed. 

Publishing houses are now desperately turning out programed instructional 
materials. Certain groups (e.g., Educational Testing Service) are attempting 
to set up criteria for judging the quality of material and devices that are 
flooding the market. Superintendents should be guided by these evaluations. 

Publishers should supply interested parties with data concerning where the 
program was developed and upon whom it was tested. The developer rather 
than the salesman should present such data. 

Some places are using the program. Manhasset, L.I., has an English pro- 
gram but this, like much of programed material, is antiquated English put 
into a modern machine. New approaches in mathematics, etc., have not 
always been employed. But Manhasset did discover that necessary review or 
remedial instruction can be handled without tying up teacher and whole class. 
New York City is using remedial reading material in the seventh and eighth 
grades. New York found that the machine helped extend the attention span 
of poor readers dramatically because the material is geared to individual 
students. Denver, Colorado, has a series in Spanish and elementary grammar. 
Newton, Massachusetts, has a program also. 

Teaching machines should not be considered as a means of meeting teacher 
shortages, etc., but rather as a new way of teaching effectively and of training 
teachers. This is not a mechanization of instruction but rather the individual- 
ization of instruction. 


Fear was expressed that teaching machines emphasized the Pavlov response 

Minutes of Meetings 281 

rather than a lively interplay of relevant facts and inquiring minds. 

Dr. Komoski states that he is also opposed to SR (Stimulus Response) 
learning. But in this, the teacher is being changed by the student's behavior 
rather than the student blindly responding to stimuli. He referred to Jerome 
Bruner's Process in Education. The teacher discovers the process which the 
students are actually using rather than continuing to assume something that 
is not true. 

Books, if programed, can be used effectively. The audio element is lack- 
ing in the machine. Remember, too, that only certain parts of class instruc- 
tion lend themselves to programed instruction. 

For those who have questions concerning the value to parents of com- 
mercially sold teaching machines, it is recommended that superintendents 
ask Dr. Bernard Everett of Newton, Massachusetts, Public School System for 
a copy of the letter sent to parents on this matter. 

The 11:00 A.M. session was chaired by Very Rev Msgr. Edgar P. McCarren. 
Speaker for the session was Mr. William R. Consedine of the Legal Depart- 
ment of the National Catholic Welfare Conference. Mr. Consedine spoke 
concerning the Constitutional issues involved in federal aid. 

The final business session of the Superintendents' meeting followed immedi- 
ately after lunch on Thursday, October 26. The first item on the agenda 
was a report of the meeting of the Executive Committee of the Department 
of School Superintendents which was held on October 23, 1961, at 2:30 P.M. 
Following is the report: 


1. Telegram from National Home and School Service. A telegram from 
the National Home and School Service was received. Full cooperation 
of this new office was extended to the Superintendents. 

2. Service Office — Home and School Association. There was a discussion 
of the revisions that have taken place in the Service Office of the Home 
and School Association. There have been significant changes in the 
organization as well as in the schedule for fees. The Executive Com- 
mittee agreed: 

a) to give a wholehearted endorsement of the National Home and 
School Committee of the NCCM and NCCW. 

b) to present to the National Home and School Committee the prob- 
lems which confront the new organization as seen by the Superin- 

c) to request the Executive Board of the NCEA to establish an inter- 
departmental committee. 

d) to invite the NCCW or the new committee to make a more thorough 
investigation of the status of the Home and School Association in 
the dioceses where it exists. 

3. International Seminar. The Executive Committee felt it was not in a 
position to break the stalemate in which the proposed International 
Seminar now is. 

Recognizing that lack of funds is one of the chief obstacles to further 
development of plans for the Seminar, it was suggested that the Execu- 
tive Secretary of the NCEA approach appropriate foundations to acquire 
funds for this purpose. 

4. These Young Lives. The Executive Committee recommends that finan- 
cial support for a revision of These Young Lives be given by the Depart- 
ment of School Superintendents, that this support be given by subscrip- 
tion to the publication rather than by contribution, thus underwriting it. 
The Committee recommends that the publication be cut down in size, 

282 Department of School Superintendents 

possibly even to the point where it becomes a pamphlet-type publication. 
The Executive Committee was asked by the Executive Secretary of the 
NCEA to appoint an editorial board to work with the Executive Secre- 
tary. Superintendents appointed to this editorial board are: 

Very Rev. Msgr. Raymond Rigney 
Very Rev. Msgr. Bennett Applegate 
Very Rev. Msgr. Edgar McCarren 
Rev. John Sweeney 

5. Financing the Department. The matter of raising dues was tabled 
because other financial demands already have been imposed on the Superin- 
tendents, namely to support the revision of These Young Lives and to 
support the Home and School Committee. 

6. Additional Man to National Office. The Executive Committee of the 
Department of School Superintendents requests the Executive Board of 
the NCEA to consider appointing another man to the National Office 
of the Superintendents Department so that a closer relationship may be 
maintained between the National Office and the Superintendents. 

7. Standing Committees. The Executive Committee recommended the 
establishment of a committee to evaluate the work of the standing com- 
mittees. Appointed to this committee are past presidents of the De- 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Carl J. Ryan, Chairman 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Henry M. Hald 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Henry C. Bezou 

8. Subscription Plans. Alleged abuses in regard to the sale of magazine 
subscriptions by Catholic school children were called to the attention 
of the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee felt this was 
a local problem to be handled at that level. 

9. Research. The Executive Committee endorses any program of coor- 
dinated research,. However, it hopes that any contemplated program 
would come under the direction of the National Office, NCEA. It 
further hopes that the research would be developed in such a way that 
no one of the institutions of higher learning would be alienated. 

10. Advisory Council on Building. The Executive Committee heartily en- 
dorses the establishment of such a council. 

11. Educational Testing Service. This organization has asked permission 
to appear as an educational advisor (in a noncommercial manner) and 
requested one-half hour at the April meeting. This request was approved 
by the Executive Committee. 

12. National Forensic League Debate Society. The National Office of NCEA 
received a request from the above group for our stand on federal aid 
to education, which is the topic chosen for debate during this year. 
It is suggested that superintendents give whatever help they can to 
both Catholic and public schools in their area. 

13. How to Construct a Catholic School. The Executive Committee was 
informed that the publication, How to Construct a Catholic School, 
is the product of a research committee of the NCEA. 

14. Booth at the NCEA Convention. The President of the Department will 
be asked to staff that portion of the booth assigned to the Department 
of School Superintendents. It was suggested that there be a projector 
and slides for use in the booth. 

Following the report from the Executive Committee, the telegram from 
the Home and School Association (Point 1 in the report of the Executive 
Committee) was read to the delegates. The report of the Executive Com- 
mittee was accepted as read. 

Washington was chosen as the site for the fall meeting of the Department. 

Minutes of Meetings 283 

The Report of the Resolutions Committee was then read and accepted as 
read. (See below). 

The last report given was that of the Nominations Committee. The follow- 
ing slate of officers was presented: President, Rev. Richard Kleiber of Green 
Bay, Wisconsin; Vice President, Very Rev. Msgr. Bennett Applegate of 
Columbus, Ohio; Secretary, Very Rev. Msgr. Roman C. Ulrich of Omaha, 
Nebraska; General Executive Board, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Anthony Egging of 
Grand Island, Nebraska, and Very Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell of Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania; Executive Committee, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Carl J. Ryan of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Rev. William B. McCartin of Tucson, Arizona, Very Rev. 
Msgr. M. F. McAuliffe of Kansas City-St. Joseph, Missouri, Rev. William M. 
Roche of Rochester, New York, and Rt. Rev. Msgr. Henry C. Bezou of New 
Orleans, Louisiana. The slate was accepted as read. 

The rostrum was turned over to Father Kleiber and the meeting adjourned 
at 1:20 P.M. 

Detroit, Michigan 
April 24, 1962 
The Executive Committee met at 2 p.m., Tuesday, April 24. The meeting 
was presided over by the president, Father Richard Kleiber. The matters dis- 
cussed by the committee and presented to you for your consideration are as 

1. Home and School Association. The Committee discussed with Mrs. Kath- 
erine O'Neil, Executive Secretary of the National Home and School 
Association, the status of its organization, and it was recommended that 
Mrs. O'Neil appear before the superintendents at the general meeting. It 
was further recommended that a committee of superintendents be formed 
to study the structure of the association. The following members were 
appointed to this committee: Very Rev. Msgr. M. F. McAuliffe, Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. Anthony Egging, and Rev. William M. Roche. 

2. These Young Lives. The Associate Secretary informed the Committee 
the new publication date for These Young Lives has been set for Novem- 
ber of 1962. 

3. Communism. The Executive Committee resolves that the Superintend- 
ents Department should recommend that the Catholic schools throughout 
the country emphasize the study of Communism and that the Committee 
on Moral Problems should be instructed to review the literature and to 
submit an outline for such a course by the fall meeting of the Super- 
intendents Department. 

4. Committee on Committees. Monsignor Ryan, chairman of the Committee 
on Standing Committees, made a progress report. A full report has been 
deferred until the October meeting. 

5. Utilization of Personnel. The Executive Committee instructed the Asso- 
ciate Secretary that when making appointments to standing committees 
to include not only superintendents but also religious who are members 
of the Superintendents Department. 

6. NCATE. The Executive Committee asked the Committee on Accredita- 
tion to begin immediately the study of the NCATE problem and be 
prepared to give an extensive report at the fall meeting. 

7. Carnegie Grant. The Associate Secretary explained to the Executive 
Committee the negotiations that have taken place relative to the Carnegie 

284 Department of School Superintendents 

project at Notre Dame. Further discussion on this project will be handled 
by Dr. Conley at the general meeting. 

8. Monsignor Kevane's High School Religion Program. Monsignor Kevane 
of the Catholic University appeared before the Executive Committee 
and explained the work that is being done on the development of his high 
school religion program. He asked for close cooperation of the superin- 
tendents in order to establish a broader base of distribution for experi- 
mentation purposes. Monsignor Kevane will be in contact with the indi- 
vidual superintendents at a later date. 

9. Resolutions. The Executive Committee recommended that resolutions 
be prepared on the following subjects: protection of the superintendent's 
dignity and professional status, the National Catholic Guidance Confer- 
ence, and the Superintendents Directory. 


Whereas, The diocesan superintendent of schools is in a position of in- 
fluence and dignity; and 

Whereas, It is highly important that that dignity be protected and that his 
influence be not abused; therefore 

Be it Resolved, That 

1. The members of our Department be forewarned about the dangers that 
threaten their dignity and influence through the use of the Superintendent's 
name for the purpose of endorsing commercial products, enterprises, and con- 
tests of questionable professional value. 

Whereas, Guidance is a critical area in education; 

And Whereas, The National Catholic Guidance Conference has given lead- 
ership in this area; 

Be it further Resolved, That 

2. The Department of School Superintendents commend the National 
Catholic Guidance Conference; and That 

3. The Department of School Superintendents recommend to the Executive 
Board of the Association that serious efforts be made to bring the Guidance 
Conference into a liaison with NCEA; and That 

4. The Department of School Superintendents give consideration to having 
the Guidance Conference as a section of the Department. 

Proceedings and Reports 285 


President: Rev. Richard Kleiber, Green Bay, Wis. 

Vice President: Very Rev. Msgr. Bennett Applegate, Columbus, Ohio 

Secretary: Very Rev. Msgr. R. C. Ulrich, Omaha, Neb. 

General Executive Board: 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Anthony Egging, Grand Island, Neb. 
Very Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Department Executive Committee: 
Ex officio Members: 

The President, Vice President, and Secretary 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Anthony Egging, Grand Island, Neb. 

Very Rev. Msgr. John B. McDowell, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. O'Neil C. D'Amour, Washington, D.C., Associate Secretary 

General Members: 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Carl J. Ryan, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Rev. William B. McCartin, Tucson, Ariz. 
Very Rev. Msgr. M. F. McAuliffe, Kansas City-St. Joseph, Mo. 
Rev. William M. Roche, Rochester, N.Y. 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Henry C. Bezou, New Orleans, La. 


Chairman: Sister Mary Leonella, C.S.C., Salt Lake City, Utah 
Vice Chairman: Sister Mary Philip, R.S.M., Baltimore, Md. 
Secretary: Sister Mary Celine, O.S.F., Rockford, 111. 

Advisory Board: 

Community Supervisors: Sister Hilda Marie, O.P., Chicago, 111. 

Brother Bernard Gregory, F.M.S., Bronx, N.Y. 
Diocesan Supervisors: Sister M. Bernard, O.L.M., Charleston, S.C. 

Sister M. Eleanor, S.S.M., Irving, Tex. 
Special Subject Supervisor: Sister M. Antonine, C.S.J., Brighton, Mass. 
Director of Education for Religious Community: Rev. Lorenzo Reed, S.J., 

New York, N.Y. 
Director of Teacher Education: Sister M. Philomene, S.L., 

Webster Groves, Mo. 
President of Department of School Superintendents: Rev. Richard Kleiber, 

Green Bay, Wis. 



The Most Rev. Leo C. Byrne 


Addressing the Catholic teachers of secondary education is both a privi- 
lege and an opportunity. It is a privilege because of the almost frighteningly 
important place you have in the expanding centrality of our whole educational 
program. Lashed between primary and college sectors, you have the twofold 
task of enlarging the vision of adolescents and laying solidly the groundwork 
for collegiate and professional careers. Besides being a privilege, it is also a 
grand opportunity to be able to discuss with you something fresh and new 
in the world, something as significant as orbital flight. 

The primary theme of this entire meeting is Fostering the Ecumenical 
Spirit, and in the light of that general theme I propose to speak to the particular 
point of developing spiritual maturity in thought and action. 

For the moment, let us make some observations about the word "ecumen- 
ical." It is very ancient in origin with its roots in Greek, which when literally 
translated means "the entire inhabited world." It is a word that is being widely 
discussed today in the free world as well as in the enslaved world: witness the 
recent affiliation of the Russian Orthodox group at the New Delhi Conference. 
It is a word that is being used by both Catholics and Protestants. It seems 
important to make a clear distinction between the Ecumenical Movement and 
the Ecumenical Council, which is to take place so shortly. In one sense it 
could be said that the Ecumenical Movement has more Protestant overtones 
than Catholic. 

The Ecumenical Movement is an effort toward union among persons and 
churches calling themselves Christian. A tremendous impetus was given by 
Protestants in 1910 when a group of like-minded peoples met at Edinburgh in 
Scotland. There are many who regard this a starting point of the modern 
ecumenical idea, or the Ecumenical Movement, although obviously there had 
been much preceding this in the centuries before. Out of this beginning of the 
Ecumenical Movement in our century, there developed the World Council of 
Churches, which was established in Amsterdam, Holland, in 1948. Since then 
there have been many well known gatherings of Protestantism under these 
auspices. In the United States there took place a great meeting in Evanston, 
Illinois. And then only a few months ago, the world body of Protestant 
Churches met at New Delhi, in India, and representatives of Protestantism 
from all over the world gathered to seek ways and means of forming some 
kind of unity out of the great variety of denominations that make up modern- 
day Protestantism. 

Staying for the moment with Protestantism, may I observe that it has been 


Developing Spiritual Maturity 287 

most striking to watch the developments in Protestantism toward the Catholic 
Church. After 1959 when Pope John announced the Ecumenical Council for 
Catholicism and said the emphasis would be placed upon unity, there has been 
a veritable parade of Protestant leaders making their way to the Vatican to 
have a conference with our Holy Father. Great publicity surrounded the visit 
of Dr. Geoffrey Fisher, then Archbishop of Canterbury and the presiding 
head of the Church of England, who made a formal and official call upon our 
Holy Father. It was the first time in 400 years that a leader of Anglicanism had 
visited with the head of the Church of Rome. The presiding bishop of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, Bishop Arthur Lickten- 
berger, visited the Holy Father last November. In March of this year, Scot- 
land's top Presbyterian leader, the Right Rev. Archibald C. Craig, Moderator 
of the Church of Scotland, came to Rome to visit with Pope John XXIII. 
Two weeks ago the Anglican Bishop of Southwark, Dr. Mervyn Stockwood, 
paid a courtesy call to Pope John XXIII. He described his visit with the 
Holy Father as a "general discussion of good will between two Christian 
Persons." The Holy Father warmly welcomed all of these visitors. He deeply 
appreciated the Christian gesture that was implied by their coming. Now 
whether these visits were significant or not, at least it indicates that efforts are 
being made toward understanding, and certainly such efforts are necessary 
toward any step in the direction of unity. 

It is an easy step to move from these examples which certainly foster an 
ecumenical spirit to the particular subject that is before us, namely, the need 
for developing spiritual maturity in thought and action on the part of Chris- 
tians in today's world. I believe that Pope John XXIII put it very succinctly 
when he said at one of the sessions of the preparatory commissions of the 
Ecumenical Council, and I should like to quote him: 

It is the aim of the Council that the clergy should acquire a new brilliance 
of sanctity, that the people be instructed efficaciously in the truths of the 
faith and Christian morals, that the new generations who are growing like 
a hope of better times should be educated properly, and that attention be 
given to the social apostolate, and that Christians should have a missionary 
heart, that is to say — brotherly and friendly toward all and with all. 

The hopes of the Holy Father will be purely realized and there will be a 
great increase in the Ecumenical Movement among Catholics if we succeed 
in becoming spiritually mature in our thinking and in our action. Now how 
do we achieve this? Do we seek new apostolic endeavors? Do we urge others 
to join organizations of one kind or another? The answer is a quiet but firm 
"No." Rather, we must all accept the personal responsibility of living up to 
what is expected of us as Christians and members of one true Church. 
Protestants will see us as the Christians we ought to be. We will reflect the 
true Church more perfectly, and in this way we will be doing mightily to 
bring about unity. 

We find ourselves on the threshold of the Second Vatican Council which 
in the Holy Providence of God is destined to initiate a reform of Catholic life. 
It behooves us to examine our conscience as to what extent each one of us 
has contributed to the need for reform and to resolve to fulfill our task and 
function in the reform which His Holiness Pope John has invited us to take. 
A saintly predecessor of our beloved Holy Father, now reigning, took as the 
model of his pontificate the need to reform all things in Christ. This could 
well serve us in today as we approach the coming council. 

Most of you are aware of the letter transmitted by the Apostolic Delegate 

288 Secondary School Department 

in Washington, which urged Catholic institutions to initiate projects which 
would "excite in students a lively interest in the Council and induce them in 
a spiritual participation in it." I am convinced of the wisdom of this sugges- 
tion, and I firmly believe that it will contribute very much to the spiritual 
maturity of the students of our Catholic institutions. It will contribute to 
greater depth in their thinking and will give them opportunities of doing things 
in order to increase their knowledge of the coming Council. 

This is the way one academy handled the proposal. Beginning in mid- 
March, their religion classes turned to the presentation and discussion of 
materials on the Council as their principal project. The academy library 
contributed to the program by setting up a special display of books, magazines, 
newspaper articles, which touched upon it. Then there was given a complete 
selection of issues of the local diocesan paper wherein articles about the 
Council were highlighted. 

A speech contest was arranged for, and each student was asked to prepare 
a five-minute talk as a religion assignment. Some of the topics were such 
things as the history of the Ecumenical Council, the doctrinal implications of 
a General Council, the mechanics and the scope of material to come before 
a Council, the question of church unity, discussion of the position of bishops 
in the church, and so forth. 

Now of course this classroom work will count toward the semester religion 
grades, and examinations will be arranged on the basis of material covered 
in class. Also, it should be mentioned that the special prayer was offered 
before each religion class from that time until the end of the semester. In 
the light of the constant requests of Pope John for prayers for the success 
of the Council, this is important. 

A list of books was suggested which would be of practical value for all 
schools contemplating an Ecumenical Council project. Listed in this category 
were The Church in Crisis by Philip Hughes, The General Councils by John 
L. Murphy, Ecumenical Councils by Francis Dvornik, Ecumenical Councils 
of the Catholic Church by Hubert Jedin, Ecumenical Councils by E. I. Watkin, 
The Council and Reunion by Hans Kung, and The Ecumenical Council, the 
Church and Christendom by Lorenz Jaeger. This is a very practical project 
which we commend to all of you for consideration. It will certainly be of help 
in lifting the level of the thinking of our Catholic students about this important 
work before us. 

The Rev. George A. Tavard, who is in the secretariat for Christian Unity 
in the Council, made this observation: "The Ecumenical Movement in Ca- 
tholicism today implies an appeal to a reform of our life in the Catholic 
Church, not a reform of the Church, which is quite as unthinkable as a reform 
of Christ, or a reform of the revelation, but a reform of ourselves in the 

Mature Catholics are very much needed by the Church today. The apostle 
St. Paul points out to us the nature of that true maturity. In his letter to the 
Ephesians, he writes "that we may now no longer be children tossed to and 
fro, and carried about by every wind of doctrine . . . rather are we to practice 
the truth in love and so grow up in all things in Him Who is the Head, Christ." 

A mature Christian is one who is not immediately taken in by every novelty 
in song or fashion, by every new still-unproved hypothesis of science, or by 
those products of newspapers which are meant only to create sensation; rather, 
the mature Christian is one who bases his conviction and his moral life on 
the unshakable foundations of faith and truth. The mature Christian is able 
to act according to his Christian conscience because he is spiritually formed 

"Mater et Magistra" 289 

and strengthened by the ever-present authority of Christ in the Church. If 
we would go no farther than the limits of our own country, we would easily 
see abundant evidence of immaturity in the thought and actions of our citizens. 
There is pettiness and irresponsibility; there is selfishness and self-seeking. 

The scandal of racism is a blot upon our society. John Foster Dulles, when 
he was Secretary of State, made this incisive observation, and I quote, "Racial 
discrimination in the United States is our greatest National scandal and our 
most dangerous international hazard." Many American Catholics by and large 
are equal parties with our non-Catholic brethren in the scandal of racism, and 
hence equally guilty. 

We think of immaturity also in the reaching out to the tawdry in the field 
of entertainment, marring the huge potential of the cinema, the television, 
the radio, and the stage, and ofttimes those who bear the name of Catholic 
are involved in this heavily. Immaturity manifests itself also in the weakness 
that has penetrated into the field of government which has produced so many 
politicians and so few statesmen. Ofttimes, our Catholic brethren are in the 
forefront of this picture. There are many other examples of the lack of spiri- 
tual maturity which are all about us. 

All this, of course, is at variance with and in opposition to the kind of 
spiritual maturity that must be in the thought and in the action of all of us 
if we are to share in the renewal that is necessary to foster the ecumenical 

We conclude with the recommendation to pray well and obtain from God 
the guidance the world Council will need to accomplish its task. The Holy 
Spirit can work miracles in restoring understanding and opening minds and 
hearts. This, above all, the intervention of the Holy Spirit, will be the greatest 
factor in developing spiritual maturity in thought and action. 


Donald J. Thorman 
managing editor, Ave Maria, notre dame, Indiana 

"Let us thank God that He makes us live among the present problems . . ." 
said Pope Pius XI, "it is no longer permitted to anyone to be mediocre." 

And let us thank God for Pope John's historic social encyclical Mater et 
Magistra which not only challenges Catholics and all men of good will to rise 
above mediocrity but which gives us a detailed set of principles to guide us in 
seeking solutions to the most pressing social and spiritual problems of our age. 
The present Holy Father has done for our times what Pope Leo XIII in 1891 
and Pope Pius XI in 1931 did for theirs: he has demonstrated that the Church's 
social doctrine is as vital and living and timely as tomorrow morning's news- 

There is so much material contained within the 25,000 words of the en- 
cyclical that we would be hard pressed to cover all of it in depth even in a 

290 Secondary School Department 

full year's college course. But I would like to attempt today to give you a 
panoramic view of what Mater et Magistra is saying by taking up in very brief 
form ten of the major concepts to be found in the encyclical. 

1. The dignity of the individual. This concept of the eternal worth of each 
human being is at the very heart and center of the entirety of Catholic social 
teaching; it is around this concept that all the rest is built and from it flows 
our concern for the social order. 

If there is a unifying principle that explains and holds together all the many 
things that the Church has had to say about man in society and his varied 
social relationships, it is this: that every social structure, every social insti- 
tution, every social arrangement must respect the sacred dignity of the in- 
dividual. They must keep man free to develop his human personality to the 
fullest. They must strive to help him reach natural perfection and provide the 
sociocultural conditions which make it easier for him to pursue supernatural 

Do not misunderstand. This is not a theory of individualism, for the indi- 
vidual can only be understood completely in relation to the concept of the 
common good which we shall discuss in a few moments. But more than any 
other social theory, Catholic social doctrine requires and teaches a genuine 
concern for the sacredness of every human life. This concern is based on solid 
theological principles which require that a man be as free as possible to assent 
to the will of a God who desires most of all the love of free men, freely given. 

Thus, to understand Catholic social teaching we must first grasp the essen- 
tial idea that this teaching is based primarily on the individual who, because 
of his origin, nature, and destiny, has a holy dignity. On this fundamental 
principle is built the house of Catholic social theory. 

2. The dignity of work. Closely allied to the importance of the individual 
is a second basic concept — the dignity of work, a concept which is constantly 
returned to in the papal social teachings. 

Work, says Pope John, is "an expression of the human person." This is one 
of the main reasons why the Popes in their social encyclicals are so preoccupied 
with the problems of wages, labor-management relations, working conditions, 
unions, and the participation of workers in both ownership and management. 
This is why the Popes have always condemned the idea of work being treated 
as a commodity without regard to the workers. For work cannot be considered 
or discussed or bargained for except within the context of the dignity of the 
human beings who produce the work and for whom society and economic 
life exist. 

It is precisely because responsible unions and employers associations can 
safeguard the dignity of the human person and the work he produces that 
Pope John goes out of his way to praise and encourage both Christian unions 
and the "neutral" unions we have here in the United States which do not have 
any specifically religious ties. 

This takes us back once again to the fundamental concept of Catholic 
social teaching — the value and integrity of the individual — which gives us the 
logic for the rest of our social doctrine. To achieve his natural and super- 
natural goals in life, man normally needs freedom. In the natural order, much 
of our freedom is conditional on how independent we are economically. This 
is a teaching — although with different overtones — of Marxist and Christian 
philosophers alike; it was also very much on the minds of our own Founding 

It is just common sense that the more self-reliant a man is economically, 

"Mater et Magistra" 291 

the more able he is to participate in the political and social life of his community 
and nation. Therefore, any legitimate associations or social groups which can 
help men be free from undue economic pressures are to be encouraged. 

However, if we went no further than this, these sound ideas could easily 
degenerate into an individualism which could wreck any society in which they 
were accepted and put into practice. This brings us now to the third major 
concept which gives Catholic social doctrine balance and practicality: the con- 
cept of the common good. 

3. The concept of the common good is the principle which preserves Cath- 
olic social teaching from the extreme individualism of the ultraconservatives 
and the extreme statism of the ultraliberals. It reflects a philosophy of the 
middle way, the golden mean. It corresponds generally to our Founding 
Fathers' idea of the general welfare. 

As we read the papal social documents we constantly come across phrases 
such as "within the framework of the common good," or "the common good 
demands." It is the work of social justice, Pope Pius XI pointed out in his 
encyclical on atheistic communism, to arrange society in such a manner that 
the common good is realized. And this common good is a condition in which 
society as a whole as well as the members of that society are able to achieve 
the purposes for which they exist. Of course, all this implies the cooperative 
working together of individuals and private groups under the general coordi- 
nating direction of the proper public authorities. 

In sum, the Church is saying that society cannot be built around an every- 
man-for-himself philosophy. Nor can it be guided by an omnipotent State 
that tries to run everything. Instead, our guiding principle must be the common 
good which recognizes the rights of individuals and of groups but which says 
that individual and private rights only make sense within the broader view 
of the good of the entire society. 

4. The role of the State. In speaking of the common good, we are led in- 
evitably to the role of the State, for the State is the guardian of the common 
good. And this in two ways — negatively, to intervene when and where neces- 
sary to prevent and control dangers to the common good; and positively, to 
encourage private groups to work together for the common good so it becomes 
less and less necessary for the State to become involved. 

We might as well face it. The idea of government intervention of any kind 
simply goes against the grain of larg